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Sergeant Charles Floyd 




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Floyd Memorial Association 


Committee on Publication 





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Sergeant Charles Floyd 


Floyd Memorial Association 


Committee on Publication 








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No. 1. 

W ashing i<>\. 1). C, Jan. 1, 1896. 
Hon. George I). Perkins, 

Chairman Committee on Publication, Floyd Memorial Association, 

Sioux City, Iowa. 

I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Floyd Memorial 
Association which I was requested to prepare on behalf of your committee. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Elliott Coues. 


Xo. 2. 

Sioux City, Iowa, Jan. 4. 1896. 
John H. Charles, 

President Floyd Memorial Association, 
Sioux City, Iowa. 

We have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Floyd Mem- 
orial Association, with the preparation of which the Committee on Publication 
was charged by resolution of the Board of Trustees of Aug. 24, 1895. 

This report contains: 1. All that is known of Floyd's antecedents, life 
and death. 2. All accounts of his reburial in 1857. 3. A full account of the 
origin, organization and proceedings of the Association before, during and 
after the memorial exercises of Aug. 20, 1895. 

Your committee believe that this report represents a valuable contribu- 
tion to permanent history, and that it will serve to promote the purposes of 
the Association; they therefore recommend its immediate publication. 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Geokc.e D. Pkkkins. 
Elliott Coues, 
Mitchell Vincent, 
Geokgk W. Wakefield, 
Constant K. Marks, 

Committee on Publication. 

Table of Contents. 

PART I. — Floyd's Life and Death. page. 

1. Floyd's Antecedents, ... . 1_3 

2. Floyd as a Sergeant of Lewis and Clark, - 3 

3. Floyd's Journal, ... 3_ 9 

4. Floyd's Death and Burial, Aug. 20, 1804, - 9-12 

5. Floyd's Grave, before 1857, - - - 12-14 
PART II.— Floyd's Reburial in 1857. 

6. Floyd's Grave Exposed, - - 14-17 

7. Floyd's New Grave, ...... 17-18 

8. Floyd County, for whom named, - - - 18-21 
PART III. — The Floyd Memorial Association. 

9. Origin of the Association, - 21-24 

10. Organisation of the Association, - - 24-27 

11. Proceedings of the Association before Aug. 20, 1895, - 27-32 

12. Incorporation of the Association, Aug. 20, 1895. - 32-35 

13. The Obsequies of Aug. 20, 1895. .... 35 

a. Afternoon Exercises, ----,- 35-44 

b. Evening Exercises, ..... 44-45 

14. Proceedings of the Association after Aug. 20, 1895, 55-58 


Sergeant Charles Floyd 


Floyd Memorial Association 


Section 1. Floyd's Antecedents. The Floyds were early pioneers in 
Kentucky. Their descendants were numerous, and it is not known with cer- 
tainty to which line of descent the subject of the present biography belonged. 

Colonel John Floyd was the most prominent of these pioneers. He was 
the son of William and Abidiah Floyd. He had brothers, Robert Floyd, 
Charles Floyd and Isham Floyd; also, brothers-in-law named Lemaster and 
Sturgis; but little is known of any of them. Charles Floyd, brother of Col- 
onel John Floyd, resided at Floyd Station when he first came to Kentucky, 
about 1780, and afterward in what was known as Pond Settlement, in present 
Jefferson County, Ky., where he had a farm on Mill Creek, a few miles from 
Louisville. It is probable but not certain that he was the father of Sergeant 
Charles Floyd of the Lewis and Clark expedition. The only direct allusion 
to the Sergeant's father we have found is a remark contained in Capt. 
Meriwether Lewis' official muster-roll of his party, dated Jan. 15, 1807, now 
in the archives of the War Department at Washington. Speaking of the Ser- 
geant's decease, Lewis adds: "His father, who now resides in Kentucky. Is 
a man much respected, tho' possessed of but moderate wealth. As the son 
lost his life while in this service I considered his father entitled to some 
gratuity in consideration of his loss, and also, that the deceased being noticed 
in this way will be a tribute but justly due to his merit."* This shows that 
the Sergeant's father was still living in 1807, but unfortunately omits to give 
his full name. 

*See Lewis and Clark: Ed. 1S93. p. 254. 


Col. John Floyd was among the brave volunteers who flocked to the 
standard of George Rogers Clark, to repulse Indian hostilities. He was mor- 
tally wounded by Indians near Floyd Station and died the same day, April 12, 
1783. His brother Charles carried him off the field. For the circumstances 
of his death, and view of the monument which now stands on the town pike 
between Middletown and Simpsonville, Jefferson County, Ky., "erected by 
the commonwealth of Kentucky to the memory of fourteen brave soldiers 
who fell under Capt. John Floyd in a contest with the Indians in 1783," see 
English's Conquest of the Northwest, 1896, p. 751; also, preceding pp. 748- 
750, for report of Col. John Floyd to the Governor of Virginia, April, 1781, 
on the condition of affairs in Kentucky, etc. In September, 1781, Col. John 
was wounded in an Indian ambuscade, on hurrying to the rescue of settlers 
after the disaster at Squire Boone's Station, near present Shelbyville. Col. 
John was also under Clark in 1782. 

George Rogers Clark Floyd (son of Col. John), afterward distinguished 
at the battle of Tippecanoe, was the one who caused the drum and fife to be 
played during the amputation of Clark's leg at Clarksville, Ind., early in 

Henry Floyd appears as a lieutenant in the forces raised by George 
Ttogers Clark for the famous Illinois regiment, for the reduction of Kas- 
kaskia, Cahokia, Vincennes, etc., 1778-9. He was among those allotted land 
in severalty in the Clark grant of 149,000 acres for their services in that 

Isham Floyd appears as a private in the same connection. 

George Rogers Clark was an elder brother of William Clark (of Lewis 
and Clark), and in this association of the Floyds with the Clarks we are 
evidently close upon the record of the antecedents of our Sergeant Charles 
Floyd. He is known to us simply as one of "the nine young men from 
Kentucky," as the Lewis and Clark history styles them, who joined the 
famous expedition. As Col. R. T. Durrett of Louisville, says, in a letter to 
the present writer, of November 16, 1895, the Sergeant was simply "a young 
man of the times," of neither fame nor fortune, but closely enough connected 
with persons then prominent to secure a place on the expedition as one of 
its non-commissioned officers. Col. Durrett knows of no contemporary news- 
paper which gives a notice of his death, but adds: "I think it possible, how- 
ever, that something might have been said of him in the 'Farmers' Library,' 
a weekly paper then published at Louisville; but unfortunately no file of 
this paper is in existence. * * * His father (believed to be the Charles 
Floyd already mentioned) was a respectable farmer in Jefferson County, who 
appeared frequently as an appraiser of dead men's estates, as witness, as 
juror, as magistrate, etc., all of which goes to show that he was a soli ! man 
of good standing in the community. I have not been able to find among the 
descendants and distant relatives of the Floyds, who still exist in this vicin- 
ity, any person who could tell me anything about Sergeant Charles Floyd. 
There are no near relatives here, however, and I think that it is very strange 
that he should have passed entirely away from the memory of the liv- 
ing * * *." 

The date and place of birth of Sergeant Floyd are unknown. He was 
no doubt born in present Jefferson County, Ky., about 1780-85. 


The foregoing is the sum and substance of all that is known on the sub- 
ject, prior to Floyd's connection with Lewis and Clark. Of this brief <<>n- 
nection, and its termination by death, our information is ample and precise. 

Sec. 2. Floyd as a Sergeant c <i Lewis and Clark. Floyd was a civil- 
ian, and never a soldier of the United States army, except as enlisted in the 
particular service of the Lewis and Clark expedition. He no doubt joined 
that expedition with others in the fall of 1803, at St. Louis, Mo., and went into 
the winter camp of the party, 1S03-4, on the east bank of the Mil issippi, at 
the mouth of Du Bois or Wood river, in Illinois, nearly opposite but a short 
distance above the entrance of the Missouri. From this point the expedition 
sailed in a barge and two perogues at 4 p. m. on Monday, May K, 1804. It 
proceeded up the Missouri to near the site of present Sioux City, Iowa, where 
Floyd died on the afternoon of August 20, 1804. Exclusive of his duties in 
Camp Du Bois, the duration of his actual service on the expedition was thus 
brief— a period of 99 days. That he did his duty faithfully and ably, we 
know. It is believed that he was the first citizen-soldier of the United States 
ever buried west of the Mississippi, after the acquisition of Louisiana. 

Sec. 3. Floyd's Journal. Both of the commissioned officers of the 
expedition, the four non-commissioned officers (Floyd, Pryor, Ordway, and 
Gass), and at least three of the privates, kept journals. Those of Capt. Lewis 
and Capt. Clark were edited by Nicholas Biddle and first published in 1814 
as the authentic History of the Expedition. This went through many edi- 
tions, the latest one of 1893. The manuscript journals of Pryor and of Ord- 
way were utilized for the History by Biddle; but all further trace of them 
has been lost. The journal of Patrick Gass was first published at Pittsburgh 
in 1807, under the editorship of David McKeehan, and went through more 
editions than the Captain's own history ever did, including translations in 
French, German and Dutch. Nothing was known of Floyd's journal till Feb- 
ruary 3, 1894, when it was discovered by Reuben G. Thwaites, Secretary of 
the Wisconsin Historical Society, at Madison, Wis., in Lyman C. Draper's 
collection of documents relating to George Rogers Clark and William Clark. 
This is the very volume mentioned by Capt. Lewis in his letter to President 
Jefferson from Fort Mandan, of date April 7, 1805, communicated by Jefferson 
to Congress in a message dated February 19, 1806, and repeatedly published. 
The original publication misprinted the date as April 17, 1805. and it has 
generally been so given; but the original letter is on file among the Jefferson 
papers in the Department of State at Washington, and the wrong date is 
thus easily corrected. In this letter Capt. Lewis says: "I have sent a jour- 
nal, kept by one of the Sergeants, to Capt. (Amos) Stoddard, my agent at 
St. Louis, in order as much as possible to multiply the chances of saving 
something." This is the Flovd journal we now possess. Announcement of 
its discovery was promptly made in the New York Nation of February 15. 
1894. The identification of the manuscript is beyond question. The dis- 
covery was communicated to the American Antiquarian Society of Worcester. 
Mass., at the semi-annual meeting held in Boston, April 25, 1S94. and pub- 
lished in full in the proceedings of that Society, Vol. X., N. S., Part 2. pp. 225- 
252, under the editorship of Prof. J. D. Butler, who prefaced it with some crit- 
ical and explanatory matter, including the manuscript prospectus of Robert 
Fiazer's never-published journal, and a Mandan letter of William Clark to his 


brother-in-law, William Croghan. In this form the article was reissued as 
a separately paged pamphlet, 8vo., pp. 30, Worcester, Mass., press of 
Charles Hamilton, 1894, with the title: "The New Found Journal of Charles 
Floyd, a Sergeant Under Captains Lewis and Clark." 

This journal is an interesting historical relic, and on a few points it has 
value as a check upon the official history and upon the narrative of Gass. 
The most important items it contains are found on the inside of the back 
cover, where, among some other names (chiefly relating to the Sergeant's 
detail of a guard for a prisoner), occur three and possibly four names found 
nowhere else in all the annals of the expedition. Two of these names, 
"Thomas M. Winn" and "Pall," are perhaps not finisher] out; a third is 
"William Lebouch;" the fourth is "Lasuness," possibly standing for La Jeu- 
nesse. But nothing is known of any such persons in connection with the 
expedition. A memorandum inside the front cover has the date of May 13, 
1S04; otherwise the 53 manuscript pages of the journal run from May 14 to 
August 18, 1804 — two days before the Sergeant's death. As printed in 8vo. 
it makes 14 pages, or less than half of Prof. Butler's pamphlet. The print is 
intended to be verbatim, literatim et punctatim, and no doubt renders the 
original with iidelity. Through the courtesy of Hon. Geo. D. Perkins, we 
are enabled to present three fac-similes of portions of the manuscript, as 
first printed in the Sioux City Journal of August 21, 1895, these being taken 
from the first and last pages, and from the inside of the back cover, where 
occurs the Sergeant's autograph signature — probably the only one in exist- 





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The Above is a Fac-simile of the Signature Written by Sergeant Floyd on the 

Inside of the Cover of His Journal Carried on the Expedition. 


The eccentricities of Floyd's orthography, capitalization, and punctua- 
tion are great, as will be observed; but not greater than those of manuscript 
written by persons of average education at that time. Capt. Clark's, for ex- 
ample, is little different in this regard. A few of Floyd's geographical 
names require explanation with regard to the corresponding ones used by 
Lewis and Clark, or by Gass. They are chiefly the following: May 22, 
"Bonnon" is Bonhomme creek. May 23, "wife of Osage" is Femme Osage 
river. May 25, "St. Johns" is an alternative name of La Charette. May 27, 
"Gasganade" is Gasconade river. May 30, "Painter river" is the Grindstone 
creek of Lewis and Clark of same date, where no "Painter" river appears. 
June 2, "Granosoge" is Grand Osage river. June 3, "Grown hog" is ground- 
hog. June 4, "Sidder" is Cedar river. The "Creek Called Zon Cer" is conjec- 
tured by Butler to be for Joncaire; a similar word occurs in Clark's Codex of 
this date, but nothing like it is in Biddle's text, and the case remains obscure. 
Another of Floyd's names of this date, "Batue de charra parie" is also prob- 
lematical. June 5, "Kensier" is Kansas river. June 6, "Rock" creek is Split 
Rock creek, Roche Perce of the French; and "Sallin" is for Saline creek. 
June 7, "River of the Big Devil" is present Big Manitou creek. June 8, 
"Big River mine" is Mine river. June 10, "Deer Lick" is the Deer creek of 
Lewis and Clark of this date. June 12, "Plumb" is Plum creek. June 13, 
"Saukus" is Sacs (Indians). June 14, "Poneye" is Pawnee. June 15, "Indian 
Creek" is one not named in the Lewis and Clark text. "Gran Ossags" are 
Grand Osages. June 19, "tabor" is Tabo or Tabeau creek. June 21, the 
two creeks "Called Deulau" have occasioned an error on the part of Prof. 
Butler, who curiously brackets ("Dieu l'eau") as the proper name. The 
name should be Eau Beau, as rendered by Lewis and Clark, otherwise Clear- 
water Creek: see the full explanation of this case given in the 1893 edition of 
Lewis and Clark, p. 29. June 22, Floyd's remarks about the Fire Prairie 
creeks clear up an obscurity in the Biddle text of Lewis and Clark. June 24, 
"Hay" is Hay Cabin creek of Lewis and Clark; Floyd's "Creek of the Bad 
Rock" does not occur in Lewis and Clark. June 25, Floyd gives occasion 
for a mistake on Prof. Butler's part. The expression "un batteur La benne 
River" does not mean La Charbonniere creek, as Prof. Butler states, since he 
brackets ("La Charboniere"), but La Benite creek of Lewis and Clark, Lebe- 
nile of Gass, so called for a hunter (batteur) named Benite or Benet: see the 
explanation of this case in the 1893 edition of Lewis and Clark, p. 32. July 1, 
"Frog Tree" is the Remore creek of Lewis and Clark. July 2, "Parques" is 
Pare creek of Lewis and Clark. July 4, "Independance" is also Fourth of 
July creek in Lewis and Clark. July 6, "Whipperwill" creek is in Gass, but 
not in Lewis and Clark. July 9, "Monter" is Monter's creek of Lewis and 
Clark, the correct form of the name being probably Montour. July 10, 
"Pope" is Pape's creek. July 11, "Tarcio" is Tarkio, and "Granma Mohug 
Creek" is the Grand Nemaha river. July 13, "Tarkue" is Tarkio. July 14, 
"Neeshba" is the Nishnahbotna river of Lewis and Clark. July 15, "Plumb 
Run" is not in Lewis and Clark, and "Neinahaw Creek" is the Little Nemaha 
river. July 18, "Elke Sine" is Elk Sign. July 19, "Cherry Run" and "Wil- 
low Isd" are not in Lewis and Clark, but the latter is in Gass. July 20, 
"Crys Creek" is the Weeping Water of Lewis and Clark; "Piggen Creek" 
is not in Lewis and Clark. July 21, "Grait River Plate" is the Platte. July 
28, "Beaver Creek" is the Indian Knob creek of Lewis and Clark. August 4, 


"Council Creek" is named as seven miles above the place (Council Bluff not 
present Council Bluffs, Iowa) where the important councils occurred; bul no 
name appears in Lewis and Clark for this stream. August 7, we have the 
full name of Moses B. Reed, who is nowhere mentioned by name in the Biddle 
text, and not even in the Clark codices except as "M. B. Reed." August 8, 
"Littel Soue" is the Little Sioux river. August 11, "Waie Con Di Peeche or the 
Grait Sperit is Bad" is Waucandipeeche creek of Lewis and Clark the pres- 
ent Blackbird creek, at Blackbird Hill, Neb. August 12, "Red Seeder Bluffs 
are Cedar bluffs, not so named by Lewis and Clark. August 1", and 1»;. the 
number of the fish caught is not quite the same as Lewis and ('lark give 
(1,118), or as Gass gives (1,096). 

Sec. 4. Floyd's Death and Burial, Aug. 20, 1804. As we have se 
the last entry in Floyd's Journal is of August 18, 1804, two days before his 
death. The official record of August 20 stands as follows in the Biddle His- 
tory of the Expedition, 1814, p. 48: 

"Here we had the misfortune to lose one of our Sergeants, Charles Floyd. 
He was yesterday seized with a bilious colic, and all our care and attention 
were ineffectual to relieve him. A little before his death he said to Capt. 
Clark, T am going to leave you;' his strength failed him as he added. 'I want 
you to write me a letter.' He died with a composure which justified the 
high opinion we had formed of his firmness and good conduct. He was 
buried on the top of the bluff with the honors due to a brave soldier; the 
place of his interment was marked by a cedar post, on which his name and 
the day of his death were inscribed. About a mile beyond this place, to 
which we gave his name, is a small river about 30 yards wide, on the north, 
which we called Floyd's river, where we camped." 

To this curt and precise record the Journal of Patrick Gass (who was 
made Sergeant August 22, vice Floyd, deceased) adds some particulars. We 
quote from the original edition of 1807, p. 29: 

"This day (August 19) Sergeant Floyd became very sick and remained 
eo all night. He was seized with a complaint somewhat like a violent colic. 

"Monday, 20th. Sergeant Floyd continued very ill. We embarked early, 
and proceeded, having a fair wind and fine weather, till 2 o'clock, when we 
landed for dinner. Here Sergeant Floyd died, notwithstanding every possi- 
ble effort was made by the commanding officers, and other persons, to sa 
his life. We went on about a mile to high prairie hills (i. e., to Floyd's 
Bluff) on the north side of the river, and there interred his remains in the 
most decent manner our circumstances would admit: we then proceeded a 
mile further to a small river on the same side and encamped. Our command- 
ing officers gave it the name of Floyd's river; to perpetuate the memory of 
the first man who had fallen in this important expedition." 

Here it is seen that, contrary to the general belief, Floyd did not die at 
Floyd's Bluff, where he was buried, but a mile below — say one-third of the 
distance between that bluff and the present site of the town of Sergeant's 
Bluff, Woodbury County, la. The hour of death is not given; but it was after 
2 p. m. The place of death was lowland, and the Captains proceeded for the 
interment to the first point above where the bluffs strike the river. 

The two foregoing notices remained the only known published records 
of the death till 1893. In the revised edition of Lewis and Clark published 
that year by Dr. Coues, some extracts are given, verbatim, on p. 79, from the 


original manuscript of Clark's Journal, at dates of August 19 and 20. These 
arc to the same effect as the Bjddle text of 1814, but reproduce Clark's quaint 
spelling, etc. The original manuscripts, making 3,056 pages, are those upon 
which Biddle worked, and are now preserved in the archives of the American 
Philosophical Society at Philadelphia. They were in Dr. Coues' hands when 
the 1893 edition of the History was prepared, and a literal copy of the whole 
of them is now in his possession. We thus possess the whole record pre- 
cisely as written by Capt. Clark on the spot at the time. The matter for the 
week ending with Floyd's death, August 13-20, is found in Clark Codex A, 
pages 176 to 179, for August 13 and 14; and in Clark Codex B, pages 3 to 14, 
for August 15-20. We will condense this record to August 18 inclusive, and 
then give verbatim all that is said of Floyd. 

Monday, August 13, 1804. From a camp on the boundary between pres- 
ent Monona and Woodbury counties, Iowa, the expedition passed on the left 
the boundary between Blackbird and Dakota counties. Neb.; passed on the 
left the site of Fort Charles, where the trader James Mackay had had a 
post in 1795-6; passed on the left the old mouth of the creek on which the 
Omahas resided; and camped on a sandbar on the left. This camp is de- 
scribed in a way which enables us to recognize the spot as having been in 
what is now the river-bottom on the Iowa side, directly opposite the present 
mouth of Omaha creek. The details of the place have changed considerably, 
but not irrecognizably. since 1804. Clark calls this camp, where they were 
to stay a week, Camp Fish, and Fishing Camp, from the circumstances pres- 
ently to be given; he makes it 3 miles northeast of the "Mahar" (Omaha) 
village. As soon as the expedition arrived here. Sergeant Ordway, Peter 
Cruzatte, George Shannon, William Werner and another man were sent with 
a flag and some tobacco to the village to invite the Omahas to a conference. 
Gass says, however, that only "a Sergeant and one man were sent to the 
village." Floyd says: "Sent Som of ouer men to Se if aney of the natives 
was at Home." 

August 15th. The men returned at noon, but had found no Indians. 
Capt. Clark and ten men went fishing with a drag in the creek, and caught 
318 fish of different kinds, according to Clark; Gass says 387; Floyd says: 
"Capt. Clark and 10 of his men and my Self went to the Mahas Creek a fishen 
and Caut 300 and 17 fish of Difernt Coindes." 

August 16th. Capt. Lewis and 12 men went fishing; Clark says this 
catch was "upwards of 800"; Gass says 709; Floyd says 709, too. In the re- 
ports of these two exploits, Clark and Floyd agree to a single fish for the 
15th; Gass and Floyd agree exactly for the 16th. We may therefore con- 
clude that Gass is far out for the 15th, and Clark still further so for the 16th; 
the total of the two catches being 1,026 or 1,027, but neither the 1,096 that 
Gass counts, nor the upwards of 1,118 that Clark reports. It is quite possi- 
ble that the wetting Floyd got on the 15th in dragging the creek led to his 

August 17th. In the evening "Labieshe" (Francois La Biche), one of a 
party who had been sent to the Ottoes on the 7th to arrest Moses B. Reed, a 
deserter since the 4th, returned. He said the rest of the party were coming 
in with the deserter, Reed; that they had also caught another deserter, a 
French boatman named La Liberte, but that he had given them the slip; and 
that they were bringing in three Otto chiefs. 


August ISth. The rest of the party, consisting of George Drewyer, Reu- 
ben Fields, and William Bratton, arrived with their prisoner, Reed, and 
vith the party of Ottoes and Missouries. Biddle's text of 1814 says not a 
word of this deserter; but the Clark Codex B, p. 7, this date, supplies the 
missing information, which Coues inserted in the edition of 1893, p. 77: 
"Proceeded to the trial of Reed, he confessed that he 'Deserted & Stold a 
public Rifle shot pouch Powder & Ball' and requested we would be as favour- 
able with him as we could consistantly with our Oathes — which we were, 
and only sentenced him to run the gantlet four times through the Party & 
that each man with 9 switchies should punish him and for him not to be 
considered in future as one of the Party." 

August 19th. A council was held with the Indians. These were Ottoes 
and Missouries, not Omahas. The last entry in Floyd's journal, August 
18th, describes the party as "the Grand Chief of the ottoes and 2 Loer Ones 
and 6 Youers of thare nattion," i. e., the head chief, 2 lower ones, and G 
others, a total of 9; he does not mention the French interpreter who was 
with them. Gass simply says, "Eight Indians and a Frenchman," which 
is right. The ninth man was the interpreter, whose name is given in the 
Clark Codex B as "Mr. Fanfou." The principal chief was Little Thief, an 
Otto, named as Weahrushhah on August 3; the other chiefs were: Shongo- 
tongo or Big Horse, an Ottoe, also mentioned on August 3; Karkapaha or 
Crow's Head, a Missouri; Nenasawa or Black Cat, a Missouri; Sananona or 
Iron Eyes, an Otto; Neswaunja or Big Ox, an Otto; Stageaunja or Big Blue 
Eyes, an Otto, in the Codex called "Stargrahunja;" and Wasashaco or Brave 
Man, an Otto; total, eight. The Clark Codex gives nine, but this total in- 
cludes the interpreter. The Indians at conference received medals, certifi- 
cates, and other presents, including some liquor; "those people beged much 
for whiskey," says the Codex, p. 12. We have no word of the cause of 
Floyd's fatal illness. The Codex for August 19th finishes abruptly in these 

"Serjeant Floyd is taken verry bad all at once with a Biliose Chorlicfc 
we attempt to reliev him without success as yet, he gets worse and we are 
much allarmed at his situation, all attention to him." 

August 20th. "Sergeant Floyd much weaker and no better, made Mr. 
Fanfou the interpter a fiew presents, and the Indians a Canister of Whisky. 
we set out under a gentle breeze from the S. E. and proceeded on verry well- 
Sergeant Floyd as bad as he can be no pulse and nothing will stay a mo- 
ment on his stomach or bowels — Passed two Islands on the S. S. (starboard 
side, or right hand) and at the first Bluff on the S. S. Serg. Floyd Died 
with a great deal of composure, before his death he said to me 'I am going 
away I want you to write me a letter' — We buried him on the top of the bluff 
Vz mile below a small river to which we gave his name, he was buried with 
the Honors of War much lamented a seeder post with the Name Sergt. 
C. Floyd died here 20th of August 1804 was fixed at the head of his grave— 
This man at all times gave us proofs of his firmness and Deturmined resolu- 
tion to doe Service to his countrey and honor to himself after paying all the 
honor .to our Decesed brother we camped in the mouth of floyd's river about 
30 yards wide, a butifull evening." 

Such is the simple yet touching language in which the death is recorded. 
It is our only original record, except the still briefer one already transcribed 


from Gass; for the Biddle text is of course based on the Clark Codex. It 
will be observed that the two accounts differ in some particulars. We are 
inclined to think Gass' account is closest to the facts; it seems most probable. 
Poor Floyd is dying on the boat, by noon of the 20th; the party lands as the 
end approaches; it is soon all over with the brave Sergeant. But this place 
is unsuitable for interment, being on low ground. They proceed a short 
distance, to the first bluff that reaches the river. There the sad ceremony 
is performed, late in the afternoon; the spot is named Floyd's Bluff; and the 
bereaved expedition proceeds to camp at the mouth of the first stream 
above, which they name Floyd's river. 

Both the bluff and the river have retained and will forever keep the 
name thus given, them. The little distant town of Sergeant's Bluff shines 
with a reflection of Floyd's name. Floyd's river and bluff are within the 
present limits of Sioux City. The bluff is to be set apart and beautified as a 
public park, graced with a monument, to perpetuate the name and fame of 
Charles Floyd, the martyr sergeant of the Lewis and Clark expedition. 

Sec. 5. Floyd's Grave before 1857. On the return of the expedition 
from the Pacific ocean, the spot where Floyd had been buried was visited, 
September 4, 1806. The grave had been disturbed, it was thought by Indians, 
but perhaps it was by wolves. They filled it up again, and passed on their 
way to home and friends, leaving the dead to his lonely vigil in the wilder- 
ness. One would have thought the memory of this humble young "man 
with a musket" destined to perish. But it was ordered otherwise. Floyd 
was temporarily forgotten; but Floyd's grave, marked with an enduring 
cedar post on a bold headland of our mightiest waterway, was never lost 
sight of; it became in the course of time a well-known landmark, allusions 
tc which are frequent in the records of Missouri voyaging before 1857. We 
select three references to noted travelers. 

On the 10th of May, 1811, the overland Astorian expedition under W. P. 
Hunt reached the Omahas. In this party were Mr. Bradbury, whose work is 
well known, and Mr. Thomas Nuttall, the subsequently famous botanist. 
The same season of that year Mr. Henry W. Brackenridge voyaged up the 
Missouri with Manuel Lisa, the noted fur-trader. Brackenridge was on the 
spot May 19th, 1811, at which date he notes in his Jdurnal (8vo., Pittsburgh, 
1814, p. 230): 

"Encamped near Floyd's bluff and river, fourteen miles above the 
Mahas. Sergeant Floyd, one of the party of Lewis and Clark, was buried 
here; the place is marked by a cross." 

This is the only author who calls the post a "cross;" probably he saw it 
only at a distance, and mistook the object; or did not observe it particularly, 
and had heard it so described. But that is immaterial. 

In that year, and for some time afterward, the post over the grave of the 
celebrated Omaha chief Blackbird was still standing on Blackbird Hill. 
The two were almost within sight of each other — two similar memorials, yet 
of opposite symbolism. The one stood for the outgoing of the Indian, the 
other for the incoming of the white man. How emblematic were these 
graves! Barbarism was decaying in the grave of Blackbird; in the last 
resting-place of Floyd lay the germ of civilization. 


The great painter and panegyrist of the Indian, George Catlin, ascended 
the Missouri to the Yellowstone in 1832, in the first steamer which ever 
went so far as that. On his return voyage, in a canoe with two men, 
passed Floyd's Bluff and Blackbird Hill. He stopped at each, that his facile 
pencil might portray them; and his sketches form plates 118 and 117 of 
his celebrated series. They are in juxtaposition on the same leaf, opposite 
p. 4 of Vol. II. of the fourth (London) edition of his work, as if to accentuate 
tbe symbolism just said. Each shows the landmark surmounting the grave; 
and the text of Letter 32, accompanying these plates, is in part a rhapsody 
on the natural beauties of the scene, in which the enthusiastic traveler gives 
full vent to the feelings which surcharged him. His apostrophe to Floyd 
may be here transcribed; for Catlin's "prophetic soul" felt no more than we 
realize today — Floyd's name will never die! 

"Where heaven sheds its purest light, and lends its richest tints — this 
rcund-topped bluff, where the foot treads soft and light — whose steep sides, 
and lofty head, reach to the skies, overlooking yonder pictured vale of 
beauty — this solitary cedar-post, which tells a tale of grief — grief that was 
keenly felt, and tenderly, but long since softened in the march of time and 
lest. Oh, sad and tear-starting contemplation! Sole tenant of this stately 
mound, how solitary thy habitation! Here heaven wrested from thee thy 
ambition, and made thee sleeping monarch of this land of silence. Stranger! 
Oh, how the mystic web of sympathy links my soul to thee and thy afflictions! 
I knew thee not, but it was enough; thy tale was told, and I, a solitary 
wanderer through thy land, have stopped to drop, familiar tears upon thy 
grave. Pardcn this gush from a stranger's eyes, for they are ail that thou 
canst have in this strange land, where friends and dear relations are not 
allowed to pluck a flower, and drop a tear to freshen recollections of en- 
dearments past. Stranger! Adieu. With streaming eyes I leave thee again, 
and thy fairy land, to peaceful solitude. My pencil has faithfully traced 
thy beautiful habitation; and long shall live in the world, and familiar, the 
name of Floyd's Grave." 

Catlin states that the cedar post bore only "the initials of his name." 
Whether this be a fact, or a figure of speech, cannot now be determined; but 
it is against the express statement of Capt. Clark that "the name Sergeant 
C. Floyd" w r as incised, together with the date of death. Catlin's plate will 
be recognized by residents of Sioux City, and especially those who knew 
the bluff before it suffered the double encroachment of the river and the 
railroad. It looks up river, with the site of Sioux City in the background; 
and the artist represents five persons climbing the side, nearly in the same 
path as that by which the procession of August 20, 1895, passed up to the 
ceremonies of that memorable day. It is invaluable as a portrayal of the 
unaltered bluff and original grave; probably no other such picture exists. 
The original painting has teen supposed and said to be now in the Catlin 
collection in the United States National Museum at Washington; but our 
correspondence with the director of the Museum on this subject shows that 
such is not the case. The painting, however, may still exist elsewhere, and 
be brought to light hereafter. 

