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Full text of "Report of the Commissioner of Patents for the year 1859 : agriculture"

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JOHNA.SEAVERNS 



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36th Congress, ) HOUSE OF EEPRESENTATIVES. j Ex. Doc. 
1st Session. \ j 



REPOET 



COMMISSIONER OF PATENTS 



FOR THE YEAR 1859. 



AGRICULTURE 



WASHINGTON : 

GEORGE W. BOWMAN, PRINTER. 

1860. 



In the House of Representatives, June 13, 1860. 
Resolved, That there be printed, in addition to the usual number, three hundred thousand 
extra copies of the Report of the Commissioner of Patents on Agriculture, for the year 1859; 
fifteen thousand of which shall be for distribution by the Interior Department, and two hun- 
dred and eighty-five thousand for the use of the House of Representatives. 



EEPOET 



COMMISSIONER OF PATENTS. 



United States Patent Office, 

January 3, 1860. 

Sir: Agreeably to the design of Congress, as indicated in the clause 
of the act of March 3, 1859, '^for collection of agricultural statistics, 
investigations for promoting agriculture and rural economy, and the 
procurement of cuttings and seeds," I have the honor herewith to 
transmit the agricultural portion of my report. 

Owing to the reduced appropriation made by Congress for agricul- 
tural purposes, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1860, the office has 
been compelled to reduce its expenses and confine its action to a more 
limited sphere than heretofore. In doing this, it was found necessary 
either to decline purchasing for distribution the usual varieties of gar- 
den and field seeds, or to abandon the experiment of propagating the 
tea, and various other foreign plants and grape-cuttings, for which 
orders had been given. The expense which had already been incurred 
in their procurement would hardly justify the office in throwing them 
aside. It was accordingly deemed advisable to apply the remainder 
of the funds solely to the procuring of information and preparing the 
material for the Agricultural Eeport, and to the propagation and 
distribution of such varieties of foreign seeds and cuttings as had been 
already engaged. These were of such a nature that, if they had been 
distributed throughout the country immediately upon their receipt, the 
probability is that very few of them would have reached their destina- 
tion in a fit state for propagation. The tea seeds, more particularly, 
arrived in such a condition that it was of the utmost importance to 
plant them at once. For this purpose, large propagating houses were 
erected upon the government grounds north of the canal, between 
Four-and-a-half and Sixth streets. These structures now answer well 
the purpose for which they were intended, as is exhibited by the fact 
that we have, ready for distribution, over 30,000 well-rooted tea plants, 



IV REPORT OF THE 

12,000 foreign and domestic grape-vines 900 rooted, seedless, pome- 
granate cuttings, and various foreign, medicinal, and ornamental 
plants. These will be ready for distribution during the present winter 
and the ensuing spring. 

The nature of the tea plant is such that it cannot be successfully 
cultivated in the open air above the northern boundaries of Tennessee 
and North Carolina. For this reason, the larger portion will be sent 
south of that line. A sufficient number, however, will be divided 
among the remaining States, to satisfy the reasonable demands of such 
persons as have the conveniences necessary for their protection during 
the winter months. 

Last summer and fall an agent was employed to travel through 
several of the Northern States for the purpose of collecting the best 
varieties of ripe native grapes. An experienced chemist was also 
engaged to analyze the fruit thus collected, for the purpose of ascer- 
taining the amount of saccharine matter and other ingredients con- 
tained in the juice of each variety, and determining which kinds are 
best adapted to the making of wine. The reports of the agent and 
chemist appear in this volume, and will, no doubt, prove valuable and 
interesting to the public. 

It is now about twelve years since Congress adopted^the system of 
making annual appropriations for agricultural purposes. Previous to 
this time, there seemed to be but little progress made by the people in 
this branch of our national industry. Agricultural newspapers were 
then in their infancy, while agricultural societies were scarcely known 
or heard of. The attention paid by Congress to this subject seems to 
have awakened the people to its importance. It has stimulated inquiry, 
encouraged new experiments, and to such an extent has the public 
mind been excited, that agricultural societies have been formed and 
are now in successful operation in nearly every county and State 
throughout the Union. Newspapers entirely devoted to agriculture 
are published in nearly every State, and at prices which place them 
within the reach of all. Enterprising men in all the principal cities 
have established agricultural warehouses, where varieties of seeds, 
plants, and cuttings, from foreign lands, as well as from different sec- 
tions of our own country, can be purchased upon reasonable terms. 

More recently, a national agricultural society has been established, 
which will undoubtedly prove valuable as a medium of communication 
between the various county and State societies. Indeed, so thoroughly 
have the public become impressed with the importance and necessity 
of paying more strict attention to improvements in agriculture, that 



COMMISSIONER OF PATENTS. . V 

it may well be doubted wbetber anything Congress may do can give 
an additional impetus to tbe movement. 

I have no hesitation in saying that the necessity no longer exists of 
distributing the various seeds of domestic growth, inasmuch as the 
facilities for obtaining them are such that every person of enterprise 
enough to cultivate them can obtain everything in that line from the 
seed-stores. If, therefore, it is the desire of Congress to continue the 
appropriation for agricultural purposes, I would recommend that it be 
limited solely to the collection of valuable information for the agricul- 
tural report and the collection and distribution of such varieties of 
foreign seeds, plants, and cuttings, as have not heretofore been intro- 
duced into this country. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

WM. D. BISHOP, 

Commissioner. 

Hon. Wm. Penningtozj, 

Speaker of the House of Bepresenfatives . 



INDEX. 



Paj;e. 

Acclimation and domestication of animals 207 

Acid, determination of 57 

Acid, tartaric 59 

Administering medicines to domestic animals .... 199 

Powder 199 

Drink 1 99 

Infusion or potion 199 

Electuaries or jellies 2U3 

Pills 204 

Agricultural Society, United States, Historical 

Sketch 22 

Agricultural Schools of Prussia 457 

Analysis of grapes 55 

Animals, docility of 448 

Animals, administering medicines to domestic .... 199 

Horse 199 

Cattle 205 

Sheep 206 

Swine 206 

Dog 207 

Apparatus for wine making 85 

Benefits of soiling 448 

Breeding of fish 217 

Of trout at Hartford 230 

Of migratory fishes 229 

Cells, vegetable 37.3 

Cells, grouping of, in fiber 330 

Commissioner of Patents, letter of iii 

Construction and arrangement of liorse stables .... 260 

Crops, larger, require greater manuring 449 

Diet, fish as an article of 236 

Farm journals 367 

Farm "houses, some hints upon 397 

Fences, cost of 447 

Fences dispensed with 446 

Fencing and herding 443 

Fertilizers 136 

Lime ] 52 

Marl 154 

Plaster or gypsum 162 

Sulphate or barytes 163 

Magnesia 165 

Phosphorus 166 

Fish breeding 217 

Transportation of living fishes 228 

Breeding of migratory fishes. 229 

Breeding trout at Hartford 230 

Practical hints to fish breeders 232 

Fish as an article of diet 236 

Fiber, vegetable 372 

Vegetable cell 373 

Grouping of cells in fiber 380 

Fibrous materials for paper 391 

Gall & Petiol's method of wine making, (modern 

principles) 94 

Garden, government experimental and propagating 1 

Grapes and other plants 13 

Seeds for distribution 18 

Plants from Palestine 19 

Government experimental and propagating garden 1 

Grapes, native Arkansas and Texas 30 

El Paso, or grapes cultivated on Rio Grande. . 35 
Grapes, report on the saccharine contents of na- 
• five American, in relation to wine making. . 42 
Chemical examination of juice of, from vari- 
ous localities of the United States 44 

Analysis of, tabular statement 55 

Grapes, report on American 57 

Determination of the proportion of acids 57 

Tabular statement 59 

Grapes, tartaric acid in the cultivated 59 

Grapes, native, of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New 

York, and New England 61 

Vitis vinifera 62 

Vitis labrusca 62 

Vitis labrusca 63 

Vitis eordifolia 63 



Page. 
Grapes — 

Vitis aestivalis 65 

Vitis eordifolia punctata 67 

Vitis aestivalis punctata 67 

Vitis sinuata 68 

Culture and management of, and the mode of 

making wine 71 

Propagation, by layers, cuttings, eyes, and seed 71 
Improving by layering, grafting, budding, and 

hybridizing 75 

Culture of, in the vineyard 78 

State of grapo, when and how it should be 

gathered, and apparatus for wine making. . . 85 

Wine-making 89 

Treatment of the young wine 91 

Use of the husks, lees, and seeds 93 

Gall & Petiols' method of wine making 94 

Historical Sketch of the U. S. Agricultural Society 22 

Horse-stables, construction and arrangement of. . . 260 

Location 261 

Ground 262 

External wall 262 

Ceilings 263 

Floor 265 

Accommodation 269 

Division of stalls 270 

Doors 275 

Ventilation 279 

Cribs 282 

Racks 285 

Fastening horses 287 

Houses, farm, some hints upon 397 

Husks, lees, and seeds of grapes 93 

Ionian Islands and Italy, productions of the 100 

Sicily 104 

Rome 130 

Florence 132 

Pisa 133 

Arena 134 

Isola Bella 136 

Lees, husks, and seeds of grapes 93 

Lime 152 

Magnesia 154 

Marl 165 

Medicines, administering to domestic animals .... 199 

Meteorology 461 

Miscellaneous .535 

Reports on — 

Grape culture in Illinois 535 

Grapes, by H. W. Ravenel .536 

Glover's experiments on orange grove 540 

Alpaca and cashmere goats, &c 541 

Peruvian bark 542 

Italian bees 543 

Wine making in New York 544 

Grapes in Yates county. New York 547 

Silk culture 548 

Radish, and fruits of Japan 549 

Vegetable tallow 550 

Orchard house culture 550 

Hang-worm 551 

Glover's syringing of orange groves 554 

Frost 555 

Chinese yam » 558 

Seeds, &c., from the Holy Land 559 

Seeds from Ecuador 559 

Cotton plants, &c.. Sandwich Islands 560 

Wooden shoes 561 

Letter from Governor Wright, at Berlin 562 

Cherimoya, &c 562 

Algaroba 563 

Hungarian grass 563 

Patent Office seeds 564 

Patent Office seeds 566 

Tuscan wheat 567 

Organization of agricultural society 567 

Samples of wheat, &c., from Russm 568 



VIII 



INDEX. 



Page. 
Miscellaneous— Reports on — 

Crops in Nebraska 568 

Contributions of seeds, cuttings, &c 569 

Paper, fibrous materials for 391 

Paw-paw spirits, experiments on 370 

Mode of purifying alcoliol, &c 370 

Distilled liquors and fusil oil 371 

Petiol's, Gall, and, method of wine maJcing, (modern 

principles) 94 

Phosphorus 166 

Plants used as food for man 299 

Plaster or gypsum 162 

Patents for agricultural inventions 572 

Plows and plowing, English 239 

1. Influence of weight of plow on the draft... 243 

2. Influence of mold-board on the draft 244 

3. Influence of depth of furrow on tlie draft. . 245 

4. Influence of velocity on the draft 246 

5. Influence of wheels on the draft 247 

6. Effect of the length of the various parts on 

the operation of plow 248 

Steam plows in England 249 

Fowler's steam plow 249 

Boydell's patent traction engine 253 

Smith's cultivator 254 

American steam cultivators 256 

Fawkes's steam plow 257 

Waters's steam plow 258 

Productions of the Ionian Islands and Italy 100 

Q,uincy's statement on soiling 453 

Koots, farm supply and 446 

Roots and soiling in England 452 

Salt in agriculture, importance of. 395 

Prize paper of. Dr. Desaive 396 

Sap, art of governing the 362 

Schools of Prussia, agricultural 457 

Seeds, husks, lees, and 93 

Sheep, Saxon merino 288 

Sketch of farm of Baron Speck 294 

Sheep, spleen in, and its prevention 296 

Soiling, advantages of 443 

Stables, horse, construction and arrangement of. . 260 

Stock, green-soiling 442 

Feiices and herding 442 

Advantages of soiling 443 

Farm supply and roots 446 

Could dispense with most fences 446 

Cost of board fences 447 

Docility of animals 448 

Nine distinct benefits '. 448 

Larger crops require greater manuring 449 

Higher influences of the system 450 

General view of the subject 451 



Page. 
Stock- 
Soiling and roots, in England 452 

Mr. Quincy's statement 453 

Sulphate or barytes 163 

Surgeons, veterinary 183 

Tartaric acid 59 

Tobacco, reports on 524 

Report from Charles A. Lees, United States 

consul. Revel, Prussia 524 

Report from B. Hammatt Norton, United States 

consul, Pictou, Nova Scotia 526 

Report from Daniel R. B. Upton, United States 

consul at Bathurst 526 

Report from S. J. Merrit, United States consul 

at Nassau, Bahamas 526 

Report from Robert Dowling, United States 

consul at Cork, Ireland 527 

Report from Stephen Ralli, United States vice- 
consul at Odessa 527 

Report from Thomas Savage, United States 

vice-consul general, Havana, Cuba 529 

Report from J. B. Hayne, United States con- 
sul, Turk's Island, West Indies 529 

Report from Samuel W. Talbot, United States 

consul, Dublin, Ireland 530 

Report from Herbert Davy, United States con- 
sul, Newcastle-on-Tyne, England 530 

Report from R. S. Newbold, acting United 

States consul, port of Spain, Trinidad 53J 

Report from John Black, United States com- 
mercial agent, Galle, Ceylon 531 

Report from W. H. Morse, United States con- 
sul at Cape de Verds 5:S 

Report from G. H. Goundie, United States 

consul at Zurich, Switzerland 532 

Report from Henry Pemberton, consular agent 

of the United States at Quebec, Canada 532 

Report from L. II. Hatfield, United States con- 
sul at Bombay 533 

Transportation of living fishes ^8 

Veterinary science and art 179 

Royal college of veterinary surgeons 183 

Veterinary medicine 185 

Vegetable fiber 372 

Vitis vinifera, &c 62 

Wine making 89 

White wine 89 

Schiller wine 89 

Red wine or claret 90 

Wine, young, treatment of 91 

Second fermentation 91 

Remedies for flat and turbid wines 92 

Fining .' 92 



GOVEENMENT EXPEMMENTAL AND PEOPAGATING 

GAEDEN. 



Prominent among the purposes of the government, with respect to 
agriculture, is the introduction of trees, shrubs, and plants from other 
countries. In whatever form these are received, whether as seeds, 
roots, cuttings, or plants, the most tender treatment is generally re- 
quisite to preserve, develop, multiply, and acclimatize them ; and every 
possible facility therefor should always be in readiness at the moment 
of their arrival. 

The want of accommodations of this character had long been felt, 
when, in August, 1858, intelligence of the transmission of a quantity 
of tea seeds, from China, created an immediate necessity for their pro- 
vision. A plot of five acres was accordingly chosen, in a central posi- 
tion, in the city of Washington, and prepared in the manner described 
in the Eeport of the Commissioner of Patents on Agriculture, for that 
year. A system of underground tile-drainage, upon a plan now com- 
mon in the United States and in Europe, was applied to this ground, 
and with excellent results for a time ; but, unfortunately, there was a 
want of adaptation in the manner of laying the tiles upon the yield- 
ing, marshy base, and the continuity has consequently been inter- 
rupted by occasional depressions. When this shall have been remedied, 
as it doubtless may be v/ithout serious detriment to the field or its 
products, the experiment may be regarded as complete and satisfactory. 

The plan pursued in constructing and warming the green-houses 
upon this ground, though successful in its present application, is not 
commended for all purposes. Decomposing vegetable matter, covered 
with a portion of nitrogenous materials, might be adapted to general 
use, were the process of decomposition susceptible of being controlled at 
will: but so variable is its progress, and so dependent upon exter- 
nal influences, in a ratio inverse to the requirements within, that the 
vicissitudes of temperature proceeding from it are such as none but 
hardy plants can endure. The volatile emanations are likewise in 
excess in this process, insomuch that even those plants which become 
accustomed to and prove capable of sustaining an atmosphere so 
highly stimulating may suifer when suddenly withdrawn from its 
influence and exposed to the open air. 

The partial exclusion of the light and warmth of the sun, practised 
in connection with this plan, also proves detrimental to tender plants, 
while the altitude of the roof, eleven feet at the apex, is to them a con- 
stant and certain cause of slender and feeble growth. 

Happily, these disadvantages are remediable at small cost of money 
and labor, by the provision of apparatus for artificial heating, the 
elevation of the beds, the adoption of means of ventilation, and the 
extension of the glass roofing over the whole of each structure. 

1 A 



■2 AGRlCtJLTURAL REPORT. 

The garden thus establisliecl may be properly applied to other uses 
than the propagation of exotic plants. Kot only may the tea shrub, 
the cinchona tree, the camphor tree, the cork tree, and others of for- 
eign origin, be nurtured here, but also many native as well as foreign 
plants desirable for their edible and medicinal properties and products 
and ornamental qualities. The amateur, pharmaceutical, and profes- 
sional botanist may 'here examine the vegetation of many soils and 
climates, and witness experiments in the culture and hybridization of 
various trees and j)lants. Among those now in course of cultivation 
the following may be named : 

Tea shrub from China, '^2, Q^^ plants: The proposition to introduce 
the tea shrub of China to culture in the United States has been dis- 
cussed in the Keports of the Commissioner of Patents, for the years 
1855 and 1857; and information, gleaned from accredited sources, has 
been given in regard to this plant, and the soils, climates, and condi- 
tions of its profitable growth and preparation. The subject is now 
presented in a practical form ; a new interest has been excited in regard 
to it ; and information, upon which the American planter may rely, is 
demanded by the exigency that has arisen. 

Tea was little known in Europe until the middle of the seventeenth 
century. Mr. Pepys, secretary of the British admiralty, in 1661, 
speaks of "tea, (a China drink,) of which," he says, "I had never 
drank before." Three years later, the Dutch East India Company 
presented two pounds and two ounces to the king of England, as a 
rare and valuable ofiering ; and, in 1667, this company, by the im- 
portation of one hundred pounds, commenced a traffic that has grown 
to the magnitude of thirty million pounds, for home consumption 
alone, in England, yielding a revenue to the government of about 
£4,000,000 per annum. The value of the tea imported into the Uni- 
ted States, in the year ending June 30, 1858, was $7^261,815, and, in 
the succeeding year, $7,388,741. 

The use of tea as a beverage was^ for a time, strenuously resisted in 
Europe, on the ground of its alleged deleterious influence on the 
human constitution. Many diseases were declared to be aggravated, 
if not superinduced, by it, and manifold evils were predicted from the 
importation. This should not be a subject of surprise ; since, like 
many other luxuries, and especially vegetable narcotics, tea is repul- 
sive to the natural appetite, and its effects, when used in excess, are 
very powerful, and, it may be, hurtful to an organization not habituated 
. to its use. But it is now generally conceded throughout the civilized 
world, not only that tea is far less pernicious and offensive than any 
of the various excitants or stimulants it has displaced, but that it has 
proved a positive benefit to the world, with as few evidences of injury 
from its abuse as exist in relation to any article of luxury, or of food, 
with which we are acquainted. The chemical principle characteristic 
of tea, coffee, and cocoa, has been found one and the same, and has 
been called, indifferently, theine and caffeine. Dr. Ure remarks that 
the proportion of azote in theine or caffeine is much greater than even 
in any animal compound, urea and uric acid excepted, and adds : 
"Since so many different nations have been, as it were, instinctively 
led to the extensive use of tea, coffee, and chocolate, as articles of food 



EXPERIMENTAL AND PROPAGATING GARDEN. 3 

and enlivening beverage, whicli agree in no feature or property but in 
the possession of one peculiar cliemical principle, we must conclude 
that tlie constitution of these vegetable products is no random freak of 
nature, but that it has been ordained by Divine wisdom, for perform- 
ing beneficial effects on the human race." 

Various writers have made conjectures with respect to the time and 
manner of the discovery, by the Chinese themselves^ of the properties 
and uses of tea ; but, as with most questions respecting the social his- 
tory of China, all is vague and unsatisfactory, A passage has been 
quoted from an ancient Avork, entitled, ''Periplous of the Erythrseum 
Sea," (the Ked sea, or Arabian gulf,) which Vossius Vincent and other 
writers have regarded as relating to the betel nut ; but which Ehind, 
in his "Vegetable Kingdom," recites as descriptive of the tea plant 
and its cultivators eighteen centuries ago: "There used to come, 
yearly, to the frontier of the Since, [a people inhabiting the southeast- 
ernmost part of Asia, supposed to be the same as the Cochin-Chinese,] 
a certain people called Sesatse, with a short body, broad forehead, fiat 
noses, and of a wild aspect. They came with their VN^ives and chil- 
dren, bearing large mats full of leaves, resembling those of the vine. 
When they have arrived on the frontier of the country of the Sin89, 
they stop and spend a few days in festivity, using the mats for lying 
upon ; they then return to the abode of their countrymen in the inte- 
rior. The SinEB next repair to the place, and take up the articles 
which they left ; and having drawn out the stalks and fibres, they 
nicely double the leaves, make them into a circular shape, and thrust 
into them the fibres of the seeds. Thus three kinds of malabatJirum 
are formed ; that from the larger leaf is called hadrospJicerum ; that 
from the middling one, mesosphoencm ; and from the smaller, micros- 
2^Jioerum." The fact that any reliance has been placed upon this 
statement, for the purpose of proving that tea was known to the 
Greeks or Eomans in the first century, but serves to show how desti- 
tute the civilized world was of all knowledge of it prior to the era of its 
introduction, in the seventeenth century. 

However remarkable it may be that a product, destined to become 
essential to the people of every nation, and to constitute an important 
commodity in the commerce of the world, should so long remain hidden 
from our knowledge, it is still more anomalous that, for two centuries 
after its general adoption, the culture of it should still be limited, with 
comparatively inconsiderable exceptions, to the regions in which it is 
indigenous, viz : to China, Tonquin, Japan, and Assam, in India, in 
which last-named country, though the plant always existed abundantly 
in*a wild state at the base of the Himalayan mountains, its cultivation 
and the manufacture of its product, and the introduction of plants 
from China, have been but recently commenced. The first stimulus 
to this enterprise was given by Dr. Royle, who, in 1807, directed 
attention to the subject, and induced the formation of the Assam 
Tea 'Company, which now exports large quantities of tea of superior 
quality, chiefly, it is represented, from the indigenous plant {Tliea assa- 
mica,) which is regarded there as a distinct species. The cultivation of 
tea is also prosecuted with success in Penang, more than a third of the 



4 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

population of wliicli is composed of Chinese ; and in Java, where, in a 
population of nearly 10,000,000, there are more than 100,000 Chinese. 
From Java, the exports of tea were valued, in 1848, at |336,206. The 
plant was introduced to both these islands from China, the experiment 
in Java, initiated by the Dutch proprietors, having precedence of all 
other attemj)ts of the kind. 

On this continent, Brazil has gone before us in the adoption of the 
Chinese plant. Here, although comparatively little effort is required 
for the subsistence of man ; although an indigenous plant, the mate, 
(Ilex Paraguay ensis,^ is in general use among the people ; although 
coffee, long a staple product of the countr}^, is of equally general con- 
sumption ; and although an inveterate prejudice exists in favor of the 
manufactured tea of importation, yet the culture continues to increase 
and to gain favor among the people, insomuch that it may be regarded 
as an established branch of industry. In a letter from Mr. John 
Eudge, of St, Paul, Brazil, who has been for many years engaged in 
the cultivation of tea in that province — communicated to the Patent 
Office in April, 1859, by the United States legation at Eio de Janeiro — 
the writer says: ''The tea plant flourishes here, I think, equally as 
well as in its native country, and I can see no reason why it should 
not do as vfell in the southern regions of the United States. The val- 
leys are best suited to it, and it delights in manure. Care should be 
taken not to cover the seeds too deep in planting ; they should be 
merely hidden from the sun.* The tea is made from the newest and 
softest leaves. I usually cut the tree down every year nearly to the 
ground, that it may produce leaves and not seeds. When it is per- 
mitted to go to seed, the leaves become hard and unfit for use as tea. 
The plant is a very hardy evergreen, never suffering in the slightest 
degree from the frosts, which greatly injure our coffee and cane in the 
low grounds. The home consumption is much affected by the par- 
tiality of the common people for coffee, and the prejudice of the higher 
classes in favor of tea brought from afar. In some instances, tea 
grown in this region having been sent to Pdo, and there put up in 
Chinese boxes, and having a small proportion of Chinese tea mixed 
with it, has been returned to St, Paul and sold for double the price 
the producer would have demanded for it. But such conceits, I believe, 
are common to those who can afford to indulge them throughout the 
world." 

In the historical and descriptive sketches of "Brazil and the Brazil- 
ians," by Kev. D. P. Kidder, D. D., and Eev. J. C. Fletcher, whose 
experience in that empire extended through a period of twenty years, 
published in 1857, an account is given of the adoption, progress, and 
prospects of tea culture, which merits the perusal of every ximerican 
reader. These writers say : 

" There is probably no other country where the culture of this 
Asiatic shrub has been so. successful away from its native region. The 
Portuguese language is the only European tongue which has preserved 
the Chinese name (cha) for tea ; and as the stranger at Eio de Janeiro 
and other towns of the empire passes the vendas, he is always sure to 



®The protection of two or three inches of soil will be found requisite in the United States. 



EXPERIMENTAL AND PROPAGATING GARDEN. 5 

see a printed card suspended, announcing Cha da India and Clia 
Nacional ; the former is the designation given to tea from China, and 
the latter to the same production grown in Brazil. 

"In 1810, the first plants of this exotic were introduced at Kio de 
Janeiro, and its cultivation, for a time, was chiefly confined to the 
botanical garden, near the capital, and to the Yojal farm, at Santa 
Cruz. In order to secure the best possible treatment for the tea, which 
it was anticipated would soon flourish so as to supply the European 
market, the Count of Linhares, prime minister of Portugal, procured 
the immigration of several hundred colonists, not from the mingled 
population of the coast of China, but from the interior of the celestial 
empire — persons acquainted with the whole process of training the 
tea plant and of preparing tea. 

"This was probably the first colony from Asia that ever settled in 
the New AVorld, of w^hich we have authentic records. The colonists, 
however, were not contented with their expatriation; they did not 
prosper, and they have now disappeared. Owing, in part, doubtless, 
to characteristic differences in the soil of Brazil from that of China, 
and perhaps as much to imperfect means of preparing the leaf when 
grown, the Chinese themselves did not succeed in producing the inost 
approved specimens of tea. The enthusiasm of anticipation, being 
unsustained by experiment, soon died away ; and near the city of Eio 
de Janeiro, the cultivation of tea has dwindled down to be little more 
than an exotic grown on a large scale at the botanical gardens. 

"Asa government matter, it was a failure; but several Paulista 
planters took up the culture, and, though they encountered years of 
discouragement, they have lived to see it, though as yet in its infancy, 
one of the most flourishing and remunerative branches of Brazilian 
agriculture. 

"Between Santos and San Paulo, near San Bernardo, I saw large 
and productive tea plantations. Tlie manner of its culture differs but 
little from that adopted in China. Tea is raised from the seed, which, 
being preserved in brown sugar, can be transjDorted to any portion of 
the country.. These little tea balls are planted in beds, and then, in 
the manner of cabbage plants, are transported to the field, and placed 
five feet apart. The shrubs are kept very clean, by the hoe or by the 
plough, which, though a recent introduction, has on some plantations 
been eminently successful for this purpose. 

' ' The shrubs are never allowed to attain a height of more than four 
feet ; and the leaves are considered ready for picking the third year 
after planting. The culture, the gathering, and the preparation of tea 
are not difficult, and children are profitably and efficiently emploj^ed 
in the various modes of arranging it for market. The apparatus used 
is very simple, consisting of — 1. Baskets, in which the leaves are de- 
posited when collected; 2. Carved frame-work, on which they are 
rolled, one by one; 3. Open ovens, or large metallic pans, in which 
the tea is dried by means of a fire beneath. Women and children 
gather the leaves and carry them to the ovens, where slave men are 
engaged in keeping up the fire, stirring, squeezing, and rolling the 
tea, which operations are all that it requires before packing it in boxes 
for home sale, or for exportation to the neighboring provinces. 



6 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

"The tea plant is a hardy shrub, and can "be cultivated in almost 
any portion of Brazil, though it is, perhaps, better adapted to the 
south, where frosts prevail, and vv^hich it resists. If left to itself in 
the tropics, it will soon run up to a tree. The coffee tree requires rich 
and new soil and a warm climate, unknown to frosts ; but the tea plant 

will flourish in any soil. Dr. , who visited various portions of 

China, is of the opinion that the cha can be grown in any part of the 
United States, from Pennsylvania to the Mexican Gulf. There are not 
many varieties of the plant, as is often supposed, black and green teas 
being merely the leaves of the same tree^ obtained at different seasons 
of the year. The flavor is sometimes varied, as that of wines from 
the same species of grajDe grown on different soils. The plant is not 
deciduous, as in China, and in Brazil is gathered from March to July, 
which, in the northern hemisphere, would correspond to the interval 
between September and January. 

' ' I was informed that several million pounds are now annually pre- 
pared in the provinces of San Paulo and Minas Geraes, and its culture 
is on the increase. 

"Some years ago the tea planters were greatly discouraged; for the 
cha was badly prepared, was sold too new, and hence the demand did 
not increase. But, since a greater experience in its culture and prepa- 
ration, a better article for this favorite beverage has met with corres- 
ponding encouragement. Formerly, the cultivators said that, if they 
could obtain sixteen cents per pound, wholesale, it would be as remu- 
nerative as coffee. In 1855, twenty cents for the poorer article could 
be obtained ; and for superior qualities, the greater portion of the crop, 
forty cents per pound, wholesale, was readily commanded. The de- 
mand for it is constantly increasing. When rightly prepared, it is not 
inferior to that imported from China. Much, indeed, of the tea sold 
in the province of San Paulo as cha da India, has merely made the 
sea-voyage from Santos to Eio de Janeiro, and there, after being packed 
in Chinese boxes, is sent back to the Paulistas as the genuine aromatic 
leaf from the celestial empire. I have seen foreigners in Brazil, who 
esteemed themselves connoisseurs in tea, deceived by the best cha na- 
gional. 

"A few years ago Mr. John Kudge, of the province of San Paulo, 
sent some tea from his plantation as a present to his relatives in Rio 
de Janeiro. This was prepared very nicely, each separate leaf having 
been rolled by the slaves between the thumb and forefinger until it 
looked like small shot. It was thus invested with a foreign appear- 
ance, packed in small Chinese tea-caddies, and shipped at Santos for 
the capital. When the caddies arrived, they were seized at the cus- 
tom-house as an attempt to defraud the revenue. It was, on the other 
hand, insisted that the boxes contained cha nacional, although by 
neglect they did not appear upon the manifest. The parties to whom 
the tea had been sent offered to have it submitted to inspection. The 
caddies were opened, and the custom-house officials screamed with 
triumph, adding to their former suspicions the evidence of their senses, 
for the sight, the taste, the smell of the nicely-prepared tea proclaimed 
emphatically that it was cha da India, and that this was an attempt 
to defraud his Imperial Majesty's customs. It was not until letters 



EXPERIMENTAL AND PROPAGATING GARDEN. T 

were sent to Santos, and in reply the certiiicates of that provincial 
custom-house had been received, that the collectors at Rio were satis- 
fied that there was no fraud, and that the province of San Paulo could 
produce as good tea as that l3rought around the Cape of Grood Hope. 

^'A few years may suffice to show^ on the pages of the ^Commerce 
and Navigation' of G-reat Britain and the United States, that tea 
enters largely into the articles of importation from Brazil. Fifty 
years only have elapsed since the first cargo of coffee was shipped from 
Rio de Janeiro, and now Brazil supplies two thirds of the coffee of the 
world. The revolution in Hayti was the commencement of .a new era 
for the coffee of Brazil. 

''In 1846, Dr. learned that several planters were about to root 

up their tea shrubs. He besought them not to carry out their inten- 
tion, 'for,' said he, 'there is to be a great revolution in China, [in 
1845 he had been informed, in the Celestial empire, of the existence 
of the Triad society,] and the price of teas will be sure to go up in a 
few years.' The dishea,rtened planters were encouraged to go on, and 
only a short time before my visit to Limeira, one of these fazendeiros 

sent to Dr. ■ several pounds of most excellent tea, at the same time 

assuring him (the doctor) of his deep gratitude for having been pre- 
vented from the destruction of his plantation. He had found it 
exceedingly remunerative, and next year he intended to enter into 
more extensive operations. 

"Throughout the world the use of tea is becoming as universal as 
that of coffee, and any continued disturbance in China must bring into 
prominent notice the tea culture of Brazil. The product is now almost 
entirely used within the empire ; but the adaptability of the culture to 
almost any portion of the immense territory, and the ease by which it 
can be carried on^ will doubtless, in a very brief period of time, fully 
develop this new source of national wealth." 

In the United States a single enterprise, upon a very limited scale, 
indifferently managed, and early abandoned, is the only experiment in 
tea culture of which we have any record. Junius Smith, LL. D., of 
South Carolina, in 1848, imported a number of shrubs of from five to 
seven years' growth, and caused them to be planted at Greenville, in 
that State. In March, 1851, they were removed to a neighboring 
pla^ntation. About this period Dr. Smith wrote concerning them, as 
follows: "They grew remarkably last summer, and are now fully 
rooted, with fine large main and collateral roots, with an abundance 
of fibrous radicles. They all stood the snow, eight or nine inches 
deep upon the level, on the 3d of January, and the severe frosts of 
winter, without the slightest covering or protection, and without the 
loss of a single plant. They are now all forming part of the planta- 
tion, composed of those received from China la.st June and a few 
planted the first week in June, which germinated the 17th of Septem- 
ber. All these young j)lants were thinly covered with straw. Some 
of them have lost their foliage, others have not ; the stems do not 
appear to have sustained any injury ; the fresh buds are beginning to 
shoot. I cannot help thinking that we have now demonstrated the 
adaptation of the tea plant to the soil and climate of this country, and 
succeeded in its permanent establishment within our borders." Littla 



8 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

more is known of tliese plants, except that, being neglected, they have 
perished, unless a few isolated specimens have been preserved as sub- 
jects of curiosity. Last spring, however, Mr. S. P. Buckley, a well- 
known writer on horticulture, communicated to a New York periodical 
(the "Country Gentleman") the following statement: "A few days 
ago I drank a cup of real American tea, from the Chinese tea plant, 
of which Dr. J. P. Barratt, near New Market^ South Carolina, has a 
fine shrub about four feet high, which has borne fruit during several 
years. By its side was a thrifty specimen of the olea fragrans, or 
Chinese olive, witli which the tea is scented. * * :^ j ^j^g 
recently at Greenville, in this State, where Junius Smith, some years 
ago, essayed its culture. I was told that his experiment was by no 
means a true test. His soil was barren^ and he took no pains to im- 
prove it. The plants did not receive proper nourishment, and, not 
being used to such treatment, they pined and died." 

Although many varieties of tea are known in commerce, they are 
not the products of as many different species of the tea plant. Burnett 
Bays, (see "Outlines of Botany:") "Of the genus thea there are but 
three or four known species, and of these tw-o only, viz : thea viridis 
and thea bohea, afford the leaves which are so extensively used in 
infusion, as the common morning and evening beverage in this country, 
(England,) and in other parts of Europe, as well as in China. Indeed, 
some authprities declare that the black and green teas are not the pro- 
duce of different species, but merely varieties of thea viridis, which, 
according to soil and culture, will produce either green tea or black ; 
and that the thea bohea of botanists does not enter essentially into 
the manufacture, although its leaves, as v/ell as those of different spe- 
cies of camellia, may be introduced accidentally, or be mixed design- 
edly, as an adulteration." These are the commonly received opinions 
on this subject, but Mr. Fortune, whose opportunities of obtaining 
correct information have been very ample, asserts that both green and 
black tea are made from each of the two species named, the difference 
in the article produced depending upon the period of gathering and 
the process of manufacture. 

But one species forms the subject of the present experiment — thea 
viridis. For the instruction and guidance of the American cultivator 
the following information has been elicited from Mr. Fortune, in re- 
sponse to inquiries presented to him by the Patent Office concerning 
the culture of the tea plant in China and India : 

The principal tea districts in China, which supply the greater por-, 
tion of the teas exported to Europe and America, lie between latitude 
25° and 35° north; the finest districts between 26° and 35°, and be- 
tween longitude 110° and 120° east of Greenwich. The Indian dis- 
tricts in which tea is cultivated, between the 26th and 32d degrees of 
north latitude, and the 75th and 95th degrees of east longitude. The 
chief districts are Assam, Cachar, Dehra-Dhoon, Almorah, and Kan- 
gra, in the Punjaub. 

In China, the lower slopes of the hills are preferred, at 1,000 feet 
above the level of the sea ; in India, from 2,000 to 6,000 feet. The 
best description of soil for the tea plant is a light loam, well mixed 
with sand, and enriched with vegetable matter, moderately moist, but 



EXPERIMENTAL AND PROPAGATING GARDEN. 



9 



neither wet nor sour. Sloping or undulating land of this kind, on 
which good crops of millet and Indian corn may be produced, is likely 
to be suitable. Any aspect will do, but east and west are preferred. 
The tea plant will not flourish in a wet or stagnant soil. Those on 
which it succeeds best vary in their constituent elements in the several 
districts. With respect to climate, the following abstract of observa- 
tions in the open air, in a shaded situation, at Shanghai, in lati- 
tude 31° 20' north, the maximum of the day^, and the. minimum at 
night, taken by a self-registering thermometer, will afford satisfactory 
data for comparison. In the tea mountains, to the west of this, the 
thermometer sinks several degrees lower in the winter months: 



Abstract of Ohservations. 



Years 1851 to 1858, inclusive. 



-J 








bj) 




-(-■ 








bD 




>-. 


r3 


c 




JS 


>> 


^. 


K 


a 


J2 


-O 


>^ 




QJ 


o 




s 


bJD 


bJD 




C3 


ci 


>. 












o 


o 




^ 


> 

< 


> 
< 


s 
Pi 


240 


510 


330 


7 


18 


48 


30 


3 


18 


45 


30 


. 10 


24 


51 


37 


9 


18 


44 


25 


4 


18 


47 


20 


7 


18 


49 


30 


3 


27 


46 


35 


16 


26 


49 


34 


10 


19 


45 


31 


13 


20 


45 


31 


11 


25 


44 


32 


12 


18 


51 


30 


5 


15 


44 


31 


13 


28 


59 


36 


13 


28 


47 


36 


11 


28 


52 


41 


16 


33 


51 


38 


12 


35 


56 


42 


10 


32 


52 


41 


10 


30 


55 


41 


11 


26 


55 


39 


6 


31 


54 


43 


10 


33 


53 


41 


10 


33 


59 


48 


21 


35 


62 


48 


10 


38 


63 


50 


17 


40 


64 


49 


10 


37 


63 


51 


15 


42 


65 


51 


9 


36 


66 


54 


10 


41 


67 


49 


10 


47 


70 


57 


5 


52 


73 


60 


8 


50 


72 


59 


11 


37 


73 


61 


15 


50 


74 


63 


18 


46 


73 


61 


11 


50 


71 


59 


14 


54 


70 


59 


16 



January, 1851. 
1852. 
1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 
1857. 
1858. 

February, 1851. 
18.52. 
1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 
1857. 
1858. 

March, 1851. 
1852. 
1853. 
1854, 
1855. 
1856 
1857, 
1858, 

April, 1851, 
1852 
1853 
1854 
1855, 
1856 
1857, 
1858, 

May, 1851 
1852, 
1853 
1854, 
1855 
1856 
1857, 
1858, 



650 

66 

66 

67 

52 

54 

58 

57 

65 

60 

56 

62 

68 

60 

65 

68 

63 

62 

67 

67 

72 

73 

72 

72 

70 

72 

79 

75 

82 

88 

78 

85 

83 

84 

86 

84 

90 

92 

82 



42° 

25 

30 

32 

33 

40 

34 



38 
38 
33 
32 
35 
30 



40 
43 
46 
42 
36 
40 
45 



50 
50 
50 
56 
52 
54 
53 



60 
60 
62 
64 
60 
60 
65 



450 
40 
43 
53 

40 
42 
44 



42 
40 
40 
43 
45 
42 
45 



55 
45 
57 
47 
57 
50 
56 



56 
61 
60 
60 
67 
62 
62 



68 
68 
68 
70 
73 
73 
70 



10 



AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

ABSTRACT— Continued. 



Years 1851 to 1858, inclusive. 



6D 

'2 

a 
pi 
s 



p4 



July, 



Auarust, 



June 1851... 

1852... 

1853... 

1854... 

1855... 

1856... 

1857... 

1858... 

1851... 

1852... 

1853... 

1854... 

1855... 

1856... 

1857... 

1858... 

1851.., 

1852.. 

1853.. 

1864.. 

1855.. 

1856.. 

1857.. 

1858.. 
September, 1851.. 

1852.. 

1853.. 

1854.. 

1855.. 

1856.. 

1857.. 

1858.. 
October, 1851.. 

1852.. 

1853.. 

1854.. 

1855.. 

1856.. 

1857.. 

1858.. 
November, 1851.. 

1852.. 

1853.. 

1854.. 

1855.. 

1856.. 

1857., 

1858., 
December, 1851., 

]852., 

1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 
1857. 
1858. 



830 
99 
93 
90 
90 
88 
90 
87 
96 
100 
99 
98 
94 
96 
96 
94 
93 
94 
95 
99 
99 
95 
96 
90 
89 
92 
90 
90 
88 
90 
88 
87 
90 
83 
88 
88 
80 
84 
82 
76 
76 
80 
76 
76 
78 
75 
78 
73 
64 
65 
66 
66 
73 
76 
64 
57 



680 

66 

70 

71 

73 

68 

67 



70 

82 
83 
72 
82 
77 
75 



750 

81 

78 

80 

79 

77 

78 



81 
81 
81 



81 



76 


82 


82 


82 


82 


80 


75 


81 


83 


81 


85 


82 


76 


80 


65 


77 


70 


79 


70 


78 


66 


79 


70 


,78 


70 


80 


65 


80 


57 


72 


62 


70 


65 


77 


63 


70 


65 


69 


60 


73 


60 


75 


55 


60 


53 


62 


48 


65 


52 


60 


55 


62 


60 


57 


50 


62 


45 


47 


42 


52 


40 


46 


40 


46 


40 


43 


38 


47 



60O 
58 
59 
62 
56 
64 
59 
59 
66 
75 
77 
70 
73 
70 
74 
68 
63 
67 
70 
65 
75 
74 
68 
67 
51 
56 
64 
59 
58 
"58 
60 
63 
43 
49 
46 
50 
45 
45 
53 
45 
41 
32 
32 
31 
33 
32 
39 
26 
25 
19 
27 
26 
22 
26 
31 
31 



770 

81 

81 

79 

79 

80 

82 

80 

88 

92 

90 

86 

89 

89 

89 

87 

87 

88 

86 

89 

87 

90 

89 

83 

78 

79 



81 
82 
79 
80 
70 
74 
73 
74 
73 
70 
72 
70 
66 
64 
66 
66 
62 
68 
62 
63 
54 
54 
54 
55 
60 
57 
53 
51 



670 

73 

69 

69 

70 

66 

70 

68 

75 

78 

80 

78 

78 

78 

78 

76 

77 

76 

73 

79 

78 

79 

76 

74 

67 

66 

70 

69 

70 

72 

68 

70 

51 

58 

60 

60 

58 

59 

60 

57 

48 

48 

50 

45 

49 

45 

46 

44 

36 

32 

38 

39 

36 

35 

42 

40 



10 
17 
13 

10 
7 
3 

11 

10 

7 
8 
2 

13 



7 

16 

11 

7 

13 

10 

12 

6 

5 

14 

11 

10 

12 

9 

8 

15 

17 

14 

10 

4 

6 

5 

3 

11 

12 

5 

10 

2 

14 

3 

11 



3. 
12 

18 



EXPERIMENTAL AND PROPAGATING GARDEN. 11 

In the Folden districts, where black tea is generally produced, the 
ice is never of any considerable thickness, and the snow lies only on 
the tops of the mountains, rarely so far down as the tea plantations. 
In the northern districts of Hwuychow, Honan, and Hopek, ice is 
often found from two to four inches thick, the ground frozen six to 
eight inches, and the snow from one to two feet deep^ though rarely, 
as the winter months are comparatively dry. But the sun, even in 
winter, has considerable power, and the snow does not lie long on the 
ground. A climate having abundance of rain is advantageous to this 
XDlant, particularly if the rain falls in the spring and summer monthsj, 
say from April to July, 

The tea plant is an evergreen, not unlike the camellia, though by 
no means so retentive of its leaves in winter. Sometimes the plants 
are ten feet high in a wild state, but they never form stems of great 
thickness, two or three inches in diameter being the largest. The 
young leaves only are gathered, and in young plants they are usually 
from two to three inches long. Some kinds of fine teas, such as the 
flowery ''Pekoe," are made of partially developed leaves. When the 
leaves are very large and succulent, they are not considered suitable 
for the manufacture of good tea, especially if they are old. When pro- 
duced from seeds, the tea plant first flowers in the second year, rarely 
in the first. It is not usual to propagate it from cuttings in China, 
but it would no doubt flower the first year if the cuttings were taken 
from full-grown plants. The usual period of flowering is in November, 
and the seeds ripen the next autumn. The number of seeds produced 
by a shrub depends upon its size and health. Vigorous plants pro- 
duce fewer than the sickly and stunted. A great number of the young 
clusters are pulled in gathering the leaves, and may be seen in the tea 
brought to America. The seeds are preserved, preparatory to sowing, 
by being mixed with damp sand and earth. They are sown at any 
time after they are ripe before April of the following year. Beds about 
four feet vfide are prepared, and the seeds are sown in rows across these 
beds in the way common in our nurseries. In the field they are planted 
four or five in a hole,* the bunches usually about four feet from each 
other, in rows. The ground is prepared for planting by being dug, or 
trenched, in the usual way. Manure is rarely used in tea culture in 
China ; but where the land is poor, stable litter and sewage of all kinds 
are sometimes applied, indiscriminately, in moderate quantities, and 
a top-dressing of rich loam is considered valuable. The best time to 
apply manure is in the spring, before the plants begin to grow, or 
during mild weather in winter. In transplanting, if the ground has 
been well prepared, the holes need not be much larger than the size 
of the roots requires ; but if this has not been the case, the holes should 
be at least eighteen inches in diameter and in depth. The same rules' 
apply to tea plants and to our fruit trees. The shrubs should be 
planted about as deep as in their original beds. The roots of a full- 
grown shrub ordinarily descend two to three feet, and extend laterally 
from the stems about two feet on each side. The plant usually attains 
a height of from three to five feet, when fully grown in a cultivated 

* Singly, it is believed, will be the preferred mode in this country. 



12 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

•state, or it is kept at this lieiglit, .and round and busliy, that it may 
yield a large crop of leaves. When it is about eighteen inches high, 
the leading shoots are pinched off, and the shrub is forced to throw 
out laterals. Naturally, it has a tendency to grow tall and straggling, 
with few side shoots. The object of pruning, or rather pinching off 
the ends of the shoots with the fingers, is to force each plant to form 
hundreds of little shoots, and to assume a round and bushj^ outline. 
As the leaves used in making tea are produced yearly at the ends of 
the shoots, the object of this- system of treatment is apparent. It is 
practised during the tea-gathering season, so that liothing may be 
wasted, all being made into tea.* A small crop of leaves may be 
gathered the third year after planting. In the eighth or tenth year, 
the produce may be considered at its maximum. 

In China, in consequence of the continual plucking of the leaves, the 
tea plant remains in full bearing only twenty-five or thirty years, when 
it becomes feeble and stunted, and can no longer be cultivated profit- 
ably. The usual annual product is as follows : 

Tea produced in 3d year, 1 pounds to an acre. 

Tea produced in 4th year^ 30 pounds to an acre. 

Tea produced in 5th year, 80 pounds to an acre. 

Tea produced in 6th year, 120 pounds to an acre. 

Tea produced in '7th year, 150 pounds to an acre. 

Tea produced in 8th year, 200 j^ounds to an acre. 

Tea produced in 9th year, 250 pounds to an acre. 

Tea produced in 10th year, 300 pounds to an acre. 

For ten or fifteen years longer, the maximum of 300 pounds may be 
kept up by judicious management. The Chinese cultivators are most 
careful in gathering the leaves. They know well that the continual 
plucking has a tendency to make the bushes unhealthy, and conse- 
quently they do not gather from very young plants, nor from those 
which are not vigorous and healthy. For the first three years the 
chief object is to form the plants, as has been already described. 
Stunted, unhealthy bushes are always passed by in the gathering 
season. 

While the instruction thus derived from the experience of the Chi- 
nese is worthy the attention of every American cultivator, a servile 
adherence to it is not desired. With our superior implements and 
superior skill in husbandry, and with the unceasing efforts of our peo- 
ple to improve upon past usages, it can hardly be otherwise than that 
the labor of cultivating and manufacturing tea will be greatly facili- 
tated, and that acceptable and even improved qualities may soon be 
produced at lower prices than the imported varieties now command in 
general commerce. In accordance with this practical view, a note has 
been prepared for the instruction of those to whom the plants are to 
be committed for culture, in the following words: 

''The tea plant is a half-hardy evergreen shrub, thickly branched, 
with dark coriaceous foliage. Under cultivation it grows from four 
to six feet high. It is seldom attacked by insects, and is sufficiently 
hardy to flourish where the temperature in winter does not fall below 

*The early spring, before budding, will doubtless prove the proper time. 



EXPERIMENTAL AND PROPAGATING GARDEN. 13 

'2° of Falireiilieit. It may be readily propagated from seeds, from 
ayers, and from cuttings. The seeds may be sown from two to three 
nches deep, in rows, and they will germinate in from two to three- 
months. They grow from six to ten inches high the first season, and 
in the following spring may be plaiited out to the sites in which they 
are to remain. The ground should be kept clear of weeds, and occa- 
sionally loosened about their roots. In Septemher the lower branches 
may be laid in the ground, and kept covered with sandy soil, until the 
next autumn, when they should be severed from the parent stock and 
removed to the plantations prepared for them. Cuttings may be taken 
in October from well-ripened shoots. The operator should cut smoothly 
across, at a joint, with a sharp knife, and remove two or three of the 
lower leaves, and then plant the cuttings in boxes of sand, making 
them firm with a small dibber. The boxes should then be placed in a 
cold frame and kept shaded, during sunshine. In the next spring,, 
those that have taken root will begin to grow, when their progress 
may be accelerated by a gentle bottom heat ; and in autumn they may 
be planted out in rows, six feet apart, the shrubs standing five feet 
apart along the row." 

In order that this enterprise may be judiciously conducted, it is pro- 
posed to supply to each experimenter, in those regions in which the 
shrub may be expected to flourish in the open air, a sufficient number 
of plants to occupy a few square rods of ground. Accordingly, there 
will be but one consignment to each congressional district, and that 
to some intelligent and responsible person, selected with the assistance 
of the representative of the district. As it is supposed that the plant 
cannot be cultivated in the open air north of the northern boundaries 
of Tennessee and North Carolina, but must be protected in heated con- 
servatories and green-houses during the winter, they will be distrib- 
uted among from fifty to a hundred persons in the States, respectively, 
north of the above-named line, for the gratification of the taste and 
the curiosity of the public. The names and address of these persons, 
also, have been obtained through the aid of their representatives in 
Congress. The distribution will be made in February and March. 
1860, and the intended recipients will be duly notified thereof. 

The Chinese processes of gathering, rolling, drying, coloring, scent- 
ing, and packing tea for commerce, have frequently been described in 
English and American publications, and partially in the Patent Ofiice 
Report for 1857. Rolling, coloring, and scenting will probably be 
wholly omitted in the manufacture in this country. The discussion of 
the other operations will be in season hereafter, when the public mind 
shall have been drawn more practically and interestedly to the subject. 

Pyretlirum caucasicum, 250 plants : This plant, from which the 
Persian insect powder is obtained, is partially known in the United 
States. It was described in the Patent Office Report for 1857. It 
bears white flowers, in July and August, like those of the oxeye daisy, 
(chrysanthemum leucanthemum,) and is propagated by the division 
of its root and by seeds. It is a herbaceous perennial, and flowers the 
first year. 

Achillea rosea, 200 plants: A pretty border plant, with beautiful 
red flewer, having an aromatic, agreeable smell, and bitter, pungent 



14 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

taste. It is a variety of tlie common pereniiial_, (achillea millefoliumj) 
in the dry pastures and on the steep banks of rivers in Great Britain, 
known as millfoil, or yarrow, which has been used medicinally as a 
narcotic, and applied to the manufacture of beer. The usual height 
of the achillea rosea is six inches, but the flower stem ascends twelve 
inches above it. The flowering season is in June, July, and August, 
the brilliant hues becoming pale as the season advances. 

The corJc tree, (quercus suher,) 250 plants: This tree is fully de- 
scribed in the Patent Office Keport for 1858_, and has been partially 
introduced to the country by means of the distribution of a large 
quantity of its acorns; yet, so general has been the neglect or want of 
knowledge respecting their culture, that the successful propagation 
froni acorns at this garden is deemed essential to the success of the ex- 
periment. The habitat of the cork tree does not, probably, extend 
north of Maryland. 

The mahonia, 5,000 plants: This is an evergreen shrub, four feet 
Mgh, having yellow flowers, succeeded by brilliant red berries. It is 
known in some parts of the United States, whence, indeed, it was intro- 
duced to Europe. It is, probably, the mahonia fascicularis ; natural 
€rder^ berberide^. 

Seedling straivherries, 1,000 plants. 

Virgilia lutea, 200 plants: This is a deciduous shrub. It attains a 
lieight of fifteen feet, and, in Europe, flowers in June and July. It is 
.a native of North America, and is well known in Tennessee. The 
wood is yellow, and dyes a beautiful saffron color. 

The camphor tree, 21 plants : There are already a few specimens of 
this tree in botanical collections in the United States. It is a native 
of Japan. The roots, wood, and leaves have a strong odor of cam- 
|)hor, which is found everywhere in the interstices of the fibers of the 
wood and in the pith, but most abundantly in the crevices and knots. 
The camphor of commerce is obtained not only from this tree, (laurus 
€amphora,) but also from the dryobalanops camphora, a native of 
Sumatra, which yields a harder, more brittle, and more highly-valued 
gum. The camphor tree is tall and divided into many branches, cov-. 
ered with smooth greenish bark. It may be propagated from seeds or 
from cuttings. 

Finns edulis, 100 plants: This tree is from Oregon. It is of rapid 
growth, and very ornamental. The Indians esteem the seeds a great 
'delicacy. 

Sycamore Jig, 50 plants : The platanus occidentalis of Linnasus, 
commonly called button- wood or cotton tree, is erroneously called syca- 
more also. The true sycamore, in size and appearance, resembles a 
mulberry tree, but bears a species of fig. It is found in Palestine, 
and is believed to be the tree mentioned in Luke xvii : 6, and else- 
where in the New Testament. 

Arbor vitoi, (species, thuja,) 1,500 plants: The arbor vitas of the 
United States, (thuja occidentalis,) is a well-known evergreen shrub, 
-assuming the form and height of a tree in Canada, its native locality, 
and growing best in swamps and marshes. That now introduced very 
nearly resembles the American species ; but Mr. Fortune states that, 
in China, it is the most ornamental of the species he has seen. 

Tihus succedanea, {loax plant,) 150 plants : An evergreen shrub, 



EXPERIMENTAL AND PROPAGATING GARDEN. . 15 

ten feet liigli. It is half-hardy, and flowers in June. It was first in- 
troduced into England, from Cliina, in 1768. The plants now under 
cultivation are from seeds obtained in Japan. The seeds yield an oil, 
by expression, of the consistence of suet, which is used in China and 
Japan for making candles. Its sap is resinous, and might be used as 
varnish. 

Tung oil tree, 50 plants : Also from Japan. 

Oodung, and other ornamental trees from Japan. 

Olea fi'agrans, or fragrant olive, called Lan-hoa by the Chinese, 
who use the leaves and blossoms in scenting their teas. 

Ilex vomitoria : This plant, according to Burnett, is known as 
yopon and emetic holly. It is indigenous to North Carolina, and 
found along the coast thence to Florida. Its properties were known 
to the Indians, who used an infusion of its leaves as an agreeable bev- 
erage, and at a certain time in the year purified themselves by drink- 
ing it very strong, and in copious drafts, for two or three days, 
throughout which period it operated as an emetic. Though it is not 
pleasing to the uneducated taste, poor people in the eastern portions 
of North Carolina use it as a substitute for tea ; and the captains of 
many vessels take supplies of it to sea, because, as they believe^ the 
sailors are in better condition while using it than when supplied with 
coffee. It usually grows Avild, but, when brought under cultivation 
and training, it becomes a beautiful tree, though not often more than 
fifteen feet high. 

It is the popular belief in the United States that this plant is iden- 
tical with the Ilex Paraguayensis, Yerba mate, or Jesuits' tea, of 
Paraguay ; but this is an error. Nor is the Ilex gongonha, of Brazil, 
identical with either. The tree of Paraguay is greatly superior, and 
possesses an importance in that country little appreciated elsewhere. 
In 1854, the president of the province of Parana alluded, in his annual 
message, to the fact that wheat had been an article of export, but had 
been abandoned because "a large portion of the population, eschewing 
the labor required in the production of the cereals, rush to the virgin 
forests, and there, stripping the evergreen leaves and the tender 
branches of the Ilex Paraguayensis, easily convert them into the pop- 
ular South American beverage knov/n as the yerba mate, or hewa Par- 
aguaya, and thus amass fortunes, or obtain a livelihood without the 
intervention of persevering industry or great exertion." Large quan- 
tities of this kind of tea were annually exported from the province of 
Parana until interdicted by the government. 

"Whilein Paranagua," says an authority already quoted, (Kidder 
and Fletcher's Brazil,) "I observed many raw-hide cases, which the 
blacks were unloading from mules, or conveying to the ships riding at 
anchor in the beautiful bay. Upon inquiry, I learned that these pack- 
ages, weighing about one hundred and twenty pounds each, consisted 
of mate. This substance, so little known out of South America, forms 
truly the principal refreshing beverage of the Spanish-Americans 
south of the equator, and millions of dollars are annually expended in 
Buenos Ayres, Bolivia, Peru, and Chili, in its consumption. This 
town of Paranagua, containing about three thousand inhabitants, ex- 
ports every year nearly a million dollars' worth of-mate. 

''It can be gathered during the whole year. Parties go into the 



16 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

forest, or places where it abounds, and break off the branches with the 
leaves. A process of kiln-drying is resorted to in the woods^ and 
afterward the branches and leaves are transported to some rude mill, 
and there they are, by water-power, pounded in mortars. 

"The substance, after this operation, is almost a powder, though 
small stems, denuded of their bark, are always permitted to remain. 
By this simple process the mate is prepared for market. Its prepara- 
tion for drinking is equally simple. A small quantity of the leaf, 
either with or without sugar, is placed in a common bowl, upon which 
cold water is poured. After standing a short time boiling water is 
added, and it is at once ready for use. Americans who have visited 
Buenos Ayres or Montevideo, may remember to have seen, on a fine 
summer evening, the denizens of that portion of the world engaged in 
sipping, through long tubes inserted into highly-ornamented cocoanut 
bowls, a liquid which, though not so palatable as iced juleps, is cer- 
tainly far less harmful. These citizens of Montevideo and Buenos 
Ayreswereenjoying, with their bombil has, a refreshing draught of mate. 
It must be imbibed through a tube, on account of the particles of leaf 
and stem which float upon the surface of the liquid. This tube has a 
fine globular strainer at the end. 

" Great virtues are ascribed to this tea. It supplies the place of 
meat and drink. Indians, who have been laboring at the oar all day, 
feel immediately refreshed by a cup ®f the herb, mixed simply with 
river water. In Chili and Peru, the people believe that they could 
not exist without it, and many persons take it every hour of the day. 
Its use was learned from the natives ; but, having been adopted, it 
spread among the Spaniards and 'Portuguese, until the demand became 
so great as to render the herb of Paraguay almost as fatal to the In- 
dians of this part of America as mines and pearl fisheries had been 
elsewhere. 

"It grows wild, and never has been successfully cultivated, although 
attempts were made by the Jesuits of Paraguay to transplant it from 
the forests to their plantations. These attempts have been considered 
by many without result; still, there are others who consider that the 
experiment justifies further efforts, and are urging this day the do- 
mestication, so to speak, and the cultivation of mate under a regular 
system." 

Don states ("System of Gardening and Botany") that "there are 
three kinds of Paraguay tea, but all procured from the same plant. 
These go under the names of caa-cuys, caa-mini, and caa-guazu. The 
first is prepared from the buds, when the leaves are scarcely expanded ; 
the seconcl of the membrane of the leaves strij)ped off the ribs before 
roasting ; and the third consists of the leaves roasted entire, without 
any selection. The caa-cuys does not keep, and is consequently all used 
in Paraguay; and the aromatic bitterness even of the others is less- 
ened by time and partly dissipated by carriage. The principal har- 
vests of this herb are reaped in the eastern parts of Paraguay, and 
about the mountains of Maracaya; but it is also cultivated in the 
marshy valleys between the hills. The natives boast of the innumer- 
able qualities the tea possesses, and in the mining countries its use is 
almost universal, from the opinion that prevails among the Spaniards- 



EXPERIMENTAL AND PROPAGATING GARDEN. 17 

that the wines arc there prcjodicial to health. Like opiiira, it pro- 
duces some singular effects; it gives sleep to the restless and spirits to 
the torpid. Persons who have once contracted the habit of taking 
it do not tind it an easy matter to leave it off, or even to use it in mod- 
eration, although, when drank to excess, it brings on disorders similar 
to those which are produced by the immoderate use of spiritous 
liquors." 

Grape vines, 2o, 000 plcmts : These embrace seedlings and rooted 
cuttings irom not less than fifty varieties of native and foreign grapes, 
among which may be named: 

Hungarian, ibur varieties. 

El Paso, seedlings and cuttings, two varieties, the blue and the 
white. 

Hartford prolific, Connecticut. 

Clinton, New York. 

Diana, Massachusetts. 

Concord, Massacliusetts. 

Seedling, Massachusetts. 

Union Village, Ohio. 

Delaware. Ohio. 

Kebecca, New York. 

Saluda, South Carolina. 

Scuppernong, North Carolina and Virginia. 

Washita, v/hite, Arkansas. 

Devereaux, South Carolina. 

Herbemont's Madeira, Georgia. 

Lenoir, the Carolinas. 

Anna, Ohio. 

Logan, New York. 

Catawba, southern. 

Isabella, North Carolina. 

Wyoming, Pennsylvania. 

Red Venango, Tennessee. 

Canby's August, southern. 

Black July, "France. 

Minor, Massachusetts. 

Clara, Pennsylvania. 

Elbling, northern. 

Lincoln Downer, northern. 

Trarainer, Germany. 

Trollinger, northern. 

Chasselas de Fontainebleau, France. 

Sweet water, foreign. 

Black Hamburg, foreign. 

Seedless, (large,) Egypt. 

Lady's finger, (berries three inches long, three fourths of an inch in 
diameter, delicious flavor,) Egypt. 

Grahami i , northern . 

Fran ken tb al , foreign . 

Dracot amber, Massachusetts. 

Grevadulv, Massachusetts. 



-A 



18 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

Hensliaw, Pennsylvania. 
Franklin, (fruit black,) Pennsylvania. 
Burgundy, (fruit black,) foreign. 
Black prince, (fruit black,) foreign. 
Harris, (fruit black,) northern. 
To-kalon, (fruit red,) New York. 
Emily, (fruit red,) northern. 
Garrigues, (fruit dark purple,) Delaware, 
Cassady, (fruit white,) northern. 

In view of the generally received opinion that the native vines alone 
are adapted to the production of good wine in the United States, it is 
proper to explain that the object in introducing foreign varieties into 
this collection is to jDroduce such hybrids as. may inherit the better 
qualities of both originals. It is believed that salutary and important 
results may be realized from the skillful, careful, and persistent pros- 
ecution of experiments of this character. 

SEEDS FOR DISTRIBUTION. 

In the fulfillment of orders made previous to the appropriation of 
March, 1859, an assortment of seeds has been imported from Europe, 
and portions of them distributed among the State and local agricul- 
tural societies in those sections of the Union to which they are believed 
to be applicable respectively, while an adequate quantity of each has 
been retained for propagation at this garden. Among those possessing 
novelty or merit may be named the following : 

Early Washington peas : An excellent pea of American origin, 
though produced from European varieties ; known as the extra-early. 

Gliautong yelloiv oil pea : From China ; it abounds in oil, but is not 
suitable for edible uses. 

Gliautong green oil pea : Same origin, and varying but little from 
the above. 

Matchless marroio 2)ea : An excellent variety, the merits of which 
are well known in the United States. 

Ice drum lettuce : A fine variety. 

White Paris cos lettuce : Also a good and well-known variety. 

White solid celery : An admirable variety. 

Neio Yorhpyurple egg-plant. 

Early Winningstadt cabbage : English ; one of the best varieties, 
of easy culture and delicious flavor. 

Dutch horn carrot : An excellent and well-known variety. 

Onion, (Bassel:) From Egypt ; not equal to varieties now cultivated 
in the United States. 

Melochia, {Gorchorus olitorius :) A novel plant, the leaves of which 
afibrd a mucilage relished in soup. 

Ice-cream loatermelon, 

Neiu hybrid Marvel of Peru : A pretty flowering border plant, bloom- 
ing from June to September ; adapted to light soils. 

Trifolium incarnatum : A good flowering variety, but tender ; 
adapted to lawns. 



EXPERIMENTAL AND PROPAGATING GARDEN. 19 

Pyretlirum caucasicum : A fine flowering herbaceous perennial plant, 
already described. It is in character like the feverfew. 

Linum grandijlorum rubi-um : Grand red flowered flax ; height, 
eighteen inches ; blooms from May to September. 

TrifoUum Alexandrimim : From Egpyt ; a poor variety of clover, 
like liicern. 

Broughton early seed lolieat: Has been highly commended wherever 
it has been fairly tried. Mr. Peter Gorman, of Howard county, Mary- 
land, says of it : "I received from the Patent Office, in the autumn of 
1858, a half bushel of ' Tappahannock wheat,' which I sowed broad- 
cast, with the aid of a small plough to cover it suitably, tlie 16th of 
October, 1858. On the 17th June, 1859, it was ripe and fit for har- 
vest, but I did not cut it until the 21st. In August, I had it threshed 
by a machine, and found the yield to be sixteen bushels and two quarts 
merchantable wheat, weighing sixty-three pounds to the bushel, and 
a half bushel of small, light wheat. It ripens sixteen days sooner than 
other wheat, and thus escapes various diseases and casualties." 

Orzomondo barley : European ; very fine. 

Sotv-tow : China cotton seed ; not known to have germinated. The 
specimens of the fiber are very white. 

PLANTS FROM PALESTINE. 

On the 12th of April, 1859, the Kev. J. T. Barclay, a Christian 
missionary from the United States to Jerusalem, in compliance with a 
request of the Patent Office, shipped at Jaffa (the ancient port of 
Joppa, thirty-one miles northwest of Jerusalem) a quantity of the 
seeds named in the following list ; but, in consequence of unexpected 
delays in their transmission, they were not received at Washington 
until the 25th of October, when many df them were found apparently 
damaged from their protracted exposure. A portion of each variety 
has been retained for experiment and propagation, and the rest dis- 
tributed among the State and local agricultural societies in the regions 
of the country to which they are believed to be adapted respectively. 
Minute descriptions of these plants had not been received from Mr. 
Barclay at the date of this report ; and their classification and charac- 
teristics have in some cases been sought with no better guide than the 
local Arab names afford : 

Carol) tree, {Ceratonia siliqua:) This name is derived from Kepat;, a 
horn, which was givQn to this tree because of its long, horn-like pods, 
containing a sweet fecula, and known in commerce as Algaroba beans. 
The Arabic name is kharub. It is generally considered the locust tree 
of Scripture, and its fruit has been called St. John's bread, while the 
shells of the pods are supposed to be the husks of which the prodigal 
son desired to partake with the swine. The tree is common in the 
south of Spain. Its quality improves the further south it is found. 
In the south of Italy and of Greece it prospers well, and affords abund- 
ant fodder for swine and sheep. In Syria it is still more valuable, and 
in Egypt the pods are so thick, and so charged with sugar, as to be 
regarded as a delicacy by the common people, the dry pulp in which 
the seeds are buried being remarkably nutritious. It is said that 



20 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

singers have derived benefit from chewing this fruit, their voices being 
thereb}'' rendered more flexible. The carat weight of four grains is be- 
lieved to have originated in the adoption of the seed, of this tree as a 
standard. 

Foosduch, or foostuk, (Pisiacia vera:) This tree is common in the 
valley of Jericho, and elsewhere in Syria. It also abounds in Sicily,, 
where it is cultivated for its nuts. The flowers come forth in clusters, 
and of herbaceous color, in April and May. 

Senaichcr, or snoivher : This also is a pistacia, (terebinthus,) but is 
ranked by Arab v/riters among the pine or turpentine trees. Its nuts 
are shaped like the filbert, long and pointed, the kernel being pale, 
greenish, sweet, and more oily than that of the almond. It grows in 
Syria, Arabia, Persia, and the island of Cyprus. The Cyprus tur- 
pentine is ])rocured Irom the trunk, by wounding the bark in several 
places, in the month of July. From these wounds the turpentine 
flows upon receptacles arranged for the purpose, and, becoming con- 
densed in the night, is scraped off in the morning, but is again liqui- 
fied in the sun and strained for use. It is obtained in small quanti- 
ties, however, four large trees yielding but tv/o pounds, nine ounces, 
and six drachms. It is hence often adulterated in commerce. 

Doura-esh-shamy , or Syrian maize: A hardy plant in Syria and 
Egypt. In Egypt there is also a variety called Doora-neely, which 
groAvs twelve or fifteen feet high, bearing, sometimes, from fifteen 
hundred to two thousand kernels of small corn in a single head or top. 
It [)ropagates itself by new shoots from the old roots in the spring. 
There is also in Syria a Doora-es-seify, which is millet. Several 
varieties of it are now well known in the United Spates. The Doora- 
neely affords a very coarse meal, of which bread is made by the labor- 
ing people of Egypt, but it is more suitable for their horses and 
cattle. 

liclheh : A variety of clover, abundant in Egypt. ■ Its stalks, 
shaded by the tops, are bleached, and are eaten as celery by the poorer 
classes. It is spoken of in Numbers, chapter xi, in connection with the 
cucumbers, the melons, the onions, and the garlic of Egypt ; though 
the translators, unacquainted with this plant, have rendered the word 
leeks in the English version. 

Fool : This is the Arabic name of a leguminous plant grown in tho 
delta oi the Nile, on the flat lands throughout Syria, and in small 
tracts in the deep valleys of the mountain ranges of the desert of 
Sinai. The peas or beans are sold in immense quantities to the desert 
Arabs, who feed their camels upon them. They are said to be sown 
broadcast, but this mode of culture is not commended to imitation In 
this country. The stalks attain the height of eighteen or twenty 
inches, standing thick and upright, bearing twenty or more round and 
slender pods, of from four to six peas each, of the size and shape of 
the marrow-fat pea. They become dark brown and somewhat shriv- 
eled when dry. The Arabs, as they pass along the immense fields, are 
fond of plucking and eating them green ; but v,^lien dry, they are 
better suited to the lowej- animals. They are preferred to maize, 
or Indian corn, for the camels, being an exceedingly grateful and nu- 
tritious food. But little labor is requisite in planting, cultivating, 



EXPERIMENTAL x\ND TROPAGATIXG GARDEN. 21 

and gathering them, yet the yield is large. Doubtless they may ho 
cultivated to great advantage in the southern portions of the United 
States. It is believed that Moll, in his work on agriculture in Alge- 
ria, has reference to this pea when he says: "The gray pea [pois 
gris] is preferred for forage, the yellow and green as food for man." 

■ Semsem : .This is the Sesamum Indicura of botany, belonging to the 
family pedaliace^e, and is supposed to have been brought originally 
from India, though it is now cultivated in Arabia and Syria. It is an 
annual, grows eighteen inches high^ and bears a pale purple flower in 
July. The seeds are used for bread. They are more oily than any 
of the cereals. This plant is abundantly cultivated in the valleys and 
on the plains of Syria ; and one of the finest valleys in the western 
part of the hill country of Judea, about equidistant from Jerusalem 
and Gaza, and from Joppa and Hebron, is named Wady-Scmscm, be- 
cause of its producing this grain. Semsem is found in the Levant also, 
and in Africa, where it is grown as a pulse. An oil extracted from 
the seeds, Loudon asserts, will keep many years, at the end of two 
years becoming so mild as to supply the place of olive oil in making 
salads, and for other purposes. Puddings are made of the seeds, as 
of millet or rice. A pound of oil is obtained from four or five pounds 
of the seeds. The name of this plant has been preserved in the "open 
sesame" of the Arabian Nights. The bene plant, valued in the United 
States for its medicinal qualities, is a variety of this species. 

Kirsenneli, or kersenna: This is a species of vetch, which ripens 
with the barley, and is beaten out in like manner. It is extensively 
cultivated in Syria, and, like lentils and barley, is consumed by the 
camels. 

Luhia, or lubyeJi : A species of pea or bean. El-Lubyeh, a large 
village Avest of the lake of Tiberias, having a deep valley on the east 
and north, and by which passes the road from Nazareth to Tiberias, is 
named after this plant. 

Hummas, or hummus: A species of vetch, growing abundantly on 
the northern side of Syria, on the undulating lands back of Tyre, and 
elsewhere . 

Addas, or adas: The lentil spoken of in Genesis xxv, 34. The lentil 
of Europe and of this country is an annual plant, growing about 
eighteen inches high, and its seeds, contained in pods, are round, flat, 
and a little convex in the middle. The lentil of Syria is pinkish red 
when ripe, and is excellent in soups, or Vv^hen parched over the fire, 
prepared in which manner it is sold in the shops, being considered by 
the natives the best food to be taken on long journeys ; but it is chiefly 
cultivated as food ibr cattle. It is often sown broadcast, but prospers 
better in drills. March is the time for planting, or as soon as the 
ground is dry enough for cultivation. A warm, sandy soil is adapted 
to this plant. It ripens sooner than the pea, and is harvested in like 
manner. The straw is delicate and nourishing. 

Bariiya, or hurmyeh, (species, Meloclda :) It is much like the okra, 
now common in the United States. The pods are six-sided, and grow 
on a bush from three to five ieet high. When green they make ex- 
cellent soup. 

Khoosa and Khyar : These are two varieties of squash adapted to 



22 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

ta"ble use. Syria and Egypt abound in excellent varieties of this 
vegetable. 

Kliumbers : An excellent species of flax. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE UNITED STATES AGEI- 
CULTURAL SOCIETY. 

This society^ as its name imports^ is a national institution, and was 
created in its present form by a convention or congress of farmers, 
composed of delegates from the several State societies, many of which 
are not only incorporated, but endowed as permanent State institu- 
tions. 

Its organization was, therefore, in strict conformity with that of the 
general government, whilst its position is similar to that of the na- 
tional societies in foreign countries, such as the Koyal Agricultural 
Society of England and the Imperial Agricultural Society of France. 

It resembles the government, also, in being the result or consequence 
of several unsuccessful experiments, dating almost from the com- 
mencement of our national existence. 

The records of these efforts constitute, therefore, a part of the com- 
plete history of the present society, and have been carefully preserved 
among its archives. 

As early as 1794, the formation of a National Agricultural Society 
appears to have occupied the attention of Washington, then President 
of the United States. 

A letter addressed by him to Sir John Sinclair, on the 20th of July, 
1*794, contains the following reference to this subject: ''It will be 
sometime, I fear, before an agricultural society, with congressional aid, 
will be established in this country. We must walk, as other countries 
have, before we can run ; smaller societies must prepare the way for 
greater ; but, with the lights before us, I hope we shall not be so slow 
in maturation as older nations have been. An attempt, as you will 
perceive by the inclosed outlines of a plan, is making to establish a 
State society in Pennsylvania for agricultural improvements. If it 
succeeds, it will be a step in the ladder ; at present, it is too much in 
embryo to decide upon the result." 

The first proposition for the establishment of such an institution 
was made by Washington, in his annual speech, delivered on the 7th 
of December, 1796, when he met the two Houses of Congress for the 
last time. He said: ''It will not be doubted that, with reference to 
either individual or national welfare, agriculture is of primary impor- 
tance. In proportion as nations advance in population, and other cir- 
cumstances of maturity, this truth becomes more apparent, and renders 
the cultivation of the soil more and more an object of public patronage. 
Institutions for promoting it grow up, supported by the jmblic purse; 
and to what object can it be dedicated with greater j^ropriety? Among 
the means which have been employed to this end, none have been at- 
tended with greater success than the establishment of boards, composed 
of proper characters, charged with collecting and diffusing informa- 



UNITED STATES AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 23 

tion, and enabled, by premiums and small pecuniary aids, to encourage 
and assist a spirit of discovery and improvement. 

" This species of establishment contributes doubly to the increase of 
improvement, by stimulating to enterprise and experiment, and by 
drawing to a common center the results, everywhere, of individual 
skill and observation, and spreading them thence over the whole nation. 
Experience, accordingly, has shown that they are very cheap instru- 
ments of immense national benefits." 

The Senate, in an address in answer to this speech, drawn up by 
Senator Bead, of South Carolina, and adopted, after having been dis- 
cussed and amended, said: "The necessity of accelerating the' estab- 
lishment of certain useful manufactures by the intervention of the 
legislative aid and protection, and the encouragement due to agricul- 
ture by the creation of boards, (composed of intelligent individuals,) 
to patronize this primary pursuit of society, are subjects which will 
readily engage our most serious attention." 

A committee of the House of Kepresentatives, composed of Messrs. 
Swift, of Connecticut, Gregg, of Pennsylvania, and Brent, of Maryland, 
made a report, on the 11th of January, recommending the institution 
of a society for that purpose, under the patronage of government, 
which might act as a common center to all other societies of a similar 
kind throughout the United States. The report is accompanied by a 
plan, the principal articles of which are that a society shall be estab- 
lished at the seat of government ; that it shall comprehend the Legis- 
lature of the United States, the Judges, the Secretary of State, the 
Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of War, the Attorney General, 
and such other persons as may choose to become members, according 
to the rules prescribed ; that an annual, meeting shall be held at the 
seat of government, at which are to be elected the president, secretary, 
&c., and a board, to consist of not more than thirty persons, which 
shall be called the " Board of Agriculture;" that the society shall be 
a body corporate; that a report shall be made annually, &c. The 
rejjort concluded with a resolution in these words : 

'■'Resolved, That a society for the promotion of agriculture ought to 
be established at the seat of government of the United States." 

The first national association of this description was the " Columhian 
Agricultural Society for the jrromotion of Rural and Domestic Economy," 
which was organized by a convention held in Georgetown, District of 
Columbia, on the 28th of ISTovember, 1809, at which a constitution was 
reported by General John Mason. Osborne Sprigg, Esq. , of Maryland, 
was chosen president, Thompson Mason, Esq:, of Virginia, vice presi- 
dent, and David Wiley, Esq., of Georgetown, secretary. 

The first agricidturcd exhibition in Amei-ica. was the nationcd fair 
held by this society at the Union Hotel, in Georgetown, District of 
Columbia, on the 10th of May, 1810. Among other premiums awarded 
were three, of |100, $80, and $60, respectively, for "two-toothed ram 
lambs," showing the great importance attached at that early day to 
improving the breed of sheep. 

President Madison wore his inauguration coat, made from the merino 
wool of Colonel Humphrey's flock, and waistcoat and small clothes 
made from the wool of the Livingston flock, at Clermont. 



24 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

The./?r.s^ field trial of implements in America was the plowing matcli 
at the filth semi-annual exhibition of the Columbian Society, on the 
20th of May, 1812. The war with England, which occnrred at that 
time, overshadowed everything else ; and, after holding a sixth suc- 
cessful exhibition, on the 18th of November, 1812, the time for which 
the society liad been organized (three years) having expired, it was 
dissolved at the close of that year. Its successful exertions in av/aken- 
ing a more genial interest in the various departments of husbandry, 
not only in the immediate vicinity of its exhibitions, but in the adja- 
cent States, merit a grateful remembrance by the agriculturists of 
America. 

In 1840, Solon Kobinson, Esq., and other gentlemen, anxious "to 
elevate the character and standing of the cultivators of the American 
soil," called a convention, which met at the city of Washington in 
1841, and organized the "United States Agricultural Society." A 
constitution was adopted, and eiforts were made to secure "that 
sj)lendid donation of a munificent foreigner, with which to establish a 
great school and library of agricultural science and experiment, with 
a garden that should bear and be worthy of the name of Smithson." 
The establishment of the Smithsonian Institution prostrating the hopes 
of those who had expected to base a national agricultural institution 
upon his endowment, the United States Society never held a meeting 
after its organization. Such were the stages through v^'hich this un- 
dertaking wa.s destined to pass before attaining its mature development 
in the United States Agricultural Society. 

On the 14th of June, J 852, a National Agricultural Convention was 
held at the Smithsonian Institution, in the city of Washington, under 
a call issued by the following agricultural societies, at the instance of 
the Massachusetts Board of Agriculture : The Massachusetts State 
Board of Agriculture; Pennsylvania State Agricultural Society; Mary- 
land State Agricultural Society; New York State Agricultural Society; 
Southern Central Agricultural Society; Ohio State Board of Agricul- 
ture; American Institute, New York; Massachusetts Society for the 
Promotion of Agriculture; Indiana State Board of Agriculture; New 
Hampshire Agricultural Society; Vermont Agricultural Society; and 
the Ehode Island Society for the Encouragement of American In- 
dustry. 

The convention was composed of 153 delegates, representing 23 
States and Territories. Among those who were present during its 
sessions were the Hon. Millard Fillmore, President of the United 
States, and the Hon. Daniel Webster, Secretary of State. 

The following gentlemen composed the committee who drafted the 
constitution of the United States A gricultural Society : Messrs. Hol- 
comb, of Delaware; Douglas^ of Illinois; J. A. King, of Nev/ York; 
Steele, of New Hampshire; Thurston, of Ehode Island; Hubbard, of 
Connecticut; Stevens, of Vermont; Elv/yn, of Pennsylvania ; Calvert, 
of Maryland; Campbell, of Ohio; Hancock, of New Jersey; Callan, 
of the District of Columbia; Gr. W. P. Custis, of Virginia; Burgwyn, 
of North Carolina; Taylor, of Alabama; DeBow, of Louisiana; Spencer, 
of Indiana; Mallory, of Kentucky; Bell, of Tennessee; Weston, of 
Wisconsin; McLane, of California; Pickljard, of Maine; Dawson, of 
Georgia; French, of Massachusetts ; and Seaman, of Michigan. 



UNITED STATES AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 25 

The objects of the society, as declared by the preamble to its consti- 
tution, are : to "improve the agriculture of the country, by attracting 
attention, eliciting the views, and confirming the efforts of that great 
class composing the agricultural community, and to secure the advan- 
tages of a better organization, and more extended usefulness among 
all State, county, and other agricultural societies." 

Its officers consist of a president, one vice-president for each State 
and Territory, a treasurer, and secretary. Colonel Marshall P. Wilder, 
of Massachusetts, was elected president. On the list of its members 
are to be found the names of many of the most distinguished men in 
the nation, and it will compare favorably, in this respect, with any 
institution in the country. 

The first annual meeting took place at Washington, on the 2d of 
February, 1853, since which they liave been regularly held on the 
second Wednesday of January, constituting, in reality, the "Board of 
Agriculture," recommended by the Farmer of Mount Vernon. The 
annual meetings have been attended by the Presidents of the United 
States, heads of departments, and many of the most distinguished 
members of the houses of Congress. Gentlemen from almost every 
State in the Union (many of them delegates from agricultural asso- 
ciations) have annually assembled to discuss such topics as have been 
presented, calculated to advance the cause of agricultural improve- 
ment ; interesting and valuable lectures have been delivered, and essays 
read by practical and scientific farmers; reports have been submitted 
by committees specially appointed to examine new inventions and 
theories, and by delegates who have been accredited to the agricul- 
turists of other lands, and there has been a general interchange of 
opinion. 

At the sixtb annual meeting, the first change took place in the 
executive department, by the voluntary retirement of Colonel Wilder, 
whose energetic participation in the formation of the society, and whose 
enlightened administration of its affairs have contributed so largely 
to its usefulness and success. He Avas succeeded by General Tench 
Tilghman, of Maryland, the present incumbent; thus establishing the 
precedent of rotation between the different sections of the Union. 

At this meeting, a report of extended experiments in the culture 
of Chinesfe sugar-cane in this country was made, by a committee 
of the society, througb its chairman, Mr. D. J. Browne, (then super- 
intendent of the Agricultural Division of the Patent Ofiice,) and 
subsequently published in the Agricultural Report of the Patent Ofiice, 
for 1857.* In this report, Mr. Browne says: "Conformably to the 
resolutions adopted by the United States Agricultural Society, at the 
city of Washington, in January, 1857," the committee appointed to 
investigate and experiment upon the sorgho sucre, or Chinese sugar- 
cane, with the view of determining its value, for the purpose of syrup 
and sugar-making, soiling cattle, use of the seed for feeding stock, for 
bread-making, and for the manufacture of paper and alcoholic liquors, 
beg leave to report as follows : 

* It will be seen by the Agjricultural Report for tlio year 1856 that the first purchase of 
sorghum seed made by the Patent Ofiice was in the autumn of 1854, and the second in 1855. 



26 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

''Agreeably to the requirements, there was imported from France 
sufficient sorgho seed to plant one hundred acres of land. This seed 
wais placed in the hands of a number of individuals, in different sections 
of the country, who cultivated it under various conditions of soil, 
climate, &c. 

"From the results of their experiments, in ninety localities, between 
New Brunswick, in the British Dominions, and Mexico on the one hand, 
and between Florida and Washington Territory on the other, the 
committee are of the opinion that the sorgho sucre possesses qualities 
which commend it to the especial attention of the agriculturists of all 
parts of the country." 

Annual exliihitions have been held at the following places: Spring- 
field, Massachusetts, (1853;) Springfield, Ohio, (1854;) Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, (1855 ;) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, (1856 ;) Louisville, 
Kentucky, (1857 ;) Eichmond, Virginia, (1858 ;) and Chicago, Illinois, 
(1859.) 

In July, 185*7, a national trial, in the field, of reapers and mowers, 
was held at Syracuse, New York, unequaled by any similar exhibition. 

The illustrated rej3ort of this trial, published by the society, is the 
most elaborate treatise that has ever been issued on this important 
and strictly American implement. 

The exhibitions have been self-sustaining, the receipts meeting the 
disbursements of upwards of one hundred and thirty thousand dollars 
for premiums and expenses, whilst they have been strictly confined to 
legitimate objects, and avoided all extraneous attractions for the pur- 
pose of augmenting their receipts. 

They have not only increased the efficiency of the State and local 
associations, but have elevated the standard of excellence in agricul- 
tural productions and processes, and extended the amount of agricul- 
tural information in the various parts of the country, by carrying into 
each, successively, articles of a superior quality, and, in many instances_, 
of a different kind from those previously exhibited at the local fairs. 
They have called together larger assemblages of people than have 
ever been convened upon other occasions, embracing not only our most 
intelligent yeomanry, but members of every art and profession, from 
all portions of the wide-spread Union, and thus disseminated correct 
information in regard to the institutions of each portion of the country 
among the people of the other portions. 

At these national jubilees, gentlemen have met upon the broad plat- 
form of good citizenship, merging all sectional jealousies and party 
distinctions in a general desire to improve and to elevate that great 
calling which gives independence and strength to our nation. 

Agricultural discussions and addresses, both at the "evening meet- 
ings," the banquets, and on the grounds, have formed a prominent 
feature in the proceedings. 

The recent exhibition at Chicago, whether we regard its magnitude 
or excellence, was eminently worthy of a great agricultural nation. 

The number of articles entered for exhibition was 2,549, classified 
under 123 separate departments, beside that of miscellaneous articles, 
and coming from the following States : California, Georgia, Connecticut, 
Illinois, Indiana^ Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, 



UNITED STATES AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 27 

Massachusetts, Micliigan, Minnesota, NewHampsliire, New York, Ohio, 
Pennsylvania, Texas, Virginia, Vermont^ and Wisconsin, and the 
Province of Canada. Delegations were in attendance from eighty-one 
societies, embracing twenty-seven States and Territories. 

The leading feature of the exhibition was the trial of steam plows, 
for which the society had offered its highest prize — the grand gold 
medal of honor. 

The large premiums offered by the Illinois State Society, and the 
Illinois Central Railroad Company, were also awarded at this fair, and 
the trial was conducted by committees appointed by each. 

Tlie report contains an able review of the trials in England and 
America, and shows the superiority of the American plow invented 
by J. W. Fawkes, of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 

During the entire week both the city and extensiv.e fair grounds 
were crowded to their utmost capacity. 

It was truly a national gathering, and a fitting occasion for the com- 
mencement of official courtesies between the national societies of England 
and America. In reply to an invitation from President Tilghman, on 
behalf of the United States Agricultural Society, the following letter 
was received from the Hon. Thomas de Gray, Baron Walsingham, 
President of the Royal Agricultural Society of England : 

'''Sm: I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your letter containing an 
invitation to the exhibition of the United States Agricultural Society, 
to take place at Chicago. 

''I regret much that, your letter having only just reached me, the 
great distance will prevent my being present at a meeting in which I 
should feel the greatest interest. 

"I shall report your obliging communication to the council of the 
Royal Agricultural Society of England, and feel certain they will feel, 
as I do personally, much gratified by the honor you have done them 
in inviting their President to your exhibition. 

"I have the honor to be, sir, your obliged and obedient servant, 

''WALSINGHAM, 
^'■President of Royal Agricultural Society of England. 

'^General Tench Tilghman, 

^^ President United States Agricultural Society." 

It is an interesting incident in the history of these two great agricul- 
tural nations, that the present mode of conducting their national fairs 
was commenced almost at the same period, and has been attended with 
results which evince a remarkable degree of coincidence. 

'The Royal Agricultural Society of England, however, had been in 
successful operation for many years, sustained by the wealth and 
enterprise of that powerful and enlightened nation, before it ventured 
upon the experiment of migration in its fairs, which has since been 
found to be so highly beneficial in its results. 

It is still regarded as an undertaking of no ordinary magnitude ; and 
yet the actual extent of their migrations is less than those of the State 
Agricultural Society of New York, whilst the shortest distance between 
the locations of any two consecutive fairs of the United States Agri- 



28 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

cultural Society lias been greater than tlie entire extent of tlie United 
Kingdom of Great Britain. 

Tne principal difficulty encountered in both countries lias been in 
securing the attendance of competent and experienced judges, especially 
in the machine and implement departments. This has been obviated 
in England by the payment of their expenses, and it is hoped that the 
United States Agricultural Society will soon have sufficient capital to 
enable it to adopt a similar course. 

Seven volumes of transactions have been published, containing re- 
ports of the annual meetings, exhibitions, and operations of the society, 
with a general statement of the position of agricultural affairs at the 
metropolis, (including such information as is furnished by the Agri- 
cultural Division, and by the examiner of implements in the Patent 
Office,) and reports of the operations of State boards and societies, 
agricultural colleges, and of all legislative recognition of the predomi- 
nant interest of the country. 

This publication is now issued in four numbers, as the Quarterly 
Journal of Agriculture, and edited by the secretary of the society. 

Avoiding all intrusion upon the legitimate sphere of the various 
agricultural periodicals, it affords an opportunity for those most deeply 
versed in the arcana of nature to discuss those abstruse principles from 
which the most important results are often found to proceed. 

A secretary's office, library, and reading-room have been established 
at Washington city, where the members of the society, and others in- 
terested in agricultural improvement, meet as brothers at a common 
home, and find a collection of objects in which they have a common 
interest. 

Many State and county societies have contributed their published 
transactions, premium lists, the names of their officers, and other in- 
formation, which has been duly registered, and they have received the 
publications of the society in return. 

A majority of the agricultural and numerous other publishers have 
contributed their periodicals and newspapers, and thus aided in form- 
ing a free agricultural library. 

As soon as sufficient means can be obtained, either by endowment, 
appropriation, or otherwise, it is proposed to establish at Washington, 
an experimental farm, where every species of culture, all the products 
of the soil, and the different varieties of domestic animals, may be seen 
by every one who visits the national metropolis. 

The society is supported by fees for membership, and by the pro- 
ceeds of its exhibitions. 

Life-members receive an elegant diploma, all the publications, free 
tickets of admission to all exhibitions, and their share of such seeds 
and cuttings as may be procured for distribution, without any ad- 
ditional assessment or payment beyond the admission fee of ten 
dollars. 

Annual members receive the publications of the society, paying a fee 
of two dollars. 

County or town societies have the privilege of making their presi- 
dent, secretary, or treasurer, ex officio, a life-member, in which case 
the society will receive the publications, &c. 



UNITED STATES AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 29 

The increased interest in the annual meetings and exhibitions of 
the society, and the constant additions to its roll of members, furnish 
evidence of its growing prosperity and usefulness. 

Its prepcnt officers are as follows : 

President — Tench Tilghman, Ox^'ord, Maryland. 

Vice Presidents — N. B. Cloud, Alabama; S. Mo\vrey, Arizona; H. 
A. Dyer, Connecticut; A. W. McKec, Caliibrnia; John Jones, Dela- 
ware ; W. W. Corcoran, District of Columbia ; A. G. Fuller, Dacotah; 
S. R. Mallory, Florida; Puchard Peters, Georgia; D. P. Holloway, 
Indiana ; J. A. Kennicot, Illinois ; Legrand Byington, Iowa ; W. L. 
Underwood, Kentucky ; W. F. M. Arny, Kansas; J. D. B. DeBow, 
Louisiana ; John Brooks, Massachusetts ; N. N. Harrison, Mississippi ; 
A. Kimmcl, Maryland; II. Ledyard, Michigan; E. Holmes, Maine; 
II. M. Rice, Minnesota; J. R. Barrett, Missouri; H. F. French, New 
Hampshire; J. II. Frazee, New York; B. P. Johnston, New York; 
Miguel A. Otero, New Mexico ; W. T. Brown, Nebraska ; H. K. Bur- 
gwyn. North Carolina ; F. G. Cary, Ohio ; Joseph Lane, Oregon ; A. 
Clements, Pennsylvania ; E. Dyer, Rhode Island ; F. W. Alston, 
youth Carolina ; Thomas AtBeck, Texas; D. R. Eckels, Utah ; Fred- 
erick Holbrook, Vermont; W. A. Spence, Virginia; D. S. Curtis, 
Wisconsin ; I. I. Stevens, Washington Territory, 

Executive Committee — T. Tilghman, ex officio, Maryland; Marshall 
P. Wilder, Massachusetts; H. Wa^^er, New York ; J. McGowan, Penn- 
sylvania; Frederick Smyth, New Hampshire; J. W. Ware, Virginia; 
J. Merryman, Maryland; Horace Caprou, Illinois; J. M. Cannon, 
lov/a; B. Perley Poorc, Massachusetts. 

Treasurer — Benjamin B. French, Washington, District of Columbia. 

Secretary — Ben. Perley Poore, Newburyport, Massachusetts. 

During the first five years of the existence oi the socletj'', the vener- 
able George Washington Parke Custis, the vice-president lor Virginia, 
and the last surviving member of the family of Washington, was a 
regular attendant at its annual meetings. 

He had been among the earliest and most steadfast advocates of a 
national agricultural society, having, as early as 1810, published in 
the National Intelligencer, and also in pamphlet form, a jjrojet for a 
national agricultural organization, to be incorporated with the govern- 
ment and attached to a national university. 

He had always been requested by President Wilder to conclude the pro- 
ceedings ; and his valedictory at the fifth annual meeting (the last before 
his death) is replete with sentiments which are worthy of one who was 
so nearly connected with the author of the farewell address. It termi- 
nates with the ibllowing patriotic appeal : 

"The time has come for me to sayfareiueU! And when a man on 
whose head rest the snows of seventy -six winters bids you farewell,, 
the probabilities are that it will be a long farewell. 

''You will now return to your homes, with hearts cheered and hands 
strengthened by this mutual communion, and this brotherhood of 
farmers from all parts of our great country. 

" And as you come up from all portions of the country, from these 
classic grounds where our fathers died, let your hearts be invigorated 
by their patriotism, and your hands labor for the prosperity of the 
country they bought with their bbod. * 



30 . AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

"And now, gentlemen of the United States Agricultural Society, 
farewell! Go back to your liomes, and tell your friends what has been 
done at this meeting for the cause of agriculture, and encourage them 
as you have been encouraged. 

' ' Continue your devotion to this bulwark of our country ; continue 
inviolate our great Constitution ; obey our self-imposed laws ; preserve 
our blessed Union, and our republic will be immortal." 



MTIYE GRAPES OF ARKANSAS AND TEXAS. 



BY n. C. WILLIAMS, OF JEFFERSOISr, CASS COUNTY, TEXAS. 



The Patent Office having decided to ''make a thorough experiment 
with our native grapes," to test their merits for wine and table use, I 
received instructions, dated July 1, 1857, directing me to proceed to 
Arkansas, and explore portions of that State, Texas, and the adjacent 
Indian territory, as far as practicable, to inspect the vines while in 
fruit, and to obtain certain information connected ''with their growth 
and locality, to be employed in carrying out said experiment." After 
making those observations, and at the j^roper time, I was directed to 
collect cuttings of the vines, to be forwarded to such points as might 
be designated in future instructions. 

Accordingly, I left the city of Washington on the 1st of August fol- 
lowing, and proceeded by the most direct route to the Hot Springs, in 
Arkansas^ the first point where the wild grapes are found in such 
abundance as to invite attention. At that place, with so many attrac- 
tions to the naturalist, I spent several days, and made frequent short 
excursions in the mountain ridges and hills of the neighborhood. 
From the foot to the summit of those ridges, some of which are beds 
oinovaculite, or the celebrated Arkansas oil-stone, two varieties of wilds 
grapes are found in .abundance. I was disappointed in one of the 
objects of the mission, that of observing the "fruit on the vines," for 
the frosts of the preceding April had almost entirely destroyed the 
crop, wild and cultivated, throughout the State, A few chance branches 
had escaped, and I found a native vine in the garden of Mr. Fullerton, 
with fruit on it, which enabled me to ascertain the varieties. These 
will be hereafter designated. 

While at the Hot Springs, I learned from Mr. Whittington, a 
resident of the village, that he had some years previously collected a 
quantity of the wild grapes "from the hills," and expressed the juice 
with the view of making vinegar for family use. The following spring, 
finding the wine of such fine quality, he drew ofi" about five gallons 
and set away the vessel containing it in a garret room in his house. 
There it remained undisturbed for two or three years. A guest from 
Little Eock, who had been a dealer in wines, being informed of the 
experiment, requested an examination, and decided that the wine was 
a first-rate claret. 



NATIVE GRAPES OF ARKANSAS AND TEXAS. 31 

Eesiiming my journey, I proceeded to Hempstead county, where I 
learned that the frosts of the preceding spring had heen more severe 
than in any portion of the country I had traveled over. Not only was 
the fruit crop entirely destroyed, but the ornamental trees, in many 
instances, were killed to the ground. The forest trees, especially the 
oaks^ had suffered severely. As it would have served no beneficial 
object to continue explorations, I determined to proceed no further, but 
devote the interval of time, before commencing to take off cuttings, to 
an examination of the portions of the counties of Hempstead and 
Sevier in which the native grapes are found, and to collect such in- 
formation regarding them as the Office desired. Other obstacles pre- 
sented themselves; a long-continued rainy season had set in; the 
streams became impassable ; the mail failed in many of its trips ; and 
nearly all travel was suspended, until the time of the ripening of the 
grapes was over. Beside, I had an attack of chills and fever, which 
were more prevalent then than they had been for many years previous. 

Having waited until the first of November, I set out with a light 
two-horse wagon, in which boxes were placed to contain cuttings, and 
took a northerly direction, expecting that the first frosts of the season 
would be met in the mountains. The 8th of that month there was a 
killing frost, when I was in the Washita cove; and, in a day or two 
after, the vines were in a condition to admit of cuttings being taken. 
As I had anticipated, the roads in the mountainous country were not 
much traveled, and their conditioH was but indifferent. I performed 
most of the journey on foot, and had ample time to select cuttings from 
the vines oh the way-side^ and keep up with the wagon. In this way 
I passed through the counties of Sevier^ Polk, Scott, and Franklin, as 
far as Mulberry river, where high waters prevented further progress. 
The country over which I traveled was generally mountainous, the 
spurs or ridges rising about eight hundred or a thousand feet above the 
plain ; and, in one or two places, the boiling point of water indicated 
an altitude of eighteen hundred feet. This elevation can only be re- 
garded as approximately ascertained. The prevailing rocks of the 
mountain ranges were sand-stones, and the soils resulting from them, 
of course, very silicious. The valleys are generally narrow, washed 
by the rivers and mountain streams. The prairie lands of Franklin 
county seemed to be connected with the sand-stone of the coal forma- 
tion. Bituminous coal, of excellent quality, is mined in many places. 
The timber on the sandy soils is generally post oak, black jack, and 
nutmeg hickory ; and it is worthy of special remark that the most ex- 
tensive grape thickets are always associated with sandy soils wheie 
those trees are abundant. On high lands, termed the black-jack ridges, 
and distant from the settlements, where the woods are seldom burnt, 
the grape vines flourish with greatest luxuriance. Before leaving 
Washington, I had been informed by a gentleman who had resided in 
Arkansas, that I should be certain to find the white grape near Plea- 
sant Hill post office, in Franklin county. Of this grape I could gain 
but little reliable information in the southern part of the State, where 
the citizens are mostly engaged in cotton planting, and scarcely cul- 
tivate fruit of any kind. This variety was first obtained in Scott 
county, where its singular appearance, in contrast with other vines, 



dZ AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

attracted notice ; Init the larger portion was procured on the farm of 
Mr. Bryant, near Mulberry river. 

Finishing the collection at this point, I returned to the town of 
Ozark, recrossed the Arkansas river, and proceeded to the west, to 
reach a point of the Grand Prairie, where I v/as informed that I should 
find the white grape vines in abundance. In this I Avas disappointed. 
After passing Waldron, I took the road which led to the Hot (Springs, 
passing near the town of Mount Ida, in Montgomery county. Through 
the whole distance, the same general features marked the soil and pro- 
ductions which had been observed on the journey to the Arkansas, with 
the difference of occasionally presenting large groves of pine on the sum- 
mit of t!ie hills-, with v/hich the native grapes were closely associated. 

After having made a collection at the Hot Springs, I took the road 
through the Caddo Cove, passing into Pike county, and through it to the 
starting point in Hempstead county, vvhich was reached on the 14th 
day of December, As on the previous part of the route, I continued 
to make collections along the roadside, with a view of procuring all 
the varieties of native grapes. That course only was left open to me, 
as I had been disappointed in seeing the fruit on the vines; and to be 
certain of getting all, I determined to make as extensive explorations 
a.s the season would permit. 

In the collection thus made at random it cannot be pretended that 
any accuracy 'Could be observed in designating varieties by labels. No 
reliable inibrmation could be obtaiaed irora the inhabitants, and the 
most careful observers among them would only say ''in a grape year tho 
fruit could be gathered by the wagon load; that the grapes wei-e the 
best they had ever seen, and were as large as the end of their linger 
or thumb." Therefore, in packing the cuttings I designated the col- 
lection as "Mountain," "Red River," and "Washita," from the 
circumstance that these varieties, growing together, are, nevertheless, 
more numerously multiplied in those localities. When they pro- 
duce fruit they will be easily distinguished, and I propose that the 
names be continued. 

The variety to be called the "Mountain" is found most abundantly 
on the silicious soils of the elevated country; though, in some portions 
of Sevier and Pike counties, it is often met in the light, loose, dry soils 
of the tertiary formation. As we approach Red river it becomes scarce, 
and is apparently superseded by the variety proposed to be called by 
that name. Allied to the species known to botanists as the vitis cesti- 
valls, it is probably a sub-species. The growth is strong and vigorous, 
often short-jointed, with deeply colored bark near the joints. The 
brandies are short, thick, very compact; and the berries as hirge as a 
medium size Catawba, covered with a bloom. The color is black. It 
begins to ripen about the middle of September, but the bunches will 
hang on the vines till winter. The skin is about the thickness of the 
Catawba, and the pulp reddish. In Arkansas, I learn that raisins of 
goo'd qiuillty had been made from it. Witli the amelioration v/hich 
cultivation will doubtless produce, this vv^ill be a valuable grape in 
southern locations. 

Tiie "Red River" is also allied to vitis cesiivalis. In its charac'eris- 
liCiS there is some resemblance to the preceding, but in general the 



NATIVE GRAPES OF ARKANSAS AND TEXAS. 33 

vine is not so vigorous in its growtli;, the bark a paler red and brown, 
and tbe fruit inclining to black, but not so deeply colored. The 
bunches are open, loose, and shouldered; skin thin, pulp reddish 
and more juicy than the "Mountain," Its flavor is sweet and sugary. 
From these grapes Mr, Whittington made the wine before alluded to 

When these varieties grow in shaded positions the extremities of the 
vines do not thoroughly ripen the wood for several joints back from 
the extremities, and the following season the buds on the ripened 
wood vegetate and take the same course as the growth of the former 
year. This condition in the growth for a few years gives the vine a 
bush form; and hence the common expression in Arkansas of the 
"bush grapes," or that the grapes grow on low bushes. The vines 
are, however, runners, where there is anything for them to clamber 
upon ; but they never attain the large growth of the common summer 
grape-vine. 

The "Washita" was occasionally found on the road from the 
Arkansas river to Hempstead county. It was first discovered on the 
Washita river, hence its name. Probably it is a species of fox grape, 
the vitis lohrusca of the botanists. The vine is a vigorous grower, of 
a rusty-brown color, and the wood more soft and spongy than any 
other variety of grape. Having never seen the fruit, I can only give 
such description as I received from various sources, selecting those 
points on which there is no disagreement. All unite in assigning it 
high merit as a juicy, sweet grape, with a foxy aroma. The skin is 
thin, and the berries large. When fully ripe it varies in color, but 
is generally a light brown, or tinged with brown: while growing it is 
remarkably transparent and of a light greenish hue. Its period of 
ripening is earlier than other wild grapes, and so eagerly is it sought 
Dy birds, that it is exhausted before the neighboring planter is aware 
that it is ripe. Hence, it is not unusual to find persons who have 
resided in its midst for many years, yet who have no knowledge of 
its existence. Besides, it grows on the richer soils bordering the 
streams, and is, therefore, more likely to be destroyed as the lands are 
cleared and put under cultivation. Though preferring a rich, deep, 
alluvial soil, it is not a tenant of low, damp grounds. 

Believing this to be a new and superior variety, and one that would 
be an acquisition to the wine-maker, I determined to spare no exertions 
to obtain it. This was the reason of my making such an extensive 
excursion. As far back as the year 1842, which I spent in Arkansas, 
my attention had been called to this variety by the late General Tow- 
son, United States army, though all my efforts to procure cuttings for 
him were unsuccessful. He was of opinion that it was the grape to 
which Colonel Long alludes in his expedition to the Eocky Mountains. 
It is said that the late Mr. Audubon had seen it on the KedKiver, and had 
pronounced it equal to any French variety. While on my excursion, 
I met the late Hon. Shelton Watson, judge of the circuit court, who 
assured me that this grape had been taken to France, and there had 
established a reputation for the highest excellence. In the town of 
Ozark, a very intelligent gentleman, the treasurer of the county^ in- 
formed me that he was from the Khine, was acquainted with the grapes 
grown in the Avine countries, and "he did not believe a finer grape than 
3 A 



34 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

the Wasliita could be found in tlie United States or Europe." Per- 
haps his encomium may appear extravagant, but still his intelligence 
and powers of observation entitle his opinions to high regard. 

I learned that several experiments in making wine had been at- 
tempted in Arkansas. Some years since, a prominent member of a 
temperance society made a barrel of wine, which act being considered 
a breach of its rules, he was cited to trial, convicted, and sentenced to 
make two barrels more the next season. Whether he complied with 
the sentence I am not able to state ; but this much I feel bound to say, 
that if more attention were paid to the cultivation of the grape in Ar- 
kansas, much of its soil, unsuitable for cotton or grain crops, and re- 
garded as comparatively valueless, would be as productive as the best 
cotton lands. So many varieties of fine grapes were not placed there 
by Nature without some beneficent object, and but energy and skill are 
required to bring out that object, and open new avenues to industry 
and wealth. 

The mountainous region is proverbial for its health, the atmosphere 
pure, streams of water abundant, and the scenery, for beauty and sub- 
limity, unrivaled. Sheep raising, where there are so many nutritious 
grasses, affording good grazing nearly the whole year, could be made 
a profitable business, and might be connected with vine culture.. 

