Skip to main content

Full text of "Report of the Commissioners [April 1, 1898-March 31, 1899] and a history of Lincoln Park"

See other formats

Chicago Slale UnMrslly 

71 KmS™ hers of Lin- 

I .A. 


3 0411 000194694 


mu a. nisiiory of Lincoln Park. 

... -_-. - — ^ -- • 

Chicago Teachers College 


Woodrow Wilson Junior College 




" ~~ " 

F 548.65 .L7 Al 1899 
Chicago (111.), 

Commissioners of Lincoln 
Report of the Commissioner 

[April 1. 1898-March 31, 

>, \ 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

CARLI: Consortium of Academic and Research Libraries in Illinois 









Copyright, 1899 
By the commissioners of;lincoln park 



205 La Salle Street 


Inter Ocean Building 


302 North Clark Stn 



US Van Buren Street 



1246 North Clark 

OFFICERS'tim Street 

LLOYD J. SMITH, Auditor 

I. J. BRYAN. Secretary 

james McCartney, attor 

H. A. HAUGAN, Treasurer 
















FROM 1863 TO 1899 


JACOB REH.M - - - 
A. C. HESING - . . . 
L. J. KADISH - - . . 
WM. C. GOUDY* - . . 


9, 1S69 

- Nov 

28, 1S7 

- Feb 

9, 1869* 


20, rS93 


9, 1S69 


26, 1S7 

- Feb 
| Feb 
1 Feb 

- Nov 

9, 1S69 
9, 1S69 


28, 1S7 
28, 1871 






- Nov 




J Feb. 




22, 1S93 















M ay 

6, 18S0 


29, 18S0 




3. 1S83 


29, 18S6 


7, 1SS4 


'9, 1S86 


29, 1SS6 



j Nov. 
/ April 

29, 1886 
9, 1SS6 
28, f8o 7 

Jan. 2 


D, 1S93 
30, 189S 



29, 1886 


28, 1S92 


1, 1S87 






28, 1892 


28, 1892 


h, 1894 


2S, 1892 


20, 1S93 


20, rS93 




20, ,893 




20, 1S93 


8, rS93 


22, 1894 




26, 1S94 




■4, 1S94 


7. 1895 


14, 1S94 


28, 1S97 


2, 1S95 


28, 1S97 


2, rS9 5 


28, 1897 


IS, 1S96 


28, 1897 

January, 1899 


10, 1S97 
0, 1897 


0, 1897 


8, 1899 


5, 1899 


E. E. McCAGG - 




Nov. 28, 
Feb. 24, 
Jan. 5, If 


28, 1S71 


24. i874 


5, 1S86 


7, 1886 


5, 1887 


, 1S93 


15, 1893 May, 1894 

14, 1894 March 30, 1896 

30, 1896 Nov. 10, 1896 

10, 1S96 Dec. 30, 1S97 
30, 1S97 

JOSEPH STOCKTON (temporary) Mar. 

E. S. TAYLOR - - July 

F. H. KALES (temporary) - Nov. 





r Election 

Expiration of 


- April 

16, 1872 

April 24 



24, 1893 

April 28 

I. J. BRYAN - 

■ June 

16, 1897 


A. C. HES1NG - 

Feb. 8, 1870 




April 29, 187 1 




Nov. 28, 1 87 1 




June 1, 1873 




Feb. 24, 1874 



C. J. BLAIR - 
A. L. DeWAR - 

April n, iS 7 ( 
May 22, 1883 
April 1, 1893 
Mar. 1 8, 1895 
April 6, 189S 

May 22, 1883 
March 31, 189 
March iS, 189 
April 6, 1S9S 


H. J. Df.VRY 

April 1, 1883 

March 30, 1883 
Feb. 1887 



1, 1887 


1, 1889 


1, 1S89 


,1, 1894 


, 1S94 


3°, iS97 


16, 1S97 


r4, 1S98 



t TINCOLN PARK as it is to-day bears little witness on its fair and 

J j smiling face of the slow and arduous steps, through a long period 

of years, by which its present beauty and its present extent have been 
reached. The Lincoln Park of 1S99, lying mainly between North 
Avenue and Diversey Avenue, has within those limits a water front of 
over a mile and a half along the shore of Lake Michigan, and an area 
of about three hundred acres, all of which is improved in lawns, flower 
parterres, trees, shrubbery, drives, walks, water surfaces, or buildings, 
except the narrow half-mile strip of five and one-half acres of sand 
beach between Fullerton and Diversey avenues. Doubtless the thou- 
sands of children who enjoy the bathing facilities the beach affords in 
summer would wish no improvement of this strip of sand, which may 
serve another valuable purpose in illustrating the difficulties under 
which the makers of Lincoln Park have always had to labor. Almost 
the entire surface of the Park was made up originally of sand dunes 
as barren as the bare sand of the present beach. 

Including its small parks and its nine miles of boulevards, which 
form a part of the Lincoln Park system, there is a splendid water 
front of four and a half miles and an area of 409 acres. Among the 
boulevards are three which were constructed by the Commissioners: 
the Lake Shore Drive from North Avenue to Oak Street, 200 feet 
wide, three-quarters of a mile long, and seventeen acres in extent, 
opened in 1875 as a part of the Park ; the North Shore Drive, from 
Belmont Avenue to Byron Street, a distance of nearly a mile, practi- 
cally complete and used by the public; and the Ohio Street Extension 
of the Lake Shore Drive, from Oak Street to Indiana Street, a distance 
of three-quarters of a mile, which, though not yet opened to the pub- 
lic, is nearing completion. 

Under the same control and a part of the Lincoln Park system are 
Union Square on Astor and Goethe streets, a block west of the Lake 
Shore Drive, with an area of half an acre, and Chicago Avenue Park, 
lying east of the city water-works property between Pearson Street 
and Chicago Avenue, with an area of 9.16 acres, the improvement of 
which as a park has but just begun. 

Besides this visible part of the Lincoln Park system, it has an invisi- 
ble but invaluable and not intangible asset in the ownership of all the 
submerged lands from the shore line to the point of navigable water 
along the entire lake front in the towns of North Chicago and Lake 
View, from the Chicago River to Devon Avenue, a distance of nine 
miles, with an average width of [,200 feet. The ownership of these 
submerged lands, hundreds of acres in extent, has been vested by the 
State in the Commissioners of Lincoln Park in trust for the people of 
the two towns for park purposes; and after a series of legal contests 
with private shore-owners who insisted on their alleged rights to build 
piers into the lake and usurp the accretions thereby made to their 
land, the right of the Commissioners to all land submerged or not 
submerged east of the shore line as it existed when they took' formal 
possession, according to the act of the Legislature, has been main- 
tained by the highest court in the State. 

The government of Lincoln Park is vested in a Commission 
appointed by the Governor and confirmed by the State Senate, which 
Commission has exclusive control, subject only to the State, within the 
boundaries of the park system, with the exception only that in cases 
where city streets have been surrendered to the Commissioners for 
park boulevards the city has usually reserved the right to alter, repair, 
or extend its water and sewerage systems. 



Lincoln Park is supported by taxation on the two towns of North 
Chicago and Lake View, which comprise the Lincoln Park district, 
extending from the Chicago River on the south to Devon Avenue on 
the north, and from the North Branch of the Chicago River to. the 
lake on the east, with Fullerton Avenue the dividing line. For the 
means, however, to maintain the Park, the Commissioners are depend- 
ent upon the town supervisors, who annually fix the amount to be 
raised by taxation from each town. 

Bonds of the town of North Chicago have from time to time been 
issued by the Commissioners, and special assessments levied against all 
or part of the property in the two towns, but only by express acts 
of the Legislature and with the consent and assistance of the corpo- 
rate elected authorities of the towns. 

Lincoln Park is the oldest of the splendid chain of parks which, 
linked together by broad boulevards, surround and crown the imperial 
city of Chicago as with a diadem of matchless pearls, and its history 
is also the most unique and interesting. Its foundations were laid as 
far back in the past as those of Chicago itself, and a large part of its 
territory has always been public domain, belonging to the general 
government from the Revolution, and ceded by Congress to the State 
of Illinois in 1828 as part of the immense grant of 282,000 acres of 
public lands made to aid in the construction of the Illinois and 
Michigan Canal. On February 10, 1837, the Legislature of Illinois 
passed an act granting the inhabitants of the town of North Chicago 
the right to use a lot of canal land situated near said town for a burial- 
ground, to be paid for at a valuation to be determined whenever the 
State should decide to sell canal lands in the vicinity of Chicago. 
Under this act, the city of Chicago, which was incorporated a few 
months later, the charter election being held the first Tuesday in May, 
took possession of the land bounded by Asylum Place, now Webster 
Avenue, Lake Michigan, North Avenue, La Salle Avenue, North Clark 
Street, and Franklin Street, now North Park Avenue, except the two 

pieces known later as the Farwell and Milliman tracts, and one four- 
acre parcel, and laid out into cemetery lots all of such land east of 
Clark Street to the line of State Street extended to the lake, and south 
of Menomonee Street produced to the lake. The title to the land 
was acquired by the city in 1842, by patent from the State of Illinois, 
for the sum of 88, 000. The Milliman tract of over twelve acres, so 
called from its original owner, Jacob Milliman, who bought it with a 
few acres more, at canal sale in 1843, Ior £725, was bought by the city 
at administrator's sale in 1847 f° r 82,500. But through a defect in the 
court proceedings confirming the sale, the heirs of Milliman succeeded 
in securing possession of the property by a decision of the State 
Supreme Court in 1865, and the Park Commissioners, in 1875, na ^ to 
pay $138,000 for seven acres of the tract. The four-acre parcel 
shown in the map on page 16 was afterward bought by the city foi 
Si, 000. 

In 1852, when the cholera epidemic was at its height, and there 
seemed no relief in sight for the terror-stricken city, the Common 
Council purchased three large tracts of land outside the city, to be 
used as hospital grounds and quarantine stations. One of these dis- 
tricts was the tract of land bounded by Diversey Avenue, Lake Mich- 
igan, Fullerton Avenue extended, and what is now the west line of 
Lake View Avenue. There were fifty-nine acres in the tract, for 
which the city paid 88,851.50. The cholera epidemic subsided soon 
afterward, and little if any use was made of the property for the pur- 
poses for which it was bought, and until it became a part of Lincoln 
Park in 1869, it remained a barren waste of sand and swamp. 

In 1855 there still remained unsold in that part of the city prop- 
erty north of North Avenue, which had been subdivided as a cemetery, 
553 burial lots. By 1858, however, the city had grown out and 
around the cemetery, and protests began to be made by citizens 
of North Chicago and by physicians against further interments 
there. On March 20, 1859, the City Council passed an ordinance 



'H EMDHauft: 

directing that the sale of lots in the City Cemetery should cease after 
May i, 1859. On January 10, i860, a committee of North Chicago 
citizens presented a petition to the Common Council, proposing the 
use of the sixty-acre tract between Menomonee Street extended and 
Webster Avenue for park purposes, and the Council, by orders passed 
February 13, i860, limited the cemetery to that part then surveyed 
and subdivided, prohibited burials in the north sixty acres, and 
reserved them to be used for a public park, or for such public purposes 
as the Common Council might devote them. 

At that time the cemetery was still practically confined to the 
small corner of the tract south of Menomonee Street and west of the 
line of Dearborn Avenue. All of the land to the east of the cemetery 
and northward from it to Diversey Avenue presented the same general 
features. Along the lake there was a wide beach of sand, the shore 
line of which shifted with every storm. From the lake westward, 
there were alternate ridges of sand and swales of lower ground, which 
retained enough moisture to encourage some straggling vegetation. 
Poison ivy grew rank over a great part of the tract, while there were 
occasional clumps of willows and scrub oaks. Through the western 
part of the tract ran the "Lake Shore Ditch," a channel better known 
as the "Ten-Mile Ditch," which had been dug between 1850 and 1855 
by the Cook County Drainage Commissioners to drain the lowlands 
near the lake from Evanston south. It emptied into the lake about 
opposite Center Street, and the current was so slight that it was usually 
full of stagnant water. It ran along the western side of the present 
Park; and whatever good results it may have accomplished in draining 
territory farther north, that part of the present Park north of Fullerton 
Avenue and west of the line of the Stockton Drive was little better 
than a swamp. East of the Stockton Drive was a sweep of sand so 
barren that not even poison ivy could find an)' nourishment there. 

The first annual report of the Board of Commissioners of Public 
Works, issued in 1862, for the year beginning April I, 1861, after 



reciting the improvement of the cemetery proper by filling the road- 
ways with clay and covering them with gravel, to make good carriage 
drives, planting trees along the roads, sodding, repairing the fence 
around the grounds, and erecting a small fountain at the entrance, 
makes the first published official reference to "the Park" lying north 
of the cemetery proper, which is described in terms more glowing than 
other contemporary reports would warrant, as "some fort)- acres of 
public grounds of diversified surface bordering on the lake, covered 
with a young growth of wood, and affording the city the promise of 
an attractive park at small expense." In this year trees were thinned 
out and trimmed, some work done on the grounds, and several small 
bridges thrown across the count)' ditch. The improvements must have 
been even less extensive in fact than in their appearance from this 
description, as the total expenditure for the year on cemetery and Park, 
and all public squares, was only §3,005.90. In the following year the 
only work reported on the " forty-acre tract " was that of trimming 
trees, but the Board promoted its extent to fifty acres, recommended a 
liberal provision for laying out and improving the grounds, and urged 
that a regular plan be adopted for ornamenting the grounds, and for 
drives and walks connecting with the cemetery and connecting streets, 
and that an annual appropriation be made to carry it out. With the 
report the Board submitted a map of the ground, which is reproduced 
on page 16. The recommendations of the Board did not bring forth 
immediate fruit, for in the two following years the appropriation for 
the cemetery and Park and all public squares in the citv was less than 
a thousand dollars, "hardly enough to pay the hire of a gate-keeper, 
and not enough to keep the cattle out of the Park." 

The North Side advocates of a park kept up their efforts, however, 
and early in 1864 William C. Goudy, who was later and for many years 
to be connected with Lincoln Park in an official capacity, prepared an 
ordinance appropriating all the land lying between Webster Avenue 
and the land subdivided into cemetery lots for a public park, and 

providing that the land owned by the city between Clark Street, La 
Salle Street and North Avenue should be sold, and the proceeds 
applied for the improvement of the proposed park. The Common 
Council passed this ordinance October 21, 1864, after striking out the 
provision authorizing the sale of any land, but made no appropriation 
for the improvement of the land thus set apart for a park, and for 
another year no steps were taken toward that end. In this ordinance 
it was declared that the public park thus set apart should be known 
by the name of "Lake Park." In this year the Council, by ordinance, 
prohibited the further sale of cemetery lots, and in 1866 burials were 

On June 5, 1865, the following resolution was passed by the Com- 
mon Council of Chicago: 

" Whereas, It appears hy the records of the City of Chicago, that there are now 
two public parks designated by the name of Lake Park; therefore 

" Resolved, That the park recently set apart from the unoccupied portion of the 
old cemetery grounds shall be hereafter known and designated as Lincoln Park." 

The giving of this honored name to the embryo Park seemed to 
produce the desirable effect of unloosening the city's purse-strings, 
for at the same time, through the efforts of Alderman Lawrence 
Proudfoot, orders were passed enforcing the prohibition against burials 
in Lincoln Park, and appropriating $10,000 for its improvement. 

Soon afterward a plan for the improvement of the Park, prepared 
by Swain Nelson, landscape gardener, was adopted, and the contract 
for the work given to him. The plan provided for excavations for 
three small lakes along the line of the "Ten-Mile Ditch," the building 
of even smaller hills with the sand from the excavations, laying out 
drives and walks, planting trees, draining low land, and making lawns. 
The work was not begun until late in the season, and the report for 
the year ending March 31, 1866, gives the total expenditures as 



Swain Nelson, on account improvement S3.7°443 

„ . _ 277-05 

Engineer ~~ , 

Sidewalk, 7 y- feet.-- ^ 

pia ?- :::: g .. 00 

Rodman ... " 

Advertismg ... ^ 

Labor "' 

, r , 20.00 

Tools . 


Work was continued on those lines in the following year, and in 
1867 the work on the lakes was finished, eight temporary bridges con- 
structed, and the Park so far completed that it was a place of public 


While this work was progressing, the ideas of citizens ot the North 
Side as to the kind of a park to which they were entitled grew apace, 
and finding the city authorities backward, they appealed to the Legis- 
lature of the State. That body had, in acts passed in 1851, 1857, 
and 1863, given the City of Chicago certain powers as to public parks, 
and by an act amending the charter of the City of Chicago, approved 
March 9 1867, all of the land owned by the city north of Pullerton 
Avenue and east of the present west line of Lake View Avenue was 
added to Lincoln Park, and authority was given to acquire by pur- 
chase, gift, or condemnation a strip of land not exceeding three 
hundred" feet in width, lying between said land and said Park. No 
action, however, was taken in pursuance of this authority by the city, 
which was content to carry on the improvements already under way. 
The city reports show that over 820,000 was expended in 1868, 
principally for the construction of drives and walks, planting and 
transplanting trees, digging sewers, and building seats. A flagstaff 
was erected on the artificial mound west of the southernmost of the 
trio of small lakes, and the starry flag still floats from a staff planted 
in the same spot. Music-stands were erected, concerts were given 

"through private liberality," and a beginning was made for the present 
large collection of animals and birds by the donation to the city, by 
Mr. O. B. Green, of two pairs of swans from Central Park, New York, 
which were placed on the Park ponds. 

But the advocates of a more extended park were not satisfied with 
the work being done by the city, and became convinced the only way 
to carry out their ideas was to secure the establishment of a Park 
Commission, with distinct and exclusive authority. A similar agitation 
was being made on the South and West Sides, and by joint action at 
the leo-islative session of 1869, acts were passed establishing the three 
Park Commissions. The Lincoln Park act was the first to pass, being 
approved February 8, 1869. It was entitled "An Act to fix the 
Boundaries of Lincoln Park in the City of Chicago, and provide for its 
Improvement," and fixed the south, west, and north boundaries of the 
Park as they exist to-day, and the shore of Lake Michigan at low- 
water mark, ""as the same now is or hereafter may be," as the boun- 
daries of a public park, to be known as Lincoln Park, and declared 
that all the land included therein should be deemed to have been 
taken by the City of Chicago for public use and for a public park. 
The act" provided that all said land then belonging to the city should 
be appropriated for the Park without any compensation to the city; 
that title to the rest of the land might be acquired by the city by 
purchase or condemnation; that the Board of Commissioners of Lin- 
coln Park thereinafter created might purchase any of the land at fair 
and reasonable prices, to be determined by them and paid out of 
bonds or money coming to their hands, and the same be conveyed to 
and vest in the city; that appraisers should be appointed to fix the 
value of the land to be taken, and that the Circuit Court should con- 
demn the land. For the purpose of paying for the land, the act 
provided that the bonds of the City of Chicago should be issued from 
time to time by the Mayor, Comptroller, and Clerk of sa.d city, as 
required by the Board of Park Commissioners, payable in twenty 












years, at the rate of seven per cent per annum. Owners of cemetery 
lots to be condemned bv the Commissioners were ordered to remove 
any bodies therein within six months after condemnation, the Com- 
missioners to have power to make such removals thereafter. The act 
provided that the appraisers should also, as a part of Lincoln Park, 
lay out a drive 200 feet wide, with the waters of Lake Michigan as its 
east line, from Pine Street, whose northern terminus was then at Oak 
Street, to the south line of the Park, and make a special assessment to 
pay for the land taken therefor. The act provided that Lincoln 
Park should be under the exclusive control and management of a 
Board of five Commissioners, to be named and styled "The Commis- 
sioners of Lincoln Park," and named E. B. McCagg, John B. Turner, 
Andrew Nelson, Joseph Stockton, and Jacob Rehm as such Commis- 
sioners, who were to hold office for five years, their successors to be 
appointed by the Judge of the Circuit Court of Cook County. The 
said Board was to have full and exclusive power to govern, manage, 
and direct the Park, appoint all officers necessary, except a police 
force, and generally to possess all the power and authority conferred 
on or possessed by the Common Council in respect to public squares. 
They were, on or before the first day of October in each year, to fix 
upon the amount, not exceeding $75,000, that might be necessary for 
the improvement and repair of the Park and drive during the next 
succeeding year, and such amount was to be apportioned by the Clerk 
of the County Court of . Cook County upon taxable property of the 
towns of North Chicago and Lake View, and included in the warrant 
for the collection of taxes. The Commissioners were directed to lay 
out a street north from Fullerton Avenue to Diversey, along the west 
line of the Park, and to make a detailed statement of their receipts 
and expenditures to the Common Council of said city in the month 
of April in every year. The Commissioners were empowered to take 
possession of all buildings and grounds attached thereto belonging 

to the city within the limits of said Park, and rent them, use them, or 
sell them for the benefit of the Park. 

Several amendments to the act were adopted at the same ses- 
sion, shortly after its passage. On March 4, 1869, the provision for 
a street on the west line of the Park north from Fullerton Avenue 
was repealed. On March 30, 1869, an amendment was adopted, 
providing for the purchase or condemnation of the land designated as 
"The Triangle" on the map on page 41, north of Fullerton Avenue 
and south of Diversey Avenue, between the Park and a line 500 feet 
east of Green Bay Road, the tract amounting to 22 14 acres. The 
Commissioners were also to change the direction of Franklin Street 
to include in Lincoln Park the small triangle between Fullerton 
Avenue and Franklin Street, east of the Lake Shore Ditch. The same 
amendment limited the amount of bonds which might be issued by 
the Common Council of the City of Chicago for the benefit of Lincoln 
Park to $500,000. Another and important amendment, approved 
April 19, 1869, repealed the section conferring the taxing power upon 
the Commissioners, and provided that they should certify to the 
Supervisors of the towns of North Chicago and Lake View, on or 
before the first day of October in each year, the amount of money 
needed to pay any debt contracted by them which might fall due 
during the next year, and for the maintenance and government of 
Lincoln Park during the next succeeding year, and that the Super- 
visors should fix upon and determine the amount of taxes necessary 
for the purpose aforesaid. 

The last amendment was considered advisable, on the theory that 
only officials elected by the people had the power to levy taxes, 
unless the Park Act were first submitted to the people of the two 
towns for adoption, and this was not done. The South and West 
Park acts were adopted by close votes, after bitter opposition, partic- 
ularly by heavy tax-payers, and it was deemed unwise to submit the 


Lincoln Park Act to a popular 
vote until after time should 
prove its popularity. 

By this time the territory 
from which it was proposed to 
create a park, except the small 
tract under improvement by 
the city, seemed even less sus- 
ceptible of such treatment than 
it had been in 1 860. 

The cemetery had extended 
farther east, and the bodies of 
a thousand Confederate sol- 
diers, who had died in Chicago 
prisons, had been interred on 
what is now a part of the base- 
ball grounds. There was a 
dead-house or morgue near 
North Avenue, immediately 
east of Dearborn Avenue, and 
a smallpox hospital a few hun- 
dred feet farther north. A 
board fence eight feet high 
had been built around the 
cemetery. West of the line 
of State Street extended north, 
which was the eastern boun- 
dary of the cemetery property, 
la)' a narrow triangle of sand, 
with a base of 400 feet on 
North Avenue and disappear- 
ing at a point 1,500 feet 

north. This tract, which had for years covered about four acres, 
had been bought by John V. Farwell in 1866, for £8,000. Not 
many years before it had sold for Si, 000. About the time of the 
adoption of the Park Act, Mr. Farwell built a pier running out into 
the lake at North Avenue, with a spur extending a few hundred 
feet north from its eastern end. Ground was leased on North 
Avenue east of State Street for commercial purposes, and an axle- 
grease factory and a stone-mill were soon in busy operation. Lake 
Michigan was still busier throwing up sand in the protected nook- 
prepared by the pier, and the acreage increased so rapidly that by 
1872 Mr. Farwell had nineteen acres instead of four to dispose of 
for park purposes. Before the erection of this pier, the shore line from 
North Avenue to Diversey Avenue had been a shifting line of sand, 
accretions slowly forming during mild weather, to be washed out into 
the lake again by the first severe storm. Between Webster Avenue and 
Fullerton Avenue the land had been leased for nurseries and market 
gardens, and it was not abandoned for that use until 1875, when the 
Commissioners took possession. North of Fullerton Avenue the city 
property was used for a dumping-ground. The "Ten-Mile Ditch" 
was, as a rule, full of stagnant water and badly in need of drainage 
itself, though it furnished frog-fishing in summer and skating in winter 
for the youth of the day. There was hardly enough fertile soil on 
the whole two hundred acres for twenty acres of lawn. The sand 
ridges shifted more or less with every wind that blew, and there was 
little about the site to recommend it for park purposes except the 
beauty of the lake. 

It was the evident intent of the original act that Lincoln Park 
should be a city park, under the police control of the City of Chicago, 
and its lands bought and owned by the city, its improvement and 
maintenance to be a charge upon the towns of North Chicago and 
Lake View. The Commissioners named in the act organized March 
16, following, at a meeting held at the house of E. B. McCagg, who was 


elected president. Resolutions were passed accept- 
ing the offices of Commissioners, authorizing prelim- 
inary surveys, inviting plans for the improvement of 
the Park, and appointing VV. C. Goudy as counsel. 
From that time to July I, 1873, a period of over four 
years, there were two separate governments in Lincoln 
Park, side by side. The city continued to take care 
of the improved part of the Park, lying between Wis- 
consin Street and Webster Avenue, while the Park 
Commissioners, as soon as funds were secured, took 
charge of the cemetery on the south and the unim- 
proved city property north of Fullerton Avenue, took 
the steps necessary to secure the property within the 
Park boundaries owned by private individuals, built a 
drive along the lake shore, began the fight, kept up 
with little cessation since that date, to protect the 
shore line against the stress of storms and push it 
farther out into the lake, and in other ways began the 
work of building up a park from a barren waste. That 
work was delaj^ed for a twelvemonth, however. While 
one of the first acts of the Commissioners was to 
secure surveys and plans for park improvements, 
litigation, rather than landscape gardening, was to 
occupy their attention for the first year. At the 
second meeting of the Commissioners, held April 9, 
1869, their attorney was instructed to apply to the 
Circuit Court for the appointment of three appraisers, 
as provided by the Park Act, to appraise the lands 
to be purchased to complete the Park, and at the 
next meeting, held May 1, the President was author- 
ized to make a demand on the Mayor of Chicago to 
issue the bonds of the city for the amount necessary 



to purchase such lands. The application was made to Mayor 
Rice, and it is possible it might have been granted if it had not 
been for the sentiment apparent in other sections of the city that 
the North Side, in securing 165.89 acres of city property for a park, 
without cost, was already getting too much from the city, at the 
expense of other sections. The Corporation Counsel, doubtless a loyal 
North Sider, advised the Mayor that the law was constitutional, and 
that it was obligatory upon him to issue the bonds. But Mayor Rice 
declined to issue them on his own responsibility, and referred the 
matter to the Council. That body deferred action, and at once 
requests and demands were made by the newly organized South Park 
Board and West Park Board, for the issuing of bonds for their benefit 
to an amount equal to whatever bond issues might be made for Lin- 
coln Park, and in addition, for further amounts equal to the sums 
already laid out by the city in the improvement of the original Lin- 
coln Park, then about 860,000. Whether or not these applications 
affected the decision of the Council does not appear in the newspaper 
records of their proceedings, but the Council passed an order directing 
the Mayor to refuse to issue any city bonds for the benefit of Lincoln 
Park, and he obeyed the order. Then the Lincoln Park Commis- 
sioners entered upon the first of numerous lawsuits in which thev 
have been involved in sustaining or determining their rights and pow- 
ers, a petition to the Supreme Court of the State for a writ of 
mandamus to compel the city authorities to issue the bonds. The 
Supreme Court, in October, refused the writ, on the ground that the 
Legislature had no power to compel the Ctiy of Chicago to issue 
bonds without its consent. 

Deprived of the means of purchasing land until new legislation 
could be obtained, and without means to carry on improvements, the 
Commissioners held but one more meeting that year, on September 
28, when the}' made the first annual estimate of the amount needed 
to pa}' debts and run the Park for the succeeding year, fixing it at 

$60,000. The estimate was certified to the Supervisors of North 
Chicago and Lake View, who made a levy of 5^ mills on the dollar, 
for each town, the tax being extended as follows: Lake View, 
83,058.53; North Chicago, 859, 088.17; total, 862,146.70. 

On February 8, 1870, John B. Turner was elected treasurer, and 
812,756.47, the first collection of taxes, was turned into the brand- 
new and altogether empty treasury of Lincoln Park on April 4. The 
first expenditure of the Commissioners was the payment of 81,892.14 
to President E. B. McCagg, May 10, 1870, for money advanced by 
him in the preceding year for the following objects, as shown by 
Lincoln Park voucher No. 1 : 

A. Silvefsparre, survey and map of Lincoln Park $800 00 

A. Wolcott, survey of Milliman tract qo 00 

F. H. Bailey, maps of Lake Shore Drive _ 110 00 

Beach & Bernard, printing account of incorporation 61 50 

A. K. Williams, Clerk Supreme Court, for costs, case 63, 

Mandamus v. Mayor 103 00 

Beach & Bernard, printing 250 copies of Park laws 32 00 

Revenue stamp 1 25 

Engraving bonds 150 00 

E. S. Salomon, extending tax levy 431 q8 

Interest to McCagg on above 128 11 

$1,892 14 

With money in their treasury, the Commissioners proceeded to 
business, and at their meeting of May 10, 1870, ordered the construc- 
tion of a temporary road, the Lake Shore Drive, along the lake from 
the improved part of the Park to Diversey Avenue, provided that a 
right of way could be secured over the Newberry and Foster property. 
Such right of way was secured in July by condemnation proceedings, 
and work was begun at once. A clay and gravel roadway 40 feet 
wide was constructed from a point 600 feet south of Asylum Place 
northward to Diversey Avenue, at a cost of 817,280.60. The first 
600 feet of the roadway was opened to the public September 30, and 
it was all completed December 30. In 187 1 the drive was extended 


i, 800 feet south, to a point near where the electric fountain now stands, 
at a cost of 86,605. 70, and a week later work was begun on another 
contract for widening the entire drive 20 feet. This was completed 
September 29, the total cost of the drive amounting to $32,769.66. 

Almost before the work of making the shore drive began, it 
became evident steps must be taken to keep the lake from washing it 
away. At the meeting of July 23, 1870, the Commissioners elected 
E. S. Taylor (who had been instrumental as a member of the Legisla- 
ture in securing the passage of the Park Act) Secretary, and A. H. 
Burley, Superintendent. A week later the Superintendent was 
instructed to build a pier to preserve the shore, and on August 2 a con- 
tract was made for launching a pier 65 feet long at a point 600 feet 
south of Diversey Avenue. Other piers were constructed at different 
points along the shore, the idea being that land would form 
between them, both protecting the drive and enlarging the area of the 
Park. How the plan resulted, and what efforts were made subse- 
quently by many different plans to protect the shore, down to the 
present time, is so large and complicated a subject, that it demands 
separate treatment. 

In September, 1870, the long task of transforming the cemetery 
into a park was begun by tearing down the dead-house, or morgue, 
and the smallpox hospital, under permission of the Board of Public 

On October 10, 1870, the Commissioners arrived at the dignity of 
an office, renting a room at 63 North Clark Street for S30 a month, 
and on November 4. 1S70, the first order was given by the Board 
for planting trees in the Park, the first purchase being for the orna- 
mentation of the Lake Shore Drive. 

Early in December the fence around the old cemetery tract was 
removed, and part of it re-erected along the drive in front of the 
Foster and Newberry tracts, and along the east line of the cemetery, 
separating it from the Farwell tract. In this month the Board began 

to consider ways and means to secure a water supply for sprinkling 
drives and lawns, and on January 21 a contract was let for sinking 
the north artesian well. In June following, at a depth of 1,540 feet, a 
flow of 332,352 gallons daily was secured. A tank was built 20 feet 
above the ground, and wooden pipes laid from it to the Lake Shore 
Drive to furnish water for sprinkling. For a number of years all the 
water used in the Park was that supplied by two artesian wells. 

During the fall and winter of 1870 thousands of loads of manure 
were bought for enriching the sandy soil of the Park and making 
lawns. For many years the annual expenditure on that account was 
a considerable item. 

On November 12 an order was passed to prohibit fast driving on 
the Lake Shore Drive, but it was evidently unpopular, and was 
rescinded two weeks later. 

Commissioner John B.Turner died February 24, 1871. During 
his service of ten months as Treasurer, he had paid interest on the 
Park funds to the amount of $912.05. The custom of obtaining inter- 
est on Park funds died with Mr. Turner, and was not resurrected until 
early in the term of the present Board, in July, 1897. 

The Commissioners, in their first report to the Common Council, 
submitted in April, 1871, showed receipts to April 1 of $59,871.74, 
of which $58,595.69 was on account of the tax of 1869, and expendi- 
tures of $44,588.05. The report says in part: 

"The Commissioners, assuming no control of the Park as at present improved, 
but leaving its management and the expenditures of all moneys appropriated by your 
honorable body to the Board of Public Works, have devoted their attention to the 
protection of the shore, to the construction of a drive bordering the lake, and to pre- 
paring for ultimate permanent improvement the grounds embraced within the limits 
of the Park." 

The first practical step in the life of the Commission toward the 
enlargement of the Park was taken by the Common Council, though 
apparently with no such intention. That body, in October, 1870, 



passed an order authorizing the exchange of city property in another 
part of Chicago for lots M, N, O, D, and E, in the Milliman tract 
(shown in the map on page 41). The Council indicated its disposition 
toward the Commission, and its belief that the North Side had had 
its share of city property, by adopting the following order: 

"Ordered, That the above-named tract of 5.32 acres (more or less) shall not be 
improved and used by the Commissioners of Lincoln Park for park purposes until 
they shall pay into the general fund of the City of Chicago the sum of $60,000, to be 
divided as the Common Council may direct among the several parks of the South 
and West Divisions of the city." 

This order failed of effect for some reason, as the Commissioners, 
a year or two later, took possession of the tract named without mak- 
ing any payment therefor, and all the 171.21 acres of city property 
passed to the control of the Park Commission without cost, except 
that involved in the purchase of titles for cemetery lots and the cost 
of removing remains to other cemeteries, amounting in all to $19,- 

Early in 1S71 an opportunity was offered to secure another part 
of the Milliman tract at an advantageous figure, David Milliman offer- 
ing lots A, C, H, and I, about 3 acres, for $45,000. The Commis- 
sioners had no funds for such a purpose, and pending further action 
by the Legislature, there was no certainty that they ever would have. 
In order not to sacrifice the opportunity, Commissioners McCagg, 
Stockton, Rehm, and Turner gave their individual notes for the 
amount, and bought the land in trust for Lincoln Park. 

With the convening of the General Assembly in 1871, steps were 
taken by the Commissioners and the friends of a greater Lincoln Park 
to secure such amendments of the original act as would provide for 
raising money to buy the lands within the park limits not owned by 
the city. On June 16, 1871, an act was passed in regard to the com- 
pletion of public parks and the management thereof, which, while not 
referring by name to Lincoln Park, in fact referred to it solely. The 

act provided that where lands within specified boundaries had been 
declared to be a public park or for the enlargement of a public park, 
and provisions were made for acquiring the title thereto by issuing 
bonds, but there was no valid provision of law for the issuing of said 
bonds, the Board of Commissioners might purchase any of said lands 
at fair and reasonable prices, to be determined by agreement with the 
owners, or that any of said lands might be condemned by the Super- 
visors and Assessors, corporate authorities of the towns in which the 
park was situated, and the Commissioners of the Park, by and with 
the consent in writing of said corporate authorities, were empowered 
to institute proceedings in a court of record to assess the damages and 
fix the amounts to be paid for said lands. A special assessment was 
to be made "by the Supervisors and Assessors, corporate authorities 
of the towns," on all the lands and lots within the towns benefited by 
the proposed park improvement, payable in twenty equal annual 
installments, the assessment to be confirmed in the Circuit Court. 
The Supervisor and Assessor of each of said towns were empowered 
to authorize the Park Commissioners to issue bonds for the purpose of 
paying for lands to be purchased or condemned, the property of the 
towns, the lands to be used for the Park, and the special assessment 
to be pledged for the redemption of the bonds, which were to beat- 
interest at the rate of seven per cent, payable annually, and running 
for any time not exceeding twenty years, the time for the payment 
of the principal to be distributed as nearly as practicable so as to 
retire each year an amount equal to the amount of the special assess- 
ment collected. The act provided that the title to the lands when 
purchased or condemned should vest in the Park Commissioners in 
trust for the use of the towns; but if at any time the city in which was 
vested the title to the lands already appropriated for the park should 
reimburse the towns, principal and interest, for the cost of the lands, 
the title should be conveyed to and vest in the city. The act pro- 
vided that the Park Commissioners might appoint and support a 


Grant TIo/sumemt. 




police force, a right not given in the original act; that the legal pro- 
ceedings for the condemnation of land for the Lake Shore Drive 
should be the same as those laid down for condemning land for park 
purposes ; that in all cases where the commissioners of any park had 
been named in the act establishing the same, the Governor should 
nominate, and by and with the advice of the Senate appoint, the 
commissioners of such park, who should hold office for the term of 
five years, all vacancies to be filled in the same manner; and that the 
commissioners should in April of each year submit to the mayor of 
the city, or president of the board of trustees of the town in which 
the park or portion thereof might be located, a detailed statement of 
the amount of moneys expended on account of the park. 

Before action was taken under the new law, the Commissioners 
made a bargain for another tract of land for park purposes without 
waiting for official authority. With the sanction of the Board, its 
President, Belden F. Culver, on May 12, 1872, after some dickering 
with John V. Farwell, bought from him in his own name, but in 
trust for the Commissioners of Lincoln Park, the tract of 19 acres 
of sand at the southeast corner of the Park, known as fractional section 
34, township 40, range 14, etc., for $100,000, a little over $5,000 an 
acre. While the price was lower than that paid for other lands in the 
Park, the investment seemed not unprofitable for the devisor, as he 
had paid $8,000 for the same land in 1866, when only four acres of it 
was above water. The remarkable increase in acreage shows the value 
of a well-constructed pier for making land cheaply. 

On June 25, 1872, the Commissioners passed the necessary resolu- 
tions calling upon the Supervisors and Assessors of North Chicago 
and Lake View to issue bonds and levy a special assessment for the 
purchase of lands. On September 19, 1872, the Supervisors and 
Assessors, acting together, authorized issues of town bonds as follows: 
Lake View, $48,000; North Chicago, $348,700; total, $396,700, — being 
five per cent of the tax valuations of the two towns. 

They estimated the damage done to owners of real estate to be 
taken for the Park in the two towns thus: 

North Chicago, $862,500; Lake View, $337,500. Total, $1,200,- 

The million and a fifth was to be raised in the two towns by a 
special assessment, distributed as follows: 

North Chicago, $709,070.27; Lake View, $490,929.73. The tax- 
able property in North Chicago was $6,968,349, and that in Lake 
View $968,278, while the population in North Chicago in 1870 was 
71,551, and that of Lake View 1,841. This made the proposed assess- 
ment for Lake View over half the total valuation of property in the 
town, while the land to be purchased in Lake View was 22}^ acres, 
against 59 acres in North Chicago. The assessment was confirmed in 
the lower court in April, 1873, but the Supreme Court, in November, 
again interfered with the plans of the Commissioners by declaring the 
assessment invalid because the officials of the two towns had no right 
to act jointly, those of one town having no right to assess property 
in another town, and for the further reason that the assessment was 
apportioned inequitably. 

The Commissioners were again left without means, or the immedi- 
ate prospect of securing means, to buy lands for Park purposes. The 
conditions were discouraging, but the General Assembly was to meet 
again the first of the following year, and the campaign for securing 
the additional legislation necessary was begun at once. The owners 
of property within the park limits were as uneasy as the Commission- 
ers over the uncertainties of the situation. The executors of the 
Newberry estate and the heirs of Dr. Foster threatened suits to regain 
possession of that part of their property which had been appropriated 
for the construction of the Lake Shore Drive, and to avoid any further 
litigation the Commissioners adopted resolutions especially declaring 
that they laid no claim of title to the land, but were using it on suffer- 
ance merely. Some of the various owners of lots in the Milliman 



tract thought it necessary to assert their ownership by building fences 
around their lots, and in so doing they completely shut off the West 
Drive through the old cemetery. These fences were not removed 
until bargains had been made for the purchase of the property. 