In 1S?9, the eminent scientist, Jean N. Nicollet, discoverer of the true 
source of the Mississippi in 1836, ascended the Missouri. He was from April 


4 to June 12, or 69 days, in going from St. Louis to Fort Pierre. At some 
time in May. the exact date not given, he passed Blackbird Hill and Floyd's 
Bluff. We read as follows on p. 34 of his Report (Senate Doc. No. 237, 26th 
Congress, 2d Session, February 16, 1841, pub. 1S43, and 2d edition as House 
Doc. No. 52, 28th Congress, 2d Session, January 11, 1845, pub. 1845): 

"The next day we passed before the magnificent amphitheatre of hills, 
the summit of that nearest the river being surmounted by the tomb of 
Blackbird, a celebrated Maha chief, and murderer by poison, whose history 
was told in Maj. Long's first expedition, but has been since reproduced with 
various versions in many public prints. Several miles higher up, we got 
a glimpse of the vale watered by the Maha creek, in which is the principal 
village of the Maha nation. The hills on the left bank of the river, of which 
we had lost sight, again came into view towards the close of the afternoon, 
covered by a soft and grateful verdure. We stopped for the night at the foot 
of the bluff on which is Floyd's grave; my men replaced the signal, blown 
down by the winds, which marks the spot and hallows the memory of the 
brave Sergeant, who died here during Lewis and Clark's expedition. Our 
steamboat then started under full blast to take shelter at the mouth of the 
Tchan-kasndata, or Sioux river, against an impending storm, that soon after 
broke over us, and lasted during the night." 

Nicollet's beautiful map, by far the best in existence at that time, 
marks "Floyd's Grave," just below "Floyd's R." 

We could multiply references prior to 1857, but the citations made must 
suffice. We therefore pass at once to Part II. — the reburial of Floyd in 1857. 


Sao. 6. Floyd's Grave Exposed. Sioux City extends along the left 
bank of the Missouri from the vicinity of Floyd's Bluff up to the Big Sioux 
River. The bluff is situated in lot 8, section 1, township 88 N., range 48 
W. Somewhat less than a mile higher up, Floyd's River empties into the 
Missouri on the same side; this courses through the city. A little higher up 
than this, a small creek also flows through the city. This was noticed by 
Lewis and Clark, with their usual accuracy of observation, and called by 
them Willow creek; it is now known as Perry Creek. A year or two before 
1857, probably in 1855, a squaw-man settled with his wife at the mouth of 
this creek; he is still living, and known to many persons as "Joe Lionais," 
his proper name being Joseph Lyonrais. Up to this period, when the germi- 
nation of a great city was but begun, travel through the country had mainly 
been up the waterway of the river — the main artery of the Great West, the 
principal avenue of approach; but with the founding of the city came roads, 
and thoroughfares by land were established. One of these passed by the 
bluff where Floyd had been buried half a century before. But the bluff was 
no longer the "round-topped" one of Catlin, on whose culminating brow the 
cedar post had been erected over Floyd's grave. The insolent and turbulent 
Missouri, ever restlessly turning in its bed, ever exploring its flood-plain for 
new channels in which to wind its way along, ever making new bends and 
cutting off old ones, had exerted its incessant and irresistible force upon 
this miscalled one of the "eternal hills." The frontage of the bluff was fretted 


and worn out in the struggle against the flood. Constant dropping will wear 
away a stone; and it was not many years before the water exacted a tribute 
from this land. During a freshet, early in the spring of 1857, the bluff was 
so far washed away that Floyd's grave was exposed on the face of the 
now neatly vertical precipice, sixty feet or more above water level; the post, 
if still standing to this time, was dislodged and fell to the foot; and the re- 
i ins of the deceased were in imminent danger of falling, to be swept away 

It is impossible to say now exactly when this precarious condition of 
the grave was first noticed, or by whom the discovery was made, or the 
precise state in which the remains were found by those who rescued them 
from impending destruction. Many persons now living witnessed the ceremo- 
nies with which the bones were recommitted to the earth in the safe place 
li'rther back from the river; some of these persons also assisted in the res- 
cue; and the present writer has conversed or corresponded with several. 
But memory is treacherous after a lapse of years, and accounts differ in de- 
tails. Yet there is such a substantial agreement with circumstantial differ- 
ence in the testimony we possess, that a reasonably accurate account can 
be given, as a contribution to permanent history. 

It is not probable that there was any sudden wash-out or down-fall of 
the face of the bluff, to attract immediate attention and cause a general 
alarm about the historic spot. It was gradual, and may have been noticed 
by degrees, so to speak, before the imminence of the danger aroused the 
community to action. The alarm appears to have been sounded late in 
April or early in May. Mr. M. L. Jones,* of Smithland, la., a gentleman 
now living at an advanced age, was one of those who observed the condition 
of the grave, and sent word to Sioux City. When in 1S95 the subject was re- 
opened a number of old citizens placed their recollections on public record, 
among them the following: 

S. T. Davis, of Sioux City, in a letter dated June 1st, 1895, printed in the 
Journal next day, states: 

"Thirty-eight years ago last Tuesday the residents of Sioux City par- 
ticipated in an event of no little historical importance — the reburial of the 
remains of Sergeant Floyd. The river had washed away the foot of the 
bluff on which he was buried by Lewis and Clark, so that the end of the cof- 
fin protruded over the water, and perhaps a hundred feet or more above it. 
It was proposed by some of the citizens of Sioux City to take up the remains, 
and reinter them further back on the same bluff." 

■'Since penning' the above we have received an important letter addressed by Mr. Jones to 
Dr. Coues, dated Smithlan 1. T a ., December 2s 1895. It appears from this letter that the writer 
is the person who discovered th • exposure and gave the alarm to Sioux City. We transcribe in 
substance: "I first saw the grave in May. 1S54. The cedar post was almost intact then, though 
pieces h id been cut off by relic hunters. I p iss >d th • place frequently in 1834 55. The post stood 
in sight of a foot trail that ran along- near the river, thai the wagon road had to go round. I' was 
some 100 fe.-t or m >re fro n the edge of the bluff over;., iking th ■ river. Lat ■ in thv fall of 1856 I 
p issed that way. and not seeing the post in its accustomed place, 1 w -nt t<> examine it . and found 
that it had been cut away till only a few inches remained above ground. Late in April, is.". ; i S 1 
was going that way from Sioux City, I was seized with chill and fever; but noticed that the river, 
then very high, was cutting into the bank-. I walked a < close to the edge of the bluff as I could: 
the ground had caved in, the post wis gonV, and it looked as if th ■ grave had gone, too. I was 
quite dizzy from my sickness, but laid down an 1 crawled to the edere, where, l oking over. I saw 
some ban ?s projecting from the ground. I continued on my way to the house ol a friend. Mr. Tra- 
versier. a Frenchman, with whom Dr. F. Wixon was stopping. We sent word to the Sioux City 
post-office, and Floyd's remains were secured next day. I was not present at the rescue, nor at the 
reburial, as I was sick for some turn; but I understood that among" the number who secured the 
remains were Dr. A. M. Hunt, long since deceased, and Dr. J. .1. Saville." 


The Charles City Intelligencer prints a letter, which is reprinted in the 
Sioux City Journal of June 23, 1895, addressed to Maj. E. B. Dyke by Dr. S. P. 
Yeonians, an old settler familiar with the location of the grave, and one 
who has often seen the post. Referring to the washing away of the face of 
the bluff by the river, Dr. Yeonians states that in 1856 (a slip of the pen 
for 1857), it was discovered that the box containing Floyd's remains was 
exposed for one-third its length, and being thus suspended over the river 
was in imminent danger of falling. To prevent this catastrophe the citizens 
of Sioux City formed a large party, which went to the spot to rescue the 
remains. Dr. Yeomans further says: 

"A strong cable was prepared to attach to the box, and Dr. Sloane, father 
of our fellow townsman, editor of the Citizen, being light of weight, volun- 
teered to accept the post of danger. With a rope tied around his waist, se- 
curely held by strong hands, he was let down over the brink of the precipice 
until the box was reached and the cable adjusted. The remains were then 
brought to a place of safety," etc. 

A still more circumstantial account of the finding of the remains is 
given in the Sioux City Journal of June 23, 1895, with refei'ence to the An- 
nals of Iowa of October, 1863. This is from the pen of N. Levering, chair- 
man of the committee appointed to rescue the remains in 1857. Mr. Levering 
is still living, in Los Angeles, Cal. His account may be condensed in the fol- 
lowing terms: 

In March, 1857, when the snow was rapidly melting, the water ran so 
high that Floyd river and the Missouri came together and overflowed what 
is now called South Sioux City. About this time it was discovered that the 
Missouri was encroaching on Floyd's Bluff, and that the grave with its 
contents was likely to be precipitated into the turbid flood below. A meet- 
ing of citizens was soon called and a committee appointed to rescue the re- 
mains. The committee consisted of N. Levering, chairman; Hon. M. F. 
Moore, Dr. S. P. Yeomans, George Weare, and Capt. J. M. White. They re- 
paired to the spot, accompanied by a large number of other persons (among 
whom were ex-Gov. C. C. Carpenter, of Fort Dodge; Hon. Addison Oliver, 
ex-M. C, of Onawa; C. B. Rustin, now of Omaha, Neb.; and Augustus Gron- 
inger, then and now of Sioux City. They found that the rushing waters 
had robbed the grave of a part of its contents. With much labor, and not 
without danger, the remains not already washed away were secured; they 
included the skull with its lower jaw, a thigh bone, a shin bone, and various 
others (see the list of bones found in 1895, as given beyond). These were 
taken charge of by the committee for reinterment. The coffin appeared to 
have been made with small oak slabs, set up on end around the body, with 
a covering of similar form and same material. The red cedar post originally 
erected by Lewis and Clark had slid into the river. It had seemed to be per- 
fectly sound, but had been whittled down till it was no larger than a walk- 
ing-stick by travelers anxious to preserve a relic of Floyd's grave. Accord- 
ing to some published accounts, a piece of the post had been carried to Lon- 
uon and deposited in a museum in that city by an English traveler. 

According to a letter written by Mr. Levering at Sioux City, July 25. 
1863, and published in the Annals of Iowa as above said, it appears that he 
then transmitted to the Rev. Samuel Storrs Howe, librarian of the State 


Historical Society, Iowa City, la., a small piece of the coffin. The English 
traveler above mentioned was probably George Catlin. but possibly Mr. 

Such, in effect, is the sum of the information on record concerning the 
exposure of the grave and the rescue of its contents from destruction, iu 
April or May, 1857. Some few more bones than Mr. Levering specifies were 
certainly recovered, for they were in evidence on opening the new grave in 
1895. It is probable that some of them were scattered down the bluff, and 
that all those finally collected were not gathered at once. The body appears 
to have been laid head-on to the river; and in this case the skull, from its 
shape, would be likely to fall among the first. It is believed with some rea- 
son that the skull was in fact not found till after other bones had been taken 
to the city. None of the arm bones were ever recovered; and none of the 
skeleton above the lumbar region or middle of the body was found in 1895. 
except the skull with its jaw, one collar bone, and fragments of some rib?. 
But the large bones of the lower limbs were mostly preserved. These facts 
tend to confirm the belief regarding the position of the body. The tradition 
that the original cedar post, or any fragment of it, is still extant is not sup- 
ported by satisfactory evidence. The record is clear to the time of Catlin's 
visit, 1832, but soon becomes obscure. Nicollet's statement that in 1839 his 
men "replaced the signal, blown down by the winds," may mean either that 
the original post was set up again, or that it was replaced by a new one. 
Certainly a post — whether Lewis and Clark's of 1804, or Nicollet's of 1839, 
was a familiar object to passers-by down to 1857. At this date, Mr. Levering 
tells us that "it had slid into the river;" yet he describes it as being per- 
fectly sound, though whittled down. It may be that he thus speaks of the 
post as he had known it to be down to 1857, when it was finally lost, and 
not that he saw it at this late date; or else the expression "slid into the 
river" may mean only that it had fallen to the foot of the bluff, where it 
might have been recovered when some bones that accompanied its descent 
were collected. In 1895 Mr. A. M. Holman. of Sergeant's Bluff, gave some 
members of the present publication committee some bits of sound wood 
which he affirmed in good faith had been cut from the post. But these 
proved to be pieces of oak. It is not impossible that these were from a slab 
of the original coffin; but their soundness seems against such a supposition. 
The new grave of 1857 was marked with a headboard and footboard, which 
had been broken off or burnt off to the ground when this grave was opened 
in 1895, leaving no trace above ground, though crumbling remains of them, 
as of the new coffin of 1857, were found. In short, your committee has never 
been able to reconcile conflicting statements regarding the post, or recover 
the missing links of evidence since 1839. 

Sec. 7. Floyd's New Grave On the 28th of May, 1857. the remains 
thus recovered were reburied with appropriate patriotic and religious cere- 
monies. We are again indebted to Mr. N. Levering for the most circumstan- 
tial account which has reached us of this occasion. To this your committee 
is able to add a few names and some other particulars. 

The weather was propitious, and the exercises were conducted accord- 
ing to the programme which had been devised by the committee in charge 
of the proceedings. A new grave had been prepared on the same bluff. 



about or rather within two hundred yards further back from the river. 
The occasion was of the greatest public interest to the then young town; 
an event in its very earliest days, destined to make permanent history. 
A large concourse of citizens of both sexes participated in the ceremonies. 

"Capt. James B. Todd, late of the U. S. Army,"* officiated as marshal. 
Under his direction a procession was formed at 2 p. m. in front of the 
United States Land Office in Sioux City. The new coffin, six feet seven or 
eight inches long, was neatly finished, and draped with the flag. The pall- 
bearers were eight, seven of whom represented as many different states. 
Mr. N. Levering himself was one of them, on the part of Ohio. The others 
whose names he remembers were: W. Craft, Virginia; T. Griff y, Kentucky; 
L. Kennerly, Missouri; W. H. Levering, Indiana; and D. W. Scott,** of the 
U. S. Army. The coffin was borne at the head of the procession, which 
marched to the levee, where the steam ferryboat "Louis Burns" was wait- 
ing to carry all who could get aboard down river to the bluff. Many per- 
sons also repaired to the bluff in carriages or on foot, as the boat was too 
small to carry them all. At the proper time the coffin was lowered into 
the grave by Captains Todd and Scott, Mr. W. H. Levering, and Mr. Craft. 
Impressive funeral services were conducted by the Rev. Thomas Chestnut, 
of Illinois. The orator of the occasion was the Hon. Marshall F. Moore,*** 
who delivered an address which, says Levering, "was very appropriate, 
able, and eloquent, and reflected much credit upon the honorable gentle- 

Even at this early day, the question of erecting a suitable monument 
to Floyd was raised and freely canvassed. The proposition met with gen- 
eral favor, and some steps were taken to that end; but they failed of their 
purpose, and the matter was dropped. Evidently, the time for such a noble 
consummation had not arrived. Another long interregnum was to intervene 
before the sleeping Sergeant should reawake and come into his kingdom 
in the memories of men. 

Sec. 8 Floyd County, For Whom Named? This question seems to 
your committee pertinent, and may be properly considered in connection 
with the events just narrated, as there is naturally an impression in the 

*3o given by Levering-. The name is not to be found in Heitman's Register, 1789-1880. The 
nearest to it is that of John Blair Smith Todd, of Kentucky, appointed to the army from Illinois; 
Cadet Militarj' Academy at West Point, July 1, 1832; Lieutenant and Captain Sixth Infantry. 
1837-56; resigned September 16, 1856; Brig-ad ier General of Volunteers, September 19, 1861; appoint- 
ment expired July 17, 1862; died May 14, 1*71. 

Capt. Todd was elected first mayor of Sioux City and well known by many old residents, and 
he always signed his name J. B. S. Todd; so Levering- merely forgot the correct name. 

; *The only "D. W." Scott whose name appears in Heitman's Reg-ister is David W., of Vir" 
ginia. appointed from Indiana, a First Lieutenant of Infantry, March 10, 1847, and honorably 
mustered out July 20, 1848. If this be the man, he was not in the army in 1857. 

: **Of New York, who had come to Sioux City to practice law in 1855, and was in the spring 
of 1857 elected district judg-e of the district which included all the northwestern part of Iowa. 
Judge Moore was then a young attorney, a graduate of Yale college, and fairly equipped for his 
profession. "His duties as judge somewhat interfered with his gay and festive disposition, but no 
one doubted his honesty, though many did his leg-al knowledge; and he, no less than the public, 
rejoiced at the close of his term in December, 1858," says Mr. J. C. C. Hoskins. in aletter to Mitchell 
Vincent. November 21, 1895. Judge Moire was early a partner in the banking house of Casady. 
Moore & Clark, of Sioux City. He became allied by marriage with the Ewing-s and Shermans of 
Ohio. At the breaking out of the war he was appointed from Ohio Lieutenant-Colonel of the Sev- 
enteenth Ohio nfantry October 4, 1861; he resigned February 14, 1863, and was reappointed as 
Colonel of the Sixty-ninth Ohio Infantry February 23, 1868; he was brevetted Brigadier-General of 
Volunteers March 13. 1865, for gallant and meritorious services during the war, especially at the 
battle of Jonesboro, Ga., and Major-General of the same for the same at the same date," and re- 
signed November 7. He went to Olympia, Wash., became Governor of Washington, and died in 
office February 2£ 1870. 


minds of many persons that the county was dedicated to Sergeant Charles 
Floyd— which is not the case. We propose therefore to discuss the evi- 
dence bearing upon the no fewer than four persons named Floyd for whom 
the county has been claimed, and hope to be able to settle the case in favor 
of the rightful recipient of this honor. 

1. The letter of Dr. S. P. Yeomans, already noted in these pages in 
another connection as having been published in the Charles City Intelli- 
gencer, and in the Sioux City Journal of June 21, 1895, proceeds to discuss 
the origin of the county name, Floyd, which was given by legislative enact- 
ment in 1851. It appears that ten years afterward, on the outbreak of the 
war in 1861, an effort was made to change the name, because it was sup- 
posed to have been given in honor of John Buchanan Floyd, Governor of 
Virginia 1850-53. Secretary of War 1857 to December, 1860, and afterward a 
General in the Confederate Army. Thus, the County History of Floyd re- 
cords some proceedings of the State Legislature of 1862, to the following 

Senator Redfield, of Dallas county, introduced a bill to change the 
name of Floyd county to Baker county, in honor of Gen. Edward Dickinson 
Baker, the gallant soldier who fell at the battle of Ball's Bluff. Va., Octo- 
ber 21. 1861. Senator Ainsworth moved to amend by changing the name 
to Lyon. Senator Holmes objected to this amendment, because he lived 
in Jones county, the name of which he desired to change to Lyon. Senator 
Duncombe, of Webster county, stated that Floyd county was not named 
for the J. B. Floyd "we hear so much about nowadays," but for "a Sergeant 
of Lewis and Clark's expedition." (This shows that the tradition con- 
necting Sergeant Floyd's name with the county had been established in 
1SC2.) Senator Woodward, of Muscatine county, inquired if the senator 
from Dallas county had introduced his bill in pursuance of the express de- 
sire of the people of Floyd county. Senator Redfield replied that he had 
not done so for that reason, but because he was under the impression that 
this county had been named for "that infamous traitor, John B. Floyd;" 
and he withdrew the bill, upon the assurance of Senator Duncombe that 
the county had been named for Lewis and Clark's Sergeant. 

The County History states furthermore, that one B. B. Steenburg, for- 
merly of Floyd, was once a member of a commission to ascertain the origin 
of the name. The conclusion was reached in this instance that Floyd 
county had been so called in honor of a certain topographical engineer who 
died near Sioux City before the war. about the time his labors as surveyor 
had been completed. But it further appears from Dr. Yeoman's letter that 
Mr. Steenburg once told Maj. Dyke, editor of the Intelligencer, that he had 
no doubt in his own mind that the name was given in honor of Sergeant 
Floyd; that it could hardly have been given for John B. Floyd, a young 
man of no national reputation in 1851; but that possibly the name referred 
to William Floyd, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. 

It thus appears that thirty years ago there were already four different 
theories regarding the origin of the county name, all irreconcilable, and none 

2. An unpublished letter of Mr. J. C. C. Hoskins, dated Sioux City, la.. 
November 21. 1895. addressed to Mitchell Vincent, Esq., of Onawa, and by 


the latter transmitted to Dr. Coues, includes the following statements, in 

"I have always supposed that Floyd county was named for the traitor. 
J. B. Floyd; I think there can be no doubt of it. In the early days Iowa 
was overwhelmingly Democratic. In 1850, when the state was divided into 
49 counties their names were with two exceptions (Cedar and Des Moines) 
Indian or personal. Of the 34 personal names, 14 were of Democrats active 
and distinguished at that day, Jeff. Davis among them; three or four were 
of democratic saints who had gone to their rest; others were of distin- 
guished soldiers of the Revolutionary or later wars; one was of Julien Du- 
buque, the pioneer; one of Henry, the orator; one of Marshall, the jurist (if, 
indeed, Marshall county was named for this judge). In or about 1852, 49 
more counties were named in a similar method, though the scope of the 
names were wider— Adair, Bancroft, Brewer, Butler, Calhoun, Cass, Craw- 
ford, Dickinson, Floyd, Guthrie, Grundy, Hardin, Howard, Shelby, Wood- 
bury, Worth, and Wright,— at least these 17, were dedicated to Democrats; 
Adams, Clay, and Webster, were statesmen, not Democrats; Emmett and 
O'Brien, Irish refugees; Franklin, Montgomery, and Greene, were of the 
Revolution; Kossuth was the Hungarian patriot; Audubon was John James, 
the famous ornithologist; Humboldt was the scientist; of Mills and Mitchell 
I have no present recollection." 

The opinion of our veteran pioneer fellow-citizen certainly carries weight: 
but in this instance it must yield to conclusive evidence to the contrary. 

3. In our desire to sift this matter thoroughly, and perhaps not without 
hope of being able to establish the claim of our hero to the honor of the 
county name, we have corresponded with our much esteemed friend and 
fellow-member of the Floyd Memorial Association, Hon. Charles Aldrich, 
curator of the State Historical Department at Des Moines. The result of 
his inquiries in our behalf would seem to show conclusively that the county 
was named for William Floyd, a signer of the Declaration of Independence 
(b. Suffolk county, N. Y., December 17, 1734, d. at Western, Oneida county. 
N. Y., August 4, 1821). We have pleasure in presenting Mr. Aldrich's letter 
in full, without further comment: 

Historical Department of Iowa, 

Des Moines, November S, 1895. 
Dear Dr. Coues: 

On receipt of your letter relating to the naming of Floyd county, I tele- 
phoned and secured an interview at our rooms with my friend, the Hon. 
P. M. Casady, of this city, who was a state senator in 1850, and a member 
of the committee on new counties. At that session he introduced the bill 
which had for its purpose the erection and naming of 50 new counties. He 
is a thoroughly well-preserved man of 76 years; his mind is clear, and his 
recollection of events of those days seems perfect. In fact, he is the active 
and hard-working president of one of our largest city banks. • He says: 

"It was at first in contemplation to name the present county of Wood- 
bury in honor of Sergeant Charles Floyd, and that territory was so designated 
in the original bill which I introduced. But this was not agreed to. and 
the Indian name Wahkaw was substituted for that of Floyd. The county 
bore the name Wahkaw for three years, when it was changed to Wood- 
bury, as it stands today. Later on in the session the present county of 


Floyd was so named in honor of William Floyd, a signer of the Declaration 
of Independence from the State of New York. This I am certain was done 
at the suggestion of some member of the House of Representatives who had 
come from the Empire State. There was a disagreement over some section 
or sections of the bill, and it went to a committee of conference, undergoing 
first and last considerable discussion upon several of the suggested names." 

In this state there are no stenographic reports of the debates and dis- 
cussions in the Legislature, and the early Journals of the House and Senate 
are very meager. Much of the general consideration of the measure oc- 
curred in Committee of the Whole, where no records whatever were kept. 
Floyd, the rebel, was then a young man and unknown. So was Floyd, the 
civil engineer. Neither of these men was mentioned in that connection. 
There is no positive written or printed contemporary record of this matter 
in existence. I take Judge Casady's recollection to be final and conclusive, 
and I accept it the more willingly because I heard him make this same state- 
ment many years ago. Much confusion has arisen over the subject through 
the lapse of years, and from the similarity of names, but I believe that 
Judge Casady sets forth the exact truth. He is a most intelligent, excellent 
gentleman, and I am glad that he has been spared to this day to set the 
matter right 

Very respectfully yours, 


Dr. Elliott Coues, 1726 N Street, Washington. D. C. 
P. S. — Since the above was written I have conferred with Hon. George 
G. Wright, ex-Chief Justice of our Supreme Court, and ex-United States Sen- 
ator, who was a member of the State Senate with Judge Casady in 1850. 
Though his attention was then more especially given to other topics of legis- 
lation, he now in a general way strongly supports the statement of Judge 

Casady, and expresses himself as having no doubt of its truth. 

C. A. 


Sec. 9. Origin of the Association From the foregoing excursion to 
Floyd county we return at once to Floyd's Bluff — to the discovery of Floyd's 
grave of 1857— to the founding of the Floyd Memorial Association, and espe- 
cially to the memorial exercises of August 20. 1895, on the 91st anniversary 
of Floyd's death— to the end that Floyd's monument may be erected in 
Floyd Park, while the memory of these interesting contemporaneous events 
is still fresh in the minds of our patriotic and public-spirited fellow-towns- 
men of Sioux City. 

The honor of originating the Association can be rightfully ascribed to 
no single individual. If the idea of such an association for the purpose of 
erecting a monument be referable to any single occasion or event, it is dis- 
tinctly traceable back to 1857. It was fruitless then, but bided its time to 
fructify during the many years when the thought was "in the air," as may 
be said with literal exactitude of the position in space which the original 
sepulture of Floyd now occupies, suspended like Mahomet's coffin between 
heaven and earth. The purpose has never faded entirely from the minds of 
those now living who witnessed the ceremonies of thirty-nine years ago; to 


them and their descendants it is familiar. No doubt the interest reawak- 
ened in Lewis and Clark by the republication of the History of their Expedi- 
tion in 1893 contributed to the quickening of the idea. Doubtless, also, the 
discovery of Floyd's Journal by Mr. Thwaites, its publication by the Amer- 
ican Antiquarian Society, and the comment upon it by such papers as the 
New York Nation (February 15, 1894), tended to the same result of crystal- 
izing an already saturated solution of the thought. The desirability of 
marking Floyd's grave was expressed by the writer in correspondence with 
Mitchell Vincent, Esq., of March 4, 1894. From the first the project has 
been one of national rather than local historical significance. But the real- 
ization of the noble purpose remains entirely to the credit of the citizens 
of Sioux City and vicinity, and more especially redounds to the honor of 
the older residents. It would be invidious to particularize by name in such 
a case, where all worked together to the common end in view, and where 
the greatest praise that could be desired is to come from the fulfillment of 
the single purpose, for the accomplishment of which there has been but a 
single mind. 

Among the means to this end, none has proved more effectual than the 
course pursued by the Sioux City Journal from the beginning. The interest 
taken in the project by this paper, and the liberal policy which showed that 
interest by putting unlimited space at the service of the Association, not 
only tended to arouse public sentiment, and stimulate public endeavor, but 
has preserved the best record extant of the origin and progress of the Asso- 
ciation, both before and after the pivotal date of August 20, 1895. Your 
committee desires to express its obligations to the Journal for much of the 
material, without which the present memoir could hardly have been pre- 
pared. We shall draw heavily upon this contemporaneous record, as con- 
firming, amplifying and supplementing the minutes of meetings and other 
official documents which have been placed in the hands of the publication 

The Journal of May 16, 1895, devotes a column to Sergeant Charles Floyd, 
with the caption "An Association for Paying the Honor Due to His Mem- 
ory" — perhaps the first express announcement of the fact of such a proposed 
organization. This notable article is unsigned, but was prepared by RJr. 
A. F. Statter, of the editorial staff. Among other items of interest it says: 

"A number of old settlers have been discussing the matter of forming 
a society to visit on August 20 of this year the present site of the grave, 
which was moved many years after Floyd's death, and hold appropriate 
ceremonies in honor of the first white man to be buried in this neighbor- 
hood. D. A. Magee is acting as secretary until an organization is formed, 
and a number of old settlers, such as Mitchell Vincent, of Onawa: A. M. 
Holman, of Sergeant Bluffs; and John H. Charles, of this city, have inter- 
ested themselves in the matter, and are making every effort to carry forward 
the undertaking. The object of the association will be to secure state legis- 
lation to buy the historic spot, and erect a monument to the memory of the 
first soldier to die on this soil after the Louisiana purchase, and to promote 
enough interest in this city to secure good driveways to the spot and make 
it a point of interest as well as of history." 

This article continues with extracts from Capt. Clark's original manu- 
script journal of dates August 19 and 20, 1804. as printed in the Coues edition 


of the history of 1893. and other extracts from Floyd's own journal, as 
printed by the American Antiquarian Society in 1894; and concludes with an 
account of the not then successful search for the grave of 1857 by D. A 
Magee and others. 

The Journal of May 26 follows up this announcement with a four-column 
article on the "Proposed Floyd Monument," noting conspicuously the "wide- 
spread interest in the organization for its erection," and giving an extended 
description of Floyd's Bluff, illustrated with a double-column view from a 
photograph which Mr. D. A. Magee had caused to be taken. This article 
is unsigned; it was prepared by Mr. A. F. Statter. It announces that "the 
promoters of the Monument Association propose to organize it on Floyd's 
Bluff on the 91st anniversary of the day of his death, August 20 of this year. 
Much enthusiasm is developing. Not only the people of Sioux City, of Ser- 
geant Bluffs and of the surrounding country are interested in it, but the 
interest extends to all who are absorbed in the history of the United States, 
and especially the Western half of it." The same article concludes with a 
letter from Dr. Coues, dated Washington, D. C, May 22, 1895, noting the 
Lewis and Clark expedition, and earnestly urging "the proposition made by 
Mitchell Vincent and others to purchase a tract of 20 or 30 acres, to be se/ 
aside for a public park, upon the culminating point of which the monument 
is to stand." 

The Journal of May 29, 1895, says: "The duty of the people of Sioux 
City and Woodbury county in the matter of properly honoring Sergeant 
Floyd, whose grave is on a high bluff in the southern part of the city, is 
clear. The letter published in the Sunday (May 26) Journal, from Prof. 
Elliott Coues, of the Smithsonian Institution, ought to arouse every one to 
the importance of some immediate action. Several old residents have taken 
hold and intend to do something, and they ought to be supported by others." 

The New York Nation of May 30, 1895, publishes a letter from Dr. Coues. 
noting the steps already taken at Sioux City for a monument to Floyd, and 
continuing the general subject of Floyd and his journal, with remarks by an 
unnamed correspondent. 

The Journal of June 2, 1895, speaks of the "wide interest" the move- 
ment had already attracted, and of the applause it had won from scientists 
and historians, citing the New York Nation of May 30th. The Journal's 
article is mainly a contribution to the early history of the subject from 
Mr. A. F. Statter, who writes upon Brackenridge, Catlin, Nicollet, and the 
American Antiquarian Society's publication of Floyd's Journal. Mr. S. T. 
Davis also contributes to this article the letter we have already mentioned and 
used on p. 17, regarding the removal of Floyd's remains in 1857. 

The Kansas City Star of June 8, 1895, publishes an extended historical 
article under the caption "A Hero of the Lewis and Clark Expedition." 
About this first week of June the movement thus started at Sioux City ac- 
quired great impetus and far-reaching effect. National publicity was se- 
cured by an Associated Press dispatch, which immediately went the rounds 
of uncounted newspapers. By misprint this dispatch appeared with the 
heading, "Grave of Sergeant Lloyd." This error was corrected in the Wash- 
ington, D. C, Post of June 13, by a special letter from Dr. Coues. It is 
curious to remark in this connection, that the apparent mistake of "Lloyd" 


for "Floyd" simply reverts to the original spelling of the Welsh surname, of 
which "Floyd" is a later form. 

Such in brief, is the published record of the origin of this Association. 
The first stage of its formation was ended with the rediscovery of the grave 
of 1857, to which we now turn. 

Sec. 10. Organization of the Association. Meanwhile, on Memorial 
Day, May 30, 1895, Floyd's grave of 1857 was found; and on June 6 the Floyd 
Memorial Association was first formally organized, on, the spot. The official 
account of these events was furnished by Hon. C. R. Marks to the Sioux City 
Journal of June 10, in substance as follows: 

The late Dr. Wm. R. Smith was always interested in the subject, and 
left a bequest to assist in erecting a suitable monument. The late Mr. W. P. 
Holman, of Sergeant Bluffs, had often thought that something should be 
done, and had conferred with Dr. Smith for that purpose. Several years 
ago, during Congressman Struble's term of office, they had petitioned Con- 
gress for an appropriation for a monument, having obtained many Iowan 
signatures; but the matter was not pressed, lest it might conflict with a 
desired appropriation for the public building in Sioux City. 