In this place it may be proper to mention, that on the streams in the 
lower part of the State, the bottom lands are literally covered with 
muscadine vines, (vitis vulpina.) They vary in quality, and some of 
them, no doubt, would prove as good for wine as the Scuppernong of 
North Carolina. I did not learn that any experiments in wine-making 
from them had ever been made, but as an inducement to the trial, I 
will state that Mr. Longworth informed me that he would purchase, at 
a fair price, as much wine of those grapes as might be sent to him. 
He wished to obtain it to be used in flavoring his Catawba. The de- 
sideratum of American wine grapes, in his opinion, consists in their 
imparting the foxy aroma to the wine, a realization of which I entertain 
the most sanguine hopes in the successful cultivation of the Washita. 

Having laid away the cuttings in sand, to preserve them until the 
collection should be complete, and having rested the team, I again set 
out, on the 30th of December, 1857, with a view of ascending the Bed 
Eiver as far as the Cross Timbers. In the condition of the roads at that 
season it was thought advisable to proceed through the Choctaw Na- 
tion, by Fort Towson, cross the river near the mouth of the Kiamechi, 
take the main road leading through Paris, Bonham, and Kentucky 
Town, and strike the Cross Timbers south of Preston. A great por- 
tion of this journey was through a prairie country, of a rich, black, 
calcareous soil, in which grape-vines are very seldom seen. In the 
pine lands, from the Arkansas line to Wheelock Academy, where the 
prairie is reached, similar grapes to those already collected are found ; 
and likewise, in the red-oak lands, from the ferry on Bed Eiver to the 
town of Paris, there is great abundance of that variety proposed to be 
called "Ked Eiver." On my return by another route, through the 
timbered lands adjoining the prairies, it was of frequent occurrence, 
and very abundant in the Cross Timbers, where the soil is arenacious, 
and the prevailing rock a sandstone, probably belonging to a coal 



NATIVE GRAPES OF ARKANSAS AND TEXAS. 35 

formation subsequent to the carboniferous period. The collection at 
that point was marked for the locality, in hopes that the varieties 
would be established when the cuttings produced fruit. A gentleman 
long resident in the Cross Timbers informed me that three varieties 
were common there. 

Near the Cross Timbers, a Mr. Simcoe politely conducted me to a 
place where I obtained all the cuttings designated as the "Mustang." 
The general appearance of this vine resembles the muscadine, except 
the bark of the old wood inclines to detach itself in strips, like Catawba 
and other vines. It was described to me as a great runner, reaching 
the tops of thetallest trees, and to beaprofuse bearer. In some portions 
of Texas it is multiplied to an extent almost incredible to a person who 
has never visited that State and who knows but little, except by 
report, of its extraordinary natural productions. I hazard nothing in 
saying, that if all the mustang grapes were made into wine, and sold 
at one dollar a gallon, the product would greatly exceed the value of 
a cotton crop. The chief excellence of this grape consists in its quali- 
ties for making wine, as the skin contains such acrid matter that the 
fruit cannot be eaten, without producing painful sensations to the 
inner coats of the mouth, and sometimes swelling. The skin must be 
broken, and the pulp withdrawn, which is said to be exceedingly sweet 
and juicy. 

On my return from the Eio Grande, in March last. Dr. J. H. Lyons, 
of San Antonio, presented me with ten bottles of mustang wine, made 
the previous season from the wild grapes. Those bottles were dis- 
tributed among the friends of native grape culture, by some of whom 
it was pronounced a good claret, wanting only age to bring out its 
qualities. One gentleman, not less distinguished as an agriculturist 
and friend to native vine culture than for his eminent talents and 
public services, remarked, in relation to the bottle sent him, that "the 
mustang wine has had so bad a chance from traveling so far and so 
recently that a proper judgment cannot now be passed on it. I regret 
that I did not let it rest two or three months, which is little time 
enough for it to settle after its travels. It would be pronounced common 
claret, a little pricked, by most persons. I still think, however, that 
I perceive in it the elements of a rich and highly-flavored claret ; but as 
to its delicacy, whether it turns out Pineau or Gamay, no opinion can 
be formed from this bottle, under the circumstances." 

It was not until the 8th of February that I returned from this trip, 
and immediately commenced arrangements for leaving the country 
with the collection. Being delayed in the means of transportation, I 
did not reach New Orleans until the 4th of March, and proceeding up 
the river to Memphis, I then forwarded suits of the cuttings to the 
different points designated in my instructions. 

EL PASO GRAPES, OR GRAPES CULTIVATED ON THE RIO GRANDE. 

The Patent Office having determined to continue the collection of 
American grapes, and wishing to obtain seeds and cuttings of those 
cultivated at Paso del Norte, in the department of Chihuahua, I 
engaged to make the collection in the manner agreed upon, and set 



36 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

forth in instructions, dated July 1, 1858. By those instructions, I 
was directed "to proceed to Santa Fe, in New Mexico, via Indepen- 
dence, Missouri, and explore the valley of the Rio Grande as far below 
El Paso (in Texas) as the grape season would admit." On my arrival 
in the valley of the Rio Grande, I was to "take the requisite steps to 
procure cuttings preparatory to their removal," "noting the character 
of the fruit_, the local names, their period of maturity, the nature of 
the soil," and any "information connected with the climate, which 
would have a bearing on the case." I v\^as also required "to collect 
small quantities of grape seeds, and forward them to the office by 
mail." In case I "met with ripened seeds of any other valuable 
native wild fruits, forest trees, or shrubs, or any important vegetables, 
which could be conveniently collected," I was instructed "to put them 
up in a proper manner, and forward them to the Office." It was stipu- 
lated that this duty should be performed in a "period of nine or ten 
months, commencing the 1st day of July, 1858," and for which I was 
to receive a fixed compensation. 

Having made the necessary preparation for the journey, I left 
Washington city on the 14th day of July, and proceeded directly to 
Independence, Missouri, arriving there in time to secure a passage in 
the mail train, which left on the 19th, for Santa Fe, The journey over 
the plains was accomplished without delay or accident, and I reached 
Santa Fe on the 8th of August. As the grape season did not, as I 
then learned, commence before the last of August, I did not think it 
necessary to proceed to El Paso by the mail stage which left for that 
place on the 11th of August, but remained there until the departure 
of the mail on the 25th, and reached El Paso on the 1st day of Sep- 
tember, 

In the market of Santa Fe I found excellent plums. They resem- 
bled the wild variety known in the southern States as the Chickasaw, 
though more sweet and delicious than southern plums. Apricots, also, 
were in season. In comparison to our improved sorts, they were small 
in size, but in richness of flavor are not surpassed. Seeds of these 
fruits were collected and sent to the Office. So far as I could learn, these 
fruits are grown in a natural way, the art of budding and ingrafting 
being unknown to the natives, or not practised. The trees are chance 
seedlings, or transplanted suckers, and thrive most when in proximity 
to the acequias, or irrigating canals, from which the roots derive a 
constant and regular supply of moisture. I saw no orchard in New 
Mexico, though with irrigation, apples, pears, and peaches could be 
successfully cultivated. I did not see any of those fruits which would 
be considered valuable where our varieties are known. 

Descending the Rio Grande, the vineyards are first seen at Berna- 
lilla. At Albuquerque, I learned that the grape was extensively 
cultivated. I was told that the fruit from cuttings procured in Paso 
d(>,l Norte was of inferior quality, but that another generation of vines 
produced grapes equal to those grown three hundred miles south. 
How far this is to be received as correct, I ha,d no means of ascertain- 
ing, but, as it seems to favor the idea that the habituation of these 
grapes to a northern latitude is gradual and progressive, I deem the 
statement necessary, leaving future experiment to test the principlo. 



NATIVE GRAPES OF ARKANSAS AND TEXAS. 37 

The grapes wliicli I saw in Albuquerque were of sucli excellent qual- 
ity that every inducement is held out to increased cultivation. 

The vine is cultivated in many if not all the villages on the Rio 
Grande, though not so extensively as at Paso del Norte. The vine- 
yards there are scattered through the town, wherever water can he 
procured for irrigation. They are generally small, inclosed by adobe 
walls, and resemble in appearance the inclosures devoted to the growth 
of culinary vegetables in the lesser towns of the United States. Great 
quantities of the fruit are exposed in the market places, and much is 
dried for winter use. 

As yet there are but few vineyards in El Paso valley, on the east- 
ern or Texas side of the river, but the market was abundantly supplied 
from the vineyards in Paso del Norte. There are but two varieties, 
the loldte and the blue, though some of the proprietors of the vineyards 
will say that there avejlve or six classes. Their distinctions, however, 
are founded merely on variations in color, caused by difierent exposures 
to light, and it not unfrequently happens that two or more classes are 
taken from the same vine. 

The white grape was nearly out of season when I arrived at El Paso. 
The bunches are large, loose, and shouldered. The berries are about 
the size of the Catawba ; they have scarcely any pulp, very sweet 
and juicy, with a slight and not unpleasant musky aroma, which is 
imparted to the wine. This is of a pale straw color, slightly acid. 
The vine is vigorous, but does not seem to be hardy. 

The hlue grape, which this year was in season from the 25th of 
August till the 15th of September, is more extensively cultivated in 
Paso del Norte. The bunches are large, loose, and branching, some- 
times weighing three pounds ; and as many as thirty bunches have 
been picked from a single vine. Such a yield is, however, unusual, 
though with better cultivation than is now given the product would 
be augmented. The berries are generally larger than the Catawba 
grapes of our vineyard, thin-skinned, very juicy, and exceedingly 
sweet. The vine is short-jointed, and a strong and vigorous grower. 
When in the vicinity of fruit-trees on which they can climb the vines 
will sometimes grow twenty feet in a season. Such vines are, however, 
not productive, and it is probable that if they were trained on frames 
they would not be so fruitful nor of such fine quality as cultivated by 
the present mode. 

The vineyards of Paso del Norte are planted in rows, five or six feet 
apart each way. Most of the labor of the vineyard is performed with 
the hoe, while the ground is kept loose by frequent irrigations. If the 
ground were to receive stirring once or twice by the plow, it would 
.certainly be attended by beneficial results. It would have a tendency 
to lessen irrigation^ which, in my opinion, is overdone, and, as a con- 
sequence, the energies of the vine are expended in the production of 
wood. The vines are lopped off in a very careless manner, and a stump 
two or three feet high is formed. The bearing branches emerge from 
the buds near the top of the stump ; these are annually cut back to 
three or four buds, every spring ; but it is often done so late in the 
season that the flow of sap kills the spurs, and suckers are thrown out 
from the roots. Early in winter, the branches are drawn together and 



38 AGEICULTURAL REPORT. 

bound ; tlie earth is tlien heaped around the vines with a hoe, in which 
condition they remain till the following spring, when danger from 
frosts is supposed to be past, and the vines are headed back, and the 
earth leveled. It would no doubt be an improvement on the present 
system if the vines were pruned before the winter protection is given 
them, and the spurs covered with earth. Great injury is done by 
straining the vines and rupturing the sap-vessels in the operation of 
gathering up and pruning in the spring. The pruning should always 
be done with hand shears. An impression prevails among the vine- 
yardists that pruning in early winter is prejudicial to the vines. 
Nothing can be more absurd ; for the drying of the end of the vine 
where pruned off would prevent ''bleeding" when the sap is in motion 
the following spring. From this notion being generally entertained, 
I had great difficulty in obtaining cuttings. 

Major Emory, in his able ' ' Keport on the Mexican Boundary Survey, ' ' 
says : 

"Southern California, the whole of the upper valley of the Grila, 
and the upper valley of the Del Norte, as far down as the Presidio del 
Norte, are eminently adapted to the cultivation of the grape. In no 
part of the world does this luscious fruit flourish with greater luxu- 
riance than in these regions, when properly cultivated. Those versed 
in the cultivation of the vine represent that all the conditions of soil, 
humidity, and temperature, are united in these regions, to produce the 
grape in the greatest perfection. The soil, composed of the disinte- 
grated matter of the older rocks and volcanic ashes, is light, porous, 
and rich. The frosts in winter are just sufficiently severe to destroy 
the insects without injuring the plant, and the rain seldom falls in 
the season when the plant is flowering, or when the fruit is coming 
into maturity and liable to rot from exposure to humidity. As a con- 
sequence of this condition of things, the fruit, when ripe, has a thin 
skin, scarcely any pulp, and is devoid of the musky taste usual with 
American grapes." (I differ with Major Emory, it will be seen, in 
regard to the musky aroma of the white or muscatel grape, as it is 
sometimes called. He doubtless refers to the hlue grape, of which most 
of the El Paso wine k made.) 

"The manufacture of wine from this grape is still in a crude state. 
Although wine has been made for upward of a century in El Paso, and 
is a very considerable article of commerce, no one of sufficient intelli- 
gence and capital to do justice to the magnificent fruit of the country 
has yet undertaken its manufacture. As at present made, there is no 
system followed, no ingenuity in mechanical contrivance practised, 
and none of those facilities exist which are usual and necessary in the 
manufacture of wine on a large scale ; indeed, there seems to be no 
great desire beyond that of producing as much alcoholic matter as 
possible. The demand for strong alcoholic drinks has much increased 
with the advent of the Americans ; and in proportion as this demand 
has increased, the wine has decreased in quality. On one occasion, 
I drank wine in El Paso which compared favorably with the richest 
burgundy. The production of this wine must have been purely acci- 
dental, for other wine made of the same grape and grown in the same 
year was scarcely fit to drink." 



NATIVE GRAPES OF ARKANSAS AND TEXAS. 39 

The process of making wine is quite primitive. The great scarcity 
of timber in that country compels a resort to various means to supply 
its place, and none is more likely to arrest attention than that which, 
takes the place of the wine-press. An ox hide is formed into a pouch, 
which is attached to two pieces of timber and laid on two poles sup- 
ported by forks planted in the ground-floor of the room in which the 
vintage takes place. The grapes are gathered in a very careless man- 
ner, and placed in the pouch until it is filled. They are then mashed 
by trampling with the feet. In this condition the mashed fruit, stems, 
and some leaves remain until fermentation takes place, which requires 
from fifteen to twenty days. An incision is made in the lower part 
of the pouch, through which the wine drips ; it is transferred to barrels. 
The wine now has a flat, sourish taste. Should it be desired to make 
sweet wine, grape syrup, made by evaporating fresh juice, is added 
until the wine has the desired sweetness. It is not afterwards fined, 
or racked off, but remains in the cask until used. Perchance a few 
bottles may be filled and set away for particular occasions, but a very 
small quantity remains on hand six months after it is made. The 
scarcity of suitable casks, and the high price of bottles, may be a reason 
of so little old wine being in the country. I was told that the wine 
never underwent a second active fermentation. The room in which 
the wine is made and afterwards kept resembles a cellar, except that 
it is above ground, always dry, and an evenness of temperature pre- 
served by thick adobe walls and a covering of earth. 

For the last several years there has been a falling off in the product 
of the vineyards. The estimate is from two hundred and fifty to three 
hundred gallons to the acre, but with American skill in the manage- 
ment of the vineyards, and American appliances in making wine, the 
product might be more than doubled. The El Paso valley, on the 
Texas side of the Eio Grande^ is about eighty miles long, and has an 
average width of seven or eight miles. This, in my opinion, is the 
Eden of the grape in the United States. The whole of this tract of 
country is adapted to vine culture. In some portions of California 
the same grapes which are cultivated on the Eio Grande may be pro- 
duced in greater quantities to the acre, and the bunches and fruit may 
be larger ; but it should be recollected that the grapes of California are 
cultivated with superior skill, and perhaps the soil of the vineyards in 
that State has not been so long under cultivation as that at Paso del 
Norte. Still, I think, in the quantity of grapes produced, and their 
qualities for wine, the El Paso valley will not, when it has a fair trial, 
be excelled by any district in California. As yet, lands in the valley 
are cheap ; the town of San Elizario, the seat of justice of El Paso 
-county, has a large body of land, which it will part with at a nominal 
price to actual settlers. The village of El Paso, near the upper end 
of the valley, has in a few years become a place of considerable trade. 
That point may now be said to be the key to the trade of Arizona and 
northern Chihuahua. It is the point where the two great overland 
mails have to pass, and is near the place which Nature has marked out 
as the most eligible for a railroad to the Pacific, to cross the Kio 
Grande. 

The soil of the El Paso valley is an alluvial deposit, obviously de- 



40 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

rived from tlie volcanic and older rocks of tlie mountain ranges. It is 
of a brownish color, absorbs water freely, and wlien duly saturated, is 
open and porous. The roots of vegetables penetrate it very easily. 
Beneath the surface there are thin beds, or strata, in which clay 
predominates. These beds contain a substance called ^'salitre," proba- 
bly a mixture of alkaline matters. Salitre is often found on the surface, 
in thin efflorescence, especially in places from which water has subsided. 
The water of the Kio G-rande, no doubt, holds it in solution, more 
especially after the rainy seasons, and as long as it is used for pur- 
poses of irrigation, the alkalies cannot be exhausted from the soil. 
The presence of the alkalies must, doubtless, be very energetic in sup- 
porting the luxuriant vegetation of the valley, as well as the principal 
means of continuing its wonderful fertility without apparent exhaustion. 
It may be proper in this place to remark, that the grape evinces a 
preference for the soils which are inclined to be sandy, and the most 
flourishing vineyards in Paso del Norte are those on the sites where 
the sand has been settled by the winds. The soil is admirably suited 
to the growth of corn, wheat, cotton, and tobacco ; garden vegetables 
are raised in profusion. 

The El Paso valley is remarkable for the production of various kinds 
of fruits. The apple, pear, quince, peach, almond, fig, pomegranate, 
and Persian walnut_, also the apricot and plum, though not extensively 
cultivated, succeed well ; but as the late improved sorts of our gardens 
and orchards have not reached that country, their fruits cannot be 
compared to ours. 'Exceptions can be made only of the grape, the fig, 
and the quince, which in quality are not excelled in the Atlantic States. 
Advantage is taken of the facilities for drying fruits, and immense 
quantities are thus preserved every year. In making pasas, or Mex- 
ican raisins, the largest and best bunches are taken from the vines 
when fully ripe and hung up in the houses. The grape gradually 
shrinks away until it becomes skin and seeds, with a small honied 
consistence surrounding the seeds. Fearing that a quantity of seeds 
which I had purchased might have their vitality injured by the dryness 
of the atmosphere before I could send them to Washington, and believ- 
ing that the honied consistence round the seeds would serve as a pro- 
tection, I purchased about fifty pounds of the dried grapes, and reported 
the fact to the Office. I regret that the letter approving my course, 
and directing a further purchase, did not reach me in time to comply 
with the order to the desired extent, but through the exertion of my 
obliging friend, Mr. Lightner, an American merchant residing in Paso 
del Norte, I obtained an additional ahno and a half. Seiior Don 
Joachin Sabo, of Paso del Norte, presented me with a gallon of seeds, 
and I also sent some of those I had purchased, and am gratified to 
learn that, with all, the success has been most complete, and the crop 
raised in the propagating gardens is worth a far greater sum than was 
expended in introducing them. Of the ultimate success of these grapes, 
especially in the southern States, I have not the least doubt, and I do 
not think experimenters should be discouraged if the first results do 
not equal their expectations. Dr. Lyons, of San Antonio, Texas, 
informed me that he had a vineyard of two hundred and fifty vines of 
the El Paso grapes, which would come int© bearing next or the follow- 



NATIVE GRAPES OP ARKANSAS AND TEXAS. 41 

tng year. From his intelligence and skill, and tlie lively interest he 
takes in grape culture, the friends of "the cause" may look for most 
favorable results. The San Antonio river will afford water for irriga- 
tion, and the flourishing city of that name on its banks will furnish 
every convenience and facility for making and storing wine. The 
country round that city holds out inducements to grape culture, and 
the vine will no doubt succeed well on the Picos and other streams 
between that point and the Kio Grande, where water can be had for 
irrigation. On Devil's river I was told that wild grapes are found 
of such excellence that some persons maintain that they are indentical 
with the El Paso grapes, but that is a mistake, for those grapes are 
of European origin. 

There was no frost last year until about the middle of November, 
and then so slight that the vines were not in a condition for cuttings 
to be taken off until the last of the month. From the objections before 
alluded to, I experienced much difficulty in procuring cuttings, and 
for those obtained I am indebted to the politeness of Seiior Don GJ-uad- 
alupe Mirandi, Seiior de Oranga, and Mr. Lightner. On the 10th of 
January I had the collection packed and ready for conveyance to 
Washington, but was detained till the 8th of February before a train 
passed down to San Antonio. We were thirty days making the jour- 
ney to that place, a distance of six hundred and fifty miles. The 
collection reached New Orleans, and was sent on to Washington the 
28th of March, 1859. The journey was accomplished without loss or 
injury to the collection, except that, in following my instructions to 
pack the collection in barrels made air-tight, I found one barrel of 
cuttings so much injured, on reaching New Orleans, that they had to 
be thrown away. 

I did not explore the country below El Paso during the grape 
season, for the reason that the vine is cultivated to a limited extent 
east of the Eio Grande, and I should not have met with any native 
varieties until reaching Devil's river, by the mail, which then made 
but semi-monthly trips. That place is in an uninhabited part of the 
country, and in the midst of the Apache Indians. Such was then the 
condition of affairs on the border that the government established ad- 
ditional military posts, one of which is in the El Paso valley. I 
collected seeds of the pinon, or Finns edulis, mezquit tree, tornillo, 
sapindus, seeds of several vegetables, and some superior wheat, culti- 
vated by the Pimos Indians, which were forwarded by mail. 



42 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

EEPOET ON THE SACCHARINE CONTENTS OE NA- 
TIVE AMERICAN GRAPES IN RELATION TO WINE- 
MAKING. 



BY CHARLES T. JACKSON, M. D. 



Wine is properly tlie fermented juice of grapes, and contains alco- 
hol, variable proportions of grape sugar, bi-tartrate of potash, and 
some tartrate of lime, with a very little malic and tannic acids, and 
some mucilagenous matters, besides oenanthic acid, and in old times 
oenanthic ether and some volatile oils, derived from the grapes or pro- 
duced by fermentation. 

The tartrates are characteristic of the wines produced from the 
grape, and do not characterize fermented currant, gooseberry, or apple 
juices; citric acid being contained as the chief acid of the currant and 
gooseberry juice, while malic acid is that of the juice of the apple. 
Currant and gooseberry juices, therefore, are not wines, but are similar 
to punch made of lemon juice and alcohol, sweetened. Fermented 
apple juice is not a wine, for it does not contain the tartrates, nor any 
tartaric acid, but does contain malic, acetic, and tannic acids. If we 
intend to produce wine we must resort to the juice of grapes exclu- 
sively, and it therefore becomes important to inquire if the native 
American grapes will produce good wines. The object in the present 
analysis is to ascertain the most important facts bearing upon this sub- 
ject, and although the limited researches, extending only through one 
season, may not fully settle the question, we trust that they may throw 
some light on the subject, and open the way to more extended re- 
searches. 

It was obvious at the outset that we must find out the proportion of 
saccharine or alcohol-producing matter in the American grapes ; for if 
they will not produce alcohol in sufficient proportions to keep the wine 
from souring, we should have to add saccharine matter in some other 
form to make a sound wine If the acids in our grapes are not the 
same as those in foreign wine grapes then the task would be more 
difficult. It was, therefore, desirable to determine this point ; for it 
has been supposed by many that malic, and not tartaric acid was char- 
acteristic of the native American grapes. 

I have, therefore, paid especial attention to the proportions of sac- 
charine matter^ and to the nature of the acids in the grapes submitted 
to me for analysis, and have found that, although many of our grapes 
are too poor in saccharine matter to produce sufficient alcohol for the 
preservation of the wine, without the addition of sugar to form more 
alcohol, or of ready formed spirits, that there are some grapes rich 
enough in saccharine matter to produce, without these additions, ex- 
cellent light wines, similar to those of France. I have ascertained 
that malic acid exists in grape juice, in the proportion of nearly one 
grain to the ounce of grape juice. This acid was found by Mulder in 



SACCHARINE CONTENTS OF AMERICAN GRAPES. 43 

Bordeaux wines, but lie does not state in what proportions, thougli lie 
says it exists in small quantity. 

Tartaric acid and tlie bi-tartrates, have been found to characterize 
all the native American grapes which I have analyzed ; this acid ex- 
isting in rather too large proportions for the saccharine matter in most 
of our grapes. 

Cultivation appears to increase somewhat the proportion of sacchar- 
ine matter, and to diminish that of the tartaric acid ; but we have not 
carried this experiment of cultivation far enough to determine its full 
effects on the character of the grapes. When we reflect on the fact 
that all the wine grapes of Europe are the products of cultivation of 
some very small and not very j^alatable wild grapes of Asia, and when 
we see how various are the kinds of grapes thus produced, we cannot 
fail to perceive that similar experiments with our native grapes may 
reward us with new and valuable varieties not yet known. 

A northern grape transferred to a more genial climate at the south 
will, without doubt, yield a sweeter fruit. This may not be effected 
at once, but will come about gradually. Perhaps we may have to 
resort to seedling vines, and gradually to acclimate the grapes we 
would cultivate. 

The Catawba, Isabella, and Concord grapes are examples of the 
great improvement we can bring about by cultivation of grape vines, for 
all these were native American wild grapes, much inferior to those at 
present cultivated for wine-making and for table use. 

On examination of the tabular statement accompanying this report, 
the reader will see that there are many grapes which promise to repay 
for cultivation. The Henshaw grape will make a good light wine, like 
the French clarets ; and the Amber grape, of Dracut, Massachusetts, 
by cultivation, will doubtless become much sweeter, and will produce 
a highly-flavored wine, with a rich bouquet. 

The Catawba, Isabella, and Scuppernong grapes have already 
proved to be excellent wine grapes, and are extensively cultivated for 
that purpose. The Clinton, Bartlett, Petit Noir, and Hartford Prolific, 
will all make good wines. 

Those grapes which contain less than 15 per cent, of saccharine 
matter, will require sugar or alcoholic spirit to be added to them in 
order to make a wine that will keep. The celebrated Scuppernong 
wine will not keep without the addition of spirit or sugar, since the 
grape juice will not produce more than four and nine-tenths per cent, 
of alcohol. The rich flavor of this grape renders it particularly valu- 
able, the wine having the flavor and bouquet of the celebrated Tokay 
wine of Hungary. This grape, however, cannot be cultivated in the 
open air north of Virginia, and is a native of North Carolina. It is 
desirable that extensive vineyards should be established in that State 
expressly for the cultivation of this grape, which will make a wine that 
will be most eagerly sought for as the best of American native wines. 

The Catawba grape has already acquired a just reputation as a wine 
grape, and is extensively cultivated in Ohio, Kentucky, and the middle 
States. It ripens very late in the latitude of the New England States, 
and is apt to suffer from early frosts. We must, therefore, select some 
more hardy or earlier grape for the northern States. The Concord, 



44 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

Bartlett, Sage, Amber, sugar grape of Plymoutli and Cape Cod, are 
all good grapes for the northern regions. The Clinton, already culti- 
vated, is one of the best of our hardy grapes, and is rich in saccharine 
contents, though this season it has not shown its sweetness to so much 
advantage as usual. 

The grapes of Connecticut have, this year, failed to do justice to 
themselves; but it will be seen, by the analysis of last year's growth, 
that they are generally much richer in saccharine matter than the 
samples of the present season have proved. 

Some object to the peculiar flavor and bouquet of the new wines made 
from native v/ild grapes of the north, and are not aware that the wine, 
by age and proper sulphuring, loses the "foxy" flavor. Mr. E. Paige 
has proved this in his extensive. operations in making wines from our 
native northern grapes. 

The effect of mixing the juices of several different kinds of grapes 
together, before fermentation, has not yet been properly tried; and I 
have no doubt that great improvements in the flavor of the wines may 
be effected by such a method of operating. Within a few years, the 
manufacture of wines from our native grapes has made great pro- 
gress ; and the wines made in Ashburnham, by Messrs. Glasier & Flint, 
and in Boston, by Mr. E. Paige, have acquired a wide-spread reputa- 
tion, and the demand has for some time been beyond the supply. 

Native American wines have not only become common in household 
use, but have taken their place on the communion-tables of our churches, 
to the exclusion of foreign wines ; and the time will come when Amer- 
ica will be able to produce most of the wines her people may need. 
California is, perhaps, the best wine-growing region, but the middle 
and southern States, without doubt, can do nearly as well in this busi- 
ness ; and the north is not so cold that New England cannot produce 
good, wholesome, and fine-flavored wines from native grapes. We 
have yet to learn much in the business of manufacturing wines, and 
this we can learn readily from the wine-makers of Europe, and from 
those who have had some experience in Ohio. As much depends on 
the processes of manufacturing as on the nature of the grapes ope- 
rated with, as is obvious from the numerous varieties of wines made 
from the same kinds of grapes in Europe. This art we have still to 
acquire. 

CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OP THE JUICE OP GRAPES FROM VARIOUS 
LOCALITIES IN THE UNITED STATES. 

No. 1. Henshaw grapes, from Martinsburg, Virginia. Sent to me 
from the United States Patent Office, September 1, 1859. 

One pound of the grapes when pressed yielded 8 fluid ounces of 
rich, dark-purple juice, which weighed 9 ounces avoirdupois. The 
specific gravity of the strained juice was 1.0700. Saccharine matter, 
by Evans's tables, 17 per cent. 

By the copper grape-sugar test, the fluid yields 15.52 per cent, of 
grape sugar, which will make 7.76 per cent, of absolute alcohol. On 
fermenting a portion of the juice and distilling it, I obtained 7.5 per 
cent, of absolute alcohol from the wine. 



"SACCHAEINE CONTENTS OP AMERICAN GRAPES. 45 

The coloring matter and the tartaric acid used were precipitated by 
means of acetate of lead, which, gave a fine blue-colored precipitate. 

The wine, after fermentation, changed from a deep purple to a deep, 
rich red color, and was in appearance and taste much like the red 
wines of Burgundy, in France, but more acid. To diminish the acid 
taste, and to increase the proportion of alcohol, I took a portion of the 
grape juice and added water and sugar, and allowed fermentation to 
take place. It produced an agreeable light wine. 

No. 2. Traminer grapes, No. 18, of Weber's list. Eeceived Sep- 
tember 16, 1859. 

These grapes were obtained in Dorchester, Massachusetts. They 
are of a pale mahogany-red color. I do not think they were fully ripe. 

One pound of these grapes yields 7 fluid ounces of juice, on pressure, 
and the specific gravity of the strained grape juice was 1.0485. This 
will indicate, by the saccharometric tables in Evans's book, nearly 12 
per cent, of saccharine matter. By the copper test, the proportion of 
grape sugar was found to be 11 per cent., which indicates the pei-- 
centage of alcohol would be 5.5 per cent, in the wine. 

In order to ascertain the character of the juices of the hard pulps, 
and of that portion which is contained next to the skins, when the 
pulp is snapped out from the grapes, I took 8 ounces of the grapes, 
and separated the pulp from them, and found the pulps by themselves 
weighed 4^ ounces, and the skins, with what adhered to them, 3| 
ounces. On pressure, the pulps gave 2^ fluid ounces of juice, and the 
skins 2|- fluid ounces. The specific gravity of the juice from the pulps 
was 1.052, and from the skins, 1.046. The juice from the pulps 
yielded 10 per cent, of grape sugar, and that from the skins, 9.5 per 
cent. 

This was an unexpected result, for the juice next the skins tastes 
sweetest. Undoubtedly, there is more tartaric acid in the hard pulp, 
and hence the sour taste of the juice therefrom ; for the tartaric acid 
covers the sweet taste. 

No. 3. Catawba grapes, from the District of Columbia. Eeceived from 
United States Patent Oflice, September 19, 1859. 

These grapes were quite ripe. One pound of the grapes^ on pressure, 
yielded 11 fluid ounces of juice_, which had the specific gravity of 1.0715, 
and, by the tables, this should contain between 17 and 18 per cent, of 
grape sugar. By the copper test, however, the proportion was found 
to be 21.3 per cent. 

The experiment was repeated, and 21.4 per cent, was obtained as the 
largest yield of grape sugar. 

The grape juice was allowed to ferment, and the wine to become clear 
and fine. The acids were then separated and examined, and tartaric 
acid, bi-tartrate of potash, and tartrate of lime were obtained, and 
less than one grain per ounce of malic acid. 

In searching for malic acid, the process recommended by Mulder was 
employed. 

The wine was saturated fully with lime, by simmering it upon an 



46 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

excess of pulverized clialk until all tlie tartaric acid was converted into 
insoluble tartrate of lime, and the malic acid, if present, should be 
converted into the soluble malate of lime. When cold, the solution 
so saturated by the chalk was filtered, and the malate of lime, with a 
large quantity of flocculent mucilage, was thrown down. This precip- 
itate, after being washed with alcohol, was dissolved in water, and 
acetate of lead was added so long as any precipitate fell. This pre- 
cipitate was collected on a filter, washed, and then was removed and 
mingled with water saturated with sulphide of hydrogen, which con- 
verted all the lead into a sulphide of lead, and set free the malic acid. 
This was then filtered, and the solution was evaporated to near dryness, 
and then pure alcohol was added, which took up all the malic acid and ^ 
left the mucilage insoluble. 

This alcoholic solution being evaporated, yielded a small quantity 
of malic acid, which, on 100 cubic centimeters, about 3|- ounces of the 
wine, Avas only 3 grains of dry malic acid. 

The nature of this acid was then proved by experiments on its lime- 
salt, and by nitrate of silver and sub-nitrate of mercury. It responded 
to all these tests as malic acid. 

I am not aware that the proportion of malic acid existing in Euro- 
pean wine grapes has been determined, though Mulder says he found 
a small portion of it in French Bordeaux wines. 

I am satisfied that it is not the characteristic acid of American grapes, 
which yield an abundance of tartrates, like the European wine grapes, 
the wine casks being incrusted with the argals, or cream of tartar. 

So, likewise, our tests indicate that tartaric acid predominates in the 
American, as in the European grapes. 

No. 4. Grapes ^' from Fairfax county, Virginia." Keceived from United 
States Patent Office, September 20, 1859. 

These grapes are a large, red variety. The name of them is not 
known to me. 

One pound of them, on pressure, yielded 10 fluid ounces of juice, 
which had the specific gravity=1.0410, and, by saccharometric tables, 
should yield 10 per cent, of grape sugar. By the copper test, the pro- 
portion obtained was 10.9 per cent. This will give 5.45 per cent, of 
absolute alcohol, which is too little alcohol to preserve the wine, and 
therefore more sugar must be added when the juice is set to ferment, 
or alcohol may be added to the wine Avhen made. 

No. 5. Mahogany-colored grape, vitis labrusca, No. 17 of Weber's list. 
From Gr. W. Clarke, of Maiden, Massachusetts. Eeceived Septem- 
ber 21, 1859. 

This is a large, red grape, quite ripe, and sweet to the taste. 

One pound of the grapes yielded 10| fluid ounces of juice, which 
had specific gravity =iz 1.050, and when boiled and filtel'ed, specific 
gravity of 1.045. By the tables this should give 11 to 12 per cent, of 
saccharine matter. 

By the grape-sugar copper test_, it yields 10.7 per cent, of grape sugar, 



SACCHARINE CONTENTS OP AMERICAN GRAPES. 47 

or 5.35 per cent, of absolute alcohol. This is too small a proportion 
to preserve the wine, without the addition of sugar or spirits. 

Some of the juice fermented made a pleasant-flavored wine, hut it 
soon soured. 

No. 6. Sweet-water grape. A naturalized foreign species_, much used 

as a table grape. 

It was desirable to know if this grape would yield juice of sufficient 
Bweetuess to add to our sourer native grape juice. Mr. Weber there- 
fore obtained from Mr. Newell JEEarding, of Boston, some samples of 
these grapes — No. 19, Weber's list. 

One pound of these grapes yielded 12 fluid ounces of juice, which had 
specific gravity = 1.0525, and should, by the tables, yield nearly 13 
per cent, of saccharine matter. By the grape-sugar test it gave only 
9.53 per cent, of grape sugar. , 

Since, however, there is very little tartaric or any other acid in any 
quantity present, the juice of these grapes may be advantageously 
mingled with that of our sourer varieties ; but still it will be necessary 
to add some pure loaf-sugar or clarified syrup, in order to keep the 
wine sound, and to produce more alcohol by its fermentation, the alcohol 
which the sweet-water grape produces being only 4.76 per cent. 

No. (T. Concord grape. Yitis labrusca, No. 22 Weber's list. 

This is a medium-sized, purple grape, native in Concord woods. 
One pound of the grapes yielded 12 fluid ounces of juice, which had specific 
gravity =r:1.0510_, and, by the tables, should contain 13 per cent, of 
saccharine matter, while by the copper test it yielded 15 |)er cent., and 
will give by fermentation 7| per cent, of alcohol. 

No. 8. A large dark-red grape, from Concord, Massachusetts. Vitis 
labrusca. No 20 of Weber's list. 

One pound of these grapes yielded 10-| fluid ounces of juice, which had 
specific gravity = 1.0570, and, by tables, should contain 14 per cent, 
of saccharine matter. By the grape-sugar test, the juice yielded 11.7 
per cent.^ which would produce 5.85 per cent, of absolute alcohol. 

It will be necessary to add sugar or alcohol to this wine to make it 
keep sweet. 

« 
No. 9. Concord seedling, from Mr. Bull's estate. No. 24 of Weber's 

list. 

This is a purple grape, of medium size, and is an agreeable fruit to 
the taste. It yields 12 fluid ounces of juice per pound of grapes, and 
the juice has specific gravity = 1.0550^ and should, by the tables, con- 
tain 13^ per cent, of grape sugar. By the copper test the yield was 
11.8 per cent., and the alcohol which this will produce is 5.9 per cent. 

No. 10. Second seedling Concord grape, (Bull's,) color purple, size 
medium, taste sweet and good. 

One pound of the grapes yielded 12 fluid ounces of juice, and the 



48 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

specific gavity of wliicli was 1.0550 ; saccTiarine matter, by tables, 13^ ; 
grape sugar, by copper test, 11,8 ; alcoliol the juice will produce by 
fermentation, 5.9 per cent. 

It appears, tlierefore, that tlie second seedling is not in advance of 
tbe first. This may be accidental in this instance, and should not 
discourage the experiments of cultivation of seedling vines. 

No. 11. The Sage grape of Concord — a native of the woods of that 
town. Cultivated by E. W.Emerson. • 

This is the largest sized grape I have seen in liew England, three 
of them weighing an ounce. It is No. 25 of Weber's list. Color^ 
pale-red ; bunches not very much crowded, but heavy. A pound of 
these grapes yielded 11^ ounces of juice, which had specific gravity of 
1.0465, and, by the tables, should contain 11^ per cent, of saccharine 
matter. • 

By the copper test I obtained from the juice 11 per cent., which is 
equivalent to 5.5 per cent, of absolute alcohol. Sugar or spirit must 
be added to this juice when made into wine. 

No. 12. Light-red grape, from Bedford, Massachusetts. Vitis aasti- 
valis. No. 21 of Weber's list. 

A rather tart grape. Juice pale yellowish. One pound of the 
grapes yields 11| fluid ounces of juice^ the specific gravity of which is 
1.053, and the saccharine contents, by tables, 13 per cent. By the 
grape-sugar test, however, only 8.97 per cent, was obtained, equivalent 
to 4.48 per cent, of absolute alcohol. Sugar or spirit is required for 
this wine, and probably both, with water, will be needed, as the juice 
is so strongly acid. It contains much tartaric acid, more than many 
of the other grapes. 

No. 13. Amber grape, Dracut ; No. 26 of Weber's list. 

A light-red grape, with much translucency, very fragrant, bunches 
well shouldered, full, and heavy. This sample was not quite ripe^ and 
I subsequently procured another which was fully ripe. One pound of 
grapes from sample 26 yielded 11 fluid ounces of juice, which had spe- 
cific gravity of 1.0580, and, by tables, should contain 14 per cent, of 
saccharine matter, but yielded to grape-sugar test only 10.97 per cent., 
which is equivalent to 5.48 per cent, absolute alcohol. 

No. 14. Amber grape. KeceivedfromAsa Clenient, of Dracut, October 

5, 1859. 

This lot was fully ripe. These grapes are of medium size and very 
handsome. The variety was found by Mr. Clement in the woods of 
Dracut, and has been cultivated by him several years. 

A pound of these grapes yielded 11 fluid ounces of juice, having a 
specific gravity of 1.0550, and containing, by tables, 14 per cent, of sac- 
charine matter, while by copper test the yield was 13.6 per cent, of 
grape sugar, equivalent to 6.8 per cent, of absolute alcohol. The wine 
made from the juice of these grapes will have to be reinforced by sugar 



SACCHARINE CONTENTS OF AMERICAN GRAPES. 49 

or spirit to make it keep sweet ; probably water will be required to 
reduce tlie acid and sugar to produce more alcobol. The high aroma 
of the grape makes it desirable as a wine grape, since the wine will 
have a peculiar bouquet, quite strongly marked. 

No. 15. Isabella grapes, from A. Harshbarger, near Veytown, Mifflin 
county, Pennsylvania. Keceived from United States Patent Office, 
October 1, 1859. 

These grapes were quite ripe. Color, dark purple ; size, medium; 
bunches well filled. One pound of these grapes yielded, on pressure, 
10^ fluid ounces of the juice, and the juice had specific gravity 1.064, 
from which the tables indicate 16 per cent, of saccharine matter ; but 
the grape-sugar test gives but 14. f per cent, of grape sugar, equal to 
7.03 per cent, of absolute alcohol. 

These grapes will make a light wine, but it will keep if well bottled 
and j)laced in a cold cellar. A little sugar added during the fermen- 
tation will add to its strength. I found about one grain of malic acid 
to an ounce of the grape juice. 

No. 16. Sugar grape, of Plymouth, Massachusetts. A white grape, 
a little above medium size, and in favorable seasons very sweet and 
good. Sample furnished by T. 0. Jackson, of Plymouth. 

One pound of the grapes yields 10 fluid ounces of juice, which has 
specific gravity of 1.040, and by tables should contain 10 per cent, of 
saccharine matter. By the grape-sugar test, 10.33 per cent, of grape 
sugar is indicated, equivalent to 5.16 per cent, of absolute alcohol. 

This grape grows abundantly at Manumet, near Plymouth, at Sand- 
wich, and in many places on and near Cape Cod. It is worthy of atten- 
tion, since the juice of these grapes will make very delicate white 
wine. 

No. IT. Yitis labrusca, Hartford, Connecticut, No. 10 of WeW's 

list. 

A medium-sized grape. One pound of the grapes yielded 10 fluid 
ounces of juice, which had specific gravity 1.036, and, by tables^ should 
contain 9 per cent, of saccharine matter. The grape-sugar test gives 
only 5.73 per cent., equivalent to 2.86 per cent, of alcohol. 

It is probable that the grapes were not quite ripe, for this variety 
generally yields more saccharine matter than found at this time. The 
matters which would have formed grape sugar, if the grape was 
ripened, served to augment the density of the juice, and hence the dis- 
agreement between the tabular estimate and the actual result of 
analysis. 

No. 18. A large white grape, from near Hartford, Connecticut_, No. 5 

of Weber's list. 

One pound of the grapes yielded 10^ fluid ounces of juice, having a 
specific gravity of 1.030, from which the tables indicate 7^ per cent. 
4 A 



60 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

of saccliarine matter, and the copper test gives but 4.8 per cent., equiv- 
alent to 2.4 per cent, of absolute alcobol. 

The remarks on No. 17 also apply to this example. The season 
appears to have affected the Connecticut grapes more unfavorably than 
it did those of Massachusetts. 

No. 19. Vitis cordifolia, No. 11 of Weber's list. Near Hartford, Con- 
necticut. 

This is a medium-sized grape. One pound of the grapes yields 10| 
fluid ounces of juice, and its specific gravity is 1.036; from which the 
tables indicate 9 per cent, of saccharine matter. The copper test gives 
but 6.2 per cent, of grape sugar. The grapes could not have been 
ripe. 

No. 20. Vitis cordifolia, No. 8 of Weber's list, Connecticut. 

Size of the grapes, medium ; quantity of juice per pound, 10^ fluid 
ounces; specific gravity of the juice, 1.036; saccharine matter, by 
tables, 9 per cent., and copper test, 6.2 per cent. These grapes could 
not have been ripe. 

No. 21. Vitis cordifolia. No. 7 Weber's list. 

These grapes were of medium size. A pound of them yielded 10| 
fluid ounces of juice, which had specific gravity 1.044, and the saccha- 
rine contents, by tables, would be 11 per cent.; while the grape-sugar 
test gave 8.7 per cent., equivalent to 4.35 of absolute alcohol. 

No. 22. Vitis cordifolia. No. 27 Weber's list. 

Small black grapes, in closely-packed bunches. One pound of them 
yielded 10| fluid ounces of juice, of specific gravity 1.035; from which, 
by tables, the saccharine matter would be 9 per cent., but the copper 
test gives but 4.7 per cent. 

No. 23. Scuppernong grapes, from near Wilmington, North Carolina. 

These grapes are more remarkable for the high flavor of the wines 
they make than for the saccharine matter they contain. It has always 
been necessary to add a portion of brandy or some other spirit to keep 
the wine from souring ; nevertheless, the Scuppernong wine is the best 
thus far produced in the United States, 

The grapes have a very thick, leathery skin, which is of a green color, 
with a few rusty specks on the surface of them. 

The pulp is soft and juicy, and the skins give a j)eculiar aroma to 
the wine, which is similar to the Tokay of Hungary. Sometimes 1 
have observed a peculiar bitter taste in the wine, due to the crushed 
seeds of the grape, and not unfrequently the flavor and odor of whisky 
indicate the introduction of that liquor into the wine. With proper 
attention and care, Scuppernong wine may be made so fine as to excel 
all other wines made on this continent ; and I would earnestly advise 
those interested to attend to the cultivation of this grape, in regions 



SACCHARINE CONTENTS OF AMERICAN GRAPES. 51 

where the vine will grow, and make use of more skill in the manufac- 
ture of the wine. 

The grape will grow and ripen its fruit anywhere south of Washing- 
ton, but has thus far proved more prolific in the soil of North Carolina, 
especially near Halifax. 

The sample of grapes I operated upon was sent to me from the 
United States Patent Office on the 3d October, 1859. 

One pound of the grapes when pressed yielded 8 fluid ounces of juice, 
which had a specific gravity 1.048, and, by tables, should contain 12 
per cent, of saccharine matter, but, by the grape-sugar test, yielded 
9.8 per cent., equivalent to 4.9 per cent, of absolute alcohol. 

If 4 or 5 per cent, of sugar is added during the fermentation of the 
juice, the proportion of alcohol will be raised to that of sherry wine, if 
the fermentation is allowed to become complete. Only the purest white 
sugar, sugar candy, or refined syrup should be employed. 

Another method will give a still richer wine. Distil a portion of 
the wane, and add the spirit obtained to the wine when it is made and 
fined. This will keep up the flavor of the Scuppernong grapes, and 
not vitiate the wine by any foreign flavors, such as are given by brandy 
and whisky so often put into this wine. 

The Scuppernong grape-vines are, as I learn, cultivated on trellises 
or arbors raised to some height above the ground, as is practised in 
Ischia and Venitian Lombardy. 

Thus far the vineyards are wholly domestic institutions in North 
Carolina ; but I think the cultivation of this grape will amply repay 
any one who will devote his entire energies to planting vineyards of 
this vine, and in manufacturing the wine on a large scale. 

No. 24. Hartford Prolific, No. 31 of Weber's list. Connecticut. 

Small black grapes. A pound of them yields 10^ fluid ounces of 
juice, which has specific gravity of 1.056, and, by the tables, should 
contain 14 per cent, of saccharine matter. 

By the grape-sugar test, the yield is 13.8 per cent, grape sugar, 
or 6.9 per cent, of absolute alcohol. 

On searching for the acids, I found tartaric was the chief acid, and 
it is in part combined with potash as a bi-tartrate, and with lime as 
a tartrate. Malic acid, in minute proportion, is also present, but 
there is not more than 1 grain in 1 fluid ounce of the juice of the 
grapes. 

This is a well-known and good wine grape, and was evidently ripe 
at the time I received the sample. 

No. 25. Vitis labrusca. No. 6 of Weber's list. From near Hartford, 

Connecticut. 

This grape yields in one pound 11 fluid ounces of juice, having the 
S'pecific gravity 1.038, and, by the tables, should contain 10 per cent, 
of saccharine matter. 

By the grape-sugar test, the proportion was 8.2 per cent., and the 
alcohol it will produce is 4.05 per cent. 



52 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

'Mo. 26. A small black, hard, and sour grape. No. 28 of Weber's 

list. Connecticut. 

This grape yields in one pound 6| fluid ounces of juice, which has 
specific gravity 1.032, which indicates, by tables, 8 per cent, of sac- 
charine matter, while by the copper test we obtained but 5.5 per 
cent, of grape sugar, equal to 2.'7 per cent, alcohol. 

No. 27. A large red grape, No. 29 Weber's list. 

A pound of these grapes yield 10^ fluid ounces of juice, which has 
specific gravity of 1.035, and, by tables, contains 9 per cent, of saccha- 
rine matter, while by grape-sugar test the proportion is only 6.16 per 
cent., which will give 3.8 per cent, of absolute alcohol in the 
wine. 

No. 28. Large white grapes. No. 30 Weber's list. 

A pound of these grapes yields 10| fluid ounces of juice, which has 
a density of 1.036, and, by tables, should contain 9 per cent, of saccha- 
rine matter, while by the grape-sugar test it is 5.38 and the alcohol 
2.69 per cent, in the wine. 

No. 29. Black grapes, medium size, vitis cordifolia. No. 32 of We- 
ber's list. 

A pound of these grapes yields 7 fluid ounces of juice, which has a 
specific gravity of 1.047, and, by the tables, 11^ per cent, of saccha- 
rine matter. 

By the grape-sugar test, it contains 7.84 percent., or 3.92 per .cent. 
of alcohol. 

No. 30. Large red grapes, vitis labrusca. No. 33 of Weber's list. 

One pound of the grapes yields 10 fluid ounces of juice, which has 
the density of 1.051, and by the tables contains 13 per cent, of sac- 
charine matter, and by grape-sugar test, 13.3 per cent., while the 
alcohol will be 6.6 per cent. 

This is a good wine grape, and was thoroughly ripe. 

No. 32. Vitis sinuata, No. 35 of Weber's list. 

These are very small black grapes, not much larger than ordinary 
cherries. The bunches are closely packed, well shouldered, and heavy. 

A pound of these grapes yields 8 fluid ounces of juice, which has a 
density of 1.061, from which we estimate, by the tables, 15 per cent, 
of saccharine matter, while by the grape-sugar test the proportion 
found was 11.5 per cent., which represents in the wine 5.7 per cent, of 
absolute alcohol. 

This grape will make a good wine. 

No. 33. Dark-red grapes, vitis labrusca. No 36 of Weber's list. 

A pound of these grapes yields 10 fluid ounces of juice, and the den- 
sity of the juice is 1.042, whence the tables indicate 10| per cent, of 



SACCHARINE CONTENTS OF AMERICAN GRAPES. 53 

saccliarine matter, while tlie copper test gives 14.3 per cent., from 
whicli tlie alcoliol computed will be 7.15 per cent. This is a 
good wine grape. 

No. 34. Catawba grapes, grown at East Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

These grapes, which ripened November 21, were among the last of 
the season, and it was a matter of some interest to know what they 
would produce. 

A pound of them yielded 11| fluid ounces of juice, which had a 
density of 1.063, and, by the tables, should yield 15 per cent, of 
saccharine matter. By the grape-sugar test, the yield was 16.9 per 
cent, of grape sugar, equivalent to 8.45 absolute alcohol. 

It appears, then, that this grape will make a good wine as far north 
as Massachusetts. It is, however, very late in ripening here. 

No. 35. Adelia, or Petit Noir. 

A small black grape, raised in Orange county. New Jersey. It is a 
native American, though named in its synonym in French. 

The sample was sent to me from the United States Patent Office, 
October 13, 1859. 

This grape yields in one pound 10^ fluid ounces of juice, which has 
the density of 1.061, and by the table its saccharine matter would 
amount to 14^ per cent., while by the grape-sugar test it is 15.33 
percent., representing 7.66 per cent, of alcohol in the wine. It is a 
good grape, as proved by trial. 

No. 36. Bartlett grape. 

This grape was discovered in Lexington woods, by the late Elias 
Phinney, and is a large white grape, with one side light-red, which is 
that exposed to sunshine. 

The sample was furnished to me by F. Alger, of South Boston. 

A pound of these grapes yielded lli fluid ounces of juice, and its 
specific gravity was 1.0680. By the tables, the saccharine matter 
would be 17 per cent., while by the copper test the sugar was 12.87 
per cent., representing 6.44 per cent, of alcohol. 

No. 37. Clinton grapes, East Cambridge, furnished by Mr. Brackett 

October 29, 1859. 

These grapes are of a very dark-purple, and are of medium size. A 
pound of them produced 11 fluid ounces of juice, which had the density 
of 1.088, which, by tables, indicates 22 per cent, of saccharine matter, 
while the grape-sugar test gives 20.5 per cent., equivalent to 10.25 
per cent, of absolute alcohol. 

This is an excellent wine grape and needs no more sugar to make 
a good light-red wine. 

No. 38. Last year I had occasion to make an analysis of some of the 
wild grapes of Connecticut, used in Boston for making wine, and since 



54 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

the season was more favoraMe tlian tlie past I add this analysis to 
do the Connecticut grapes more justice than they have done themselves 
generally this year. 

Yitis labrusca. Medium-size purple grapes. Sample furnished by 
E. Paige, of Boston, in 1858. 

A pound of the grapes yielded 10 fluid ounces of juice, which had 
the density of 1.052 and, by tables, should contain 13 percent, saccharine 
matter. By the grape-sugar test the proportion was found to be 1*7.8 
per cent., and the alcohol 8.9 per cent. 

This I believe will be the average in good seasons. The past sum- 
mer and the autumn especially has been unusually cold in the New 
England States. 

I have given a tabular resume of the principal facts discovered by 
the foregoing analysis, which will present to the eye a ready means of 
comparison of the products of the different grapes, so far as their wine- 
making properties are concerned. 

CHARLES T. JACKSON, M. D. 

Boston, December 24, 1859. 



SACCHARINE CONTENTS OF AMERICAN GRAPES. 



55 



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AMERICAN GRAPES. 57 



EEPOET ON AMERICAN GMPES. 

DETERMINATION OP THE PROPORTIONS OF ACIDS IN NATIVE AMERICAN 
GRAPE WINES MADE FROM THE PURE JUICE OF THE GRAPES. 



BY CHARLES T. JACKSON, M. D. 



In this examination I employed graduated solution of pure caustic 
soda, in distilled water^ and prepared it so that every degree of the 
acidimeter corresponded to one tenth of a grain of pure tartaric acid. 
This test gives results sufficiently exact, though a little of the acid in 
the wines is malic acid, as I had previously ascertained. 

In applying this test, any acetic acid which had formed in the wine 
during the process of fermentation was first removed by evaporating 
the wine until it was all volatilized, the acetic acid passing oif in 
vapor, while all the tartaric and malic acid remained. One thousand 
grains of each of the wines was operated wpon in determining their 
acidity. In the tabular resume the results will be stated in per cent- 
ages, as the other ingredients have been. 

It may be observed that pure grape juice, merely fermented and not 
diluted with any water, has been the subject of these experiments. In 
making wines from American grapes, it is customary to add a certain 
proportion of water and of sugar to the grape juice, to overcome the 
acids, and to make the wines more agreeable. As the sugar is con- 
verted into alcohol, it gradually precipitates a portion of the tartaric 
acid as bi-tartrate of potassa, or cream of tartar, thus relieving the 
wine of part of its acidity. 

No. 1. The juice of the Henshaw grapes, from Martinsburg, Vir- 
ginia, yielded, in 1,000 grains, 11.4 of tartaric acid, or 1.14 per cent. 

No. 3. The Catawba grape juice, Washington, D. C, yielded, in 
1,000 grains, 10 grains of tartaric acid, or 1 per cent. 

No. 6. Sweet-water grape, Harding's, tartaric acid in 1,000 grains, 
6 grains, or 0.6 per cent. 

No. 7. Vitis labrusca. No. 20 of Weber's list, from Concord, Mas- 
sachusetts, yielded, in 1,000 grains of the fermented juice, 14.2 grains, 
or 1.42 per cent. 

No. 9. Concord seedling. Bull's, Concord Massachusetts, No. 24 of 
Weber's list, yielded, in 1,000 grains of the fermented juice, 6 grains 
of tartaric acid, or 0.6 per cent. 

No. 11. Sage grape, of Concord, Massachusetts, No. 25 of Weber, 
yielded, in 1,000 grains of the fermented juice, 11 grains of tartaric 
acid, or 1.1 per cent. 

No. 12. Vitis gestivalis, from Bedford, Massachusetts, No. 21 Weber, 
yielded 14.6 grains of tartaric acid per 1,000 grains of the wine, or 
1.46 per cent. 

No. 13. Amber grape, of Dracut, Asa Clements, yielded, in 1,000 
grains of the wine, 15 grains of tartaric acid_, or 1.5 per cent. 



68 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

No. 16. Sugar grape, of Plymouth, Massachusetts, yielded, in 1,000 
grains of the wine, 14,8 grains of tartaric acid, or 1.48 per cent. 

No. 17. Vitis labrusca, Connecticut, No. 10 Weber, yielded, in 
1,000 grains of the wine, 7.2 grains of tartaric acid, or 0.72 per cent. 

No. 18. White grape, from Connecticut, No. 5 of Weber, yielded, 
in 1,000 grains, 12 grains of tartaric acid, or 1.2 per cent. 

No. 19. Vitis cordifolia, Connecticut, No. 11 Weber, yielded, in 
1,000 grains of the wine, 14 grains of tartaric acid, or 1.4 per cent. 

No. 20. Vitis cordifolia. No. 8 of Weber's list, yielded, in 1,000 
grains of the wine, 13 grains of tartaric acid, or 1.3 per cent. 

No. 21. Vitis cordifolia, Connecticut, No. 7 of WelDer'slist, yielded, 
in 1,000 grains- of the wine, 15 grains of tartaric acid, or 1.5 per cent. 

No. 22. Vitis cordifolia, No. 27 of Weber, Connecticut, yielded, 
per 1,000 grains of the wine, 18 grains of tartaric acid, or 1.8 per cent. 

No. 23. Scuppernong grapes, from near Wilmington, North Caro- 
lina, yielded, in 1,000 grains of the wine, 17 grains of tartaric acid, 
or 1.7 per cent. 

No. 25. Vitis labrusca, Hartford, Connecticut, No. 6 of Weber, 
yielded, in 1,000 grains of the wine, 13.8 grains of tartaric acid, or 
1.38 per cent. 

No. 26. Small black grape. No. 29 of Weber's list, yielded, per 
1,000 grains of the wine, 12.4 grains of tartaric acid, or 1.24 percent. 

No. 27. Large red grape. No. 29 of Weber's list, yielded in 1,000 
grains of the wine, 9.2 grains of tartaric acid, or 0.92 per cent. 

No. 28. Large white grape. No. 30 of Weber's list, yielded per 1,000 
grains of the wine, 14 grains of tartaric acid, or 1.4 per cent. 

No. 29. Vitis cordifolia. No. 32 of Weber's list, yielded per 1,000 
grains of the wine, 12 grains of tartaric acid, or 1.2 per cent. 

No. 30. Vitis labrusca. No. 33 of Weber, yielded per 1,000 grains 
of the wine, 11.8 grains of tartaric acid, or 1.18 per cent. 

No. 31. Vitis cordifolia. No 34 of Weber's list, yielded per 1,000 
grains of the wine, 14.4 grains of tartaric acid, or 1.44 per cent. 

No. 32. Vitis sinuata. No. 35 of Weber, yielded per 1,000 grains 
of the wine, 20 grains of tartaric acid, or 2 j)er cent. 

No. 33. Vitis labrusca, No. 36 of Weber, yielded per 1,000 grains 
of the wine, 15 grains of tartaric acid, or 1.5 per cent. 

No. 34. Catawba grape, from near Boston, Massachusetts. This 
wine gave per 1,000 grains of the juice, 14 grains of tartaric acid, or 
1.4 per cent. 

No. 35. Adelia, or Petit Noir, Oi'ange county, New Jersey, yielded 
per 1,000 grains of the wine, 8 grains. of tartaric acid, or 0.8 per cent. 

No. 36. Bartlett grape. South Boston, Massachusetts. The wine of 
these grapes yielded, per 1,000 grains, 19 grains of tartaric acid, or 
1.9 per cent. 

No. 37. Clinton grape. East Cambridge, Massachusetts. The wine 
of this grape yielded, per 1,000 grains, 19 grains of tartaric acid, or 
1.9 per cent. 

The other wines were used up in other researches, before I was aware 
that it was desired that I should determine the acidity of the speci- 
mens. 

It is probable, however, that there are here given a sufficient number 



AMERICAN GRAPES. 



59 



of examples of our native grapes, including all tlie species, to settle tlie 
question as to the proportion of acids in tliem. 

It will be remarked that, while the proportion of sugar is not in- 
creased in grapes by cultivation, the tartaric acid is diminished in a 
remarkable manner. 

Tabular statement of proportion of tartaric acid per cent. 



Per cent, tartaric acid. 



Number 1 1.14 

3 1 

6 0.6 

7 1.42 

9 0.6 

11 1.1 

12 1.46 

13 1.5 

16 1.48 

17 0.72 

18 1.2 

19 1.4 

20 1.3 

21 1.5 

22 1.8 



Per cent, tartaric acid. 



Number 23 1.7 

25 1.38 

26 1.24 

27 0.92 

28 1.40 

29 1.20 

30 1.18 

31 1.44 

32 2 

33 1.5 

34 1.4 

35 0.8 

36 1.9 

37 1.9 



ON THE PEESENCE OE TAHTAEIC ACID IN THE CUL- 
TIVATED GEAPE OP THE UNITED STATES. 



BY THOMAS ANTISELL, M. D., PROFESSOR OP CHEMISTRY IN THE MEDICAL 
DEPARTMENT OF GEORGETOWN COLLEGE, D. C. 



The assertion has been frequently made in publications in this coun- 
try, that the growth of grape-vines for the manufacture of wine is a 
project of doubtful success, since in the United States the grape does 
not form tartaric acid in the same large proportion in which it is found 
to exist in the European plant, its place being supplied by the vegetable 
acids, which alter the flavor and value of the wine produced. 

Inasmuch as the cultivation of the grape is now prosecuted with 
success in the Ohio valley, and extending over a large section of coun- 
try, and since the climate and soil of the United States are eminently 
favorable to the growth and propagation of the vine, as shown by the 
abundant woody development, it becomes a matter of importance to 
know whether the juice of the fruit grown in the United States differs 
in any important particular as regards the nature or amount of acid 
from that of European grapes. 

For the successful manufacture of wine the presence of tartaric acid 
is all essential; for, by its tendency to unite with the jDotass, also 
present in the pulp, and to form the acid tartrate of potass (cream of 
tartar) — a salt Soluble in the pulp of the grape, but not soluble when, 



60 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

by fermentation, alcoliol is formed in the juice, and wMcli is therefore 
thrown down and separated from the wine forming the "tartar" — 
depends the superiority and greater healthfulness of true wine over the 
fermented liquors of other pulpy fruits, whether indigenous or exotic. 

In the pulpy fruits used in the manufacture of domestic wines the 
acids present are chiefly malic and citric, which form with potash salts 
soluble not only in the fresh juice but also in the fermented wine. 
They are consequently not thrown down or separated out of the wine 
as alcoholization goes on in the fermenting vats, and their presence in 
the wine renders the latter unhealthy, it being liable to become acid 
in the stomach, and to produce derangement of function in that organ. 
Hence, the real superiority of the wine of the grape above the fermented 
juices of other fruits depends not upon fancy, nor an uneducated taste, 
but upon the production of an alcoholic liquid not containing within it 
substances injurious to digestion. 

Tartaric acid is as essential as sugar in the manufacture of wine ; in 
dry wines the tartar predominates much more than in sweet, in which 
sugar is the dominant element. This acid diminishes as the fruit 
approaches ripeness ; and it is also diminished in grapes grown where 
the climate is hot and dry in the season when the fruit is ripening. In 
the south of Europe, when, in the autumn, the African winds blow 
northward, when the grape is ripening, those portions of the Mediter- 
ranean shores exposed to a hot and dry wind do not produce dry wines, 
but wines that are always sweet, because the proportion of sugar and 
tartar are out of relation with each other. Thus the rich, sweet grape 
of Malaga has but little tartaric acid, and a sweet wine is the result, 
while the wine of Burgundy has more tartar and less sugar, and 
produces a more acid wine. 

To determine the presence and proportion of tartaric acid, I selected 
the Catawba grape as that most abundantly grown for wine purposes^ 
and, by the kindness of Mr. Michael Work, of Greene county, Ohio, 
who placed at my service several pounds of ripe grapes, and a sample 
of the tartar produced, I have been enabled to furnish the following 
results : 

Six pounds of grapes, pressed, yielded 56 ounces of a literally clear, 
colorless juice of specific gravity 1.074. This juice was diluted with 
an equal amount of distilled water, and the mixed liquid passed through 
a fine strainer to separate the cellulose and albuminous matters not 
dissolved ; solution of chloride of calcium with ammonia was added so 
long as a precipitate was produced, allowing the liquor to rest between 
the additions ; the precipitate was then dissolved in hydrochloric acid, 
and ammonia added. The precipitate was then collected and dried at 
a gentle heat, and weighed against a tared filter. By this process the 
malic acid present is avoided, and the precipitate obtained is either 
wholly tartrate of lime, or, if not containing any racemic acid present 
in the juice, forming a racemate of lime. As racemic acid is only a 
modified form of tartaric acid, and as it is not known to act in any 
way difierently in wines from its congener, it was not deemed necessary 
to separate them in this examination. 

The amount of tartrate of lime attained from six pounds of grapes, 
or from 4f pints of juice, was 4yVo- grammes, (nearly 67 grains,) which 



AMERICAN GRAPES. 61 

represents SOj^-g-V grains of acid_, tartrate of potash., originally existing 
in tlie juice. 

This would give the quantity of cream of tartar present in each ounce 
of juice as nearly one grain, admitting the whole of the tartaric acid 
to be combined with potassa, but as there is always some tartrate of 
lime present in the juice, the amount of cream of tartar is slightly les- 
sened. 

The quantity of sugar determined by Fehling's modification of the 
copper grape-sugar test was 19.6 per cent. 

As the grapes examined had ripened very much in the interval 
between the gathering and the examination, the above proportion of 
tartrate of potass is probably somewhat less than existed in the fruit. 
The presence of that amount shows satisfactorily, however, that tar- 
taric acid is the dominating acid in the Catawba grape, and that is 
produced abundantly in the latitude of Cincinnati. 

The sample of crude tartar forwarded by Mr. Work yielded, on 
qualitative analysis, acid tartrate of potass, tartrate of lime, sulphate 
of potass, sulphate of lime, phosphate ammonia, and magnesia. The 
two last-mentioned salts were present in but small amount. 

Mr. Payen, having stated in his work on distillation that the 
cellular tissue of the pulp contained "tannin," led to a repeated ex- 
amination of the juice of the pulp ; and in every case where common 
care was taken that the skins should not be pressed, so that any of its 
liquids might become mingled with those of the pulp, not a trace of 
tannic acid could be detected, thus verifying Mulder's statement that 
this acid is wholly confined to the skins. 



THE NATIVE GMPES OF PENNSYLVANIA, NEW 
JEESEY, NEW YORK, AND NEW ENGLAND. 

THEIR WINE-PRODUCING Q-UALITIES. 



BY JOHN F. WEBER, OF WASHINGTON, D. C. 



My examination of native grapes began at Orange and the surround- 
ing country, in New Jersey. Some varieties^ which I had noticed 
several years before, first attracted my attention. I found them still 
vigorous in their natural growth, and capable of improvement. Fol- 
lowing a northern direction, I traversed the greater part of the State 
of Connecticut, meeting, in the township of Canton, with valuable 
kinds, free from insects. In western Massachusetts, especially in East 
Hampton, Northampton, Florence, and Leeds, I observed a few 
varieties well worthy of attention, exhibiting, with regard to the for- 
mation of wood and fruit, all the qualities sought in good wine. Such 
was also the case south and north of Boston. I selected samples of the 
matured fruit of all those probably most capable of improvement, and 
transmitted them to Dr. Jackson, of Boston, for chemical analysis. 

The value of grapes, either for wine-making or table use, being de- 



62 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

termined by tlie amount of saccliarine matter contained, it is important 
to know to what species a promising new variety may belong. 

From the great difference existing between a table grape and a wine 
grape, it becomes necessary that, wherever the manufacture of wine is 
the object, the former should be altogether ignored, its sweet, yet 
watery, juice producing but a weak wine. 

Though the wine grape has also,, and should have, a sweet taste, it 
is a different one from that of the table grape, as it is vinous instead 
of watery, and piquant instead of fiat, attributable to the amount of 
sugar and acids being well proportioned. 

Actuated by this fundamental view, I designated the following 
varieties for chemical analysis, desiring to improve them thoroughly 
and systematically : 

No. 1. Vitis vinifera. — A grape extensively grown in the vicinity of 
Paris, for the market and wine-making; introduced eight years ago, 
and cultivated with entire success, by John Charles Savalle, near 
Orange3 New Jersey. It seems to be perfectly acclimatized. Its char- 
acter and habitus consist in the following points : a healthy, vigorous 
growth; short-jointed light-brown wood; medium sized, roundish 
leaves, of dark-green color and a bluish tinge, a fine down on the 
upper part, soft and fine nerves ; bunches and berries medium sized, 
well set, compact, and well shouldered ; of a fine dark-blue color ; 
ripens toward the end of September, and, according to the statement of 
Mr. Savalle, a fortnight earlier than in Paris. It is a regular bearer, 
and in every respect a first class grape-vine. The soil where it grows 
is not favorable to its full development, being sandy and wet, yet por- 
ous enough to prevent water from stagnating. A location on the south 
side of a house would be more suitable. Mr. Savalle takes down this 
vine every winter, wraps it in straw, lays it flat on the ground, and 
covers it with a board, on which are placed stones of sufficient weight 
to keep it in that position. 

This is the whole secret of success with foreign grapes. Tender and 
highly improved as they are, they cannot bear our severe winter. In 
central Germany, northern France, and the greater part of Hungary^ 
the custom is to lay down the grape-vines before the winter sets in, 
and protect them from the attacks of high winds and piercing cold, 
otherwise they would there be winter-killed as well as here. 

No. 2. Vitislabrusca. — A blue wild native grape-vine, found in the 
woods near Haydenville, Hampshire county, Massachusetts, and trans- 
planted on the south side of his dwelling-house, by James K. Salomon, 
of Leeds, near Florence, Massachusetts. Its habitus resembles much 
that of the Isabella. The wood is, however, of a darker shade, short- 
jointed, and of healthy growth; leaves rather large, heart-shaped, and 
of a light-green color, downy on the lower part; bunches contain from 
ten to twenty-five berries, large and oval shaped ; thin skin and juicy, 
sweet pulp ; ripens about the 15th of September ; a good regular bearer. 
The soil in which it grows is a sandy loam, rather wet, the situation 
open to the east and south, but well protected from north and west 
winds by a chain of mountains. This vine would improve by propa- 
gation, and may be rendered a desirable table and market grape, prof- 
itable to its cultivator. 



AMERICAN GRAPES. 63 

No. 3. Vitis lahrusca. — A blue wild native grape-vine, probably a 
seedling of an old vine standing near by; very prolific and luxuriant 
growth ; stands at the foot of a hill, well protected from the north and 
west, but open to the east and south ; in a wet, sandy soil, on the farm 
of Solomon Phelps, near Florence^ Massachusetts. I have known this 
grape seven years, and always considered it possessed of good points 
and qualities worthy of propagation. The wood is dark-brown, long- 
jointed; leaves of medium size, heart-shaped, dark-yellow down on 
the lower side, and of a pale yellowish-green on the upper, nerves 
fine ; bunches contain from fifteen to twenty-five large round berries, 
of an agreeable wine taste ; ripens by the end of September. It de- 
serves improving, and will be a desirable acquisition for the vineyard. 
The late frosts in June destroyed most of the fruit in this section, 
which, in favorable seasons, abounds in luscious grapes of all colors and 
sizes. 

No. 4. Viiis cordifolia. — A blue wild native grape, standing on a 
sandy plain, northwest of Mount Tom, on the farm of William 
Kntipfer, of East Hampton, Massachusetts. Wood light-brown, 
short-jointed, not so vigorous, but healthy growth ; leaf medium size, 
heart-shaped, with fine nerves, yellowish-green on the upper side and 
bright-yellow on the lower ; clusters compact, with twenty to twenty- 
five round, medium-sized berries, of a juicy, agreeable wine taste; 
ripens toward the end of September. A good grape for red wine^ or 
claret. 

No. 5. Vitis lahrusca. Crystal grape. — A white wild native grape, 
was found in a swamp on the farm of Salomon D. Case, Canton Center, 
flartford county, Connecticut, and transplanted by Mr. Case on an 
open field, or rather side-hill, facing southeast, well sheltered from the 
north and northwest wind. He has propagated considerably from this 
vine, by making layers, of which many are already bearing. The 
wine has a pleasant taste, much like the genuine Madeira, and needs 
no sugar. The soil is gravelly loam, rather strong, but contains valu- 
able mineral substances, and is well adapted for the grape. The vine 
is of a healthy, vigorous habit, ripens wood and fruit well, and is a 
regular bearer. Wood brown, short-jointed; leaf medium, heart-shaped, 
strong nerves, of a yellowish-green on the upper side and light-yellow 
on the lower ; clusters medium size ; berries large, round, flat on both 
ends, of a green color, with snowy-white specks ; ripens about the fif- 
teenth of September; sweet and juicy. See analysis and report of Dr. 
Jackson, page 49. 

No. 6. Vitis lahrusca. — A blue wild native grape. Wood reddish- 
brown^ short-jointed, of a healthy growth ; leaf small, heart-shaped, 
strong nerves, yellowish-green on the upper and dark-yellow on the 
lower side; clusters, or bunches, large; berries large, round, and flat, 
very sweet; ripens middle of September. Soil the same as above; 
location open and level. See analysis, page 51. 

No. 7. Vitis cordifolia. — A black wild native grape; very old vine, 
standing on the same farm, in a wet, stony soil, surrounded by wood. 
Wood dark-brown, short-jointed, and of healthy growth ; leaf medium 
size, heart-shaped, tender nerves, light-yellow on both sides ; bunches 
large, of a fine form; berries large, round, of an agreeable wine taste. 



64 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

best quality; will make a good claret ; ripens in the beginning of Sep- 
tember. See analysis, page 50. 

No. 8. Vitis cordifolia. — A blue wild native grape, on tbe same 
farm; grows on a dry, stony soil, in an open, level situation. Wood 
dark -brown, sliort-jointed, and of vigorous growth ; leaf medium size, 
beart-sbaped, fine nerves, yellowisb-green on tbe upper and ligbt- 
yellow on tbe lower side ; bunches large ; berries round, and flat on 
both ends, rather large, of a pleasant wine taste ; juice dark-colored ; 
makes a good claret wine; ripens middle of September. See analysis, 
page 50. 

No. 9. Vitis labrusca. — A red wild native grape ; grows in a swamp 
on clay subsoil, among brushes, likewise on Mr. Case's farm. Wood 
light-browU;, short-jointed, and healthy growth; leaf small, round, and 
strong nerves, yellowish green on the upper, and bright yellow on the 
lower side ; bunches compact ; berries round^ medium size ; very sweet ; 
ripens middle of September ; a good table grape. 

No. 10. Vitis labrusca. — A purple grape, with copper-colored specks ; 
wild native; grows in the same situation and soil as the preceding. 
Wood light-brown, short-jointed, aijd robust growth; leaf medium 
size, round, strong nerves, yellowish green on the upper, and yellow 
on the lower side ; bunches medium ; berries round ; sweet, juicy, and 
spicy taste ; will make a good schiller wine ; ripens middle of Septem- 
ber. See analysis, page 49. 

No. 11. Vitis cordifolia. — A red wild native grape, standing on the 
same soil and location as the preceding. Wood light-brown, short- 
jointed^ and strong growth ; leaf medium size, round, with fine, ten- 
der nerves, light-yellow on the upper, and yellow on the lower side ; 
bunches medium size ; berries large, oval, sweet, and spicy ; a good 
table and wine grape ; ripens middle of September. See analysis, 
page 50. 

No. 12. Vitis labrusca. Sugar grape. — A white wild native grape, 
stands on an elevation, a quarter of a mile from the sea-coast, Eocky 
Hill, and four miles north of Plymouth, Massachusetts, on an old pas- 
ture, overrun with briars, belonging to Mrs. Mental Peirce. Soil dry, 
sandy gravel. Wood brown, short-jointed, of healthy but moderate 
growth ; leaf medium, heart-shaped, strong nerves, yellowish-green 
on the upper, and dark yellow on the lower side ; bunches and berries 
of medium size, round and flat ; very sweet ; ripens by the end of Sep- 
tember ; good table grape. 

No. 13. Vitis cordifolia. — A mahogany-colored wild native grape, 
stands on a dry, strong soil, on an old wood lot, in a free, high sit- 
uation, belonging to James Merrick, South Scituate, Massachusetts. 
Wood red-brown, short-jointed, and vigorous growth ; leaf medium, 
round, ribs and nerves fine, and of a bright reddish color ; bunches 
medium; berries, ditto, round, and of agreeable wine taste ; ripens mid- 
dle of September. 

No. 14. Vitis cordifolia. — A white, grey-spotted, wild native grape, 
resembles much the German Gutedel, or French Chasselas ; stands near 
the preceding. Wood gray, short-jointed, and tender growth ; leaf 
small, heart-shaped, with fine nerves, of light yellowish-green color ; 
bunches long and loose ; berries medium size_, and oval ; ripens the 



AMERICAN GRAPES. 65 

end of September. The fruit was destroyed by a sharp frost about the 
middle of September. I am of opinion that this grape is a seedling of 
the above-named Gutedel, and got there by some accident ; but it may 
be the product of a hybrid from white and colored grapes growing 
there ; it certainly has more the character of a vitis vinifera. 

No. 15. Vitis cor difolia. — Bartlett grape. A pale-red or pink-colored 
grape ; was found in the woods near Lexington, Massachusetts, by 
Elias Phiney, some years ago, and transplanted by Francis Alger, 34 
South street. South Boston, into his garden ; the soil is a sandy clay^, 
location warm, and well sheltered by a tight board-fence". Wood red- 
dish-brown, short-jointed, and of a robust growth ; leaf medium size, 
heart-shaped, fine nerves, light yellowish-green color on both sides ; 
bunches rather large, compact; berries round, medium, and sweet; 
ripens late ; requires a warmer climate. See analysis. 

No. 16 Vitis cordifoUa. — An amber, or rather Traminer-colored wild 
native grape ; seedling ; has got by accident into the garden of Hon, 
Marshall P. Wilder, Dorchester, Massachusetts. Soil dry, gravelly 
loam ; situation warm and sheltered. Wood light-brown, short-jointed, 
healthy growth ; leaf medium size, heart-shaped, strong nerves, yel- 
lowish-green on both sides ; clusters and berries of medium size, round 
and sweet ; ripens middle of September. Not fruit enough for an 
analysis. . 

No. 1*7. Vitis labrusca. — A red-brown, mahogany-colored, wild native 
grape, originated in the woods, and was transplanted, three years ago, 
into the garden of Gr. W. Clark, Maiden, Massachusetts. Soil stony 
clay ; situation level and sheltered. Wood red-brown, short-jointed, 
vigorous growth ; leaf medium size, round, strong nerves, and yellow- 
ish-green color ; bunches medium ; berries round and fall ; ripens mid- 
dle of September ; a good table grape. See analysis, page 46. 

No. 18. Vitis cor difolia. — A Traminer-colored seedling grape, perhaps 
recently out of the woods ; stands in Mr. Wilder 's garden. Soil and loca- 
tion like No. 16. Wood red-brown, very short-jointed, healthy 
growth ; leaf medium size^ heart-shaped, fine nerves, and yellowish- 
green color ; bunches medium ; berries round ; sweet and agreeable 
taste ; ripens middle of September. See analysis, page 45. 

No. 19. Vitis cestivalis — Sweetrwater. — A white propagated grape, 
cultivated eighteen years by Mr. Newell Harding, 38 Chamber street, 
Boston, in his garden, a warm, well-sheltered situation. Wood golden- 
yellow, short-jointed, very healthy, vigorous growth; leaf small, heart- 
shaped, three-lobed, fine tender nerves, green on both sides ; bunches 
large, compact, well shouldered ; berries medium, round, very juicy 
'and sweet; ripens middle of September, bears regularly every year. 
This grape is very profitable for table and market, and in a good shel- 
tered position, with proper management, it will thrive anywhere. It 
requires to be laid down during winter, to be protected from severely 
cold weather. See analysis, page 47. 

No. 20. Vitis labrusca. — A dark-brown wild native grape, from the 
woods, transplanted twelve years ago by John Butterfield, Bedford, 
Massachusetts, on the south side of his house ; soil dry gravelly loam ; 
situation sheltered and level. Wood brown, short-jointed, vigorous 
growth; leaf medium, heart-shaped, strong nerves, yellowish-green 



66 AaRICULTURAL REPORT. 

on tlie upper, and yellow on tlie lower side ; bunches large ; berries 
round, large, and sweet ; ripens by the end of September ; a good and 
regular bearer. See analysis, page 47. 

No. 21. Vitis cBstivalis. — A red-brown, mahogany-colored wildnative 
grapes grows in an open field belonging to John Wilson, Bedford, 
Massachusetts, running up on trees ; soil sandy gravel. Wood brown, 
rather long-jointed, healthy growth ; leaf round, small fine nerves ; 
bunches medium size, compact ; berries round, medium size, and of an 
agreeable Avine taste ; regular bearer ; ripens by^ the end of September. 
See analysis, page 48. 

No. 22. Vitis labrusca, the original Concord grape, a seedling from 
the Vitis labrusca. — This vine is now fifteen years old, and has borne 
regularly for seven years. It is one of the best hardy American varie- 
ties, ripening its delicious fruit in the most northern part of our coun- 
try. It will improve its qualities every degree further south, wherever 
cultivated ; in the South, West, and even in California, it gives gen- 
eral satisfaction. The wine, in body, flavor, and taste, resembles the 
sherry wine. The owner and propagator, Hon. E. W. Bull, of Con- 
cord, Massachusetts, deserves much credit for the introduction of this 
highly valuable grape. Its character consists of the following points: 
Wood brown, medium-jointed, very healthy, vigorous growth; ripens 
its wood well ; leaf large, heart-shaped, three-lobed, strong nerves, 
yellowish-green on both sides ; bunches large, well shouldered, rather 
loose; berries over medium size, oval, of a dark-blue color, thin skin, 
juicy, and of an agreeable wine taste ; good for the table and wine 
making ; it ripens about the middle of September ; a good regular 
bearer ; soil dry sandy loam ; location open to the south, and sheltered 
from the north and northwest by a hill. See analysis, page 47. 

No. 23. Vitis lahrusca. — A seedling from the third generation from the 
original Concord vine. Soil and location the same as above. Wood 
light-brown, long-jointed, vigorous growth ; leaf medium size, heart- 
shaped, strong nerves, three-lobed, and green on both sides ; bunches 
well shouldered, medium size ; berries medium, dark-blue, j-uicy, 
and very sweet ; a good wine and table grape ; ripens middle of Sep- 
tember. See analysis, page 47. 

No. 24. Vitis labrusca.— A seedling of the second generation from the 
original Concord vine. Soil and location as stated above. Wood red- 
brown, long-jointed, healthy moderate growth; leaf medium size, 
heart-shaped, three-lobed, strong nerves, yellowish-green on both sides ; 
bunches well shouldered, a little above medium size ; berries the same, 
round, dark blue, sweet, and juicy ; good wine and table grape, ripens 
with the other two. See analysis, page 47. 

No. 25. Vitis labrusca. — Sage grape, a red-brown wild native grape, 
found in the woods some years ago by Mr. Sage, and transplanted by 
Mr. R. W. Emerson, of Concoi'd, Massachusetts, on the south side of 
hishouse. Soil dry sandy loam. Wood red-brown, long-jointed, healthy 
but moderate growth ; leaf medium size, round, strong nerves, yel- 
lowish-green on both sides ; bunches medium ; berries of uncommonly 
large size, three berries weighing an ounce ; round and tolerably sweet ; 
ripens early in September. See analysis, page 48. 

No. 20. Vitis labrusca. Dracut Amber. — A reddish-brown wild 



AMERICAN GRAPES. 67 

native grape^ a seedling from this family, found in the woods, and 
transplanted by Asa Clement^ in Dracutt, near Lowell, Massachusetts, 
in his nursery. Soil a heavy wet clay ; situation too much shaded and 
obstructed by trees. Wood red-brown, short-jointed, and healthy growth ; 
leaf medium, heart-shaped, strong nerves ; bunches rather large, com- 
pact ; berries large, round, and sweet ; ripens middle of September. 
See analysis, page 48. 

No. 27. Vitiscordifolia. — A dark-blue wild native grape ; grows in a 
swamp, owned by Salomon D. Case, Canton Centre, Connecticut. Soil, 
wet clay ; situation much shaded by young forest trees. Wood dark- 
brown, medium-jointed, healthy, but moderate growth ; leaf small, 
heart-shaped, fine nerves, yellowish-green on both sides ; bunches not 
above medium^ compact ; berries round, medium size, thin skin, 
pretty sweet ; ripens toward the end of September. See analysis page 50. 

No. 28. Viiis cordifolia j)U7ictata. — A blue, copper-red speckled wild 
native grape ; grows in the same swamp ; situation the same as above 
stated, wet and shaded. Wood red-brown, short-jointed, healthy 
growth ; leaf medium size, heart-shaped, fine nerves, yellowish-green 
on both sides ; bunches medium, berries ditto, oval, and strong wine 
taste; ripens in the beginning of October. See analysis, page 52. 

No. 29. Vitis cor difolia punctata.— A. light-red colored v»^ild native 
grape, speckled with copper-red. Soil and situation like the preceding. 
Proprietor^ Mr. Case, of Canton Centre. Wood brown, very short- 
jointed, vigorous growth ; leaf medium size, heart-shaped, fine nerves, 
yellowish-green on both sides; clusters large and compact; berries 
rather large, oval, sweet and juicy ; ripens in the beginning of Oc- 
tober. See analysis, page 52. 

No. 30. Vitis cestivalis punctata. — A green wild native grape, dotted 
all over with snow-white specks, standing on Mr. Case's property. 
Soil and situation the same as No. 29. Wood brown, short-jointed, 
a good healthy growth ; leaf large, heart-shaped, strong nerves, yel- 
lowish-green on both sides ; bunches and berries medium size, the 
latter oval, sweet, and of an agreeable taste ; ripens by the end of 
September. See analysis, page 52. 

No. 31. Vitis Idbrusca, Hartford Prolific. — A dark-blue cultivated 
grape, a seedling from the Isabella. This is one of the earliest varieties, 
and therefore exceedingly well adapted to a northern climate ; it 
ripens in favorable localities by the end of August ; a good regular 
bearer. Wood brown, short-jointed, vigorous growth ; leaf medium, 
heart-shaped, strong nerves, green on the upper and whitisli-green 
on the lower side ; bunches above medium size, compact ; berries 
medium, round, and very sweet. I obtained a sample from E. W. 
Whiting, nurseryman, Hartford, Connecticut, who propagates largely 
from that grape for sale. See analysis, page 51. 

No. 32. Vitis cor difolia punctata. — A dark blue, nearly black, wild 
native grape, speckled with copper-red ; grows in the woods, in a 
valley near a small river, on the land owned by John Warner, near 
Florence, Massachusetts, Soil, sandy gravel, containing some loam. 
Wood light brown, short-jointed, and rather slender growth ; leaf 
small, heart-shaped, tender nerves, yellowish- green on both sides ; 
bunches medium ; berries, large, oval, sweet, and vinous ; ripens by 
the end of September. See analysis, page 52, 



68 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

No. 33. Vitislabrusca. — A red Traminer-colored wild native grape, an 
old vigorous vine ; stands in the garden of Theodore Clark, near East 
Hampton, Massachusetts, west of MountTom, on a level, open situation. 
Soil deep, sandy loam. Wood brown, short-jointed^, of moderate 
growth ; leaf medium size, heart-shaped, fine nerves, yellowish-green 
on both sides ; bunches and berries of medium size, the latter round, 
and of a pleasant wine taste ; ripens middle of September. See analysis, 
page 52. 

No. 34. Vitis cordifolia. — A dark-blue, almost black, wild native 
grape ; grows on the western slope of Mount Tom, on a wet, cold, 
clayey soil, and runs along a fence, and on trees and brushes. The 
land belongs to Frank Clark, near East Hampton, Massachusetts. 
Wood dark-brown, short-jointed, of healthy, but moderate growth ; 
leaf small, heart-shaped, fine nerves, green on both sides ; clusters of 
medium size, very compact, a little shouldered ; berries small, round, 
and of an agreeable vinous taste, slightly acid, but not unpleasant ; 
ripens in the early part of October. See analysis, page 52. 

No. 35. Vitis sinuata. — A dark-blue wild native grape, one of the best 
specimens of the frost grape ; grows near the one just described. 
Wood brown_, very short-jointed, tough, vigorous growth; leaf small, 
heart-shaped, three-lobed, green on both sides; bunches long, com- 
pact ; berries small, round, if not compressed, rather crisp, or acid, 
but not disagreeable ; ripens in the beginning of October. This grape 
deserves propagating and improving, as its juice contains pro2Derties 
desirable to be mixed in small quantities with other varieties in 
making wine, obviating flatness, and rendering it tenable. 

No. 36. Vitis lahrusca. — A red-brown wild native grape, found in the 
woods, and transplanted, or set out, by Mr. Clark, in his garden, 
southwest of Bound Hill. Soil, a good sandy loam ; situation, warm 
and well-sheltered ; grows up on an apple tree. Wood brown, medium- 
jointed, vigorous growth ; leaf medium size, heart-shaped, strong 
nerves, yellowish-green on both sides ; bunches and berries of medium 
size, oval, and pretty sweet ; ripens towards the end of September. 
Se§ analysis, page 52. 

No. 37. Vitis cordifolia. — A dark-blue, nearly black, wild native grape; 
stands on the edge of a forest, in a swamp meadow, at the top of the 
Orange mountains. Proprietor, A. 0. Moore, Orange, New Jersey. 
Soil, wet clay. Wood dark-brown, short-jointed_, thrifty growth; leaf 
medium size, heart-shaped, strong nerves, yellowish-green on both sides; 
bunches medium size, shouldered; berries rather below medium, oval, 
and of an agreeable wine taste; ripens the first part of October. 

No. 38. Vitis lahrusca. — A dark-blue, wild native grape, found in the 
woods, and set out by Charles Dickinson, of Verona, Essex county, 
New Jersey^ on the southeast side of his house. An old vine: no care 
is taken of it ; is supported by a rough frame. Wood greyish-brown, 
short-jointed, healthy, vigorous growth; leaf medium size, heart- 
shaped, strong nerves, yellowish-green on both sides ; bunches medium, 
berries large, round, sweet, and pleasant wine taste-; ripens in the 
beginning of October. Soil wet clay and very stony ; situation high 
and open, on the top of the Orange mountain. 



AMERICAN GRAPES. 69 

I have been particular, in noting these varieties, to describe their 
character as clearly as possible with regard to their wood, growth, fruit, 
and its shape, color, and taste. I did not find much difficulty, but have 
been often at a loss how to make out the leaves, which were often of 
different shapes and colors on one and the same vine ; for instance, 
there were on a vine large heart-shaped leaves, deeply cut, with three 
to five lobes, long stem, stout ribs and nerves ; and, again, leaves almost 
square, lobes hardly discernible, short stems, small, tender ribs and 
nerves ; and some round, without lobes, long stems, fine ribs and nerves; 
some on one side, heart-shaped, with one or two pretty sharp cut lobes, 
and, on the other side, round and smooth. The same variation I found 
in the color of the leaf, but here it was merely the influence of the light, 
sun, and shade. In shaded localities, under trees, &c., where the sun 
and light were obstructed, the color would be a bright green, as it ap- 
pears on the best improved European varieties. According to circum- 
stances, as they were under this influence, they would change their 
colors, and the inore favorable their situation in this respect, their color 
would change to yellow, and, in free, open situations, would be for the 
most part a yellowish green on the upper side, and several shades 
deeper, sometimes clear, bright yellow, on the lower side, which is in 
most cases their fixed color. But there are some exceptions again: 
The most of the worthless offsprings from the Vitis cordifoUa have 
clear, green leaves, while the better varieties have that yellow hue. 
There is only one family of which the leaf is found invariably green ; 
it is the lowest and least useful of all — the frost grape, or vitis sinuata. 
On some of the seedlings from the fox grape, vitis labrusca, the white 
color predominates, instead of yellow ; the upper part of the leaf will 
be of a white hue, while the lower side presents this peculiar downy 
character, completely white. 

According to my instructions, to investigate and examine the wild 
native grapes with a view of testing their respective qualities, and to 
note those which show good qualities for wine or table grapes, in order 
that they might be propagated and improved, and as those which I 
marked will, in proportion as they are submitted to a systematical 
course of development, change their original nature and habitus, so the 
proper time to record their character will be when they shall have 
attained the highest point of improvement, therefore, I concluded not 
to take notice of the. numerous variations in the form or construction 
of the leaf, and difference of their colors, but only to describe their 
most common forms, namely, round, heart-shaped, large, medium size^ 
or small, and the color, yellowish, whitish, or green. 

The quality of their fruit, as exhibited by analyzing samples, is, in 
all cases, capable of improvement, the degree of which will be in pro- 
portion to the advancement of the vine itself ; therefore, the analysis 
shows only the fundamental properties of these specimens, and the task 
to develop and progress upon this basis is reserved for the practical 
propagator and cenolog. He will arrange these varieties to answer his 
own purposes ; by a thorough system of rational culture, increase their 
saccharine properties, restrict the predominance of acidity, and bring 
the whole to a proper condition. 

By due consideration of the soil, position, and^climate_, a good esti- 



70 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

mate will be obtained, from tlie result of the analysis, as to the capa- 
bility of the wine. For instance, the fruit of a vine which grows on a 
wet, cold soil, in a low, shaded situation, and in a severe and rough 
climate, contains eight per cent, of sugar, the vine thus possessing 
the points required of a good grape ; yet, in most cases, by being 
translated to a better soil, position, &c., with proper culture, it will 
attain from twelve to sixteen per cent., and, of course, produce a 
superior wine. Analysis, therefore-, gives a surer basis to judge and 
select wild grapes than the simple taste, which is as various as decep- 
tive ; at the same time, it will bring to notice such varieties as, differ- 
ing from the common and fashionable sweet grapes, contain precisely 
the properties essential to make several of the most highly esteemed 
wines. 

Late frosts in the springs and especially some sharp visitations in 
June, checked the grape-vines, and totally destroyed those on level 
parts of the country ; only in elevated, sheltered portions was there 
any saved, and far less than the usual crops. My investigation was, 
therefore, limited to such favored locations, while even here the means 
allowed were not sufficient to enable me to extend my labors to a 
larger scale. The result is highly valuable and stimulating for the 
culture of the grape. I found, in general, a lively interest among all 
classes for this noble and lucrative branch of horticulture. The inten- 
tion of the Patent Office to encourage the culture of the vine through 
the whole country, by collecting and disseminating knowledge relating 
to it, and the best methods of wine-making, was well appreciated, and 
especially so on account of the direct way which had been chosen. 
Personal observation and instruction will often, in one hour, be more 
beneficial than long study of scientific essays, which are, for the most 
part, written in too high a style to be clearly understood by the plain, 
practical man. By those interested in this pursuit earnest wishes 
were expressed that the Patent Office might continue its noble efforts. 

In a country like ours, blessed with everything to make life pleas- 
ant, and possessing a proper soil and climate for every plant, why, 
otherwise so favored, should man be deprived of the real essence of life, 
wine? True, this incomparable nectar is not unknown here, for many 
thousand American eagles of gold cross the Atlantic annually to 
bring it to us ; but this privilege is attainable only by a few, while 
the mass of the people may not receive this best gift of Nature. Sub- 
stitutes have been invented, but they are poor indeed_, compared to 
genuine wine, which makes man social, contented, and happy, while 
those mixtures and drugs, at once exciting and stupifying, demoralize 
him. As wine is a pure beverage which Nature furnishes, its use should 
be attainable by every one ; while it inspirits the youth to all that is 
fair, good, moral, and grand, it stimulates the man in his labor and 
occupations, makes him a brave husband, father, and citizen, and 
brightens the evening of age. As wine has so beneficial an influence 
on the nature and character of the individual, it will likewise exalt 
the condition of a whole people ; consequently, there is reason why 
we should exert ourselves to introduce the general culture of tho 
grape in our own country, as has been done for centuries in other 
lands. 



AMERICAN GRAPES. 71 

For the use and comfort of a single family, a small piece of ground, 
by intelligent management, will produce sufficient, while if the area 
be extended, the profits obtained will prove a liberal encouragement. 
Many hundred acres^ exhausted by our bad management, but yet con- 
taining enough mineral substances to support the grape-vine, might, 
with little expense, be converted into vineyards. Those black and 
barren hills, gloomy as they look, will, in many instances, afford 
desirable situations for this purpose, and can thus be changed to 
profitable plantations, highly ornamental to the country. By a proper 
selection of the position and of the varieties adapted to the climate, the 
grape-vine may be successfully cultivated in every State of the Union, 
It will flourish wherever corn will grow. But before embarking in 
this enterprise, it is necessary to understand the principles of the cul- 
ture and management of the grape, and the mode of making wine. 



CULTUEE AND MANAGEMENT OE THE GEAPE, AND 
THE MODE OE MAKING WINE. 



BY JOHN F. WEBER, of WASHIJSTGTON, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 



PROPAGATION OF THE GRAPE, BY LAYERS, CUTTINGS, EYES, AND SEED. 

Layers. — Supposing the vines are old, and growing wild in the woods 
or fences, the best branches should be selected, those which have made 
strong and well-matured wood. They must be bent down to find where 
the last year's growth reaches the ground, in order to see what space 
they require ; the length and number of the shoots will give the best 
indication. The land should be cleared of stones, stumps, sod, and roots, 
trenched to the depth of from fifteen to eighteen inches, and enriched 
with well-rotted compost. Heavy and stiff soil needs to be meliorated 
with sand, to the texture of good garden earth, after which small 
trenches have to be dug for each single shoot, about a foot wide and 
six inches deep. The branch is now taken down and secured to the 
ground by a strong Avooden peg with a hook. It is not necessary that 
the branch should be prostrated quite to its root, but precaution must 
be ta,ken not to break it by bending. The shoots of the last year's growth 
are then taken and deposited singly, each in a trench, fastened by little 
wooden pegs, care being used that they lay close at the ground. These 
shoots must have been previously examined, all dry and immature 
wood cut off, and only the sound, well-ripened wood employed. The 
best time for that operation is when the buds have made two leaves. 
They are left in this position, uncovered, till the eyes have attained 
three or four inches growth, when a regular circulation of the sap will 



72 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

"be effected ; they are then covered with fine, pulverized earth, ahout an 
inch. It is very interesting now to observe how quickly callus is formed 
under each eye, from which small roots will emanate in the course of three 
or four days. In eight or ten days the formation of roots will be com- 
pleted, when two inches more of earth may be put in, and in a fortnight 
after another inch, which is the final covering. In dry, sandy soil, 
or when the summer is unusually hot and arid, it is prudent to mulch, 
these young plants at once, two or three inches, after the last covering, 
with straw, leaves, or tan-bark. This will keep the ground moist, and 
protect the young, tender roots from becoming dry and burnt. Late 
in the fall, when the plant is in a dormant state, the branches which 
have been layered are cut off close at the old wood, carefully taken up 
with a garden fork, so as not to break the roots, and divided. There 
will now be obtained from each eye a strong, well-rooted plant. These 
young offsprings are now taken and heated in the ground, where they 
remain through the winter, or till they are wanted. The branch of 
the old vine remains in its bent position ; the next spring shoots will 
grow out near where the layers had been cut off the year previous ; 
when they have made about twelve inches in growth, the stump or 
basis of these young shoots is covered with good rich soil, about six 
inches, in order that roots may emanate to render it independent of the 
old vine. They are left to grow during the season. The next spring 
they are layered again, and another set raised in the same manner. 
By this manipulation, vigorous plants can be propagated from an old 
vine every second year, and will bear the second year after planting. 
In regard to their strength, and the development of their root system, 
they are preferable to any propagated from eyes or cuttings. 

Making layers from vines in a vineyard is far more easy, as the 
ground is already in a good condition, and the vines in a more active 
state. In the time of summer pruning, one or two strong shoots are 
left, as close as possible to the ground, on the vines from which layers 
are desired ; they remain hanging down through the summer, undis- 
turbed, and the next spring are treated as already described. It is 
important, in all cases, to let them hang loose, till all the eyes are 
well developed, and have made at least half an inch growth. This 
method is always sure, as it corresponds with the principles of the 
physiology of the grape-vine, which, like other young plants, requires 
for its developement an equal share of light, warmth and moisture. 

Pro2oagaiion from cuttings. — This is a very simple procedure. In 
the fall or winter, shoots are selected from the strongest and best 
ripened vines, cut three or four eyes long, tied together in bunches of 
from one hundred to five hundred pieces, and either put in the ground 
and well covered with earth, or kept in a cellar during winter, covered 
with sand. In the spring, as soon as the ground is dry, a partly 
shaded spot is chosen for a plant-bed. The soil should be dry and 
warm ; it requires trenching about two feet deep, and meliorating 
with compost and sand till it compares well with hot-bed earth. This 
plat is laid off in beds four feet wide, and two feet are left between for 
a path. There will be room in such a bed for four rows of cuttings. 
In order to plant them at equal distances, the ground should be 
measured and a line drawn. The wood, on the lower end of the 



AMERICAN GRAPES. 73 

cuttings, should "be cut off close to the eye. To keep them moist, it is 
well to wrap them in a piece of old cloth, and take up only one bunch 
at a time. There is an instrument generally used for that purpose, 
which greatly facilitates planting ; it is made of a piece of wire, half 
an inch thick and two feet long, a cross handle at one end, and the 
other flattened and bent to an angle of 45°. In the flat end an open- 
ing is prepared in the shape of a V, wide enough to admit the cutting. 
With this instrument, called a plant-stick, the cutting is pushed into 
the ground in a slanting position, and only one eye left out, near the 
surface. It should never he inserted deeper than four or five inches. 
In dry weather, the plants require watering every second night, till 
they have formed roots and are established ; they must be kept clean, 
and no weeds allowed t© grow in the bed. In the fall, they are taken 
up carefully, with a garden fork, and heeled in the ground again during 
winter. Next spring, they may be removed to the vineyard, and will 
bear the third year. But if strong-rooted vines are wanted, these 
rooted cuttings have to be planted once more in the bed, but require 
now at least a square foot of space, and their last year's growth to be 
cut back to one eye, and taken up again in the fall and heeled in. 

Propagating from eyes. — This can be done only under glass, either 
in a propagating-house, green-house^ or hot-bed, as otherwise no good 
results can be expected; still, if trouble is not regarded, eyes may 
sometimes be propagated in boxes, or even in the open ground. 

Strong and well-ripened canes should be selected. They may be cut 
eight or ten eyes long, heeled in sand till wanted, and put in the cellar, 
or in any place where the frost cannot reach them. In order to get 
large plants the first season it is necessary to begin their propagation 
early; February is generally the time when they are started. If a 
propagating-house with a sand bed be at disposal, little furrows are 
made in the sand about half an inch deep, and two inches apart, in 
which the eyes are placed horizontally ; they are then covered with 
sand and drenched well ; a temperature of from sixty-five to seventy 
degrees must be maintained till they have completel}'' rooted. In 
common green-houses pots are generally used ; they may be of diiferent 
sizes, but should not be smaller than tAvo pints. After some broken 
pieces of crockery, oyster-shells^ &c., have been put in the bottom to 
secure a good drainage, they are filled to half an inch of the top with 
earth, and four to six eyes are stuck in vertically, so that the point of 
the eye just peeps out. They are well drenched, and placed in the 
warmest part of the house. In hot-beds pots are likewise more conve- 
nient than open beds. They should be constructed as usual for raising 
plants, with' a bottom heat of from fifty-five to sixty degrees. The 
pots with the eyes are put in dry saw-dust, or tan-bark, and raised 
within six inches to the sashes. In order to preserve an even temper- 
ature, constant watching is necessary, an'd every opportunity, when 
the weather is clear, and the atmosphere warm, should be improved to 
give air so as to prevent mold and rot. Straw-covers and board-shut- 
ters must be provided for cold nights and stormy days. In proportion 
to the development of the plant must be the quantity of air admitted, 
and finally the sashes will have to be removed during the day, and 
only kept on in the nights. When at last the spring has fairly opened ; 



74 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

when night-frosts have ceased, and the soil has become warm and dry, 
a shady place is selected, soil suitable for the striking of cuttings 
prepared, and the young vines are transplanted into the open ground, 
about a foot apart, care being taken not to set them too deep ; throe 
inches will be sufficient. 

It is well to mulch them at once, to secure an even temperature and 
moisture for their tender roots. Straw or leaves are the best material 
for that purpose. If properly attended, they will make a growth of 
from six to eight feet, sometimes as much as twelve feet, the same 
season, and will bear the second year after transplanting. They may 
remain during winter in their bed or nursery, and be transplanted at 
once the next spring in the vineyard. This method applies to all 
young plants grown in the propagating house, green-house, or hot-bed. 
The best earth to strike eyes in is a mixture of equal parts of well-rotten 
turf, or sod, soil, or leaf-mold, from the forest^ and v/ashed sand, with 
a little addition of fine bone and charcoal dust. 

Propagation from seed. — The best ripened bunches should be selected, 
the seeds extracted, and dried in a shady, airy place. When dry, they 
should be put in a little bag, and hung up till wanted. A spot for a 
seed-bed should be selected on a dry, airy, and shady piece of ground, 
prepared as for cuttings, or eyes. The fall is the best time to sow the 
seed. Furrows, half an inch deep and one foot apart, are made, the 
seed dropped in, about two inches from each other, covered with washed 
sand, and finally with straw or leaves. In the spring, v/hen the night- 
frosts have ceased, this cover is removed, and pine or hemlock boughs 
put on instead till the seed has sprouted, and young shoots make their 
appearance. Nothing else is required through the summer except 
weeding, and occasional watering at night in dry wxather. Late in 
the fall the young vines are taken up with a garden-fork, and heeled 
in again. In the spring they are cut back to one eye, and replanted 
a foot apart, in which situation they remain undisturbed during the 
season. 

But, as the grape-vine seldom reproduces its character in its oif- 
spring from seed, and is rather changed to all possible variations, 
there can be no confidence that such seedlings will be of the same 
type ; sometimes they will be of a first-rate quality^ and generally of 
different colors. The well-known and highly-esteemed Concord grape, 
for instance, is of a dark blue color ; yet from this Mr. Bull has raised 
a white seedling of superior quality, and other seedlings of first-rate 
qualities, varying in color from a light Amber of all shades to a dark 
Traminer, while several, again, presented the same color as the original 
vine. Among seedlings, also, are male plants, which will not produce 
fruit at all. These are distinguished by their small, long eyes., lying 
flat on the wood, while fruit-eyes may be recognized by their short, 
thick, shouldered appearance. In order to find out what may be ex- 
pected from them, they should be closely examined the second year, 
and those which promise best brought in a bending situation, to induce 
the formation of fruit-buds. They are taken up in the fall and planted 
in pots holding about six quarts, and their shoots cut back to three 
eyes. Until the middle of February they are kept in a cool place, 
when they should be put under glass, either in a green-house or h.ot- 



AMERICAN GRAPES. 75 

bed, to be started. By bending tlie cane till the young shoots are out 
one inch, and cutting a ring from the bark below the upper eye, they 
will sometimes bear that season and show their true character. If 
there is no such convenience as a green-house or hot-bed, the propa- 
gator can only wait till the weather becomes warm, and in the mean- 
time may jDlace them in a sunny, sheltered corner, near the buildings. 
Of course, no fruit can be expected that season. 