The General Assembly acted promptly, and on February 18, 1874, 
again amended the Lincoln Park Act, the principal change in the law 
being a provision for separate instead of joint action by the authori- 
ties of the constituent towns of the Park district in levying the assess- 
ment for the purchase of land, and for separate assessments. The 
Commissioners also acted promptly, and on March 14, 1875, a reso- 
lution was passed and certified to the authorities of Lake View, ask- 
ing for the purchase of the "Triangle." But the opportunity for the 
enlargement of Lincoln Park in that direction had passed. New 
officials were in power, who were less friendly to the proposition to 
levy a heavy tax for the purchase of the land, and on March I 5, 1875, a 
year after they had been asked to authorize the necessary special 
assessment and issue of bonds, they decided to refuse such consent. 
The Supervisor and Assessor of Lake View had been empowered by 
the Town Trustees to take such action in the matter as they should 
deem necessary for the best interests of the tax-payers in the town. 
The officers reported to the trustees on the above date the results of 
a species of referendum they had adopted to enable them to make up 
their minds. They had estimated the cost of the "Triangle" at 
$259,912, spread an experimental assessment according to benefits, 
and then endeavored to notify all property owners assessed, and get 
their opinions on the proposed purchase. Eighty-eight owners, 
assessed for $32,894, had expressed themselves in favor of the pur- 
chase, and two hundred and twenty, assessed for $79,281, had opposed 
it. The owners assessed for the other three-fifths of the amount did 
not declare themselves, but the Assessor and Supervisor were of the 
opinion that the majority of them in numbers and interest were 
opposed to making the purchase, and therefore they had decided to 

take no steps in that direction. The trustees approved the report, 
and at once served notice on the Commissioners of their refusal to 
issue bonds or levy a special assessment. While the tax on the thinly 
settled territory of Lake View would doubtless have been heavy, the 
refusal of the town officials to make the levy was unfortunate for the 
best interests of the Park, and therefore of the citizens of the town, 
for the land could not be purchased to-day for many times the sum 
required then, and the barrier to the growth of the Park either west 
or north raised by the prohibitive value of the land, a value given largely 
by the proximity of the Park, may never be removed. It is hardly to 
be denied that the entire cost of Lincoln Park, from its inception to 
the present day, has been more than repaid to the tax-payers of the 
two towns by the consequent increase in the value of property, to say 
nothing of the inestimable aesthetic and hygienic advantages it has 

A month after the adoption of the ill-fated resolution for the pur- 
chase of the "Triangle," on April 14, 1875, application was made to 
the Supervisor and Assessor of North Chicago for the necessary 
action to secure the condemnation of all lands in the Park south of 
Fullerton Avenue. In July a contract was made with Andrew Nelson 
for the purchase of lot P in the Milliman tract for $19,980, "on con- 
dition that the contract be void if the present park law is not sustained 
by the Supreme Court." The Commissioners were hopeful of final 
success, but their experience made them cautious. In August con- 
tracts for the purchase of the land between Webster and Fullerton ave- 
nues were authorized at a price not exceeding $18,000, on the same 
condition, and on October 27 judgment was rendered in the condem- 
nation cases against the property as follows: For the Foster tract, 14}4 
acres, $287,680; for the Newberry tract, lyyi acres, $332,220. The 
court decreed that the judgment should be paid on or before Novem- 
ber 1, 1879, but that the Commissioners might at once take possession 
of the property. In November consent was given by the author- 



ities of North Chicago for an issue of the bonds of the town to the 
amount of 8900,000, and on January 2, 1875, t ne first sale was made, 
one hundred bonds of the face value of $100,000 bringing 891,000. 
The proceeds were used to take up the note which had been given for 
the purchase of the Farwell tract. 

In March the Legislature again amended the Park Act to make the 
interest on the bonds payable semi-annually, instead of annually, and 
a new issue had to be printed. 

The bonds did not find a ready sale, for the reason that the special 
assessment was being contested in. the courts, and there was dan- 
ger that it might in the end be defeated, and partly because of the 
provision that fifty of the bonds, the numbers to be selected by lot, 
should be retired every year, beginning in 1878. The bonds had 
almost no sale in Chicago on those accounts, nearly all of them being 
sent to New York. Some of the land-owners accepted bonds at 91 
cents on the dollar in payment of their judgments, but others would 
not take them even at that price. After 664 bonds had been sold in 
1875 and 1876, nearly all of them in New York, at 91 and 92 per 
cent, no sales were made for several years. Fifty bonds were 
destroyed in November, 1877, and fifty more in December, 1878, the 
Commissioners believing that their sale would not be necessary to 
take care of the land judgments. In July, 1879, the remaining 136 
bonds were sold in New York at par, accrued interest, and a premium 
of $8,330, a change in the money market and increasing confidence in 
the quality of the security offered accounting for the increased price. 

In 1S75 and 1S76 judgments were rendered against the various 
parcels in the Milliman tract, the Farwell tract, and most of the lots 
in the old cemetery which had been sold by the city. The special 
assessment for Si, 200, 000 authorized bv the town authorities to pur- 
chase the Park lands and retire the bonds was completed in June, 
1875, on tne basis of the benefits to be derived, the tax ranging from 

S12 a foot on the most desirable lands fronting the Park to 25 cents 
a foot on property in the southwest corner of the town. 

The assessment was confirmed in the lower court in July, and the 
decision was finally sustained by the Supreme Court on appeal by a 
number of property owners, after prolonged litigation. Within a few 
years the judgments against the Milliman and Foster tracts were satis- 
fied, but the final payment for the Newberry tract was not made until 
1894. Arrangements for the purchase of the Jewish Cemetery tract 
were delayed for several years, because of inability to agree upon 
terms, and in 1880 the trustees of the cemetery secured permission to 
fence it in. It was not until October, 1S82, that an offer of $8,000 
for the tract was made and accepted, and a note given for the pur- 
chase price, which was paid in 1887. 

With the payment of a long-standing balance of $25,000 due the 
trustees of the Newberry estate in 1894, title was secured to all lands 
in Lincoln Park, with the exception of some of the lots in the old city 
cemetery. Titles to all of these lots have not yet been obtained, and 
perhaps never will be. The last transaction in cemetery lands shown 
in the Park records is the passage of an order on May 6, 1895, f° r " le 
purchase of the Peacock vault lot for $1,000, but within the last year 
several applications have been made for lots in other cemeteries in 
exchange for lots in the old cemetery. 

When, in 1866, the City Council finally determined to allow no 
more burials in the old city cemetery, orders were passed to provide 
for the purchase of lots of equal size in other cemeteries in exchange 
for those which had been sold in the city cemetery. The city contin- 
ued this arrangement when the Commissioners took possession of the 
property, but to facilitate exchanges of lots and the quieting of titles 
of private individuals to lots in Lincoln Park, the Commissioners paid 
for the removal of monuments and remains, and were frequently 
obliged to pay additional sums to secure deeds to land which they 



wished to improve without delay. Some lot-owners held back for 
prices which the Commissioners declined to pay, and others, having 
no use for their lots, were in no hurry to exchange them for others 
elsewhere. In recent years the demand has been so infrequent that 
the city has made no appropriation for the purpose, and lot-owners 
have been unable to arrange exchanges without delay. 

There still remains in the southeastern corner of the Park a con- 
spicuous monument of the former uses to which the land was put, the 
old Couch burial vault. It was found that, because of the nature of 
its construction, it would be impossible to remove the vault, except at 
great expense, and the Commissioners preferred to allow it to remain 
as a not uninteresting reminder of the Park's origin. 

Directly across the Stockton Drive from the Couch vault lay the 
Peacock lot, which was not purchased until 1895, because the price 
demanded by the owner was considered excessive. The old stone 
coping around this lot was not disturbed until over twenty years after 
the grounds surrounding it had been improved as part of the Park. 
In this immediate vicinity, almost hidden in the side of an artificial 
ridge, is another vault, which has long been used as a storehouse 
for the tools of Park employes. 

The special assessment for the purchase of lands in Lincoln Park 
did not suffice for the payment of interest on the bonds and the retire- 
ment of the issue, and appropriations were made by the North Town 
Supervisor in 189 1, 1892, 1893, and 1894 for that purpose, the last of 
the bonds being redeemed and canceled in 1896. 

The following statement shows the cost of the various tracts of 
land which were bought to make up Lincoln Park, the cost of levying 
the special assessment, the payments of interest, the cost of the 
redemption of the land-purchase bonds, the legal expenses connected 
with the condemnation of land, the issuing of bonds, and the spread- 
ing of the assessment, and other incidental expenses: 


Purchase of Farwell tract 19.00 acres . . 

Milliman tract 7.05 " 151,740.10 

Foster lot 14.50 " 278,078.83 

Newherrylot 17.50 " 332,220.00 

Jewish Cemetery .89 " ' 8,000.00 


Total 58.94 acres. 

Purchase of cemetery lots, cost of removals, etc. 19,494.19 

Interest on bonds §7 17.305.04 

Interest on deferred land payments. 180,320.06 

Expenses of transfers of land 

Cost of printing four sets of bonds $973.00 

Commissions on sale of bonds 5,934.25 

Sundry expenses on account of the sale of bonds 73344 

Work of preparing assessments, printing blanks 

and postal-card notices, etc. 

Legal expenses 

Bond redemption 

Total disbursements 


From special assessments $1,319,627.80 

Less loss from delinquents, double assessments, 

certificates of sale, etc. 76,314.95 

From sale of bonds $741,070.00 

From premium on bonds 8,330.00 

From accrued interest on bonds 10,831.22 

Appropriated from general tax levy 

Total receipts 

Total disbursements on land account $2,637,940.70 

Total receipts from bonds 760,231.22 

Net cost to tax-payers in taxes and special assess- 
ments $1,877,709.48 









-ON BR A *C \ 



It will be seen from this statement that 58.94 acres of land were 
purchased for 8870,038.93, an average cost of §14,761. 43 per acre. But 
the time of payment of this amount was extended over so long a pe- 
riod of years, that with the payment of interest and other necessary 
expenses, the total cost of the land to the tax-payers of North Chi- 
cago was 81,858,21 5.29, or an average price of 831,527.23 per acre. 
The remaining 171.21 acres of city property incorporated in Lincoln 
Park by the original act of February 9, 1869, were set aside for Park- 
uses, with no other expense to the tax-payers of the towns of North 
Chicago and Lake View than the amount of the cemetery account, 
819,494.19. If it had been necessary to purchase these lands from 
private owners, it is extremely doubtful if Lincoln Park could ever 
have been organized on so large a scale, — if, indeed, the first cost of the 
purchase of land for park purposes so near the business center of the 
city would not have discouraged the tax-payers of those days from 
having an)' park at all. 

It is certain, at least, that the foundations of Lincoln Park were 
laid in 1837, with the grant to the town of North Chicago of state 
lands for cemetery purposes, and in 1852, when under pressure of 
the cholera panic the city bought the land north of Fullerton Avenue 
for quarantine and hospital grounds. 

While the proceedings for the condemnation and purchase of land 
were under way, the Commissioners were also busily engaged in prose- 
cuting the work of park-making in the territory under their control 
with all the energy their funds and credit would permit. The com- 
pletion of the artesian well and the Lake Shore Drive, and the pro- 
tection of the lake shore, demanded the most attention. The great 
change that has taken place in Chicago customs since that time is 
shown by the fact that in April, 1871, a part of the work on the Lake 
Shore Drive consisted of "watching cows." A charge of fifteen dol- 
lars for that purpose was made by the contractors, and similar charges 
recurred regularly during the summer months for a year or two. In 

that sylvan period residents of North Chicago still kept cows, and 
they pastured them during the day in the woods and fields north of 
Diversey Avenue. As they were driven home at night the cows, 
attracted by the greener browsing along the new drive, chose that 
route homeward to the great dissatisfaction of the Commissioners and 
their employes. The custom continued until the retaliatory practice 
of impounding the cows until they were bought out of pawn com- 
pelled the owners to take better care of them. 

On July 29, 1871, the work of transforming the cemetery began with 
the passage of an order for the payment of eight dollars each for the 
removal of remains to other cemeteries, where the lots had been recon- 
veyed to the city on condition of such removal being made. Similar 
orders appear on the Park records in the next few years, and the work 
was prosecuted industriously. In November, 1875, the city authorities 
notified the Commissioners that no more exchanges of lots could be 
made that year, as the appropriation for the purpose was exhausted. 
Because of the destruction of all plats and surveys of the old cemetery 
in the great fire, the task of removing to other cemeteries the remains 
of those who were interred there was attended with great difficulties. 
It was surmounted in the best way possible, that of retaining in the 
employment of the Park for many years the old sexton of the city 
cemetery, whose familiarity with the lots and the names of their 
owners was so great and his memory so accurate that he was able to 
locate any grave with little difficulty. 

Later in the year a fence was built along the north line of the 
Park at Diversey Avenue, and in November contracts were made for 
grading, filling, and seeding the space between Diversey Avenue and 
the drive. Many of the Park records and the first assessment roll for 
the construction of the Pine Street Drive from North Avenue to Oak 
Street were burned in the great fire, and on October 28, the first meet- 
ing held by the Commissioners after the fire, all work was ordered 
stopped on its account. On November 28 the new Board of Com- 











ScuUHMft. ■ pin >*& | 


missioners appointed by the Governor by virtue of the act of June 1 8 
met, organized, and found the Park treasury at so low an ebb that it 
seemed to them good reason for keeping the work stopped until the 
April following. In April, 1872, the Commissioners found their credit 
good enough to secure a loan of Si 0,000 for four months at eight per 
cent interest. In May, as a part of the bargain for the Farwell tract, 
they paid Si 2,000 for a tug, three scows, and a dredge, and agreed to 
share for one year the expense of operating them in taking sand from 
the lake to a pier in the Chicago River and exchanging it there for 
clay. The clay was taken to the Park and stored in great piles, to 
be used as occasion demanded in the construction of roads. 

In July the city was asked to police the Park more effectively, and 
in August, the city having failed to meet the wishes of the Board, the 
Lincoln Park police force was organized, with one sergeant and three 
officers. In May, 1873, the city ordinance limiting the speed on the 
Lake Shore Drive to six miles an hour was suspended for Tuesday 
and Friday afternoons, for the benefit of owners of fast horses, and in 
the same month negotiations were entered into with the city to assume 
the care and responsibility of the improved part of the Park. 

There are indications that diplomacy played a part in the negotia- 
tions, the records showing an expenditure of S250 on June 18 for 
carriages and a band of music. City officials and aldermen were 
driven through the Park that they might understand the scale of the 
undertaking, and then they were serenaded and banqueted that the}' 
might feel kindly toward it. The desired results were achieved 
without any apparent hitch or opposition, for on July 2 the Board of 
Public Works of the city made formal application to the Commis- 
sioners to be relieved from further care of the improved portion of 
the Park, and to transfer such care to them. On the following day 
the Commissioners met, and by formal resolution accepted the new 
responsibility and assumed the new expense from the 1st of July. 

From that date the Commissioners appointed by the Governor have 
been the sole authority in the government of the Park. 

At this time the old Park was considered a finished product of the 
landscape gardener's art; and the Board of Public Works in their 
report published in 1873 included the following statement of the 
work which had been done there: 

" The first appropriation which was made by the city on account of this work was 
in the year 1865. The necessary surveys were made, and a plan for the further 
improvement of the Park was adopted in the fall of that year. The ground at that 
time was nothing but a succession of sand hills, with no vegetation whatever, except 
an occasional bush and a few scrub oaks upon the western portion. An old ditch had 
been cut through it by the Cook County Drainage Commissioners some years before, 
for the purpose of draining the lowlands lying to the north. This ditch was filled 
with stagnant water a greater portion of the time. 

"The sand banks were changing about from place to place by the different 
currents of the wind, like drifts of snow, and nothing could be done toward starting 
vegetation until the surface could be properly graded and covered with loam. 

" In converting the grounds to use as a public park there was but little about it, 
excepting its location, that gave any promise of success. 

"The design adopted embraced in addition to about five miles of drives and walks, 
an artificial lake covering about three acres of surface and various hills and elevations. 

" The material excavated from the lake was used in making the elevations. 
After the grade had been completed, very large quantities of loam and manure were 
obtained, with which the surface was covered to an average depth of fifteen inches. 
More portions were then sodded, and others were seeded for grass. The walks and 
drives are composed of a bedding of blue clay, with a surface dressing of gravel. 
There are four bridges crossing the artificial lake at different places. Only one of 
these, however, is of a permanent character. The others were only designed for 
temporary use, and should be replaced by something more ornamental, and more in 
keeping with the place. 

" The surface of the ground is now well covered with an abundant growth of 
grass; and trees and shrubbery sufficient for ornament and shade have been set out 
and are doing well. 

"Numerous caves, grottoes, rockeries, and drinking-fountains have been con- 
structed at different points- 

"The artificial lake, with its swans and other water-fowl, together with numerous 
specimens of birds and wild animals collected in the park, contributes very much to 
the attractions of the place. 


"An abundant supply of water to keep the lake fresh and clear at all times is except on Sundays and concert days," when more freedom was to 

obtained from an artesian well which was sunk to a depth of ,173 feet in 1870 fae aUowed The so ;, wag SQ an< j the fadUties fof waterinR the 

"Inthiswav this barren and desolate piece of ground has been transformed ■ ' ° 

into a place of rare beauty, and the multitude of people who are constantly attracted g ra ss, which grew sparsely in the Park, were so meager, that the only 

hither testify to its value as a place of public resort." way the lawns could be preserved at all was by giving them a long 

The expenditures by the city for the improvement and maintenance rest after each short P eriod of use - The Park was s o popular by that 

of Lincoln Park in the period ending July 1, 1873, for each year and time as a P Iace of P ublic resort . and so crowded on Sundays and 

the total amounts, were as follows: holidays, that the lawns would be badly trampled on such days, and 

a week's rest be necessary to revive the grass. The contractors were 

1866-67 14,883.66 to render the police department of the Park all needful assistance in 

1868-60 2?'84q83 preserving order and good will, by employing only "such men as are 

1869-70 31,830.72 sober and orderly, and civil when spoken to by visitors." All flowers 

1871-72"-- "."IX^//-"/-/.y--"-!----I-/---"--I------------- 17I254I33 an d pl a nts that might be placed in the Park, the contract provided, 

1872-73 15,043.79 should be planted, watered, and cared for in a proper manner. 

1873-74 4,71272 . ' v 

No expenditure for plants or flowers is reported, however, in the 

Total-.. s168.851.94 annals of Lincoln Park, until June, 1874. 

Few changes have been made in the arrangement of the walks, The first concert given under the auspices of the Commissioners 
drives, and lawn spaces in the old Park since 1873. While willing to was furnished by the Great Western Light Guard Band, in August, 
assume the expense of maintaining the improved part of the Park, 1873. Some question had been raised as to the authority of the 
the Commissioners preferred to postpone the necessity of organizing Commissioners to give concerts in the Park on Sundays, and they 
a force of workmen, and instead arranged with the contractors, Nel- called upon their attorney for an opinion on the subject at their meet- 
son & Benson, who had constructed the Lake Shore Drive and done ing of July 28. So many of the express provisions of the Park Act 
much other work in the Park, to keep it in order, for a sum varying had been set aside as invalid by the courts, that the Commissioners 
from $2,000 a month in the summer to S500 in the winter. The were timorous of their right to do anything not expressly provided 
specifications for the work required, among other things, that drives for in the law. The opinion of the Board's attorney, John N. Jewett, 
and walks be kept in repair and sprinkled while necessary; that the was favorable to the right of the Commissioners to furnish music for 
lawns be weeded, mowed, and watered; that the leaves be raked up the delectation of the public on Sundays if they chose, although it 
in the winter; the bridges kept in repair; and the animals and birds was prefaced by his personal opinion that Sunday concerts were 
in the Park fed and cared for. The provision of the contract which decidedly improper and undesirable. The Commissioners were 
reads most strangely to-day is one that the public should at all times guided by the legal rather than the personal opinion, and Sunday 
have free access to some portions of the grass, designated by the cap- concerts have been a regular institution of Lincoln Park ever since, the 
tain of police, and marked "common," but that "not more than one- Supreme Court never having been called upon to pass on the question 
sixth of the lawns should be opened to the public in any one day, of their legality. 

^-^j y ^ 



4 6 


In 1874 a large force of men was kept busy in digging up the 
poison ivy which infested part of the Park grounds, and some of it 
evidently escaped notice, for as late as 1884 claims for damages were 
brought against the Commissioners by visitors who had been poisoned 
by it. The city was still using the land north of Fullerton Avenue as 
a dumping-ground, and the Commissioners were having difficulty in 
obtaining possession of property already purchased for the Park. The 
Park police took forcible possession of the axle-grease factory on the 
Farwell tract in this year and tore it down, but it was not until 1875 
that the stone factory was seized and razed to the ground. In 1874 
Hans Balatka furnished the concerts given in the Park. One of the 
principal improvements of the year was the building of a plank side- 
walk, twelve feet wide, on Clark Street, from North Avenue to Center 
Street. Instructions were given by the Commissioners that the side- 
walk "should not interfere with the cemetery lots." The work of 
converting the cemetery from its long-accustomed use progressed so 
far in this year that the Commissioners made a contract for filling up 
the lowlands where the ball-grounds now are, and in 1875 they 
entered upon a more extensive scheme of improvements. The speed- 
ing track - , afterward converted into a bridle-path, was laid out just west 
of the shore drive for its entire length; a connection drive was built 
from "Monument Circle," at the head of Dearborn Street, to the south 
end of the race-course and shore drive, and another to the head of the 
Pine Street Drive at North Avenue. The ' ' Monument Circle" itself was 
to be graded for a lawn and trees. Some prophetic insight may have 
told the Commissioners that some day there would be a monument in 
that circle, but for a dozen years, until the erection of the Lincoln 
Monument, the name was a misnomer. At the same time the West 
Drive was outlined from North Avenue to the old Park, and the 
Stockton Drive from the north line of the old Park to Diversey Avenue. 
The excavation for the South Pond was undertaken simultaneously 
with the construction of the drives and lawns, the contractors beini-r 

required to take the sand filling used in bringing the drives and 
lawns to the required grade from the site of the proposed pond. 
Many thousands of yards of sand also were hauled from the site of 
the pond to make filling for the Pine Street Drive. The race-course 
was built by Park workmen, the other drives by contract, and all were 
practically completed within that year. Clay was largely used in the 
construction of drives, and thousands of yards were bought and 
brought to the Park, the excavations from the site of the court-house 
and from the city water-tunnels being purchased. Possession was 
taken of the Newberry tract in November, 1875, but the nursery on 
the Foster tract was allowed to remain for two years longer before 
an}' improvements were begun in that part of the Park. The banks 
of the new lake were ready for grading in July, 1876, and in Decem- 
ber work was begun on the grading and improvement of the Mall, the 
long promenade which, stretching from the "Monument Circle" to the 
South Pond, flanked on either side by smooth sward, spreading elms, 
and rustic baskets of flowers, is now one of the most beautiful parts 
of Lincoln Park. 

The increase of lawn surface in 1876 through the improvements of 
the previous year, the added surface of drives for sprinkling, with the 
decrease in the flow of the artesian wells caused by the digging of 
other wells for commercial purposes west of the Park, compelled the 
securing of other sources of water supply. In February, 1877, work 
was begun laying water mains from Diversey Avenue as far south as 
the west concourse, opposite Wisconsin Street, and in May the Park 
was supplied with water for sprinkling purposes from the Chicago and 
Lake View pumping plants. In 1877 the Commissioners decided that 
a new drive was necessary to divert some of the increasing travel on 
the Lake Shore Drive, and the Ridge Road was constructed on the 
slight elevation west of the drive, from a point near the southeastern 
corner of the South Pond to Webster Avenue. In the following year 
it was continued to Fullerton Avenue, where it branched east and 


west to connect with the Stockton and the, Lake Shore Drives. 
Because of the wide sweep to the east which the road takes to sur- 
round the animal-house and yards, this part of it has been called the 
Ramble Drive. 

The construction of the Fullerton Avenue conduit in this year 
furnished an opportunity for the purchase of large quantities of clay 
on reasonable terms, and the first published report of the Commis- 
sioners, issued in April, 1879, recited the fact that 100,000 yards of 
clay and 50,000 yards of black soil had -been purchased up to that 
time for the construction of drives and lawns, while 75 acres of the 
Park were still unimproved. 

The Humane Society decided in 1877 tna t where so much pleasure 
was furnished for man there should be more provision for the comfort 
of beasts, and presented to the Park a circular watering-basin for 
horses, surmounted by a handsome stone fountain. A foundation was 
built for the fountain by the Commissioners at the meeting of the 
shore drive and the connection drive from the Dearborn Street 
entrance, opposite Wisconsin Street. The fountain was formally pre- 
sented, with simple but interesting ceremonies, on September 13. 

Skating on the Park ponds, an amusement which had been encour- 
aged since 1874, had become so popular by 1878, and the facilities 
for lighting the Park at night were so meager, that locomotive head- 
lights were rented every season, and distributed around the banks 
of the ponds to light the way for the skaters. 

The year 1878 was notable in Park annals also for the fact that 
Professor "Johnny" Hand then began to discourse classical music 
with his band, a custom he has already continued for over twenty 
years. In this year, too, the use of the North Avenue pier was 
granted to the Floating Hospital Association, and a pavilion was 
erected on the pier by the Commissioners, and maintained by them 
for years for the benefit of sick babies and their mothers, who were 
brought there from the hot and crowded city in a steamboat chartered 

by the association. The institution was continued, doing countless 
good, until 1886, when plans for the enlargement of the Park by the 
reclamation of land from the lake compelled the removal of the pier. 
Since then the sanitarium erected on the Fullerton Avenue pier in 
1 S89 by the. Fresh Air Fund has proven a worthy successor of the 
Floating Hospital. 

The first fire in Lincoln Park after the Chicago fire occurred on 
the night of January 20, 1879, when the small frame building near 
the present site of the animal-house, which had been erected in 1873 
as a tool-house and police station, was burned, from some unknown 
cause, at a total loss of SSoo. The tool-house was re-erected on 
Fullerton Avenue, on the west boundary of the Park, adjoining the 
barn built by the Park contractors in 1872, after the destruction of 
an older barn on the same site, which had been the last building on 
the North Side to burn in the great fire. The barn had been bought 
from the contractors in 1877, at the same time with the purchase from 
them of the old pavilion and boat-house, and the cottage in the Park 
opposite Center Street, which had been used as a residence succes- 
sively by the contractors who laid out the old Park and by the Super- 
intendent of Lincoln Park, up to that time. The building was used 
for Park offices, and after the fire of 1879, as a police station, until it 
was torn down in 1893 to make room for the Academy of Sciences. 

A fountain, presented by Perry H. Smith in 1879, was located 
west of the floral garden. 

On July 15, 1879, "led horses" and "bicycles" were linked 
together by the Commissioners in a single resolution as joint foes to 
the peace of mind and safety of body necessary to the pursuit of hap- 
piness in a public park, and ruthlessly excluded from all Park drives. 
The Commissioners were conservative, and bicycle riders were then a 
small and comparatively uninfluential set, neither clamorous for good 
roads nor wont to sway elections. The most they asked was to be let 
alone. But a stray and adventurous rider of one of the old-fashioned 



high bicycles had eluded the vigilance of Park police and got as far 
inside the Park as the animal-yards, frightened a horse, and caused a 
runaway. After that the mild requests of the wheelmen for recogni- 
tion only resulted in the passage of other ordinances, on May 4, 1880, 
and October 4, 1881, prohibiting bicycles in the Park. On October 
25, 18S1, a petition in favor of bicycles was firmly and forcibly placed 
on file. But the wheelmen continued to call attention respectfully to 
the facts that horses were becoming civilized and accustomed to 
wheels, and that in other cities restrictions were being removed, and 
bicycles given all the rights of express-wagons and other vehicles. On 
May 25, 1882, the order prohibiting bicycles was suspended for the 
three davs of the wheelmen's convention, May 29, 30, and 31. This 
was the entering wedge, and by their insidious behavior and the docil- 
ity of horses in the Park the bicycles increased their footing. On 
July 27 the ordinance was suspended for thirty days, and was a dead 
letter after that, except between sunset and sunrise. A complaint in 
1884 that a bicycle had frightened a horse received scant considera- 
tion, but it was not until 1886 that the great boon of being allowed to 
ride in the Park of nights was gained by the wheelmen. Now the 
Park drives are thronged with bicycles at all hours, bicycle-paths are 
constructed as an essential part of every new boulevard, and even the 
bridle-paths may be converted into bicycle-paths at any day. Times 
have changed, and the view of the north artesian well as the Mecca 
of thirsty riders and of a constantly altering crowd of visitors gives 
some idea of the change. 

In 18S0 the Commissioners adopted a plan for the improvement 
of the part of the Park east of the Lake Shore Drive, and the widening 
of the drive to sixty feet, in the fond but fruitless belief that the new 
breakwater then being constructed on the "Netherlands" plan would 
prevent the erosion of the drive. 

The constantly increasing cost of purchasing a sufficient water 
supply from the city and from the town of Lake View turned the 

attention of the Commissioners to the idea of constructing water-works 
of their own, and plans and estimates were secured. The idea was 
abandoned for the time being, and as a temporary expedient the old 
artesian wells, one of which had stopped running, were cleaned out and 
repaired. In this year the Commissioners began to consider the mat- 
ter of improving that part of the Park north of Fullerton Avenue, 
and the question of including a small lake in the plan was decided 
affirmatively on February 8, 188 1, by a petition from a number of 
influential citizens from Lake View, asking that if any improvement 
be made, a lake be provided for as well as lawns. The petition was 
granted, and when the North Pond was completed, the name of Com- 
missioner Stockton, who had been especially insistent upon its con- 
struction, was given to the pond. At this time but little attention 
had been paid to the north end of the Park', except in the matter of 
maintaining the shore drive and the narrow strips of lawn and trees 
on either side of it. A large number of forest trees had been planted 
in 1 87 1 in the tract west of the Stockton Drive, now used as a picnic- 
ground; but the land was low and marshy, the "Ten-Mile Ditch" had 
not yet been filled in, and as late as 1882 complaints were made to 
the Commissioners of the stagnant water in this channel. In the 
next few years the work of excavating for the pond was steadily 
pushed, and sand was sold to the value of thousands of dollars, while 
enough remained for the construction of Mount Prospect, overlook- 
ing the pond, the shore drive, and Lake Michigan. Much of the 
rich soil along the old ditch was taken for the construction of lawns 
on either side of the pond, and replaced with greater quantities of 
sand filling from the pond. Water was turned into the pond in 1884, 
and boats were placed upon it the last week in June. A driveway and 
bridle-path were afterward laid out, surrounding and ascending Mount 
Prospect, with a concourse for carriages upon its summit, but as every 
rainstorm washed deep gullies down the driveways they were finally 
abandoned and sodded over. 


\\e&Ca\\\\k\\, I^.xa\\ee\^ ~\^toVx^%cV ^ 



In 1S81 the English section of Socialists asked leave to hold pub- 
lic meetings in the Park, to which petition the Commissioners 
promptly responded by passing an order strictly prohibiting public 
meetings for any object whatever in the Park. 

In 1882 the Commissioners decided to extend the shore drive 
from its southern terminus at the Humane Society Fountain to the 
Pine Street Drive at North Avenue, across the old Farwell tract. No 
improvement of the shore in this section of the Park had been 
attempted up to that time, because of its importance as a convenient 
depot for supplies of gravel, which was constantly being needed for 
the repair of the drives, and of sand for filling. After its completion 
the drive was continued to connect with the Ridge Road, and the 
South Connection Drive from the "Monument Circle" to the Pine 
Street Drive was reconstructed. In this year the Commissioners 
decided upon building the South Pond Refectory, but first applied to 
their attorney for an opinion on the question whether or not the fire 
ordinance of the city was binding within the limits of the Park and 
debarred them from the right to erect frame buildings. The opinion 
was favorable to the rights of the Commissioners in the matter, and 
in February contracts were awarded for the construction of the build- 
ing. On its completion, at the cost of $14,61 1.33, the Commissioners 
bought the boats, which up to that time had been operated by the 
Park Superintendent without payment for the privilege. Since then a 
considerable revenue has been derived from letting boats, the returns 
amounting in the World's Fair year to over Si 4,000. 

In 1882 the Commissioners finally decided upon the erection of a 
water-pumping plant, to secure an independent supply from the lake 
for Park purposes. A small plant was built and furnished with 
machinery, at the cost of a little over $4,000, and on July 10, 1883, 
the works were started with a capacity of 720,000 gallons every 
twenty-four hours. While this greatly increased the facilities for 
caring for lawns, the Commissioners continued to use city water, the 

Park supply being insufficient for all purposes. The records indicate, 
however, that they became more careless thereafter in the payment of 
water rates, for in 1885 the Superintendent of the City Water Depart- 
ment, with total disregard of the finer feelings of the authorities of 
the co-ordinate municipality, made repeated demands for the payment 
of said rates, and repeated threats that the water would be shut off if 
they were not paid. 

In 1SS3, also, the Commissioners decided that the day for coal-oil 
lamps and locomotive headlights in the Park had passed, and rented an 
electric-light plant and twenty-five lamps, which were installed in Octo- 
ber. In the following year the plant was purchased, and twenty-five 
more lamps erected. In this year, also, the old Jewish cemetery, which 
had just been purchased, was graded and improved, trees were planted 
along the shore drive on the Farwell tract, and eight acres of sand and 
gravel in that tract were covered with good soil and seeded for a lawn. 
In 1884 the "Alarm Group," the first of the many statues which 
adorn the Park, was presented by Mr. M. A. Ryerson, and unveiled with 
interesting ceremonies. The precedent became contagious, and later 
in the year a proposition was made to the Commissioners for the erec- 
tion of a memorial to Thomas Paine. For some reason not evident 
in the records of the Park the project was never carried out. A statue 
of Schiller was offered to the Park this year, though it was not formally 
presented until May 8, 1886, and work was begun on the foundations 
for the Lincoln Monument. 

A carriage entrance was constructed this year from the corner of 
Clark Street and North Avenue to the "Monument Circle," and in 
1885 the broad granolithic walk on Clark Street along the entire Park- 
front from North Avenue to Center Street was laid, and still remains 
in satisfactory evidence of the thoroughness of the work. 

In 1886 the present south artesian well was dug a few yards away 
from the old well sunk by the city in 1870, which had been lost several 
times, after the provoking habit of artesian wells, and had finally 



caved in and become useless. The improvement of the part of the 
Park in Lake View was continued, and three acres of new lawn added. 
This gain was not enough, however, to offset the loss in the south end 
of the Park which resulted from several severe storms in the winter of 
1885-86, in which Lake Michigan ran riot, washing away several hun- 
dred feet of the new shore drive north of North Avenue and flooding 
the ball-grounds. This destruction of the shore threatened the land 
accumulations of years, including the greater part of the Farwell tract 
purchase, and convinced the Commissioners, and the authorities of 
North Chicago as well, that there should be no more temporizing with 
Lake Michigan. It was determined to erect an impregnable protec- 
tion against the lake; and to justify the great expenditure of money 
which would be necessary, the Commissioners planned to construct a 
breakwater far enough out in the lake to add many valuable acres to 
the Park domain. The work of constructing the sea-wall along the Pine 
Street Drive as far north as Burton Place was begun in this year, and 
at the same time the plan was adopted by which from Burton Place 
the breakwater was built curving out into the lake, and extended in 
time to Fullerton Avenue, reclaiming the sixty odd acres on which 
the present paved beach, parapet, outer drive, lagoon, and spreading 
lawn have been constructed, the outer line of the breakwater being an 
average distance of over 500 feet east of the original shore drive. 
The first plan for the improvement did not include the lagoon, which 
was decided upon in 1S89, partly to meet the wishes of boating 
enthusiasts, who advanced strong arguments in favor of a straight- 
away protected course for rowing races and for a yacht harbor, and 
partly to reduce the expense and expedite the completion of the 
improvement. The dredging of the lagoon provided a great amount 
of filling for the construction of the lawns and drive on either side of 
it, which could not have been dredged from the lake without great 
danger of weakening the breakwater. 

On June 14, 1887, an act was passed by the Legislature, and 

approved, authorizing the issue of bonds for $300,000 for the erection 
of a breakwater or sea-wall along the shore of the lake to prevent the 
waste of land, and on July 19, with the consent of the authorities of 
North Chicago, the Commissioners ordered the issue of bonds of the 
town to the amount of £300, 000 for the purpose of shore protection, 
the bonds to bear date of October I, 1887, and run for twenty years 
at five per cent interest, each bond to have the face value of Si, 000. 
During the year seventy of the bonds were disposed of. The issue 
was insufficient to complete the work, and in May, 1891, an additional 
bond issue of $200,000 was authorized. With the means thus pro- 
vided the improvement was completed in 1893, at the cost of about 
8540,000, or an average price of 89,000 per acre for the land reclaimed 
from the lake. 

In 1887, after the construction of several thousand feet of tempo- 
rary breakwater along the shore drive, that part of the roadbed 
which was washed away in 1886 was replaced, and a bridle-path con- 
structed along the west line of the drive, from the concourse at the 
Humane Society fountain to North Avenue. The fountain in the 
floral garden, the gift of Eli Bates, was completed in this year, and 
on October 22 the Lincoln Monument, from the same donor, was 
unveiled with impressive ceremonies. New pumping-works were 
built, with increased capacity, to meet the ever-increasing needs of 
the Park lawns, and the Fullerton Avenue conduit was tapped in 
the following year, with the permission of the city, to furnish the 

In 1889 the work of reconstructing the Park drives was begun. 
The unfitness of gravel drives on clay foundation for Park uses had 
long been evident, and in the course of a few years the old material 
was entirely removed, the clay being put to a better use as a founda- 
tion for new lawns. The new drives were made of slag, surfaced 
with macadam or fine gravel, and as far as means would permit they 
were given a facing of crushed granite. The use of granite nearly 



doubles the cost of a roadway, but with the great and constantly 
increasing travel through the Park it furnishes the only satisfactory 
drive in all kinds of weather, and one of the greatest needs of Lincoln 
Park in 1899 is that of a granite coating for all its main traveled 

In 1890 the electric fountain, offered the preceding year by C. T. 
Yerkes, was erected, and additional room provided for sight-seers by 
the removal and destruction of the Humane Society fountain, which 
had stood for twelve years in the concourse near by. As a recom- 
pense for its loss, a new fountain and watering-trough, the gift of 
Commissioner Horatio N. May, had been erected in 1889 in the con- 
course of the West Drive, near the South Pond. In this year Lake 
View Avenue was opened along the west line of the Park from Fuller- 
ton Avenue to Roslyn Place, and the stable, shops, and sheds which 
had stood for many years in that corner of the Park were removed. 
In the next few years eleven acres of new lawns were constructed in 
this part of the Park, while the Park horses were kept in rented stables 
until in 1894 the basement of the propagating houses was arranged 
for a barn. 

In 1893 the construction of the high bridge over the lagoon was 
undertaken, and completed in the following year, furnishing not only 
a passageway from the beach drive to the inner drive, but also the 
means of healthful exercise to all who might climb its numerous steps, 
and a splendid point of observation from which to view the Park. 

In 1894 the Commissioners tried the experiment of purchasing for 
use on the ponds a few of the electric launches which plied on the 
lagoons in Jackson Park during the Fair the year before. The prin- 
cipal improvement of this year was the construction of the Academy 
of Sciences building. Friendly relations had been established with 
the trustees of this institution as far back as April 2, 1878, when the 
Commissioners granted a request from them for the bodies of all 
animals in the Park collection at their death, in order that they might 

be mounted for exhibition in the Academy and their usefulness not be 
wholly lost. In 1884 the first effort was made to secure the erection 
of a home for the Academy in the Park. After conferences between 
the Commissioners and the trustees, a bill was drawn up and submitted 
to the Legislature in the following year to set apart grounds for a 
museum of natural history in the Park. The bill was not passed, and 
the matter dropped until 1891, when proposals were again made by 
the trustees of the Academy, looking toward the construction of a 
building in the Park, and on January 10, 1893, an agreement was 
entered into under which the present home of the Academy of Sci- 
ences was located in Lincoln Park, under authority of an act of the 
Legislature passed in the following June, at the cost of, of 
which 875,000 was contributed by Matthew Laflin, and the remainder 
by the Commissioners, in return for the perpetual use of a small part 
of the building for Park offices. Under this agreement, the Commis- 
sioners maintain the building and contribute annually to the running 
expenses of the Academy. The construction of the building had 
involved the closing of the driveway into the Park at Center Street, 
which was replaced with a foot-walk, and the destruction of the old 
frame building near the entrance, which had been occupied in turn 
since 1870 as the residence of the contractor and superintendent, and 
as the headquarters of the superintendent, engineering force, and 
police force. The Academy was opened October I, 1894, and soon 
afterward the down-town offices of the Commissioners, which had 
been maintained since 1870, were given up, and the headquarters of the 
Commissioners and their office force established in the new building. 
In 1895 the Commissioners began two improvements of great 
practical value in the construction of a new water-pumping and elec- 
tric-lighting station. The water mains were extended to all parts of 
the Park, and the capacity of the pumps increased to 5,000,000 gal- 
lons daily. The electric-lighting plant, which had until that time been 
located in the basement of the propagating houses, was also enlarged, 



and the service extended, until now there are 244 lamps in use in the 
Park, all the cables being underground. 

Early in 1895 a sma ll sum was appropriated for bath-houses on 
the beach north of Fullerton Avenue, and the beach was first opened 
to the use of the public in that year. In 1896 the driveway for car- 
riages at the corner of North Avenue and Clark Street to the Lincoln 
Monument was closed and sodded over, leaving only a foot-walk. 