Mr. C. J. Holman and Mr. A. M. Holman, sons of W. P. Holman; Mr. 
Mitchell Vincent, of Onawa; Judge Geo. W. Wakefield, of Sioux City, and 
others, recently visited Floyd's Bluff, but discovered no sign of the grave. 

"Others present: D. A. Magee, J. D. Hoskins, J. L. Follett, jr., C. R. 
Marks visited the bluff, and after nearly two hours fruitless search were 
rewarded by the discovery of the grave, at Mr. Marks' suggestion that it 
should be identifiable by some difference in the color of the soil. To verify 
this, considerable ground was tested in various spots with hatchet and 
trowel. Mr. Geo. Murphy finally picked out a place which answered to his 
recollection of the site, and on testing it with his cane found light-colored 
earth. Further exploration with a trowel disclosed the contour of the grave, 
as shown by a line of demarkation between yellow and black earth, and the 
gentlemen felt sure they had found the right spot. Desiring to have other 
witnesses of the discovery, among those interested in the case, and espe- 
cially to have as many as possible of those who had been present at the re- 
burial in 1857 meet on the bluff, the appearance of which had been much 
modified by removal of trees and a railroad cutting through its northwest 
end, they desisted from further excavation at this time. 

Following are the proceedings of the meeting of citizens at the grave 
of 1857 on Floyd's Bluff, in Sioux City, June 6, 1895, at 3 p.m.: 

Present: J. C. C. Hoskins, S. T. Davis, J. D. Hoskins, D. A. Magee, 
George Murphy, L. C. Sanborn, H. D. Clark, A. Groninger, A. M. Holman, L. 
Bates, E. R. Kirk, W. L. Joy, T. J. Stone, C. J. Holman, John H. Charles, J. 
P. Allison, W. B. Tredway, J. L. Follett, Jr., and C. R. Marks. 

The persons assembled recognized the place as Floyd's Bluff, most of 
them having been either present at the reburial of 1857, or at that time fa- 
miliar with the ground and the grave, as the then traveled road, the signs 
of which were still visible, passed from the Missouri river bank up the 
ravine on the north side of the bluff. No depression of the ground was 
visible; but the persons who had been on the bluff on May 30 pointed out a 
spot where the surface soil was light-colored or yellowish, in contrast with 
the surrounding black earth. On excavating this to the depth of a few 


inches, the whole contour of a grave was plainly visible. The western end 
of this was dug deeper, and the original walls of the grave in the dark- 
colored earth were disclosed as the mixed yellow and black soil was thrown 
out. At the head and foot, a few inches under ground, were found pieces 
of oak board about a foot long, much decayed. About four feet below the 
surface the coffin appeared, still in form, but so much decayed that the lid 
caved in when struck with the spade. The skull, including the lower jaw, 
and some other bones were found, in a good state of preservation; but no 
farther exhumation was made, as the identification was deemed complete. 

Thereupon the informal gathering was called to order. J. C. C. Hoskins 
was elected President; and C. R. Marks, Secretary. 

It was moved by A. M. Holman, seconded by E. R. Kirk, and carried, 
"that we do hereby organize ourselves into the FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSO- 

It was moved, seconded, and carried, that an Executive Committee, 
composed of A. M. Holman, Mitchell Vincent, and George W. Wakefield, be 
hereby appointed to act with the President and Secretary to arrange for 
future meetings, perfect an organization of the Association that shall seek 
to perpetuate the memory and grave of Sergeant Charles Floyd, and espe- 
cialy to hold a meeting August 20, 1895, the ninety-first anniversary of his 

In view of the fact that the grave had been opened, thus attracting 
public attention, and that persons might consequently remove the bones or 
relics, it was moved, seconded, and carried, that the skull be taken charge 
of by the President and Secretary for safe keeping until the Association 
should redeposit it in the properly secured grave on the occasion of the 
proposed memorial services of August 20. The remaining bones which had 
been uncovered were left in the grave, which was then filled up flush with 
the surface of the ground. 

Thereupon a paper was signed by the persons present; a copy of the 
same being ordered to be spread upon the minutes of the meeting, and the 
original to be preserved. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned, subject to call. 

The following is a copy of the paper which was signed, as printed in the 
Journal of June 10: 

"We, the undersigned residents of Sioux City and Sergeant Bluffs, Io., 
and vicinity, do hereby certify that we were present on the afternoon of 
June 6, 1895, at Floyd's Bluff, where the meeting was held to identify the 
location of the grave where Sergeant Charles Floyd's remains were rein- 
terred by public ceremony May 28, 1857. The location is where, coming up 
the Missouri river on the Iowa side, the first high bluff reaches the river 
bank, and below the mouth of the Floyd river. The grave is on the crest of 
the ridge of the bluff which extends back from the river and hollows north 
and south of it, and about 360 feet back and east from the top of the railroad 
cut of the Sioux City and Pacific Railroad, and in a slight depression of the 
ridge between two higher points, and the grave runs east and west. That 
while the yet unbroken prairie shows at first no sign of the grave, still, 
guided by the memories of some of those who assisted at such burial, and 
still others who have visited it frequently since, which (when) the stones and 
cedar post placed there remained, and from surrounding local objects, and 


especially from digging for the coffin, and finding parts of it, and from, 
searching the surface and disclosing the exact outline of a grave 8% feet by 
■iy 2 feet, shown by the lighter colored dirt with which the grave was filled 
at the time at the top, contrasted in well defined lines with the surround- 
ing black surface dirt all around it. And we dug open a part of the grave 
to the coffin and found bones and the skull. We identify it as the place of the 
reburial of Sergeant Charles Floyd. And such of us as (are) so indicated 
below were either present at such burial or were familiar with the ground 
at that time in 1857 and prior. And that the original grave (of 1804) was 
then a well known landmark, and by the undermining of the foot of the 
bluff by the river the bank had caved so that part of the coffin projected out 
of the river side of the bluff, which was the occasion of the reburial. And 
we thus fix the place where now lie the remains of Sergeant Charles Floyd, the 
first soldier of the United States who died in the service of the new terri- 
tory purchased from France. 

"Names of those who were present at the reburial in 1857, or who then 
knew the old and new grave: Wm. L. Joy, H. D. Clark, W. B. Tredway, 
George Murphy, John P. Allison, John H. Charles, T. J. Stone, E. R. Kirk. 
J. C. C. Hoskins, C. J. Holman, L. Bates, L. C. Sanborn, A. Groninger, A. 
M. Holman. 

Others present: D. A. Magee, J. D. Hoskins, J. L. Follett, jr., C. R. 

In connection with this discovery and identification of the 1857 grave, 
and formal organization of the Association, June 6, 1895, may be noted the 
exact location of the grave with reference to the changes undergone by the 
bluff in consequence of the railroad cut of 1867-68. This information is rep- 
resented by the accurate plat, made by Mitchell Vincent, Esq., July 29, 1895, 
of the ground suggested for the Floyd Memorial Park, belonging to the 
Credits Commutation Company, of Sioux City, comprising a part of Lot 8, 
Sect. 1, Township 88 N., Range 48 W., containing 21% acres. When the 
Sioux City and Pacific R. R. was brought into town, Mr. Vincent, the engi- 
neer in charge of the earthenwork, ran the line to strike the face of the 
bluff close to the river's edge, and then cut through this point for 400 feet 
or more. The greatest depth of the cut, where the line passes the crest of 
the bluff, is 60 feet. The face of the cut is nearly sheer or vertical on the 
land side; on the water side is left for a little distance a lower irregular ele- 
vation, representing the ragged edge of the bluff as it was in 1857, now 
still further disintegrated and continually crumbling away. As stated ear- 
lier in this Memoir, p. 23, the location of the original grave of 1804 is now 
in the air, over the water, higher than and to the west of these crumb- 
ling fragments of the former solid face of the bluff. The railroad profiles 
show the summit of Floyd's Bluff to have been 97 feet higher than the 
mouth of Floyd's river. Allowing one foot fall of the Missouri from Floyd's 
river to the bluff, and making some other slight adjustments, we may say 
with confidence that the position in space of the 1804 grave is now in the 
air 100 feet over the surface of the Missouri. From the solid edge of the rail- 
road cut to the grave of 1857 is now a distance of about 360 feet, in a direc- 

*In the copy of these proceedings as printed it appears that nineteen persons were pre-ent. 
but the list of signatures has but eighteen names, that of S. T. Davis not appearing - . 



tun about S. E., this distance representing probably about BOO feet from the 
portion of the grave of 1804. The new grave is in a very slight depression 
of tne main crest or "hog back*' of the bluff, which runs about N. W. and 
S. E. for 866 feet from the edge of the cut to the road back of the whole 
bluff. This crest or ridge is separated on the N. E. by a gulch or ravine, 
10 to 20 feet deep, from another bold prominence, shorter but somewhat higher 
than Floyd's Bluff proper. The culminating point of this spur is 591 feet N. E. 
of the middle of the railroad cut, and nearly as far N. N. E. of the new grave. 
All these points, and others necessary to an understanding of the situation, 
will be readily perceived on examination of the accompanying plat, reduced 
in size from the original, first published in the Journal of August 21, 1895, 
and herewith reproduced by the kind permission of our chairman, the editor 
of the Journal. 

Plat of Floyd's Bluff and Grave. 

Sec. 11. Proceedings of the Association, Before August 20, 1895. 

(Abstract of Minutes.) 

Sioux City, la., June 24. 189 
The Executive Committee which was formed on June 6, at Floyd's Bluff, 
met in Mr. Marks' office. Present: President J. C. C. Hoskins; Secretary C. 
R. Marks; Messrs. A. M. Holman, Mitchell Vincent, G. W. Wakefield. 

President Hoskins resigned on account of ill health and probable ab- 
sence. His resignation was accepted with regret. Mr. John H. Charles 


was elected President; and being present, entered upon the duties of pre- 
siding officer. „ ^ 
Messrs. Horace G. Burt, of Omaha; L. Bates, of Dakota City; and L A. 
Magee. of Sioux City, were added to the Executive Committee. 

Mr. D. A. Magee was elected Treasurer of the Association. 

Secretary Marks was instructed to correspond with Dr. Elliott Coues, of 
Washington, D. C, and Prof. J. D. Butler, of Madison, Wis., to ascertain 
whether either or both could be present to deliver addresses at the pro- 
posed exercises of August 20. 

Messrs. Geo. W. Wakefield, C. R. Marks, and D. A. Magee, were ap- 
pointed a committee to confer with the owners of the ground where Floyd's 
grave is located, and procure a proposition for the conveyance to some au- 
thorized association of the ground there between the present highway and 
the Missouri river, for a permanent park. 

Messrs. A. M. Holman, Geo. Murphy and E. R. Kirk were appointed a 
committee to procure a suitable receptacle for the reburial of Floyd's bones, 
and a proper stone to mark the grave temporarily. 

The officers of the Association were instructed to procure the necessary 
stationery, and to send out circulars inviting subscriptions and memberships 
in the Association, upon contributions of $1.00 or more, to defray expenses 
of the memorial exercises of August 20, and for subsequent use in the erec- 
tion of a monument, etc. 

Adjourned to July 6, in the Court House, the members of the Association 
and the public to be invited to attend. 

(Abstract of Minutes.*) 

Court House, Sioux City, July 6, 1895. 

The Executive Committee met at 2 p. m., pursuant to adjournment. 
Present: President John H. Charles, in the chair; Secretary C. R. Marks, 
Treasurer D. A. Magee, Messrs. A. M. Holman, Mitchell Vincent, E. R. Kirk, 
Geo. Murphy, A. Groninger, Thos. J. Stone, F. C. Hills, W. Stinson. L. Bates, 
Geo. W. Wakefield, C. D. Bagley and Dr. J. Perrin Johnson. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

Photographs of Floyd's skull, and of the landscape in the vicinity of 
his grave, were exhibited. 

Letters were read from Hon. Charles Aldrich, of Des Moines, la.; Dr. 
Elliott Coues, of Washington, D. G; Mr. K. G. Burt, of Omaha, Neb.; Dr. S. 
P. Yeomans, of Charles City, la., and others, expressing their interest in the 
matter and in several instances their intention to attend the memorial ex- 
ercises on August 20. It seemed probable that the Committee could secure 
the services of Prof. J. D. Butler, of Madison, Wis., on that occasion. The 
letter from Dr. Coues related in part to the Catlin painting of Floyd's Bluff, 
and questioned the wisdom of reburying Floyd's skull, which he thought 
would be better preserved in some historical depository. This question gave 
rise to considerable discussion, at the conclusion of which it was decided 
that all the remains should be recommitted to the grave. The letter of Dr. 
Yeomans expressed his intention to be present on August 20. 

*Based on the Secretary's manuscript in the minute book, but supplemented from the ac- 
count furnished to the Sioux City Journal of July 7. 


Secretary Marks exhibited the old petition to Congress, signed by 780 
citizens of Iowa, which was to have been presented by Congressman St ruble 
during his term of office; but this matter had finally been allowed to drop, 

The Committee on the Stone (Messrs. Holman, Kirk, and Murphy) re- 
ported that a suitable slab, 7x3 feet and 8 inches thick, properly inscribed, 
could be delivered and securely laid on the grave, for $40. The report \\ 
accepted, and it was voted that the stone be prepared, and laid on August 20. 
This committee further reported that they were having made of pottery an 
urn to hold the remains. 

The Committee on Grounds desired and were allowed further time to re- 

The Secretary was instructed to correspond with Francis P. Harper, of 
New York, the publisher of Dr. Coues' edition of the History of the Lewis 
and Clark Expedition, in order to secure a list of the subscribers to that 
work for the use of the committee.. 

The participation of military and civic officials in the ceremonies of 
August 20 was discussed by Messrs. A. M. Holman, F. C. Hills and others. 

On motion that a Committee of five on Finance be appointed to act with 
the Treasurer to raise needed funds, the President appointed Messrs. F. 
C. Hills, Chairman; E. W. Skinner, Secretary; Mitchell Vincent, L. Bates, 
and C. A. Bagley. 

It was voted that President John H. Charles, Judge Geo. W. Wakefield, 
Mr. E. R. Kirk, Treasurer D. A. Magee, and Secretary C. R. Marks be consti- 
tuted a committee to arrange the programme for August 20th. 

Voted, that Dr. Elliott Coues, of Washington, D. C; Prof. J. D. Butler, 
of Madison, Wis.; Hon. Charles Aldrich, of Des Moines, la.; and Mr. F. C. 
Hills, of Sioux City, be added to the Executive Committee; and that five 
members of this committee be considered a quorum for the transaction of 

Adjourned to meet in the same place at 2 p. m., July 20. 

(Abstract of Minutes.*) 

Court House, Sioux City, July 20, 1895. 

The Executive Committee met at 2 p. m., pursuant to adjournment of 
July 6. Present: President J. H. Charles, in the chair; Secretary C. R. 
Marks, E. R. Kirk, Mitchell Vincent, A. M. Holman, C. D. Bagley. W. Stin- 
son, and E. W. Skinner. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

The Secretary read several letters, including one from Mr. P. B. Weare. 
of Chicago, enclosing a check for $25, offering another $25 if needed, and a 
third $25 to mark the grave of the Indian chief War Eagle, on the Sioux 
Bluff. The Secretary also stated that he had written to A. C. Floyd, of 
Chattanooga, Tenn., said to be a relative of Sergeant Charles Floyd. 

The Committee on Grounds reported that they had conferred with F. 
L. Eaton, of the Credits Commutation Company, who represented the desired 
ground, and H. J. Taylor, the Company's attorney; that they had visited 
the ground; that the opinion had been expressed that in any event a parcel 
of ground large enough for the proposed monument could be obtained; and 
moreover, that a larger tract, sufficient for the proposed park, might be 

i: A brief notice of this meeting appears in the Journal of July 


granted on certain terms, if the Floyd Memorial Association could give 
satisfactory assurances of ability to equip and maintain such a park. The 
committee were allowed further time. 

The Committee on Stone reported on prices ranging from $30 to $40, 
according to quality, etc. They were authorized to use their own judgment 
in selecting a suitable stone, which was directed to be engraved with the 
following inscription: 

(Inscription follows in the minutes: see beyond, p. 45.) 

Adjourned to meet August 3, at same time and place. 

(Abstract of Minutes.*) 

Court House, Sioux City, August 3, 1895. 

The Executive Committee met at 2 p. m., pursuant to adjournment of 
July 20. Present: President John H. Charles, in the chair; Secretary C. R. 
Marks, Messrs. G. W. Bagley, Mitchell Vincent, G. M. Pardoe, G. W. Wake- 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 

The Committee on Ceremonies for August 20 reported the following pro- 

A. For the Afternoon, at the Grave: 

I. Procession from the railroad train to the top of the bluff. 1. Gen. 
Hancock Post, G. A. R., with fife and drum. 2. Old Settlers. 3. 
Officers of the Association, speakers on the occasion, and other in- 
vited guests. 4. City and county officials. 5. Other organizations 
which might be invited and wish to participate. 6. The public. 

II. Viewing the remains in the urn, and examining Floyd's Journal. 

III. Short address by Judge Wakefield, on behalf of Sioux City. 

IV. Short funeral sermon by Prof. Butler. 
V. Singing of "Nearer My God to Thee." 

VI. Prayer. 
VII. Ceremony of reburial of the remains, conducted by the G. A. R. 
VIII. Short addresses by Dr. Coues, Dr. Yeomans, and others. 
IX. Setting of the stone over the grave. 

B. For the Evening, at the Young Men's Christian Association Audi- 

X. Address on the Lewis and Clark Expedition, by Dr. Coues. 
XI. Address on Sergeant Floyd, by Prof. Butler. 

This programme was carried out, without material modification: see 
date of August 20, beyond, p. 37.) 

On motion this report was adopted, and it was voted to invite the 
Gen. Hancock Post, G. A. R., to take charge of the ceremonies of reburial. 

The officers of the Association were authorized and instructed to extend 
invitations to be present at the ceremonies to such persons as they might 
desire as guests, and also to formally invite the speakers to deliver the ad- 
dresses contemplated in the programme. 

A committee consisting of Messrs. G. W. Wakefield, G. M. Pardoe, and 
C. H. Lewis, was appointed and authorized to prepare for execution articles 
of incorporation of the Floyd Memorial Association, to be ready August 17. 

*A short notice of this meeting- appears in the Journal of August 4. 


Mr. Mitchell Vincent was appointed a committee of one to arrange for a 
railroad train to transport the Association, its guests, and the public, from 
Sioux City to Floyd's Bluff, on August 20. 

Adjourned to meet at the same time and place, August 17. 

(Abstract of Minutes.*) 

Court House, Sioux City. August 17, 1895. 
The Executive Committee met at 2 p. m. pursuant to adjournment of 
August 3, President Charles in the chair, and Mr. E. W. Skinner acting as 
secretary in the absence of Mr. Marks. This meeting was a public one, at- 
ended by about 40 persons, in addition to the officers and committees of 
the Association. Among those present were Judge Geo. W. Wakefield, 
Mitchell Vincent, D. A. Magee, F. C. Hills, A. M. Holman, Dr. Elliott Coues, 
Prof. J. D. Butler, Rev. H. D. Jenkins, W. L. Joy, James F. Toy, Capt. and 
State Senator J. S. Lothrop, H. C. Cheyney. representing Supt. H. G. Burt, 
of the S. C. and P. R. R., Dr. J. Perrin Johnson. Arthur F. Statter, H. A. 
Johns, Hon. Geo. D. Perkins. 

Before the meeting was called to order, Dr. Coues and Prof. Butler were 
introduced to the persons present. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 
Mr. Vincent, the Committee on Transportation, reported that arrange- 
ments had been made with H. G. Burt, General Manager of the Sioux City 
and Pacific Railroad, and with H. C. Cheyney, the local agent, for a train 
to leave the station at 1:35 p. m. on August 20, to convey members of the 
Association and their guests to Floyd's Bluff and return, free of charge, and 
to transport the public at the rate of 15 cents for the round trip. The report 
was approved and accepted. 

Mr. Skinner, on behalf of the Committee of Arrangements, reported that 
they had sent out about 450 invitations to prominent persons throughout 
the country, and read extracts from many of the letters of acceptance or 
regret. Among those from whom replies had been received were: Governor 
Frank D. Jackson, Des Moines. la.: R. A. Smith, of Okoboji, an old settler 
of Northern Iowa: Henry Sabin. Superintendent of Public Instruction, Des 
Moines; United States Senator Wm. V. Allen, Madison, Neb.; M. W. Davis, 
Iowa City, la., Secretary of the State Historical Society, who desired that 
the Board of Curators of that Society should be represented on the occasion 
by Hon. Geo. D. Perkins, a member of that board and the editor of the Sioux 
City Journal; ex-Governor C. C. Carpenter, of Fort Dodge, la., who had 
been present at the Floyd ceremonies of 1857; Hon. J. Sterling Morton, Sec- 
retary of Agriculture, Washington, D. C; Maj. W. V. Lucas. Superintendent 
of the Soldiers' Home at Hot Springs, S. D. ; J. F. Duncombe, of Fort 
Dodge; the veteran Gen. Geo. W. Jones, first United States senator for Iowa; 
F. H. Halsell. Sioux Rapids. la.; Hon. P. M. Cassady, Des Moines, State 
Senator in 1850; H. G. McMillan, Rock Rapids, la.; Fletcher Howard, Com- 
missioner of Pharmacy, Sheldon, la.; State Geologist Samuel Calvin. Iowa 
City: H. W. Trimble, Keokuk. la.; Adjutant General John R. Prime, Des 
Moines; B. F. Gill, Des Moines; H. C. Wheeler, Odebolt. la.; United States 
Senator Wm. B. Allison, Dubuque, la.; United States Senator John H. Gear, 

*A full report of this important meeting, the last one held before the ceremonies of the 2i>th. 
appears in the Journal of August 18. from the pen of Mr. Arthur F. Statter. and has been used 
bv your committee to supplement the official manuscript minutes. The unsigned draft of the Ar- 
ticles of Incorporation also appears there. 


Burlington, la.; Representative D. B. Henderson, Dubuque; J. K. P. Thomp- 
son, Rock Rapids; Hon. Chas. Aldrich, Curator State Historical Department, 
Des Moines; C. L. Davidson, Hull, la.; Judge G. S. Robinson, of the Supreme 
Court, Sioux City; Rev. T. M. Shanafelt, Superintendent of Baptist Missions, 
Huron, S. D.; Prof. J. E. Todd, State Geologist, Vermillion, S. D.; Thomas 
Thorson, Secretary of State, Canton, S. D., and many others. 

Mr. A. M. Holman, on behalf of the Committee on the Stone, in the ab- 
sence of the chairman, E. R. Kirk, reported that the stone had been cut and 
inscribed, and was ready to be laid on August 20; and also, that the earthen- 
ware urn had been made to contain the remains. The report was accepted, 
and the committee was instructed to have everything in readiness for set- 
ting the stone at the appointed hour. 

Judge Wakefield, chairman of the committee appointed to draft for exe- 
cution Articles of Incorporation of the Floyd Memorial Association, read 
the said Articles, which had been drafted, and which on motion were ap- 
proved and accepted. 

(For these articles, see below.) 

On motion of Mr. G. M. Pardoe, at the suggestion of Rev. H. D. Jen- 
Inns that seats should be provided at the grave and photographs of the 
scene be taken, the chair appointed for those purposes a committee consist- 
ing of C. J. Holman, D. A. Magee, and H. A. Johns, who were authorized 
to engage a photographer, and requested to select the persons to be seated, 
including certain Omaha Indians. 

On motion of Mr. E. W. Skinner, the chair appointed the following 
persons a Committee on Reception for Tuesday, August 20: Mayor C. W. 
Fletcher, Messrs. F. C. Hills, W. L. Joy, John P. Allison, Mitchell Vincent, 
Geo. D. Perkins, T. J. Stone, C. J. Holman, C. A. L. Olson, J. Perrin Johnson, 
and Geo. W. Wakefield. 

Judge Wakefield offered the following resolution which, on motion of 
Mr. Perkins, was adopted: "Resolved, that the Mayor and Common Coun- 
cil, city officers, and county officers, be and they are hereby invited and re- 
quested to attend the memorial services at the grave at 2 p. m. on August 
20; and that ladies and gentlemen and the public generally be also invited 
to participate." 

Judge Wakefield reported that the members of the Hancock Post, G. 
A. R., would meet at the Post Hall at 1 p. m., on the 20th, in uniform and 
wearing their badges, and march in procession to the railroad station, with 
fife and drum. 

Adjourned to meet at the grave on Floyd's Bluff on Tuesday, August 20, 
at 2 p. m. 

Sec. 12. Incorporation of the Association, August 20. 1895. 

Know all men by these presents, that we, the undersigned, hereby asso- 
ciate ourselves and agree to become a corporation under Chapter Two, Title 
Nine, of the Code of Iowa of 1873 and amendments thereto, and for that 
purpose we have adopted, agreed to, signed and do hereby certify the fol- 
lowing Articles of Incorporation. 


The name of this corporation shall be "The Floyd Memorial Associa- 
tion," and its principal place of business shall be at Sioux City, Woodbury 
County, Iowa. 


The business and object of this corporation shall be to commemorate the 
death and burial of Sergeant Charles Floyd, and the Lewis and Clark Ex- 
pedition, of which Sergeant Floyd was a member, and for that purpose 
to acquire and hold necessary real estate and other property, to erect a 
monument and establish and maintain a public park and to exercise such 
powers as are given by statute to corporations other than those for pecu- 
niary profit. 


This corporation shall commence on the twentieth day of August, A. I'. 
1895, and the members thereof shall be the undersigned, together with such 
other persons as have contributed or may hereafter contribute the sum of 
one dollar or more to the support of this corporation. 


The business of this corporation shall be conducted by a board of seven 
trustees, who shall be elected annually at the annual meeting of the mem- 
bers on the twentieth day of August in each year, except that when said 
date shall fall upon Sunday, then such annual meeting and election shall 
be upon the Monday following. Ten members shall constitute a quorum at 
corporate meetings. The trustees shall hold for one year, or until their 
successors are elected and qualified. Each member shall be entitled to one 
vote in person or by proxy. 

Until the twentieth day of August, A. D. 1896, John H. Charles. C. R. 
Marks. Mitchell Vincent. A. M. Holman, L. Bates, D. A. Magee and Geo. 
W. Wakefield shall be and constitute the first board of trustees and shall 
conduct said business. 


The board of trustees shall elect from their number a president, and 
from the members of the corporation fifteen vice presidents, a secretary and 
a treasurer, appoint subordinate officers, till vacancies in said board, call 
special meetings of the members, make and adopt by-laws for the manage- 
ment of corporate affairs and do any and all things necessary for the trans- 
action of the business of the corporation. Written contracts and > onvey- 
ai ces of the corporation shall be signed by the president and al by 

the secretary, and in cases of instruments requiring an acknowledgment. 
the same shall be made by the president in the name of the corporation. In 
case of absence or inability of the president one of the vice presidents shall 
sign and acknowledge such contracts and conveyances. The duties of the 
several officers of this corporation shall be such as are usually performed 
by like officers, ana orders on the treasurer shall be drawn \>y the secretary. 


This corporation is not for the pecuniary profit of its members, and the 
private property of the members shall in no case be liable for corporate 



These articles may be amended at any annual meeting of the members, 
by a vote of two-thirds of the members present. 

Witness our hands this twentieth day of August, A. D. 1895. 


James Davie Butler, 
Elliott Coues, 
Charles Aldrich, 
T. M. Shanafelt, 
S. P. Yeomans. 
Jno. H. Charles, 
Geo. D. Perkins, 
A. M. Holman, 
Geo. W. Wakefield, 
C. R. Marks, 
Arthur F. Statter, 
Henry J. Taylor, 

C. J. Holman, 
J. C. C. Hoskins, 
W. C. Davenport, 
L. Bates, 
Wm. L. Joy, 
(Mrs.) D. A. Crockwell, 
T. C. Tees, 

F. L. Ferris, 

Mrs. Frances N. Davis. 
Bertha Wakefield, 
Frederick C. Hills, 
Frank A. Magill, 
R. Buchanan, 
John M. Pinckney, 

G. S. Robinson, 
H. D. Jenkins, 
Mitchell Vincent, 
C. A. Benton. 

STATE OF IOWA, Woodbury County— ss. 

Be it remembered, that on this 20th day of August, 1895, before me, 
George W. Wakefield, Judge of the District Court in and for the Fourth 
Judicial District of Iowa, personally appeared James Davie Butler, Elliott 
Coues, Charles Aldrich, T. M. Shanafelt, S. P. Yeomans, John H. Charles, 
Geo. D. Perkins, C. R. Marks, Mrs. Francis N. Davis, and Bertha Wakefield, 
to me personally known to be the persons who respectively signed said 
names to the foregoing articles and certificate of incorporation, and sever- 
ally acknowledged said instrument to be their voluntary act and deed. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand this 20th day of 
August, A. D. 1895. 

(Signed) GEO. W. WAKEFIELD, 
District Judge in and for the 4th Judicial District of Iowa. 


STATE OF IOWA, Woodbury County— ss. 

Be it remembered, that on this 20th day of August, 1895, before me, the 
undersigned, C. R. Marks, a Notary Public in and for said Woodbury County, 
personally came A. M. Holman, Geo. W. Wakefield, Arthur F. Statter, Henry 
J. Taylor, C. J. Holman, J. C. C. Hoskins, W. C. Davenport, L. Bates, W. L. 
Joy, Mrs. D. A. Crockwell, T. C. Tees, F. L. Ferris, Frederick C. Hills. 
Frank A. Magill, R. Buchanan, John M. Pinckney, G. S. Robinson, H. D. 
Jenkins, Mitchell Vincent, and C. A. Benton, each to me personally known 
to be the persons who respectively signed said names to the foregoing arti- 
cles and certificate of incorporation and severally acknowledged the said 
instrument to be their voluntary act and deed. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and affixed my 
Notarial Seal at Sioux City the day and year last above written. 

(L. S.) Notary Public in and for Woodbury County, Iowa. 

STATE OF IOWA, Woodbury County. 

Filed for record this 20th day of August, A. D. 1895, at 6 o'clock p. m., 
and recorded in Book 27, Miscel., Page 514. 

W. C. HILLS, Recorder. 
T. C. Tees, Deputy. 

Section 13. The Obsequies of August 20, 1895.* 


Floyd's Bluff, Sioux City, la., 2 p. m., Tuesday, August 20, 1895. 

The Association, met pursuant to adjournment of August 17, on the 91st 
anniversary of the death of Sergeant Charles Floyd, in the presence of a 
large concourse of citizens, to conduct the solemn ceremony of laying his 
remains in their final resting-place, with the military honors due the brave 
soldier, and befitting civic tribute to his memory. The day was fine, and 
the order of exercises which had been determined upon was carried out 
according to the programme. No untoward incident marred the occasion. 
The assemblage numbered fully five hundred persons; among them were the 
following, who attended or participated in the event as officers and members 
of the Association and its invited guests, officers and members of the Han- 
cock Post, G. A. R., other civic and military officials, members of the press, 
old settlers, and the public: 

Hon. Charles Aldrich, Curator State Historical Department, Des Moines, 

Mrs. Ainsworth, Onawa, la., journalist. 

C. D. Bagley, Sioux City. 

Charles Baldwin, Sioux City. 

L. Bates, Dakota City, Neb. 

C. A. Benton, Credits Commutation Co., Sioux City. 

*Your committee's relation of these imposing? ceremonies is based ;1) On their participation 
in the programme, all the members of the committee having? been present on the occasion, and 
three of them anions? the speakers; [2) On Secretary .Marks* official minutes of the exercises, con- 
sidered as proceeding's of the Association; and (3) On the very full accounts published in the Sioux 
City Journal and Times of August 20 and 21. These papers printed eleven columns of illustrated 
articles on the event, one o! unprecedented local interest and just local pride, as well as of national 
historic significance. The Associated Press dispatch from Sioux City of August 20 was wry gen- 
erally used by papers throughout the United States. Your committee acknowledge with thanks 
their indebtedness to the editor of the Journal and his reportorial staff, and particularlv to Mr. 
Statter, who aftenvard furnishel Dr. Coues with a much more extensive list of names of persons 
present than had before been prepared. 


Ellis Blackbird, otherwise Shongoska or White Horse, grandson of Chief 
Blackbird, Omaha Agency, Neb. 