If, in either case, no fruit appear, the canes should be bent as soon 
as the wood begins to ripen on the lower part, and kept in this position 
till fall^ when they are pruned back to six eyes. In the following 
spring this cane is bent again, and fastened on a stick, to remain so 
during the season. All the side shoots and new wood, except a lead- 
ing cane, is pruned off during the summer, and only a single bunch 
allowed to grow. Seedlings which have satisfactorily fruited and 
proved of a generally good character, may be set out and grown as the 
sources of further propagation ; they are now new varieties. Those in 
the seed-bed, or nursery, should be examined again, and such as com- 
pare well with the fruited specimens may be planted out in the vine- 
yard; the rest, which show less good points, should be grafted, or 
budded, at once. 

The object of taking up and transplanting these young propagated 
grape-vines every season is to get a chance to regulate their formation 
of roots, to cut back single leading roots and make them grow more 
fibres, which are less important to the rapid and vigorous growth of 
wood than to the fruit and its quality. 



IMPROVING THE GRAPE-VINE, BY LAYERING, GRAFTING, BUDDING, 

AND HYBRIDIZING. 



Improving &?/ lo.yeri'ivj. — This, in the beginning, is performed as 
before described. After the plants obtained from layering off have 
been transplanted and gro"wn one year, they are cut back in the fall to 
four eyes, and the next spring layered down again, and treated in the 
manner above referred to. In the fall they are taken up, heeled in 
through the winter, and set out again in the spring, being pruned 
back to one eye ; the following fall they are cut back to six eyes, and 
layered down once more the next spring. 

When this operation has been performed several times, the character 
of such a vine will be greatly changed, and the quality of its fruit 
improved. By this manipulation, another system of roots is obtained, 
the wild nature of thd vine tamed, and, in consequence of its fino 
cellular texture, it will form larger fruit buds, the cluster will bo 
heavier and more compact, the stem of the berry more tender, and, 
acquiring more and stronger fibres on the basis, the berries will not 
again drop off", the skin will become thin, and the pulp soft, juicy, and 
more sugary. 

This method has been practised for centuries in parts of Germany 
and France, with the exception only that such plants were allowed to 



76 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

grow and bear several years before tliey were layered again. All those 
first-class varieties, the Gutedel, or Chasselas, Muscats, Traminer, 
Malvasier. Kiesling, &c., have thus been brought to their present high 
state of perfection. 

Improving by grafting. — Grape-vines which have good roots, grow- 
ing on houses, arbors, or such places, where stirring and breaking the 
surface-soil is omitted, and yet better fruit, or a different variety, de- 
sired, and where, also, shade is an object, may be successively changed 
by grafting on seedlings and other vines of inferior quality, to turn 
them to better account in the quickest possible time. This operation 
is best performed in the spring, when the buds have developed to two 
leaves, and when the sap does not circulate and flow so rapidly. How- 
ever, the grafts have to be cut in the fall, when the vine is in a dormant 
state, and either buried in the ground, or kept in a dry, cool cellar, 
through the winter. 

Grafting is performed in the following manner: The soil is removed 
about four inches deep, the vine sawed off, and the cut nicely pared 
with a sharp knife, a cleft is now made, two or three inches deep, into 
the stump or stock, which is kept open by a wedge till the graft is set; 
the graft should have two or three eyes, and be cut exactly to fit the 
cleft. The lower eye should be close to the bark of the stump, and the 
bark of both stump and graft should fit v/ell together. The wedge is 
next taken out, the whole wound well covered with grafting wax, and 
the soil brought back again, and mulched with straw or leaves. All 
the buds are allowed to grow undisturbed through the summer^ but 
the water shoots from the stump must be kept down ; in the fall one or 
two canes are left, and pruned back to six eyes ; all other wood is 
cut off. 

There are sometimes cases where vines cannot be grafted so low, and 
perhaps several feet above ground only. If so, another method is 
adopted : The top of the vine is cut off likewise where the graft is 
wanted ; then a three-inch vertical cut is made through the bark, which 
is lifted up ; the graft, with two eyes and three-inch wood below, is cut 
half through horizontally back of the lower bud, and from the point 
below diagonally up to the cross cut. This wedge is pushed down under 
the bark, after the cross cut has been made to fit the stump or stock, 
that is, cut in slanting till the graft gets a vertical stand. It is then 
tied up with bass, covered thickly with grafting-wax, and finally wrapped 
in a piece of rag. The tying requires particular attention, as the air 
must be entirely excluded from the wound. Another method is prac- 
ticable on young vines, seedlings, &c. The vine is cut off diagonally, 
and also the graft or scion; both cuts should be at least three inches 
long, and fit exactly together, the graft is laid on, tied with soft bass, 
and the whole dressed with grafting-wax, as above. When the vine 
is much thicker than the scion, the bark and some wood are cut off on 
one side only ; the graft is cut diagonally ; both cuts should match and 
fit, so that the inner hark of the scion may lie exactly on the inner harh 
of the stump or stocJc. This is the essential part of grafting, and in all 
cases should be observed. The union takes place first between the inner 
bark and wood, where callus is formed for new wood. The whole ope- 



AMERICAN GRAPES. 77 

ration must be done very quickly, so that the circulation of the sap will 
not interfere with putting on the wax. 

Improving hy budding. — The proper season for budding grape-vines 
is the latter part of August, when the huds of the current year's growth 
are plump and the young wood is becoming firm. If possible, two or 
three year old wood should be chosen, in v/hich to set the buds. 
Thrifty shoots are selected, and the soft eyes on the upper end rejected. 
The bud is cut out about two inches long, with as much bark as pos- 
sible. In taking out the wood, a thin slice should be left at the basis 
of the bud, so that its roots may not be injured. Having prepared the 
bud, an upright incision is made in the bark about an inch and a half 
long ; on the top of this a cross cut is made, forming a T, when the 
bark is raised up, the bud is pushed in, tied carefully with soft bass, 
and covered with grafting w^as:, only the eye being left exposed to the 
light and air. When the bud has taken, the old wood is cut off above 
it in the fall. Another mode, for which the spring is the proper sea- 
son, is often practised with good success. Having ready the shoots, 
the upper and lower end, from which buds are wanted, the eye, with 
an inch of wood on, is cut off from the cane, together with half of the 
wood back of the eye. Then a similar cut is made in the stock where 
the eye is to be inserted, so that it shall fit exactly. The eye being 
set in, the whole is waxed and tied up as before. 

Budding grape-vines is based on the same principle as budding fruit 
trees, roses, &c. By budding, different varieties may be produced on 
one vine, and, if chosen with regard to their maturity, blossoming at 
the same time, accidental hybrids may be obtained. 

Improving hy cross-hreeding . — This method requires much time and 
attention, and cannot be much depended on, unless the plants are grown 
in a green-house or grapery, which is seldom to be found in connection 
with a vineyard. Such experiments are rather out of question with 
the practical grape-grower, as he is generally fully occupied with the 
work of the vineyard. But it is very important that those who have 
more leisure and proper skill should employ themselves in this highly 
interesting business. Or, still better, that it should be executed at 
governmental or State expense in experimental gardens and vineyards. 
It is highly appreciated, that the United States Patent Office has 
already commenced to carry out such a plan, raising and creating new 
varieties of grape-vines for distribution through the whole land, which 
will promote and encourage grape culture. But this is only a begin- 
ning. In addition to the propagating houses, a vineyard is wanted, 
where these new varieties can be tested and their character observed, 
in order to decide what soil and climate suit them best. 

To obtain an improvement on a new variety, two well-known vines 
are selected ; when they blossom, the anthers must be cut out, with 
scissors, from the blossom of the vine to be improved and impregnated ;* 
and as soon as the blossom is expanded on the other from which a bet- 
ter variety is intended, the pollen is collected with a fine brush from a 
well-blown flower, and applied upon the point of the pistil on the other 
vine. The seed of such a cross-breed will produce plants of a new 
variety. 



78 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 



CULTURE OF TEE GRAPE-VINE IN THE VINEYARD. 

Proper soil and position. — The best and most natural soil for the 
grape-vine is a dry porous lime-stone; the next best, a deep, loose, 
stony, loamy soil, even sandy, if it contain some loam and marl, and 
if a good subsoil be practicable. The soils upon rocks arQ favorable 
to the growth of tVxe vine, as the roots find in the clefts the very 
essence of life — a loamy substance, containing phosphates. The less 
vegetable substances a soil contains, the better is it for the grape-vine. 

In regard to position, a high, free, vi'-ell-sheltered one, on the south- 
east slope of a hill, is the best; but level or rolling land may be made 
available by planting groups of pine trees on the northern part, to 
break the cold, strong v/inds. A vineyard, in all cases, should be open 
to the south and east, admit a free circulation of air, and not be under 
the influence of miasmas, dampness, and stagnating waters,, or exposed 
to cold north winds. 

Preparation of the soil. — As there are many instances where soil of 
the above description, in a naturally good condition, cannot be found, it 
must be meliorated, if position and other circumstances will justify 
such expense. 

Strong, heavy soils require loosening, so that the atmosphere may 
have free action upon them, and therefore must be trenched. This is 
done in the following manner: on the lowest part of the land a line is 
drawn across^ and six feet wide marked off; the top-soil, according to 
its richness, is taken up, perhaps from four to eight inches deep, and 
placed somewhere near, but out of the way ; then a three-feet wide, 
and three to three and a half feet deep, trench is opened, and the earth 
thrown forward. This is the beginning. Now another three-feet wide 
strip is cut out, and the earth thrown into the open trench ; three feet 
wide are marked for the next trench, and the top-soil from that strip 
thrown upon the first trench, which is filled up level with the surface ; 
coming up at last with this work to the other end, there will be one 
trench and six feet wide surface left to be filled up and covered with 
the earth taken out of the first trench and the top-soil from the first 
six feet wide^ which were thrown forward out of the way. This has 
to be carted up, first the subsoil for filling the trench, and next the 
top-soil to level with. On such lands the tojD-soil should never be 
thrown into the trench and covered with the raw subsoil, as the young 
plants have to depend on it for their first nourishment, till the subsoil 
has changed its texture, by the action of the atmosphere and manure, 
to a mellow, productive condition. 

If the resources of a forest are near, where leaves, pine straw, rotten 
mast of branches, &c., can be obtained, all these should be collected, 
as the rough material to be thrown in the bottom of the trenches, and 
leaves, &c., mixed in layers with the subsoil. The fertilizing capaci- 
ties of such substances are not of much account, but the advantage thus 
derived keeping the soil loose, to admit light and the action of the at- 
mosphere, is all important. Whatever may serve that purpose, as 
stones, half-rotten stumps, &c., found on the land, and necessary to be 
cleared off, may be thrown in the bottom of the trenches. If sand, the 



AMERICAN GRAPES. 79 

coarser the better, be convenient, it would be well to put it a couple 
of inches high on the top of such subsoil, as it will add greatly to its 
improvement. 

Should the land require draining, this must be done before trench- 
ing; horse-shoe tiles, of four-inch diameter, will answer, but they 
should be laid at least four feet deep, with sufficient fail. 

On a less tenacious soil, with a gravelly, loose subsoil, trenching 
may be performed by horses and plows, which considerably lessens the 
expense. A double Michigan plow jind one of the largest subsoil plows 
would be required, and two double teams for each ; the double plow 
will throw up a furrow about twenty inches deep, while the subsoil plow 
following it will loosen and deepen the soil in that furrow from twelve 
to fifteen inches more. If only two teams are at disposal, they must 
be changed from one plow to the other, going round first with the 
double ploWj and following in the same furrow with the subsoil plow. 
By this mode of trenching, the good surface soil will inevitably be 
buried by the subsoil, and therefore it must be meliorated with com- 
post. Naturally good soils seldom need trenching ; all that is neces- 
sary is to remove all obstacles from the surface, spade or dig the ground 
over to the depth of a foot or eighteen inches, and jDlant the vines. 

Manuring, and the test manure for the grape-vine. — The mineral ma- 
nures, in consequence of their ingredients, have the most effect on the 
quality of fruit, and keep the soil in a porous, mellow, and productive 
condition ; v/hile animal and vegetable manures encourage the forma- 
tion of wood too fast, and make the vine tender and subject to disease. 
Never should fresh animal manure be brought into the vineyard, but 
always be first composted with sod, or good surface-soil and charcoal 
dust, well rotten ; and even then only used when young tender plants 
absolutely need support. On first-class land no manure is required, 
except a little well-prepared old and mild compost, with which to 
start the young plants, and to encourage their formation of roots. But 
heavy soils, after they have been trenched, should be improved by 
sowing leguminous plants on them before planting the grape vine, and 
receive a good dressing of lime. Peas, vetches, or buckwheat, would 
probably answer best ; they should be sown pretty thick, and early in 
the spring ; when they have grown to about six inches, it is time to* 
apply the lime ; twenty bushels per acre will be the least quantity, but 
more may be put on, if convenient. The lime should be strewn, in a 
well-powdered state, early in the morning, when the dew is on the 
plants. After the crop has blossomed, it is plowed under about four 
or six inches deep, and a crop of turnip may be raised on it the same 
year, partly paying the expense. By such treatment, and the appli- 
cation of lime, the soil becomes mild and admirably adapted to support 
the grape-vine ; it can be kept in a highly productive condition by 
alternate application of green manuring and lime, and once in about 
five years of eight hundred to one thousand pounds of bone dust, all 
of which must be plowed under and mixed well with the soil. 

Sandy soil must be treated in the same way, marl and leached ashes 
being added, to make it more consistent. Ashes and lime should never 
be applied with bone dust, as they will weaken its fertilizing capaci- 
ties by driving out the ammonia. The ashes and lime, while they 



80 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

furnish the plants with oxygen, act at the same time, through their 
salinous suhstances dissolving and cooling upon the soil, to keep it 
moist ; the bone dust, again, contains the most nourishing elements, 
which, in addition to the other suhstances, promote the prosperity of 
the grape-vine. When the planting of a vineyard has been concluded, 
resources should he explored whence proper material may he obtained 
for manure. The first step is to begin with a compost heap, which 
should be of such dimensions as to correspond with the size of the land 
to be prepared for a vineyard. A large quantity of charcoal dust, the 
unmarketable refuse, to be had, in most cases, for nothing, if carted 
by one's own team, with leaves, pine straw, and such stuff, which can 
be scraped off in the forest, muck, &c., should be provided ; anything 
raked and swept in the yards, barns, and stables, will be acceptable ; 
nor should be forgotten a large cistern to gather all the liquid manure 
from the animals. When all these materials are at hand, the con- 
struction of a compost heap may be commenced by a layer of sod, 
muck, or good soil, a foot high ; on this, stable manure a foot high ; 
this again covered with charcoal dust tvfo inches high ; now again six 
inches of good soil, sods are best ; on this, manure, leaves, &c., and 
again charcoal dust and sods, or muck, manure, or leaves, &c. ; char- 
coal dust continued till the heap gets six or eight feet high, when a new 
addition has to be begun. The heap should be kept level and not too 
small on the top, so that the air and rain may equally penetrate it. 

In two or three months this heap may be worked over, by which its 
contents will become well mixed and fit for use. But it will improve 
by age. It is often surprising how much material can be collected for 
this purpose, and how clean and neat the while a farm-yard appears ! 
In the same proportion that the land is made productive, so the barns 
and cellar will expand and fill up with treasures. 

Planting the grape-vine. — Before beginning to set out the j^lants, the 
land should be laid off in squares, according to its size, perhaps from 
one to two or more acres, with convenient roads between for the pas- 
sage of teams and carts. On side-hills, impassable for teams, these 
avenues may be narrower. Next to be determined is whether the 
vines shall be trained on trellises or stakes. This will indicate hov^ 
much room they require. In a northern climate, trellis culture is 
preferable, while in the south stake and bow training are more advan- 
tageous. The reason for the northern mode of training, is to keep the 
vines as high as possible from the ground, as its damj)ness causes rot 
and mold on the lov/er fruit. But in a hot climate, it is desirable to 
have the ground shaded to retain the moisture. Therefore, in this 
case, the vines should be trained low and. on stakes, and the S23ur and 
bow system practised. In regard to the space allowed them, six by 
eight feet will be about the proper distance for trellis culture, and four 
by four for stake and bow training. In the first instance, nine hun- 
dred and seven plants to the acre will be required, and in the second, 
two thousand seven hundred and twenty-two. The rows should run 
from east to west, to receive the first and last rays of the sun, at morn- 
ing and evening, on as large a surface of the ground as possible. After 
the course of the rows has been decided, the distances for the plants in 
the rows are measured, and a stick inserted where the vine is to be 



AMERICAN GRAPES. 81 

l^lanted ; then the holes are made, which should he a foot deep and 
three feet wide. A shovelful of good mild compost is put into each 
hole, and well mixed with the soil ; heing ready for planting, the dif- 
ferent varieties are counted over, and the places for each selected. 
Every variety has its own merits. 

To make a good wine, free from that peculiar taste which wine has 
when made from one variety, several kinds must be planted, selected 
with regard to their qualities ; one to furnish hulk, another to give 
body and consistence ; one to be rich in sugar and vinous acids, an- 
other to furnish flavor, another aroma, another color, and still another 
to unite all these qualities, &c. The nearest proportion of one to the 
other of the varieties here named, or rather their requirements to 
make 100, would be : 60, 20, 3, 3, 9, 5. 

Of rooted plants layers are the best, they having completed the 
formation of roots, and being able to bear the second year after trans- 
planting ; sickly, tender, and poor-rooted vines can be rejected, as 
there is a chance to examine them. It requires two persons for plant- 
ing, one to take the plant and spread out the roots evenly in the hole, 
while the other brings in the soil, well pulverized, shovel by shovel, 
and keeps gently moving the plant up and down, in order that all the 
fibres may come in contact vfith the earth, and no cavities be left 
among them. After the hole is filled, the earth is pressed down 
gently with the foot, and thus is the work finished. 

When no rooted plants are at disposal, and resort must be made to 
cuttings, they should be five eyes long ; the instrument described on 
a previous page will be the most convenient to plant them with. Of-* 
course, no holes need be dug, but the places will have to be marked by 
a stick. They are planted by couples, that is, two at a place, and 
pushed in, slanting, to the last and uppermost eye, leaving one eye 
only above the surface. In the north, the spring is the best time for 
planting ; while in the south, the fall is best for rooted plants, and 
spring for cuttings. Kooted plants have to be cut back to two eyes, 
the young shoots of either are left without tying the ensuing season, 
as they will get a stronger body by being left loose, and in a bending 
position. 

In northern countries, especially in the New England States, there 
is, at present, but little choice among varieties ; the Diana, Delaware, 
Isabella, Catawba, &c., will not ripen there ; with a few exceptions, 
in very favored localities at least, their maturity cannot be depended 
on in general open-vineyard culture. But the Concord, Hartford Pro- 
lific, and several of those investigated and noted contiguous varieties, 
can be relied on, such as Case's Crystal, the Bartlett, Dracut, Amber, 
&c. Together, if cultivated well, they will produce a pretty fair wine. 
In milder climates there is less difficulty in choosing the proper vari- 
eties for a good wine ; besides of several highly improved native 
grapes, German and Hungarian varieties m.ay be cultivated with suc- 
cess, if £^ttention be paid to their habits and qualities. In all cases 
their time of maturity should be alike, that they may be gathered 
simultaneously. 

Pruning and training the grape-vine. — This is one of the most essen- 
tial points in grape culture, as development and productiveness arc 
6 A 



82 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

directly affected by it. The proper knowledge can only be acquired 
by practice and experience. It would be prudent for an inexperienced 
person to engage a practical vine-dresser to j)rune bis young vineyard 
once or twice, and accompany liim and take lessons, rather than to ex- 
periment himself according to the wild, unsound theories prescribed 
by professional book-makers. It is easy to give rules in general reli- 
able, but there are often circumstances in which none of them can be 
ap]3lied, when the theorist is no longer able to decide his course. In- 
deed, it requires practical knowledge to prune and train a grape-vino 
well. Much has been done, in those countries of Europe where the 
grape-vine is cultivated, for the education of practical vine-dressers, 
either by their respective governments or by agricultural societies, 
schools having been established especially to promote that branch of 
horticulture. 

The best time to prune the grape-vine is late in the fall, or, when 
the weather permits, during winter, as the plant is then in a dormant 
state. The young rooted vines, or layers two years old, which have 
been cut back to two eyes by transplanting, will have made two shoots 
during their summer's growth; these are pruned back, if trained on 
trellises, to six eyes each; if on stakes, one to six eyes; the short end, 
called the spur, to furnish bearing wood the next year, and the long 
end, or bow, to bear fruit. On cuttings, the single shoot which they 
produce the first season is pruned back to two eyes, and so all young 
and tender-rooted vines. During the ensuing summer nothing more 
is to be done than occasionally to tie up the young, growing shoots, 
and keep the weeds down l3y plowing or hoeing. Fruit-bearing 
branches must be nibbed back two leaves above the bunches. A crop 
of turnips, carrots, or cabbage may be raised that season, which will 
facilitate the growth of the young grape-vine. 

The second year, on the strongest vines — now four years old — both 
ends are lengthened by six eyes from the young wood, and the rest cut 
off; from the side shoots all new wood is removed, except one spur of 
two eyes on each shank, for making new wood ; the following spring, 
these two shanks are tied horizontally on the first wire or lath of the 
trellis. During their summer's growth, all the shoots on the bearing 
canes are nibbed back to the second leaf above the fruit, as soon as the 
fruit has well set, and water-shoots broken off as soon as they apjDcar. 
The shoots from the lowest buds on the spurs, after they have made 
two feet growth, are pinched in two, and the other shoot is allowed to 
grow ; all the young shoots must be tied up several times through the 
season. The third ^''ear, the longest canes from the spurs are trained 
up to the third wire, or lath^ or both, of the trellis, and cut according 
to the length required, to permit them to be tied on one foot long, 
horizontally. Every second bud on the vertical part of these canes is 
broken out, the rest left for fruit spurs ; and the short shoots on the 
spur are pruned back to two eyes, to bear. After this, the vine must 
b» kept in such trim as to produce alternate fruit and bearing wood. 
Those canes which had fruit are pruned back to one eye, to make bear- 
ing wood for the next year, and alternate canes to two eyes, to bear 
the present. It requires skill and experience to manage vines on trel- 
lises, in order to get large crops without weakening the plant. 



AMERICAN GRAPES. 83 

There are many different modes of training vines on stakes, accoid- 
ing to the soil, climate, and skill. They may be trained without 
stakes, on one or more, in spiral or pyramidal form, &c.; but the 
most common and simple manner is the spur and bow system. The 
second year they are cut back to two buds, of which two canes are 
obtained. The third year, one of these is cut back to a spur of two 
eyes, the other to a bow of six eyes ; the first to form wood for the next 
year, and the other to bear fruit. The fourth year, the bearing cane, 
or bow, is cut back to two eyes ; the canes on the spur one, which is 
the lowest, to two ; and the other to six or eight eyes. The fifth year, 
and thereafter, there will be two shanks, each with a spur and bow, 
changing alternately to spurs and bows. The length of the bow must 
correspond with the age, strength, and condition of the vine. All the 
wood on the young bearing shoots must be pinched ofi", after it has 
grown two leaves above the fruit. Water-shoots, and those which are 
not wanted for either spurs or bows, are taken off" by summer pruning. 
In bending and management of the bow lies the art to raise large, fine 
clusters of superior qualities, without straining the bearing capacities 
of the vine. Bows and fruit spurs must always be bent, in order to 
concentrate the sap in the fruit buds and check the formation of wood. 
For this reason, also, they must be cut loose from trellises or stakes 
in the fall, and, after pruning, left hanging down on the ground during 
winter. In the spring, after the vines and bows have been tied up, 
and the ground is dry and settled, all the dew-roots, or small fibres 
near the surface, are cut off; a heavy-pronged hoe is used for the pur- 
pose, to remove the ground about six inches deep from the vine, to 
facilitate this work; the soil is put back again afterward. 

The object of this operation is to induce the vine to push its roots 
deep in the ground, for better nourishment, and to check its tendency 
to superabundant wood. By this mode of root pruning, it is easy to 
keep the vine in proper bounds, to render suckers and water-shoots 
less prolific, and greatly to improve its fruit. Stakes will last twice 
the time if they are taken up every fall, and put under cover during 
winter, or, at least, piled up, bottom point uppermost. About a fort- 
night after root pruning, the soil needs stirring; if this can be done 
with horse and plow, it will be an easy task, otherwise it must be 
spaded or hoed ; the garden fork will be the best instrument. This is 
a good time, also", to manure with lime, ashes, or bone-dust, and mix 
them with the ground. 

After the second summer pruning — that is, when the fruit is nearly 
full grown — another plowing or digging of the ground is necessary, in 
order to keep the weeds down and the soil open and free to the action 
of the atmosphere. When the fruit begins to color and ripen, it is of 
great importance for its perfection, as well as to strengthen and mature 
the new wood, to top the young shoots which are left to grow as bear- 
ing wood for the next year, and thus to check their growth. During 
the summer, indications of disease often appear on the vines, which 
may occur from different causes ; they are perceptible in the color of 
the leaves when they assume a dull, pale, yellow color, commonly 
after several rainy days, or sudden changes of the weather from very 
hot to cold, chilly, and cloudy days. When the leaves having this 



84 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

appearance begin to shrivel up, insects will be found tlie cause — the 
aphis — which will generally appear after very hot days and thunder- 
storms, the sun coming down hot on them, while dripping with water, 
and no motion of the air. In both cases their organism and functions 
are irritated and made sick. The best preventive is a high, free, and 
open position ; the cure, the application of plaster or sulphur. There- 
fore, plaster should always be kept in readiness. In either case, a good 
dusting of it all over the vines early in the morning while the dew is 
on, and this several times repeated, will excite the action of the leaf 
again and destroy the insects. Sulphur, as it is more expensive, 
may be reserved for other and worse diseases — the rot or mold on the 
fruit. If this makes its appearance, a good dusting of ^t will stop the 
disease. But, again, a high, free, open position, and a gravelly, 
porous soil, are the best preventions. 

Protection of tender plants during the winter.' — With very little 
trouble, tender plants may be protected from the destruction of a 
severely cold winter, and foreign varieties cultivated with success, even 
in a northern climate. All that is necessary is to lay the vines flat on 
the ground late in the fall. With the garden fork the soil is taken 
up about nine inches deep on one side of the vine, which will prevent 
it from breaking, and brings the vine so much better down and even 
on the ground ; after this object is gained, the earth is replaced and a 
few forks full added; the canes are taken together, laid down, and 
covered at some convenient place with earth or stones to keep them in 
such a position. This simple operation will preserve them in a sound, 
healthy condition, and increase their fruitfulness. In the northern part 
of Germany, where corn cannot be grown on account of the coolness of 
the summer, the highest cultivated varieties of grape-vines are pro- 
duced with good success; the winters there are as cold as in the 
northern parts of our country^ and would destroy the plants as well as 
here if they were not thus protected. As a proof that foreign grape- 
vines can be cultivated in this country, even as far north as Boston, it 
may be stated that Mr. Harding, of that city, has cultivated and fruited 
the " Sweet- Water" in open ground for many years with great success ; 
and, in fact, this vine looks as healthy and thrifty, and bears as re- 
gular and large crops as could be expected from the best treatment 
under glass. So has Mr. Syiferman, in Maiden, north of Boston, 
several highly improved varieties from the Khine growing in the open 
land of his garden ; such as the Trollinger, Grutedel, Elbing, Traminer , 
and white and black Burgundy, and has obtained from the first kind, 
for five years, a regular and full crop annually. Of course, these 
would be destroyed if left unprotected, or, at least, so much injured as 
to render them subject to diseases and insects. Protection through the 
winter and good culture have proved that foreign grapes can be success- 
fully cultivated in our country. Nothing pays better than a little 
extra care and good management of the vine. 

German, French, and Hungarian methods compared to ours, with 
regard to their adoption. — Although these methods are based on one 
and the same fundamental principle, there are some considerable varia- 
tions in the culture and training of the vine, according to old habits, 
soil, and climate. With the introduction of grape culture into this 



AMERICAN GRAPES. 85 

country by the G-ermans, their system has likewise been adopted. On 
the Ohio, Missouri, and Hudson rivers, south, east, and west, where- 
ever the vine ornaments the land, it has been planted, with very few 
exceptions, by G-ermans; they have succeeded well by their modes of 
culture ; modern improvements in the propagation and culture have 
been adopted, step by step ; so that if we bestow the same care on it as 
in the other country, there will not be much difference from the general 
German system. 

The prevailing French mode is, in general, either the trellis, or bow 
and spur system, practised, perhaps, a little more artfully and exactly 
to the point. But the Hungarians have a different way of pruning 
and training ; they do not allow wood to grow for shanks and branch 
canes, but cut all off, low on the ground, every year ; the stock forms 
a head, from which one or two shoots are allowed to grow and bear ; 
in the fall they are cut off, and the stock covered with coarse manure, 
or litter. One other mode is, to raise alternate shoots, one to bear, 
the other to form wood for next year ; the bearing canes are bent 
down, and a few eyes covered with earth, to strike roots near the top, 
where three or four are left to form a new plant, and bear at the same 
time. Canes thus treated bear very heavy crops, as they have two 
sets of roots for their support. I am not aware whether this mode has 
yet been introduced in our country, but it would be well to try it. 
The vines must be trained to it while young ; the first grow^th will 
have to be pruned back to one eye to form the stock, and afterwards, 
every fall, back to the socket of this bud ; all other shoots, except one 
or two, are broken out. 



THE STATE OF THE GRAPE — WHEN AND HOW IT SHOULD BE GATH- 
ERED, AND APPARATUS FOR WINE-MAKING. 

Signs ivhen the grape is ripe, and may be gathered. — There are cer- 
tain signs when the fruit has attained its perfection : the green stem 
of the cluster changes to a brown, woody color ; the bunches begin to 
hang down heavily on the canes, the berries getting soft; a thin and 
transparent skin ; the juice vinous, agreeable, sweet, thick, and adhe- 
sive ; the seeds free of the pulp, and dry. 

Disadvantage tuhen the fruit is unri^oe, or dead-ripe. — In the first 
case, the formation of sugar is not developed, hence the predominance 
of acids in the wine, and its inferiority. In the second case, the ne- 
cessary vinous acids are last to neutralize, and give character to a 
syrup-like wine, not to take in account the great loss in quantity. 

Gathering , sorting, and transporting the fruit to the press. — When it 
is determined to gather the vintage, sufiicient help should be provided 
in order that enough may be collected every day to fill a large fer- 
menting vat in the evening or night ; sharp pruning knives or scissors 
should be used, to prevent jerking and dropping the berries. When 
a bunch is cut off it has to be examined, and all dry, green, and rotten 
berries picked out and thrown away, while unripe and other imper- 



86 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

feet berries or biinclies should either be allowed to remain on the 
vines, or sorted out and gathered by themselves. The bunches should 
be handled carefully, so as not to bruise them. Clean wooden pails are 
best to use, each hand being provided with one ; and for transporting 
the grapes to the mill or press, a wooden tub, constructed in a cylin- 
der form, but flat on two sides and a little wider on the top, with 
straps, so it can be carried on the back, and holding from two to three 
bushels, will be found very serviceable ; or, if the distance to the press 
is considerable, a wagon with large tubs on it will be required, the 
tubs to have wooden covers. Clear, dry weather must be chosen for 
gathering the grapes, and the operations must not be begun in the 
morning till they are perfectly dry. 

The quality of the wine will be much improved if the grapes are 
visited by a slight frost before they are cut off ; particular pains must 
be taken to have everything used in gathering clean to the utmost ; 
and no lunching or eating should be allowed near the vessels where 
the grapes are kept, as the smallest quantity of bread or any eatable 
coming in contact with the grapes or juice will produce disastrous 
effect on the wine. 

The luine-press and its apioaratus. — In the vineyard culture, a good 
wine-press is most important. It is composed of a platform, frame, 
and screws. The best seasoned white-oak should be used ; the platform 
to be of four inches thickness, the frame of sufficient strength, and the 
screws either of wood or iron, but strong enough to answer the pur- 
pose. A large press with two screws is always preferable to a small 
one, as it performs the work more thoroughly, and a greater part or 
the whole of the vintage can be pressed at once, which is a considera- 
tion in making wine according to the principle that the quicker the 
operation of gathering, pressing, and filling into the casks, the better 
its quality. The press should be near, or above the cellar, with all its 
apparatus, fermenting vats, &c., inclosed in a building erected chiefly 
for that purpose ; and nothing else should be kept in the press-house. 
It should be substantially built, have good ventilation, and be cajDable 
of maintaining an even temperature, as this is very important while 
the must is in its fermenting process. Next to the press, an apparatus 
is required to mash the berries. This may consist either of a grape- 
mill, with two iron rollers or cylinders, a deep, strong-built tub, in 
which they are crushed by a beater, or a j)air of boots with double 
soles and without heels, long tops, and unblackened, to tread the ber- 
ries on the press, or in a box with holes in the bottom to let the juice 
through, having hinges, hooks, and staples on one side to oj)en for the 
mash or trester to be let out. There are cases, also, when, it being 
desirable to exclude the stems, a strong wire sieve, with about an inch- 
wide masher, will be necessary. 

The fermenting apj^iaratus and cas/^s.— The size of the fermenting 
vats should precisely correspond with the dimensions of the vineyard, 
in order to get the whole vintage into one or two. As the average 
yield from an acre of well-cultivated vineyard may be set down at four 
hundred gallons, the vats should be one fifth larger, for the expansion 
of the must while in a fermenting state; by calculation and comparison 
it will be ascertained how large they should be. Well-seasoned, two- 



AMERICAN GRAPES. 87 

incli white oak planks sliould be chosen for the construction, and hoops 
one third of an inch thiol?:, of good soft iron, connected by a screw, 
that they may he loosened or restricted according to the swelling of 
the wood. The proportion should he as three to four, or one-fourth 
higher than wide. When the vat is thus far constructed and set up, 
a false bottom is made, from well-seasoned white pine boards, and 
holes bored all over, for the purpose of putting it on the husks, to 
prevent their rising and coming in contact with the air. Its position 
must be regulated by two or three sticks, of two inches square, let 
through by means of a dozen holes in each, with one wooden pin un- 
derneath and one above the bottom; the sticks or joists to rest against 
the cover of the vat. It may be placed two feet or more under the 
surface of the must, and the pomace kept down that much. 

A strong cover must likewise be constructed as a head for the vat. 
It is fastened on by means of grooves, like the heads in casks. This 
cover should fit well, so that all external air may be excluded, and screwed 
and pinned together in one piece. When putting it in, the screw on 
the upper hoop is loosened, to make it, easy, and when the head is 
accommodated in the grooves the hoop is again screwed tight. To 
regulate the formation of carbonic acid gases and their outlet, and to 
prevent an explosion of the vat, a two-inch hole is bored through the 
head-piece, into which is fitted a tube-bung — a cylinder made of white 
tin. It may be constructed like a yoke-bow, rising with the shank 
fixed in the hole about eighteen inches, and the other end coming 
down within six inches of the cover, and terminating in a vessel of 
water. 

Another hole, three inches wide, is made in the head, into which a 
bung is fitted, with a two-inch hole bored through ; on the toj^ of the 
bung is nailed a piece of sole leather on one side, on which a two- 
pound lead is placed, to hold it firmly and exclude the air ; the leather 
at the same time acting as a safety-valve, in case the gas should de- 
velop very rapidly. As the vat should never be filled to the top, but 
about eighteen inches space left between the head and the must^ another 
small hole is made through one of the staves, to show when the vat is 
filled to that point, which is then closed by a wooden pin or plug. 
Again, another hole is required, about the middle of the vat, to admit 
a small faucet^ by which must may be let out to be examined. Finally, 
a hole is made close at the bottom, for a large faucet, to let off the 
young wine when it has finished its fermenting process. 

There is still a better apparatus for examining the must while in its 
different stages of fermentation, and to indicate the quantity in the 
vat. It is a glass tube, or cylinder, about an inch thick, inserted near 
the bottom of the'vat and forming a right angle, the other end running 
close along the vat to the top, and fastened to it by a staple; the capa- 
city of the vat is indicated by marks on this tube, showing precisely 
how many gallons it contains, with the state of fermentation, and the 
changes of color in the must. When the color of the wine is a great 
object, this is one of the best contrivances to determine when the young 
wine should be drawn from the husks. 

For a small vintage, a large cask or pipe may be fixed up to answer, 
the same purpose ; the head with the faucet hole is taken out, a false' 



88 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

bottom fitted in, a liole for a faucet bored near the bottom, and the 
other fixtures added. 

The casks for receiving the young wine -from the vats should he 
large, holding from one to two thousand gallons each, or the whole 
vintage ; they should be made from the very best seasoned white oak, 
having strong iron hoops, with screws attached, a common two-inch 
bung-hole, and in one head a door, eighteen by twenty-four inches 
wide. The door is fastened on hinges, opening inside, and has two 
stout bolts and a cross-bar of oak outside, with two holes, through 
which the bolts are passed when the door is closed, being further fast- 
ened by two notches with wings. Another small hole is made in the 
middle of the head, in which a wooden faucet is inserted, for drawing 
out samples. The door is intended to admit a man, for the purpose 
of washing and cleaning the cask. 

As such large casks cannot be removed from the cellar, particular 
care is requisite to keep them clean and sweet, but they will last any 
length of time if made of good material. A cask for keeping wine 
should never be used .for other purposes. As soon as it is empty it 
must be washed clean, inside and out, well sulphured^ and the bung 
driven in again. It should be kept in an airy, shady place till wanted 
for use ; the press-house would be the most suitable. 

A couple of pails are necessary for exclusive use in the cellar ; they 
are generally made of oak, and in the form of a vase, having a narrow 
neck, but widening again at the top, which is made of copper 
or iron, the hoops and handle being composed of the same metal, and 
should hold exactly five gallons, being gauged to show by a mark 
each single gallon. 

Funnels of difierent sizes are also wanted, the largest to be made of 
oak wood, holding about six gallons, with a copper or iron tube on 
the bottom, to go into the bung-hole of the casks, and two staves pro- 
jecting three inches at the bottom, for two feet, to make it stand firm, 
a little declining towards the tube-hole. 

Lastly, for drawing wine in or out of the casks a good siphon is re- 
quired. This may be made of tin or lead pipe, but, for convenience, 
should have a small faucet soldered on, as a mouth-piece. All these 
articles should be kept as clean as everything pertaining to the cellar 
and presses, and never used for any other purpose. 

The cellar, liow it should he constructed. — A good, well-ventilated 
and drained cellar is absolutely demanded for wine making. To se- 
cure an even temperature, it must be deep, and arched over with stone 
or brick, the stone-work snaoothed off with plaster, and whitewashed ; 
the floor either of flag-stones or brick ; and to prevent the hot summer 
air getting in, and likewise the cold in winter, a separate entry for 
the steps is required, with a door at the top and another below. Sev- 
eral air-channels or flues must be arranged from the arch to a couple 
offset above the ground outside, The arch is covered with from four 
to six feet of earth. And this is now the most practical spot to build a 
house large enough to contain the press, a fermenting room, with con- 
veniences for heating, connection by conduits with the cellar, and 
perhai)s a separate room for distillery apparatus. 



AMEEICAN GRAPES. , 89 



WINE-MAKING. 



Making luliite wine. — To make a first class white wine, only white 
grapes are used ; they are mashed in the apparatus, being fixed on the 
top of the fermenting vat, but not allowing the husks to fall into the 
vat, which, after being mashed, are put on the press, and when the 
whole mass is thus prepared, they are pressed out, and the juice, or 
must, put in the vat. As there are no husks in the vat, the false bot- 
tom is not required. The head, or cover, is now put on, and the 
temperature of the must ascertained by the thermometer. If it is 
lower than 50°, some must is taken out and heated, to warm up the 
whole mass till it comes up to 60°, which is the point it should be 
brought to when fermentation takes a proper course. This tempera- 
ture must be maintained as evenly as possible, and therefore a proper 
room, as already described, with a stove or fire-place in it, will be the 
most serviceable. After the temperature of the must is regulated, the 
bung with the safety-valve and the tube are fixed on, and a small 
vessel with water is placed under the other end of the tube, or cylin- 
der, so that it will reach into the water about three inches. The whole 
work of mashing, pressing, regulating the temperature, and closing 
up the vat, must be performed with the greatest possible speed, as the 
juice begins to ferment as soon as it is extracted from the berries, and 
hj coming in contact with the atmosphere, the most essential part of 
the wine, its chief strength, the alcohol, escapes. In proportion as 
the grape contains sugar, the fermentation of the must will proceed ; 
hence the fermentation of the must from highly improved grapes of 
best qualities, containing much sugar, and a vintage favored with a 
hot, dry summer, will take twice as much time as poor and watery 
juice. By fermentation, the sugar of the grape-juice is converted into 
alcohol, which, amalgamated with the other contents of thp grape- 
juice, forms the wine, at once fiery, aromatic, and pleasant m every 
respect. The dissolution of the greater part of the sugar, and the 
union with the acids gluten, tannin, &c., will have been performed 
when the must begins to get a clear color, an aromatic, vinous taste, 
and quiet ; it is then time to draw it from the fermenting vat into the 
casks, in whicli it will slowly finish its fermenting process. Kich must 
will ferment in from five to eight days in the vat, while that of infe- 
rior quality gets through in two or three days. It is very important 
to have large casks in which to keep the wine, as thus its properties 
and character are much better preserved. 

When the casks have been filled, a similar tube is fixed, as on the 
fermenting vat, with one end in the bung-hole and the other in a small 
Tessel of water. 

Making schiUer luine. — This name signifies a particular color of the 
wine, varying from one hue to another, and to be called neither white, 
yellow, nor red. Grapes of all colors are used in making this wine ; 
they are mashed by putting the mill on the top of the vat, and the 
husks put in it, and fermented together with the must. When they 
are all mashed, or one vat is filled, tlie false or fermenting bottom is 
set in, to keep the husks under the must, and the head and other fix- 



90 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

tures put on. The fermenting of scliiller wine takes a longer time 
and is more stormy tlian white or claret wines ; but this is stronger, 
more fiery, and aromatic, than either. 

The same temperature is required as for other kinds. Much care, 
however, must be taken to watch its culminating point, when the car- 
bonic acid gas escapes furiously, the water begins to roar in the little 
tub, and the safety valve works like a hammer, that nothing may inter- 
fere with the action and function of those agents, on which depends, 
in this critical period, the safety of the whole contents of the vat. 
The agitation may be observed still better in the glass tube connected 
with the vat; but after a short time, only a few hours, the must will 
calm, the fermentation proceed more quietly, and, in two or three days, 
begin to get clear and vinous, which is the time for drawing the young 
wine into the casks, there to complete its fermentation. The husks 
are pressed and the juice obtained added to the rest. As soon as one 
cask is filled, the tube is fixed into the bung-hole, and a small vessel 
of water put under the other end, to keep the air from contact with 
the young wine. The ventilation of the cellar is so regulated as to get 
an even temperature of about 50°. 

Mahing red luine, or claret. — The blue and Traminer-colored varieties 
are used for this purpose ; after the whole vintage, white, Traminer, and 
blue, or black, is m.ade into claret. The color of the juice has to be 
examined, if it be not of the desired dark-red, some coloring matter 
•must be used. There are several harmless substitutes, such as well- 
ripened elder berries, the berries of the hawthorn, &c. Whatever 
kind of berries may be used, they should, in all cases, be perfectly 
ripe ; still better if they have been picked some time before they are 
wanted, and dried in the sun. The quantity of these must be ascer- 
tained by taking a sample of the must and adding berry juice till the 
lesired color is obtained ; but, as the red or claret whines become lighter 
3y age, the color should at first be a few shades darker. 

Claret wine takes more time to finish its fermenting process than 
any other. It is perfected when the color becomes clear, and the taste 
changed from sweet to strong vinous. According to the state of the 
weather and the season, which influence the quality of the grape, the 
fermentation will proceed, but the ordinary period requisite to com- 
plete it is from eight to ten days. When finally fit to draw into the 
casks, the management is the same as with other varieties ; the husks 
are put under the press, and the extracted juice into the casks and 
mixed with the juice first drawn. The sediment or lees, from either 
variety, is saved in a cask for further use. 

The husks, which still contain a considerable amount of wine- 
making properties, after the juice has been extracted from them by the 
press, are broken up fine, put into the fermenting vat, and water, in 
equal proportion to its bulk, is added — to each ten gallons of water one 
gallon of lees — to strengthen and facilitate its fermentation. A light 
but pleasant wine is obtained in this way, which is fit to drink the 
next summer, and will be found, in hot weather, a very agreeable 
cooling drink. All the seeds should be saved, well dried, and hung 
up in bags in an airy, dry place. 



AMERICAN GRAPES. 91 



TREATMENT OP THE YOUNG WINE. 

The second fermentation. — The young wine, after it has been brought 
into the cellar, will go through another course of fermentation, and 
will he more or less agitated for a certain time. The casks have to he 
filled occasionally, and kept full to the hung ; the dissolution of the 
sugar and of the diiferent constituents of the wine will proceed slowly, 
and finally cease altogether ; the undissolved matter settles on the 
bottom of the cask^ and is called lees. When the wine gets to such a 
state, quiet and clean, it is time to draw it off into another cask. The 
casks, before using them, must be well cleaned and sulphured, which 
is done by dissolving sulphur in an iron pan over a fire, cutting strips 
of cotton cloth or linen two inches wide and nine long, and soaking 
them in the sulphur ; then a piece of wire about a foot long is fastened 
to the bung, and the other end bent to a hook, on which is hung an 
ignited strijD of the sulphured cotton^ and introduced into the cask, 
the bung driven in, the cask rolled to and fro, and finally the sul- 
phuric acid gas, which has not penetrated into the wood, let out by 
loosening the bung. 

A siphon, reaching about two thirds to the bottom of the cask, is 
used for drawing. If the empty cask can be placed near enough, so 
that the other end of the siphon reaches to its bung-hole, it is so much 
better, as there is less escape of the gaseous and flavoring ingredients 
of the wine. The rest of the wine which the siphon does not draw is 
drawn off by a faucet, about six inches above the bottom. When a 
cask is thus filled to the bung-hole, the bung is driven in tight. 

In order to preserve the fine, clear condition of the wine, all jerking 
and other rough treatment of \\\q casks must be avoided. The lees 
from the emptied casks are collected into a cask- by itself. 

White wines will have attained the proper condition for drawing in 
a couple of months, wine of inferior quality still sooner, and should bo 
drawn immediately after showing a clear, bright color, as the sedi- 
ment injures its taste and character. 

Schiller wine, according to its quality and intended use, may remain 
some time on the lees, especially if it is designed for preserving to an 
old age ; but in most instances it will improve by drawing as soon as 
it is clear. 

Claret wine, however, should remain from five to six months in the 
first cask and lees. When fermentation is no longer perceptible, the 
cask is filled, the bung driven in, and it is left undisturbed till the 
drawing is finished. The exact period is a matter of fashion, accord- 
ing to the taste and habit predominating in the country where it is 
sold. By letting it stand on the lees for several months it obtains 
more of those peculiar principles, astringency, &c., preferred in a good 
claret. 

No wine should be drawn, and no good wine-cooper will open a cask 
in cloudy or sulky weather, as the wine, coming in contact with such 
an atmosphere, gets turbid and excited ; therefore cool and bright 
days must be chosen for that purpose. AH articles used in the draw 



92 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

ing, no matter how clean they may he kept, should he previously 
rmsed with wine. 

Remedies for fiat and turhid loines. — There are many instances when 
the wine loses its character, either turning flat, or getting excited and 
turhid, when it will he necessary to attend at once to its restoration hy 
applying proper remedies, and prevent it from total destruction. By 
acting according to the principles set down here, such cases can occur 
only by accident ; hut, to avoid the calamity, constant care is requir^ed. 
Tlie causes may he diffeient, hut generally it will he found that 
neglect, merely, or perhaps ignorance of proper management, created 
the trouble. 

When wine becomes flat, it wants stimulating. This may he done 
by various means. The liquid from two pounds of raisins, cut fine, 
and soaked a few days in a gallon of good rectified alcohol, then pressed 
and strained, is mixed with a couple of gallons of the flat wine, heated 
to near boiling, and all put into the cask again. After it has been 
well stirred^ the bung is replaced and left undisturbed for at least two 
months, when it may be drawn into another cask, previously well- 
sulphured. Every thirty gallons will require a gallon of alcohol and 
two pounds of raisins. 

Another good remedy is, from each thirty gallons of flat wine two 
gallons are taken out, two pounds of well-dried grape-seed added, and 
brought over fire ; while it is heating the seeds are stirred and rubbed 
with a beater, and after a while the liquid is strained and put hot into 
the cask again, which is bunged up immediately. Practical knowledge 
and experience are necessary to manage such wines ; but the cause of 
the trouble may easily be prevented by adhering to the general princi- 
ples of wine-making. 

If the cask produced the flatness, the wine must be drawn first into 
another, before anything is done with it. When the wine becomes 
excited, turbid, and ferments again, which may occur often in poor 
cellars, if the weather should change from cold to warm, or if the 
casks have been opened in close, sulky, and cloudy weather^ the diffi- 
culty will be found most likely in the cellar. Wine cannot be ex- 
pected to keep and mature well in a poor cellar, which, perhaps, is 
also used for other purposes. ' 

Sulphur is a good remedy. An empty, clean cask is provided, two 
gallons of the infected wine put in, a strip of sulphured cotton ignited, 
the bung driven in, and the cask rolled. After a while, two gallons 
more of wine are put in, sulphured, and rolled again, according to the 
quantity to be cured ; eight or ten gallons may be impregnated with 
sulphur, or even more ; and finally restored to its stand, and well- 
stirred, with the bung out. 

Further treatment of the wine, and its fining. — After the wine has 
been drawn once, there is still more or less undissolved matter in it, 
which will soon settle to the bottom of the cask and therefore render 
necessary another drawing. This must be done, generally, three or 
four times before the wine gets clear, well-fined, and fit for the market. 
The proper time for drawing will be at intervals of from three to five 
months ; but experience and judgment alone can point out the exact 
period. If it is desired to sell the wine before it has attained its finish, 



AMERICAN GRAPES. \)6 

it must be fined. This is done by taking out of the cask from four to 
five gallons, and adding to each thirty gallons the whites often eggs; 
these are beaten to foam with the wine, finally put into the cask, well 
stirred, and the cask bunged up. 

Or powdered gum arable may be used, in the proportion of one ounce 
to fifty gallons of wine, well stirred with the whole contents. Both 
articles are perfectly harmless to the character of the wine, and en- 
tirely answer the purpose. In the course of from four to six days the 
wine will be in the desired condition to draw and bottle for market. 
It will keep best and improve more in the casks ; but there are several 
instances when, after it has been drawn, and the casks filled, portions 
remain, for which no casks small enough can be provided; it is better 
to draw such portions at once into bottles. Simple as the bottling 
seems to be, yet there are many things to be observed, in order to keep 
the wine well and prevent it from becoming flat and turbid. The first 
and chief requirements are clean, sweet bottles, and new, fresh corks ; 
it must be a rule strictly adhered to, that as soon as a bottle is emptied 
it is to be rinsed out well with water and placed in the open air, on a 
shelf or frame erected for the purpose ; before using, it is rinsed out once 
more, and then filled within two inches of the mouth. The cork, 
which should fit exactly, is dipped into wine, and driven well in. The 
bottles should always be placed in a horizontal position, so that the 
corks cannot get dry and admit air, which is generally the reason why 
the wine gets flat. They keep best if put in dry sand, one above the 
other. As further protection, the corks may be waxed. 

USE OF THE HUSKS, LEES, AND SEEDS. 

Use of the hushs, — These may be differently used ; a pleasant wine 
can be made of them, in the way already described, but a real good 
marketable wine is obtained by adding sugar in proportion to the 
vinous principles, found out by proper instruments, by which all wines 
have to be brought up to a certain standard point, most favorable to 
their development. But, as a description of this modern art of Avine- 
making would require more room than has been allowed, it may only 
be mentioned that a vintage can be increased from a hundred to two 
hundred per cent, without the least detriment to its quality. 

If the husks are not wanted for this purpose, a good vinegar may 
be obtained from them. As soon as they come from the press they are 
broken up fine, and put into a vinegar vat, twice their bulk of rain- 
water added, with two gallons of lees and a quart of beer-yeast to each 
barrel. The vat is set in a warm room, but not in a fermenting room, 
cellar, or anyioliere near ivine, and allowed to stand till the vinegar is 
formed, which is then drawn into barrels, the husks being brought to 
the compost heap, or directly to the vineyard. 

Use of the lees. — The lees contain considerable undissolved sugai 
and other vinous substances, which, by distilling, make a highly fla- 
vored brandy. The quantity may be increased without affecting its 
good quality by adding to each barrel of lees half a barrel of well-rec- 
tified alcohol ; that from potatoes is the best. Let it stand a couple 
of weeks, turning the cask once or twice a day, and finally it will be 



94 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

fit for the still. The remainder in the still, too weak for brandy^ 
makes a good vinegar. Lees are likewise a good stimulant for flat, 
insipid wine, and a portion should always he kept on hand to he thus 
applied. 

Use of the seeds. — G-rape seeds are very valuable for fining and 
iStrengthening the wine ; they may he used either in the manner men- 
tioned, or a few handsful thrown into the cask just as they are. 
They must he well dried, and kept hung up in an airy place. 

DRS. GALL AND PETIOL'S METHOD OF WINE-MAKING, ACCORDING TO 
THE MODERN PRINCIPLES ADOPTED IN GERMANY AND FRANCE. 

In consequence of many failures in the ripening of the grapes, and 
diseases spreading rapidly over the continent, more or less destroying 
the crops of whole districts, grape culturists and chemists began to 
look for remedies and substitutes for those principles in which the 
vintages are deficient. 

Much has been said against this method^ and much suggested to 
neutralize predominating acids without resort to sugar and water, but 
all experiments have thus far failed, either the wine would get flat at 
once, or be unfit for nse on account of its harshness. More than fifty 
years ago, Chaptal, Cadet de Vaux, and other eminent chemists, sug- 
gested that poor wines might be improved by adding sugar ; later, 
Claudot-Dumont urged his countrymen to abstain from the bad prac- 
tice of sweating and mixing their poor wines, and recommended sugar 
as the best agent to improve them. But neither of these chemists 
were able to point out in what proportion sugar should be used to ob- 
tain the desired result. This problem has finally been solved by Drs. 
Gall and Petiol, and approved by such men as Thenard, Dobereiner, 
Von Babo, Bronner, and others. 

Drs. Gall and Petiol both discovered, after many analytical experi- 
ments and researches, that the surplus acids in the grape-juice can be 
turned to good account, by bringing its other ingredients (sugar and 
water) to a proper proportion. Every kind of grape-juice is nothing 
but clear vfater, in which are dissolved from six to thirty per cent, of 
sugar, two to four per cent, of free acids, and from three to five per 
cent, of other matter, or the essence of wine-making principles. Sugar 
converts itself into alcohol by fermenting, and two per cent, of sugar 
will produce, in the average, one per cent, of alcohol ; the free acids, 
if they are in proportion to the other principles, give the wine its 
agreeable vinous character, its flavor, &c.; the last properties contain 
the principles necessary for fermenting, fining, and keeping. Dr. 
Gall has further proved the fact that these different acids in the grape 
do not require particular notice ; it is sufficient to find out the whole 
sum, and then treat them alike. In order to ascertain what per cent- 
age of sugar and acids the must, or grape-juice, contains, two difier- 
ent instruments are required, a "^must scale" and an ''acidimeter ;" 
for the first purpose Oechsle's must scale is generally used, and Otto's 
acklimeter for the second ; on both are the foHowing calculations based, 
illustrative of this method. None of these instruments have been yet 



AMERICAN GRAPES. 95 

introduced into our country, but it may be presumed tliat, when a de- 
mand for tbem shall be manifested, some of the leading druggists will 
respond, and import them. They may, however, be procured at any 
time direct from the manufacturers, Dr. L. C. Marquart, of Bonn, on 
the Rhine, or J. Diehn, Frankfort-on-the-Main. 

Experiments continued for eight years have proved that, in favorable 
seasons, grape-juice contains, in the average, in 1,000 pounds: 

Sugar 240 pounds 

Free acids 6 pounds 

Water 754 pounds 



1,000 



Which proportion may be set down as a normal ; therefore, to obtain 
good wine from a vintage of inferior quality^ these proportions must 
be secured by adding sugar and water. It will be seen that the con- 
tents of the acids are the indicating point as to what quantities of 
sugar and water would be required to bring the wine to such a normal 
state ; further, as has been the case generally, the less sugar the more 
acids. The per cent, of acid in the grape-juice is the basis on which a 
calculation must be founded. 

All practical grape-growers and wine-makers in Germany and 
France admit that a wine containing the proportion of sugar, acids, 
and water above-described, is in every respect preferable to heavier or 
lighter wines. It has lately been called a " normal wine," and will 
serve here as well as a standard. 

When a must contains, instead of twenty-four per cent., only fifteen 
per cent., or instead of two hundred and forty pounds, only one hun- 
dred and fifty pounds of sugar, but, instead of only six per cent, or 
pounds, nine per cent, of acids in one thousand pounds, the question 
arises, how much sugar and water will have to be added, to bring such 
a must to the proportion of a normal wine? To solve it, we calculate 
thus : if, in six pounds of acid, in a normal wine, two hundred and 
forty pounds of sugar appear, how much sugar is wanted for nine 
pounds of acids? Answer: three hundred and sixtj^ pounds. And 
again : If, in six pounds of acids, in a normal wine, seven hundred 
and fifty -four pounds of water appear, how much water is required for 
nine pounds of acids ? Answer : one thousand one hundred and thirty- 
one pounds. As, therefore, the must which we intend to improve by 
neutralizing its acids should contain 360 pounds of sugar, 9 pounds of 
acids, and 1,131 pounds of water, but contains already 150 pounds of 
sugar, 9 pounds of acids, and 841 pounds of water, remain to be added 
210 pounds of sugar, pounds of acids, and 290 pounds of water. 

By ameliorating a quantity of 1,000 pounds must 

by 210 pounds sugar 
and 290 pounds water, 

we obtain 1,500 pounds of must, consisting of 
the same properties as the normal must, which makes a first-class wine. 
The increase of the quantity is five hundred pounds, or two hundred 



96 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

and fifteen quarts, wliicli, after deducting tlie outlay for sugar, two 
hundred and ten pounds, at twelve and a half cents per pound, amounts 
to twenty-six dollars and twenty-five cents, and, allowing fifty cents 
per quart, leaves a clear profit of eiglity-one dollars and twenty-five 
cents. 

Another illustration, which prohably comes near the qualities of 
northern wild native grapes — already largely manufactured into wine, 
but, for want of knowledge, seldom accepted in market — may be thus 
calculated: Such grape-juice, or must, contains twelve per cent., or 
one hundred and twenty pounds of sugar, and fifteen per cent., or 
pounds of acids. One thousand pounds of such must will consist, 
then, of one hundred and twenty pounds of sugar, fifteen pounds 
of acids, and eight hundred and sixty-five pounds of water. In order 
to neutralize these acids, and make them proportionate, correspond- 
ing vfith wine of a good character and normal state, it will require to 
15 pounds of acids, 600 pounds of sugar and 1,885 pounds of water ; 
as the must contains 15 pounds of acids, 120 pounds of sugar, and 
865 pounds of water, have to be added pounds of acids, 480 pounds 
of sugar, and 1,020 j)ounds of water. 

Such improved must will, therefore, consist of — 
15 pounds of acids, 
600 pounds of sugar, 
1,885 pounds of water, 



2,500 pounds. 

Deducting one thousand pounds of must, which furnished the wine- 
making principles, acids, &c., gives a surplus of fifteen hundred 
pounds, or six hundred and forty-five quarts of must in a normal 
state. Value of six hundred and forty-five quarts, at fifty cents per 
quart, three hundred and twenty-two dollars and fifty cents. Cost of 
four hundred and eighty pounds of sugar, at twelve and a half cents 
per pound, sixty dollars. Net profit, two hundred and sixty-two 
dollars and fifty cents. 

It will be seen that such wine is produced at the small expense of 
nine and a quarter cents per quart, omitting the one thousand pounds, 
or four hundred and thirty quarts, which furnished the wine-making 
principles. But a true estimate of the cost of such a wine from the 
wild native grapes when they have to be bought must be calculated 
thus : 

3,000 pounds of grapes, at 3-| cents per pound |105 

480 pounds of sugar, at 12^ cents per pound 60 

165 



And as one hundred and sixty-five dollars make two thousand five 
hundred pounds of must, or one thousand seventy-five quarts, the 
actual expense is fifteen and one third cents per quart; allowing in- 
terest on capital invested for apparatus, casks, shrinkage, and labor, 
the whole expense will not average twenty cents per quart. 



AMERICAN GRAPES. 97 

An immense field of profitable employment presents itself to indus- 
trious men. In a favorable season a man will g'ather five bushels of 
wild grapes in a day, from which he obtains at least eighty quarts of 
natural wine, while if ameliorated according to Drs. Gall and Petiol, 
he will get one hundred and twenty quarts of good normal wine. 

It is further proved that such wines made according to these princi- 
ples mature at least in half the time required by natural wine, and 
keep better ; consequently, permitting a quicker return of invested 
capital, a Ijetter article for speculation, safe transport to distant 
markets, &c. Thus, too, a good v/ine can be made of an inferior 
vintage, grown in an unfavorable season, and the quantity of a rich 
vintage increased to two hundred per cent., without the least detriment 
to its quality. It is very important that this method should be intro- 
duced into our country ; it will not only encourage people to more 
activity in this lucrative branch of industry, but will furnish us with 
a wholesome and pleasant beverage ; insuring as a pure, cheap article, 
a large consumption and a ready sale. 

Grapes properly cultivated in vineyards or gardens, and in favorable 
climates and localities, will generally contain sufficient sugar and no 
surplus of acids ; so it may appear that there is no need to practice this 
method. But Drs. Gall and others found by analyzing the husks or 
pomace, after the juice had been extracted by means of povf erful presses, 
that these not only still contained a considerable amount of juice, but also 
a great amount of extracts or wine-making principles, in many cases 
sufficient for three times the bulk of the juice previously obtained. 
This fact suggested the question : as there are so many of these valuable 
properties left, and only sugar and water exhausted, v/hy cannot these 
principles be substituted till the other are completely used up ? It 
was found that it could be easily done ! 

The secret of making wine from water was thus solved, and an all-im- 
portant principle for wine-making established. By further experiments 
these speculations not only proved to be correct, but it was in most 
cases impossible to judge which was natural wine, or which the pro- 
duct of this new method ; indeed, the preference is generally given to 
the latter. While natural wine is so very different, according to cir- 
cumstances v/hich prevailed in its growth, such "Gallized" wine is 
always in peri^ct harmony, because its contents are not the results of 
chance, but the close follovf ing of the process of Nature. 

The 2:>ractice of this method is quite simple ; for instance, let the 
vintage be of an average good quality, the must containing twenty- 
four per cent, of sugar and six per cent, of acid, and the quantity ono 
thousand pounds. The grapes are mashed in the usual way, but not 
pressed ; the juice, if it be white wine, drawn off into casks to ferment ; 
if claret or red wine, it is fermented on the husks, as described in a 
former paragraph, and then drawn off into casks. Before this is done, 
however, tv/o hundred and forty pounds of sugar are dissolved in seven 
hundred and fifty-four pounds of water, and as soon as the grape-juice 
is drawn off, this solution is put on the husks in the fermenting vat. 
It is absolutely necessary to have sugar-water prepared and ready for 
an infusion before the wine is drawn from the fermenting vat, and put 
immediately on the pomace as soon as the wine is off, to prevent their 
7 A 



98 AaRICULTURAL REPORT. 

coming in contact with tlie air, getting dry, moldy, and spoiled. It 
is practicable to draw off this infusion once a,nd' put it on the husks 
again in order that their fatty substances may be better dissolved ; but 
this operation has to be performed without delay, as fermentation 
commences immediately*, and must not be interrupted. The water 
used for that purpose should be soft rain or cistern water. A large 
iron or copper kettle is put over a fire and heated, in which the sugar 
is thoroughly dissolved, and then the whole brought to a temperature 
of '70° and poured over theliusks in the vat. 

The'mode of fermenting, temperature, and the entire operation, .is 
the same as before described. To obtain a certain color, it may be 
necessary to let this second wine remain longer on the. husks and in 
the vat. The proper period for drawing will be best found out by often 
examining samples till the desired result is obtained. When this is 
the case, the young wine is drawn off and filled into casks. 

Again, two hundred and forty pounds of sugar are dissolved in seven 
hundred and fiftj^-four pounds of v^^ater put on the husks and managed 
as before stated. Should this second wine, after it has fermented and 
been drawn off from the lees, contain less than five per cent, of acid, 
it will be necessary to add two ounces of tartaric acid to each one hun- 
dred pounds, or twenty ounces to one thousand pounds of wine; the 
tartar is pulverized and dissolved in two quarts of heated wine, which 
is then j^ut into the casks and well stirred. 

After this third wine (second infusion) has fermented and been 
drawn off, the husks are taken out and put under the press, and the 
extracted juice added to the rest in the casks. This wine is treated 
like other wines, only left some time longer on the lees before drawing 
and fining. There is, from one thousand pounds, or four hundred and 
thirty quarts of must, an increase of two thousand pounds, or eight 
hundred and sixty quarts of wine, which, after charging for four hun- 
dred and eighty pounds of sugar, at twelve and a half cents per pound, 
will equal sixty dollars, or not quite seven cents per quart. 

The must-scale and acidimeter have to be used often while such wine 
is in its fermenting process, and before it is drawn off from the vat, in 
order to examine and find out the capacity of the husks, whether they 
contain sufiicient properties for another infusion, or only for 'a part. 
If the result of the examination of the young wine shows an undimin- 
ished amount of acids, the husks will bear another infusion of sugar- 
water to the same amount as before ; or if there is found a deficiency 
of one and a half or two per cent., the quantity of sugar and water 
must be regulated accordingly. For instance^ after the first infusion 
has fermented, the pomace shows a decrease of two per cent, of acids, 
or wine-extracts, but there is still four per cent, remaining, which, if 
fermented with a proportionate quantity of sugar-water, will make as 
good a wine as any. Therefore, to determine of vdiat proportion the 
second infusion should consist, we calculate thus : If six per cent, of 
acids require two hundred and forty pounds of sugar, how much is 
wanted lor four per cent.? Answer. One hundred and sixty pounds. 
Now, if six per cent, of acid required seven hundred and fifty-four 
pounds of water, how much is wanted to four per cent. ? Answer. 



AMERICAN GRAPES. 99 

Five liundred and two and two third pounds. There is CQnsequently 
wanted for the second infusion one hundred and sixty pounds of sugar 
and five hundred and two and two third pounds of water. 

It will sometimes be found that, after two infusions have been fer- 
mented^ and two hundred per cent, obtained, the pomace still contains 
several per cent, of wine extract ; therefore, a third infusion of sugar- 
water may be applied, and a still larger quantity of v^ine obtained. 
The calculation in regard to the amount of sugar and water to be used 
is the same. In either case, should a stronger vinous taste be desired, 
tartaric acid is added by degrees till the object is attained. 

To facilitate these manipulations, it is necessary to construct tables, 
in which the proportion of weight and measure to each other are cal- 
culated. It will be found more convenient in practice to measure the 
must and Vc^ater, instead of weighing, and as must will differ in its 
specific weight, according to its acids and saccharine properties, it is 
necessary to have a table, on which can be ascertained, according to 
the indication of the scales, the exact amount of each. On the table, 
for instance, which has been calculated and constructed to Oechsle's 
must-scale, when ninety-five per cent, is indicated, it will be found 
that the must contains 21.8 per cent, of sugar. The acids and extracts 
which the must contains increase its specific weight, and prevent the 
scale from sinking and showing the amount of sugar correctly, being 
deducted, and the exact amount of sugar found on it. For the acidi- 
meter, a table is constructed, on which is found the calculation how 
the per cents, of acid compare with those of sugar, and how much 
water is required for certain per cents, of acids and sugar in weight 
and measure. 

These tables, as they are compiled in conformity with the scales, are 
generally supplied with the instruments, and with directions for use. 

As the sugar contains more or less water, even when it appears 
perfectly dry, it is necessary, after a certaiii quantity has been dis- 
solved for such ameliorating purposes, to use the must-scale, find out 
how it compares with the intended purpose, and regulate the balance 
by either adding more sugar or water till the desired point on the 
scale is correct. 

It is a matter of course that only sugar of the best quality should be 
used ; grape sugar is the best ; but as this cannot be had cheap and in 
large quantities, white loaf sugar must be used. Still, there is no 
doubt that enough of the former will be manufactured as soon as a 
demand is manifested. 

Since the introduction of this new method of wine-maldng into Grer- 
many, several grape-sugar factories have been established, and are all 
doing well, as the demand for this article increases from year to year. 
Grape sugar can be produced from forty to fifty per cent, cheaper than 
v/hite loaf sugar ; it is, therefore, a great desideratum that this method 
should be adopted. 

It lias been suggested to keep each part of the wine by itself: as the 
natural wine, the first, second, and third, that a fair chance of judg- 
ment may be had ; but afterward, when the result has given satisfac- 
tion, and all doubts are removed, it will be found that no reason exists 
why they sh(^ild not be mixed a,t once, as the care and management 



100' AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

will be considerably facilitated, without interfering in the least with 
its quality. 

But as experience and judgment are required to put this method in 
practice, it will be .best to begin with a small quantity. 

Success will follow good management in this branch, as well as in 
any other of horticulture or agriculture, and more so here, as these 
principles correspond precisely with Nature. 



ON THE PEODUCTIONS OF THE IONIAN ISLANDS 

AND ITALY. 



BY S. B. PARSONS, OP FLUSHING, NEW YORK. 



We landed opposite the little town of Samos, on the island of Ceph- 
alonia. Our ride up the mountain, from this place, was full of inter- 
est, with delightful glimpses of the coast and sea, patches of vines, 
with the peculiar ant-hill culture noticed first in Zante, and wild 
flowers and trees, many of which were new to us. Cyclamens, ane- 
mones, and iris were abundant. The Quercus ilex, or holly oak, grow- 
ing in the plains of large sise, became dwarf as we ascended, until, at 
the greatest altitude, it creeps like a vine upon the ground, in large 
rich masses, v/itll very small leaves. Although flourishing here in the 
snow region^^it has not proved hardy about New York, but would 
doubtless be-so wherever the QiLercus virens, or live oak, will grow. 
With its rich, glossy, holly foliage, it would be a valuable addition to 
our ornamental trees. That which most excited our admiration, how- 
ever, was the Ceratonia siliqica, or carob tree. It is round headed, ever- 
green, with leaves placed and formed like the locust, but thick and 
glossy as the Pittosporum. It bears a pod, which is eaten by cattle, 
and is used largely for government horses in Malta. In Sicily, a spirit 
is distilled from it. It grows wild everywhere, and is said to be the 
same tree which furnished food to John the Baptist. A superior va- 
riety is cultivated by grafting upon the wild species. It would doubt- 
less succeed in our extreme southern States, for we found it on high 
positions, and in the snow region. Some seeds for distribution will be 
forwarded to the Patent Office, and it will be found worthy of careful 
trial, combining, as it does, great beauty with the production of a use- 
ful article of food. 

At one of the villages, we found the women crocheting capes and 
sleeves with a thread made from the fibers of the aloes. The fabric 
v/as light, glossy, and beautiful ; and the fiber could readily be culti- 
vated in our southern States. 

The culture of grape and currant, on Mr. Pana's estate, is very 
thorough. It was pleasant to notice his frank, kind manner with his 
laborers, and their respectful, ready answers. He is said to be un- 
cqualed on the island for the thought and intelligence Which he givea 



THE IONIAN ISLANDS AND ITALY- lOl 

to his estates. His gardens were full of oranges, pears, Japan med- 
lars, grapeS; and quinces, while roses were blooming everywhere. 

We wished to ascend the Black mountain, to see the noble speci- 
mens of Picea cephalonica, which are found here only, and took mules 
up the almost j^recipitous sides, among piles of rocks and stones, with 
a few flowers struggling from among them, and very little vegetation, 
except mosses and the dwarf Quercus ilex. After some hard work, v/e 
reached the forest of pines, and, passing through a part of it, arrived 
at the government cottage, where rangers are kept to protect the wood. 
The sight of the trees fully repaid us. Here were superb specimens of 
Ficea cephaloovica , fifty or sixty feet high, growing where they had 
abundant room to develop, straight as an arrow and symmetrical as a 
pyramid, with the rich, glossy foliage peculiar to the species. Some 
of the specimens had trunks three feet in diameter, and covered as 
much ground as a large live oak in Florida. As the tree is perfectly 
hardy near New York, we were anxious to procure some seed, but 
looked in vain for cones. One was brought us by a ranger, but the 
seed was all worthless. We could now readily understand why it is 
that the French and English have been unable to procure this seed; 
and that the tree is still a rare one in England, notwithstanding the 
great rage there for all fine conifer?e. From the overhanging rocks, 
nearly three thousand feet high, we caught a superb view of the island 
and sea, as the clouds rolled away below us for a few minutes. The 
barren peaks loomed up, white with limestone; rich -olive groves and 
small villages dotted the plain ; and the sea, winding in among the 
islands, gave the coast many little coves with picturesque effect. 

In Cephalonia, the sides of the mountains below the' snow line are 
planted with vines on the steepest declivities. The whole ground is 
white with small pieces of limestone, and these are often a foot deej). 
Among them the vine is planted, and one can scarcely conceive how 
great must be the change, on the appearance of vegetation, from their 
present white barrenness to the living green of the new leaves. No 
soil was to be seen on the surface, where the vines had not yet been 
touched with the hoe. On digging down there is found a rich-looking, 
bright red soil, called te^ra rosa, which is sometimes used for mortar, 
and is evidently full of iron. In some places the vines were planted 
in water-courses, and much earth had been washed away from the 
roots. These are said to produce the best wine. It is evident from 
their experience in Cephalonia that the vine thrives well with plenty 
of stone and surface water. We noticed many fossils, and passed a 
fathomless lake two thousand feet above the sea. The whole, road 
down the mountain was full of glimpses of beauty. In the valley "WS 
again met the luxuriant vegetation which this climate and soil give. 

Cephalonia is not so highly cultivated as Zante, but its specialities 
are the same — currants, grapes, and olives. We saw no cows on the 
island, and but few oxen, of inferior breed, imported from Morea. 
Thero are few horses, and those of inferior character. Fish are plen- 
tiful and good. Lemons and oranges are abundant, but not exported. 
The blood-oranges are the best, and we could hear of no insect upon 
them. They have a singular mode of propagating the lemon, in order 
to insure the same variety. A brancli, two or three feet long, is buried 



102 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. - 

in the ground^ in a sloping direction, tlie upper end being six inches 
below the surface, and several inches of the lower end left out of the 
ground. In other words, it is a cutting reversed. • That part a,bove 
the ground sends up a shoot vfliich grows with great rapidity, vdiile 
the part below remains dormant or decays. Jaj^an medlars grow here 
of large size, and are said to produce fine fruit. Currants are produced 
in large quantities, but with the exception of those of Mr. Pana, the 
cultivation is not equal to that of Zante. 

Olives are cultivated by cuttings, and also by grafting. Twenty- 
five thousand barrels of oil are made annually. The" harvest is from 
October to December, inclusive. The ripest fruit is the richest, and. 
the best is grown on the hills. Five to forty bushels are produced by 
a tree, and one bushel will make two gallons of oil. 

Near Lixuri is a heavy gray argillaceous soil, and all along the coast 
are numerous marshes, which could be easily drained and thus ren- 
dered extremely fertile. 

The caper grows wild, but is never prejoared for exportation. A list 
of about two hundred species of plants and trees found in Cephalonia 
was obtained, which, if desired, will be furnished to the department. 
Of these. Salvia officinalis is used for asthma, Golutea arhorescens in- 
stead of senna leaves, (this is hardy near IST.ew York,) and Phytolacca, 
applied externally, is considered a specific in cancer, producing exces- 
sive pain and inflammation, and curing in six or eight weeks. 

Orange trees, the size of full-bearing apple trees, and filled with 
fruit; Japan medlars, fifteen feet high; Portugal laurel, of the same 
height ; large and beautiful specimens of Lauristinus, in full bloom, 
(and this in January;) pride of India; immense cactus and aloes ; large 
acacias ; a sort of Gleditschia, the pods of which are sold in the market ; 
date palms, myrtle, pine, cypress, and olives, clothe the valleys and 
hills. The olives, unlike the Italian, were very large and spreading, 
and their trunks split and perforated, often to such a d.egree that one 
wondered vfhere vitality could exist. The French cut down most of 
the finest trees during the rule of the first Napoleon, and after the 
island Avas delivered to the English, in 1815, the government oifered 
a shilling bounty for each tree planted, hoping thu^ to encourage their 
grov.^th. It was partially successful, and there are nov/ a great num- 
ber of fine trees upon the island. The only kind grov/n is the small 
variety, for oil. A large variety, used for pickles, is produced upon 
the adjacent island of Paxos. 

Corfu has a great abundance of rich soil, but is not under good cul- 
ture. The ruinous metayer, or contract system, prevails here, and few 
cultivate their own lands. They are let out on short leases, for one 
third or one fifth of the produce. For want of intelligent manage- 
ment, the olive and vine, of which three fourths of the culture con- 
sist, are very much neglected. The vine is of the poorest quality, 
while the olive trees are too thickly planted for ventilation, and never 
regularly pruned nor dug. Instead of being carefully picked, the 
fruits are allowed to fall, from October to Aprils and many are half- 
rotten before being pressed. Sometimes they are stored and salted, 
until a more convenient time for manufacture. The ripe olives make 
better oil, but not of such fine appearance as the unripe. The trees 



THE IONIAN ISLANDS AND ITALY 



103 



blossom in April and ripen in October, when tlie fruit harvest begins. 
The soil is a very rich, stiJtf, tenacious clay, retentive of moisture, and 
interspersed with stone and rock, of limestone and silex. Arable land 
bears a small proportion to woodland and pasture. 

Quercus aegilops is found in the mountaiii,s, and its acorn, called 
halania, is sometimes used for a dye-stuff. Figs, pomegranates, 
apricots, almonds, plums, peaches, and melons abound, and there is 
some culture of the cereals. Oranges fruit and flower together through 
all the year. Apricots, almonds, plums, andpeaches flower in February. 
Peas, beans, potatoes, and cherries ripen in April. The hay harvest 
is in May ; that of barley, oats, wheat, and flax in June. Indian corn 
and millet generally ripen in August, but sometimes, in bad years, not 
un'cil September or October. The vintage begins the latter part of 
September. 

The following table, obtained from the garrison librarian, will give 
the best idea of the temperature. It is the monthly average for ten 
years : 





1^ 




3 


< 






1-3 


3 
fcs 
3 

<: 


m 


.3 
O 

O 


> 


SI 

S 
o 

a 




5Si 

47' 

56 

7.40 


59 

48 

36 

5.27 


64 

51-i 

40' 

3.74 


70 

57 

44 

1.60 


79 

6,5i 

52 

0.69 


87i 

72i 

58i 

0.70" 


91 

77i 

64 

0.23 


88 
76 
63i 
1.36 


8U 

70' 

58i 

3.17 


65i 

53' 

5.86 


6Si 

57| 

44i 

7.25" 


62 


Mean 


49-! 




5.47 







In 1839, there were 17 inches feil In November. 
In 1842, there were 19 inches fell in January. 

There are no animals peculiar to Corfu. Pasture is scarce, and cat- 
tle are brought from Albania. Dogs are reared with great difficulty. 
The birds most common are havfks, owls, crows, partridges, quails, 
woodcock, snipe, plover, wild duck, and pigeons, the last in large 
quantities. Eggs are abundant, and good butter and cheese are made 
from goat's milk. The fuel is wood, charcoal, and cliosto, or refuse 
fi'om the oil mills. The peasants are industrious and thrive well on 
their daily allowance of food, which is two pounds of coarse bread, 
seasoned by a few cloves of garlic, with a little weak wine. Meat is 
almost an unknovv^n luxury with them, although we noticed in the 
market some fine turkeys and chickens, for the use of the wealthier 
classes. Among the peasants are several curative practices which they 
think specifics. They treat the pip in fowls by removing the crust on 
the tongue, and then making them swallow it in oil, v/hich purges 
copiously. Convulsions in goats are cured by a seton thrust through 
the cartilage of the nose. Setons of green hellebore are inserted in 
horses for pectoral diseases. To prevent hydrophobia, a paste of 
verhascwn and cantharides is given dogs. Teucvium tincture is used 
for intermittent fevers. Excellent honey is made, and Melissa officinalis 
is cultivated for the bees. Or ganum vulgar e i^ used for dying wool 
purple, and Juncus acutus is gi'0V\ai for the manufacture of mats and 
cordage, but too limited in extent to' afford any opportunity of ex- 
amining its culture. 



104 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

We cannot liear of any insect upon the orange or lemon. The olive 
appears to be infested by an insect, which caused knots upon the limbs, 
similar to those which grow upon our plum trees. There is also an 
insect, something like the curculio, which destroys the kernel of the 
olive. They are sometimes collected and destroyed by beating the 
tree. There are also knots upon the olive similar in character, though 
not in shape, to the knees of the cypress^ which are so much dreaded 
by travelers in our southern swamps. These are about the size of tv\^o 
hands, and are planted to produce young trees. It is difficult to obtain 
them in any quantity, on account of the unwillingness of proprietors 
to have their trees mutilated. The olive grows fast in a warm climate, 
biit very slow in its northern limit, which is about the latitude of 
Lyons. Those from the north, would doubtless be most successfuHn 
the United States. The Lucca oil is considered the best, from the fact 
that a superior quality is made from trees grov/n in high situations, 
where ice is often found. Slopes of our Allegiiauies present favorable 
sites for this culture. The high lands are also esteemed best for vines, 
and produce the finest wines, although the plains yield more abund- 
antly. 

Near Catania is a highly-cultivated J'egion, with vineyards of great 
extent, and large fields of grass, wheat, flax, lupins, &c. The vines 
were about four feet apart, and men were plowing between them both 
ways, while others, with hoes, were drawing the earth away from the 
roots, as in Cephalonia. Many of the plants were of great age, with 
stems three or four inches in diameter, and each branch pruned dovv^n 
to one or two eyes. Orchards of lemon and almond trees Avere there, 
and the earth drawn from their roots, laying bare a circle sometimes 
ten or fifteen feet in diameter. The soil is decomposed lava, black, 
like peat, even on higu lands, and must be wonderfully fertile. In 
many places dykes were formed to catch the rain and keep it upon the 
vines as long as possible. We crossed many beds of mountain torrents 
several hundred feet wide and running into the sea. Near Catania an 
immense stream of lava, a mile wide, is piled up in masses, upon which 
nothing will yet grow, except here and there a cactus, the acrid nature 
of which is said to aid in disintegrating the mineral. 

As we approached Catania there Avere evidences of higher cultivation, 
and pleasant-looking country houses, with their gardens, were fre- 
quent. Fields of mustard, with their light and vivid green, had a 
growth of a foot even thus early in February ; indeed, all the vegeta- 
tion evinced the richness of the soil and the tropical nature of the 
climate. 

Oranges and lemons were abundant, and we occasionally ate some 
Indian figs, which were pleasant, but rather too sweet. The sharp 
spines with which they are covered render gloves necessary in handling 
them. The best fruit we found here were some delicious pears, sold at 
a cent each, and the Limoncelli apple, which grows upon the slopes 
of Mount Etna, and has a delicate sub-acid flavor. 

In the vicinity of Palermo we visited the agricultural school, com- 
menced in 1848 under the private endowment of the Due Castel Nuovo 
of $5,000 per annum. The director receives $500 annually, the chap- 
lain, who also teachesj |325, and the Lancasterian teacher |90, It is 



THE IONIAN ISLANDS AND ITALY. 106 

connected witli 130 acres of land, composed of red calcareous soil, allu- 
vial and rich. The plantations of manna and saffron were the most 
interesting. The ash trees ibr the manna were planted ten feet apart, 
and the bark on one side was full of incisions, from which the gum 
had issued. There v/ere good plantations of oranges and lemons, but 
it was too early to see their 'growing crops. The building is Grecian, 
of very tasteful design, with bed-room, dining-hall, and school of 
ample size. A very fine collection of 230 varieties of the woods of the 
island was shown us. The ornamental grounds are tasteful, with 
trimmed cypresses, seventy years old, and walls painted with good 
landscapes, above Avhich rose at a distance the real mountains. A 
flov,'-er-garcien, in the French style, a statue, and groups of shrubs, 
aided the effect of the scene. There are twenty-six pupils, four of 
whom arc charity, the others paying about fifty dollars a year, which 
sum includes clothing, board, and tuition. Three meals a day are 
given them; breakfast an hour after sunrise, consisting of bread, with 
fruit, cheese, or sausages; dinner at noon, of v/ine, bread, and soup, 
with meat three "times a week, and on the alternate days beans and 
maccaroni, with a ragout on the Sabbath ; supper at eight, of bread 
and cheese, salad, and boiled greens. Napkins were provided, and the 
table-tops were of marble. Five hours a day is devoted to practice in 
the field, and four hours in the school to scientific studies. 

AGRAMI. 

Oranges^ Lemons, and Citrons.- — Of these, the best known and 
most generally cultivated are the common orange and its varieties, 
the blood orange, the Seville or sour orange, and the bergamot ; the 
common lemon, the sweet lemon, and the bergamot; the Florence 
citron, distinguished by its delicate, grateful, and highly-scented 
oil, contained in the rind, and the imperial citron, a rough, irregular 
fruit, growing to a great size, and chiefly cultivated as a curiosity. 
The citron is cut in two, placed in salt water ten or twelve days, then 
laid down in salt, and sent thus to Leghorn, Genoa, and France, to be 
preserved in sugar. These, and all the varieties of the citron family, 
require a v/arm climate, a rich, loamy soil, somewhat loose, and an 
eastern or sunny exposure. Stable manure is used freely, and the best 
fruit is grow^n on the richest soil. An abundant supply of water is 
also requisite, especially for the lemon species^ whose roots, spreading 
horizontally and rarely striking deep, are most exposed to the burning- 
heat of the summer. In preparing for a plantation, the ground is 
made gently sloping, with just enough descent to allow water to run, 
and is then dyked in eight feet squares. Every week or fortnight after 
being planted, according to the weather, water is turned on the highest 
of these, and then on each lower one, successively. This is continued 
all summer. As the same water is used by many, some irrigate at 
mid-day, and do not consider it injurious. The trees are grown in 
nurseries, and when of sufiicient size are planted in orchards, fifteen 
icet apart. The lemon, from its more straggling growth, will do better 
at twenty feet. The fruit from ungraftecl trees grows larger, and is 
esteemed as good as that from grafted trees for home consumption. 



106 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

The latter, liowever^ are preferred, for several reasons. Tlie natural 
fruit is more delicate in its texture, matures quicker, and will not keep 
so well for exportation. It is also tliorny, and wounds the fruit. 
Trees are sometimes grown from cuttings, but are thought to bear less 
and to be of shorter duration than those from seed. The trees may be 
raised from seed, or propagated by layers and young branches. When 
the plants are cultivated with attention and skill, they come into 
bearing in four or five years. In ten or twelve years a moderate crop 
is annually produced, and at from twelve to twenty they may be con- 
sidered in full bearing. An average-sized, adult tree will produce 
from twelve hundred to two thousand fruit, although there are many 
larger trees that will yield from four to six thousand. Of these, one 
sixth are unfit for exportation, and are used for home consumption or 
cut up for lemon juice and oil. From the flowers of the orange an 
agreeably-scented water, well known in commerce, is obtained by distil- 
lation. The bitter peel of the sour or Seville orange, as also the orange 
buds or small fruit which are blighted on the trees of all varieties in 
the month of June, afi^ord a considerable article of commerce. They 
are dried, and shipped to Germany and other parts of the north, where 
they are either consumed by the brewers of malt liquors or converted 
into cordials by infusion or distillation over spirits. The fruit intended 
for exportation is gathered with the greatest care, and deposited in 
baskets lined with sacking or hemp cloth. The sound and most perfect 
being selected, they are wrapped in a light-brown, thin paper, imported 
from Genoa and Trieste, the rags composing Vvdiich go from Sicily. 
Large sums are sent annually to Genoa for its j)urchase. They are 
then packed in light, boxes, double-lined with this paper. This gath- 
ering and packing continues from November to March, and is done by 
men, v.^omen, and children, in the country, under a contractor, who 
receives eight cents for each box of three hundred and sixty. In this 
shape they are brought to the city store-houses, where, after remaining 
eiglit or ten days, they are all unpacked and examined, and any orange 
or lemon showing the least scratcli or blemish is cast into a bin, to be 
sold in small quantities to the city retail dealers. The perfect ones are 
then again wrapped and packed as before. If, by some accident, they are 
not shipped, the same process is repeated every two weeks, so that when 
shipped they are always perfect, and likely to keep for a long time. The 
assorting and wrapping- by women, at eighteen cents a day, and packing 
by men, at thirty-two cents, requires some skill a-nd dexterity to suit 
the numbers contained in the cases to the customs of the country to 
which they are to be sent. Each case is divided across the middle into 
two equal parts, in each of which the fruit is arranged in five tiers. 
Children are employed in smoothing the papers taken from the fruit in 
the unpacking, and these children earn about two cents per day beside 
fruit enough to eat with their bread. 

Of lemons intended for England and America, the usual number in 
such cases is three hundred and sixty ; of oranges, the size of the case 
for which is smaller, the number is two hundred and forty. The first 
shipment of lemons, called "di jyrimi fiori," takes place in September; 
they are considered much inferior to the subsequent gathering, from 
November to January, as they have a hard, thick rind, and contain 



THE lONIAlN ISLANDS AND ITALY. 107 

little juice. These are mostly sent to Trieste, and to the markets in 
the Mediterranean, while some few find their way to England, as early 
shipments. Lemons for exportation should weigh at least three and a 
half ounces each, have a firm rind, moderately thick, ahoundvfith acid 
juice, and not he unripe. For this latter quality, the fruit which is 
gathered and packed green, in the early part of the season, is greatly 
to he preferred for foreign markets. About the month of Januar}^, 
the lemons, approaching to maturity, hegin to change their color on 
the tree, from whicli time they gradually decline in quality for long- 
voyages, until the month of March, when, the trees heing exhausted 
of their fruit, the gathering season closes until the new crop comes 
round. A sufficient quantity of fruit is always kept upon the trees for 
home consumption until the next season. The most considerable, and 
sometimes the most valuable portion of the fruit, is the scartito, or that 
rejected as unfit for exportation, from whicli the essential oil, contained 
in the rind, and the juice or citric acid in the pulp, are extracted. The 
essential oil is expressed by the hand, in a room from which the air is 
carefully excluded, as, owing to its highly volatile nature, the oil pro- 
duced would be greatly diminished by currents of air. The skin cut 
from three sides of the lemon is pressed between the thumb and finger, 
and ten or twelve ounces may be expressed in a long day by an expert 
and stead}^ workman. The oil thus expressed is put into large re- 
ceivers, whence (after remaining some days to d.eposit the extraneous 
matter that comes off with the oil) it is transferred to copper bottles, 
for exportation. 

The juice, or citric acid, is obtained by submitting the pulp to a pow- 
erful press, which, though rustic in construction, is efficient. This is 
worked during the season night and day. The cjuantity of juice pro- 
duced from one press during twenty-four hours averages one hundred 
and twenty-six gallons. In the average of the season, it requires from 
ninety-five to one hundred and five lemons to produce a gallon of juice. 
The amount of the annual produce cannot easily be ascertained. The 
produce of the district of Messina, including imports from the oppo- 
site coast of Calabria, is- stated at two hundred and forty-two millions 
of gallons. In seasons of great demand, any quantity maj be pur- 
chased, the requisite amount being fraudulently made up by water 
mixed with the juice of the sour or Seville orange and that of the 
sweet orange taken in its green and immature state ; sometimes the 
adulteration is with the juice of unripe grapes. 

Lemon juice intended for exportation is put into strong and vfell- 
seasoned oak casks, and filled to the bung, so as entirely to exclude 
the air. When the lemon juice is originally of a good quality, and 
the filling of the casks is completed, the article may be kept in a cel- 
lar, or cold place, for any reasonable time. By injudicious manage- 
ment, rather than from natural defect, lemon juice shipped to foreign 
markets was formerly spoiled before it reached- its destination. To 
obviate this evil, a British merchant established in Messina, in 1815, 
a manufactory, on a large scale, for crystalizing the citric acid. This 
process, however, being found expensive for consumers in general^ a 
new mode was introduced, of evaporating the juice over steam, in 
leaden pans, four or five feet in diameter, by which tlie watery parts 



108 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

of the juice being thrown off, there remained nothing but the citric 
acid and mucilage, in a highly-concentrated state. This was found to 
answer the purposes of calico printers and other great consumers so 
completely, that almost all the lemon juice now shipped from Sicily 
is boiled down to any given strength ; the degree of that strength, 
ascertained by a hydrometer contrived for the purpose, determines the 
amount of the duty to be levied on the import. 

VINE. 

Unlike some other vegetable productions of the island, the cultiva- 
tion of the vine is not limited to any particular district or aspect. It 
flourishes equally well on the mountains and in the plains, on the sea- 
coast and in the interior, in the north and in the south. 

The difficulty of transportation in so mountainous a country as 
Sicily naturally promotes the most extensive cultivation toward the 
coast. That in the interior is principally limited to the vicinity of 
large towns, for the consumption of the inhabitants alone. 

Generally speaking, the black grape predominates throughout the 
island, and from this and the white, too often planted promiscuously, 
an endless variety is cultivated in every province. In laying dov/n a 
new vineyard, the land, which should slope southerly, is iirst well 
cross-plowed, in the month of isTovember, and allowed to rest till the 
middle of January. Trenches are then dug, about five feet deep and 
from four to five feet apart, which are left open to ventilate about fif- 
teen days. The plants, which are vigorous cuttings of the former 
year's growth, taken from some neighboring healthy vineyard, and 
generally from eight to ten feet long, are placed upright in the 
trenches, at a distance of five feet apart, the trench being then filled 
in to the depth of three fiset. The upper end of the cutting or magli- 
nolo, as it is termed, is then turned down with its point stuck into the 
ground to keep it fresh. 'As the season advances: and the plant begins 
to vegetate, the remainder of the trench is from time to time filled in. 
In the succeeding winter the plants are attentively examined and 
pruned, leaving the most vigorous shoots only with not more than two 
eyes or buds. The vineyard is then hoed up and kept clean from 
weeds, till the end of May or June, a cavity being left around each 
plant to receive the rains. The same cultivation is continued for the 
second and third years, before which the plants do not show any fruit. 
The fourth is generally considered the first year of produce. In those 
districts where canes are to be had, the plants are staked in March and 
April, to which the shoots are attached as they advance in growth, to 
protect them from being broken by the strong northeast winds which 
prevail in June, From six or seven years to twenty a vineyard is 
considered in its prime bearing, though there are many favored by rich 
soil and judicious management, which remain in full bearing forty and 
even fifty years. If the plantation is good, the produce of one thou- 
sand vines, in the seventh year, will be two hundred and thirty gal- 
lons of wine. Where the proprietor holds the vineyard in his own 
possession, the average annual expense of cultivation may be estimated 



TH^ IONIAN ISLANDS AND ITALY. 109 

at from two dollars and fifty cents to three dollars and fifty cents per 
thousand. 

When the owner is an absentee, or puts his vineyard into the hands 
of a metmjer, this latter is expected to reside on the spot and perform 
all the labor, for which he divides the vintage with the landlord in 
equal parts, measured at the press. The expense or cost of the canes 
is borne equally by the landlord and metayer, and cuttings are also 
divided in equal portions. These agreements are always in favor of 
the landlord, as, the metayer being unprovided with casks or stores to 
deposit his portion, the whole goes into the hands of the landlord, who, 
about Christmas, holds a meeting with other landlords of the same 
district, when a price is fixed at which tliey are to settle with the me- 
tayers, deducting one half the expense of the vintage. The price is 
always much under that at which the wine maybe sold when matured, 
but the landlord considers himself entitled to this advantage for the 
expense of providing casks and stores, the possibility, in unfavorable 
seasons, of the wine turning sour, the bursting of casks, and similar 
accidents. 

The vintage toward the coast commences, in favorable seasons, from 
about the 20th to the 25th of September, but in the mountains and 
the interior a month later. Every vineyard of any extent is provided 
with apalmento and wine-press, generally constructed in some shed or 
convenient out-house adjoining the dwelling of the metayer. This 
consists of a substantial stone cistern built upon the floor of the press 
room, about three feet deep, and proportioned to the extent of the vine- 
yard, having an opening at the bottom, or one side, into which is 
introduced a Stone gutter, projecting over a well sunk in the ground, 
and immediately under the wall of the cistern above. Sometimes a 
wooden cistern is used, which is cheaper, and better adapted to our 
economy. The grapes being gathered and thrown into this cistern, 
are trodden by men, when the juice flowing through the gutter is re- 
ceived into the well below. This treading is kept up as long as any 
juice continues to flow, when the husks are collected and heaped in the 
middle of the cistern. Being covered with strong planks, they are 
then submitted to the press. This consists of a beam of timber, from 
twenty to twenty-four feet long, one end of which is let into a hole, 
purposely built in the wall, and to the other is affixed a vertical screw, 
with a huge stone attached, weighing from twenty to twenty-five hun- 
dred weight. This beam passing over the husks, which have |)re- 
viously been collected in the middle of the palmento, subjects them to 
a most powerful pressure, when the stone is suspended by the winding 
of 'the screw. When no more juice flows from the pressure, the husks 
are removed, and the must conveyed to the magazine. The produce 
of this pressing, which brings out the coloring matter from the musk, 
is, in a commercial point of view, considered essential in the quality 
of the red wines. So much is a deep color thought desirable in these 
wines for a foreign market, that it is a custom, in many parts, to spread 
the husks again upon the floor of the palmento, and return the must 
thereon, leaving it two or thr?e days to ferment, thereby more effectu- 
ally incorporating the coloring matter with the wine ; but the practice 
is injudicious, as it imparts to the wine a harsh, acid taste, acquired 



110 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. . 

from the- stalks. For wliite wines, the husks and stalks are excluded 
in the fermentation. 

A good vineyard, in favorable seasons, v^^ill produce about four hun- 
dred gallons of must per thousand plants ; but an average of the whole 
island cannot be calcula^ted at more than two hundred gallons. The 
places for the exportation of Sicilian vfines are Messina, Melazzo, Ei- 
posto, or Mascali, Catania, Syracuse, Mazzara, Marsala, and Palermo. 
Those of Messina and Melazzo are all red, or, according to the term 
of the country, hlack wines. Very little of the white grape is culti- 
vated, and that chiefly intermixed with the red. In the neighborhood 
of Savora, about twenty miles south of Messina, and from Kiposto to 
Catania, and thence to Syracuse, including that district, the cultiva- 
tion of the white grape preclominates ; hence the shipments from those 
ports are principally white wines, and the quality full-bodied and 
strong. A description of muscat is made in Syracuse, and much es- 
teemed for its rich and luscious flavor. 

The most esteemed wines of Sicily, and the most important in com- 
mercial rank, are the celebrated white v/ines of Marsada, Mazzara, and 
the adjoining territories. As far back as I'ISO, John Woodhouse 
settled at Marsala and laid the foundation of the first establishment 
for those wines, which have since obtained the highest reputation. It 
is said, -however, that the success of this speculation was in the outset 
very equivocal. The first shipments were made to America, where it 
gradually acquired reputation ; and about 1802 it was introduced into 
the English fleet, then under the command of Lord Nelson, in compli- 
ment to that oflicer acquiring the appellation of Bronte Madeira; under 
which denomination considerable shipments were subsequently made 
to England. Five other establishments were afterwards founded, and 
have proved ^qyj profitable. Each of these gives employment to nu- 
merous workmen. In those of Woodhouse and Ingham, about one 
hundred, and in those of others, from fifty to seventy, are in constant 
attendance, v\fhose wages and allowance are liberal. A visit to one of 
these establishments is always interesting. The great extent of the 
premises, the neat arrangement of the work-shops, the close attention 
of the principals,- and the incessant activity of the cooi)er and smiths, 
make an impression on the visitor ; the strength of which is heightened 
by the appearance of the v/ine stores, where from ten to twelve thou- 
sand pipes are ranged, tier above tier, extending to a distance of several 
hundred yards. The daily earnings of a family, consisting of a father 
and fom- sons of various ages, might be estimxated as follows : 

Father 28 to 32 cents. 

Son, seventeen years 20 to 24 "^ 

Son, twelve 12 to 14 '' 

Son, eight 8 to 10 '' 

Son, five 2 to 4 " 

Each adult is allowed fire-v/ood for cooking his food^ besides two and 
a half quarts of Vv^ine, and a small quantity of oil, per day. Each boy 
has the same allowance, excepting wine; his ration of which is about 
one quart per diem. 



THE IONIAN ISLANDS AND ITALY. Ill 

The annual produce in Marsala and tliat territory is estimated at 
about twenty-four thousand pipes, of v/liicli one half is supposed to he 
consumed in the country. As the grape is a mixture of both white 
and black, the v/ine, in its primitive state, would be approaching to 
pale-red or cherry color. Artificial means are therefore employed to 
reduce the color ; and though much mystery is affected in the subse- 
quent management, and each establishment pretends to a process 
peculiarly its own, the main secret may be said to consist in frequent 
rackings from the lees, taking care never to disturb it in the spring, 
or during the prevalence of the sirocco or southeast winds. There is 
also a gradual reinforcement of clean spirit; for the preparation of 
which, each establishment is provided with the most modern and ap- 
proved retort. Three or four years are required to make it marketable. 
The neighborhood of Palermo and the surrounding territory produces 
abundance of most excellent v^^ines in greafvariety, both red and v/hite, 
which are brought into Palermo and prepared for foreign markets. No 
less considerable quantities, destined for exportation, are likewise 
brought along the coast to this port, whence extensive shipments of 
white wines are annually made to South America, England, and the 
United States. 

SUMAC, OE RHUS CORIARIA. 

Is a small shrub^ growing from two to three feet in a season, and 
used for its stringent qualities by tanners and dyers. The cultivation 
is confined chiefly to the vicinity of Palermo and Alcamo, the last 
being esteemed the best. It is sometimes adulterated with the leaves 
of the leutish and mjh'tle trees. A soil of moderate depth is required, 
and not too ricli ; for if the growth is too luxuriant, the tannin in the 
plant becomes diluted. Manure, therefore, is never used. Stony 
ground will do very well, although the sumac near Palermo was on 
good rich loam. It will not bear much water, and is therefore better 
on a hill-side, vfith a southern exposure, as the more sun it receives 
the stronger will be the tannin. It could doubtless be grown with 
profit on the dry lands in our southern States. The proper adaptation 
of the land can be ascertained by testing the leaves Vv^ith sulphuric 
ether. In the best sumac, one hundred grains of the powdered leaf 
should give thirty to thirty-five grains of pure tannin. Use as much 
sulphuric ether as will dissolve the sumac, or pass it through the sumac 
till it runs clear, then, draw off the ether by heat, and the deposit will 
be pure tannin. 

The soil is prepared as for potatoes, with furrows from two to two 
and a half feet apart, in which in January or February are placed the 
young suckers two and a "half feet apart. In August, of the first year, 
the leaves on the lov/er part of the branches are drawn off with thumb 
and finger, leaving a tuft on the top. In October the whole head is 
taken off, or sometimes broken, and left ha,nging by the bark till dry. 
The second year, in June, the branches are stripped of ripe leaves; 
and in August, as soon as the v/hole plant is mature, it is cut with a 
sickle down to six inches ; it is then spread out, dried thoroughly on 
each side till entirely cured. The June gathering is omitted in many 



112 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

cases when the plants are not strong. After being dried, tlie brandies 
are put upon a floor and threshed, when the leaves will separate from 
the wood, which is of no value except for fuel. The leaves are then 
ground between two mill-stones, one of which is on edge and revolving 
around a center. We visited a mill driven by steam pov/er, which 
threw out the powdered sumac in large quantities. The air vras iilled 
with fine particles of dust, which covered our clothing and entered th'. 
lungs. It is not injurious, however; for, although it seemed suffoca- 
ting, the workmen will sleep three or four hours successively in it and 
are always remarkably healthy. They were particularly exempt from 
cholera. 

The leaves are readily reduced to powder, v/hile the stems are not. 
These last are then separated by sifting, and the pure sumac is placed 
in bags of one hundred and sixty-three pounds each for shipment. A 
sumac plantation will produce a good article for ten years, and a 
poorer for ten years longer. The same soil will not bear sumac a 
second time, unless cropped by something else for twenty years, nor 
is it then so good as land on which sumac has never been grown. It re- 
quires the usual cleaning, and is hoed in December, March, and May. 
Two thousand pounds of- ground sumac to an acre is considered an 
average crop. 

BARILLA, OR SODA. 

The cultivation of this alkaline plant, which is attended with con- 
siderable expense and requires great labor and care, has lately been 
much neglected, as its present value will hardly remunerate the grower. 
Since the introduction of chemical bleaching, the demand for Great 
Britain, Ireland, and America, has become very limited; while in 
France the extended use of soudefactice has almost exploded the con- 
sumption of the vegetable production. The favorite soil of this plant 
is a fat and putrid earth, and it requires an exposure to marine exha- 
lations, on v/hich the quality much depends. The best is that of Tra- 
pani and the Island of Ustica. After these Terranova, on the south 
coast. The produce of the latter district, however, is supposed to be 
affected in its quality by the sirocco winds, it having been observed 
that in seasons when these winds prevail it is much inferior. 

The superiority of the Ustica barilla is said to be owing to the burn- 
ing of the plant before it is thoroughly dry ; but, if this were the sole 
reason, the jjeculiar process would naturally be adoj)ted elswherc. 

Owing to the state of the roads, I was unable to reach a barilla plan- 
tation even on horseback, but was promised a detailed account, which 
has not yet reached me. 

OLIVES. 

The cultivation of the olive maybe traced among the earliest objects 
of Sicilian industry, and its fruit has ever been considered one of the 
principal sources of national wealth. Only two varieties appear to be 
generally known or cultivated in Europe. The Olea longifolia, the 
spear, or long-leaved European olive, which is chiefly cultivated in 



THE IONIAN ISLANDS AND ITALY. 113' 

the south of France and many parts of Tuscany and Piedmont. From 
the fruit of this species, which is of a hright, lively green, oval and of 
a roughish skin, we are furnished with that delicate oil so much 
esteemed for our tables. 

The Olea latifoUa, or broad-leafed European olive, is the species cul- 
tivated in Sicily, Italy, and the Kingdom of Naples, v/here the trees 
grow to a much larger size than those of the other variety. The fruit 
or berry is also much larger, rounder, smoother skinned, and more 
fleshy, than the olive of France, more productive in oil, and though 
much stronger and less grateful to an American palate, arising from 
an improper mode of treatment, is, nevertheless, from its rich and 
unctuous quality, better suited to manufacturing purposes. 

The usual mode of propagating the olive in Sicily is by grafting upon 
the wild olive, or from strong, healthy shoots, which are thrown up 
about the roots of the old plants. These latter, being detached with a 
portion of the parent root in the months of January and February, are 
plajited twenty-five feet apart, in holes four or five feet deep, previously 
opened and prepared for their reception, and in ten years will become 
bearing trees. The mountain shores, on the northern coast of the 
island, seem peculiarly favorable to the growth of the olive. Along 
the whole extent of this coast, we saw the sides of the mountains and 
intermediate valleys entirely clothed with it ; while in the interior of 
the island and on the southwestern coasts, it is rare to find a few small 
and straggling plantations. Hence, almost the entire produce of oil 
in Sicily is collected along the northern coast, extending from Cape 
Gallo to the Paro of Messina, and thence to Taormina, about two hun- 
dred miles, including Palermo and its dependencies. From the quan- 
tity of oil made on the estates of small proprietors, and consumed for 
domestic use, it would be difiicult to give any accurate statement of the 
entire annual product, though it has been estimated that the above- 
mentioned districts collect, in favorable seasons, from seventeen hun- 
dred thousand to twenty-two hundred thousand gallons, of which four 
fifths is required for home consumption. 

Maay incredible tales are related of the extraordinary duration of 
the olive ; but there is no doubt that, when carefully cultivated, it will 
continue to produce fruit and remain in healthy vegetation for cen- 
turies. Trees are now living, which are said to be seven or eight hun- 
dred years old, and several are designated in a title deed drawn up in 
1610. The flower, which is a small cluster, not unlike that of the 
grape, is put forth from shoots of the former year's growth, in the 
month of June. In July the fruit begins to set, and from that to 
the end of August is considered the most critical time for the crop, to 
which nothing is at that time more injurious than the rains. From 
this cause, and a prevalence of east v.^inds, the fruit during that season 
is very subject to blight, and to be infested with a small insect which, 
penetrating the skin, produces a worm or grub ; this consumes the 
pulp v/ithin, leaving little more than the nut or stone covered with the 
outer rind. As no means have been discovered to check its progress, 
in a few days the most promising crops have been rendered of little 
value. Of all the vegetable productions of the island, none is con- 
sidered more precarious tha,n the olive, even under the most favorable 



114 AGEICULTURAL REPOET. 

circumstances and seasons. An uninterrupted succession of crops is 
never to be calculated upon, it being an admitted fact that every third 
year will be one of scarcity or sterility. In some districts, many ex- 
tensive plantations have often been altogether out of bearing for many 
years, without any apparent cause, and to the utter ruin of the pro- 
prietors. 