The north pavilion and boat-house was built at the upper end of 
the North Pond in 1896, and a light iron fence constructed around a 
large part of the lagoon as a protection for children. In 1897 the 
lagoon fence was completed, bicycle-paths in the north end 
of the Park constructed, and the north artesian well, which had 
run dry in 1895, was cleaned out and deepened until a new flow was 

'-.£"- .*^ 4li U«J-M» . vua 

°* iUV .-i.jri ... L U>" 

' *mu. , ' 


Lake Michigan has always been one of the chief beauties of Lin- 
coln Park, and free access to its shore a great and increasing attraction. 
But the lake has also always been one of the chief sources of expense 
and mental worry to the Park Commissioners from the time when, in 
the summer of 1 870, they began the construction of the Lake Shore 
Drive near the water's edge. They were obliged at the same time to 
take measures to prevent the lake from washing over the drive and 
carrying its material into deep water. Scores of different methods of 
protecting the shore line were adopted from time to time, in the belief 
that at last the force of the waves had been rendered harmless. 
Numerous engineers have been employed, both as consulting experts 
and in charge of construction work. United States army engineers 
stationed at Chicago and other lake ports have been advised with, and 
as a rule the best talent available has been secured. Countless sug- 
gestions have been offered to the Board by inventors and contractors, 
all of them to be carefully weighed, and many of them tried, and still 
for years the storms of each winter would give the lie to the confi- 
dent hopes of the preceding summer when the lake was calm and the 
various forms of shore protection were under construction. 

In the Park's early history the Commissioners were hampered by 
lack of funds and the necessity of doing work cheaply or not at all, — a 
condition which still obtains, — but the storms of Lake Michigan are 
not cheap affairs, to be cheaply dealt with, as costly experience has 
told. Her waves dash against the beach like enormous trip-hammers, 
with a force of 250 pounds to the square inch, and only the most sub- 
stantial work will resist them. Even yet the success which has been 
attained is only partial. The experience of years and the expenditure 
of over a millipn dollars have shown that the only way to withstand 


the hike is to build a protection which extends below its sand bed 
until it is firmly anchored in the clay, is so perfectly sand and water 
tight that the filling behind it cannot be carried away, and is so strong 
as to stand immovable against the tremendous power of the waves. 

The first idea carried out in the work of shore protection was to 
construct piers at right angles with the shore, with the hope of not 
only protecting the shore line, but causing accretions. At the first 
meeting after the appointment of the first Superintendent of the Park, 
July 30, 1870, that official was ordered to build a pier to preserve 
the shore, and to consult, as to its erection and character of construc- 
tion, with the engineer of the Illinois Central Railroad Company, 
which had already had considerable experience both in protecting a 
shore line and in extending it into the lake. The Superintendent 
recommended the construction of a pier of timber and stone 600 feet 
south of Diversey Street; and on August 2 a contract was made for a 
pier 65 feet long, to be filled with 30 cords of stone. The pier was 
built of stout wooden boxes 12 feet square and 6 feet high, securely 
bolted together to the required length. It was towed from 'the place 
of its construction to the proposed location off the Lake Shore Drive, 
one end anchored to the shore, and then filled with rubble stone, at J 
total cost of S17 per foot, or Si, 105 for the entire contract, which was 
completed August 11. Piles were driven alongside the pier to keep 
it in place, and traces of the piles are still visible, though the pier 
long since sank out of sight. It sank from its weight through the 
yielding sand, and in a comparatively short time the waves washed 
over it unimpeded. This was not to be discovered until later, how- 
ever, and in the next three years ten more box piers were built along 
the shore, at distances of several hundred feet apart, from the first pier 
to a point about opposite Wisconsin Street. They differed in con- 
struction from the first pier in being weighted with sand instead of 
stone, and as the figures of the shore protection account grew larger 
and more imposing, a lighter and cheaper method of construction was 

adopted. In the later piers it was considered sufficient to have 
every alternate chamber filled with sand, the outer chambers decked 
with tvyo-nch plank, and the pier deep enough to stand three feet 
above the water, costing six or seven dollars a foot. The pier at Cen- 
ter Street, long used as a steamboat landing, and the pier at Webster 
Avenue were 150 feet long, decked over, and furnished with seats. 
Before the last pier was built in 1874, the older ones would have bur- 
rowed out of sight in the sand if the Commissioners had not made 
contracts frequently to raise them and refill them. It was also found 
that when the lake made land on one side of a pier it usually cut out 
as much more on the other side. 

While the Commissioners were depending in part on pier construc- 
tion of this kind, they were also trying other methods. One of the 
earliest and simplest was to collect brush in great quantities, and pile 
it on the shore in the face of advancing waves. Afterward stones 
were piled on the brush, and as they were tossed about like feathers 
m a gale, a new scheme of brush protection was invented Acres of 
willow marshes along the Desplaines River and other near-by points 
were robbed of their bushes, which were tied in bundles 6 inches thick 
and 4 or 5 feet long, and stakes driven through then, into the yield- 
ing sand, after which they were pinned down. This experiment was 
first tried north from the first pier to Diversey Street, making a solid 
floor of brush from I 5 to 20 feet above the water-line into the water. 
For a time, in mild weather, the brush seemed effective, and the 
Superintendent made glowing predictions while extending it along 
the shore between piers. Put the first severe storm of winter gave 
the brush protection a harder test than it could stand, ripping up the 
bundles as if they were so much paper, and leaving them floating 
harmlessly and uselessly on the water. Poxes with a wide base, nar- 
rowing toward the top, were stretched along the shore between the 
piers and filled with sand, ranging in price from 65 cents to 82.25 
a foot, according to the size and the strength of material used. Some 

6 4 


of these were put in during the winter of 1870, and some other schemes 
were experimented with, of which no records remain. In their first 
annual report to the City Council, made in April, 187 1, the Commis- 
sioners refer in the following terms to their efforts to protect the shore: 

" Various plans have been tested with reasonable success, and the Commissioners 
believe that with the experience of the past season the work can be prosecuted during 
the coming summer so as to afford a secure and permanent protection to the Park 
proper from the further encroachment of the lake." 

Little reason for this official hope was to develop, but during the 
following year or two, thousands of bundles of brush were used, and 
the construction of piers and sand-boxes was continued. The boxes, 
like the piers, gradually sank through the sand till out of sight, unless 
they were first smashed in pieces by the waves. While storms were 
raging, the Park employes frequently improved upon Mrs. Partington's 
example by putting loose brush and bark along the shore, and the 
Superintendent's diary occasionally recorded the fact that such protec- 
tion was effectual. 

Another form of protection was to lay oak slabs along the shore 
and weight them down with stone, but any storm was likely to hurl 
both stone and lumber clear across the drive. In 1875 a more sub- 
stantial form of protection was adopted for the line of the Pine Street 
Drive from North Avenue to Oak Street, a breakwater constructed as 
follows: A close row of piling on the outside driven to the clay; five 
feet inside of this a row of piles four feet apart, to which rows of hor- 
izontal plank sheeting were nailed from a few feet below the water 
line to the grade of the proposed drive; the two rows of piling 
anchored together by tie rods, and the space between filled with stone 
and brush. Over goo feet of this breakwater was constructed in this 
year at $19 a foot, and in 1874 the remaining 3,000 feet was built 
for $13.73 a foot. While this breakwater was an improvement on the 
character of the shore protection in the Park proper, and stood with- 
out sinking out of sight or being broken by storms until the construc- 

tion of the sea wall in 18S6, it had one fatal defect. It was neither 
water-tight nor sand-tight, and the lake washed through and washed 
back again, carrying out the filling inside the breakwater almost as 
fast as it could be put in, in spite of all expedients which could be 

In 1873 and 1874 the Commissioners still relied on the use of 
boxes in the Park proper, although the temporary character of such a 
protection was fully recognized. In May, 1874, a damage of over 
S 1,000 to the Shore Drive by storms was reported. More boxes were 
the specific prescribed, but in July bids were secured for the construc- 
tion of a breakwater 700 feet out from the shore, running the entire 
length of the Park. Notice of the plan was given to the city authori- 
ties, who raised the objection that the city sewerage system might be 
interfered with; and partly for fear of litigation and partly because of 
the expense of the undertaking, the plan was abandoned. Later in 
the year, bids were asked for driving a single row of piles along the 
shore which would be guaranteed to keep the drive from washing, but 
nothing came of the plan. In 1875 breakwaters of slabs were con- 
structed at an average cost of two dollars a foot, and in 1876 a hundred 
feet of shore protection was built on a plan just adopted at Jackson 
Park; but as storms beat with greater force on Lincoln Park than on 
Jackson Park, which is protected by the government breakwater, that 
example was not found a safe one to follow. 

From July to September, 1876, seven piers were repaired and 
raised, leaving three more to repair. Old boxes were repaired and 
filled, 1,480 feet of new boxes were made, and great quantities of stone 
filling and brush used in shore protection, and the Shore Drive was 
narrowed to fifty feet; yet in the following April it was reported that 
"at present the entire line of the Lake Shore Drive is in ruins, and 
unsafe and unsightly, and every storm increases the work of devasta- 

At this time over $40,000 had been expended in temporary make- 

^m^m^m^^^^ ^^MMI^^^K K^^^^^^^ 

-Qtc\v\^s Kc\\aTx\~a\w- ^acpa^X 



shifts, and the Commissioners decided to start over ao-ain. An 
engineer was employed to report on the question of shore protection, 
and he examined twenty-six different suggestions or plans which had 
been previously submitted to the Board, besides investigating the sys- 
tems of shore protection on the Fox River, on Lake Michigan at Mil- 
waukee, and on the Atlantic Ocean at Plymouth and Provincetown. 
The first result of his inquiry was, that at the meeting of April 24, 
1877, the Commissioners .finally decided by formal resolution to use 
no more boxes for shore protection. The engineer in his report dis- 
cussed the devices submitted to him, which ranged in price from 
iSl.80 to S3 2 a running foot, dividing them into classes. There were 
plans for solid crib-work sunk along the shore, for pile piers filled 
with brush and stone, brush or fascine mattresses weighted with stone, 
after the system in use on the dikes of Holland, sheet piling driven 
edge to edge, and many others. One suggestion advanced by the 
engineer was to obtain roots of sea-grass, growing in the sand of the 
Atlantic coast, where it was a great protection to the shore, and plant 
them here. But the Commissioners, for their first experiment, 
adopted a plan for a breakwater of piling, brush, and stone, 350 feet 
long, which was put in between the second and third piers south of 
Diversey Avenue. Its remains are still visible, and are shown on the 
Park map, page 98. The piles were driven three feet apart, mattresses 
of brush closely woven together were laid between the piles and fas- 
tened to them, and then they were weighted down with stone. The 
piles still stand, but the brush and stone, though the breakwater was 
several times refilled, long ago sank out of sight under the sand, to 
effectually prove the inutility of that class of protection. 

Soon after this the Commissioners became impressed with the 
belief that the system of shore protection which had worked so well 
in the Netherlands could not but succeed on Lake Michigan, and 
entered into contracts for the construction of a breakwater, or dike, 
of brush and stone. While the plan was under discussion, a specimen 

section of the breakwater was built, and a committee of citizens pro- 
tested against its use, on the ground that it could afford no permanent 
protection, and proposed the building of an outer breakwater 700 or 
800 feet from the shore. The Commissioners rejected the plan for 
an outer breakwater, a good likeness of the one the Board had 
advanced in 1874, because of the alleged question of their right to 
expend money at such a distance from the shore, or to control the 
breakwater after building it, because there was no way of raising 
money for it, and because it would detract from the beauty of the 
Park. To clinch the matter, they adopted a resolution declaring the 
Netherlands plan the best yet known. In March, 1878, the first con- 
tract for such a breakwater, on the following plan, was entered into. 
Thick mattresses of brush were laid in tiers, 26 feet wide at the bot- 
tom, 12 feet wide on top, in shallow water, 175 feet cast of the line of 
the drive, and heavily weighted down with stone. Work was begun at 
a point near the third pier, and continued south during that and the 
three following seasons for a distance of about 6,000 feet, at a cost of 
nearly S6o,ooo. While considerable sums were spent for filling in 
west of the breakwater, the south end of this protection had hardly 
been completed when the northern and older sections began to disin- 
tegrate. When the water was low the brush rotted, and in heavy 
storms the sand was sucked out from under the brush and stone, 
which constantly sank lower, until in a short time the waves rushed 
over the break and the filling behind it was taken out. Of all systems 
of shore protection in Lincoln Park, the Holland plan was probably the 
most valueless and least permanent in comparison with its cost. 
While undoubtedly a success in the Netherlands, it was constructed 
there on a firm foundation of clay, not on the treacherous and shifting 

In 1885 the remains of the brush and stone breakwater were totally 
inadequate for the protection of the drive, which was cut away to 
some extent almost its entire length by very heavy storms. A sec- 


eJ^ORTH ox .North Av EN U E c-9 

\Torm Uvhpp^V -^'5 ^ IPQ8. 

I 1 -J 



tion several hundred feet long in that part of the drive along the old 
Farewell tract was washed completely away, and a small lake formed 
in the ball-grounds. At this time a contractor who drove piling near 
the shore to construct a settling basin for the water-pumping plant 
went through the remains of three different systems of shore protec- 
tion— the Holland brush mattresses and riprap, the boxes, which were 
"of triangular section, filled with gravel, and resting on the bottom of 
the lake," and one other which was indescribable. 

In 1886 the advice of Government engineers and the best engineer- 
ing talent available was sought, with the result that after long consid- 
eration two elaborate schemes of shore protection were adopted. The 
first to be carried out was the construction of the sea-wall along the 
Pine Street Drive, from Burton Place to Bellevue Place, a distance 
of 2,890 feet. After the plan, first proposed by General Fitz-Simons, 
had been thoroughly considered and revised by United States 
Engineer Major Handbury, it was adopted, and the construction was 
begun in May, 1886. The two rows of piles in the old breakwater, 
which were rotting where exposed to air, were cut off a few inches 
below the surface of the water, the tops were decked with heavy 
planking, and massive concrete blocks weighing fifteen tons each were 
made and set on top of it. It was believed that this construction was 
as solid as the hills and would stand forever, but within two years 
the piling showed signs of weakening under the heavy load, and thou- 
sands of tons of stone were dumped outside to strengthen it. For 
some years the sea-wall stood and added to the beauty of the splendid 
drive; and it might to-day be comparatively firm and unyielding as it 
was at the time of its erection twelve years ago, if it had not been for 
the unforeseen calamity of a fall of a foot or more in the level of the 
lake. The result was, that the top of the piling was again exposed to 
the air and began to rot, and in the severe storms of October, 1S98, 
a section of the wall gave way. 

The idea of building a breakwater which would be a permanent 

protection, and constructing it so far out in the lake that a large addi- 
tion could be made to the area of the Park, was formed at this time- 
but ,t was necessary first to make some temporary protection for the 
dnve, and in November, 1886, 1,000 feet of "A" breakwater was 
ordered, where needed, north of North Avenue. This breakwater 
consisted of a close row of plank sheeting driven into the bed of the 
lake in a slanting direction, fastened at the top to beams running 
transversely, and braced by occasional posts leaning in the other direc- 
tion. In the following year this protection was extended north of 
Fullerton Avenue, where some 1,500 feet of it still stands, though less 
than half of it is now exposed to the action of the lake. The highest 
cost was S2.90 per running foot. It was first invented and used in 
Lincoln Park, and served its purpose admirably. 

A still more elaborate protection than the' sea-wall was the con- 
struction of the breakwater from North Avenue to Fullerton Avenue 
with its paved beach, parapet, driveway, lagoon, and lawn improve- 
ment, which added sixty acres to the area of Lincoln Park. 

Preliminary to this improvement, and at the same time that work- 
on the sea-wall was begun from Bellevue Place northward, the Com- 
missioners decided upon a permanent breakwater in front of the Park, 
an average distance of 300 feet from the shore. From Burton Place! 
which was to be the northern terminus of the sea-wall, 901 feet of high 
breakwater was constructed on a line curving lakeward to North Ave- 
nue, consisting of a double row of 25-foot piles, 6 feet apart, 6 feet 
above low-water mark, and filled in between with bark and stone. 
From the line of North Avenue extended into the lake 300 feet to 
meet the high breakwater, a low breakwater of similar construction, 
but with the piles cut off near the water's edge, was constructed along 
a line parallel with the shore, 1,000 feet being completed this season. 
In 18S7, 2,000 more feet of piling was driven, but not completed. 
In the following year a large part of this breakwater was seriously 
damaged by storms, and had to be rebuilt. Although carefully con- 


structed in accordance with the plans, it was found that the break- 
water was not sand-tight, and would not hold the filling behind it. More 
thorough work was needed, and the Wakefield sheeting was adopted 
and driven, throughout the rest of the breakwater, against the land- 
ward side of the piling. This sheeting consists of three rows of heavy 
planks, driven into the clay as closely together as possible, and so as 
to break joints. Where it is properly driven, and is not exposed to 
the air, it is believed by many competent engineers that it will remain 
for years as a complete protection against the lake. With the filling 
behind the breakwater protected in this manner from being washed 
through it, it was only necessary to prevent the lake from washing out 
filling over the breakwater, and this was done by laying a sloping 
paved beach of granite blocks from the outer row of piling to a line 
48 feet back from and 7 feet 6 inches higher than the top of the 
piling. Laid in water-tight cement, and with the Wakefield sheeting 
properly driven, as the part of the work from the inlet 2,000 feet 
north of North Avenue to Fullerton Avenue was done, this protection 
has so far proved permanent. The breakwater has stood firm against 
the shock of the waves, and retained the filling, while tons upon tons 
of water, which have been hurled upon the paved beach by winter 
storms, have rolled harmlessly back. 

From North Avenue to the inlet, which part of the work was con- 
structed before the adoption of the Wakefield sheeting, there has been 
a more or less continual filtering of the sand filling under the paved 
beach out through the breakwater, with the result that a force of the 
waves pounding on the paved beach would break it down completely. 
Several times since the beach was constructed, extensive repairs 
have been necessary, and last fall the beach was destroyed again, 
hardly two paving-stones in its entire extent remaining together. Last 
summer work was begun on the only lines which offered a practical 
and permanent solution of the difficulty, that of dredging out the stone 
riprap, which had in previous years been deposited along the break- 

water to increase its strength, and driving down new piling, protected 
by Wakefield sheeting. When this work is completed, the filling 
under the paved beach and the paved beach can be restored, 
with reasonable assurance that the next storm will not destroy the 

This combined paved beach and breakwater, which for three-fifths 
of its extent has proved an effectual protection against the lake, was 
constructed under the plans and superintendence of Major William 
L. Marshall, a government engineer of high standing, stationed in 
Chicago. The same protection was adopted along the Ohio Street 
Extension of the Lake Shore Drive, while on the North Shore Drive 
a breakwater protected by Wakefield sheeting, but without the paved 
beach, was constructed. 

One of the numerous suggestions made in past years for the 
protection of the shore, which the Commissioners did not see fit to 
follow out, was to plant willow trees along the water-line. In the 
recent troubles caused by the weakening of the sea-wall, it became 
evident that fertility of resource and invention was not lost, for many 
unique propositions were made for the preservation of the sea-wall and 
paved beach. One of the most notable was the suggestion that in 
time of storm oil should be spread on the lake along the threat- 
ened structures, that the waves might be calmed and cease from 

One experiment tried by the Commissioners many years ago was 
the purchase of an abandoned scow, which was towed near the shore 
line and anchored. It long since sank from view in the sand, like 
many other early forms of protection, and was encountered during 
the driving of piles for the present breakwater near North Avenue. 

In 1894 the pier at the foot of Fullerton Avenue, where the Sani- 
tarium stood, was extended 480 feet into the lake, to a point opposite 
the end of the paved beach work, to form a protection for the lagoon 
and a more secluded harbor for yachts; while from the extremity of 


this pier a breakwater was built at right angles to it, extending 170 
feet north. In the pocket formed by this protection the waves washed 
up sand rapidly, and the two acres of sand beach had accumulated by 
the following year for the benefit of bathers. The Commissioners in 
the following year called for bids for the extension of the breakwater 
to Diversey Boulevard, at a point 1,200 feet east of the present shore 
line there, with the object of reclaiming forty more acres of land, 
and extending the lagoon until a mile course could be secured; but 
funds for the enterprise could not be obtained, and the project had to 
be abandoned for the time. 

In 1897 the land east of Lake View Avenue south of Belmont Ave- 
nue was washed away by the lake, until the line of the boulevard was 
threatened, and 175 feet of piling and sheeting were driven on the line 
of the drive. In the following year this protection had to be extended 
143 feet farther south, where it met a row of sheet piling put in years 
before by private land-owners. 


Following is a summary of the cost of shore protection along the 
Park front, to which are added the cost of improving reclaimed°land 
and of protecting the shore line of Park boulevards: 

Breakwater . „ 

Dredging and filling.... ; ^6a£?J 

Cement.. — " So.819.10 

pj ers 10,004.07 

Brush . ._ 12,49900 

Lumber - . fiiP' 25 

Labor and sundry supplies ... " 113 971 24 

Filling and improving reclaimed land west of paved beach ^osSood 

Breakwater and sea-wall, Pine Street Drive .... ,« r 3 ?"? 4 

Breakwater on North Shore Drive 109,538.82 

Oak Street breakwater.. 124,965.96 

Belmont Avenue breakwater 6,170.00 

Interest on shore protection bonds.. 3.34445 



Sl,2II,2 3 =.I5 


|\l e w Boa.t House 

\-n I'll a iislo-nce. 
l_i NCOLM - 


The Lake Shore Drive from North Avenue to Oak Street, for 
years called the "Pine Street Drive," was provided for in the original 
Park Act, which gave the Commissioners authority to construct a 
boulevard 200 feet wide from the Park to Pine Street, which then 
extended as far north as Oak Street only. The Park Act and subse- 
quent amendments authorized a special assessment on property bene- 
fited for the purchase of a right of way, and provided that the land to 
be taken should be appraised in the same manner as the land to be 
purchased for Park purposes. At the second meeting of the Commis- 
sioners an order was passed for the appraisal of the land and the 
preparation of an assessment roll, but the lack of funds compelled 
delay, the first assessment roll was destroyed in the great fire, and a 
new one had to be made. The first assessment was defeated in the 
courts, and although an assessment for Si 00,000 was finally confirmed, 
the money did not begin to come into the Park treasury until 1875.' 
By this time the improvement was well under way. The act provided 
that the shore line of Lake Michigan should be the east line of the 
drive, but as that line was exceedingly crooked, some variations were 
necessary; and with a view to securing the right of way more cheaply, 
the drive was laid out through water for its entire extent, except for 
a few feet at Oak Street. At North Avenue the east line of the drive 
was 300 feet east of the shore line. The first deeds for the right of 
way were secured in August, 1873; the construction of the breakwater 
which marked the east line of the drive was begun the same month, 
and 9 oo feet had been completed, when, on March 7, 1874, an order 
was passed for the construction of the drive, and the assessment for the 
purchase of the right of way, for which assessment the authority of 
the north town officials was given on March 28. By the time the 
assessment roll had been confirmed the breakwater was completed 

north to North Avenue, and the west 60 feet of the drive had been 
filled m for a roadway. Over 140,000 cubic yards of fillincr was 
required for this narrow roadway, and the amount required to com- 
plete the filling to the breakwater was estimated at over 400 000 
yards. Large quantities of filling were dredged from the bed of' the 
lake outside the breakwater, and thrown over it; but much of the filling 
for the ongmal roadway was taken from the north end of the cemetery 
tract, where the South Pond had been marked out, and some of it from 
the excavat.on for the new court-house building at Clark and Wash- 
ington streets. During 1875 trees were planted on either side of the 
roadway, and the roadway itself completed on November 8, 1875 
Two days earlier, however, on Saturday, November 6, without waiting 
for the finishing touches, the drive was formally opened and dedicated 
to the use of the public, with interesting ceremony. City officials 
Park Commissioners, and other prominent citizens rode in a dozen 
carriages from the offices of the Commissioners, in the Ashland Block 
to the beginning of the new drive at Oak Street, and on along the 
new boulevard into the Park, and to the refectory, which stood near 
the site of the present refectory opposite Center Street, where a 
banquet was spread for the enjoyment of the prominent citizens, and 
speeches were made, F. H. Winston, President of the Commis- 
sioners, presiding. An account of the proceedings in the Tribune 
of the following day declared that the drive appeared to excellent 

"Large bodies of workmen were engaged planting trees on the 
flanks of the boulevard, and everything around the drive and Lincoln 
Park presented an artistic and animated appearance." 

In the following year the spaces between the roadway and the 
breakwater were filled and planted with grass and trees; but the work 



of making and preserving a lawn was carried on at disadvantage for 
some years, because of the almost constant loss of filling back of the 
breakwater, by its washing out from the action of the lake The 
breakwater itself had been refilled in l8 74 with stone and fascines 
made necessary by the settling of the original filling. In i 875 estimates' 
showed that yards, dredged and thrown over the breakwater 
the year before, had been sucked out by the lake. The Commis- 
sioners had not only to protect and refill the drive along its entire 
extent, from year to year, but on several occasions were oblio-ed to 
extend the protection south from Oak Street, because the lake had a 
habit of washing around the end of the breakwater and sweeping over 
Pine Street, south of Oak Street, and washing it away. In 187; the 
breakwater was extended to Walton Place, and a box pier erected there 
The construction of the drive and breakwater left laro- e ponds of 
stagnant water west of it, and in 1877 vigorous protests were made by 
the Citizens' Union against the "nuisance" between North Avenue 
and Oak Street. Measurements and soundings, taken in that year by 
the Park engineer, show that over seven acres of land between North 
Avenue and Schiller Street was covered with 7,600,000 gallons and 
that 40,000 yards of filling was required. There was another pond two 
acres in extent, between Schiller and Division streets, and another two 
and one-half acres in extent between Division and Oak streets the 
water ,n all of them being in places over six feet deep. In spite of 
the protests, the ponds remained until 1882, before they were filled up 
by their owners; and in that year there was a serious break in the 
piling north of Oak Street, the result of dredging sand too near the 
breakwater, and several hundred feet of the drive itself were under water 
After the construction of the sea-wall, from 1S86 to 1888 the drive 
was refilled to grade from the breakwater to its west line, a large 
amount of filling being necessary. A wooden sidewalk was con- 
structed the sea-wall for its entire extent, and the rest of the 
new-made land improved in lawns. The piling under the sea-wall 

had been lined with great quantities of cedar bark, held in place by 
thousands of tons of stone, and it was believed no more filling would 
be l^t but the result sadly disappointed such hopeful anticipations 

Of the first cost of the improvement only $90,000 was borne by 
the property owners benefited, and of this assessment two-thirds was 
used for the purchase of the right of way through the lake. In 1884 
the property owners along the drive paid a voluntary assessment 
amounting to $ l6 ,ooo to defray the cost of laying a stone sidewalk- 
ten feet wide along the west line of the drive, laying out a grass plat 
east f the sidewalk, and moving the roadway twenty feet farther east 
With these exceptions, the entire cost of the drive and its maintenance 
to the present day has been borne by the tax-payers of North Chicago 

Attempts were made by the Commissioners in 1896 and 1897 to 
levy an assessment on property fronting the drive for the reconstruc- 
tion of the pavement. But many of the property owners, in surren- 
dering the.r riparian rights and deeding land for the right of way of 
the drive, had stipulated that it should be maintained forever without 
cost to them, and because of their bitter opposition the attempt to 
levy the assessment was defeated. 

Of the total disbursements for the construction and maintenance 
of the drive to date, $418,640.57, the sum of $89,818.85 was realized 
from the special assessment for the right of way, $16,963 paid by the 
property owners as a voluntary contribution for certain improve- 
ments, and the rest, $311,858.72, was appropriated from the general 
fund. Following is a summary of the disbursements: 

Original breakwater- -. Q 

Supplies for breakwater repairs-!: "" 5 ''!,^5 

High breakwater, Burton Place to North Avenue--":: " 16867'w 

bea-wall _ - ' u,ou 'o° 

Sea-wall repairs-.::: '" 8 S%? 2 

Dredging and filling " oi',o,'$? 

Right of way. " 86.781.65 



- 13,344.66 

- 74,312.22 

Roadbed - 

Stone sidewalks . - - 

Labor and sundry supplies. 



The zoological collection of Lin- 
coln Park is one of its most venerable 
institutions, dating from the summer 
of 1868, when two pairs of swans 
from Central Park, New York, were 
placed on one of the small ponds, 
where they and their progeny thrived 
and multiplied for years. In the following year, according 
to the report of the Board of Public Works, numerous rare 
and interesting animals were donated to the Park, and on 
July 1, 1873, when the care of the improved part of Lincoln 
Park was transferred from the city to the Commissioners, 
an inventory of the assets of the department showed the fol- 
lowing animals and birds: 

2 Buffaloes. 
8 Peacocks. 

2 Elks. 
12 Ducks. 

13 Swans. 
6 Wild geese 

2 China geese. 
4 Guinea pigs. 

2 Prairie dogs. 

3 Foxes. 

3 Wolves. 
2 Rabbits. 
2 Turtle-doves. 
5 Deer. 

1 Bear. 

2 Squirrels. 

1 Catamount. 
4 Eagles. 

1 Owl. 

Up to that time the records had shown no expenditure for the purchase 
animals, and under the rule of the Commissioners it was many years before 
any considerable amount was paid for additions. Donations of greater or less 
value were frequently made, and all that devolved upon the Park was to pay 
e freight or express charges when the gifts came from a distance. The first 
item of this character was the payment of $9.85 on March 4, 1874, the freight 
charge on an elk. The first animal bought for the Park was a bear cub, which 
entered the collection on June 1, 1874, in exchange for JSio. 

In 1874 a number of animals from a traveling- circus 
were loaned to the Park for their care, including the first 
lion that ever took up its residence in Lincoln Park; and 
the second purchase of animals made by the Commis- 
sioners was that of a part of this collection, in March 
1877, when two bears, two peafowl, a kangaroo, a condor, 
and a goat were bought for S275. 

While constantly indebted to the owners of pet ani- 
mals for additions to their collection, the Commissioners 
were not always the recipients of gifts, for from their surplus stock of 
birds, swans, wild geese, and ducks were frequently given to other parks 
and public institutions in Chicago and elsewhere, the first such donation 
recorded being that of a pair of swans and a pair of geese given to the 
West Chicago Park Commissioners for "Central," now Garfield Park, in 
1874. In 1875 tne city offered to present the animal collection in Union 
Park, including some wolves and eagles, to Lincoln Park, but the gift was 
declined because of lack of accommodations. 

In 1877 the deer-paddock was enlarged to include the southern half 
of the present floral garden; and in that year the Superintendent recom- 
mended the improvement of the animal quarters, and reported that a 
society could be formed to take care of the animals, put up buildings, and increase the 
collection for the privilege of charging a small admission fee, to be divided with the Com- 
missioners. In 187S a definite proposal of that kind was made by the owners of a collection 
of tropical animals valued at Si 8,000, but the Commissioners laid down the rule, which 
has always been adhered to, that whatever the animal collection in Lincoln Park might be, 
it should always be free to the public. 

In 1878 some fears were entertained that the wooden cage in which the only bear in 
the collection was imprisoned was too insecure for safety, and the construction of the bear- 
pits was begun in November, and practically completed in the following spring, according to 
the belief of the architect. The bear was then turned into its new quarters, and in no long 
time other bears were there to keep him company; but it was soon found that the chief and original ob- 
ject of the construction of the pits — security — had not been obtained. The bears became expert at climbing 


up the rough, rocky sides of their dens, and in 
time it was their almost nightly practice to 
escape and roam around the Park. They were 
sometimes found in the trees about the Park, and 
sometimes in winter out on the ice of the lake, 
headed for the Michigan shore, and they had to 
be corralled, coaxed, and cajoled by the entire 
force of Park employes to return to their official 

One of them struck out for the business center, and was gettino- 
along nicely until, in clambering over a ridge at the south end of the 
Mall, it fell through the top of an old cemetery vault, and was kept a 
prisoner there until its recapture. Another, a grizzly, wandered down 
the Pine Street Drive, and took refuge from pursuers in a tall elm 
tree near Oak Street. A Park policeman, who had brought up the 
rear of the chase, was stationed at the foot of the tree to keep the 
bear from coming down until the next morning, and there is a tradi- 
tion, though it cannot be verified, that he resigned his position on the 
spot. There is no record or recollection of any damage to persons or 
to property, except to the flower-beds, from these excursions; but in 
18S0 it was thought best to curb the roving inclinations of the bears 
by fastening curved iron bars near the top of the dens, and since then 
the bears have been kept securely at home. In 1879, 1880, and 188 1 
the wolf and fox dens, prairie-dog pit, coon cage, otter pit, squirrel 
cages, sparrow cages, and sea-lion pits were constructed, and room 
for a considerable increase in the animal collection thereby provided. 

From the first of this period investments in animals became more 
frequent, one of the most important purchases being that of a pair of 
sea-lions in December, 1879. The propagation of sea-lions being a 
new enterprise, one of the Commissioners and the Superintendent 
were sent on a mission to Cincinnati to secure the necessary instruc- 

In October, 1 88 1, a number of citizens exercised the right of peti- 
tion to express their approval and appreciation of the exhibition of 
wild animals and birds in the Park, and their regret at-hearing that 
some of the animals had been sold and removed, and they requested 
that no more sales be made, but that the stock be increased, and par- 
ticularly that two African lions, then in the Park as a loan exhibit, be 
purchased. In 1882 the buffaloes tired of captivity and died, and 
another pair were imported from the Western plains to take their 
places. Two years later the buffalo collection was enlarged by the 



first buffalo ever born in the Park, and also, as was con- 
fidently claimed at the time, the first buffalo ever born 
in captivity. In 1884 a pair of polar bears were pur- 
chased, and they still live to testify their appreciation 
of the healthful climate of Chicago. In the follow- 
ing year the West Park Commissioners decided to go 
out of the animal business, and a bear and some eagles 
were brought from Union Park. It was not until 1888 
that the South Park Commissioners retired from 
competition and donated their collection to Lincoln 

In 1880 the deer were crowded out of their pad- 
dock in the floral garden, and part of the space now 
occupied by the buffalo and elk herds was enclosed 
and divided between them. In 1884 increases in the 

herds made it necessary to enlarge their quarters, and a small wooden house was 
built for the buffalo. 

In 1887, with the construction of the new brick pumping station, the old frame 
building was moved into the buffalo-yard to provide larger quarters for the growing- 
herd, and the old buffalo-house assigned to the elks. 

In 1888 a fine royal Bengal tiger was left with the Park by a showman for its keeping. 
There was no room or safe place for it in the animal-house, and winter quarters were provided 
for it in an annex to the greenhouse. This necessity called attention anew to the increase in 
the size of the animal collection, and in its value as a public attraction, and in 1SS9 the brick 
and stone animal-house still in use as the winter quarters for tropical animals, was constructed. 
The old animal-house, which had dated from 1870, being reduced from its proud estate, was 
sold, and has since served as a bathing pavilion north of Diversey Boulevard. 

In this year also a pair of tigers, a camel, a llama, a lion, an elephant, a zebu, an ibex, a 
bear, and a pair of leopards were bought from Barnum & Bailey for S3, 000. 

For several years it was customary when taking the elephant "Duchess" from the animal- 
house to her summer quarters, near the buffalo-yard, to drive her with a free rein, with the 
assistance of an elephant-hook. On one occasion, in 1S91, however, the "Duchess" 



a fancy for a longer excursion, and started on a jaunt westward 
through and over the channel, across the flower-beds, to the serious 
damage thereof, and through and over fences, yards, and buildings. 
A summer-house on North Park Avenue was carried away on her 
shoulders, the gate of a near-by brewery torn from its hinges, and 
other expensive pranks committed before the "Duchess" at last 
allowed herself to be caught with a rope and lassoed to a telegraph 
pole until her good nature returned. She was finally restored to her 
quarters in the Park, and ever since she has been led to and fro on 
her short and infrequent rambles by a stout iron cable securely fas- 
tened around one of her ponderous feet. 

Another purchase in 1SS9 was that of a cargo of eighteen sea-lions, 
which were imported from the Pacific Coast, and installed in a large 
pit, which was being prepared for their reception. The iron fence 
surrounding it was not finished, and some of the lions broke out. 
Two of them waddled across the Park, across Clark Street, and into a 
restaurant, where they occasioned much excitement, the employes 
taking to the tables in undisguised alarm. These and others, which 
were content to roam about the Park, were driven back to their pond, 
but one which had sniffed Lake Michigan made straight for it and 
plunged in. It was heard of later off the Milwaukee coast, but never 
came back to Lincoln Park. Its departure, the sale of some of the 
cargo, and the deaths within a year or two of the rest, caused great 
delight to the residents of North Park Avenue, fronting the Park, 
whose interest in natural history had not been strong enough to 
make them submit amiably to being kept awake at nights. In 1S90 
they had submitted a petition for the removal of the sea-lions, wolves, 
and foxes, and the petition was subsequently granted as far as the 
sea-lions were concerned, in the manner stated. 

No further important purchases of animals were made, except that 
of a buffalo bull, for S500, in 1891, to replace "Bill," the old buffalo 
that died that year, until in 1896 a Bengal tiger, a pair of hyenas, 

8 4 


thirteen mon- 
keys, and some 
birds were pur- 
chased for 352,- 

ooo. This was 
the first time 
the mo n ke y 
f a m i 1 v h a d 
been repre- 
sented in the 
Park collec- 
tion, and an 
enclosed glass cage specially ventilated was constructed for them in 
the animal-house. During this year the buffalo herd was depleted by 
the sale of two buffaloes and ten cows for $3,500. 

In 1S94 the question of building a much larger animal-house, 
combined with an aquarium, was considered by the Commissioners,' 
and plans for a structure whose estimated cost was £75,000 were 
adopted. The price proved to be prohibitive, however, and the pur- 
chase of the plans was as far as the investment went. In 1X95 the 
eagle-cage was erected, and no further extensions were made in the 
department until those recorded in the report of the year just closed. 
In view of the number of dangerous animals in the collection, and 

tne fact that for a number of years the tropical animals were moved 
from then- summer to their winter quarters and back again every spring 
and fall m a small wooden cage, the care of the collection has been 
singularly free from accidents. In 1S91 a workman was gored in the 
hand by a deer, which was killed in being driven from its victim In 
1893 a man was bitten by a wolf which had jumped out of its den but 
was recaptured. In 1897 a hyena broke out of its den, and was 
responsible for many cases of fright, but for no injury, until it was 
killed some time later near Altenheim. 

The total amount paid for 
animals during the entire 
period ending March 31, 
1899, was 517,019. 80, while 
88,656.82 was realized by the 
sale of surplus stock. The 
following is a summary of 
the expenditures of the de- 

Animals -. $17,019.80 

and en- 
closures- 45,508.10 

Feed 64, 739.84 

Labor and 

supplies 79,657.67 

8206,029.4 1 



No provision was ever. made by the city during its control 
of the old Park forthe planting of flowers. The problem of 
raising grass on the sandy soil of the original Lincoln Park 
was sufficiently difficult without the introduction of any purely 
decorative feature. The first expenditure ever made for floral 
decoration in Lincoln Park was authorized in June, 1874, by 
the appropriation of $100 for the purchase of flowers and 
plants. On October 27 the first gardener was appointed, and 
in November S500 was appropriated to build and stock a 
greenhouse. This modest prototype of the splendid conser- 
vatories of to-day was built in an out-of-the-way and unim- 
proved section of the Park, near the present site of the 
engine-house, and was little more than a few hot-beds made of 
window-sashes. In the two years following small flower-beds 
were planted in different parts of the Park and along the Pine 
Street Drive; but in 1877 the Commissioners concluded that a 
more striking effect could be obtained by massing the flower- 
beds together. The plan offered the additional advantage of 
making it easier for the limited police force to protect the 
flowers from souvenir collectors. The northern half of the 
grounds now devoted to the floral garden was set apart for 
that purpose in 1877, and four greenhouses sixty feet long 
were built just south of the site of the present palm-house. 
So great was the popularity of the floral garden, that in the 
following year extensions were built to the greenhouses, and 
in October a large quantity of bulbs were imported from 
Holland. A few months later the head gardener went to 
Washington and secured a number of choice plants from 



the Smithsonian Institution. In 1S79 a considerable extension was 
built to the greenhouses for the exhibition of palms and other tropical 
plants. The growth of the collection of flowers and plants, and the 
evident interest of the public in the outdoor decorations, made fre- 
quent extensions to the greenhouses necessary. In 1879 over 100,000 
plants were set out in the Park, and in 18S1 the deer-paddock, which 
occupied the southern half of the flower-garden, extending west to 
the Stockton Drive, was added to the space devoted to floral display. 
In this year several greenhouses were blown down in a severe storm. 
In 1889 an unused ravine was transformed into a lily-pond, artificially 
heated for the growth of exotic water-lilies, and so popular was the 
innovation that in the following year two more lilv-ponds were con- 
structed north of the Ramble Drive. The fame of the rich growth of 
tropical lilies in these ponds has spread far beyond the limits of Chi- 
cago, and in 1897 a request came to the Commissioners from the 
financial adviser of the Khedive of Egypt for seeds of the Lincoln 
Park lilies, some of which had been imported from Egypt. By 1889 
the floral department had grown to such proportions, and the old 

greenhouses with their rambling additions were so poorly fitted for 
the display of the floral life of the Park and the convenience of 
visitors, that the Commissioners determined upon extensive improve- 
ments. Plans were prepared for the construction of the present palm- 
house, conservatories, fernery, and propagating house, and work was 
begun on the propagating house at once. It was finished in 1890, the 
palm-house was completed in 1S92, and the fernery in 1895, tne t° taI 
cost of their construction being over Si 00,000. Stocked with rare 
plants, and constantly supplied with flowers blooming in their season, 
they form a continual attraction for hosts of admiring visitors. A 
quarter of a million plants are needed annually for outdoor decoration 
in the Park; the extensive propagating houses built in 1890 are already 
insufficient to supply the demand, and their reconstruction and 
enlargement are now under way. 