L. M. Brown, Sioux City. 

C. A. Bryan, Sioux City. 

R. Buchanan, Sioux City. 

A. H. Burton, Sioux City. 

Prof. J. D. Butler, Madison, Wis., bearer of Floyd's Journal, and deliv- 
erer of the funeral oration. 

Miss Butler, Madison, Wis. 

President John H. Charles, Sioux City, presiding over civic ceremonies. 

Mrs. John H. Charles, Sioux City. 

R. J. Chase, Sioux City. 

H. C. Cheyney, Sioux City and Pacific R. R., representing Maj. Horace 
G. Burt, of Omaha, Neb. 

Col. A. D. Collier, Sioux City. 

Dr. Elliott Coues, Washington, D. C, speaker on behalf of Lewis and 
Clark's Expedition. 

Mrs. Elliott Coues, Washington, D. C. 

E. E. Crady, Sioux City. 

Mrs. D. A. Crockwell, Sioux City (or Mrs. Dr. Crockwell, Salt Lake City, 

W. C. Davenport, Sioux City. 

M. B. Davis, Sioux City, comrade G. A. R. 

E. G. Dilley, Sioux City. 
James Doughty, Sioux City. 

David Douglas, Sioux City, locomotive engineer of the train. 
Henry Fontanelle, Omaha Agency, Neb., in charge of the Omaha Indians, 
Shongaska and Sindahaha. 

F. L. Ferris, Sioux City. 

G. M. Gilbert, Sioux City, leader of the choir. 
Rev. Elinor E. Gordon, Sioux City. 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Green and family, Sioux City. 

August Groninger, Sioux City. 

Mrs. A. Groninger, Sioux City. 

J. W. Hallam, Sioux City. 

J. H. Hamilton, Sioux City. 

Atlee Hart, editor North Nebraska Eagle, Dakota City, Neb. 

Dr. J. L. Hanchette, Sioux City. » 

Mr. Herman, Sioux City. 

Frederick Clark Hills, formerly Sergeant Company E, 117th New York 
Volunteers, Senior Vice Commander Hancock Post, No. 22, G. A. R.. and 
President Board of Education, Sioux City. 

A. M. Holman, Sergeant Bluffs. 

Mrs. A. M. Holman, Sergeant Bluffs. 

C. J. Holman, Sergeant Bluffs. 

-Airs. C. J. Holman, Sergeant Bluffs. 

Frederick Holman, cadet U. S. N., Annapolis, Md. 

J. C. C. Hoskins, ex-President of the Association, Sioux City 

Mrs. J. C. C. Hoskins, Sioux City. 

J. D. Hoskins, Sioux City. 


James Hutchins. Sioux City. 

Robert Ingersoll. Sioux City. 

Rev. H. D. Jenkins, Sioux City, deliverer of the prayer and benediction. 

Mrs. H. D. Jenkins, Sioux City. 

Miss Anna and Miss Ruth Jenkins. Sioux City. 

Paul Jenkins. Sioux City. 

Frederick Johnson, cadet U. S. A.. West Point. N Y. 

Dr. G. A. Johnson, Sioux City. 

Dr. J. Perrin Johnson, Sioux City. 

"Win. L. Joy, Sioux City. 

E. R. Kirk, Sioux City. 

L. D. Letellier, Sioux City, a pioneer. 

C. H. Lewis, Sioux City. 

D. S. Lewis. Sioux City. 
John W. Lewis. Sioux City. 
Arthur Linn, Canton, S. D. 
W. G. Linn, Sioux City. 

Geo W. McGibbons, Sioux City, comrade G. A. R. 

F. A. Magill. Sioux City. 
Treasurer D. A. Magee, Sioux City. 
J. A. Magoun, Jr., Sioux City. 

Secretary C. R. Marks, Sioux City, in charge of the remains. 

Mrs. C. R. Marks, Sioux City. 

Russell A. Marks, Sioux City. 

George Murphy. Sioux City. 

Capt. C. O'Connor, Homer, Neb. 

Charlotte O'Connor, Homer, Neb. 

G. M. Pardoe, Sioux City. 

Judge Isaac Pendleton. Sioux City. 

Miss May Pendleton, Sioux City. 

Hon. Geo. D. Perkins. M. C, Sioux City, speaker on behalf of the Board 
of Curators of the Iowa State Historical Society. 

Mrs. Geo. D. Perkins, Sioux City. 

Mrs. H. A. Perkins, Sioux City. 

Prof. J. L. Pickard, Burlingame. Kas. 

John M. Pinckney. Sioux City. 

Mrs. John M. Pinckney. Sioux City. 

John S. Potts, city editor Evening Times, Sioux City. 

Commander Eugene W. Rice. Hancock Post. No. 22. G. A. R.. Sioux City, 
presiding over military ceremonies. 

Judge G. S. Robinson. Sioux City. 

Dr. Grant J. Ross. Sioux City. 

Rev. Mary A. Safford. pastor Unitarian Church, Sioux City. 

Robert H. Sayre, South Bethlehem, Pa. 

Rev. T. M. Shanafelt. Superintendent of Baptist Missions. Huron. S. D. 

Sindahaha, otherwise Glistening Tail. Omaha Agency. Neb. 

E. W. Skinner. Sioux City. 

Arthur F. Statter, reporter Sioux City Journal. 
Whitfield Stinson, Sioux City. 
Thomas J. Stone, Sioux City. 


S. W. Swiggett, Sioux City. 

Henry J. Taylor, Sioux City. 

T. C. Tees, Sioux City. 

Prof. J. E. Todd, State Geologist, Vermillion, S. D. 

Mitchell Vincent, C. E., Onawa, la. 

J. P. Vincent. Onawa, la. 

Judge George W. Wakefield, Sioux City, speaker on behalf of the city. 

Mrs. Lycurgus Wakefield, Sioux City. 

A. J. Westfall, Sioux City. 

B. P. Yeomans, Sergeant Bluffs. 

Mrs. B. P. Yeomans, Sergeant Bluffs. 

Dr. S. P. Yeomans, Charles City, la., speaker on behalf of the old settlers. 

George W. Young, Sioux City, chief of police. 

The train on the Sioux City and Pacific R. R. was advertised to leave 
the station at 1:30 p. m. At that hour, when the Hancock Post had marched 
with drum and fife to the station, and the citizens had also assembled, 
it was found that the means of transportation were insufficient to con- 
vey the throng. But Mr. H. C. Cheyney procured two additional coaches 
in a few minutes, and at 1:45 the train started, with the veteran engineer, 
David Douglas, at the throttle. The train soon stopped in the cut at the 
foot of Floyd's Bluff, and its 400 passengers alighted. Fully 100 others 
came in private conveyances. The procession from the train ascended to 
the top of the bluff, headed by the Hancock Post. A photograph of the 
ascent was taken as the procession moved up the south face of the acclivity. 

When all had gathered about the grave, beside which stood two urns 
containing the remains of Sergeant Floyd, President Charles opened the 
exercises in a few fitting words, and introduced Judge George W. Wake- 
field, who spoke on behalf of Sioux City, in substance as follows: 


"We have met today to mark an historic spot in memory of a volunteer 
citizen soldier of the early days of the republic. On this occasion the pres- 
ent clasps hands with the past, today with the days of Washington and 
Jefferson. It is well for us to stop in the midst of our labors and take a 
momentary retrospect and thereby realize the rapidity of our nation's growth 
and the importance of the Louisiana purchase. When Sergeant Floyd died 
and was buried on this bluff the frontier was along the line of the Allegha- 
nies, and the lower end of Lake Ontario was an almost unbroken wilder- 
ness. From that frontier our civilization has extended westward by rapid 
strides down the Ohio, across the Mississippi, over the great plains and the 
heights of the Rockies and down to the Pacific ocean. Sergeant Floyd was 
one of the pathfinders exploring for this civilization a vast region, an empire 
in extent, stretching from the "Father of Waters" to the wave-washed 
shores of Oregon. We meet to commemorate the life and death of this man. 
a volunteer soldier, enlisted in the service of the United States. It is very 
largely the names of generals and great captains that occupy and engross 
the historic page and memorial slab, but today our hero is the man with 
the musket, and without the stalwart service of such there would be no 
generals or great captains. 


"The man with the musket who is faithful to every call of duty is the 
true hero. The people of Sioux City have a just pride in preserving this 
historic spot and the memory of this pioneer soldier. 

They have, with other interested friends, organized the Floyd Memorial 
Association and planned this memorial celebration. They extend to all a 
most hearty invitation to join in this work to the end that at no distant 
day we may dedicate a monument where today we place a simple slab. It 
is the duty of the present to preserve the ancient landmarks. Let us do 
our duty." 


President Charles next introduced Prof. James D. Butler, who appeared 
carrying in his hand the original manuscript journal of Sergeant Floyd, to 
deliver the funeral oration. Prof. Butler spoke in substance as follows : 

"All ye that are about him bemoan him, and all ye that know his name 
say: 'How is the strong staff broken and the beautiful rod.' — Jer. xlviii., 17." 

"Let us roll back the tide of time and imagine ourselves standing ninety- 
one years ago on this selfsame spot. About noon a flotilla comes in sight — 
three boats, one of twenty-two oars, the others each of six. They come to 
land at the base of the bluff and bring ashore a man at the point of death. 
They try in every way inventive love can dictate to relieve and rally him. 
He revives a little and says to the leader of the party, 'I want you to write 
me a letter,' murmurs a few words of father and mother far away in Ken- 
tucky. Then, looking around at many an eye tearful though unused to 
weep, he enters his last agony, cries, 'I am going to leave you,' and all is 

With noiseless step death steals on man. 

No plea, no prayer delivers him; 
From midst of life's unfinished plan 

With sudden hand it severs him. 
Ready, not ready, no delay. 

Forth to his judge's bar he must away. 

"All are in silence, some one perhaps pours out audible prayer for the 
parting spirit and for those around, none of whom in such a moment can 
forget their own brittle thread of life. 

"The little utmost that can be done to honor the dead is done at once, 
that in paying last honors saddened hearts may throw off something of their 
burden. Boards provided for mending the boats are shaped into a coffin, 
one of the flags, brought along to show nationality in councils, serves for 
a winding sheet, and strong arms bear the lifeless loved one, now loved 
more than ever, up to the height of land. A grave has already been fash- 
ioned there and two ropes from the boats lower it into its last resting place. 
In the face of death all men have serious moments. Committing dust to 
dust, all feel what shadows we are and what shadows we pursue. All thank 
God for him who hath abolished death and brought the life of immortality 
to light. But grief is restless and finds a solace in action. The tallest cedar 
within reach, topped with the stars and stripes, is set up over the grave, 
and the words "Charles Floyd, August 20, 1804," are cut into it. A dis- 
charge of muskets follows as a requiem. Then the whole band, too brol* on 
hearted to linger, with folded hands, casting a last look at the heape 


earth, go down the slope, launch their boats and the same evening push 
on further into the great lone land. They do with their might what then- 
hands find to do, realizing as never before that there is no work in the 

"Two years must drag their slow length along before Floyd's fellow- 
soldiers can return from the farthest west and behold his memorial post, 
which, let us thank God, was predestinated to be proof against undermining 
waters below, prairie fires sweeping around, and cyclones assailing from 
above, till it insured everlasting remembrance to the site of Floyd's inter- 


Geo. D. Perkins, who represented the Board of Curators of the State 
Historical Society, was then introduced by President Charles. 

"Standing here," he said, "on the verge of this new-old grave, we are re- 
minded that it is the unexpected that happens. The Louisiana purchase in 
1803 was unexpected. It was the state of war between France and England 
that rendered that purchase possible. Out of this purchase an empire west 
of the Mississippi river has been created, controlling in large measure the 
destinies of the great republic. Without this acquisition it may be doubted 
if the government of the United States could have long survived. The rapid 
settlement of this vast territory was the unexpected, for prior to the pur- 
chase the steamboat and the steam railway were unknown. The mighty 
transformation since Lewis and Clark and their faithful companions made 
their slow way up the Missouri river, here, was beyond all the thought of 
that time. The occasion was one of pride to the people of Sioux City, and 
of honor to the state and to the country." 

With a few remarks touching the marking of Sergeant Floyd's grave, 
and the obligation of caring for it, he brought his brief address to a close. 

At this point in the programme the exercises were placed in charge of 
Gen. Hancock Post, G. A. R., and the military ceremonies were formally 
opened by Post Commander Eugene Rice. Dr. H. D. Jenkins then offered 
prayer, which was followed by the singing of "Nearer My God to Thee," by 
a chorus led by Mr. G. M. Gilbert. 


Post Commander Rice then delivered the following address: 
"Comrades: One by one as the years roll on we are called together to 
fulfill the duties of respect to our country's dead. The present — full of the 
cares and pleasures of civil life — fades away, and we look back to the time 
when the heroes of our republic gave their lives in its service. As in the 
conflict of the 60s, when we, too, were soldiers of the republic, and gave our 
service for the maintenance of the Union and for the triumph of the cause 
represented by the Stars and Stripes — the flag so dear to our hearts — so in 
the earlier years of our nation's life was this same flag dear to the heart 
of this soldier of the republic, Sergeant Charles Floyd, who gave his life 
to his country in this then newly discovered wilderness, almost a century 

and whose remains we today reconsign to the bosom of our common 


" \er — earth — thus giving in these ceremonies a tardy recognition of serv- 

genei his country. 


"As time rolls on we too shall have fought our battles through and be 
laid to rest, our souls following the long column to the realms above. 

'Let us so live that when that time shall come to us those we leave 
behind may say above our graves: 'Here lies the body of a true-hearted. 
brave and earnest defender of the republic' " 

Following Commander Rice's address Comrades G. W. McGibbons. F. 
C. Hills and M. B. Davis made short responses, and each dropped a flower 
Upon the urn containing the remains. The G. A. R. exercises were con- 
tinued by the Rev. H. D. Jenkins, who spoke as follows: 


'Comrades of the Grand Army of the Republic: We who are accus- 
tomed to meet from time to time to pay funeral honors to the brave, are 
met today to deposit the ashes of an old soldier of the republic in a more 
fitting sepulcher than they have heretofore received, over which in due 
time shall rise a lofty monument or commemorative shaft. 

"Beside the beautiful waters of the Potomac rests the father of his 
country, in a tomb from whose site the visitor looks out upon the capital 
of a great nation and the marble palaces of its representatives. Beside the 
noble stream of the Hudson lie the mortal remains of that great general 
whose sword, followed by your muskets, preserved the liberties so dearly 
won, and that mausoleum by the most famous of our eastern rivers has 
become already a sacred Mecca to the great Empire State. Beside the broader 
flood of the Missouri, upon this glorious height, we redeposit today the ashes 
of that humble soldier who carried the flag of Washington into new and 
unexplored regions, and whose sacrifice and toil helped to make possible 
the victories of Grant. No one can read the story of that heroic band who 
in 1804 pushed its bateaux up this river in the face of unknown dangers and 
well known foes, without recognizing in it the pioneers of civilization, of 
freedom and of faith, for all of which God had destined this vast continent. 

"You know the story of Arnold von Melchthal, called Winkelried, who 
in 130S gathered into his arms a sheaf of Austrian spears, by sacrifice of 
his own life making way for the advance of freedom in the persons of his 
compatriots who pressed forward where he fell. So it was with this man 
whose name we speak with reverence, confronting an inhospitable wilder- 
ness, but opening it up to free labor, free schools and free states. 

"Upon this lofty eminence, looking out. over three states whose joint 
population is nearly 3,500,000, under a sky as genial as that of Italy, amid 
farms bursting with opulence, beside railways burdened by our present 
harvests, beside a city whose palaces of trade are builded of marble, jasper 
and chalcedony, we recommit his body to the grave, leaving it in the keep- 
ing of that God who will reward every man according to his work, and there 
may it rest undisturbed until the last day. In the name of the Father and 
the Son and the Holy Spirit. Amen and Amen." 


President Charles having resumed charge of the exercises, at the con- 
clusion of the military programme. Dr. Elliott Coues, the eminent Lewi? 
and Clark historian, was the next speaker introduced. He spoke briefly on 
behalf of the Expedition, as follows: 


"Ladies and Gentlemen: Instead of any poor remarks of my own on 
this interesting historic occasion, we will hear the very words which were 
penned on this spot by Capt. William Clark, on the day of Sergeant Floyd's 
death, August 20, 1804: 

" 'Died with a great deel of composure, before he died he said to me l 
am going away I want you to write me a letter— We buried him on the top 
of the bluff y 2 mile below a small river to which we gave his name, he 
was buried with the Honors of War much lamented, a seeder post with the 
Name Sergt. C. Floyd died here 20th of August 1804 was fixed at the head 
of his grave— This man at all times gave us proofs of his Determined reso- 
lution to doe service to his country and honor to himself after paying all 
honor to our Decesed brother we camped in the mouth of floyd's river about 
30 yards wide, a butiful evening.' " 


Following Dr. Coues, Dr. S. P. Yeomans, an early pioneer of Sioux City, 
who was present at the reburial of Floyd's remains in 1857, was introduced 
by President Charles, to speak on behalf of the old settlers. We give a 
synopsis of his interesting and appropriate address: 

"The occasion of this assemblage, with all its connecting incidents, is 
so unique as to be rarely, if ever, paralleled in human history. We are here 
to consign to their final resting place the remains of a fellow-being who 
died nearly a hundred years ago; to pay the last tribute of respect to one 
of whose life and history we have little knowledge beyond the fact that he 
fell at his post of duty in the service of our country. 

"These honors to one of whom we know so little fittingly exemplify the 
great cardinal doctrine of the Christian world, the kinship of the race, the 
brotherhood of man. Charles Floyd is a stranger to us, belonging to another 
age; probably no living being has ever looked upon his face, or grasped 
his hand. But 'a man is a man for a' that,' having a common origin and 
a common destiny with us, and the claims of our common humanity for 
sympathy and such aid as we may bestow in the time of calamity and help- 

"It is not extravagent to assume that Sergeant Floyd, with all the others 
composing the expedition of Lewis and Clark in 1804-06, were as truly heroes 
as thousands of others whose names are emblazoned upon the pages of 
history. This expedition was esteemed of great national importance; it was 
authorized by act of congress upon the urgent recommendation of President 
Jefferson. Ample time was taken to select the men composing it, who, by 
their courage, prudence and physical endurance were fully qualified to per- 
form the arduous duties required. It involved an entire separation for two 
years from every vestige of civilization, a traversing of two of the longest 
and most important rivers in North America, with no means of transporta- 
tion, aside from their frail boats, propelled with their own strong arms, with 
no knowledge of the rapids and cataracts that were before them. It in- 
volved the scaling of mountain heights, whose towering peaks were capped 
with everlasting snow. It involved encounters with savage beasts, as fero- 
cious as those found in the jungles of Africa, and the meeting with Indian 
*ribes in overwhelming numbers, who could be conciliated only by shrewd- 
ness, tact and diplomacy. 


"There can be no question that men who voluntarily assumed perils and 
hardships like these belonged to the highest type of heroes. 

"As we stand by this open grave there comes to us a sense of a mystical 
association between the opening and closing years of the century, which 
seems naturally to lead the mind to the contemplation of existing condi- 
tions at these remote periods of time, comparison with which will indicate 
the growth and development of our nation. 

"We have in our immediate presence an object lesson that epitomizes 
this general process of change and development. Forty years ago I came 
to Sioux City in the first stage coach ever seen north of Council Bluffs, to 
establish a United States land office. Upon the banks of the Floyd, within 
your city limits, was a camp of 300 Indians, and for a considerable time 
thereafter all the eating was done at the table of the late Dr. John K. Cook. 
Within these four decades there has grown up this magnificent city, with 
a system of railroads radiating in every direction, stately mansions, hotels 
and business blocks, churches, school houses, and a teeming multitude of 
busy and prosperous citizens. I am glad to greet so goodly a number of 
the old settlers that were here at the beginning, who endured the toil of 
sowing and planting, and who, in their declining years, are reaping in rich 
profusion the reward of their labor." 

Upon the conclusion of Dr. Yeoman's address, the participants in the 
ceremonies were grouped about the open grave and photographed in several 
different views. 

The two receptacles containing the remains were then lowered into their 
final resting-place. One of these was an urn-shaped jar made for the pur- 
pose by Holman Brothers, of Sergeant Bluffs; but as this proved too short 
to hold the long bones, the latter were placed in a similar but narrower 
and higher earthenware jar, which had been provided by Secretary Marks. 
The remains thus interred were: The skull, including the lower jaw; the 
right femur, 18 inches long: a tibia, 15 inches; a fibula, 14% inches; part of 
the other fibula; one vertebra; one clavicle; and portions of several ribs- 
all in good preservation. The inscription upon the urn was: 

Dikd August 20, 1804. 
Reinterred May 28, 1857. : 

Memorial Services August 20, 1895. 

A wreath and other floral offerings were placed upon the grave, which, 
after it had been filled up, was covered with the large stone slab made by 
M. C. Carlstrom, laid flat upon the ground. The inscription reads: 




Aug. 20. 1804. 

Remains removed from 600 

Feet West and Reburied at 

This Place Mav 28. 1857. 

This Stone Placed 

Aug. 20. 1895. 


The articles of Incorporation of the Floyd Memorial Association were 
numerously signed at the grave, as well as earlier in the day; and after the 
benediction had been pronounced by Dr. Jenkins, the assemblage dis- 
persed, and the Association adjourned to meet at the Auditorium of the 
Young Men's Christian Association, in Sioux City, for the exercises of the 
evening programme, at 8 p. m., the same day. 

Y. M. C. A. Auditorium, Sioux City, la., 8 p. m., Tuesday, August 20, 1895. 

The large audience which gathered in the Y. M. C. A. Auditorium for the 
•evening exercises was called to order by President Charles at 8 o'clock. 
The stage was occupied by the speakers of the occasion. Dr. Coues and 
Prof. Butler, by President Charles, Prof. J. E. Todd, Prof. Pickard, Rev. 
Dr. Jenkins, and Mr. J. C. C. Hoskins. 

Secretary Marks, at the suggestion of Dr. Coues, offered the following 
resolution, which was unanimously adopted: 

Resolved, That the special thanks of the Floyd Memorial Association 
be and they are hereby tendered to Mr. H. G. Burt, of Omaha, General Mana- 
ger of the Sioux City and Pacific Railroad, for the many courtesies and 
favors by which he has shown his interest in the Association, and greatly 
promoted its purposes. 

The following resolution was also introduced by Secretary Marks and 
unanimously adopted: 

Resolved, That the thanks of this Association be and they are hereby 
tendered to the Gen. Hancock Post, G. A. R., for its cordially rendered serv- 
ices in honoring the grave and memory of Sergeant Charles Floyd, in re- 
depositing of his remains and placing a stone over the grave this day. 

President Charles then introduced Dr. Coues as the historian of the 
Lewis and Clark Expedition, who had been invited to deliver the address 
of the evening on that subject. 

Dr. Coues arose and delivered a most interesting address upon the famous 
Lewis and Clark Expedition. Dr. Coues, as the historian of these explorers, 
probably knows more about their travels, hardships and adventures than 
any other living man, and his words were listened to with rapt attention 
by the audience. Dr. Coues has a strong, clear voice, and the faculty of 
keeping his hearers in perfect sympathy with him in his subject. At the 
close of his address he was tendered a hearty round of applause. Dr. Coues 
spoke substantially as follows: 


"Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: Lewis and Clark's Expedition is 
our national epic of exploration, conceived by Thomas Jefferson, wrought 
out by the great pioneers who showed the way from the Mississippi to the 
Pacific, and first given to the world by Nicholas Biddle in the year 1814. 
Being the latest historian of this ever memorable enterprise, I have been 
asked to give you some account of a journey which, from the day it was 
finished until today, has never ceased to be on the tongues of men, has 
never ceased to be a model of all such undertakings, and will never cease 
to bear fruit until our great West is no longer great. 

"In the year 1803 we had nothing west of the Mississippi. In that year 
-one of the greatest statesmen America ever produced bought from the great 


founder of the Napoleonic dynasty the whole of the country between the 
British and the Spanish possessions, which had been called by the French 
Louisiana, and was almost entirely unknown. By a stroke of the pen. with- 
out a drop of blood, and for much less money than Sioux City represents to- 
day, this vast possession became ours — as we trust forever. 

•Jefferson naturally wished to know what sort of a bargain he had made 
and determined to find out. For this purpose he appointed his private secre- 
tary, Meriwether Lewis, of Virginia, a captain in the army, gave him carte 
blanche to organize an expedition, gave him a letter of credit addressed to 
all the world, and minute instructions for the conduct of the enterprise— 
which was nothing less than a journey across the continent, by the principal 
waterways— the Missouri on this side of the great divide, the Columbia 
thence to the Pacific. Capt. Lewis selected his friend, William Clark, of 
Virginia, as his associate — and thus were linked two names which will live 
so long as men love to hear of deeds of greatness. 

"The winter of 18C3-4 was passed in camp at the mouth of Du Bois or 
Wood river, in Illinois, nearly opposite the mouth of the Missouri, and on 
Monday. May 14, 1804, the expedition started with forty-five men all told, in 
one large and two small boats. Besides the two captains, there were nine 
young Kentuckians, fourteen United States soldiers, two French watermen, 
one hunter, and a negro slave; besides which, a corporal and six soldiers 
and nine watermen were engaged to go only as far as the Mandans. There 
were afterward several changes in the composition of the permanent party, 
so that when it left the Mandans, April 7, 1805', it consisted of thirty-one 
men. one woman, and her new-born baby. 

"The lecturer said he should be obliged to condense to the utmost, to 
bring up even a part of the most important facts of so long protracted an 
expedition. Passing over the early stages in a few words, he brought the 
expedition to the vicinity of the Little Sioux, Inyan Yankey, or Eaneahwa- 
depon river, on August 7. 1804. In thus approaching Sioux City, the lecturer 
called attention to an interesting chart of the Missouri flood-plain in Monona 
county, drawn by Mitchell Vincent, of Onawa. which showed how great had 
been the changes in the river since the time of Lewis and Clark. Some 
places they navigated in their boats would now require "prairie schooners." 
being scleral miles to the right or left of the present channel. Several 
camps w-ere pointed out as the explorers passed the present site of Decatur 
and Blackbird hill, and on August 14 found themselves on the Omaha creek 
a few miles below this city, where they remained until the 20th, to hold a 
council with Otto and Missouri Indians. Here Sergeant Floyd was taken 
violently ill with the disease which ended his life next day, about noon. 
when the expedition had almost reached the bluff where he was buried and 
which still bears his name, as does aito the river close by, where the expe- 
dition camped after paying the last honors to their deceased comrade. 

"To show how minute and exact were the observations made on this voy- 
age the lecturer cited the case of the little creek now called Perry, flowing: 
through the city, which, together with Prospect hill, was duly and recogniza- 
bly described, before the explorers reached the Big Sioux. Tchankasndata, 
or Watpaipakshan river. 

"On August 22 Patrick Gass was elected a sergeant to fill the vacancy 
caused by Floyd's death, and subsequently became one of the historians of 


the expedition, whose published narrative antedated that of Lewis and Clark 
by seven years. 

"The following October saw our travelers safely at the villages of the 
Mandan and associated Indians, at and a little below Knife river, about 65 
miles above Bismarck, now the capital of North Dakota. Here they spent 
the winter in quarters which they built and named Fort Mandan, awaiting 
the opening of navigation. They raised our flag for the first time among 
these Indians, cultivated friendly relations with them, entered also into 
diplomatic relations with British traders, and the following April saw them 
ready to resume their arduous journey toward the setting sun. On the 7th 
of that month they sent the large boat back down the Missouri, bearing dis- 
patches to the president and others, which was the last word heard from 
or of the party till they returned to St. Louis in September, 1806. 

"They soon passed the mouth of the Little Missouri, and were then be- 
yond any point which white men had ever reached. The mouth of the Yel- 
lowstone was reached April 25. They went on and discovered Milk river, 
which they named from the color of the water; they passed the Musselshell; 
they reached Judith's river, which Capt. Clark named for the lady he after- 
ward married; they reached Maria's river, which Capt. Lewis named for a 
lady whom he never married; and on June 13 the roar of the Great Falls 
was first heard by Capt. Lewis, who had gone ahead of the main party. No 
white man's eye had ever rested before on these cataracts, or on the won- 
derful fountain which there bursts out of the ground with water enough to 
make a sizable river. 

"They were occupied a full month in making a portage past the falls, 
dragging their boats and baggage seventeen and three-fourths miles to the 
place where they could be launched again in smooth water. They went on 
again and named Smith's and Dearborn's rivers for the then secretary of 
the navy and of war respectively. They soon entered the stupendous chasm 
they called the Gates of the Rocky Mountains, swept past the present site 
of Montana's capital; and then Capt. Clark, who was in advance, at one 
moment discovered the three great rivers which unite to form the Missouri— 
the Jefferson, the Madison, and the Gallatin, so called from the president 
and two of his cabinet — names they bear today. With an unerring instinct, 
the explorers chose the Jefferson as the main continuation of the Missouri, 
and went up it as far as they could push or drag their boats. In passing its 
three principal branches, they named them Philosophy, Philanthropy and 
Wisdom rivers, in recognition of the three great qualities to be found in 
Jefferson; but a later age ("which knew not Joseph") changed these names 
to Willow creek, Stinking Water and Big Hole river. 

"Arrived at the end of possible navigation, the captains fortunately fell 
in with some friendly Shoshone Indians and learned something of the terri- 
ble route before them across the continental divide and through the huge nest 
of mountains in Idaho. They had "bucked against the Rockies" in about the 
worst place they could have found. They, however, went quite easily over 
the first and main divide at a point now known as Lemhi pass, which Capt. 
Lewis, first of white men, surmounted on the 12th of August. They were then 
on the Pacific water-shed, and Capt. Clark made a reconnoissance down the 
Lehmi and Salmon rivers, but found that route impracticable. The expedi- 
tion was then conducted northward over a mountain range and into the pleas- 


ant valley on the east side of the Bitter Root mountains, which they de- 
scended northward nearly to the present site of Missoula, Mont. There they 
turned west up the stream they call Traveler's Rest creek, now known as the 
Lo Lo fork, and were soon involved in the terrible mountains already men- 
tioned, where they suffered much from hunger and cold. 

"But on the 24th of September they found themselves once more on navi- 
gable waters — on the Kooskooskee or Clearwater river— at the junction of 
its north fork with the main stream. There they built boats and prepared 
for the dangerous navigation to the ocean. Down the Kooskooskee they 
came to the mouth of the Snake or Lewis river, and down this till October 
16, when they reached the Columbia itself. No foot of white man had ever be- 
fore been set on the mountains they had thus passed — no canoe of white man 
had ever cleft the Columbian current above tide-water. Sweeping on rapidly 
they reached the great falls of the Columbia; they glided through the Dalles; 
they were soon on tide-water, and on the 7th of November the Pacific ocean 
burst upon their view. 

"Hugging the north shore, and at one place barely escaping shipwreck, 
they kept on till, on the 14th of November, Capt. Lewis stood upon the shore 
of the ocean at Cape Disappointment. Then after a few days, during which 
Capt. Clark pushed explorations along the coast, the expedition ascended 
the Columbia to a place where it was narrow enough to be crossed in their 
frail boats, passed to the south side and came down to the mouth of a little 
stream they called the Netul, up which, about three miles, they found a good 
place for winter quarters. They built a fort, which they called Fort Clat- 

Prof. Elliott Coues. 

sop and prepared to pass a dismal winter. By this time they were of course 
out of provisions; but they managed to live by shooting elk, and trading 
what odds and ends they possessed with the Indians for fish and roots. 


"They had expected to find here some trading vessel, and it had been 
intended that some of the party should come home by way of Cape Horn or 
the Cape of Good Hope, perhaps.- But no vessel came that year; and so, on 
Sunday, March 23, 1806, they abandoned Fort Clatsop and set their faces to 
recross the continent. They ascended the Columbia to the falls in boats, 
and thence went on horseback to the mouth of the Walla Walla river. 
There, striking across country, they reached the Kooskooskee at the pres- 
ent site of Lewiston, Idaho. They kept up this river to near the place now 
known as Kamai, and there settled down in Camp Chopunnish on May 14 
for a month, to wait till the snow should be sufficiently melted to permit 
ihem to repass the fearful mountains by the same trail as before — what has 
since become known as the Northern Nez Perce trail. Having safely accom- 
plished this, they found themselves once more at the mouth of Travelers 
Rest creek, July 1, 1806. 

"Here it is important to remember that the expedition was divided in 
two, to proceed by different routes to the Missouri, and meet again on that 
river below the mouth of the Yellowstone. 