Toward the coast, the season of gathering commences in the month 
of October. This work is continued from this time until the month 
of December and even January in some of the districts situated higher 
up the mountains. The fruit is at first shaken from the trees, and 
finally, toward the latter end of the season, beaten from the bunches 
by long poles or canes. At each respective gathering, women and 
children are employed to collect the fruit from the ground, whence it 
is conveyed to appropriate stores, and cast into large bins or receptacles, 
prepared for the purpose. Here it is left to sweat and ferment for 
many days, until it becomes black, and has all the appearance of ap- 
proaching decay. This practice, so destructive to the quality of the 
oil, is nevertheless general, as it is erroneously supposed to increase 
the quantity. In this state it is conveyed to a mill, where it is first 
ground to a paste under heavy stones, and chaff or small straw oc- 
casionally thrown on, to retain the oil. The pulp is then rammed 
into round, flat baskets, made of a strong kind of rush, and submitted 
to a press. When the oil ceases to run from this first pressing the 
baskets are removed, their contents again passed under the mill, thence 
a second time returned into the baskets, submitted to the press as 
before, and in like manner, a third and last time. In these final 
pressings, hot water is thrown upon the baskets as they are jAled under 
the press, the more readily to disengage the oil, which, flowing out 
with the water^ as the press is let down, is conveyed to the tub or cask 
sunk in front, where the oil, swimming on the surface, is carefully 
skimmed off. Whatever now remains in the baskets is thrown aside, 
as the perquisite of the workmen, by whom it is collected and left some 
days to ferment, and then submitted to another pressure, which yields 
a small quantity of very bad oil, used by curriers and leather dressers. 

Although the mode here described is that in general practice for 
extracting the great mass of oil produced for commerce, there are many 
intelligent men who, for private consumption^ are more refined in their 
process. By pressing their fruit fresh, as gathered from the trees, 
without leaving it to ferment, they obtain an oil nothing inferior in 
quality to that of Lucca. From the many samples of fine oil found 
at the tables of the most respectable Sicilian families, it may be safely 
inferred that the bad repute of Sicilian oil arises from the unscientific 
mode employed in its preparation. By proper attention to this point 
alone, the olives of Sicily are as capable of yielding as good oil as the 
boasted produce of France and Tuscany. 

THE INDIAN PIG 

Is the Cactus opuntia, which makes so conspicuous a feature and 
gives so tropical a character to a Sicilian landscape. Although some- 
what ugly, it is strikingly picturesque. The leaves are nearly half 



THE IONIAN ISLANDS AND ITALY. 115 

an inch tliick, large as a miiUen' leaf, of a dull green color, and free 
from j)rickles. AVithout stalk or stem, these leaves grow one out of 
another,, agglomerating into an irregular mass, like a rock with 
cavernous vacancies in its sides. This vegetable mass hears a yellow 
flower, which becomes a fig-like fruit, with a red, sweetish pulp, much 
eaten by the natives. 

It is generally planted in belts, from two and a half to three feet 
wide, and from ten to fifteen apart. Across these belts the cactus 
leaves are placed, touching each other ; they very quickly take root, 
and produce new foliage. It will grow in poor and dry soil, and, with 
asphodel, is the first plant upon the lava, for which it is the most 
valuable, breaking it up with its strong acrid roots. 

It bears the third year, and has a full crop in ten years. Its net 
profit is estimated at from thirty dollars to fifty dollars per acre, as it 
will produce two crops a year, one hundred and fifty to three hundred 
bushels ])er acre, and sells readily at wholesale at from twenty-four to 
thirty cents per bushel. It is one of the most useful plants on the 
island ; the tree serves for fences, the leaf for receiving the liquid 
manna, and the fruit for the consumption of all classes. 

ALMONDS. 

Almonds are grown in greatest abundance at Avola and Girgenti, 
and are of both kinds, sweet and bitter. The trees are propagated 
from nuts and cuttings. The nut it planted in the spring or autumn, 
and the young trees transplanted at the end of a year to the nurserv 
grounds, to be grafted in the second or third year. The cuttings are 
planted about fifty feet apart_, and are grafted at six years old, four 
years after which they come into bearing. Attaining its full growth 
at fifteen years, the tree continues in its prime until thirty, when it 
begins to fall off, and perishes at sixty years. The flower appears in 
January, the fruit ripens in May. Of the sweet almond, the best sorts 
are those of Mascali and Avola, which are equally remarkable for 
whiteness and flavor. The shell is used for fuel. 

SAFFRON. 

Saffron grows wild in various parts of Sicily. The soil most con- 
genial is a loose, calcareous earth, free from clay. Planted in fur- 
rows, about a foot apart, the bulbs produce a violet colored flower, 
which is gathered in October. The three pistils are collected and dried. 
The stamens are thrown away as useless. The bulbs require to be 
transplanted every third year. 

MULBERRY. 

The red mulberry is the species chiefly cultivated in Sicily, the white 
being much neglected. The fruit is of little value, and grown only 
for the silk-worm. The Celso Jilippino, a species recently introduced, 
comes into leaf about three weeks before the white, and six before the 



116 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

red. The growtli is veiy rapid, but is never allowed to exceed twelve 
feet in height, at which elevation the tender leaf can be gathered by 
children. 

SILK. 

The production of silk in Sicily is almost entirely confined to the 
northern and northeastern coasts. From Catania, its southern limit, 
this branch of industry goes northward, as far as Taormina and Mes- 
sina, proceeds eastward to Melazzo, follows the line of coast to St. 
Stefano, turns a little southward, and terminates at Mistretta. The 
whole produce of these places, and all the intermediate villages, finds 
its way to the Messina market, except what is retained in Catania, for 
the use of the Catanese looms. None is produced in the interior, and 
but a very small quantity in Palermo and its neighborhood. The 
annual produce is estimated at thirteen hundred bales, or three hun- 
dred thousand pounds. This is exclusive of floss or waste, which is 
estimated at one hundred thousand pounds more. 

SILK-WORMS. 

The appearance of the worm, in its natural course, takes place about 
the ipiddle of April ; but, in seasons when the vegetation of the mulberry 
tree is unusually backward, it is artificially retarded until the leaves 
are ready. When this cannot be accomplished, the leaves of the 
blackberry and the lettuce, which merely keep it alive, are given to 
the worm, until its natural food, the mulberry leaf, is ready and 
plentiful. This, in Messina and its dependencies, which chiefly form 
the silk district, is almost wholly the leaf of the red species. In Cala- 
bria, the white mulberry, which leaves out three weeks earlier than 
the red, is used, until the first and second change, w^hen the white be- 
comes hard, and the red is substituted for it. Those fed on the red, 
yield a greater quantity of a stronger silk than those fed on the white, 
but the silk of the latter is finer and of a brighter description. The 
quantity consumed by the worms, from the time of their coming into 
being, to the fourth and last change, bears a great disproportion to 
the amount of silk produced. One hundred and seventy-five pounds 
of leaf yield only thirteen ounces' of silk. In Lombardy, one hundred 
and twenty-six pounds of leaf yield one pound of silk ; in Sicily, two 
hundred and fifteen pounds of leaf, one pound of silk. 

The fourth and last sickening, or change of skin, is considered the 
most critical; nor are the worms deemed out of danger until they 
have climbed the arbor and spun the cocoon. The intestines of such 
as die in the changes are made into thick thread and sold under the 
name of " silk-worm gut" to American seamen and others, for making 
fishing tackle. A small portion of the cocoons, according to the ex- 
tent and demand of the establishment, is put aside for eggs, the grubs 
of which, when transformed into m.oths, are alloAved to eat their way 
out. Those intended to be wound off" must be destroyed, in order to 
obtain the silk unbroken. The usual mode of effecting this purpose 
is by placing the cocoons in a slow oven. This practice greatly hardens 



THE IONIAN ISLANDS AND ITALY. 117 

the gummy matter which covers the silk on the cocoon, and renders it 
more troublesome to detach, in winding. To obviate this objection, 
some establishments in Messina have adopted successfully the following 
ingenious contrivance, which, from its simplicity and efficacy, is worthy 
of notice: In a small closet, erected in some corner of the establish- 
ment, a copper hoiler is fixed over a furnace. From the ceiling of this 
closet, shallow baskets, attached to each other, and filled with cocoons, 
are hung up in succession, until the lowermost nearly touches the 
boiler, previously filled with water. A sliding door in front, wdiich is 
made to fit closely, is now let down to touch the edge of the boiler, 
and so secured that the steam shall not escape. The water is now made 
to boil, and so kept up for about half an hour, at the end of which 
time the fire is withdrawn and the whole left quiet another half hour. 
During this period, the condensed steam from the cocoons, with a great 
portion of the gummy substance from the silk, which has been dis- 
solved by the steam, is drained off into the hoiler below. The cocoons 
are then removed to the floor of a chamber and left to cool, after which 
they are placed on a terrace, where they are exposed to the full heat of 
the sun, until thoroughly dried and prepared for winding. Mean- 
while, the steam-closet receives a fresh charge^ and the operation is 
repeated, until all the gruhs are killed. From the cocoons eaten 
through, a silk, called calamo di semenza, is obtained, by carding, and 
which, in quantity, is equal to one fourth, and in value to three fourths, 
of the ordinary or net silks. Another and inferior description, called 
culahio di fuori, is taken from the outer part of the cocoon, before the 
silk is wound off, the value of which is about half that of the common. 
The calamo of both sorts is exported to England, where it is made 
into hosiery and shawls. In Sicily it is spun by hand and woven into 
ticking, for mattresses, and into coarse stockings and gowns, for the 
use of the female peasantry. 

MANNA. 

The manna-ash grows chiefly near Palermo^ and is propagated from 
seed, or cuttings. The former is preferable, the tree being of rapid 
growth and soon coming to perfection. Manna is the coagulated juice, 
or sap, which oozes out of the Fraxinus ormcs, a species of ash, indige- 
nous to the northern coast. The tree, at its full growth, is from twenty 
to twenty-five feet high^ borne on an upright stem, with smooth bark, 
about eight feet in height, and about two and a half in circumference. 
It is well-known, with us, as a hardy, ornamental tree, with clusters 
of flowers. The manna is obtained in the months of August and Sep- 
tember, from horizontal incisions made in the bark about three inches 
long and half an inch deep. Under these incisions, and quite close, 
another slight cut is made in the bark, in which is inserted a leaf of 
the same tree, serving as a gutter to conduct the sap into a receiver 
placed on the ground at the foot of the tree. This receiver is nothing 
more than the dried leaf of the cactus opuntia, which is ten or twelve 
inches long and about eight inches broad. When dried, it assumes 
the shape of a hollow dish, sufficiently capacious for the purpose re- 
quired. These incisions are begun at the bottom of the tree, and each 



118 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

day a fresli one is made, two inclies above the first, and so continued 
during the ''raccolta," or gathering, which, in favorahle seasons, lasts 
about six weeks. 

WJien the incision is first made, the manna flows in a watery, lim- 
pid state, but gradually thickens as it is exposed to the air and the 
heat of the sun, which at this season is intense. 

This is deemed the best and finest quality, and called '■'■ manna in 
tears.'' After it is collected, and the leaf removed to a fresh incision 
above, the sap continuing to flow down the bark of the tree is concen- 
trated thereon, and farms a second quality, which is afterwards care- 
fully detached with a knife. This is distinguished in commerce as 
'' manna in flakes," the quantity of which is by far the most consider- 
able 23art of the collection. 

A third and inferior quality is collected, called ''manna in sorts," 
composed of the refuse, or broken collections from the two preceding, 
that which has accidentally run upon the ground, or been damaged by 
rain, and that which flows at the end of the season, when the heat of 
the sun is insufficient to concentrate it. The quantity and quality of 
th is article depend upon a hot and dry season. As the operation is neces- 
sarily exj^osed to the weather, a rainy or damp season will greatly 
diminish the quantity of the crop, and often entirely ruin its quality, 
since, once wet, it cannot be dried by any artificial means. The first 
two qualities are usually shipped to England and the United States ; 
the latter, and inferior, to the Adriatic markets, and those of the Med- 
iterranean. Other countries are provided with this drug from Naples, 
which draws its supplies from the southern coast of Calabria. In the 
plantation which I saw the trees were ten feet apart, but aijpeared too 
close for healthy growth. 

CAROB TREE, OR CERATONIA SILIQUA. 

The carob was noticed in my report on Cephalonia, as being one of 
the finest ornamental trees. Its fruit is somewhat like that of the 
honey locust, or Gleditschia, and its pod full of a sweet, rich pulp, cov- 
ering a nutritious bean. It is eaten here, as at Cephalonia, both by 
men and cattle. A preserve is made of the juice, boiled with sugar, 
and spirits are also distilled from it. Most of the produce goes to 
Naples. It is rarely cultivated in large quantities, and the fruit is 
mostly collected from natural trees. A few specimens on a place will 
often 'be found grafted with a superior variety. Its native habitat 
seems about Syracuse, where it is found in considerable quantities. 

PISTACHIO NUTS, OR TEREBINTHUS INDICA. 

The pistachio tree springs up in rich soils, in the central districts, 
and also in the volcanic humus, in the region of Mount Etna. Grafted 
at six 3^ears old, it comes into bearing at twelve, and produces a fair 
crop about once in three years, until a very advanced age. A male 
scion, grafted upon one female in an orchard, is sufficient to fecundate 
the whole. The nut, gathered in September, is exposed to the sun 
until perfectly dry, as the least degree of moisture causes it to rot. 



THE IONIAN ISLANDS AND ITALY. 11^ 



ALOE. 

This conspicuous plant, equally useful and ornamental, abounds in 
all parts of Sicily, but is found in the greatest perfection in the 
southern and central districts. Planted in favorable soils, it attains 
the height of eighteen to twenty feet, and flowers in seven or eight 
years, after which it immediately dies away, leaving suckers behind 
to continue the succession. 

It serves for impenetrable fences, the stems for rafters of huts, and 
the leaf for domestic manufactures. The leaf, steeped in water until 
perfectly tender, crushed between cylinders, soaked for some days in a 
stream^ then beaten and combed out, yields a thread which is used for 
various purposes. 

CORK WOOD. 

Cork oaks of stunted growth are found in the woods of Sciana. The 
outer bark, unfit for bungs and stoppers, is used chiefly for fishing 
tackle ; the inner, equally valuable with common oak bark, is used in 
tanneries, to protect which branch of industry, the exportation of cork 
wood, except as dunnage, is strictly prohibited. 

GUADO. 

This dye plant is sown in autumn, and gathered in May. The leaves, 
ground at the mills and kneaded with the juice, are worked into balls, 
which, when dried in the sun, are used in giving linen a light-blue 
color. 

FIGS. 

These are of poor quality, not so well suited for exportation as those 
of the Levant. No alkaline solution is used in their preparation ; they 
are slit, and dried on strings, mostly about Messina and Calabria. 

TOBACCO. 

This plant is produced in gardens around most of the principal 
towns. The best soil for its cultivation is a good, rich loam, and the 
best situation a slope with a southerly exposure. Sown in the winter^ 
it soon comes up, and gradually advances until the crop requires to be-, 
thinned. The sprouts transplanted are set about twenty inches apart,^ 
in ground well watered and manured. The blossoms are nipped off,,, 
and the shoots cut away as soon as they appear, to enable the young.; 
leaf to expand and ripen. The maturity of the leaf, which is in sum- 
mer, is denoted by a change in its color, and the appearance of pus- 
tules on its surface. The plant is then plucked up, and the leaf' 
stripped and dried, preparatory to its sale to the dealer for manufac- 
ture. The quantity of seed sown is about a gallon per acre ; the 
quantity of leaf gathered about thirteen thousand pounds. Tobacco . 



120 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

was once worth to tlie government tliirt}^ or forty tliousand dullars 
revenue ; they increased the duty, and none was imported. 

COTTON. 

The soil of the Sicilian plains is eminently adapted for its growth. 
The seed is obtained from Malta, sown in S23ring, gathered in August, 
September, and even as late as December. The plant is not liable to 
blight, but is sometimes injured by the sirocco. 

The sea-island cotton seed has been distributed in several districts ; 
some has entirely failed. In one place a little cotton was produced, 
but the trial was scarcely such as to warrant a decision upon its adap- 
tation to the climate and soil. 

CASTOR OIL. 

This plant grows wild in many parts, and is much cultivated in the 
vicinity of large towns for the oil which is extracted from the nut. It 
is prepared by almost every chemist, for home consumption, to the ex- 
clusion of castor oil from the East and West Indies. Were the process 
properly conducted, the extraction of the oil might become an impor- 
tant branch of Sicilian industry. 

LIQUORICE. 

The roots of the liquorice plants^ which grow wild, are converted 
into paste by washing, steeping, boiling, and evaporation. The first 
quality is that of Taormina ; that of Catania and Patti is too often 
adulterated with the juice of the cactus and carob. 

OPIUM. 

This is nearly equal to the Turkish ; has been made by a Sicilian 
chemist from the wild poppy, vfhich abounds in the island, 

LUPINS. 

White lupins are raised for fattening cattle, and also as manure for 
vineyards, being plowed in when a foot high. 

SEEDS. 

Anise, canary, cotton, flax, hemp, and mustard are the chief. The 
first three are largely ex]3orted ; the last three are mostly consumed in 
the island. 

Wheat is of two kinds, soft and hard, the soft used chiefly for house- 
hold bread, the hard for maccaroni. The seed sown in October and 
November, at the rate of half a bushel to an acre, yields, in June and 
July, about eight for one. The average weight of a bushel is about 
sixty pounds. This grain has been much neglected for the want of 



THE IONIAN ISLANDS AND ITALY. 121 

sufficient hardness in the English mill-stones ; hut since cast-iron and 
French hurrs have heen introduced, the wheat here can be made into 
flour equal to that of the best soft grain. The best maccaroni wheat 
is called Giustalisa, and the next best Bealforte. At the magazines 
these were priced to me at |1 50 per bushel. The annual crop of 
wheat is computed at 16,000^000 bushels. 

Oats are raised in small quantities in the southern districts ; the re- 
turn of seed is ten to one. 

Barley is found unfit for malting, and is chiefly used as provender 
for horses. 

Indian corn is but little cultivated. A particular species, called 
Oinquantino, ripens in fifty days. 

Eice is principally grown in low marshy districts about the plains 
of Catania, where the lands may be irrigated by the waters of the Giar- 
retta. The quantity is inconsiderable, and hardly sufficient for home 
consumption. The grain, small and ordinary in quality, may be classed 
as little better than Egyptian. It must be sown in a deep soil, and kept 
constantly under water. It produces about six hundred weight per 
acre of clear rice. This is thrown into a mill, the lower stone of which 
is lined with cork. The cultivation of this grain is considered an un- 
healthy occupation. The dry rice of Porto Rico is not cultivated in 
Sicily. Sown on two occasions, it came up quickly, but owing to inat- 
tention was allowed to perish. 

Flax is grown abundantly in all parts of the island. The best soil 
for it is a rich garden-ground. The land requires from three to six 
plowings, according to the nature of the preceding crops, and good and 
plentiful dressings with stable manure, or the sweepings of sheep-folds. 
The sowing generally takes place in November, but occasionally in 
March, when two salmas, or sixteen bushels of linseed are allowed to 
one salm, or about five acres of ground. The harvest is usually in 
May and June, when, in favorable seasons, from thirty to forty bush- 
els of linseed are gathered, together with ten cantars, or about sixteen 
hundred weight of flax . The plant being drawn up by the roots , the seed 
is beaten out and sifted previous to shipment. The stalk is steeped in 
running water for seven or eight days, at the end of which time it is 
taken out and dried. The crisp bark is broken and removed by a pe- 
culiar instrument. The fibre is combed and prepared for spinning 
with a view to future manufacture. Flax, which in England is sup- 
posed to impoverish the ground^ is in Sicily thought to have a benefi- 
cial effect. 

Hemp is much cultivated on the eastern coast, in rich damp soils, or 
in ground well irrigated. The land is plowed four or five times before 
the sowing, which takes place, near the coast, in March, but in the moun- 
tains in April, when three and a half bushels are sown on an acre of 
land. The ground requires to be well watered every four or five days 
from running streams or from reservoirs. The plant, which is delicate, 
and liable to be cut by the frosts, comes to perfection in July and Au- 
gust. A good crop will yield from seven hundred to a thousand 
pounds of seed, and from six to ten hundred weight of fiber, per acre. 
The seed is beaten out, and the fiber prepared for spinning in the same 
manner as flax. The plant, when taken out of the water in a putrid 



122 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

state, creates a severe malaria, to escape the effects «f whicli, the persons 
employed are recommended to sleep among horses and mules. The 
cultivation of hemp and rice is prohibited within two miles of any hu- 
man habitation, unless mountains or rivers intervene. 

CREAM OF TARTAR. 

This salt has of late years been manufactured largely near Messina 
from the f93ces in settlings of new wine. The tartrate of potash, 
though containing a large quantity of tartaric acid, is too much charged 
with extraneous and earthy matter, deposited in the fermentation of 
the must, to allow it to crystalize by rest, on which account it was 
formerly made ui3 into large balls, dried in the sun, and then burnt in. 
heaps. The tartaric acid destroyed, nothing remained but the jDotash, 
which was sold to soap-makers, hatters, and others. This wasteful 
practice is at length exploded, and at present from fifteen to twenty 
per cent, of cream of tartar is obtained from the faeces of wine of good 
quality, while the base, or potash, is employed as heretofore. 

SULPHUR. 

This mineral is found in most parts of the island ; but it is within 
the area of an irregular diamond, of which Sciacca, Mount Hybla, 
Alicama, and Terranova are the relative points, that the richest beds 
are situated. The mines lying v/ithin twenty or thirty miles of the 
coast are at present in full operation. Of those further inward^ some 
are not worked, on account of the" high rate of carriage, while others 
are worked only in discharge of contracted obligations. Generally 
covered by a bed of calcareous concretion, sulphur is found combined 
with other matters, its separation from which is effected by burning in 
kilns, made of gypsum and stone, each containing about sixty hundred 
weight of mineral. The liquified sulphur escapes through a hole in 
the front, and runs into a wooden trough, where it is left to grow 
solid. 

CANTHARIDES, OR SPANISH FLIES. 

These insects come over from Egypt, and alighting in the olive trees 
in the months of May and June, are collected by the peasantry and 
prepared for exportation. They are similar to our curculio, and are 
caught about Bronte, by jarring the tree over a blanket. 

SALT. 

The excavation of rock salt, most of which goes to the Danubian 
pastures, amounts to about one hundred and fifty thousand tons per 
annum. Evaporating salt is carried on at Trapani and Agosta. At 
the former place, fifteen hundred and sixty-two tons are annually 
made. 



THE 'IONIAN ISLANDS AND ITALY. 123 



BEES. 

These insects arc kept in great quantities in tlie southeastern dis- 
tricts. Some farmers have from two to three thousand large hives ; 
these are carried, by night, up into the mountains, in summer, and in 
winter brought to the plains, in both which regions the bees find abun- 
dant flowers. Two or three crops of honey and wax are obtained in 
the course of the year, generally in May and August. The honey of 
Mount Hybla, near Catania, clear and well-flavored with orange flow- 
ers, maintains its ancient reputation. 

Owing to the great consumption of wax in churches, the proceeds of 
bee-hives form a valuable item in husbandry. 

DAIRY. 

Butter is only made around Messina, Palermo, and in the country 
of Modria, from the milk of cows and goats. Curds and cheese are 
made throughout the island, from the milk of cows, sheep, and goats 
combined. 

LIVE STOCK. 

Horses. — Those used in riding are in general small, but good; those 
for draft, wretched and worthless. Their usual fodder is, in the spring, 
green barley; in summer, a kind of dog grass; in winter, barley, oats, 
straw, beans, and bran. 

The Butera stud, in Sicily, is that of the estate of Kadali, held by 
the Prince of Butera, at Melangianni, near Terranova and Licata. 
Founded in 1825, at which period the thorough-bred horses and blood 
mares were imported from England, it increased by degrees, till now 
it consists of one hundred and six animals. It is placed under the 
superintendence of an experienced trainer. 

Mules are small and feeble, with the exception of the Modua breed, 
which are tall, strong, and active, and chiefly used for riding and lit- 
ters. The mules are much employed in land culture and in carrying 
burdens. 

Asses are also inferior, except the Pantelleri breed, which is tall and 
well made. 

Oxen are of two breeds, the red, or Tunis, and the black, or native. 
The red^ which is much used in farming, is large and well propor- 
tioned ; one species is remarkable for its length of horns, which are 
often two and a half feet; these are not so strong as those whose horns, 
are more moderate. The black is never put to the plow. In the sum- 
mer the cattle graze upon the mountains, Avhere they find abundant, 
grass ; in the winter they descend to the plains, where they browse on 
the dwarf palm, the bird weed, and the stubble of corn fields. Unpro- 
vided with sheds, they have no other shelter from the weather than the 
branches of trees, an exposure always prejudicial and often fatal. A 
cow which is a good milker will yield from four to six quarts per day. 
Barren covv^s are usually put to the plow. 



124 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

Sheep. — The native breeds^ wliite, brown, and blacky are small and 
scraggy, producing a coarse wool, at the rate of from two to three 
pounds per animal, used for domestic manufacture. The ewes, which are 
milked regularly, give about half a pint per day. The carcass of a 
.two year old weighs about thirty pounds. The merino breed has been 
introduced on the Butera estate, which boasts of two flocks of unmixed 
and crossed, of four and fourteen hundred, respectively. 

Goats are numerous ; their long and fine hair is woven into cloth 
and sacking. 

Swine compose a gaunt, black breed, remarkable for nothing but the 
length and stiffness of their dorsal bristles. A one year old hog 
weighs, if fed on acorns, one hundred and twenty pounds; a two year 
old, one hundred and. eighty pounds. 

LAMB AND KlD SKINS. 

After the month of March the kid and the white and sjDotted lamb 
skins are steeped in sea- water, to preserve them from the worms, and 
to clear them from all fleshy substances. In this state of preparation, 
which costs about five dollars per thousand, they may be safely shi]3ped, 
in all seasons of the year, to perform the longest voyages. The black 
lamb skins are prepared for the German market, at about ten dollars 
per thousand. 

SOIL. 

With the exce|)tion of the chain of Monte Peloso, or Nestuvo, which 
runs in a southwest direction from Cape Peloso, and its dependent 
granitic plains, all the soils of Sicily may be classed under the several 
varieties of the calcareous. There are, of course, exceptions, but these 
are so diminutive in comparative extent as not to admit of their being 
called any more than mere patches. When the soil is deep, which is 
not unfrequently the case, and this to an extent seldom seen in other 
countries, it is, for the most part, a rich and fertile loam; where it is 
shallow, it has the appearance of being sandy and sterile, without being 
so in reality, as it contains a very great variety of marine exuvia in its 
composition, derived' from the neighboring conchiferous limestone, 
which yields sufficient humus to enable it to produce the most luxur- 
iant crops, notwithstanding its arid and unpromising appearance. 

MANURES. 

The usual fertilizing materials are stable manure, and, where it is to 
be had, that of sheep and goats. Lime, so useful an agent in stiif and 
clayey soils, which abound in Sicily, as well as in light and sandy ones, 
also common in certain districts, is totally neglected, to the consequent 
loss of humidity, which it would absorb from the atmosphere, and the 
prevalence of vermin, which it would check and destroy. Bones, 
formerly used for manure, but now employed in chemistry, are become 
too expensive for the farmer, and are therefore left to be exported, in 



THE IONIAN ISLANDS AND ITALY. 125 

large quantities, to France and G-enoa. Lupins, as before observed, 
are in frequent use for manure ; their tliick, succulent tops, covered by 
the plow, form a highly fertilizing mass of vegetable matter. 

IMPLEMENTS. 

The rudest is the plow, Avhich Simond properly describes as an im- 
plement which seems to have gained nothing since the days of Tuj^to- 
lemus. It consists of a shaft, eleven' feet long, to which the oxen are 
fastened by an awkward collar, while the other end is mortised ob- 
liquely into another piece of timber, five feet long, with one end sharp, 
scratching the ground, and the other held by the plowman, who, on 
account of its shortness, bends almost double while at work. The end 
in the ground is often, but not always, shod with iron, but it has 
neither colter nor mold-board. This instrument scarcely penetrates 
the earth, and is kept straight with great difficulty. 

The next is the hoe, which varies in construction in different pro- 
vinces, according to the nature of the ground. In the vicinity of Pal- 
ermo, where the soil is not deep, and the heavier soils of the Valle 
Mazzara prevail, the hoe is broad and shallow; whereas that in use 
near Messina and the Val Demone, where the soil is light and sandy, 
is narrow and long, often two feet and more, and sloped in upon the 
handle. This unwieldy instrument, often containing from eight to ten 
pounds of iron, is used by the peasants. 
■ The sickle and three-pronged wooden fork offer nothing remarkable. 

RENTS. 

The usual rent of land for corn, &c., is about one dollar and seventy- 
five cents per acre, taking the average throughout the island. Leases 
run for three years, sometimes with the privilege of three more, and 
occasionally for nine years, but never a longer time. For orange and 
lemon orchards the rents are higher, and vary widely, according to 
age and quality, - Their standing crop, however, is often sold by the 
landlord, by estimation, at so much per thousand on the tree, or per 
thousand gathered by the purchaser, counted on the premises, and 
often by the heap. When the crop is sold thus, it is at the risk of the 
purchaser from the day of the contract, and one third of the amount 
is always paid in advance. The expense of the gathering in all cases 
devolves on the purchaser. 

LABOR. 

The laborer by the day receives one tari (eight cents) in money, and 
in food four ahd a half pounds of coarse bread, one quart of wine, and 
one measure of oil for his herb soup. His earnings amount to about 
twenty cents per day. In some places he is paid entirely in money, 
in which case he receives about twenty cents per day the year round. 
In harvest, his wages are generally doubled, and his food given v/ith- 
out limitation. The hours of labor from April to harvest are divided 



126 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

in two portions, from 4, am., till noon, allowing one liour for break- 
fast, and from 3, p. m., till sunset. The three hours at' noon are for 
dinner and sleep, a plan which must be attended with the best results, 
and which we have often vainly endeavored to introduce among our 
own laborers during the hot season. From harvest to April the hours 
are from sunrise to sunset, with one hour for dinner and half an hour 
for breakfast. The price of bread does not vary so much as elsewhere 
in Europe, and with us being about two cents a pound. 

- GENERAL CULTURE. 

With a population of two millions three hundred and fifty thousand, 
Sicily has an area of more than six and a half millions of acres, of 
which 4,000,000 are cultivated with wheat, 1,700,000 are left for graz- 
ing, 200,000 are left in woodland, 420,000 are cultivated with grapes, 
150,000 are cultivated with olives^ 40,000 are cultivated with oranges 
and lemons, and 30,000 are cultivated with sumac. 

The remainder is in other crops and waste lands. The whole is 
divided into seven hundred thousand properties, the yearly value of 
each being about twenty dollars. The soil is adapted to all the finest 
vegetables. Peas are on our table here in February, and I see con- 
tinually the very finest broccoli and cauliflower. Of the former, there 
are varieties for each winter month from November to April. Of the 
latter^ a moderate specimen measured more than a foot in diameter. 
These were under field culture, and not the pet nurslings of a gentle- 
man's gardener, which are often still larger with us ; you see every- 
where donkey after donkey loaded with them. Lettuce is used for 
horses, and also the twitch grass, which with us is so formidable an 
enemy to hoed crops. Walnuts, or Madeira nuts, which with us will 
scarcely bear in twenty years, produce fruit here in from four to six 
years. The soil and climate of Sicily are all that could be desired, the 
working classes seem industrious, and nothing is wanting but enter- 
prise among the men of wealth, and a laissez faire practice on the part 
of the government. The Sicilians of the higher class rarely visit their 
estates in the country, except for a few weeks, in spring and autumn, 
when they carry with them all the fashionable follies of the city, and 
rarely take an interest in agriculture. Notwithstanding the hot weather, 
by which the country is nearly burnt up in the summer, the peasantry 
cultivate the land thoroughly, and gather in- the crops. 

The Neapolitan government is far from being paternal ; it is thor- 
oughly repressive of all development. It seems apprehensive lest any 
of its people should attain wealth, and instead of encouraging an in- 
dustry which would add to its own revenues, it imposes a burden upon 
anything becoming too profitable. Large quantities of wheat were at 
one time grown, and Sicily bade fair to be a great producer of that 
grain ; government then forbade its exportation. They began the ex- 
tensive production of maccaroni ; government forbade its exportation. 
They produce largely of sumac. G-overnment has forbidden the export 
of trees, and may next forbid the export of the ground article. Their 
policy can scarcely be thus to keep it in their own hands, as the plant 
exists elsewhere. Some enterprising men desired to construct a rail- 



THE IONIAN ISLANDS AND ITALY. 127 

road ; the stock was all taken, and they were about to commence the 
work, when government threw obstacles in the way, and the enter- 
prise was abandoned. There is also a tax upon each tree planted, to 
be paid annually, and not remitted if the tree dies. Whether this is 
imposed by the government, or by the church, to v/hich two thirds of 
the island belongs, I could not satisfactorily ascertain; but, however it 
may be, the result of this wretched policy is that the lessees take no 
interest in improving the land, and content themselves with a bare 
subsistence. 

One thing is certain, there is no country whatever of its extent that 
can compare with Sicily in climate, soil, and variety of its products. 
Were it in the hands of our people, and allowed to develop under our 
free institutions, its exports would become of unexampled value, and 
its whole surface would be like a garden. 

MADDER. 

At Naples we found in the cultivation of madder more peculiarity 
than we had anticipated, and could readily account for our own failure 
in its culture on Long Island, some fifteen years ago, when we had no 
guide beyond the meager information contained in books. It will be 
borne in mind that the madder root is two feet long, about the size of 
a large pipe stem, and thus very liable to break in digging from a 
heavy adhesive clay. The soil should, therefore, be light and very 
rich, with as much fertilizing matter applied as it will hold. It should 
be dug or plowed three feet deep, and then laid out in beds or spaces 
six feet wide, having a vacancy of two feet between them. In these 
spaces the seed is planted like beet seed, in rows nine inches apart, and 
covered three inches deep. The quantity of seed required for an acre 
is one hundred and twenty pounds. The planting is done in March, 
and the same clearing is required through the season that beets receive. 
The following November or December, the earth from the two feet va- 
cancies between them is taken out and placed upon the beds, covering 
them two inches, and sometimes more, as a protection against the 
cold. In August of the following, or second year, and sometimes of 
the third year, the roots are dug with a spade two feet long, dried in 
the sun to one fifth of their green weight, and exported in that condi- 
tion. They were formerly always ground here, but the adulteration 
was so great that foreign merchants now prefer to grind it themselves. 
The average jDroduce of that dug in the second year, or of eighteen 
months growth, is one ton per acre; that of thirty months growth is 
one and a half tons per acre. Its value is from one hundred and thirty 
dollars to one hundred and fifty dollars per ton, and doubtless more in 
the United States. The quantity grown in the vicinity of Naples is 
large, but probably not equal to that grown near Avignon. 

As a general rule, the quality of all agricultural products is better 
the further north they are grown, so long as the growth or fruit is not 
injured by the cold. Thus, the orange is finer in Florida than in 
Havana, while in Savannah again, it is inferior, as the wood is injured 
by the above-mentioned cause. Apples, pears, potatoes, wheat, and 
corn are finer in the northern and western States than in the southern; 
and although exceptions may exist, this will be found commonly true. 



128 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

Madder could, doubtless, be most profitably grown with us in the 
light, rich soils of the south. 'Whether it can be profitably grown at 
the north, and its superior quality compensate for the greater trouble, 
may only be ascertained by actual experiment and a knowledge of the 
effect upon it of northern w^inters. 

SILK. 

We visited the estate of Mr. Strickland, near Naples. This gentle- 
man is much interested in silk culture. He is just finishing a stone 
cocoonery, one hundred and tv/enty by thirty feet, and thirty leet high, 
which is heated by earthen stoves, and will hold the v/orms from twelve 
ounces of eggs. He is very particular to throw out all the defective 
eggs, and consequently no disease has yet appeared among his worms, 
while it is abundant elsewhere in Naples, and all through Tuscany and 
Lombardy. The arrangements of his new cocoonery are complete. The 
frames are made of cane and brown paper, and covered with nets. Upon 
these nets the leaves are placed, and while the worms are feeding they 
are lifted off, and the frames cleaned. Mustard is cultivated to give 
bosquets for the worms to spin upon, the branches being hung above 
them, and the seed j)aying the cost of cultivation. 

His mulberry trees are planted fifteen feet apart, grafted, and cut 
down every year, leaving two new branches, each with six eyes. They 
generally vegetate about the twentieth of March, although a variety 
called Filippino is two vv^eeks earlier. Those known, however, as Bolog- 
nese and Majatica are most generally used. The leaves are ready two 
weeks after vegetation, and the hatching of the eggs is deferred till 
they are certain of the right food. The use of substitutes, as in Sicily, 
might produce disease. The quantity of leaves consumed is about 
twenty-four hundred pounds to an ounce of eggs, or one hundred and 
fifty pounds of cocoons. The trees being kept down to the height of 
seven feet, children can pick the leaves ; but this operation is not 
allowed till the tree has been grafted ten years, wdien it will produce 
fifty pounds. 

The best worms, and those from which the finest silk is obtained,. 
are called Festallini and Valdarned, while a coarser kind is made by 
the Bolognese. The hatching is generally about the end of April, but 
depends somewhat upon the season and the state of the leaf. The 
cocoons are sold alive at forty cents a pound, and some "are always- 
reserved for eggs, which sell for four ducats, or three dollars and twenty 
cents per ounce. Five hundred pounds of cocoons will produce two 
hundred ounces of eggs. 

The production of silk has been larger in the provinces, but limited 
in Naples to domestic cultivation among the peasants, who had suffered 
severely from inferior eggs until Mr. Strickland came, and, by his clean 
mode and uniform success, induced them to imitate his practice and 
buy the eggs from him. Whoever may desire a supply, should order 
not later than the fifteenth of May, as Mr. Strickland only reserves 
from his sales of cocoons sufficient to meet actual demands. A better 
source cannot be found, as he is an educated, intelligent man, and an 
attentive manager, taking great pride in keeping his worms free from 
the disease which has ravaged Tuscany and Lombardy. 



THE IONIAN ISLANDS AND ITALY. 129 

LUPINS. 

Mr. Strickland cultivates lupins and plows them in for manure. He 
thinks them indigestible and unfit for horses, although often cut by 
others for that purpose "when a foot high. 

BARLEY. 

Two or three crops of barley are grown successively for fodder. 

CLOVER. 

The Italian clover, in his opinion, deepens the soil. 

CASTOR OIL. 

Castor oil is grown and manufactured to some extent, but requires 
much irrigation. 

APPLES. 

The best apples here are Limoncelli and Melagelata. 

GRAPES. 

A grape called Wafrancola is spoken highly of, with a strawberry 
flavor and coarse leaf, not subject to mildew. 

FIGS. 

They have a mode of ripening figs ten days earlier by touching the 
blossom end with sweet oil. 

TREES AND PLANTS. 

In the botanic garden are Magnolia soulangiana, Pyrus japonica, 
and Camellias, in the open ground, all in bloom early in March, with 
some fine specimens of rare trees, such as Laurus camphora, fifty feet ; 
Araucaria excelsa, thirty feet; and Araucaria hrasiliensis, twelve feet; 
a large tree of Taxodium mucronatum, and a fine plant of Chammrops 
Jiumilis. The place appears well kept, under the direction of M. Ten- 
ore, but Tv^ill not compare in richness with the botanic garden at Pal- 
ermo. There were two trees in the garden of Baron Kothschild which, 
to a lover of arboreal beauty, would almost be worth a trip from Eomt 
to Naples. They were Araucaria excelsa; and those who have admired 
the small specimens in green-houses can imagine, in some degree, how 
superb are these, forty feet high, straight as an arrow, full, rich, and 
feathery, and clothed Avith a shade of incomparable green. 
9 A . 



130 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 



AGRICULTURE. 

The agriculture of the vicinity of Naples presented nothing beside 
the madder worthy of special attention. The usual proportion of olives 
and vines grows on its rich volcanic soil. These under a good govern- 
ment would be the source of wealth beyond measure. 

ROME. 

The agriculture of the Eoman Campagna does not offer, like Sicily, 
numerous objects of interest; and, respecting its leading features, 
Hiliard has written so well and thoroughly that repetition would be 
needless. One of our most interesting visits was to the estate of Count 
Her rick. liis place is not a large one, but he has for manager a very 
intelligent Irishman, who has been in Italy some fifteen years, and 
thoroughly understands the comparative merits of Italian culture. He 
says that, with all the skill of his countrymen with the spade, they 
cannot compete with Italians. 

VINES. 

The soil is about two and a half feet deep, and, to prepare it for 
vines, the Romans have a mode which they call a scasscata. This 
consists of trenches four feet wide and four feet deep, by means of which 
the ground is thoroughly broken up and prepared for culture. After 
the first trench is dug out, the workmen, with a sharp-pointed, strong 
hoe, undermines the adjacent soil as far as he can reach it, commencing 
at the bottom and making a lateral trench a foot high ; the other three 
feet soon fall in, breaking up entirely, and thus saving a large part of 
the labor of digging. For vines, the ground is generally thus prepared 
to the depth of four feet; still deeper is considered better, and ten feet, 
if possible, would be desired. When the ground is ready, a cutting 
five or six feet long is taken, and six or eight inches of its lower end 
twisted and bent upward, forming an elbow, in which is placed a 
strong, long-handled, two-pronged fork. Upon the handle is a step 
for the foot^ three and a half feet from the forked end; with this the 
laborer is enabled to force the cuttings rapidly into the soil, to the 
depth of three and a half feet, and three feet apart. Thus planted, the 
cuttings rarely fail to grow, and are preferred to rooted plants, because, 
vrith greater facility, they may be planted very deep. There is the 
same aim in this country, as elsewhere in EuroiDe, to keep the roots of 
vines as deep as possible; and they are equally careful to cut off all 
the roots which strike out within a foot of the surface. 

CANES. 

In the cultivation of the vine here, canes form an important feature, 
and it would be difficult to find a substitute for them. Four or six are 
placed around a vine, about a foot from it at the bottom, and meeting 



THE IONIAN ISLANDS AND ITALY. 131 

at tlie top, where they are tied with osiers. They will last two or three 
years. In many places these canes are used for trellises and fences, 
and are capable of being applied to so many purposes that their culti- 
vation should be introduced with us. They can be bought here, eight 
to fifteen feet long, at four dollars per thousand. The soil to grow 
canes is dug four feet deep, and should be rich. The eyes are planted 
four feet apart and a foot deep, and the spaces between kept clean ; but 
no hilling up is required, as with corn. A good, plantation will pro- 
duce twelve thousand per acre, for twelve or fifteen years. The heavier 
the soil, the longer will the plantation continue to produce well. 

CLOVER. 

Lucerne is cultivated extensively. This is well known to require a 
very deep soil, and the ground in which it is sown is dug four feet 
deep. The seed is drilled in, at the rate of ten |)Ounds to an acre. In 
its best condition, it will bear five cuttings during the season, of 
three tons per acre, at each cutting. It requires great care in feeding, 
to avoid injuring the cattle, and is never fed fresh, but cut in the 
morning and used in the evening. It is thought good for liver disease 
in horses. 

MANURES. 

Lupins are used extensively for manure, and are sown after harvest, 
broadcast, at the rate of three hundred pounds to an acre, costing one 
cent per pound. They are not covered^ but will quickly germinate, 
growing two feet in three months, at which height they are plowed 
under. The next best article for this purpose is the French bean. 
Peas are planted between the rows of vines. 

PEACHES. 

Peaches are grafted on the almond tree, and are considered better on 
the sweet than on the bitter. They have no worms at the root, but 
ants destroy the bark when old. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

Manure is not so abundantly used as further north, costing two cents 
per bushel. The great fertility of the soil and numerous laboring pop- 
ulation would, under proper management, make the country around 
Rome very productive ; whereas, under its present metayer system, and 
want of fostering care, either from proprietors or from government, 
agriculture is depressed, and there is neither ambition nor effort for 
improvement. 

Some credit, however, should be given to the government for the 
establishment of a small agricultural school in 1852. There are seven 
pupils, who pay from their labor, after their education is finished, at 
the rate of one hundred and fifty dollars per year. There were excel- 
lent drawings by the students of flowers, architecture, vegetables, high 



132 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

and low vine-culture, different modes of farm-culture, and inventions. 
The course lasts three years, and the ages of the students are from 
nineteen to thirty. The artistic tendencies of young Komans were 
here well illustrated, and more rapid progress was never exhibited 
than by the drawings of these pupils. 

FLORENCE. 

The finest specimen of landscape-gardening in Italy is the Villa 
Bemidoff, at Florence, and this owes much to the taste of an English 
gardener, Joseph Goode. 

Near the entrance to these grounds there is a mass of rock-work, 
covered with ferns, mosses, and flowers. A rustic path leads to the 
top, from which is a view of a miniature lake, filled with fish_, and dot- 
ted with aquatic plants. The interior of this rock-work forms a grotto, 
used by the bathers in the lake as a dressing-room. The variegated 
ivy, which grew in great profusion, produced a pretty effect. There 
were beyond this some acres of lawns and gardens laid out with taste, 
and looking very beautiful with the flowers and fresh foliage which 
thus early in April were in full luxuriance. The purple magnolia, 
Spirce Jieveesii, and Judas tree were in bloom, and masses of Rhododen- 
dron, Weigela, and laurel were very brilliant, the latter filling the 
whole air with its fragrance. There were large PauUinias, Fittosporum, 
and Arbutus Uned.o. The Banksia roses were in full bloom, and quite 
astonished us by the great size of the plants. Arose garden, one hun- 
dred and fifty feet in diameter, was judiciously planted, with standards 
and dwarfs, and veryp)retty seats were formed by roses trained so as to 
make little alcoves. An island in the middle of a lake was ornamented 
with a large cage, in which were birds of fine plumage or song, while 
around it swam several black swans. There was, also, quite a mena- 
gerie of the more useful animals, among which we noticed a drome- 
dary and a llama. Each of the animals had a house and large pad- 
dock for its especial use. The stables and carriage-houses were in 
perfect order. The horses were fine, and four black ones, of mixed 
ISTorman blood — were showy, and of admirable action. The villa was 
under repair and could not be seen, but we entered the conservatory 
through a most charming horticultural library. The glass structures 
here contain one of the most rare and valuable collections of plants in 
Europe, among which are an oak leaf, Grevillea, fifteen feet high, and a 
Metrosid^eros albicans twenty feet. An Agave gracilis, five feet, was 
valued at $5,000. Rliopala corcovadensis had a very beautiful leaf, like 
young ferns. DicJcsonia antarctica was a beatiful fern, four feet high. 
None of the fern tribe, however, could equal the Cheilantlies lentigera, 
or Brussels lace. Its leaves were finely cut, soft, and feathery, and 
there was a gracefulness about it quite unequaled in its way. Lyco- 
podium leptopliyllum was a moss of unusual beauty. But the great 
charm of this collection was in the variety of plants remarkable for 
their foliage, among which were some five hundred of Dracmna nobilis, 
scattered all over the house, with their soft luxuriant leaves, tinted 
crimson, purple, and pink, resembling masses of flowers. There were, 
also, Caladium argente, Maranta roseolineata, and many others. These 



THE IONIAN ISLANDS AND ITALY. 138 

foliage plants are becoming deservedly popular in Europe. Curious, 
often brilliant, and growing luxuriantly, they are constantly changing 
their form, and present always the beauty which belongs to otlier 
plants only vfhen in bloom. 

There are several other villas about Florence, the grounds of which 
are found delightful in the early spring, when bright flowers and fresh 
foliage abound, but they offer no distinctive features worthy of record. 
One of the best was the Torrigiaiia. In this, masses of blooming 
flowers, some twelve feet in diameter, in pots, were surrounded by an 
edging of tile twenty inches high, and produced a good effect. There 
were an imitation temple of Janus, a high tower and observatory, 
patches of China roses, hedges of Japan Euonymus, weeping SopJwras, 
and an artificial river, with miniature island and stone bridge. A 
large Phoiinia serrulata was in full bloom, and those who have seen 
only the shrubby specimens we have in America can scarcely conceive 
the beauty of a tree fifteen feet high, and the same in diameter, with 
its glossy, rich leaves, and covered with masses of white fringe like 
flowers. Banksia and Chromatella roses were trained twenty-five feet ; 
and Souvenir de Malmaison was grafted on Banksia, which, in this 
climate, makes the best stock possible. There were, also, imitation 
Gothic ruins, and the unfailing circus of wooden horses — a part of 
every Italian villa of any pretension. Anemones, tulips, and carna- 
tions were in full bloom, and a fine effect was produced by roses trained 
on fences, in the form of inverted arches. The turf was good at this 
season, but the summer heat is said soon to destroy it. 

Pratolino, about seven miles from Florence, in the mountains, is a 
place of much beauty, belonging to the grand duke. Here are very 
few flowers, but delightful, shady walks, miles in extent; fine lawns, 
openings, and vistas; lakes, cascades, old trees, rose gardens, and well- 
kept turf. It has, from one point, a superb view of the whole valley 
of the Arno, witli the city of Florence. 

The botanical garden at Florence is in good order, and has some 
fine specimens of trees and shrubs, but is small, and cannot compare 
with that at Pisa. 

One of the specialities of Florence is the Cascina, or farm of the 
grand duke, through which is a drive, well kept, and flanked by woods 
and broad meadows, on which some of his best cattle and horses were 
grazing. For each horse a small stable was erected in the middle of 
the field. 

PISA. 

We found time to visit the duke's farm at Pisa, where are kept some 
two hundred camels. We could not discover, however, that they were 
of much use, although it is reported that they performed part of the 
farm work. Those which we saw were quietly lying in their stables^ 
and none could be seen at work about the fields. The farm, which is 
flat, consisting mostly of woods and pasture grounds, possesses very 
little interest. There were some fine sheep, and a few cattle, appar- 
ently crossed with Durham stock. The cattle of Eome and Tuscany 
are generally long-horned, large-boned animals, destitute of the beauty 



134 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

of tlie English "breeds. The best were in the market at Perugia, where 
there were some beautiful animals, and on the road between Genoa and 
Pisa, the pet bullocks being driven to town would have been highly 
prized at any show with us. Count Herrick had a pair of large cows, 
which did the work of the farm and also supplied him with milk — too 
much duty for any animals, but evincing their strength and valuable 
qualities for crossing with other stock. He had a cross between the 
Koman and Swiss cow, which partook of the best qualities of each. 
There never can be improvements, however, in cattle, or anything else, 
where the metayer system prevails. There is, under it, a very thorough 
cultivation of the land, but no peasant is able to bestow such benefits 
on his one or two acres as a farmer with us would eagerly introduce. 

The country between Pisa and G-enoa is well cultivated ; wheat pre- 
vails, and the vines are trained upon trees, the deep roots of the for- 
mer and the surface roots of the latter not interfering with each other. 
Sometimes the center of the tree is cut out, and the other branches 
trained in the shape of a goblet, with the vine branches interlacing 
them. The effect is pretty, and every farmer with us could adopt the 
same plan successfully^ by digging a hole, near each apple tree, six 
feet square and three or four deep, securing good drainage in the bot- 
tom, and filling in with rich soil. A Diana or Delaware vine, planted 
there, would soon cover the whole tree, and give an abundance of 
fruit. , 

ARONA. 

I searched the surrounding country for the bees desired by the de- 
partment. I could find nothing which met the description given me, 
and upon examining the bees of the country carefully, I could discover 
none different from those with us. Intelligent men, in whose business 
honey formed an important item, had no knowledge of a bee like that 
which I described, and I was almost ready to doubt its existence. I 
made an attempt to get to Milan, to inquire there, but the Austrians 
had cut off all communication. A similar attempt to reach Turin was 
frustrated by the closing of the railroad^ the advance of troops, and 
the expectation of an immediate battle. I was obliged, therefore, to 
defer further search until hostilities should cease. 

The charms of Lake Maggiore have been long celebrated_, but no 
description can exaggerate the reality. There is here a mode of train- 
ing vines which produces a fine effect, namely: upon a sort of trellis, 
four or five feet high, and then brought over at the top and tied to 
branches from the next trellis, the point of union being supported by 
a stake. Every other row of these ties is- supported by a shorter stake 
than its alternate; thus one row forms a gothic, and the next an in- 
verted arch. 

From the road, the field presents an undulating surface of green 
leaves, the top branches completely hiding the trellis. It was thought 
at one time that the oidium was owing to the age of the vines. Many 
of the old vineyards were therefore destroyed, and new plantations 
made. The use of sulphur has since proved efficacious, and this 
destruction useless. 



THE IONIAN ISLANDS AND ITALY. 135 

Another cliarming feature of the cultivation here is, that mulben-y 
and other trees are not disfigured by close pruning, as in Lombardy 
and southern Italy. They grow with luxuriance, and are kept down 
by the same degree of pruning that we af)ply to dwarf pears. Haw- 
thorn hedges and primroses, blooming along the roadside, give the 
country quite an English look. 

Taking a boat, with four sturdy rowers, for the lake had become 
rough, we visited Pallanza, to obtain some information about bees, and 
then landed on Isola Madre, one of the Borromean islands. This 
island is far out in the lake, and beyond the shadow of the mountains. 
It therefore enjoys an almost tropical climate, and many New Holland 
plants grow luxuriantly in the open air. There is very little taste dis- 
played in its plan, and many small places in England are, in this 
respect, vastly its superior. But the combination of agreeable objects 
is unequaled. You stand in the midst of trees and plants, with us 
found only in green-houses. From this forest-like luxuriance, the eye 
passes to the white houses of Pallanza opposite, the strongest possible 
contrast of the works of Nature and of man. Then the eye wanders 
over the rippling lake, and, upward, catches the sloping shores, upward 
still, the crowning hills, covered with foliage, and above all, the high- 
est peaks of the Alps, white and glistening with snow. Here £U'e all 
the elements of natural beauty— rich vegetation, quiet water, hills, 
mountains, and snow. Isola Madre contains scarcely more than foui 
or five acres, yet in this small space is an unrivaled collection of trees 
and plants, and one could ramble about for days, and find each hour 
some new beauty to admire. 

Among the trees which with us require green-house cultivation we 
noticed a Camelia, thirty feet high, and another of twenty-five feet, 
with a mass of foliage twenty-five feet in diameter, and covered with 
flowers ; Acacia dealbata, fifteen feet high ; an oleander, grafted with 
five sorts, twenty feet high, and twenty-six feet in diameter; a Wio- 
dodendron arhoreum, twenty feet high, in full bloom, incomparably 
superb; Cactus, on the rocks which bound the shore; Palmetto; Cycas 
revoluta; Carob; Indian fig, in fruit; Fabiana imhricata; Hakea pugion- 
iformis; Encalypta saligna; Lemons trained on walls, and in full fruit; 
large specimens of Magnolia grandifiora, some thirty-five feet high ; 
Iris, in bloom; Escallonia florihunda ; Araucaria imhricata ; Ericas, fif- 
teen feet high, in full bloom; masses of Azaleas; Phillocladus trichoma- 
noides; Cr^p^omerm, twenty feet high; Weeping cypress, eighteen feet; 
Taxus haccata, forty feet ; Arbutus AoidracJme, thirty feet ; immense 
Quercus Ilex; Araucaria hrasiliensis, thirty feet ; Gunningliamia, eigh- 
teen feet ; Euonymusjimhriatus, six feet ; with glossy acuminate leaves ; 
and many other plants and trees too numerous to mention. One of 
the most striking objects was made by four plants of Juniperus sabina 
forming one evergreen mass, four feet high, and thirty in diameter. 
Several large Lagustremias , twenty-five feet high, are seen a mile dis- 
tant when in bloom. Pinus patida, twenty feet high, with a head 
twenty feet in diameter, greatly resembled Pinus excelsa. A white 
Banksia rose, with trunk five inches in diameter, showed well the fine 
efiect of this variety. 



136 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 



ISOLA BELLA. 

A visit to Isola Bella was productive of less pleasure. It is far more 
expensive, but constructed with, little taste, being a succession of ter- 
races, with too great a predominance of brick and mortar. It reminds 
one of a tine piece of confectionary. There are, however, many inter- 
esting objects ; Gerasus caroliniana, thirty feet high, and with foliage 
thirty feet in diameter ; groves of oleander, eighteen feet high ; Tree 
Box, thirty feet high ; parterres ; groves of Magnolia grandifiora; 
Metrosideros alba, twelve feet high, and eighteen in diameter of foliage ; 
Magnoliaii hartwg, fifteen feet ; Arbutus unedo, twenty feet ; Laurus 
campliora, forty years old, and some fifty feet high ; Cunninghamia 
sinensis, sixty feet ; Cupressus glauca penditla, twenty feet ; and a sin- 
gular Abies monocaulis, forty-six years old_, and ten feet high. One 
of the best things was a grotto, made to resemble the temple of peace, 
filled with ferns, kept damp b}^ trickling water, and apparently sup- 
ported by columns of ivy, five feet in diameter, and twenty-six feet 
long, which grew down from above, and, being detached at the bot- 
tom, would swing at a touch from the hand. 

The collection in both these islands far surpassed that at the botanic 
garden of Pisa^ and although not so large as that at Palermo, con- 
sisted of finer specimens, because less crowded. 

The whole country about Lake Maggiore is full of delightful features, 
and in our pedestrian excursions among the mountains in search of 
bees there frequently burst upon us scenes of wonderful beauty. The 
quiet charm of the lake was always present, and we would sometimes 
walk over stretches of turf like an English lawn, or skirt along copses 
of underwood, ffesh with the peculiar beauty of young vegetation. At 
one time old trees, with broad arms, would shelter us, and then we 
would be wandering amid the trained gracefulness of a vineyard, while 
an occasional mountain torrent, foaming and dashing, would leap 
across our path. 

To visit Italy and not see the Italian Lakes, is to look at a frame 
and not see the picture. But the nations were gathering to the battle, 
troops were hastening forward, and, bearing in mind that in war there 
was lawlessness, we hastened to place the Alps between the combatants 
and our defenseless party. 



FEETILIZEES. 



BY HON. THOS. G. CLEMSON, L.L. D. 



From the day when the ^fiat went forth, "In the sweat of thy face 
shalt thou eat bread," agriculture took its place among the arts of the 
world. It is true, while population was sparse, and man depended first 
on game and then on flocks and herds, this art made little or no pro- 
gress. The tropical climate, where the infancy of man seems to have 



FERTILIZERS. ' 137 

been cradled, would appear also to have led him to defer the necessity 
of much attention to it. Very soon, however, the increasing density 
of population must have necessitated its development, since we find 
that the Egyptians, at the earliest period to which history reaches, 
were already skillful agriculturists, and had carried the art to such a 
point of perfection as not only to have sustained their own dense pop- 
ulation, "but to have made Egypt the granary of the world. That it 
was not entirely the fertility of that favored region to which this was 
due, we have evidence in the present state of that country. The Nile 
still overflows the land with fatness, and the sun still sheds its vivify- 
ing influence ; yet, there^ agriculture has sunk to its lowest ebb, and 
the country scarce supports its miserable tribes; its immense world- 
renowned monuments alone remain to show what the land once was. 
Egypt is the most striking proof which history presents of the insep- 
arable connection between a high state of civilization and a high de- 
velopment of agricultural resources. They rise and fall together, and 
the prosperity and, indeed, existence of the one is identical with the 
other. Let that nation beware, whose exhausted fields are forcing her 
population to emigrate. Civilization, in its highest degree, cannot 
exist without dense population ; nor dense population, without calling 
to its aid the highest resources of agriculture. 

Egypt stands a living, or rather a dead, type of the intimate con- 
nection between population and agriculture. China is one equally 
striking, on the opposite side. For how many thousand years has her 
pains-taking care for every foot of her soil maintained her prosperous 
and dense legions, in a region comparatively but little favored by Na- 
ture, and given a respectable position among nations to a people but 
little intellectually gifted ! How many wonderful discoveries do we 
owe to the necessities of their compact masses ! The struggle for ex- 
istence has always been one of the greatest stimulus to the activity of 
the human mind. 

This continuous prosperity, through a long series of centuries, is 
owing to the sedulous care of the government. No people, left to 
themselves, will think of future generations ; and it is for that reason 
that all governments should foster and aid the development of this 
most important of arts, as government only can. This is so well un- 
derstood in the present day, by all nations, that those who govern are 
turning their attention daily more and more to its aid and advance- 
ment. England has done so by direct legislation ; her aristocracy, 
also an integral part of her government, having, consequently, the 
weight necessary to carry out a continuous system, has given all 
the impetus of this weight and their great wealth to its energetic de- 
velopment. 

It is only within comparatively few years that science has revealed 
to us the true composition of bodies and the laws that govern their 
action ; thus developing the wonderful resources of Nature, and reducing 
that to system which, in the time of our forefathers, Avas ignorant 
practice based upon hereditary experience. 

It is true that this subject has occupied, from the earliest times, the 
attention of statesmen, philosophers, and philanthropists; but they 
only collected and reasoned from the results of experience, without 



138 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

entering into the laws which led to and governed the results which 
they recorded. Agriculture, therefore, now stands upon a hasis far 
different from what it has hitherto occupied ; and not working, as we 
have heretofore, in the dark, but knowing where to look for causes and 
effects, we may expect in the next century to make a stride that will 
give to this art, or rather convocation of arts, a place among the exact 
sciences. But this very rapidity of advancement will render it more 
fatal to be left behind in the race ; and neither nations nor individuals 
can stand supinely by, depending upon the past, and exhausting the 
accumulated resources of Nature, without individual and national ruin. 
Death is the award of improvidence, to nations as well as to individu- 
als. The continuous march of civilization to the west was the natural 
result of ignorance ; and the civilized world is just beginning to realize 
the dire consequences that are pending over those who neglect to act 
upon the unerring laws which science reveals. Sterility and depopulation 
are consequences not of use, but of abuse. Disappearance of man and 
all his monuments, even to the entire extinction of vitality, is the con- 
sequence of mistaken cupidity, or the ignorance of those laws which gov- 
ern scientific agriculture. Indeed, that essential art needs no protection ; 
we may safely leave to enlightened industry, especially in our country, 
the application of proper and well-proved rules. That which is neces- 
sary, however, is to place within the reach of all the ex^perience of the 
world, and the important results which science and observation are 
constantly developing, that time may not be lost in futile and oft-tried 
experiments. G-overnment, indeed, alone would seem capable of es- 
tablishing and persisting in a continuous system of improvement and 
development, not only for this, but future generations. Its influence 
and weight are essential on the side of advancement. 

One of the most interesting and important subjects to the agricul- 
turist is, of course, the means of keeping up, or restoring the fertility 
of his land ; and that he may not work in the dark, it is essential that 
he should understand the nature and action of soils, the functions of 
plants, and the operation of fertilizers. 

It is important we should always bear in mind that this earth is not 
a heterogeneous mixture of an indefinite number of illy-defined sub- 
stances, but, on the contrary, the different objects or forms of matter 
which present themselves to our senses are limited in the number of 
their constituents ; as far as our knowledge extends they do not exceed 
sixty-two. 

Each substance is sui generis, and, no matter from whence taken, 
possesses precisely similar properties, and is governed by invariable 
laws in its action upon other substances. They are solid, liquid, or 
aeriform, according to circumstances. Water is a familiar example ; 
it is solid in the form of ice, liquid in water, and aeriform as steam. 

Substances have been created once and forever ; they may change 
place, form, and combinations, but such a thing as blotting out of ex- 
istence, or re-creation, is impossible. Some are abundant, while others 
are exceedingly rare, and difficult to procure. To show the small or 
limited number of substances which enter into the bodies around us, 
it is only necessary to remember that the great mineral masses, which 
form by far the largest portion of the earth, are composed, as far as 



FERTILIZERS. ' 139 

our IrnowledgG extends, of a few elementary principles. Water is 
composed of two gases, and the air we breathe likewise of two gases, 
one of which is common alike to air and water. Nor do they combine 
in an indefinite manner ; they unite with each other in simple, definite 
proportions, multiples the one of the other, and the quantity rarely 
surpasses the proportion of five to one. Substances may be, it is true, 
heterogenenusly mixed in any proportions, and these mixtures present 
endless varieties, but are not chemical compounds, and do not enter 
into the category of which we are speaking. 

Matter may be divided into that which has life, and that -which is 
without life. The principal part of the substances which go to com- 
pose organic beings exists around us, in the air we breathe, (water, 
carbonic acid, nitrogen.) There are other substances not less essential 
to organic life, but which are found to enter their composition in infi- 
nitely smaller quantities. These are found in the ashes, after incin- 
eration of any vegetable or animal matter. We shall learn their 
composition as we proceed. 

Those things which are endowed with vitality are produced, then 
increase, and mature. Inorganic substances increase by the juxtapo- 
sition of similar parts, and their form is destroyed by forces exterior 
to themselves, while organisms reproduce their like, and have a period 
of existence determined by laws, which fix their time of growth^ decay, 
and death. Of organic life there are two distinct classes, one receiving 
its food through a digestive canal, and is endowed with locomotion; 
the other is fixed by roots to the soil. This is not rigorously correct, 
but sufiiciently so for our present purpose. The last, or vegetable pro- 
ductions, receive a portion of their food through their roots, and 
another through their leaves. The root answers a double purpose, 
that of fixing the plant in the earth, and drav/ing from it nourish- 
ment. Yegetable anatomy informs us that among the elements of 
their construction there are cells, which are found in all plants, what- 
ever character they may have, and those cells, by transformations and 
successive development, form fibres, tubes, or elongated canals. While 
the characteristics of the animal and vegetable classes are thus marked, 
the qualitative chemical composition of both is identical ; the princi- 
pal organic portions of which — I do not allude to the mineral constit- 
uents, or ash, and there is great similarity in that respect — may be 
said to express the condensation of the gases of which they are com- 
posed. Oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen form the volatile 
portions ; and silex, lime, potash, soda, magnesia, iron, sulphur, and 
phosphorus the mineral parts. It is mainly with those substances 
that we have to deal in connection with fertility or agriculture. If 
we can turn a never-ceasing influx of them into our fields, the prob- 
lem of fertility is solved, and it remains for us to consider their prop- 
erties, their history, their action the one upon the other, and the means 
that have heretofore been employed of making them subservient to. our 
wants . 

Plants are divided into two distinct classes, those that receive their 
increment from within and those that receive their growth on the 
exterior. The first are called endogens, the latter exogens. All or- 
ganized bodies have forms and properties peculiar and inherent to 



140 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

themselves, and those forms and properties cliaracterize the parts as 
well as the whole ; and it is that particular form and the properties of 
the parts that render it what it is and make it a living thing. Some 
plants go through the different stages of germination, growth, fructi- 
fication, and death in one season ; they are called annuals. Others 
live through a succession of years, and are called perennial. Some 
of the minute fungi, on the contrary, go through the stages of their 
existence in a few hours, and seldom live loriger than a few days. 
Some plants are annuals in a northern latitude, hut perennial in a 
more southern. The oak, the yew, the cypress, and cedar are long- 
lived trees, and flourish for many centuries. Some remarkable in- 
stances of the longevity of trees are noted by historians. A yew tree, 
which was growing in 1660 in the county of Kent, in England, about 
which all tradition was lost, measured at that time very nearly sixty 
feet in circumference at the base, and is believed to have been 2,880 
years old. On the island of Nerbuddah, in Hindostan, there is still 
standing a banyan ; the tradition of the natives is that it is 3,000 
years old. A species of cypress, which grew near Oaxaca, in MexicO; 
and which is said to have sheltered the whole army of Cortez, meas- 
ured nearly 118 feet in circumference, or 3*7^ feet in diameter, a.nd was 
computed by Decandolle to have withstood the deluge and been in 
existence before the creation of man. There is another cypress at 
Chapultepec, in the same region, which is said to be 117 feet 10 inches 
round. If the measurement here given be correct, and the tree con- 
sists of one stem, we are entitled' to consider the Mexican cypress as 
the most gigantic and ancient tree discovered on the globe. 

No infallible rule is known by which we can estimate the age of 
trees. The known practice of counting the concentric rings in the 
trunk of a tree, and reckoning each for a year, is liable to error, for 
a recurrence of cold after warm weather may so check vegetation as to 
occasion the formation of two layers in one season, or two zones may 
be fused into one by some temporary injury. But it is nevertheless a 
close approximation, and may be relied on within certain limits. 

It is through the roots that the ash or mineral ingredient enters, 
while the leaves absorb from the atmosphere the organic or combus- 
tible portion. The power of assimilation appears to be dependent 
upon the action of light. A plant placed in water containing car- 
bonic acid, and exposed to the light of the sun, absorbs the acid and 
gives off oxygen. At night the action is reversed, and carbonic acid 
is emitted, when oxygen is assimilated. Every one has remarked the 
tendency of plants to lean towards the sun, and where they are kept in 
cellars they will bend even several feet from the perpendicular to re- 
ceive the rays of light that may enter through an aperture. In the 
early stages of plant-life, the carbon of the soil enters through the 
roots ; but when the plant has risen above the ground, and its leaves 
are formed, the carbon of the soil is no longer needed, and it is pro- 
bable that what is required is entirely assimilated from the carbonic 
acid of the atmosphere. 

The sap rises from the roots through the internal vessels to the leaves, 
becomes carbonized by the decomposition of the carbonic acid of the 



FERTILIZERS. 141 

atmosphere, and passes down into the plant, forming ligneous fiber, &c. 
We shall not enter into the subject of vegetable physiology ; that would 
be foreign to our purpose. Fertility depends at once upon the chem- 
ical composition and mechanical condition of the soil ; nor can it be 
independent of subsoil and climatic influences. The latter question, 
including the chemistry of ozone, is one of great intricacy. It is so 
interwoven with heat, electricity, moisture, and chemical reaction as 
almost to baffle investigation. Plants generate and evolve heat, and 
possess the power of preventing their juices from freezing at a degree 
of temperature far below that at which congelation would take place 
were the plant dead. Fertility is a relative term, and is dependent 
upon multifarious influences. A certain degree of heat and moisture 
is essential to life ; without them, there can be no germination nor 
maturation of seed ; nor are these essentials independent of soil, or 
rather its constituents, we may say one constituent, for the absence or 
presence of one substance may secure fertility or produce sterility. 

With these preliminary remarks, we pass to the consideration of 
water in its connection with fertility: 

Water in a perfectly pure state is composed of two volumes of hydro- 
gen gas and one of oxygen, and about 89 parts of oxygen and 11 of 
hydrogen by weight. When you mix the two gases they will remain 
uncombined for an indefinite period, unless the mixture should be sub- 
mitted to the action of heat or electricity. The combination then takes 
j)lace with the manifestation of stupendous force. The two compo- 
nents may be separated by electricity. Water enters into the composi- 
tion of all vegetable and animal structures. It is one of the principal 
constituents of blood, milk, and sap. By its assistance, silex and other 
insoluble substances enter into circulation, and are assimilated by ani- 
mals and vegetables. It is found to make part of all grains, woods, 
leaves, &c. Its absence would jjroduce universal death. It enters 
into all our domestic operations, and forms part of all alcoholic bever- 
ages and articles of food. It is essential to production, and it may be 
said that fertility in any locality is in direct proportion to humidity, 
and sterility in proportion to its absence. The truth of this proposi- 
tion is verified in a remarkable degree in the deserts of Sahara and the 
western plains of this continent. 

Water is never obtained pure from natural sources ; it is procured 
by distillation. That which issues from springs, generally contains 
mineral substances, and always impurities of a gaseous nature. There 
are waters, even river waters, that at times evaporate without residuum. 
Such is the case with that of the Schuylkill, at Philadelphia. We 
have used it for months together, in analysis. Eain-water, and that 
which falls in the form of dew, are also impure. The former, though 
much freer from impurities than that which has flowed over the ground, 
comes down charged with all the impurities of the atmosphere, which 
it washes as it descends. These substances are varied and numerous, 
consisting of impalpable sand, vegetable and animal particles, also 
salt taken up from the ocean. That which first falls after a drought 
is often charged with the offensive odor of animal perspiration, excre- 
ments, and putrefaction. It also brings down fishes and frogs, and at 
times organisms and pollen, to the extent of tinging the surface of the 



142 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

earth witli the color of the adventitious matter. Eain-water always 
contains ammonia and nitric acid. These are partly formed by the 
action of electricity in the atmosphere, and are partly the result of de- 
compositions which take place on the surface of the earth and in the 
air. 

Pure water. is insipid and unhealthy. That taken from springs or 
rivers, independent of any mineral ingredients which it may hold in 
solution, always contains a quantity of oxygen gas, the great supporter 
of life and combustion. This imparts a tonic-invigorating quality to 
cold water, which when boiled it does not possess ; to the latter, emetic 
qualities are attributed. Water, from its known quality of containing 
oxygen in weak combination or in an evanescent form, together with 
carbonic acid, is a powerful and essential agent in chemical action, 
which is ever occurring in the soil, &g. The substances held in solu- 
tion vary in different rivers and different parts of the same stream, 
both in Idnd and in proportions of the saline ingredients. The follow- 
ing analysis of water from different rivers were made by some of the 
most distinguished chemists of continental Europe, Bouchardat, Bous- 
singault, Dupasquier, Tingry, Gi-rundaub, and Payen : 

" For example, 100,000 parts of the water of the Seine above Paris 
contain 11.3 of carbonate of lime, 0.4 of carbonate of magnesia, 0.5 
of silica, 3.6 of gypsum, 0.6 of Epsom salt, l.Oof chloride of calcium, 
0.8 of chloride of magnesium, and traces of nitrates and of organic 
matter ; 100,000 parts of the water of the Marne contain 10.5 of car- 
bonate of lime, 0.9 of carbonate of magnesia, 0.6 of silica, 3.1 of gyp- 
sum, 1.2 of Epsom salt, l.T of chloride of magnesium, and traces of 
organic matter ; 100,000 parts of the water of the Ourcq, at St. Denis, 
contain 1Y.5 of carbonate of lime, 2.0 of carbonate of magnesia, 2.0 
of silica, 15.3 of gypsum, 7.0 of Epsom salt, 4.0 of chloride of mag- 
nesium, and traces of common salt and of organic matter ; 100,000 
parts of the water of the Yonne, at Avallon, contain 4.3 of carbonate 
of lime, 1.9 of silica, traces of gypsum, 1.5 of chloride of calcium, 
and traces of common salt and organic matter ; 100,000 parts of the 
water of the Benvronne contain 25.7 per cent, of carbonate of lime, 
20.3 of gypsum, and 8.5 of chloride of calcium; 100,000 parts of the 
water of the Therouenne contain 26.2 of carbonate of lime, 2.0 of 
gypsum, and 3.6 of chloride of calcium; 100,000 parts of the water 
of the Gergogne contain 18.0 of carbonate of lime, 1.5 of gypsum, 
1.5 of chloride of calcium, and 1.9 of common salt ; 100,000 parts of 
the water of the Bievre, near Paris, contain 13.6 of carbonate of lime, 
25.1 of gypsum, 10.9 of chloride of calcium, and 1.2 of common salt; 
100,000 parts of the water of the Arcueil contain 16.9 oi^ carbonate of 
lime, 16.9 of gypsum, 11.0 of chloride of calcium, and 1.9 of common 
salt ; 100,000 parts of the water of the spring of Eoye, at Lyons, con- 
tain 23.8 of carbonate of lime, traces of silica, 1.4 of gypsum, 1.2 of 
common salt, and traces of nitrates and organic matter ; 100,000 parts 
of the Avater of the Fountain Spring, at Lyons, contain 23.4 of car- 
bonate of lime, traces of silica, 1.7 of gypsum, 1,3 of chloride of cal- 
cium, traces of chloride of magnesium, 0.2 of common salt, and traces 
of organic matter ; 100,000 parts of the water of the Khone, at Lyons, 
in July, contain 10.0 of carbonate of lime, traces of silica, 0.6 of gyp- 



FERTILIZERS. 143 

sum, and traces of Epsom salt, of chloride of calcium, of chloride of 
magnesium, of common salt, and of organic matter ; 100,000 parts of 
the water of the Khone, at Lyons, in February, contain 15.0 of car- 
bonate of lime, 2.0 of gypsum, 0.7 of Epsom salt, 0.7 of chloride of 
calcium, and traces of nitrate of lime and of organic matter; 100,000 
parts of the water of the spring of the G-arden of Plants, at Lyons, 
contain 27.0 of carbonate of lime, 25.2 of gypsum, 16.8 of carbonate 
of calcium, 1.6 of chloride of magnesium, 12.6 of common salt, 7.G 
of nitrates, and traces of organic matter; 100,000 parts of the water 
of the Lake of G-eneva contain 7.2 of carbonate of lime, 0.7 of car- 
bonate of magnesia, 0.1 of silica, 2.6 of gypsum, 3.1 of Epsom salt, 
0.9 of chloride of magnesium, and 0.6 of organic matter; 100,000 
parts of the water of the Arve, in August, contain 5.2 of carbonate 
of lime, 0.4 of carbonate of magnesia, 0.1 of silica, 3.2 of gj^psum, 
2.9 of Epsom salt^ 0.7 of chloride of magnesium, and 0.3 of organic 
matter ; 100,000 parts of the water of the Arve, in February, contain 
8.3 of carbonate of lime, 1.2 of carbonate of magnesia, 0.2 of silica, 
6.5 of gypsum, 6.2 of Epsom salt, 1.5 of chloride of magnesium, and 
0.4 of organic matter ; 100,000 parts of the water of the Loire, near 
Orleans, contain 1.7 of carbonate of lime, 5.1 of chloride of calcium, 
and traces of common salt; 100,000 parts of the water of the Loiret 
contain 11.9 of carbonate of lime, 3.8 of gypsum, 10.2 of chloride of 
calcium, and 2.5 of common salt ; and 100,000 parts of the water of 
the artesian Avell at Grenelle, near Paris, contain 6.8 of carbonate of 
lime, 1.42 of carbonate of magnesia, 2.90 of bicarbonate of potash, 
1.2 of sulphate of potash, 1.09 of chloride of. potassium, 0.57 of silica, 
and 0.24 of nitrogenous organic matter." 

It will be borne in mind that the above-named substances are in 
solution and do not include those held in mechanical suspension. The 
waters analyzed above are not only limpid, but such as are used for 
the kitchen and all the daily purposes of life. 

Much has been written upon the sewerage of eities throughout the 
world. This is a subject of great importance, not only to the agri- 
cultural wealth of the country, but imminent to its sanitary condition. 
The value that is daily washed into rivulets from our lands, and thence 
to the sea, is incalculable. Mr. Grey, in speaking of the Medloch, 
says: "it receives the drainage of not more than 100,000, and contains 
sufficient phosphoric acid to supply 95,000 acres of wheat, 184,000 
acres of potatoes, or 280,000 acres of oats, and to hold in solution a 
sufficient quantity of silica to supply 50,000 acres of wheat." 

A distinguished agricultural writer in 1845 makes the following 
remarks upon the subject of the sewerage of London : 

"By carefully conducted experiments and very accurate gaugings it 
has been found that the chief London sewers convey daily into the 
Thames about 115,000 tons of mixed drainage, consisting on an average 
computation of one part of solid and twenty-five absolutely fluid matters ; 
but if we only allow one part in thirty of this immense mass to be com- 
posed of solid substances, then v/e have the large quantity of more than 
3,800 of solid manure daily poured into the river from London alone, 
consisting principally of excrements, soot, and the debris of the London 
streets, which is chiefly carbonate of lime; thus, allowing twenty tons 



144 AGRICULTUEAL REPORT. 

of the manure as a dressing for an acre of ground, tliere is evidently 
a quantity of solid manure annually poured into the river equal to 
fertilizing more than 50,000 acres of the poorest cultivated land! The 
quantity of food thus lost to the country hy this heedless waste of 
manure is enormous ; for only allowing one crop of wheat to be raised 
on these 50,000 acres that would be equal to the maintenance (calcu- 
lating upon an average produce of three quarters of wheat per acre) of 
150,000 persons. London, too, is only one huge instance of this 
thoughtless waste of the agricultural riches of the soil of England. 
From every other English city, every town, every hamlet, is hourly 
passing into the sea a proportionate waste of liquid manure ; and I 
have only spoken of the solid or mechanically suspended matters of 
the average ; the absolutely fluid portion is still rich in urine, ammo- 
niacal salts, soda, &c." 

The earth is surrounded by water in a state of vapor, and the quan- 
tity varies according to the temperature of the atmosphere and other 
circumstances. Vomer found as a mean of fifty experiments, in 1,000 
parts of air, 8.47 parts of vapor. In the forenoon, and before two 
o'clock, the mean was 7.97; and between tvv^o p. m. and evening, 
8.85. There is more humidity in the atmosphere during the day than 
at night ; and more during the summer than winter ; more in low flat 
countries than in mountainous regions ; and less in the interior of con- 
tinents far removed from rivers, lakes, or the ocean. A slight change 
in the temperature of an atmosphere, saturated with humidity, pro- 
duces fogs, clouds, and rains ; and by congelation, snow, &c. A con- 
tinuous evaporation takes place from the ocean, lakes, rivers, and the 
soil, and a return to the earth in form of dew and rain. Tlie amount 
of evaporation that takes place in a country is greatly influenced by 
the operations of the farmer. In a report made by Andrew Brown and 
Dr. M. W. Dickeson to the American Association, in 1849, those gentle- 
men remark "that the annual quantity of rain that falls in the valley 
of the Mississippi maybe estimated at 169,128,960,000,000 cubic feet, 
which is about llf, or 11.3636, times the quantity which is discharged 
by the river. Tliere can be but two ways by which this immense quan- 
tity of water can make its escape from the valley ; one is by the course 
of the river^ and the other by evaporation ; -^j parts are carried off by 
the river and |-f- parts by evaporation. Thus, we arrive at a fact of the 
most momentous importance to the planting interests of Louisiana and 
Mississippi; for it v/ill be at once- perceived that the more exhalations 
are promoted, the less liable will the low or bottom lands of these two 
States be to the periodical inundations by the river. 

"If it be asked by what process it is expected that evaporation can be 
proinoted over such an extensive area as the Mississippi valley, so as 
visibly and permanently to affect the planting interests of the above- 
named States ; the answer will be found in the fact that the process 
has been, and is now, in the most rapid and successful progress, and 
of that kind which is the best calculated to produce so desirable a 
result, viz: the clearing of such large portions of the valley of its 
forests for the promotion of agriculture, and the consequent exposure 
of the lands to the action of the sun and winds, the very best promotors 
of the evaporating process, particularly on a large scale. 



FERTILIZERS. 145 

' ' So rapid is the progress of this increased exposure and its consequent 
evaporating tendency, and so visible have been its effects on the Missis- 
sippi river, that we may hazard the assertion with safety, that there is 
not now by twenty-five per cent, as much water passing down the Mis- 
sissippi as there was twenty-five years ago ; for at and prior to that 
time, there were annual inundations of many feet, and long periods 
of submergence of almost all the bottom lands, from the bluiTs on one 
side of the river bottom to those on the other side. Such lands were 
at that period accounted valueless, and to such a degree that but little 
or no hopes were entertained of the practicability of their redemption 
by any artificial means — that is on any general scale ; but such has 
been the diminution in the annual quantity of water discharged from 
the valley, that those lands have been progressively and rapidly 
redeemed from overflow, until very great portions of them are now in 
the highest state of cultivation, and with but slight assistance from 
art in the v/ay of embankments, and these such as could not have been 
at all available against the overwhelming effects of floods and the 
length of time of their continuance ; for then there were annual inun- 
dations, both deep and expansive, of the waters, over almost all the 
bottom lands, but now the river seldom rises to the same elevation as 
formerly, and, when it does, it is of much shorter duration, and the 
waters are almost exclusively confined to the channel of the river, in 
place of being spread over almost all the bottom lands the whole spring 
and early part of the summer." 

Such changes are progressing, generally unsuspected and overlooked, 
but not the less sure. 

The art of producing large crops by means of artificial supplies of 
water, has been practised from remote ages in the warm countries of 
the world. It was used by the aborigines of America, by the Incas, 
the inhabitants of Mexico, extensively practised by the Egyptians, the 
Romans, and at the present day in France and Germany. The Hin- 
doos make no attempt at cultivation without artificial irrigation. The 
rivers of Italy are made subservient to agricultural v/ants wherever it 
is practicable. Arthur Young gives an account of an hour's run of 
water through a gutter, near Turin, which produced, in 1778, 1,500 
livres. The rent of irrigated lands in Italy is much larger than upon 
land not watered. Moses, in speaking to the Israelites in the wilder- 
■ness, said : " The land v/hither thou goest in to possess it, is not aa 
the land of Egypt, whence ye came out, where thou sowedst thy seed, 
and water edst with thy foot, as a garden of herbs." Here the law- 
giver alludes to the machines that v/ere used in Egypt, which they 
worked with their feet, for raising water. Virgil tells how to bring 
down the waters of a rivulet upon the sown corn, and when suffer- 
ing from heat, to convey the vivifying liquid from the crown of the 
declivity, in channels, to the roots of the plants. Columella, Pliny, 
Cato, Yarro,* &c., all dwell upon the importance of irrigation. It is 
found profitable in England to irrigate plantations of willows and 
other semi-aquatic trees upon dry soils. The efficiency of irrigation is 

* Sine aqua omnis agricultura est miserabilis et sine efFectu. — Varro, d. r. r. 
10 A 



146 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

dependent upon many considerations ; one of the principal is the na- 
ture of the subsoil. When it is a tenacious clay, the preparation 
consists in suitable under-draining, that would be useless where the 
subsoil is sand or open gravel. 

Some waters are injurious. Certain salts of iron are known to be 
unfavorable to vegetation. Waters issuing from factories impregnated 
with animal and vegetable substances, such as the waters of distilleries, 
breweries, slaughter-houses, &c., are highly fertilizing ; others issuing 
from chemical establishments, calico printing factories, are injurious. 
Salt water in small quantities may be found useful upon certain plants, 
such as the grasses, asparagus, &c., while they are positively injurious 
to such plants as rice. The sa,lt marshes of France are known to pro- 
duce a superior quality of mutton, which commands a high price, and 
is known in the French market under the name of "pres sale." 

Waters impregnated with carbonate and sulphate of lime are very 
fertilizing. In certain parts of Germany, a weak solution of sulphuric 
acid has been employed for irrigating grass lands with great ad- 
vantage. Those v/hich liold in suspension mud and other detritus, 
are highly useful, particularly on sandy soils; the fine mud settles in 
the pores, and gives consistency, but any soil would be benefited by 
water holding mud in suspension, and that, of course, in proportion to 
the amount of organic and saline matter in the mud. 

Sir Humphrey Davy thought that the protection of grasses from frost 
during the winter season was of great importance, for a meadow 
irrigated in winter is preserved from sudden alternations, and from the 
effect of the roots being thrown out of the ground by alternate freezings 
and thawings. Tlie water immediately in contact with the roots of the 
grass is rarely belovv^ 40° Fahrenheit. In the month of March, in a 
meadow near liungerford, the air was, at 7 o'clock, A. M., at 29°. 
The water vv^as frozen above the grass, and the temperature of the soil 
below the water in which the roots were growing was 43°. While the 
temperature is thus prevented from falling during the winter, it is 
kept cool during the summer. 

Irrigation supposes water in motion ; if it be allowed to stand and 
stagnate^ its effects would destroy the objects sought to be accomplished. 
Instead of fine grasses we would have a growth of carices, junci, and 
other coarse plants of no value. 

Sir John Sinclair says that the advantages of meadow irrigation are" 
chiefly as follows : 

First. With the exception of warjDing, it is by far the easiest, cheaj)- 
est, and most certain mode of improving poor land, particularly if it is 
of a dry and gravelly nature. 

Second. Land once improved by irrigation, is put into a state of 
perpetual fertility, without any occasion for manure or trouble of weed- 
ing or any other material expense. 

Third. It becomes so productive as to yield the largest bulk of hay, 
beside abundance of the very best support for ewes and lambs in the 
spring, and for cows and other cattle in the autumn of every year. 

Fourth. In favorable situations, it produces very early grass in the 
spring, when it is doubly valuable. 

Fifth. Not only is the land thus rendered fertile without having any 
occasion for manure, but it produces food for animals, which is con- 



FERTILIZERS. 147 

verted into manure, to be used on other lands, thus augmenting, in a 
compound proportion, that great source of fertility. 

The subject of irrigation is one of immense importance, in a dry, 
arid climate, such as characterizes portions of the western plains par- 
ticularly. It is paramount, and may be employed throughout the con 
tinent with advantages greater than any other agricultural application. 
It is an important art of itself, and one that requires special acquire- 
ments for its adaptation.* 

The direct action of the fertilizing constituents of water are not the 
only influences Avhich that substance exerts upon our fields and grow- 
ing crops. Its simple percolation through a soil has an important 
influence, by displacing gases and thus creating circulation of air and 
bringing a fresh supply of ameliorating agents. 

A little reflection will teach us how to prevent the disastrous conse- 
quences of the sudden and powerful rains that fall in our climate. If 
the ground is cultivated shallow, we must suffer from washing. A 
hill-side plowed two or three inches would meet with the same fate 
that we would expect if we were to expose an inclined looking-glass, 
upon which we had sprinkled sand. The deeper a ,soil is stirred the 
better rain will be absorbed, instead of running off; and the deeper 
the furrow the longer will the moisture be retained. The alternate 
influence of showers and sunshine upon deeply-stirred land brings 
about another important eftect, which cannot be obtained without it : 
we allude to aeration, an influence of great importance, by which not 
only the organic portions of the soil are, by aid of air circulation, 
brought into a state of decomposition ; gases are evolved, new com- 
binations formed, the inert mineral constituents are also decomposed, 
new salts are.created, and numerous chemical. actions take place, pro- 
ducing active food for plant-life. 

It is, of course, necessary to distinguish between a wholesome hu- 
midity and destructive saturation ; while the one is to be cherished, 
the other must be avoided. On the subject of under-draining we shall 
not enter ; its importance is too great for a cursory notice in a paper 
of this kind, and we refer our readers to the many valuable publica- 
tions written upon the subject. 

Liebig makes the following beautiful remarks : 

''There is not to be found in chemistry a more wonderful phenome- 
non, and which more confounds all human wisdom, than is presented 
by the soil of a garden or field. 

"By the simplest experiment, any one may satisfy himself that rain- 
water, filtered through field or garden soil, does not dissolve out a 
trace of potash, ammonia, silicic, or phosphoric acid. The soil does 
not give up to the water one particle of the food of plants which it 
contains. The most continuous rain cannot remove from the field, 
except mechanically, any of the constituent elements of its fertility. 
The soil not only retains firmly all the food of plants which is actually 
in it, but its power to preserve all that may be useful to them extends 
much further. If rain, or rather water, holding in solution ammonia, 

*See Stephens's Practical Irrigator, Smith's Observations on Irrigation, Brown's Treatise 
on Irrigation, Sir John Sinclair's Code of Agriculture, Voyage en Espagne, par M. Jaubert 
de Passa, Anlcitnng zum praktischen Ackerbau von Schwerz, Lr 1 



148 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

potash, phosijlioric, and silicic acids, be brought in contact with the 
soil, these substances disappear almost immedia-tel}^ from the solution. 
The soil withdraws them from the water. Only such substances are 
completely withdrawn by the soil as are indispensable articles of food 
for plants. All others remain wholly or in part in solution." 

In connection with this interesting subject, it may be remarked that 
the absorbent power of soils varies according to their composition. It 
is greater in clays than those which are silicious or sandy, but belongs 
to all, more or less, not excepting those of a calcareous nature. Liebig 
tells us that if the phosphate of lime be dissolved in weak carbonic 
acid water, and the solution filtered through a soil, the phosphate of 
lime is removed from solution, and the same result takes place with the 
jihosphate of magnesia' and ammonia. This is a fact of great agri- 
cultural importance, from the constant occurrence of those substances 
in organic manures. 

The complete absorption of potash, ammonia, and j)hosphoric acid 
by the soil, a,nd thus entering into combination and forming insoluble 
compounds, would appear to militate against the received opinion, viz: 
that plant food must necessarily be in a soluble state for assimilation. 
This is contradicted by tjic above facts. It is, besides, well known that 
plant vitality has the power, as it were, of corroding insoluble sub- 
stances, and absorbing them by the roots. Varieties of plants growing 
upon rocks contain large quantities of the substance of which the rock 
is cotnposed. Such is known to be the case with lichens growing on 
calcareous rocks. Again, the roots of the grape-vine have been found 
surrounding, and its rootlets insinuated in every manner through, 
around, and enveloping a piece of bone, which finally disappears. 
Nor does it seem that assimilable food should necessarily be soluble, 
provided it be in a state of atomic division. 

It has been stated that the constituents of plants are divided into 
two classes, organic and inorganic. The first named are derived from 
water, carbonic acid, nitric acid, and ammonia, and may come from 
the air through the leaves, or from the soil through the ropts. The 
inorganic constituents are of a different character, and can only be 
received from the soil and through the roots. It then becomes impor- 
tant that there should be deep preparation of the soil, in order to com- 
mingle the surface with that which underlies, that the roots in their 
search for food (for it is proved that it does not circulate in the soil as 
it becomes fixed by combination) may more readily come in contact 
with all the substances the j^lant requires to form the wonderful com- 
pound necesse.ry to its growth and development. Deep preparation 
insures aeration, and the decomposition of the constituents of the soil 
is thus attained by the action of the atmospheric agents. Both car- 
bonic and nitric acid, which are known to exist in the air and water, 
have a powerful action upon the soil, but unfortunately our knowledge 
upon that subject leaves much to be desired. The importance of minute 
division of the soil, and the manures which may be added, must, on 
reflection, be evident to every one. Plants assimilate food in a state 
of atomic division, and the nearer we approach that point the better ; 
beside which, they will more readily undergo those chemical changes 
v^hich are ever taking place in Nature's great laboratory, the earth. 



FERTILIZERS. 149 

By breaking the clods mechanically, by exposure to the air, and the 
freezing efiects of water, the mass is pulverized, and thus food, before 
locked up, is appi'oaclioil and used by the tender roots of the plant. 

"Plants cannot obtain from the soil more food than it contains. 
Further, its fertility is not to be measured by the whole quantity pres- 
ent in it, but only by that portion of the whole quantity which exists 
in the smallest particles of soil, for it is with such portions alone that 
the rootlets can come into close contact. 

"A piece of bone weighing one ounce, in iX cubic foot of earth, pro- 
duces no marked effect on its fertility. But if this one ounce of phos- 
phate of lime be uniformly distributed throughout the earth, it will 
suffice for the nourishment of one hundred and twenty wheat plants. 

•'Of two fields with the same amount of food, one may be very fer- 
tile, and the other very unfruitful, if the food is more uniformly 
distributed throughout the ibrmer than the latter. The common 
plow breaks and turns up the soil without mixing it. It only dis- 
places, to a certain extent, the spots on which plants have already 
grown, but the spade breaks, turns, and mixes it thoroughly."* 

Those plants which reach maturity in a short time are materially 
affected by the preparation of the soil. Their powers of absorption 
are much greater in the spring tha,n in the summer, when the leaves 
are being formed, and when the plant is in the full vigor of growth, 
than when it has reached its maturity. We have a familiar instance 
of the importance of preparation in our corn crop, and the stimulus 
that is imparted to it by constant working, by which food is contin- 
ually renewed and brought into close contact with the roots, and the 
soil kept in a well pulverized state, thus increasing its absorbing 
powers. The descent of water through the soil, and its escape upward 
as vapor, tend to the same end, and hence the great importance of 
under-draining. 

Chemists employ sulphuric acid in their experiments for absorbing 
moisture. Lime and caustic potash .are also used: Soils possess the 
absorbent power in an eminent degree, and it is by that inherent 
quality that plants are enabled to resist extreme droughts. The 
power of absorption depends gre<atly upon division, color, &c. A dark 
soil absorbs heat more readily than a light-colored one ; it also 
radiates heat quicker. When the sun sets, the earth begins to radiate ; 
in proportion as it cools, will be the amount of dew deposited. When 
a gas passes to a liquid state, caloric is evolved ; such is also the effect 
when a liquid passes to a solid. The reverse occurs when a solid be- 
comes liquid, or a liquid a gas. By the condensation of vapor, or the 
formation of dew, heat is evolved ; by the absorption of dew, a further 
degree of sensible heat is produced. This process prevents a too sud- 
den change of temperature in the surface of the earth, and which 
otherwise would have been sensibly aff'ected by the too great radiation 
of heat. This equalization is brought about in a manner to excite oun 
admiration. Evaporation is far more rapid in a dry, than in a moist, 
atmospljere, and more rapid in a current of air than when it is still or 
stagnant. Dry, porous, and thoroughly-pulverized soils radiate heat 

* Liebig's Letters on Modern Agriculture, p. 108. 



160 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

from a vastly greater number of points than v/et and compact soils, 
and receive more abundant depositions of devf . Sands are powerful 
absorbents, and some countries depend almost wholly upon this for 
the support of vegetation. The sandy plains of Chili seldom receive 
any rain, yet^ in consequence of their excessive radiation of heat and 
the heavy dews at night, they maintain a liigli fertility. If a soil be 
sufficiently permeable to the air, condensation may take j)lace below 
during the day, at the same time that the surface may be giving ofi' 
both heat and moisture, which is due to the relative degree of heat be- 
tween the tv/o. 

To the farmer and the gardener, the soil is that portion of the 
earth's surface or crust which supports vegetation, or that is sus- 
ceptible of cultivation, and is rich or poor accordingly as it is well 
or illy adapted to production. Soils are formed from the decom- 
position and disintegration of rocks, and are either from those im- 
mediately underlyiiig, or may have been brought from a distance by 
causes still acting, or that have ceased to operate. The tendency of 
all high land to depression, and the consequent elevation of low 
grounds, is a never ceasing action upon the surface of the earth; winds 
and tides, currents and volcanic perturbations, elevations, the depres- 
sions and ejectments, continuous action of the atmospheric agents, 
changes of temperature, moisture;, &c., and those causes acting from 
eternity, have caused the present state of the surface of the earth. But 
the soil contains more or less of plant and animal life^, or the result of 
their decomposition. Traces of obscure microscopic life first manifest 
themselves ; these objects live, assimilate food, procreate, and die. 
From their remains other and a higher order of organisms aj^pear ; 
they run their course and disappear, and their substance is by grada- 
tion finally transformed into the bone and muscle of man. 

The soil has a varied composition, according to locality and circum- 
stance. The decomposition or disintegration of an argillaceous rock 
would naturally give rise to a soil in which aluminous properties would 
prej)onderate. If the soil originated from a silicious rock, then it 
v\^ould be sandy ; if from limestone, we should expect it to be calca- 
reous. These and other substances, variously intermixed with organic 
matters in different states and stages of decomposition, form soils. 
They owe their properties to the distinctive minerals from which they 
are derived. 

These inorganic constituents do not exist in the atmosphere, aiid are 
supplied by the earth, as they do not grow ; and having been created 
once and forever, it follows that, if removed, they must be replaced. 
It does not matter how removed, v/hether in the form of grass, grain, 
milk, flesh, or bone, if taken away they are gone, so far as the farmer 
is concerned. This principle lies at the foundation of all successful 
agriculture, and is the fundamental axiom for which Liebig and others 
have so long, so laboriously, and ably contended. 

It would, be as ridiculous for the miner to suppose that his exhausted 
placer would.yield as much gold by re-working, as for the farmer to 
think that his exhausted lands would be recuperated without the addi- 
tion of the substances extracted from it. 

All the constituents of soil are compounds : they are oxydes of some 



FERTILIZERS. 151 

metallic base, the organic portions are animal and vegetable substances 
in a decomposing state, complex and passing by degrees to simple 
forms. Soils, then, in complexion and composition vary. Two soils 
originating from the same rock may differ widely, in consequence of 
mechanical condition, subsoil, situation, climate, and cultivation. But 
as rocks are the same in all parts of the world, so must they give rise 
to a similarity of soil. In one hundred and forty-six soils analyzed by 
the geological surveyor of Massachusetts, taken from every variety of 
rock formation, the most remarkable uniformity was presented. These 
again, as compared with forty-eight soils from Germany, Holland, 
Belgium, Hungary, and Bohemia, offer the same striking uniformity, 
differing but slightly from American soils. "^^ These facts would appear 
to shoAV that there is not only a great similarity, but that their compo- 
sition is independent of the variety of rocks which they overlie. Some 
of the most fertile are those formed by deposits, and the amount of 
fertilizing material carried from one spot to another, or entirely lost 
in the ocean, defies any estimate. Drs. Dickeson and Brown estimate 
the annual deposit from the Mississippi river to amount to the enor- 
mous quantity of 28,188,053,892^- cubic feet of solid matter. That 
amount is independent of the coarse sand and gravel transported by 
the river current, which they were unable to estimate. 

Mr. Leonard Horner estimates that "the Ehine carries down every 
year 1,973,433 cubic yards of earth, and if this process has been going 
on at the same rate for the last two thousand years, and there is no 
evidence that the river has undergone any material change during that 
period, then the Khine must in that time have carried down materials 
sufficient to form a stratum of stone a yard thick, extending over an 
area more than thirty-six miles square.'' 

From the nature of the constituents of silt, and the finely comminuted 
state in which it is deposited, we should expect it to be fertile ; and so 
long as the deposits continue, so long will their richness rj^main. Such 
soils are among the richest known. The low grounds bordering on 
the Nile, the Mississippi, the Khone, the Danube, the Po, the Wolga, 
Orinoco, &c., are examples, and maintain their fertility without appa- 
rent diminution. The composition of alluvium depends upon the geo- 
logical formations and the character of the country through which the 
waters pass; and the nature of the deposit again depends upon the 
current. If the stream be sluggish, the pa-rticles are much finer than 
if the water be rapid or turbulent. When the uplands of our country 
have been impoverished by successive croppings or injudicious tillage, 
the low grounds will resist longer, and continue to be a resource. But 
the amount of low ground is insufficient to supply the requirements of 
a dense population; hence the necessit}^ of fertilizers. Organic ma- 
nures, those of a nitrogenous nature, have been used from time imme- 
morial. It is said "that the barn-yard yields a panacea for all the 
farmer' s ills. ' ' This is not rigorously correct ; for there are soils which 
never can be rendered fertile by the application of barn-yard manure, 
but which may be improved by correctives, and the addition of organic 
substances. 



* Dana's Miiclc Manual. 



152 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 



LIME. 

Next to manm-e, tlie most common fertilizer used throughout the 
United States, wherever it can be procured, is lime, either hurnt from 
limestone or oyster shells, or in the state of a sulphate commonly called 
gypsum or plaster of Paris. It appears to iiave been used from remote 
antiquity, and there are few soils which are not benefited by its appli- 
cation. It does not seem to be of very great importance whether it be 
added to the soil in the shape of lime direct from the kiln, slaked, or in 
the form of carbonate, as it occurs in chalk, marble, or marl. The 
essential point is extreme fineness. The finer it is, the more easily it 
enters into combination and produces its effect. This purpose is always 
better attained by burnt lime, whatever it may be burnt from, whether 
limestone, marble, or shells. Lime has a great affinity for carbonic 
acid, which is one of the ever-present constituents of the atmosphere; 
so that, upon the exposure of caustic lime, it soon becomes carbonated; 
Caustic, or fresh-burned lime, when put in contact with organic matter, 
either animal or vegetable, causes immediate action and rapid decom- 
position. Carbonate of lime is less active; and, although it has lost- 
its caustic pov/er by the absorption of carbonic acid, still it produces 
important changes in soils. As we have seen, soils are mixtures of 
salts and organic matter, containing air and water in their pores. Here 
lime acts, decomposing the organic matter, and freeing carbonic acid. 
It again acts upon the alkaline and earthy salts, decomposing them, 
and enabling them to form such combinations as the plants require. 

Chemistry has rendered important services to agriculture in many 
ways; none more than by analysis of soils; not by informing us of the 
difference between poor and rich soils, nor by pointing out the specific 
wants of the farmer, or the particular applications to each soil so hoped 
for by him ; but by showing us that certain combinations exist in the 
soil; that a simple silicate of alumina is barren, experience proving 
that the mere application of manure to it will not give fertility ; though, 
lime being added on common clay, a double silicate of alumina and lime 
will be found, which, in the course of time_, with manure^ becomes 
fertile. Lime added to a clay soil destroys that sticky, waxen consist- 
ence that makes it so difficult to work, and prevents the baking and 
hardening so fatal to vegetable life. The addition of lime is not so 
beneficial from its mere presence in a soil, for generally there is enough 
for plant food ; but its good effect is chiefly owing to the chemical 
changes it causes among the substances forming and existing in the 
soil. 

It has been long knovfii that a mixture of lime, earth, and rich 
organic matter, such as manure and decomposing vegetable substances, 
causes the production of nitric acid. Such a mixture is used in many 
parts of the world to produce saltpeter, which is a nitrate of potash. 
It is collected from the earthy mixture by dissolving it in water, which 
is evaporated, leaving the salt in crystals. The same thing takes 
place in the earth ; when lime is added to it, nitric acid is formed, 
v/hich combines v/ith the alkalies and earths in the soil, forming 
nitrates. These are all excellent fertilizers. 



FERTILIZERS. . 153 

The exact manner in whicji lime acts upon the soil is not entirely 
understoocl, but that it does produce a wonderful effect, and a very ben- 
eficial one^. is well known. The limestone formations in the United 
States are of very great extent. Our best wheat soils overlie them. By 
analysis, we find no carbonate of lime in these limestone clays; yet it 
does not follow that lime is not there in some shape. Accordingly we 
discover it in the state of phosphate and silicate. Upon these lime- 
stone soils lime has been largely applied, and the result has been ex- 
cellent. We owe much to Mr. Edvfard Eufiin, of Virginia, for his 
])ractical application of lime, and for his publications in regard to it. 
By his efforts in this respect a revolution has been created in agricul- 
ture throughout the tide-water regions of Virginia. 

Some of the soils in the United States, overlying limestone rocks, 
contain carbonate of lime, while others are formed of a decomposing 
limestone, or, as it is called in Alabama, "rotten limestone.'' Here, 
of course, we have lime largely in the soil. This is not the case with 
soils overlying the blue limestone of New York, Pennsylvania, Mary- 
land, and Virginia. The composition of these soils shows a different 
origin. The numerous and large springs throughout this region form 
a great source to the soil of carbonate of lime. This is insoluble ; but 
the bi-carbonate, in which the lime has a double quantity of carbonic 
acid, is soluble and easily gives off a part of its carbonic acid, re- 
turning to a carbonate, and to an insoluble state. The springs bring 
up the lime in solution, in a state of bi-carbonate, which, upon expo- 
sure to the atmosphere, loses a portion of its carbonic acid, and is de- 
posited in the earth in the shape of limestone. The most familiar 
example of this occurs in a tea-kettle, which soon becomes incrusted 
with limestone, if limestone water be used in it, from the caijse we have 
mentioned above. 

By far the largest portion of the soils east of the Alleghany and Blue 
Ridge are formed from the older and crystaline rocks, and consequently 
contain less lime than soils of a different origin^ there being neither 
limestone nor springs from limestone rocks to impart it to them. All 
these soils, without exception, would be benefited by the application 
of lime. When using the word lime, we would not wish to be under- 
stood as meaning the result of burnt limestone or shells only, but in 
whatever shape it maybe found, as marls, &c. Lime, added in small 
quantities annually, would seem, from experience, to have a better 
effect than when put on the land heavily at once. It is stated, on reli- 
able authority, that so small an amount as a bushel to the acre has 
produced good effect. In some parts of the country it is customary to 
add burnt lime in great quantities, as high as two hundred and more 
bushels per acre. Utter sterility for sometime has been the result of 
such profusion. Prudonce and economy would suggest smaller sup- 
plies. Some care should ' '<'. used in selecting the limestone from which 
to make lime, as it is seldom pure, often containing large portions of 
magnesia and sand, and always more or less phosphate of lime. The 
magnesia, if not in too large quantities, can hardly be objectionable. 
The phosphate of lime is very desirable, and too much of it can scarcely 
be applied. The sand in limestone might be objectionable on the score 
of economy, otherwise its use on a stiff clay would be beneficial. Oys- 



164 ^ AGRICULTORAL REPORT. 

ter shells miglit naturally be expected to contain phosphate of lime in 
considerahle quantity, and these are, perhaps, the best materials from 
which to make lime for the farm. 