Carl J. Stromback, the head gardener, who was first employed in 
Lincoln Park in 1870, has had entire charge of the floral department 
for many years. The total expenditures in the department to March 
31, 1899, wer e $372,445.88. 

&_\\&. KonaVe-r 



The gray-coated officers of the Lincoln Park police 
force, who preserve order in the Park and on the boule- 
vards, make a picturesque as well as a necessary institution, 
which has grown with the growth of the Park. For the 
first three years of their rule, the Commissioners relied upon 
the city police for what protection might be necessary on 
the Lake Shore Drive and elsewhere outside of the old Park. 
It was not until August 2, 1872, that the Park force was 
organized, with a sergeant and three officers. When con- 
trol of the old Park was relinquished in 1873 by the city, the Park force was increased to 
seven men. For a number of years there was small need of policemen in the winter months, 
and to keep the force intact and save useless expense, the officers were allowed to lay aside 
their uniforms and serve the Park in the winter as carpenters. With the growth of the Park and 
the extension of Park control to many boulevards, additions to the force have from time to time been 
necessary, and under the present administration it has varied from twenty-three men in the winter 
months to twenty : six men in the summer, a third of the men being stationed on the boulevards. 

Owing to the uniform good behavior of visitors to the Park, the duties of the officers in the matter 
of making arrests for violations of Park ordinances are not burdensome, the total number of arrests in 
the fiscal year just closed being 132. 

Bicycles having become an established and recognized institution, half of the officers, including 
nearly all those stationed on the boulevards, patrol their respective beats on wheels. 

The Park police are under the immediate supervision of Captain Richard DeShon, who entered the 
service in August, 1873, and has been in the department continuously since that time, except for 
one period of four years. Among the important duties of the members of the force are those of assist- 
ing visitors to the Park to find their various destinations, protecting flowers, birds, and squirrels from 
the assaults of small boys, regulating the speed of bicycles on the boulevards and drives, and 
looking after the interests of lost babies. 

The total expenditures charged to the account of the police department have been 534^,266.60. 


This improvement, involving the reclamation of two hundred acres 
of land from the lake for the benefit of private owners, in return for 
the construction of a boulevard for Lincoln Park, was first suggested 
on April 27, 1886, when H. I. Sheldon, representing Ogden, Sheldon 
& Co., large owners of property on the lake shore south of Chicago 
Avenue, proposed to the Commissioners the extension of the Lake 
Shore Drive south of Pearson Street. The proposition was filed at 
the time, but negotiations were renewed at intervals during the suc- 
ceeding years, and in 1 888 and 1889 frequent conferences were held 
by the Commissioners with the shore owners, with the result that 
united action was determined upon to secure from the Legislature the 
passage of a bill which would enable the Commissioners to construct 
a boulevard from Oak Street to Ohio Street, on a line one thousand feet 
more or less from the existing shore line, on money to be furnished 
by the shore owners, in return for which the latter were to be allowed 
to fill in the intervening space and receive deeds to the reclaimed 
land from the Commissioners, giving in return quitclaim deeds for 
their riparian rights. Such a bill was passed June 4, 1889, on the same 
day that the law under which the North Shore Drive was built was 
enacted, and contracts were entered into on June 22, 1891, between 
the shore owners and the Commissioners, under which the land has 
all been filled in, a breakwater constructed from Indiana Street to Oak 
Street, and a large part of the work of constructing the boulevard 
completed. The boulevard, which is 202 feet wide, is completed 
from Ohio Street to Delaware Place, except for the top dressing of 
the macadam roadway and of the bicycle-path. The improvement 
includes a granite-paved beach 48 feet in width, similar to that con- 
structed north of North Avenue, a parapet and broad stone sidewalk 
25 feet wide, a 27-foot bicycle-path, a 50-foot roadway, a 15-foot 

bridle-path, and broad stretches of lawn, with double rows of elm 
trees on either side of the roadway. The shore owners agreed under 
their contract to construct the breakwater under supervision of the 
Commissioners, fill the boulevard to within one foot of grade, and pay 
to the Commissioners $100 a front foot, amounting to $360, 000 for 
the completion of the improvement. The contracts called for the 
boulevarding of Ohio Street from Pine Street to the new drive, the 
extension of the boulevard on the lake shore from Ohio Street to 
Indiana Street having been an afterthought. The Park Commissioners 
agreed to construct a breakwater from the northern terminus of the 
new work in a curved line to the old Lake Shore Drive at Bellevue 
Place, a distance of 1,400 feet; fill in and improve as a park the space 
between the breakwater and Oak Street extended, about 5 acres; 
continue the paved beach, drive, sidewalk, and other improvements 
of the boulevard along the breakwater; fill in and improve as a park 
the space between the city waterworks property and the new boule- 
vard, called Chicago Avenue Park; and pay one-half of the cost of 
improving Oak Street, Chicago Avenue, and Pearson Street where 
they front on Park property. The estimated cost of this improve- 
ment, which will add to Lincoln Park about fifteen acres of land, is 
Si 85,000. No means were provided in the contract by which the 
Commissioners could secure funds for carrying on the work except 
from general taxation, but because of a deviation in the line of the 
breakwater from that adopted as the route of the drive by the Com- 
missioners, said deviation increasing the extent of the land reclaimed, 
the shore owners who profited by the enlargement have been required 
by decree of court to pay $25,000 to the Commissioners for the con- 
struction of the breakwater north of Oak Street. 

The contracts contemplated the prompt payment of the voluntary 

J vwtoV^ IfioV- Cv\^Yt 


assessments of the shore owners, and the completion of the boulevards 
and the park north of Oak Street by May I, 1893; but the time was 
extended by tacit agreement because of numerous lawsuits, and the 
work of constructing- the boulevard was not begun until the summer 
of 1S96. The Attorney-General of the State had instituted suit to 
declare the law under which the extension was made invalid and 
unconstitutional, abrogate the contracts between the Commissioners 
and shore owners, and restore the reclaimed land to its original con- 
dition as a part of the harbor of Chicago. Suit was also°begun in 
May, 1S94, by the Chicago Title and Trust Company, the assignee of 
various shore owners, to compel the specific performance of the con- 
tracts between the Commissioners and such owners, and the City of 
Chicago laid claim to the land east of its property. The Commission- 
ers filed answers denying the rights of the various petitioners to the 
relief prayed, and filed a cross-bill, upon which the court found that 
the shore owners should give compensation to the Commissioners for 
the extra land reclaimed, construed the contracts as not forbidding a 
special assessment upon the newly made land for the maintenance°of 
the boulevard, and declared the title to the block of reclaimed land 
east of the waterworks to be in the Park Commissioners for the pur- 
poses of a public park. The opinion of the Attorney-General and 
the bill of the Chicago Title and Trust Company were dismissed, but 
appeals were taken by the Attorney-General and the City of Chicago 
as the result of which the legality of the contracts and the rights of 
the Commissioners as laid down in the decision were confirmed by 

the Supreme Court. Among other litigation in connection with the 
Ohio Street Extension improvement, the Commissioners or shore own- 
ers have had to contest the claims of the picturesque George W 
Streeter to more or less of the reclaimed lands by virtue of squatter 
rights alleged to have been acquired through the agency of a scow 
wrecked on the beach. More serious efforts to get possession of the 
property were made in 1896, when it was found that the United States 
Land Commissioner was having the land occupied bv the boulevard 
and other made lands surveyed, under a claim that they were subject 
to entry by persons holding land scrip of the United States, and that 
there was danger that patents would be issued. In November the 
attorney of the Commissioners appeared before the Land Commis- 
sioner at Washington to argue against an atte.npt to locate McKee 
scrip on land east of the government survey line of 1821, which was, 
roughly stated, about two hundred feet east of North State Street. 

Commissioner Lamoreaux authorized the holders of the scrip to 
locate on the lands in question, but his decision was afterward revoked 
by the Secretary of the Interior. The holders of the scrip have 
brought suit in the United States Circuit Court in Chicago to enforce 
their alleged rights to take possession of these lands under the deci- 
sion of the Land Commissioner, in spite of its subsequent revocation, 
and this suit is now pending. The Commissioners are still engaged 
also in contesting the suit of Major William L. Marshall for royal- 
ties on the combined beach and breakwater used on the improve- 


Early in 1874 the owners of the shore lands north of the Park 
sought to obtain the construction of a drive along the lake, and held 
frequent meetings to decide upon the route. In 1875 the Commis- 
sioners lent their encouragement to the idea by passing orders and 
resolutions calling upon the proper officials of the town of Lake View 
to secure the condemnation of land for a drive from the north boun- 
dary of the Park to the north line of Devon Avenue, a distance of five 
miles. The Lake View authorities took the necessary action on Jan- 
uary 4, 1876, but the ambitious scheme was defeated by the opposition 
of the majority of the property owners. The plan lay dormant until 
ten years later. In August, 1886, it was revived on a more modest 
scale by some of the owners of the shore lands between Belmont 
Avenue and Byron Street, who petitioned the Commissioners for the 
construction of a drive along the lake between those points. Lake 
View Avenue had not then been opened from George Street to Bel- 
mont Avenue, and the Commissioners declined to consider the propo- 
sition until it should be opened and a continuous drive made possible- 
This street was opened and accepted by the Commissioners as a boule- 
vard on Jul)' 3, 1888; and on February 5, 1889, a petition from the 
property owners, proposing a route and plan for the North Shore 
Drive, was presented, and an order for the improvement and for 
authority from the town of Lake View to condemn land was passed. 
It was found that the law authorizing the construction of boulevards 
was inadequate; and on July 4, 1889, the Legislature passed an act 
under which it was possible to condemn the land for the proposed 
drive, and levy a special assessment on property to be benefited to 
raise funds for its construction. On July 30 a new route for the drive 
was adopted, and on April 26, 1890, still another change of route was 
proposed, and a new order for the construction of the drive was 

adopted. Authority for the improvement was granted by the town 
officers of Lake View, on a petition of the owners of the majority of 
the frontage of the proposed drive, and the special assessment was 
confirmed, although some of the property owners took the case to the 
Supreme Court, and one is still contesting. The assessment was based 
on the estimate of the Park engineer that the drive would cost 
$332,503.15. Nearly all of this sum has been paid in, and the work 
completed, except for the construction of a sidewalk on the west line 
of the drive. 

The North Shore Drive is 125 feet wide, and the improvement 
includes a breakwater along the entire front, from Belmont Avenue to 
Byron Street, a plank sidewalk 20 feet wide, directly west of the 
breakwater, with a parapet of wooden benches, a bicycle-path 20 feet 
wide, a 10-foot bridle-path, a grass plat, with row of trees, 8 feet wide, a 
4 5 -foot roadway, another parkway 10 feet wide, with a row of trees 
and a 12-foot sidewalk. This improvement, except for the west side- 
walk, was all completed in 1896 but the bicycle-path from Cornelia 
Street to Grace Street, which was finished in 1897. 

The violent storms of October, 1898, which damaged the shore 
protection along the entire Park front, destroyed the wooden parapet 
from Belmont Avenue to Cornelia Street, and washed out the top 
dressing of the bicycle-path, the force of the waves being so great that 
pieces of the wooden benches were hurled a distance of fifty to one 
hundred feet across the driveway. The repairs necessary to replace 
the parapet, seats, and bicycle-path are estimated to be less than 
$3,000; but the fact that the sand filling under the plank sidewalk, 
next the breakwater, has sunk in man)' places, gives rise to the fear 
that the breakwater is weakening. 

The riparian rights were secured from the shore owners along the 



drive for some 1,500 or 2,000 feet, but many owners refused to sur- 
render said rights, and in March, 1S94, one of them, George H. Rozet, 
began the construction of a pier opposite Cornelia Street, at right 
angles to the breakwater and attached to it, for the purpose of form- 
ing land. On March 19 the contractor was arrested for trespass, after 
some thirty feet of pier had been completed, and that night, under 
advice of the attorney of the Board, and under direction of the Super- 
intendent, the pier was blown up with dynamite and entirely destroyed. 
The Commissioners were victorious in the litigation resulting from 
this action, and there have been no subsequent attempts by the prop- 
erty owners to acquire building lots east of the Drive. 

Following is a summary of the expenditures to date on the con- 
struction of the drive: 

Right of way §27,559.06 

Legal expenses 8,720.95 

Breakwater 124,965.06 

Filling 51,994.80 

Construction 11 8,878.64 

8332,1 19.41 


Net proceeds of special assessment 8319,666.19 

Additional payments by property owners 662.56 

Appropriated from General Fund in 1894, to repair damage 

to breakwater by storms 10,000.00 

Advanced from General Fund in 1898 1,790.66 


YTh.te Aaltese Cats 

Lincoln E^rk, 


&**U IcShtt^ =4>o ft. 1899 

PBOPflQflTlNq I 






t8 &TCRM8MT LnnDi. . j 



An important part of the Lincoln Park system are its boulevards. 
Authority for the construction of driveways leading to the Park was 
given in the act of 1 87 1, but it was not until April 9, 1879, that the 
Legislature passed an act giving to Boards of Park Commissioners the 
power to take and control any street connecting with a park or with 
any park boulevard, on the consent of the owners of the majority of 
the frontage of lands on such streets, and the consent of the corporate 
authorities having control of it. The first street accepted by the 
Commissioners of Lincoln Park as a boulevard under this act was 
that part of Lake View Avenue from the north line of Lincoln Park 
at Diversey Street to George Street, beyond which it was not then 
opened. Its control was surrendered by the town of Lake View by 
an ordinance approved February 20, 1882, and accepted by the Com- 
missioners March 7, following. On March 5, 1888, control of that 
part of Lake View Avenue from George Street to Belmont Avenue 
was offered to the Commissioners by the City Council of Lake View, 
and accepted on July 30. 

The second acquisition of a ready-made boulevard was made on 
May 17, 1884, when that part of Pine Street between the south line 
of Pearson Street and the north line of Oak Street was accepted from 
the City Council, and its name changed to Lincoln Park Boulevard. 
Proceedings were at once begun by the Commissioners to widen the 
boulevard fifty feet on the east side, and the consent of the authorities 
of North Chicago for a special assessment for that purpose was secured, 
but the opposition of the property owners who were to be assessed 
defeated the project. Frequently in the following years the attempt 
to widen Pine Street was repeated, only to be abandoned again; and 
efforts were also made to extend the Lake Shore Drive from Oak 
Street to Pearson Street, at a distance of 400 feet east of Pine Street. 

This project also had to be abandoned, but in 1892 proceedings for 
special assessments for the condemnation of a strip of land 50 feet 
wide along the east line of the boulevard, and for the paving of the 
street, was successfully instituted, and the work was completed in 

Pine Street, from Ohio Street to Chicago Avenue, was tendered as 
a boulevard by a city ordinance on Januar)' 4, 1 897, and was accepted by 
the Commissioners March 9, 1897, making a continuous boulevard from 
Ohio Street to North Avenue, except for the block between Chicago 
Avenue and Pearson Street, through the city waterworks property, 
which is still controlled by the city, but was paved by the Commis- 
sioners in 1895. 

North Avenue from Clark Street to the Lake Shore Drive was 
surrendered by the city by ordinance of September 28, 18S5, and 
accepted by the Commissioners January 5, 1886. 

North Park Avenue from Clark Street to Fullerton Avenue 
became a Park boulevard August 18, 1886. 

As early as February, 1881, conferences had been held by the 
Commissioners with the West Chicago Park Commissioners, to arrange, 
if possible, for a boulevard connection between Humboldt and Lin- 
coln parks. Nothing practical came of the negotiations, and the first 
small step toward securing such a connecting boulevard was taken on 
June 7, 1887, when that part of Diverse}' avenue between Clark 
Street and Lake Michigan was accepted as a boulevard by virtue of an 
ordinance passed by the City Council of Lake View on May 2. On 
September 21, 1 891, the City Council passed an ordinance, surrender- 
ing control of Diversey Avenue from Clark Street to the river, and 
the Commissioners voted to accept it on condition that the city should 
first pave and improve it, a condition that was not fulfilled. On Juiy 


14, 1895, a new ordinance was passed by the city, tendering the street 
to the Commissioners, who rejected it on March 18, because of the 
impossibility, under existing laws, of collecting enough money to 
maintain the street in proper style. On April 1 they accepted the 
street, "with the understanding that no money is in sight to improve 
and maintain the same." 

On [uly 6, 1 89 1, that part of Fullerton Avenue from the east line 
of Clark Street to North Park Avenue was tendered to the Commis- 
sioners as a boulevard by the City Council, and its control was 
accepted by an order entered of record on July 14. 

That section of Fullerton Avenue between Clark Street and 
Orchard Street was accepted as a boulevard March 27, 1893. 

That part of Bvron Street between the lake and Sheffield Avenue, 
and Sheffield Avenue from Byron Street to North Fifty-ninth Street, 
were offered to the Commissioners by the city, through an ordinance 
passed January 11, 1892, which gave the name of Sheridan Road to 
the two streets. The ordinance was not accepted at that time, and its 
control was offered again by a new ordinance passed by the City 
Council May 3, 1893, and on July 26 of that year it was accepted by 
the Commissioners. On May 6, 1895, the Commissioners gave the 
name of Sheridan Road to the continuous boulevard running from 
Diversey Avenue to North 59th Street, made up of parts of Lake 
View Avenue, the North Shore Drive, Byron Street, and Sheffield 

On October 21, 1895, Dearborn Avenue, from Burton Place to 
North Avenue, was accepted as a boulevard, its control having first 
been tendered to the Commissioners by order of the City Council. 

Garfield Avenue, from North Clark Street to North Park Avenue, 
was accepted as a boulevard December 7, 1896, by virtue of a city 
ordinance passed November 28. Those parts of Webster Avenue and 

Belden Avenue between Clark Street and North Park Avenue had 
been turned over to the Commissioners by the City Council, by ordi- 
nance passed at the same time, but their control has not yet been 

By the act of April 9, 1879, Park Commissioners were authorized to 
levy taxes or special assessments for the improvement of streets which 
might be accepted as boulevards, but not for their subsequent repair. 
The act was amended June 27, 1885, so as to allow assessments for 
subsequent repairs for boulevards, but it was again amended by act of 
June 16, 1887, so as to prohibit such assessments. When Pine Street 
from Oak Street to Pearson Street was accepted as a boulevard, in 
1884, Commissioner Stockton voted for the acceptance on condition 
that the property owners maintain the boulevard. The condition was 
not enforced, and it was not until the acceptance of Diversey Boule- 
vard from Clark Street to the lake, in 1887, that a preliminary agree- 
ment was made with the property owners on the boulevard that they 
should pay a certain amount annually for its maintenance. Subse- 
quently boulevards were accepted without such provisions, but since 
1895 't ' las been a condition precedent for the acceptance of any city 
streets as boulevards, Dearborn Avenue, Pine Street, south of Chicago 
Avenue, and Garfield Avenue coming into the Lincoln Park system 
on such terms. 

The cost of maintaining boulevards is considerable when they are 
policed, kept in repair, cleaned, and sprinkled; and the Commissioners 
have felt that such charges should be met by the property owners on 
the boulevards, rather than by the tax-payers of the entire park dis- 

The erection of buildings on all park boulevards is controlled by 
a building ordinance, adopted by the Commissioners on April 1, 

~§>\s\}c\_c ^x^ax-uA.s> 


Control of the submerged land- along the Park front was sought by 
the Commissioners for years before the Legislature was willing to 
grant it. The idea that the submerged lands of Lake Michigan 
belonged to the people of the State, and not to the shore owners, to 
the extent of their ability-, by artificial means, to reclaim said land, 
was of slow growth. If laws enacted by the Legislature in 1893 and 
1895 had been placed on the statute books thirty years earlier, nearly 
$200,000, which had to be paid for the made land in the Farwell tract 
and for the right-of-way for the Pine Street Drive, would have been 
saved to the tax-payers of the Lincoln Park district. The necessity of 
having the ownership or control of submerged lands along the Park 
front was first impressed upon the Commissioners by the operations of 
sand dredgers, who were accustomed to come close into shore where 
the water was shallowest. The effect was to weaken the breakwater 
structures along the shore; and in 1885 a resolution was adopted, call- 
ing upon the Governor and the Attorney-General of the State to 
prevent dredging near the shore. Action was taken by the Attorney- 
General, in response to the request; but the Legislature, in the same 
year, refused to pass a bill which had been prepared, granting to the 
Commissioners control of the bed of the lake from Diversey Avenue 
to Oak Street to a point 1,200 feet from the shore. After that 
the sand dredgers were undisturbed until June 4, 1889, when an act 
was passed, giving to the Commissioners of Lincoln Park all the 
right, title, and interest of the State in the bed of Lake Michigan for 
a distance of fifty feet east of any breakwater protecting the driveway, 
and gave police control over the waters of the lake for 250 feet east 
of such breakwater, providing that sand could only be taken there- 
from by their permission. 

A much more sweeping act was passed on June 17, 1893, provid- 

ing for the enlargement of Lincoln Park by reclaiming submerged 
lands along the entire lake front in the district under the control of 
the Commissioners, the riparian rights of shore owners to be pur- 
chased by agreement or by condemnation. On June 15, 1895, another 
act was passed and approved, granting to the Commissioners of Lin- 
coln Park the power to reclaim submerged lands under public waters 
of the State to the point of navigable water, by the simple process of 
adopting a plan locating a boulevard or driveway over and upon the 
bed of such public waters, its outer line to be the limit of the lands 
to be reclaimed, and its termini to be within the territory taxable for 
the maintenance of the Park. The title for all the submerged lands 
covered by such plan was vested in the Park Commissioners in fee- 
simple for Park purposes, and the act provided for the raising of 
money to carry out such improvement by the issue of town bonds and 
special assessments upon property benefited. 

Under these acts, the submerged lands from Diversey Avenue to 
Belmont Avenue, and from Byron Avenue to Devon Avenue, in the 
town of Lake View, were claimed for Park purposes to an average 
distance of 1,200 feet east of the shore line, and an ordinance passed 
against the encroachments on the lake by the shore owners. Various 
petitions were submitted to the town authorities of Lake View for the 
issue of bonds and the levying of special assessments to carry out 
such enlargement of the Park, but owing to the great cost of such an 
improvement, the necessary consent of the town authorities was not 

The Commissioners, however, have vindicated their title to all 
submerged lands included in the plans adopted by them, and in 
numerous lawsuits have prevented the shore owners from building 
piers to increase their holdings by artificial means. 


There are in Lincoln Park many notable monuments and statues, 
and some beautiful fountains, nearly all of which have been the gifts 
of private individuals, whose benefactions to the public, for some 
occult reason, have always taken the one form or the other. 

Perhaps the most imposing is the Grant Monument, the great 
equestrian statue in enduring bronze of the glorious chieftain, mounted 
upon a massive granite foundation and pedestal, which stands just west 
of the old Lake Shore Drive, in a commanding position, overlooking 
the lake on one side and the Park on the other. Soon after the 
death of General Grant, in 1885, a popular subscription was started to 
secure funds for the erection of a monument to the dead leader in 
Lincoln Park, and nearly 100,000 people aided in the enterprise. 
The following year the foundation and pedestal were erected. On 
the 7th of October, 1891, the statue, the work of L. T. Rebisso, and 
the largest ever cast in the country, was unveiled in the presence of 
the greatest congregation of people that had ever gathered in the citv 
up to that time. The demonstration was sufficiently imposing to 
measure the devotion paid by the people to the name of Grant. The 
ceremonies were held under the auspices of the Army of the Tennes- 
see, which was holding its annual reunion at the time. The proces- 
sion was marshaled by Major-General Nelson A. Miles, and Mrs. 
Grant and many distinguished people in civil and military life were 

For many reasons even more entitled to first place in any mention 
of the statues of Lincoln Park, is the Lincoln Monument, which stands 
near the southern line of the Park, facing the broad driveway from 
Dearborn Avenue Boulevard. The statue, a colossal figure in bronze, 
standing in an attitude of meditation, advanced a step before a great 
bronze chair, is the work of Augustus St. Gaudens, and is considered by 

<" -if -?yS. . *\\ 

\ T v' 

f. ~JF' \ / * 

■k 1 

J' '9SS5 ' 

" ^&£S^0B£S > ' < ^Sj 


• ^jryln 

-~^'~- ' '" 


"*' jf?ni^H w- * 


■ ■r* b 


- v*?7y^4^E| •%"£? f ' 


£ ' ^i^^wK 



connoisseurs the finest speci- 
men of portrait sculpture 
in America. It stands on 
a granite pedestal four feet 
in height, in the center of a 
broad stone platform, ap- 
proached in front by a low 
flight of granite steps, and 
surrounded on the other 
sides by a granite bench and 
balustrade. The statue is 
the posthumous gift of Eli 
Bates, who, at his death in 
June, 1 88 1, left $40, ooo with 
which to erect a fitting me- 
morial to the great emanci- 
pator in the Park which 
bears his name. It was 
unveiled with impressive ceremonies on October 22, 1887. 

The first of all statues in the Park is "The Alarm," a bronze group 
of four figures, an Indian, wife, child, and dog, each alert at some 
approaching danger, the work of John J. Boyle, and the gift of Martin 
Ryerson, which was unveiled in 1884. 

The Schiller Monument, a bronze figure of heroic size, cast in the 
original mold of the well-known statue of the great poet and dram- 
atist at Marbach, in Wurtemberg, his birthplace, was given by Chi- 
cago citizens of German descent, and unveiled on May 8, 1886. 

One of the most striking of all the beautiful statues that grace 
the drives and lawns of the Park is that of Robert Cavelier de La Salle, 
the work of Count Jacques de La Laing, and the gift of Lambert Tree, 
which was unveiled October 12, 1880. 

The bronze statue of the great botanist Linne, a gigantic figure 
fifteen feet in height, mounted on a massive granite pedestal, and sur- 
rounded by four allegorical figures representing the seasons, is the gift 
of Chicago citizens of Swedish nativity, and was unveiled May 23, 1891. 

An artistic statue of Shakespeare, presented to Lincoln Park by 
Samuel Johnston, and located in the perennial garden, was unveiled 
on April 23, 1894. 

In 1895 tne statue of Benjamin Franklin was tendered to the 
Commissioners by Joseph Medill, through the Old-Time Printers' 
Association. The gift was accepted, a suitable site selected for the 
statue on the lawn south of the engine-house, overlooking the Lake 
Shore Drive, and it was unveiled on June 6, 1896. 

In 1894 the Hans Christian Andersen Memorial Association was 
formed by Danish citizens, not only of Chicago, but of the entire 
country, for the purpose of raising funds to erect a monument in Lin- 
coln Park to the memory of the kindly teller of stories which have 
delighted children of all lands. The statue, a bronze figure of the 
writer, seated, with the swan of " The Ugly Duckling " by his side, was 
unveiled on September 26, 1896. 
Johannes Gelert was the sculptor. 

The statue of the "Signal of 
Peace," an Indian messenger, 
mounted, bearing a flag of truce, 
the work of John J. Boyle, was 
presented to the Commissioners 
bv Lambert Tree, and was also 
unveiled in 1896. 

In 1897 a bronze bust of Bee- 
thoven, the work of Johannes 
Gelert, was presented to Lincoln 
Park bv Carl Wolfsohn. 


In May, 189 1, a boat-landing was constructed at the foot of Ful- 
lerton Avenue, at a cost of $3,557.98. 

The speeding-track, east of the Shore Drive from Fullerton Avenue 
to Diversey Avenue, was constructed in 1895. 

On July 4, 1897, a swimming contest was given in the lagoon, 
under the auspices and management of the National Swimming Asso- 

The swings as a Park institution, operated for the benefit of vis- 
itors for a merely nominal fee, hardly sufficient to pay for the services 
of the necessary attendant, date from 1876. 

In 1882 the owners of the Couch vault presented a petition to the 
Commissioners that better care be taken of the vault and the grounds 
immediately surrounding, offering to pay for the same. 

The first application on record for the privilege of keeping pony- 
carts and phaetons in the Park, to rent to visitors, was made in 1883. 
It was denied, and it was not until 1892 that a lease was first made for 
this privilege. 

The maps of Lincoln Park published in this report were all drawn 
by J. H. Lindrooth, still a member of the Park engineering force, and 
two of them are reproductions of maps originally drawn by him in 
1870 and 1873. He has been employed in the Park almost continu- 
ously since 1869. 

In 1875, among all their other activities, the Commissioners found 
time and occasion to order the printing of two hundred signs instruct- 
ing visitors to "keep off the grass." Out of compliment to the large 
German population of the North Side, half of the signs were done in 
German, the other half in English. 

On November 16, 18S0, the Commissioners considered the matter 
of planting a hedge along the west boundary of the Park, and ordered 
a plan and estimate of the cost. It was decided later that there would 
be some disadvantages in screening the Park from the view of the 
public traveling alongside it, and the plan was abandoned. 

For a number of years memorial services have been held at the 
Lincoln Monument on Decoration Day bv Lyon Post No 9 G A R 
which has also decorated the monument. The Grant Monument 'has 
been decorated nearly every year by Ulysses S. Grant Post No 28 
and services held by the members at the base of the monument. 

In 1876 the old "Tunnel Drive," which had been built in 1870 
by the city, from the head of Dearborn Avenue, through the cemetery 
and the old Park, to a point near the lake shore, was abandoned and 
the materials used in the construction of the race-course. In after years 
the race-course was set apart for the use of horsemen as a bridle-path. 
In 1887 there were negotiations between the Commissioners and 
the trustees of the Newberry Library, looking toward the erection of 
a permanent home for the library in the Park. An act authorizing 
the erection of buildings for the use of the library in the Park was 
passed by the Legislature on June 16, but a site was afterward chosen 
for it elsewhere. 

In the year 1S92 the artesian-well service was extended to drink 
ing-fountains in various parts of the Park, thirteen being supplied from 
the south well alone. The water of the north artesian well has Ion- 
been famous near and far for supposed medicinal qualities, and has 
hundreds of regular patrons who send their jugs daily to the well to 
be refilled, while one or two wagon routes have been maintained for 
years to supply the daily wants of patrons. 


•tr-Q Few p e o p 1 e 
^ know that a fold- 
ing bridge of the 
bascule type was 
erected in Lincoln 
Park in 1892. It 
is the bridge across 
the inlet from the 
lake to the lagoon 
on the outer drive, 
2,000 feet north of 
North Avenue. 
The inlet was intended to permit the entrance of yach s to the 
lagoon, but it was so narrow that the entrance was not "safe except in 
the mildest of weather, and the folding bridge has seldom been un- 

In March, 1874, the Commissioners achieved the doubtful honor 
of giving one of the first orders, if not the first, for English sparrows 
to be delivered in Chicago, and on March 24, thirty-seven pairs of 
the interesting birds were received from New York, at' a cost of Si. 50 
per pair, and turned loose in the defenseless Park. There has always 
been more or less difficulty in keeping animals and birds in the Park 
collection, but there has never been any difficulty in preserving the 
flock of sparrows. They have multiplied and increased. 

In 1873 a bathing-house was established just south of the North 
Avenue pier, and operated there for years; while in 1874 the Commis- 
sioners, in response to a plea from the City Board of Health for free 
bathing facilities, offered to set apart space on the beach for bathing, 
and maintain the beach and bath-houses if the city would erect the 
latter. The Board of Health returned thanks for the offer, but noth- 
ing more ever came of it, and it was not until 1895 that the free 
bathing beach was opened north of Fullerton Avenue. 

In July, 1874, a suggestion was made to the Commissioners to set 
apart a lake or small stream to be devoted to the propagation of 
brook or speckled trout. The plan was not deemed feasible, and was 
not adopted. The next effort on the part of piscatorialists to obtain 
a footing m Lincoln Park came eighteen years later, on March 20, 1892 
in the form of a request from the Chicago Fly Casting Club for the 
privilege of practicing fly casting in the Park. This was considered 
an insidious attempt on the peace and happiness of the gold-fish in 
the Park ponds, and was sternly refused. 

In 1S91 fifty breeding gold-fish were secured from the United 
States Fish Commission and placed in the ponds. Their progeny in 
the South ponds filled thirty barrels when the water was drawn off in 
1897 for the double purpose of cleaning the bottom of mud and 
destroying the carp which were eating all the gold-fish spawn. The 
German carp, like the English sparrow, has lost its prestige in Lin- 
coln Park, although when the first carp were presented in 1886 by N. 
K. Fairbank, the Commissioners were highly pleased, and adopted a 

vote of thanks to their generous fellow-townsman. 

One of the most notable events in the early history of Lincoln Park 

was the opening or inauguration of the parade grounds, now prin- 
cipally devoted 

to base-ball and 

foot-ball, on 

June 23, 1 877, by 

a review of the 

First Regiment 

by the Governor 

of the State and 

other officials. 

The regiment 

marched up 

Dearborn Av- 


enue to the Park, and was reviewed by the Governor at its entrance. 
It was estimated that the crowd gathered in the Park to witness 
the parade was between 15,000 and 20,000 people. The grounds, 
which had but recentlv been completed, were appropriated for the use 
of local militia regiments, for some years were devoted chiefly to that 
purpose, and are still so used occasionally. In 189S a regiment, 
formed to take part in the war with Spain — but never given an oppor- 
tunity to do so — drilled nightly on the grounds. Drills and reviews 
of the city police force have also frequently been held there. 

In 1 88 1 the first of several petitions which have been made from 
time to time for the opening of a driveway into the Park from La 
Salle Avenue was presented to the Commissioners, but on an adverse 
report from the Superintendent it was placed on file as "impracti- 
cable and inadvisable." The attack was renewed in succeeding' years, 
until on August 28, 1893, the Commissioners ordered the opening of 
La Salle Avenue into the Park. But in the next two weeks they were 
so bombarded with remonstrances, petitions, and complaints against any 
interference with the broad half-mile esplanade from North Avenue 
to Center Street, and the beautiful unbroken stretch of lawn beside it, 
that on September 12 the order was reconsidered. On June 11, 
1894, petitions for and against the opening of La Salle Avenue were 
again presented, and in 1897 and 1898 the fight was renewed, each 
time to end in the failure of the project. 

The old boat-house on the South Pond, which was torn down at the 
time the present refectory was built in 1882, had been erected prior 
to 1869, not by the city, but by the contractors who laid out the Park 
grounds. They were allowed to erect a building at their own expense 
for the convenience of visitors, and as long as the pavilion remained 
no charge was made for the privilege of operating boats for hire and 
furnishing refreshments. The boat-house was constructed in the 
semblance of a grotto on its main side, with a roof garden over the first 


floor, on which grass and shrubbery flourished. The top of the pavil- 
ion was used as a band-stand for all concerts given in the early years of 
the Park. In 1S69 the "Ten-Mile Ditch," which ran through the ponds, 
gave free access to the lake, and the contractors had considerable 
trouble with renters of their boats, who would row out into the lake 
and fail to return. On this account the mouth of the ditch was 

All possible encouragement has always been extended by the 
Commissioners to the exercise of sports and games in the Park. 
Skating races have been held on the ponds since there were ponds to 
skate on. A number of boat clubs have their home on the lagoon, 
where regattas are held annually. Bicycle races have been permitted 
within proper limits on drives and boulevards. Diamonds for base- 
ball and foot-ball, and courts for lawn tennis, have been marked out 
for the free use of the public, and even croquet has had its untiring 
devotees. When the practice of setting apart any part of the Park 
for games was first begun, it aroused some opposition on the part of 
those who claimed that as Lincoln Park was a public park it was 
illegal to give special privileges, no matter how temporary they might 
be, to any one. One of the first tennis games ever played in the Park 
was broken up by a positive tax-payer, who asserted his equal right to 
the use of that particular part of the Park by sitting down in the 
middle of the court and refusing to move until placed under arrest by 
a Park officer. The protesting citizen did not carry his case to the 
Supreme Court, and the right of the Commissioners to encourage 
sports and games was not long contested. 

There is hardly a tree standing in Lincoln Park to-day which has 
not been bought and planted there by the city of Chicago or by the 
Commissioners. Many of the old scrub oaks, which were scattered 
over the ground before it was converted into a Park, remained for 
some years, and a few still remain, but most of them died or were 
grubbed out to make way for more ornamental shade trees long ago. 
One of the first cares of the Commissioners in the early history of 
the Park was that of planting hardy and graceful trees in attractive 
groups, and in 1870 they filed a protest with the Board of Public 
Works against the inartistic manner in which the trees in the old Park 
were being trimmed by the city. 

The elms which line the Lake Shore Drive from Diversey Boule- 
vard to the electric fountain were bought in 1870 and 1S71. The 
splendid trees which shade the picnic-grounds were planted at the 
same time. To buy young trees and wait for them to grow seemed 
too long a process, and a great number of forest trees, all over a foot 
in diameter, were bought and brought to the Park at large expense 
in these years. Nearly 20,000 trees, 10,000 evergreens, and 15,000 
shrubs of various kinds have been bought at different times for the 
ornamentation of the Park. Following is a list of the trees which 
have been planted, as far as their names are shown in the Park records: 
Elms, 4,816; maples, 2,180; ash, S82; acacia, 600; birch, 541; 
willows, 429; linden, 345; thorns, 165; chestnut, 101; larch, no; catal- 
pas, 50; dogwood, 50; sycamores, 44; cottonwood, 7; oaks, 3; unclassi- 
fied, 9,621; total, 19,944. The total expenditure for the purchase of 
trees for the Park alone, exclusive of boulevards, has been $48,301.80. 



The following tables, prepared by A. A. Babcock, the park en- 
gineer, give details of the areas of Lincoln Park, the small parks, and 
the boulevards under the control of the Commissioners, the length of 
drives and walks and boulevards, and other information of that 

Lincoln Park- 
Grass Plats ..._ I 62.S4i 

Grass Plats along Lake Shore Boulevard 12.009 

Total Lawn Surface . 

Concrete Walks along Lake Shore Boulevard - 

Parapet and Promenade 

Rustic Steps _ _ _ 

Total Walks 


Drives 35.756 

Roadway, Lake Shore Boulevard ... 4.063 

Speeding-Track 2020 

Bridie-Path . ^^i 

Bridle-Path along Lake Shore Boulevard .. 1 o8t 

Brid .?. e !Tn- — - ° 73 7 

total Drives 

Paved Beach _ 6487 

Revetment o ; 888 

Sand Beach 5.127 

Total Beach _ 

Buildings, Shelters, etc _' 

Cages, Animal Pits, etc. 

Fountains and Monuments 

Boat Landings 

North Pond . gr^i 

South Pond g.^n 

Lagoon _ 2 o. 

Aqua Regia Pond 

North Lily Pond 

South Lily Pond 

Other Water Surfaces- 
Total Water Surface 





2 -793 


Chicago Avenue Park... l6o 

Union Square o62 

All Boulevards-... * 

Lincoln Park Boul . . - 
Lincoln Park Boul. 
Ohio St. Ext. Boul.* 

Lake Shore Boul 

North Ave. Boul. ... 
Dearborn Ave. Boul.. 
Garfield Ave. Boul. _. 
North Park Ave. Boul. 
Fullerton Ave. Boul.. 
Diversey Ave. Boul. _. 
Lake View Ave.Boul.. 
North Shore Drive.. . 
Sheridan Road 


Ohio St Chicago Ave.. 

PearsonSt Oak St 

Indiana St Oak St... 

Oak St North Ave.— 

Pine St Clark St 

North Ave Burton PI 

N Park Ave... Clark St 

Clark St Fullerton Ave 

N. Park Ave.-. Orchard St. ... 
Lake Michigan Chicago River 
Diversey Ave.. Belmont Ave. . 

Belmont Grace 

Grace N. 59th St 


1. '79 








Total of above. 

1 of boulevards, but in the 

creage of the Park. 
8.48 mil 

The following measurements are for the various improvements 
lying wholly within Lincoln Park, or in other words, between North 
Avenue Boulevard and Diversey Avenue Boulevard, and for the Lake- 
Shore Boulevard from Oak Street to North Avenue: 

Lake Shore Boulevard, Oak Street to North Avenue 3,933 feet 

Lake Shore Drive „] „ f eet 

Outer Beach Drive . . 5^675 fee 

Stockton Drive ,'a („ 

West Drive '.'..'.".'."" I'.'." '.'. 4,525 fee 

Connection Drive __ 1275 fee 

Ridge Road.-. '.'...l'....":" 3^0 fee 

Ramble Drive l ( >C]0 f ee 

South Drive 1875 fee 

Other Drives ._ 4^836 fee 

Speeding-Track _. _ 1 7 en fee 

Bridie-Path .!""'.""'_ $27 fee- 
Bridle-Path, Oak Street to North Avenue 3.933 fee 

Total drives 54,828 feet 

Bicycle-Path 7 oo feet 

The Mall 887 feet 

Gravel Walks ... 76,700 feet 

10.374 miles 

Total acrea' 

e, Lincoln Park system ^ g 


Walks (other than concrete). 