"Capt. Lewis took nine men and went by Missoula, up the Big Black- 
foot river, and crossed the continental divide July 7, at what has since be- 
come known as Lewis and Clark's pass — though Capt. Clark was never there. 
This brought him to the headwaters of Dearborn river, and he easily passed 
thence along Sun river to the old camp at the Great Falls of the Missouri. 
Leaving here all his men but three, Lewis started with George Drewyer and 
the two Fields brothers to explore the source of Maria's river. He went 
up this river within ten miles of the place where it issues from the Rocky 
Mountains, and thus attained by far the northernmost point ever reached 
by any member of the expedition. Soon after he started to return there oc- 
curred the only serious collision with Indians during the whole expedition. 
A party of treacherous Blackfeet who had come into camp with professions 
of peace rose up in the night to kill the four white men. The result was 
that Capt. Lewis killed one Indian. Reuben Fields killed another, and the 
Indians were whipped out of sight, leaving their horses and equipments in 
the hands of the brave whites. The fight occurred July 17, near the conflu- 
ence of Two Medicine Lodge and Badger creeks, in the vicinity of the pres- 
ent Blackfoot agency and Piegan postoffice. Capt. Lewis then beat a hasty 
retreat and by a forced march reached the Missouri at the mouth of Maria's 
liver. There to his joy he met those of his men he had left at the Great 
Falls, and some of Capt. Clark's men with them. But how the latter got 
there we must now inquire. 

"When the parties separated at the mouth of Traveler's Rest creek, 
Capt. Clark and all his men pushed up the valley of the Bitter Root river 
southward, and then turning eastward crossed the continental divide at a 
new place— that since known as Gibbon's pass, from having been c \ised by 
Gen. John Gibbon when chasing Chief Joseph in our last Nez Perce war. 
Capt. Clark was thus on the old Bitter Root and Bannock stage route. He 
made this pass July 6, came by Bannock, and July 8 was again at the place, 
at the head of navigation of the Jefferson, where the whole party had been the 
August before. He descended the Jefferson to the junction of the Madison and 
Gallatin. There he sent a sergeant and a few men to continue down the Mis- 
souri and effect a junction with the men Capt. Lewis had meanwhile left at 


the Great Falls; and it was this party which, continuing down the Missouri, so 
fortunately re-enforced Capt. Lewis at the mouth of Maria's river. 

"But Capt. Clark had his own exploration to make. This was the ex- 
ploration of the Yellowstone river. He ascended the Gallatin, passed Boze- 
nian, and on making the Bozeman pass, July 15, he soon struck the Yellow- 
stone at the present site of Livingston, Mont. In all this exploration the 
Indian woman Sacajawea, who knew the country well, was of the greatest 
possible assistance, and Capt. Clark praises her highly. He continued 
down the Yellowstone on horseback till he found cottonwood timber large 
trough for boats, built a couple and navigated the whole river down to its 
junction with the Missouri on August 3; but he did not, as some have 
thought, see anything of the Yellowstone above Livingston, nor was he or 
any member of his expedition ever in Yellowstone Park; though John 
Colter, one of the men, did enter the park and discover Yellowstone lake in 

"The two great captains had planned to meet at the mouth of the 
Yellowstone, and so well had they arranged matters that they got there 
nearly at the same time. Clark was a little ahead, however, and he kept on 
slowly a little distance, knowing that Lewis could not be far behind. And. 
in fact, the latter was soon on hand, but in a sad plight. He had been 
shot by accident by one of his men with whom he was hunting, who had 
mistaken him for an elk. The wound, which was through the hips, was 
severe and painful, though not dangerous. 

"The expedition was happily reunited on the Missouri, a little above the 
mouth of the Little Missouri. August 12, and proceeded on to the Mandans. 
They found that their fort of the first winter had been destroyed by fire. 
Here John Colter was discharged at his own request, and the interpreter. 
Chaboneau, and his wife were also discharged. An Indian chief named 
Shahaka and some other persons were taken aboard, to be carried to the 
si at of government to visit their great father, and the expedition continued 
to descend the Missouri. 

"One little known date which interests us in the present connection is 
September 4, on which day the expedition returned to Sioux City. The journal 
notes that Floyd's grave was examined on that day. It was found dis- 
turbed, as they thought, by Indians, but perhaps it was by wolves. They 
filled it up again and passed on. 

"No special incident marks the rest of the journey home. The hardy 
explorers swept rapidly down the swelling current of our mightiest river, 
and reached St. Louis in safety about noon of the 23d of September, 1806. 

"Thus was brought to a happy conclusion the most memorable expe- 
dition in the history of our country — one accomplished at the utterly insig- 
nificant expense of about $2,500, which Congress had appropriated for the 
purpose, and with the loss of but a single life — that of him whom we honor 


President Charles next introduced Prof. Butler, the aged scholar, who 
displayed the original journal of Sergeant Floyd, discovered by Mr. R. G. 
Thwaites, among the manuscripts of the State Historical Society, at Madi- 

£ H 1 9 Q /? A 4 


son, Wis. Prof. Butler's subject was "Sergeant Charles Floyd," and a synop- 
sis of his remarks is as follows: 

"What do we know about Sergeant Floyd? We know little, but we 
know enough to make us lament that we know no more— enough to believe 
him worthy of a lasting memorial — the best memorial that we can secure. 

"He enlisted in Kentucky among the choice and goodly young men 
picked out there by Capt. Clark for exploring the vast and unknown West. 
He was selected by the captain of that corps of explorers as the fittest man 
tor his second in command. These Kentuckians, joining a party under Capt. 
Lewis, started from near St. Louis May 14, 1804, on a transcontinental ex- 
pedition which no white man had ever accomplished, and which it is not 
likely that any Indian had ever undertaken. Floyd was from the first a 
sergeant among these adventurers, and on the 99th day after starting up 
the Missouri he was brought ashore near the foot of his bluff, having been 
prostrated the day previous with mortal sickness, and he died there on that 
same day, Monday, August 20, 1804, just ninety-one years ago. 

"He was buried on Floyd's Bluff, a cedar post erected to mark the spot, 
and the branch which empties into the Missouri just above was named 
in his honor Floyd's river. He was the first soldier, and probably the first 
citizen, of the United States who died in the Louisiana purchase. His toma- 
hawk, stolen on the Pacific slope, was sought out with gi-eat pains and ran- 
somed with a great price for carrying home as a memento to his friends 
in Kentucky. We have other proofs in what high estimation he was held 
by his officers and his men. The Washington records of the war office fur- 
nish a touching testimonial in his favor from Capt. Lewis. When Con- 
gress was about to give a land and money bounty to the survivors of the 
expedition, that officer urged granting to the heirs of Charles Floyd as 
many acres and dollars as fell to either of the sergeants who had served 
all the way to the western ocean and back. 

"Sergeant Floyd, amid infinite difficulties, kept a journal day by day of 
the toilsome advance up stream — a chronicle unbroken till within two days 
or" his death. We know much about that journal. We find Capt. Lewis 
describing it as "one of the best of the seven which had been kept by his 
men," and transmitting it to St. Louis in the barge which, on April 7, 1805, 
he dispatched down the Missouri from the Mandan villages. This manu- 
script was buried, as it were, in a Kentucky grave, but at length resurrected 
by Lyman C. Draper, a man beyond all men sagacious of such quarries from 
afar. When this heart's core of Floyd's life had been exhumed and borne 
safely to Wisconsin, it lay hidden for a generation in Draper's fire-proof 
at Madison. Floyd's narrative would never have been recognized but for 
its self-evidencing testimony — bearing witness to itself — that this unique 
relic, so long lost, so wide wandering, so ready to perish and so long sleep- 
ing soundly in its own sheets, accidentally caught the eye of Reuben Gold 
Thwaites, secret" .y of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, on the 3d 
of February. 1 d93. This discovery was made known to the American Anti- 
quarian S( ,.iety in Worcester, Mass., the mother and model of all similar 
institution ) in America. A request was made by that Association to James 
D. Butler, one of their members, that he would deliver an address on the 
new-found treasure trove at their next Boston meeting. On hearing the ad- 


dress the Antiquarian Society voted to print every word of the Floyd journal 
verbatim, literatim et punctuatim. 

"Brackenridge, journeying on a vessel of the American Fur Company in 
1811, speaks of the cedar post. In 1832 George Catlin was a passenger on 
the first steamer which ever ascended the great river as far as the Yellow- 
stone, and he came down the same season in a canoe with two half-breed 
oarsmen; he landed at the bluff, found the cedar intact, sat on the mound, 
plucked flowers there, wrote a page in description of the same, and from 
sketches then drawn painted a picture which was exhibited in London and 
Paris, as well as in our Atlantic States. In 1839 Nicollet, making the first 
accurate map of the Missouri, under orders from the secretary of war, 
found the monumental cedar fallen down, but, although a cyclone was im- 
pending, would not let the steamer scud for shelter till his men had set it 
upright. In 1857 the mighty river broke the banks that bind her in and 
tore in pieces this fettering bluff. When the dwellers near came hither they 
found that undermining water had caused a landslide, so that one end of 
the Floyd coffin projected from a sheer precipice, and a man lowered by a 
rope reported the skull to have fallen out. It was immediately discovered 
below, and, with the other bones, reinterred at a safe distance from the 

"You all know the rest, how all dwellers in this region who knew 
the story of Floyd have felt that in neglecting to honor Floyd they were 
themselves dishonored. 

•"You know how the sacred spot of interment through the trampling of 
horses and cattle had become indistinguishable, and how discordant on that 
matter were the opinions even of those who had assisted at the reburial. 
You remember last Decoration Day. what a gathering on the bluff, what a 
testing the earth with trowels, the discovery of the hallowed ground by its 
color and shape, the disinterment, and the organization on June 6 of this 
Floyd Memorial Association. 

"It is a great joy to me that I am permitted on this anniversary to show 
you here the autograph, yes, the autograph journal of Floyd, not a line 
erased, not a word obscured, a writing that in some particulars serves to cor- 
rect, complete or illustrate the official reports of Lewis and Clark, a work 
that will yet be reproduced in photographic fac similes by Iowa and per- 
haps Missouri as unsurpassed in antiquity by any of their literary remains 
or written chronicles. Nor can I without emotion bring again to the bones 
of its author this manuscript, so often ready to perish, or to lurk unknown 
forever, but which, after well-nigh a century of wandering, comes home to 
do him homage. Such a reunion moves our wonder like that vision of the 
prophet in the valley of dry bones when there was a shaking and the bones 
came together, each to his fellow, bone to his bone. O, that Floyd, when 
ready to perish here ninety years ago, could have forseen this day, this con- 
course, his remains so cared for. and this book which I now bring to its 
author coming back from adventures stranger than fiction! The vision 
would have sweetened even the bitterness of death. 

"What is the aim of our Association? 

' We propose to erect such a memorial over the bones we now deposit in 
God's acre that henceforth there shall be no uncertainty where they lie. A 
memorial slab already provided we today place over the dust we delight to 


honor. Its marble will naturally last longer than the cedar post, and can 
defy the pocket-knives of relic-hunting vandals. But it is nothing to what 
we expect. We view it as the first stone in a structure worthy of the hero 
who here fell, and of his endeavors stretching to Pacific shores. 

"In a small Vermont mountain town the best monument in the grave- 
yard commemorates a minister who died there very poor. Its history as told 
me was this: For a long time after the minister's death he had no grave- 
stone, but one morning a large lump of slate was observed on his grave and 
found to have been rolled there by a half-witted laughing-stock of the vil- 
lage, who had rudely inscribed it with these lines: 

'This simple stone may mark the spot 

Where our dear pastor lies, 
Till a better one shall take its place, 
Or till the dead shall rise.' 

"The fool roused the wise to their duty. Our hopes are sanguine that 
this history will be seen to repeat itself in regard to the Floyd memorial. 

"Floyd who was in the forefront of our crusaders who first bore a line 
of light into and through the thick darkness that had hitherto brooded over 
all the trans-Mississippi. It was not the will of God that he should be frost- 
bitten during the winter among the Mandans, nor share in the frequent 
famines with no food but the flesh of dogs, horses and whales, and not much 
of that, nor was he, like his survivors, worn out in the month long portage 
at the Great Falls, nor did his eyes fail through vainly watching for a sail 
to succor amid want of all things on the Pacific. 

"But he was ready and eager for all this, and even more. He is proved 
to have been so not only by his being preferred to many good men for an 
arduous position, and by his disappointing no expectation, and by his loss 
being so greatly lamented, but by the touching testimonial to his character 
from his commander, a captain as sternly just as Cato the Censor, or the 
first Brutus. Therefore, the willing mind that was in him — let it be ac- 
cepted for the deeds he would have done had not his Maker been pleased 
to cut him down in the midst of his days. I see Floyd's shadowy ghost 
among us today, rejoicing to join in our gathering for doing him honor. 
With reason does he claim a memorial in the goodly land he laid down his 
life in spying out for us. The Eschol cluster he plucked for us there I 
bring you today in his journal, a bunch of grapes that shall never decay or 

"Our memorial will have a national significance. In commemorating 
Floyd we do our best to honor the discovery of that trans-Mississippi Amer- 
ica which, world famous for the wonders and wealth of nature, is fast filling 
with millions of men, and may yet control and shape the destinies of the 

"Exploring the trans-Mississippi was in Jefferson's thoughts before the 
Revolutionary war ended. Despairing of penetrating the Spanish cordon 
from the east he sent Ledyard to Russia, hoping to enter the terra incognita 
by way of Bering straits. No half-faced fellowship in the great West could 
content him. He held that the valley of the Mississippi must remain value- 
less to us all till we became masters of its mouth. There is one spot on the 
glebe, said he, where the people must be our natural and necessary enemies, 
and that is the kingdom which holds the entrance of the Mississippi, our 


front door, our only gateway from the West to the commerce of the world. 
For that gateway he was ready to fight not only England that he hated and 
Spain to which he was indifferent, but France which he loved. 

"Spain, viewing the trans-Mississippi as a greater Mexico, would have 
made a fearful fight against us in order to retain it. Her infatuated sover- 
eign gave it away to Napoleon. That emperor, needing money more than 
a wilderness he could not defend against England, sold it to us. As soon 
as Jefferson indulged any hope of securing such an inestimable jewel he 
began preparations to prove its value. The purchase, completed April 30, 
1S03, was not known to him before the 2d of July, and three days after- 
ward his private secretary, Capt. Lewis, started from Washington, adven- 
turing to the shore washed by the fartherest sea — an exploration which, 
as Humboldt once said, revealed to the world a vaster and more valuable 
region than any other party of explorers had ever brought to light. In 
1890 more than 14,000,000 already inhabitated that wilderness, to whom and 
their children, the Floyd monument here will be a focus of historic interest. 

""The expedition in which Floyd was a martyr drew a line of light along 
the Missouri nearly to its fountainhead. It doubled the strength of our 
claim to the Pacific slope for a thousand miles further west. In subsequent 
negotiations we claimed Oregon and Washington because we were the first 
to discover the mouth of the Columbia. But the British had a counterclaim, 
for they had first ascended that river above tidewater. This claim would 
have had weight and might have cost us a war had not the comrades of 
Floyd been foremost in descending the Columbia to the ocean. 

"In honor, then, of our first soldier who died on the Missouri, one who so 
did his duty for a hundred days that we know he would have done it well 
for a thousand, as moved by shame that you have ignored and neglected 
his grave so long, as glorying in the earliest grave of trans-Mississippi 
America, that of one of our foremost pathbreakers hitherward, build ye 
for Floyd a worthy monument, an ornament to your city, seen afar on land. 

'The path of duty is the way to glory.' " 

At the conclusion of this address resolutions complimentary to both 
speakers were passed, and the audience dispersed. 

On motion the Association adjourned for one year or at the call of the 
President, the Board of Trustees, to meet in the Court House at 2 p. m. on 
August 24, to perfect its organization by the election of permanent officers, 
and transact other business. 

On the following day, August 21, the Sioux City Journal, in publishing 
the full report of the foregoing exercises, presented an editorial leader, 
which we transcribe for its intrinsic interest, and to complete the record 
of the occasion. It is as follows: 


"The reburial of the remains of Sergeant Charles Floyd, a member of 
the Lewis and Clark expedition of ninety-one years ago, conducted under 
the auspices of the Floyd Memorial Association of Sioux City, yesterday, 
was a historical event of great interest. The presence of Dr. Coues. of 
Washington, D. C, and Dr. Butler, of Madison, Wis., added vastly to the 
public interest. 


"The Louisiana purchase, under the Jefferson administration, stands as 
the most important acquisition of territory ever made by the government 
of the United States. Indeed, it may be suggested that but for this fortu- 
nate outcome with France the young republic would not have long sur- 
vived. It was the fear of England that induced Bonaparte to hastily con- 
clude the treaty by which this vast territory, exceeding in extent the territory 
wrested from the British by the revolution, became annexed to the domain of 
the United States. 

"Mr. Livingston, who represented this government, joined by Mr. Mon- 
roe, had no authority to negotiate for the territory included in the purchase. 
Communication with Washington would require at least three months, and 
the European complications were such that immediate action must be had. 
Understanding President Jefferson's views, and having confidence in his 
approval, the treaty was negotiated. The purpose Mr. Jefferson had was 
to secure the free use of the Mississippi river, particularly at New Orleans; 
but such was the attitude of England that Bonaparte felt that in order to 
keep the Louisiana territory out of the hands of the British it was the part 
of wisdom to dispose of it to the United States. 

"The purchase was made for $15,000,000. The population of the United 
States at that time numbered about 6,000,000, and the pledge of $15,000,000 
was probably equal to a pledge of more than $500,000,000 at the present 

"Mr. Blaine, in his 'Twenty Years of Congress,' speaking of the good 
fortune of the country in that matter, says: 

" 'England's acquisition of Louisiana would have proved in the high- 
est degree embarrassing, if not disastrous, to the union. At that time the 
forts of Spain, transferred to France, and thence to the United States, were 
on the east side of the Mississippi, hundreds of miles from its mouth. If 
England had seized Louisiana, as Bonaparte feared, the Floridas, cut off 
from the other colonies of Spain, would certainly have fallen into her hands 
by easy and prompt negotiations, as they did, a few years after, into the 
hands of the United States. England would thus have had her colonies 
planted on the three land sides of the union, while on her ocean side the 
formidable navy confronted the young republic. No colonial acquisition ever 
made by her on any continent has been so profitable to her commerce, and 
so strengthening to her military position, as that of Louisiana would have 
proved. This fact was clearly seen by Bonaparte when he hastily made the 
ti'eaty ceding it to the United States. That England did not at once attempt 
to seize it, in disregard of Bonaparte's cession, has been a source of sur- 
prise to many historians. The obvious reason is that she dreaded the com- 
plication of a war in America when she was about to assume so heavy a 
burden in the impending European contest. The inhabitants of the union 
in 1803 were six millions in number, of great energy and confidence. A large 
portion of them were accustomed to the sea and could send swarms of pri- 
vateers to prey on British commerce. Independent citizens would be even 
more formidable than were rebellious colonists in the earlier struggle with 
the mother country, and, acting in conjunction with France, could effectively 
maintain a contest. Considerations of this nature doubtless induced the 
Addington ministry to acquiesce quietly in a treaty whose origin and whose 


assured results were in every way distasteful, and even offensive, to the 
British government.' 

"This negotiation enabled the United States, in course of time, to settle 
territorial disputes with Spain, and enabled the government finally to ex- 
tend its borders to the Pacific ocean. It is impossible to measure the im- 
portance of the Louisiana purchase. The country then acquired forms to- 
day the States of Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, 
Minnesota west of the Mississippi river, Colorado north of the Arkansas, 
North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming and Montana. 

"The history of this transfer, and its correlatives, forms a most inter- 
esting study in our national history. The negotiation preceded the intro- 
duction of steam navigation, and the settlement of the country west of the 
Mississippi was regarded as extremely remote. Indeed, Mr. Livingston as- 
sured the French that settlements would not be made beyond the Missis- 
sippi river for one hundred years. 

"Lewis and Clark organized their expedition in 1803, starting from St. 
Louis. They were absent two years and a half. Sergeant Charles Floyd, 
one of the party, died just below Sioux City and was buried by his compan- 
ions on the bluff overlooking the Missouri river on the 20th of August, 1804. 
The Floyd river was named in honor of the dead sergeant. The body was 
moved back from the edge of the bluff by citizens of Sioux City in 1857, 
and the grave in time was obliterated. It was discovered this summer and 
the remains have now been placed in a secure casket, and in yesterday's 
ceremonies a marble slab, suitably inscribed, was placed to mark the spot 
of burial. It is the purpose of the Association to care for the grave and to 
further improve the ground. E. P. HEISER. 

Sec. 14. Proceedings of the Association After August 2 J, 1895. 

(Abstract of Minutes.) 

Court House, Sioux City, August 24, 1895. 

The Board of Trustees of the Floyd Memorial Association met at 2 p. m., 
pursuant to adjournment of August 20. 

Present: President John H. Charles, in the chair; Secretary C. R. 
Marks, Treasurer D. A. Magee, Judge Geo. W. Wakefield, Mitchell Vincent, 
Esq., of the Board; also, Dr. Elliott Coues, Hon. Geo. D. Perins, R. Buchanan, 
Jr., Arthur F. Statter, R. J. Chase, C. A. L. Olson, and Wm. Huddleson. 

The minutes of several previous minutes were read and approved. 

The election of permanent officers being in order, and the necessary 
motions having been carried, the following persons were unanimously 

President — John H. Charles, Sioux City, la. 

Vice-Presidents — 1. Judge Geo. W. Wakefield, Sioux City, la. 

2. Prof. J. D. Butler, Madison, Wis. 

3. Dr. Elliott Coues, Washington, D. C. 

4. Horace G. Burt, Omaha, Neb. 

5. Mitchell Vincent, Esq., Onawa, la. 

6. Hon. Geo. D. Perkins, Sioux City, la. 

7. Dr. S. P. Yeomans, Charles City, la. 

8. Hon. Charles Aldrich, Des Moines, la. 

9. Rev. T. M. Shanafelt, Huron, S. D. 


10. W. P. Garrison, Esq., New York, N. Y. 

11. Col. Wm. Hancock Clark, Detroit, Mich. 

12. George Murphy, Esq., Sioux City, la. 

13. Vacancy. 

14. Vacancy. 

15. Vacancy. 

Secretary — Hon. C. R. Marks, Sioux City, la. 

Treasurer — D. A. Magee, Esq., Sioux City, la. 

President Charles was desired to nominate three persons to fill the 
vacancies in the list of Vice-Presidents. The chair requested and was al- 
lowed time to consider the case. (The appointments subsequently made 

13. Col. Meriwether Lewis Clark, Louisville, Ky. 

14. Maj. John O'Fallon Clark, St. Louis, Mo. 

15. Jefferson Kearney Clark, Esq., St. Louis, Mo.) 

A letter was read from Col. Wm. Hancock Clark, of Detroit, Mich., eld- 
est grandson of the celebrated explorer, William Clark, regretting that, 
owing to misdirection, the invitation to the ceremonies of August 20 did 
not reach him in time for him to attend, and expressing his trust that the 
Association would "bring forth good fruit in so noble a cause." 

It was voted that a set of the photographs taken of the memorial cere- 
monies of August 20 be presented to Dr. Coues, Prof. Butler and Dr. Yeo- 

It was suggested to publish in book form the obsequies of August 20, 
together with such other historical and official matters as should show the 
origin, organization and proceedings of the Association, as a report for use 
in promoting the final objects in view — the erection of a Floyd monument, 
and the establishment in perpetuity of a Floyd park. The suggestion took 
the form of a motion that the chair appoint a Publication Committee for 
this purpose. This motion being carried unanimously, President Charles 
appointed thereupon the following committee: Hon. Geo. D. Perkins, chair- 
man; Dr. Elliott Coues, Mitchell Vincent, Esq., Judge Geo. W. Wakefield, and 
Secretary C. R. Marks. On further consideration of the subject, Dr. Coues 
was requested to prepare the report for the press, in consultation with 
Chairman Perkins. 

The By-Laws for the government of the Association, having been 
drafted, were read, and on motion unanimously adopted, as follows: 


Section 1. The Board of Trustees shall meet annually on the Saturday 
following its election at 2 o'clock p. m., and shall also hold regular meetings 
on the last Saturday of January, April, July and October at 2 o'clock p. m. 
Special meetings may be called at any time by the President, or in his ab- 
sence from Sioux City by a Vice-President, notice of such special meeting 
to be given each Trustee personally or by written or printed notice mailed 
to each Trustee at least twenty-four hours before the time of such special 
meeting. A majority of the Trustees shall constitute a quorum. 

Section 2. Special meetings of the members may be called by the Board 
of Trustees, notice of such special meeting to be given by one publication 
in a newspaper published in Sioux City on the day prior to such meeting. 


Section 3. In addition to the officers provided for by the Articles of In- 
corporation there shall be appointed by the President annually the following 
standing committees of five members each: On finance, on grounds, on leg- 

Section 4. These By-Laws may be added to, altered, modified or amended 
at any meeting of the Board of Trustees, provided that a majority of the 
Trustees vote in favor thereof. 

The appointment of standing committees by the chair being in order, 
President Charles said that he desired time to consider this important mat- 
ter, and would therefore defer the appointments for a few days, when he 
would communicate them by letter to Secretary Marks. 

There being no further business, the Board adjourned sine die. 

The following standing committees were appointed by President Charles, 
per letter to Secretary Marks, dated Sioux City, September 11, 1895: 

Committee on Finance— 1. E. W. Skinner, Chairman, Sioux City. 

2. James F. Toy, Sioux City. 

3. Wm. H. Beck, Sioux City. 

4. A. M. Jackson, Sioux City. 

5. T. A. Black, Sioux City. 

6. Geo. M. Pardoe, Sioux City. 

7. Robert Buchanan, Jr., Sioux City. 
Committee on Legislation— 1. Geo. W. Wakefield, Chairman, Sioux City. 

2. Geo. D. Perkins, Sioux City. 

3. J. S. Lothrop, Sioux City. 

4. C. H. Lewis, Sioux City. 

5. Charles Aldrich, Des Moines. 
Committee on Grounds — 1. C. R. Marks, Chairman, Sioux City. 

2. John P. Allison, Sioux City. 

3. George Murphy, Sioux City. 

4. Mitchell Vincent, Onawa. 

5. A. M. Holman. Sergeant luffs. 

(Abstract of Minutes.*) 

Court House, Sioux City, December 28, 1895. 

The Board of Trustees of the Floyd Memorial Association met at 3 p. m., 
pursuant to call of the President. Present: John H. Charles, in the chair; 
Geo. D. Perkins, Geo. W. Wakefield, Mitchell Vincent, Whitfield Stinson, 
E. W. Skinner, Robert Buchanan, Jr., and Secretary C. R. Marks. 

The chair stated that the meeting had been called to consider the reports 
of the Publication Committee, and of the Committee on Grounds, and to 
transact other business. 

Hon. Geo. D. Perkius, chairman of tin' Publication Committee, made a 
report of progress in the preparation of the proposed report. He had con- 
ferred with Dr. Coues, in Washington, D. C, who had informed him that 
the report was practically completed, and would be transmitted to the 
committee in a few days. 

Hon. C. R. Marks, chairman of the Committee on Grounds, reported that 
nothing had been done toward purchasing the ground for the desired park, 
and he had no figures to submit from the owners of the property. Mr. 

n sub;tan;e as reported in the Sioux City Journal of December 29, 1895. 


Marks and Judge Wakefield were requested to call upon the Credits Com- 
mutation Company, to ascertain definitely upon what terms the land could 
be purchased. Three propositions were to be made: (1) Asking a donation 
of a small piece of ground about the grave. (2) Offering to buy 2iy 2 acres 
at a certain price. (3) Offering to buy the 2iy 2 acres, conditional upon a 
rebate by the owners upon the making of certain improvements by the Asso- 

An interesting letter, addressed to Dr. Coues by Reuben T. Durrett, 
LL. D., of Louisville, Ky., President of the Filson Club, and transmitted 
to Judge Wakefield for any use he might wish to make of the information 
it contained, was read to the Board. It related to the parentage and early 
life of Sergeant Floyd, as presented in the opening pages of the present re- 

Other letters were also read; and there being no further business, the 
Board adjourned. 



Floyd Memorial 

iA <A 4* 4\ 







r / 


Sergeant Charles Floyd 



Flovd Memorial Association 


Committee on Publication 


PERKINS BROS. <>^~.? g Sfe t ' CO.. PRINTERS 

-1 i • 




Sioux City, Iowa, Sept., 1901. 
John H. Charles, 

President Floyd Memorial Association, 
Sioux City, Iowa. 
Sir: We take pleasure in transmitting herewith the 
second report of the Floyd Memorial Association, prepared 
for publication. 

We have set forth in this report a brief abstract of the 
first, and then proceeded with a full account of the subse- 
quent work of the Association, the ceremonial of laving the 
corner stone, and the dedication of the completed structure. 
We congratulate you upon the success which has attended 
the hopes and labors of the Association, a success which has 
only been made possible through your earnest leadership. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Geo. D. Perkins, 
John C. Kelly, 
E. W. Caldwell, 
Mrs. Francis N. Davis, 
Geo. W. Wakefield, 

Committee on Publication. 



PART I .—Abstract of First Report 7- 8 

I. Charles Floyd ; 7 

II. Reburial in 1857 8 

III. Floyd Memorial Association 8 

PART II. — Proceedings and Laying of Corner Stone 11- 40 

IV. Proceedings Before Aug. 20, 1900 11-20 

V. Appropriation by Congress 20- 22 

VI. Iowa Legislature 22- 24 

VII. Floyd Park and Title 24-30 

VIII. Plans for Monument 30-36 

IX. Laying the Foundation 36-38 

X. Laying the Corner Stone ... 38- 46 

PART III. — Proceedings and Dedication of Monument 47-1 <»."> 

XL Proceedings Prior to May 30. 1901 47-59 

XII. Dedication of Monument 59- 93 

XIII . Proceedings After May 31, 1901 94-100 

XIV. Floyd-Further Data 100-104 

XV. Honorable Mention 104-105 


.John H. Charles Frontispiece 

Captain H. M. Chittenden Facing page 30 

Floyd Monument Facing page 48 

Captain Meriwether Lewis Facing page 70 

Captain William Clark Facing page 82 





Floyd Memorial 





The Floyds were early pioneers in Kentucky, and no doubt Charles 
Floyd was born about 1780-85 in present Jefferson County. Captain 
Lewis reported that his father lived in Kentucky. Lewis and Clark 
enlisted nine young men from Kentucky, one of whom was Charles 
Floyd, and who was appointed a sergeant in the command that was 
to explore the Louisiana Purchase. The expedition left Wood River, 
111., at 4 p. m., Monday. May 14. 1804. Floyd kept a journal from this 
time until two days before his death, which has been preserved and 
published. He died a few miles below the site of Sioux City August 20, 
1804, from "bilious colic," and was buried on the first high bluff 
reached after his death, and the place marked by a cedar post. He did 
his duty faithfully and ably. His grave was visited by all the early 
navigators and explorers, and this bluff, his grave and the cedar post, 
became a noted landmark. He was the only man who lost his life 
in the enterprise. 

8 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 



The grave of Charles Floyd was on a bluff situated in Lot 8, Section 
1, Township 88, Range 48, in Woodbury County, Iowa. After the settle- 
ment at Sioux City, in the spring of 1857, it was found that the erosion 
of the Missouri was about to carry away the grave and remains. A 
committee of citizens secured a portion of the latter for reinterment. 
On May 28, 1857, the remains so recovered were reburied with appro- 
priate patriotic and religious ceremonies on the same bluff, some 600 
feet east of the site of the first grave. It was proposed to erect a suit- 
able monument, and although generally favored, the times were not 
propitious and the proposal rested. 


In the spring of 1895 some of the older settlers, searching for the 
place of reburial, found that the external means of identification had 
been obliterated by the frequent feet that follow civilization. On 
Memorial Day a party of citizens, following directions of Mr. George 
Murphy, and pursuing tests of surface earth suggested by Mr. C. R. 
Marks, discovered the grave of reburial. 