It must be borne in mind that lime of itself will not give fertility to 
soil. The materials upon which it can act must be present, or its 
greatest effect will be lost. There must be organic matter in the soil. 
either as decomposing manure or as vegetable mold, upon which it can 
operate. Lime brings into play the constituents of the soil, and 
enables the plant to feed on them, while, as a salt, it forms the food 
of plants, yet its great effect is upon the different parts of the soil 
itself. The richer this may be, the better will prove the effect of lime ; 
the poorer the soil, the slower and worse the effect. It is owing to 
this cause that lime has been condemned in many cases, it having been 
put upon poor soils, where there was nothing for it to operate upon. 
The effect of lime, it will be observed from what we have sa,id above, 
is long continued. Its benefits can be seen for crop after crop. As 
long as there is organic matter in the soil, it slowly decomposes it, 
forming new combinations and fresh food. Those results which we 
produce in the laboratory, fall far short of the endless changes going 
on in the earth. Pie who undertakes to explain every operation of 
Nature will fail most lamentably. There are causes at work we but 
little understand. Who can explain vitality? It has much to do 
with the marvelous actions and reactions going on in the earth. By 
it inert matter becomes part of life, fills its functions^ decays, forms 
new life, and thus runs on in an eternal round. 

MARL. 

Next to lime, marl has the most extensive use, as a fertilizer, in the 
eastern part of the United States. It has been found from New York, 
along the coast, to the Gulf of Mexico. We have heard of none 
between the Eocky and Alleghany mountains, unless it might be on 
the Gulf of Mexico. The composition of m.arls is various, most of 
them abounding in carbonate of lime. . To this they ov/e a great cause 
of their usefulness. The word marl has various significations in the 
United States. In New Jersey, the green sand is called marl, while 
on the Chesapeake the calcareous earth, so largely used there, bears 
the same name. In Europe, the word marl vv^ould appear to be ap- 
plied to substances as often vfithout lime as v/ith it, and not by any 
means confined to a class of calcareous earths. The application of 
marl, or a variety of substances under that name, is of quite ancient 
date. Marling was practised by the Greeks and the Komans, and 
Pliny, in his Natural History, evidently alludes to and mentions chalk, 
under the head of marl. He says the Gauls and Britons sunk shafts 
to the depth of a hundred feet for the extraction of Avhite chalk. It 
was used to scour silver, and is the whiting of the present day. The 
same substance, on being put on land, produces fertilizing effects for 
eighty years. In England and on the continent, chalking and marl- 
ing are synonymous terms ; and it is probable that substances of an 
unctuous, soapy feeling came into use because they v/ere supposed to 
possess properties similar to chalk. 



FERTILIZERS. 156 

The ]3ure green sand marl of New Jersey, according to the analysis 
of Mr. Henry Seybert, contains no lime. He obtained as follows : 

Silica 49.83 

Alumina COO 

Magnesia 1.83 

Potassa 10.12 

Water 9.80 



p;q 



Protoxyd of iron 21.5 

Loss 0.89 



1,000 

But the substance varies very materially, as is shown by the folloAv- 
ing analysis, copied from Professor Cook's Keport on the G-eology of 
New Jersey. We give the analysis with the decimals abridged from 
two figures to one : 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 

Protoxyd of iron 8.3 16.8 21.3 14.9 

Alumina 6,1 

Lime 2.4 

Magnesia 4 

Potash 2.5 4.9 7.1 1.1 4.3 3.37 

Soluble silica 20.2 

" Insoluble silica and sand 49.9 

Sulphuric acid 9 

Phosphoric acid 1.4 1.1 1.3 .2 2.6 6.9 

Carbonic acid 2 

Water 7.1 

Soluble in water 1.9 1.4 1.1 1.1 1.9 4.7 

Marl from the State of Delaware, according to Mr. Booth, does not 
differ very much from that of New Jersey. But in Delaware there 
are two varieties, proximate one to the other, and one of which con- 
tains as high as 25 per cent, of carbonate of lime. Mens. P. Berthier, 
professor of Docimacie, in the royal school of mines, of France, has 
analyzed several varieties, which are more or less analogous in compo- 
sition to the green sand of New Jersey. The bluifs called Cape La 
Heve, near Havre, in France, are mainly formed of carbonate of lime, 
through which are interspersed nodules and grains of a dark-greenish 
substance, which yielded : 

Silica 50.00 

Protoxyd of iron 21.00 

Magnesia 7.00 

Alumina 11.00 

Potassa 10.00 



16.8 


21.3 


6.6 


8.0 


12.5 


1.0 


2.6 


2.0 


4.9 


7.1 


31.2 


45.9 


5.6 


4.0 


.6 


.4 


1.1 


1.3 


9.3 




8.9 


8.1 


1.4 


1.1 



99.00 



The grains of chlorite are found isolated and distinct in the lime- 
stone at Havre. Analysis represents the composition of those grains 
free from the mass in which they occur. The analysis of Mr. Seybert 
exhibits, as I have understood, the average of the deposit as it came 



L56 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

from the ground. If it be otherwise, and the particles of chlorite were 
selected previous to analysis, the green sand of New Jersey would he 
infinitely less valuahle as a fertilizer than is indicated hy the above 
analysis. In other parts of the United States, other substances of an 
entirely different composition have received the name of marl, and been 
applied to the soil with marked advantage. Such a substance is found 
in the environs of Pendleton, in South Carolina, where it has attracted 
attention. It is a variety of kaolin, or decomposed feldspar, one of the 
constituents of granite, containing little or no lime, but sometimes as 
high as 17 per cent, of potassa. At Fort Hill, the residence of the 
late J. C. Calhoun, this substance was found in digging a well. It 
was used in dressing the lawn in front of the dwelling, where its fer- 
tilizing effects are manifest to this day in a luxuriant sward, contrast- 
ing vividly with the surrounding vegetation on which the application 
was not made. In 1837, some years after the experiment, it was 
pointed out by Mr. Calhoun as an illustration.-! of the adaptability oi 
that country to produce luxuriant grass, if the soil were properly 
treated. 

We speak of marl as always containing the calcareous principle, in 
which sand, clay, or carbonate of lime may predominate, it accordingly 
receiving the appellation of sandy or clay marl, as either principle may 
be in excess. Few marls are free from admixture with the above- 
named substances, and sometimes others are found, sucn as oxyd of 
iron, sulphuret of iron, manganese, sulphate of lime, &c. 'i'jio ma- 
jority of our soils east of the mountains, originate from the old granitic 
schistose and sandstone rocks, which are wanting in the proper pro- 
portions of lime to make them as fertile as those soils having a different 
origin. Animals fed on the grass grown upon limestone land, or 
those artificially limed, thrive much better than when pastured upon 
lands of a different character. It is also known that wheat weighs 
heavier, has a much better appearance, and is invariably preferred by 
millers v/hen grown upon calcareous soils. It is, then, of importance 
to the agriculturist that he should possess a knowledge of the pres- 
ence or absence of lime in his soil, and how to make examinations, 
both qualitative and quantitative, for that substance or minerals sup- 
posed to contain carbonate of lime. 

No mineral varies more in its physical character than marl. It 
occurs of all colors, from black to white ; and frequently in the same 
bed you have a variety of tones, as inhere may be present more or less 
oxyd of iron ; or according to the state of oxydation oi that metal, you 
may have the red, yellow, brown, blue, and the different shades which 
a mixture of these would create when variously mixed with white, 
black, &c. Sometimes it is smooth and without grit ; at others it has 
a coarse grain, with crystals of other mineral substances disseminated, 
such as sulphate of lime and quartz. Chalk is a marl, through which 
nodules of flint occur, sometimes in large quantities, and sometimes 
the carbonate of lime disappears altogether, and is replaced by silicious 
matter. Very often the bed may be wholly composed of shells, broken 
or entire, or even invisible to the naked eye, but revealing through 
the microscope the remains of minute organisms forming the complete 
mass. It is sometimes soft and unctuous to the touch, friable, or hard. 
But it has one general property, of falling into powder when exposed 



FERTILIZERS. 157 

to tlie air, or forming pasty mud when saturated witli water, and acts 
very like lime in the process of slacking, without giving off heat. 

A marl is valuable in proportion to the amount of carbonate of lime 
that it contains. Take a piece of the substance suspected to contain the 
carbonate, large as an acorn, throw it into a tumbler or wine-glass, and 
cover it with water ; after the air has escaped from the interstices, add 
a few drops of any acid, say nitric or muriatic, or either of these being 
wanting, strong vinegar may sufhce ; then, if there should be a disen- 
gagement of gas, or etfervescence, it is pretty sure evidence of the pres- 
ence of carbonate of lime. In order to ascertain, rigorously, the amount 
of carbonate that may exist in the mass, we should select an average 
sample. The first operation consists in drying perfectly, to drive off 
the hygrometric humidity, which varies according to the state of the 
atmosphere. Eeduce the matter to powder, if it requires it, and place 
it upon a plate. By setting the plate upon a vase containing boiling 
water, and maintaining the temperature for a sufiicient time, all the 
water not combined will be driven off ; and this may be ascertained by 
placing over the powder a glass funnel,, on the inside of which the hu- 
midity will be condensed until it entirely ceases to appear. The funnel 
serves another purpose, that of excluding any accidental impurities, 
and preventing the steam, which naturally escapes from the water be- 
low, being condensed upon the powder. When the substance is thus 
perfectly dried, weigh fifty or one hundred grains, and place them in a 
silver or iron spoon,* and heat over a few live coals to a dark cherry- 
red. If the presence of organic matter be suspected, the powder may 
be carefully stirred with apiece of clean wire, in order to bring the dif- 
ferent parts in contact with the atmosphere, when any carbonaceous 
matter will thus be burned. Now let the powder cool, weigh it care- 
fully, and you have the amount of combined water or volatile matters 
driven off. The heat should not be so great as to drive off the carbonic 
acid from the lime. 

Throw the powder thus calcined into a glass tumbler, and cover it 
to the depth of half an inch with rain-water, to which add, by de- 
grees, a few drops of nitric or muriatic acid, until you find that the 
addition of the acid produces no more effect. Mix the vfhole with a 
glass tube, cover the glass, and let it stand for several hours. 'Now 
fill the glass two thirds with water, and let it settle. When the sedi- 
ment, or insoluble portion, has subsided, and the liquid is perfectly 
limpid, decant it carefully into a large bottle, and put more rain-water 
on the sediment, allow it to settle, decant again, and repeat the opera- 
tion, until the sediment is entirely cleansed of the acid solution. This 
may be verified by taking a piece of clean glass, and putting a drop 
of the solution upon it. Now^ if you hold this glairs over the fire 
until the drop of water is evaporated, you will find it sufficiently 
washed when there is no residuum left on the glass. The lime, mag- 
nesia, some alumina and iron, if they are present, will be found in 
solution in the water decanted. The sediment, which was not dis- 
solved by the acid, contains the sand and insoluble substances. This 
may be collected upon a filter, carefully dried, separated from the filter, 
calcined in a spoon, as before, and cooled and weighed. 

* We mention the iron spoon as a substitute for the preferable platina crucible. 



158 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

If the solution be very acid, or the amount of water too large to 
manage well, they may l3e collected and evaporated to dryness over a 
slow fire ; by this operation the excess of water and acid is driven off 
which may also be performed in a porcelain capsule, but by no means 
employ a metallic vase, as the acid would dissolve the metal, and your 
labor would be useless. Vfhen the excess of water has been driven, 
off, together with the excess of acid, if the heat has not been carried 
too far, the whole will be found to re-dissolve in rain-water, to which a 
drop or two of acid may be added to insure that result. You now 
have nearly a neutral solution of the salts dissolved by the acid. 

The next operation consists in precipitating all the constituents held 
in solution, less the lime. For this purpose use lime-water. To pre- 
jDare lime-water, put lime, say a piece as large as a walnut, in a bottle 
of rain-water, shake it well, and allow it to settle; decant, and you 
have a limpid solution of lime in water. This water, added to the 
solution containing the soluble substances of the marl until a further 
addition produces no further precipitate, throws down everything in 
solution but the lime. Let the precipitate settle and decant. Throw 
the precipitate in a filter, and carefully collect, dry, and weigh. Your 
analysis will stand thus : 

Volatile matter, water, organic matter, &c. W 

Insoluble residuum, sand, silicates, &c X 

Precipitate by lime-water, iron, magnesia^ &c Y 

Carbonate of lime, by difference Z 

Equal 100 



If it should be thought desirable, either of the quantities X and Y,- 
may be taken up separately and examined in detail. If phosphoric 
acid be present, it will be found combined in tiie precipitate Y, in com- 
bination with the iron or magnesia. 

The above method is one that we have practised very often, and is 
the most simple that we can offer to the inquiring reader, who has not 
devoted much of his time to chemical examinations. If performed 
well, the results v/ill be found as exact as any other method; and the 
reader will please understand that, in giving this, we do not write for 
the professed chemist, but to enable the educated farmer to make an 
analysis in which he can confide, rather than pay a sum of money, 
often for false returns, with which the charlatan is always ready. 

In deposits of marl there are frequently different layers, varying in 
appearance, thipkness, and composition. The lower strata are often 
richer in lime than the upper. An argillaceous layer sometimes over- 
lies one that is sandy, and one or the other will be selected as the land 
to- which it is to be applied may be sandy or stiff. Sea-sands are, in 
many cases^ applied to the soil with great advantage, and it is not 
surprising, for they are frequently composed of minute fragments of 
shells, comminuted corals, and the remains of minute organisms, 
which are found inhabiting the ocean— Nature's great reservoir of life. 

But the action of marl cannot be entirely owing to the carbonate of 
lime. There are effects due to other causes, and it would be strange 



FERTILIZERS. 169 

indeed, considering the origin of these fertilizers, if they did not con- 
tain some of the more evanescent principles of organic life. Mr. Pay en 
and Boussingault, both celebrated chemists, instituted a series of in- 
quiries into the composition of marls, from different localities, and 
found nitrogen in all. "^It were therefore very proper, in analyzing 
marls, chalk, &c., to have an eye to their organic, or azotic, as well 
as to their mineral constituents. There can be very little question 
of the azotized elements being at the bottom of the really wonderful 
fertilizing influences of the marls of certain districts."* 

It would be still more surprising if a substance less ephemeral in 
its nature, and not less important, should not be found more con- 
stantly in limestones and marls than former analysis has shown. 
Phosphoric acid at all times complicates analysisj is difficult to appre- 
ciate correctly, and has doubtless been largely overlooked. But there 
is higher evidence of its almost universal presence than chemical tests, 
for wherever organic remains are found, it is a sure indication of that 
singularly interesting substance, phosphorus, to which we attach as 
important a role, if not a higher one, than that attributed to nitrogen, 
by the celebrated authorities mentioned above. 

Marl, after extraction from the pit, should be exposed as long as 
possible to the action of the a^tmospheric agents. A summer's heat 
and a winter's cold, previous to spreading, make its immediate action 
manifest ; but its durability is dependent upon its contents and the 
quantity applied. According to Mr. Parvis, who has written an in- 
teresting and useful paper upon marl, the quantity to be applied 
depends upon the quantity of lime already existing in the soil and the 
richness of the marl in lime. He says that any soil which contains 
less than nine to ten per cent, of lime may receive a dose, or successive 
doses, until they are brought up to that point. Lord Kames mentions 
a particular instance of the continued beneficial effects of calcareous 
manure for one hundred and twenty years, and Johnson quotes the 
vrords of an intelligent and experienced farmer, that certain lands in 
Scotland "would never forget an application of forty to sixty bushels 
of lime to the acre." 

Lime appears to change the inert organic matters in the soil and 
give durability to their action far beyond what would have been the 
case without the presence of that mineral. It also changes the rela- 
tions between the other mineral constituents of the soil, and is an 
essential element of plant food; but there are other substances quite as 
necessary to healthy vegetation. It follows, then, that whoever may 
expect to harvest large crops immediately from the addition of lime to 
poor land will surely be deceived. The proportion of marl or lime to 
be added to a soil should be in accordance with the amount of organic 
matter already existing in it, or that maybe contributed; in other 
words, the lime should progress jpari passzij; and by following such a. 
course, the land may be brought to a state of permanent fertility^ to 
which it never could be carried by farm-yard manure alone. What 
would be an over-dose of lime to one field would be a light dressing 
for another. An over-dose of marl or lime may altogether prevent the 

* Boussingault, Rural Economy 



160 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

appearance of vegetation, or cause a sickly growth. Mr. Kuffin says 
tiiat manure is a remedy for such effects. Interesting and important 
as the subject certainly is to the farmer, the nature of this article will 
not permit us to extend our observations further, and the reader is 
once more referred to Mr. Kuffin's work on calcareous manures, in v/hich 
will be found much detail not written elsewhere. 

Limestone is one of the principal rocks which forms the solid crust 
of the globe. It has a large development, and is intercalated witli 
the primitive rocks. It occurs there in a saccharoidal form of different 
colors — grey, blue, red, &c., but never black. A notable fact is that 
no fossils of any descrij)tion have ever been discovered in primitive 
limestone. It is often found schistose in its structure, from a mixture 
with other rocks, particularly mica schists. As we rise in the geologi- 
cal series, the limestones preponderate, and become by far the most 
important of rocks. Instead of being subordinate and alternating with 
others, they now form independent developments, of vast extent, con- 
stituting mountain ranges. The character of the rock is also changed. 
It occurs of all colors, from black through every shade to v/iiite. The 
mixture of foreign minerals is less notable ; but there the first appear- 
ance of organic remains is a most significant and interesting fact. At 
times, no fossils are to be found; and one may travel for miles without 
meeting with a single specimen; when, all at once, they occur in pro- 
digious quantities. The fossils of this formation are all characteristic; 
and without giving a detailed list, I will mention Orthoceratites, 
Spiriferes, Encrinites, and Trilobites. In the secondary forma.tion, the 
carbonate of lime may be said to constitute the almost entire series of 
superpositions. The secondary formations are divided into several 
series known by different names in various parts of the world. The 
lowest of these formations immediately overlying the intermediary is 
called Zechstein by the Germans, and occurs compact of a greyish- 
black color, sometimes bituminous, and gives off a fetid odor when 
rubbed or receiving the shock of the hammer. It is characterized by 
certain fossils, and is separated from the formations immediately 
underlying, as those overlying, by arenaceous sandstones of a peculiar 
nature. The red marl or great mushelkalk limestone is the next series 
as we travel up. In general, this stone is found less highly colored, 
and contains fossils, all of which differ from the Zechstein, and occur 
in much greater abundance. In traveling over Germany we have often 
spent hours in studying this interesting rock through its fossils, which 
would show themselves at diflereat localities on our journey. There 
is one in particular, the Encrinites Liliformis, of singular beaut3\ 
They are rarely found entire, but v/hen they do so occur they cannot 
fail to excite the admiration of the observer. Earely as the entire 
plant is found in one specimen, so common are parts of it, that the 
rock at times would appear to be formed of them. 

A third deposit now occurs, and is known in England by the 
name of Lias, also characterized by particular fossils ; and here, for 
the first time, we see Belemnites, and Ammonites, and a large num- 
ber of shells, peculiar to that formation. Another deposit, which 
is known as the Jura limestone in France, oolite and coral rag 
in England, and which subdivides again, is, with its antedivi- 
sions, distinguished, the one from the other, by the fossil re- 



FERTILIZERS. '161 

mains found in them. In the upper part of this division we have 
certain varieties of marl, such as that at Havre, in which the chloritic 
grains occur, as analyzed by M. Berthier ; and in England, at Pur- 
beck and Portland, are found marls, where fresh water shells show 
themselves for the first time. The fifth deposit of the secondary se- 
ries, separated from the last described by iron sands, is the chalk 
formation, which may be divided into green sand and true chalk. 
These formations contain fossils which are characteristic and such as 
are found nowhere else. 

The next in order, and superimposed upon the preceding, is the ter- 
tiary formation, so interesting for the number and character of its 
organic remains. Around the city of Paris, the student has an oppor- 
tunity of studying this formation perhaps better than at any other 
locality. Montmartre, so celebrated for its geology and paleontology, 
as well as for other reasons, is really classic ground. The remains of 
extinct animals, buried from incalculable time, were frequently ex- 
tracted by the workmen engaged in quarrying out material for con- 
struction. From the study of such remains the genius of Cuvier opened 
a new creation. Fragments of bones of extinct animals, that were 
gazed upon by the curious, and received no other explanation than 
^'lusus nattcrce," were classified, each bone to its proper place ; and 
each animal according to its habits, which were pointed out by its 
teeth or its osteology, was assigned its appropriate position in the 
gradation of animated Nature. Though extinct, their general habits 
are known as certainly as if they were domesticated under man, and 
belonged to the present time. Science has placed a wreath around the 
brow of Cuvier, that will endure to his honor so long as civilization 
shall be in the ascendant. 

The first plaster of Paris used in America for fertilization came from 
the hill of Montmartre, and was imported under the auspices of 
Franklin. Above the tertiary formations are others of a much more 
recent date, and now forming under our eyes. Many of these are 
mainly composed of limestone, made up from the destruction of other 
calcareous rocks. Along our sea-coast such rocks are forming, and 
even furnish building material. Tufaceous deposits are making in our 
valleys, by the deposition of carbonate of lime from water issuing 
from limestone rocks. Immense beds of shells, such as are living in 
our waters, are found along our coast. In Prince G-eorge's county, 
Maryland, the marl-beds are well-known, and the celebrated lands of 
that region owe their fertility to these remains of a former life. Among 
these fragments, bones and teeth of animals are not uncommon ; and 
whole skeletons have been disinterred and set up to be wondered at. 
The remains of the mastodon, (an animal of the elephant tribe, but 
much more gigantic,) are frequently met with, and an almost entire 
specimen was taken up in the interior of the State of New York. 
Sharks' teeth are also common, sometimes of enormous size. We have 
one in our possession, taken from a bed in Prince George's county, 
that measures about four inches in breadth at its base and nearly 
five inches in length. It is in perfect condition, its cutting edges as 
finely and sharply serrated as if just taken from the monster's mouth. 
Nor is the limestone formation of our continent confined to the 

11 A 



162 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

recent deposits of wliicli we have spoken. The blue limestone forma- 
tion, so celebrated for its excellent wheat lands in Pennsylvania, Mary- 
land, and Virginia, continues through Georgiaj comes to the surface 
near Clarksville, in Habersham county, and extends to the Island of 
Cuba, where we have traced it again for miles. 

The limestone lands of the State of New York are celebrated for 
their fertility and the magnesian limestone of the great west has 
prodigious extension. 

In closing our observations uj)on lime, we Avill remark that of all 
mineral substances it is among the most extensively diffused, so much 
so that it would be impossible to find a soil without it. An amateur 
asked us if we had ever found lime in the soil on which we lived; he 
thought it absent. We answered that, even if we had failed to detect 
it with the aid of reagents, there was higher evidence of its presence, 
which could not be contradicted, namely: the bones of the animals 
reared u]3on the place, the eggs of our hens, and the houses which 
snails carried upon their backs. 

Those who desire details upon the green sand marl of New Jersey 
and Delaware, will do well to consult the reports of Messrs. Eogers 
and Booth ; the former was charged with the geological survey of New 
Jersey, the latter with that of Delaware. 

PLASTER, OR GYPSUM. 

It is probable that the "marl" of the ancients was plaster of Paris, 
or gypsum, but it was not until near the close of the last century that 
its incontestible utility became known ; since that period it has become 
almost a necessity ; nor is it surprising that such should be the case, 
when we consider its efficacy on certain crops, the small amount 
required to produce a great increase, and the facility with which it can 
be procured and prepared. The first authentic experiments of which 
we have record were made by a German clergyman, named Meyer. 
These were repeated in France, when it soon grew into extensive use. 
Sulphate of lime, as its name indicates, is composed of sulphuric acid, 
lime, and water. 

Sulphuric acid 46 ) 

Lime 33 V =: 100 

Water 21) 

It is unusually soft, and may be scratched with the finger nail. 
When pure, it is generally of a whitish color, but according as it is 
found mixed with foreign matter its color varies. It assumes a variety 
of forms, compact, granular, fibrous, pulverulent, crystaline, &c. Its 
crystals are sometimes perfectly limpid. Gypsum is plentifully and 
widely disseminated throughout the crust of the globe, and is confined 
to no age or particular formation. In some cases it would appear to 
owe its existence to the decomposition of the sulphuret of iron in con- 
tact with limestone or, again, to the action of sulphurous vapors upon 
that rock. It is not often fossiliferous ; but that which is found at 
Montmartre, in the environs of Paris, is an exception. At that locality 



FERTILIZERS. 163 

tlie remains of mammiferous animals, of birds, and reptiles, are very 
common. In certain formations the sulphate of lime is usually found 
accompanying common salt. It is also a constituent of some of the 
marls, which occur along our sea-coast, but only to a limited amount, 
comparatively. In the State of New York it is found in large quantities, 
and also in Novia Scotia, whence it is imported into the United States, 
forming by far the greater portion of that which is used by the farmers 
of the Atlantic shore. 

Notwithstanding all the experiments that have been made, and all 
that has been written upon the subject, our knowledge of the action of 
gypsum is limited and very unsatisfactory. 

Sir Humphrey Davy analyzed the ashes of clover, and concluded, 
from the presence of sulphate of lime, that the application of gypsum 
acted as direct food. But subsequent investigations show that the 
amount of sulphate of lime in the ash of clover, grown upon gypsumed 
land, was not greater than the quantity of the same salt, found in the 
ash of clover, grown on ungypsumed land. 

Professor Liebig explains the action of gypsum, as a means through 
which ammonia is presented to the plant. It is known that ammonia 
and nitric acid are found in the atmosphere, and that salt and carbon- 
ate of ammonia are brought down by rains. That fact may be easily 
verified by evaporating snow, or rain water, to which a few drops of 
muriatic acid have been added ; crystals of muriate of ammonia will be 
found. Indeed, without consulting the agency of electricity for the 
formation of ammonia, it is a natural consequence of the decomposition 
of animal, matters, which is ever progressing upon the surface of the 
globe, and many jolants emit pungent odors, apparently containing 
more or less of that alkali. According to the eminent professor, the 
action of gypsum would be confined to the absorption of that gas, to 
be held in readiness, according to the wants of the |)lant. But his 
ingenious theory is no less satisfactory, for it is stated that gypsum has 
no action whatever on the natural gases, which are stimulated by 
organic manures. Nor does it appear, from careful experiments made 
by M. Boussingault, that gypsum has the least action upon wheat, 
oats, or rje, upon which it is known that nitrogenous manures act 
most favorably. Eigaud de Lisle, in a paper read before the Paris 
Society of Agriculture, in 1843, maintained that gypsum only operates 
upon vegetation grown upon soils without a sufficient amount of car- 
bonate of lime, and his declaration is borne out by the practice in Flan- 
ders of applying slaked lime, instead of gypsum, with equally good 
results. We have heard the same opinion expressed by practical farm- 
ers, who knew nothing of the discussion. Having limed their lands 
to the full requirement, they would look upon the application of plaster 
as a useless expense. 

SULPHATE OF BARYTES. 

Another assertion, which has its advantages, gives the entire credit 
of the action of gypsum to the sulphuric acid which it contains ; and 
this ajipears to be supported by the fact that the addition of the sulphate 
of barytes is followed by as strongly marked results as those that are 



164 AGRICULTURAL REPORT! 

derived from the application of the sulphate of lime. Experiments 
were made some years since in Eockhridge county, Virginia, hy Dr. 
Barton, upon whose farm a deposit of the sulphate of barytes v^as found. 
It was ground and applied. We are informed by an intelligent ob- 
server that the effect was manifest five years after. A paper was writ- 
ten at the time, and published in one of the agricultural periodicals of 
Virginia. We have not had access to the article, but Dr. Barton 
received the award of a gold medal for his investigations. Should the 
usefulness of sulphate of barytes be confirmed, it will be a notable and 
important addition to the list of fertilizers. It is sometimes called heavy 
spar, owing to its specific gravity, which is almost double that of gyp- 
sum or the sulphate of lime; the first being 4.7, and the latter 2.72. 
Generally it is found white, or reddish, yellowish, white, grey, and 
even black, compact, granular, crystaline, &c. Insoluble in water, 
and when decomposed, as may be done by calcining together powdered 
charcoal, or sugar, starch, resine, &c., with sulphate of barytes, the 
barytes will dissolve in nitric or muriatic acid, from which it will always 
be precipitated by the addition of sulphuric acid. It will be recollected 
that the sulphate of lime is sensibly soluble in water, more so than 
lime, for when suli^huric acid is added to limewater no precipitate is 
thrown ; whereas, when a few drops of sulphuric acid are added to a 
solution of the nitrate, muriate, or to the oxyd of barytes in solution, 
a white precipitate never fails to fall. The carbonate of barytes may 
be easily distinguished from the sulphate by its effervescing, as it does 
slowly on the application of nitric acid. It is composed of — 

Sulphuric acid 34.37 \ __ -,0^ ' 

Barytes 65.63 ^ ~" ^^^ 

It is, however, often found mixed with different substances, such as 
sulphate of strontian, sulphate and carbonate of lime, silex, oxyd of 
iron, and alumine. It occurs in veins in the primitive and secondary 
rocks, and is most always found in veins of lead, copper, silver, and 
mercury ; in the metalliferous regions of Europe, in the Hartz, Sax- 
ony, Hungary, Almaden, in Spain ; in the United States, in New 
York, Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, 
Missouri, &c. 

Owing to the great analogy that exists between the characters of the 
salts of strontian and those of barytes, it would be surprising if the 
fertilizing properties attributed to the one were not common to both, 
particularly if the acid were found to be the active fertilizing principle 
as well in the sulphate of lime as that of barytes ; other sulphates, such 
as the sulphate of iron, (green vitriol,) when much diluted with water, 
without the presence of lime, have extraordinarily advanced the growth 
of plants, including beans, potatoes, rye, Indian corn, carrots, &c. Weak 
sulphuric acid has also a favorable effect when applied to clover, but 
in botli cases it may be argued that the sulj^hate of iron, (which is solu- 
ble,) and the sulphuric acid come in contact with lime in the soil, and 
sulphate of lime is then formed, and may act in that state upon crops; 
or the acid, in one case or the other, may combine with ammonia, 
already existing in and combined with the earth, and form sulphate 



FERTILIZERS. 165 

of ammonia, wliicli is a valuable and well-known fertilizer. But we 
will liere remark that, in our laboratories, tlie sulphate of barytes is 
found to be one of the most stable of salts, and its combination is in no 
instance decomposed by lime or ammonia. Nor does barytes form a 
constituent of any vegetable or animal organism within our knowledge. 
A small quantity of the nitrate of barytes will destroy vegetable life 
very quickly ; yet nitric acid is a strong fertilizer, and one of the prin- 
cipal liirnishers of nitrogen to plants. 

MAGNESIA. 

Magnesia is a common substance, largely disseminated, existing in 
most soils, is one of the constituents of many rocks, and is most always 
present in vegetables and animal bodies. It is a white, light^ and 
odorless powder, infusible at the highest temperature of our furnaces, 
and slightly soluble in water. It forms soluble salts, with nitric, 
muriatic, or sulphuric acid, and may be easily distinguished from lime, 
by the fact that it is precipitated from its solution by limewater. It 
is generally found in combination with lime in all calcareous rocks, 
and in certain varieties it is a constant constituent ; such are the 
dolomites, or.magnesian limestones, which are largely developed in 
Europe, as well as in America, and have received the name of metalli- 
ferous limestone, from the mineral substances which they contain. 
Magnesian limestones are found to an immense extent, in the western 
Sta.tes, and constitute the lead and copper-bearing rocks of Missouri, 
&c. They are also found in New York, Pennsylvania, &c. Magnesia 
is moreover, one of the constituents of serpentine and talcose slate, 
which last-mentioned rock extends continuously from Pennsylvania to 
G-eorgia, and through the West Indies, to the continent of South 
America. It is remarkable as being the formation in which gold, 
silver, copper, chromate of iron, &c., are contained. The carbonate 
of magnesia and the carbonate of lime have many properties in 
common, the one replacing the other, and those plants which grow 
upon magnesian soils, contain the carbonate of magnesia instead of 
the carbonate of lime. Those two salts being isomorphous, according 
to Bergmann, magnesia forms an important part of some of the most 
fertile soils, and of the mud of the Nile. Einoff mentions a marl of 
extraordinary merit, which yielded him as high as twenty per cent, of 
the carbonate of magnesia. Stockhardt says that the most famed lime 
stone in Saxony is a dolomite ; and eighteen analyses, each specimen 
being from a different quarry, yielded from forty-one to forty-four per 
cent, of carbonate of magnesia. It is carried from the quarries to a 
great distance, because these limes, from undoubted and universal ex- 
perience, act more powerfully and at the same time more ]3ermanently 
than other kinds of Saxon lime, although many of these latter are 
extraordinarily pure. The same eminent observer states, that well- 
known recent investigations of the ashes of various kinds of corn 
grains show a percentage of magnesia of 11.1 grains, against 3.4 of 
lime ; and the analysis of the ashes of twenty kinds of peas, grown in 
the most varied soils and districts, of 8.3 to 4.5. With very few excep- 
tions, a similar preponderance of magnesia is exhibited by other kinds 



166 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

of seed, so far as tlieir mineral constituents liave yet been examined, 
for the proportion of magnesia exceeds that of lime, in approximative 
round numbers, two to one in peas, beans, vetches, quince, bucli'vvheat, 
linseed, &c. ; two and a half or three to one in wheat, rye, oats, coffee, 
&c. ; six or eight to one in maize, millet, and in the seeds of pines, 
firs, &c. 

On the other hand, the opposite condition occurs regularly in the 
leaves and stems of plants, and in the wood of trees, in which lime has 
always the superiority over magnesia, and exists in two to eight times 
greater quantity, whence he deduces the law, that magnesia is espe- 
cially necessary for the maturation of the seed, and lime for the devel- 
opment of the herbaceous and woody structure.* Lampadius also 
thinks this substance particularly favorable for the production of rye. 

We have dwelt upon this subject, because much injury has been 
caused to agriculture by the prevalent opinion that the presence of 
magnesia in limestone, when calcined and applied to land, was followed 
by bad consequences. Much has been written to explain the cause of 
this, as we consider it, imaginary evil. Caustic magnesia, or magnesia 
without carbonic acid, may absorb carbonic acid much more slowly 
than lime, and in the presence of the latter substance, it will not com- 
bine, until the lime has been saturated; yet after all that has been 
stated, it would appear less than j)robable, that the presence of caustic 
magnesia should play so unfavorable a part, and so contrary to expe- 
rience. 

The salts of magnesia may be employed, as the salts of lime, for 
fixing ammonia, but in that case its apjDlication will depend u]30ri its 
cost. When a salt of that base is added to urine, it produces a preci- 
pitate of the phosphate of magnesia and ammonia. Caustic lime, con- 
taining magnesia, is used for this purpose ; but owing to the bulk of 
lime, the amount is rendered less portable. The phosphates of mag- 
nesia and ammonia, when applied at the rate of one hundred and thirty 
to two hundred and sixty pounds per acre, had a powerful effect upon 
the production of Indian corn ; at the rate of three hundred weight per 
acre, it increased the crop of grain six times, and of straw three times. f 

Magnesia is a constant and important constituent of sea-water. It 
is also found in many mineral waters, and to this fact their virtues are 
attributed. As it usually exists in the ashes of cultivated plants, its 
presence in the soil is a requisite to fertility, and its addition of mani- 
fest necessity wherever it may be wanting. 

PHOSPHORUS. 

Of the substances with which the farmer has to do we think phosphorus 
the' most important. It is found in all animals and vegetables ; without 
it neither the one nor the other could live. It is detected, if not pure, as 
has been stated frequently, in combination with a particular organic sub- 
stance, in the brain, the spinal marrow, the spermatic liquid, in the melt 
of fishes, certain mollusca, &c. It is also diffused very widely, and 
is discovered in combination with oxygen in all rocks, in all soils, and 

* Stockhardt's Agricultural Chemistry, 
t Johnston's Agricultural Chemistry. 



FERTILIZERS. 167 

in tlie flesli, bones, &c., of fisli, reptiles, insects, birds, animals, and 
their secretions. Some of the fossil excrements of extinct animals are 
extensively and advantageously used as fertilizers. Wherever there 
are organisms, either vegetable or animal, or their remains, it is very 
strong evidence of the presence of phosphoric acid. It is detected in 
almost all limestone rocks, and particularly in those containing fossil 
remains. Close investigations show its presence in the older crystaline 
rocks ; and where it has not appeared as a constituent in any analysis 
made hitherto, we do not look upon that as evidence of its absence, for 
the reason that this substance was not suspected, and the analysis were 
generally conducted in a manner to ignore its presence. Besides, all who 
have analyzed much know that i:)hosphoric acid is a great complicator, 
and requires special attention and care to appreciate. In small quanti- 
ties (and all analyses of minerals must be made upon small quantities to 
give exact results) it may be overlooked, and its presence not even 
suspected. "We feel confident that future research will prove what we 
have stated to be perfectly true. 

Organisms exist, procreate, live, and die, wherever there is heat, 
air, and moisture. They are in the air, in fresh and salt water, in the 
arable soil ; and their remains constitute the principal mass of immense 
calcareous formations. It would appear that they are found from the 
equator to the regions of eternal ice ; and according to the observations 
of the learned Ehrenberg, have been discovered at work in certain 
localities to the depth of twenty or thirty feet.* If they make a portion 
of all animated bodies, it follows that this interesting substance is 
omnipresent, and plays a part in fertilization much more important 
than has hitherto been attributed to it. An alchemist in Hamburg 
first discovered phosphorus by evaporating urine and calcining the 
residuum. Though this was done in 1669, by Brandt, it was not 
known to the public until many years after, when Gahn and Scheele 
extracted it from animal matters, and explained their process of obtain- 
ing it from the bones of animals, a mode pursued up to the present 
time. It is a simple substance, of a yellow color, tough, and resemb- 
ling wax. It may be procured in three states, solid, liquid, and 
gaseous. At the temperature of freezing water, it is hard, brittle, and 
even friable. It crystalizes, and its density is about 1.77. Phospho- 
rus, when exposed to the air, is luminous, owing to the fact that it 
absorbs oxygen and undergoes a slow combustion. Hence its name, 
from two Grreek words, which signify light-producer. When inflamed 
in the air, or in oxygen gas, it produces white fumes, and when col- 
lected free from humidity, is white, pulverulent, and absorbs the hu- 
midity of the atmosphere, or deliquesces, and becomes liquid. This 
combination of phosphorus with oxygen is called phosphoric acid. It 
inflames easily, and produces obstinate wounds ; therefore, it is kept 
under water, and handled with pinchers. In this condition it may be 
melted without danger, and is purified by distillation and filtration 
through buckskin under hot water. Phosphorus combines with oxy- 
gen in several proportions ; but we shall only dwell upon that whicl? 

* See Ehrenberg on Infusoria, and his researches as to the cause of the instability of found 
ations under the city of Berlin. 



1G8 AGRICULTURAL REPORT 

contains five atoms of oxygen and one of pLosphorus. Phosplioric 
acid, when perfectly pure, and tlirown into water, combines with that 
liquid with so much rapidity that it produces a noise like that caused 
by plunging a red-hot iron in water, and the temperature of the liquid 
is elevated. It is found in Nature, combined with Taanj other sub- 
stances, forming phosphates: thus we have the phosphates of lime, 
magnesia, lead, manganese, iron, uranium, &c. 

The phosphate of lime is known under the mineralogical term apa- 
tite, and is found crystalized in stalactites^ granular, fibrous, compact, 
and friable. It is sometimes colorless, or yellow, blue, violet, and 
green, transparent, translucid, and opaque. It occurs among crystal- 
ized rocks, such as the granite, gneiss, chlorite, and talcose slates ; 
also in the trap and basalts, and is frequently met with in metallifer- 
ous deposits connected with copper, lead, &c., in the slates of coal, in 
chalk, and in the tertiary formations, as well as in the sedimentary 
and tufaceous deposits forming at the present day. 

A fact worthy of note is the connection of fluoric acid with phos- 
phoric in its combinations, and these two substances are not only found 
associated together in the mineral kingdom, but in vegetable and 
animal matters. The teeth of animals contain both. We are disposed 
to believe that fluoric acid is much more common than has been re- 
marked, and, owing to its singular properties^ has been doubtless often 
overlooked. One of the most extensive deposits of the phosphate of 
lime is found in Estremadura, in Spain, and was visited and examined 
by Dr. Daubeny and CajDtain Widdington, with a view to its intro- 
duction into England as a fertilizer. That mineral, according to their 
analysis, contains eighty-one per cent, of phosphate of lime, and is so 
abundant that it is used as a building material. In the United States, 
mineral phosphates are found in many localities, particularly in Morris 
county, New Jersey, and at Crown Point, in the State of New York. 
The mineral was crushed and sold in our markets as a fertilizer, but, 
for some cause not known to us, it appears to have gone out of use. 

Since writing the above, we have received the following interesting 
communication from Mr. F. Alger; as it contains a more full account 
of the native phosphorite of New Jersey and that of New York than 
we have seen elsewhere^ we append it entire. 

"1 send you a few facts, as requested, in regard to the deposit of 
mineral phosphate of lime (phosphorite) discovered by Dr. Jackson 
and myself in Hurdstown, Morris county, New Jersey, in 1850. Crys- 
tals of apatite had been found there for several years previous, but the 
massive mineral had escaped the notice of all who had, up to that time, 
visited the locality. I purchased the right to explore the minerals 
with which the phosphorite was associated, viz : magnetic iron, iron 
and magnetic pyrites, and early in 1851 I made several shipments of 
it to Messrs. Jevons & Co., of Liverpool, by whom it was sold to 
various parties for agricultural and manufacturing purposes at prices 
varying from twenty to thirty-Jive dollars per ton in its crude state. 
Fine, large masses of the substance were placed in the great London 
exhibition, at its firat opening, and attracted much attention, from 
their rocky character, and being unlike any specimen of the mineral 
before seen. Professors Daubeny, Johnstone, and others became much 



FERTILIZERS. 169 

interested in the discovery, and the latter opened a correspondence 
with me on the subject, setting forth the advantage which would accrue 
to British agriculture, if, as a substitute for bone phosphate, guano, or 
coprolites^ it could, at a fair price, be introduced into England. At 
his suggestion. Dr. Richardson, the celebrated manufacturer of arti- 
ficial manures at Newcastle, made a successful trial of the mineral^ 
and proposed to negotiate for large importations of it into England 
for his own use. It was also used in the lead smelting establishments, 
in the making of cupels in the porcelain works, and in the manufac- 
ture of pure phosphorus. For the latter purpose, its purity over bone 
phosphate highly recommended it, and afforded a most expeditious 
method of obtaining the beautiful glacial phosphate in the hands of 
Dr. Jackson, who was also the first chemist who made pure phosphorus 
from it. In its application to the production of phosphate of soda, for 
which it has been recommended, I have received no information, though 
it is probable some of the calico printing and dying establishments, 
where this article is largely used^ may have made a trial of it. Should 
they, or others, feel desirous of trying it, I shall be glad to supply the 
mineral in moderate quantity, having yet a supply of it on hand. But 
I have disposed of my interest in the mine to other parties, who have 
now ceased to work it. The application of the mineral in the United 
States has been only to agriculture, and to that by no means exten- 
sive, though with the best results. For this purpose it is ground very 
fine, treated with sulphuric acid to produce super-phosphate, and then 
mixed with wood ashes and thrown into the compost heap, or other- 
wise distributed upon the land. In some cases the pulverized mineral 
has been taken alone and mixed with the compost, but in this way a 
much longer time must elapse before any beneficial effects can be wit- 
nessed. One of our practical agriculturists, who has long supplied 
milk and meat for the m.arket, said that he had been sending jjIios- 
phate of lime away from his farm for twenty years, and now he meant 
to carry some back again. He believed that it w^ould pay, even if 
applied only to grass lands, as he had no doubt it Avould find its way 
into the bones of his animals, and thus prevent the impoverishment of 
his land. The American chemists who have analyzed and written 
upon the New Jersey phosphate are Dr. Jackson, Dr. Chilton, Pro- 
fessor Mapes, Dr. Antisell, and Mr. Wells, the editor of the Annals 
of Scientific Discovery. Dr. Jackson's analysis of a very pure speci- 
men, gave of — 

Phosphate of lime 92 .405 

Chloride of calcium 0.540 

Peroxyd of iron 0.040 

Oxyd of manganese 0.003 

Fluoride of calcium 7.012 

By difference 

'''Professor Mapes found no fluorine in the specimens he analyzed. 
He obtained : 



170 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

Lime 61.50 

Phosplioric acid 33.85 

Chlorine 3.50 

Silica 0.09 

Iron peroxyd 0.10 



Loss .96 



" The mineral phosphate from Crown Point, New York, has been 
examined by Mr. Wells. It contained 92.85 per cent, of phosphate 
of lime, only a trace of fluoric acid, 5.20 oxyd of iron, 0.50 silica, 
1.50 water. Later analyses make it much more impure. This has 
been shipped to England by Professor Emmons, who was the first to 
make it known under its mineralogical name, Eupyrchroite. It is no 
longer obtained. The phosphorite from the province of Estremadura, 
in Spain, where it was at first supposed to exist in large quantity, was 
analyzed by Professor Daubeny, who was commissioned by the British 
government to visit the locality, with the view of supplying the Eng- 
lish market. He obtained : 

Phosphate of lime 81.15 

Peroxyd of iron .' 3.15 

Fluoride of calcium 14. 00 

Silica 1.70 

Chlorine of calcium .31 

''The Spanish mineral proved veins in clay slate, and was formerly 
so abundant as to be used for a building stone. It seems, hoAvever, 
never to have been sent to England. The New Jersey deposit is in 
hornblende rock, as metamorphic sienite, and when discovered, formed 
a vein from three to five feet in thickness, running parallel with a vein 
of magnetic pyrites of about the same dimensions, the two being fre- 
quently intermixed. 

"¥. ALaER." 

The coprolites, so extensively sought after, and used as fertilizers, 
are found in various formations, occurring in limited quantity in the 
mountain limestone; but the lias, green sand, &c., are the sources 
whence by far the largest amount is obtained. These nodules, in form 
and even appearance, indicate their origin. The undigested portions 
of fishes, scales, bones, and distinct parts of things tliat once lived, 
show them to be excrementitious matter, solidified by time and jjres- 
sure. The coprolites vary considerably in their composition, according 
to the locality, and partly owing to the variety, some yielding as high 
as seventy per cent, of phosphate of lime, while others give as low as 
ten per cent. Some contain, beside phosphate of lime, phosphate of 
iron, and phosphate of alumine. According to Mr". Nisbit, the analysis 
of five varieties produced : 



FERTILIZERS. 171 

Tertiary deposit 19.19 to 22.17 

London clay 15.96 to 28.00 

Chalk 19.00 to 26.92 

Green sand 7.72 to 18.81 

Green marl 16.47 to 26.56 

Coprolites always contain, beside pliosphate of lime and pliosphate 
of magnesia, carbonate of lime, and different substances in varied 
quantities. 

It is needless liere to state that the phosphate of lime, or we might 
say, the phosphoric acid, whether taken from the mineral apatite, or 
any other mineral phosphate, from coprolites fossilized or recent 
bones, is the same substance and may be applied with the same advan- 

We have said that phosi3horic acid, according to our estimate, is the 
most valuable substance with which the farmer has to do. Silica, lime, 
magnesia, and alumine are found in abundant quantities in all parts 
of the earth ; nor does it appear that soda and potash require great so- 
licitude, for the latter, which is the most important of the two, enters 
into the composition of different mineral substances, all very common, 
and forming portions of the great mass of the globe. We allude to 
feldspar and mica, both constituents of granite, and of most of the crys- 
taline rocks. Feldspar contains as high as seventeen per cent., while 
sometimes mica has not less than twenty per cent, of potash. Of oxygen, 
hydrogen, and carbon, therefore, it hardly requires that we should 
feel much anxiety about them. The two former substances combined 
form water ; the latter independent of other supplies^ is one of the con- 
stituents of carbonic acid, a constant part of the atmosphere. Nor do 
we think that fertility fails so much owing to the want of nitrogen, for 
that gas is an ingredient of the atmosphere. Wherever it has been 
taken, at every height, and from every locality, the air we breathe is 
composed of oxygen, nitrogen, and carbonic acid, holding 79.00 parts 
of nitrogen. We shall not enter into the discussion of how nitrogen 
is assimilated, whether directly or indirectly, whether through ammo- 
nia or nitric acid, or other nitrogenized components ; suffice it to say, 
that both ammonia and nitric acid are ever forming in the air and in 
the soil, and that either of those compounds, the admitted purveyor of 
nitrogen to plants, is a consequence of the existence and decay of or- 
ganized matters in the air, or near the surface of the earth. By far 
the larger part of organized matter is composed of the condensed gases. 
Even during life these gases are given oif and replaced by others. 
After death, de(my speedily ensues, and they return to the great reser- 
voir to be assimilated by other vegetables or animals, and thus con- 
tinue the circle. • 

Phosphoric acid, though extensively diffused, and sometimes in large 
quantities, does not appear to be found in the same profusion as the 
other substances mentioned. The phosphate of lime is a fixed salt, 
neither soluble nor volatile, and when removed from the soil must be 
replaced. This is done in the shape of manures, both organic and 
inorganic; the main sources of the latter we have alluded to. The 
amount returned from the barn yard is infinitely less than that carried 



172 AGEICULTURAL REPORT. 

away in grain, hay, milk, Lone, and flesli, even on the most economi- 
cally regulated farms ; and, notwithstanding all our care, there must 
he a constant decrease of that suhstance, unless recourse he had to 
exterior supplies. True, small farms near large cities, may even add 
more than is taken away, hringing hack the refuse of the supplies 
which are sent to market ; hut that kind of circulation, from the 
garden to the market, to the refuse heap, and again to the field, is 
limited hy distance and cost of transportation. Kemote lands, from 
which such supplies are stopped, must in the course of time hecome 
impoverished, unless provision he made to replace the continual drain. 
Exhaustion is hut an affair of time ; knowing the amount of nutriment 
in the soil, we may make an approximate calculation, and decide when, 
under different modes of treatment, it will work sterility. Strong 
symptoms of a downward tendency in that direction hegin to manifest 
themselves throughout the .whole cultivated portion of our country. 
Indeed, it would he difficult to find, in any part of the civilized world, 
a more melancholy picture than is presented to the traveler in certain 
parts of our Union. The exhaustion has not only heen caused hy 
continued cropping, and the extraction of phosphoric acid; injudicious 
culture has had much to do with it, and, perhaps, much the greater 
part of the fertility has heen carried into the streams, thence to rivers, 
and finally to the ocean. There can he no civilization without popu- 
lation, no population without food, and no food without phosphoric 
acid. Indeed it might he easily shown, that the march of civilization 
has followed the direction of supply of that material. There are lands 
which will not hetray the effects of continued cropping, hut these are 
exceptions, and they receive ahundant supplies of plant food from some 
local circumstance. The valley of the Nile is a familiar example; here the 
annual deposits from the overflow of the river counterhalance the drain. 
Other lands, composed from the detritus of fossiliferous formations, 
rich in phosphates, maj resist during an indefinite period. The slopes 
of volcanoes are instances of a different character, where the supplies 
are restored from ejectments coming from the interior of the earth. 
The history of the world shows, heyond cavil or douht, that population 
cannot endure where the supplies are wanting. Each return of the 
seasons hrings another draft upon the phosphates, and when these fail, 
civilization takes up another dwelling place. It is not necessary that 
we should travel far to verify these sad truths. Within the period of 
a short life, lands were called inexhaustible, which are now worthless; 
and a great portion of the boundless west is naturally sterile. We are 
on the eve of a movement from the west hack to the east, where a 
different work is in prospective, that of the regeneration of worn- 
out land. Perhaps science may be adequate to the task, hut the re- 
cuperation of a soil will surely he more difiicult than cropping it to 
exhaustion. 

If we examine the commercial and agricultural statistics of England 
for the last fifty years, or even for a much shorter period, we shall he 
convinced that she never could have attained her present prosperous 
condition, hut from two causes: emigration and the importation of 
foreign fertilizers. The hones introduced have increased to an enormous 
extent, during the last few years. "They are principally brought/' 



FERTILIZERS. 173 

says Macullocli, ''from the Netlierlands, Gferman}^, anclSoutli America. 
At the present time, however, they form a part of the export trade of 
nearly every port in the north of Europe." From a report on agri- 
cultural shipping and produce, printed by order of the House of Com- 
mons, in 1842, we learn that, out of eleven ports of the northern 
countries of Europe, bones were exported to a large amount, from the 
following nine: Hamburg, Eotterdam, Bremen, Lubeck, Kiel, Rostock, 
Stettin, Elsinore, and Danzic. So far back as the year 1827, two 
hundred and forty-eight vessels entered the one port of Hull, carrying 
seventeen thousand seven hundred and eighteen tons of bones, which 
were derived from Eussia, Prussia, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Hanse 
Towns, Netherlands, Mechlenburg, Hanover, and Oldenburg. In 1835^ 
the importations into Hull alone, had increased to twenty-five thousand 
seven hundred tons. The value of bones imported into Scotland in 
1841, was seventy-four thousand nine hundred pounds sterling. In 
1837, the total value of bones imported into the United Kingdom 
amounted to two hundred and fifty-four thousand six hundred pounds 
sterling.* This is independent of the home supply which is estimated 
at not less than five hundred thousand pounds sterling. 

The extensive importations of bones, and the application of the na- 
tive mineral phosphates, (coprolites, &c.,) together with the introduc- 
tion of guano, have been the main dependence of agriculture in Great 
Britain during the last twenty-five years. Science, indeed, has aided 
in making these supplies more active and efficient, great economy 
having been secured by improved machinery for crushing bones to fine 
powder, (for the finer the dust the more immediately active it becomes;) 
but the dissolution of bones with acid has been of still greater benefit. 
Farm as you may, upon the majority of soils, without the use of ex- 
traneous fertilizers, your crops will certainly diminish, until total 
impoverishment shall leave no other alternative than starvation or 
emigration. 

Science teaches that the principal fertilizing element of the bone is 
phosphoric acid, and thus, much is saved in transportation and the 
economy of application. 

Bones vary much in their composition, according to the age or 
variety of the animal. The amount of mineral matter is less in a 
young animal than in an old one, and the quantity increases gradually 
with age. Schreger tells us that the bones of a child contain one half 
of phosphate in the entire mass of earthy matter, while those of a full- 
grown person give four fifths, and an aged person not less than seven 
eighths. The bones of adults contain less water than those of chil- 
dren. When h, bone is sufiiciently digested in muriatic acid, the 
mineral part is dissolved, leaving the gelatin^ or cartilage, intact, 
which retains the original form of the bone. Large amounts of gela- 
tin, or glue, are thus made. That portion of the bone dissolved in 
the acid consists of phosphate of lime and magnesia_, fluoride of cal- 
cium, and carbonate of lime, with small quantities of salts of potash 
and soda. 

*Morton's Cyclopaidia of Agriculture 



174 



AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 



We copy from Berzelius the following analysis of the hones of man 
and those of the ox : 

Man. Ox, 

Gelatin, (soluhle in water,) 32.17? ^o oa 

Vessels 1.13 ] '''^•''^ 

Neutral phosphate of lime 51.04 55.45 

Carbonate of lime 11.30 3.85 

Fluoride of calcium 2.00 2.90 

Phosphate of magnesia 1.16 2.05 

Soda and muriate of soda 1.20 2.45 



100.00 100.00 



The experiments made by Barras inform us that the proportion of 
carbonate of lime varies in different animals, as well as in the bones 
of the same individual. He found, for every 100 parts — 

Carbonate of lime 

Bones of a lion 2.03 

sheep 24.12 

chicken 11.70 

frog 5.76 

fish 2.52 

Chevreuil, Dumeril, Marchand, and other chemists, have analyzed 
the bones of various fishes ; they vary considerably, as will be seen by 
the following results obtained by the three first mentioned: 



Skull of a 
cod. 



Bones of a 
pike. 



Bones of a 

"vvliale. 



Organic matter 

Phosphate of lime 

Sulphate of lime , 

Carbonate of lime 

Phosphate of magnesia 

Sulphate of soda 

Soda and common salt 

Fluoride of calcium and loss . 



43.94 
47.96 



5.50 
2.20 



0-.60 



100.20 



37.36 

55.26 



6.15 



1.23 



100.00 



78.46 

14.20 

0.83 

2.61 



0.70 
2.46 
0.74 



100.00 



The gelatinous part of the bone consists of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, 
nitrogen, and sulphur. One hundred parts of gelatin of bones pro- 
duce, when fermented, twenty-two pounds of ammonia, together with- 
carbonic acid. The sulphur, as we have seen, is also an ingredient of 
plants. 

The phosphate of lime is soluble in all acids, and we may say that 
all the phosjDhates are soluble in an excess of acid. When bones are 
surrounded by fermenting organic matter, such as is offered in a 
manure or compost heap, the phosphate of lime is dissolved in the 
humidity by the carbonic acid which is constantly being evolved by 



FERTILIZERS. 175 

tlie fermenting mass. This operation is more or less prompt according 
to tlie activity of the fermenting heap. In the field, where carbonic 
acid is always present, this process is constantly going on ; hut, owing 
to the presence of the cartilaginous or gelatinous portion which sur- 
rounds the particles of phosphate, the action is less apparent on a large 
hone than if it were in powder, and the finer the powder the more 
rapid the decomposition. 

Many farmers are in the habit of collecting the refuse bones of their 
farms and covering them up in the accumulating manure in the barn- 
yard, where, in the course of time, they become soft and pliable, as if 
they had been immersed in muriatic acid. Such an addition gives in- 
creased strength to the manure in proportion as the quantity of bones, 
which, thus dissolved, becomes immediately active, but endure a less 
time than when added to the land without preparation. For when 
bones in large pieces are applied to the soil the action is slow ; when 
divided;, more rapid, according to the state of division, and still greater 
when dissolved, as the state of division is then perfect, provided the 
operation has been well conducted. 

The crushing of bones, owing to their tenacity and hardness, is 
attended with feome difficulty and expense, and, therefore, where the 
operations are large, steam-mills are employed. But in other places 
the bones are steamed or boiled, after which they are easily reduced to 
powder. By that process, however, the gelatinous and fatty matters 
are extracted and used; the grease for making soap, and the gelatin 
for fabricating size or glue. We have seen that the organic portion 
of bones contained fertilizing matter, (nitrogen, sulphur, carbon, &c.) 
If this be previously extracted, so much is lost to the land ; and it is a 
question of loss to the farmer if the dust be sold by weight. Some 
burn the bone in order to reduce it to extreme division . Here again 
the organic portion is entirely destroyed, save only a part of the carbon. 
It is known that animal black (charred bones) is a great deodorizer 
and antiseptic, largely used by sugar boilers for refining sugar, and 
by chemists for whitening sulphate of quinine, &c. It has the property 
of condensing gases; and charcoal_, derived from the calcination of 
bones, possesses this property to a greater extent than any other sub- 
stance; it will absorb ninety times its volume of ammoniacal gas. 
Hence, it becomes a consideration with farmers to know whether they 
do not gain more by charring the bones than they lose by chasing off 
the volatile matters. If the bones be burned in contact with the air, 
the greater portion of the carbon will be driven off with the other 
combustible parts of the bone ; and in order to avoid that result the 
bones should be charred in air-tight vessels. Iron cylinders are used 
for the purpose. 

Whatever method may be employed, it is important that the bone, 
previous to treatment with acid, should be divided ; otherwise the 
operation will be imperfect, and particularly so if sulphuric acid be 
used to form the compound called bi-phosphate, super-phosphate, or 
acid-phosphate of lime, known to farmers under those appellations. 
*For if the bone, without being reduced to powder, be treated with sul- 
phuric acid, gypsum or sulphate of lime is formed, and that substance 
being insoluble, surrounds and prevents the further action of the acid 



176 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

upon those parts of the hone not already acted on. If muriatic acid 
he employed, that difficulty does not present itself, hecause the muriate 
of lime which is formed is very soluble, and so long as acid may be 
present the decomposition of the hone continues until the operation is 
complete. In the latter case, the phosphates and muriates would be 
in solution, which is less convenient of application ; this, added to 
other reasons not necessary to mention,- makes it preferable to employ 
sulphuric acid, which is largely manufactured, and may be obtained 
everywhere. It is important, however, that the farmer should look to 
the density of the article, for it is by no means immaterial whether it 
be strong or weak ; otherwise, in the case of the weak or diluted acid, 
he will be paying for water instead of acid. By the addition of sul- 
phuric acid to crushed bones they are decomposed, and effervescence 
takes place, arising from the escape of carbonic acid, which has been 
liberated by the sulphuric acid combining with the lime and forming 
sulphate of lime, or gypsum. 

The insoluble phosphate of lime is decomposed, a part of the lime 
combining with the sulphuric acid, and liberating the phosphoric acid, 
which combines with that portion of the phosphate of lime not decom- 
posed, forming a phosphate of lime with excess of phosphoric acid, 
called bi-phosphate, super-phosphate, or acid-phosphate. The sul- 
phuric acid also combines with the potash, soda, and magnesia. Heat 
is evolved, the excess of water (if there be not too much) is absorbed, 
and the mass, when the operation has been well conducted, remains in 
a dry, pulverulent form. The gelatinous portion of the bone is also 
modified by the action of the acid, becoming more assimilative. The 
operation is simple, offering no difficulty whatever. Any farmer may 
fabricate his own super-phosjohate with the implements he may have 
at hand, and avoid the necessity or risk of paying for an impure 
article ; for every one knows that frauds, to an enormous extent, have 
been perpetrated upon the confiding farmer, who has often paid high 
prices for that which was of no value as a manure, and might he had 
for the collecting. 

Sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol) is a substance to be procured in all 
our markets, and its value depends upon its density, specific gravity, 
or its state of concentration. The weaker it is, the less valuable. The 
proper density should be about 1.85. 

The quantity of acid required for the decomposition of one hundred 
pounds of bones depends upon whether they are in meal, half inch, or 
entire, or whether they are in their natural state, boiled, or burned. 
The finer the powder the more perfect the action, and the more acid 
will be required. If the bones are in their raw state, they contain, as 
has been said, an amount of animal or organic matter, which varies 
according to the age or species of animal from which they have been 
derived. The amount of bone-ash obtained from the calcination or 
burning of bones in contact with the air, may beset down, on an aver- 
age, at fifty per cent. For every hundred pounds of bone-ash, eighty- 
seven or eighty-eight pounds of sulphuric acid will be required. The 
operation may be practiced in a hogshead, on a tight floor, or on the * 
ground, or in the field where the mixture is to be used. 

Take, for instance, one hundred pounds of powdered bone-ash, throw 



FEETILIZERS. 177 

into a liogsliead, to wliicli add from five to six gallons of ■water, and 
mix witli a stout wooden shovel or paddle. Then pour on about eighty- 
eight pounds of concentrated sulphuric acid. The mass should now be 
well turned and mixed. It will effervesce and foam up, give off steam 
in profusion, and the temperature will be found to have risen sometimes 
as high, or higher, than 212° Fahrenheit. Instead of adding the entire 
amount of acid at once, it maybe divided into two portions, and added 
separately. In handling acid, have a little care, otherwise an eye or 
the clothes maybe the forfeit, as such accidents have happened. After 
mixing for some time, the mass will stiffen, when it should be covered, 
and allowed to stand for a day. It may now be thrown out in a dry 
place^ to remain sufficiently long to be ready for powdering, or it may 
be mixed with dry peat, charcoal, calcined plaster of Paris, or even dry 
mold, or saw-dust, and powdered, when it is ready for use. 

A mode which is extensively practiced on farms in England was first 
suggested by Mr. Pusey, and is, briefly, very similar to making mor- 
tar out of sand and lime. The circular wall of sand may be replaced 
by coal ashes, or bone-dust itself. The bone-dust is deposited in the 
middle of the circle, then thoroughly saturated with water, when the 
sulphuric acid is added, and the mass well and frequently turned over, 
until there is no further action. The decomposition is more perfect when 
the temperature is high, and this is obtained by making the wall of ashes 
as lofty as possible. The operation is more or less well conducted as the 
mixture has been the more evenly made, and the parts thoroughly 
mixed. The mineral phosphorite, coprolites, and varieties of guano, 
rich in phosphoric acid, may be treated with acids, and will produce 
super-phosphate of lime, having all the efficiency, and with preciselj' 
the same properties of that manufactured from bones, the only differ- 
ence being that the one may contain salts, which are absent from the 
the other, and more or less phosphoric acid. 

The super-phosphate of lime, from its comparatively high value, 
leads to adulteration. Water is added to increase the weight ; earths, 
chalks, lime, old plaster, oyster shells, &c., are sometimes mixed in a 
manner to deceive the eye. Some of these substances may be detected, 
with the aid of a magnifier, by acids, or by simple washing with water, 
and examining the residue after decanting. If old plaster is suspected, 
the hair will be seen ; if oyster shells or chalk, the effervescence and 
particles of shells will furnish indications which will lead to closer 
scrutiny. The sulphate of barytes, or sulphate of lime, increases the 
weight of the mixture, and the former particularly will fall to the 
bottom, when thrown into a tumbler of water, more rapidly than the 
super-phosphate. Eecourse may be had to a chemist, whose familiarity 
with the properties of different substances will enable him to arrive at 
conclusions not to be expected from those whose occupations are^ of an 
entirely different character. 

The loss that is taking place in this most essential ingredient to- life 
(phosphorus) is enormous, unavoidable, and impossible to estimate 
with any correctness. Independent of that continuous drain which 
takes place by the washing of the soil,, together with the waste ever 
occurring in provisions of all kinds, grains, vegetables, and animals 
exported, and but a small part of which finds its way back to the place 
12 A 



178 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

whence it came, tliere is another gradual yet certain loss which, in time, 
will be felt — I allude to the amount of phosphorus in our bodies — a 
loss to be attributed to the respectful and pious custom followed in all 
civilized countries, that of burying the dead. By this practice much 
is entirely withdrawn from circulation ; for the depth at which the 
bodies are deposited in the ground is below the reach of vegetation. 
Supposing the inhabitants of the United States at this time to amount 
to twenty-five millions, and that each individual contains, on an aver- 
age, four pounds of phosphate of lime, (which will be found not far 
from the truth,) when this population shall have passed away, one 
hundred millions of pounds of the phosphate of lime will have been 
abstracted from the soil, or from activity in the endless change of life.* 
It will be borne in mind that the extinction of the present generation 
does not limit the loss ; for population increases much more rapidly 
than supplies ; and if we reflect how wonderful has been its augmenta- 
tion in the United States since its settlement, and its probable continu- 
ance, even in a greater ratio, we shall be less apt to underrate the 
future consequences. 

The ocean is a vast reservoir of life's requirements, from which 
science may find means of recovering supplies, especially of this valua- 
ble ingredient. 

It is hardly necessary to remark that, while phosphoric acid is an 
essential part of all fertile soils, it. is not the only substance required, 
for the application of the phosphates may be made without any apparent 
good result, owing to the absence of other substances not less necessary. 
With a view to supply every important quality, much ingenuity has 
been employed in making artificial and saline mixtures, not only to 
furnish special manures for special crops, but such also as would satisfy 
the wants of all vegetation. Many saline mixtures may be compounded 
to increase the efficiency of each other, and at the same time to accele- 
rate, promote, and supply the requirements of plants ; but we cannot 
refrain from cautioning the farmer against the exaggerated accounts 
now everywhere published in favor of certain fertilizers. They are far 
from being always what they are described, either in composition or 
effect, and are very often quite the contrary. At best, composts would 
frequently appear to be mere dilutions, or attempts at making the truly 
useful do more service than is possible. The most shameful impositions 
are being daily practiced. From the nature of the substances employed, 
these frauds may not easily be detected by the farmer ; but he should 
rather trust, if he will have unusual mixtures, to such as he may 
manufacture on his own ground;, and under his own eye, from materials 
of positive utility, and purchased from dealers of undoubted character. 

* Monsieur Elie de Beaumont, who has made a similar calculation, in detail, for theamount 
of phosphate of lime aBstracted from culture, by burial, estimates that France has thus lost 
not less than two millions of tons. — See Etude sur les Gisements Geologiques du Phosphore. 

The reader will thank us for directing his attention to the above-named work, recently pub- 
lished by our distinguished friend and professor, M. M. L. Elie de Beaumont. We have 
read it with great interest, and are indebted to the learned author for many valuable sugges- 
tions. 



V^ETERINARY SCIENCE AND ART. 179 

VETERINARY SCIENCE AND AET. 



BY CAPTAIN JOHN C. RALSTON, PRESIDENT OF THE COLLEGE OP VETERINARY 

SURGEONS, NEW YORK. 



In this country, tlie veterinary art appears to have suffered, and is 
still allowed to suffer, unaccountable and most undeserved neglect, in 
an educational or duly qualified point of view. Its practice has mainly 
fallen into the hands of the stable-man, the shoeing smith, and the 
charlatan ; for the number of educated practitioners, derived from for- 
eign schools, (chiefly from the Eoyal Veterinary College, London, or 
the Veterinary College of Edinburgh,) is very limited, when con- 
trasted with the forcible occasions and wide field for their services, at 
once to be found in the larger cities and in the farming districts every- 
where. Grave considerations, alike creative of surprise on the one 
hand and of regret on the other, are thereby involved, when due reflec- 
tion comes to be directed to this state of things : of surprise, because 
this country has been so quick and ardent as relates to the introduction 
or improvement of whatsoever otherwise has presented any aspect of 
benefit or utility ; and, assuredly, veterinary science prefers very high 
claims, whether in relation to agriculture, stock raising, or any other 
public or social interest, and may be said to be only second to those 
claims which appertain to the science of human medicine and surgery: 
of regret, because the horse, first, and after him all other domestic 
animals, requires, and should have, intelligent and scientific care and 
treatment in health and sickness, and which can never prove the case 
where the means of education and right information are wanting. The 
aforesaid neglect seems the more singular when the vivid example pre- 
sented by other countries is considered. The veterinary schools of 
Europe are numerous and highly valued ; have been sustained by mon- 
archs, governments, associations, and individuals; and are acknowl- 
edged on all hands to have been the sources of no ordinary general 
benefit; while the attainments and skill of the members of these 
schools have conferred high professional respect, alike in private life, 
public or governmental employ, and in the capacity of commissioned 
veterinary-medical officers of the cavalry and artillerj'" services. 

In the early times of Europe and Asia, veterinary art was assidu- 
ously cultivated. In ancient G-reece, especially, it obtained a leading 
place, along with the general pursuit of medical and surgical knowl- 
edge. The physicians of those days seem to have given coequal atten- 
tion to anatomical and physiological research and pathological investi- 
gation, human and veterinary, and have left behind numerous treatises 
upon the latter art. By the Komans, veterinary art was also held in 
much esteem, and their medical and agricultural writers have treated 
of it with acumen. Among the Moors, particularly during their domi- 
nation in Spain, solicitous attention was, in like manner, bestowed on 
the subject. But it were not fitting, here, to seek to enlarge on these 
remoter chronicles of this estimable science, except to note the forcible 



180 AGRICULTURAL REPORT, 

impressions wliich prevailed in favor of its cultivation in those early 
times, wlien flocks and herds held a prominent place, and the welfare 
of all the domestic animals was well nigh the most important of con- 
siderations on the part of communities. The downfall of Eome_, and 
the oblivion of learning during the dark ages, overvN^helmed veterinary, 
as it did all other science. During the later and still rude middle 
ages, the iron defense, termed the shoe, was adopted for horses' feet, 
(or, at least, came to he somewhat more used,) and the horse-shoeing 
of the farrier began to he recognized as an operative art. It was at 
this period that this craft appears to have appropriated veterinary sur- 
gery, (in like manner as the barber craft had become the surgeons and 
j)hlebotomists of those days,) and, unfortunately, it continues to be 
only too generally accepted, that the operator who makes and nails on 
a horse's shoes, has thereby acquired a knowledge of his diseases and 
their treatment, which, otherwise, can only be obtained by means of 
education and the well-trained pursuits and investigations of science. 

In the sixteenth century, some effective degree of revival of this 
always important though so decayed art began to take place. In 
France, the spark thus rekindled v/as worthily fostered by Francis I, 
in a very marked manner. This sovereign caused translations of Ye- 
getius and other ancient writers to be made and disseminated, both in 
the Latin and modern languages. From this period, in Europe, the 
step-by-step advancement of veterinary science is to be discerned. In 
1761, the French king and government founded a veterinary college at 
Lyons, which still is flourishing, and in 1776 the present noble insti- 
tution of Alfort, near Paris, was opened to the public. Subsequently 
other schools, at Strasbourg, Montpelier, Toulouse, &c., were founded; 
and these examples were followed by most of the other European 
states, until now none are to be found vfithout one or more veterinary 
institutions, enjoying state and public approbation and support. 

Great Britain, somewhat singular to be observed, was slow to follow 
in the footsteps of improvement, in this direction, although a country 
which, it would seem, should have early recognized the importance ot 
aught relating to the care, treatment, or improvement of stock gene- 
rally, and of horses more especially. The art of equitation, which 
had earlier taken a strong hold in England, more particularly from 
the time of Henry VIII, seems to have (from among its professors, and 
similarly on the part of one or two human anatomists and surgeons, 
still later,) contributed better information and practices, and also some 
publications on veterinarianism. It was not, however, until toward 
the close of the last century that any general movement ensued, in 
England, as to laying the educational foundations of this art. Seve- 
ral efforts to establish a school had successively proved abortive ; until, 
in 1792, the present Koyal Veterinary College was founded. This in- 
stitution was projected by M. St. Bel, who had been educated at the 
school of Lyons, and who became its first professor. He died in 1793, 
having hardly had time to see the tree he had so striven to ingraft give 
promise of fructification. St. Bel, by whom some treatises of merit 
were left, was succeeded by the late Professor Coleman, with Mr. More- 
head as colleague ; the latter, however, soon resigning in order to go 
to India, in the service of the East India Company, where, not long 



VETERINARY SCIENCE AND ART. 181 

after, lie died. By degrees the college began to flourisli. It was 
warmly promoted by George III, who made appointments of its grad- 
uates to the various regiments of cavalry and corps of artillery, as 
commissioned veterinary-medical officers; and it was also aided by 
annual government grants. The press and public evinced the most 
favorable approbation of its objects ; and the medical teachers, and the 
profession in general, cordially acknowledged this affiliation claim. 
The great John Hunter was a veterinary examiner, and an early and 
zealous friend ; and Sir Astley Cooper, who was brother-in-law of the 
veterinary professor, exerted earnest and active service in its behalf. 
The school gradually became confirmed in repute, and increased year 
by year in the attendance of pupils, until, in 1841, after the death of 
Professor Coleman, the profession was chartered by an act of Parliament 
as the Koyal College of Veterinary Surgeons. This corporate body, the 
Koyal Veterinary College, the Veterinary College of Edinburgh, the 
veterinary professorships of the London University, Dublin, and the 
Andersonian University, of Glasgow, combine to afford the means and 
to be the guarantee of that veterinary knowledge which is claimed in 
behalf of the domestic animals. What benefit Great Britain has de- 
rived from these veterinary schools, her farmers, stock raisers, horse 
owners, and the public generally, can avouch. Of her horses, it can 
be said that, despite a climate not favorable to raising the finest races, 
without certain artificial appliances, they are unsurpassed, and sought 
for throughout the world; while her cattle and sheep stock have been 
the sources of improvement everywhere. 

And now, let it be asked, how is all this in the United States? The 
answer must be both perplexing and mortifying. Four or five years 
back, there was not even the apparent germ of a veterinary school. 
Some three years since, one was opened in Boston, but which has lately 
been given up. In Philadelphia, a veterinary association and college 
are making efforts to secure a creditable footing ; and it is to be much 
wished and hoped that they may succeed. New York has incorporated 
a college. of veterinary surgeons, the j^rospects and progress of which 
have, as yet, all to be put on trial. In these young and inadequately 
aided or sustained efforts is mainly contained the history of the means 
for educational veterinary science in this country. 

The school accommodations of the College of Veterinary Surgeons, 
of New York, are contained within the Veterinary College Institute, 
75 and 77 West 23d street. A brief description may be not amiss 
here. They consist of a lecture hall, museum room, faculty room, and 
in a separate building, students' dissecting room, &c. The entrance 
to these is on the east side ; on the west side is the entrance for horses, 
leading to a noble stable of seventeen stalls, having ample space and 
light, and thoroughly drained and ventilated. On the same floor is 
a handsome and commodious office, &c. In a separate building, in the 
rear, is an eight-box-stall stable, for sick horses, forage loft, &c. 
The floor below, which is equally well-lighted, drained, and ventilated, 
contains a seventeen-stall stable, eight box-stalls for horses lame or 
requiring treatment of the leg-joints or feet; the shoeing forge, which 
is light, roomy, and well-arranged ; a store-room for iron, shoes, &c. 
Water is introduced to every stall ; hot water is supplied in each stable ; 



182 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

a steam drying apparatus is adapted for drying tlie straw used for tlie 
horses' beds ; and two ventilator furnaces lieat the whole building 
when required. Every arrangement has been kept in view which is 
found in the best-planned European stables, and an example is pre- 
sented of the manner of stalling and keeping horses, wherever comfort, 
health, and high condition are studied. There is no country to which 
improved veterinary knowledge, or the treatment which the domestic 
animals claim, is of greater importance than to this. The horse, who 
stands in the front rank as regards utility and value, demands primary 
and corresponding consideration. Any effort to introduce improve- 
ments on the housing, management, and stable economics of this 
noblest subserver of the occupations and enjoyments of man, is worthy 
of j)ublic appreciation and support ; and this claim can be well and 
' forcibly advanced for the Veterinary College Institute of New York. 
As regards veterinary science, in a more generalized sense, it may be 
further added that its cultivation in this country would be followed 
by advantages of no limited amount. Among others, it would open 
for many young men a new professional path, at once attractive and 
emolumental in pursuit. To medical students it not only tenders 
opportunities for improving their knowledge, through comparative 
inquiry relating to animal structure and functions, but, also, for be- 
coming acquainted with the complaints to which domestic animals are 
subject, and the treatment appropriate, whereby the sphere of useful- 
ness and professional income may be extended. Such opportunities 
are presented in the classes of the Veterinary College. Another very 
useful and profitable source of occupation for young men whose educa- 
tional opportunities or means have been more narrowed, is to be found 
in the veterinary scientific art of shoeing. Some competent knowledge 
of the anatomy and physiology of the horse's foot, and the requisite 
expertness or skill for preparing the hoof, fitting and fixing the shoe, 
&c. , can be acquired by any intelligent young man in two or three 
months, in the lecture room and the shoeing forge of a veterinary 
institution; whereupon, by purchasing finished shoes, a business — 
which, divested of the more rude labor of the forge, may be then very 
properly termed an art — of a very remunerative nature can readily be 
established in any town or farming district, by means of only a small 
capital. Toward this object, courses of lectures on the horse's foot 
and shoeing, and likewise forge instruction, are proposed to be afforded 
at the Veterinary College Institute. So essentially important is the 
art of better shoeing, that, in the tariff" of charges annexed to the cir- 
cular of the institution, a price per set for finished shoes and nails is 
stated, and the same can be sent to horse-owners, with shoeing instruc- 
tions, and their smiths can then put on said shoes^ charging the same 
half-price as for removes of shoes ; better still, if in every stable and 
on every farm there were one or more hands who could properly pare 
and rasp the hoofs and fix the shoes, which would prove a most mate- 
rial economy of time, money, and horses' feet. 

The attitude of the veterinary art in Europe has been adverted to, 
and also its great development in Britain, especially during the present 
century. The following extract from the London '^Times'' will more 



VETEEINARY SCIENCE AND^ ART. 183 

directly serve to show, in an incidental manner, its elevation in the 
latter country : 

"EoYAL College of Yeterinart Surgeons. — On Thursday evening a 
conversazione was given by William Field, Esq., the President of the 
Eoyal College of Veterinary Surgeons, at the institute of the profession. 
The spacious suite of rooms were thrown open for the reception of 
visitors. On the walls were hung several valuable paintings, »by Sir 
Edwin Landseer, J. Ward, E. A., and others. The tables in the 
board room were covered with microscopes, stereoscopes, and photo- 
graphic drawings. In the council room, an extensive series of calculi 
of large size and varied composition, together with numerous morbid 
specimens, showing the results of disease in our domesticated animals, 
including several of rare occurrence, such as ossification of the heart, 
lungs, liver, spleen, brain, were supplied from the Eoyal Veterinary 
College, and the private collection of the president. These, together 
with a minutely digested preparation of the nerves of the heart of a 
horse, by Dr. Lee, attracted general attention. A select and rare 
collection of the chemicals and articles of the veterinary materia medica, 
as also specimens of the remedies used by the native practitioners of 
India, were placed in the library. Several articles of Vertu, with busts 
of Dr. Babbington and Professor Farraday, and carvings in ivory, 
from busts, by Chantry, ornamented the rooms. The bust of the late 
Professor Coleman, and cases of electrotyped medals, added to the 
general effect, and the decorations were completed by several beautiful 
exotic and other jDlants, from the Eoyal Botanic Gardens. The refresh- 
ments were supplied on the most liberal scale by the Messrs. Gunter. 
About one hundred and fifty noblemen and gentlemen were present, 
including names from every department of science and art. The 
professors of the Eoyal Veterinary College, and the leading members 
of the profession, very ably seconded their worthy president in the 
duties of the evening." 

Veterinary medical departments are connected with the English 
army, and armies of India, and this has suggested the query, whether 
a similar department for the United States army would not be desirable, 
or likely to be productive of utility and benefit? A staff medical officer 
called recently at the Veterinary College Institute, and observed that 
the subject had been under discussion or consideration, at one time, in 
an official quarter. I will avail of the present opportunity, and ven- 
ture to submit the views I would be disposed to entertain on this 
subject, so far as the limited means I have access to can enable me to 
form an opinion. It appears to me that the comparatively limited 
extent of the cavalry and artillery force of the United States, and the 
manner in which the respective corps are detailed for service along our 
extensive frontier, preclude any adequate occasion or opening for a 
regularly constituted army veterinary department, with its veterinary 
surgeons attached to regiments and corps. Still, it must not thereby 
be inferred that the advantages derivable from veterinary science should 
be denied the army. It is a question only of adaptation, cost, and 
effectiveness. That system which prevailed in the cavalry and artillery 
arms of the service in India for upwards of a century, would seem to 
be well fitted for adoption in an army so circumstanced as that of the 



184 4G^RICULTURAL REPORT. 

United States. In tlie India service tliere were veterinary schools for 
tlie sons of deceased soldiers and others, who were trained in a 
knowledge of the horse's foot, and the art of shoeing. As vacancies 
occurred, these young men were detailed to the different regiments as 
farriers. At regimental headquarters there was a farrier major, and 
to each troop a farrier and assistant farrier. The captains of troops, 
respectively, acted as the veterinary surgeons, and had a monthly 
allowance for shoes, medicines, and necessaries. It has often surprised 
me to note the excellent practical skill evinced by many of these 
officers, derived from casual opportunities of attendance on veterinary 
lectures, reading, and observation. The said system worked very well, 
and would have worked better still if troop-officers had been induced 
to follow a regular course of instruction, to a certain extent. In this 
country, were a veterinary professorship instituted at West Point, it 
might prove the source of much practical utility, inasmuch as the cadets, 
generally, could attend a series of lectures of a character to interest 
them, and promote their general range of information, while the cadets 
of cavalry and artillery could more especially acquire the elements, 
and lay the foundations of a useful knowledge, which could afterward 
be valuably extended to their commands. Above all, some acquaint- 
ance with the structure and functions of the foot of the horse and 
mule, and the art of properly shoeing them, would have results of high 
value, and in like manner some knowledge of the nature and treatment 
of the more obvious accidents or maladies. Probably officers already in 
actual service might have opportunities for attendance on a course of 
these lectures ; farriers, moreover, could also be instructed in improved 
principles of shoeing ; and, furthermore, an army veterinary code and 
shoeing manual could be serviceably compiled. If a permanent pro- 
fessorship of this nature should seem not quite eligible at West Point, 
then a modified appointment for a certain course of lectures each year 
might be effected. In the same connection, it may appropriately be 
observed that army horse-shoes should be supplied, sized, (say eight 
sizes,) fullered, nail-holed back and front, finished, filed up, and all 
ready for putting on cold, except it might be a blow from the hammer 
to close up any too great width of shoe. Machine-made shoes, finished 
in rough, are as heavy to carry about as in bar, and more inconvenient ; 
require as much forging and finishing; are never as well fitted; and 
are hurtful and imperfect. In this question, a very important consid- 
eration of service, effectiveness, and economy, lies. 



VETERINARY MEDICINE. 185 

VETEEIMM MEDICINE. 

{Ai's Vet&i'inaria post medidnam secunda est.) 



BY DR. B. F. CRAIG, OF WASHINGTON, D. C. 



The benefits whicli the human race has received from the cultivation 
of medical science and from the progress of the medical art, are so 
habitually and universally enjoyed that their existence is hardly no- 
ticed and their real extent seldom justly appreciated. 

They are enjoyed too much as a matter of course to he duly valued, 
and too equally hy all classes of the community to have their impor- 
tance illustrated hy frequent contrasts of the relative effects of their 
possession or their absence; and besides this, men are so apt to con- 
sider health as their natural and ordinary condition, and to look on 
every departure from it as an accident that could hardly have been 
expected, and that should, in the nature of things, be susceptible of 
prompt and easy correction, that they can scarcely regard with much 
favor a science which assumes the unpleasant truth, that human flesh is 
heir to many ills, difficult to escape by the utmost care, and only to 
be overcome by well-devised efforts. 

Instead of the relief that medicine can give to suffering being re- 
garded as a cause of thankfulness, and as a triumph for humanity, the 
fact that such relief is not always complete and speedy is felt as a 
grievance, and complained of as an instance of the entire impotency 
of the art; and in proportion as disease is disarmed of its dangers, and 
the pangs of suffering allayed , as men are habitually called upon to 
endure less, does the impatience of what has still to be suffered and 
encountered increase. 

A vent is often sought for this impatience in language directed 
against medical science and its results — language which men, by fre- 
quently repeating, come at last partly to believe; and the perversion of 
correct views thus brought about is so liable to interfere with the exercise 
of judgment, that it becomes necessary to set forth and establish the 
real facts of the case before proceeding to discuss any question upon 
which they have a bearing. 

The results of medical treatment in individual instances can fairly 
be appreciated only by professional men, and they cannot draw con- 
clusions from any single case, but from a comparison of many similar 
ones. 

It is not like the application of skill and force to inert objects, where 
the change brought about is a distinctly visible one, and the effects of 
our exertions are easily distinguishable from those of all other causes. 

The real condition of the sick, in the first place, is only to be dis- 
cerned by the eye of reason and knowledge, and not by the uninstructed 
spectator; and when that condition is known, the change in it that 
follows the application of any remedial measures proves nothing, since 
a change of some sort is constantly going on by the operation of Nature, 



186 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

wliicli may take one or anotlier direction, Jn accordance with circum- 
stances almost impossible to appreciate, and to wliicli we may plausibly 
ascribe almost any event that may occur. 

If, in a number of cases^ apparently similar, certain changes gene- 
rally follow certain measures, and but seldom occur in the absence of 
those measures, there is better ground for reasoning, and conclusions 
may be drawn which are reliable in x^roportion to the number and the 
degree of coincidence of the observations upon which they are based. 

Medical science rests upon observations too numerous and concur- 
rent to be much influenced by chance, and derived from sources too 
independent and various, as to persons, place, time, and country, to be 
governed by any common prejudice or perverted by any common inter- 
est; but while no well-informed person, free from unhealthy peculiari- 
ties of mind, can doubt that laws have been ascertained which give a 
right direction to the healing art, there is still an apparent difficulty 
in estimating the amount of good that is done, or that probably will 
be done, by that art. 

To form a just opinion on this point, the most proper course would 
seem to be to inquire into the general amelioration of mankind in all 
that relates to health and disease, which has accompanied the great 
development undergone by medical science during the last three cen- 
turies. 

It were too narrow a view to limit the field of medical science to the 
sick-room, or to the every-day duties of the physician. 

The preservation of health, the proper regulation of diet, of clothing, 
and of lodging ; those measures of hygiene which are applied to cities, to 
ships, to armies, to hospitals, and to prisons ; the means of protection 
against plague and pestilence, are matters upon which knowledge has 
been acquired only by a long course of observation and reflection. 

However simple some of the establislied rules may now seem, and 
however universally they may now be admitted, there was a time, not 
very remote, when they were unknown or unappreciated ; and if we 
look at t^ieir history, we shall find that they have been established in 
the face of prejudice, false opinion, and false habit, by laborious exer- 
tions on the part of those who have made the human body their 
study. 

If the medical sciences had been neglected in the progress of civili- 
zation, we have no reason to believe that the increase of material 
comforts and resources would have more than counterbalanced, if it 
counterbalanced at all the evil effects on man's physical nature which 
arise from the luxuries, the temptations, the artificial modes of life, and 
the increased wear of mind attendant upon the busy struggle of 
modern times. Whatever superiority, then, in length of days, and in 
freedom from disease and infirmity, is possessed by the present, as 
compared with former times, may fairly be claimed as directly due to 
that science which makes the attainment of such superiority its object; 
and the amount of this amelioration may best be determined by in- 
quiring into its extent on those points, concerning which we have the 
most ample and reliable information. 

If we take, as a subject of consideration, the average length of hu- 
man life at different periods since the dawn of modern medicine, we 



VETERINARY MEDICINE. 187 

will find tliat it has been undergoing a progression, remarkable both 
for its amount and its regularity ; and of this fact we have proofs, de- 
rived from various European countries, where, for a greater or less 
time, records have been made and preserved which give information 
on this, and on other subjects connected with social economy. Tlie con- 
clusions to be drawn from these records, wherever kept, agree so well as 
to show that some general cause must have operated in all parts of the 
civilized world, independently of those historical changes which have 
affected particular communities. The most complete records of the 
kind referred to are to be found in the statistics of the town of Greneva, 
in Switzerland, where a detailed account of the population, of the 
deaths, the births, and the marriages, has been kept since the year 
1549, forming a valuable body of information, an abstract of which, 
extending from 1549 to 1833, a period of nearly three centuries, has 
been published, both in French and English journals. It appears, 
from these statistics, that the proportion of the number of deaths to 
the number of the whole population, which, in 1600, was one to twen- 
ty-five, in the next half century, was one to twenty-seven ; in the 
next, one to twenty-eight ; in the next, one to thirty ; and in the next, 
one to thirty-four ; and_, during the half century lately passed over, the 
proportion is known to have decreased still more rapidly. We find 
that the difference cannot, in this case, be explained by a decrease in 
the number of births, and consequently of the number of persons of 
the age most liable to mortality. 

The average duration of life — that is, the average age of all persons 
at the period of their death — has increased from twenty-two years and 
three months at the end of the sixteenth century, to forty years and 
eight months during the period between the years 1814 and 1833 ; 
and not only has this increase of longevity been uninterrupted, but 
the rate of the increase during the present century is greater than 
that for any former time. 

The probable length of life, which is determined by taking the age 
to which one half of those born survive, shows a still more striking 
difference, for from the end of the sixteenth to the middle of the eight- 
eenth century, it increased more than threefold, and from the end of 
the sixteenth century to the present time, more than fivefold. 

It would be difficult to imagine any equivalent that men would be 
willing to exchange for this increase of life, or to appreciate the 
amount of sorrow inflicted, if we were to retrograde to the rate of mor- 
tality of the sixteenth century ; but, for our present purposes, we may 
view the subject under a different light, and consider only the effect of 
this alteration on the material prosperity of the community_, and its 
value in that point of view in which the conclusions drawn would 
apply with equal force to the case of our domestic animals. 

The value of man to society is very much in proportion to the length 
of his life. If he dies early, he fails to make return for the care and 
expenses bestowed upon his infancy and childhood ; if he lives long, 
and exercises his matured strength and practical skill in industry 
profitable to the community, he adds by so much to the general 
wealth. 

As the period at which man is fitted for labor does not begin much 



.7th. 


18th. 


19th. 


45 


56 


66 


3T 


49 


59 


30 


43 


52 


22 


35 


44 


15 


26 


32 



188 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

before tlie twentieth year, it can easily be seen how important an ele- 
ment in the progress of the race is a change from twenty-two to forty 
jesiYS as the average length of life ; and what an increase of productive 
industry is implied in that simple fact! But, to illustrate the same 
point still further, we may take up the question of longevity in an- 
other manner. 

If we take from the Geneva tables the percentage of the whole num- 
ber born, who survive to different periods of adult or useful life, we will 
find it to have varied in different centuries, nearly as follows : . 

In the 16th In the In the In the 
century. 

Of 100 persons^, there lived to the age of 20 39 

Of 100 persons, there lived to the age of 30.... 30 
Of 100 persons, there lived to the age of 40.... 20 
Of 100 persons, there lived to the age of 50. , . .14 
Of 100 persons, there lived to the age of 60. . . . 9 

By this table we see that where, in the sixteenth century, nine per- 
sons lived to their sixtieth year, thirty-two persons do so now ; and if 
we take the average number of survivors for all periods of adult life, 
it will be found to be at the present time considerably more than 
double what it was three hundred years ago. 

We can also conclude from this table that the total number of years 
over fifteen which men live through on an average, has rather more 
than doubled in three centuries, and that, therefore, from this cause 
alone, the amount of work done by each person before he dies is more 
than twice what it formerly was. 

The above statistics are all taken from the records of the same place, 
and the same people, and the conclusions drawn from their comparison 
may therefore be regarded as reliable ; the more so, since they are in 
perfect accordance with the results of the vital statistics of other coun- 
tries, where such statistics have been kept for a sufficient length of 
time. 

Thus, in England, the expectation of life, that is, the probable fu- 
ture length of life^ of persons twenty years old, is stated to be at the 
present time about forty-four years, while a century ago it was rather 
less than thirty-four years ; so that there has been an increase at the 
rate of ten years for a century; and it seems probable that, for the last 
three centuries, there has been an increase averaging about eight years 
for each century, in this expectation or probability; an increase which 
would lead us to about the same results, as regards the average length 
of useful life, as those deduced from the Genevese tables, namely, that 
it has more than doubled during modern times. 

Our knowledge of the advance made as to the length of life, is of 
course more capable of statistical demonstration than that of the other 
benefits resulting from the application of science to the preservation 
and restoration of health ; but if we admit reasonable conclusions, 
from circumstantial evidence, we will find that, in other respects, the 
improvement has been at least proportionate. 

The shortening of the duration of sickness, and consequently of the 



VETERINARY MEDICINE. 189 

amount of time lost by each person from that cause, seems to be fully 
as great, in proportion, as the lengthening of life ; more so, certainly, 
in some diseases. 

In surgery, the improvement in the treatment of wounds, fractures, 
and dislocations, by which permanent disabilities are often prevented ; 
the progress of conservative surgery, or that branch of the art by 
which limbs are preserved, which, without the exercise of peculiar 
skill, would have to be sacrificed ; and other advances made by the 
profession, have done much toward the diminution of crippled and 
deformed persons in the community, as well as toward the preservation 
of life. 

Without the instrumentality of medicinal science, many great enter- 
prises would totally fail;, or only succeed with extreme difficulty. Long 
sea voyages, for instance, which in former times often involved the loss 
of crews by disease, or the interruption of the voyage from the preva- 
lence of scurvy, are now performed without a greater mortality than 
would occur among the same men on shore ; and thus our knowledge 
of the world has been extended, commerce enlarged, and the ocean 
made a safe highway for civilized man, in a way that would, two hun- 
dred years ago, have been impossible, simply from the ravages of 
disease on shipboard. Many similar examples might be cited, which 
are, however, not needed for the establishment of the j)oint here 
aimed at. 

The consideration of the benefits conferred upon the community at 
large, and of the gain, in an economical point of view, to be derived 
from the cultivation of medical science, is not, it is true, necessary to 
turn man's attention to it. His greatest hopes and fears, his strongest 
feelings, are too much called forth by the sickness and danger of him- 
self and of those around him, to allow him to neglect any available 
means of relief ; and he will seek medical aid, and support medical 
men, even without giving a thought to the general utility and the 
economical value of their occupation. 

In the care, however, of those animals which have been given into 
his dominion, and from whose labors he derives so large a part of his 
prosperity, it is to be feared that a sympathy for their sufferings and 
a humane regard for their welfare would be insufficient motives to 
induce him to attend properly to the treatment of their diseases, unless 
it could be shown that, by doing so, he increases his own wealth to an 
extent that fully compensates him for the expense and trouble thus 
bestowed. 

There are, perhaps, some who fancy that the brute creation, living 
in accordance with natural instincts, or in obedience to some routine 
imposed on them by man, and destitute of that finer organization 
which in the human race is thought to render the system peculiarly 
liable to derangement, must be but little subject to disease ; that their 
lives, with few exceptions, must pass through an even course, untrou- 
bled by sickness, and sink only when the lapse of years has weakened 
their vigor and brought them to the natural termination of their exist- 
ence. Such is not the case, as far as is known, with any class of 
animals ; such is certainly far from being the case with those which 
are under the care of man. 



190 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

We often speak of the constitution of a horse, assuming him as the 
type of disease-resisting vigor and unfailing health ; yet ample statis- 
tical reports in Germany, France, and England, have shown that the 
mortality of horses, in the prime of their life, is many times greater 
than that of man at a corresponding age. 

This mortality among horses is, no doubt, for the most part pre- 
ventable ; and we have no reason for believing that, with proper care 
and skill in their treatment, horses would die much faster than men ; 
for the number of annual deaths during the years of youth and middle 
life does not depend upon the absolute longevity of the animal, and 
might be as small in the shortest as in the longest-lived species. 

The annual mortality among horses in their working years is about 
five per cent., or one twentieth of their whole number; and as the 
number of horses in the United States is about five millions, there 
would, at that rate, be a loss of two hundred and fifty thousand every 
year ; and if their average value be taken at fifty dollars each, the 
pecuniary loss will amount to twelve and a half millions of dollars. 

The mortality among oxen is much less than that of horses ; while 
that of sheep is greater. 

Besides this regular and usual mortality of domestic animals, they 
are, like the human race, subject to occasional visitations of great and 
extraordinary sicknesses. Such epidemics, when of a certain degree 
of virulence, are known under the name of murrains, and seem, from 
the earliest ages, to have been regarded as among the severest afflic- 
tions to which nations were exposed. 

A murrain was threatened to Pharoah as a calamity, the nature of 
which was fully understood by him; and, in thi« instance, as has often 
been the case in subseq.uent murrains, the pestilence was to attack 
more than one species of domestic animals, it being foretold that, 
"upon the horses. Upon the asses, upon the camels, upon the oxen, 
and upon the sheep, there shall be a very grievous murrain." 

Homer relates that the pestilence which was sent upon the Grecian 
camp, first seized upon the domestic animals congregated there ; and 
some of the most eminent writers of antiquity, as Hippocrates, Plu- 
tarch, Livy, and Virgil, speak of the murrains which seem, at various 
times, to have visited Greece and Italy. 

In the fourth century, a murrain of great virulence devastated 
Europe, and may, perhaps, be reckoned among the causes which has- 
tened the downfall of ancient civilization. 

Unusual mortality of cattle occurred, from time to time, in difierent 
localities, during subsequent ages ; and, in ■ the eighteenth century, 
the occurrence of a murrain which, originating in northern Asia, pre- 
vailed for a series of years over a large part of Europe, roused the 
public mind to the necessity of the better cultivation of veterinary 
medicine. 

In the present century, the various domestic animals have, in dif- 
ferent regions, been subject, at times, to great mortality ; but nothing 
has yet occurred of the nature of a general murrain. Nevertheless, the 
teachings of history make it evident that such a thing must be expected 
at some future period, perhaps remote, but, it may be, near at hand. 

The amount of devastation committed by such an outbreak in a 



VETERINARY MEDICINE. 191 

country, a large part of whose wealth consisted of live stock, might be 
immense, and the loss would be especially felt if falling upon an ani- 
mal like the horse, whose services are almost essential to the main- 
tenance of every branch of industry. 

There is, in general, no form of disease over which medicine seems 
to have more control than over great pestilences ; for the prevention 
or cure of any one case, not only affects the individual chiefly con- 
cerned, but hinders an addition from being made to the intensity of 
the general pestilential action, and by so much checks the propagation 
of the disease and the virulence of its attacks. 

Independently of the effect produced by the diminution of the annual 
mortality of domestic animals, we have to consider, so far, at least, as 
the horse is concerned, that which would follow the lengthening of the 
time during which they are maintained in a state of soundness and 
vigor. A horse is fed and cared for until he becomes old enough to 
labor, at an expense varying in different places, and which, for the 
United States, has been estimated to range from twenty to sixty dol- 
lars. For this outlay he makes return during his subsequent life ; and 
the amount of the return made must depend upon the length of that 
life, up to the time at which he becomes unfit for work ; so that, to 
render him of proper value to man, he should be maintained free from 
infirmity to the age when the inevitable operation of natural laws term- 
inates his usefulness. 

The horse attains to his greatest strength and vigor between the 
tenth and twelfth years of his life,, but in too many cases he has 
scarcely passed, or arrived at that epoch, when he is already infirm, 
lameness or other disability having been brought on by injudicious 
management, or by neglect or maltreatment of some chronic disease. 

That the natural decline of a horse's strength does not take place 
until a much later date than the period at which his usefulness is usu- 
ally thought to terminate, has been amply shown, there being many 
instances of horses retaining their vigor after their thirtieth year, and 
some having been known to live to the age of forty and upward ; the 
longest authenticated life of a horse in England or this country having 
been sixty-two years. 

A writer in one of the English agricultural journals, who seems to 
have given particular attention to the prolongation of the working 
lives of horses, states as the ages of five horses in his stables, who were 
all serviceable animals at the time of his writing, the following num- 
bers of years : 

Thirteen, twenty-one, twenty-six, twenty-nine, and forty. He at- 
tributes their good preservation mainly to the care and skill exercised 
in shoeing them and in attending to their feet. 

During the latter part of the eighteenth century, the want of judi- 
cious treatment of domestic animals, in health and disease, was seen 
with regret by many enlightened persons, and, among others, by the 
illustrioms Buffon, who, in his work on natural history, after having 
treated of the horse, expresses himself on this point as follows : 

"I will not here speak of the other diseases of horses, since to add 
to the history of an animal that of his diseases would be to render 
natural history too prolix. Nevertheless, I cannot finish my account 



192 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

of tlie horse without expressing my regret that the health of this useful 
and precious animal is at the present time abandoned to the care, and 
to the often blind practice, of uneducated and ignorant persons. That 
department of medicine which the ancients called veterinary medichie, 
is now scarcely known, except by name. I believe, if some medical 
man were to turn his attention to this subject, and devote himself 
chiefly to it, he would soon be amply recompensed, and that he would 
not only acquire wealth, but, instead of being lowered in his profes- 
sion, would become illustrious. 

"This branch of the healing art would not be so difficult nor so de- 
pendent on conjecture as human medicine; for, since the food, the 
habits, the efi'ects of the mind, in short, all acting causes, are more 
simple among the lower animals than with man, the derangements of 
their health should be less complicated, and consequently easier to 
diagnose, and to treat successfully. We must also take into account 
the great freedom with which we can make experiments, try new reme- 
dies, and thus acquire, without causing ourselves great anxiety, and 
without incurring odium, a large fund of this kind of knowledge, from 
which, in the way of analogy, we might draw conclusions useful even 
in human medicine." 

The high authority of BuflPon, and the zealous exertions of some of 
his cotemporaries, were much aided toward the attainment of the 
desired end by the great mortality among cattle which occurred during 
his time; and in the year 1761, a veterinary school was founded at 
Lyons, at the head of which was placed Bourgelat, a name celebrated 
in the history of veterinary medicine. In 1766 another school was 
opened at Alfort, not far from Paris, which, in the course -of time, 
became a most useful and flourishing institution. Perhaps no better 
idea could be given of the condition and management of such schools 
in France, than to quote some passages from the account of the one at 
Alfort, by Mr. H. Colman, who visited Europe in 1843 for the pur- 
pose of examining the state of agriculture and agricultural institu- 
tions. 

"This establishment is beautifully situated on the river Seine, near 
the village of Charenton, about six miles from Paris. 

"The buildings for the diflerent objects of the institution are spacious 
and well-contrived, and the grounds sufficiently extensive and judi- 
ciously arranged. Like other governmental establishments in France 
which have come under my observation, the institution is upon a grand 
scale, and complete in all its parts. The government of France, in a 
liberal manner, avails itself of the talents of the most competent men 
in every department, and of all the advantages which science and art 
can afibrd ; and it spares no expense in the perfect execution of what- 
ever it undertakes. It adds to all this, as is everywhere to be seen, a 
refinement of taste in the arrangement of the most ordinary subjects, 
which increases the expense only in a small degree, and which does 
not abstract at all from the solidity and substantial character of the 
work itself ; but relieves that which would otherwise be monotonous, 
if not offensive, and often renders the plainest subjects attractive. 

"The school at Alfort is designed to furnish a complete course of 
instruction in veterinary medicine and surgery^ embracing, not horses 



VETERINARY MEDICINE. 193 

only, but all the domestic animals. A student, at his entrance, must 
he well versed in the common branches of education ; and a full course 
of instruction requires a residence of four years. The number of pu- 
pils is limited to three hundred. Of these, forty are entirely supported 
by the government. These are educated for the army, and are re- 
quired not only to become versed in the science and practice of veteri- 
nary medicine and surgery, but likewise in the common business of a 
blacksmith's shop, as far as it is connected with farriery. 

"The establishment presents several hospitals, or apartments, for 
sick horses, cows, and clogs There are means for controlling and 
regulating as far as possible, the temperature of the rooms, and for 
producing a complete and healthy ventilation. There are stables 
where the patients may be kept entirely alone, when the case requires 
it, and there are preparations for giving them, as high as their bodies, 
a warm bath, which, in cases of diseased limbs or joints^, may be of 
great service. There is a large college, with dormitories and dining- 
rooms, for the students; houses for the professors within the inclosure; 
rooms for operations upon animals, and for anatomical dissections ; a 
room, with a complete laboratory, for a course of chemical lectures ; a 
public lecture-room, or theater ; and an extensive smithery, with sev- 
eral forges, fitted up in the best possible manner. There are, likewise, 
several stands, contrived with ingenuity, for confining the feet of 
horses, that students may m.ake, with security, their first attempt at 
shoeing, or in which the limb, after it has been separated from its 
lawful owner, may be placed for the purpose of examination and ex- 
periment. 

''An extensive suit of apartments presents an admirable and, indeed, 
an extraordinary museum, both of natural and artificial anatomical 
preparations, exhibiting the natural and healthy state of the animal 
constitution, and likewise remarkable examples of diseased affections. 
The perfect examples of the anatomy of the horse, the cow, the sheep, 
the hog and the dog, in which the muscular integuments, the nerves, 
the blood-vessels, and, indeed, all the parts, are separated, preserved, 
and exhibited, by the skill of an eminent veterinary surgeon and artist, 
now deceased, who occupied the anatomical chair of the institution, 
display wonderful ingenuity in their dissection and preservation, and 
present an interesting and useful study, not to medical students only, 
but to the most ordinary, as well as the most profound, philosophical 
observer. I have seen no exhibition of the kind of so remarkable a 
nature. 

"The department for sick dogs, containing boxes for those which 
require confinement, and chains for such as must be kept in the open 
air, and a cooking apparatus and kitchen for the preparation of their 
food, was spacious, well-arranged, and contained a large number of 
patients. 

"Any sick animals may be sent to the establishment, and their board 
is to be paid at a fixed rate of charges; twelve sous, or six pence, per 
day, for a dog, and fii^y soils, or twenty-five pence, for a horse, includ- 
ing medicine, advice, and attendance. In cases of epidemics, or mur- 
rain, prevailing in any of the districts of France, the best attendants 
and advice are sent from these schools, to assist in the cure, and espe- 
13 A 



194 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

cially to watch the symptoms and progress of the malady. In coun- 
tries where large standing armies are maintained, and where, of course, 
there are large bodies of cavalry and artillery to he attended upon, as 
well as wagon horses for carrying the supplies, the importance of vete- 
rinary surgery is vastly increased ; hut in countries where no standing 
armies exist, the number of horses kept for use and pleasure, and of 
other domestic animals, bears a much larger proportion to the number 
of human beings than we should like to state without inquiry, and 
renders the profession highly important," 

Other veterinary schools were before long established in different 
parts of France, and in various countries of Europe ; in Germany, in 
England, in Kussia, and in Italy. The veterinary college at London 
was established in the year 1791, under the charge of a graduate of 
the parent school of Lyons, and at the expense of a number of gentle- 
men who, upon becoming subscribers to the school, acquired certain 
privileges with regard to the medical treatment of their horses, in the 
event of their sickness. 