1,287 feet 12.933 miles 


Brought forward .... 

Parapet Promenade 5,400 feet 

Animal Department Walks 1,650 feet 

Clark Street Broad Walk 2,980 feet 

Lake Shore Boulevard Walk --- - 3,933 feet 

Total Concrete Walks. — 13,963 feet 

Total length of Drives and Walks 


640 miles 15.573 miles 
25.947 miles 

There is a total length of 33,291 feet (6.307 miles) of concrete 
curb and gutter now in use. 

Within the boundaries of Lincoln Park there are several systems of 
underground work, of which the following figures give the approxi- 
mate lengths of the various sizes of pipes, etc., and their valuation: 


1 ,322 Lineal Feet 20 inch Brick Sewer a 

2,203 Lineal Feet 15-inch Pipe Sewer a 

5,565 Lineal Feet 12-inch Pipe Sewer a 

15,700 Lineal Feet 9-inch Pipe Sewer a 

22,291 Lineal Feet .- 6-inch Pipe Sewer a 

77 Lineal Feet 4 inch Pipe Sewer a 

51.50 Si, 983.00 

.60-- 1,320.00 

■45--- ■ 2.554.25 

.30 4,710.00 

.20 4,458.20 

•■5--- "-55 

47,155 Lineal Feet, total length of Sewers, or 8.931 miles S15.037.00 

600 Catch Basins at Si 5.00 9,000.00 

75 Manholes-- at 2o.oo.-_- 1,500.00 


Lineal Feet- 
Lineal Feet- 
Lineal Feet- 
Lineal Feet- 
Lineal Feet- 

8 inch 

Lineal Feet 4-inch 

Lineal Feet 3 inch 

Lineal Feet 2-inch 

Lineal Feet ij_-inch Water Pipe 

Lineal Feet i^-inch Water Pipe at 

Lineal Feet [-inch Water Pipe at 

Water Pipe atS2 
Water Pipe at 1 
Water Pipe at 1 
Water Pipe at 
Water Pipe at 
Water Pipe at 
Water Pipe at 
Water Pipe at 

00 $710.00 

25 - - - 656.25 

00 3,257.00 

80 , 7,416.80 

60 6,200.40 

50 3,691.00 

40 92 1 .60 

30---. . 14,492.10 

20 .-- 4,943-6o 

20 167.80 

'S-— 39375 

109,909 Lineal Feet, total length of Water Pipes, or 20.816 miles 

30 Hydrants at S30.00-- 

90 Main Pipe Valves at 10.00 

Street Washers or Hose Connections at 2.00-. 






Total Value .-. ... S46.220.30 


47,888 Lineal Feet of ij^-inch Conduit with one Cable. 
17,952 Lineal Feet of 2-inch Conduit with two Cables. 

Total Value about $29,000.00 



\ annSlv bv?CT tabl6 Sh ° WS ?? am ° Unt ° f the estimates mad « 

> annually by the Commiss.oners of Lincoln Park of the money needed 

fo, the maintenance and improvement of the Park for the^nsS 

year; the appropriations made in each year by the supervisors of the 

two towns of North Chicago and Lake View, as extended upon the tax 

warran ; he total amount of the levies for each year and th otal 

neco lections of the warrant of each year, the sums lost in process of 

collection and the costs of extending and collecting the tax hav nR 

been deducted from the amount of the warrant before the collection! 

were turned over to the Commissioners. The total net collections as 

given in the table include * 4 ,6, 3,287.87, the amount received from 

the tax warrants for 1870 to 1898 inclusive, and $25,000, advance 

co lections on the tax warrant for ■ 809, which is now in the hands of 

the County Collector. The final payments on this warrant will not be 

made before December, 1899. 

■87° --- — 560,000.00 

] °7! --■ 65,000.00 

'872 --- 75,000.00 

'f73— 79.442.19 

■°74 --- 85,000.00 

'°75 - - 92,000.00 

l8 76 125,000.00 

'877^ 75,000.00 

'°78 75,000.00 

■°79 85,000.00 

'88o 115,000.00 

■88i — 1 15,000.00 

■882 . .. 130,00000 

■883 --- 150,000.00 

1 884 . .'_ _■ _ 1 70,000.00 

'885 160,000.00 

'886 170,000.00 

■887 . 180,000.00 

■888 1 

1 889 - - - 1 00,000.00 

■890 220,000.00 

1 891 - . 260,000.00 

■892 --- 357,000.00 

■893 - 309,000.00 

■894 --- 378,500.00 

1895 -■- 380,548.00 

'896 418,030.00 

'"97 --- 289,000.00 

1 898 - 396,000.00 

1899 .__ 396,000.00 


I45,6[5 60 





















248,491.1 I 


85,258. , 3 
ii 1. 268.7 1 
297.5 2 9-c6 

*2 5.000.0O 

Totals $5,780,520.19 $4,483,539.26 $539,555.40 $5,023,123.30 $4,638,282.87 

•In process of collection. 


TO MARCH 3i, 1899 

General Park tax, collected 

Special assessment for land purchase 
Net proceeds land purchase bonds- 
Accrued interest land purchase bonds 

Pine Street Drive assessment 
Pine Street walk assessment- 

Shore protection bonds 

Premium shore protection bonds 
Accrued interest, shore protection bonds 

Lincoln Park Boulevard assessment 

North Shore Drive assessment- -- 

Ohio Street Extension 

Oak Street Breakwater - 

Cobb's sidewalk assessment - 

Rent of boats 

Rent of refectories - 

Sale of sand 

Rent of swings --- 

Labor and teaming --- 

Pier privileges 

Interest on bank balances 

Phaeton privileges 

Sale and rent of electric launches 

Rent of steam roller — 

Sale of animals 

Sale of ice 

Rent of axle-grease factory - . 
North Avenue Boulevard 
Diversey Avenue Boulevard, east 
Fullerton Avenue Boulevard, east- 
Fullerton Avenue Boulevard, west 
Lincoln Park Boulevard, south 

Dearborn Avenue Boulevard 

Lake View Avenue Boulevard 

Sheridan Road 

Deposits on permits 

Miscellaneous receipts- 





16,963.00 106,781.85 
















4, '3345 










Land purchase account ... $1,120,635.66 

Land purchase bonds 800,000.00 

Interest on land purchase bonds 7 1 7,3°5-°4 ^2 

Shore protection - $602,832.98 

Interest on shore protection bonds 201,625.00 


Beach improvement 

Oak Street Breakwater 

Belmont Avenue Breakwater- -- 

Pine Street Drive 

Lincoln Park Boulevard improvement- 
North Shore Drive 

Ohio Street Extension- - 
Cobb's sidewalk - 


Police department 

Floral department 

Animal department- 
Water supply, estimated 

Electric lighting, estimated 

Lagoon bridge — 
Inlet bridge --'- 
Other bridges 

Academy of Sciences, construction - 
Academy of Sciences, maintenance - 


Artesian wells 

Sewers - 
New barn - - 


Electric launches 

South Refectory, construction 

North Pavilion, construction- -- 

Chicago Avenue Park 

Interest on loans 

Swings ..-_■------- --------- 

General improvement and maintenance ot Park-- 

Sheridan Road, maintenance 

Lake View Avenue Boulevard, maintenance - 
North Avenue Boulevard, maintenance and improvement- 
Lincoln Park Boulevard, north, maintenance- 
Lincoln Park Boulevard, south, maintenance- 
North Park Avenue Boulevard, maintenance- - 
Diversey Avenue Boulevard, east, maintenance --- 

Diversey Avenue Boulevard, west, maintenance 

Fullerton Avenue Boulevard, west, maintenance --- 
Fullerton Avenue Boulevard, east, maintenance 
Dearborn Avenue Boulevard, maintenance 
Cash balance, March 31, 1899 






92 354,198.62 

$24,301.1 1 


1 1,805.0} 






. $8,304,263.46 





Chicago, March 31, iSgg. 
To The Honorable, The Mayor of the City of Chicago. 
Sir, — In compliance with Section 18 of the Act of June 
16, 1871 (amendatory of the act of the General Assembly of 
the State of Illinois of February 8, 1869, under which this 
Board was organized), the Commissioners of Lincoln Park 
submit herewith their annual report for the fiscal year ending 
March 31, 1899. 

P. M. Woodworth, 


I. J. Bryan, 



Chicago, April i, 1899. 
To The Commissioners of Lincoln Park. 

Gentlemen, — The members of this Board, and the tax-payers of the 
towns of North Chicago and Lake View, have joint cause for congratu- 
lation in the fact that in the last fiscal year, with a total revenue from 
the tax levy smaller than previous boards have devoted to the ordinary 
running expenses of the Park, such expenses have been cut down to 
a lower notch than they have reached in years, thereby saving over 
$60,000 for permanent improvements of various kinds, for all of which 
there was some pressing need. In the year just passed, as in the year 
preceding it, the most difficult problem this Board has had to face 
was that of determining how to achieve the best results with an appro- 
priation much too small for the manifest and crying necessities of 
Lincoln Park. In order to render available for needed improvements 
the largest possible share of the Park revenues, the ordinary charges 
for maintenance were reduced in every feasible manner in each 
department, and by close and careful economy they were cut down 
to §127,909.33, a saving of $12,270 from the year before, and of 
$63,500 from the year preceding that. A larger proportion of the 
funds of the Park have been devoted to permanent betterments than 
has been the case in any recent year. Much important work had to 
be postponed or neglected because of the lack of funds, but that 
which seemed the most essential was accomplished, and care was taken 
this year, as last, not to exceed the actual revenue. For the second 
time in years the new year is begun with a credit balance instead of a 
large deficit. This result has not been accomplished without great 
difficulty, the natural tendency being to borrow from the future to 
make repairs and improvements which are vitally needed, but for 

which there are no funds. The rule was laid down, however, and 
rigidly adhered to, to keep the expenditures well within the revenues. 
That the Commissioners should feel a more direct responsibility and 
keep in close touch with Park affairs, no expenditures are made except 
on requisitions approved by the several committees having different 
departments of the Park in charge, and ordered by the Board. In the 
same way all bills for supplies must be indorsed by the head of each 
department and by the Superintendent, and be scrutinized and approved 
by the proper committee before final action by the President, Audi- 
tor, and Secretary. This system was inaugurated August 4, 1S97, 
when new rules were adopted by the Commissioners for their govern- 
ment, and its workings have been very satisfactory. For comparison, 
there is appended here a table of the tax levies of half a dozen years 
past, the expenditure in each year for Park maintenance, and the finan- 
cial condition of the Park at the end of each year. 


I893-4.-. S298.485.78 $158,126.02 $84,564.60 

1894-5- -- ---334,847.16 185,672.50 31,680.15 

1895-6 ---307,499.22 168,87880 44.54i.IO 

I896-7 294,292 03 191,422.65 50,601.97 

I897-8- 241,782.71 140,180.04 SI96.63 

I898-9---- --- 244,633.12 127,909.33 24,60345 

Attention was called, in the last annual report, to the danger of 
serious damage being done by the lake, to the paved beach along the 
Park front and the sea-wall south of Burton Place, and to the neces- 
sity of additional protection to enable them to withstand the force of 
the severe lake storms. This necessity was strikingly emphasized last 
fall by a series of violent storms which toppled over a section of the 
sea-wall at Schiller Street, undermined the rest of the structure, 



and ripped up the paved beach north of North Avenue for a dis- 
tance of 1,000 feet. A year ago it was estimated that the sea-wall 
and paved beach could be protected bv driving down sheeting along 
the entire extent, at aii expense of approximately $60,000. A much 
larger amount will now be necessary to repair the destruction caused 
bv the storms of last year, and to permanently 
protect the work. A beginning was made in 
this direction last summer, when a contract was 
awarded for 1,000 feet of extra piling and 
sheeting along the paved beach from North 
Avenue north, but this protection was not com- 
pleted when continued bad weather made it 
advisable to stop the work. There is available 
for the work of shore protection the proceeds 
of the sale of bonds of the town of North Chi- 
cago of the face value of S40,000, authorized by 
the Legislature in 1891, which were sold last 
summer at a premium of S6,6oo. Unless a 
further issue of bonds is authorized, it will be 
necessary to appropriate a large sum from the 
general fund of the Park the coming year to 
protect the lake front against more extensive lK , , 

damage by storms. 

During the year a number of important im- 
provements have been designed and executed. Many of them, at a 
comparatively small cost, have greatly enhanced the beaut)' of the Park, 
or greatly increased the comfort and convenience of visitors, besides 
facilitating the work of employes. The principal item of expenditure in 
the improvement account was the construction of a new barn. This 
building, which is located near the Lake Shore Drive north of Fullerton 
Avenue, is of unpretentious architectural design, but large enough 
for the accommodation of seventy horses, and for all wagons, carts, 

sprinklers, etc., besides furnishing ample quarters for the paint-shop, 
carpenter-shop, blacksmith-shop, and the general storeroom. Its con- 
struction was forced by the absolute necessities of two departments. 
For several years the horses had been stabled in the basement under 
the flower propagating houses, where they were subject to an un- 
healthy degree of heat, both in summer and 
winter; while the constant and excessive damp- 
ness caused bv the leakage through a rotten 
wooden floor of the water thrown on the flowers 
in the plant propagating houses above was 
equally injurious to the health of horses and 
employes, and the appearance of all vehicles, 
harnesses, and tools which had been stored 
there. To have made the floor water-tight 
would have entailed an expenditure of at least 
88,000; and as that would have removed but 
one of many vital objections to the continued 
use of such quarters as a stable, the building of 
a suitable barn seemed to be the most econom- 
ical solution of the problem. 

The collection of animals in Lincoln Park, 
,^H»^. the only one in the city of Chicago, has for 

thirty years been a chief attraction for a large 
majority of visitors. For several years little 
attention has been paid to it; and while the natural increase kept up 
the size of the collection, the quarters in which the animals were 
kept were allowed to fall into decay. Outside of the brick structure, 
built in 1889, the animal-houses were mere wooden sheds, unsightly 
and impossible to keep clean. The buffalo herd, which might long 
ag'o have been by far the finest in the countrv, had been depleted by 
wholesale exchanges, and by sales at figures which now seem ridic- 
ulously below the real value of the animals. Recognizing the fact 


that the Lincoln Par 
Zoo is a perennial attrac- 
tion for all Chicago, the 
present Board has paid 
special attention to that 
department the past year, 
and much has been done 
to facilitate the care of 
the collection, to add to 
it, to pave the way for a 
still more considerable in- 
crease in its size, and to 
make the surroundings 
more attractive to visitors. 

Heretofore all tropical animals had been kept in the main animal- 
house in the winter, and in detached and more open cages at some 
distance away during the summer. Twice a year it was necessary to 
drive the lions, tigers, leopards, jaguars, and hyenas into a movable 
cage, and transport them back and forth. There was always danger 
of injuries to the employes engaged in the work, and injuries to the 
animals were not infrequent. To obviate the necessity for these 
transportations, to provide the animals with roomier quarters, and to 
give the public better opportunity to see and admire them, an improve 
ment of great value has been carried out at an expense only trifling in 
comparison with the benefits derived. In place of the detached cages 
in the center of the animal-house, larger and more substantial cages 
were built last year along the south wall of the building, and summer 
cao-es have just been constructed along the outside of the south wall, 
with doorways connecting them with the winter cages. During the 
summer the tropical animals will have the use of both sets of cages, 
while in cold weather the doors will be closed and the animals will be 
kept in the warm house. The remodeling of the interior of the animal- 
house cost 83,544.17. The work necessary to complete the summer 
cages and connections, now practically finished, will cost about 83,000. 

A small animal-house of pleasing architectural design has been 
constructed, at a cost of $5,153.14, just south of the deer-paddock, 
with winter and summer cages for small animals and birds, and with 
a large dry basement for storing vegetables and other perishable sup- 
plies for the big animal boarding-house of Lincoln Park. Before this 
improvement was carried out, most of these animals were kept in out- 
of-the-way places, and there was a constant loss because of the entire 
lack of a suitable storehouse. 

The new animal-house and the alterations of the older and larger 
structure embodv some of the most advanced and successful ideas in 
the care of wild animals, a thorough inspection of the systems fol- 
lowed in the zoological collections of Cincinnati, Pittsburg, Philadel- 



phia, and New York having been made early last summer by the 
Superintendent and myself. The best features of all were combined 
in the plans adopted by you. 

Neat and substantial wire fences were built about the buffalo-park 
and deer-paddock, and around the duck-pond, at a cost of §1,127.40; 
and a new summer shelter was built for the elephant "Duchess," the 
favorite of all children and many adults. 

The houses for the gold and silver pheasants and other birds of 
gorgeous plumage, which are among the most admired members of 
the bird family in the Park, have long been an eyesore, and besides 
are unfitted for a proper display of the feathered beauties, or for their 
safe-keeping, and the construction of three handsome pheasant-houses 
is under way. 

When the wooden sheds now used for the buffalo, elk, and deer 

have been replaced by more substantial and less unsightly structures, 

an improvement which should be carried out in the near future, — the 
entire collection of animals and birds will be properly and perma- 
nently housed for some time to come, though the capacity of the 
buildings to care for additional increases will be almost reached. It 
would be fortunate if more space were available for the buffalo-pad- 
dock, and if it becomes possible to enlarge the Park by filling in the 
lake north of Fullerton Avenue, arrangements to increase the paddock 
can easily be made. The buffalo herd in Lincoln Park is probably 
the largest and finest in the country, and as the race is practically 
extinct in its wild state, I would recommend that no buffalo cows be 
sold, but that the herd be carefully guarded and increased. 

The improvements in the animal department had progressed so 
far last December, that authority was given for the expenditure of for the purchase of new animals. Much time and attention 
has since been given, with the view of securing such animals as would 
add the most to the attractiveness of the zoological collection, and of 
securing them on the most reasonable terms. The first purchase made 

under this authority was that of a lion, a tigress, a yak, a European 
fallow deer, and a pair of zebus. An order has also been given for 
the importation, from Europe, of camels, kangaroos, ostriches, black 
leopards, and other animals. 

There are many animals which would add greatly to the interest 
of the Park collection, and to its value as a living lesson for students 
of natural history, but their cost is prohibitive under the present 
financial conditions. I hope the time will come when some public- 
spirited citizen, anxious to devote his wealth to the benefit of the peo- 
ple, will make the discovery that in no way could he provide more 
pleasure and instruction for a greater number of people than by pre- 
senting a large sum to Lincoln Park for the purchase of animals and 
the construction of new and improved buildings. The present animal- 
house, with all the improvements of the past year, is hardly large 
enough for the present needs; and if the collection is to be increased 
by the addition of some of the many rare and expensive animals not 
now represented, a much larger building will be needed, as well as a 
larger fund for the purchase of new animals, than the Commissioners 
now have or are likely to have at their command for some years. 

In April the old wooden bridge across the South Pond channel was 
replaced by a substantial bridge of iron and stone, and the road, which 
had been closed to the public throughout 1897, wa s reopened. 

Late in the year a private telephone system, connecting the Park 
office, barn, greenhouse, animal-house, new animal-house, and 
power-house, was put in, at a cost of $521.25, thereby effecting a sav- 
ing of much valuable time in the transmission of orders and reports. 

Much work which was deemed of the utmost importance to the 
proper maintenance of the Park had to be postponed because of lack 
of funds. In the propagating of flowers and plants, Lincoln Park, 
which has long held a proud position in the lead of all other Chicago 
parks, has been badly handicapped by the unscientific plan on which 
its greenhouses were constructed, and because of their inadequacy in 



size. The combination of horticulture and horse-stabling was as 
unfortunate for the flowers as it was for the horses. The fumes of 
ammonii from the basement stable were injurious to all the vegeta- 
tion above them. This trouble has been removed by the construc- 
tion of the new barn. There is still, however, one very serious 
defect in the arrangement of the greenhouses, in that, instead of 
being built on the ground, they are raised a number of feet above 
the ground, on a wooden floor. Many beautiful and rare varieties 
of plants cannot be cultivated under such conditions. They are too 
faraway from Mother Earth; and until the greenhouses are taken 
down from their stilts and put on the ground, where they belong, 
the skilled gardeners of Lincoln Park will be at a serious disad- 
vantage. The greenhouse roofs are built of wood and glass; the 
wood is rotting, and unless new and modem greenhouses of iron and 
glass are soon constructed, continual and vexatious repairs will be 
necessary. Plans have already been drawn for the reconstruction 
of the greenhouses, and the addition of a few more houses at an 
approximate cost of 824,000, and it is hoped that the work will be 
completed early in the coming year. 

Orders have also been given by the Board for the construc- 
tion of toilet-rooms at the base-ball grounds, to replace the present 

Attention was called in the last annual report of the Commission- 
ers to the poor condition of nearly all the driveways in the Park. As 
all who drive over them or ride over them on bicycles are well aware, 
they are rough and uneven, the granite top dressing having almost 
entirely disappeared. To put them in good condition, an expenditure 
of at least 850,000 will be necessary. No money was available for 
such work during the last two years, and the present prospect is that 
these badly needed repairs will have to be postponed over another 

You have already decided to use no more cinders in the construc- 

tion of walks in the Park, and as soon as possible all the cinder walks 
should be replaced by cement walks. 

I desire again to earnestly recommend that steps be taken as soon 
as possible to increase the capacity of the electric-lighting plant, 
so that all boulevards controlled exclusively by the Park can be 
lighted from the Park plant. At present that part of the Sheridan 
Road known as the North Shore Drive, from Belmont Avenue to Grace 
Street, is lighted by private contract, a a cost of Si, 500 per annum; 
and when the Ohio Street Extension of the Lake Shore Drive is com- 
pleted, you will be compelled to provide for the lighting of that boule- 
vard as well. The cost of a new dynamo, the necessary increase in 
boiler capacity, and the necessary lamps and wires would not be 
great, and the interest on such an investment would be far less than 
the present and prospective annual charges for lights furnished by 
private corporations. There would be a yearly saving of $ 1,000 and 

I am not in favor of the acceptance of any more city streets as 
boulevards, except where the owners of the abutting property expressly 
guarantee the payment of whatever sums it may be necessary to expend 
for their proper maintenance. Where contracts have not" been made 
with the abutting property owners for the maintenance of Park boule- 
vards, all moneys expended for their care must be taken from the 
general fund raised by taxation on all property in the towns of North 
Chicago and Lake View,— a system which is unfair to the tax-payers 
who do not derive direct benefits therefrom. Under such an agreement, 
Garfield Avenue, from Clark Street to North Park Avenue, was 
accepted as a boulevard December 7, 1898, the City Council having 
passed an ordinance tendering the street to the Commissioners of 
Lincoln Park on November 28. 

With the rapid growth of population in North Chicago, and 
particularly in Lake View, has come a serious demand for the 
enlargement of Lincoln Park, which is now hardly large enough for 

[l^^ *«t Qki. all Uo™ if |-,^ n U jiiP 


the growing popu- 
lation for which it 
furnishes the only 
, convenient place of 
public recreation. 
The increase in the 
value of land on 
three sides of the Park- 
makes additions to it in 
any landward direction im- 
possible, except at an ex- 
pense which would be prac- 
tically prohibitive. The 
only alternative is that of 
wresting land from the 
lake. When the paved 
beach was constructed from North Avenue to Fullerton Avenue and 
over sixty acres added to the Park, it was in contemplation to extend 
the breakwater and beach to Diversey Avenue. If this were done, 
some thirty-seven acres would be added to the Park domain, and the 
lagoon could be extended a half-mile farther, making the finest land- 
locked boating-course for mile races in the country. A harbor for 
yachts could be provided, and the acreage of the Park in Lake View 
almost doubled. The expense would be inconsiderable in compar- 
ison with the vast benefits to be derived from the improvement. 

The soil of Lincoln Park is thin and poor, and constantly growing 
poorer. The original sand dunes upon which the Park was laid out 
were covered with good soil to a varying depth, seldom more than a 
few mches, and more and more of this good soil is constantly washed 
down through the loose sand, and lost. The soil is so poor, in fact in 
most of the older portions of the Park, that it is more and more a 
matter of surprise that it should be possible to keep up the lawns at 

all; and last summer the grass was only kept green by sprinkling it 
night and day during the several weeks of dry weather. The engines 
and pumps at the waterworks were run to their full capacity every 
hour of the twenty-four, pumping 5,000,000 gallons of water daily; 
and in that way it was possible to keep the grass in fairly good condi- 
tion. The time will come soon when even such extraordinary efforts 
will not avail, and it will be absolutely necessary to remove the sod 
and renew the lawns with good soil, preferably a layer of clay, and 
over that one of black soil, the clay being necessary to prevent the 
fertile soil from filtering through the sand. It will be impracticable 
to treat more than a small part of the Park in this manner in any one 
year, and it is important that the work should be begun at once if funds 
can be set apart for it. The expense will be great, but the only result of 
longer delay will be to add to the cost of what must inevitably be done. 
Considerable work was done last year on the construction of the 
Ohio Street Extension of the Lake Shore Drive, but it is still far from 
completion. I am strongly in favor of stopping this work altogether 
until the entire amount due from the property owners under their con- 
tract with a former Board has been paid in. " The contracts originally 
called for the payment of the assessments in full in 1892. The time 
was extended several times, but in 1896 payment in full was demanded, 
and some of the owners made their final payments. Others are still 
in arrears. The early completion of the drive would entail an expense 
on the Park out of proportion to the benefits to be derived from it 
until there is some connection between the boulevard systems of the 
North and South sides. No provision was made in the "contract with 
the shore owners, who will profit most by the construction of the 
drive, for its maintenance by them; and as the charge on the general 
fund of the Park for the care of the boulevard will be considerable, it 
would be unwise to proceed with the work until the property owners 
have fulfilled their part of the contract by making their final pay- 
ments. A fund of $25,000 will be secured from the shore owners for 


[ 3i 

B atWrs 

the construction of a break- 
water 1,400 feet long from the 
sea-wall at Bellevue Place to 
the new work at Oak Street; 
but the expense of filling the 
space from Oak Street to the 
breakwater, and improving it as 
a park, with a continuation of 
the paved beach, drive, para- 
pet, bicycle-path, walks, etc., 
connecting the old and the new 
shore drives, will all have to be 
borne from the general fund. 
It will be impossible to set any- 
thing apart for that purpose during the coming year from the 
reduced revenues of the Park. 

Another contract made by a former Board, which entails consider- 
able expense upon Lincoln Park, is that which was entered into with 
the Academy of Sciences. A contribution of $25,000 was made toward 
the construction of the building, and a heavy burden was laid on Lin- 
coln Park for all time bv the pledge of the payment of $6,000 of 
87,000 annuallv for the heating, lighting, and cleaning of the building, 
and the payment of the salaries of officers and employes of the insti- 

The refectory and phaeton concessions of the Park were let last 
year for periods of three years, the phaeton concession bringing a 
much larger revenue than before, and the lease of the refectories a 
somewhat smaller return, owing indirectly to the fact that the patron- 
age of the boats in the Park has fallen off in recent years, presumably 
because of the vast increase in the use of bicycles. 

There is great cause for congratulation on the part of all lovers 
of Lincoln Park in the final adjudication by the Supreme Court of 

Illinois of the question of the relative rights of Lincoln Park, and of 
private owners of property along the shore of Lake Michigan, over 
the submerged lands from the shore line to the point of navigable 
water. The Supreme Court has affirmed the constitutionality of the 
act, which in effect vests the title of all such submerged lands along 
the entire lake front, from the Chicago River to Devon Avenue, the 
northeast boundary of the town of Lake View, in the Commissioners 
of Lincoln Park for the benefit of the Park. Shore owners are 
debarred from building piers to increase their holdings, and the Com- 
missioners are empowered to fill in the lake to the point of navigable 
water for the extension of Lincoln Park. The time will come when 
this right will be a priceless heritage for the children of a greater, 
more densely populated Chicago. 

One of the most important duties which will demand your atten- 
tion in the coming year is that of pushing the improvement of Diver- 
sey Avenue Boulevard from Clark Street to the river. This is the only 
possible connection with the Park and boulevard system of the West 
Side, which has already been completed to the river. There have been 
legal obstacles in the way of securing the confirmation of an assess- 
ment for the improvement of the boulevard, which is now in an almost 
impassable condition, but many of them have been smoothed away. 
There are still some legal questions which may give trouble, but the 
matter is being pushed in the courts, and it is important that nothing 
should be left undone which may aid in securing the speediest possible 
consummation of this much-needed improvement. 

The determination of this Board to keep intact all moneys derived 
by taxation from the town of North Chicago, for a sinking fund for 
the retirement of shore protection bonds, has been faithfully main- 
tained, and the fund now amounts to over $43,000, which is drawing 
interest at 2^ per cent. There are outstanding bonds of this kind to 
the amount of $500,000, of which $300,000 will fall due in 1907, 
$160,000 in 191 1, and $40,000 in 1918. The Supervisor of the North 



town is required, by 
the several laws 
authorizing these 
issues, to make an 
annual levy suffi- 
cient to retire five 
per cent of the 
bonds outstanding, 
the proceeds of the 
levy to form a 
sinking fund for 
the retirement of 
said bonds. But 
former boards either 
did not insist on 
having the levy 
made or spent the 
money accruing 
from it for other 
urposes, and there 

will be a deficit of over Si 00,000 in the sinking 
fund when the bonds fall due. This will then 
have to be made up by an extraordinarily large 
levy, unless the annual levy is increased from 
this time sufficiently to make up the deficit. 
The charges for interest on shore protection 
bonds will be 825,000 annually, from now on 
to the retirement of the first issue. 

I hope that the Board will consider well 
the improvements to be made in the coming 
year, and not make any expenditures in excess 
of the amount of our appropriation. 
Last summer the park foremen, the employes of the animal depart- 
ment, the drivers of sprinkling-wagons, and the workmen employed 
on the drives and boulevards were put in uniforms, greatly to the 
improvement of their appearance. 

I wish to call attention to the very efficient services of Mr. I. J. 
Bryan, not only as our Secretary, but in compiling the history of Lin- 
coln Park from the beginning up to the present time. It has never 
been undertaken before, and I consider it very valuable. Admirers 
of Lincoln Park will be much interested in its early history. 

I wish also to call attention to the report of the floral department, 
prepared by our head gardener, Mr. C. J. Stromback, who has been 
in our Park for the last twenty years. This is the first time that a 
complete botanical catalogue of the plants and trees in Lincoln Park- 
has been printed. It will prove valuable to all who are interested in 
that line of work. 

The present Board, as an official body and as individuals, suffered 
a serious loss in the death of their colleague, Commissioner Horatio 
N. May, September 30, 1898. 

P. M. Woodworth, President. 


Chicago, April i, 1899. 
To The Commissioners of Lincoln Park. 

Gentlemen, — I have the honor to submit the following report of 
the business of public importance transacted in the law department 
of Lincoln Park since April 1, 1898: 

The objections filed b*y L. W. Yaggy and Parker R. Mason, to the 
assessment for the improvement of the North Shore Drive, have been 
overruled by the court, and the assessment confirmed. 

This will produce some $5,000 toward covering expenditures made 
in the completion of the driveways. 

The assessments made for boulevarding Fullerton Avenue between 
Clark Street and Orchard Street, and for curbing and guttering 
Sheridan Road between Evanston Avenue and Ainslie Street, and 
between Winona Avenue and Foster Avenue, have also been confirmed 
by the court, and the money for these improvements will probably be 
available at once and the improvements made. 

There has been much difficulty in settling the legal status of 
Diversey Street between Clark Street and the North Branch of the 
Chicago River, because of uncertainties arising concerning the legality 
of granting ordinances, repealing ordinances, and defective street 
grants, and because of factional opposition of some few property own- 
ers along the street. But now many of these difficulties have been 
happily adjusted, most of the assessment for the improvement con- 
firmed, the first installment of the assessment in process of collection, 
and we may reasonably expect that before the present summer season 
ends, we will have a beautiful boulevard completed, extending from 
Lake Michigan to the North Branch of the Chicago River, and there 
connecting with another boulevard, uniting all the West Side parks, — 

Humboldt, Garfield, and Douglas, — and thence to Washington and 
Jackson parks, semicircling - the city, and completing' the chain of 
Parks with a boulevard over twenty miles in length. The credit for 
accomplishing this great work is due to the urgent requests and per- 
sistent solicitations of Governor Tanner, the continuous attention 
given the subject by the Board of Commissioners of Lincoln Park, 
and the tireless perseverance of a committee of Diversey Street prop- 
erty owners headed by Mr. Henry Winter. 

In the suit of the Chicago Lumber Co. vs. The Town of Cicero, 
decided by the Supreme Court of Illinois, October 24, 1898, and 
reported in the 176 111., page 9, an important question of interest to 
parks in regulating boulevards and driveways was decided. 

It was claimed in that case that no municipality or other authority 
had power to determine what kinds or classes of teams should be per- 
mitted to use boulevards or driveways, or had power to exclude one 
kind of teaming and permit another kind; that all driveways were for 
the use of' all the people of the State, and not for one class of people. 
But this contention was not sustained by the Supreme Court, which 
held that there is nothing unreasonable in excluding traffic teams 
from a street designated and intended to be a pleasure driveway. Such 
a driveway, the court said, must be constructed and paved in a particu- 
lar manner, and if heavy teaming is allowed, injury would result, and 
frequent repairing would be necessary. 

Neither can it be said that pleasure and recreation are not as 
much for the good of the people as business and traffic. This deci- 
sion practically places all boulevards and driveways taken and 
improved by Lincoln Park under the sole and exclusive control of the 
Park authorities, so far as their -use is concerned. 



But the most important suit in all respects is that of Revell vs. 
The People, decided by the Supreme Court of Illinois, in a decision 
filed December 21, 1898. This was a suit brought by the Attorney- 
General in the name of the People against Alexander H. Revell, 
charging that he, being the owner of a lot fronting on Lake Michigan, 
constructed two piers of timber and stone, 130 to 200 feet in length, 
out into the lake, at right angles to the shore, upon the submerged 
land opposite his lot, which structures, it was 
claimed, were an irreparable injury to the 
State, and a purpresture, and should be 
abated or seized for the benefit of the State. 
An injunction was asked for enjoining him 
from building piers in the bed of Lake Mich- 
igan, and from doing any work on the piers 
then built, from filling in any of the bed or 
encroaching on the water of the lake. 

Revell answered, claiming that his only 
purpose in building the piers was to protect 
his land from erosion or waste; that prior to 
its construction there had been violent erosion, 
and his land was threatened with further 
waste; that his piers were not an interfer- 
ence with navigation; and that the people had no interest in them 
or right to their removal. He further alleged that the suit was not 
brought in the interest of the people, but by the Commissioners of 
Lincoln Park, who are interested in obtaining a decision as to the 
rights of shore owners whose lands they may desire to condemn and 
acquire, and that therefore the suit is not brought in good faith. 

Afterward Revell filed a supplemental answer, alleging that since 
the filing of his former answer the Commissioners of Lincoln Park 
had adopted a plan for the enlargement of Lincoln Park, and the 
location of a boulevard over the bed of the lake about 1,200 feet east 

of the shore line of his lot, for the purpose of reclaiming the sub- 
merged land for Park purposes. 

The case was heard before Judge Gibbons of the Cook County 
Circuit Court, and the court found that the piers were trespasses upon 
the submerged lands of Lake Michigan, and were purprestures; 
but that they were built for the protection of defendant's land from 
erosion, and were not detrimental to the public interest, and would 
not become so until the State wished to re- 
claim and use the land. The court decreed 
that Revell be enjoined from building any 
other piers, but as those built are not injuri- 
ous to the public interest, the court would 
not now order their abatement; and also that 
he be enjoined from interfering with the State 
or the Commissioners of Lincoln Park in 
taking possession of the submerged land up 
to the water's edge, and reclaiming and using 
the same for park purposes. Revell took an 
appeal from this decree to the Supreme Court. 
The Supreme Court held that there was 
no evidence that the suit was not brought in 
good faith; that the evidence showed that 
Revell caused one pier to be built at Barry Avenue in the fall of 1890, 
220 feet long, 20 feet on land and 200 feet in the water, and one at 
George Street not quite so long, both perpendicular to the shore; that 
the title to the land covered by the waters of our large lakes was in 
the State for the use of the public, and that the erection of structures 
of any kind upon the land under the waters of the lake within the 
boundaries of the State, without a grant or other authority from the 
State, was a trespass and purpresture. 

That although the act complained of might not be injurious, 
and might not be a public nuisance, still it was an unlawful act of 



such character as to 
authorize a court of 
equity to interfere 
and abate it. 

Upon the ques- 
tion of the riparian 
rights of the shore 
owner, the court held 
that there are only 
two common-la w 
riparian rights which 
the shore owner has, 
and which cannot be 
taken from him with- 
out due compensa- 
tion: one is, where 
land gradually and 
imperceptibly encroaches upon the water, the accretion or added land 
belongs to the shore owner; and the other is the right to pass to and 
from the lake within the width of his premises as they border on the 

The claim that the shore owner is without protection if he cannot 
erect piers or other structures, to prevent his land from erosion and 
waste, is answered by the court, saying: "A shore owner may, no 
doubt, erect on his own land such structures as may be necessary to 
protect his land from erosion, provided such structures do not inter- 
fere with navigation, but he has no right to intrude upon the lands of 
the State unless authorized by the State." And further: "It may be 
conceded that under the doctrine of protection a shore owner may 
erect structures on his own land for protection against erosion, but, 
as we understand the law, he has no right to enter upon the lands of 
the State and erect thereon such structures, and when he undertakes 

to do so, he is a trespasser. The State, holding the submerged lands 
of the lake in trust for the people of the State, would be false to its 
trust should it permit shore owners to encroach on the public domain 
and gradually appropriate such property to their own use. Here, in 
the erection of the structures complained of in the information, there 
has been a clear violation of the law, and no reason occurs to us why 
the structures should not be abated on the application of the people. 

"The decree in this case was in favor of the complainants, but after 
a careful consideration of the whole record we do not think it goes 
far enough. We think the cross-errors of appellees are well assigned." 

These cross-errors were, that the decree of the Circuit Court should 
have ordered the immediate abatement or removal of the piers. 

The substance of this decision is, that the person who owns a lot 
or piece of land reaching to the shore of Lake Michigan has a right 
to build a wall or other protection on his own land, to protect his land 
from waste by the waves of 
the lake. His land only 
extends to the shore line. 
This line was definitely 
established by the Supreme 
Court in its decision in the 
case of Seaman vs. Smith, 
24 111. 521. In that case 
it was decided that the 
shore line of Lake Michi- 
gan is the line at which the 
water usually stands un- 
affected by storms or other 
disturbing causes. Later, 
in the case of School Trust- 
ees vs. Schroll, 120 111. 
509, the Supreme Court 

**> ,v* 





p3X .■ ' ^«' : '' 

■ - ; "^^ S ^| 


■ ■ , -, 1 



said that an owner of land along- a natural lake or pond owns only to 
the water's edge. 

Consequently the owner of land bordering on Lake Michigan can 
build any protection he may deem proper, up to the line where the 
water of the lake usually stands when unaffected by storms or other 
disturbing causes; that is, where the land and the water meet when 
the water is perfectly still. But to place any obstruction on or 
under the water beyond that point is a trespass, whether it does any 
injury or not, unless it is done with the consent of the State or its 

The shore line, or line where the land and the water meet when 
at rest, is the line made by natural causes; that is, the line of the 
meeting of the land and the water before any artificial erection of any 
kind was placed in or on either the land or the water that could 
directly or indirectly add to the land. Consequently any land made 
by the erection of a pier, breakwater, or obstruction of any kind 
would not belong to the shore owner, but to the State or its grantee. 
The erection of a pier by a shore owner on submerged land beino- a 
trespass, the shore owner could not profit by his trespass. 

By an act of the Illinois Legislature, approved June 15, 1895, 
authority was given the Commissioners of Lincoln Park to enlarge the 
Park by reclaiming submerged land under the waters of Lake Michi- 
gan, and to do so by simply preparing and adopting a plan for such 
enlargement, therein locating a boulevard or driveway over the bed 
of the waters, the termini of such boulevard to be within the towns 
of North Chicago or Lake View, and granting the Commissioners 
power to extend the improvement into the lake as far as they saw fit, 
so as not to interfere with navigation on the lake. It was also pro- 
vided in this law that the fee-simple title in the submerged land 
between the outer line of the plan adopted and the shore line should 
vest absolutely in the Park Commissioners for Park purposes the 
moment the plan was adopted. 

Under this law the Commissioners may assume sole control and 
invest themselves with the fee title to all the submerged land from 
the mouth of the Chicago River to the north line of the town of Lake 
View, and from the shore line out to navigable water, which is pre- 
sumed to be now about twelve feet in depth in Lake Michigan. A 
large portion of the submerged land between these points has already 
been taken by the Commissioners under this law, and in consequence 
thereof, whenever an obstruction has been placed, or may hereafter 
be placed, outside of the shore line it will be a trespass upon the land 
of Lincoln Park instead of the land of the State. 