On June 6, 1895, the grave so discovered was opened in presence of 
nineteen persons, and it was found to contain the remains deposited in 
1857. The persons present then effected the preliminary organization 
of the Floyd Memorial Association, and took charge of the grave and 
contents. The immediate purpose of the Association was to place a 
memorial stone over the grave until a suitable monument could be 
erected. This purpose was promptly carried out, and on August 20, 
1895, in the presence of many witnesses, the remains placed in urns 
were deposited in the grave and a large stone slab duly inscribed laid 
flat upon the ground above them. A number of appropriate addresses 
were delivered. In the evening of that day articles of incorporation 
were duly adopted, stating the object of the Association to be "to com- 
memorate the death and burial of Sergeant Charles Floyd and the 
Lewis and Clark Expedition, of which Sergeant Floyd was a member, 
and for that purpose to acquire and hold necessary real estate and 
other property, to erect a monument and establish and maintain a 
public park." The corporation so formed embraced in its member- 
ship those signing and all who had or should thereafter contribute to 
its support. The organization was perfected, and the first report, in- 
cluding the proceedings in 1895, was prepared by Dr. Elliott Coues, of 
Washington, D. C. This report was published and largely distributed 
in 1897 to awaken interest in the objects of the Association. 







Abstract of Minutes. 

Sioux City. Iowa, January 25, 1896. 

The Board of Trustees of the Floyd Memorial Association met; John 
H. Charles in the chair, and M. Vincent. D. A. Magee, E. W. Skinner, 
A. M. Holman, G. J. Ross, R. Buchanan and C. R. Marks, Secretary, 

The Committee on Grounds reported that the ground on which 
Sergeant Floyd's grave is located belongs to the Credits Commutation 
Company and is incumbered by mortgage with other property; that the 
Company would donate one acre, including the site of the grave, and 
would sell about fifty acres at $100 per acre, and would donate any 
sum up to $50 per acre that the Association would expend in improving 
such grounds as a park. The Trustees voted to make the Company an 
offer of $500 for such ground and to expend $1,000 in improvements 
within two years. 

The plaster cast of Sergeant Floyd's skull, made by Dr. G. J. Ross, 
was exhibited, and it was voted to have two more casts made, one to 
be presented to Dr. Elliott Coues and the other to the State Historical 

Sioux City. Iowa, January 30, 1897. 

Board met; John H. Charles in the chair; C. R. Marks, Secretary; 
Geo. W. Wakefield, M. Vincent, W. Stinson and R. Buchanan present. 

Sioux City, Iowa, August 20, 1897. 

Annual meeting of the members of the Association; John H. Charles 
presiding; C. R. Marks. Secretary; J. A. Magoun, Jr.: C. A. L. Olson, 
A. M. Holman, M. Vincent, Maris Peirce. Geo. D. Perkins, R. Buchanan 
and Eri Richardson present. The following named persons were 
elected Trustees for the ensuing year, viz: 

John H. Charles, Geo. D. Perkins. Geo. W. Wakefield. Maris Peirce. 
C. R. Marks, Mitchell Vincent and A. M. Holman. 

The annual meeting adjourned and the new Board met at once 
and organized. 

The Committee on Grounds reported that the Credits Commutation 
Company, representing the owner, gave permission to the Association 

12 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

to fence one acre, including site of Floyd's grave, and to plant same to 
trees. It was thereupon voted to fence the same and set trees thereon. 

It was also voted to publish an edition of 1,000 copies of the report 
of the Floyd Memorial Association, prepared by Dr. Elliott Coues, in 
memoriam Sergeant Charles Floyd. 

The following officers and standing committees were named for the 
ensuing year, viz: 

John H. Charles, President; C. R. Marks, Secretary; D. A. Magee, 
Treasurer; Geo. W. Wakefield, First Vice President; and other Vice 
Presidents, Dr. Elliott Coues, Prof. James Davie Butler, H. G. Burt, 
M. Vincent, Dr. S. P. Yeomans. Charles Aldrich, T. M. Shanafelt, W. P. 
Garrison, Wm. Hancock Clark, Jefferson Kearney Clark, M. Lewis 
Clark, John O'Fallon Clark, R. C. A. Flournoy and L. Bates. 

Committee on Legislation— Geo. W. Wakefield, Geo. D. Perkins, 
J. S. Lothrop, C. H. Lewis and Charles Aldrich. 

Committee on Finance — Maris Peirce, James F. Toy, W. H.->Beck, 
R. C. A. Flournoy and G. M. Pardoe. 

Committee on Grounds C. R. Marks, Jno. P. Allison, M. Vincent, 
A. M. Holman and Geo. D. Perkins. 

Sioux City, Iowa, January 29, 1898. 

The Board met; John H. Charles in the chair; C. R. Marks, Secre- 
tary; Maris Peirce, M. Vincent, E. R. Kirk, A. F. Statter, A. Groninger, 
G. M. Pardoe, D. A. Magee, O. C. Tredway, C. A. Benton and Mrs. 
Francis N. Davis present. 

The committee reported the publication in pamphlet of the me- 
morial report prepared by Dr. Elliott Coues at a cost of $75, which had 
been kindly advanced by the President, John H. Charles. 

It was voted that John H. Charles, M. Vincent, F. C. Hills and 
Maris Peirce procure plans for a monument and report estimated cost 
at a future meeting. 

The Committee on Legislation was directed to take steps to secure 
an appropriation from Congress and the State Legislature for building 
a monument over Floyd's grave. 

Sioux City, Iowa, August 20, 1898. 

Annual meeting of the members; John H. Charles in the chair; 
Geo. W. Wakefield, Acting Secretary; D. A. Magee. G. M. Pardoe, Mrs. 
Francis N. Davis, Miss Bertha Wakefield, C. A. L. Olson, J. Amerland, 
Dr. Grant J. Ross. J. A. Magoun, Jr.. W. C. Davenport, M. B. Davis. 
J. D. Hoskins, A. F. Statter, Geo. D. Perkins and Mitchell Vincent 

The following persons were elected Trustees for the ensuing year, 
viz: John H. Charles, Geo. W. Wakefield, Mitchell Vincent. A. M. Hol- 
man, Mrs. Francis N. Davis, M. B. Davis and D. A. Magee. 

The special Committee on Grounds and Plans reported that the 
ground was fenced and trees planted, and that a monument upon a 
plan presented would cost from $6,000 to $10,000, varying with the 
material that might be used, and the report was referred to the new 
Board of Trustees. 

Abstract of Minutes 13 

Upon adjournment of annual meeting the new Board met and or- 
ganized. Mrs. Francis N. Davis was elected Secretary, and the other 
officers and members of standing committees were re-elected for the 
ensuing year. 

Sioux City, Iowa, January 28, 1899. 

The Trustees met in the rooms of the Scientific Association; John 
H. Charles in the chair; Mrs. Francis N. Davis, Secretary; D. A. Magee, 
Geo. M. Pardoe, Geo. W. Wakefield, C. R. Marks, Mitchell Vincent and 
A. M. Holman present. 

The Committee on Legislation reported a bill had been introduced 
in Congress for an appropriation of $10,000 to aid in the erection of 
a monument over Floyd's grave and Hon. Geo. D. Perkins was making 
every effort to secure its passage. 

The Committee on Grounds reported a proposition from the Sioux 
City Stock Yards Company to sell 22% acres surrounding Floyd's grave 
for $1,000, and the Company would give the Association $100 for every 
$10,000 expended by the Association within ten years. It was on mo- 
tion voted that the President, John H. Charles, be authorized to accept 
the proposition. 

D. A. Magee, C. R. Marks and G. M. Pardoe were appointed to re- 
quest an appropriation of $500 from the City Council and also from the 
Board of Supervisors for the purchase of grounds. 

Dr. Elliott Coues, M. Vincent, Geo. W. Wakefield, A. M. Holman 
and Mrs. Francis N. Davis were appointed Committee on Monument. 

Sioux City, Iowa, March 25, 1899. 

The Board met in special session; President John H. Charles in the 
chair; Mrs. Davis, Messrs. Pardoe, Peirce, Vincent, Davis, Holman, 
Wakefield and Statter present. 

The Committee on Grounds reported that the Sioux City Stock 
Yards Company had agreed to furnish deed with an accurate survey 
and description of land by metes and bounds. 

Mr. Charles reported a gift of $100 from Mr. P. B. Weare, of Chi- 
cago, toward the fund. 

The following resolution was adopted: 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Floyd Memorial Association be 
hereby extended to the Hon. Geo. D. Perkins for his efficient services 
in procuring an appropriation from Congress to aid in the erection of 
a monument to the memory of Sergeant Charles Floyd. 

Sioux City, Iowa, April 30. 1899. 

Board met; Geo. W. Wakefield in the chair; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; 
Messrs. Magee, Davis, Perkins, Marks and Statter present; also Captain 
Sanford and Mr. Wood, of the government service. 

Captain Sanford read a communication from the Chief of the Corps 
of U. S. Engineers, directing him to confer with the Association in the 
matter of the monument, and presented two plans of different sized 
obelisks, one to cost $7,000 and the other $13,000— whether the govern- 
ment would require a deed of the site. 

Mr. Charles being absent, adjourned to May 5. 

14- Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

Sioux City, Iowa, May 5, 1899. 

Board met; John H. Charles in the chair; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; 
Mrs. Charles, Miss Wakefield. Messrs. Perkins, Marks and Wakefield 

Upon motion of C. R. Marks it was unanimously voted that one 
acre of ground, including the remains of Sergeant Floyd and the monu- 
ment thereon, be deeded to the United States Government. 

Committees reported that deed for the land had been delivered to 
Mr. F. L. Eaton for execution, and that the Board of Supervisors had 
refused to make donation toward the monument. 

Portus B. Weare, of Chicago, was chosen Vice President, vice M. 
Lewis Clark, deceased; and Frank H. Peavey was elected Honorary 
Vice President. 

The plans were discussed. 

Sioux City, Iowa, July 29, 1899. 

The Board met in special session; John H. Charles in the chair; 
Mrs. Davis. Secretary; Mrs. Charles, Messrs. Perkins, Davis, Amerland, 
Peirce. Cody, Magee, Wakefield, Belden and Davenport present. 

The object of the meeting was to secure money to pay for the land 

Mr. Charles proposed in case $500 should be raised by August 19 
he would guarantee the remaining $500 would be forthcoming. 

The proposition was accepted, and Messrs. Davis, Amerland, Wake- 
field and Davenport were added to the committee to present matter to 
City Council and Board of Supervisors. 

Monumental designs by the American Sculptors' Association were 

It was voted that the purchase of the land be made first and the 
improvements be decided upon later. 

Sioux City, Iowa, August 21, 1899. 

The annual meeting of members was held at the Court House; 
John H. Charles in the chair; Mrs. Charles, Mrs. Greenwood, Messrs. 
Peirce, F. C. Hills. Statter, Pardoe, A. M. Holman. Amerland. Perkins. 
Marks, Magee, Davis and Vincent present. 

The following named persons were duly elected Trustees for the 
ensuing year, viz.: 

John H. Charles, Geo. D. Perkins, C. R. Marks, Mitchell Vincent, 
M. B. Davis, A. M. Holman and D. A. Magee. 

The plans prepared under direction of Captain J. C. Sanford were 
presented by Mr. Bathurst Smith, Assistant U. S. Engineer. 

The following resolution, presented by C. R. Marks, on motion of 
Maris Peirce, was adopted: 

Resolved, By the members of the Floyd Memorial Association, in 
annual meeting assembled, That the action of the Board of Trustees 
in negotiating for the purchase of so much of Lot 8, in Section 1, 
Township 88 north. Range 48 west, of the 5th principal meridian, as lies 
west of the Sergeant Bluffs and Sioux City Road and east of a line 
drawn parallel to and one hundred feet distant from the east line 

Abstract o( Minutes 15 

of the right of way of the Sioux City and Pacific Railroad, for the sum 
of $1,000. be and the same is hereby approved, and payment be made 
out of any money of the Association; that the proposition made by said 
Trustees to convey one acre of said tract so contracted for, including 
the site of the grave of Sergeant Charles Floyd, to the United States on 
which to expend the appropriation byCongress of $5,000, be and the same 
is hereby approved; and the Board of Trustees is hereby directed to sur- 
vey and cause to be conveyed to the United States one acre of ground 
accordingly for said purpose, and substantially as heretofore laid out 
and fenced oy the Association; that the proposition made by said Board 
to the City of Sioux City, to convey the remainder of said tract to 
the said City for a public park, in consideration of the sum of $500 to 
be paid therefor by the said City, which has been accepted by the said 
City, be and the same is hereby approved and confirmed, and the Board 
of Trustees is hereby directed to carry out said proposition and cause 
the remainder of said tract to be conveyed to the City of Sioux City 
for a public park accordingly; that the proposition of John H. Charles 
to buy Lot 11, Block 9, in Smith's Walnut Hill Villa Addition to Sioux 
City, for the sum of $250 be and the same is hereby accepted and ap- 
proved, and the Board of Trustees is hereby directed to make sale of 
said lot and cause deed thereof to be made accordingly; that the Asso- 
ciation co-operate with the United States in the erection of the monu- 
ment at the grave of Sergeant Charles Floyd and with the City of Sioux 
City in improving the said park. 

President Charles expressed his desire to have the foundation of 
the monument laid this year; the shaft seventy-five feet in height, of 
Sioux Falls quartzite, in place next year, and ready for dedication on 
August 20th, 1900. 

Mr. Perkins moved that the Association approve Mr. Charles' sug- 
gestion and that they will use all efforts to carry them out. Carried. 

The Trustees were authorized to meet for organization August 26. 

Sioux City, Iowa, August 26, 1899. 

The Trustees met at the office of C. R. Marks; John H. Charles 

The following officers and committees were elected and appointed 
for the ensuing year: 

John H. Charles, President: D. A. Magee, Treasurer; Mrs. Francis 
N. Davis, Secretary; Geo. D. Perkins, First Vice President: other Vice 
Presidents, Geo. W. Wakefield. Dr. Elliott Coues. Washington, D. C; 
Charles Aldrich, Des Moines. la.: H. G. Burt, Omaha, Neb.; Jas. Davie 
Butler, Madison, Wis.; H. D. Clark, New Haven, Conn.; Geo. Weare: 
T. C. Powers, Helena. Mont.; P. B. Weare, Chicago, 111.; Jos. N. Field. 
Manchester, Eng.; W. P. Garrison. New York; R. C. A. Flournoy; W. 
Hancock Clark, Detroit, Mich.; Leslie M. Shaw, Des Moines. la. 

Finance Committee — Maris Peirce, M. B. Davis, W. C. Davenport. 
G. M. Pardoe, D. A. Magee. 

Committee on Legislation— Geo. W. Wakefield, Geo. D. Perkins. 
Charles Aldrich. Lot Thomas. 

Committee on Grounds— Mitchell Vincent, C. R. Marks. A. M. Hol- 
man, J. M. Lewis. Milton Perry Smith. 

Committee on Monument — Geo. D. Perkins, Geo. W. Wakefield. 
Mitchell Vincent. Jno. H. Charles and M. B. Davis. 

16 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

Committee on Inscription — Dr. Elliott Coues, Geo. W. Wakefield 
and Mitchell Vincent. 

The following resolutions, on motion of C. R. Marks, were adopted: 

1. Resolved, That the Floyd Memorial Association purchase from 
the Sioux City Stock Yards Company the following tract, in the City 
of Sioux City, County of Woodbury, to-wit: So much of Lot 8. in Sec- 
tion 1, Township 88 north, Range 48, west of the 5th principal meridian, 
as lies west of the Sioux City and Sergeant Bluffs Road and east of a 
line drawn parallel to and 100 feet distant from the east line of the 
right of way of the Sioux City and Pacific Railroad, for the sum of 
$1,000, taking the conveyance in the name of the Association; and that 
any funds now in the hands of the Association, or hereafter coming 
into its hands, be appropriated for that purpose, said tract to be sur- 
veyed and properly and sufficiently described. 

2. Resolved, That this Association sell and convey to the City of 
Sioux City for park purposes for the consideration of $500, all the 
tract voted to be purchased of the Sioux City Stock Yards Company, 
excepting one acre reserved where is now fenced including the grave 
of Sergeant Charles Floyd; and that the President and Secretary are 
hereby authorized to make the proper and necessary conveyance of the 
same by proper description. 

3. Resolved, That upon procuring title from the Sioux City Stock 
Yards Company to the whole tract of about twenty-one acres, including 
the grave of Sergeant Charles Floyd, that this Association convey to 
the United States one acre of said ground, including the grave of Ser- 
geant Charles Floyd, as now fenced, for the purpose of erecting a monu- 
ment thereon to the memory of Sergeant Floyd under the appropriation 
of $5,000 made by Congress; and that the same be procured to be sur- 
veyed by the City Engineer of Sioux City, Iowa, so as to obtain an 
accurate description; and that the President and Secretary are hereby 
authorized to execute a proper deed for that purpose. 

Resolved, That this Association sell and convey to Jennie T. 
Charles, for the consideration of $250, Lot 11, Block 9. in Smith's Wal- 
nut Hill Villa Addition to Sioux City, and that the President and Sec- 
retary be and are hereby authorized and directed to execute the proper 
and necessary conveyance therefor; and that the net proceeds of said 
sale, over and above the sum paid for taxes thereon be appropriated 
for the purpose of aiding in the erection of a monument at the grave of 
Sergeant Charles Floyd. 

Sioux City, Iowa, January 27, 1900. 

The Association met; President Charles in the chair; Mrs. Davis 
Secretary; Mrs. Charles, Messrs. Perkins, A. M. Holman, Pardoe, Vin- 
cent, Marks and Magee present. 

The object of the meeting was to secure an appropriation from the 
State of Iowa toward the erection of the monument, and communica- 
tion with Senator E. H. Hubbard was directed. 

Mr. Perkins made offer of resolutions as follows: 

Mr. President: Since the last meeting of this Association has 
occurred the death of Dr. Elliott Coues. We all remember with rare 
pleasure his visit to Sioux City in 1895. At that time the organization 
of this Association was perfected. Dr. Coues was one of its incorpo- 
rators and became one of its Vice Presidents. The report made up to 
that time, including all that is known of Floyd's antecedents, life and 
death, accounts of his reburial in 1857, together with a full account of 

Abstract of Minutes 17 

the origin, organization and proceedings of this Association, up to and 
including the memorial exercises of August 20, 1895, was the generou 
work of his hand. 

Therefore, Mr. President, I beg to submit the following resolutions, 
and I move the adoption of the same and that they be ordered placed 
on the record: 

Resolved, That this Association has heard with profound regret 
of the death on Christmas Day, 1899, of Dr. Elliott Coues, a memii-r 
and an officer of this Association. 

Resolved, That in the death of Dr. Coues this Association has lost 
its most distinguished member, whose research and ripe knowledge 
piaced in enduring form the history of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 
in which Sergeant Floyd lost his life. 

Resolved, That in the death of Dr. Coues the country has lost a 
scientist of wide and deserved power, whose contributions to scientific 
literature will preserve his name in the history of our time. 

The resolutions were unanimously carried, and President Charles 
directed that a copy be sent to the family of Dr. Coues. 

A communication from Captain H. M. Chittenden was read, giving 
directions as to form of title winch would be acceptable to the United 
States, and thereupon Mr. Marks offered the following resolution, which 
was unanimously carried: 

Resolved, That this Association tender to the United States the 
acre of ground owned by the Association and the right of way thereto, 
where Floyd's grave is situated, for the purpose of erecting a monument 
thereon under the appropriation of Congress, and that the President 
and Secretary are hereby authorized and directed to'make such written 
offer and to execute the necessary deeds therefor. 

Resolved. Tha,t the proper steps be taken to procure any necessary 
act of the Iowa Legislature ceding title to such land to the United 

Captain Chittenden submitted designs for monument varying in 
cost from $15,000 to $17,000, depending upon material selected. 

Sioux City, Iowa, April 7, 1900. 

Association met at office of United States Engineers, called by 
President Charles to decide upon materials and plans. 

Captain H. M. Chittenden presented an extended report as to 
materials and cost of monument. 

The report was referred to a special committee consisting of John 
H. Charles, Mitchell Vincent and Geo. D. Perkins, said committee, in 
connection wuh Captain Chittenden, to determine and select the style 
and design of monument, to select the stone to be used in construction 
of the same, and to award contract for said stone. 

A request that the City surround the grounds with a suitable fence 
was made to Mayor Burton. 

April 25. 1900, names were suggested for the State Commission of 
five to expend the appropriation of $5,000 by the State of Iowa. 

18 Report of Flovd Memorial Association 

Sioux City, Iowa, May 5, 1900. 

The Association met; John H. Charles in the chair; Mrs. Davis, 
Secretary; Messrs. Marks, Perkins, C. J. Holman, Burton, Peirce and 
Captain Chittenden. 

The following resolution offered by Mr. Marks was unanimously 
adopted : 

Resolved, That Captain H. M. Chittenden be appointed as engineer 
to execute that portion of the work of erecting the Floyd monument 
which is to be done under the State appropriation of $5,000, act of 
April 7, 1900, and that he be authorized to make the necessary purchases 
of materials and services and enter into the necessary contracts for 
this purpose. 

Captain Chittenden presented programme for work upon the 
foundation, which with the plans were referred to the Executive Com- 
mittee, and after consideration that committee reported the following: 

That the plans for the proposed monument as presented by Captain 
Chittenden be accepted as far as relates to the foundation and the 
general design of the superstructure; that Captain Chittenden, engineer 
in charge of Floyd Monument, be and he is hereby authorized and 
directed to advertise for and make contracts and purchases for the 
following work, viz: Sand, broken stone or gravel and cement for 
concrete of foundation, and to incur such other expense as is necessary 
for the construction of the foundation; that he be authorized to adver- 
tise for proposals for the necessary stone for the erection of the 

On motion of Mr. Marks the report was unanimously adopted by 
the Association. 

May 9, 1900, Executive Committee met and approved plan for super- 
structure, specifications for stone for the shaft, and letter to railroads 
in regard to transportation presented by Captain Chittenden. 

Sioux City, Iowa, May 31, 1900. 

Association met at office of U. S. Engineers; President Charles in 
the chair; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; Mrs. Charles. Messrs. Magee, Davis, 
Peirce, C. J. Holman, Burton, Statter, Powers, Bates, Vincent, Perkins, 
Marks and Captain Chittenden present. 

Captain Chittenden reported that on Tuesday, May 29, the founda- 
tion was completed, except cleaning up of debris, and the cost would 
approximate $1,500, and that he had received eight bids for stone, which 
he submitted. 

After discussion final decision was postponed. 

On motion of Mr. Marks it was voted that the remains of Sergeant 
Floyd be placed upon the present concrete base and inside the first 

course of the shaft. 

A letter from Hon. Lot Thomas was read, stating that "cannon 
captured in the Spanish War have been apportioned out among the 
States, subject to the disposal of the Governors thereof, and the Gov- 
ernment has none of them left on hand for distribution," and that the 
Government still has on hand a large number of heavy cast-off ordnance 

Abstract oi Minutes 19 

which might be obtained, and if any one desired he would be pleased to 
serve the Association in any way possible in relation thereto. 

Sioux City, Iowa, June 23, 1900. 
Association met at office of U. S. Engineers; President Charles in 
the chair; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; Mrs. Charles, Messrs. C. J. Holman, 
Dr. J. Perrin Johnson, Marks, Burton, Davis, A. M. Holman, Wakefield. 
Peirce, T. J. Stone, Vincent, Magee and Captain H. M. Chittenden 

The bids for stone were presented with specimens, and the follow- 
ing gentlemen were heard separately in behalf of their respective com- 
panies: Mr. Hale, for the Kettle River Quarry; Mr. Field, for the Rut- 
land, Vt., Quarry: Mr. Burke, for the Fall River, S. D., Quarry, and 
Mr. Bowers, for the Black Hills Quarry at Custer, S. D. 

After a full consideration it was voted to select stone for the monu- 
ment at a price within the appropriations, and upon a ballot taken 
the Kettle River sandstone was selected by a vote of nine to four. 

A committee to draft suitable inscription on tablets for the monu- 
ment was appointed, consisting of John H. Charles, Mrs. Francis N. 
Davis, Mitchell Vincent. Geo. D. Perkins and Geo. W. Wakefield. 

Sioux City, Iowa, July 14, 1900. 

Association met at Scientific Association rooms; John H. Charles 
in the chair; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; Mrs. Charles, Miss Bertha Wake- 
field, Messrs. Marks, Vincent, Magee, Davis. C. J. Holman, Burton, 
Wakefield and Pardoe present. 

It was resolved that the ceremonies of laying the corner 'stone 
of the Floyd Monument be held if possible on August 20, 1900. and that 
a committee of five be appointed by the President, of which he shall 
be one, who shall have full power to make all arrangements for the 
occasion, and to fix some other date, should the exigencies of the occa- 
sion so require; and that it is the sense of this meeting that the exer- 
cises be in part of a military character, such committee to have power 
to appoint sub-committees. 

The following were named: C. R. Marks, M. B. Davis, A. H. Bur- 
ton, Geo. W. Wakefield and John H. Charles. 

Sioux City, Iowa, July 28, 1900. 
Association met at the rooms of Scientific Association; John H. 
Charles presiding; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; Messrs. Wakefield, Davis, 
A. M. Holman, Vincent and Burton present. 

Committee on Inscription was empowered, from suggested inscrip- 
tions, to compile and adopt the inscriptions to be placed upon bronze 

Report of Committee of Arrangements and Plans for reburial of 
remains in base of monument and box and contents to be placed in 
corner stone approved. 

20 . Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

Sioux City, Iowa, August 18, 1900. 

Association met at office of U. S. Engineers; President Charles in 
the chair; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; Captain H. M. Chittenden, Messrs. 
Burton, Marks, Perkins, Davis and Kean present. 

The Committee on Arrangements reported all plans for laying the 
corner stone August 20 were perfected, and the report was approved. 

Captain Chittenden reported that he had visited quarry and in- 
spected the stone to be used, the quality of which perfectly satisfied him 
and would be shipped as needed. He suggested that the bronze tablets 
be placed on the east and the west faces of the monument, and that 
$600 be placed in bank to cover any possible deficiency in appropriation 
on account of cost of tablets, to which President Charles assented. 

The specifications for bronze tablets, as offered by Captain Chitten- 
den, were approved. 



The Committee on Legislation, appointed August 20, 1898, prepared 
a bill for an appropriation, and the same was introduced by Hon. Geo. 
D. Perkins, member of Congress for the Eleventh District of Iowa in the 
House of Representatives. December 15, 1898, numbered K. R. 11,181, 
referred to the Committee on the Library and ordered to be printed. 
The following is a copy of the bill so introduced: 

A BILL for an Act to Provide for the Erection of a Memorial to Ser- 
geant Charles Floyd: 

Be It Enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress Assembled. That the Secretary 
of War be and he is hereby authorized and directed, in co-operation 
with the Floyd Memorial Association, to cause to be erected over the 
remains of Sergeant Charles Floyd, a member of the celebrated Lewis 
and Clark Expedition, who died and was buried August' 20, 1804, near 
the present site of Sioux City, a fitting monument commemorative of 
that expedition and of the first soldier to lay down his life within 
the Louisiana Purchase; and that for the cost and., expense of erecting 
said monument the sum of $10,000, or so much thereof as may be neces- 
sary, be and the same is hereby appropriated out of any money in the 
treasury not otherwise appropriated. 

January 9, 1899, the committee mailed to Mr. Perkins a condensed 
statement of the known facts concerning Sergeant Charles Floyd and 
the organization and objects of the Association, which was received by 
him on the 13th. Mr. Perkins at once sent a copy of the same to each 
member of the Committee on Library, with a personal letter urging 
the appropriation. 

February 7, 1899, Mr. Harmer, from the Committee on the Library, 
submitted the following report upon the bill, being report No. 2022, viz.: 

The Committee on the Library, having had under consideration 
the bill (H. R. 11,181) to provide for the erection of a memorial to 
Sergeant Charles Floyd, submit the following report: 

The bill authorizes the Secretary of War, in co-operation with the 
Floyd Memorial Association, to cause to be erected over the remains 

Appropriation by Congress 21 

of Sergeant Charles Floyd, a member of the celebrated Lewis and 
Clark Expedition, a fitting monument commemorative of thai expedl 
tion and of the first soldier in the service of the United Stall - to lay 
down his life within the Louisiana Purchase. 

President Jefferson, soon after the Louisiana Purchase in ISO::, or- 
ganized an expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and 
Clark to explore the new domain. Charles Floyd, a young man from 
Kentucky, was enlisted with others for this service, and was ap- 
pointed sergeant. The whole command, numbering forty-five men. 
started on its perilous journey from Wood River, 111., May 14, 1804, in 
a barge and two pirogues, and made its way among savage tribes up 
the Missouri River over the mountains, and thence by the Columbia 
River to the Pacific Ocean, and returning reached St. Louis September 
23, 1806. Only one man lost his life during the entire expedition, and 
that man was Sergeant Charles Floyd. He died a few miles below 
the site of Sioux City, August 20, 1804, and was buried on a high bluff 
a short distance up the river on the east side, and the place marked 
by a cedar post. Sergeant Floyd kept a journal during the time of 
his service in the expedition, which has been published. He did his 
duty faithfully and ably, as is abundantly shown by the testimony 
of the captains and others. His grave was visited by all the early 
navigators and explorers, and this bluff, because of his burial there, 
became a noted landmark. Shortly after the settlement at Sioux 
City, in 1857, it was found that the erosion of the Missouri River 
was about to carry away the grave and remains, whereupon the latter 
were secured and removed some 600 feet further east on the same 
bluff, where they were buried with appropriate ceremonies and honors. 
In 1895 the Floyd Memorial Association was organized "to commem- 
orate the death and burial of Sergeant Charles Floyd, and the Lewis 
and Clark Expedition, of which he was a member," and on the 20th 
of August in that year the Association caused a stone slab, duly 
marked, to be placed over the grave, having in view at a later time 
the erection of a more imposing memorial. The Association has since 
secured twenty-two acres of ground, and caused a portion of the same to 
be fenced and planted to trees, and the purpose of the Association is 
to maintain the same as a Memorial Park. Plans for a modest yet 
suitable monument have been prepared. 

It is sought in this bill to secure an appropriation of $10,000 to aid 
in the erection of the proposed monument and in thus fittingly com- 
memorating that famous expedition and the last resting place of one 
who gave his life as a pathfinder for the civilization which has followed. 
Your committee regard the work of national importance and moment, 
in which the Government may well take interest and to which the 
small sum asked for may well be appropriated. 

This report was committed to the Committee of the Whole House 
on the State of the Union and ordered to be printed. Notwithstanding 
the favorable report, it was apparent tnat the press of business incident 
to the closing days of the session would render it impossible to reach 
a vote upon the original bill. Mr. Perkins, fully appreciating this 
danger, and aided by Senator Wm. B. Allison, secured an amendment 
to the general deficiency bill appropriating $5,000 to aid in erecting 
the monument. It required great energy and watchfulness for the safety 
of this amendment. Mr. Perkins remained at the Capitol prac- 
tically all night at the close of the session looking after it, and 

22 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

it was due to his efforts entirely that the paragraph remained in the bill. 

The appropriation, as found in 30, Statutes at Large, 1214-1225, 
is as follows: 
Ch. 427. An Act Making Appropriations to Supply Deficiencies in the 

Appropriations for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1899, and for 

Other Purposes: 

Be It Enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress Assembled, That the following 
sums be and the same are hereby appropriated out of any money in the 
treasury, not otherwise appropriated, to supply deficiencies in the ap- 
propriations for the fiscal year 1891 and for prior years, and for other 
objects hereinafter stated, namely: 

:j: :js * * * # $ $ 3fc $ 4 


To enable the Secretary of War, in co-operation with the Floyd 
Memorial Association, to cause to be erected over the remains of 
Sergeant Charles Floyd, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 
who died and was buried August 20, 1804, near the present site of Sioux 
City, Iowa, a fitting monument commemorative of that expedition and 
of the first soldier to lay down his life within the Louisiana Purchase, 
$5,000: Provided, that the total cost and expense to the United States 
of erecting said monument shall not exceed $5,000. 

****** * # # * # 

Approved March 3, 1899. 



The Committee on Legislation caused a bill to be prepared to be 
presented to the Twenty-eighth General Assembly of Iowa asking an 
appropriation of $10,000 to aid in the erection of the Floyd Monument. 
On January 19, 1900, Senator E. H. Hubbard introduced this bill, being 
Senate File No. 50, a bill for an act to provide for and aid in the erec- 
tion of a memorial to Sergeant Charles Floyd. It was read first and 
second time and referred to Committee on Appropriations. 

President Charles had a circular printed setting forth reasons for 
the appropriation and furnished the same to Senator Hubbard and 
Representatives Barrett and Santee for distribution. Senator Hubbard 
gave especial care and attention to secure the appropriation. 