The college received much encouragement from the medical profes- 
sion of London, and a committee of some of the most eminent practi- 
tioners was appointed to assist at the examination of those of the pupils 
who became candidates for graduation, and to certify to their acquire- 
ments ill case that they should be found properly acquainted with the 
principles of medical science and with the veterinary art. The asso- 
ciations of physicians with veterinarians, in such colleges, is one of 
the best assurances that the character of the education there given will 
be kept up to the high standard to which medicine has herself attained, 
and that the empiricism of a speciality will not be allowed to displace 
the philosophic spirit of true science. 

Soon after the establishment of the London college, it received further 
encouragement by the appointment of veterinarians, as commissioned 
officers in cavalry regiments — a proceeding of great benefit to the ser- 
vice. The care of horses was the original object of the college, but an 
annual sum was given to it by the Eoyal Agricultural Society of Eng- 
land, to enable it to extend the field of its operations -over the other 
domestic animals, whose diseases it has, accordingly, taken charge of; 
and such animals are sent from London and the neighboring country 
to the infirmary of the college, where, for a moderate charge, they are 
fed, housed, and receive veterinary attendance. The college has also 
received assistance from parliamentary grants. 

In Germany, some of the veterinary colleges have, as a chief object, 
the education of veterinary surgeons for the military service. 

In the United States, Veterinary colleges have been recently estab- 
lished. A veterinary institution has existed for some years in Massa- 
chusetts. In Pennsylvania, the Veterinary College of Philadelphia 
was incorporated in 1852, and put into operation during the present 
year. Four professorships have been established in it, namely : Of 
Materia Medica and Therapeutics ; of Pathology and Practice of Medi- 
cine in Keference to Domestic Animals ; of Medical Chemistry and 
Pharmacy; of Anatomy, Physiology, and Operative Surgery. 

The College of Veterinary Surgeons of New York has also announced 
a course of lectures for the session of 1859-GO; it has established 



VETERINARY MEDICINE. 195 

professorships of Veterinary Theory and Practice ; ofYeterinary Anatomy 
and Surgery, and of Chemistry ; and has a Board of Censors, composed 
of some of the most eminent medical men in the city of New York. 

A veterinary author, who stands as high as any who have written 
in the English language — Mr. Delahre Blaine — remarks, in his Vet- 
erinary Art, that there are three classes of persons hy whom veterinary 
medicine may he profitably studied; first, hy gentlemen owning 
animals, and taking considerable interest in their management ; second, 
hy medical men who design practicing in the country, or in small 
towns^ where regular veterinary surgeons are not accessible ; and last, 
by those intending to make veterinary surgery their profession. 

The acquirement of veterinary knowledge by non-professional men 
is a thing not at all impracticable, especially in the southern part of 
the United States, where, as agricultural matters are often under the 
control of men of wealth and leisure, a very thorough and elaborate 
education might be given, with the joarticular view of fitting gentlemen 
for the management of everything connected with a farm or plantation. 

One remark, however, should be made with regard to veterinary 
education, whether of amateurs, or of professional men : no branch of 
medical art can be usefully taught ■ without first imparting some 
knowledge of that medical science upon which the art rests. The 
names of diseases, their most prominent symptoms^, and the remedies 
used for them, may, indeed, be communicated ; but that information, 
without the guidance of rules for correct reasoning on the subject, can 
only lead to a blind and mischievous ofiSciousness. Those who would 
learn how to deal with the arrangements of the living body, should 
first have their minds properly trained by the study of some branch 
of natural science, and, being thus accustomed to recollect facts, and to 
view them as parts of a system, they are better fitted to acquire a 
knowledge of the structure and of the functions of the body ; in other 
words, of anatomy and of physiology. It is not essentially requisite 
that this knowledge should be minute, but a certain amount of it must 
be acquired, after which the various modes in which the functions 
depart from a state of health, and the proper methods of remedying 
such departures, may be made objects of study. 

A delicate question here arises : whether any knowledge short of the 
professional would be of practical use to any one ? It seems to me that 
the only way of throwing light upon such a question is to attempt to 
answer it as far as human medicine is concerned, and to leave the 
conclusion thus drawn to be applied, analogically, to the veterinary 
art. The skill which the medical man applies to the treatment of 
difiicult cases is not to be attained except by those who have devoted 
many years to its acquirement ; but there is much that he does which 
he could teach others to do without burdening them with an elaborate 
and laborious course of instruction. In the surgical art, there is a 
special branch called minor surgery, which treats of such things as the 
proper mode of dressing wounds, burns, and scalds ; of setting frac- 
tures, and reducing dislocations. Much of it is taught to, and practiced 
by, hospital attendants and medical students in the early part of their 
course of medical education. Any intelligent person could, in a few 
weeks, learn enough of this art to enable him to render great service 



196 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

in cases whicli at present are neglected, or given over to the manage- 
ment of the ignorant and presumptions, either from the inaccessibility 
of regular surgical aid, or from an indisposition to have recourse to it. 

It may not be impossible to establish a similar branch of the medical 
art. A great deal of medicine has been, and always will be, admin- 
istered without the advice of a physician ; in fact, it is the testimony 
of apothecaries that the greater part of the medicine sold is so admin- 
istered. 

If instruction as to the nature and proper use of the medicines most 
in the hands of the people were generally diffused, of course with some 
previous instruction concerning the human body, and its more common 
and simple diseases, the amount of medicine taken would be less, and 
the good eifected by it vastly more certain. 

Without attempting to intrude upon the serious duties of the physi- 
cian, every educated man might be qualified to deal with those trivial 
affections from which the great harvest of quackery is reaped, and to 
render service to himself and others, wdien out of the reach of profes- 
sional assistance. To do this, the knowledge possessed may be limited, 
but should be perfectly sound as far as it goes, should be derived from" 
unexceptional sources, and be in no wise akin to that of those pseudo- 
medical works, of a popular cast, which are at the present day put for- 
ward in large numbers, for the edification of a credulous public. 

Similar remarks may be applied, with still more force, to veterinary 
surgery and medicine. Domestic animals, in many parts of the coun- 
try, must be so far out of the reach of regular veterinarians, or of phy- 
sicians qualified to practice the veterinary art, that the only means of 
giving them the benefit of medical knowledge is by lodging it in the 
hands of their owners. 

The mode of education of regular veterinarians is a matter of more 
settled character than the above. The colleges existing in England, 
and now going into operation in this country, are founded by the effort 
of associations, and sustain themselves, both from the fees of pupils 
and from those received for the medical treatment of horses and other 
animals. 

A number of persons become subscribers of a small annual sum, 
each, toward the maintenance of a veterinary hospital, in consideration 
of which they acquire the privilege of consulting the veterinary sur- 
geon of the establishment upon the proper treatment of their animals, 
upon the soundness of a horse that they purpose buying, and upon 
such other points as may present themselves ; and wdien a horse is sick, 
they may send him to the infirmary and have him attended to, with no 
other expense than that of his keep at livery and of his medicines. 
The veterinarian should not, save in exceptional cases, be called upon 
to pay visits out of the hospital, but should remain at the est/iblish- 
ment. A hospital thus established furnishes the means of clinical 
instruction for a school, which may afterw^ard be attached to it. Pro- 
fessors of anatomy, physiology, materia medica, and chemistry, may, 
if necessary, be chosen outside of the ranks of veterinary practitioners, 
and students may be received on terms similar to those of medical col- 
leges, and subjected to a course of study varying from two to four 
years. Much may be done in this way by private enterprise; but the 



VETERINARY MEDICINE. 197 

question arises, of how far such schools might hope for the support of 
a State, or of the federal government. 

All forms of civilized government have made education, in some 
way, their care, and there would seem to be great propriety in this, 
since all experience tends to show that the prosperity of a community 
chiefly depends upon the education of its members. This is true, 
whether we consider that general diffusion of knowledge and of mental 
discipline, which enables tlie citizens of a free State properly to exercise 
their powers and to discharge their duties, that higher cultivation of a 
few, which fits them for the iDvestigation of the laws of Nature^ and 
for determining the scientific truths upon which the arts of civilization 
are founded, or that special training in the arts and professions, which 
qualifies men to do good in their respective callings. 

Now, if the importance of the veterinary art, and all the advantages 
dependent upon it, be fairly considered, it will, I conceive, be found 
worthy of the extension of a helping hand to its struggling infancy, 
if not of a more permanent support. 

Physicians and surgeons form a third class, to whom Mr. Blaine 
recommends, under certain circumstances, the study of veterinary 
medicine. It may be remarked of these that, beside the advantages 
that may result to themselves from the possession of such knowledge, 
they, as a body already possessed of weight and authority in the com- 
munity, and able to make their influence widely felt, can bring about 
reforms which can hardly be effected by other agencies. To illustrate 
the point that there may be a flourishing condition of veterinary insti- 
tutions, a class of educated veterinarians, and an extensive veterinary 
literature, and that yet those to whom, the care of animals is chiefly 
intrusted may be comparatively uninfluenced by the progress around 
them, I would quote from Wilson's Eural Encyclopedia a portion of 
the article on Hippopathology, (the science which treats of the diseases 
of horses:) " Yet, in spite of the enormous bulk and the vast variety 
of our domestic hippopathological literature, in spite, too, of the stu- 
pendous additions to it which are made by French and German works 
of easy access, the science continues to be incredibly little known by 
the great body of the horse-owning community, and is still in a scan- 
dalous empirical condition, among a considerable proportion of country 
practitioners. Even if no books at all existed on the subject, a little 
common sense, expatiating on the analogies between the health of the 
horse and the health of man ought to rescue grooms and farmers from 
the absurdities and cruelties which many of them practice in the 
stable.'' 

A wider diffusion, as well as a further increase, of veterinary infor- 
mation, is evidently required, and to insure its diffusion there is no 
better way than to have its precepts and practice enforced by a large 
and widely-spread number of persons, the correctness of whose knowl- 
edge on such topics the public are already prepared to admit. This is 
a thing which physicians are not qualified to undertake at present, 
although they could become so by means of some addition to the usual 
course of medical education. It has been remarked that "a good 
physician has gone three fourths of the way toward becoming a good 



198 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

veterinarian, but lie must go fhe otlier fourtli to become a veterinarian 
at all." 

As the medical sciences bave not been limited in tbeir beneficial 
results to the healing of the sick only, but have^, by means of the 
knowledge of the human economy -which they inculcate, thrown light 
upon all questions involving the physical well-being of man, so we 
are apt to expect that from the cultivation, of veterinary medicine we 
will obtain guidance in many important matters which concern the 
physical state of domestic animals. Every question relating to their 
management, whether involving the condition of an individual or that 
of a race, is a question of the mode of action of physiological laws, 
and can only be satisfactorily answered by those who have made the 
physiology of animals their professional study. 

The strength of this position will be readily admitted with regard 
to individual animals, and it may, I think, be shown that a necessity 
exists for a body of educated veterinarians, to take in charge matters 
that affect races and species of our domestic animals, rather than 
single cases. 

Our domestic animals are, to a great extent, artificial productions, 
their most valuable qualities having been communicated to them by a 
kind of cultivation ; thus breeds of horses have been produced far sur- 
passing in size, strength, and fleetness, any animal of the species that 
exists in the wild state ; the ox species has acquired in different races 
great capabilities of producing flesh for the butcher, or milk for the 
dairy ; the sheep is clothed with a fleece more valuable for human use 
than that worn by his wild progenitor; and all valuable animals 
exhibit marked alterations from the original type of the race, which 
have been produced by human care and management. The extent of 
this change varies much with different breeds, and its importance is 
testified to by the high prices commanded by those animals in which 
it is most strongly marked. 

Few improvements contribute as much to the wealth of a nation as 
these. The expense of feeding and of caring for an animal of good 
breed is but little more than that required for a very inferior one, and 
the profit derived from it, whether in the shape of labor, of flesh, of 
wool, or of milk, is often very different in the two cases. A farmer 
may raise a horse that will command one thousand dollars in the market, 
or one worth less than a twentieth of that sum, and spend nearly the 
same on either animal. In view of the strong motives which exist for 
raising the finest animals only it may seem a matter of surprise that 
there are so many bad ones, and that, especially among horses, where 
good quality is of such great importance, the general standard should 
not be higher. Thereis, however, a want of certainty and of permanency 
about these improvements, which arises from their artificial character, 
there is a constant tendency in the race to return to the condition 
of Nature, and, where measures are taken to prevent the loss of some 
one of its characteristics, it sometimes happens that those very means . 
hasten the destruction of some other, or diminish very much the vitality 
of the race. 

The maintaining of good breeds becomes thus a struggle between 
Nature and art, and the art is one that requires peculiar skill and 



MEDICINES TO DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 199 

knowledge to manage with the best results ; and while the intelligence 
and care of a number of enterprising persons, who have been stimulated 
by large profits, and possessed of considerable means, have done much 
for the improvement of breeds of animals, the success thus far attained 
has been attended by a host of failures and disappointments, and, in 
some cases, where the greatest care and expense has been bestowed, it 
is maintained, by good authorities, that a positive degeneracy has 
taken place. 

The difficulties in the way of making a breed of animals just what 
we want it to be, and of maintaining it in that condition, are of a 
complicated character, and demand for their correct solution the atten- 
tion of those who can regard them from a scientific point of view, and 
whose daily studies and experience relate to the animals which they 
concern. 



ADMimSTERING MEDICINES TO DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 



TRANSLATED AND CONDENSED FEOM AN ARTICLE BY DR. WAGENFELD, OE DANZIG, 

PRUSSIA. 



Animals being unwilling to take medicine of their own accord, it 
must be administered by force, except when mixed with agreeable 
substances, for instance, with oats for the horse, and with meat or 
sugar for the dog. 

The horse may receive medicine in different forms ; first, as a poioder, 
This is to be mixed with short fodder, especially oats, with a portion 
of bran, which should be moderately moist, because he would otherwise 
blow away some of the powder with his nose. Though this mode is 
convenient, it can only be employed to a limited extent, as the horse 
will not eat his fodder if it be mixed with medicine of a considerable 
odor, or if his appetite be much impaired. Secondly, as a drink. For 
instance, several salts and acids, also insoluble powders, as red bale. 
But here, likewise, a difficulty becomes apparent. The horse, from an 
absence of thirst in certain diseases, drinks little or nothing, so that 
the medicine is not taken in the quantity desired. Thirdly, as an 
infusion or potion. This form deserves to be more fully considered, 
as many horses have been lost in consequence of potions being admin- 
istered. If, for instance, a horse is suffering from colic, a potion is 
usually given, sometimes several of them, and even veterinary surgeons 
resort, especially in this case, to infusions through the mouth. Though 
it is known that the infusion is not wholly without danger, because 
part of the liquid might easily get in the windpipe, yet the injury that 
may result is not sufficiently considered, even by many surgeons. 

The application of infusions, especially in colics, has been recom- 
mended, because a rapid remedy is desired, which is most likely to be 
attained by mixing the medicine with a certain quantity of liquids, 
and bringing it thus immediately in connection with a large surface 
of the stomach and the bowels. Though these advantages are not to 



200 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

be denied, yet the incidental injuries are of so serious a nature tliat it 
becomes the duty of a surgeon to consider the propriety of giving in- 
fusions, when an electuary could be conveniently substituted. This is 
a medicinal jelly, to be spread on the tongue of the horse, for swal- 
lowing. The stomach always contains a certain quantity of humidity, 
serving to thin the electuaries, so that they will very soon show their 
effects, though perhaps not quite so rapidly as an infusion. Vv''hen I 
commenced my practice in veterinary medicine, some thirty years ago, 
I had often to treat horses suffering from colic. I always administered 
infusions, adapted to the circumstances of the case, giving them my- 
self, and using the utmost precaution. A cure usually resulting, I 
saw no reason to abandon this mode of treatm^ent. Yet, in the course 
of time, I lost three patients of this sort. They were cured of colic, 
it is true, but the day following, or somewhat later, an inflammation 
of the lungs ensued, causing the death of the horse. At that time I 
did not see clearly enough the connection existing between colics and 
inflammation of the lungs ; still, I refrained from that moment from 
applying similar infusions, and have not made use of them for the last 
twenty-five years. 

In many books, otherwise reliable, it is stated that colics of the horse 
are frequently followed by inflammation of the lungs — an observation 
perfectly correct ; but the cause and effect of this symptom, which, on 
infusions being avoided, is of rare occurence, have neither been ex- 
plained nor even anticipated. 

It has been said that well-informed veterinary surgeons know very 
well the danger often connected with giving infusions, but none of 
them had ever, by direct experiments, disseminated a clear under- 
standing on this subject until Mr. Giinther, Director of the Veterinary 
School at Hanover^ did so. Yet it is to be regretted that his investi- 
gations have not come to the knowledge of every owner of horses. As 
long as horses were cured, infusions were principally applied, and this 
has been the practice for a long time, j)ei"haps as far back as history 
reaches. 

Buttermilk given to horses for medicinal purposes has proved fatal, 
and hence originated the belief that it was poisonous to them — a belief 
which prevailed in many parts of the country, if not among surgeons, 
yet to a great extent among the people. Mr. Giinther' s experiments, 
however, demonstrated in what really consisted its poisonous quality. 

Seven and a half pounds of buttermilk were administered to a 
healthy horse, as an infusion, through its mouth. The animal^ imme- 
diately after, became restless, breathed heavily, opened violently and 
wide his nostrils, and exhibited, in the course of the day, symp- 
toms of a severe inflammation of the lungs. The attacks, gradually 
increasing in violence, killed the horse in forty hours. On examina- 
tion, the lungs were found to be inflamed, but the stomach and bowels, 
together vv^ith all other parts of the body, were in a healthy condition. 
To another, six and a half pounds were given, through a leather pipe, 
into his stomach. The animal continued, in every respect, healthy, 
and after being purposely killed, at the expiration of fifty-four hours, 
no disease was discovered in any part. 

From both these experiments it is evident : first, that buttermilk ia 



MEDICINES TO DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 201 

not poisonous for horses, if it goes into their stomachs ; secondly, 
buttermilk may produce a fatal inflammation of the lungs, if the 
horse, on its being administered through his mouth, swallows it in a 
way that part of it enters the windpipe and the lungs themselves. 

The stomach only is destined for the reception of solid and liquid 
substances, the lungs being capable of enduring, without injury, none 
but the delicate food of the atmosphere. 

Mr, Giinther made an opening into the windpipe of the horse, tlms 
bringing eight ounces of buttermilk through the windpipe into the 
lungs. Immediately after, the horse became restless, dropping its 
head, and tripping with its feet ; it breathed rapidly, did not lie down 
during the night following, refrained from eating, and exhibited all 
the symptoms which were observed after the first infusion through 
the mouth ; consequently, a portion of buttermilk had entered the 
lungs. After a lapse of thirty-eight hours the animal was killed, 
when the lungs were found to be inflamed, though all the other 
organs were in a healthy condition — corresponding with the first ex- 
periment. 

Not only buttermilk, however, may create an inflammation of the 
lungs, on being administered as an infusion through the mouth, but 
every other liquid, even tepid water, may have the same fatal result. 

Again, a horse received eight ounces of oil of turpentine through an 
opening into the windpipe. Immediately after, it began trembling 
and staggering, opened rapidly and wide its nostrils, breathed fast, 
&c. On its body being opened, the lungs were found to be swollen 
and inflamed, as in former experiments. 

Another horse received two pounds of brandy as an infusion through 
his mouth. Soon he began coughing, breathing rapidly, &c. This 
case was observed for twenty-two days. He recovered to some extent, 
and ate tolerably, but coughed much, had a quick pulse, looketl always 
melancholy, and grew lean. On opening the body, the lungs were 
found to be inflamed, all the other parts being healthy. A portion of 
the brandy had evidently gone the wrong way, that liquor not being 
injurious to a horse when in the stomach itself. 

An ounce of oil of turpentine, and a like quantity of linseed oil, 
were administered to another horse^ through an opening of the wind- 
pipe. He forthwith began staggering in his walk, trembled, threw 
himself on the floor, and sprang uj) again immediately; but after six 
or eight hours became more quiet, took a little food, coughed, and, in 
the course of the six days following, exhibited only a quick pulse, 
coughed often, and did not lie down, seeming otherwise not to be very 
sick. Six days and a half after the infusion was given, the horse was 
killed. Part of the lungs was found to be inflamed and obdurated. 
This case proves that even a small quantity of an extraneous liquid, 
penetrating into the lungs, is capable of producing a dangerous con- 
dition. How easy is it for such a small quantity to get into the wind- 
pipe, when given as an infusion ! Even when the horse does not fall 
immediately, the consequences may still be pernicious. 

The application of two ounces of brandy through an opening of the 
windpipe was accompanied by the same bad effects as in the former 
experiment. 



202 AGRICULTUEAL REPORT. 

Another horse received three-fourths of a pound of well water inta 
the windpipe. Much of the liquid was ejected by coughing, hut he 
continued to cough, and grew lean, though eating heartily. When 
he was killed, some sixteen days after, parts of the lungs were found 
to he obdurated, and therefore inflamed. Such is the delicacy of the 
lungs, that they are not even capable of enduring water without 
injury. 

Examining why infusions, chiefly as to the horse, may become so 
dangerous, Mr. Glinther arrives at the following conclusions: The 
horse, in consequence of his head being forcibly raised, is frightened, 
and in this involuntary position must feel but little disposed to swal- 
low ; he is averse to receiving a liquid which he usually finds disagree- 
able ; in consequence of the coughing caused by the operation of giving 
the infusion, the flap of his throat is opened, through which some 
matter might easily get into the windpipe thus exposed ; the danger 
is further increased, if the entire space of the mouth be at once filled 
with the infusion ; and the pulling out of the tongue, which is a com- 
mon practice, renders deglutition more difiicult, of course increasing 
the probability of a portion taking the wrong course. Should he 
be suffering at the time from inflammation of the lungs or throat, the 
infusion will be so much more dangerous. 

In consequence of the results of these and other experiments, the 
practice of giving infusions has been banished from the Veterinary 
School at Hanover, and most of the veterinary surgeons throughout 
the kingdom, ranking among the best in their profession, have also 
discontinued it. 

It may be replied, by some, and even surgeons among them, that 
they often administered potions without having experienced any inju- 
ries — an assertion perhaps correct to some extent ; but injuries have 
doubtless been done, even without the operators being aware of them. 
There are frequent cases in which an infusion will not immediately 
result in a serious disease, and after the horse has been relieved of his 
original sufferings, the owner is satisfied. Yet, if coughing should 
continue, perhaps for months, if the animal should have a bad breath, 
and if he should grow lean, some persons may attribute such symp- 
toms of lung disease to other causes than the true one — the infusions 
formerly given. It is^, nevertheless, true, and many horses having so 
called "rotten lungs," owe them to infusions, even if they had been 
given long ago. If I may be allowed to draw inferences from my 
own experience, I must contend that infusions are, in most cases, fatal, 
and always dangerous. 

That infusions given through the nose are far more dangerous than 
those through the mouth, is self-evident. It often happens that the 
horse thus treated will suffocate on the spot, and generally will die, 
sooner or later, of disease of the lungs. Yet, though_ this practice 
may not always be followed by fatal consequences, it will in the ma- 
jority of cases, as my own experience would prove. 

In fatal cases through either of these modes of administering infu- 
sions, I always found the pituitary membrane of the flap of the throat, 
of the windpipe, and even that of the lungs, to a great extent to be 
bluish-red, but more frequently very dark-yellow, almost blackish. 



MEDICINES TO DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 203 

Aside from tlie evil consequences resulting from infusions, there are 
unavoidable inconveniences. Several persons are required to perform 
the operation, a portion of the medicine is apt to be lost or wasted, so 
that the quantity contemplated does not get into the stomach ; the 
bottle is liable to be broken by the teeth, so that there is danger of the 
horse swallowing some of the glass ; and the clothes of the persons 
engaged are more or less soiled. That infusions in diseases of the 
organs of respiration are a great deal more dangerous, has already 
been mentioned ; but they must be absolutely censured in cases of 
tetanus, swollen tongue, inflammation of the brain, &e. 

Fourthly, in the form of electuaries: These are prepared by converting 
the medicinal substances, for the most part powder, into a paste, by 
means of some agglutinant and cold water. Formerly, it was almost a 
general custom to employ honey, sirup, elderberry-jam, or some other 
sweet substance ; but at present flour is preferred, inasmuch as these 
sweet substances cause the electuaries to be rather expensive, and also 
impart a tendency, in warm weather, to ferment and become acid. In 
some cases, for instance, inflammation of the throat, or lock-jaw, honey 
may still be used, as the animal will be more inclined to swallow the 
electuaries when seasoned by this addition. 

Almost every medicinal substance, liquid as well as powder, maybe 
made into jellies, or electuaries. Thus, if it be desired to prepare oil 
of turpentine, it is first mixed with the powder, receiving afterward 
some flour and water, so that it becomes a jelly simply by being stirred. 
Eye-flour is best for this purpose; but wheat-flour, or even groats, may 
be used. In the latter case, the jelly is less convenient to administer. 
The amount of flour is not a matter of importance, as adaptability 
alone should be considered, the quantity being proportioned to the 
amount of the medicine itself. If there are many salts, for instance, 
Glauber's, more flour will be required than if the medicine were to 
consist of powders made of seeds, roots, orVorts. Some electuaries, 
after standing, become too thin, on account of the salts being dissolved, 
in which case they should be mixed with the requisite quantity of flour. 
Again, if powders are employed, the electuaries gradually become too 
stiff and crumbling, when water should be added. By flour or water, 
according to circumstances, the electuaries may always be given the 
form desired. A proper consistency would be such that the jelly will 
not flow off the spatula, below described, nor fall when the instrument 
may be reversed. Any person may prepare the jellies, after having 
X3rocured the requisite medical substances. 

The jelly may be applied with the hand upon the horse's tongue, 
which should be pulled to some extent out of his mouth. A preferable 
mode, however, is by means of a wooden spatula, the blade of which 
should be from two to two and a half inches long by one and a half 
wide. 

In administering the jellies, one person places himself at the left 
side of the horse, and seizes the halter with the noseband, so as to hold 
ts head steady; or this object may be accomplished by one hand 
taking hold of the back of the nose, while the lower jaw is kept by the 
other. A second person, standing on the right side, draws out with 
his left hand the tongue of the horse, and with the spatula applies the 



204 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

jelly to the back part of it, when the tongue is immediately set free. 
The horse commences a chewing movement, endeavoring, in this man- 
ner, to get rid of the disagreeable medicine; in which, however, he 
does not succeed, as he cannot spit. In consequence of the chewing, 
&c., a great deal of saliva is produced in the mouth, thus thinning 
the jelly; and shortly after he is seen to swallow. Should both his 
mouth and tongue remain still, the broad end of the spatula is brought 
across the fore-part of the mouth and turned like a twirling stick, by 
which he is forced to chew and swallow. It is not necessary to hold 
up the head of the horse after the performance, for if the jelly is well 
prepared it will adhere to the tongue. 

By the application of jellies, almost every other form of medicine 
may be dispensed with, and all danger avoided. But little practice 
will be necessary to perform the operation well. For a series of years, 
I have been in the habit of using this mode almost exclusively, finding 
that my patients do better than with infusions. 

Fifthly, as pills. With the exception of jelly, this is the best form of 
medicine. The horse receiving the pill, which is not chewed, wholly 
and without loss into his stomach, the doses to be applied can always 
be given accurately^ which is of great importance, especially where a 
powerful effect is desired. Even the most disagreeable medicine must 
be swallowed, when administered in the shape of pills. They are 
usually made of several substances, which, by means of an aggluti- 
nant, such as flour, black soap, &c., can be readily formed, v/ithout 
adhering to the hands or changing their shape. This should be oval, 
of about three-fourths of an inch in diameter, from one to one and a 
half inches long. If too small, they are liable to get between the 
molar teeth ; if too large, they are apt to remain in the throat. 

To administer the pills properly, will require some practice. As the 
horse usually tries to resist, his position in the stall is reversed. Then 
his tongue is pulled out by the left hand toward the right side, and the 
pill, placed at the end of a pill-stick moderately pointed, and of the size 
of a finger, is introduced into the mouth, and deposited upon the back 
part of the tongue, after which the tongue is immediately let loose. 
Should the horse not at once swallow the pill, he should be given some 
water to drink, or a light slap on his mouth, in consequence of which 
he will be scared, and thus swallow it. Precaution should be used, 
not to injure with the stick the palate or other portions of the back of 
the mouth. 

It is better to give these pills merely with the hand. The tongue 
is pulled out, as above, the pill is taken between the tips of the fingers 
of the right hand, and, by moving it along the palate, brought upon 
the back part of the tongue, which is immediately let loose, care being 
taken to prevent injury to the operator from the molar teeth of the 
animal. The hand, therefore, should be kept in the middle of the 
cavity of the mouth. 

The '^ pill-stick," a wooden instrument, similar to a syringe, is well 
adapted for giving the pills. Within a cylinder, there is a stick about 
the size of a finger, and of the same length as the tube, having a 
handle at the end. At the other end, the instrument, being thicker 
than at the longer portion, is provided with a hollow, as a convenient 



MEDICINES TO DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 2 05 

receptacle for the pill. The tongue is now pulled out, the instrument 
containing the pill introduced into the mouth, and the rod, which has 
previously heen drawn backward, is pushed in, so that the pill is forced 
into the mouth. This method is easily operated; and neither the 
horse nor the hand can be injured. To facilitate the entrance of the 
pill, it may be moistened with oil, soap, or even with water. 

In some diseases, pills do not seem to be applicable, for instance, in 
colic, as they require too long a time to dissolve in the stomach. What 
duration may be necessary to reduce them to a liquid state, I do not 
know ; neither am I aware that any experiments have been made on 
the subject. 

In case the pills become old, and therefore hard, they should not be 
given, for it is to be feared that they may not sufficiently dissolve, but 
pass off undigested. 

Beside these, there are several other modes of administering medi- 
cines; thus, liquids may be given by opening an artery, or by insert- 
ing an elastic tube through the mouth and throat immediately into the 
stomach. None of these latter methods should be attempted, how- 
ever, by the unprofessional operator. 

Cattle. — With this species of animals there is no difficulty, nor is 
there scarcely any danger in giving medicines ; which, as in the case 
of the' horse, may be administered in different forms: 

As powder, they may be given when mixed with crushed tubers^ 
among malt dust, groats, oats, &c.; or, as a mixture, with the drink. 
Here, too, as was remarked of the horse, this method is rarely em- 
ployed, for substances of an intense odor or taste are usually refused. 
Some liquids are taken, for instance, vinegar and other acids, if mixed 
with their drinking water. Pills and electuaries are rarely given to 
cattle, and, indeed, they may be generally dispensed with. On the 
other hand, infusions deserve the preference with cattle, being quite 
the reverse as to horses. The liquid is given with a common beer or 
wine bottle. For this purpose, the mouth of the animal is raised and 
opened a little by means of the fingers, after which the neck of the 
bottle is brought in, either from the right or the left side. So simple 
is the operation that it requires no further description; yet it would 
seem to demand precaution, as a mistake committed in applying it 
might result in a disease of the lungs. If j)Ossible, the medicine 
should be given when the animal is standing, and not when lying 
down, though, in the latter case, hardly anything can be feared, if the 
necessary caution is employed. The head should be held horizontally; 
if it should incline sidewise toward the breast, the swallowing is not 
only made more difficult, but part of the liquid may be liable to get 
into the windpipe, causing coughing and perhaps still worse accidents. 
Furthermore, the mouth of the animal should not be held up too high; 
it is sufficient that the mouth be kept a little higher than the cavity 
of the throat, so as to give but a small descent for the infusion. If 
too high, a portion of the liquid may get into the windpipe. It is 
advisalDle to give a third or half the contents of the bottle, and then 
to wait until after it is fully swallowed before more should be offered. 
In inflammation of the throat and lungs, or especially in diseases of 



206 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

tlie lungs, particular attention must be paid to tlie giving of medi- 
cines, wiiicli ought always to be administered in small portions. 

Sheep. — It is still easier to administer medicines to this species of 
animals than to cattle; beside, a single sheep rarely becomes the object 
of medical treatment. To give medicines repeatedly to whole flocks 
is hardly practicable. Fortunately, the sheep seldom abhors even such 
remedies as have a bad odor or taste ; it takes them voluntarily. The 
usual form is by licking. A pulverized medicine, (sometimes with the 
addition of pine oil,) mixed with an adequate quantity of groats, oats, 
or kitchen salt, is laid before the sheep, by spreading the mixture 
a^ually in long troughs. It may occur in this mode that some of the 
sheep will lick a greater portion than they should, while others con- 
sume little or none. This is, indeed, an evil, perhaps unavoidable; 
yet there is no great reason to fear that a sheep will thus be perma- 
nently injured, as the opportunity only occurs at long intervals. If it 
be desirable to give medicine to a single sheep, it is best administered 
in the form of an infusion, or even as electuaries. Some remedies may 
also be given in drinking water. 

Swine. — Medicines, in many cases, may be given to swine in drink- 
ing water, or among the fodder. An emetic, for instance, may be 
administered within a potato made hollow, or in a dumpling. In 
doing this it is presumed that the hog has not yet lost its appetite ; in 
all other cases force must be employed. But none of our domestic 
animals show so great an opposition to compulsion as the hog. Its 
violent screaming on being taken hold of, and during the performance 
of the operation, increases the liability of a portion of the medicine to 
get into the windpipe, thus causing all the incident evils. 

The medicine should be made into an electuary by means of flour, 
adding honey so as to make it agreeable to the hog. This jelly should 
always be thinner than that destined for the horse, its consistency 
being about that of sirup. A small spatula should be used, by which 
to spread it on the tongue and palate. In many cases it is hardly 
avoidable to give liquids, when great difiiculty is experienced, but it 
must be overcome as well as possible. To secure the hog, requires the 
assistance of several resolute persons. The animal is shoved with his 
hind-part into a corner, where it must be kept tight, and if possible 
placed on the hind-part. A cudgel is then brought, in an oblique di- 
rection, into its mouth, which is opened in consequence of its scream- 
ing. By the insertion of this cudgel, (or a short, thick piece of rope,) 
the mouth of the animal is kept open. Another person then pours the 
liquid with a spoon (perhaps best of tin) into the mouth, after which 
the cudgel is immediately removed, so as to facilitate the process of 
swallowing. This operation is repeated until the quantity of medi- 
cine required has been given. In using the spoon, the interval during 
which the hog does not scream must always be taken advantage of. In 
many cases the liquid may be given in a less violent way. By con- 
tinually scratching and rubbing the back of the hog in a gentle 
manner, it will usually become quiet and lie down. During this 
soothing process, a corner of the lip is drawn backward from the cheek, 
and the liquid poured in through a thin neck of a bottle, or by a 
spoon. Pills and stiff jellies are not suitable for hogs. 



ACCLIMATION OF ANIMALS. 207 

The DOG.^Tliis animal is endowed witli such a fine sense of tasting 
and smelling that he does not willingly take a medicinal substance ; yet 
an emetic may now and then be given by putting it into cakes or meat. 
Emetics may also, in a dry state, be placed on its tongue. Pills are 
fastened at the top of a round piece of wood_, or of a quill, and thus 
inserted deeply into the mouth. Liquids are poured into the opened 
mouth, or are still more easily given by raising the nose of the dog, 
taking hold of one of the corners of the mouth, and drawing it up and 
sidewise, so that a kind of pouch is formed for pouring in the liquid, 
which will thus enter through the openings between the teeth. This 
does not require any particular precaution, as the dog will not be 
liable to swallow the liquid the wrong way. 



ACCLIMATION AND DOMESTICATION OE ANIMALS. 



BY DR. B. F. CRAIG, OF WASHINGTON, D. C. 



There is a matter of very wide interest which, like those spoken of 
in a preceding article, requires, for its successful prosecution, to be 
put in the charge of educated veterinarians ; and, as a preliminary to 
the consideration of it, I would ask leave to quote from a lecture de- 
livered by Daubenton, the celebrated collaborator of Buffon. 

"The object of veterinary science is to set forth the proper methods 
■of perpetuating among domestic animals those good qualities which 
they have acquired by means of the culture which we have bestowed 
upon them, and to endeavor to increase still further their useful char- 
acteristics. It should also aim at reducing to the domesticated con- 
dition those wild animals which promise to be of service to us by 
means of their labor, or of their useful j)roducts. 

"There are many animals of foreign countries which might be very 
useful to France, if they were once naturalized there, 

"It is as practicable to tame the zebra as to have tamed the Avild ass 
and the wild horse. If the tapir were naturalized in France it would 
furnish, not only a new kind of butcher's meat, but an additional 
article of commerce. There are many animals in America whose flesh 
is very good food, such as the peccary, the cariacou, the Guinea pig, 
the agouti, the akouchi. There are, in that country, armadillos, whose 
flesh is as white and as good as that of a sucking pig. Attempts 
should be made to introduce all these animals into France, and to re- 
duce them to the condition of domestication. 

"The investigations of veterinary economy need not be confined to 
quadrupeds, but should be extended to other classes of animals, and to 



208 AGRICULTURAL REPORT 

birds. We miglit introduce into our poultry yards the greater and 
the lesser bustard. The ruddock and the pilet, the grouse, and espe- 
cially the moor-cock, would make very good poultry.'' 

After speaking of certain other birds, he goes on: '"''Why should 
certain fishes be confined to particular seas and lakes ? Is it not prac- 
ticable to naturalize, in the running waters of France, the umber, which 
is found, at present, only in the Lake of Geneva, andthelavaret, which 
is confined to the Lake of Bourget, and to that of Aigue-Bellete, in 
Savoy. 

"I have dwelt upon the establishment of the complete veterinary 
art in order to show that^ from its relations with natural history, still 
greater benefits may be derived than are now got from its relations 
with medicine. Those animals yet untamed, or those known only in 
foreign countries, which we can justly hope to make useful to ourselves^ 
should be found out, and placed in the hands of veterinarians to be 
tamed and domesticated, and to be broken into those habits which we 
wish them to acquire." 

These paragraphs suggest considerations of greater importance than 
many would at first sight be disposed to accord to them, and open a 
subject where discussion might very well occupy an entire volume, but 
which, from its necessary connection with veterinary science, may^ 
with propriety, have its outline here given. 

Of all the arts by which man has acquired dominion over Nature, 
that of the domestication of animals is one of the most interesting and 
most important, and perhaps of all others has the most curious history. 

Other arts have been, with various periods of rest, and even of retro- 
gression, pretty constantly progressive during the period of man's 
existence upon the earth ; and at the present time we have, it has been 
remarked, with regard to most of them, not only the accumulated 
results of previous progress, but an accumulation of progressive motion^ 
which is carrying us forward, by a sort of vis momenti, in the path of 
■ improvement, each change for the better disposing us the more to seek 
for and to accept further change. 

The domestication of wild animals, which much necessarily have 
been one of the first steps of man toward civilization, seems to have 
been, at some period anterior to recorded history, carried to a certain 
pointy and to have remained almost stationary ever since, until the long 
absence of progress has made the veiy idea of progress difficult to be 
reoeived. When the natural history of the horse, of the ox, of the 
sheep, and of most other domestic animals, is examined, they are found 
to have been originally natives, not of the regions in which they are 
found now in the greatest perfection, but of the continent of Asia, 
where, in the primitive seats of the human race, they have been reduced 
to tameness, and from whence they have been carried, as companions 
of man, over the rest of the now inhabited world. Although the diifer- 
ent beasts of burden — the horse, the ass, the various species of ox, the 
camel, the East Indian bufi"alo^ and the elephant — have doubtless been 
tamed at different periods of time, yet the period at which any of them 
was first domesticated is too far back for a record of it to have been 
preserved ; and even among animals which are valuable only for their 
flesh, or for their skins and fleece, hardly a species can be found which 



ACCLIMATION OF ANIMALS. 209 

lias been domesticated in modern times. Nor have tlie advantages, 
often not inconsiderable, that a country derives from the wild animals 
suitable for food which are found within it, been much improved on by 
artificial means, although such beasts, birds, and fishes, require little 
care beyond that attending their first transplantation. 

That there are no animals capable of useful domestication except 
those which have been tamed by our ancestors, is hardly to be imagined, 
whether we form our opinion from a general view of the subject, or 
from a closer examination of facts. It is quite certain that there are 
those now domesticated which may, with great propriety, be carried 
to places in which they are, as yet, unknown ; and, finally, it seems 
highly probable and reasonable that man may assist Nature in effecting 
the distribution of wild animals over the surface of the earth, and may 
bring about the general spread of the valuable, as well as the extermi- 
nation of the noxious species. 

The agitation of the question of the acclimation and domestication 
of new animal species, by Daubenton, Buffon, and others, has been 
followed by some advances in later times. In 1849, a report was made 
to the Minister of Agriculture of France, by Mons. J. Geoffroy St. 
Hilaire, upon the naturalization of useful animals, which was published, 
and produced the effect of calling increased attention to the subject. 
In 1854, a more extended work on the subject was published by the 
above-mentioned eminent savan^ and the same year saw the establish- 
ment, in France, of the Zoological Society of Acclimation. 

This society has been distinguished from its very commencement 
for the activity and the success of its operations ; and, while we must 
expect many years to pass before the fruits of its labors can be reaped, 
there can be little doubt but that it will, in the course of time, contribute 
greatly to the prosperity of the human race, and to the true glory of 
the country in which it had its origin. An idea of the character of its 
labors may, perhaps, best be communicated by giving an account of a 
few of the objects toward which the attention of its members has been 
directed. 

The introduction into Europe of useful animals, already domesticated 
in other parts of the world, would naturally be one of the first enter- 
prises; and among such animals those of the llama tribe of South 
America, which includes the llama proper, the alpaca, and the vicuiia, 
have particularly engaged the attention of i^aturalists. 

These animals, which are the only beasts of burden indigenous to 
the American continent, inhabit the lofty table-lands of the Andes, 
where they breathe a highly rarifiecl atm.osphere, often endure intense 
cold, and live on a very scanty vegetation. They are valued by the 
people of Peru, and of the neighboring countries, for carrying burdens, 
for their milk, for their flesh, their skin, and their fleece; this latter, 
and especially that of ihe alpaca, is not only in use for domestic 
manufacture in the countries in which it is produced, but is also, as is 
well known, a very important article of commerce. The acclimation 
of the llama and alpaca, elsewhere than on their native soil, seems to 
be opposed by a peculiar obstacle, arising from the fact that not only 
is the temperature of the air in which they live altered by their trans- 
plantation, but also its condition as to density, so that the most appro- 
14 A 



210 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

priate course would seem to be to plant a colony of tliem on some lofty 
mountain or table-land, whence they might gradually spread downward 
into the adjoining plains. Experience, however, has shown that the 
pliability of the animal constitution enables the llama to thrive well 
in several European countries to which it has been carried, even in the 
low plains of Holland. 

The naturalization of the llama in Europe was strongly recommended 
by Buffon, and many animals have already been introduced in private 
parks and menageries. It may, however, be reserved for the Society 
of Acclimation to distribute them to a usei\il extent. 

An animal which resembles the llama in the character of the country 
of which it is a native, and in the variety of the uses to which it may 
be put, is the yak, of Tartary and Thibet, otherwise known as the 
horse-tailed ox, or the grunting ox, the Bos Posphagos of ^Elian. 
This peculiar species of ox is found among the lofty peaks and plateaus 
of the Himalayas, in certain parts of Tartar}^, and in the north of 
China. It is called by the Chinese the washing ox, from its fondness 
for entering the water. 

The yak combines in itself many of the characteristics of diiferent 
classes of animals. It has the general form of the ox; in some points 
of its configuration, in the character of its tail, in its gait, and by its 
swiftness, it resembles the horse ; it has the fleece of the sheep; the 
sure-footedness and activity of the goat; and, lastly, the voice of the 
pig, or rather a deep grunt resembling that of the pig, whence, doubt- 
less, its name of yak. The yak supplies the place of all the above- 
mentioned animals in countries where hardly any other domestic 
animal is known ; it is used under the saddle, employed to carry bur- 
dens, and to draw the plow and the cart, is valued as a source of milk, 
for its abundant fleece, out of which a serviceable and water-proof 
cloth is spun, and for its flesh when dead. 

The tail of the yak is particularly noticeable for its size and beauty, 
and has, in certain Asiatic countries, a symbolic importance attached 
to it as an emblem of power and grandeur. The yak-tail was the 
ancient standard of Turkish chiefs and kings, although, by the migra- 
tion of that people westward, the name of the emblem has been changed 
to the horse-tail, those by whom it is now used never having seen, and 
perhaps never having heard of, the animal which their forefathers 
honored so much. 

About the time of the establishment of the Society of Acclimation, 
a troop of yaks was sent to France by Mons. de Montigny, the French 
consul at Shanghai, who had them brought to him from the northern 
parts of the Chinese empire. On their arrival in Europe, some of them 
were sent, under the charge of the Society of Acclimation, to the 
most cold and mountainous regions of France, where they are said to 
be doing remarkably well. 

While thus bringing about the introduction of the domestic animals 
of foreign countries into Europe, the society has not left unattempted 
the great enterprise of the taming of animals never before broken to 
human uses. The most favorable subjects for such attempts are to be 
looked for among those genera of animals, some species of which have 
been already domesticated. Now, the horse genus consists of six spe- 



ACCLIMATION OF ANIMALS. 211 

cies, tliree of wliicli are natives of Africa, and three of Asia. None 
of the African species have been domesticated, while the Asiatics have 
tamed two out of the three found on tlieir continent, namely, the horse 
proper, and the ass. Very recently a new animal has been brought 
from Asia, which is held to be another and distinct species of the horse 
genus. Passing over, for the present, the African species, we find the 
yet untamed animal of the Asiatic steppes to deserve, and to have 
received, particular attention from those having in view the domestica- 
tion of new races. This, the Equus Hemionus of naturalists, the 
dzigguetai of the Tartars, has been but little known until recent years. 
It is a denizen of barren plains, where it gleans a sustenance from 
scattered patches of vegetation, passing with great swiftness from one 
place to another in search of food and water. It is w^ary and timid, 
and its great fleetness, in which, according to the testimony of Pallas, 
and of others, it surpasses all other quadrupeds, secures it from beasts 
of prey and enables it easily to outstrip the horses and dogs of the 
hunter. 

The Tartars, wdio are fond of its flesh, sometimes kill it by ambush 
and stratagem, and sometimes secure it by surrounding it by a circle 
of hunters, after the Asiatic fashion. The form of the Hemionus is 
strikingly characteristic of an animal made for swift running, having 
the various points of figure which distinguish the racing or blooded 
horse, a figure which is produced in the horse by the efforts of art and 
by careful breeding, but which belongs to the Hemionus by Nature. 
Among such points may be mentioned, the large angle formed at the 
junction of the head and neck, which, by avoiding an abrupt bend in 
the air passages, enables the breath to be drawn with greater ease and ' 
rapidity than it could be otherw^ise ; the horizontal position of the neck, 
which throws the center of gravity of the body well forAvard while in 
the act of running ; the long and straight body, somewhat higher 
before than behind ; the powerful haunches and the flat limbs, in which 
the tendons are large in proportion to the bones. 

The Hemionus is supposed to be the animal which, under the name 
of the wild ass, is spoken of in the following terms in th6 Book of 
Job: "Whose house I have made the wilderness, and the barren land 
his dwellings. The range of the mountains is his pasture, and he 
searcheth after every green thing. ^' 

It is, of course, somewhat difficult to capture alive an animal of such 
exceeding swiftness, and which keeps far aloof from the habitations 
of man; nevertheless, through the influence of the French consul at 
Bombay, a few of them have been taken in the deserts of the north- 
western part of Hindoostan, and sent to France, where they have been 
found to be quite docile as well as hardy. 

An animal which occupies a much humbler position in the scale of 
creation than any of the foregoing, but whose apparently insignificant 
labors are nevertheless of great importance to man, has attracted con- 
siderable attention from the Society of Acclimation. Beside the silk- 
worm of the mulberrry, or morus multicaulis, there exist in Eastern 
Asia species which live on the leaves of various other trees, such as the 
oak, the chestnut, the ricimcs communis or palma Christi, &g. It has 
been thought highly desirable to introduce into France, silk-worms 



212 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

that can be fed on the leaves of plants which are now abundant, and 
much progress is said to have been already made toward the naturali- 
zation there of those of the oak and of the ricinus communis. 

The deficiency of animal food among the population of France has 
induced the Society of Acclimation to aim at the introduction of 
various animals whose flesh is suitable for human use. Some of these 
it is proposed to domesticate, and others to naturalize in a wild state, 
particular endeavors being made to select those animals which would 
inhabit places not suitable for cultivation, and live on vegetation which 
is not used by man nor consumed by other species of game. 

The variety of animals which it has been proposed to acclimate for 
■ such purposes is, as may be expected, very great, and some of these 
possess interesting peculiarities of structure or of character. The 
South American tapir is a quadruj)ed of considerable size, which resem- 
bles the hog, by its general form and by its tendency to fatten, while 
its proboscis, which enables it to feed on small trees and under-brush, 
assimilates it to the elephant. The tapir has been domesticated in 
Brazil, and used for burdens, being able to carry more than a mule, 
and being found to be a very docile and manageable animal. State- 
ments as to the character of its flesh differ. 

There are found in South America several small quadrupeds, inhab- 
itants of woods, marshes, and pamj^as, which, it is thought, might be 
introduced with similar places elsewhere, especial value being set upon 
those which are allied to the hare and rabbit. 

Among the many species of antelope which inhabit southern Africa, 
are some of great size and of excellent flesh, such as the eland, or Bose- 
laplius orcas, which has been introduced into England, and which it 
has been proposed to keep and fatten in parks and forests. 

We find in Knight's English Encyclopedia the following remarks 
concerning this animal: "The eland is a large, heavy animal, which, 
when full grown, weighs from seven to nine hundredweight, and, 
contrary to the usual rule observed among antelopes, is commonly ex- 
tremely fat. Its flesh is consequently more praised than that of any 
other wild animal of south Africa, and the large muscles of the thighs, 
in particular, are held in the highest estimation, when dried and cured, 
under which form they are denominated thigh tongues. The charac- 
ter of this animal is very mild, and, as it were, predisposed to domes- 
tication; it is gregarious, and lives in large herds upon the open 
plains and low hills, the old males generally residing apart. 

"They are so gentle that a man on horse-back may penetrate into 
the middle of the herd without alarming them, and pick out the fat- 
test and best conditioned; and, as the old bulls are commonly chosen, 
on account of their greater size and weight, it not unfrequently hap- 
pens that the herd is left altogether without a male." 

Mr. Livingstone says: "Our party was well supplied with eland 
flesh, during our passage through the desert; and, it being superior 
to beef, and the animal as large as an ox, it seems strange it has not 
yet been introduced into England." After having penetrated some 
distance into the interior of southern Africa, Mr. Livingston found 
a new variety of the eland, with whose beauty and fine proportions he 
was much impressed. The engraving of it, published in the account 



ACCLIMATION OF ANIMALS. 213 

of liis travels, represents it as having, in a very marked degree, tliat 
rectangular outline of body whicli, it has been remarked, is the con- 
figuration most to be desired in animals destined for food, since it gives 
the greatest amount of flesh within the smallest surface. 

Sir Cornwallis Harris remarks of the eland: "In shape and gen- 
eral appearance, he resembles a gazerat ox, not unfrequently attaining 
the height of nineteen hands at the withers, and absolutely weighing 
from fifteen hundred to two thousand pounds. By all classes in Atrica, 
the flesh of the eland is deservedly esteemed over that of any other 
animal. 

"Both in grain and flavor it resembles beef, but is far better tasted 
and more delicate, possessing a pure game flavor, and exhibiting the 
most tempting looking layers of fat and lean, the surprising quantity 
of the former ingredient, with which it is interlarded, exceeding that 
of any other game quadruped with which I am acquainted. The ven- 
ison fairly melts in the mouth ; and, as for the brisket, that is abso- 
lutely a cut for a monarch. During the greater part of our journey, 
it was to the flesh of this goodly beast that we principally looked for 
our daily rations, both on account of its vast superiority over all other 
wild flesh, and from the circumstance of its being obtainable in larger 
quantitities with comparatively less labor," 

Passing over many valuable quadrupeds, from various parts of the 
world, we find, among birds, and especially among those of southern 
and tropical countries, quite a number which promise to be of value, 
if acclimated and domesticated. Such are the hocco, a handsome bird, 
more resembling the turkey than any other domestic fowl ; the Egypt- 
ian goose, already a domestic bird, and prized for the beauty of its 
plumage, as well as for its more substantial qualities ; and a variety 
of other species. 

The most remarkable, however, of all the feathered tribe, seems to 
be the golden-breasted agami, of South America, a bird whose sagacity 
and domestic habits are represented as being more like those of the 
most intelligent quadrupeds, than those belonging to any other ani- 
mal of its own class. It is said to take the same care of a flock of 
other birds that a shepherd's dog does of sheep, and to evince, like the 
dog, great attachment to its master and watchfulness of his premises. 
Concerning this bird, St. Hilaire writes : "The useful services which the 
agami is capable of rendering, have been long since pointed out. It 
is a bird, say Daubenton and Bernardin de St. Pierre, that has the 
instinct and the fidelity of the dog ; it will lead a flock of poultry, or 
even a flock of sheep, by whom it will make itself obeyed, although it 
is not larger than a chicken. It is not less useful in the poultry-yard 
than in the field ; it maintains order there, protects the weak against 
the strong, stands by young chickens and ducks, and divides among 
them their food, from which it keeps away others, and will not even 
touch itself. No animal, perhaps, is more easily taught^ or naturally 
more attached to man. But we have not been able to obtain, in this 
cold climate, (Paris,) the reproduction of this valuable species. Ex- 
periments made in the south of France would doubtless succeed bet- 
ter." The observations on the habits of the agami, the results of 



214 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

which are above given, have heen made, not onl}^ in its native country, 
but also in the menagery at Paris. 

Birds are of service to man, not only by reason of the flesh, the 
eggs, and the feathers which they produce, but also by destroying 
noxious reptiles and insects. There are certain birds in Africa which 
feed upon serpents, and it is proposed to acclimate one species of such, 
the secretary bird, in the French colony of Martinique, which is infested 
by poisonous snakes, more especially by the lance-headed viper. 

The destruction of insects by birds is a matter of great importance 
to the agriculturist, and where insect-eating birds are few, insects 
injurious to vegetation multiply to an enormous extent. A large num- 
ber of sparrows are said to have been carried from England to one of 
her Australian colonies, with the view of acclimating there a race that 
would protect the crops from ravage. 

The transplantation of fishes from one place to another was advo- 
cated by Daubenton, and by others, especially by Lacepede, the author 
of "The Natural History of Fishes;" and when we consider the excel- 
lence of the flesh of certain fishes, and the great numbers of them 
which lakes and rivers may, by proper management, be made to sup- 
port, no class of animals would seem more deserving of such care. 
The attention paid in France to these subjects has, within a few years, 
led to the establishment of what is now very well known as the art of 
fish cultivation, or pisciculture, it having been found that, with a little 
care and expense, fish can be raised from the spawn in almost indefinite 
numbers. Lakes and rivers have, by means of this art, been restocked 
with species that had been almost entirely destroyed in them, and 
enriched by the introduction of new ones. Those fish which, like the 
salmon, inhabit the sea, but enter rivers at certain periods, will, if 
taken care of until of a sufficient size, and then turned loose into the 
river, seek the sea, and return to the same river the next year, having 
acquired in the meantime a very greatly increased bulk. 

Thus, the fish cultivator turns his swarm out to fatten in the ocean, 
as well assured of their return in due time as a shepherd is of the 
coming back of his flock to their nightly fold. 

More lately still, it has been discovered that the ova of oysters may 
be collected in large numbers on branches of trees, &c., which are 
placed in the water above the oyster beds, and that the embryos, which 
have thus been saved from being floated away and lost, may be trans- 
planted to new beds, where they will rapidly increase in size and mul- 
tiply in numbers. 

The Society of Acclimation has given incidental attention to the 
introduction of new vegetables, and what it has done with regard to 
the Chinese sugar-cane, and other plants, has produced great practical 
results more rapidly than could be expected in the care of animals, the 
growth and multiplication of which is so much slower ; but its labors 
in the vegetable kingdom are irrelative to our present subject. 

The naturalization of foreign animals, which is a very useful and 
praiseworthy enterprise in France, would be one still more so in a 
country which offers so vast a field for the support of animal life as 
does our own, and which possesses a range of climate and a variety of 
soil so great that almost any animal might find somewhere in it an 



ACCLIMATION OF ANIMALS. 215 

appropriate habitation. It is no valid objection to the introduction of 
a new animal species to say that those already possessed are equally 
or more valuable, for one animal does not necessarily displace another, 
nor are we called upon to make a choice between them ; if wild, the 
one often lives on nourishment which would not be made use of by the 
other, and inhabits places which the other would not frequent ; if tame, 
each is found to be the better adapted for certain uses, or for living in 
certain places. There is no species of our domestic animals which we 
would be willing to part Avith for the sake of bestowing more undivided 
attention on those that would be left ; and as we have at present no 
animal, however humble, which does not possess a value, may we not 
expect that those hereafter to be introduced or domesticated will also 
find their apj)ropriate uses. Nor is the idea, entertained by some, that 
each animal is fitted only for the soil and the climate to which it is 
indigenous, and cannot retain its health and vigor after being carried 
to a strange land, borne out by an examination of facts. The camel 
is originally, as far as can be ascertained, the native of a cold and 
mountainous country, and recent travelers have found it carrying bur- 
dens over the frozen plains and through the tremendous mountain 
passes of Thibet; but the same species, acclimated from time imme- 
morial in Arabia and Africa, endures the fiercest rays of a tropical 
sun. 

Horses are to be found in all climates, from Siberia to the Sahara, 
and if any difference in the quality of horses of different climates 
exists, it is rather in favor of that which is most unlike their original 
one. Whatever other animals man has thought fit to carry with him 
from one place to another exhibit a similar power of acclimation. 
Not that races can be suddenly removed from one extreme of climate 
to another, without risk of perishing, or that the individual animals 
who are subjected to a removal involving a considerable change always 
do well ; on the contrary, of all transported, perhaps only afev/, whose 
constitutions are well adapted for the new condition of things, survive ; 
but these become the progenitors of an acclimated, or naturalized, race, 
who perpetuate among themselves a fitness for that particular climate ; 
so that, if out of a great number tried, only two are found who survive 
the transportation and to reproduce their species, their offspring may 
do well and multiply rapidly in the new location. 

In this manner human agency may acclimate animals in countries 
to which they probably would not have gone in their wild state, even 
if the way had been open to them, the acclimated race being a true 
variety of the animal produced by breeding from certain peculiar 
individuals. 

The results which have thus far attended the acclimation of the ani- 
mals of the old continent on the new, give great encouragement to 
future attempts. Not only have such animals multiplied rapidly in 
the domestic condition^ but also, in some cases, in the wild state. Thus, 
on the vast pampas of South America, the horse and the ox exist wild, 
in greater numbers than on any other part of the earth, yet they are 
all sprung from the few animals which escaped from the Spaniards 
after their landing in the country. 

Most of the domestic animals of the old continent have been accli- 



216 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

mated in Nortli America witliout the least difficulty, and tlie camel, 
■which, is the last importation of that kind, bids fair to do as well as 
those which have gone before it. 

The enterprise of naturalizing foreign animals requires to be carried 
on with great judgment, both as to the species to be selected and to 
the places where they are to be first located. It is a remark made by 
an experienced naturalist, that not only are the animal species, from 
which selections may be made, more numerous in the southern than in 
the northern parts of the world, but that the acclimation of an animal 
from a warm region into a cold one is more easily accomplished than 
that of an animal from a colder into a warmer. Animals from a 
warmer climate should, therefore, other things being equal, be chosen 
in preference; and, in any country, the chief establishment for accli- 
mation should be near its most southern border, a point from whence 
animals may, as they become inured to the climate, spread northward. 
An animal from a cold climate should, however, be carried to a warmer 
with great caution ; for example, the fleece-bearing animals, from cold 
mountains and table lands^ such as the llama, the alpaca, and the yak, 
should be naturalized in the coldest and most mountainous districts 
that are readily accessible. 

A further very important care is requisite. Animals chosen for 
acclimation are often exposed to great dangers at first, from the change 
in climate and habits to which they are subjected, and this is more 
especially the case with those which have not been previously domesti- 
cated. Their death, under such circumstances, not only involves the 
loss of the trouble, and expense which may have been incurred in 
procuring them, but has a bad moral effect by discouraging a useful 
enterprise, and creating a false impression as to its feasibility. Such 
difficulties can be best met by putting the animals under the care of 
men who are acquainted, not only with their habits, but also with the 
proper means of preserving and of restoring their health. Under the 
charge of skillful veterinarians, establishments for the acclimation of 
animals might obtain them from foreign countries, watch over and 
support them during the first years of their transplanted life, and 
distribute their offspring to those places where they w^ould be useful in 
domestic service, or where they would people those regions of country 
which are unremunerative to the labors of the husbandman, or, as yet, 
unsettled b}'' him. 

The naturalization of foreign domestic animals is at the present day 
by no means an entirely neglected subject in this country ; for^ not to 
speak of other instances of progress, it is well known that Dr. Davis, 
of South Carolina, has introduced into his native State more than one 
valuable animal, and, in fact, may be said to have commenced there a 
system of acclimation. 

The domestication of wild animals is an enterprise which is closely 
connected with that of acclimation, and opens a still wider field for 
human progress. While the natural instincts of some animals are 
such as to render it practically impossible to tame them as a race, with 
many others it is very different ; and while some of those which it is 
practicable to domesticate would, perhaps, not repay the trouble of 
doing so^ there must remain many which would be exceedingly valuable. 



FISH BREEDING, 217 

On tliis point, St. Hilaire remarks: "Of tlie one hundred and forty 
thousand animal species at present known, how many does man possess 
in the domesticated condition? Forty-three ; and, furthermore, of these 
forty-three species, ten are wanting in France, and eight in all Europe. 
Can this be held to be a sufficient conquest of Nature?" 

Long ago, Buffon wrote in these terms: "We should leel from this 
example how great is the generosity of Nature toward us ; we use but 
little of the treasures which she offers, the store of which is greater 
than we can imagine. She has ^ven us the horse, the ox, the sheep, 
and all our other domestic animals, to labor for, to feed^ and to clothe 
us ; and she has yet in reserve, species which can supply to us whatever 
is yet wanting, and which only wait for us to subdue them, and to 
make them serve our wants. Men understand too little of what Nature 
can do, and of what they themselves could do with Nature. Instead 
of seeking out that which they do not yet know of, they prefer to misuse 
whatever is already known to them." 

The voice of great philosophers has thus been raised, in former as 
well as in recent times, to call mankind to this path of progress, and 
it would become no country more than our own to respond to the call, 
and to none has Providence given greater means of doing so with effect, 
or a greater prospect of advantage from such conquests over Nature. 



FISH EEEEDING. 



BY J. C. COMSTOCK, OF HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT. 



Fluellen. * * * There is a river in Macedon, and there is also, moreover, a river at 
Monmouth ; * « * and there is salmons in both. — King Henry V, ./3c< IV, Scene VII. 

However " goot a man in the disciplines of the wars, and in other 
particularities," the brave but pragmatical Fluellen may have been, 
his parallel between "Alexander the pig" and "Harry of Monmouth," 
certainly did not hold good in the "particularity" above quoted, since 
no river in Macedon overdid contain "salmons." The comparison 
would be still more liable to objection if made at the present day; for, 
however abundant "salmons" may have been in the Wye in the time 
of Henry V, their number in that river has now become so much dimin- 
ished that there is serious prospect of its being at last reduced to the 
salmonless condition of its Macedonian compeer, and that the actual 
truth of a parallel between them will be found in the assertion that there 
is salmons in neither.— (See London Quarterly Beview, January, 1857.) 

This assertion is, unhappily, already literally true in reference to 
most of those rivers in the eastern United States which once were fre- 
quented by salmon, and is applicable alike to the Susquehanna, the 
Delaware, the Passaic, the Hudson, the Connecticut, the Merrimac, 
and their tributaries. The same process of extinction is gradually 
going on in the rivers to the northward of them ; and even in the 
British Provinces, where, until recently, salmon have been quite 



218 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

abundant, tlieir great diminution in numbers witliin a few years past 
has excited inquiry as to its causes, and led to tbe enactment of laws 
for its prevention. 

It is not probable, liowever, that the most judicious legal regula- 
tions, even if strictly enforced, will ever have the effect of restoring 
the pojjulation of our waters to its pristine abundance. There would 
appear to be causes for its diminution which lie beyond legislation^ 
and which are inherent in the changes produced by the extension of 
human improvements over the surfac^of the earth. We find, in fact, 
that many species of animals, once numerous and important as objects 
of the chase, or as furnishing food to the earlier settlers of what are 
now densely-populated regions, have, in like manner, receded from the 
presence of advancing civilization, and are either quite extinct or 
rarely met with in the places which they formerly inhabited. 

Thus, it is j)robable that the bison once extended its range as far to 
the eastward as the Hudson river, and perhaps even into New Eng- 
land. The wapiti, or American elk, (cervus canadensis,) once an 
inhabitant of the northeastern States, and said to have been killed on 
Long Island within the past forty years, is now found east of the Mis- 
souri only in one or two isolated localities, if at all. The cougar, 
the moose, the bear, the wolf, the beaver, the wild turkey, the Vir- 
ginia deer, the pinnated grouse, have all been compelled to follow the 
same law, have, totally disappeared from many sections of country 
where the}^ were once common, and are gradually, but surely, losing 
their residence even in those more remote regions to which they have 
retreated. 

The effects of the changes produced by an increase of human popu- 
lation are not, perhaps, so soon perceptible in their operation upon the 
inhabitants of the waters ; and it is only at a comparatively recent 
date that the diminished supply of most species of fresh-water fishes 
has begun to be seriowsly felt. But it is a fact, within the notice and 
experience of every observing person, that streams and lakes in densely- 
populated districts do not now afford the supply of fish which they 
did formerly, and that this is the case even in large rivers which had, 
from time immemorial, been resorted to by migratory fishes, for the 
purpose of spawning. On all such rivers in this country the fisheries 
are yearly declining in value and importance, and upon many of them 
the occupation of the fisherman is well-nigh gone. 

The building of dams across the tributary streams, by means of which 
the fish are prevented from ascending to their proper spawning grounds ; 
the erection of mills and factories, and the consequent pollution of the 
waters by saw-dust and the refuse of chemical ingredients used in the 
different processes of manufacturing ; and the disturbance of the 
larger rivers by the passage of steamboats, may be properly reckoned 
among the proximate causes which induce the fish to desert their 
accustomed haunts. Add to this the reckless conduct of a class of 
persons who should be most solicitous for the preservation of the fish — 
that is, the fishermen themselves — who everywhere disregard all con- 
siderations of propriety and humanity in reference to time and mode 
of fishing, and it really seems a most remarkable test of the immense 



FISH BREEDING. 219 

natural fecundity of fislies^ that a sufficient number remain in these 
localities to perpetuate their species at all. 

Legislative restrictions seem entirely to have failed in checking the 
improvidence and rapacity of these men ; and the difficulty of enforcing 
even the most judicious fishing laws would appear to he insuperable. 
Of such laws, indeed, as well as of those which respect the preserva- 
tion of game, our people are exceedingly impatient, regarding them 
much in the light of sumptuary regulations, and sturdily resenting any 
interference with what has long been considered the free right of every 
man to take fish and fowl in any way, and at anytime he pleases. It 
is not too mnch, then, to say that, in every part of the country, exist- 
ing fishing acts, which are intended to regulate the time and method 
of taking fish, are almost totally disregarded, and with perfect im- 
punity. 

But there are also other reasons for the decline of our river fisheries, 
in addition to those already enumerated. Tliese lie in the gradual 
but perceptible changes which are taking place in the character of the 
rivers themselves ; and the influence which they exert upon the result 
in question is so important, and yet so little understood, that it 
should not be passed in silence here. The changes alluded to are well 
and clearly enumerated by one of our most accomplished American 
scholars^ Hon. George P. Marsh, * in the following language: "Al- 
though we cannot confidently affirm that the total quantity of water 
flowing over the beds of our streams in a year is greater or less than 
it was a century ago, or that the annual mean temperature has been 
raised or lowered, yet it is certain that, while the spring and autumnal 
freshets are more violent, the volume of water, in the dry season, is less 
in all our water-courses than it formerly was, and there is no doubt 
that the summer temperature of the brooks has been elevated. The 
clearing of the woods has been attended with the removal of many 
obstructions to the flow of water over the general, surface, as well as 
in the beds of the streams, and the consequently more rapid drainage 
of our territory has not been checked in a corresponding degree by the 
numerous dams which have been erected in every suitable locality. 
The waters which fall from the clouds^ in the shape of rain and snow, 
find their way more quickly to the channels of the brooks, and the 
brooks themselves run with a swifter current in high water. Many 
brooks and rivulets, which once flowed with a clear, gentle, and 
equftble stream through the year, are now dry, or nearly so, in the 
summer, but turbid with mud and swollen to the size of a river after 
heavy rains or sudden thaws. The general character of our water- 
courses has become, in fact, more torrential, and this revolution has 
been accompanied with great changes in the configuration of their 
beds, as well as in the fluctuating rapidity of their streams. In inun- 
dations, not only does the mechanical violence of the current destroy 
or sweep clown fish and their eggs, and fill the water with mud and 
other impurities, but it continually changes the beds and banks of the 
streams, and thus renders it difficult and often impossible for fish to 
fulfill that law of their nature which impels them annually to return 
to their breeding place to deposit their spawn. 

*Report on the Artificial Propagation of Fish, to Legislature of Vermont, 1857. 



220 ' AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

The gravelly reacli, which this year forms an appropriate place of 
deposit for eggs, and for the nutriment and growth of the fry, may 
be converted the next season into dry land, or, on the other hand, 
into a deep and slimy eddy. The fish are therefore constantly dis- 
turbed and annoyed in the function of reproduction, precisely the func- 
tion of all others which is most likely to be impeded and thwarted by 
great changes in the external conditions under which it is performed. 
Besides this, the changes in the surface of our soil and the character 
of our waters involve great changes, also, in the nutriment which Na- 
ture supplies to the fish ; and while the food appropriate for one species 
may be greatly increased, that suited to another may be as much di- 
minished. Forests, and streams flowing through them, are inhabited 
by different insects, or at least by a greater or less abundance of the 
same insects, than open grounds and unshaded waters. The young of 
fish feed, in an important measure, on the larvaa of species which, like 
the musquitOj pass one stage of their existence in the water, another 
on the land, or in the air. The numbers of many such insects have 
diminished with the extent of the forests ; while other tribes, which, 
like the grasshopper, and suited to the nourishment of full-grown fish^ 
have multiplied in proportion to the increase of cleared and cultivated 
ground. Without citing further examples, which might be indefinitely 
multiplied, it is enough to say that human improvements have pro- 
duced an almost total change in all the external conditions of pisca- 
torial life^ whether as respects reproduction^ nutriment, or causes of 
destruction, and we must of course expect that the number of our fish 
will be greatly affected by these revolutions. 

" The unfavorable influences which have been alluded to," proceeds 
Mr. Marsh, "are, for the most part^ of a kind which cannot be re- 
moved or controlled. We cannot destroy our dams, or provide artifi- 
cial water-ways for the migration of fish, which shall fully supply the 
place of the natural channels ; we cannot wholly prevent the discharge 
of deleterious substances from our industrial establishments into our 
running waters ; we cannot check the violence of our freshets, or restore 
the flow of our brooks in the dry season ; and we cannot rej^eal or mod- 
ify the laws by which Nature regulates the quantity of food which she 
spontaneously supplies to her humbler creatures." 

Taking all these circumstances into consideration, we are forced to 
the conclusion that our public fresh-water fisheries can never be restored 
to their pristine value and importance, but that they must every wltere 
gradually but surely decline. In this state of things, it becomes a 
matter of great interest to determine whether the supply of an article 
of food so wholesome, so abundant, and so cheap, as that hitherto 
afforded by these fisheries, can, in any manner or to any considerable 
extent, be still maintained by the application of enterprise and inge- 
nuity to waters under private control, and whether the multiplication 
of valuable species of fish in such waters may not become an important 
accessory to agriculture. It is true that we believe the art of piscicul- 
ture likely to be of service; and it is in this aspect that we propose to 
consider the subject at present. 

The breeding, preserving, and fattening of fish, as a branch of do- 
mestic economy, has been practiced in various methods, among various 



FTSH BREEDING. 221 

nations, from time immemorial. The Chinese are said to have carried 
on for ages a traffic in the eggs deposited by salmon, trout, sturgeon, 
and other species, at the spawning season, in places prepared for the 
purpose, in rivers frequented by these fish ; the eggs thus collected 
being sold and transported to different parts of the country, to be used 
in stocking private waters. Among the Romans the same method was 
practised, at a very early period, for peopling lakes and ponds with 
fish. At a later era, the taste of the wealthy patricians for fish-raising 
appears to have become a passion, and the enormous sums said to have 
been lavished by them upon the construction of their ponds and the 
feeding and preservation of choice varieties of fish, seem almost in- 
credible. 

During the middle ages, the kings and princes of Europe, as well 
as all the great ecclesiastical communities, maintained their artificial 
preserves, some of which were of great extent and supplied large quan- 
tities of iish. A fish-pond was an indispensable appendage to nearly 
every monastic establishment, and the priestly epicures were always 
well skilled in its management. They took care to stock their pre- 
serves with the most valuable species, which they often transported 
from distant places for this purpose. There are good reasons for sup- 
posing that the carp, the grayling, the charr, and perhaps other spe- 
cies, were in this way introduced into English waters, when England 
was Catholic. It would seem, indeed, that, in all probability, Dom 
Pinchon, a monk of the abbey of Eeome, in France, was the inventor 
of the process of artificially fecundating the eggs of fish. This method 
of performing this operation is described in a manuscript recently 
brought to light, dated in 1420, and differs little from that practiced 
at the present day. The experiments of Dom Pinchon were, however, 
never published, and the credit of the modern invention of breeding 
fish artificially unquestionably belongs to Mr, Jacobi, a G-erman gen- 
tleman who, in the year 1763, communicated to the Hanover Magazine 
an interesting account of his plan for the breeding of trout by artifi- 
cial impregnation of their ova. His invention, as he states, was the 
result of many experiments, made during a series of not less than 
forty years; and it certainly contains the substance of nearly all that 
later practitioners consider essential to success. Though the process 
of Jacobi attracted some attention among the scientific men of his 
day, and was the means of stocking some v>raters in Holland, yet it 
appears to have fallen into disuse, and to have slumbered for a long 
time among those forgotten inventions which are so often claimed as 
new discoveries by a succeeding age. 

About fifty years later than the time of Jacobi, that is, from 1830 
to 1835, a series of really accurate and scientific observations were 
made in Scotland, in reference to the habits of fish at the spawning 
season — habits upon which the whole art of artificial propagation is 
founded. These observations would appear to have been originally 
instituted by Dr. Knox, of Edinburg, who watched the process of 
spawning, in the case of the salmon, and observed the progressive de- 
velopment of the ova, and the growth of the young fishes after exclusion. 
His hints were followed up, at about the same period, by a most acute 
and patient observer, Mr. John Shaw, who devoted himself for several 



222 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

years to a series of well-managed olDservations on the natural history 
of the salmon, and the facts, clearly stated and thoroughly proved, 
which he details in regard to the time and mode of spawning, pro- 
gressive growth, migration to and from the sea, and other hahits of 
that valuable fish, will always possess the greatest interest. Similar 
observations were also made by Mr. Andrew Young and others, in the 
Scottish rivers. 

It is, however, within the past ten or twelve years, that pisciculture 
has, so to speak, taken its place among the useful arts, and been ex- 
tensively applied to economic purposes. The attention of the French 
government was called, in 1848, to the experiments of two fishermen 
of the department of the Vosges, MM. Gehin and Kemy, who had 
occupied themselves for several years in breeding trout, perch, and 
other species, with which they had succeeded in stocking many of the 
ponds and streams of their neighborhood. The subject was eagerly 
taken up by some of the most distinguished scientific men of France. 
Inquiries were instituted, reports made, an approj)riation granted by 
the government, and an institution established for the purpose of 
hatching, rearing, and transporting fish, which went into operation in 
1852, under the direction of M. Coste, a savant of distinction. Since 
then, experiments have been made, with varied success, in different 
parts of Europe, and to some extent in this country. It is not yet 
time to pronounce positively upon the value of these experiments as 
applicable to the stocking of public waters. In this country esj)ecially, 
little has, as yet, been actually accomplished in this direction, and we 
are unable to present definite and reliable results. But there is great 
encouragement to hope that the processes of pisciculture may yet be- 
come of great public benefit. 

Whatever may be the result of attempts to revive the fisheries, the 
stocking of ponds and streams under private control is not only prac- 
ticable, but requires little more than ordinary skill and care, and there 
can be no doubt that, as a matter of both profit and pleasure, it is 
worthy the attention of agriculturists. 

Having alluded to the main facts in the history of pisciculture, the 
natural method of reproduction in fishes may be described, since it is 
by imitating this method as nearly as possible that artificial propaga- 
tion is most likely to succeed. 

Fresh- water fishes, in reference to their time and mode of spawning, 
may be divided into two classes : 

1. Those which deposit their eggs in the autumn and winter, in 
water of a reduced temperature, and require a long period of incu- 
bation. 

2. Those which sj)awn in the spring and early summer, and the 
eggs of which hatch in a few days or weeks. 

The first of these classes contains some of the most beautiful and 
valuable of the inhabitants of the waters — those which belong to the 
family of the salmon and trout, including also the several species of 
shad-salmon, or white fish. Some of them migrate from the sea into 
the rivers for the purpose of spawning, as the sea salmon ; others, as 
the brook trout, perform partial migrations up the smaller streams, 
for the same purpose; while the lake trout and the white fish deposit 



FISH BREEDING. 223 

their eggs on tlie sandy shallows, near the shores of the more exten- 
sive waters which they inhabit. The operation of spawning, in the 
case of the salmon, may be briefly described as follows : 

The male and female, having paired, seek a suitable spot for the 
location of their spawning-bed, in a shallow part of the stream, where 
'the water runs over a gravelly and sandy bottom. An excavation is 
then formed, of considerable width, by the action of the snouts and 
tails of the fishes, burrowing into the gravel, against the current. 
The nest having been made sufficiently capacious, the female deposits 
in it a portion of her ova, and, dropping down the stream, her place 
is instantly supplied by the male, who emits a quantity of milt upon 
the eggs. The eggs, being thus impregnated, are partially covered by 
the loose sand and gravel brought down by the current, and a second 
bed is soon made, a little higher up the stream, in which another por- 
tion of the ova is deposited, to be fecundated in like manner. This 
process is continued from day to day, until the female has no more ova 
to deposit. The process being finished, the salmon drop down into 
some deeper pool, where they remain for a while, in order partially to 
recover from the exhausting efiects of their labors, and then return 
slowly down the river to the sea. The eggs remain until spring before 
hatching, the time required for incubation being from ninety to one 
hundred and twenty days. When first excluded from the egg, the 
little fish measures about half an incJi in length, and presents a sin- 
gular appearance. The dorsal, caudal, and anal fins are continuous, 
like those of the eel, and form a kind of fringe, running from the 
head to the tail. The yolk of the egg remains attached to the belly 
of the fish, and communicates with the intestinal canal by a passage 
through which the yolk is gradually drawn inward and digested. 
During this time the young fish needs no other nourishment, but at 
the end of about a month the yolk-sac becomes exhausted, and the 
appetite for food begins. The growth of these fishes (the salmon and 
trout) is slov7 during the first year, but more rapid during the second 
and third. 

The development of the ova in those fishes which belong to the 
second class, viz: those which spawn in the spring and summer, is 
much more rapid, and in some of them the process of spawning is 
somewhat different. Thus, the perch deposits its ova in the form of 
continuous clusters, attached to stones or water plants by a glutinous 
film, and the young are hatched in the course of two or three weeks. 
All the cyprionoid fishes (those belonging to the family of the carp, dace, 
&c.,) also spawn in the spring, and their time of incubation is equally 
short. The same may be said of the shad, of the difi'erent species of 
herring, of the pikes, pickerel, &c., and indeed of all fishes which 
spawn during the warmer months. 

The following is a list of some of the most valuable of the fishes of 
the United States which spawn in fresh water, classified with reference 
to their times of spawning : 



224 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 



AUTUMN AND WINTER. 

Sea salmon, (Salmo solar.) 
Brook trout, (Salmo fontinalis.') 
Lake trout, (Salmo confinis, &c.) 
Lake wliite fisli, (Ceregonus albus, &c.) 

SPRING AND SUMMER. 

Pickerel, (Esox reticulatus.) 
Mascalonge, (Esox estor.) 
Perch, (Perca fiavescens.) 
Pike-perch, &c., (Lucioperca Americana.) 
Striped bass, (Labrax lineatus.) 
Black bass, (Grystes nigricans, &c.) 
Eock bass, &g., (Centrarchus ceneus.) 
Shad, (Alosa prcestahilis.) 

The number of eggs deposited by a single salmon in one season has 
been estimated at from ten thousand to twenty-five thousand ; by the 
perch, two hundred thousand ; the pike, one hundred thousand. Of 
these, it is supposed that at least three quarters fail to become pro- 
ductive, being devoured by other fishes, washed down and buried in 
the mud by freshets, and exposed to many other casualties. Countless 
millions of the young also are destroyed before they become capable 
of propagating their species, and still greater numbers of the ova are 
never deposited at all, being destroyed while yet immotive, in the body 
of the parent fish, which, in most cases, is most readily captured at 
the season when it seeks its spawning grounds. The object of artificial 
breeding, then, is to secure the spawn of valuable fishes against the 
operation of these untoward contingencies, to place it in those condi- 
tions where a larger comparative proportion may become productive, 
and to preserve the young fishes from the dangers which surround 
them in their natural element. 

The processes of artificial breeding are simple and easy, but, at some 
stages, they require care and experience. The mode of impregnating 
the eggs is readily learned, with a little practice. The female fish is 
taken at a time when the sj^awn is mature, and is held over a shallow 
vessel containing a quart or so of pure water. A very slight pressure 
along the abdomen will cause the eggs, if sufiiciently mature, to fall 
into the water. If they do not come away readily, the indication is 
that they are not yet mature, and the fish should be preserved for a 
few days, when the trial may be repeated. The object is to procure 
the eggs in the exact state when they will most readily receive the 
fecundating influence of the milt of the male fish. This must be 
judged of by experience. After the female fish has been thus treated, 
the milt is obtained from the male in the same manner. If mature, 
the milt will flow readily from the fish, and will give the water a 
whitish and turbid appearance. The water should be slightly agi- 
tated — as well by the tail of the male fish as in any other way — whilo 



FISH BREEDING. 225 

the emission of the milt is taking place, so as to insure the thorough 
contact of the two elements. A little practice will enahle the operator- 
to perform this manipulation without injury to the fishes, which, after 
their supply of eggs and milt is exhausted, may he replaced in the 
pond or stream from which they were taken, and thus reserved for 
breeding a second year. The milt from a single male will he found 
sufficient to impregnate the ova of numerous females, hut the mixture 
of it with the eggs must be effected as soon as possible after their 
extension. 

The eggs, after being thus impregnated, are placed in hatching 
boxes prej3ared to receive them. These may be constructed in several 
different methods. Those used by Jacobi were wooden troughs, with 
a wire grating at either end, to keep out destructive fishes and insects, 
the bottom being covered with a layer of gravel. The eggs were 
strewed on the gravel, care being taken to place them so as not to lie 
in heaps, and the water of a running stream was conducted through 
the gratings. The apparatus of Grehin and Kemy consisted of a tin 
box, the cover and sides being pierced with holes to admit the water, 
and the bottom in like manner covered with gravel. The box and its 
contents were placed in the bed of a stream. The French savans have 
invented several improvements in the hatching apparatus, one of the 
best of which is said to be the use of willow or fine wire gratings, on 
which the eggs are placed, and which are suspended in the water by 
means of sliding rods, thus dispensing entirely with the gravel bot- 
tom, and retaining the eggs in a position where they can be more 
readily examined, and are not so liable to be injured by being piled 
together by the flow of water. 

Durin'g incubation the eggs should be inspected daily, and those 
which prove to be unimpregnated removed. These are readily distin- 
guished from the others by their greater opacity, and, if allowed to 
remain in contact with the rest, would soon spoil them. There is also 
a minute species of parasitic mildew, which is very injurious to the 
eggs, and difficult to exclude, as its spores are deposited with the 
sediment of the water. In order to prevent its ravages as far as possi- 
ble, the eggs should be daily cleansed, and the sediment prevented 
from settling on them by means of a soft hair pencil. Where it is 
practicable to do so, it is recommended to filter the water, in order to 
obviate this difficulty. 

It is not possible, within the limits of this paper, to give particular 
directions as to the construction of hatching apparatus. The ingenuity 
of almost any country gentleman or farmer will point out to him some 
contrivance which will fulfill the conditions necessary for the purpose. 
A constant stream of pure water bathing the eggs is all that is neces- 
sary, in addition to the other precautions mentioned. 

The progressive development of the embryo, as watched from day to 
day under the microscope, becomes very interesting, and is fully de- 
scribed in the works which will be hereafter mentioned. 

After the young fishes are hatched, they should be removed to a 
larger receptacle ; they need little care, however, until the ^olk-sac is- 
exhausted, and they begin to require food. This may be supplied in 
the form of finely-comminuted flesh or fish, the fibres of which have- 

15 A 



226 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

been separated by boiling. Care should be taken not to place so much 
of this in the box in which the young fish are kept as to corrupt the 
water. 

Well cared for, young trout will attain the length of about three 
inches the first year. They should then be turned into a pond, and 
allowed to provide for themselves. It would be well, however, to 
have for this purpose two or three separate ponds, to contain the broods 
of each successive year. This precaution is required in consequence of 
the predatory nature of these fishes, and the liability of the younger to 
be devoured by the older. Some other species of fish, of a smaller and 
inferior kind, may, with advantage, be placed and permitted to breed 
in .the pond, for the purpose of supplying food to the trout. 

In a region where trout are abundant, of course much of the trouble 
of artificial breeding may be dispensed with^ provided a pond can be 
constructed by damming the course of a stream already populated by 
them. They may then be left to their natural instinct, and, if the 
stream affords suitable spawning places, they will maintain the supply 
of young needed each year, with no further care. But it is absolutely 
necessary, for the reproduction of trout, that their eggs should be de- 
posited, during incubation, in running water, highly aerated; and 
hence it is that they will never increase in number while confined to 
the still waters of a pond. They will neither grow well nor become 
of good flavor in water rendered turbid by vegetable matter, nor where 
the bottom is muddy. Clear, cool, spring water, resting on a sandy 
and gravelly bottom, is indispensable to the full development of their 
good qualities. In constructing a pond for the reception of this most 
valuable and beautiful of all fishes, these conditions should be recol- 
lected. 

After the ova of fishes have been fecundated, they may be transported 
to considerable distances, provided they be kept moist and cool. The 
simplest method is to pack them in alternate layers (taking care that the 
eggs do not touch each other) with fine sand, shaggy woolen clothes, 
or aquatic plants, in small boxes. The boxes for this purpose may be 
six or eight inches square by three or four deep, and care should be 
taken that the contents be thoroughly moistened iDefore they are closed. 
The eggs of the lake trout, the lake white-fish, and the pike-perch 
have thus been brought from Ohio and Lake Ontario to Connecticut, 
in perfect condition. Indeed, eggs of the salmon and trout thus 
packed will retain their capacity of development for several weeks. 
The eggs of those fishes which spawn in summer, however, would not 
probably bear transportation so easily, but would be much more likely 
to prove unproductive, after being carried long distances. Care must 
be taken to admit water gradually to the eggs thus procured, especially 
if they have been for several days on their journey they are liable 
to be spoiled by top rapid absorption of fluid. 

The introduction of fishes peculiar to one country, or to one section 
of a country, into distant waters, is by this means readily effected, 
suitable breeding places being provided in advance for the reception ot 
the ova. 

The most extensive and important operation of this kind yet under- 
taken in this country has been attempted for the purpose of introducing 



FISH BREEDING. 227 

some of the fishes of the great lakes into waters which they did not 
previously inhabit. A brief account of the measures taken for this 
purpose, and which are believed to have resulted in at least partial 
success, will not be out of place here. 

Saltonstall lake is a very beautiful body of water, almost three miles in 
length, situated a few miles from the city of New Haven, Connecticut. 
It was selected as the locality of the intended experiments, because, in 
position, size, quality of water and of shores, and in all other respects, it 
was believed to combine the conditions most favorable to success. Like 
most of the New England lakes of its class, it was already populated 
with pickerel, perch, eels, and other common species. In the spring 
of 1857, an act was passed by the legislature of Connecticut affording 
ample protection to the enterprise, and the gentlemen concerned also 
procured from the riparian proprietors grants of their fishing rights in 
the lake, so that they thus acquired complete control of its waters. A 
small, but constantly flowing stream, one of the feeders of the lake, 
was prepared for the reception of the ova, by forming it into a series 
of shallow pools, and strewing the bed with a layer of clean gravel and 
small stones. The intention, in this case, was to procure so large a 
quantity of ova as to be able to allow them to run the hazard of 
being hatched in the open stream. 

The lake trout (Salmo confinis) and the white-fish (Geregonus albus) 
were the species chosen as those most likely to become readily accli- 
mated, and as otherwise most valuable to the breeder. In November 
of the same year the first supply of the eggs of these species was pro- 
cured at a fishing station on Lake Ontario ; the trout and white-fish 
being taken alive from the fishermen's nets, and the ova artificially 
fecundated on the spot, in the manner heretofore described. They 
were then packed in alternate layers with fine wet sand, in wooden 
boxes, and the proper precautions taken to insure safe transportation. 
On the ITth of November, 1857, the previous cargo, estimated at about 
five millions of the eggs of the trout, and one million of those of the 
white-fish, arrived at the place for which they were destined, appa- 
rently in good condition. They were unpacked with great care, and 
those of the trout were partly deposited in the bed of the stream, and 
partly along the gravelly shores near its embouchure, in water of two 
or three feet deep. Those of the white-fish were placed upon a smooth, 
sandy shoal, in water of somewhat less depth, the intention, in both 
cases, being to place the eggs in positions, as nearly as possible, sim- 
ilar to those in which the fish themselves deposit them. During the 
winter the eggs in the stream were repeatedly examined, and many of 
them found to be progressing favorably toward their development ; and 
in March and April, 1858, the young made their appearance in great 
numbers. They were allowed to take care of themselves, and in due 
time they proceeded down into the lake. It was impossible to ascer- 
tain the probable proportion of the eggs which were hatched, but if 
one out of every thousand produced a living fish, the result of the 
experiment may be considered satisfactory. 

In the month of May of the same year, about twenty millions of the 
eggs of the pike-perch, (lAicioperca americana,) which inhabits the 
same waters with the lake trout and other white-fish, were collected^ 



228 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

and transmitted to tlie same breeding-place. Two thirds of themwere 
placed in the stream, and the remainder on the gravel of the lake bot- 
tom. Some of those in the stream, after having been deposited about 
two weeks, were found to be developing properly, and an enormous 
crop of young fishes was expected; but, unfortunately, a sudden freshet 
shortly afterward tore up the bed of the rivulet, and swept away and 
destroyed a great proportion of the ova. What. number, if any, sur- 
vived this disaster, is not known, but it is believed that some of those 
deposited in the lake, and thus so-situated as to have escaped the effects 
ef the freshet, must have arrived at their full development. 

In the autumn of 1858 another collection of about ten millions of the 
ova of the lake trout and white-fish was deposited in the same places, 
and, from observations made in the spring and summer of 1859, con- 
siderable numbers are believed to have been hatched. Several young 
trout of this brood have been taken in the lake, and also a few of 
larger size^ weighing nearly a pound each, supposed to be the produce 
of the first deposit of eggs. As the white-fish does not take the hook, 
its actual presence in the lake has not yet been detected. Measures 
will be taken, however, in the course of the next summer, to ascertain 
positively the result of the experiment as regards that species. So 
confident are the gentlemen concerned, in the entire feasibility of their 
project, that they intend to continue their operations until assured of 
full success. They will also introduce other species of lake fish. 

It is not yet time to speak confidently upon the prospect of future 
pecuniary profit, as the ultimate result of these operations ; but if the 
trout, white-fish, and pike-perch do become acclimated and grow to the 
size which they attain in their native waters, the supply furnished by 
Saltonstall lake cannot fail, in a few years, largely to repay the par- 
ties concerned for their labor and expenses. The writer of this article 
has felt a very deep interest in these experiments from their inception, 
has been personally conversant with their progress, and has derived 
much valuable information respecting practical fish breeding from the 
two principal conductors of the enterprise, Messrs. Carl Muller, of New 
York, and Henry Brown, of New Haven. 

TRANSPORTATION OF LIVING FISHES. 

In some cases it may be desirable to transport living fishes from a 
distance. Whenever this is to be effected, the chances of success will 
be greatly increased by the observation of a few simple precautions. 
Small fishes are much more easily transported than those of full size. 
To save the trouble of changing the water often, its temperature should 
be reduced by placing in it pieces of ice so fixed as not to injure the 
fish. A large tin can, holding from twelve to twenty gallons, with a 
wide mouth, similar to those used by milk-men, is as convenient as 
anything. The lump of ice may be suspended in a netting from the 
mouth, the cover of which should be pierced with holes for the admis- 
sion of air. If such vessels cannot be obtained, barrels, or even tubs, 
may be used, care being taken to cover them with some kind of cloth 
of loose texture, to prevent the water from being thrown out by the 
jolting of the carriage or rail-car in which the journey is performed. 



FISH BREEDING. 229 

A sufficient supply of ice should be procured to maintain the water at 
a low temperature. In such manner Dr. Garlicky of Cleveland, tells 
us that he kept five hundred and twenty trout in a barrel of water for 
eighteen hours without changing the water ; and Mr. Henry Brown 
recently carried twelve hundred trout from the northern part of Massa- 
chusetts to Long Island, with the loss of only two or three. The 
water was not changed, and ^e trout were thirty-six hours on the 
road. 

When the waters from which the fish are to be brought are not too 
distant, this is an easy mode of procuring material for stocking ponds. 
As an instance of what may be effected by this method, in stocking 
waters of considerable extent with new species, the following may be 
mentioned : 

In the winters of 1852-53, the black bass of the lakes (Grystes nigri- 
cans) was introduced into Waramang lake, situated between the towns 
of Washington and Warren, in Litchfield county, Connecticut. "They 
have in that lake," writes our informant, F. D. Beeman, Esq., of 
Litchfield, '^multiplied very generously. Their growth is estimated 
to be about one pound a year, and they have been frequently caught 
weighing five pounds and upwards. They were originally brought from 
a small lake in Duchess county. New York. They are a hardy fish, 
and can be readily transported from one place to another in a tub of 
water, covered with wet canvas. There were less than an hundred 
bass originally placed in Waramang lake ; there are now probably 
millions, and they appear to propagate and flourish better than any 
other fish in the waters of that lake." 

The black bass has more recently been introduced into another lake 
in Litchfield county, and will soon be established as a denizen of many 
other of our Connecticut lakes. It is a fine fish, in every respect, and 
is well worthy the attention of those who have large private ponds. 
The ease with which it may be transported, the rapidity with which it 
multiplies, the sport which it affords the angler, and its excellence on 
the table, form a combination of qualities which render it deservedly 
popular with those who know its merits, and which' should lead to its 
introduction into all such waters as are suited to its habits. 

BREEDING OF MIGRATORY FISHES. 

In addition to the experiments already alluded to, others of even 
greater interest, in some respects, are now in progress. Those which 
are next to be mentioned will eventually, it is hoped, afibrd much 
practical information in regard to the question whether the breeding 
of migratory fishes can be so managed as to be made a source of profit 
to the breeder: in other words, whether these fishes, after being reared 
in private waters, and allowed to follow their instincts by going to the 
sea at the proper age, will return when adult, at the spawning season, 
to the place where they are hatched, in sufficient numbers to enable 
the breeder to repay himself for his care of them while young, by cap- 
turing and selling them when full grown. Somewhat similar experi- 
ments have been made in other countries, for the purpose of settling 
the same question ; but, notwithstanding the enthusiastic anticipations 



230 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

of foreign fisli breeders, we have, as yet, no positive and reliable 
accounts by wbich to estimate their value. The importance of the 
subject warrants a thorough trial, and such, we hope, it is to receive 
by the means now to be described. 

Messrs. U. S. Treat & Son, of Eastport, Maine, have obtained the 
control of three large ponds, about twenty miles from Eastport. The 
largest of these is about three quarters of a mile long, by half a mile 
wide, and they all have a common outlet into the St. Croix river. 
The outlet has been provided with a gate, by means of which it may 
be closed or opened at pleasure, thus enabling the owners to retain 
the fish in the ponds, or to allow them to proceed to the sea. The 
breeding operations were commenced in the spring of 1857, at which 
time a number of salmon, (S. solar,) striped bass, (Labrax limaUis,) 
shad, (Alosa jprcestahilisj) and alewives {A. tyrannus) were placed alive 
in two of the ponds, the salmon in the largest. The shad and ale- 
wives, Mr. Treat informs us, spawned about the first of June, and in 
about three weeks millions of their young were seen. The gate was 
then closed, and the growth of the young fish watched in the pond for 
three months, after which, a portion of them were allowed to proceed 
down the river to the sea. The remainder were detained for two 
months longer, when they also were dismissed to salt-water. The 
number of young produced by this first spawning was estimated at 
more than five millions. They had grown, when on their way to the 
sea, to the length of three to five inches. The salmon spawned in the 
November ensuing, and the eggs were hatched in the spring after. 
Mr. Treat did not, however, succeed in detecting any of the young 
until the summer of 1859, when they were above a year old. They 
had then grown, he says, to the length of ten or twelve yiches, and 
were changing from the trout-like appearance which characterizes 
them in their first year, and were taking on the silvery coat of the 
parent fish. As the lake is in some places forty feet in depth, not 
many of these young salmon were captured; but enough were secured 
to enable Mr. Treat to identify them. The old salmon still appear to 
be in good condition, and are frequently observed. They have been 
in the lake two winters and two summers. Whether they continue to 
breed is not as yet known. The young salmon were also allowed to 
follow their natural instincts and to proceed to the sea at the proper 
season. Mr. Treat confidently expects the return of his fish — such 
of them as survive the dangers of the seas — as soon as they become 
capable of reproducing their species and feel the impulse of that in- 
stinct which induces them to seek the fresh water for the purpose of 
depositing their spawn. We shall await the result of his experiments 
with great interest, and hope to be able, in some future report, to 
announce the fulfillment of his anticipations. Several other important 
and doubtful questions, as to some of the habits and the growth of the 
species which are made the subjects of these experiments, will also, 
perhaps, be solved. 

BREEDING TROUT AT HARTFORD. 

Mr. E. C. Kellogg, of Hartford, Connecticut, gives the following 
account of his experiments. He was among the first to attempt the 



FISH BREEDING. 231 

artificial breeding of trout in this country, and he has conducted his 
experiments with great intelligence and care. His observations in 
regard to the progress of development of the embryo fishes, the best 
and most certain methods of impregnation, the growth of the young 
fry, and many other points of interest, have been exceedingly patient 
and minute, and, when published, as they may be in the Report of 
next year, will materially add to the stock of knowledge already pro- 
mulgated by foreign writers, and will, we are certain, prove of material 
benefit to those who desire to practice the art. At present, we have 
space only for a brief notice of what he has done and what he is now 
doing. 

His first experiment was made in 1855, during the summer of which 
year he collected a number of trout, to be used as breeders, which he 
placed in a small pond in the town of Simsbury, Connecticut. A slight 
dam was made near the source of the spring by which the pond was 
supplied, forming a smaller pond, and at the lower side of this upper 
dam a temporary hatching-house was erected, in which was placed a 
box partly filled with gravel, and through this a small stream of water 
was conducted. In November, the eggs were fecundated, after the 
prescribed method. In the course of a few weeks it was apparent that 
embryo fish were being developed in some of the eggs, and in proper 
time about seventy-five trout were hatched. The fry were kept in the 
box for a month or two, and were then allowed to run into the larger 
pond below. In the succeeding autumn they were found with the old 
fish, apparently doing well. 

The next year's experiments at Simsbury failed entirely, the water- 
pipe becoming stopped, so that the water froze in the hatching box. 
Mr. Kellogg, however, was induced, by the convenience of having the 
Connecticut river water on his premises, to make a trial of artificial 
breeding in the cellar of his house. He arranged a box with several 
partitions, filled it partly with gravel, laid it in a slanting position, so 
that the partings formed a series of steps, and water from the public 
reservoir was conducted through it. By this means he succeeded in 
hatching about sixty trout during the first winter, and about four hun- 
dred during the winter of 1858. He is at present directing the con- 
struction of works for artificial breeding on a more extensive scale, and 
on a far more convenient plan, at East Hartford. Through the liber- 
ality of Colonel Colt, upon whose grounds the work is progressing, no 
pains nor expense are spared to render the experiment successful. An 
excellent spring, running out of a gravel bank into a ravine, furnishes 
a good supply of water. Across the ravine a dam has been thrown, 
raising a pond of about sixty feet in diameter and six feet in depth. 
A commodious house has been built, in which are the arrangements 
for hatching, and a large tank, with divisions, to hold the parent fish 
at the time of spawning. A supply of breeding fish has recently beeti 
provided, and a considerable number of eggs, probably three or four 
thousand, have been impregnated and placed in the hatching boxes.. 
Every precaution which experience and ingenuity could suggest has: 
been used to secure successful results, and we hope, next year, to ba 
able to make a satisfactory report of these operations. 

"That there is some difficulty in breeding trout artificially," write* 



232 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

Mr. Kellogg, ^'I think all who have experimented will allow. It is 
perhaj)s somewhat difficult to point out the causes of failure, which 
seem to lie principally in the uncertainty of fecundating the ova, a 
very large proportion of which often proves harren, in spite of every 
care and precaution. We must suppose that some one of the conditions 
necessary to thorough fecundation has been disregarded or not under- 
stood. There is no reason to doubt, however, that the careful obser- 
vations of experimenters, each succeeding year, will overcome the 
difficulty, and will lead at last to complete success. 

' ' The rapidity with which fish grow with good feeding is truly sur- 
prising. In the basin of a fountain in my garden a single trout has 
lived during this season. For some time no care was taken to feed 
this fish, it having been left to depend for its existence upon the few 
insects which chanced to fall into the water, and for several months it 
increased in size very slightly. After being fed daily with worms for 
a few weeks, its growth was remarkable. In a single month it has 
more than doubled in weight. 

''During several winters I have kept in a small tank in the cellar a 
considerable number of trout, and although quite thin after the spawn- 
ing season, they have become fat and in excellent condition before 
spring, by means of generous feeding. It is astonishing, also, to notice 
how easily fish may be domesticated. Wary trout, after only a few 
days' confinement, will eat readily, watch daily for their accustomed 
allowance, and even become so gentle as to take food from the hand, 
like chickens." 

PRACTICAL HINTS TO FISH BREEDERS. 

The following instructions, upon several points connected with the 
different stages of artificial fish breeding, are partly the results of our 
own observation, and partly condensed from an essay by Professor 
Vogt, of Geneva, Switzerland, translated for Mr. Marsh's report, be- 
fore alluded to. This essay contains a very great amount of valuable 
and curious information, in respect to the reproduction of fishes, and 
the best methods of securing success in artificial fish breeding. It is 
worthy of perusal entire, by any one to whom it may.be accessible. 

1. The mere contact of spawn and milt does not suffice to efiect 
fecundation. To insure the production of a living creature from the 
egg, the active element of the milt, which consists of moving micro- 
scopic corpuscles, provided with a thread-like tail, and called seminal 
animalcules, must penetrate into the interior of the egg, and there 
unite with its substance. Every egg is, therefore, infallibly lost, un- 
less it has thus absorbed the constituent of the male generative fluid. 

2. The perfect eggs of fresh-water fish consist of an external skin, 
or shell, within which, enveloped in a second thinner membrane, called 
the vitelline membrane, is the yolk. The yolk is always bright and 
clear, sometimes quite colorless and transparent, like water, (as in the 
white-fish,) sometimes of an amber or orange color, as in the trout 
and salmon. The outer coat of the egg and the vitelline membrane lie 
in close contact, so long as the spawn remains in the body of the fish; 
but, as soon as the eggs are deposited in the water, a rapid absorption 



FISH BREEDING. 233 

commences, the water penetrates throiigli tlie external coating, which 
swells and becomes distended, thus leaving a space between itself and 
the vitelline membrane around the yolk, this space being filled with 
water. The vitelline membrane is impervious to water, so long as the 
egg is in a healthy state, and its contents remain perfectly clear and 
limpid. But the penetration of water into the yolk is at once be- 
trayed, by its assuming a milky color ; and this is an infallible proof 
of the unsoundness of the egg. 

3. An orifice is observed in the eggs of most fresh- water fish, open- 
ing at the surface, through which the seminal animalcule penetrates 
to the interior of the egg. 

4. Since the spawn can be impregnated only by the reception of the 
animalcule^ it becomes of much practical importance to ascertain how 
long this minute being retains its power of motion and impregnation. 
At low temperatures, this power may be retained for hours, and even 
days, if the milt remains in the organs in which it is secreted. The eggs 
yf trout have been impregnated by milt taken from the male after it 
was stiff-frozen. But, when once the milt is placed in water, the power 
of moisture is very soon lost. It has been found that the animalcule 
of the mullet perishes in three minutes and ten seconds ; that of the 
carp in three minutes ; that of the perch in two minutes and forty 
seconds ; and this in the degree of heat most favorable to vitality. 
Very slight variations, above or beloiv this point, destroy the animalcules 
with great rapidity. The temperature which seems longest to main- 
tain their vitality is, for winter fish, like the trout, 41° to 48° ; for 
those which spawn in early spring, 50° to 55° ; for those of early 
summer, 63° to 68° ; and for those of hot weather, 77° to 87°. 

5. It becomes, therefore, a matter of the greatest practical import- 
ance to perform the processes of impregnation in the very shortest 
possible time. Some operators mix the milt first with water, and then 
immediately drop the spawn into it, believing that the minute currents, 
formed by the absorption of water by the egg, have the efi'ect of direct- 
ing the movement of the animalcule toward the orifice. It is also 
supposed that the swelling of the egg, in consequence of the absorp- 
tion of water, tends to close the orifice, so that the animalcule cannot 
enter, after the envelope is full of water. However this may be, it is 
found, by experience, that the simultaneous mixture of the milt and 
the spawn is most likely to effect the impregnation of the greatest 
proportion of the eggs ; and hence it is recommended, when practi- 
cable, that two persons should work together^ one manipulating the 
male fish and the other the female. 

6. It is absolutely necessary that the ova be mature. Fish do not 
deposit all their spawn at once, but usually through several successive 
days, as the eggs become ripe. The operator should, therefore, use no 
violence in forcing the eggs from the female ; since those which are 
fully mature, and fit for impregnation, will fall from her with very 
little pressure. After she has emitted that portion which is fully ripe, 
she should be placed in the tank again for a day or two, when a second 
portion will be ready for impregnation. The milt of a single male 
is usually sufiicient for the eggs of several females ; and it may be 
obtained likewise in successive portions. 



234 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

7. An apparatus for enabling the fish to spawn naturally, thereby 
obviating the necessity of taking them into the hand at all, has been 
used in France. It consists of a sort of double-bottomed cage, the 
upper bottom being an open frame-work of wire, the lower a movable 
sieve of metallic cloth. It is suspended in the water of the pond, and 
the male and female fish placed in it. The female, by rubbing against 
the bars of the open-work floor^ emits her eggs, which fall through 
upon the sieve below, and are impregnated by the male in the same 
way. We are not definitely informed as to the success of this con- 
trivance, but it may easily be tested. 

8. After the eggs are fecundated, their hatching still requires care. 
The essential points are an abundant supply of well aerated water, at 
a proper temperature, removal of unsound eggs, and protection against 
insects and parasitic mildew or fungus. Since light is indispensable 
to the production of this destructive microscopic vegetable, it has been 
recommended to keep the eggs, during hatching, in darkness. Dif- 
ferent sj)ecies require different degrees of warmth. The eggs of tl^e 
trout will bear a temperature nearly as low as 32°, but would be 
destroyed by remaining in water as high as 55°. They require 
the j)urest water; and that of a running spring, or stream, which 
can be constantly renewed, is best. If this cannot be had, filtered 
water is recommended. The eggs should be examined once or twice 
a day, and every one which shows the least degree of disease, indi- 
cated by the opaque, whitish color of its yolk, should be removed 
with a pair of small tweezers or forceps. The accumulation of sediment 
which would be likely to breed mildew, should be also removed, by 
passing over the eggs a soft hair pencil. During the first few days of 
development, the spawn should he agitated as little as possible, since it is 
at this period that the foundation of all the organic processes and of 
the whole structure of the fish is laid. After the eyes of the young 
fish begin to be visible through the egg-shell, appearing like two dis- 
proportionately large black dots, the egg is much less sensitive to rough 
treatment, and may be handled, or transported to a distance, with less 
risk than at any other period of its development. 