In the law of 1895, however, there is a restriction upon the 
power of the Commissioners in taking possession of such submerged 

Section 2 of that act provides that the riparian rights of the shore 
owners adjoining such submerged lands must be obtained by the 
Commissioners from the shore owners by contract or condemnation. 
This, however, need not be done until the Commissioners are ready to 
improve the submerged lands. 

The title to the submerged land vests in the Commissioners 
instantly upon the preparation and adoption of the plan of improve- 
ment, but no riparian right of the shore owner is interfered with until 
an attempt is made to carry out the plan by actually making improve- 

The riparian rights that the shore owner has, and which must be 
secured by the Commissioners before work is begun to improve the 
submerged land, under the decision in the Revell case, are two: 

First. — The right to accretions, as it is called, which is earth or 
other matter thrown against or upon the land of the shore owner, and 
which becomes attached thereto and is made a part thereof, either by 
the imperceptible and gradual action of the water, or by the gradual 
recession of the water from the shore line. 

Additions made to the shore owner's land in either of these ways 



become the property of the shore owner, and are called one of his 
riparian rights. 

Second. — The right to pass to and from the waters of the lake, 
within the width of his premises as they front on the lake, is the only 
other riparian right he has. 

These rights of the shore owner may be valuable or not, according 
to the circumstances of his location. 
It is believed that between the 
mouth of the Chicago River and 
the north line of Lake View, the 
right to accretions is practically 
valueless, for the reason that if all 
the piers and other artificial con- 
structions for accumulating sand and 
earthv matter were removed, the 
whole shore line would be washed 
back by the waves of the lake, and 
erosion or destruction of land would 
result instead of accretions being 
added. Evidence of competent 
engineers has been taken, showing 
that the waves on Lake Michigan 
along this shore line often, during 
storms, strike the shore with a force 
equal to six thousand pounds to 
the square foot, and average twenty feet in height. 

Evidence of old citizens is also on record, showing that large addi- 
tions have been made to the lands along a portion of this shore, but 
only since piers and breakwaters have been built, which caught the 
sand and held it against the wind and waves. But land made in this 
way belongs, not to the shore owner, but to the State or its grantee, and 
no land made by any artificial obstruction belongs to the shore owner. 

The second riparian right, access to the water, can be in no way 
interfered with, but rather facilitated, if the submerged land is 
improved by being made into a park, with walks, drives, and the like. 
Access to the water of the lake means access to the navigable water, 
not to the shallow, useless water of the lake. Access to the shallow- 
waters could be of no value unless prepared and used for bathing 
purposes, and even this right could 
not be held against the State or its 
grantee, when the land used for a 
bathing ground was required for 
other purposes. 

Consequently, riparian rights 
along this shore are practically value- 
less, and there should be no difficulty 
in obtaining them by contract or 
condemnation when needed, without 
much if any expense. And in fact, 
every shore owner would surely be 
benefited instead of injured, if the 
now valueless shallow water and 
useless submerged land adjoining his 
property were made into a beautiful 
park, with its trees, walks, shrubs, 
flowers, drives, miniature lakes, 
and other attractions; while hun- 
dreds of acres of rich land would be added to the city and State 
that is now utterly worthless for any purpose. Again, if this sub- 
merged land was transformed into a park, as is contemplated by the 
law of 1895, a park eight miles in length, with an average width of 
nearly one-fourth of a mile, would fringe the whole North Side of the 
city. On the outer edge would be a solid wall protecting the land 
against the storms of the-lake, with a wide boulevard on its top, with 

its carriage road, its equestrian path, its bicycle-track, and pedestrian 
walks, lighted by electricity at night, and made beautiful by the sunlit 
waters of the lake by day. Eventually this would be met by a similar 
extension from the South Side parks, with a Brooklyn Bridge over the 
Chicago River, and thus a continuous boulevard would be created, 
connecting all the Chicago parks in a continuous chain of the most 
beautiful scenery fifteen miles along the lake shore, and twenty miles 
around the city through the western parks to the lake again. 

There are several cases yet pending in the courts, involving the 
same questions as those decided in the Revell case, except that in 
each of the pending cases the submerged land had been taken by the 
Commissioners under the law of 1895, and the suits are in the name 
of the Commissioners instead of the State. These are the cases of 
Gordon vs. The Commissioners, now pending in the Supreme Court, 
and Gunning vs. The Commissioners and Cobb vs. The Commission- 
ers, now pending in the Superior Court, and the Commissioners vs. 
Cochran, pending in the Circuit Court. 

There is also pending in the United States Circuit Court the case 
of Sayre vs. Benner ct al., being the famous McKee scrip case, claim- 
ing all the accreted land along the lake shore front from the Chicago 
River to Oak Street. Since the decision of the Secretary of the 
Interior holding that the location of this scrip upon the land claimed 
was illegal, there seems to be little disposition to press this case, as 
that decision will be hard to overcome. 

The case of Marshall vs. The Commissioners is also pending in the 
United States Circuit Court, and is now being prepared for trial by 
taking evidence before a Master of the Court. This is the claim of 
Major Marshall, United States engineer, for some $ 16,000 royalty 
for use of his patented breakwater and beach along the shore line 
known as the Ohio Street Extension. The claim of Major Marshall is 
being contested by the attorneys of the Park on several grounds. 
One is, that Major Marshall, when he patented the supposed improve- 

merit, was the paid engineer of the Park, and whatever he invented 
during such employment should belong to the Park. Another defense 
is, that his supposed invention had been used for a long time prior to 
the granting of his patent. 

Another is, that similar methods of shore protection had been 
patented by others prior to the date of his patent. There are several 
other matters of defense that are believed by us to be sufficient to 
defeat his claim, not upon any technical ground, but because we 
believe that whatever he learned about shore protection was obtained 
at the cost of Lincoln Pa;k, and the Park should have the benefit of 
his services, and not be compelled to pay for them again. 

There are a number of other suits pending in the Superior and 
Circuit Courts, for collection of money due the Park, and other mat- 
ters of no public interest, that I have omitted to mention to avoid 
unnecessary prolixity. 

The Commissioners have been successful in all suits brought by 
them and against them that have been tried. 

They are, however, very seriously embarrassed in procuring the 
means necessary to maintain and improve the Park as it should be 
done, because of the fact that they are compelled each year to ask 
the supervisors of the towns of Lake View and North Chicago for the 
money necessary for such maintenance and improvement, and some- 
times these supervisors are very illiberal in providing for such 
improvements. If the Commissioners were empowered by law to 
assess and collect a certain amount of money each year, or to assess 
and collect such an amount as would be necessary to make the required 
improvements, a system of improvements could be projected and 
gradually completed, that would be uniform, and made much more 
symmetrical than under the present system. As the law is now, the 
Commissioners are compelled to wait until November each year to 
learn how much money the town supervisors will allow them, and 
then plan to make the most necessary improvements that the money 


provided will make, if any money is left after making the necessary 
repairs or improvements already begun. Every year the walks and 
drives should be repaired, parts of the buildings repainted, new build- 
ings erected to meet increased demands, new places for amusement 
and recreation provided, new trees planted, new soil provided to cover 
the sand beds which compose the subsoil of the principal part of the 

Park, and hundreds of other necessary repairs and improvements 
which must be made to maintain the reputation Lincoln Park has 
gained by reason of the devotion to its success exhibited by its Com- 

Respectfully submitted. 

James McCartney, Attorney. 


To The Commissioners of Lincoln Park. 

Gentlemen, — Not having served as your Superintendent for the 
entire year, 1 have, with the assistance of your efficient Assistant 
Superintendent, Mr. Alexander MacKay, and the heads of different 
departments, the honor to briefly report herewith the labor performed 
in the Park and on the boulevards from April I, 189S, to March 31, 


Work was started on the lawns in the month of April, 1898, by 
spreading thirty-two tons of fertilizer, and with continuous watering 
day and night, the same were kept in a fair condition during the 
entire season, but they will soon give out unless the soil is enriched. 

Trees have been bought and transplanted, and old trees grubbed 
out as follows: 


April, 1898. — 59 10-inch elms on the Ohio Street extension of the 
Lake Shore Drive, 21 6-inch elms on Chicago Avenue, 13 6-inch 
elms on Pearson Street, 22 6-inch catalpas on Chicago Avenue, 10 
6-inch catalpas on Pearson Street, planted on the line of Chicago 
Avenue Park, 4 6-inch catalpas in Chicago Avenue Park. 


April, 1S9S. — 150 trees in various parts of Park, principally at 
North Pavilion. One hundred shrubs from nursery in Park. 

January, 1899. — 2 10-inch elms on Dearborn Avenue, 4 10-inch 
elms on Lake View Avenue between Belmont and Diversey avenues, 

S 1 o-inch elms on Lake Shore Drive between Diversey Avenue and 
Grant Monument, 3 maples near north lily pond, 2 lindens near 
north lily pond, 1 ash near north lily pond, 1 catalpa near north lily 
pond, 6 elms on lawn of North Avenue, 3 catalpas near Academy of 
Sciences, 1 linden near Academy of Sciences, 1 elm near Academy of 

February, 1899. — 6 1 o-inch elms on Stockton Drive in place of 8 
large willows grubbed out, 4 lindens, 2 maples, 1 elm, 1 birch, trans- 
planted to conform with plan for new cages at animal-house, 1 elm, 
1 catalpa planted north of propagating house, 2 1 o-inch elms planted 
between Lincoln Monument and Lake Shore Drive, 10 old trees 
grubbed out north of Fullerton Avenue, 8 old trees grubbed out 
between Academy and Webster Avenue. 

March, 1899. — 5 elms, 4 ash, I linden, 2 catalpas, 1 cherry, 1 
Norway maple, 1 ailantus transplanted to replace trees cut down and 
grubbed out west of swings, 6 elms, 4 ash, I linden, 2 maples, 3 ash- 
leaf maples, 8 shrubs transplanted in front of cages of animal-house, 
75 old trees cut down and grubbed out. 

During the months of January and February, 1899, the following 
trees were taken out in various places in the Park, from groups which 
were planted too thickly, and transplanted in Chicago Avenue Park: 
16 elms, 15 lindens, 10 ash, 7 maples, 5 catalpas, 5 cottonwoods, 3 
ailantus, 2 Norway maples. 

In addition to the tree and shrub planting, considerable work has 
been done in this department in tearing out old vines and shrubs, and 
cutting dead wood from the trees in various parts of the Park. By- 
constant watering, our trees are kept in very good condition, but the 
trees, like the lawns, need richer soil. They should be strengthened 



in their growth by digging out 
the sand around them, and re- 
placing same by good black 
soil and manure for nourish- 

No new paving has been 
done to the roads or walks in 
the Park during the past year, 
but they have been patched 
here and there as necessity 
required it. Our roads are 
very much in need of granite 
top dressing-. An approximate estimate of the cost of this work is, 
that it will require $50,000 to put the roads in proper condition; and 
if possible, I would recommend that the Commissioners set aside a 
certain sum of money for this purpose, to make a start on this much- 
needed improvement. 


The following work has been done in the construction of the so-called Ohio Street 
extension of the Lake Shore Drive: 

1,000 lineal feet of 50-foot-wide roadbed. 
1,000 lineal feet of 25-foot-wide bicycle-track. 
1,000 lineal feet of 12-foot-wide bridle-path, with combined curb and gutter, have been built, 
but not top-dressed. 

1,018 lineal feet of 2 1 -foot-wide concrete sidewalk, 897 lineal feet of 12-foot-wide concrete 
sidewalk, and 1,060 lineal feet of granite-paved beach 48 feet wide have been constructed on this 
improvement. Over 400 feet of the new beach was torn out by the storm of October 25 last, but 
it was replaced at a cost of 

Thejjfollowing new work was done on the water and sewer systems: 



900 feet of 6-inch water main, 6 fire-plugs, goo feet of 2-inch 
iron pipe for sprinkler system and 17 street washers, 1,200 feet of 
12-inch sewer-pipe, 800 feet of o-inch sewer-pipe, 8 manholes, and 32 


Sewers and water mains have been laid in the Park as follows: 

550 feet of 12-inch sewer, 300 feet of 6-inch sewer, and 5 manholes, 
for proposed new toilet-rooms at the base-ball grounds. 

300 feet of 12-inch sewer-pipe, 700 feet of 6-inch sewer-pipe, 2 
manholes, and 10 catch-basins, for new barn. 

200 feet of 6-inch sewer-pipe, 150 feet of g-inch sewer-pipe, and 4 
catch-basins, for new animal-house. 

120 feet of g-inch sewer, 244 feet of 6-inch sewer, and 8 catch- 
basins, at new summer cages of animal-house. 

60 feet of 12-inch sewer for sea-lion pit. 

300 feet of 2-inch water-pipe for new barn. 

156 feet of i-inch water-pipe and 3 street-washers at animal-house. 

50 feet of 1 -inch water-pipe at new animal-house. 

120 feet of 1 -inch water-pipe and 1 street-washer for pheasant- 

550 feet of iVj'-inch water-pipe and 1 street-washer for horticul- 
tural department. 

300 feet of 3-inch water-pipe, 80 feet of 2-inch water-pipe, and 
100 feet of i-inch water-pipe, for Bates Fountain. 


During the past year there have been painted and lettered: II 
double sprinklers, 2 single sprinklers, 12 carts, I express-wagon, 1 
buggy, 2 schooner-wagons, 4 dirt-wagons, I two-horse roller, 1 one- 
horse roller, 3 hand-rollers, 3 push-carts, 1 plumber's cart, 1 mowing- 
machine cart, 10 street-barrows, 6 mortar-barrows, 6 stone-barrows, 

31 mowing-machines, g2 waste-paper baskets, 8g boats, 2 swan boats, 
22 cupboards in new barn for teamsters, 300 grass-signs, 120 stand- 
pipes for sprinkling system, 200 settees, 150 stationary benches. 

Both refectories were calcimined, and considerable painting done. 

The Commissioners' and Superintendent's rooms were decorated. 

All tunnels and bridges and railings were repaired and sanded. 


One new iron bridge with asphaltum and concrete roadway was 
constructed by contract over the old channel east of the South Pond, 
which was filled in in l8g7, but the abutments of concrete were 
erected by Park labor. 

The timber frame and plank walk at the bridge over the channel at 
the animal-house were constructed by Park labor. 

The foot-bridge at the refectory was rebuilt, and considerable 
repairing on tunnels and other bridges done this year. 


A great deal of trouble was experienced with our electric light sys- 
tem during the past winter, much of which was due to the improper 
laying of conduits. Ducts should invariably have been laid so as to 
drain thoroughly to hand-holes. Where no hand-hole exists between 
two poles, the pipe should be laid to slant to a central point between 
the poles, and a hole drilled in the bottom of the pipe to allow for 
drainage. Under this hole a piece of small sewer-pipe or other suit- 
able material should be placed, so that the water will have a few- 
inches of drop before reaching the earth, and to insure against filling 
up in case the ground is frozen all around. 

Wherever trouble is due to ice forming in the ducts, a new cable 
should never be drawn in until the conduit has been relaid, as the 
trouble will only be again repeated the following winter. A g'reat 
deal of work has been done by our chief electrician, Mr. Harold 

\eYwe.™. <sAa\j0 Sj Ww»,W^ WvvbtYNioWy |0&* 





Almert, during the last two months, to insure, as far as possible, 

against any water getting into the conduit, by overhauling all the 

electric-light poles in the Park, straightening and tightening same, and 

sealing up the holes at the top of the pole 

where the cables lead down, and by repairing 

hangers in such a way that they will not cut 

the cable by swinging to and fro as heretofore. 
The arc lights demand the greater portion 

of our chief electrician's time and attention. 

He found upon taking charge that all the 

lamps were burning at too high a voltage; 

whether this was caused by his predecessor 
or the trimmers is hard to say, but in his 
judgment he thinks the latter, as they have 
been in the habit of changing the adjustment 
of the lamps if it did not suit them, think- 
ing it did no harm. This practice has been 
stopped, and the consumption of current for 
each lamp has been reduced by fifty watts, still 
giving exactly the same amount of light. 
This means a continual saving, when all lamps 
are burning, of 12,500 watts, or equal to 16.7 
horse-power; 150 lamps have been completely 
overhauled and replaced on the line. Each 
and every lamp is taken apart and thoroughly 
cleaned. It is then put together and painted, 
the defective parts replaced by new ones,' 
after which it is placed on the test-rack and carefully adjusted by 
a volt meter, its behavior being carefully watched for" several hour's 
before marking it O. K. 

The paper cable, although of very high insulation resistance when 

in good condition and well protected is merh.n.V 11 5 ^ ' Sh ° Uld be re P laced b V a larger one. All 

p.otected, ,s mechamcally weak, and ,s transformers on the incandescent system are working from i S to 92 

not very well fitted for this particular installation. As soon as a hole 
the s,ze of a p.nhead appears, the paper absorbs the surrounding 
mo.sture, and ,n a few hours a considerable portion of the cable is 
ruined. Though rubber cable is higher in 
price, I think- it will be cheaper in the end, 
as it will retain its insulating properties, even 
though the lead covering may be parted. 

In a great many cases 1 think the trouble 
with our lights was the faulty laying of these 
cables. It seems that they were stretched to 
such an extent that the lead covering was 
parted and flattened in a great many places. 
We have relaid 4,000 feet of cable/and laid 
2,500 feet of new rubber cable. The conduit 
for this was relaid, and the new cable laid in a 
thorough and workmanlike manner, and I do 
not believe that we will experience any more 
trouble or grounds on this portion of our 

During the last winter there were twelve 
cases of cable trouble, as follows: Circuit A, 
O, K, circuit B 6 grounds, circuit C 3 grounds,' 
circuit D 1 ground, circuit E 1 ground, circuit 
F 1 ground. All of these have been over- 
come and repaired, so that the system at pres- 
ent is in a good running condition. 

The arc light dynamos are in a very 
good condition, although taxed to their utmost capacity, and if any 
more lights are to be added in the near future, it will 'be necessary 
to purchase another arc dynamo. Our incandescent dynamo is over- 
taxed 50 per cent, and should be replaced by a larger one. All 



per cent overload, which makes it uneconomical work; but 
a great deal of this will be remedied as soon as our elec- 
trician can get at them. He is now working upon the 
more important system of arc lights. 


During the season the following permits for games 
were issued: Lawn tennis, 1,201; base-ball, 217; foot-ball, 
35; total, 1,453. 

The following is a list of the days of skating during the 
winter of 1898-99: November, 1898, 3 days; December, 
1898, 31 days; January, 1899, 27 days; February, 1899, 15 
days; total, 76 days. 


An entire new fence was constructed around the animal- 
yards, and 975 feet of concrete curbing underneath same 
was laid by Park employes. 

All sprinkling-wagons, carts, boats, mowing-machines, 
and barrows have been thoroughly overhauled by our car- 
penters, wagon-makers, and blacksmiths. 

Considerable manure has been hauled to va> ious parts 
of the Park, as follows: To the Ohio Street Extension in 
August, 1S9S, 117 cubic yards; in May, 1898, from the 
new barn site to the North Shore Drive, 700 cubic yards. 

Sharp sand was taken from the beach and hauled to 
the Ohio Street Extension, as follows: In May, 1898, 93 
yards; June, 189S, 192 yards ; July, 1898, 222 yards; 
August, 189S, 153 yards; September, 1898, 638 yards;, 
October, 1898, 100 yards; total, 1,398 yards. And 35 
yards were hauled to the new beach at North Avenue. 



Fifty-two loads of slag were hauled to the new barn for roads, and 
whenever we had teams idle during the winter, we had them hauling 
cinders for Chicago Avenue Park walks. The new barn has been 
constructed and completed during the fiscal year, giving us ample 
room for our horses and storage of feed, together with shelter for 
our sprinklers, carts, and wagons, also a new carpenter, blacksmith, 
and plumbing shop, and storage-room. 

Many plans, details, and specifications have been drawn during 
the year, by your efficient civil engineer, A. A. Babcock, the principal 
ones being: 

i. The plans and details for new men's toilet-room at the ball- 
grounds, part of the work, mainly sewerage, for the building having 
already been completed. 

2. Plans and details for three new pheasant cages and yards, 
nearly completed. 

3.. Plans and details for the new propagating house, the erection 
of which will be started as soon as the plants can be removed from 
the old building. 

4. Plans for a new animal-shelter house. 

5. Plans and details for the outside cages at the animal-house, 
work on which is practically completed. 

6. Soundings taken, and plans of same drawn for the beach work- 
under construction. Sketches for the protection of the sea-wall, and 

a good many approximate estimates of different plans and improve- 
ments drawn up for consideration. 

I wish to call the attention of the Commissioners to the fact that 
these buildings are being erected by Park labor as much as possible, 
as it is my firm belief that this method is giving us a better class of 
work at less expense than if let out on contract. 

Our artesian-well water supply is in danger of giving out again, 
and I believe that some other method should be used to supply the 
different wells in the Park with drinking water. I would suggest that 
you erect a steel tank above the well near the power-house, of a 
capacity of about 65,000 gallons of water, place a small air' com- 
pressor in the engine-room, connect same with pipe to the well, and 
thus force the water into the tank very easily. From the tank lead a 
four-inch supply pipe down to connect with different pipes now lead- 
ing up to this well. This would insure a good supply of drinkino- 
water for the public, and would in the end be cheaper than the 
method now used in distributing this water. 

This is, in brief, as I find the conditions in the Park; and I deem 
it my duty to call the attention of the Commissioners to the facts 
as they are, so that steps may be taken to remedy existing evils as 
soon as possible. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Paul Redieske, Superintendent. 


Chicago, April i, 1899. 
To The Commissioners of Lincoln Park. 

Gentlemen, — I present herewith an inventory of the animals, 
birds, and reptiles in Lincoln Park, with their ages and other details, 
together with a list of the animals and birds presented to Lincoln 
Park in the year closing March 31, 1S99. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Cyrus DeVry, 

Animal Keeper. 



i Lion Male 

1 Lion-.. Male.-- 

1 Lion . Female.. 

1 Lion ... Female.. 

1 Tiger Male.. . 

1 Tiger... Female.- 

I Tiger Female. 

I Jaguar Male 

1 Leopard Male 

I Hyena Female.. 

1 Hyena Female. . 

1 Puma Male 

I Puma Female.. 

3 Young pumas 

1 Lynx 

2 Wildcats 

5 White Maltese cats 

1 Elephant Female 31 

1 Buffalo Bull 10 

1 Buffalo Bull 3 

1 Buffalo Bull 2 

2 Buffaloes Bulls 1 

4 Buffaloes Cows 11 

2 Buffaloes Cows 3 

3 Buffaloes Cows 2 

1 Buffalo, Asiatic Male 40 

1 Elk Male 3 



6 Elk 1 Female.... 5 

1 Deer '} Male .' 6 

1 Deer .. Male 3 

2 Deer Female 3 

1 European fallow deer Male . 5 

3 Goats Male 

1 Aoudad Male..-. 8 

1 Yak _ Male 11 

1 Pairzebus Male and female 3 

1 Zebra Male 2% 

2 Polar bears Female 16 

1 Grizzly bear Male 10 

1 Russian grizzly bear Female 

1 Cinnamon bear Male 10 



2 Brown bears. 

■i Black bear. 

6 Raccoons. 

5 Half-breed wolves. 

2 Black wolves. 

1 Coyote. 

7 Foxes. 

4 Rattlesnakes. 

15 Eagles. 
It Owls. 

4 Chicken hawks. 

2 Turkey buzzards. 

7 Crows. 

1 White crow. 
4 Magpies. 

2 European swans. 

2 American swans. 

1 Black swan. 
12 Wild ducks. 

9 Wild geese. 

3 Wood ducks. 

2 Mallard ducks. 

2 Flying foxes. 

5 Prairie dogs. 

2 Opossums. 
10 Rabbits. 
20 Guinea pigs. 

1 Swift fox. 

1 Honey bear. 

3 Gila monsters. 


2 Call ducks. 

2 Sea gulls. 

3 Blue herons. 
1 Night heron. 

1 German stork. 

2 Sand-hill cranes. 

3 Pelicans. 
30 Ring doves. 

1 Dog quail. 
14 Golden pheasants. 
7 English pheasants. 

4 Silver pheasants. 
1 Hybrid pheasant. 

20 Peacocks. 

1 Great Dane dog. 

1 Pig. 

5 Monkeys. 

3 Civet cats. 
40 White mice. 
30 Squirrels. 

8 Rabbits. 

5 Peahens. 

2 Turkeys. 

20 English bantam 

3 Red macaws. 

1 Green macaw. 

4 Cockatoos. 
1 1 Parrots. 

7 Parrakeets. 

1 Starling. 

1 Bluejay. 
18 Canaries. 

2 Robins. 




April 8. 
April 11. 
April 11. 
April 11. 
April 11. 
April 17. 
April 17. 
April 25. 
April 26. 
April 27. 
May 10. 
May 12. 
May 12. 
May 12. 
May 17. 
May 21. 
May 25. 
June 4. 
June 9. 
June 9. 
June 12. 
June 14. 
June 14. 
June 23. 
June 23. 
July 8. 
July 12. 

July 13- 
July ,3. 
July 14- 






I Raccoon R.A.Harris 432 Clybourn av. 

1 Golden eagle Aid. John Powers 79 McAlister pi. 

2 Wolves F. Obermaier 84 Clark st. 

9 Canary birds Mrs. Camp Portage, Wis. 

2 Squirrels Raymond Perry 343 E. 53d St. 

1 Wild duck H. Stoelzel City 

1 Hen hawk J. H. Carr 27 Troy St. 

I Squirrel Percival Keith 4603 Langley av. 

1 Alligator ... .. Fred B. Hildreth 133 E. Vanburen si 

1 Parrot Mrs. Schroeder 502 Wells St. 

1 Quail ... C. Dreier 553 Clybourn av. 

8 Pigeons ... A. H. Guenewald 738 Sedgwick st. 

3 Canary birds Mrs. Vantasel 550 School st. 

I Hawk Mrs. Daymen! 143 Fullerton av. 

1 White owl KelleyBros Cylinder, Iowa 

1 Squirrel ...- Mrs. Wise 385 Dearborn av. 

1 Young male deer ... W.C.Galloway 156 Dearborn av. 

1 Young male deer .._ Chester Simons 370 Fulton av. 

1 Young male deer ... Wm. Ganschow 666 Warren av. 

1 Magpie Fred McNally N. Park av. 

1 Canary bird ... .... W. Patteson 268 Chestnut st. 

I Owl Anton Bashart no Webster av. 

3 Crows H. Buscher 592 N. Wells st. 

f Parrot Mrs. Bartling... _ 381 Center st. 

1 Golden eagle E. Kraneman 565 Lincoln av. 

1 Ring-tail monkey ... E.E.Clark Danville, 111. 

2 Ring doves Chas. Fries 94 Cass st. 

1 Hawk G. Ayers 3052 Indiana av. 

1 Fox H. J. Holthoefer 4858 Indiana av. 

2 Squirrels ... .. Fred Hildreth 133 E. Vanburen st. 

1 Badger Chas. Hoagen Paulina, Iowa 

1 White raccoon Dr. Wm. Doepp 73 Grant pi. 

1 Western bluejay Miss Jessie Jaquish 283 Irving av. 

1 Mink Jacob Soffirth.... 786 N. Halsted st. 

1 Parrakeet .. M. D. Williams 1651 W. Monroe st. 

1 Parrot Mrs. G. Grummett . 105 Emerson av. 

1 Fox... __ T.D.Dunn City 


Aug. 5, 

Aug. 7 

Aug. 9 

Aug. 9 

Aug. 1 1 

Aug. 30 

Aug. 30 

Aug. 31 

Aug. 31 

Sept. 1 

Sept. 5 

Sept. 7 

Sept. 9 

Sept. 9 

Sept. 12 

Sept. 19 

Sept. 25 

Sept. 29. 








1 Young coyote Ben Birch 1520 Div 

ersey av 

Feb. 20. 
Mar. 20. 

1 Lynx 

1 Golden eagle 

I Alligator 

1 Young opossum 

2 Squirrels 

I Parrot 

1 Guinea pig 

1 Hen hawk 

2 Hen hawks 

1 Magpie 

1 Raccoon 

1 Rattlesnake 

2 Hen hawks 

1 Porcupine 

1 Parrot and canary 


1 Canary bird 

I Parrot 

1 Quail 

1 Pair rabbits- 

1 Guinea hen 

35 White mice 

I Screech owl .._ 

1 Opossum 

1 Green macaw 

Mr. Schrolls 201 E. North av. 

Wm. H. Kihn 247 Illinois st. 

Clara Brinkman 585 La Salle av. 

P.O.Ward 233K Chestnut st. 

J. E. Baggs 1523 Aldine av. 

H. Brueggestradt 226 S. Clark st. 

Mrs. M. Shields Dearborn av. 

Hans Henkin 188 Fifth av. 

E. Erickson 239 Oak st. 

Miss Becker 205 E. Division st. 

Ira Storms 409 Sedgwick st. 

H. S. Pepon 2443 N. Hermitage av 

O. Wagner Fairmont, Minn. 

Geo. Schmall 316 North av. 

Mrs. Webber 309 Orchard st. 

Herman Zeitz 1137 Lincoln av. 

Mrs. E. Palmer Sheldon av. 

P. W. Kline 544 Garfield av. 

Miss Irwin .... ....... 2566 N. Ashland av. 

J. F. Scheeck 1806 Dearborn av. 

J. J. Klinehart 86 Fremont St. 

Capt. Seegn ... 9S7 Herndon st. 

Nels Duckels .. Jacksonville, 111 

Mrs. Henning 622 La Salle av. 

1 Golden eagle Mayor Carter Harrison 

2 Parrots Dr. P. M. Woodworth.. 1246 N. Clark st. 

I Red bird Mrs. Ellis 520 N. Normal Parkwav 

I Civet cat N.H.Lyon 39 Bellevue pi. 

1 Red fox Wm. Werner 72 Bryant av. 

1 Gray squirrel W. F. Newberry 4415 Ellis av. 

2 Hen hawks C. R. Sandquist 33 E. Chicago av. 

t Red fox H. Freeman 876 Grand av. 

1 Owl Central Police Station 

1 Opossum J. Paulsen 225 Dearborn av. 

1 Raccoon Stewart & Gust Rockford, III. 

2 Alligators Wm. Mangier N. Park av. 


Chicago, April I, 1899. 

To The Commissioners of Lin- 
coln Park. 

Gentlemen, — I present here- 
with an enumeration of the 
plants, vines, shrubs, and trees 
in Lincoln Park, embracing 
1,42.7 species, which represent 
116 natural orders. The names 
are grouped according to habit 
of growth and general charac- 
ter. Each group is arranged 
alphabetically, in itself, by the 
names of the genera. This was 
considered better for the present 
purpose than a strictly botanical 
classification. In cases where 
plants have common or popular 
names they are given, where 
space permits the original home 
of the plant is added, and also 
the month of blooming of 
species having showy flowers. 
Respectfully submitted. 
C. J. Stromback, 

Head Gardener. 


Abies excelsa 

Acer dasycarpum 

Acer dasycarpum Weirii 

Acer dasycarpum laciniata 

Acer platanoides 

Acer platanoides Reichenbachii 

Acer platanoides Schwedlerii 

Acer Palmatum 

Acer Polymorphum 

Acer pseudo-platanus 

Acer rubrum .. 

Acer Saccharinum 

Aesculus flava 

Aesculus glabra . 

Aesculus Hippocastanum 

Aesculus Hippocastanum Memmin 

Month of bloom- 

ENGLISH NAMES AND HABITAT. ing of Species with 

showy flowers. 

Norway Spruce 

Silver Maple 

Weir's Maple ... ._. 

Cut-leaved Maple 

Norway Maple 

Reichenbach's Norway Maple... 

Purple Norway Maple 

Palmate Japanese Maple 

Japan Maple 

Sycamore Maple May 

Red Maple April 

Sugar Maple 

Sweet Buckeye -_ May 

Ohio Buckeye May 

Horse Chestnut 'May 

Aesculus Lyonii 

Ailanthus glandulosa 

Alnus glutinosa 

Amelanchier Canadensis 

Ampelopsis Veitchii 

Ampelopsis tricuspidate Royalii - 

Ampelopsis quinquefolia 

Amygdalus nana 

Amygdalus Persica 

Aralia Spinosa 

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi '. 

Aristolochia sipho 

Berberis Thunbergii 

Berberis vulgaris 

Berberis vulgaris var. purpurea.. 


Lyon's Buckeye 

" Tree of Heaven" 

European Alder 

June Berry .. May 

Japan Ivy 

Virginia Creeper 

Flowering Almond May 

Peach Tree May 

Angelica Tree August 

Bear-Berry May 

Dutchman's-Pipe Vine June 

Japan Barberry May 

Barberry May 

Purple Barberry May 



Betula alba laciniata pendula Weeping White Birch 

Betula lutea ..__ Grey Birch 

Betula papyrifera Canoe Birch 

Betula populifolia American White Birch. 

Betula Youngii ... Young's Birch ... 

Betula lenta-.- Sweet Black Birch-.. 

Month of t 

ing- of specie 

showy Ho 

Buddleia cun iflora .. Buddleia August 

Calycanthus floridus .__. Carolina Allspice June 

Carpinus Americana Blue Beech 

Caragana Siberica Siberian Pea...- . May 

Caragana arborescens .. .. Siberian Pea Tree 

Catalpa speciosa ... - Indian Bean 

Catalpabignonioides Lilac-leaved Catalpa 

Catalpa Kaempferii... .... Japanese Catalpa.. )une 

Catalpa Bungei (nana) ... Chinese Catalpa ... 

Caryaalba Shell-bark Hickory . ... 

Celastrusscandens-... - Staff-tree, Bittersweet June 

Celtis occidentalis Hackberry . . . 


rimini »~n «» r ^,^= Month of bloor 


showy flower! 

Cephalanthus occidentalis Button Bush August 

Cercidophyllum Japonicum Katsura 

Cercis Canadensis Judas-Tree— .. May 

Chionanthus Virginica Fringe Tree June 

Clematis -paniculate—. Japanese Virgin Bower .. August 

Clematis Jackmanii ... ... Hybrid Virgin Bower August 

Clematis Mme. Edward Andree Hybrid Virgin Bower August 

Clematis Virginiana Virgin's Bower .. August 

Clematis Viorna . Leather Flower July 

Clethra alnifolia ... .... Sweet Pepper Bush -August 

Cornus alba (stolonif era) Red Osier Dogwood June 

Cornusalternifolia Blue Dogwood .. June 

Cornus mascula Cornelian Cherry . April 

Cornus sericea .. Silky Cornell ._ June 

Cornus stricta Stiff Cornell May 

Cornus paniculate Panicled Cornell June 

Corylus Avellana Filbert 

Corylus Avellana aurea Golden Hazel . 

Corylus purpurea Purple Hazel 

Crataegus coccinea .. American White Thorn .. June 

Crataegus crus-galli Cock-spur Thorn June 

Crataegus oxycantha... English Hawthorn . June 

Cupressus Lawsoniana Oregon Cypress 

Deutzia crenata flora plena Double Deutzia 

Dimorphanthus Mandshuricus Aralia 

Elaegnus longipes Oleaster, Silver Thorn .... 

Euonymusalata Winged VVaahoo 

Euonymus Americana Strawberry Bush 

Euonymus Americana obovata Trailing Strawberry Bush . 

Euonymus elata Erect Spindle Tree 

Euonymus atropurpurea Burning Bush 

Exochorda grandiflora Pearl Bush 

Fagus sylvatica heterophylla.... Cut-leaved Beech 

Fagus sylvatica purpurea _ Purple Beech 

Fraxinus Americana White Ash 

Fraxinus excelsior ... English Ash 

Fraxinus excelsior aurea ... Golden English Ash 

Fraxinus sambucifolia Black Ash 

Forsythia suspensa .. Drooping Golden Bell May 

Forsythia viridissima Golden Bell May 







Month of bloom- 
ing of species with 
showy flowers. 

Forsythia virid. variegata Yellow-leaved Golden Bell May 

Gaultheria procumbens Wintergreen July 

Gleditschia triacanthos Honey Locust 

Gymnocladus Canadensis Kentucky Coffee Tree ■- 

Halesia tetraptera Silver Bell June 

Hibiscus Syriacus Rose of Sharon August 

Hibiscus Syr. variegata Variegated Shrubby Althea August 

Hippophae rhamnoides Sea Buck Thorn August 

Hydrangea paniculata Japanese Hydrangea ..- August 

Juglans cinerea Butternut 

Juglans nigra Black Walnut 

Juniperus Hibernica Irish Juniper 

Juniperus Virginiana Red Cedar 

Juniperus communis Common Juniper 

Juniperus Sinensis Chinese Juniper 

Juniperus Sabiria procumbens Trailing Juniper 

Juniperus Sabina Vera . — Savin 

Juniperus Sin. aurea Golden Juniper ■ 

Kerria Japonica variegata Corchorus May 

Koelreuteria paniculata Varnish Tree 

Laburnum Adami Golden Chain 

Larix Americana American Larch 

Ligustrum ovalifolium California Privet 

Li gust rum vulgare Privet, Prim July 

Liquidambar styraciflua Sweet Gum-- ■-- 

Liriodendron tulipifera Tulip-tree June 

Lonicera orientalis Honeysuckle May 

Lonicera parviflora Woodbine May 

Lonicera Philomela? Philomela Honeysuckle May 

Lonicera Tartarica Tartarian Honeysuckle May 

Lonicera Tar. grandiflora Large flowered Tar. Honeysuckle May 

Lonicera Xylosteum Fly Honeysuckle 

Lycium vulgare Matrimony Vine 

Magnolia Soulangeana Japanese Magnolia 

Mahonia aquifolium Holly-leaved Barberry- 

Menispermum Canadense _ Moon Seed Vine 

Mespilus acuminata Medlar 

Morus Tartarica Russian Mulberry 

Morus Japonica Japanese Mulberry 

Morus alba White Mulberry 




Month of bloom- 


showy flowers. 

Negundo aceroides Box Elder 

Neviusia Alabamansis Neviusia 

Ostrya Virginica Hop Hornbeam, Iron Wood 

Paulownia imperialis Empress Tree 

Phellodendron Amurense Chinese Cork Tree 

Philadelphia coronaria Mock Orange June 

JWoccxVvo. ^<^<£CVv^ -£, 

Philadelphus cor. aurea Golden-leaved Dwarf June 

Philadelphia grandiflora Large flowered Mock Orange June 

Philadelphus Gordoniana Late Mock Orange June 

Philadelphus Zeyheri Dwarf Mock Orange June 

Physocarpus opulifolius Nine-bark June 

Physocarpus opu. aurea Golden Spiraea June 

Picea Alcoquiana Alcock's Fir 

Picea balsamea Balsam Fir 

Picea Nordmanniana r --_ Nordmann's Fir 

Picea pungens Blue Spruce 




Pin us Austriara 

Pinus Banksiana 

Pinus Mughus nana- 
Pinus Strobus 

Month of bloom- 

ENGLISH NAMES AND HABITAT. itlg of Species With 

showy flowers. 

Black Pine 

Northern Scrub Pine 

Knee Pine 

White Pine 

Month of bloon 

ng of species wit 

showy flowers 

Pinus sylvestris 

Platanus orientalis 

Platanus occidentalis .. 

Populus angulata 

Populus monilifera 

Populus Van Geerti 
Populus Graeca 

Scotch Pine 

Common Plane Tree-. 

Button Wood, Sycamore 

Cotton Wood 

Necklace Poplar 

Golden Poplar 

Athenian Poplar 


Populus alba— Abele, silver leaf . 

Populus alba Bolleana Pyramidal silver leaf 

Populus dilatata Lombardy Poplar. . 

Populus Candicans Balm of Gilead Poplar 

Prunus Armeniaca Apricot Apri i 

Prunus Americana Wild Plum May 

Prunus Pissardi p urple P]um 

Prunus triloba Double Flowering Plum— May 

Prunus padus Bird Cherry May 

Prunus pumila Sand Cherry May 

Prunus pum. pendula Weeping Sand Cherry May 

Prunus Pennsylvania Wild Red Cherry 

Prunus serotina ... Wild Black Cherry 

Prunus Virginiana Choke Cherry 

Prunus Cerasus Common Cherry 

Prunus Cerasus serrulata Double White Chinese Cherry. 

Prunus Cer. Sinensis fl. pi Double Flowering Cherry— 

Ptelea trifoliata Hop Tree j un 

Pteleatrif.aurea— Golden Wafer Ash. ... June 

Pyrus Mains-... Apple Tree .. May 

Pyrus Malusfloribunda Dwarf Flowering Apple May 

Pyrus (Sorbus) Americana American Mountain Ash May 

Pyrus (Sorbus) aucuparia pend Weeping Mountain Ash. .. . .. May 

Pyrus spectabilis (sinensis) Chinese Apple .. May 

Pyrus (Cydonia)Japonica Maulea-... Japan Quince May 

Pyrus (Cydonia)Japonica Fire-thorn ._ May 

Pyrus arbutifolia — . Choke Berry 

Pyrus coronaria .. American Crab Apple .. 