April 3, 1900, Senator Garst, from the Senate Committee on Appro- 
priations, submitted the following report: 

Mr. President: Your Committee on Appropriations, to whom was 
referred Senate File No. 50, a bill for an act to provide for and aid 
in the erection of a memorial to Sergeant Charles Floyd, beg leave to 
report that they have had the same under consideration and have in- 
structed me to report the same back to the House with the recommenda- 
tion that the same be amended. 

Section 1 be amended by striking out the word "ten" in the third 
line and inserting in lieu thereof the word "five," and when so 
amended that the bill do pass. WARREN GARST, 


Appropriation by Legislature 23 

This report was adopted, and on motion of Senator Garst the 
Senate took up Senate File No. 50, and upon his motion the amendment 
reported by the committee was adopted. The bill was read as amended. 
Senator Garst moved that the rule be suspended and that the bill be 
considered engrossed and the reading of the bill just had be its third 
reading, which motion prevailed. On the question, "Shall the bill 
pass?" the yeas were 36; the nays were 1; absent or not voting, 13. 
So the bill having received a constitutional majority was declared to 
have passed the Senate and its title agreed to. 

In the House of Representatives, on April 14, 1900, Senate File No. 
50, on request of Mr. Dows, was read first and second time, taken up 
and considered without reference to committee. The bill was read 
for information, and Mr. Dows moved that the rule be suspended and 
that the reading just had be considered a third reading of the bill, 
which motion prevailed. On the question, "Shall the bill pass?" the 
yeas were 68; the nays were 12; absent or not voting, 20. The bill 
having received a constitutional majority was declared to have passed 
the House and the title agreed to. 

The action of the House was at once reported to the Senate by 
House message, which was placed on file. Thereafter the bill was duly 
enrolled and on April 7, 1900, approved by the Governor. 

This act is Chapter 168 of the Laws of the Twenty-eighth General 
Assembly, of which the following is a copy: 



S. F. 50. An Act to Provide for and Aid in the Erection of a Memorial 
to Sergeant Charles Floyd: 

Be It Enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Iowa: Sec- 
tion 1. Amount Appropriated.] That there is hereby appropriated out 
of any money in the State treasury, not otherwise appropriated, the 
sum of $5,000, or so much thereof as may be necessary, to provide for 
and aid in the erection over the remains of Sergeant Charles Floyd, a 
member of the celebrated Lewis and Clark Expedition, who died and 
was buried August 20, 1804, near the present site of Sioux City, Iowa, 
a fitting monument commemorative of that expedition, and of the first 
soldier of the republic to lay down his life within the Louisiana Pur- 

Sec. 2. Special Commission — How Appointed — Duties.] The Gov- 
ernor of the State shall appoint a special commission of five members, 
who shall serve without compensation, to carry out the provisions of 
this act, and in so doing to co-operate with the Hon. Secretary of War 
and the Floyd Memorial Association. Such commission shall have 
entire control of the funds herein appropriated, and the same shall be 
paid out on bills approved by them. They shall file with the Auditor 
a complete account of all expenditures, and with the Governor a full 
report of their proceedings upon the completion of their labors. 

Sec. 3. In Effect.] This act, being deemed of immediate importance, 
shall take effect and be in force from and after publication in the Iowa 

24 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

State Register and the Des. Moines Leader, newspapers published at 
Des Moines, Iowa. 

Approved April 7, 1900. 

I hereby certify that the foregoing act was published in the Iowa 
State Register April 12. 1900, and in the Des Moines Leader April 13, 
1900. G. L. DOBSON, 

Secretary of State. 

May 1. 1900, Governor Shaw announced the Floyd Memorial Com- 
mission, appointed under this act, as follows: Geo. D. Perkins, Asa H. 
Burton, C. R Marks, of Sioux City; Mitchell Vincent, of Onn.wa, and 
C. J. Holman, of Sergeant Bluffs. 

Senator Hubbard also introduced a "bill for and secured the passage 
and approval of the following act: 



S. F. 340. An Act Granting Jurisdiction to the United States Over One 
Acre of Ground, Including the Grave of Sergeant Charles Floyd, in 
Woodbury County, Iowa: 

Be It Enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Iowa: Sec- 
tion 1. Jurisdiction Ceded.] Exclusive jurisdiction is hereby ceded to 
the United States over the following real estate, situated in Woodbury 
County Iowa, to-wit: A tract of ground containing one acre, including 
the grave of Sergeant Charles Floyd in Government Lot eight (8), in 
Section one (1), Township eighty-eight (88), Range forty-eight (48), west 
of the Fifth P. M., being the tract conveyed by the Floyd Memorial 
Association to the United States by deed dated February 14th, 1900, 
subject to all the provisions of Section four (4) of the Code. 

Sec. 2. In Effect.] This act, being deemed of immediate importance, 
shall take effect and be in force from and after its publication in the 
Iowa State Register and Des Moines Leader, newspapers published in 
Des Moines, Iowa. 

Approved March 22, 1900. 

I certify that the foregoing act was published in the Iowa State 
Register and the Des Moines Leader March 30, 1900. 


Secretary of State. 



Floyd Park embraces the following described land, situate and 
being in the County of Woodbury and State of Iowa, to-wit: Com- 
mencing at a point on the north line of Government Lot eight (8), in 
Section one (1), in Township eighty-eight (88), north of Range forty- 
eight (48), west of the Fifth Principal Meridian; eighteen hundred and 
eighty (1880) feet west of the northeast corner of the southeast quarter 

Floyd Park and Title 


of said Section one (1); thence south twenty-two (22) degrees ami lit'teen 
(15) minutes, east seven hundred and ninety-three (793) feet; thence 
south ten (10) degrees, ten (10) minutes, east seven hundred (700) feet 
to the south line of Government Lot eight (8); thence south eighty (80) 
degrees, twenty-live (25) minutes, west seven hundred and fifty-seven 
(757) feet to a point on said south line one hundred (100) feet east at 
right angles of the east right of way line of the Sioux City and Pacific 
Railroad; thence northwesterly parallel with and one hundred (100) 
feet at right angles from said right of way line to a point on the north 
line of said Lot eight (8). eight hundred and six (806) feet west of the 
point of beginning; thence east along said north line eight hundred and 
six (806) feet to the place of beginning. 

The following is a copy of the Government plat of the original 
survey of said Section one (1): 

SEC 34 SEC 35 

~~*---. |900 VII 

2 000 

1 CO 











William B. Thompson entered said land September 18, 1854, and 
the same was patented to him June 15, 1855. (Abstract of Original 
Entries, page 211.) 

26 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

The seat of justice for Woodbury County was located July 18. 1853, 
by the Commissioners on the southeast quarter of said Section one (1> 
(Auditor's Office Minute Book A, page 2). 

August 12, 1857, W. B. Thompson made a deed of trust of said 
land with other land to Casady & Clark to secure $120 to> Miles White 
(Mortgage Record A, page 146), which was foreclosed by a trustee's 
sale, and deeded July 20, 1860 (Record of Land Deeds D, pages 30-32), 
to Elias A. White, of Baltimore, Md. 

October 4, 1860. Elias A. White conveyed said land by deed (Record 
D, page 70) to Miles White, of Baltimore. 

The will of Miles White was admitted to probate in the Circuit 
Court of Decatur County, Iowa, on April 27, 1876 (Miscellaneous Record 
D, pages 4-9), and under the fourteenth paragraph his son, Francis 
White, became the owner of said land (Miscellaneous Record G, page 
591, and L, page 416). 

February 23, 1887, Francis White and Jane E., his wife, conveyed 
by warranty deed (Book 31, page 234) said land to Thalia B. Tredway, 
who with her husband made mortgage upon the same to Francis White 
(Book 39, page 312), which mortgage was satisfied by Francis White 
March 28, 1887 (Book 38, page 553). 

The Union Stock Yards Company filed articles of incorporation and 
amendments thereto, which were recorded in Woodbury County (Mis- 
cellaneous Record G. page 259; L, page 323; Q, page 475), for the purpose 
among others of buying, owning, leasing or selling real estate. 

March 10, 1887, Thalia B. Tredway and Wm. B., her husband, con- 
veyed by deed of warranty (Book V, page 553) the said land to the Union 
Stock Yards Company. 

July 1, 1887, the Union Stock Yards Company made trust deed 
(Book 43, page 539) of said land with other lands to the Union Loan and 
Trust Company, Which trust deed was satisfied upon the margin of the 
record April 9, 1888; and April 5, 1888, another trust deed was made to 
the Union Loan and Trust Company (Book 47, page 427), which was 
satisfied on the margin August 3, 1889. 

July 1, 1889, the Union Stock Yards Company made its trust deed 
(Book 64, pages 267-275) of this with other lands to the Missouri, Kan- 
sas and Texas Trust Company. 

The London and Sioux City Colony and Investment Company, for 
the purpose of loaning money on real estate and purchasing and dis- 
posing of same, filed in Recorder's office its articles and amendment 
thereto (Miscellaneous Record R, page 480; W, page 57). 

April 4, 1891, the Union Stock Yards Company made its deed (Land 
Record 39, page 467) of said land to the London and Sioux City Colony 
and Investment Company. 

August 11, 1891, the East Sioux City Improvement Company filed 
its articles of incorporation (Miscellaneous Record U, page 63) for the 
purpose of buying and selling real estate. 

Floyd Park unci Title 27 

October 4, 1892, the London and Sioux City Colony and Investment 
company made its deed (Book 40, page 464) of said land to the East 
Sioux City Improvement Company. 

April 27, 1893, at the suit of A. L. Stetson, H. P. Chesley was ap- 
pointed Receiver of the Union Stock Yards Company by the District 
Court of Woodbury County, Iowa. October 7, 1893, this suit was re- 
moved to the United States Circuit Court. 

September 5, 1893, the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Trust Company 
commenced suit in the United States Circuit Court against the Union 
Stock Yards Company to foreclose its mortgage of July 1, 1889, and 
therein, October 4, 1893, H. P. Chesley was appointed Receiver of the 
mortgaged property (Record 2, page 4); and on February 13, 1894, the 
said suit by A. L. Stetson was consolidated with this foreclosure action 
(Record 2, page 33); and May 24, 1895, decrees were entered foreclosing 
the said mortgage (Record 2, pages 155-162, wherein a sale was ordered 
and W. D. Turner was appointed special master to make sale, who on 
July 2, 1895, sold the land embraced in Floyd Park to the Sioux City 
Stock Yards Company without right of redemption, and on July 20, 
1895, such sale was approved and confirmed by the Court (Journal 2, 
page 225), in pursuance of which, July 23, 1895, W. D. Turner, Special 
Master, conveyed by deed the said land to the Sioux City Stock Yards 

October 30, 1894, the Sioux City Stock Yards Company filed its 
articles of incorporation (Miscellaneous Record Z, page 475), for the 
purpose, among others, of buying the property of the Union Stock 
Yards Company (Amendment thereto, Book 26, page 302). 

July 17, 1895, the East Sioux City Improvement Company conveyed 
by quit claim (Book 44, page 490) the said land to the Sioux City Stock 
Yards Company. 

July 1, 1895, the Sioux City Stock Yards Company made its trust 
deed (Book 122, pages 360-391) of this with other lands to the Missouri, 
Kansas and Texas Trust Company. 

October 2, 1899, the Guardian Trust Company, a corporation under 
the laws of Missouri, Trustee, the name of the Missouri, Kansas and 
Texas Trust Company having been changed to Guardian Trust Com- 
pany, made its release of the land described above as Floyd Park from 
the lien of the trust deed, dated July 1, 1895, recorded in Mortgage 
Record Book 122, pages 360 to 391, inclusive (see Book 140, page 330); 
also affidavits as to change of name (Miscellaneous Record 34, page 23). 

August 20, 1895, the Floyd Memorial Association filed its articles 
of incorporation (Miscellaneous Record 27. page 514). 

May 15. 1899 the Sioux City Stock Yards Company made its war- 
ranty deed (Book 50, page 335) of the land described as Floyd Park 
for the consideration of $1,000 to the Floyd Memorial Association. 

September 30, 1899, the Floyd Memorial Association made its war- 
ranty deed (Book 50, page 364) in consideration of $500, conveying to 
the City of Sioux City all of said land described as Floyd Park, except- 
ing and reserving therefrom a tract containing one acre in the southern 

28 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

central portion thereof, including the grave of Sergeant Charles Floyd, 
such tract reserved bounded and described as follows: Beginning at a 
point nine hundred and fifty-one (951) feet south, six (6) degrees, twen- 
ty-five (25) minutes west, of a point on the north line of Government 
Lot eight (8), in Section one (1), in Township eighty-eight (88) north, 
of Range forty-eight (48), west of the Fifth Principal Meridian, eighteen 
hundred and eighty (1880) feet west of the northeast corner of the 
southeast quarter of said Section one (1); thence north seventy-four 
(74) degrees, no minutes, west two hundred and fifty-three (253) feet; 
thence at right angles south sixteen (16) degrees, no minutes, west 
one hundred and seventy-two (172) feet two (2) inches; thence south 
seventy-four (74) degrees, no minutes, east two hundred and fifty-three 
(253) feet; thence north sixteen (16) degrees, no minutes, east one 
hundred and seventy-two (172) feet two (2) inches to place of begin- 
ning. Also reserving as appurtenant to said tract excepted a right of 
way two rods in width from the east line of said acre tract excepted 
easterly in a straight line where the Floyd Memorial Association may 
select to the public highway on the east line of said premises conveyed. 

October 6, 1899, the Sioux City Packing Company released the land 
described as Floyd Park from the lien of its judgments against the 
Sioux City Stock Yards Company (Judgment Docket J, pages 124 and 

On February 14, 1900, the Floyd Memorial Association, by John H. 
Charles, its President, attested by Mrs. Francis N. Davis, its Secretary, 
made its warranty deed to the United States of America of the one 
acre so excepted and reserved from its deed to the City of Sioux City, 
and delivered the same with abstract of title to H. M. Chittenden, Cap- 
tain, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., to be forwarded to the proper officer 
of the United States authorized to receive the same. May 1, 1900, said 
deed and abstract were returned to the Association with the following 
explanatory letter, to-wit: 

Custom House. 

Sioux City, Iowa, May 1, 1900. 


President Floyd Memorial Association, 
Sioux City, Iowa. 

Dear Sir: On the 10th ultimo I wrote to the Chief of Engineers 
asking early attention to the question of title to the Floyd Monument 
site, and on the following day I submitted recommendations in regard 
to the expenditures of the Government appropriation, accompanied with 
a copy of the recent act of the Iowa Legislature making an appropria- 
tion for the monument and site, and a copy of the resolution adopted 
by the Floyd Memorial Association at its meeting. Yesterday I received 
a renly to these two letters, the substance of which I communicate to 
you herewith. In reference to the title to the site the following extract 
from the letter of the Chief of Engineers will explain itself: 

"The Comptroller of the Treasury has decided that the purchase 
of the site is not authorized by the statute; that it is not necessary 

Floyd Park and Title 29 

that the title should be conveyed to the I'nited States before the money 
can be expended on the monument, and thai the provisions of Section 
355, Revised Statutes, do not apply to this case; that is, thai cession of 
jurisdiction over the site by the State is not necessary, the act of 
Congress, in his opinion, contemplating that the monumenl is to be 
erected on land owned or controlled by the Floyd Memorial Assoriation. 
In view of this decision of the Comptroller the proposed deed of con- 
veyance from the Floyd Memorial Association in favor of the United 
States and the abstract of title to the premises are returned herewith, 
with request that you return them to the proper officer of the Memorial 
Association. Title not having passed to the I'nited Slates, the State act 
ceding jurisdiction, referred to in your letter of the 11th instant, does 
not become operative." 

The title to the site would thus appear to be at present with the 
Floyd Memorial Association, and the Government appropriation is, 
therefore, available without further conditions. This is a much better 
arrangement than before, for it has always seemed to me to be an 
awkward situation for the Government to own this site with the implied 
obligation of caring for it in the future. As the situation now is, the 
Government stands in the same relation to the work as does the State 
of Iowa, viz.: It contributes $5,000 to assist the Floyd Memorial Asso- 
ciation in erecting the monument. 

It is the desire of the Department that the whole work shall be 
carried out according to the wishes and in conformity with the plans of 
the Association. In my second letter I made the following recom- 
mendations in reference to tne expenditure of the Government appro- 

"That this money be applied to the proposed work in the payment 
of such items in its cost as may be found most expedient; the monu- 
ment to be of stone of recognized durability; the work to be of first 
quality; the general design the same as that shown on the accompany- 
ing drawings; and that authority be granted to commence the work 
without delay." 

Referring to the expenditure of the State appropriation. I recom- 
mended that: "I be authorized to extend to the State the privilege of 
conducting its share of the work in connection with this office, and of 
making use of the office force and equipment to the extent that may be 
necessary for that purpose." 

Touching these recommendations, the following extract from the 
letter of the Chief of Engineers is given: 

"The plans and general details forwarded by you have been sub- 
mitted to the Secretary of War, with recommendation that they, to- 
gether with the recommendations contained in your letter of the 11th 
instant, be approved." 

So far as I can see the matter now rests entirely in the hands of 
the Association to proceed with the work without further restriction or 
delay. I may say in regard to the foundation of the monument that 
it will be important to put the concrete in in a single day when it is 
commenced, and this will necessitate a pretty large force of men. It 
will be difficult to get these for so short a time, unless they can be 
taken from some other work where they are already employed. If this 
work can be done while the government work is going on across the 
river, this entire force can be taken off for a day to do the concrete 
work. But to take advantage of this opportunity the work should be 
done before the end of this month. I take this opportunity to inform 
you that I saw the general manager of the Sioux City and Pacific 
Railroad in Omaha Saturday and secured his agreement to put in a 
switch near the site of the monument at the expense of the Railroad 

30 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

Company. The work will be begun at once. The deed and abstract 
are inclosed herewith. Very respectfully. 


Captain, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A. 

Two inclosures. 

Upon receipt of this communication with deed and abstract, the 
following resolution was adopted by the Association: 

Whereas, By resolutions duly passed at the annual meeting of the 
members of the Floyd Memorial Association, and at former meetings 
of the Board of Directors of said Association, the President and Secre- 
tary were authorized to execute a deed to the United States of the acre 
of ground in Floyd's Memorial Park, upon which the grave of Sergeant 
Charles Floyd is located; and, 

Whereas, On the 14th day of February, A. D. 1900. the President 
and Secretary of this Association executed and delivered such deed to 
Captain H. M. Chittenden, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., at Sioux City, 
Iowa, for the United States, with abstract of title to the same; and, 

Whereas, Under date of May 1st, 1900, said Captain Chittenden, 
with written communication, has returned said deed and abstract of 
title to the President of this Association, stating that he forwarded 
said papers to the Chief of Engineers of the U. S. A., and that in a 
letter recently received from said Chief of Engineers he is informed 
that the Comptroller of the Treasury has decided that the purchase of 
the monument site is not authorized by the United States statutes, and 
that it is not necessary that the title should be conveyed to the United 
States before the money appropriated by Congress can be expended, 
and therefore returns the deed; it is therefore hereby 

Resolved. That the return of said deed be accepted and that the 
resolution heretofore passed authorizing the conveyance of the title to 
the United States be and is hereby revoked and rescinded. 

The title to the one acre is now in the Floyd Memorial Association. 

and the title to the residue of Floyd Park is in the City of Sioux City. 

By his letter of January 20, 1899, I. C. Elston, President of the 
Sioux City Stock Yards Company, stated the concession of the Company 
on purchase of the ground as follows: 

What I intended to say was that we would sell you the land at an 
agreed price of $1,000 cash, and this Company would donate $100 for 
every $10,000 worth of improvements you placed upon the land deeded 
to you, until the aggregate cost of such improvements reached $50,000 
and the amount of donations made by this Company reached $500, and 
the time within which your Company would be allowed to claim such 
donations should be limited to ten years. 



Before the appropriation by the United States in aid of the monu- 
ment, President Charles procured and presented to the Association 
a plan of monument estimated to cost about $10,000. In April. 1899, 
Captain J. C. Sanford, representing the United States, submitted two 
plans and estimates, differing in size but otherwise similar. The 


Plans for Monument 31 

dimensions proposed for the larger were seventy-five feet from base to 
summit, eight feet square at the bottom and six feet six inches at the 
top, the estimated cost of which was $13,000. The proposed dimensions 
of the smaller were sixty feet high, five feet square at bottom and four 
feet one inch at the top, estimated to cost $7,000. It was contemplated 
that granite or quartzite would be used in the construction. It was also 
then proposed at some time to surmount the shaft with an ideal bronze 
figure of Floyd. Both plans were plain obelisks, and Captain Sanford 
and Mr. Wood, G-overnment Engineer, reported that on examination it 
was found that the topographical conditions around the grave made 
this style of monument most desirable. The matter of adopting a plan 
was postponed until an appeal could be made to the Legislature of 
Iowa to aid the enterprise. January 26, 1900, Captain H. M. Chittenden 
reported the wishes of the Government as then understood with plans 
estimated and recommendations as to the monument as follows: 


Custom House. 

Sioux City, Iowa. January 26, 1900. 

President Floyd Memorial Association, 
Sioux City, Iowa. 

Dear Sir: In view of the approaching meeting of the Floyd Me- 
morial Association, I have thought it probable that you would like to 
know what progress has been made in this office in the preliminary 
work connected with the erection of the Floyd Monument. 

In assigning this work, so far as the expenditure of the Govern- 
ment appropriation is concerned, to the Engineer Office in this city, the 
Chief of Engineers, United States Army, directed the officer in charge 
to co-operate fully with the Floyd Memorial Association, and gave him 
the following instructions for his guidance in the matter of acquiring 
a site for the monument: 

"It will be necessary to purchase, or to receive a deed of gift to 
the United States of, the site on which the monument is to be erected. 

"The authority of the Secretary of War will be required for the 
acquisition of the site selected, and before payment of the purchase 
money or acceptance of the land, an abstract of title and draft of pro- 
posed deed of conveyance to the United States, with a sketch showing 
the location and dimensions of the site, should be submitted, with a 
view to securing the opinion of the Attorney General on the title, as 
required by Section 355, Revised Statutes. When the question of the 
acquisition of the site has reached such a point as to require the assist- 
ance of the District Attorney in the preparation of the title papers, 
please inform this office, in order that recommendation may be made 
to the Secretary of War that the Attorney General be requested to 
direct the District Attorney to co-operate with you in the premises." 

At a meeting of the committee of the Association having this mat- 
ter in charge, held November 28, 1899, I was informed that the Asso- 
ciation was ready to deed a suitable site to the United States. The 
Chief of Engineers was notified accordingly, and replied under date 
of December 5th that steps had been taken to cause "the proper United 
States District Attorney to co-operate * * * in the preparation 

32 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

of the necessary title papers." The letter further contained the fol- 
lowing suggestions and instructions: 

"It is assumed from your letter of the 28th ultimo that the Asso- 
ciation proposes to convey the site to the United States at a nominal 
cost. If this be the case, it would be desirable to have a written tender 
from the Association, for the purposes indicated, to be submitted to 
the Secretary of War with other papers. 

"If it is proposed to apply any portion of the appropriation to 
the purchase of the site, a written proposition from the owners, setting 
forth fully the proposed terms, should be submitted for the action of 
the Secretary of War. 

"You are also requested to submit, with the title papers, a sketch 
showing the metes, bounds and location of the area of one acre in 
relation to the exterior bounds of the entire tract of twenty acres and 
the right of way to the highway, giving width and length of the right 
of way." 

Understanding that 'the Association intends to deed the monument 
site and right of way without cost to the United States, it is suggested 
that a formal resolution to that end be adopted at an early day and 
communicated to this office, for transmission to the War Department. 
It is also desirable that the final deed and all necessary papers per- 
taining thereto be prepared for the use of District Attorney as soon 
as he shall call for them. 

A survey of the grounds has teen made and is now being plotted, 
for transmission with other papers. With these, essentials completed, 
the matter of the title would seem to be in a way for final action by 
Attorney General's Department. 

In connection with the work just described a good deal of study 
has been given to the question of a suitable design for a monument 
and its probable cost. It is, of course, understood that, so far as any 
present official action by this office is concerned, it must be based upon 
the Congressional appropriation, that being the only money now in 
sight for the work. But as steps are being taken to secure a material 
addition to the amount given by the Government, it is presumed that 
the Association would like to consider not only designs that will fall 
within a cost of $5,000, but others as well, which will represent more 
nearly the total amount hoped for. The effort has, therefore, been made 
to secure some preliminary designs and estimates costing different sums, 
and these are herewith submitted to the Association with approximate 
estimates of cost. 

One of these estimates is for a monolithic obelisk resting on suit- 
able base or die. The design corresponding to a height of 47.2 feet 
can be erected, including foundation and all expenses, for $5,000. The 
material proposed by the party making the estimate is Vermont granite. 
For $10 000 a monument of similar design, fifty-five feet high, can be 
built. These designs would give a very good result, similar to those 
shown in the accompanying photographs of monuments erected by 
the same party at Washington's birthplace and for Washington's 

It is questionable, however, if they would fully satisfy the condi- 
tions of the proposed work at Floyd's grave. It would seem that the 
character of the site, as well as the purposes of the work, require a 
monument which shall be imposing in appearance, and visible at a 
great distance, dominating the entire valley in its vicinity, rather 
than an example of fine artistic work, whose merits, to be appreciated, 
must be examined close by. For a monument of considerable height, 
there is no more suitable design than the ancient Fgyptian obelisk, 
which rises directly from the ground without visible base or pedestal' 

Plans for Monument 33 

A design for such an obelisk, in coursed masonry, one hundred feet 
high, following the most approved proportions in the ancient examples, 
has been prepared. Sketches showing elevation, sections, and perspec- 
tive view, are submitted herewith, with estimates of quantities of 
materials required for construction. The cost of such a monument 
for different kinds of stone and qualities of work will be about as 

Rockville Granite. 

For tine hammered work $19,000.00 

For rock face work 15,000.00 

Bedford Limestone. 

For rubbed face work $14,500.00 

For rock face work 13,500.00 

Carthage Limestone. 

For rubbed face work $17,000.00 

For rock face work 14,500.00 

Kettle River Sandstone. 
For patent hammer dressed work $10,000.00 

A seventy-five-foot monument will cost about three-fifths as much 
as one one hundred feet high, and will, therefore, for some of the above 
classes of stone, fall within $5,000. 

Any of the above stones are suited to the work, preference being 
given in the order of granite, limestone, and sandstone. The pitched 
face ashlar work, or rock face, will be much cheaper than dressed 
work and will look well. The work ought, of course, to be done in 
the most thorough manner known to the mason's art. 

At the base of the monument suitable blocks of polished granite 
can be set in to receive whatever inscriptions are thought desirable, 
and even bronze relief tablets, with emblematic designs, can likewise be 

The foregoing, so far as my present studies go, seems to offer the 
largest results which the available or prospective funds of the Asso- 
ciation can be expected to realize. 

If the Association are able to develop their plans for raising funds 
before the ensuing summer, say by July 1, 1900, it will be possible to 
erect the monument during the following autumn. It will give much 
satisfaction to this office if such a result can be accomplished. 

Very respectfully, 

Captain, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A. 

It is requested that the drawings and photographs be returned after 
examination, as they are needed for use in this office. 

On April 6, 1900. Captain Chittenden made a further report in 
writing, recommending plan of monument which was substantially 
adopted in the construction, the Kettle River sandstone being used. 
The following is a copy of such report and plan: 


Custom House. 

Sioux City, Iowa, April 6, 1900. 

President Floyd Memorial Association, 
Sioux City, Iowa. 
Dear Sir: Since my last report to the Floyd Memorial Association, 
dated January 26, 1900. the following progress has been made toward 

34 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

the acquisition of the grounds and the selection of a design for the 
Floyd Monument: 

On February 17th I transmitted to the department all the papers 
relating to the title to the acre of ground on which the monument will 
stand, and they are now presumably in the hands of the proper govern- 
ment official for final examination. On March 8th I had an interview 
with Mr. H. G. McMillan. United States Attorney for the Northern 
District of Iowa, who has been designated by the Attorney General's 
Department to examine the title. At that time Mr. McMillan had not 
yet received the title papers, but said that he would call the attention 
of the Department to the matter with a view of obtaining them as soon 
as possible. Mr. McMillan assured me that there would be no charge 
against the appropriation on account of his services. 

An exhaustive study has been made of the design of an obelisk 
and its foundation in order to determine one which shall possess the 
necessary stability in every part and at the same time economize ma- 
terial to the utmost. For a monument one hundred feet from base to 
apex the following dimensions for the various parts give what seem to 
be the most satisfactory result: 

Foundation of concrete. 22 feet square at base, 14 feet square at tor 
and 8 feet thick. 

Upon this will rest two courses of large blocks, whose aggregate 
thickness will be 5 feet. This particular feature may be modified upon 
further study by omitting the base courses and carrying the concrete 
up to the base of the obelisk. 

A granitoid pavement 12 inches thick will surround the monu- 
ment, making, with the monument base, a square of 22 feet. 

The obelisk as proposed will be 9 feet square at base, 6 feet 
square at top of main shaft, and the pyramidion will be 9 feet high. 
These are the true proportions of the Egyptian obelisks. 

The shaft will have a concrete core 4 feet 6 inches square at the 
bottom and 3 feet square at the top. 

The walls will be 27 inches thick at the base and 18 inches at the 
top of the main shaft. There will be seventy-two courses in the main 
shaft, varying in thickness from 18 inches at the bottom to 12 inches at 
the top. There will be six blocks in each course, all the blocks in one 
course to be of the same dimensions and the same form except as to 
the bevel of the corner stone. It is thought advisable to surmount 
the pyramidion with an aluminum apex in order to avoid the necessity 
of working the stone to a point. 

There should probably be a permanent iron fence set in the pave- 
ment around the monument, of sufficient strength and with proper 
arrangement at the top to prevent its being climbed over or broken 
through. This precaution will be necessary if the monument is to be 
preserved from the desecration of vandals. 

The pressure on the bed of the foundation due to the weight of 
the monument and its foundation will be 142 tons per square foot. The 
weight of the earth fill around the foundation will increase this .31 
of a ton. If the wind should ever blow with a force of 40 pounds per 
square foot against the entire face of the monument it would increase 
the pressure on the side away from the wind by .45 of a ton. making a 
total maximum pressure at any point of 2.18 tons. The soil where the 
monument is to be built will stand from 2 to 3 tons and probably more 
without appreciable settling. 

The stability of the monument against overturning is such that 
with a wind force of 40 pounds per square foot over an entire face 
of the monument, it will still have a factor of safety of three. 

Plans for Monument .".." 

In regard to the finish, it appears to me that for a work of this 
class a smooth finish of some sort is important. The regularity and 
accuracy of the work will be largely obscured if the surface is left 
rough. With a course 18 inches thick the projections cannot be re- 
duced beyond 2% to 3 inches without leaving tool marks on the face, 
which should not be allowed. A projection of 3 inches on a face which 
is nowhere over 9 feet across is too large to look well. The face 
should be plain, and should be laid with the utmost accuracy, so that 
anyone examining the monument from close by will see that it is a 
piece of skillful and artistic work. Its importance in the future will 
depend in no small degree upon this evidence of good work. More- 
over, a smooth surface will gather dirt much less than a rough face. 
On the other hand a rough face will cost considerably less. 

In designing the courses the dimensions have been made to con- 
form to the general proportions of the monument. The top stones 
are two-thirds the size in linear dimensions of those in the bottom 
course, for the shaft diminishes in size by one-third from the bottom 
to the top. All the vertical courses have a corresponding convergence, 
which is also carried out in the pyramidion. Thus every line on the 
monument bears a true relation to the finished work. 

In seeking information as to the best stone to use a number of 
samples have been obtained. They all come under the three classes 
of granites, limestones and sandstones, including under the first the 
several stones of South Dakota and Minnesota. 

Four samples of true granites have been received: The Ortonville 
Red. the St. Cloud Gray, the Rockville. Minnesota, and the Syenite, 
Missouri, granite. Undoubtedly the best result of all could be obtained 
with the granites, for they are the best and most enduring of all 
building stones. The main objection to their use is the cost. With a 
rock face the cost would be about $15,000: with a ten-cut face, about 
$19,000. All of the Minnesota granites will cost about this figure. The 
Missouri granite cannot be had quite as cheap, considering the extra 
freight due to the greater distance. 

It would thus appear that the best that can be done with a true 
granite is to use a rock face finish, at a cost of about $15,000. 