9. As to the hatching apparatus, it may be said that any is good 
which admits a free circulation of water, excludes rapacious enemies, 
and permits ready access to the eggs, and the easy removal of such as 
may become infected, A very successful operator, Mr. Knoche, thus 
describes the apparatus used by him : 

"For a breeding chest, I employ a stone trough seven feet long, two 
fe^t broad^ and one foot deep, and provided with a wooden cover fitting 
into a rabbet, and secured by a lock. To one end of the cover is nailed 
a frame, whose length is equal to the breadth of the cover, and which 
is four inches wide and five inches deep, forming a small trough placed 
across the cover of the large one at the upper end. Within this frame 
several holes are bored, through the main cover, so as to allow the 
water, supplied from above, to pass into the trough. A piece of coarse 
linen cloth is nailed across the frame, and through this all the water 
which enters the trough is strained. Within the breeding-trough 
there is a perforated box, which distributes the water received from the 
frame evenly and quietly through the trough. At the opposite end of 



FISH BREEDING. 235 

the trough, six inches ahove the bottom, are two square holes, covered 
with finely-perforated tin plate, and so adjusted as to permit the escape 
of the same quantity of water as is admitted through the frame. The 
trough is sunk in the ground, near a spring, which is raised by a dam 
to the height of a foot, and the water is" conducted directly to the mid- 
dle of the frame, on the cover of the trough, through a pipe about an 
inch and a half in diameter. The bottom of the trough is filled up to 
the depth of three inches with clean-washed sand, or gravel, and the 
water always stands three inches deep on the sand. When the eggs 
-are to be introduced^ the flow of water from the spring is shut off, and 
the impregnated spawn, after standing three hours, is carefully poured 
into the trough, and so distributed that the eggs are not in contact 
with each other. The distribution is effected, without touching the eggs, 
by agitating the water over them with the bearded end of a quill. 
The trough is now closed, and left undisturted for twelve hours, after 
which the water from the spring is again admitted, and kept regularly 
flowing." 

This process may be greatly varied according to circumstances, as 
in the cellar experiments of Mr. Kellogg. Like the latter, Drs, 
Mayor and Duchosal, of Geneva, used the common drinking water 
from the public reservoir. They placed the eggs in square earthen 
pots, arranged on the steps of a stand, like those used for flower pots. 

Each pot had a small aperture in front, into which was introduced 
a pipe, to convey the water to the next tier below, and so arranged as 
to keep the water in all the pots one inch deep. The pipe from the 
reservoir was pierced with holes, corresponding to each pot in the 
upper tier ; these pots, which were about a foot square, received a con- 
stant stream of about a line in diameter, directly from the aqueduct 
pipe, and the lower pots received their supply from the tier next above. 
The eggs hatched equally well in all ; but, from the partial exhaustion 
of the air in the water in passing through the upper tiers, the eggs in 
the lower tiers were somewhat longer in hatching. Other contrivances, 
adapted to peculiar contingencies, will be readily suggested to persons 
of ingenuity. For hatching eggs in spring or summer, flat-bottomed 
earthen pots may be used, with small holes in the sides, about an inch 
from the bottom, so as to admit a free circulation of water. These 
may be inserted in small rafts, made of wood, and thus left to float 
in the current, the rafts being secured by a cord, so that the pots may 
be drawn to the bank at any time for examination. No gravel would 
be necessary in these pots. 

10. After the exclusion of the young from the eggs, so long as the 
yolk-sac remains attached to the abdomen of the fry, little attention is 
required. It is well to remove them to a larger receptacle, as a long 
trough, with a foot of water, to allow them space for their movements. 
A floating box may be used for this purpose, so loaded as to swim 
horizontally, and moored so that the current of the water will pass 
through it from end to end, fine wire net-work being fixed at each end 
to prevent the escape of the brood. 

11. After the yolk-sac is exhausted, the young fish require food. 
Small insects and larvee form their principal natural nutriment, and 
these abound in every brook and pond, so that the fry may usually be' 



236 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

left to take care of themselves for awhile. The pond into which they 
are admitted should he carefully cleansed, and should not contain any 
of the larger fish. A small stream running into the pond, up which 
the young can proceed, would he peculiarly favorahle for the prosperity 
of trout. Left thus to themselves, Mr. Knoche has generally found 
about half the original number at the end of the year, the rest having 
perished or escaped. When little water can be commanded, and only 
small artificial reservoirs can be used, feeding becomes necessary. 
Small trout devour with avidity coagulated blood, boiled or dried 
flesh, fragments of boiled fish, or any other animal substance which 
can be divided into fine fibers, thus resembling worms while sinking 
in the water. 

12. It is important to determine what particular species should be 
selected for artificial breeding in particular localities. As a question 
of profit, it is obvious that we should breed the kinds most valued in 
the market for which they are bred, commanding the highest price, 
and best accommodated to the natural or artificial conditions at the 
disposal of the breeder. If fish from distant localities promise a better 
return than native species, they may be introduced. On these points 
no precise rules can be laid down. The introduction of fish from 
remote localities is not difficult. The best period for transporting the 
eggs is, as already noticed, when the eyes of the embryo appear 
through the shell. 

13. Of the success of private operations, where the breeding is arti- 
ficially conducted from the spawning to the market, an opinion may 
be formed from the following statement of Mr. Knoche : 

' ' For the last six years I have hatched, annually, about eight hun- 
dred fish (trout) from a thousand or twelve hundred eggs. At the 
end of a year from hatching, I seldom find more than half that num- 
ber in the pond, the rest having perished or escaped^ probably the 
latter, as it is very difficult to make a pond so tight that the fry cannot 
sometimes pass out, at either the inlet or the outlet of the water. My 
fish, in general, thrive well, and for the last three years my ponds have 
supplied, annually, from three to four hundred artificially-bred trout, 
of three and four years old, those of the latter age weighing from three 
quarters of a pound to a pound." 

FISH AS AN ARTICLE OF DIET. 

It is generally admitted that fish supply an article of diet at once 
palatable^ nutritious^ easy of digestion in most cases, and conducive to 
good health. But what are their nutritive qualities as compared with 
other kinds of animal food? whether different species of fish differ ma- 
terially in degree of nutritive form? and whether, as food, fish possess 
any peculiar or special properties? These are questions of great inter- 
est to consumers offish, but to which it is even yet difficult to give a 
satisfactory answer. An inquiry into these points was made, a few 
years ago, by Dr. John Davy, inspector general of army hospitals, 
&c., the results of which he read before the Koyal Society of Edin- 
burg. Taking for granted the proposition "that the nutritive power 
of all the ordinary articles of animal food, at least of those composed 



FISH BREEDING. 



237 



priucipally of muscular fiber, or of muscle and fat, to whatever class 
belonging, is approximately denoted by their several specific gravities, 
and by the amount of solid matter which each contains, as determined 
by thorough drying." Dr. Davy subjected portions of several species 
offish, and also several kinds of meat and other alimentary substances, 
to the test of very accurate processes, in order to ascertain their several 
nutritive powers. The following tables show some of the results, the 
fish, selected from those upon which Dr. Davy experimented, being 
either common to both shores of the Atlantic, or quite similar to fishes 
known by the same name among us : 

TABLE I 



Species offish. 



Specific 
gravity. 



Solid matter, 
per cent. 



Time when 
obtained. 



Haddock 

Hake 

Pollock 

Whiting 

Common cod 

Mackerel 

Salmon 

Trout 

Trout 

Smelt 

Eel 



1056 
1054 
1060 
1062 
1059 
1043 
1071 
1053 
1050 
lOGO 
1034 



20.2 
17.4 
19.3 
21.5 
19.2 
37.9 
29.4 
22.5 
18.7 
19.3 
33.6 



August. 

October. 

October. 

March. 

April. 

October. 

March. 

March. 

October 

March. 

June. 



TABLE II 



Kinds of food 



Specific 
gravity- 



Solid matter, 
per cent 



Time. 



Beef, sirloin 

Veal, loin 

Mutton, leg 

Pork, loin 

Common fowl, breast 
Grey plover, braast..., 



1078 
1076 
1069 
1080 
1075 
1072 



26.9 
27.2 
26.5 
30.5 
27.2 
30.1 



March. 

November. 

November. 

January. 

November. 

November. 



''These results," says Dr. Davy, " I wish to have considered merely 
as approximate ones. Casting the eye over the first table, it will be 
seen that the range of nutritive power, as denoted by the specific 
gravity and the portion of solid matter, is pretty equable, except in 
a very few instances, and chiefly those of the salmon and the mack- 
erel ; the one exhibiting a high specific gravity, with a large propor- 
tion of solid matter ; the other, a low specific gravity, with a still 
larger proportion of matter, namely : muscle and oil, and, in conse- 
quence of the latter, the inferior specific gravity." 

Oil also abounded in the eel, and hence the large amount of 
residuum it afforded. 

Comparing, seriation, the first table with the second, the degree of 



238 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

difference of nutritive power of those articles standing highest in each, 
appears to be inconsiderable, and not great in most of the others. 
Thus the salmon, the mackerel, and the eel contain more solid matter 
than beef ; and the specific gravity of salmon is greater than that of 
mutton. These results are certainly surprising^, and not in accordance 
with popular and long-received notions. 

"That fish generally are easy of digestion," proceeds Dr. Davy, 
"excepting such as have oil interfused in their muscular tissue, ap- 
pears to be commonly admitted as the result of experience — a result 
that agrees well with the greater degree of softness of their muscular 
fiber, comparing it with either that of birds or of the mammalia, such 
as are used for food. A more interesting consideration is, whether 
fish, as a diet, is more conducive to health than the "flesh of the ani- 
mals just mentioned, and especially to the prevention of scrofulous 
and tuberculous disease. From such information as I am able to 
collect, / am disposed to tliiiik that they are. It is vv^ell known that 
fishermen and their families, living principally on fish, are commonly 
healthy — may I not say above the average? and I think it is pretty 
certain that they are less subject to the diseases referred to than any other 
class, without exception." 

This statement is proved by reliable statistics, collected with care by 
Dr. Davy, who proceeds to remark that if this exemption be mainly 
owing to diet, and that a fish didt, it may be presumed that there 
enters into the composition of fish some element not common to other 
kinds of food. This element is believed by him to be iodine, distinct 
traces of which have been found in every instance in which he sought 
for it in sea-fish, though not so strongly marked in the migratory 
fish, and not at all in the fresh-water fish. The medicinal effects of 
cod-liver oil in mitigating, if not in curing, pulmonary consumption, 
appear to be. well established, and as this oil contains iodine, the 
analogy seems to strengthen the inference that sea-fish generally may 
be alike beneficial. 

In concluding this imperfect notice of fish culture, which we hope 
to follow by a second in the next Keport, we refer those readers who 
may have become interested in the subject, and who may desire to ob- 
tain further information as to many points upon which the space here 
accorded will not permit us to be more explicit, to two works, which 
are easily accessible to American readers, and which they will find 
useful assistants in practical fish breeding. They are, "A Complete 
Treatise on Artificial Fish Breeding," &c., published originally in 
1854, by D. Appleton & Co., New York; and "A Treatise on the 
Artificial Propagation of certain kinds of Fish/' &c., by T. Garlick, 
M. D., published at Cleveland, Ohio, by Thomas Brown, ISST. 



ENGLISH PLOWS AND PLOWING. 239 

ENGLISH PLOWS AND PLOWING. 



BY HEKRY F. FRENCH, OF EXETER, NEW HAIUPSIIIRE. 



Even a casual ol)servatioii of the operation of plowing in England 
must suggest to an American farmer a series of questions for solution, 
respecting both the form and structure, and the mode of use of the plow. 
The plows made by Ransome and Simes, which I saw on exhibition 
at the shows of the Royal Agricultural Society, and of the JSuffolk 
County Society, perhaps rank as high, at present, as any plow in Eng- 
land. I was informed, at the warehouses of the manufacturers, at 
Ipswich, that their plow in common use as a seed plow, for two horses, 
weighs two hundred and eighty pounds, and its length is twelve feet. 
It turns a furrow of eight or nine inches in width, and five or six in 
depth, which may be increased to one often by seven inches. 

Actual experiment, at the warehouses in Boston, shows the average 
weight of American plows designed for the same work, with wheel 
and cutter, to be about two hundred pounds, and their average length 
about seven and a half feet. 

The English implement is entirely of iron, of fine workmanship and 
finish, with two wheels, and is much less simple in its structure than 
the American ; yet the American plow seems to be more firm and 
strong than the other. Indeed, the extreme length of the handles and 
of the beam of the English plow, notwithstanding they are of iron, 
gives to a hand accustomed to the American implement a feeling of 
insecurity, as if the material were elastic, and would not be stiff 
enough to control the work were a stump or fast rock to be encountered 
in the furrow. This apprehension, however, is idle in most English 
fields, which for a thousand years, perhaps, have felt the pressure of 
the plowshare. 

But the difference between English and American plowing is fully 
as striking as that between the plows. The worst-plowed field which 
I saw in a summer's ramble through old England might be said, liter- 
ally, to appearance, to be done better than the best-plowed field that 
can be found in a New England farm. There seems to be no such 
thing in England as a crooked or irregular furrow, but, however ex- 
tensive the field, the work appears uniformly as straight as a line 
could be laid down by a civil engineer with his instruments ; and 
whether the operation be really more thoroughly performed than with 
us or not, it has at least the merit of being accomplished precisely as 
the plowman desires. 

Our first impression upon these observations would naturally be, 
that notwithstanding the English plow is more clumsy and expensive 
than the American, yet that the former must have advantages of 
st]*ucture, which, for use in old and thoroughly-tilled fields, at least, 
more than compensate for these objections. Yet this^ however natural, 
would be a hasty conclusion. 

Within twenty miles of Ipswich, where Ransome's highly-finished 



240 AGRICULTUEAL REPORT. ^ 

plows are manufactured, in a week whicTi was spent on a farm and 
among intelligent farmers, in the county of Suffolk, an entirely differ- 
ent plow was generally in use — an implement so ungainly, so large 
and ill-fashioned, that it seems as if it must have been disinterred with 
the stone coffins of the Norman knights, which occasionally turn up in 
that neighborhood, or have been found in the antediluvian deposits of 
coprolites, for which Suffolk county is famous. 

The plow referred to is that which is usually known in English 
books as the Norfolk plow, the peculiarities of which are, that it has 
but one handle, and that its beam, running upward at an angle of 
about forty-five degrees from the level surface of the ground, rests upon 
a frame- work supported by an axle, upon which are two wheels of 
about the size of the small wheels of a Yankee wagon. 

This is one of the oldest forms of the plow now in use. A drawing 
of it may be found in Gregory's Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, pub- 
lished in England, in 1807, under the title "Husbandry." 

The following extract from the same article will indicate primitive 
notions which its writer entertained on the subject of plowing. They 
are hardly less antiquated than the implement in question : 

''Upon all light soils," he says, "'it is necessary to preserve, at six 
or eight inches below the surface, what farmers call a pan, that is, 
the staple at that depth should be kept unbroken, by which means 
manure will be kept longer on the top ; and, in dry seasons, the less 
depth the pan has, the less liable the corn will be to burn, provided 
the pan consists of earth and not of rock, because the roots of the corn 
will find more moisture by striking against a body of close earth than 
they will in a greater depth of wallow earth, as it is evident the former 
preserves more moisture in dry seasons." 

A drawing of "the original two- wheeled plow," described also as 
the Hertfordshire plow, may be found in the "Compleat Body of Hus- 
bandry," the second edition of which was published in 1758. It does 
not appear, from this edition, when the first was published, but the 
engravings, said to be from original drawings, appear very ancient. 
This "original two-wheeled plow" there figured, is very nearly like 
the Norfolk plow^ as shown in Gregory's Dictionary, and that now in 
common use in Suffolk county. 

Those which I saw were of such style of workmanship and finish as 
common mechanics on a farm would be likely to give to their prodw>- 
tions. They certainly had no claim to the beauty of simplicity, or to 
the higher beauty of scientific adaptation to the purpose of their 
creation ; yet the work done with this implement, so rude and so 
ancient, seemed, in the skillful hands of English plowmen, to be just 
as straight and even as that performed by the polished and modern, 
and more artistic product of Mr. Eansome's shops. 

And thus we have the mystery of EnglisH superiority in plowing 
solved, by the superior skill of English plowmen, without necessarily 
admitting the superiority of English plows. A plowman in England 
is a plowman always. Destined for that position from his birth, if 
not long before predestinated to it, embarrassed by no hopes or aspira- 
tions for a higher station in life, he takes hold of the plow-handle in 
his early youth, he practices in that more equable climate almost every 



ENGLISH PLOWS AND PLOWING. 241 

day of every montli in every year of liis life, to perfect himself in this 
one operation. Trials of skill, in which small pecuniary rewards, or 
the praise of his employer, are accorded to the winner, for the hest 
performance in the plowing match, are not unfrequent; and so, hy the 
division of labor incident to large farms, and hy a manual dexterity 
and accuracy which only long practice can give, the English plow- 
man, with the implement, whatever its form, to which he is accus- 
tomed, produces, on the particular farm to which he is attached as a 
laborer, a result which challenges the admiration of all. 

The question, however, between the English and American plows 
of modern construction is still open : Does the weight or the length, 
or does any other peculiarity of the English plow, upon the whole, 
contribute to the utility of the implement? 

It may be said that differences in the soil, or the condition of the 
surface, render any such inquiry fruitless to us, because a plow that 
may be suitable and best for old fields in England, may be quite unfit 
for the newljr-cleared lands of the New World. Such, manifestly, is 
the fact, but much of this New World has already been converted into 
broad, clear fields, and much of our best alluvial and prairie land 
becomes, by a few years' culture, as free from obstructions as the oldest 
fields of Europe. 

And again, as has been stated, the English plow, of w^hatever form, 
is of far greater weight than any American plow, and should, there- 
fore, other things being equal, possess, proportionably, a greater 
strength, and so be suited to heavier work. 

Had we found the American plow the heavier of the two, it would 
have been at least a plausible explanation that our new lands require 
a heavier and stronger implement than those of a country already 
thoroughly subdued. 

The very great diversity of structure of the various plows in use in 
England itself has not failed to attract the attention of scientific agri- 
culturists, as well as of plow manufacturers in England, for it is 
manifest that the difference in the structure of the plows in use in the 
different sections of that country cannot be accounted for upon the 
idea that the difference in soil and crops require the use of implements 
so diverse, especially when it is known that, throughout the varying 
climate and soil of Scotland, there is but one form of plow in use, or 
rather it should be said, there is in Scotland, in the plows in use, no 
variation in principle, and but little in detail. In England, on 
the contrary, with no greater variation of climate or soil, there are in 
use, almost side by side, plows varying from each other in structure as 
much as any of them are distinguished from those in general use in 
the United States. 

Although, at various times, ardent advocates for progress have an- 
nounced that the plow was soon to be superseded by some implement 
that shall stir the ground by forking or digging, propelled eithei" by 
steam or beasts, as may be convenient, yet it is probable that an 
implement which, for two thousand years, and probably much longer, 
has retained its position as the first and most important agent in pre- 
paring the soil for the seed, will remain in use long and extensively 
enough to warrant a careful study of its structure and mode of opera- 
16 A 



242 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

tion. It is proposed, tlierefore, to examine some experiments that 
have heen recently made in England, with a view to ascertain the 
effect of the weight and different structure of the plow upon its draft. 

It is a fact well known to practical farmers^ that the draft of differ- 
ent plows, turning the same width and depth of furrow, in the same 
field, and performing the work in substantially the same manner, 
varies so much as to be plainly practicable in its effect upon the team. 
The use of the dynamometer, by which the power exerted upon the 
plow, or, in a word, the draft can be actually measured, has confirmed 
and made definite this point, which before rested upon conjecture, or 
mere estimate. It has thus been ascertained, by a trial of ten different 
plows, each of a different make from the others, that the difference in 
draft, in performing precisely the same work, amounted to forty-five 
per cent. The experiment was made in turning a furrow with each 
plow, nine inches in width by five inches in depth, in five different 
kinds of soil, and noting carefully the results as shown by the dyna- 
mometer. Taking the average of the five trials, it appeared that, while 
the plow of lightest draft required a power of three hundred and one 
pounds to work it, the plow of heaviest draft required a power of four 
hundred and forty-one pounds to perform precisely the same work, and 
the other eight required the greatest possible variety of power between 
these extremes. 

At a trial reported in the transactions of the New York State Agri- 
cultural Society for 1843, page 61, it was found that the average of 
resistance, or the draft of twenty-four different jdIows, tested by the 
dynamometer, ranged from two hundred and ninety-eight to four hun- 
dred and eighty-three pounds, showing that more than sixty per cent, 
more power was required to move one plow than the other, in the 
work of turning a furrow twelve inches wide by six inches deep. 

In another series of experiments, in the transactions of the same 
society for 1849, page 559, in a trial of twelve different plows, we find 
the draft to vary all along from two hundred and ninety pounds to 
four hundred and ninety-three pounds, being a difference of seventy 
per cent, in performing the same work of turning a furrow of twelve 
by six inches. 

Surely differences so great as these in the labor expended in the use 
of the most common and indispensable implement known to farmers, 
call for the most careful examination of causes, and the fullest expo- 
sition of principles and results. 

The writer is not aware that any very reliable experiments have 
ever been instituted to test, by the dynamometer, the comparative 
draft of English and American plows. A statement of such an ex- 
periment at the World's Exhibition at London, in 1851, is found in 
the transactions of the New York Agricultural Society for that year, 
but neither the width nor depth of the furrow is given, and the draft 
is so great, if we are correct in supposing the words ^^ points of resist- 
ance'" to mean pounds of resistance, as clearly to indicate that the 
trials were not well conducted. The attention of the plow makers has 
generally been turned to the form of the mold-board, perhaps more 
than any other point, in their attempts to construct jdIows of easy 
draft. This is doubtless an important consideration as well with 



ENGLISH PLOWS AND PLOWING. 243 

respect to light draft as to good work, but tlie system of experi- 
ments under consideration seems to indicate that far less depends upon 
the exact form of the mold-board, as to the draft, than has gene- 
rally been supposed, and that the weight of the implement itself, and 
the resistance to the coulter in cutting the furrow-slice, affect the 
draft far more. And the same experiments furnish results, which 
will probably be surprising to all who have not witnessed or read of 
similar trials, as to the effect upon the draft, of the use of wheels 
upon plows, either under the beam or sole-plate, as to the effect of the 
depth of the furrow, and as to the influence of velocity on the draft. 
For the sake of system and convenience of reference, the results of 
such well-conducted experiments as have come to my knowledge, with 
such suggestions as have occurred to me, or been gathered from reliable 
sources, will be given under the following arrangement : 

1. The influence of the weight of the plow on its draft. 

2. The relative influence pf the mold-board, or turning process, and 
of the share and coulter, or cutting process, upon the draft. 

3. The influence of the depth of the furrow upon the draft. 

4. The influence of velocity on the draft. 

5. The influence of wheels of various kinds on the draft, and their 
utility. 

6. The eflect of the length of the various parts, as the beam, the 
mold-board, and the handles, upon the operation of the plow. 

First. The influence of the weight of the ploiv on its draft. 

We are accustomed, perhaps, to regard the weight of the plow 
rather as affecting the convenient and easy handling of it to the plow- 
man, than as of much importance to the labor of the team. We readily 
perceive that it is far easier to take from the tool-room, to place in the 
cart, to take out again and* place upon the land, an implement of one 
hundred pounds weiglit, than of twice that weight. 

All who have held the plow know practically how much more con- 
venient a light plow is than a heavy one, in setting in and throwing 
out at the end of the land; and especially does a farmer upon a rough 
farm appreciate this difference, where, as, indeed, on many New Eng- 
land fields, the plow is thrown or lifted out, and set in, at almost 
every rod of its progress, to avoid stumps, or stones, or roots of some 
almost imperishable tree, felled, perhaps, a half century ago. Few, 
however, will be prepared for the results which have been developed 
by the experiments now on record. A little reflection will satisfy us 
that the draft of the plow is composed of two elements, one of which 
is the mere force necessary to move the plow, resting on its sole, in an 
empty furrow, or on the surface of the ground, and the other force 
necessary to cut and turn the furrow, or do the work of plowing. The 
heavier the plow the greater the force necessary to move it along the 
surface. In a series of experiments published by Mr. Pusey in the 
English Agricultural Society Journal, it appears that the average 
draft of nine different plows, in an empty furrow, was in proportion 
to the weight as three to four ; that is to say, that a plow of three 



244 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

hundred pounds weiglit required a force, as shown by the dynamome- 
ter, of two hundred and twenty-five pounds to move it, when not at 
work. By the same experiments, it appears that the average draft of 
the same plows, working and turning a furrow nine inches by five, 
was a fraction less than double their draft in the empty furrow. Later 
experiments confirm this result ; and it may be taken as demonstrated 
that, in the use of the heavy English plow, about one half of all the 
force of the team is expended in moving the implement, when at ordi- 
nary light work ! 

Weights being pat upon the plows, the trials were repeated several 
times, the weights upon each plow being increased, and also the depth 
of furrow. 

An examination of the carefully-arranged tables given as the result 
of these experiments, seems clearly to establish that the weight of the 
plow is a constant element in the draft ; so that, if a plow require two 
hundred pounds more force than another to move it in an empty fur- 
row^ it will, other things being equal, require the same additional two 
hundred pounds of force to move it when at work, at any depth, in 
any soil. 

Taking_, then, the draft of the plow in the empty furrow, which may 
be called the surface draft, to be three-fourths of the weight of the 
implement, and the weight of English plows for common work to be 
that given me at the factory of Kansome & Simes, two hundred and 
eighty pounds, and that of the American plows to be one hundred 
pounds, we have the difference in the draft, one hundred and thirty- 
five pounds, or three-fourths of the difference in weight. 

When we consider that about one-half of the draft of the English 
plow is expended in merely moving it, we see that, either by accident 
or science, we have, in the United States, made a decided improvement 
upon the mother country in the reduction of the weight of this imple- 
ment. No means are afforded us of estimating their comparative 
strength, but from observation and information obtained on English 
farms, my impression is that the compact and simple structure of our 
plows renders them less liable to break or get oiit of repair than the 
best modern iron plows of English manufacture. How the greater 
length of the mold-board affects the draft of plows may be better con- 
sidered after examining our next point. 

Secondly. The relative influence of the mold-hoard, or turning process, 
and of the share and coulter, or cutting process, upon the draft. 

The soil upon which the experiments^ of which the results are now 
to be stated, were made is described as a deep, firm, steady loam, free 
from stones — a one-year-old clover bed. The trials were made by first 
measuring the draft of the plow when at work in the ordinary way, 
and then by removing the mold-board, and leaving the share and 
coulter to do their v/ork of cutting, without the furrow. The furrow, 
in this trial was nine by six inches. The whole draft of the plow at 
work was thirty-four stones. The removal of the mold-board dimin- 
ished the draft only to thirty-one stones, so that three stones only, or 
ten per cent of the whole draft, seemed to be occasioned by the mold- 



ENGLISH PLOWS AND PLOWING. 245 

board. The surfacG draft of this plow was twelve stones, and subtract- 
ing that from thirty-one, we have nineteen stones as the labor of 
cutting the furrow-slice. 

Analyzing the process thus far, if those experiments are correct and 
reliable, as the foundation for general estimates, we find that about 
thirty-five per cent, of the labor of plowing, at the depth of six inches, 
is expended in moving the implement, about fifty-five to the operation 
of cutting the furrow-slice at the bottom and side, and only about ten 
per cent, to the action of the mold-board, or process of turning the 
furrow. It will be observed that, in these experiments the furrow is 
deeper by one inch than in the former experiments, where the result 
showed the surface draft to be about fifty per cent, of the whole labor. 
A further statement will show that this variation in tlie depth of the 
furrow will just about account for the difference between thirty-five and 
fifty per cent, set down as the surface draft in the two cases. 

Thus we are brought to the consideration of the third point pro- 
posed: 

Thirdly. The influence of the depth ofthefurroio upon the draft. 

From the sort of natural desire which men have to establish some 
principle, rather than because there was any evidence of such a law, it 
has been supposed that the draft of the plow increases with the depth 
of the furrow, in mathematical proportion, that is to say, according to 
the squares of the depth. 

But the investigations already made, though far from satisfactory as 
establishing any principle or law of increase, are conclusive upon the 
proposition that the increase of draft is far less than the proportion 
named. Much depends upon the form of the plow, and whether it is 
made, in these trials, to work much deeper than its design or structure 
warrants. 

Much depends, also, upon the subsoil, and especially upon the ques- 
tion whether, in the experiments upon this point, the plow is run at 
a depth so great as to strike into the hard pan, or stratum, upon 
which the plow sole has, for many years of tillage, run ; and more 
than all_, perhaps, depends upon the particular work in hand, whether 
it be in a tough sward or in an old field. The English experiments 
were tried in a clover field of one year, where there could be nothing 
like the matted turf of our mowing lands. Taking the average of 
their trials, with different plows, it was found that it required an in- 
crease of power of about ninety pounds, upon increasing the furrow 
from four inches to six, and an increase of power of three hundred 
pounds to run the plow eight and a half inches deep. An examination 
of the details of these trials seems to indicate, what, perhaps, might be 
anticipated, that the greater the draft of the plow, in a shallow fur- 
row, the less its increase of draft in the deeper furrow. 

This may readily be accounted for upon the idea that the heavier 
plows, used in the experiments, v/ere intended, and properly con- 
structed for deeper work. From all the results yet published, it would 
be fair to infer, that an increase of depth, not beyond the reasonable 
capacity of the implement, involves an increase of drafts less than half 



246 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

that stated in the books as the rule ; that is, according to the squares 
of the depth. 

FouKTHLT. The influence of velocity on the draft. 

We are accustomed to associate the idea of increased speed with that 
of greatly increased power. With regard to ships, canal boats, and 
the like, it is considered a general rule, that in doubling the velocity 
of a body moving through a fluid, that body not only impinges on 
twice as many particles of the fluid, but on each of them with twice its 
former force; so that the resistance increases as the squares of the 
velocity. The velocity of locomotives upon railways is limited by 
various circumstances, so that it is well understood that a low rate of 
speed is far more economical than a higher rate. But the resistance 
opposed to the plan in its work is mainly attributable to one prin- 
ciple, that of friction, and it is a well established proposition that 
friction is not, in general, increased by an increase of velocity. 

In accordance with this principle, the results of careful experiments, 
with the dynamometer, with the same teams and plows, at various 
rates of speed, indicate no difference whatever in the draft of the plow, 
when at work at the speed of one and a half miles, and three and a 
half miles per hour. It was found, however, that although the average 
draft was substantially the same, at any rate of speed between one and 
a half and five miles per hour, yet that the oscillations in draft were 
greatly increased, that is to say that the draft at a slow rate was more 
regular than at a higher rate of speed. This is readily accounted for, 
because of obstructions in the soil. A stone, for instance, upon which 
the plowshare should strike with double the usual velocity, would 
cause a momentary increase of draft, followed by a decrease, as the 
plow should slip past it. The principle thus practically established, 
that increase of velocity in plowing involves no increase of draft, is of 
the highest importance, as respects the question whether slow or fast 
moving animals should be employed in this work. An ox-team, mov- 
ing at the rate of one and a half miles per hour, will plow an acre, 
turning a furrow nine inches wide, in seven hours and twenty minutes ; 
while a horse-team, moving at the rate of two and three quarter miles 
per hour, will accomplish the same work in four hours, and the actual 
power exerted on the plow is the same in both cases. Hence the im- 
portance of employing active animals in all labor of this kind for 
.which theyare suited. Slowanimals, like oxen, cannot, with or without 
a load, be driven rapidly; but within the natural walking pace of the 
animals employed, there seems to be an actual waste of power in pro- 
portion to the increase of the time employed upon the plow, or. in other 
words, the same force is exerted every moment of eight hours in plow- 
ing an acre, at a given width and depth of furrow, as is exerted in the 
four hours in which a horse- team ma,y perform it, at a fast walk. 
There is, however, another element which cannot be estimated by the 
dynamometer, or any other instrument, yet should enter into our con- 
sideration of this topic. Every animal, in moving, with or without a 
load, carries the burden of his own body, and it is probably true that 
this burden is somewhat in proportion to his weight, and to the speed 
with which he moves. 



ENGLISH PLOWS AND PLOWING. 247 

To illustrate this, we have only to look at the facts developed by the 
use of the dynamometer in plowing over hills. It is found that the 
draft of the plow is very little varied by plowing up or down a descent, 
while every farmer knows very well that his team walks much harder 
in ascending than in descending. 

So if a team be driven up a steep hill without a load, the animals 
obviously exert themselves more than in moving at the same pace on 
level ground. The greater difficulty of ascending may be partly 
accounted for upon the common principle of gravitation. In raising 
himself to the top of a hill, to a position twenty feet higher than he 
before stood, the animal has exerted as much power, in addition to his 
effort on the levels as would be, mathematically, necessary to raise 
the same dead weight the given height in the same time ; and some- 
thing more may be added, for the distorted action of the muscles, and in 
plowing for the disturbance of the true line of draft. Even upon level 
ground, it requires some exertion for any animal to move, and this 
exertion is probably proportioned, in some measure, to the rapidity of 
the motion. Any calculation upon this point, based upon the difficult 
theories of momentum would be of no practical value. Assuming, as 
we may, upon the facts disclosed by the experiments referred to, that 
the draft of the plow is not substantially increased by the velocity of 
its movement, it is for the farmer to consider the natural pace of his 
animals, the saving of time of his laborers, as plowmen or drivers, by 
rapid work, the increased danger of injury to team or implements, 
where the ground is obstructed by stumps or stones, and make the best 
practical use of the developments of science made for his benefit. 

Fifthly. The influence of wheels of various hinds upon the draft, and 

their utility. 

The greater part of the plows used in England are supported by two 
wheels, one on each side of the beam, usually arranged so that one 
wheel runs in the furrow an^ the other on the unplowed land, there 
being a difference in their radius of about the depth of the furrow. 
They are, however, separately adjustable, so as to be changed to gauge 
furrows of different depth. The theory, as stated to the writer by a 
farmer, who was defending the use of the old Norfolk plow with its 
high wheels, is plausible enough in favor of wheels. The draft of the 
plow, said he, results from its friction on the furrow-slice and on the 
bottom of the furrow, and whatever v/eight rests upon the wheels is 
taken from the sole of the plow, and relieves the draft so much as the 
difference between rolling and dragging friction. Various trials have 
from time to time been made in England with a view to determine the 
influence of wheels upon the draft. Mr. Handley's trials, reported in 
the Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society, made with four different 
plows, indicated an advantage from the use of wheels of about fifteen 
per cent. Mr. Pusey's experiments made the difference still greater, 
amounting to twenty-two per cent, in favor of the wheels, Mr. Morton, 
in a series of carefully conducted experiments, made with full knowledge 
of the previous trials by the other gentlemen named, arrives at the 
conclusion, that when a plow is properly set, the addition or removal 
of a wheel will make no material difference in the draft. There is a 



248 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

difficulty in determining this point accurately. Mr. Pusey, in his 
trials, took off tlie wheels from a wheel-plow, and made the comparison 
hetween that plow, thus used as a swing-plow, and the same plow used 
with the two wheels which belonged to it. Now it is ohvious that a 
plow properly constructed for use with wheels, and, of course, to rest 
a portion of its weight upon them, might be increased very much in 
its draft, by throwing that weight upon the sole of the plow, or other- 
wise gauging its furrow by the mode of holding, or of attaching the 
team to it, to prevent its burrowing too deep. On the whole, it is 
believed that the draft of the plow can be very little effected by the use 
of wheels. Most American sod-plows are used with a single small 
wheel, or truck, to gauge the furrows. Sometimes this is directly 
under the end of the beam, and sometimes by its side, and, so far as 
gauging the furrow is concerned, is almost indispensable, but it is not 
apparent why the draft of a plow should be diminished by throwing a 
weight on the wheels, if the plow could be so constructed as to run at 
the desired depth uniformly without such wheels. 

It is manifest that with the wheels, or without, there is the same 
cutting process to be performed^ which, as has been seen, causes more 
than half the draft ; there is the same friction upon the mold-board, 
which must cause nearly, if not quite, the same pressure and friction 
on the sole ; there is the same weight of the implement to be dragged, 
and, certainly, it would move more easily on wheels, if the plow were 
so constructed as to rest part of its weight on the beam, when not at 
work, which is not ordinarily the case. What gain that can be by so 
arranging the parts that the draft of the team shall bring a weight 
down upon the wheels which support the beam is not perceived, but it 
seems that the force which thus bears down upon the beam were better 
applied in overcoming the legitimate and unavoidable resistance of the 
soil to the plow in its proper work. If the wheels are useless, it is 
sufficient objection to them that they increase the weight and cost of 
the implement. If they are useful merely as a gauge of the depth of 
furrow, the single wheel, as being more ^simple and easily adjusted, 
and as being a lesser obstacle in handling the plow, especially in short 
work, seems preferable. 

Sixthly. Tlie effect of the length of the various parts, as the beam, 
the mold-board, and the handles, on the operation of the plow. 

The English plows are, on an average, two fifths longer than 
American plows. There is an obvious reason why short plows must 
be used in the new lands of our country, and in the stony and uneven 
lands of New England. Where a stump is to be avoided in every ten 
feet, or a stone to be scaled at every rod ; where the share catches a 
hinder root, and the team is to be backed every five minutes through 
the day, and the plow dragged backward by main strength ; where it 
is to be set in again as often as it is thus thrown out, with a precision 
of aim equal to that required in rifle-shooting, manifestly nothing but 
a short, stiff, strong implement can possibly be used. For such land 
the long English plow has no pretense of fitness. But upon the old 
fields and bottom lands, upon the prairies, after they are once broken, 
there seems to be no reason why the same j)lows which would really 
be most suitable on English farms should not be here most serviceable 



ENGLISH PLOWS AND PLOWING. 249 

The additional lengtli of the English plows seems to he pretty equally 
distributed between the handles, the mold-board, and the beam. 

Great length of handles gives greater power in controlling the move- 
ment of the plow, and greater length of beam gives greater steadiness 
to the draft ; yet the increased length of both these parts necessarily 
increases their weight, upon the principle of the lever, the greater the 
length the greater the strength to resist the power applied. 

As to the length of the mold-board, it is frequently contended that 
the longer the curve which turns the furrow the less the resistance, 
the mold-board being regarded as operating as a wedge; but this 
idea is open to many objections. 

This part of the subject, however, involves so many considerations, 
which belong rather to the plow-maker than the farmer, that it is 
hardly appropriate for discussion here. Whatever may be the true 
theory as to the length of the mold-boards, its increased length does 
not necessarily involve the increase of the length of the other parts. 
To the practical working of the long English plows, there is an 
obvious objection in the minds of all who have seen them at work in 
small fields. Horses are almost exclusively used there upon the plow, 
and are harnessed one before the other, and with greater length of 
draft-chains than we are accustomed to use. 

As a consequence of this ''long drawn out" establishment, a wide 
headland is left, utterly beyond the reach of the plow, so that where, 
in America, we back up and set in our short plow close to the fence, 
the English farmer sends a man with a spade to work a half day in 
finishing up the land. Where labor is cheap, as in England, this is of 
much smaller importance than it would be with us. 

As a general summary of the matter, as to the comparative merits 
of the English and American plows, it is believed that we have 
improved greatly upon the models, in the lightness of our implement, 
in the less cost of it, and by dispensing with their more complicated 
arrangement of wheels. Whether, by shortening the whole imple- 
ment about two-fifths, we have not sacrificed to our peculiar wants 
upon new fields something of the nice control which the length of 
beam and handle gives to the English plowman, is, at least, ques- 
tionable. Whether we have gained or lost by our changes in the 
length and form of the mold-board, is still undetermined, and must 
remain so till botk implements are tested, in the same field, by the 
dynamometer. 

Finally, there can be no doubt that, generally, their plowmen have 
more skill in their business than ours in New England ; and he must 
be a careless observer, or blinded by prejudice, who does not see that 
their labor in this important department is better performed than in 
our own country. 

STEAM PLOWS IN ENGLAND. 

Fowler's Steam Plow. 

Steam cultivation is attracting great attention among the foremost 
agriculturists in England. The two steam implements which seem 



250 AGRICULTURAL REPORT, 

now to dispute for supremacy are Fowler's plow and Smith's (of 
Wolston) cultivator. The former performs its work strictly by 
plowing, the latter, as the inventor elegantly expresses it, by '' smash- 
ing up" the soil, by means of teeth operating like a spade to stir, 
without subverting the soil. 

To Fowler's steam plow was awarded, at the exhibition of theEoyal 
Agricultural Society, at Chester, in England, in 1858, the grand prize 
of £500, and at Warwick the new prize of £50, in 1859, which fur- 
nishes the best evidence we can have of the comparative merits of 
English implements, and entitles it to a prominent place in any article 
on the subject. At Ipswich, in England, on the 4th of July, 1857, I 
saw in operation Fowler's steam plow. Having previously seen, at 
the workshop of Ransome & Simes, the same implement, and having 
had its principles of operation carefully explained, I spent several 
hours with it, while actually at work upon a large field, where it had 
already plowed many acres. It was, while I observed it, turning 
furrows seven inches deep, by about ten in width, carrying three at a 
time, and performing its work as well as it could be performed in the 
usual way with horses. I carefully paced out the length of the 
furrows, and measured their depth and widths, and, with my watch 
in my hand, timed the ojDerations. The machine was then plowing 
one acre per hour. 

The arrangement was to use four plows and open four furrows at 
each passage across the field, and in that way the labor accomplished 
would be one third more. It is difficult, without drawings for illus- 
tration, to describe intelligibly the details of such an implement, but 
its general plan of operations may be readily understood. The plows 
are arranged in two gangs, of three or more, one gang at each end of 
a heavy framework, whicli is balanced across an axle, supported by 
two large wheels, like those of a heavy gun-carriage. This frame- 
work, with the plows, is drawn across the field by a stationary engine. 
As it is drawn northerly, for example, in its work, the frame which 
carries the plows is borne down, so as to lift the gang of plows at the 
northerly end high into the air, bringing down the southerly end, 
with its plows, so that they enter the soil lor plowing. The depth is 
gauged, mainly, by a large wheel at each end of the framework, 
opposite the plows, which wheel is, in turn, lifted into the air or 
brought down to the surface, with the gang of 'plows to which it 
belongs. 

Two men sat upon the machine, one to guide its motion, by apj)ro- 
priate machinery, the other to make signals with a flag, or do any 
other useful work that occasion might require. The engine in use was 
upon one side of the field, and was called a stationary engine. It was 
drawn to the field by horses, but had powers of locomotion sufficient, 
I think, to run itself along the headland. The jdIow was drawn toward 
the engine by a wire rqi)e, which passed across the field, round a pul- 
ley, made fast at the opposite headland. This pulley was held by what 
was called an anchor, which anchor was in the shape of a four-wheeled 
low cart or car, loaded heavily with stones. The wheels of this car 
were of iron, and sharp at the edges, so that they cut down nearly to 
the axle. This anchor was drawn along the headland by a windlass. 



ENGLISH PLOWS AND PLOWING. 251 

worked by a man, in a direction at right angles with tlie furrow, so 
that the strain upon the pulley was at right angles with the track of 
the wheels. In justice to the inventor, it should be stated that he had 
already, it was said, constructed machinery, to be worked by the engine, 
to move the anchor, and so dispense with the man at the windlass. 

It will be seen at once that this machine could only be of practical 
utility on level, clear fields, of large extent. It could only be used 
upon level fields of uniform surface, because the plows are set in an 
unyielding frame, and must run at the same level, thus running 
deeper across a hillock, and more shoal in a small depression. They 
are arranged not so as to be raised and depressed, each separately, as 
the machine is moving, but the whole gang is acted upon at once. 
Again, the machine would be of no use in a small inclosure, because 
of the broad headlands requisite to accommodate the engine on one 
side, and the anchor on the other. 

It could be of little use in a field obstructed by stones, because of 
the inequalities of surface produced by them, and because, if one of 
the plows meets an obstruction too obstinate to yield, the power of the 
engine must generally be sufficient to break the plovv^, or, what is more 
common, the rope. The breaking of a plow must involve, at least, the 
necessity of a delay sufficient to detach it and substitute another, and 
such a delay of so large and expensive a force as we shall presently see is 
employed, must be of considerable importance. The breaking of the 
rope, which I was informed by the workmen was of frequent occurrence, 
is soon remedied by splicing it, but is, probably, a constant source of 
annoyance. As, however, it is impossible to foresee all obstructionSj 
and the engine must exert great- power, it is, perhaps, best to make 
the rope the weakest part of the machinery, as it is the most easily 
repaired. 

The force employed in this operation, as I witnessed it, beside the 
engine, consisted of five men and a boy, namely, the engineer, who 
remained by the engine^ a boy to carry coal, one man upon the plow 
to manage it, another man, who rode part of the time on the plow, 
and who ran along before it to remove pulleys or rollers over which 
the rope traversed, to keep it from friction on the ground, another 
man to tend the windlass and anchor, and the other to keep the rope 
in place, with a crowbar, that it might wind properly round the drums 
of the engine. 

In estimating the value of such an implement as this, there are 
certain elements always to enter into our calculations. First. The 
amount of labor performed. A span of horses and a plowman would, 
in England, as a regular day's work, plow one acre of such land as 
that under experiment.- They would work six hours, without feeding, 
and in that time complete the day's work. This is the practice, I 
think, in most of England as to working horses. Six plowmen and 
twelve horses would, tor six hours, perform the same work as the five 
men and boy, and the engine, and all the machinery. But the engine 
would not then be fatigued, but might labor on, while the horses must 
rest. Stilly taking into account the liability of complicated machinery 
and of so great a length of rope to accidents which must cause delay, 
perhaps the steam plow could hardly be expected to be actually at 



252 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

work nine hours per day, any more tlian tlie horses. Second. The 
expense and time employed in moving the engine, and plow, and 
anchor to the field* of operation, and placing them in position. I did 
not see the engine or machinery moved with horses, hut this item is 
worth a place in our estimate^ both aS' to expense and time. Third. 
The cost of working, which has been already considered, but there is 
to be added to the cost of the labor already named, the expense of 
supplying the engine with fuel. Both the coal and water are of heavy 
freight, and must be conveyed to the engine by horses and men. 
Their cost, at the field, must depend so much on the locality that it is 
useless to attempt an estimate. Probably an additional pair of horses 
and a man would be usually employed to supply the meat and drink 
of the steam giant. Fourth. The cost of machinery, and of repairs 
upon it. It was said that this engine and plow could be furnished, 
ready for use, at £500, or $2,500. It would require an engineer to 
estimate the cost of repairs. Unless the machine could be kept in 
constant use, the interest on the cost would be a heavy item, and, in 
all cases, must be a constant element to be regarded. The engine 
would be adapted to other farm labor, such as threshing, grinding, 
and the like. Such engines are in constant and extensive use for 
threshing, through England^ on large farms. The inventor of this 
steam plow had taken a large contract to plow for several proprietors, 
a practice which, perhaps, should be kept in view in this discussion, 
though the difficulty of moving the engine from farm to farm, in this 
country, would be far greater than in England, because our roads are 
not so well made. 

Upon the best estimate that I have been able to make, it seems to 
me that Fowler's steam plow can never be made an instrument of gen- 
eral practical utility, either in this or in any other country. Perhaps 
a more competent person, with such data as has been furnished, may 
form an estimate more favorable. 

Simplicity is usually economy, in agriculture especially, and there 
does not seem, upon the theory of this machine, any such promise of 
performance as to compensate for the great expenditure in its struc- 
ture, and the numerous obstacles to its practical operation. 

Since 1857, Fowler's plow has been extensively used in England, 
and may be said to be fairly introduced there, but it may be inferred, 
from the tone of agricultural writers and speakers as gathered from 
newspapers, that it is quite doubtful yet whether it is really a val- 
uable acquisition to agriculture. Subsequent experiments seem to 
indicate that my own estimate of the performance of the plow was too 
large. A recent writer in the Mark Lane Express states that at one 
trial, which he witnessed, the plow turned seven acres in twelve hours, 
and another account gives ninety-six square rods per hour as the result 
of its labor. 

It is claimed, however^ that Mr. Fowler has recently greatly re- 
duced the weight and cost of his machinery. The essential principle 
of a stationary engine and plows or cultivators worked by means of 
ropes and pulleys remains. 



ENGLISH PLOWS AND PLOWING. 263 



BoydelVs Patent Traction Engine. 

The question in En-gland between stationary and locomotive engines 
for cultivation seems strangely enough to be going almost by default 
in favor of the former, while in this country there appears to be a gen- 
eral consent that only a self-moving engine is worthy of notice. Boy- 
dell's elephantine engine attracted great attention, and disputed the 
prize with Fowler's plow, at the Salisbury exhibition in 1858. It 
has, apparently, fallen far behind in the face of competition, and in a 
respectable English journal has been lately spoken of as a mechanical 
absurdity, which wears itself but hourly as it travels. This brief 
condemnation is full of import to American inventors, who are giving 
attention exclusively to locomotive engines, and whose chief embarrass- 
ment thus fiir has been that their machines all break dov/n in every 
attempt at public exhibition. A brief description of Boydell's imple- 
ment may be useful to us for warning as well as example. 

This engine, as exhibited at Salisbury, was operated to draw six 
plows, opening six furrows across the field. It is distinguished from 
the other steam plows that have been mentioned by being worked by a 
locomotive, instead of a stationary engine, which works on the earth like 
some huge animal, puffing and snorting, and taking along its six plows 
with no apparent consciousness of effort. It possesses another pecu- 
liarity : that of laying down an endless railroad track for its wheels to 
run upon, and taking it up as it proceeds. Attached to the wheels of 
the engine are large flat blocks, six to each wheel, like rackets on a 
horse to keep him from sinking in soft ground, which are laid down 
in turn by the wheel in its revolution, and on which the iron rim of 
the wheel runs. This engine works about in a very intelligent sort 
of way, comes to the field from a common road, drawing its tender 
with coal and water, and even carries the extra clothing and dinner 
of the laborers. It turns readily at the end of the furrow, stalks off 
to its water tank when it is thirsty and helps itself to water, and when 
it is hungry or fatigued, goes for its own coal for refreshment. It is 
claimed that the same engine can draw your timber to market or the 
mill upon common roads, haul in your hay and grain, work your 
threshing machine, and, in short, do most of the work of the farm 
instead of horses. This machine was not, at Salisbury, doing such 
good plowing as Fowler's, but the quality of the work is not at present 
of such importance. It is not a question of mere plowing, it is a 
question as to the best mode of applying the power of the steam engine, 
whether as a stationary or locomotive engine, for it is obvious enough 
that when we have once found a convenient and economical power, 
plows, harrows, digging machines, or anything else may be worked by 
it. Boydell's engine is guided by a driver, who sets on the forward 
part, while the engineer rides, like a footman behind. Three double 
plows were, at Salisbury, attached to it by chains, and these were held 
by three men, who walked, following and holding the plows in the 
usual manner. Many of the objections to the stationary engine are 
obviated by this invention. No horses are required to move it from 
place to place, or draw its supply of food and water. The cumbrous 



254 AaRICULTURAL REPORT. 

"anclior," with tlie long ropes, are liere dispensed witli; and if the 
adjustment of the plows, as used by Fowler, is found most convenient, 
there is nothing to prevent its adoption, and the drawing of his plows 
with this locomotive engine. 

Smith's {of Wolston) Cultivator. 

In the progress of all arts and sciences it is observed how principles, 
at one time deemed most vital, come afterward to be regarded as of 
secondary importance, and still later, again assert their original claim 
to attention. Pulverization of the soil was, more than a century ago, 
advocated by Jether Tull as the one essential to good husbandry, and 
he even regarded manure as valuable only as assisting to pulverize the 
soil by fermentation. In later years, chemistry assumed a conspicuous 
position in agriculture, and many have been inclined to regard more 
the constituent elements of plants and of artificial manure than the 
meclianical condition of the soil, like quack doctors, whose attentions 
are so much occupied by their specifics, that they entirely overlook the 
condition of their patients. 

But now, after the practical failure of the theories of some distin- 
guished chemists, agriculturists are again disposed to regard the 
physical condition of the soil as of primary importance, and the opera- 
tions of drawing, subsoiling, and otherwise opening a greater depth of 
soil to the action of the atmosphere, and to the roots of the plant, 
engage the attention of the farmer. As land becomes more valuable, 
it is found more convenient to add another seed-bed to the field by 
preparing it under the shallow furrow turned by our fathers, rather 
than by annexing our neighbor's farm, in the covetous desire to pos- 
sess all the land that adjoins our own. And so we are looking for more 
power to work our land deeper^ and to pulverize it more thoroughly. 
In England, four or five plowings are considered an essential prepara- 
tion for a good crop of turnips. In America, where labor is more 
costly and products usually cheaper, we the more need some more aids 
to our husbandry. Twig says that Romulus^ in his distribution of the 
land, allotted two acres to each citizen, and that after the expulsion of 
the kings it was increased to seven. Columella tells us that the patri- 
monial estate on which Cincinnatus employed himself consisted of four 
acres ! Yet we, whose single farms are larger than the city of Rome, 
with her seven hills, are plodding along, bound to the old notion that 
the plow used by the Romans, or at least its principles of operation, 
must be forever preserved. Every one knows how much better is the 
preparation of the garden by forking up and raking, than by turning 
with plows and harrowing ; and the implement desired now in place of 
the plow is a forking or digging machine, that shall, at one operation, 
stir the ground to sufficient depth, leaving it as nearly as possible in 
the condition of a garden bed prepared with a fork. Such a machine 
has been attempted by Smith, of Wolston. At Salisbury, in 1857, 
when the Royal Agricultural Society repeated their oifer of £500 for a 
steam-plow, Smith was excluded from the competition by the condi- 
tion which made it essential that the implement should turn the soil 
over, while, as already observed, it is an essential feature of the Wol- 



ENGLISH PLOWS AND PLOWING. 255 

ston system that tlie soil should be "stirred and smashed up," and not 
turned over. 

At the Chester exhibition, however, in 1858, Smith and Fowler 
being competitors, the j)rize of £500 was awarded to Fowler, and the 
gold medal to Smith. From Dickens's "All the Year Round" we give 
the best description that can be found of Smith's machine : 

"Mr, Smith uses an ordinary agricultural portable steam engine, of 
from eight to ten horse power, which he fixes at one corner of the 
field, of from ten to twelve acres. In front of the engine is a wind- 
lass, or capstan, with two drums of a peculiar shape, with a coil of 
wire rope around it, and this rope is led over four anchored pulleys, 
one at each corner, and along each side of the field. The windlass at- 
tached to the fly-wheel of the steam engine by a driving band can be 
instantaneously driven in either direction. Four different plows^ or 
cultivators, are used as occasion requires. To the bow of the one in 
use two ends of the rope are attached. An engine-driver, a man at 
the windlass, a plowman, an assistant to shift the pulleys, and a boy, 
are the staff" required. The plow cultivator begins by traveling along 
the more distant side of the field, between the two anchored pulleys ; 
at the end of the first journey the pulley in front is shifted, the engine 
is reversed, and in thirty seconds the plow is traveling back. And 
thus, by alternately shifting, bringing up each of the two most distant 
anchors, strip by strip, the whole field is 'smashed up,' in parallel 
lines, to the spot where the engine stands. 

"His plow No. 4 consists of a very strong frame, in which are fixed 
three subsoil plows, with a pair of wheels in front to guide it, and 
above the center another pair, to regulate the depth. The shares for 
breaking up clay soil, in autumn, are set to work six or eight inches 
deep, (a depth impossible with horse-power.) The points of the shares 
become imbedded in the subsoil, and the whole mass, nearly a yard 
wide and six or eight inches deep, is torn from its position and more 
or less mingled together, leaving, for the most part, the weeds or grass, 
which it is desirable to destroy, near the surface. An implement of 
greater breadth and more shares, on light and moderately tenacious 
soils, has been made to move more than ten or twelve acres a day. 
But, for a description of the four Wolston cultivators, those further 
interested must refer to the inventor's own pamphlets and pictures. 
The obvious drawback of the system consists in the loss of power by 
the friction of the rope along four sides, and consequent induct friction. 
Common farm laborers have been repeatedly and easily taught the du- 
ties of Smith's system of steam cultivation. According to universal 
testimony, nothing can exceed the quality of the work and the satis- 
factory result in crops of all kinds." 

It seems to be admitted that Smith's system requires two operations — 
the first to stir up and break the soil, and the second to pulverize it ; 
the two operations being completed at the rate of three and a half 
acres a day.. 

It is said that Smith, before 1859, had sold some thirty sets of his 
machinery to purchasers who were successfully working them. 

The idea which has thus been advocated by Mr. Smith seems at about 
the same time to have possessed some ingenious agriculturist on the 



256 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

otlier side of the Channel. In a walk near Paris, in July, 1857, I 
accidentally came upon a steam cultivator, or digging machine, in 
full operation. It was a locomotive engine, with, I think, twelve 
spades, or forks, working in pairs, on bent axles, from which the 
spades, if they may be so called, projected at right angles. My im- 
pression is, that each pair of spades struck the ground and entered it 
separately, each of the six pairs successively doing its work, as the 
locomotive traversed the ground, and thus forking up the soil to the 
depth of six or twelve inches, at the will of the operator, and four 
and a half feet wide. The machine was under examination by some 
commission at the time, and I was informed that no report had yet 
been made upon it, no patent secured, and that no description or draw- 
ing of it could be obtained. I took a great deal of pains, afterward, 
to obtain information, and, from my inability to do so, inferred that 
there were reasons why the inventor desired, at present, that his ma- 
chine should not be made public. I was told upon the ground that 
the engine was only of three horse-power ; but its performance indi- 
cated far more. It moved upon broad wheels, however, over the soft 
ground^ which had been before stirred by it, and turned without diffi- 
culty, at the end of the furrow. The spades, I think, were upon three 
or four independent axles, and worked between the wheels of the en- 
gine. Doubtless, the invention will soon be made public, and a full 
description of it given to the world. With my inability to converse 
on a technical subject in the French language, I could not understand 
its details, and find it impossible to convey more than a general im- 
pression of the working of the machine. 

AMERICAN STEAM CULTIVATORS. 

■ In a glance at what has been done and attempted by Americans, in 
the way of cultivation by steam, we shall be struck,with the predomi- 
nant idea of "going ahead." While the greatest performance claimed 
for any English implement is one acre per hour, or eight or ten acres 
a day, we find American machines actually plowing an acre in ten 
minutes, and promising to plow sixty acres per day. With the motto, 
however, which is no favorite with us, of '■'festina lente," it would 
seem that more real progress might probably be made. For, we shall 
see that in nearly every attempt at operating these implements the ex- 
periments closed by the breaking of some part of the machinery. The 
United States Agricultural Society, in their premium list for the exhi- 
bition at Chicago, in 1859, offered their grand gold medal of honor 
''for that machine which shall supersede the plow, as now used, and 
accomplish the most thorough disintegration of the soil, with the 
'^ greatest economy of labor, power, time, and money." 

The medal was awarded to Fawke's Steam Plow, together with 
|3,000, offered by the Illinois State Agricultural Society, in connection 
with the Illinois Central Kailroad Company; and thus this implement 
is placed, at once, at the head of the list of American steam culti- 
vators, and claims our particular attention. 



ENGLISH PLOWS AND PLOWING. 257 



Faivkes's Steam Plow. 

This is the invention of Joseph W. Fawkes, of Christiana, Pennsyl- 
vania. The striking peculiarities of this machine seem to be, that it 
is a locomotive, running on a large roller, or drum, six feet in diameter 
and six feet long, instead of wheels, the design being to obviate the 
ordinary objection to locomotives,, that their wheels cut into the soil, 
and obstruct the motion. The engine draws behind it a gang of eight 
plows, as shown at Chicago, though it is manifest that the number is 
unlimited, and that cultivators, harrows, and other pulverisers, may 
readily be substituted ; the great desideratum is, a locomotive practi- 
cable on a reasonable proportion of land, and, at the same time, cheap 
and durable. This machine, and Waters' s steam plow, which was its 
only competitor, were both caused by the committee to run twice round 
the half-mile track at Chicago, and to turn a single furrow, within the 
inclosure. They were then taken to the smooth, open prairie, for final 
trial. The result, as reported by the Quarterly Journal of Agriculture, 
was, that Fawkes's implement plowed at the rate of one acre in seven- 
teen minutes, or three and a half acres per hour, including turns, and 
the work was excellent. There was some detention by clogging of the 
plows, which may be easily obviated. It Avould seem that, after plow- 
ing about two acres, the steam got too low for the continuance of the 
experiment ; and the committee suggest some improvement as expedient 
for increasing the power of the engine. The committee conclude by 
remarking, that while they "^are by no means prepared to certify that 
Mr. Fawkes's plowing machine has reached the degree of perfection 
only to be had after much practical working on a farm, they do not 
regard its several weak points as invalidating its claim to public favor, 
for enough good work was done, in the two miles of furrow it run on 
Friday, to prove it to have great merit." 

For the benefit of those who desire an understanding of the details 
of this implement, we add a description of it, by the committee of 
mechanists who conducted the recent trials of steam plows at the fair 
of the Illinois State Agricultural Society : 

"To form a complete conception of this steam plow, let the committee 
recall the appearance of a small-sized tender of a locomotive engine. 
Let about half the forward portion of the sides and tank be removed. 
We now have something which resembles the body of Fawkes's machine. 
In the middle of the forward portion of the platform stands the upright 
boiler, which is about 6^ feet high and 4 feet in diameter, the fire-box 
and ash-pit being of course below the level of the platform, and the 
fire-door opening forward. The boiler contains 220 l|-inch tubes, 
which, computed together with the fire-box, gives 3T5 feet of fire sur- 
face. Steam may be got up in 15 minutes, although twice that time 
is usually necessary. The fuel may either be bituminous coal or wood. 
The cylinders are horizontal, 9 inches in diameter and 15 inches stroke, 
and are placed one on each side of the boiler. The pistons communi- 
cate motion not to the side-wheels, but to a drum or roller, 6 feet in 
diameter and 6 feet long, which, as the sides of the platform overhang 
its end, is comparatively out of sight. The drum is placed about mid- 
17— a 



258 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

way between tlie front and back of the machine ; before it depends the 
fire-box, and over and behind it is the tank ; so that when the boiler 
and tank are full they nearly counterbalance each other on the axles 
of the driving drum. 

''This drum is composed of two iron heads or 'spiders,' and an 
intermediate one; to these, thick, narrow planks, cut like staves, fitting 
elosely, are bolted and form the periphery. The adhesion is, therefore^ 
produced by a surface of wood six feet long, which never becomes 
polished, and the bearing of which is always across the grain. There 
is no slipping ; the machine is started and stopped instantly ; and, 
except when propelling itself a considerable distance on turnpike or 
paved roads, the wear and tear is slight. This substitution of the 
driving-roller for the ordinary side-wheels wonderfully increases trac- 
tion, and prevents sloughing in wet or yielding soil; while moderate 
irregularities of surface scarcely affect the onward march of the plow. 
Another great advantage is gained by the gearing of the drum. Instead 
of being attached directly to a crank on the axle of the drum^ each 
connecting rod communicates motion to a pinion which turns easily, 
but without shake on the axle just mentioned; the pinion interlocks 
with a cog-wheel which, by a pinion on its axis, imparts motion to the 
cog-wheel "bolted to the drum ; the whole being so proportioned that 
six strokes of the piston cause one revolution of the drum. 

' ' Increase of power and of control over the movements of the engines 
are secured. 

" I-n front of the fire-box is a short tapering bow of sheet-iron, which 
serves as a seat for the fireman and a receptacle for fuel. The bow is 
supported by a body-bolt on a truck composed of two iron guide-wheels 
three and one-half feet in diameter and fifteen inches broad. The 
truck moves freely like the front wheels of a chaise, and is controlled 
by a steering wheel in charge of the engineer, so that the whole 
machine is turned as readily and as short as a farm-wagon. The 
engine is thirty horse jlower. The entire length of the machine is 
about 18 feet; its weight with water and fuel, 10 tons; and cost, 
including 'donkey' engine and pump, about $4,000. By this pump, 
water may be drawn from a well or creek, and the tank filled, or water 
forced from the tank to the boiler. 

"The tank holds twelve barrels, sufiicient for three hours' running. 
The plows, eight in number, are attached to one frame, which is 
suspended by chains, passing over grooved pullies, in two beams, 
projecting from the seat of the engine. These chains communicate to 
a windlass, in charge of the fireman in front, by which a gang of plows 
may be raised or lowered at pleasure, and the frame of plows is drawn 
by other chains, which are attached to the under side of the frame of 
the engine." 

Waters' s Steam Plow. 

James Waters, of Detroit, formerly of Pennsylvania, is the inventor 
of a steam plow, which, at Chicago and elsewhere, has attracted much 
notice. It is thus well described by a correspondent of the "Country 
Gentleman : " 



ENGLISH PLOWS AND PLOWING. 259 

'^This macliine has four cylinders, 5f inches in diameter, the stroke 
of the piston being 12 inches. The boiler, which is the one used on 
locomotive engines, is 6 feet in length, with 100 flues, and can bear a 
pressure 200 pounds to the square inch. The driving wheels are 10 
feet in diameter, and 26 inches on the face, each braced with two sets 
of iron spokes athwart each other. They are turned by means of a 
pinion connected with the main shaft or axle-tree, which works into 
an internal gearing of the size of the inside diameter of the wheels. 
On the outside pieces or ridges of iron are attached to prevent the wheels 
from slipping. There are two leading wheels, 5 feet in diameter, and 
13 inches on the face. The weight of the whole machine is 7^ tons, 
which is applied on the front of the driving wheels to produce a steady 
motion. Two men are required to work this engine, one to steer and 
the other to attend to the fire. Its working power is 150 pounds of 
steam, while it can be moved with only 15 or 20 pounds. Underneath 
the boiler is an iron tank and a fire-box. There is also a tender, 
which is used for carrying both wood and water. 

''Frye's gang plow, another Detroit invention of considerable merit, 
is the only kind of plow which this machine has drawn yet. The 
shares of this plow are fixed on a triangular frame, which supports 
two gangs, and runs on three wheels. They are made expressly for 
the prairies, and will cut a wide or narrow furrow according to their 
arrangement on the frame. Mr. Waters states that the width of the 
cut, counting thirteen shares, is 19 feet, and that he can plow sixty 
acres a day." 

At the trial at Chicago thirteen plows in three gangs were used, 
hitched one behind the other, which with the engine, tender, and 
water cart, made a train of thirty-seven feet in length. The machine, 
after showing its locomotive powers on the track, was put to its trial on 
the prairie, and made an astonishing start turning a breadth of furrows 
of nineteen feet at one operation, and running three hundred feet in 
two minutes, or at the rate of an acre in sixteen minutes, when the 
performance came to an end by the breaking of a wheel. It seems 
manifest that Mr. Waters' s machinery is cumberous and expensive, 
and equally manifest that he failed at Chicago for want of care or 
skill in operating his implement^ rather than in the principles of his 
plow. 

An obvious objection to this machine is its great length, which 
renders it unfit for small fields, and the fact that it does not finish up 
its work^ but leaves a strip of fifty feet in the middle to be finished by 
horse-power. 

By the report of the committee at the Chicago exhibition it appears 
that two other substitutes for the plow were offered for examination, 
but no account of the performance of either has been published. One 
of these was offered by John Van Doren & Co.^ of Chicago, and is 
described as '' a rotary cultivator, driven by steam and self-j)ropelling. 
Beside plowing, it may be applied to other uses, such as harvesting 
grain, cutting grass, and, having a pulley of suitable dimensions, 
may be used as stationary power for farm machinery. This machine 
was at work at various times on the fair grounds, but when the com- 
mittee sent ofiicial notice that they were ready to test it in detail the 



260 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

owner could nowhere be found, and no opportunity was afterward 
afforded until the close of the exhibition." 

The other, offered by B. F. Fields of Milwaukie, Wisconsin, say 
the committee, is ''a revolving plow and seeding machine, and is thus 
made: There is an outer slatted drum of iron, 4| feet in diameter and 
5 feet wide, made in three sections. Inside, on an eccentric shaft, are 
fixed three sets of 20 spades each, set 8 inches apart on 'spiders,' but 
all turning on one shaft. As they come in turn below, the spades 
project beyond the outer drum through the apertures, and the weight 
of the machine (2 tons) being thrown upon them_, they enter the 
ground to the depth of 8 inches. The machine turning as it travels 
forward, the spades coming behind lift the earth as they emerge, and 
disturb its relative position as would a spade in the hands of a man, 
except that the soil is not inverted. Behind the spading apparatus, 
on the back part of the frame which surrounds the whole, is a row of 
ordinary drill sheaths to deposit the seed in the ground, which is fed 
to them by suitable hoppers with valves." 

It is fair to conclude, from the facts thus brought together^ that the 
subject of steam cultivation is attracting, both in England and America, 
the greatest attention. As yet, while we cannot admit that in either 
country any improvement has been tested, which so combines efficiency 
and economy as to give us assurance of its general adaptation, enough 
has been done to give us confidence that steam, especially on our 
broad prairies, must ere long render efficient aid to the farmer in 
tilling the soil. 



CONSTEUCTION AND AEMT^GEMENT OE HOUSE 

STABLES. 



(condensed from dr. RUEF]?, professor at IIOHENHEIM, GERMANY.) 



As most diseases of our domestic animals originate from the domes- 
tication to which they have been subjected, a condition often far 
removed from the natural one, it devolves as a principal duty upon 
the breeder and owner to take such care of them that this change of 
life, instead of an injurious, may have a beneficial result. Attention 
given to horses combines economical advantages, as feeding them in 
stables is not only a saving of fodder, but, under certain circumstances, 
also of labor. 

The place where domestic animals are kept forms an essential con- 
sideration. In all countries, not sparsely settled, and therefore thor- 
ougly cultivated, animals pass a great portion of the year, and even 
of every day, in the stable. This applies especially to horses, and 
easily explains the fact of more care and expense being bestowed on 
them than on any other domestic animals. Yet it is equally true that 
the labc<r and money expended for such stables are often insufficiently 
rewarded by the welfare of their occupants, because the construction 



AEEANGEMENT OF HORSE STABLES. 261 

and arrangement are seldom executed with a degree of information 
corresponding to the importance of the matter, and for the special 
reason that the necessary knowledge of architecture and diet is rarely 
united in the builder. 

In many cases, building a stable is left to the architect alone, who, 
when provided with ample means, is apt to indulge too much in his 
esthetic genius, often regardless of things appearing to be insignifi- 
cant in themselves, though very important with respect to the prin- 
cipal object. Such things are often neglected, because of their being 
in contrast with his views of architectural beauty, and opposed to his 
plans. If, however, the means are limited, as generally happens, 
the building, notwithstanding the best wishes and knowledge, will 
often be erected in such a manner as will not answer even the most 
indispensable requirements. 

On the other hand, the keeper of horses would not seem able of 
himself alone to arrange his buildings, as he has commonly no knowl- 
edge or experience in architecture. It would, therefore, always be best 
for the proprietor and the architect to exchange their ideas, and unite 
in carrying out such purposes. I have myself received numerous in- 
structions from architects ; had the experience of many years in keep- 
ing horses ; examined plans of stables in various places and countries ; 
and have been led by my position to a profound study of the diet ; so that 
I entertain no fears of architects being dissatisfied at my undertaking 
to furnish some advice on the arrangement of stables. At the same 
time, I hope agriculturists and owners of horses will be pleased to 
receive such views as are based on my own experience. 

In the first place, a stable should be protected from climatical in- 
fluences, humidity, heat, cold, and winds. Again, it should afford 
security from all mechanical injuries, providing even for comfort, so that 
the animals, being left entirely undisturbed, may gather new strength 
for the performance of their services. Atmosphere, light, and heat, 
as the fundamental requirements of life, are entitled to the highest 
consideration in the arrangement of stables, and in their application 
they should be made capable of modification by man. The following 
points, individually, seem to deserve special attention. 

Location. — In constructing a horse stable, the principal front should 
be to the west, so as not to be too much exposed either to the northern 
winds or the hot sun during the middle of the day. If, from want of 
room, any other locality must be selected, the stable should be pro- 
tected from the above influences by the cultivation of trees, or shutters, 
blinds, &c. It would not be at all advantageous to locate a stable 
near a hill-side, or any other elevation, especially one consisting of a 
loose and porous soil, or, being of rock, if the layers should descend 
toward the stable, as, thus situated, the water will frequently find its 
way into the building ; at any rate, the wall next the slope will be 
injured ; and besides, such stables are, for the most part, humid and 
unhealthy. If such a position cannot be avoided, a trench should be 
dug around the stable at a distance of some four feet from the ground 
wall, the bottom of the trench to be always lower than the level of the 
stable floor; or a loam stamp may answer the purpose. These precau- 
tions are indispensable if a creek runs near, the surface of which is 



262 AGRICULTUKAL REPORT. 

always, or even for a time, higher than the bottom of the stable. 
Wherever the location is such that the droppings of the roof or other 
waters would cause a general wetness both of the ground and the 
bottom of the stable, drainage must be provided for. 

Stables are often joined to other buildings ; when to dwelling-houses, 
they have the advantage of being uniformly warmed. Though the 
warmth evaporating from, horse stables during winter is agreeable, yet 
such a close proximity is not to be generally recommended, as the 
ceiling and windows of stables are not so constructed as to protect 
sufficiently the human inmates from ammoniacal vapors, and as the 
flies, always numerous in such situations, are very troublesome to man. 
Yet there should be an easy access from the dwelling-house to the 
stable, which would allow a convenient superintendence ; for especially 
in rearing horses is the ]3roverb applicable : ' ' The eye of the master is 
worth as much as a sack of fodder." On farms, all kinds of draft 
animals are usually kept together in one stable, for the purpose of 
better overseeing them and of saving time in the distribution of labor. 
But there are many disadvantages in this practice, especially if the 
egress from the stable is one and the same for horses aod draft oxen. 
Mutual injuries would result, and an undue cooling of the stables in 
winter, as oxen, on account of their slowness, require the doors to be 
kept open for a longer time. An additional reason will be found in 
the fact that horses require for their welfare a higlier degree of tempera- 
ture in the stable than oxen. 

The ground. — The ground, on which the stable is to be erected, 
should be solid; especially avoiding peaty or marshy ground, other- 
wise the evaporations penetrating the flooring would fill the close 
rooms built above, and render the premises unhealthy. Loose ground 
absorbs too much urine, which, decomposing, will generate dangerous 
vapors of bad odor. In case of such improper foundation being 
unavoidable, solid stone pavements, tight gutters, spouts, and drains, 
must be provided. 

External ivall. — The inclosure is sometimes very imperfect. Stables 
on pastures are often without any walls, only a roof supported by 
columns being provided as a shelter from rain and the heat of the sun. 
If something better may be intended, these "sheltering huts" are 
merely closed with boards, and cribs and racks furnished for the purpose 
of feeding, if necessary. Nor is there much more solidity in stables 
constructed of hurdle-work. The mode of building of mud, or layers of 
stamped clay, has no claim to durability, as it affords no firm support 
for cribs and racks, which in horse stables require to be solid. Stables 
of beams and rafters, or the log-house structure, the interstices of 
which are filled with moss, will keep warm, yet, being perishable, 
they will not only be too expensive where timber is dear, but are also 
much exposed to the danger of fire. 

I have seen a stable in the form of a log-house, with filled walls, 
which lasted thirty-one years. The pine logs, usually from three to 
four feet long, are inserted by means of tenons in the grooves of the 
perpendicular oak-columns and corner posts. To prevent the air from 
penetrating through the joinings, grooves are made, both on the upper 
and under side of the logs, and laths inserted in the grooves. The 



ARRANGEMENT OF HORSE STABLES. 263 

logs employed are usually from six to seven inches in thickness. These 
wooden walls should be wainscoted, and as they are more liable to 
injury near the windows, they should be carefully protected there, by 
being covered with tin or painted with tar. Such buildings will be 
more durable if the roofs project to a grcEit extent. 

The best massive walls are those made of granite, limestone, and 
sandstone. The most suitable material for building stables is tufaceous 
limestone, resisting, in consequence of its porous quality, the rapid 
change of temperature, retaining firmly and for a long time its plas- 
tering, and being in many localities very cheap and easy of manufac- 
ture. In the majority of stable walls of stone, there is an essential 
evil, to be noticed in the generation of niter, in consequence of which 
not only the quality of the stone is impaired, but the stable is kept 
humid, on account of the hygroscopic qualities of the salt produced. 
The formation of niter is explained by the unavoidable decomposition 
of the excrement of animals, under the influence of humidity and 
warmth, promoted by the want of cleanliness, and the properties of 
the walls. Especially stones of a very porous nature, for instance, 
soft sandstones containing much clay, the yellow sandstone, porous 
limestone, limestone with organic remains, as shell lime in some local- 
ities, mortar and loam, containing kali, favor the generation of niter. 
Solid and polished limestones, as marble and granite, will not permit 
the formation of saltpeter, which is also prevented by smooth plaster- 
ing. All varieties of stone, however, containing lime, kali, and mag- 
nesia, will, particularly when favorably influenced by the want of 
cleanliness, warmth and humidity, form saltpeter. But as this forma- 
tion is confined to a certain distance from the surface of the ground 
and the wall, special regard must be had that the lower portions of the 
wall most exposed to humidity should be built of the best and densest 
material. 

Ceilings. — ^Vaulted ceilings of brick or stone afford the greatest 
security against fire; they keep warm in winter and cool in summer; 
prevent the falling of filth from above, and permit no vapors to pene- 
trate into the upper portion of the building ; but on account of the 
side pressure caused by the vault, they require stronger walls, and are 
therefore expensive^ both at the outset and in reparation. Besides, 
the vaults allow only imperfect ventilation. Wanting good and dura- 
ble stones, the ceilings must be plastered, but on account of the differ- 
ent parts of the vaults not being uniformly warmed and moistened, 
such ceilings will soon crack and fall. Owing to this variation of tem- 
perature, vapors will collect on certain parts of the vault, and fre- 
quently fall in drops from the ceiling in winter, so that either some of 
the animals will be molested, or portions of the stable will always be 
damp and impure. 

If it is intended to make a cheaper ceiling, it must yet be remem- 
bered that solidity is important, so that neither the dwellings that 
may be above the stables shall be molested by the vapors from below^ 
nor that the beams and rafter shall thus be affected. If there is fodder 
stored away above the stables, it will also suffer from these vapors, 
and the filth, dust, and offal of hay falling through the ceiling will 



264 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

render tiie skin of the horses impure, cause itcliing, and even in some 
cases, disease of the eyes. 

Ceilings made with gypsum are unsuitable, as they will not last 
long ; the wire and nails which support them rusting off, and allow- 
ing the material to drop, so that the animals will be dangerously 
excited, or even considerably injured. The advantages of plastered 
ceilings, in preventing vapors from penetrating, may also be secured 
by making them oblique, grooves being formed in the rafters, into 
which boards are obliquely inserted, so as to render them durable and 
easy of reparation. As better security against fire and the penetration 
of vapors^ they may receive at the top a layer of mud mixed with 
gravel, or of loam with chopped straw. They will thus, also, retain 
a greater degree of warmth. The loam may be spread above to a 
height equal with the rafters, if the upper room is intended for storing 
away fodder ; or there may be a common flooring, the space between 
which and the oblique ceiling to be filled with a non-conductor of 
heat, for instance: ashes, awns of barley and chaff. The filling up 
will keep warm, without being liable to catch fire, as many believe ; 
for a fire may even be extinguished by means of chopped straw and 
chaff. 

It should always be kept in view to prevent the beams of the ceil- 
ings from becoming rotten, a thing which so often happens. Some, 
are of opinion that this object could be accomplished by shutting off 
the beams from the space of the stable by another ceiling, and thus 
protecting them. But it should be remembered that air and humidity 
are not so easy to be kept off, and that they will still penetrate through 
the joinings of the lower ceiling. The injurious consequences of these 
vapors will be more apparent when they are confined, as is indeed the 
case if the rafters are wainscoted both above and below. Should a 
current of air, however, be permitted to pass through, the ceiling 
would become too cold, and the vapors, precipitated too freely, would 
destroy the wainscoting. Were awns or chaffs, which would keep 
warm, put between, the air would still penetrate, thus moistening the 
beams ; and in this case also, on account of insufiicient change of air, 
they would be destroyed. 

The worst method of constructing a ceiling is that of wainscoting 
by means of nails; it will soon be destroyed, the nails not being 
durable. 

Others are of opinion that the beams could be better secured by 
leaving them perfectly free at the ceiling ; they put on, therefore, a 
wainscoting above, or, for the sake of cheapness, small boards from 
one rafter to another, upon which they make a flooring of loam, or, 
still better, of gypsum. This kind of ceiling is very suitable when 
it is intended to keep fodder above the stable. 

The stables should never be of such height as to prevent their being 
perfectly warmed. The destruction of the beams of- the ceiling is 
merely caused by their becoming thoroughly moistened, a circumstance 
produced by too strong a cooling of the air saturated with vapors. 
Any stable in which the upper layers of atmosphere, being otherwise 
always the warmer, are rendered so cold that the watery vapors are 
precipitated, (in fluid form,) must, on the whole, be too cool. A 



ARRANGEMENT OP HORSE STABLES. 265 

height of ten or eleven feet would seem to he most suitahle where not 
more than six horses are kept. 

The floor. — The part of the floor on which the horse stands may he 
constructed in a different manner from the passage-way. The former 
must he convenient for resting, and strong enough to hear the long- 
continued pressure of the hody of the animal ; it must also be so con- 
trived as to prevent the accumulation of impurities. 

As to the direction of the surface of this standing-place frequent 
mistakes are made. From over-care to secure the flowing off of the 
urine, the descent is often made too sloping, being five per cent., and 
even six per cent. Thus the horses are placed on a declivity, requir- 
ing a continual strain of the muscles of the limbs and back; the 
animals become tired in the stables, instead of resting; and their 
joints grow diseased, showing excrescences, barbels, defective posi- 
tions, &c. Horses not shod, and colts, will, on a sloping floor, use 
to excess and wear away the front part of the hoof, while the proper 
standing parts are so little employed that they cannot sufiiciently 
expand, thus becoming goat-hoofed and heel-bound, as indicated by 
too upright a position in the pasterns and fetlock, known as ' ' goat- 
footed." 

Whoever may observe horses in such situations, will find that, if 
possible, they choose an oblique direction, so as to gain a horizontal 
position for the length of their bodies. The care employed for the 
flowing off of the urine is, in most cases, not founded on perfect rea- 
son, because the males only would discharge their water within the 
stand, while the mares would wet the stand but little. Besides, with 
horses receiving no green fodder, this discharge is not so copious as to 
cause so much anxiety about drainage. At the same time, if there is 
always litter on hand, as it should be in a well-arranged stable, no 
water will flow from the stand. 

A descent of the floor of from one to two per cent, is most suitable; 
horizontal stands not answering the system of the body of the horse, 
which is generally somewhat higher behind than in front ; such con- 
struction, therefore, shoving the over-weight of the hind part toward 
the front or forepart of the animal. But in the passage-way a hori- 
zontal floor is the best, the objection being with regard to cleanliness ; 
therefore, it may be a little arched, with a descent of from two to three 
per cent. 

The material of the floor often consists merely of earth, or of loam 
beaten down ; or it is a barn-floor, composed of loam mixed with iron 
scales and blood; again, a floor is made of gypsum, or four and a half 
parts of gravel with one of hydraulic lime. 

There are, however, some floors unsuitable for stables. Loam mixed 
with sand, so often employed, is too liable to crumble. It would be 
better to use pure, uniform, and well-worked loam, which should be 
applied to a thickness of from 8 to 10 inches, and well beaten. A 
layer of hydraulic or black lime, two inches in height, on the mois- 
tened surface of the loam would contribute so much to the solidity of 
the floor that it would for a long time resist the tread of the horses. 

Another good floor may be formed of seven parts of peat ashes, 
finely sieved, and one of slaked lime. Both substances are made with 



266 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

water into a stiff dough, wliicli is put on and stamped, either alone in a 
large quantity^ or on a common loam floor in a more limited quantity. 

As all these substances are slower in drying than gypsum, the surface 
requires to be frequently moistened in order to delay its drying until 
the inner layers shall have become perfectly united. In this manner 
the bursting and splitting of the mass may be obviated by repeated 
beating and stamping. If the materials for such floors are not well 
selected, or if the layer is too thin, they require frequent reparations, 
and are both expensive and troublesome. 

They will not last long, in any situation ; the action of the urine 
softens them, and they are loosened and broken by the shoes of the 
horses. They may only be applied in rather large running stables 
where young colts are kept, or, if at all in others, in the passage-way, 
where horses are neither too heavy, nor frequently brought in and out, 
and where there is great attention paid to cleanliness. Neither are 
those floors to be recommended for colt stables, where the colts are 
confined to one stand. 

Macadamized floors, in inclosed spaces on which there is no driving 
of carriages, will never attain the same solidity and uniformity as is 
observed on open roads, and are, therefore, totally unfit for stables. 

Common pavements are the most durable, and therefore the cheap- 
est, the price, of course, depending not only on the locality, but also 
on the different kinds of stones to be used. Pavement, when used in 
the stand, has the disadvantage of more rapidly loosening and wearing 
out the horse shoes than on a floor made of wood. Some of the 
blocks, also, will inevitably sink, causing four-sided holes or pits, 
which are known to be dangerous. A pavement neglected and out of 
order will produce an unequal pressure, contusions of the body of the 
horse occupying the stand, &c. 

For the same reason, those pavements made of rolling stones, and 
which so many see fit to recommend, should never be employed. It 
was thought that the sliding of the horses, so common in paved stands, 
could be prevented by employing stones not larger than a fist, but it 
is precisely on such, well-rounded and highly-arched as they are, that 
the foot is most liable to slide. Moreover, a great deal of dirt collects 
in the numerous deepenings and gutters between the stones. To a 
great extent the sliding may be obviated by allowing the floor in the 
stand but a very small descent, as above intimated, and by employing 
a material not too hard or rough ; for instance, mixed sandstone. 
Granite would be better than shell-lime. Lias-lime, or Jura-lime, 
though sandstone wears off the horse shoes more rapidly than any 
other variety of stones. 

The best pavement both for the stand and passage-way is made of 
double-burned bricks, which, after being closely laid with the high 
edge on a flat stratum of similar stones, are fastened with cement. All 
stone floors are, besides, liable to the objection of being a cold place 
of rest for the animals, and of subjecting them, under certain circum- 
stances, to catching colds^ a fact which will not so often occur on a 
wooden floor, that being a non-conductor of heat. If horses are 
obliged to rest on an uncovered floor, either standing or lying, their 
tired muscles and irritated feet will certainly sooner and better be re- 



ARRANGEMENT OP HORSE STABLES. 267 

lieved on a soft wooden floor than on a hard pavement. The disad- 
vantages mentioned, however, in regard to the stone j)avement may he 
removed, or at least modified, hy a good litter, so that a stone floor 
may safely he recommended to all farmers provided with a sufficient 
supply of straw. 

Woodmen pavements are not at all suitahle for floors in the stand, as 
the hlocks, heing often different in age and solidity, wear out unevenly, 
leaving pits, as in the stone pavements above mentioned. This mate- 
rial also readily absorbs the urine, which decomposes, producing bad 
odors in the stable and decay in the wood itself. It is generally suit- 
able only where carefully kept dry, and may well be applied in the 
passage-way, for on such a pavement the tread of the horses is secure 
and pleasant to them; nor does it wear their shoes. The stratum 
below the wooden blocks ought to be porous, consisting, if possible, of 
sand, so that the liquids accidentally leaking through the joinings 
shall not collect below the wood ; as a preventive, fine sand is some- 
times swept and strewn into the joinings. The blocks should be from 
seven and a half to ten inches in height. In some large stables, this 
wooden pavement in the passage-way lasted over twenty-one years, 
without requiring any essential repairs. 

Where, from the greater value of horses, it is the desire to arrange 
everything in the best way with regard to the health, strength, and 
even comfort, of the occupants of the stables, and where there is no 
scrupulous regard to expense, the floor of the stand is made of boards. 

These stands may be constructed in different ways. The simplest 
method is to lay the boards directly on the sand or the natural ground. 
Another method consists in first laying down a floor of stone, bricks, 
or asphalt, which may conduct the liquids leaking from the wooden 
floor into the principal channel, either by a deepening on the lower 
surface, or by one or two gutters. On this water-tight floor, and in 
the direction of the length of the stand, three oaken beams are laid, 
upon which the boards are finally placed, so as to give them a secure 
foundation. All these board stands are somewhat expensive, as they 
require freqent repairs. It has been asked, which of the two methods 
is the most durable, or the best? To the hollow floors it is objected 
that they are dangerous to horses, whose hoofs might easier be caught 
in the holes often caused by the blocks decaying through, producing 
distortions of the limbs ; or, it is feared the horse will stamp through 
the worn-out boards, and fracture his bones. 

This stamping is not so dangerous as some may believe, for an atten- 
tive keeper will, from time to time, remove the defective boards; nei- 
ther will an intelligent builder construct the drains on the lower floor 
of so great a descent that the foot would be injured by descending in 
them. Two gutters made lengthwise, or a single flat gutter, would 
be sufficient to carry off the urine leaking through the board stand. 
Their descent need not exceed from five to six per cent., while that of 
the board floor should be one to two per cent. ; the hollow space below 
thus being but three inches at the deepest spot, provided the floor has 
not been unnecessarily raised by the beams. If there is a double gut- 
ter on the lower floor, the beams may be dispensed with, by construct- 



268 AGRICULTURAL REPORT, 

ing tlie edges of tlie gutters and tlie backs between both gutters in so 
accurate a manner that the boards can be laid down flat and solid. 

Some are of the opinion that boards laid down hollow are sooner 
liable to rot and to be destroyed, if they only become wet from below, 
and therefore they prefer laying them immediately on the ground ; 
thus the whole board is always kept wet on all sides, as the water is 
continually coming up through the joinings. It is said that the wood 
is thus just as well preserved as if it were totally kept under water. 
But experience shows that the boards are less injured by decay than 
by shoes, hoofs, and sometimes even by the teeth of the horses. The 
hollow floors are always clean and dry, while boards laid directly on 
the ground are wet and dirty, spattering the hoofs, and often the legs, 
with manure water, which is the cause of rottenness of the frog and 
malanders. A board laid hollow, on an average, will keep for three 
years, so that the stand may still be said to be in good condition. 

In laying these boards, provision should be made that they may 
easily be taken up again, either for changing or cleaning them. In 
changing them, the boards occupying the forepart of the stand, and 
not having been injured so much, may be substituted for those forming 
the back part, which are therefore more worn. They may be cleaned 
by taking up the front board and washing out the slab-floor below, 
pouring a bucketful of water through the opening made by the re- 
moval of the first board. This operation should take place every eight 
days. All the boards, however, should be taken up once every three 
months, so that the slab-floor and gutters may be thoroughly cleansed 
with broom and water. 

Those boards lying immediately on the ground, being always wet, 
become softened, and are therefore apt to wear out faster by the feet 
of the horses than dry wood of the same quality. It seems to be im- 
probable that wood continually saturated with and buried in manure 
water should be less liable to rot than wood accessible to air, and 
therefore, for the most part, in a dry condition. To facilitate the flow 
of urine through the boards, holes are made in them. This method, 
however, is unnecessary, and tends to accelerate the decay of the boards. 
The urine will find a way of itself through the joinings. The prom- 
inent part of the shoes of horses are sometimes caught in such holes, 
and thereby loosened ; besides, perforated wood is more apt to absorb 
manure water. 

In English stables, plates of cast-iron, perforated in the shape of a 
T, are sometimes used for the back part of the board floor to facilitate 
the flow of urine. Cast-iron floors will probably come into general 
use in stalls, because they are easy of removal and never entirely loose 
their value, as in the case with wood and stone. 

As boards^ when kept dry, are durable, they may be used for the 
floor of the forepart of the stall, and, closely joined, also for the back 
portion. With regard to the proper material, oak is the best, but the 
most costly. Beside, horses are more liable to slip on it than they 
would be on soft kinds of wood. If, however, but narrow boards are 
employed, or if four-cornered beams are laid across the ribs, so as to 
be changed four times, or whenever their surfaces may be worn out, 
the horses will not so often slip, on account of the many joinings. 



ARRANGEMENT OP HORSE STABLES. 269 

Bed fir resists moisture longer than white pine. Healthy and dry 
wood, which has not been cut during the running of the sap, (an im- 
portant consideration in the building of stables,) should be procured. 

From the preceding, it would seem that board floors are most suit- 
able for light horses, whose weight will not produce much injury, and 
especially for mares, wetting at most the two last boards. In addition 
to this, it is thought that the use of horse shoes without points, as they 
are employed in Italy, France, and England, is especially favorable to 
the preservation of a wooden flooring. 

In order to check the decay of wood in damp stables, it may be 
soaked before use in a solution of sublimate of mercury or kyanizing. 
■This method, however, is expensive. Beside, attention may be called 
to the process patented by Bernett, consisting of muriate of zinc dis- 
solved by iron vitriol and in water, in the proportion of one to six. 
Particular attention is called to the method proposed by Miinzing, of 
soaking in sulphate of manganese. In consequence of the application 
of these saline liquors, the albumen of the wood, by which decay is 
principally generated, is made to coagulate, so that decomposition, as 
is the case in smoked meat, is very much delayed, if not altogether 
prevented. 

In some studs, the floors of the stalls are made of asphalt. Though 
these appear to be very clean, yet there are many disadvantages con- 
connected with them. Horses will crumble the material in a short 
time with their shoes, making its repair difficult, as special mechanics 
would be required. Horses not shod are liable to slip on this kind 
of floor, notwithstanding it may have been provided with notches. 
Yet, where not too costly, it may be recommended for stables of cattle. 

It may be here mentioned that in England some stables have the 
floors of their stalls made of gutta percha and caoutchouc. This ap- 
pears to be a luxurious experiment, no doubt agreeable and beneficial 
to the horses, but not easy to introduce generally. 

Finally, the arrangement of stable floors deserves our full attention, 
as the expense of the building itself, the health of the animals, and 
cleanliness, are intimately connected with it. 

Accommodation. — The space of a stable ought to be in proportion to 
the number of horses. The room required for horses of every size if 
nearly the same ; it would be unreasonable to take a small race as a 
basis for the capacity of a stable, even if small animals were usually 
kept. 

A single stand should be six feet wide and eleven long, being sixty- 
six square feet. Horses measuring from seventeen to eighteen hands 
are rare, and require a width of seven feet, while those measuring 
from twelve to fifteen may be content with five feet. If the stand? 
are too narrow, there will be no convenience for cleaning or giving 
food, the animals cannot rest themselves, and wear out the narrow 
floor much sooner than they would a broad one. If the stall, however, 
be too broad, the horse will often place himself crosswise in his 
stand, be more apt to strike into the chains, and will find more occa- 
sion for kicking against the horses in his neighborhood. 

Should there be but one row of stands in a stable, the width of the 
passage should be at least from six to seven feet, so as to allow the 



270 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

"horses to turn themselves in it without receiving any injury; but, 
unfortunately, the space assigned for this purpose is too frequently 
only found to contain but from three to five feet, so that men and ani- 
mals entering here are exposed to the danger of being kicked by the 
horses occupying their stands. If the passage should lead between 
two rows of stands, so that the back parts of the horses are opposed 
to each other, it should be at least from nine to twelve feet wide. If 
they are placed with their heads opposite each other, it would be suffi- 
cient to have a fodder passage three feet wide between the two rows of 
stands, though a width of from five to six feet would be better. Such 
an arrangement would not only save time, but also afford security in 
feeding ; it is also thought that the horses, in consequence of the lively 
intercourse going on in front of them, would become less liable to 
taking fright. 

The height of a stable should be in proportion to the number of 
horses intended to be kept. The lowest height admissible is ten feet. 
It is true, there are some so low that the horses touch the ceiling with 
their heads. This is a cruelty, and brings its own punishment by the 
impaired health (?f the animals. The upper atmosphere in a closed 
room is always the warmest, and, at the same time, the most impure; 
while the floor, with its pavement and humidity, cooled through the 
openings of the gutters and the draught of cold air from the door, 
will be productive of cold feet. Thus, it is not to be wondered at that 
the blood should rise to the head, and diseases of the brain and eyes 
be produced in those stables ; for the proverb, originally designed for 
man, is equally applicable to our domestic animals: 

" Would you be well, and would you grow old? 
Keep your feet warm and keep your head cold." 

For two horses of middle size the height of a stable should be eleven 
feet ; for a larger number, say from three to eight heads, twelve to 
thirteen feet would be sufficient. But where there is a very large 
number, as in cavalry stables, stud establishments, &c., it would be 
advantageous to increase the height to from sixteen to twenty feet. A 
more lotty ceiling might be considered a luxury, but a rather incon- 
venient one, as it would hardly be equally warmed in winter, so that 
dampness in some parts could not be prevented, or ventilation must 
be avoided in order to retain sufficient heat. Many agricultural stables 
admit of fodder-wagons being driven into the passage, in which case 
the height must be greater than would seem to be advantageous for a 
proper temperature. 

If the size of a stable be not in proportion to the number of animals 
kept, the stands not occupied should be filled out with straw, &c., 
and if the horses are not sufficient to produce the warmth required in 
vfinter, the ceiling should be brought lower down, by extending poles, 
rails, or bars, and filling the intermediate space with straw. No such 
straw should afterward be used for any other purpose than litter. 

Division of Stalls. — To avoid frequent troubles and even heavy losses 
of animals, each horse should have his separate stall ; for even the 
best-natured will at times make use of his natural weapons, and usually 
peaceful neighbors will fight each other in the most violent manner, 



ARRANGEMENT OP HORSE STABLES. 271 

SO that tlieir lives or liinhs are frequently risked. This division is 
especially necessary with, regard to those horses of an irritable, envious, 
and mettlesome disposition. Mares seem to require particular attention 
in the breeding season, though they are, at other times, exemplary, 
quiet, and peaceful. 

The most simple separation of stands is made by inserting poles, 
Avith one end between the rundles of the rack and the other fastened to 
the floor. This is but a very imperfect contrivance, yet it must be 
admitted that horses usually show respect for such a line of demarca- 
tion, notwithstanding the lowly laid pole at the end does not prevent 
them from kicking. It seems that they are afraid of getting the pole 
between their feet, or that there is not so much cause for kicking, as 
the two neighbors cannot so easily touch each other. The poles, how- 
ever, may, according to their application, answer more or less the 
object contemplated. There is an essential advantage in raising the 
lower end of the poles a few feet above the ground, so that the horse, 
when kicking, should strike the barrier instead of his neighbor. This 
location of the poles may be effected in different ways. In stables 
where there are no posts, at least no stand-posts right and left at the 
end of the stands, they are suspended by traces or chains fastened either 
to the ceiling or the rafter, and the forepart placed either in rings in 
front or at the side of the crib, or secured by means of small chains or 
hooks. These hanging poles can readily and cheaply be put up in 
every locality, and have the advantage of allowing horses more room ; 
besides, no stand-posts being required, the tails of the animals are not 
liable to injury by rubbing. Still the room thus afforded is too ample, 
and the horses, bj^ swinging the poles, voluntarily or not, come into 
contact, which often incites them to kick. 

It is always better to fasten the poles to the posts in the rear of the 
stand, so as to allow but a limited side-movement ; the poles should be 
capable of being easily raised, for it will frequently occur that the horse 
will roll himself under the poles, and, in suddenly jumping up, will 
strike against them, falling crosswise on his back, frequently causing 
dangerous injuries; for instance, laceration of the spinal marrow, &c. 
This being generally known, dividing or separating poles fastened into 
the stand-posts are rarely found, or in those short stands only where 
the horses are prevented by the post from rolling themselves into the 
stand adjoining. 

There are several contrivances for hanging the poles, the simplest of 
which is the following. A groove is made in the stand-post, in which 
groove the separating pole is shoved down to within three and a half 
or four feet of the ground, and moved upward to a height of six feet. 
To prevent the pole from falling out after it has been raised beyond the 
length of the groove, a rope is drawn through the tenon of the pole. 
This rope is fastened to the stand-post at both the upper and lower end 
of the groove, so that the pole is held by the rope in a proper position 
in case the tenon should be moved beyond the groove. 

Another and well-known arrangement consists in the long iron hook, 
turning itself by means of an enarthrosis at the point of its insertion 
into the stand-post. This movable hook is held in an upright positiop 
by a ring fastened at some higher point of the post. If the horse 



272 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

happens to lie under the separating pole, the ring, by being shoved up, 
detaches itself from the hook so as to hang out the pole. The movable 
hook is principally intended for hanging the pole with ease, in case 
the horse has struck across the pole and rides on it ; in this case the 
ring is shoved off the hook, and the latter turned downward, letting 
the pole and the horse down to the floor. (See figure 1, plate 2.) 

As the mere poles would afford but insufficient protection from 
kicking, walls of various kinds are suspended from these poles. The 
simplest and cheapest are straw-mattings. Long rye-straw, somewhat 
wet, is turned round the pole, and the lower ends twisted by means of 
three rows of packing-thread, to a thickness of from four to six inches. 
These partitions have the advantage of not causing any contusions, but 
by being frequently kicked at they will soon be torn in pieces, so that 
they will not answer for unquiet horses. This straw wall is only 
fastened to the hind part of the pole, because it would be too soon 
spoiled by gnawing if hung up at the forepart. 

More durable are the wooden walls suspended from the poles, con- 
sisting either of a contiguous board, or of several boards joined. They 
must be provided with ledges, or made double, else they will burst 
after the first kicks from a powerful horse. They are suspended from 
the poles by means of leather straps or ropes, but iron bands are 
decidedly preferable ; the nails, however, must be carefully driven in, 
and their condition always receive attention. 

These movable partitions afford the advantage of comfortably lying 
down ; the horses may turn round without receiving injury, and, when 
kicking, the effects and scratchings will be less violent ; yet, after 
several years observations and experience, I must pronounce against 
movable partitions, as the danger of horses harming each other, when 
engaged in violent combats, is greater than in stalls with immovable 
partitions, beside the movability is frequently the principal cause for 
such combats. 

Comparing both the advantages and disadvantages of movable with 
immovable partitions, the latter seem to deserve the preference. 
Though generally known and in use, they are rarely so arranged as to 
answer the purpose. Most of the fixed partitions are too low, so that 
the horses may strike beyond them, which is the more dangerous as 
the partitions cannot readily be removed. The wall near the crib is 
usually from four to five feet high ; toward the end from three to four 
feet, and consequently there is a descent. This arrangement is explained 
by the fact that the horses present a more stately appearance in a stall 
low at the back part ; the height in front corresponds with that of the 
crib. This structure is certainly irrational, as the protection and 
insurmountable separation in the rear is of more importance than near 
the crib. It would be better to have a partition-wall of at least four 
feet, and of equal height throughout the length of the stall. A 
grooved sill is laid on the ground, with its tenons immediately inserted 
in the wall, or in a wooden crib-post in front, and into the stand-post 
in the rear. Above there is a strong pole, likewise grooved, inserted 
both in front and rear, to correspond with the sill. Then, there are 
boards from one and a fourth to two inches in thickness, perpen- 
dicularly inserted into the grooves of both the upper pole and the 



ARRANGEMENT OP HORSE STABLES. 273 

sill. The boards should be rather strongs so that repairs, which other- 
wise would frequently become necessary, may be saved. By giving 
the partition an uniform height, an essential advantage is gained with 
regard to expense, for we are enabled to change the position of the 
boards, and such of them as may have been split by kicking can be 
transferred to the front. Injured boards may easily be replaced by 
keeping some of the same length on hand. By means of a vv^edge the 
grooved pole is mortised into the stand-post, so that it can be taken 
out for changing the boards. To insert the boards lengthwise, 
running parallel with the grooved pole, as is done sometimes, is not 
advantageous, because long wood is more liable to split, and is usually 
exposed to the full force of both feet^ besides, repairs are more expen- 
sive, as the boards to be inserted would require some eight or ten feet 
in length. 

The walls of the stalls are sometimes made by wainscoting both 
sides of the grooved pole down to the sill, so as to join the side of the 
pole to the board-wall ; but nailing the boards is always more danger- 
ous than to shove them in the grooves. If boards are used for this 
arrangement, the double-walls will become too expensive; and if light 
planks are used, they will soon be demolished ; besides, the hollow 
space between the two wainscotings will serve as a retreat for rats 
and mice. 

Most contentions being caused by envy of fodder or mutual vexations 
of the animals, care is usually taken to keep their heads also separate. 
In general it is deemed sufficient to prevent the horses stretching into 
the adjoining stands, so that they may not bite each other, and steal 
their fodder ; studs, however, of an especially irritable nature, will, 
particularly in the breeding season, by the mere snuffling of a neighbor, 
be incited to the most violent kicks. The top partition walls opposite 
the fore part of the horse should therefore be constructed in accordance 
with the necessary requirements. These tops, or ''swan-necks," may 
be either solid, or of slat-work, the latter being sufficient in most cases, 
and having the advantage of not darkening the stands too much. To 
answer its purpose, a "swan-neck " should extend one third the length 
of the grooved dividing pole, and half the height of the rack. These 
portions being very liable to be gnawed when made of wood, ought 
to be covered with iron. As, however, slat-work thus protected 
is expensive, and as even hard wood is easily destroyed by some 
horses, tops of cast-iron, without ornament, are strongly recommended. 
(Figure 2, plate 2.) 

Figures 2 and 3 are drawings of tops, cast at the Koyal Foundry 
at Wasseralfingen, Wirtemberg. Figure 2, weighing about forty-two, 
and figure 3, thirty-eight pounds, and costing three-and-a-half cents a 
pound. 

The slats being brittle and fragile, horses should never be fastened 
to them. If any part of this division should happen to break it should 
be immediately repaired, as the sharp corners and sides left by the 
fracture are frequently the cause of dangerous injuries. "Swan- 
necks ' ' may be fastened by inserting them in a groove of the pole and 
18 A 



274 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

in tlie wall and screwing them, so that in case of repairs becoming 
necessary, tliey can easily be removed. 

If tliere are two posts at the rear of the stand, they should be con- 
structed with regard to the welfare of the horse, and not exclusively to 
please the esthetic taste of the architect, as is often the case in stables 
otherwise arranged with the greatest luxury. The cast-iron posts are 
often provided with octagonal pedestals, adorned with various high 
reliefs, against which unquiet horses, even when not engaged vfith 
their neighbors, will, during the operation of cleansing, strike their 
feet and hurt themselves. These posts should always be round 
throughout their entire length, or, at the least, the corners should be 
rounded, that the beauty of the tail may not suffer by being frequently 
rubbed against them. To guard against such rubbing, either a piece 
of sole leather, with inverted nails three-fourths of an inch long, or 
the skin of a hedge-hog, should be appropriately fastened on the post; 
or the horse may be kept off by fixing a bar at each of the grooved 
poles, within the last two-thirds, the bars at the commencement being 
firmly fixed to the poles, while in the rear there is a distance of half 
a foot between the post and the bars of each side, the two bars con- 
verging from front to rear, thus narrowing the stand somewhat in the 
rear, without being an obstacle to lying down. This at the same time 
renders it impossible for the horse to touch the post. 

Again : The tail of the horse is often deformed, in consequence of 
all parts of the stand not being even and smooth. In trying to keep 
off the flies, single hairs are easily caught by detached woody fibres, 
or by some joint of a chain^ and so torn off. The posts and other at- 
tachments may therefore be covered with paper, or heavily oiled, thus 
preserving the tail from injury when it is frequently swung in summer. 
Planed columns of oak wood might serve the same purpose. Soft 
wood is liable to splinter, and the lower parts soon became rough and 
deformed by being kicked against. In England there are many 
stables with cast-iron posts. 

"Where valuable horses are kept, but of an irritable nature, frequently 
kicking when being cleaned, the walls of the stands and posts should 
be provided with cushions or straw mattings. In the stall itself there 
should be no projecting nail, nor even the head of one. All arrange- 
ments requiring many nails, for instance, tin coverings, should, if 
possible, be avoided. Whoever may be unable to furnish his stable 
with stone and iron, should try to protect the wood from being 
gnawed by painting it with tar, or giving it a coat of bitter substances, 
such as the decoction of wormwood, nut-shells, &c. The best protec- 
tion consists in covering walls and wood with cast-iron or delf-ware; 
this mode, however, being expensive, tin covering is frequently re- 
sorted to. Zinc is preferred to iron i3late, on account of oxydizing less 
rapidly. It seems to have a disagreeable taste for the tongue of the 
horse, for most of them are fond of licking the rusty iron, while they 
will rarely touch the zinc. An additional advantage is, it is capable 
of a closer application to the wood than iron, which is always molting 
and drawing the nails out of the wood, causing their heads to project so 
as to frequently injure the skins, eyes, &c., of the horses. For the 
same reason, straps with buckles should be avoided in fastening the 



ARRANGEMENT OF HORSE STABLES. 275 

"kicking boards" to the dividing pole, and every hinge about tlie 
stand should be well rounded. 