Pyrus coronaria floreplena Double Crab Apple 

Pyrus fennica (pinnatifida) Oak-leaved Mountain Ash.. 

Quercus alba — White Oak 

Quercus bicolor Swamp White Oak ... 

Quercus cerris English Turkey Oak--. 

Quercus coccinea Scarlet Oak 

Quercus imbricaria Laurel Oak 

Quercus macrocarpa Bur Oak 

Quercus robur English Oak 

Quercus robur Concordia Golden-leaved English Oak 

Quercus rubra Red Oak 

Quercus palustris Pin Oak 






Month of blooni- 


showy riowers. 

Quercus tinctoria Quercitron, Black Oak 

Retinospora filifera Japan Cypress 

Retinospora squarrosa (Chamaecyparis) 

Retinospora obtusa (Chamcecyparis) 

Retinospora plumosa (Chamrecyparis) 

Rhamnus Cathartica' Buck Thorn 

Rhodotypus Kerrioides White Kerria June 

Rhus Cotinus Smoke Tree June 

Rhus Canadensis (aromatica) ... May 

Rhus typhina Staghorn Sumach 

Rhus Osbeekii semialata Javan Sumach 

Ribes Oxycanthoides Wild Gooseberry 

Ribes aureum Buffalo Currant May 

Robinia pseudacacia Black Locust June 

Rosa rubiginosa Sweet Brier June 

Rosa Wichuriana Creeping Rose August 

Rosa " Crimson Rambler " 

Rosa rubrifolia Purple-leaved Rose June 

Rosa rugosa Russian Rose August 

Rubus Crataegifolia Haw-leaved Blackberry 

Salisburia adiantifolia Maiden Hair Tree 

Salix alba White Willow 

Salix Babylonica Weeping Willow 

Salix Caprea Goat Willow 

Salix fragilis Crack Willow 

Salix Japonica Japanese Willow 

Salix nigra Black Willow 

Salix purpurea Purple Willow 

Salix rosmarinifolia Rosemary-leaved Willow 

Salix Sieboldiana Siebold's Willow 

Salix vitellina Golden Sallow 

Sambucus Canadensis Elder --- June 

Sambucus Can. aurea Golden Elder June 

Sassafras officinal is Sassafras May 

Solanum Dulcamara Bittersweet August 

Spiraea Aruncus Goat's-beard July 

Spiraea Billardi July 

Spiraea Bumalda July 

Spiraea Bum. Anthony Waterer July 

Spiraea Reevesii fl. pi. Japan June 

Month of bloom- 


showy flowers. 

Spiraea canescens July 

Spiraea sorbifolia Siberia July 

Spiraea Thunbergii Japan May 

Spiraea Van Houtei May 

Spiraea ulmifolia June 

Symphoricarpos racemosa Snowberry July 

Symphoricarpos vulgaris Coral Berry July 

Syringa alba White Lilac May 

Syringa Japonica Japan Lilac June 

Syringa Persica Persian Lilac May 

Syringa Josikaea Hungarian Lilac. June 

Syringa vulgaris Common Lilac May 

Staph ylea pinnata Bladder-nut June 

Tamarix Africana African Tamarisk June 

Tamarix Gallica French Tamarisk June 

Tecoma radicans Trumpet Creeper Augu 

Thuya occidentalis Arbor Vitae 



Thuya occidentalis aurea... Golden Arbor Vita; 

Tilia Americana Basswood 

Tilia argentea (Europaea) Silver-leaved Linden ! 

Tilia Europsa _. Linden 

Tilia heterophylla - American White Basswood. 

Tsuga Canadensis . Hemlock Spruce 

Month of bloon 

ing of species wit 

showy flowers 


Ulmus monta 
Ulmus mont 

Ulmus alata.... Winged Elm 

Uimus Americana.., White Elm. 

Ulmus campestris .... English Elm . 

ius camp, monumental is Monumental Elm. ... 

ana-... Wych E , m 

anapendula— Weeping Wych Elm. 

us racemosa— . __ Rock Elm 

Ulmus stricta ... __ Cornish Elm.. 

Viburnum lantana... Rough-leaved Viburnum 

V iburnum lentago ... ._ _. S heep Berry 

Viburnum opulus — Cranberry Tree. 

urn opulus sterilis ... ..... Guelder Rose, Snowball . Mav 

urnum pl.catum.-. -— Chinese Viburnum ... Tun 

urnum plicatum aureum Japanese Viburnum i un 

urnum prunifoliura ... -- Black Haw m„ 




. Month of Bloom- 

ing of speck's with 

showy Howers. 


Vitis aestivalis ... Summer Grape 

Vms nparia Wild Grape -._... 

Weigela rosea... - (Dier villa) .. 

Xanthoxylum Americana Prickly Ash . 

Yucca filamentosa Adam , s Need]e ™ 




Achillea millefolium 

Achillea ptarmica 

Achillea ptarmica " Pearl " . . 

Aconitum uncinatum 

Acorus Japonicus fol. varieg. 

Agrimonia Eupatoria 

Allium Neapolitanicum 

Allium tricoccum 

Althea rosea 


Sneezewort . 








- Wild Monkshood August 

- Sweet Flag 

- Agrimony 

- Flowering Onion 

Wild Leek 

Althea Taurinensis- .! SanAlVhea" 

Amphicarpae monoica Hog Peanut 

Anemone Apennina... Apennine Wind-flower... 

Anemone Japomca ... Japanese Wind-flower September 

Anemone Japonica alba.... September 

Anemone Lady Ardilaun " September 

Anemone nemorosa Wo " od ~~~ "l" M a P v ! 6mber 

Anemone Pennsylvanica . " y 

Anemone Hepatica triloba Liver-leaf"!."." '"" {T* 

Anemone Hepatica acutiloba M 

Apocynumcannabinum--. Indian Hemp-----^ .'!,, 

Aquilegia Canadensis WiW Columbine. 

Aquilegia Coerulea Rocky Mountains.. ... 

Aquilegia lutea 

Aquilegia vulgaris— . England . 

Aquilegia Skinned Guatemala.... 

Aquilegia William's Hybrid 

Aquilegia grandiflora alba R oc ky Mountains!.".".""""" 

Aquilegia glandulosa Siberia ' A 

Aralia racemosa ... Spikenard!.".".".."."." "" A "^' 

Aralia Cachemirica ... Cashmere aralia ."! Seoten h„- 

Armeria vulgaris "Thrift" ^eptembei 

Artemisia absinthum Wormwood!!!!!!!! !!.! .!!!. !! August 






Artemisia ludoviciana _ Western Mugwort . 

Artemisia annua . 

Artemisia biennis 

Artemisia Canadensis Sea Wormwood 

Asclepias incarnata Swamp Milkweed 

Asclepias tuberosa Butterfly weed 

Asparagus officinalis Garden asparagus 

Aster alpinus Blue daisy 

Aster Amellus — .- Italian Starwort 

Aster cordifolius Heart-leaved Aster 

Aster corymbosus. 

Aster dumosus 

Aster laevis Smooth Aster 

Aster linariifolius (Ionactis) Double-bristled Aster 

Aster grandiflorus 

Aster multiflorus Many Flowered Aster 

Aster Novae-Angliae New England Aster 

Aster Novae-Angliae alba. 

Aster Novae-Angliae rosea 

Aster novi belgii 

Aster oblongifolius 

Aster polyphyllus 

Aster prenanthoides '.-. 

Aster puniceus 

Aster sagittifolius Arrow-leaved Aster 

Aster sericeus Satin-leaved Aster 

Aster spectabilis — 

Aster surculosus 

Aster tenuifolius 

Aster trinervis 

Aster Townshendii 

Aster turbinel! us 

Aster ptarmicoides 

Aster umbellatus 

Argemone platyceras Prickly Poppy 

Alsine Michauxii Sandwort 

Actaea alba Bane-berry 

Anemonella thalictroides Rue-anemone -- 

Antennaria plantaginifolia Plantain-leaved Everlasting. 

Arisaema triphyllum Indian Turnip 

lonth of bloom- 
of species with 
showy flowers. 









































\i:ka ami >ri-:t ihs. 

Arisaema Dracontium Green Dragon 

Asarum Canadense 

Alisma plantago 

Adiantum pedatum 

Asplenium Filix-foemina 

Month of bio 
ing of species \ 
showy flowe 

Wild Ginger May 

Water Plantain August 

Maiden Hair 

Lady-fern . 

Belamcanda sinensis Blackberry Lily August 

Bell is perennis Daisy June 

Bocconia cordata Tree Celandine August 

Boltonia latisquama Boltonia September 

Botrychium ternatum — Moonwort 

Botrychium ternatum dissectum 

Brunella vulgaris Self-heal July 

Barbarea vulgaris Winter cress June 



Month of bloom- 


showy flowers. 

Bidens frondosa Stick-tight 

Bidensbipinnata Spanish Needles 

Buphthalmum grandiflorum- Ox-eye August 

Caltha palustris Marsh Marigold May 

Callirhoe involucrata Glade Mallow August 

Camassia Fraseri Wild Hyacinth June 

Campanula Americana Bell-flower August 

Campanula persicafolia Peach-leaved Bellflower August 

Campanula Van Houtei August 

Chionodoxas lucillae Glory-of-the-Snow May 

Cicuta maculata Beaver-poison 

Claytonia Virginica Spring Beauty May 

Colchicum autumnale Meadow saffron September 

Coreopsis grandiflora Tick seed July 

Coreopsis lanceolata June 

Coreopsis lanceolata angustifolia June 

Crambe cordifolia Sea Kale June 

Caulophyllum thalictroides Blue cohosh May 

Cassia marilandica Wild Senna August 

Cynoglossum officinale Hound's Tongue 

Chrysanthemum leucanthenum White Weed August 

Chrysanthemum maximum August 

Centaurea macrocephala August 

Convolvulus Sepium Bindweed .- ._ August 

Convolvulus arvensis August 

Cerastium viscosum Mouse-ear Chick-weed 

Circaea Lutetiana Enchanter's Nightshade 

Convallaria majalis Lily of the Valley May 

Capsella Bursa-Pastoris Shepherd's Purse 

Chelone glabra Balmony / August 

Cystopteris fragilis Bladder Fern _ 

Camptosorus rhizophyllus Walking-leaf Fern 

Delphinium bicolor Larkspur June 

Delphinium formosum June 

Delphinium elatum Bee Larkspur June 

Delphinium hybrids June 

Delphinium Sinensis Chinese Larkspur July 

Dianthus barbatus . Sweet William July 

Dianthus plumarius Scoticus Feather Pink August 

Dicentra cucularia Dutchman's Breeches May 


Month of bloom 
ing of species wit! 
showy flowers 
... May 

Dicentra Canadensis Squirrel Corn 

Digitalis purpurea Fox Glove 

Dioscorea villosa Wild Yam 

Dipsacus sylvestris Wild Teasel August 

Dodecatheon Meadia Shooting Star May 

Dolichos Japonica Kudzu Vine 

Doronicum Clusii Leopard's Bone June 

Dictamnusfraxinella Fraxinella Gas Plant August 

Dryopteris spinulosum intermed. Evergreen Shield Fern 

Dryopteris simulata 

Desmodium Canadense Tick-trefoil September 

Desmodium Illinoense, Gray August 

Desmndium penduliflorum (Lespedeza bicolor) August 

Dactylis glomerata Orchard Grass 

Echinops ritro Globe Thistle August 

Echinops Sphaerocephalus August 

Erigeron annuus June 

Erigeron Philadelphicus Daisy Flea Bane June 

Erigeron Speciosus (Stenactis) July 

Eryngium amethystinum Dalmatian Eryngo August 

Eulalia Japonica 

Eulalia Zebrina Zebra Grass 

Eulalia gracillima 

Eupatorium ageratoides White Snake-root August 

Eupatorium perforatum Boneset August 

Eupatorium purpureum Joe Pye Weed August 

Echium plantagineum Plantain-leaved Bugloss August 

Echinospermum Virginicum Beggars Lice 

Eleusine Indica Dog's-tail Grass 

Epilobium angustifolium Fire Weed July 

Erythronium albidum Dog-tooth Violet, white May 

Foeniculum vulgare Fennel August 

Funkia subcordata Plantain Lily August 

Funkia undulata August 

Gaillardia Lawrenciana Blanket Flower August 

Gaillardia Templeana August 

Galium Ci rcaezans Bedstraw 

Galium triflorum Sweet Bedstraw 

Geranium maculatum Wild Cranesbill May 

Geranium platypetalum June 



Month of bloom- 


Geum atrococcineum August 

Geum grandiflorum August 

Goodyera pubescens Rattlesnake Plantain August 

Gypsophila paniculata Chalk-plant August 

Gypsophila perfoliata August 

Gerardiaquercifolia Smooth False Foxglove August 

Gentiana Andrewsii Closed Gentian September 

Gentiana Tibetica Thibetan Gentian 

Hemerocallis flava Yellow Day-lily July 

Hemerocallis fulva Tawny Day-lily July 

Hemerocallis fulva fl. pi Kwanso Day-lily July 

Hemerocallis Sieboldii June 

Hemerocallis Thunbergii . July 

Helianthus decapetalus Wild Sunflower August 

Helianthus doronicoides August 

Helianthus grosse-serratus August 

Helianthus multiflorus Dwarf double Sunflower August. 

Helianthus orgyalis September 

Helianthus microcephalus August 

Helianthus rigidus August 

Helenium autumnal e Sneeze Weed September 

Helenium autumnale grandiflorum — August 

Helenium grandicephalum striatum-- September 

Heliopsis laevis Ox-eye August 

Heracleum eminens Cow-parsnip July 

Heuchera sanguines Scarlet Alum-root August 

Hibiscus Californica California Rose Mallow August 

Hibiscus militaris Halbert-leaved Rose Mallow August 

Humulus lupulus Hop Vine 

Humulus lupulus Jap. varieg Variegated Hop 

Hyacinthus candicans Galtonia August 

Hydrophyllum Yirginicum Water Leaf June 

Hydrophyllum appendiculatum Hairy Water Leaf June 

Hypericum maculatum Spotted St. John's- Wort July 

Hypericum Moserianum Large flowered St. John's-Wort._ August 

Heleochloa Schenoides 

Iberis corraefolia Hardy Candytuft June 

Inula Helenium Elecampane August 

Iris Germanica Flower-de-luce June 

Iris Japonica June 

Month of bloom- 


showy flowers. 

Iris Sibirica June 

Iris Kaempferi July 

Iris Tondel June 

Isatis tinctoria Woad 

Lamium amplexicaule Dead-nettle 

Lamiumpurpureum ■- 

Lathy rus latifolius Perennial Sweet Pea. 

Lepachys pinnata 

Liatris cylindracea Button-Snakeroot 









Mouth of bloom 
showy flowers. 

Liatris pycnostachya — Gay-feather- August 

Liatris spicata August 

Lilium Brownii --- Brown's Lily August 

Lilium candidum ___ White Lily . August 

Lilium Carniolicum Lily of Carniola August 

Lilium Croceum Orange Lily August 

Lilium Dalmaticum — August 

Lilium Hansonii August 

Lilium lanceolatum roseum .. August 

Lilium lanceolatum album August 

Lilium lanci folium punctatum Spotted Lily 

Lilium longiflorum Trumpet Lily August 

Lilium Michauxianum J 

Lilium Pardalinum Roerlii 

Lilium punctatum — . 

Lilium rubrum . August 

Lilium Schrymakersii August 

Lilium superbum Wood Lily July 

Lilium tigrinum Tiger Lily August 

Lilium tigrinum fl. pi. August 

Lilium tigrinum splendens August 

Lilium Thunbergianum (Venustum).- : 

Lilium Van Houtei — 

Lilium Umbel latum, gr. fir August 

Lilium Umbellatum Davuricum 

erectum ; 

Lilium L T mbel latum incomparabilis- - August 

Lobelia Cardinalis - — ' Cardinal Flower July 

Lobelia syphilitica — . Blue Cardinal _. ! August 

Lobelia syphilitica rosea — August 

Lychnis Chalcedonica -- London Pride August 

Lychnis Chalcedonica alba August 

Lychnis Haageana ■ August 

Lychnis plenissima August 

Lycopus sinuata Water Horehound August 

Lycopus Virginicus Bugle-weed ... August 

Lophanthus Nepetoides Giant Hyssop August 

Lithospermum arvense Corn Cromwell :.-- 

Laportea Canadensis .. Wood-nettle - 

Lavatera Cachemirica. Tree Mallow .-. August 

Month of bloom- 


showy flowers. 

Lepidium Virginicum Wild pepper-grass 

Malva rotundifolia Common Mallow June 

Melilotus albus . . Bokara Clover _. July 

Melilotus officinalis Sweet clover July 

Mentha Canadensis Wild Mint June 

Mentha Viridis Spearmint July 

Mertensia Virginica Smooth Lungwort May 

Mitel la diphylla Bishop's Cap May 

Monarda didyma Oswego Tea July 

Monarda fistulosa Wild Bergamot-.: August 

Montbretia Crocosmia flora Tritonia August 

Myosotis palustris Forget-me-not 

Mollugo verticillata Carpet Weed August 

Marrubium vulgare Horehound 

Mentzelia ornata Mentzelia September 

Mitchella repens Partridge Berry June 

Narcissus Jonquilla Jonquils May 

Narcissus poeticus Poet's Narcissus May 

Narcissus pseudo-narcissus Daffodil May 

Narcissus tazetta-polyanthos Polyanthus Narcissus May 

Nasturtium montanum Japan Mountain Cress July 

Nasturtium palustre Marsh Cress July 

Nepeta Glechoma. Ground Ivy August 

Oenothera biennis Evening Primrose August 

Oenothera rosea- August 

Oenothera Missouriensis --- August 

Oenothera YoungiL Young's Evening Primrose August 

Oenothera spectabilis Showy Evening Primrose August 

Onopordon acanthi um Down-thistle August 

Onoclea sensibilis Sensitive Fern 

Opuntia Missouriensis Prickly Pear August 

Origanum vulgare Marjoram August 

Osmorhiza brevistylis .. Hairy Sweet Cicely June 

Osmorhiza longistylis Sweet Cicely June 

Pachy sandra terminal is Mountain Spurge 

Poeonia Chinensis Chinese Pseony June 

Paeonia officinalis -- Common Pseony June 

Paeonia Tenuifolia Fern-leaved Paeony May 

Papaver orientale Perennial Poppy June 

Pentstemon barbatus Bearded Pentstemon August 



showy flowers. 

Pentstemon digitalis Beard-tongue August 

Pentstemon laevigatus Smooth Beard-tongue August 

Pentstemon pubescens Downy Beard-tongue August 

Phlox decussata varieties Cross-leaf Phlox July 

Phlox divaricata Wood Phlox May 

Phlox divaricata alba White Wood Phlox May 

Phlox bifida Sand Phlox May 

Phlox pilosa . Summer Wild Phlox June 

Phlox subulata --- Moss Phlox May 

Phlox hybrids -. '- 

Physostegia Virginiana False Dragon's-head July 

Platycodon Japonicum Double Platycodon August 

Platycodon grandiflorum Chinese Bell-flower August 

Platycodon Mariesii Dwarf Bell-flower August 

Podophyllum pel tat um May-apple May 

Polemonum reptans American Greek Valerian June 

Potentilla Norvegica Cinquefoil 

Potentilla Canadensis "Five-fingers" 

Potentilla Pyrenaica Pyrenean Cinquefoil 

Potentilla Anserina Silver Weed 

Primula vulgaris Common Primrose July 

Primula veris Polyanthus 

Pycnanthemum lanceolatum Mountain Mint August 

Pyrethrum roseum Rosy Pyrethrum August 

Pyrethrum uliginosum Giant Daisy September 

Phytolacca decandra Pigeon Berry, Poke Root September 

Phryma leptostachya Lopseed August 

Petalostemon violaceus Prairie Clover August 

Prenanthes raceniosa Rattlesnake Root September 

Prenanthes alba White Lettuce September 

Plantago lanceolata Rib-grass August 

Plantago major __. Plantain July 

Pedicularis Canadensis Wood Betony May 

Phragmites communis Reed 

Polygala polygama Milk-Wort June 

Pyrola rotundifolia Shin-leaf June 

Polygonatum biflorum Smaller Solomon's Seal May 

Polygonum Sachalinense "Sachaline" August 

Polygonum Hartwrightii Knot-weed August 

Pteris aquilina Brake 



Rudbeckia fulgida " Black-eyed Susan " 

Rudbeckia hirta -■ Cone-flower 

Rudbeckia laciniata Tall Rudbeckia 

Rudbeckia laciniata flore plena "Golden Glow" 

Rudbeckia speciosa Showy Cone-flower 

Rudbeckia subtomentosa 

Rumex acetosella Sheep-sorrel 

Rumex crispus Curled Dock, Yellow Dock - 

Rumex Patientia- -- Patience Dock 

Ruta graveolens . Garden Rue 

Ranunculus repens Buttercup 

Ranunculus abortivus Small-flowered Crowfoot --- 

Scilla Sibirica Siberian Squill , 

Scilla hyacinthoides - Hyacinth Squill- - '. 

Scrophularia nodosa Marilandica Fig wort 

Scrophularia aquatica Brookside Figwort 

Scutellaria parvula Tuberous Skullcap 

Scutellaria galericulata Helmet Skullcap 

Sedum spectabile Showy Stone-crop 

Sedum acre Wall Pepper ... 

Silphium integrifolium Smaller Rosin Weed 

Silphium laciniatum Compass Plant 

Silphium terebinthinaceum Prairie Dock 

Silphium perfoliatum Cup Plant 

Sium cicutafolium Water Parsnip- 

Smilax rotundifolia Cat Brier 

Smilax peduncularis 

Smilax herbacea Carrion Flower 

Solidago Canadensis Golden Rod 

Solidago speciosa 

Solidago caesia Blue-stem Golden rod 

Solidago gigantea 

Solidago lanceolata 

Solidago latifolia 

Solidago Ohioensjs 

Solidago patula Swamp Golden Rod . 

Solidago nemoralis Low Golden Rod 

Solidago Riddelli - 

Solidago rigida Stout Golden Rod 

Solidago rugosa 

showy flowers showy flowers. 

July Solidago serotina August 

July Solidago tenuifolia : September 

August Solidago ulmifolia September 

August Spiraea filipendula Dropwort August 

July Spiraea Japonica Astilbe July 

August Spiraea palmata Palmate Spiraea -_. August 

June Spiraea ulmaria Meadow Sweet August 

July Stachys palustris Swamp Hedge Nettle August 

August Steironema ciliata Fringed Loosestrife ... July 

August Sisyrinchium angustifolium Blue-eyed Grass May 

May Smilacina racemosa False Spikenard May 

May Smilacina stellata False Solomon's Seal May 

April Saxifraga Pennsylvania Swamp Saxifrage June 

June Sanicula Marilandica Black Snake Root July 

July Sparganium eurycarpum Bur-reed 

August Sagittaria variabilis Arrow-head August 

August Scirpus lacustris Great Bulrush 

August Scirpus Tabernaemontani zebrina — Banded Rush 

August Scabiosa Caucasica Scabionus ■- 

August Sanguinaria Canadensis Blood-root April 

August Tanacetum balsamita Costmary August 

August Tanacetum vulgare Tansy August 

August Thalictrum cornuti Meadow Rue June 

August Thalictrum dioicum Smaller Meadow Rue June 

August Tradescantia Virginica Spider Wort June 

Tricyrtis hirta Japanese Toad-lily August 

Trillium grandiflorum American Wood-lily May 

Trillium cernuum : Nodding Wake-robin . _ May 

August Trillium recurvatum Purple Birthroot May 

September Tritoma uvaria Torch Lily, Red Hot Poker August 

September Trollius Europaeus Globe Flower May 

August Trollius Japonicus Japan Globe Flower May 

August Teucrium Scorodonium - Germander, France August 

September Tephrosia Virginiana Goat's Rue, Catgut .. . August 

September Typha latifolia Cat-tail 

August Uvularia perfoliata Bellwort May 

August Uvularia grandiflora May 

September Verbascum phlomoides Woolly Mullein August 

August Veronica serpyllifolia Speedwell--- August 

August Viola canina Dog Violet June 


.6 S 


showy flowers. 

Viola cucullata Common Blue Violet--- -- May 

Viola pedata Bird-foot Violet June 

Viola pubescens Downy Yellow Violet May 

Viola rotundifolia Round-leaved Violet May 

Viola odoratA Russian Sweet Violet June 

Zygadenus glaucus ... August 

Zizia aurea .Meadow Parsnip .. -- May 


Acnida tuberculata Water Hemp September 

Adlumia cirrhosa Mountain Fringe-- July 

Anagallis arv. carnea Poor Man's Weather-glass August 

Antennaria plantaginifolia Mouse-ear Plantain 

Atriplex hastatum Orache _" 

Amaranthus speciosus Amaranth 

Amaranthus retroflexus - Pigweed 

Amaranthus albus - Tumble Weed 

Amaranthus blitoides Creeping Amaranth 

Ambrosia trifida Great Ragweed-. 

Ambrosia artemisiaefolia Bitter Weed .. 

Antirrhinum major (Red) — Snap-dragon August 

Arctium lappa - Burdock August 

Abutilon Avicennae Velvet-leaf •_. August 

Acalypha Virginica Three-seeded Mercury 

Aster angustus Blind aster 

Borago officinalis Borrage August 

Browalia elata Browalia August 

Brachycome iberidifolia Swan River Daisy -- July 

Brassica nigra Black Mustard — June 

Commelina coelestis Blue Spiderwort '. .. August 

Commelina "lentenola" August 

Cuphea viscosissima Clammy Cuphea August 

Cuphea Roeziii ..__ Roezl's Cuphea August 

Cuphea ignea Cigar plant May 

Cuscuta arvensis ... Dodder . 

Celosia plumosa Cock's comb August 

Cakile Americana .. Sea Rocket -_ June 

Chrysanthemum segetum. . Mountains, Westphalia July 

Cenchrus tribuloides Bur-grass 

showy flow 

Centaurea cyanus Blue Bottle August 

Campanula Medium Calyc Canterbury Bell ... August 

Clarkia elegans---! ..... Clarkia ... August 

Calendula officinalis .- Pot- Marigold August 

Cannabis sativa Hemp 


Chenopodium album . ... "Lamb's Quarters". 

Chenopodium glaucum . . _ _ Oak-leaved Goose Foot 

Chenopodium hybrid urn. Maple-leaved Goose Foot . 

Chenopodium urbicum 

Draba verna .. Whitlow Grass 

Datura Tatula .... ..... Purple Thorn-apple - August 

Delphinium ajacis ... .. Rocket-Larkspur August 

Echinocystis lobata Wild Balsam-Apple August 

Ellisia nyctelea . .. June 

Erodium cicutarium .. . Stork-bill, Pin-clover June 

Euphorbia peplus .. Spurge -- August 

Euphorbia maculata Spotted Spurge . ... August 



Month of bloom- 

ENGLISH NAMES AND HABITAT. ing of species with 

showy flowers. 

Erechtites hieracifolia Fire-weed- — August 

Erigeron Canadensis Horse-weed 

Eiclihornia crassipes Water Hyacinth August 

Fumaria officinalis — Fumitory July 

Fragaria Virginiana Strawberry May 

Gypsophila muralis Small Chalk Plant August 

Galinsoga parviflorum South America : August 

Grindelia squarrosa ----■ August 

Gazania splendens Cape Treasure Flower - - ... August 

Godetia gloriosa August 

Geranium Carol inianum. Carolina Crane's bill June 

Helianthus annuus Sunflower August 

Hunnemania fumariafolia . Mexico September 

Impatiens fulva. . - Jewel-weed July 

Impatiens Balsamina Touch-me-not August 

Lactuca scariola Prickly Lettuce August 

Leonurus cardiaca Motherwort-- August 

Malva sylvestris " Fall Roses"---- - — -- August 

Maruta cotula May-weed '_. July 

Malvastrum liminense Lima Mallow . August 

Mimulus ringens Wild Mask-flower August 

Nicotiana affinis Long-flowered Tobacco July 

Nicotiana Tabacum Virginia Tobacco August 

Nierembergia gracilis . South America " 

Oenothera Skinneri Evening Primrose August 

Polygonum dumetorum - Climbing False Buckwheat - - 

Polygonum persicaria - Lady's thumb 

Polygonum aviculare Door- weed 

Polygonum hydropiper Smart-weed 

Pileapumila Clear- weed 

Perilla Nankinensis Perilla September 

Pentstemon campanulatus Garden Pentstemon -- August 

Phlox Drummondii Annual Phlox August 

Pennisetum longistylum. Abyssinia 

Portulacca grandiflora Rose-moss July 

Portulacca oleracea Purslane July 

Poa annua Low speargrass 

Rudbeckia bicolor August 

Ricinus communis Castor Bean 

Month of bloom- 


showy Mowers. 

Stellaria Meadia Chick-weed - 

Sicyos angulatus One Seeded Cucumber 

Silene Armeria Sweet William Catchfly August 

Silene antirrhina Sleepy Catchfly June 

Silene noctiflora Night-flowering Catchfly July 

Solanum nigrum Nightshade July 

Sisymbrium officinale HedgeMustard July 

Saponaria officinalis "Bouncing Bet" August 

Sonchus asper Spring Sow Thistle August 

Salvia splendens Scarlet Sage July 

Salvia tiliafolia Linden-leaved Sage August 

Silybum Marianum Mariana Thistle September 

Tragopogon pratense Goat-beard June 

Trifolium repens White Clover June 

Trifolium pratense Red Clover June 

Trifolium hybridum Alsike 

Taraxacum officinale Dandelion May 

Viola tricolor Pansy 

Verbena rugosa August 

Verbena urticaefolia White Vervain August 

Verbena hastata Blue Vervain August 

Xanthium Canadense ._ Cockle Bur 


Nelumbium roseum Lotus August 

Nelumbium album August 

Nelumbium striatum August 

Nymphaea alba candidissima White Water Lily August 

Nyraphaea alba August 

Nymphaea Laydekeri rosea 

Nymphaea Marliacea Chromatella — ■. 

Nymphaea Marliacea carnea 

Nymphaea Marliacea albida 

Nymphaea Marliacea rosea 

Nymphaea odorata rosea 

Nymphaea tuberosa 

Nuphar advena Spatter Dock .- ]u]y 

Sarracenia purpurea Huntsman's Cup June 




Cyperus alternifolius. -1 Umbrella Plant 

Cyperus Papyrus Egyptian Paper Reed - 

Limnocharis Humboldtii --- Water Poppy 

Myriophyllum Proserpinacoides Parrot's Feather 

Nymphasa dentata 

Nympha?a Devoniensis 

Nymphsea Zanzibarensis 

Nvmphaea Zanzibarensis azurea 

Nymphasa rubra 

Nymphasa scutifolia 

Sagittaria Montevidensis Giant Arrowhead 

Thalia dealbata 

Victoria Regia Royal Water Lily 


Acrostichum flagelliferum India 

Acrostichum tenuifolium South Africa 

Adiantum bellum Bermuda 

Adiantum CapillusA-'eneris Maidenhair Fern 

Adiantum concinnum Tropical America 

Adiantum cuneatum .... — Brazil 

Adiantum Farleyense Barbadoes 

Adiantum Fergusonii - Ceylon 

Adiantum formosum Australia 

Adiantum gracillimum Hybrid 

Adiantum macrophyllum Tropical America 

Adiantum princeps New Grenada 

Adiantum pubescens Tropics, Old World 

Adiantum tinctum Tropical America 

Adiantum trapeziforme West Indies 

Alsophila australis Australian Tree Fern 

Angiopteris evecta Tropics, Asia 

Aspidium aculeatum --- Shield Fern (Hardy) 

Aspidium angulare Soft Shield Fern 

Aspidium aristatum New South Wales 

Aspidium Capense Natal 

Aspidium falcatum (Cyrtomium) Holly Fern 

Aspidium lepidocaulon , Japan 

Aspidium Tsus-Simense Tsus-Sima Japa 

Aspidium lepidum -, Brazil 

Asplenium Australasicum Spleenwort 

Asplenium bulbiferum New Zealand 

Asplenium esculentum India 

Asplenium Fabian um (bulbiferum) 

Asplenium lucidum New Zealand 

Asplenium Nidus Bird's nest Fern 

Asplenium viviparum Plant-bearing Spleenwort 

Blechnum Braziliense Brazilian 

Blechnum australe South Africa 

Blechnum occidentale West Indies 

Cibotium regale "Chignon" Fern 

Cyathea dealbata New Zealand 

Davalliaaffinis Ceylon 

Davallia canadensis Hare's Foot Fern 

Davalliadubia Australia 

Davallia Fijiensis plumosa Fiji Islands 


Davallia hirta cristata --- North India 

Davallia Mooreana (pallida) Borneo 

Davallia platyphylla East Indies 

Davallia scabra Ceylon 

Davallia tenuifolia (stricta) .__ --- Tropical Asia 

Dicksonia an tallica Tasmanian Tree Fern 

Dicksonia cicutaria - West Indies 

Dicksonia Schiedeii Mexico 

Didymochlaena lunulata Tropical America 

Gymnogramme argyrophylla (Peruviana) Silver Fern 

Gymnogramme chrysophylla (calomelanos Gold Fern 

Gymnogramme Peruviana (calomelanos) - Tropics 

Lomaria gibba New Caledonia 

Lomaria princeps 

Nephrodium macrourum . --. — ■- - - Buckler Fern 

Nephrodium molle Tropics 

Nephrodium mode grandiceps Crested Buckler Fern 

Xephrolepis Bostoniensis Boston Sword Fern 

Nephrolepis Collingerii .. ... 

Xephrolepis davalioides furcans... 

Nephrolepis Durfii . .. Duke of York Island 

Nephrolepis exaltata Sword F"ern 

Nephrolepis pectinat. i ' ... -- - Tropical America 

Nephrolepis Philipinensis - Philippines 

Nephrolepis rufesceus tripinnatitida 

Nephrolepis tuberosa Tropical America 

Onychium Japonicum . ... . -.__.. Japan, China 

Platycerium alcicorne. Elk-horn Fern 

Polypodium aureum - Golden Polypody 

Polypodium distans -- --.- Northern India 

Polypodium fraxini folium - Columbia 

Polypodium Korthalsii .-- Sumatra 

Polypodium lingua (heteractis) - Tongue Polypody 

Polypodium repens '. ... West Indies 

Polypodium subauriculatum (Goniophlebium) Himalayas 

Polypodium superticiale . --... Mts. Northern India 

Pteris argyrea (quadriaurila , Silver Brake 

Pteris Cretica ... ._- Cretan Brake 

Pteris Cretica albo-lineata --- 

Pteris flabellata South Africa 

Pteris longifolia ... - .- Tropics 

Pteris nobilis South Brazil 

Pteris palmata Tropical America 

Pteris quadriaurita Tropics 

Pteris serrulata Chinese Brake 

Pteris serrulata cristata 

Pteris serrulata tenuifolia 

Pteris pungens West Indies 

Pteris tremula Australia 

Pteris tremula Smithiana 

Pteris tremula Hybrid '__ Lincoln Park 

Pteris triplicata 

Scolopendrium vulgare Hart's Tongue Fern 

Wood ward ia ori en talis .__ Chain Fern 


Areca lutescens Mauritius Palm 

Arenga saccharifera . Molucca Sugar Palm 

Attalea excelsa Brazil 

Carludovica palmata Panama Hat Palm 

Caryota Blancae 

Caryota sobolifera Malacca 

Caryota urens Fish Tail Palm 

Chamaedorea elegans Mexico 

Chamaedorea Martiana Chipias 

Chamaerops hum it is Dwarf Palm 

Chamaerops elegans 

Cocos austral is Cocoanut Tree 

Cocos plumosa .-!_ Brazil 

Cocos Romanzoffiana . Brazil 

Cocos Weddel liana .. Dwarf cocoa nut 

Corypha australis .-- Fan Palm, Australia 

Curculigo recurvata Weevil Plant 

Didymosperma porphyrocarpon . — Java 

Geonoma Verschaffeltii Mexico 

Hyophorbe Verschaffeltii Mascarene Islands 

Howea Belmoreana Curly Palm 

Julxea spectabilis Coquito Palm, Chili 

Latania Borbonica Isle of Bourbon Palm 

Licuala horrida Indian Archipelago 

Livistonia Chinensis South China 

Ptychosperma Cunninghamii Illawarra Palm 

Ptychosperma Alexandra Queensland Feather Palm 


Ptychosperma McArthurii New Guinea 

Phcenix dactyl if era Date Palm 

Phoenix tenuis Slender Date Palm 

Phcenix rupicola India 

Phoenix reclinata Southeast Africa 

Pritchardia grandis .. New Britain 

Pritchardia Pacifica Pacific Islands 

Rhopalostylis Bauerii Norfolk Island 

Rhapis flabelliformis Ground Rattan Cane 

Rhapis humilis Japan 

Sabal palmetto Cabbage Palmetto, S. U. S. 

Sabal Adansonii Dwarf Palmetto 

Sabal cerulescens . Bluish Palmetto 

Trachycarpus excelsus China 

Washingtonia filifera Southern California 


^Erides Fieldingii " Fox Brush /Brides " 

Burlingtonia fragrans .. Brazil 

Cattleya amethystina South America 

Cattleya Bowringiana 

Cattleya bicolor Brazil 

Cattleya crispa Brazil 

Cattleya gigas Tropical America 

Cattleya guttata Brazil 

Cattleya labiata Brazil 

Cattleya intermedia Brazil 

Cattleya Mendellii South America 

Cattleya Mossia? La Guayra 

Cattleya Perrinii 

Cattleya Percivaliana 

Cattleya Schilleriana Brazil 

Cattleya Skinnerii Guatemala 

Cattleya Trianas Cordilleras, S. Am. 

Cattleya velutina Brazil 

Cypripedium Almum Lady's Slipper 

Cypripedium Arthurian um 

Cypripedium Boxallii ._ India 

Cypripedium Calurum 

Cypripedium Crossianum Peru 

Cypripedium Charlesworthii 



Cypripedium Domihianum 

Cypripedium Chamberlainianum 7 

Cypripedium grande 

Cypripedium Harrisianum Hybrid 

Cypripedium hirsutissimum 

Cypripedium Hayualdianum Philippines 

Cypripedium in sign e Nepaul 

Cypripedium Leanum lutescens .-- 

Cypripedium Leanum longiflorum 

Cypripedium leucorhodum ... . 

Cypripedium Pitcherianum 

Cypripedium Roezlii . ._ New Grenada 

Cypripedium Schrcedere ... 

Cypripedium Spicerianum East Indies 

Cypripedium Villosum India 

Ccelogyne Cristata ---- Nepaul 

Chysis bractescens Guatemala 

Chysis aurea maculata Venezuela 

Dendrobium moschatum East India 

Dendrobium nobile China 

Dendrobium speciosum E. Australia 

Dendrobium thyrsiflorum Moulmein, India 

Dendrobium Wardianum _ — Assam 

Dendrochilum glumaceum . Philippines 

Epidendrum cochleatum. - 

Epidendrum fragrans- 

Epidendrum nemorale . Mexico 

Gongora maculata 1 Guiana 

Gongora nigrita i Tropical America 

Laelia anceps Mexico 

Laelia autumnalis Mexico 

Laelia cinnabarina _ "-.. . Brazil 

Laelia Dayana . Brazil 

LEeliaflava '--- . ..-- Brazil 

La^lia majalis Flor de Maio 

Laelia Perrinii . Brazil 

Laelia tenebrosa 

Laelia purpurata Brazil 

Lycaste aromatica . , Mexico 

Lycaste Deppei So. Mexico 

Lycaste Skinnerii Guatemala 

Miltonia Clowesii . ... Brazil 

Miltonia Spectabilis. .- Brazil 

Odontoglossum citrosmum Guatemala 

Odontoglossum grande Guatemala 

Oncidium ampliatum -__ Central America 

Oncidium citrinum Central America 

Oncidium concolor Organ Mts., Brazil 

Oncidium (Pap.) Kramerianum Central America 

Oncidium ornithorynchium Mexico Bird-Bill Oncid. 

Oncidium sarcodes Brazil 

Oncidium splendidum Guatemala 

Oncidium varicosum Brazil 

Phajus grandifolius .- Australia 

Saccolabium Blumei = East Indies 

Sobralia macrantha Guatemala 

Sophronites grandiflora .. Organ Mts., Brazil 

Stanhopea oculata -- Mexico 

Stanhopea Tigrina Mexico 

Trichopilia tortilis Mexico 

Vanda suavis Java 

Vanda tricolor Java 


Acalypha marginata Fiji Islands 

Acalypha tricolor New Hebrides 

Acalypha Wilkesiana mar - Fiji 

Acalypha Sandersii Chenille Plant 

Adenocalymna comosa Brazil 

Aloe variegata varieties South Africa 

Ananassa sativa Pineapple 

Ananassa sativa variegata Brazil 

Agapanthus umbellatus Cape of Good Hope 

Aralia Chabrierii --- Mauritius 

Aralia filicifolia Polynesia 

Aralia pentaphylla Japan 

Aralia Sieboldii 

Aralia Kerchoveana South Sea Islands 

Araucaria Bidwilli Bunya-Bunya Pine 

Araucaria excelsa Norfolk Island Pine 

Acacia lophantha (Albizzia) New Holland 

Allamanda grandiflora Brazil 

Allamanda Schottii Brazil 


Abutilon eclipse varieg. Chinese Bellrlower 

Abutilon striatum Brazil 

Anthurium acaule West Indies 

Anthurium crystallinum Columbia 

Anthurium Clarkianum 

Anthurium digitatum 

Anthurium Ferrierense Ferrieres 

Anthurium grande . 