By extending all posts to the ceiling, the floor above the stable, as 
well as the building generally, will receive a stronger support. Free 
standing posts, unconnected with the ceiling or the rafters, are defi- 
cient in firmness, even if they are inserted in the ground to a great depth; 
by being kicked and pressed against, they soon become loose. There 
is still more danger in having very low posts, over which the horse 
when kicking may even jump. The lowest admissible are five feet, 
being at the same time adequate to all partition stand-walls, though a 
too low division is far less objectionable than a post too low, which, in 
case a horse should happen to hang upon it, will cause contusions dan- 
gerous to the life of the animal, A foundation of stone for the posts 
would protect them from decay. 

Doors. — The number of doors should correspond to th-e si^e of the 
stable. Though it is not necessary to pay the same scrupulous regard 
to the danger of fire in horse stables as must be done in those for 
cattle and sheep, as these animals can only with the greatest trouble 
be driven out from a building on fire, yet it is always advantageous to 
give a stable several chances of egress ; it will not be required that all 
should be opened and used for everyday purposes. 

The door most in use should be on the side toward the sun, so as to 
prevent, on its being opened, much cold air from rushing in, and that 
the horses, on going out, shall not be made to feel uncomfortable by 
the change of temperature. 

If two doors are needed in a stable^ they should be opposite each 
other, as the circulation of fresh air is thereby favored, without a draft 
touching the animals, the space between both doors usually forming 
the passage. It is best to place the doors at the narrow gable-end, 
because this would facilitate the superintendence of the whole stable. 
At the same time, there is not so much pressing of the animals in 
going out as there would be at a door in the middle of the building. 

The door should be ten feet high, if possible, so as to allow a horse- 
man to ride without injury into the stable, and the width at least six 
feet, so that two horses may pass at once, and that harness and saddle 
shall not be damaged. 

The height referred to is also favorable to the circulation of air 
above. It is altogether objectionable to provide the doors with promi- 
nent sills, as these give frequent occasion for stumbling, disloca- 
tions, &c. 

The door-posts should be round, or, at least, their edges. Stables 
for colts, which are in the habit of pressing with haste and force 
through the doors, should always be provided with movable cylinders, 
fixed outside or inside of the edges, or, still better, to the inner side 
of the door-posts. This method will prevent injury to the hips, when 
the colts are driven in or out. To be really serviceable, cylinders 
should be at least six inches in diameter, and six feet in height. The 
precaution contemplated is often lost, on account of the axle getting 
rusty, thus preventing the movement. This obstacle must be avoided 
by affording ample room to the axle and the ring, and by frequent 
greasing. 



2t6 AGRICULTURAL REPOR*. 

The door should be provided with two wings,, for a single door of 
the requisite width would he too heavy, and, being often opened for ,, 
the passage of men, would not allow the stable to retain sufficient 
warmth during winter. If both wings were from five to six feet wide, 
one of two feet and a half or three feet would afford space for a con- 
venient passage. Doors from eight to nine feet in height and four in 
width may answer for small stables. 

A chain secured across the door- way at the height of four feet would 
keep those horses which may have become unfastened from going out, 
if the doors were opened in summer for the purpose of ventilation. If 
intended to keep them open during warm nights, the chain must be 
capable of being locked^ so as to guard against thieves. Half-doors, 
or those divided in the middle of their height, Vv^ould answer the same 
purpose. Doors and wings should always open outward, as most 
horses, and particularly colts, would press in that direction. There 
should be no self-closing doors; for if they are not made to stand im- 
movable on their hinges, they v/ill produce frequent injuries to animals 
and harness, on their passage. A practical arrangement for retaining 
the v/armth of the stable consists in putting up inner doors, or lining 
the outer ones with leather, bands of twisted straw, or cotton, or 
boards of cork. 

Preferable, however, and in addition to the common door, would be 
a closed space in front, serving at the same time as a room for harness, 
saddles, &c., and for cleansing purposes. This space may be either 
under the same roof with the stable, or otherwise. 

A great advantage would thus be gained in not permitting the 
external cold to touch the horses immediately on the door proper 
being opened. 

Special regard should be paid to the manner of locking both the 
outer doors and those of the various divisions of the stable. All pro- 
jections, such as long latches, hooks, knobs, &c., are traps for harness 
and other articles, and should be avoided. The lock itself should be 
sunk in the wood-work. Whenever the doors are locked from the 
outside, an ordinary bolt is usually sufficient; but, to prevent the 
consequences of insecurity, the bolts within should be so constructed 
as to close themselves; which may be readily accomplished by making 
them of heavy iron, and, instead of a horizontal, giving an oblique 
position, when their own weight will fasten them. A bolt in reach 
of the horses must be provided with a stay-spring. 

The space in front of the stable-door should always be level, without 
holes or obstructions, because most horses, in the act of going out, are 
awkward, stumbling, or wild, and therefore apt to make a misstep 
and fall. In the same place, and perhaps on the building itself, rings 
should be fastened for tying the horses, to cleanse them in the open 
air^ when the vi^eather is fine. 

Stable-windows. — Light, one of the most essential incentives of life, 
promotes especially those animal operations, sensation and movement ; 
while its absence favors the vegetative part, nourishment and the in- 
crease of fat. Light stables render their inmates always lively, and 
capable of easily receiving impressions ; while dark ones deaden the 
nerves and produce laziness and unwieldy increase of fat. Aside 



ARRANGEMENT OP HORSE STABLES. 277 

from these effects on tlie general organism, a glaring light irritates the 
eye, which becomes diseased if long subjected to its influence. The 
continued absence of light_, or too much darkness, will deaden the 
optic nerve and make it insusceptible. Finally, it has been proved 
by experience that a sudden transition from inactivity to great activity 
can rarely be sustained without injury to the organ. 

These few principles must regulate the construction of stables, and 
especially the arrangement of their windows. 

Kequiring of horses particularly the development of the animal part, 
or power of rapid movement, we find the production of fat unfavorable, 
and even directly opposed to it, and therefore must provide much light 
in stables. The eye being so imj)ortant in the service required, we 
must maintain the health and activity of the horse by modifying the 
impressions of light. In this respect a stable should be as well sup- 
plied as the dwelling of man, thus favoring general order and facili- 
tating cleansing and control. As horses are for the most part fastened 
to their stands, and sometimes unable to avoid the effects of the sun- 
light on the visual organ, the windows must be so arranged as not to 
incommode the animals. 

The windows not only serve to convey light, but also air into the 
stable. It is, however, known that currents of air may, under certain 
circumstances, have an injurious effect on health. In accordance with 
this the following rules may be laid down with regard to the arrange- 
ment of windows. These should not be in front, but in the rear of 
the animals ; if there is but one row of stands in the stable, this rule 
is usually observed. If it should, however, be necessary to put up a 
window in front of the horses, it should be placed at such a height as 
to alloT\r the rays of light and the currents of air to pass above their 
heads. When the building does not admit of giving the windows the 
position referred to, the panes next to the eye of the horse should be 
ground glass, or common glass may be thus prepared by simply rub- 
bing it with emory or fine sand, or painting it with lime. Panes of 
a blue tint would be still better, modifying to a great extent the effects 
of the rays of light on the eye. 

Eeflections from a bright surface being almost as irritating as the 
direct sun-beams, the walls of the stable should not be white^ but a 
pleasant color should be produced, by the addition of either yellow or 
green ochre or pine soot. This should be done especially with walls 
fronting the heads of the horses. 

For new stables a skylight is recommended, as it also favors the 
circulation of air. Side windows may then be omitted, or constructed 
on a very small scale. If it is intended to procure sufficient light from 
the sides, the stables will either become too high or the windows will 
carry the light directly to the eyes. Stables, therefore, amply lighted 
from the sides, and yet not injurious, are rarely found. 

In case the windows are so low as to be reached by the head of the 
horse the panes must be secured by wire-work, or a similar contrivance, 
against being broken. 

The material for window frames deserves special attention, as no 
part of the stable is so much exposed to moisture, and, therefore, to 
decay. At these places the cold and warm layers of air meet together, 



278 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

producing drops of water. This dampness not onlj'- destroys the wood, 
but changes its form, causing either, directly, the glass to spring, or, 
indirectly, the breaking of the panes in opening or shutting, on 
account of the sash being too tight. 

Material not so liable to injury from dampness should therefore be 
chosen for window frames. Oak wood is for the most part employed; 
wood of the red fir is almost as good, though it is more apt to swell 
than the oak, yet it will longer resist moisture. It would be worth 
while to paint the wood about the windows with oil color, to diminish 
the evils referred to. Cast-iron frames are decidedly preferable to 
wooden ones, as the expense for repairs would be greatly lessened. 
Tar putty is coming into general use for securing the panes. To 
facilitate the replacing of the windows, after cleaning them, it would 
be advisable to make the hinges of unequal length. The same 
should be observed with doors. In stables, where there are sensitive 
and irritable horses, fly-windows (being the first of double windows, 
and covered with a texture of fine wire) and curtains should be applied, 
so as to modify the light. To prevent the windows from freezing up 
salt should be applied to the frames, as salt water will only freeze at 
a very low temperature, which is rarely the case in stables. 

Drains. — Drains for the urine of horses and other liquids occasion- 
ally discharged are made in all stables; for, if the removal of these liquids 
were left to natural evaporation, the atmosphere would always be sur- 
charged with humidity, injurious to health ; it would under certain 
circumstances become too cool; and decomposition, with its conse- 
quences, bad odor, and gaseous air, dangerous to lungs and eyes^ 
would be produced, if those liquids were allowed to remain for some 
time in the stable. 

Though, in stables which are kept clean and always provided with 
litter, no urine is seen flowing off for months through the existing 
drains, yet drains should not be omitted, as they may be needed for 
certain emergencies, as in a new method of feeding, for instance, large 
quantities of green fodder. 

There are usually open gutters made of paving-stones ; they should 
not be so near to the stand as to catch the hind-hoofs of the horse, in 
case he should back off from the crib, and should be flat, so as not to 
cause the animal to make missteps in going or returning. Where there 
are hollovv^ stand-floors the principal gutters in the rear of the stands 
should be sunken, and therefore covered. In such cases they are, for the 
most part, made of stones, cut in the shape of gutters, with a groove 
above to receive the covering board. These gutter-covers are generally 
provided with holes so as to alloAv the liquids to escape, and are some- 
times made of cast-iron, rough on the top. 

Open drains are usually preferable, because they admit of being- 
easier and oftener cleansed. They are recommended for all stables 
where the stands are paved, and require no j)articular expense, as they 
can be made in the first arrangement of the pavement. If the gutters 
are covered, they must have considerable descent, so as to cause the 
liquid to fiow ofi" of its own accord. If open the descent cannot be 
so great, because the gutter would become too deep in the rear of the 
last stands of the row. The operation of but a slight descent in open 
gutters could be easily assisted by the application of a broom. 



I 



ARRANGEMENT OP HORSE STABLES. 279 

The gutters should discharge their contents beyond the stable into the 
dung place or into a special basin of dung water , not situated in the imme- 
diate vicinity, but a few rods distant. The neighborhood of the dung 
place increases the bad odor and insects, especially flies. Where the gutter 
penetrates the wall of a stable, the opening is frequently too large, always 
admitting a draft on the animals standing near. Its size need not be 
more than that of the gutter itself. To exclude rats and mice, an iron 
grate is usually applied. It would be cheaper, however, to widen the 
sole of the gutter one foot, and deepen it five inches, either inside or 
outside of the wall, and insert a small plank, so as to bring its lower 
edge about one inch below the level of the sole of the rest of the gutter. 
The space immediately under the edge of the little board will be con- 
stantly filled with liquid, preventing vermin from entering, and still 
allowing the water to run off; this arrangement will also shield from 
drafts. Instead of this regulator, an iron grate may be used, extending 
to the bottom of the deepening, so that their passage would still be pre- 
vented, in case of a deficiency of water in the sink. The water will 
thus never be checked, as the mud frequently collecting will settle 
below, the grate being always kept open above. Grates applied at the 
end of a gutter of equal level are liable to obstruction. 

Ventilation. — Without air there is no life, or, more properly speaking, 
no health without pure air. I will not now attempt to discuss the 
constituent parts of atmospheric air, presuming them to be generally 
known. Its consumption, however, by a horse is less known. The 
lungs of a middle-sized horse draw, at one inhalation, some one hun- 
dred and twenty cubic inches. In a normal process of breathing he will 
consume seventy-two thousand cubic inches per hour, and one thousand 
seven hundred and twenty-eight cubic feet per day. 

The principal object of the consumption of this air is, by means of 
its oxygen, to bring the carbon of the blood into combustion, thus 
maintaining the necessary heat. The animal receives this carbon 
through its food. It may be assumed that a horse acquires about nine 
pounds of carbon per day, which is brought into combustion by respi- 
ration. This operation requires about two hundred and eighty-eight 
cubic feet of oxygen, forming but the fifth part of the atmospheric air, 
so that one thousand four hundred and forty cubic feet of atmospheric 
air are requisite for the process of combustion going on within the 
body. The product of this is carbonic acid, which, as is well known, 
is an irrespirable gas, producing by itself sudden death, and making 
the air, even when mixed in a small proportion, say from six to eight 
per cent., altogether unfit for respiration by animals. 

Accordingly, a horse, kept in a space fifteen feet long, ten high, and 
twelve wide, the usual dimensions of a stable for two horses, would 
perish within a few hours , if the space were hermetically closed . Fortu- 
nately, there are no buildings thus sealed. If, through the process of 
respiration, by which carbonic acid and watery vapor are produced a 
surplus of carbonic acid beyond the normal proportion (1.2500) should 
be created, Nature herself, by her own accord, provides a proportion of 
mixture still suitable for the use of the animals, by making the various 
gases continually penetrate each other. Thus, an equalization of all 
the different atmospheric strata is effected, which is further favored and 



280 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

accelerated "by the motion of air, drafts, &c. This natural tendency of 
the various kinds and strata of air to mix with each other, has a 
more powerful effect than all ventilators, fans, or hellows. 

The more inert watery vapors, and some kinds of gas originating 
from the decomposition of the excrements, are more liable to become 
stagnant, and will, even if they do not directly menace the life of the 
animal, still be productive of disturbances in some organic functions, 
and thus be detrimental to health. 

The products of this decomposition, for instance, carbonate of ammonia 
and sulphuretted hydrogen, will particularly show their effects where 
manure is purposely suffered to remain for weeks^ especially in winter, 
in order to use the heat, generated by the decomposition, for warming 
stables, and to prevent cold air from rushing in on the removal of the 
manure. But these kinds of gases, far from sustaining the jDrocess of 
respiration, will, by their caustic properties, affect the animals, irri- 
tating the pituitary membranes, nose and eyes. If from the equaliza- 
tion referred to above, special contrivances for the circulation and 
purification of air should not be ranked among the indispensable wants 
of a stable, yet they would favor the preservation of health, the com- 
forts and development of power of the occupants. 

There has long been a desire, therefore, and several efforts have been 
made, to provide stables with effective ventilation. Most of these 
methods evince, at least, good intention, but too openly betray a want 
of knowledge of the respective laws of Nature, I will now briefly 
notice some of the most familiar methods of ventilation. 

Thus, openings made in the floor, if corresponding openings be not 
made above, or at the opposite wall, will have no effect, or if any, the 
di-aft will generally injure the animals. 

Drafts immediately l3elow the ceiling are not altogether objectionable, 
as they allovv^ the air to pass out from the upper strata ; if they are not 
too wide, the atmosphere carried out will not be supplied through the 
same opening, so that no cold current will descend upon the animals 
standing near, the air being supplied through the numerous cracks and 
pores of the ]3uilding, thus not causing too great a draft. If the 
openings are somewhat wide, they should not be in the neighborhood 
of the horses. A simple opening like this will, however, then cause 
only a brisk circulation of air, if the difference between the heat of 
the stable and that outside is a very considerable one ; if the tempera- 
ture both out and in is equal, an imperfect purification of air will be 
produced. In these cases the restoration of air, could, without injury 
to the animals, be easily effected, by occasionally opening windows and 
doors. 

Coleman's method of ventilation, so much spoken of in England, 
consists in the tray-shaped standfloor, having a grated hole cariying 
out the urine by a gutter beneath. In front and above the head of the 
horse is a draft channel, leading upward, so that, by the cooperation 
of the gutter and chimney channel, a change of air is continually 
maintained, conveying the vapor through the chimney. This arrange- 
ment has only come into limited use, because the constant draft against 
the belly of the horse frequently produced colics and colds. Similar 
to this case seems to be the y^ntilatipjj recommended by Henry Stephens, 



ARRANGEMENT OF HORSE STABLES. 281 

m his book on rural and domestic economy. According to his method, 
there should be an opening in the front wall of every stand, above the 
head of the horse, so as to admit the necessary quantity of air directly 
to the nose of the horse. He says this method requiries several open- 
ings, which need not be large. These should be covered with perforated 
zinc, and, if the current of air should be even then too strong, it is 
advisable to interrupt it by a board, so fastened to the wall as first to 
drive the air upward before descending on the animals. Drafts at 
other places of the stable are deenved impracticable by Stephens, 
because the air thus admitted would, before reaching the nose, neces- 
sarily pass over the body of the horse, or fall upon his limbs. 

It seems that the object contemplated could not be accomplished by 
this method, for the narrow and high openings will carry out the 
upper strata of heated air without admitting fresh air; if the latter 
should ever happen, such a current of fresh^ and, under certain circum- 
stances, of very cold air, rushing directly upon the head and forepart 
of the horse, could have but an injurious effect. A change of air 
should always be procured in those regions of a stable where the horses 
do not come into immediate contact, but where they do, equalization 
of temperature, and the mixture of air may be confidently left to 
Nature. 

Those methods of ventilation are invariably best, which can always, 
and even when the horses are in the stable, be kept in operation with- 
out injury to the animals. Such are the air chimneys built joerpen- 
dicularly into the ceiling, just above the passage-way, terminating 
above the roof. 

It is well known that the heated strata of air, being specifically 
lighter, have always an upward tendency, assuming, in case they are 
not cooled off, a certain flight or draft, which is brisker in proportion 
to the height of the heated column of air thus put in motion. Simple 
openings above (without chimneys) will therefore bring about only 
imperfect motion and purification. The air which slowly moves up 
through the openings is cooled too rapidly by the temperature out- 
side, so that it is soon interrupted in its ascent, permitting the cold 
air to rush in through the same passage. Those parts of air at a 
greater distance from the openings adhere, as it were, to the ceiling, 
become stagnant, and are not renovated. Quite different is the effect 
of the vapor chimneys referred to, setting at first the upper layers of 
air, and consequently all the rest in motion, because the draft gener- 
ated by the long tube is just as strong as that produced by high chim- 
neys. Vapor chimneys are sometimes used, but in their arrangement 
frequent mistakes are committed ; in most cases they are too wide, if 
four boards are joined to form, a conduit, as is commonly done, the 
current, on account of the width, being about one square foot, becomes 
too slow, for the ascending air is cooled before reaching the upper 
end of the channel ; the watery vapors contained in the column will 
therefore concentrate and descend as rain into the stable. Therefore 
it becomes necessary to suspend a basin from the ceiling to catch the 
dropping water, which is apt to overflow upon the floor and on the 
animals. 

But if the conduit is made narrower, perhaps half the width of the 



282 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

boards and about one fourtli of a square foot, the inclosed column of 
warm air v/ill rise upward with more energy, forcing up the condensed 
watery vapors, which are in the act of falling back and preventing at 
the same time a current of cold air from rushing in through the same 
way. With regard to these ventilators, an essential advantage, usually 
lost sight of, may be gained to increase their effect by surrounding 
the conduit throughout its whole length with non-conductors of heat, 
so that the warm air in its rising shall not be cooled too rapidly. 
The advantages of such an arrangement are shown by the fact that 
air channels leading through full haylofts and out at the roof do 
not produce any dropping, not even in seasons of great cold. If by 
the consumption of the hay, which preserves the heat, the conduit is 
cooled, dropping will commence at the lower termination ; therefore, 
if it leads through an empty space, it should be surrounded by straw, 
or be made of double boards, and further protected against humidity 
by- painting the inside with tar. The terminus is protected from rain, 
snow, &c., by the application of a little roof, either of wood or sheet- 
iron, or by blinds. At the point where the conduit passes the ceiling, 
a valve or turning-dish should be placed so as to close the channel at 
will and regulate the current. 

To promote ventilation in a still more rational way, openings which 
can be closed should, in my opinion, be made on the floor, at places 
where no animals stand, in order to supply fresh air in lieu of the 
warm air carried off; yet the doors and the cracks in the building will 
frequently do this, even in a greater degree than may be required. 

At the outer terminus of the channels there is always a jorecipitation 
of humidity, tending to destroy the wall and the adjoining wood. 
Therefore, to lead away the discharged air to some distance from the 
building, by means of boards or projecting conductors, would be ad- 
visable. This is especially important if the openings are just below 
the roof, the wood-work of which is liable to destruction by the action 
of the vapors. 

Cribs. — These serve the purpose of laying short fodder before the 
horses ; for instance, oats, groats, beans, and choiDpings. Sometimes, 
also, they are used for receiving the drinking water. The height of 
the cribs, in most stables, is from three and a half to four feet from the 
floor, but it is more reasonable to adapt the height to the size of the 
horse, and most suitable to let the edge of the crib correspond in its 
height with the elbow of the horse. A lower position, it is true, 
would be more natural to the animals in feeding, but they would too 
frequently jump with their fore feet into the cribs, thus injuring the 
latter and themselves. Too high a position of the edge of the crib, on 
the contrary, would be inconvenient for taking food, and often cause 
the fodder to be spread about, as the horses, in order to avoid the 
upward stretching of their necks, turn themselves, with their mouths 
filled, from the crib, thus dropping the fodder in the act of chewing. 
A height of the crib equal with the withers, as it is frequently found 
in stables where small sized horses are kept, favors, and even incites 
to crihhing. 

The width of the crib should be such as to allow even the largest 
horse to use his jaws with ease to the greatest extent ; it should there- 



ARRANGEMENT OP HORSE STABLES. 283 

fore be from ten to twelve inclies. The length need not be more, 
strictly speaking, than the dimensions just referred to, thus giving a 
circular form ; but cribs are generally made longer than would seem 
necessary, because horses frequently stop eating and turn their heads 
aside, thereby losing fodder, if the vessel is so short as not to receive 
the droppings ; it should also be a recipient of the fodder falling from 
the rack. In this respect, cribs occupying the whole width of the 
stand are very suitable. 

They are made either in the shape of gutters or of troughs. Their 
form should be such as always to collect the fodder again by itself in 
the middle, and confine it when stirred ; there should not be any sharp 
angles, edges, or corners in and about the crib, because the fodder 
could not be reached everywhere with ease, and the horses are liable 
to hurt themselves by knocking, thus causing bony excrescences, espe- 
cially on the lower jaw ; finally, the front exterior of the crib should 
always be well rounded, downward, so as to render the horses unable 
to remove the halter by means of the sharp edges. 

Figure 4, plate 2 represents one of the most suitable cribs, having 
the advantage of the edge bent back and inward, preventing the throw- 
ing out of the fodder, being easier done in other cribs made either in 
the shape of gutters or troughs. This crib is made of cast-iron, 
in Wasseralfingen, usually weighs seventy-five pounds, and costs 
about three and a half cents a pound. The only objection is, that the 
angle formed by its perpendicular back wall and the rounded bottom 
is too acute, so that the horses can only procure the last particles of 
food by the exertion of licking them. In English stables, a sjDecial 
drinking trough is usually joined to the crib and rack. 

With regard to cleaning, cribs made of cast-iron, stone, or delf-ware, 
and put into a frame, like a kettle into an iron hearth-plate, are very 
convenient. 

The material used for cribs is wood, stone, or iron. Wood should 
be decidedly rejected, as it causes a great many injuries. Horses are 
tempted, by its use, to crib; it requires many repairs, and gases of 
bad odor and contagious substances will strongly adhere to it. The 
use of oak wood renders the expense not much less than that of stone, 
especially if it is considered that they require nails and sheet-iron cov- 
erings, making them even dangerous for the eyes of the horse. 

Cribs running through several stalls, and made of one trunk, are 
expensive and Avasteful of wood ; the heart of the wood is cut out, while 
the external and soft wood remains ; repairs are difiicult ; and if the 
crib is of boards joined, angles and joints are produced, in many cases 
giving the first inducement to cribbing. All cribs, however, running 
through, should be provided with partitions for each horse, otherwise 
the envy of fodder will often excite quarrels. 

Stone, under ordinary circumstances, can be best recommended as best 
for cribs. The only objection is that most kinds of stone are liable to a 
considerable extent to wear out all objects brought frequently in con- 
nection with them, for instance, the halter-chains, teeth, &c., besides, 
they are not cheap. 

The long stone troughs are usually wainscoted at their lower edge 
down to the floor, partly to prevent injuries to the head and fore-feet 



284 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

from the lower part of the trough, partly to gain a space for storing 
away litter, in which latter case the wainscoting should he provided 
with drop-doors capable of being locked. All these wainscotings are 
decidedly objectionable, being expensive and a chosen retreat for all 
vermin, rats and mice. To avoid the injuries indicated, the cribs 
should be well rounded, or the empty space filled out with a wall 
below. To keep litter in these places shows a want of rational arrange- 
ment. They are intended to hold the straw during the day, where it 
may dry, again to be used as litter for the night ; but who would select 
so narrow and confined a space for this purpose? The dampness and 
gaseous evaporations from the straw is for the most part such as to 
injure the eyes, and the organs of respiration, with which they una- 
voidably come in contact. 

In countries were stones are rare, earthen or delf-ware is frequently 
used for making cribs'; they are clean and neat, but very fragile ; those 
made of only one piece are a matter of luxury ; but those composed of 
several plates, like earthenware stoves, are more generally used ; similar 
to the latter are those constructed of burnt clay, as generally used in 
the northern parts of Germany. 

Iron, on account of its hardness and durability, is especially adapted 
for cribs. In most cases they are made of cast-iron, and have the great 
advantage of preventing the horses from cribbing, of being rapidly and 
easily put up, removed, or transferred, in most buildings, and of retain- 
ing the greater part of their value, even in case of their being broken, 
or disused as cribs. A disadvantage connected with them is, that white 
horses, or such as have white marks about their heads, Avill frequently 
receive a dirty appearance from the rust of the cribs, giving, in point 
of cleanliness, a good deal of trouble to the hostler. To prevent oxydi- 
zation several means are employed, the best still appearing to be that 
of enameling, or galvanizing, but the expense is considerable. 

Another means of preventing this vessel from oxydizing consists in 
giving it a coat of oil, which, it is true, will not last long, if the crib 
is in use. If the latter is the case, a very corrosive or injurious rust 
will never be formed, this appearing only in the shape of a bronze color, 
as happens in the case of rifle barrels. If, however, the cribs are not 
to be used for some time, the corroding oxydization should be prevented 
by greasing or painting with oil. 

Cribs of stone or wood are fastened either by walls below, by fixing 
them to the wall, or by placing them on wood or stone pillars. In 
running stables, cribs and racks are put up in one of the corners. In 
stands for mares, the foals are supplied with special cribs, rendered 
inaccessible to their mothers either by a pole laid across in the corner, 
below which the foals may still pass, or by cross-bars at the top of the 
crib, admitting only the small jaw of the foal to take the fodder from 
its reservoir. 

In studs where there are many foals, the cribs may be so constructed 
as to be suspended from ropes, by which method the gnawing of the 
cribs can be avoided, because they are not steady, and may be drawn 
up to the ceiling, after feeding, so as not to trouble the foals in their 
quick movements, and to remove every inducement to crib. 

In stables intended to receive cribbers, oi horses inclined to crib, the 



ARRANGEMENT OP HORSE STABLES. 285 

latter should be in a low position, about one foot from the floor, 
because it would then be impossible for the horse to indulge this pro- 
pensity ; and if he is, by being shortly tied, deprived of every other 
opportunity, for instance, the dividing pole, for cribbing, then this bad 
habit will sometimes in a brief period be entirely forgotten, never, 
under favorable circumstances, to be resumed. 

Care should be taken, in making and fastening the cribs, so as not 
to leave cracks and openings, in which remains of fodder or single 
grains would lodge, as this would be the first incitement to cribbing. 

Racks. — These are an apparatus of grated walls, of different forms, 
for the purpose of offering the long fodder to the animals, without any 
of it being lost or spoiled. A loss of fodder will be caused by being 
often trodden upon by the horses, and thereafter refused, besides, the 
fodder will be deteriorated by becoming damp in consequence of being 
breathed upon by the horses. The rack is trellised, to allow refuse, 
for instance, small stones, pieces of lime, and the pericarps of colchicum 
autumnale to get out of the fodder and fall through the trellis-work ; 
besides it would be impossible for the horses to reach the fodder if the 
racks were not grated. The space between the rundles should be from 
two to three inches. 

Backs are usually made over the cribs, at one and a half feet above 
the edge of the crib. The object of this high position is to accustom 
the horse to a fine erection of his fore part, a matter of consideration, 
as it is thought^ in riding-horses, and possesses the additional advan- 
tage that the particles of fodder dropping through the rundles will 
fall into the crib, where they may be taken up again by the horse. 
These advantages, however, partly imaginary, partly real, as they 
are, are met by many disadvantages. The giving of food in such high 
racks is troublesome, and can hardly be done by small persons ; the 
horses, also, are sometimes injured by the fork. It is impossible to 
prevent the head, mane, and eyes from being soiled by fragments of 
hay and other rubbish dropping from the rack, and giving rise to 
itching, rubbing, shoving off the halter, inflammation of the eyes, &c. 
The racks having a high position, more fodder will be dispensed and 
wasted, parts of which, for instance, straw of peas and beans, may 
even be liable to fall into the ears of the horse, giving a great deal of 
trouble. 

These latter evils might be prevented by placing the racks some- 
what back in the wall, or by bringing the front of the rack at least on 
a level with the wall itself, as is often seen in stables where the fodder 
is given from the barn, for instance^, on the farms in Holstein and 
Hanover. The rundles in this case are given a perpendicular position, 
and the back part of the wall, not being trellised, forms an oblique 
plane, so as to enable all fodder to come gradually and of itself to the 
horse. High racks will always be accompanied by the disadvantage 
of forcing the animal, when eating, to give his head a tiresome and 
unnatural position, even dangerous to his health. By this forced posi- 
tion of the neck the circulation of blood is disturbed, causing perpetual 
congestions in some animals, especially those so predisposed. From 
all these considerations, I feel induced to advocate the position of racks 
used in English stables, where they are of equal height with the cribs, 



286 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

being from three to four feet from the ground. It may be objected 
that this position woukl favor cribbing, and that the horses would 
sooner jump into the rack, spoiling it and hurting themselves ; but if 
both cribs and racks are made of iron, and not altogether too low, 
these objections deserve no consideration. 

The proportions of a rack should correspond to the method of feed- 
ing. Horses used for agricultural purposes receiving a greater bulk 
of fodder, especially green fodder in summer, necessarily require a 
larger rack, than those kept for luxury alone and receiving the smaller 
portion of their food in the shape of rack fodder. 

The form of the rack should correspond to the crib, in case it is 
placed either above or side by side with the latter. It is objectionable 
to put up a long ladder-rack above a narrow tray-shaped trough of 
stone or cast-iron, the former stretching its ends over the trough, so 
as to let the fodder from the rack fall to the ground, both on the left 
and right side. In running stables, the crib and rack are frequently 
put up on different walls, or in different corners, in which case there 
appears no necessity for the form and size of the rack to correspond 
with that of the crib. 

Figure 5, plate 2, illustrates this arrangement, made of one piece, 
by Cottam and Hallen, London, or by Brandon, Paris : 

It costs, when of cast-iron 69 francs. 

Enameled 59 '^ 

Galvanized... 100 '' 

Crib and rack of one piece 60 " 

Enameled 79 " 

Galvanized 88 " 

The racks most generally in use are those in the shape of a ladder, 
with rundles at narrow intervals, either running through a number of 
stands, or separate for each stand. Tlie latter arrangement has the 
advantage, that, if a rundle is accidentally torn off, the whole row of 
horses will not be exposed to excitement and danger. The position of 
these racks should be at an angle of 40° to 45° toward the wall. 

Some have the rundles made movable, to^ facilitate the pulling out 
of the fodder, and to diminish their tearing and spoiling. 7or similar 
reasons, the racks in Holland and Belgium are provided with this 
arrangement : one of the rundles can be shoved up, and has a handle 
at the lower end, in the shape of a crutch handle, by means of which 
the horse is enabled to move up the rundle by putting in his nose, 
and to take out the fodder. (See figure 6, plate 2.) But I cannot 
ascribe any great value to this arrangement, inasmuch as in most 
racks of this kind, which I have seen, the rundles intended to be 
movable became so tight by the swelling of the wood, or the oxydizing 
of the iron, that the object contemplated could not be attained at all. 
Sometimes the racks are made of small boards, inserted into the grooves 
of the upper and lower ladder-beams, and in which the necessary 
openings are made by a saw. (See figure 7, plate 2.) 

Backs in the shape of round baskets are of late frequently made, 
having the appearance of the fourth part of a large globe. They are 
made of iron only, being too small for green fodder, as at present 



ARRANGEMENT OF HORSE STABLES. 287 

manufactured, but deserve to be recommended for stables where no 
green fodder is used, because tliey are of a pleasing form^ can easily 
be put up, and facilitate the operation of drawing out the fodder. (See 
figure 8, plate 2.) 

This rack, manufactured at the founderies of Wirtemberg, weighs 
from forty to fifty pounds, and costs about three and a half cents a 
pound. 

The material for racks is either wood or iron. In ladder-racks, the 
beams are made of oak wood, on account of their being gnawed, and 
the rundles of ash, on account of its great tenacity. Eacks made 
either of wrought or cast-iron are recommended for their durability, 
being, this considered, not much more expensive than wooden ones, 
which require frequent repairs. Those made of cast-iron must be pro- 
vided with much stronger rundles than those of wrought-iron ; they 
will last almost forever, while in cast iron ones the rundles are easily 
broken off by being struck with the hay-fork, by an accidental blow 
from the head of a horse, or by the animal being fastened to a rundle, 
&c. The damages thus done can often hardly be repaired ; it is, how- 
ever, always best to insert new rundles of wrought iron. 

Arrangement for fastening the horses. — In this, care should be 
taken that the horses may not step inside the halter-chains, or straps, 
which can be avoided by putting weights at the ends of the straps. 
The arrangement as indicated in figure 5 deserves special commenda- 
tion, the weights being shoved u|) and down on a leading pole, serving 
at the same time as a foot for the crib. These weights usually run 
behind the wainscoting, below the cribs, or in a covered channel, 
applied in one of the corners of the stand. If straps are used for 
fastening, rollers of iron, brass, or hard wood, should be fixed at the 
point of the wainscoting where the straps are shoved up and down by 
the weights, for the purpose of sparing the leather. If the horse is 
to be tied with but one rope, it must ho, in the middle of the stand, 
and so as to allow him to lie down without lengthening the strap con- 
siderably, and thus giving occasion to step inside. A leading pole from 
the edge of the crib should be put up, with a movable ring, to which 
the short halter-strap should be buckled. 



288 ' ^ AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

SAXON MEMNO SHEEP. 



Letter to his Excellency Joseph A. Wright, Minister to Berlin, from 
Alexander Speck Yon Sternburg, of Lutzschena, Germany, relative 
TO Saxony Merino Sheep, &c., &c. &c. 

LtJTZCHENA, near Leipsig, Saxony, July 22, 1859. 

Dear Sir : I have much, pleasure in giving you an account of the 
method of raising sheep, together with some information as regards 
the history of the Saxon merino, and other matters in connection with 
the agricultural pursuits followed on this estate_, which may be inter- 
esting to your friends. 

You are no doubt aware that Spain is the country to which the world 
is indebted for the '^ Saxon merino," the most perfect and noble of tlie 
different races of sheep. It has been proved that the Spanish sheep, 
more perhaps than any other domestic animal, is liable to undergo a 
great change, under different domestic influences, both with regard to 
size and wool ; for, whilst the original Spanish merino has deteriorated 
in some countries so as to become nearly valueless, the reverse has 
taken place under the influence of a climate congenial to it. Thus, 
according to some historians, (Weckherlin, &c.,) the Spanish merino 
was introduced into England as early as the 15th century, and is now 
represented there by the south-down, or English short-wooled. In 
1723 it was introduced into Sweden; yet how different now is their 
progeny. In England, the rich and ever-verdant pasturage and humid 
climate have developed and increased the frame and the flesh-producing 
qualities, whilst the fleece has also increased in size and weight, though 
at the expense of firmness and curl of hair, which constitute the j)i'0- 
perties of fine clothing wool. In Sweden, the uncongenial climate has 
effected the reverse, and changed the Spanish merino into a small, and 
in all respects indifferent, animal. The Spanish merino was first intro- 
duced into Saxony in the year 1T65, when a flock of 102 rams and 128 
ewes, increased, in 1779, by 55 rams and 169 ewes was presented by 
the Crown of Spain to the then Elector of Saxony — a circumstance 
from which is derived the denomination of "Electoral wool," 1st. 2d, 
Electa, in sorting, &c. — and by him located on his domains of Stolpen 
and Lohmen. These flocks, which were of the very best breed, and, 
so called, royal blood, are the source from which the whole family, not 
only of the Saxon merino, but also all the fine clothing-wool sheep in 
Austria, Silesia, Kussia, (Odessa,) &c., and the countless flocks of 
Australia, have sprung, to the entire extinction, in some of these 
countries, of the aboriginal sheep. As it happened, the climate of 
Saxony proved to be extremely well adapted to these animals, for the 
wool produced from them soon became renowned for its fine clothing 
properties, so as speedily to eclipse the wools of Spain. 

Thus, we find the exports from the respective countries of merino 
wool amounted to : 



SAXON MERINO SHEEP. 289 

From Spain and Portugal. From Germany. 

In 1800 7,794,700 pounds. 421,350 pounds. 

At prices of about 10.9. per pound. 7s. per pound. 

In 1814 9,234,990 pounds. 3,595,100 pounds. 

At prices of about 75. perpound. 9s. BcZ. per pound. 

In 1827 4,349,600 pounds. 22,001,190 pounds. 

At prices of about 4s. per pound. 13s. per pound. 

The proportionate quantities of Merino wool exported from these 
countries were : 

From Spain and Portugal. From Germany. 

In 1838 1,814,000 pounds. 27,500.000 pounds. 

The great profit from raising Saxon merino wool soon attracted the 
attention of landed proprietors in Saxony, indolent even as they were 
in matters of agriculture at that date, and the cultivation of sheep 
rapidly increased in Saxony, and extended to the neighboring countries 
of Austria, especially to Silesia, which, next to Saxony, produces the 
merino sheep in greatest perfection, exceeding, even now, in fineness 
of wool and exquisite staple, though unequal in some other respects. 
At the first, sheep-breeders crossed the Spanish merinos obtained from 
the Electoral flocks with the common country sheep, but the result was 
a failure, and experience soon proved the advantage of breeding pure 
merinos only, to the exclusion of other blood. 

The time has now long since passed when the Saxon merino sheep, 
into which the Spanish merino was transformed, became a type, an 
animal of such fixed and permanently impressed properties as to form 
a particular kind of its species, and an independent race of sheep. 

The late father of the writer, Maximilian Speck, Baron von Stern- 
burg, was among those whose iuterests have been most closely con- 
nected with the history of the Saxon merino sheep. 

Since the very commencement of the export trade in Saxon merino 
wool, previous even to 1800, Maximilian Speck, of Leipsic, having 
risen through industry and self-education from the very humble condi- 
tion of a small village inn-keeper's son, became a merchant in the 
article, and, through his establishments at London, Leeds, Aix-la- 
Chapelle, and other places, supplied the increasing demand in foreign 
markets. About the year 1820 he also became a l3reeder of these ani- 
mals, and interested himself in their improvement. Large flocks of 
them were kept by him, principally on this estate, and were subse- 
quently also introduced by him on his two estates in Bavaria, though 
with indifferent success. The original or parent flock continues to 
be carefully kept up on this estate, to this day, though, of course, in 
diminished numbers. From this flock were drawn, in 1824 and 1830, 
some of the first supplies of the Australian Agricultural Society, at a 
tim.e when Australia, as a wool-growing country, was still in its 
infancy. The sheep were exported from this place, together with 
shepherds, to the Australian Agricultural Company's possessions, on 
the river Upper Hunter, in New South Wales, subsequently visited 

19 A 



290 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

by the writer. By desire of the Emperor of Russia, Alexander T, 
several small flocks, from the parent flock here, were introduced hy 
Maximilian Speck, in person, into the neighborhood of Taganrog and 
Odessa, (in 1825 and 1828^) from which the vast flocks of merinos in 
that part of Russia have in part sprung. Rams from this flock have, 
likewise, at different times, been exported hence to the United States, 
to the order of agents at New York ; and so late as last year, the 
writer had the pleasure of forwarding a small flock of ten rams to 
Australia, selected here in person hy that eminent stock-holder, Mr. 
W. J. Browne, of Port Gamble^ Adelaide, South Australia, and of 
13 Princess Terrace, Hyde Park, London, who was then on a visit to 
the different sheep-farming establishments in G-ermany, and gratified 
the writer by his assurance that, for pure blood and constancy, evi- 
denced by uniformity and other essential breeding qualities, he had 
not found this flock to be surpassed anywhere. 

I now proceed to give you a short account of my method of keeping 
these sheep, with attendant remarks. Their breeding being no longer 
so profitable here as to induce it, to the exclusion of other stock, the 
flock has been reduced for some years past to about 1,200 head, in the 
proportion of about 600 ewes,- 80 to 100 rams, 250 to 300 lambs, and 
the rest wethers and yearlings. These are kept in one large stable, 
about 110 English yards long, 21 yards wide, and 9 to 10 yards high, 
built massively of brick, with pillars supporting a roof of strong 
wooden rafters, the whole forming a large, airy saloon, well ventilated 
hy windows and air-holes near the top, to be opened or closed accord- 
ing to the weather and the season. The rams, ewes, lambs, &c., are 
all separated, divisions being contrived by sheep-hurdles, which, as 
well as the whole of the stable furniture, are light and easily movable. 
The hurdles are supported by stakes, which are driven in the floor at 
pleasure. Subdivisions of any size can thus be made quickly within 
the stable. The fodder-racks and troughs are very simple and prac- 
tical, and could not be improved upon ; but it would lead too far to 
enter into a descrij)tion of them here. From the roof are suspended 
iron wicker-work baskets containing rock salt, necessary to keep the 
animals in health, and which they can lick at pleasure. Above the 
stable is contained the hay and straw loft, separated by wooden floor- 
ing, covered several inches thick with beaten clay, impervious to the 
exhalations underneath. From this loft the fodder is passed, through 
trap-doors and slides, to the stable below. The litter remains in the 
stable from 4 to 6 months at a time, sometimes attaining a height of 
3 to 4 feet. Every day a little clean straw is laid down, which becomes 
mixed with the excrement of the sheep, and is compressed by them 
into one solid mass, forming the floor, which is perfectly dry, healthy, 
and sweet. The consolidated manure thus formed is not the least of 
the profits derived from the sheep. No other farm-yard manure is 
•equal to it, and for turnip-crops, and especially for rape-seed, it is the 
very best fertilizer, as, not being exposed to the open air, and being 
well compressed, it retains its ammoniacal properties. The sheep are 
■stabled all the winter, generally from the beginning of November 
until the middle of April, according to the season. As soon in spring 
-as the weather permits and the grass begins to grow, they are taken 



SAXON MERINO SHEEP. 291 

out to graze, in separate flocks, at from 9, a. m., to 12, m., and again 
at 3, p. m., till near sundown. For field and stubble-grazing they 
are very useful, as they keep the land clean, freeing it from weeds. 
This advantage is so essential to the farmer that some of my neigh- 
bors, not keeping sheep, frequently request me to take mine upon 
their stubble. During the six to seven months they are stabled for 
winter, their fodder consists of nothing but straw, the best of hay, 
turnips, and "grains" from the brewery. Of straw, necessary to the 
ruminating process, pea and oat straw are the best ; next, barley and 
wheat straw. Eye straw is only given when other straw is exhausted. 
At the close of the harvest, a calculation of the probable requisites of 
fodder for the live stock, including the sheep, during winter, is made, 
as regards the sheep, on the following basis : 

One-thirtietli "part of the lueiglit of the live animal in good hay is 
considered necessary, per day, for its sustenance. According to the 
quality of the fodder, and its abundance or scarcity, this may be in- 
creased to yV P^-i^tj 1*^* Isss than -^^ part ought not to be given. 
Taking good meadow hay as the fodder-standard, a ram should receive 
about 3^ p(»iaiids per day, a ewe about 2f pounds per day, yearlings, 
&c., in that proportion — taking the average of a full-grown ram at 
110 pounds, of a ewe at 82 pounds, the weight of each varying, accord- 
ing to age, size, and condition, between 105 and 125 pounds, as 
regards the full-grown rams, and from 70 to 85 pounds, as regards 
the ewes. The weight of a wether varies between 80 pounds in lean 
condition and 110 to 115 pounds if strong and fat for the butcher. 
One pound of good meadow hay is considered equivalent to If pounds 
of oat, pea, wheat, or barley straw, 4 pounds of turnips, or 2 pounds 
of grain in the wet state, as daily delivered from the brewery, in 
winter. When the time of stabling for winter arrives, the sheep- 
master has his supplies of straw, hay, and turnips, allotted to him 
on the basis of the above calculation, and he is bound to make them 
serve out the proper time, under-feeding being as much guarded 
against as over-feeding and waste. 

Straw is served out to all the sheep, but the lambs receive, in addi- 
tion, hay only, the breeding ewes hay and turnips, grain being only 
given to the sheep set aside for fattening, and to the rams and year- 
lings in moderate quantity. Morning and evening the feeding racks 
are filled with straw, which, when "nibbled" out^ is taken away 
and used for litter, a fresh supply being put in its place. Cleanliness, 
sufiiciency, and due economy are the three consideratious never to be 
lost to view. 

Hereditary disease is unknown in my flock. Every lamb not appear- 
ing quite strong and healthy is killed when young. During the 
whole course of 40 years, epidemic disease has never made its appear- 
ance. The mortality from incidental disease and accident does not, 
upon an average, amount to more than two thirds per cent. These 
consist, almost exclusively, in a lamb being now and then crushed to 
death, and in death caused by rupture from distention, which, at the 
time of clover grazing, has to be much guarded against, especially in 
windy weather. 

Each sheep is distinguished by a number, indicated by a small inci- 



292 



AGRICULTURAL REPORT, 



sion in the ear, made by an instrument, as soon as the animal is a 
year old. Early in spring, previous to the clip, and again in autumn, 
tlie ewes, rams, and yearlings are carefully sorted by myself and the 
sheepmaster, jointly, and the character of each sheep taken down, 
thus: 

Covering register. 



Ewe. 


Fineness. 


Size and stature. 


Fleece and staple. 


Age. 


Ram. 


No. 810 


Supra or L Electa, 
as the case may 
be. 


Middle size, well 
formed . 


Rather long; too open 
on back. Falls off 
about the haunches. 
Wiry character. 


3 years. 


To be put 
to No. 4 
orL 



If found too old, or otherwise objectionable, the number is crossed 
out, (to be substituted by a yearling,) and the animal thus rejected is 
marked for fattening, to be sold to the butcher. 

For the purpose of covering, I keep five standard rams, besides two 
or three reserve rams. These are pent up in stalls, separately, and 
thus selected: No. 1, for its great degree of fineness and bfeauty of 
staple; No. 2, for the softness and mild nature of the wool; No. 3, 
for its size ; No. 4, for its closeness of staple, evenness, and weight 
and size of fleece; No. 5, for its evenness and length of staple. 

The reserve rams are set aside for similar good points, but none are 
taken for covering, the wool of which is not at least a I. Electa. The 
lambs are sorted and classed at one year old. For sale, for breeding 
purposes, the one year old ram is generally chosen. It ought not to 
be used for covering until from one and a half to one and three fourths 
years old, and is in its prime until four years old, but can be used until 
seven to eight years old. At two and a half to three years old it is 
full grown, and may then cover from sixty to seventy-five ewes a sea- 
son, and from six to eight ewes each day during the season. The 
season for covering commences about the 1st of August or September, 
and lasts about a month. Ewes are not covered until two and a half 
years old. At covering-time, a trial ram, having its genitals tied over 
with a linen apron, is constantly admitted to the ewes, and directs the 
eye of the sheep-master to such as are in season, when they are taken 
from the herd and put to the standard ram previously selected for them 
and indicated in the covering register kept for the purpose. The study, 
of course, is to put a ewe deficient in a certain point or points to a ram 
distinguished for its perfection in these points, and thus to neutralize 
the shortcomings of one by the opposite extremes of the other. Breed- 
ing "in and in" may be carried far with sheep, without bad efiects, 
but it has its limits. I introduce fresh blood to the extent of about 
five per cent, every year. For this purpose, I choose a ram, every 
four or five years, iTom some other standard Saxon merino flock, most 
likely to harmonize with mine. Mere fineness of hair has long since 
ceased to be the principal object aimed at. What we now endeavor to 
breed is, "a sheep of the greatest possible size of carcass and flesh 



' SAXON MERINO SHEEP. 293 

qualities, wliiclij in the merino slieep, are compatible witli fine clothing 
wool properties; no sheep to be below I. (in case of exception, only II. 
Electa,) and to have a fleece of at least two and one fourth pounds in 
weight.'' 

It is an easy matter to breed for excessive fineness only. With a 
flock like mine, I have this so much in my control that I could, if so 
disposed, very greatly increase the degree of fineness, within three or 
four years, by crossing for that purpose only. The size of the carcass 
would then decrease, "in proportion, to a certain point, and the weight 
of the fleece eventually dwindle down 1^ to 1 pound, as is the case 
with some fine Silesian flocks. On the other hand, the carcass of the 
Saxon merino sheep cannot be increased beyond a certain size, unless 
at the expense of the staple, which, when the proper point has been 
exceeded, invariably becomes open on the ridge of the back, and what 
is called tow}^; the fleece, as it were, refusing to accommodate itself to 
an undue size of carcass. The practical experience of the breeder 
alone, joined to a knowledge of his flock_, can offer a secure guide in 
the matter of judicious crossing. 

The staff" of servants attached to my flock consists only of one sheep- 
master and two assistant shepherds, besides occasional farm-hands, as 
may be required. During the grazing season, indeed, our excellent 
sheep dogs do half the shepherds' work, their instinct and training 
being wonderful. 

As regards the prices I obtain for my sheep: Ttie wethers, when 
fat, bring from 21s. to 26s. each ; the ewes, fattened for the butcher, 
from 16s. to 21s. each. Breeding ewes are rarely sold^ except for 
export. Their price is from £2 to £5, according to age, perfection, 
and fancy. Earns for breeding purposes vary from £2 10s. and £3 to 
£10 each. Picked yearling rams, for exportation, in flocks of from 
six to ten, or upward, £6 to £8 average price. Single rams of great 
excellence I have occasionally sold as high as £20, and even £30, but 
these were exceptional cases. Indeed, fancy has a great deal to do 
with the prices of fine stock. Provided a flock be of undoubted purity 
of blood, long standing, general excellence, and evenness of character^, 
the probabilitj?- is that any good ram from it will, if crossed with ewes 
from the same flock, produce sheep equal to it ; and the chances are 
that a "fancy ram" from the same flock will not produce anything 
superior to the other, either from ewes of the same flock, or if crossed 
with others. Very extravagant prices are sometimes paid by fanciers 
for individual rams of great beauty, especially where the animal is for 
export ; and the foreign fancy buyer will not be satisfied of the good 
quality of his purchase unless he has paid a high price for it. But, 
let it be remembered, single rams of great individual beauty are gene- 
rally a mere htsus naturae, a sport of nature, and often spring from 
flocks having less constancy of breed and blood, and by no means very 
reliable, but quite the contrary, for the reproduction of their own per- 
fections. They are, in fact, show animals. 

The prices I realize for my wool vary from 2s. Sd. to 3s. 2c?. Last 
year I sold at 3s. Id. This year, the market being depressed, I sold at 
2s. 9c?., as clipped from the sheep, locks and all. The weight clipped 
this year amounted to : 



294 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

From the ewes on tlie average 2 jV pounds each. 

From the wethers on the average 2| " 

From the yearlings on the average 2 j-^g- ' ' 

From the full-grown rams 4 to 6g- " 

I generally sell my wool, by private bargain, to France or Belgium, 
the best market for such wools, as best adapted for the fine, yet strong 
and sound fancy woolens manufactured there. 

I conclude by giving a short sketch of my farming estate here. It 
is of medium size, consisting of about 650 English acres, of which 
about 90 acres are meadow land, 60 acres park and forest, 20 acres 
cultivated with hops, 20 acres yards and gardens, and the rest under 
the plow. The arable land is chiefly a good sandy loam, a small river 
running through the estate. It is divided into 14 principal parcels, or 
allotments, of from 20 to 50 acres each, and on this division is based 
a system of succession of crops. In this systematic arrangement for a 
constant change of crops on the same soil or field consists the most 
important improvement of modern agricultural science. Thanks to it, 
the productiveness of land in this part of the country, generally, may 
be stated to have been augmented by at least 20 per cent, as compared 
with the old slovenly mode of farming land, still in vogue with many 
of our peasantry, whom it is extremely difficult to prevail upon to depart 
from the way of their fathers. Having regard to the nature of your soil, 
and to your experience of it, you have so to arrange your crops as to 
bring about, systematically, constant suitable changes between agricul- 
tural plants of different vegetation, the rule being to cause opposites 
to succeed each other, and not to bring grain twice on the same field 
successively. Thus, for instance, wheat is the best possible successor, 
on the same field, to rape-seed, the latter drawing different chemical 
components from the soil, and imparting and leaving others most con- 
ducive to a good growth of wheat. Science has laid down certain rules 
in the succession of crops for the observance of the farmer, and the year, 
of course, known to you, still it may be of interest to quote my table 
of succession, "the law of my farm," which is never allowed to be 
departed from. 

i^or 1859. 

Field No. 1. Eape-seed, (25 loads, of 25 cwt. each^ of farm-yard 
manure, per acre.) 

Field No. 2. Wheat. 

Field No. 3. Potatoes. 

Field No. 4. Barley. 

Field No. 5. Eye, (18 loads, of 25 cwt. each, of good manure, per 
acre.) 

Field No. 6. Awelrape-seed, with buckwheat and stubble, turnips 
before and after. 

Field No. 1. Oats 

Field No. 8. Turnips, (32 loads, of 25 cwt. each, of best stable 
manure, per acre.) 

Field No. 9. Winter or summer wheat. 



SAXON MERINO SHEEP. 295 

Field No. 10. Clover, for green fodder and liay. 

Field No. 11. Eye. 

Field No. 12. Peas.^, beans ^, highly manured. 

Field No. 13. Oats ^, rye, ^. 

Field No. 14. White clover, for pasturage. 

In 1860, the crop, which in 1859 was on iield No. 2, will be on field 
No. 1, and so on, in constant yearly rotation. I have, besides, some 
land set apart for lentils, mangold- wurzel, Indian corn, caraway seed, 
&c., and for lucern, a most valuable green crop in this climate. A 
change of seed is frequently made, and I often import, with a small 
extra cost of freight, and to great advantage, seed of the best kind 
from England. 

All the crops are housed in barns, stacks are only made in case of 
great need. The grain is threshed by two threshing machines, one on 
'^ Garrett's" principle^ the other on a Swedish model, both driven by 
working oxen. The sowing is done partly by hand, partly by the 
''Albanian" (American) sowing machine. 

My live stock consists, at present, of about 1,150 sheep, about 62 
head of cattle, (exclusive of 12 working oxen,) chiefly of the Bernese 
(Switzerland) and the Allgau (Tyrolese) breed. I have lately imported 
some English short-horns_, of the best blood, with which I intend to 
cross, and expect a good result. I also keep about 80 pigs, of the 
common country kind, as well as Essex and Yorkshire middle breed. 
With these I cross the country or indigenous pig, which is rather 
lean, narrow, and bony, but the flesh of which is finer than that of 
the English breeds. By making one or two crosses, I produce a very 
excellent pig for the butcher, (who does not like the pure English 
breeds,) which fattens easily, and yet is not deficient in fine flesh. I 
obtain from 36s. to 41,s. per cwt., living weight, for my pigs. This 
pays me so well, that I am about to alter my arrangements, and to 
make room for double my present stock of pigs. 

In close connection with the farm, I have two technical establish- 
ments on the spotj namely : a brick work, the clay for which is found 
on the place, and which turns out 1,250,000 bricks per annum, and a 
brewery, producing about 160,000 gallons of Bavarian beer per annum, 
which is chiefly consumed in the neighboring towns and villages. I 
need not point out to you that the grains and malt-dust from my 
brewery are a most material accessory to my means for feeding the 
stock, and that the refuse enriches the manure heap. 

To work the whole estate, I keep thirteen pairs of horses and six 
pairs of working oxen, their labor being always so arranged and dis- 
posed of as to concentrate it where most required at the time. Thus, 
at present, during harvest, nearly all are employed in hauling and 
threshing grain and doing other harvest work. During winter, when 
the earth is frost-bound, all are busy carting clay, on easy roads, for 
the brick-works, and so on. One branch, or department, must always 
help on the other, as best it may. I grind my own flour, bake my own 
bread, and kill my own meat, and have my own coopers, blacksmiths, 
wheelwright, and carpenter, on the place, so as to be independent of 
the tradesman, and to have their labor at hand when required. When 
nothing else is to be done, the coopers make casks in store, the black- 



296 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

smitlis and wlieelwriglit work at new carts and implements ; neitlier 
time nor labor is lost. 

The price of land here, owing to the neighborhood of a large town, 
is rather dear — from £40 to £60 per English acre, arable land. Tak- 
ing this in consideration, and the value of live and dead stock, build- 
ings, and floating capital, I realize, in an average of years^ a net 
interest of five and a half per cent, on the capital represented by this 
property, after allowing ten per cent, per annum for deterioration of 
dead stock, and two per cent, on buildings. This is no great interest, 
certainly, but a safe return, and combining an agreeable occupation 
with an independent and comparatively inexpensive country residence. 
The whole is conducted, under my supervision, by an able manager, 
with a staff of under-bailiffs and servants. Minute accounts of every- 
thing are kept, in sets of books arranged for the purpose, in charge 
of two clerks. I may add that there is also an agricultural school on 
the estate, licensed by government, where young men above eighteen 
years of age can learn something theoretically and practically about 
farming. It is a private undertaking, v/ith which I am in nowise 
connected, except that it exists at my sufferance, the pupils j)rofiting 
by what they may learn on the farm. 

I shall be glad if you find anything to interest you in my letter. If 
so, may it serve as some apology for its length. 

Believe me, dear sir, yours most truly and respectfully, 

ALEXANDEE SPECK YON STEKNBUEG. 

His Excellency Joseph A. Wright, 

American Minister at Berlin. 



SPLEEN IN SHEEP, AND ITS PEEYENTION. 

[Condensed and translated from the German.] 

Different opinions prevail as to the causes, preventives, and remedy 
of this destructive evil. Generally, however, little or nothing has 
been done to prevent or check the disease. Many resort to medica- 
ments of infusion, which process proves of no avail; others, when the 
disease has made its appearance among their flocks, deny it, or pretend 
to have suppressed it in its very outbreak. But all these mysteries 
cannot be attended with any benefit. 

For the most part, the well-fed animals are affected by the spleen or 
milt-disease. They are seen dropping their heads, breathing labori- 
ously, and moving their sides with great force and rapidity. They 
show uneasiness and dullness, others, however, are excited, and appear 
to be lively. The latter, as a general rule, are first stricken down 
with the disease. According to observations made by Dr. Wagenfeld, 
the skin is of a red appearance, jDassing somewhat into bluish, and the 
white of the eye presents a dark-blue stroke, passing into yellowish or 
brownish at the lower edge, the blood-vessels being of a dark-red 
color, and inflated. Yet^ with many animals, there are no particular 
symptoms of disease to be observed ; they stagger while grazing, and 
fall down as dead. 



PREVENTION OF SPLEEN IN SHEEP. 297 

It is only by duration of the disease that the symptoms assume a 
more decided character. Melancholy, want of certainty in their steps, 
keeping behind the flock, abstaining from eating, dullness and loss of 
all sensation, are followed by heat and dryness about the mouth, 
tongue, and nose ; their ears are cold, the pulse hard, and their looks 
fixed and staring. After a longer process, the pituitary membrane, 
both of nose and mouth, becomes blood-red, the latter exhibiting 
bloody foam, and violent gnashing of the teeth. The excrements are 
mixed with blood, and ulcers make their appearance about the neck 
and other parts of the body. The animals begin trembling, fall, are 
seized by fits, the white of the eye becoming red, and the eye-ball pro- 
jecting from its cavity. If the progress of the disease is going on still 
slower, the breathing is performed in long and irregular intervals, 
blood is secreted from the nose and other orifices, and the urine is of a 
blood color, when death ensues, amid violent convulsions. 

The disease is usually of such rapid character that often but few 
minutes intervene from its supposed commencement until its termina- 
tion in death. - A small number of animals thus attacked will live as 
long as from ten to thirty-six hours. 

This rapid progress of the disease makes it extremely difficult to 
discern it, especially as the animals continue eating until they fall 
down. Decomposition speedily commences, developing most offensive 
odors. 

The following are the results of dissection : The stomach is distended 
with ofiensive gas and food ; the small intestines present an inflam- 
matory appearance ; the liver is tender, and overflowing with corrupt 
bile; the milt is swollen, soft, ulcerous, and often bursting; the brain 
is filled with blood ; every part of the dead body emits a foul smell, 
the inside of the skin being always dark, and of a bluish-red color, 
caused by the blood beneath. 

This plague is dangerous both to men and animals, not always, 
however, evincing the same power of contagion. In proportion to the 
slower or more rapid progress of the disease is the infiuence of its con- 
tagious nature ; though sometimes there is nothing of this kind to be 
apprehended, when the animal dies very quickly., which is the reason 
why, in certain cases, only a few sheep are lost without the disease 
spreading further. In a slow progress_, however, the contagion 
reaches the highest degree. 

Those animals which die after a slow progress of the disease should 
be buried as deeply as possible, together with all their blood, foam, 
and the filth hanging about them ; of those which die after a rapid 
progress, the skin may be taken, but the inner side of it should be im- 
mediately strewn with salt, or with lime-dust, which would be still 
better. 

This disease makes its appearance most frequently in the summer 
months,, and oftener in warm than in cold countries. 

According to observations made by Mr. Reidemeister, of St. Peters- 
burg, it is generated by great heat and dryness; by dusty pastures, 
and the dust raised by the wind, which the animals incessantly draw 
in; by rough treatment, and by over-feeding and fattening. Previous 
disorders of the abdomen may also be looked upon as among its causes, 



298 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

as tlie milt, on account of its abundance of blood, is more affected tban 
other organs. The principal causes, however, are found to exist in 
the watering places, inasmuch as the sheep are in the habit of drinking 
from stagnant and foul ponds. 

In a disease so rapid in its progress, a special treatment of the sev- 
eral affected animals may be out of the question, though the most 
valuable may be subjected to such care. In this, we must first look at 
the nature of the disease. If there are symptoms of great heat, both 
about the mouth and horns, as well as a difficulty of breathing, we 
should bleed the neck of the animals until they faint, pour cold water 
on them for from eight to ten minutes, in intervals of two minutes 
each, and put bandages around them, of the breadth of six fingers, 
soaked with turpentine oil and strewn with the dust of blister-flies. 
Internally, they should receive, in half a glass of water, from two to 
three drachms of camphor, finely pulverized and dissolved with spirits ; 
to this should be added from one and a half to two drachms of sul- 
phuric acid, or, still better, some tincture of iron mixed with the water. 
Of this mixture the animals should be given a dose every hour. If 
there are any signs of recovery after the lapse of twenty-four hours, 
the mixture should be given only twice or thrice a day until they are 
completely restored. The boils should be cut and cleaned of the 
matter they may contain, after which the wound is to be washed with 
a mixture of water, vinegar, and kitchen salt. We must be careful 
in cutting them, so that the poisonous matter may not touch either the 
face or hands, which, as a protection, should previously be well oiled, 
or greased. 

The following rules may be laid down to prevent the disease : 

The sheep should not be kept in too fat a condition. 

In the summer months they should not be exposed to the burning 
heat of the mid-day sun. 

All running and chasing should be avoided ; they should be led, 
and treated in a mild and gentle way. 

They should be provided with new pastures every week. 

They. should not be allowed to graze in the neighborhood of dusty 
roads, frequented by carriages, so as to inhale the dust. 

They should not be allowed to rest in valleys and low places, but 
only on heights, where they may enjoy the comfortable breeze, undis- 
turbed by insects. 

To deprive the milt disease of its contagiousness, the lambs should 
be kept warm in winter ; for it is the severe cold, stormy, sharp, and 
changeable weather, that creates the germ, and which, if favored by 
circumstances, is very apt to assume the character of contagious dis- 
order during summer. 

Healthy sheep should not be allowed to come in contact with diseased 
ones. 

Give them always pure water to drink ; the greatest advantage would 
result from well-water containing iron. 

At the appearance of any symptoms of disease, the sheep should be 
removed from their pastures as far as possible. 

They should also receive proper medicines in the latter part of May. 

For this purpose a mixture should be used, consisting of one part of 



PLANTS USED AS FOOD BY MAN. 299 

wormwood, (Artemisia absinthium,) one half of juniper berries, (Juni- 
jperus communis,) one part of gentian wort, {Gentiana,) one half of salt- 
peter, (nitrate of potassa,) one part of kitchen salt, and one part of 
hitter salt, (Epsom salt.) These ingredients, finely pulverized and 
mixed with eight or ten parts of hran, must he given to the sheep to 
lick. 

A cheaper mixture consists of one part of wormwood, {Artemisia 
absinthium,) one part of gentian wort, (Gentiana,) one half part of 
saltpeter, (nitrate of potassa,) one part kitchen salt, one part of hitter 
salt, (Epsom salt,) one half part of vitriol of iron, and one part of tar. 
After a fine pulverization of all the ingredients, they are to he mixed 
with fifteen or eighteen parts of pure loam, and well worked. Of this 
mixture loaves of from fifteen to twenty pounds are formed, and dried 
in a moderate warmth, when they will he put in accessible places to be 
licked by the sheep. 

If all these preventives prove inefiectual, the application of chloric 
water is highly recommended. For one hundred head of sheep, one 
part of chloride of lime is dissolved in water, and poured into the 
troughs. The animals should be induced to drink the chloric water 
by a dose of pure salt, given to them to be licked some hours before, 

Mr. W. Keidemeister recommends the vitriol of iron as an effectual 
preventive. It is to be dissolved in the water intended for drinking. 
In other diseases of domestic animals, especially the atrophy of cattle, 
the tumor of horses, and even the diseases of poultry, it has been 
found a reliable cure. 



ON THE PEINCIPAL PLANTS USED AS EOOD BY MAN. 



SKETCH OP THE PLANTS CHIEFLY USED AS FOOD BY MAN, IN DIF- 
FERENT PARTS OF THE WORLD AND AT VARIOUS PERIODS. 



BY DR. P. UNGER. 
[Translated from the German for this Report,] 



Nothing has had so powerful an influence in changing the nature 
of the savage as becoming accustomed to a bloodless food derived 
from the vegetable kingdom. It is true, that plants contain the mate- 
rials of the blood and flesh, but nutriment derived from plants is very 
different from that derived from animals. Instead of a deadly struggle 
for existence, the vegetable world freely yields up its best gifts without 
being essentially impoverished itself. The kernel, the ripe fruity the 
tender, ]mGy sprout, the marrowy substance of the mushroom, even the 
farinaceous tuber and root, in their season of perfection and fitness for 
the use of man, usually only precede the period of their unavoidable 
decay and decomposition. That which is derived from the vegetable 



300 AGRICULTURAL REPORT, 

world depends upon no strife witli nature, and in tlie peaceful searcli 
after vegetable nourishment, man becomes himself peaceable. 

It is quite reasonable to suppose that, in moving around vaguely in 
the forest and on the plains, by the sea-shore, and on the bank of 
rivers, the human race should ere long have discovered some esculent 
grain or nutritious root or fruit, even without taking into considera- 
tion what it might have learned from the instincts of animals. This 
much is certain: that with less rich endowments or gifts^ the correct 
application of these materials to the necessities of his support, must 
have involved many labors and dangers, and the rectification of many 
mistakes. 

From the various researches into the peculiarities of the vegetable 
kingdom, and from historical investigations^ it may readily be shown 
that no portion of the earth's surface, even though of but slight 
extent, was originally entirely without nutritious plants. Neverthe- 
less, it is equally certain that the original and natural distribution of 
such plants was very unequal in different parts of the world, whatever 
it may have since become through the aid of man and from other 
causes. 

The vegetable world manifestly increases in variety with a milder 
climate, a warmer sun, and a less marked alternation of temperature. 
It is, consequently, not to be wondered at, that, with the increasing 
amount of heat in passing from the ice-encircled pole towards the 
equator^ edible plants should increase in number, and their products 
gain in size and palatability. The cold portions of the northern and 
southern hemispheres produce few native nutritious plants, excepting 
such as algae, lichens, mushrooms, and some edible berries. The trop- 
ical regions, on the other hand, furnish a superfluity of farinaceous 
roots, and of sweet and juicy fruits, while the pierced bark of a tree 
(Galactodendron utile, H. B.) even supplies a nutritious milk. The 
East and West Indies, Central America, the coast of tropical Africa, 
are^ in this respect, equally favored, each in its own way. 

This is not the case, however, in the temperate zone, and especially 
in the warmer temperate regions of the earth. While the southern 
hemisphere can claim little prominence in this respect, the northern 
furnishes a large and varied series of nutritious plants, all important 
to its inhabitants. It is, nevertheless, remarkable how little the 
Western World can enter into competition with the Eastern in this 
respect, while the western portions of the latter (South Europe and 
North Africa), as also the eastern (China and Japan), are of much 
less importance when compared with its middle region. 

All the investigations which we have been enabled to make, in refer- 
ence to the native country of our most important cultivated plants, 
point unanimously to one particular district as most favored in its 
position, and from which the greatest number and most important of 
plants have been derived. It is that which is encircled by the great 
inland seas of the earth, namely, by the Persian and Arabian gulfs, 
the Mediterranean, the Black, and the Caspian seas. From the slopes of 
the Caucasus, of Taurus, and of the Albors, not only do our most gene- 
rally distributed fruits derive their origin, but the cereals also; and if 
we are not able to detect and to recognize the progenitors of these plants 



PLANTS USED AS FOOD BY MAN. 301 

in tlieir native localities, yet history shows Armenia, Persia, Mesopo- 
tamia, and Syria, to have been their cradle. Even if there were no 
other mode of determining the locality of Paradise, the point of radia- 
tion of all European civilization, our knowledge of the origin of the 
most nutritious plants would enable us to establish its position. 

It is a fact, by no means to be kept in the back-ground, that hardly 
one of the plants, the products of which are used for purposes of nutri- 
tion, is pleasant or palatable in its original condition. Their different 
methods of culture, their transportation to portionsof the earth remote 
from their place of origin, and the varied operations of Nature by which 
changes are induced in size, character, texture, and chemical constitu- 
tion, have, little by little, caused them to differ from the original just 
in proportion as the hand of man has cared for them. This has caused 
the cereals and the tuberous plants to be more nutritious, and has 
rendered the vegetables of the kitchen-garden and fruits more palatable. 
How great a difference exists between the wild original plants, and 
those altered by the agency of man, is shown by our roots, as the 
turnip, the parsnip, the shallot, &c.; and such fruits as the pineapple, 
banana, grape, strawberry, &c. 

Even when long-continued effort is not sufficient to effect a desirable 
change in the plant, it is often possible for man to make use of 
as food. Who does not know that the farinaceous root of the 
Mandioca, or Cassava, (Jatropha maniJiot, L.), is not only unpalatable 
but actually poisonous, on account of the hydrocyanic (prussic) acid in 
its milky juices. The native, however, has for a long time obtained 
a substance, by pressing out the grated root, and by washing, drying, 
and toasting, which serves him for his daily bread, and furnishes at 
the same time a starch (tapioca) useful for various purposes. The same 
is the case with various other tuberous substances, as, for instance, the 
Takka, the Dracontium polypliyllum, &c.; as also with fruits and seeds, 
where portions must be removed and altered in order to render the rest 
lit for use. 

How simple a treatment of many of the farinaceous plants is sufficient 
to prepare them for food, is shown, for example, by the Tarro root 
(Arum esculentum, L.), the Breiad fruit {Artocarpus incisa, L.), the 
Sweet potato Convolvulus batatas, L.), and others, which require only 
to be crushed or grated to furnish daily nourishment. When the pulp of 
such plants passes into fermentation, or is subjected to the influence of 
fire, its nutritious qualities and palatability are increased; should 
spices be added to promote digestibility, or if combinations of different 
vegetable substances be effected wth materials of an animal character, 
we have the first germ of the art of cookery before us. It is quite 
probable that the greater mass of mankind has not gone beyond this 
primitive condition of the art to its more refined modifications. 

The farinaceous plants unquestionably constitute the basis of all 
vegetable nutriment. Starch and different protein substances are the 
most important constituents of such portions as are used for the purposes 
of food. Nevertheless, an accumulation of these substances is not to 
be found in all plants, and just as little in all parts of one and the 
same plant. They are mostly garnered up in tubers, in roots, in the 
pith of stems, in fruits,, and in seeds. These, therefore, have usually 



302 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

been souglit after by man and introduced into tlie circle of his house- 
hold economy, whenever this became fixed on a firm basis. The 
attempt to remove the small seed-like fruit from the various graminous 
plants, or to test the thick fleshy fruits in reference to their possession 
of nutritious substances, was as important to man as to animals. For 
this reason the seeds of the grasses, and many fleshy tuberous roots, 
have played the most important part among all cultivated plants, and 
their multiplication by cultivation first enabled man to produce them 
in greater number in a given space, and thereby to begin his own 
political and moral development. 

It is interesting to observe how almost every portion of the earth 
has originally possessed its own breadstuff, which has thereby charac- 
terized the life of its inhabitants. While Europe derived its bread 
from oats, Northern Asia from barley and wheat, and Southern Asia 
from millet and rice, the Indian millet in Africa, and the Indian corn 
in America were the most important plants of cultivation. Australia 
alone was originally deficient in this resjoect, but the intercourse of 
nations, which soon by degrees distributed all the Cerealia over the 
whole inhabited earth, has also enriched this country, which seemed 
to have been so parsimoniously treated by Nature. 

The common oat {Avena sativa, L.), the true native land of which 
is no longer known, although the region along the Danube may pass 
as such, may be legitimately considered as the European bread crop. 
The Celts and the Germans, as far as we can ascertain, cultivated it 
two thousand years ago, and it seems to have been distributed from 
Europe into the temperate and cold regions of the whole world. The 
names Avena Oves, (Kussian), Owes (Bohemian), Owies (Polish), Oats 
(English), have great similarity to the words Hafer and Hauer, while 
on the other hand, the Tartarian name Sulu, the Hungarian Zab, &c. , 
point to a different origin from the former. Tlie Illyrians, besides the 
names mentioned, had still others for it. It was known to the Egyp- 
tians, Hebrews, Greeks, and Eomans.* With the introduction of 
more nutritious and better cerealia, the oat became more and more 
restricted to poor soils and inhospitable regions, and at the present 
day it principally serves as food only for domestic animals and the 
poorer class of people. In Scotland, bread is baked from it even now, 
as was formerly the case in Germany. The Oriental or Tartarian 
oat (Avena orientalis, Schreber) was first brought from the East to 
Europe at the end of the preceding century. 

Barley {Hordeum vulgare, Linn.), according to Olivier (Voyage en- 
Persie, 460), in his time grew abundantly wild in the historically- 
important regions between the Euphrates and Tigris. Willdenow is 
inclined to place its native country towards the bank of the Samara, a 
tributary of the Wolga. We are enabled to give the native land of 
the two-lined or common barley only, (Hordeum disticlium, L.) with 
some certainty. 0. A. Meyer found it growing wild between Lencoran 
and Baku ; C. Koch, on the steppes of Schirwan, in the southeast of the 
Caucasus; and Th. Kotschy, in South Persia. The six-lined or winter 
barley (Hordeum hexasticJion) has been known the longest of all. The 

* Plin. Hist. Nat., xviii, p. 17. 



PLANTS USED AS FOOD BY MAN. 303 

Egyptians, Jews, and Indians cultivated it in the earliest times, and 
grains are found in the mummies of the Egyptian catacombs. The 
rice or battledore barley, {Hordeum zeocriton, L,), formerly more 
abundant than now, furnishes an excellent meal, and in this respect is 
distinguished among the other species. The common barley came to 
Europe by way of Egypt, where, at the present day, the two and the 
six-lined are still cultivated. Even in Greece, all the three kinds of 
barley were formerly cultivated, {Kptdr^, Theoph., Kpcdapc of modern 
Greece,) while at the present day only the common and the six-lined 
barley are cultivated and used as fodder for horses. The Romans were 
acquainted with the two and the six-lined barley. In connection with 
the oat, it has extended its dominion in Europe to beyond the polar 
circle, and near to it in Asia and America, while the cultivation of 
these two CereaUa is most prevalent in the Arctic Circle, in the eastern 
portion of the continent, as well as in the greater portion of the sub- 
arctic zone also. 

The Celtic word Secal, or Segal, as also the German Bog, Bya, and 
the Sclavonic Bezi,^' used to indicate one of the most important CereaUa, 
namely, the rye, (Secale cereale), point to its origin in the region be- 
tween the Alps and the Black Sea. Neither the Indians nor the 
Egyptians were acquainted with the rye. The Greeks received it 
{Bpci^a) from Thrace and Macedonia. Pliny mentions its cultivation 
at the foot of the Alps. Other species of Secole grow in southeastern 
Europe and western Asia, as for instance, Secole montanum in Sicily ; 
Secale villosum on the Grecian Archipelago; Secole fragile, Bieb., in 
the Caucasus ; and Secale anatolicitm, Boiss. , in western Armenia and Asia 
Minor. The different varieties which have been produced under the 
influence of cultivation, immediately disappear in a change of the 
same. At the present day its cultivation in Europe and Asia takes 
place between 50° and 60°, and in America between 40° and 50° north 
latitude. In Gulbransdale, (Laurgard), at 62° north latitude, I found 
fields of rye at an elevation of 1,030 feet above the level of the sea, the 
size of small gardens, and, like them, fenced in with boards. 

Wheat {Triticum vulgare, Will.), which is the most important and 
widely distributed of all bread-stuffs, according to the Grecian fable, 
was originally native on the plains of Enna and in Sicily, but it is 
much more probable that, like barley, it was received from Central 
Asia, wdiere Olivier seems to have found it growing wild on the banks 
of the Euphrates. In any event, it belongs to the longest cultivated 
cerealia. Even Theophrastes was acquainted with it ; (rcopoci), pro- 
bably the grained summer variety, from wdiicli the winter wheat seems 
to have been subsequently develoj)ed. In a similar manner. Scripture 
points to its cultivation in Palestine. Even in China it was known 
3,000 years before Christ as a cultivated plant. As Isis was supposed 
to have introduced wheat into Egypt, and Demeter into Greece, so the 
Emperor Chin-nong is said to have introduced it into China. The 
great variety of the ancient names used for indicating this plant points 
to the wide circle of distribution which it originally possessed. At 
the present day, wheat is cultivated in all parts of the earth, having 

* Not z]jta, which means grain in general. 



304 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

been taken to America by tlie Spaniards, at the beginning of the six- 
teenth century. 

Besides the common wheat, several other species of wheat are to be 
considered as cultivated plants, although they have attained a much 
more restricted distribution. Among these may be mentioned the 
Triticum turgidum, L. which was cultivated even by the ancient 
Egyptians, and was known to the Eomans in the time of Pliny. As 
it has not even yet reached India, its native land is to be looked for 
rather to the south and west of the Mediterranean than in Central 
Asia. 

The many- eared or Egyptian wheat (Triticum compositum, L.), is 
only a variety. It is cultivated chiefly in southern Euro|)e and in 
England. 

Two species of wheat, Triticum durum, Desf., and Triticum poloni- 
citm, L., or Polish wheat, are only cultivated to advantage in the 
warmer regions of Europe. 

The Spelt {Triticum spelta, L.), at present cultivated only in Europe 
here and there, was met with even by Alexander the Great as a culti- 
vated plant in his campaign in Pontus. Its origin in Mesopotamia 
and Ham^adan, in Persia, is not doubtful ; especially as its cultivation 
in these countries cannot be carried back to any very remote antiquity. 
It is called oXopa in Greece, (Herodot. II., 36), and it likewise 
seems to have been known in Egypt, even though at the present day 
it is not found there. The German name Spalt points to its early 
cultivation in Germany. 

We come finally to the little cultivated one-grained wheat, (Triti- 
cum monococcum, L.); this is the Kussemeth of the Scriptures. From 
it the Syrians and Arabians made their bread. Its cultivation has not 
extended either to India, Egypt, or Greece. Both the'Crimea and the 
region of Eastern Caucasus have been indicated as the native country 
of the one-eared wheat. The Emmercorn, or German wheat, (Triticum 
amyleum, Serv.), has had an equally ancient cultivation : this is the 
Zsiu oinoxTios of Dioscoridcs. It is cultivated more frequently ir? the 
southern than in the middle portions of Europe. 

Wheat occupies a broader belt than rye, and is cultivated as the 
principal crop in middle and southern France, England, (where it 
constitutes the chief object of culture among the cerealia), a part of 
Germany, Hungary, the lands of the southern Danube, the Crimea, 
and in the lands of the Caucasus, as well as Central Asia, wherever 
the soil is cultivated ; along its northern border it is associated in 
culture with rye, in the southern with rice and maize, (Indian corn.) 
The latter is chiefly the case in the North American States, and in the 
region of the Mediterranean. Wheat is even cultivated in the south- 
ern hemisphere, at the Cape^ Buenos Ayres, and Chile, wherever the 
climatological conditions will allow it. 

While wheat is richest in gluten, and therefore the most nutritious 
bread crop, rice, (Oryza sativa, L.,) although serving for the nutri- 
ment of much greater numbers of men, possesses, nevertheless, a much 
less capacity of producing blood. Indigenous to Further India and 
the Isle of Sunda, it is extended over the whole of Southern and Eastern 
Asia, as well as over Arabia, Persia, and Asia Minor ; thence it has 



PLANTS USED AS FOOD BY MAN. 305 

reached on the one side to North Africa, Egypt, and Nuhia, and on 
the other to Grreece and Italy, (A. D. 1530.) Eice was already intro- 
duced into China 3,000 years before Christ. The Greek words opu^ou 
(Theoph.), OpoQa (Diosc), were manifestly derived from the Sanscrit 
arunga and the Cingalee oortcivee, (Urui.) Even in the time of Straho, 
rice was cultivated in Babylon, Susiana, and Syria. The Arabians 
brought it to Sicily. It is only very recently that it has been taken to 
America. In the African as well as in the American tropical regions 
it is, however, less exclusively cultivated than in Hindostan, where 
the people live almost entirely on rice alone. 

Eice occurs in a great number of varieties, such as mountain rice, 
valley rice, summer and spring rice, &c. The different kinds are dis- 
tinguished not only according to their taste, but also according to their 
smell. 

What rice is to the Old World, maize, mahiz (Zea mats, L.), or In- 
dian corn is to the New. It was cultivated there at the time of the 
discovery by EurojDeans. It is probably indigenous to Central Amer- 
ica, and brought by the Toltecs to Mexico. The first European set- 
tlers in Pennsylvania (1584) even then found rich fields of maize. 
The Indians on the Arkansas eat the green ears as their every day 
food. The Peruvians bake various kinds of bread from its meal. At 
the present day, maize is the most common article of nutriment of the 
lower and middle classes in Peru and Central America, and the com- 
mencement of its cultivation in these countries is enwrapt in the same 
degree of fable as the culture of our cerealia. The Mexican Demeter, 
Cinteutl, (from Cintli, maize,) like the Grrecian Demeter, was honored 
with the firstlings of the fruit dedicated to her. The many varieties 
which are known of the maize, as well as the circumstance that at the 
present day we are unable to point with certainty to the original 
species, indicate clearly a very extended period of cultivation for this 
plant. 

Maize was unknown to the Europeans before the discovery of Amer- 
ica, and has been extensively distributed-in other parts of the world, 
especially in Europe since the seventeenth century. That the wheat 
of Theophrastus, a grain the size of an olive kernel, cannot be maize, , 
I consider to be well established, just as certain as it is that his i^e^a is 
not maize, but spelt. In Germany, it is called Turkish wheat; in 
Greece, arabositi. Neither in Egypt nor in India and China did its 
culture precede the discovery of America. The cultivation of maize in 
America does not extend beyond the southern tropic, although it passes 
the Tropic of Cancer to the north almost to 50° north latitude. On 
the western coast of Africa its cultivation is confined to the tropics, 
while more to the north it is at home in all the lands bordering the 
Mediterranean. 

The common millet {Panicum miliaceum, L.), derived from the 
East Indies and other warmer regions of Asia, has not had the same 
favorable reception as rice, although yielding little to it in its distri- 
bution . It was known to the Greeks and Eomans at the time of Julius 
Ccesar, and is the xeyj^por of Strabo, who states that it thrives excel- 
lently in Gaul, and is the best protection against famine. The Scla- 
vonians are very fond of a dish of millet, (Kasha prosna.) It was 
20 A 



306 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

probably tbis grain and not tbe Indian millet tbat the Emperor Cbin- 
nong introduced into China more than 3,000 years ago. 

Another species of millet (Fanioum frumentaceum, Eoxb.), is fre- 
quently cultivated for food in the East Indies. The ear millet, or the 
Fennich (Setaria italica, P. B.), which at the present day is cultivated 
in Southern Europe, and even here and there in Central, is of East In- 
dian origin, since even the ancient Greeks knew it as eXupioc:, and the 
Romans as Panicum. 

The Hiimnelthau, or the manna grits (Figitaria sanguinalis, Scop.), 
is of less importance. The small hulled fruit furnishes a wholesome 
and palatable nutriment. Indigenous to Europe, it is cultivated here 
and there on poor, sandy soils. 

The common Indian millet (SorgJmm vulgare, Pers.), which was 
introduced with rice by the Arabians into Egypt, is to be considered 
as a characteristic plant of Africa, not because it was originally 
indigenous there, but because it is principally cultivated in this coun- 
try, (east and west coast, northern half to Timbuctoo ; in Abyssinia, 
from the level of the sea to the height of 8,000 feet.) Although its 
native country cannot be positively ascertained, it can scarcely be any 
other land than India. Even in the time of Pliny* it was known in 
Europe, and in the thirteenth century had extended to Italy^, and at 
the beginning of the sixteenth century reached France, under the 
name of Saracen millet. At the present day, it is distributed through- 
out the whole of Southern Europe, and is raised to advantage in Hun- 
gary, Dalmatia, Italy, and Portugal. The different varieties of the 
Indian millet, however, are not well-defined at the present day. It is 
doubtful whether the Sorghum hicolor, Willd. , and the Sorghum usorum, 
N., are entitled to a specific rank. 

To these important cerealia maybe added some other plants belong- 
ing to the grasses^ as well as to other families. Here belongs the Tef, 
(Eragrostis abyssinica, Link), Eleusine tocusso, Fres., and Eleusine 
coracana, Gart., Fennicillaria spicata, Willd.; also, Araarantus fru- 
mentaceus, Buchanf., Folygonum fagopyrum and tartaricum, and the 
Chenopodium qicinoa. These, however, with the exception of the last 
two genera, are confined to particular regions and are nowhere used 
exclusively as an article of food. 

The Ti^ {Eragrostis abyssinica, Link) is a mountain plant of Abys- 
sinia, cultivated everywhere there, at a height of from 2,500 to 8,000 
feet, where gentle heat and rain favor its development (in July and 
August.) It furnishes the favorite bread of the Abyssinians, in the 
form of thin, highly-leavened, and spongy cake. Four varieties are 
cultivated of this palatable grain. 

The Fagussa {Eleusine tocusso, F.) furnishes a poorer bread in 
Abyssinia, and although cultivated at a height above the sea of 4,000 
to 7,000 feet, thrives particularly well in hot and warm regions. 
There are three varieties, with black, reddish-brown, and white seeds. 
Its native country is the East Indies. 

The Eleusine coracana, Gart., furnishes a grain similar to the millet 

* Pliny, xviii, page 7. | Pliny, xviii, 7. 



PLANTS USED AS FOOD BY MAN. 307 

in abundance of flour, altliougli inferior to tlie preceding species in 
quality. It is cultivated on a large scale in the East as well as the 
West Indies. 

Eleusine stricta, Eoxb., is, perlia]os, only a variety of the first. 

The Brush-grass {Pennicillaria spicata,Y^ .), with its numerous va- 
rieties, is derived from the East Indies and distributed over Egypt and 
the neighboring regions. The seeds, which are rich in flour and sim- 
ilar to those of the millet, constitute ih.Q principal article of food in 
several countries. Various tribes of negroes subsist almost entirely 
upon it on their travels. 

Buckwheat {Polygonum fagopyrum, Link) was first brought to Eu- 
rope at the beginning of the sixteenth century, having been unknown 
both to the Greeks and Komans. Erom the northwestern region of 
the Chinese empire, whence came the great devastating hordes of man- 
kind, its cultivation has extended in some unknown way to the coast 
of the Mediterranean, and thence it has been still further distributed 
by the Saracens, whence its name /S'arasm, grano Saraceno, hie Sarasin. 
The Polish, Bohemian, and Levant names, Tatarka, Tattar, very 
clearly point to its original native land and its first distributers, as 
also do the Eussian, Lithuanian, and Polish terms, Gretscha, Go-yka, 
Grikhi, &c. to the intervention of the oriental G-reeks. The names 
buckwheat, (beechwheat,) fagina, and the other different names of this 
plant, are connected either with the mode of its introduction, or are 
based upon the form of the fruit. 

While the buckwheat has a very extended culture in the whole of 
Middle and Northern Europe, as well as in Northern Asia, in Northern 
India and Ceylon it is confined to narrow limits, and is there of very 
recent introduction. 

The Polygonum tartaricum, L. is of the same origin as the buck- 
wheat, though it is much less widely distributed, and was introduced 
at a much later period into Europe. The same may be said also of 
the Polygonum emarginatum, Eoth., chiefly cultivated in China and 
Nepaul, the native country of which is along the borders of China and 
Northern India. The Quinoa {Quinoa clienopodium, Willd.), consti- 
tuted the most important article of food of the inhabitants of New 
Granada, Peru, and Chile, at the time of the discovery of America, 
and at the j)resent day is still extensively cultivated on account of its 
rich yield. A variety, with light and more mealy seeds, has arisen in 
cultivation from the original species with dark seeds, and is now raised 
more than the former. It is not known at how early a period 
it was cultivated, although it is remarkable that it has been dis- 
seminated but little from the plateau of the Chuquito. The white 
Quinoa is cultivated in Europe more on account of its leaves which 
answer instead of spinage, than for the seeds, which are used chiefly as 
food for poultry. 

The Amarantus frumentaceus, Buchan., Eoxb., in the East Indies, 
furnishes an equivalent to the Quinoa. The seeds of this plant supply 
an important article of food to the native races. It is frequently cul- 
tivated on the mountain slopes of Mysore and Coimbatore. 

We may here mention some grasses and other plants which are here 
and there used as furnishing flour in a general deficiency of other food. 



308 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

Among these are Glyceria fruitans, some species of Bromus, tlie 
rhizome, and root of the Triticum repens, the seeds of Calla palustris, 
Banunculus Jicaria, Arum onaculatum, Brionia alba, B. dioica, and 
Butomus umhellatus, which, in Norway, often serves as material for 
bread, and the seeds of the Croix lacrima which are used as food in 
Tongatahu and Eiiwa. 

Certain roots and tuberous root-like shoots are rich in starch though 
not abounding in albuminous substances. To a limited extent they 
serve to replace the above-named cerealia, if not to supplant them, and 
may, therefore, when cultivated, serve whole nations for food. The potato 
(Solanum htherosa, L.), the sweet potato, the mandioca, the yam 
(Bioscorea alata) , theTakka {Tacca pinnati/ida, Forst.), and the Tarro 
(Arum esculentum) . While the first three belong to America and have 
been propagated thence to other parts of the world, the last three are 
the true bread plants of New Zealand and of the islands of the Pacific 
ocean, and may have served the inhabitants as the first means of nutri- 
ment just as the root stalk of the Papyrus and Nymplic^a lotus did the 
old Egyptians. 

The potato {Solanum tuberosum, L.) is not only one of the most 
important of farinaceous plants for America, but has become such for 
Europe and the other parts of the world. 

It is beyond a doubt that the potato, at the time of the discovery of 
America, was already cultivated in the greatest |)ortion of the Andes 
of South America, and even from Chile to New Granada, although at 
that time it was not known in Mexico, and only shortly afterwards 
in North America. 

The potato is a sea-shore plant, peculiar to a hilly and rocky soil, 
and now grows wild in Chile and the neighboring islands (Chiloe and 
Chonos, about 45° south latitude) to Peru, (Lima). In this wild state 
it rarely extends more than a few miles inland, and is widely different 
from the present cultivated potato. Its flower is always white, its 
tubers at the best attain a length of two inches, while its taste is 
insipid, but not bitter. Besides the original plant of the cultivated 
potato, which even in its wild state has passed into several varieties, 
(according to Hooker, jr., into five varieties), there are found in the 
East and West Indies still other kinds of Solanum with the tips of the 
shoots thickened into tubers, as Solanum commersonii, Poir., Solanum 
maglia, Dun., and Solanum immite, Dun. In the Argentine republic, 
especially in the mountains of Famatina, a potato grows wild, which 
at the time present is cultivated at Chilecito. 

Even in Mexico, where the Solanum tuberosum was certainly intro- 
duced at a late period only from South America, there are some species 
of Solanum, such as Solanum demissum, Lindl., Solanum cardiopliyllum, 
Lindl. , and Solanum verrucosum, Schlecht. , the latter of which produces 
very palatable but small tubers. 

The potato was first brought to England from Carolina in the year 
1586, and found its way over the rest of Europe in the seventeeth cen- 
tury ; but it was not until the nineteenth century that it obtained its 
fullest reputation. At the present time, in innumerable varieties, it 
sheds its blessing over all the lands of Europe to the furthest north. 
I have seen a truly romantic potato field, the last one to the north, 



PLANTS USED AS FOOD BY MAN. 309 

situated upon an enormous mass of rock wliicli lay near the road 
between Dalevaagan and Dalseidet, (near Bergen, in Norway.) 

The mandioca plant (Jatropha manihot, L.) possesses an extremely 
farinaceous root, (one variety, as already mentioned, with a sharp poi- 
sonous juice, the other without it,) and may he ranked among the most 
important of nutricious plants in tropical America. Pohl has shown, 
however, that the two may be considered as distinct species, and has 
called the first Manihot utilissima, and the other Manihot aipi. Both 
species were cultivated by the inhabitants of Brazil, Guyana, and the 
warmer portions of Mexico, when the first Europeans landed, and even 
at that time they had passed into a great number of varieties. Brazil, 
in which alone forty-six different species of manihot are found, is 
undoubtedly to be considered as the native country of both the above- 
named kinds, although they have not yet been found growing wild 
there. Pohl has even expressed the opinion that Manihot pusilla is the 
original stock of Manihot utilissima, which is, however, doubtful. 

The mandioc was naturalized in the Antilles as early as the sixteenth 
century, although its journey around the world, by way of the Isle of 
Bourbon and the East Indies, took place at a comparatively late period. 
It reached the west coast of Africa earlier, and the erroneous opinion has 
even been entertained that it was transplanted from Africa to America. 

Of as great, if not greater, importance than the mandioca is the 
Sweet potato, (Convolvulus batatas, L., Batatas edulis, Choisy). It is 
one of the most widely distributed cultivated plants of South and Cen- 
tral America, and it, as an article of food, passes back to the earliest 
historic period. In Brazil it is called Jetica, in Mexico Gamote, words, 
the roots of which, belong to the original tongue of the country. The 
name Batatas is a corruption of potato. Even upon the Antilles this 
useful plant was found cultivated in numerous varieties as early as the 
year 1526. Columbus brought it with other novelties to Europe, and 
presented it to Queen Isabella ; the consequence was that this plant, 
which is suited to the climate of Spain, was immediately cultivated 
there. C. Clusius mentions that as early as the year 1601 he had 
eaten it in Spain. 

The sweet potato was first brought by the SjDaniards to Manilla and 
the Moluccas, and thence by the Portuguese distributed over the 
entire Indian Archipelago. Its names in these countries are never of 
Malayan, but altogether of Castilian origin. This plant soon reached 
China, Cochin-China, and India, although when and how is not 
known at the present time. There is certainly a Chinese, as well 
as a Sanscrit name for this plant, although this seems to be of more 
modern origin. The sweet potato has been even believed by some to 
be of Asiatic origin, or that the American and Asiatic plants are to 
be considered as diiferent species. Neither of these suppositions is 
probable on historical grounds, and on account of the fact that the 
fifteen species of this genus hitherto known are peculiar to America, 
four of which only have also found their way to other parts of the 
world. The sweet potato has not been found growing wild by any 
one, although the tropical portion of America is to be considered as 
its native country with most show of probability. 

The Ipomcea mammosa, Choisy, a native of Amboyna, another con- 



310 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

volvulaceous plant, with edible root, is cultivated in Cocliin-Cliina, 
and may be the same plant which is raised as a variety under the 
name of Umara {Convolvulus clirysorhizus (Soland. ?), in Otaheite, of the 
Sandwich Isles, the Eastern Isles, and Northern New Zealand. 

The Arum root {Arum colocasia L.), on account of its farinaceous 
tuberous roots, is one of the most important plants of the tropics. It 
is very probably an Indian plant, which is cultivated in the whole of 
Central Asia, in very numerous varieties, under the Sanscrit name 
Kuclioo {Kutscliu). Here and there it is found running wild, though 
nowhere growing truly native. It was carried westward in the very 
earliest times_, and with Nelumbium speciosum, cultivated in Lower 
Egypt, particularly towards the Delta of the Nile, where it is now 
grown under the name Colcas, Kulkas ; while the Nelurabium has long 
ago again disappeared. The Greeks meant the Nelumbium by their 
xoloxaaca, supposing the root sprouts to be used as food. They were 
manifestly wrong in this, however, since the root is of very little 
use on account of its 'fibrous texture. The Spaniards received the 
Aron root from the Egyptians, which they cultivated in the southern 
portions of their country, although it become quite at home there. 

We are at present unable to say, with certainty, how far the 
AroideaB, cultivated in Ceylon, the Sunda Islands, and the Moluccas, 
belong to this or to other species. It is also more or less doubtful 
whether the Tarro or Tallo {Arum esculentum, Forst.), does not in all 
probability represent the same species; a supposition which, besides 
the similarity of the characteristics of the two plants, is corroborated 
by the fact that the Arum colocasia, in Java, is known by the name 
of Tallus, which is probably identical with that of Tallo, used on the 
South Sea Islands. It is not even improbable that these islanders may 
have become acquainted with this plant on their voyages to the west_, 
and brought it back with them. 

The Igname, or Yam {Dioscorea alata, L.), is a plant cultivated in 
the tropics of the whole earth on account of the nutritious qualities of 
its root, although far inferior in excellence of taste to the sweet potato. 
This root is very much prized, and it often attains an enormous size, 
and a weight of. from thirty to forty pounds. The Indian archipelago 
and the southern portion of the Indian continent, is the starting point 
from which this, the most cultivated species of Disocorea, has spread. 
Thence it was first carried to the eastern coast of Africa, next to the 
west coast, and from thence to America, where the names Yam, Igname, 
are derived from the negroes. In the negro dialect of Guinea, the 
word ''yam" means to eat. 

The want of a Sanscrit name for this plant in Northern India clearly 
shows that it is not indigenous there. The other species of Dioscorea, 
cultivated more or less on the islands of the Indian archipelago and 
the continent, are Dioscorea pentaphylla, L., D, hulhifera, L., D. 
aculeata, L., and D. deltoides, Wall^ {D. saliva, L.). All of these 
have their native home in the Indian Archipelago and in India itself, 
and are nowhere met growing wild. 

The tubers of the Tacca {Tacca pinnatifida, L.), furnish a mealy 
nutriment to the inhabitants of the Society Islands and the Moluccas, 
where the plant is met with both wild and in a state of cultivation. 



PLANTS USED AS FOOD BY MAN. 311 

In the latter case, the tuherous root loses something of its original 
acridity and bitterness. The same is the case with the sharp tubers 
of Dracontium polyphyllum, L., which is also used upon the Friendly- 
Islands for want of other kinds of food. 

The tuberous root of the Tupinambur or Jerusalem artichoke {Helian- 
ilius hiberosus, Jj.), is of less importance, America is its native country, 
although it is still doubtful from what point it is derived. The name 
under which it was first cultivated in Europe, at the beginning of the 
seventeenth century, (Aster pericvianus tuherosus), furnishes a clue to 
its probable birth-place, which is strengthened by the fact that three 
other species of Heliantlius are peculiar to the chain of the Andes. 
The Tupinambur is chiefly cultivated in the United States of North 
America, and is very little used in Europe. 

The tubers of the Oca or Oxalis tuherosa, MoL, furnish a scanty 
substitute for more generous means of nutriment. The oca is culti- 
vated in the Andes, from Chile to Mexico, and reaches a height of 
8,000 feet. Its tubers vary from the size of peas to that of nuts, and 
of no very pleasant taste. The same is the case with the Oxalis cras- 
sicauUs, Zucc. {0. crenata, Jacq.), which is indigenous to Mexico, 
Peru, and Colombia, as also with the Oxalis tetraphylla, Cavan., and 
0. esctdenta, Hort. Berol. 

It is very probable that the Oxalis enneaphylla, Cav. , indigenous to 
the Malouine and Falkland Islands, as well as Oxalis violacea, L., of 
Carolina, are not much better articles of food. In the same category 
may be included the tuberous root of the Tropceolum tuberosum, Don. 

The Ulluco or Melloco {Ullucus tiibei^osus, Loz.), a juicy plant with 
creeping stem, the sprouts of which swell at the tips into tubers from 
the size of a hazel nut to that of a pigeon's egg, like the sweet potato, 
is also a native of the Andes of Bolivia, Peru, and New G-ranada. 
These tubers are of an insipid taste, although improved by freezing. 
They are still cultivated at a height of 11,000 to 13,000 feet in Popayan 
and Paste, (Peru,) under the name of Oca quina. During the period 
of the j)otato disease in Europe, an attempt was made to replace this 
tuber by the oca, but without satisfactory results. 

There is a tuberous root of Apios tuherosa, Monch, (Glycine apios, 
L.), found in northern America, (Canada, Virginia,) which is some- 
what similar to the Jerusalem artichoke. These taste like the arti- 
choke, and like them are eaten as food and their seeds applied to the 
same purpose. The mealy root of Lupinus littoralis, Douglas, is used 
in a similar manner on the northwest coast. 

A third leguminous j)lant, the potato-bean, (Stizolobium tuherosum, 
Spgl., Doliclios tuherosus, Lam.), found on the Antilles, is remarkable 
for tubers the size of a child's head. A fourth kind, the turnip-bean, 
(Pachyrliyzus angulatus, Kich., Doliclios hulhosus, L.), found in the 
Philippines- and Moluccas, has a root tasting like the turnip. The 
seeds of the former also serve as food ; the latter is known in the 
whole of tropical Asia. 

I may here mention bulbs of two species of crocus. That of the 
Crocus vernus, L., or spring crocus, is of little importance, as it is 
only eaten by children ; but the much larger bulb of the Crocus edulis, 



312 AGRICULTURAL REPORT. 

Boiss., is brought to market in Damascus at tlie time when the bulb is 
about sprouting, and is there very much prized as a vegetable. (Th. 
Kotschy.) 

We may here mention also the tubers of the Arrow-head (Sagitta- 
ria sagittifolia, L.), and the creeping root of Nelumhium speciosum, 
W., which in China, and the latter in Japan and tropical Asia, are 
frequently used as food. The stalks of Nelumhium, according to C. 
Von Htigel, are not dissimilar in taste to our broad beet, with a some- 
what sharp after-taste. 

It is a well-known fact that the mealy rhizoma of NympJiaea lotus ^ L. , 
(the Egyptian lotus,) and -piohaMj also thsit of Nymphaeacoerulea, L., 
served the inhabitants of Egypt for nutriment in the oldest times as well 
as in the present day. The same is the case also in the East Indies with 
the Nymphaea edulis, D. C, and in China with Euryale ferox, Salisb. 

A few plants are distinguished by the presence of jelly, or by a starch- 
like condition of their cellular substance, among which are various 
species of Algae, or sea-weeds, and Lichens. From both these great 
groups of plants mankind, driven by necessity, has been able to derive 
nutritious substances from materials sometimes more or less unpalatable. 

Among the Algae most common and frequently used as food, are 
Ulva lactuca, Lin,; Iridaea edulis, Bory, {Halymenia edidis, Aghd.); 
Laurentia pinnatifida, Lamour., (Pepper didce of the Scotch); Rhodo- 
menia p)almata, Grev. (Halymenia palmata, Ag.); Bliodomenia ciliata, 
Grev. (Sphoerococcics ciliatus, Agh.); Laminaria saccharina. Lam., 
the Sugar tang; Laminaria digitata, Lam., &c.; all used on the coasts 
of Ireland, Scotland, and Northern Europe ; partly raw and partly 
prepared. Here, also, belong the Alaria esculenta, Grev., and the 
Forphyra purpiLrea, Agdh., which, under the name oi Laver, appears 
on the tables of the English as a choice dish. The starch tang or Ceylon 
Moss (Plocaria lichenoides, J. Ag., Sphaerococcus lichenoides, Ag.), is 
also used as food, either in its natural condition or as a constituent of 
the Indian bird's nests. 

Among the Lichens, the Manna stalk (Parmelia esculenta, Ledeb., 
Lecanora escidenta, Spr.), occupies the first place; it grows chiefly upon 
the Tartarian and Kirgese steppes of Tartary in great numbers, upon 
dead, loamy soil, and unfrequented rocky cliffs, loosely attached and 
consequently easily separated. When it is collected in hollows^ or 
perhaps carried a considerable distance by high winds, it produces the 
remarkable phenomenon of showers of manna rain ; all which has been 
observed at different points quite recently, and at various times, in 
Asia Minor and in Persia. 

This lichen, which occurs usually in pieces the size of a hazel-nut, 
is distinguished by having about 23 percent, of jelly, some inulin, and 
a large proportion (about 66 per cent.) of chlorate of lime. Ground up 
and baked as bread, it more or less satisfies the appetite. It is not 
improbable that the manna of the Israelites was, not as Ehrenburg 
believed, the expressed and hardened juice of the Tamarish (Tamarix 
gallica, L. Var., mannifera, Ehrb.), but the manna lichen itself, of 
whose existence in the regions of Sinai we, however, have no direct 
information. 

A second lichen, used both in medicine and for purposes of nutri- 
ment, is the Iceland Moss (Cetraria islandica, Ach.), which is distri- 



PLANTS USED AS FOOD BY MAN. 313 

buted over the wliole nortli of Europe and America. By separating 
its bitter constituents it furnishes a very good article of nourishment 
in those inhospitable countries, and is sometimes converted into bread. 

To the various plants already mentioned we may add the seeds, 
fruit, and other parts of several plants, which although not so generally 
distributed, are yet, nevertheless, not only equal to them in nutritious 
qualities and pleasant taste, but may here and there excel them, such 
as the Sago-palm, the Mauritius palm, the Chestnut, and similar 
mealy seeds of several other kinds, as the Oak, the Bread fruit, &c. 
There are also the various pod fruits, beans, peas, lentels, &c., as also 
the various eatable fungi or mushroom. 

The Sago-palm (Sagus rumphii, Willd.), often forms great forests 
upon the islands of the Indian ocean and Moluccas, and is there easily 
propagated by its suckers. The white inner part of the stem, thickly 
permeated by bundles of fibers, abounds in a marrowy substance, which, 
wh