Anthurium Hookeni Tropical America 

Anthurium Laucheanum .. 

Anthurium magnificum Cundinamarca 

Anthurium Ottoman um 

Anthurium regale East Peru 

Anthurium robust um 

Anthurium Scherzerianum Flamingo Flower 

Anthurium Veitchianum Columbia 

Anthurium Waroqueanum Columbia 

Anthurium Andreanum - Columbia 

Aspidistra elatior Japan 

Aspidistra elatior variegata 

Astrapaea Wallichii Madagascar 

Aphelandra nitens Columbia 

Agave Americana South America 

Agave picta . Mexico 

Agave Victoria Mexico 

Aglaonema commutatum Philippines 

Aglaonema pictum Borneo 

Aglaonema Roebelinii 

Arum Dioscorides 

Alocasia odorata Peru 

Alocasia macrorhiza Polynesia 

Alocasia metallica Borneo 

Alocasia Sanderiana . Eastern Archipelago 

Alocasia Thibautiana Borneo 

Alocasia Veitchii .. 

Alocasia zebrina Philippines 

Anhalonium prismaticum 

Anona Cherimola Peru 

Anthericum vittatum varieg. St. Bernard's Lily 

Aristolochia labiosa Brazil 

Aristolochia gigas Sturtevantii Guatemala 

Aristolochia ornithocephala Brazil 



Asparagus plumosa- -- South Africa 

Asparagus Sprengerii 

Azalea Indica India 

Bambusa arundinacea r India 

Beaucarnea stricta Mexico 

Beaucarnea recurvata --- Mexico 

Begonia varieties 

Bignonia latifolia Cayenne 

Biota Orientalis Japan 

Bertolonia vittata Brazil 

Bertolonia Van Houtei - 

Billbergia Saundersii -■ -- Brazil 

Bougainvillea glabra Sandersii . South America 

Bougainvillea spectabilis - 

Boussingaultia basselloides Madeira Vine 

Caladium marmoratum Guayaqud 

Caladium varieties- 

Carica papaya Papaw Tree, Tropics 

Calathea Leitzei Brazil 

Calathea Vanden Heckei Brazil 

Calathea ornata Columbia 

Calathea ornata rosea lineata 

Calathea princeps Peru 

Calathea Wallisii South America 

Calathea zebrina Brazil 

Centradenia rosea Mexico 

Cereus Peruvianus Monstrosus Tropical America 

Cereus Grandiflorus ._ West Indies 

Cyrtodeira metallica (fulgida) New Grenada 

Cordyline Braziliensis 

Cordyline Colocoma 

Cordyline indivisa New Zealand 

Cordyline Veitchii 

Cordyline spectabilis 

Chloranthus officinalis Tropics 

Cissus discolor Java 

Clerodendron Balfourii Calabar 

Calceolaria crenatiflora varieties Chili 

Curmeria Wallisii Columbia 

Crinum amabile Sumatra 

Cinnamomum Cassia _.. Cinnamon 

Cobaea scandens Mexico 

Citrus decumana Shaddock, Polynesia 

Codiaeum Andreanum "Crotons" 

Codiaeum aureum = 

Codiaeum Comte de Germain 

Codiaeum D' Israelii Polynesia 

Codiaeum Elegans 

Codiaeum Evansianum Polynesia 

Codiaeum Fordii 

Codiaeum Hanburyanum . 

Codiaeum interruptum Polynesia 

Codiaeum longi folium 

Codiaeum spirale South Sea Islands 

Codiaeum trilobum Polynesia 

Codiaeum undulatuni Polynesia 

Codiaeum Veitchii __. Polynesia 

Codiaeum Prince of Wales 

Codiaeum Weissmanii Polynesia 

Codiaeum Williamsii 

Coffea arabica Coffee, S.W. Abyssinia 

Cyclamen Persicum Palestine, Syria 



Cytissus Andreanum Normandy 

Cytissus Canariensis Canary Islands Broom 

Cycas revoluta Japan Sago Palm 

Cycascircinalis East Indies 

Cineraria cruenta hybrida varieties — Canary Islands 

Cryptomeria Japonica Japan Cedar 

Camelia Japonica- — Japanese Rose 

Dioscorea bulbifera .. Yam 

Dracaena Amboynensis Amboyna 

Dracaena amabilis 

Dracaena Baptista --- 

Dracaena Braziliensis 

Dracaena congesta .- ... Moreton Bay 

Dracaena Cantrellii 

Dracaena colossus 

Dracaena Draco — Dragon Tree, Canary Islands 

Dracaena ensi folia .. ._ 

Dracaena Fraserii 

Dracaena fragrans Tropical Africa 

Dracaena Guilfoylei . Australia 

Dracaena Gladstonei 

Dracaena gloriosa — 

Dracaena Godseffiana 

Dracaena Goldiana 

Dracaena Haageana.-.. 

Dracaena frag. Lindenii 

Dracaena frag. Massangeana 

Dracaena marginata Madagascar 

Dracaena Neo-Caledonia 

Dracaena reginae 

Dracaena recurva 

Dracaena Rossi i .- 

Dracaena Schuldii 

Dracaena Sanderiana 

Dracaena terminalis (cordyline) . South Sea Islands 

Dracaena voluta — 

Dracaena Youngii 

Dichorisandra musaica . . Maynas 

Dieffenbachia Bausei 

Dieffenbachia Bowmanii Brazil 

Dieffenbachia Carderii Columbia 

Dieffenbachia gigantea Brazil 

Dieffenbachia memori corsii ... 

Dieffenbachia nobilis -. Brazil 

Dieffenbachia velutina Columbia 

Dioon edule Mexico 

Epipremnum mirabile Fiji Tonga Plant 

Echinopsis Millerii 



SR^V ^1 

c — ' ^H 






-■ /' 1 - 

< B 

Euonymus variegata Nepaul 

Echinocactus Lopothilli 

Eriobotrya Japonica Loquat, Japanese Medlar 

Erica stricta, Heath S.W.Europe 

Elettaria cardamomum " Cardamons " 

Encephalartos Altenstemii Cape of Good Hope 

Eranthemum pulchellum East India 

Eranthemum tricolor Polynesia 

Eucharis Amazonica . ... New Grenada 

Euphorbia splendens --- ---- Isle of Bourbon 



Euphorbia grandicornis 

Euphorbia candelabra 

Fittonia argyroneura Peru 

Fittonia Verschaffeltii 

Ficus Bausei 

Ficus Cooperii __ Australia 

Ficus elastica -' India Rubber Tree 

Ficus minima Japan 

Ficus miniata 

Ficus macrophylla ^.. New South Wales 

Ficus nitida .-- -. .. 

Ficus Parcel Hi '. Polynesia 

Ficus Quercifolia 

Ficus radicans-i -' 

Ficus repens — China 

Ficus rubiginosa .._._. New South Wales 

Ficus Roxburghii- Silhet 

Ficus stipulata -- Japan 

Fourcroya Selloa . Mexico 

Freesia refracta alba Cape of Good Hope 

Grevillea robusta - Silk Oak 

Habrothamnus elegans . Mexico 

Hibiscus Rosea-Sinensis . Tropics 

Heliotropum Peruvianum Peru 

Hedychium flavescens .-- Garland Flower 

Heliconia aureo-striata Tropical America 

Hedera helix -■ English Ivy 

Hedera arborescens "Tree Ivy" 

Hoffmannia Ghiesbrechtii "____'_ _ ___' South America 

Isolepis gracilis (scirpus) Extra-Tropical 

Ipomcea setosa Brazil 

Imantophyllum Gardenii Natal 

Impatiens Sultana Zanzibar 

Jacaranda mimosa?folia -- Brazil 

Justicea carnea Rio Janeiro 

lusticea flava 

justicea velutina 

[atrophia podagrica Brazil 

Kalosanthes coccinea 

Kaempferia rotunda India 

Linaria Cymbalaria Kenilvvorth Ivy 

Ligularia Kaempferi aureo-maculata- .. Japan 

Lantana delicatissima .._ 

Laurus nobilis Common Laurel 

Lopezia racemosa Spider Flower, Mexico 

Musa Cavendishii Banana 

Musa paradisiaca 

Musa sapientum- 

Musa Sumatrana 

Myrtus communis Myrtle 

Macrozamia cylindracea -' . Australia 

Manettia bicolor .. Organ Mts., Brazil 

Monstera deliciosa Mexico 

Maranta angustifolia Trinidad 

Maranta arundinacea .. Indian Arrow Root 

Maranta Chimboracensis Ecuador 

Maranta Kerchoveana Brazil 

Maranta Makoyana - Tropical America 

Maranta Legrelliana Ecuador 

Nephthytis picturata Congo 

Nephthytis Liberica Liberia 

Nephthytis triphylla 

Nepenthes McFaddenii Pitcher Plant, Trop. Asia 

Nepenthes Amesiana .-- - 

Nepenthes phyllamphora pallida - Borneo 

Nepenthes distillatoria -. -- - Ceylon 

Nepenthes Dominiana -'- 

Nepenthes Dominiana Major ' 

Nepenthes Domini . 

Nepenthes intermedia 

Nepenthes Morgania 

Nepenthes Sand ersii 

Nepenthes Trindlevii ---- 

Nepenthes Williamsii 

Opuntia species Prickly Pear Cactus- 

Osmanthus f ragrans- - . China 

Panax Victoria - So. Pacific Islands 

Pandanus utilis -- Screw Pine 

Pandanus Javanicus Chandelier Tree 

Pandanus Veitchii Polynesia 

Pandanus Javan. Varieg. Java 

Pandanus Amaryllifolius 

Panicum plicatum niveo-vit Panic Grass 

Panicum sulcatum 



Passiflora coerulea South America 

Passiflora Descaineana 

Philodendron cannsefolium Brazil 

Philodendron cuspidatum 

Philodendron selloum 

Philodendron Andreanum Columbia 

Philodendron Gloriosum" 

Philodendron verrucosum Ecuador 

Pelargonium grandiflorum varieties--.-- Cape of Good Hope 

Peperomia metallica Pepper Elder 

Peperomia pel tae form is Brazil 

Peperomia Saundersii Brazil 

Piper nigrum Black Pepper, East In 

Pitcairnea Andreana Venezuela 

Phyllotsenium Lindenii New Grenada 

Pimenta acris Allspice Tree 

Pittosporum Tobira Japan 

Pittosporum Tobira variegatum 

Phvsianthus albens Cruel Plant 

Pothos aurea Solomon Isles 

Pothos argyrea Philippine Islands 

Pothos celatocaulis N. W. Borneo 

Phrynium variegatum 1 - - Singapore 

Phormium tenax New Zealand Flax 

Phormium tenax, foleis varieg 

Peri strophe angustifolia lanceolaria India 

Peristrophe angustifolia varieg. 

Primula Sinensis Chinese Primrose 

Plumbago Capensis Cape of Good Hope 

Primula grandiflora (vulgaris) Europe 

Poinsettia pulcherrima Mexico 

Primula obconica Central China 

Ruellia macrantha Tropics 

Reineckea carnea '. China 

Rhododendron Ponticum varieties Asia Minor 

Sanchezia nobilis -. Ecuador 

Selaginella arborea Club-moss 

Selaginella caesia " China 

Selaginella viticulosa Central America 

Selaginella Wildenovii Cochin China 

Saccharum officinarum Sugar Cane, East Indii 

Stigmaphyllon ciliatum - Golden Vine, Brazil 

Solanum Seafortheanum azureum.- .. ._'__ West Indies 

Solanum Wendlandi magnificum- - Costa Rica 

Saxifraga sarmentosa Beefsteak Saxifrage 

Sapindus Saponaria J Soap Berry 

Sciadopitys verticillata .. Umbrella Pine, Japai 

Strelitzia Reginse South Africa 

Sterculia platanifolia China 

Spathophyllum Wallisii New Grenada 

Smilax salicifolia varieg. South America 

Spathophyllum cannaefolium Brazil 

Sanseviera Zeylanica Bowstring Hemp 

Stapelia hirsuta - South Africa 

1 7 6 


Tabernamontana coronaria fl. pi East Indian Rose Bay 

Theobroma Cacao . Chocolate Tree 

Thunbergia laurifolia - - India 

Tillandsia angustifolia West Indies 

Tillandsia Lindenii -- . Peruvian Andes 

Tillandsia utriculata West Indies 

Trachelospermum Jasminoides- ...- ._. Shanghai 

Taxus baccata .. ._. Yew Tree 

Taxus Hibernica - - - Florence Court Yew 

Taxus stricta Japan Yew 

Veltheimia viridifolia ._. South Africa 

Viburnum laurestmus Laurestinus 


From 225,000 to 230,000 bedding plants are required for the 
flower-beds and vases. The following are the species and varieties: 

Abutilon Savitzii Brazil Bonn- 

Acalypha Macafeeana 

Acalypha obovata Polynesia 

Achyranthes Lindenii Ecuador 

Achyranthes metal lica 

Ageratum conyzoides .- - Mexico 

Ageratum conyzoides, Cope's Pet 

Alternanthera paronychoides Brazil 

Alternanthera lati folia " 

Alternanthera rosea- .. 

Alternanthera versicolor . Brazil 

Althea rosea, varieties China 

Aster Victoria, improved varieties .. China 

Begonia Erfurtii Moist tropical regions 

Begonia Schmidtii - -. 

Begonia Vernonia, double 

Begonia Vernonia, crimson and gold 

Bellis perennis . Daisy 

Browallia speciosa major - - Peru 

Cacalia articulata 

Cineraria maritima candidissima- .... Dusty Miller 
Chrysanthemum carinatum Barbary 

Chrysanthemum frutescens - - Marguerite 

Cuphea ignea Mexico Cigar Plant 

Coleus Blumei, varieties Java 

Coleus Pine Apple Beauty 

Coleus Tesselata -. 

Coleus Parquet 

Crocus vernus, varieties, (10,000 plants) 

Celosia cristata Asia, Cock's Comb 

Celosia "Glasgow Prize" 

Celosia Thompson's Superb 

Caladium esculentum (Colocasia) . Sandwich Islands " Taro ' 

Canna Indica, varieties 

Canna Alph.Bouvier 

Canna Brilliant 

Canna Chicago 

Canna Chas. Henderson 

Canna Duke of Marlborough .. 

Canna Egandale 

Canna Florence Vaughan 

Canna Flamingo 

Canna J. C. Cabos 

Canna Mme. Crozy 

Canna Philadelphia .: 

Canna P. J. Berckman 

Canna Queen Charlotte 

Canna Souvenir Antoine Crozy 

Canna Stella Kanst . 

Canna Triumph 

Dianthus chinensis Heddewigii - Indian Pink 

Dianthus caryophyllus, varieties Carnation, Clove Pink 

Dianthus, single annual varieties - 

Dianthus Crimson Belle 

Dianthus Eastern Queen 

Echeveria secunda glauca, varieties .-- "Hen and Chickens " 

Echeveria gibbiflora metallica . 

Gomphrena globosa- Globe Amaranth, India 

Gladiolus, varieties Corn Flag, Sword Lily 

Hyacinthus orientalis, (2,000 used) Common Hyacinth 

Hyacinthus orientalis albulus Roman Hyacinth 

Leucophyta Brownii Australia 

Lobelia Paxtoniana ,- 

Lophospermum scandens 



Maurandia Barclayana 

Matricaria Double Chamomile 

Mathiola annua, varieties Ten-Week-Stock 

Mignonette Machet 

Mesembryanthemum cordifolium variegatum. Heart-leaved Fig Marig 

Othonna crassifolia Ragwort, Cape, So. Afri 

Pelargonium inquians, varieties Bedding Geraniums 

Pelargonium Mrs. Parker 

Pelargonium Bruanti 

Pelargonium Beaute de Poitevine 

Pelargonium Mrs. E. G. Hill 

Pelargonium La Favorite 

Pelargonium Mad. Mollen 

Pelargonium Rev. Mr. Atkinson 

Pelargonium Mad. Solleroi 

Pelargonium Harrison 

Pelargonium Le Contable 

Pelargonium pel tat um Ivy Geranium 

Pelargonium Capitatum Rose Geranium 

Pelargonium gravenlens Rose Geranium 

Petunia violacea and varieties 

Pilogyne (Zehneria) Suavis . South Africa 

Phlox Drummondii, varieties 

Pyrethrum aureum (Chrysanthemum) Golden Feverfew 

Pyrethrum Parthenium (Chrysanthemum Feverfew, Europe 

Ricinus Communis, varieties, Palma Christi ._... - Tropical Africa 

Thymus Serpyllum vulg. argentea - .__ Lemon Thyme, S. Europe 

Torenia Fournieri Cochin-Chin a 

Torenia var. Princess of Montenegro 

Tropaeolum majus, varieties - ._- Great Indian Cress 

Tulipa Gesneriana, varieties, (30,000 Plants) Common Tulip, Levant 

Vinca major variegata Band Plant 

Vinca rosea oculata 

Vinca rosea "Old Maid" 

Vinca rosea alba 

Verbena Venosa Brazil 

Viola tricolor maxima hybrida, varieties - Pansy, Heart's Ease 

Zinnia elegans varieties "Youth and Old Age," Mexico 


Chicago, March 31, 1899. 
To The Commissioners of Lincoln Park. 

Gentlemen, — I herewith submit a detailed report of receipts and 
expenditures for Lincoln Park during' the fiscal year from April I, 
1898, to March 31, 1899, and financial statements of general and 
special funds. Very respectfully, 

■ I. J. Bryan, Secretary. 


Balance of cash in Treasurer's hands Si 12,72443 

Tax levy of l8g7 §205,942.57 

On account of tax levy of 180.8 - 25,000.00 

From interest on bank balances 4,372.19 

From boats 4,564.40 

From swings 450.00 

From phaetons 1,1 33.33 

From permit fees 56.00 

From rent of refectories 5,225.00 

From rent of pier 126.00 

From rent of bicvele racks 26.77 

From rent of steam roller - - 718.25 

Sale of animals — 

16 rabbits, 25c S4-00 

4 white kittens, Sio 40.00 

2 great Dane dogs, Sio 20.00 

2 lion cubs 250.00 

4 ducks 1.20 315.20 

From barn account — 

Sale of horses $187.50 

Sale of harness 18.16 

Board of horse . 13.50 219.16 

Labor and material — 

Ohio Street extension Si, 784. 26 

Chicago Star C. & D. Co. 33-co 

Sand 1 ,364.40 

Manure 228.30 

Trees 15.00 

Teaming 1,355.10 

Electric launches 284.00 

01 d boats 5.00 

Old junk 51.52 

Forward S5, '20.58 8248,148. 87 Sn2.724.43 

Brought forward ._ S5, 120.58 S248, 148.87 $112,724.43 

Old lawn mowers 24.00 

Old lead cable -. 35.50 

Old uniforms (police) 40.00 

Artesian water 5.00 

Copy of minutes 1.50 

Street repairs . 3.80 

Refectory repairs- - 14.19 

Sundries 260.51 5,505.08 

Sale of protection bonds 46,671.20 

Ohio Street Extension 66,481.00 

. Oak Street breakwater 14,327.00 

From Boulevard, maintenance account — 

Fullerton Avenue Boulevard- 550.00 

Lincoln Park Boulevard 1,205.92 

Dearborn Boulevard 1,091.22 

Diversey Boulevard 456.25 3,303.39 

Credit to Ohio Street improvement 25.18 

Deposits on badges and permits 249.00 384,710.72 

Total receipts from all sources $497,435.15 


Unpaid vouchers April 1,1898 §18,710.17 

Park Maintenance expenses --- 127,909.33 

Coupon interest 24,100.00 

Ohio Street Extension 65.933.~S 

Oak Street breakwater 6.170.00 

Shore protection 8,603.62 

Belmont Avenue breakwater 1,411.95 

North Shore Drive improvement 2,294.41 

Diversey Avenue, west, assessment 157.05 

Pine Street improvement 200.00 

Fullerton Avenue, west, assessment 5 0<I 5 

Sheridan Road assessment — 38.45 

Lake Shore Drive, maintenance $1,278.90 

Sheridan Road 3,577-40 

Diversey Avenue, east 479-8o 

Fullerton Avenue, east 131.10 

Fullerton Avenue, west 865.55 

North Park Avenue 198-70 

North Avenue 335-85 

Dearborn Avenue Boulevard 561.05 

Lincoln Park Boulevard 1,101.05 8,529.40 

Chicago Avenue Park 5,786.22 

Park enlargement 53-5° 

Forward s269.948.03 S497,435- I 5 



Brought forward — . 


Bridge No. 4 $2,016.40 

New barn 24,025.97 

New animal house 5,221.60 

Old animal house, alterations 7,5 '7-35- 

North Pavilion 108.00 

New horse fountain 53-35 

New elephant shelter 248.62 

New telephone 548.09 

New fences 1,227.40 

New toilet, baseball grounds 332.45 

New propagating houses 392.46 

New pheasant cages 666.60 

New animal shelter and yards 10.40 

New animals 2,094.46 

Disbursements for previous year $18,710.17 

Total disbursements for current year ._ 295,701.01 

S269.94S.03 $497,435-15 




For advance taxes for 1899 collected $25,000.00 

For Ohio Street Extension 41,326.79 

For Oak Street breakwater 8,157.00 

Cobb's assessment 1,189.30 

Dearborn Boulevard 2037 

Shore protection fund _. 38,067.58 

Sinking fund 43,708.23 

Permits and badges 501.25 

Coupon interest 450.00 $158,420.52 

Surplus in general fund 24,603.45 



Due general and special funds $183,023.97 

Vouchers unpaid, March 31, 1899 9,156.57 $192,180.54 


Balance from Treasurer's statement, March 31, 1899 — $199,286.78 

Checks drawn, but not presented 7,732.35 

Balance in Treasurer's hands $191,554.43 

Balance in Cashier's hands 626.11 $192,180.54 


Cash balance, April 1, 1898 $40,754.39 

Received from property owners 66,506.18 $107. 

Disbursements $65,933.78 

Cash balance, March 31, 1899 --._ ._. ._ 41,326.79 107. 

Cash balance, April 1, 1898 $503.75 


Advanced from Gene 



1,790.66 $2,294.41 

Received during the year 

Disbursements $6,170.00 

Cash balance, March 31, 1899 - . .. 8,157.00 


Received from sale of bonds $40,000.00 

Received from premium on bonds 6,600.00 

Received from accrued interest 71.20 



Cash balance, March 31, 18 



The total bonded indebtedness of Lincoln Park, March 31, 1899, 
was §500,000, in bonds of the town of North Chicago, as follows: 

$300,000 Lincoln Park Shore Protection Bonds, issued October 1, 1887, maturing 
October 1, 1907, bearing 5 per cent interest, payable semi-annually on 
October 1 and April 1, at the State Bank of Chicago. A Sinking Fund for 
the payment of the bonds at maturity is provided for by annual taxation, 
but no provision is made for retiring any part of the issue prior to 1907. 

$160,000 Lincoln Park Shore Protection Bonds, issued August 1, 1891, maturing in 
twenty years, bearing 5 per cent interest, payable semi-annually on Feb- 
ruary 1 and August 1, at the State Bank of Chicago, other conditions same 
as those of first issue. 
$40,000 Lincoln Park Shore Protection Bonds, issued July 1, 1898, maturing in 
twenty years, bearing 5 per cent interest, payable semi-annually on January 
1 and July 1, at the State Bank of Chicago, other conditions same as those 
of first issue. 


Cash balance, April I, 1898 $21,661.68 

Received from tax levy $21,276.67' 

Received from interest on balances 769.88 22,046.55 $43,708.23 



Total tax levy 

Cost of collection and loss 

Brought forward 

From North Chicago, for maintenance and improvement of Park: 

Appropriated by Supervisor S140, 00000 

Excess of levy .. 2,345.34 

Total collections $234,473.! 

Amount of tax warrant $142,345.34 

Amount uncollected §4,619,49 


From North Chicago for sinking fund and interest on shore protection boi: 

Appropriated by Supervisor - S46.000.00 

Excess of levy 942.67 

Amount of tax warrants- 

Amount uncollected 8992-85 

County Clerk's fees for extending tax 451.26 

Town Collector's commissions for collecting 

$13.73975 at - P el ' cent--.- 274.79 

County Collector s Commissions for collecting 

§32,210.07 at I per cent 322.10 

n.ty Clerk's fees for extending tax. 
Town Collector's commissions for collecting 

841,156.54 at 2 per cent . 

County Collector's commissions for collecting 

896,56981 at 1 per cent 


965.70 6,859.59 135.48575 


From Lake View, for maintenance and improvement of Park: 

Appropriated by Su pel' visor 

Excess of levy .__-__ 

2,041.00 S44,QOI.67 

Separated as follows: 

Interest — - S23.625.00 

Sinking fund 21,276.67 

Amount of tax warrant- 

Amount uncollected 

County Clerk's fees for extending tax 

Town Collector's commissions for collecting 

Si 8, 009. 45 at 2 per cent 

County Collector's commissions for collecting 

836,65 1.55 at 1 per cent 





80.55 54,086.41 



April i, r8g8, to March 31, 1S99 


Salaries, pay roll S9.261.75 


Annual Report, 1897-1898 S331.90 

Annual Report, 1898-1899 . 748.07 

Printing 168.26 

Stationery 77-13 

Bonds of employes . 70.00 

Engineering supplies 58.94 

Court costs and legal expenses - 15.60 

Decorating office 148.14 

Typewriter and supplies u... 118.45 

Telephone service '76-95 

Postage 128.00 

Street car tickets . ' 70.00 

Sundry expenses 348.25 2,459.69 Si 1,721.44 


Salaries, pay roll $20,606.75 


Bicycle repairs S247.45 

Stars and clubs 44-85 

Buggy for Captain 125.00 

Fuel 55-25 

Sundries 46.26 518.81 21,125.56 



Care of horses and barn 32,071. 15 

Wagon repairs 754.85 

Harness repairs 2:85 S2.828.85 


Feed S3,7°4-7^ 

Horseshoeing 1,373.8 1 

Medicine 84.59 

Forward - 85,613.12 $2,828.85 S32.847.00 

Brought forward .... ... S5.163.12 S2.828.85 S32.S47.00 

Fuel 110.68 

Insurance 38C55 

Buggy ... 200.66 

Sundries 83.42 

Sundries, wagon repairs ... 189.96 

Sundries, harness repairs 191.02 6,318.75 9,147.60 



Department employes — 89,01 1.25 

Building repairs 360.85 $9,372.10 


Fuel S5,o8o.68 

Plants, bulbs and seeds - _ 694.17 

Black soil 144.50 

Hose 117.25 

Flowerpots ._ 73-55 

Wire netting, Palm House 150.40 

Repairs to heating plant 80.70 

Sundries 300.33 6,641.58 16,013.68 



Foremen __ S427.45 

Seeding and repairing 655.77 

Fertilizing 834.12 

Mowing grass . . . .' 3,295.70 

Raking and carting leaves and grass - 2,961.80 

Sprinkling 1 743-5° 

Cleaning 587.46 

Picking paper 969.95 

Pulling weeds : 161.45 

Repairing fences 184.05 

Repairing mowing-machines and tools 108.40 

Painting tools and paper-baskets 62.00 

Care of Union Square 16.75 Si 1,008.40 

Forward Si 1,008.40858,008.28 



Brought forward S11.008.40 S5S.008.28 


Hose -.-- $776.00 

Sprinklers 33-20 

Lawn mowers and tools 228.20 

Grass seed 38-92 

Paints for baskets 11.40 

Lumber for fence repairs 79-87 

Wire for fence repairs -- 44-33 

Sundries 25.18 1,237.10 12,245.50 


Foremen §121.10 

Wiring trees 59-5° 

Watering trees 37 6 -35 

Trimming trees 360.65 

Carting brush 50. 1 o 

R epa i ring tools ' 10. 1 5 

Weeding nursery >3-5° 

Planting 901.10 

Carting trees and soil 349-6o 

Grubbing 102.55 S2.344.60 


Black soil $249-20 

Tar 11.49 

Tools 20.05 

Sundries 9.56 290.30 2,634.90 



Foremen $69.25 

Cleaning (in Park)-. . 688.70 

Sweeping Clark Street walk 250.60 

Repairing 350.85 

Edging 486.40 

Sprinkling 100.60 

Clearing snow 56-25 

Making and painting benches 235.70 

Repairing tools and signs 5-'° 

Repairing tunnels 32.95 $2,276.40 


Slag $22.50 

Lumber and paint for benches 37-58 

Sundries 7- 2 5 6 7-33 2,343.73 

Forward -- $75,232.41 

Brought forward 875,232.41 



Cleaning $1,705.75 

Repairing 127.75 

Sprinkling 77S.70 

Repairing and pain ling tools "_ 20.00 $2,632.20 


Stone and gravel for repairs $617.76 

Brooms and brushes 23.50 641.26 $3,273.46 



Pay roll $427.60 


Hose - . . $i 26.33 

Paints 149.70 

Sundries 1 14.98 291.01 718.61 



Pay roll S79-75 


Fuel $22.15 

Sundries for repairs IO -99 33->4 112.89 



Attendants $4,11 1.50 

Night watchman 360.00 

Repairs 202.45 

Cleaning 286.25 $4,960.20 


Meat $2,900.03 

Bread ' 545-62 

Fish-- 323.75 

Milk 121.24 

Hay 738-08 

Oats . 382.09 

Corn ' ■- 79-77 

Wheat 5.81 

Forward $5,096.39 $4,960.20 $79,337.37 



Brought forward 55,096. 39 514,960.20 S79.337.37 

Bran 4.10 

Birdseed-- 48.49 

Carrots 55.25 

Cabbage 46.00 

Potatoes 27.63 

Onions 7.15 

Rice ~ 1.60 

Apples 31.75 

Bananas M-55 

Nuts - 23.00 

Eggs-..- 3.27 

Salt 2.00 

Pepper :. 140 

Total food S5.362.5S 

Investigating animal -houses 187.41 

Disinfectants 135.00 

Hose 83.83 

Building and cage repairs 82.91 

Medicine 69.95 

Coal 67.84 

Hardware 50.64 

Brooms and brushes 50.30 

Ice 19.74 

Signs 16.70 

Soap-—-- ,5.75 

Sundries 147-39 6,290.04 11,250.24 



Operating power plant $3,107.95 

Repairing machinery 204.10 

Repairing water mains 591.75 

Cleaning 29.00 S3, 932. 80 


Coal §2,095.74 

Machinery repairs 183.24 

Boiler compound 92.22 

Engine oil 146.90 

Water-pipe and fittings 184.38 

Packing 29.06 

Waste 35-74 

Polish 12.00 

Tools - . . 14.88 

Building repairs 6.45 

Sundries 21.10 2,821.71 


Brought forward ■ .. 897,342. 1 2 



Operating plant and lights S5.958-75 

Machinery repairs 172.50 

Cleaning-- 28.75 S6, 160.00 


Coal S2.095.78 

Arc-light carbons 420.00 

Arc-light globes 54-75 

Electric supplies 236.58 

Machinery repairs 234.55 

Expert opinion conduit contract 75-00 

Engine oil 1 146.80 

Boiler compound 92.23 

Building repairs 8.18 

Packing 27.72 

Waste 35-70 

Polish 12. 00 

Tools 14.52 

Sundries 75.11 3,528.92 9,688.92 


Academy officials $2, 520.00 

Engineer and janitor service 2,040.00 

Building repairs 53.35 S4.613.35 


Fuel S463.31 

Sundries 107.98 571.29 5,184.64 


Attendants $2,920.00 

Repairs .___ 356-35S3.276.35 


Plumbing $55.75 

Coal ..- 42.03 

Building repairs.-.^ 22.93 

Sundries 40.13 160.84 3.437.!9 



Repairs $29.40 


Lumber $16.04 

Sundries 2.65 18.69 48.09 

Forward Si 15,700.96 


Brought forward , Si 15,700.96 



Repairs S6.95 


Pipe and fittings $25.09 

Cups and chains 24.10 

Sundries 1.42 50.70 57.65 



Repairs $248.10 


Lumber $11 15 

Cement 17.65 

Meals for workmen 2.00 30.80 278.90 



Repairs 51-95 



Operating fountain $258.15 


Services 6.00 264. 1 5 



Attendants $1,162.00 

Repairing 1 ,226.45 

Cleaning pond surfaces 543-35 

Carting.-- 55.65 S2.987.45 


Lumber for boat repairs S70.66 

Nails, screws, etc., repairs 51-43 

Paint 108.64 

Painting tools 1 1-45 

Oars ..._ 31.85 

Awning for swan boat 14.00 

Sundries 42.18 330.21 3,317.66 

Forward S119.671.27 


Brought forward $i ig.671.27 


Cleaning ice.-.-- $1,163.70 

Building shelter 37-90 

Temporary floors South Refectory 21.75 

Temporary floors North Pavilion 36.00 

Repairing ice-scrapers- 56-55 

Attendants..- 69.50 Si, 385.40 


Lumber shelter. $21.50 

Lumber, temporary floor, South Refectory - 16.00 

Coal shelter 2.63 

Sundries 9.07 49-20 1,431.60 



Marking tennis-courts $172.95 

Erecting foot-ball goalposts 4.90 S177.85 


Whiting $22.60 

Marking cart 4.50 

Application blanks 5.50 

Record slips 4.50 

Sundries 2.07 39.17 217.02 



Attendant Suo.oo 

Cleaning 5.25 1 15.25 



Repairing band-stands $31.60 


Concerts $1,310.00 

Sundries 1.10 1,311.10 1,3427° 



Repairs S63.65 


Painting contract $45°-°° 

Sundries 2.84 45 2 - 8 4 5 l6 -49 

Forward Si 23,297.33 


Brought forward Si 23,297.33 



Repairing doors — .75 



Repairs -- -. .-- $28.80 


Lumber for repairs -- $41.00 

Screws- --. .38 41.38 70.18 



Repairs S46.75 


Lumber for repairs $84.00 

Nails 1.70 85.70 132.45 



Repairs-- 3.30 



Repairs 7.85 


Assistant superintendent $500.80 

Expressman 540.00 

Storekeeper 529.85 

Carpenters 126.95 

Blacksmiths 69.20 

Painters 39-35 

Teaming and labor 2,156.75 $3,962.90 


Lumber $69-18 

Tools 78.52 

Paint 89.54 

Coal 50.25 

Kerosene 46.12 

Bicycle repairs 14.50 

Nails - 16.35 

Iron 14.88 

Flags 1935 

Soap 12.95 

Sundries-- - 22.93 434-57 4,397-47 

Total wages park maintenance $93,187.20 

Total supplies park maintenance 34,722.13 $127,909.33 







Pay roll 


Printing bonds S50.00 

Granite paving blocks 5,074.50 

Breakwater contract 2,930.37 

Engineer . 250.00 

Sundries- 86.35 8,391.22 





Pay roll $0.75 


Breakwater contract $1,396.80 

Advertising 14.40 1,411.20 

liOXD accoun r 

Coupon interest - 

Total wages .. 
Total supplies 







Engineer $49.05 

Excavating 641.75 

Grading 269.45 

Sewers 383.05 

Carpentry 316.55 $1 ,659.85 


Architect's fees $930.33 

Masonry contract 6,900. 

Carpentry contract 4,437. 

Roofingcontract 3,175 

Asphalt floor contract 3,360 

Electrical fittings 189 

Painting 500. 

Steam fitting : 295 

Plumbing 337 

Iron work 1,809 

Sundries 433 


2,366.12 $24,025.97 


Brought forward 824,025. 97 



Engineer $54.10 

Labor 777-40 $831.50 


Ironwork 85,355.00 

Steam fitting U7-47 

Cement 14.5:20 

Brick 127.50 

Cut-stone work 375 00 

Lumber 376.33 

Sundries '59-35 6,685.85 7,517.35 

Pay roll 8295.20 


Contract $4,574.00 

Architect's fees ' 228.50 

Sundries 123.90 4,926.40 5,221.60 


1 Tiger : $600.00 

1 Lion 500.00 

1 Zebra 500.00 

1 Pair zebus 100.00 

1 Yak 85.00 

1 Fallow deer 60.00 

1 Honey bear 20.00 

2 White raccoons 20.00 

1 Pairswans--- 60.00 

2 Silver pheasants 25.00 

3 Pair Canadian geese 18.00 

Sundry small animals and express charges 106.46 2,094.46 

(Animal paddock and duck pond.) 


Pay roll S199.65 


Wire fences S918.75 

Stone 9.00 927.75 1,127.40 

Forward S39.986.78 


Brought forward $39,986.78 



Engineer $29.85 - • 

Labor , : 198.50 $228.35 


Sundries 438.25 666.60 



Pay roll- _" $153.80 


Sundries 94.82 248.62 



Pay roll 10.40 



Pay roll $482.50 


Stone $166.80 

Iron work 876.00 

Cement work " 491.10 1,533.90 2,016.40 



Pay roll S21.35 


Contract $498.40 

Sundries 28.34 526.74 548.09 


Engineer $92.35 

Moving trees, etc 297.05 S389.40 


Sundries 3.06 392.46 



Pay roll S176.90 


Sundries 155.55 332-45 

Forward $44,201.80 


Brought forward S44.201.80 



Cement (old bill) 108.00 



Painting — 100.00 



Pay roll--- S18.35 


Trough — 35.00 53.35 

Total wages 54,467. 25 

Total supplies 30,995.90 $44,463.15 



Teaming $874.95 

Labor 2,47 1 .70 

Watchman 35 2 45 $3,699-10 


Soil si, 35 1.96 

Plans 150.00 

Trees 532.50 

Sundries 52.66 2,087.12 5,786.22 



Payroll 10.00 


Court costs 43-50 53,5° 

Total wages - - S3, 701). 1 o 

Total supplies . 2,130.62 $5, 839.72 



Teams, sprinkling, etc $404.50 

Labor, cleaning .1,661.50 S2.066.00 


Electric light - Si, 100.00 

Trees 380.00 

Sundries 3140 1,511.40 S3.577.40 

Forward S3.577.40 

I8 7 



Brought forward 



Sprinkling ' $231-80 

Cleaning 1,047.10 



Police $507.50 

Sprinkling __ 96.90 

Cleaning 275.15 

Labor and superintendence - 147.20 $1,026.75 


Teaming $62.30 

Manure --' 12.00 74-30 1,101.05 



Police $490.00 

Sprinkling- 44.60 

Cleaning 166.45 

Labor and superintendence -•-- - - 125.55 S826.60 









Sprinkling •- $122.90 

Cleaning 214.40 

Labor and superintendence 41-55 $378-! 


Teaming S54.75 

Tree guards 35-20 

Legal expense 11.00 ioo.< 



Police $210.00 

Sprinkling 81.25 

Labor, cleaning and superintendence — 17740 $468.65 

Forward S468.65 $7,433.80 

38.95 865.55 

$2 1 .60 


brought forward- 

Teaming - 
Lamps --- 
Black soil 

1 1 .00 

$468.65 S7,433-8o 

02.40 561.05 

Cleaning -- 




Crushed stone- 

93-6° 335.85 



Cleaning - 


198 70 

Total wages- -- 
Total supplies 

S6,6 17.80 

Brought forward — 




11 SIQ,8qS.30 

Pay rolls v v J 


Dredging sand -- Sl7 , ,3 l^ 

%ment b,0CkS -- ^ 

Lenient n /ro. 

Crushed stone for roadway- , , ei 

Legal expenses--- ^,010.5 

Rubble stone.--- , , To 

Teaming .35 -4° 

Water pipe and fittings - |-3°4- "S 

Sharp sand for cement- '„,2' on 

Trees --• '.o//- uu 

Black soil 70973 

Lumber ,Ij'en 

Slag for roadway ^2.50 

Curb"« - ^63 ^6^8 s65.033.78 



Teaming --- 

Labor and superintendence- 

S3i 2 -3° 
904.25 Si, 216.55 

Si.216.55 $65,033.78 

$1,216.55 $65,933-78 


Soil-- - - S354-50 

Manure >75.c° 

Trees---- *°5-°° 

Grass seed — I 5-9 ei 

Legal expense 27.00 

Sundries 10 -4° 



Legal expense. 



Engineer... S75-5° 

Labor-.. - '-55 «77-< 


Legal expense - 



Court costs -•- v * 


Postal notices 

Transcripts of rolls 




Court costs - - - 
Typewriting — 
Postal notices- 



5 60 

38 45 

Total wages--- 
Total supplies 

47,481.94 S68.673.84 


Total park maintenance accounts --- 
Total lake shore protection accounts- 
Total interest on bonds- 

Total park improvement accounts--- 

Total park construction accounts 

Total boulevard maintenance accounts 
Total boulevard construction accounts- 

516,185. 57 
24,100.00 40,285.57 

Total disbursements - 





* # 


Chicago St*te University