In getting figures on the various Sioux Falls stones, I have not 
been as successful as I could wish. I have not found anyone who 
would consider the proposition of getting out a bill of stone like that 
required. All replies to my inquiries state either that the quarries 
will not yield the required dimensions or that the dealers are not 
equipped for getting out that class of stone. If this stone is used it 
will have to be of rough face, for any smooth finish short of polish does 
not look well; moreover, the cost of such a finish would be prohibitory. 

The best work with this stone which has fallen under my observa- 
tion is that in the St. Thomas and St. Joseph Church buildings in this 
city. It consists of a wall about 6 inches thick backed by other ma- 
sonry. The courses are entirely irregular, but the whole effect is 
pleasant. It is not likely, however, that a work would have the same 
stability if built of such small parts as one built of larger blocks, such 
as are proposed. The cost of the best work of this class, according to 
information derived from the contractor who built the St. Thomas 
Church, would be about 75 cents per square foot or $1.50 per cubic foot. 
For the monument the wall would need to be made at least a foot 
thick and the whole cost of the work would fall a little under $10,000. 

Five samples of limestones have been procured, viz.: One from 
Carthage Mo.: two from Bedford, Ind.: and two from Mankato. Minn. 
The Carthage stone in outward appearance is entirely satisfactory, but 
there is a possible doubt as to its durability, as there are no existing 

36 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

works of long standing built of it. Several examinations have been 
made at my request of buildings in Rock Island, St. Louis and Kansas 
City, and all are entirely favorable. But there is still some evidence 
that it will pit up under the action of the weather, and I would there- 
fore hesitate in recommending it. The cost with this stone in smooth 
finish would be about $15,000, or about the same as rock face granite. 

The Bedford limestones have stood the test of experience and can 
be relied upon without hesitation. The building in which this office 
is located is a splendid example. An examination of the smooth work 
on the tower and the facings of the doors and windows will show how 
well it holds its color even in the heart of a city. It is durable, of 
pleasing appearance, and the very best finish can be had at a reasonable 
rate. The cost of the monument built of this stone with a smooth 
finish will be about $13,000; in rock face about $11,000. 

The Mankato pink stone will cost about the same as the Bedford 
buff limestone. Its analysis and tests indicate a good stone, but I have 
seen no structure built of it. 

Prices have been received from other quarries at Mankato and 
Kasota, from which the total cost will range $9,600 rock face to $12,000 
fine finish. 

Only one sandstone has been considered, the Kettle River sand- 
stone of Minnesota. All authorities agree that it is a most excellent 
stone. I have examined one structure built by it, the Elk Point Court 
House, and although as a piece of masonry work it is most discreditable, 
the exposure of the stone for two years shows that it loses none of 
its bright pink color. The main drawback with this stone will be the 
danger of cracking the edges during construction, for the stone is 
somewhat soft on coming from the quarry. The analysis and tests 
of the stone are entirely satisfactory. By careful selection a uniform 
color could be produced and the effect would be good. The cost for a 
smooth finish would be a little less than for the Bedford limestone. 

All the foregoing estimates of cost include a 15 per cent, increase 
for contingencies. They also include full freight rates, which the Gov- 
ernment has to pay. As it is not improbable that important concessions 
on rates can be secured, and as the utmost care will be taken to elim- 
inate contingencies, there may be a reduction in these items. Moreover, 
when it comes to actual bids, the prices quoted on stone may be some- 
what reduced. 

In regard to the inscription, the best method will be to place it 
upon a bronze tablet set into the face of the monument. The tablet 
will cost $15 per square foot and the setting probably $5 per square foot. 

Coming now to the programme of work, it is suggested that the 
foundation be put injuring the present spring; that the contract for 
the stone be also let this spring, giving the contractors all summer to ■ 
get out the order; and that erection of the shaft be begun about the 
1st of September. Very truly yours, 

Captain of Engineers, U. S. A. 



The concrete foundation was laid May 29, 1900. The following 
statement is copied from the Journal of May 30: 

At six o'clock last night one hundred and ten men took up their 
dinner pails and returned from a high bluff three miles south of the 

Laving the Foundation 


city, leaving behind them completed the foundation for the great 
monument which is to be erected as a lasting memory to Sergeant 
Charles Floyd, whose remains lie in a grave within a few feet of the 
site of the proposed structure. 

All day yesterday the men worked in the hot sun under the per- 
sonal supervision of Colonel H. M. Chittenden, United States Engineer 
in charge of the government work, with headquarters in Sioux City, 
and who is to also have charge of the erection of the monument under 
instructions from the War Department. The great mass of stone and 
mortar, 22 feet square at the base, 14 feet square at the top and 11 feet 
high, "will set" as one solid mass. It will be a stone without any 
cracks, joints or connections to weaken it in the whole, containing 
143 cubic yards and weighing 200 tons. Interlaced through it are 
thirty-two heavy steel rails. 

It was a scene of the greatest activity on the knoll where the 
monument is to stand. Early in the morning a Sioux City and Pacific 
special train from the city took Colonel Chittenden, his assistants 
and a large force of workmen to the sidetrack at the base of the bluff. 
Everything had been placed in readiness for the commencement of 
the work on the knoll. There were eleven huge vats of water to be 
used in mixing the concrete. On every side were heaps of crushed 
stone, piles of sand, bags of cement, and there were an abundance of 
wheelbarrows, shovels and other tools to be used in the work of the 
day. Two government tents had been placed in position, and in fact 
there was nothing lacking to carry out the plans of the engineer. The 
excavation for the foundation had been all prepared, stagings had been 
built, runways for the barrows had been laid, and each man had been 
assigned to his particular work. With Colonel Chittenden was his 
assistant. Bathurst Smith, and several of the other men in his office. 
Promptly at 7:25 a. m. the order was given to begin the work which 
it was planned to complete in ten hours. The caisson was built up as 
the work proceeded, and this will hold the mass of material in compact 
form until it has set properly. In order to have it set as one mass, 
it is necessary to do the entire job in as short a space of time as 
possible. It had been estimated it would take just ten hours to complete 
the task, and it did not take much longer. Colonel Chittenden was 
right on the spot every minute, coat off and displaying the greatest 
interest in the work. He carefully watched the mixing of the material, 
and at every side of the excavation were his assistants to see every- 
thing was properly done. 

This great mass of concrete will be allowed to set until the fall, 
when it is planned to commence the erection of the superstructure. 
The superstructure which is to stand on this foundation will weigh 
approximately 420 tons. The material of which it is to be built is to 
be decided upon tomorrow afternoon at a meeting of the committee 
to which was referred the final decision as to the material to be used 
and its color. The other members of the Association have also been 
invited to be present and to advise with the committee. Colonel Chit- 
tenden is a member of the committee, and will probably make a report 
of the work as it has progressed so far. 

When completed the monument is to rise 100 feet above the ground. 
The foundation will come almost to the level of the ground, and the 
monument will be cut stone. Under the plans as prepared the base of 
the monument will be about nine feet snuare. The structure will be 
built of stone with concrete inside, making it a solid mass. 

Within a few feet of the present site of the monument is the stone 
slab, laid August 20. 1895. covering the two urns which contain all that 
is left of Charles Floyd. This is the grave to which the remains were 

38 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

tenderly removed in 1857, when the early residents of Sioux City found 
that the rude coffin built in 1804, containing the body, was protruding 
over the high bluffs, and the entire contents of the pioneer grave 
would have been lost had they not been carried back farther on the hill 
and carefully reburied. Then the grave remained untouched until 1895, 
and it was with difficulty it was found. George Murphy finally dis- 
covered it by poking about in the ground with a cane and outlining 
the spot. It was into this same grave the bones were again placed. 

Some of the members of the Association, however, have suggested 
that once more the bones be taken up, and that they be placed inside 
of the monument. This will be hollow until the concrete is placed 
inside, and the suggestion is to place the remains inside before the 
concrete is laid. The matter probably will be discussed at the meeting 
of the Association. It would not be necessary to take any action, how- 
ever, until fall, when work is to be commenced on the superstructure. 

Quite a number of visitors went to the scene of the work for laying 
the foundation. John H. Charles, the venerable President of the Floyd 
Memorial Association, and who has taken so much interest in the 
proposed monument, and has done so much to insure its construction, 
drove to the site of the grave in the morning, accompanied by Mrs. 
Charles and Mrs. F. N. Davis, Secretary of the Association. C. J. Hol- 
man. of Sergeant Bluffs, spent the morning on the knoll. Mitchell 
Vincent, of Onawa, another active member of the Association, arrived 
about 11 o'clock, and it was not long before C. R. Marks and L. M. 
Kean were on hand. They all expressed their pleasure at the work 
which was being done, and they look forward to the day when the 
erection of the superstructure will begin, and when President Charles 
will unveil with due ceremony the Floyd Memorial Monument. 



On August 20. 1900, the annual meeting of the Association was held 
at the site of the monument, and at this meeting the corner stone 
was laid and the remains of Sergeant Charles Floyd deposited within 
the monument. The Morning Journal of that day contained the fol- 
lowing editorial: 

An interesting ceremony will take place this afternoon on the occa- 
sion of the laying of the corner stone of the monument about to be 
erected in memory of Sergeant Charles Floyd and the historical events 
associated with the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804. The Floyd 
Memorial Association was organized five years ago and there has been 
constant effort since that time to provide the funds necessary for the 
purchase of the ground and the erection of a suitable shaft. The site 
of the monument is not far removed from the spot where Sergeant 
Floyd was buried by his comrades on the 20th of August, 1804. It is a 
sightly place, overlooking the Missouri River, and discloses picturesque 
views of adjacent country in Iowa. Nebraska and South Dakota. These 
States are in the family of States west of the Mississippi River that 
had their inception, unconsciously at the time, in the Louisiana Pur- 
cnase under Jefferson's administration in 1803. It is ninety-six years 
ago today since Sergeant Floyd died and was buried on the range of 
bluffs that has since borne his name. The day following his death 

Laying the Corner Stone 39 

the explorers came to the river flowing through the eastern part of 
Sioux City, and the river was named for him to further commemorate 
his memory. Sergeant Floyd was the only member of the expedition 
who died during the two and a half years the expedition was out. He 
was the first citizen soldier to die in the service in the great territory 
added to the domain of the United States by the purchase from Prance. 
The occasion for the monument is so rich in historical incident that it 
might seem a slight task to provide the way for its erection, but the 
work of the Association has been attended with discouragements. Five 
years have elapsed since the Association was fully organized. Five 
years ago today the remains of Sergeant Floyd were reburied in an 
enduring urn, and a marble slab, properly inscribed, placed to mark 
the spot. It was hoped that the influence of that interesting occasion 
would lead to cash deposits for the larger work of erecting a suitable 
monument, but the Association found a rugged way before it in the 
task of providing the necessary money to complete its undertaking. 
Happily, Congress was induced to make an appropriation of $5,000 
to the fund and the Iowa Legislature was induced to appropriate an 
equal amount. These joint appropriations enabled the Association to 
complete its plans. John H. Charles, the President of the Association, 
has kept the business of the Association close to his heart. But for 
his solicitude and unabating interest it is safe to say the completion 
of the monument would still be in the shadowy future. It is a matter 
of the highest gratification to him, and to all those who have been 
working with him, that the end of the work is now in sight. The shaft 
will be one hundred feet high. It will commemorate the most notable 
event in our history and wall be the most pretentious monument so far 
erected within the borders of our State. The corner stone laying will 
occur on this anniversary day of Sergeant Floyd's death and burial. 
The work will be completed before November. 

The order of exercises planned for the day was substantially car- 
ried out. The account of the meeting and ceremonies, with the ad- 
dresses, published in the Journal of August 21st, sets forth the same 
at length as follows: 

The ceremony of laying the corner stone of the Floyd Monument 
was performed yesterday afternoon, and on the bluff overlooking the 
stream which he helped to explore at the opening of the century now 
stands the beginning of the tribute of this people to one of the men 
who assisted in making so much of the history of this great northwest. 

Yesterday morning the remains of the explorer were removed 
from their resting place, which was but a few feet from the present 
monument site, the spot being marked by a stone slab, which was 
placed over the grave by the Association August 20, 1895, when the 
remains were reinterred for a second time. The remains were placed 
in an urn which was deposited in the center of the base of the monu- 
ment and covered during the ceremony with concrete. 

There was some delay in the assembling of the members of Com- 
panies H and L and Reed's Band at the Armory, and the march was not 
begun from there until 1:25 o'clock. To the tap of a drum they filed 
off with guns glittering in the blazing sun down Sixth Street to Ne- 
braska, thence down Nebraska to Fourth. The members of General 
Hancock Post, No. 22, G. A. R., were to have been escorted from that 
point to the train, but the heat was cause for this and other formal 
plans to be abandoned. In the sun and dust the guardsmen to the 
number of sixty tramped to the waiting train, and, when they had 
crowded into the two coaches, already well filled, the signal was given 
to start. General Agent Cheyney was on hand to take personal charge 

40 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

of the special train furnished for the Floyd Memorial Association, no 
charge being made to passengers. The train left at 1:35, crowded to 
the platform steps with sweltering people. The baggage car was full 
and the aisles of both coaches were packed. There were some on the 
aepot platform who could not find even standing room. Probably 250 
people went on the train. 

At the monument site, on the brow of the bluff above the Sioux 
City and Pacific tracks, crowds had already gathered in a black cluster 
of vehicles and people. Hundreds had driven from the city and others 
had driven in from the surrounding country. The cars discharged 
their hundreds, the guardsmen formed in line and to the music of a 
quickstep from the band they moved up the blistering hot slope in a 
scattering body. 

The heat was intense and many of the gray haired veterans of the 
G. A. R. struggled against deadly faintness which the suffocating 
warmth of the cars had begun. There were fears that prostrations 
would result. Later Andrew Anderson, of Company L, did topple over, 
but was soon revived. 

At the monument site, at almost exactly 2 o'clock, Rev. J. C. Mc- 
Clintock's voice invoking a blessing upon the memorial work stilled 
the talking of the throng. Geo. D. Perkins then spoke as follows: 

It is entirely fitting that the ceremonies of this day and time 
should be in the hands of the volunteer soldiers of the United States. 
Sergeant Charles Floyd was a volunteer soldier. He was the first 
citizen soldier, so far as is known, to die in the service of his country 
in the great territory west of the Mississippi River. Of his antecedents 
we know little. We know that his ancestors were Kentucky pioneers. 
The name of his father we do not know with certainty. The date and 
place of his birth are obscure. He was a humble, almost unknown, 
citizen of the young republic. Charles Floyd joined the Lewis and 
Clark Expedition in the fall of 1803 at a point in Illinois near the 
confluence of the two great rivers. From that point the expedition 
set forth in May, 1804, for the exploration of the unknown territory 
acquired from France. On the river just below us, and not far down 
stream, Sergeant Floyd, on the 20th of August, 1804, after an illness of 
a few hours, died. His comrades, with such honors as they could 
bestow, buried him not far from this spot on these Floyd bluffs. They 
marked his grave with a cedar post, the life of which linked that day 
with the pioneer life of Sioux City. The expedition of which Sergeant 
Floyd was a member was absent two and a half years; the active service 
of Sergeant Floyd with it was confined to ninety-nine days. In that 
brief time he wrote his history and made his name enduring. The 
journal kept by Floyd, singularly enough, disappeared with him until 
this later time. It was discovered at Madison, Wis., by the Secretary 
of the State Historical Society, on the 3d of February, 1894. It now 
has its place in the historical collection of the Lewis and Clark Expedi- 
tion. It is an unpretentious piece of writing. It narrates the simplest 
events. But it has relationship to the greatest event in our western 
history. The life destiny of every one of us is related to that history. 
All these great States west of the Mississippi River are intimately re- 
lated to that history. In that history was fashioned the anchor to the 
United States of America. The life of Sergeant Charles Floyd was a 
simple life. His mind was occupied with simple things. Yet his simple 
life and thought were associated with the mightiest events in our politi- 
cal and social and business history. No one can measure the influence 
of the Louisiana Purchase upon the history of the century. This being 
true, no one can measure the influence of that purchase upon the 
history of the world, written and yet to be written. The name of 

Laying the Corner Stone -Al 

Sergeant Charles Floyd was linked with the inception of that history; 
he had the part of a humble citizen soldier; he was faithful in his place. 

Nearly one hundred marvelous years have passed since the little 
band of explorers laid away here in the wilderness the mortal remains 
of their comrade. It was to them only a circumstance more mortal 
than the days of his service in camp and on the voyage. He was to be 
remembered by them alone. Wonderfully strange! The name of this 
poor soldier is a national heritage. We gather here today to place 
the corner stone of an enduring monument to his memory. We idealize 
the life and service of Sergeant Floyd. In honoring his memory we 
honor achivements of his time of which we are the beneficiaries. Tn 
nonoring his memory we honor the faithful service of unknown mil- 
lions of men. In honoring his memory we express our devotion to 
liberty, to country, and to the best hope of the world. The shaft which 
is to rise from this foundation is not alone for Sergeant Floyd. The 
cedar post was placed by the few; but this shaft, enduring as to time, 
is a testimonial from the Nation and from the State. It will stand as 
a testimonial to the service of one man; it will stand as a testimonial 
to the service of the expedition which made the first journey of the 
white man hitherward; it will stand as a testimonial to the courage, 
the patriotism, the foresight of the fathers of the republic; it will 
stand as a testimonial to the devoted lives of all the pioneers who have 
blazed the way for the millions who have followed; it will stand as a 
feeble testimonial to the providences of God, for whose leadership we 
continue to pray, and whose goodness and mercy throughout all the 
days of our national life we humbly acknowledge. What we owe. what 
our State and country owe, to what extent the future may be indebted, 
to the heroic pioneers in this land no words can measure. Their time 
and ours is not far separated. Even here today we may look into 
the faces of some of them and take their hands. The monument we 
are building here is to them. The names of some who gathered here 
upon this spot five years ago, and who gave such inspiration to the 
wor±v now about to be consummated, are enrolled upon the same great 
scroll as Sergeant Floyd's. We miss them today. We shall miss them 
more on the later occasion when we gather to commemorate the com- 
pletion of this work. But this monument will be also to them. 

The inception of this work cannot be definitely stated. We can 
at least trace it to the time when a few of our own pioneers gathered 
here in 1857 to rescue the remains of Sergeant Floyd from the passion 
of the river and give them safe reburial on this farther bluff. It does 
not appear, however, that any definite action looking to the erection 
of a permanent monument was taken until the Floyd Memorial Asso- 
ciation was organized in June, 1895. J. C. C. Hoskins was the pro- 
visional president, and C. R. Marks the provisional secretary. Later 
in the month Mr. Hoskins, on account of ill health, resigned, and 
John H. Charles was chosen to succeed him. The organization was 
completed and duly incorporated on the 20th of August following, 
when the remains of Sergeant Floyd were reburied for the second 
time and covered with the marble slab you see here. Mr. Charles is 
still the President of the Association. We are indebted to him for the 
opportunity of witnessing the laying of this corner stone today. The 
difficulties attending the work of the Association during the five years 
of its existence have been many. Mr. Charles has held the Associa- 
tion together, given liberally of his time and money, and he has held 
steadfastly to the purpose which is now so far on towards consum- 
mation. His devotion has inspired the devotion of others. Together 
they have met all difficulties and thus far and to this extent they 
have overcome all difficulties. The work was begun with empty hands. 
Even the spot of ground where the grave was belonged to alien acres. 

42 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 


The twenty-one acres connected with this monument have title now 
in the City of Sioux City. With the completion of this work the Asso- 
ciation may be expected to lapse, but there is faith that the City of 
Sioux City is enduring. The hope is that some day the ground will 
be parked and the place made beautiful. Certain it is that the mon- 
ument about to rise here will appeal constantly to public spirit and 
speak ceaselessly of the devotion of other men. It is needless for me 
on this occasion to undertake to outline to you the work of the Asso- 
ciation. The evidence is presented here that it has been well done. 
The members of the Association are grateful to all the sources of their 
help. Some have done little and some have done much. The Con- 
gress of the United States and the Legislature cf the State of Iowa, 
in a material way, have done most. Without these public appropria- 
tions this anniversary day could not have witnessed the ceremonies 
of this hour. 

It is proper that I should mention now the sense of obligation felt 
by the Association to Captain Chittenden, of the Army Engineer Corps, 
in charge of the Sioux City office, and under whose immediate super- 
vision and direction this monument is being erected. His service has 
been freely given in all the details of the work, and his knowledge and 
experience have greatly simplified the work of the Association and 
proved of great economy to the available funds of the Association. 
Congratulations are due to all who have been directly interested in 
this work. The grave made here so long ago has been a landmark 
of the century. W T e are emphasizing it now and making it a more 
enduring landmark for the centuries to come. When the comrades 
of Sergeant Floyd climbed the steep ascent to put away his body they 
looked forth on the same wonderful landscape which greets our eyes 
this August day. Over the abyss of years we cry Hail! and catch the 
echo. We feel our relationship to them and to this one whose bones 
are here. We leave the work of our own hands and the meditations 
of our hearts here as a testimony to generations yet to be of our rela- 
tionship to them. 

There was a visitor here in 1832 — George Catlin, the English painter 
and panegyrist. There were the same bluffs, the same mighty river, 
the same sweep of landscape fading away in the southerly hills. But 
there was vast loneliness. The loneliness of the solitary grave was 
supplemented by the picture of the surrounding wilderness. His apos- 
trophe and rhapsody bring us over the rugged way of the years nearer 
this living present. And this is what he wrote sixty-eight years ago: 

"Where heaven sheds its purest light, and lends its richest tints — 
this round-topped bluff, where the foot treads soft and light — whose 
steep sides and lofty head reach to the skies, overlooking yonder pic- 
tured vale of beauty — this solitary cedar post, which tells a tale of 
grief — grief that was keenly felt, and tenderly, but long since softened 
in the march of time and lost. Oh. sad and tear-starting contemplation! 
Sole tenant of this stately mound, how solitary thy habitation! Here 
heaven wrested from thee thy ambition, and made thee sleeping 
monarch of this land of silence. Stranger! Oh, how the mystic web 
of sympathy links my soul to thee and thy afflictions! I knew thee 
not, but it was enough; thy tale was told, and I, a solitary wanderer 
through thy land, have stopped to drop familiar tears upon thy grave. 
Pardon this gush from a stranger's eyes, for they are all that thou 
canst have in this strange land, where friends and clear relations are 
not allowed to pluck a flower and drop a tear to freshen recollections 
of endearments past. Stranger! Adieu. With streaming eyes I leave 
thee again, and thy fair land, to peaceful solitude. My pencil has 
faithfully traced thy beautiful habitation; and long shall live in the 
world, and familiar, the name of Floyd's grave." 

Laying the Corner Stone !-."> 

And here, on the anniversary of his death, with nearly a century 
of time lying between, we lay the corner stone for the shaft that is to 
perpetuate the record marked by the cedar post 

Before starting for Yellowstone Park in the evening after the cere- 
monies, Captain Chittenden sent to Mr. Perkins the following note: 

Sioux City, Iowa, August 20, 1900. 

My Dear Mr. Perkins: Before leaving town I want to thank you 
earnestly for the plain words of commendation bestowed upon the work 
of this office in connection with the Floyd Monument. 

Very truly yours, 


Immediately after the conclusion of Mr. Perkins' address, Judge 
George W. Wakefield arose and announced that it had been decided 
instead of holding a meeting in the Court House to elect a Board of 
Trustees as usual on the evening of the anniversary of Sergeant Floyd's 
death, the election would be held at once. He therefore made a mo- 
tion that the present Board of Trustees be unanimously re-elected, 
which was quickly seconded and carried. The following constitute 
the Board of Trustees: John H. Charles, Geo. D. Perkins. C. R. Marks, 
M. B. Davis and D. A. Magee, of Sioux City; Mitchell Vincent, of Onawa, 
and A. M. Holman, of Sergeant Bluffs. 

Seated on the platform at the base of the monument were Colonel 
Madison B. Davis, Department Commander of the G. A. R. for Iowa; 
George A. Newman, Assistant Adjutant General for the Iowa Depart- 
ment, G. A. R.; Post Commander Chase, of General Hancock Post, No. 
22, G. A. R. ; Senior Vice Commander W. S. Belden; Junior Vice Com- 
mander H. W. Allen, Chaplain C. H. Richardson, John H. Charles, 
President of the Floyd Memorial Association; Mrs. Francis N. Davis, 
Secretary; Mayor A. H. Burton, Geo. D. Perkins, Judge George W. 
Wakefield, E. H. Hubbard, C. R. Marks and Rev. J. C. McClintock. 

Previous to the commencement of the ceremony of the corner stone 
laying, Mayor A. H. Burton advanced to the base of the monument 
and above the urn which contained the remains of Sergeant Floyd he 
deposited a copper box. Mayor Burton said he had gathered together 
various articles as a representative of the committee selected for the 
purpose, which were to be placed in the monument base beside the 
remains. Shortly after the placing of the box and urn in its place, a 
concrete cover was made by Colonel Chittenden's corps. The box con- 
tained the following articles: 

Acts of Congress in relation to the erection and appropriation of 
the Floyd Monument; acts of the Iowa Legislature: history of the 
Lewis and Clark Expedition; printed accounts of the Floyd memorial 
services at different times; minutes of the meetings of the Association 
up to January, 1900; Polk & Co.'s directory of Sioux City, 1900-1901; 
municipal directory of 1901; United States coins and postage stamps; 
copies of the city papers containing accounts of the laying of the stone 
slab over Sergeant Floyd's grave, in August, 1895; Saturday's Times 
and Tribune and Monday morning's Journal; copies of the Northwestern 
Catholic and Union Advocate; official State register; G. A. R. button; 
photograph of President John H. Charles. 

The ceremony of the corner stone laying took place. The exercises 
were very impressive. Having been invited on behalf of the Floyd 
Memorial Association to do so, Colonel Davis and Colonel Newman 

4-4 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

conducted the exercises of the day. In the name of the soldiers and 
sailors of this great republic, Colonel Davis thanked President Charles 
for the honor conferred upon him. He then ordered the members of 
the guard of honor to take their places beside the monument shaft. 
The guard advanced. It was composed of nine stalwart young men, 
members of Companies H and L, under the leadership of First Lieut- 
enant Lindsay Kinney, of Company L, as follows: Corporal Knott, 
Privates Freary, Libbey, Anderson, Taylor, Hoag, Oliver, Smead. At 
the raising of the American flag Reed's Band played the "Star Spangled 
Banner." Post Commander Chase then read a scriptural quotation 
in its application to the navy, after which the officer of the guard was 
ordered to present the symbol of the navy, a large anchor draped in 
black, accompanied by a sailor to guard it. Senior Vice Commander 
Belden read a scriptural quotation as it related to the army. Colonel 
Davis then commanded the officer of the guard to bring forth the sym- 
bol of the army, a Springfield rifle, and detailed a soldier to guard it. 
Junior Vice Commander Allen then was asked to read a scriptural 
quotation as it related to the work under way, and read in reply: "The 
stone which the builders rejected the same has become the head of 
the corner," and other verses showing the application to the corner 
stone laying. Turning to Assistant Adjutant General Newman, Colonel 
Davis said at the conclusion of this portion of the ceremony: "If our 
work be well done, what can be your proclamation?" to which Colonel 
Newman replied: "The proclamation of Peace." 

As a concluding portion of the ceremonies, Colonel Davis said: 
"In the name of Fraternity I lay this corner stone," at the same time 
casting a vase of water over the stone. Flowers were strewn over the 
stone as he said, "In the name of Charity and Loyalty I lay this corner 
stone." In closing the ceremony Colonel Davis gave the stone three 
light raps with his gavel. During the exercises thanks were offered 
to the Almighty by Rev. C. H. Richardson, Chaplain. 

In addition to the ritual commonly used on such occasions, several 
very appropriate suggestions in connection with the ceremony were 
carried out in accordance with the ideas of some of the members of 
the Association. These added to the interest of the corner stone laying, 
but the most pleasing feature and most appropriate that could have 
been imagined was the actual assistance in the corner stone laying 
lent by President John H. Charles, who presided at the occasion. His 
untiring efforts in behalf of a suitable remembrance being made to the 
life and deeds of Sergeant Floyd have done much to enthuse others 
in the work, and to him is largely due the success the Association has 
met with since its organization. After the ceremony of the corner 
stone laying had been nearly completed by Colonel Davis and the 
stone had been lowered into place by Colonel Chittenden and his corps 
of workers, this gray haired old man, who had to be assisted from the 
platform to the spot, stooped down and knelt on the ground while he 
slowly applied several trowels of concrete between the corner stone 
and the stones on which it rested. 

After a selection by the band, E. H. Hubbard delivered an address, 
as follows: 

Fellow Citizens: We are at the final resting place of the first 
soldier of the republic to mingle his dust with the soil of the Louisiana 
Purchase. Ninety-six years ago today, but a short distance from this 
spot. Sergeant Floyd lay dying — his the only life to be sacrificed in 
that memorable expedition breaking the path across the continent. 
The eyes of the dying soldier may have rested upon the same glorious 
panorama of azure sky, of winding turbid river, of verdant plain and 
distant hills as that which now spreads before us. His comrades stood 
beside the open grave on yonder bluff, looking east and west and north 

Laving the Corner Stone 4-5 

and south. They were encompassed by the unbroken wilderness and 
left him there in its lonely silence while they, bending to their oara 
again, pressed on to the fulfillment of their task. And lo! a miracle! 
Men still live who saw the light on that day. Scarcely two generations 
have come and gone, but a moment in history, and great states, popu- 
lous cities, farm and herd, factory and mine, millions of men, with 
their multiplied industries, occupy the land that was wilderness. 

We have realized the Arabian story. The genius of freedom has 
touched the desert with his wand, and palaces and blooming gardens 
spring from the waste. Here in this calm and peaceful spot, looking 
down on hill and plain, river and city, shall rise this monument of 
State's and Nation's gratitude for duty well performed. A memorial, 
too, of the wisdom and prophetic ken of that great man who. setting at 
naught political consistency, and valuing the welfare of his country 
rather than his interpretation of the constitution, fearlessly overriding 
all narrow technical objections, seized the opportunity offered by Na- 
poleon's hostility to England, and forever assured the greatness of the 
republic by making it master of the heart of the continent. Jefferson, 
doubtless, saw clearly only the immediate political consequences of 
the purchase. To him it meant, above all else, that the Mississippi 
should flow through the territory of the United States. To him and 
to his advisers the region beyond the Mississippi was an inhospitable 
waste, the settlement of which, if it were ever settled, was an affair 
of centuries. The timid reasonings of those partisans who opposed 
the purchase, urging that it was unconstitutional, that the land was 
worthless, that it would involve us in expensive war, were paralleled 
by the absurdity of some of the arguments on the other side. For 
example, it was gravely urged that up the Missouri somewhere was a 
great mountain of salt, enough to supply the world, an acquisition of 
immense value. But now upon this height, looking back along the 
course of history, trivialities, temporary policies disappear and this 
great event rises in its true proportions. Here for the first time do 
we see the United States asserting itself as a nation, assuming the 
rights and powers of a nation. Stronger than the logic of his politics, 
stronger than any limitation of written constitution, the necessities of 
the situation forced Mr. Jefferson into a recognition of national life, 
of the essential and necessary solidarity of the republic, and into a 
step which could in no way be reconciled with any theory of a mere 
confederacy or league of states. 

It is not difficult to see what would have been the probable course 
of events had this opportunity passed. With the downfall of Napoleon, 
if not before. Great Britain would have seized Louisiana. The young 
republic would have been hemmed in on all sides by a jealous and 
powerful foe. The growth of the great west and middle west, over- 
balancing the slave power, would have been Impossible. Faction would 
have torn asunder the discordant States. We might have anticipated 
the uneasy and troubled history of the South American republics, and 
the century, instead of witnessing this onward march of a free people, 
the development of the resources of a continent, this building of a 
home for peace and industry and freedom, might have seen the petty 
strifes of petty states enfeebled by the contentions of faction, their 
industry paralyzed by continual war. But how useless are these "might 
have beens." At every crisis in our history wisdom has counseled and 
courage has fought. Our destiny beckons us onward, still onward. To 
what we shall attain no man can dream. May the republic erected on 
a sure foundation stand firm and true from generation unto generation. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Hubbard's address the closing number, 
the national anthem, "America." was played by the band and many 

4-6 Report ot Floyd Memorial Association 

present joined in the singing. Following this the salute to the dead 
of three volleys was fired over the grave, and "taps" was sounded by 
Musician Eric Knos. The crowd then broke up and there was a general 
scramble down the side of the hill for the train, where the first arrivals 
secured seats, for the crowd was so large that quite a number had to 
stand on the steps. Others made their way to carriages on the opposite 
side of the hill. The start for the city was made at 3:15 o'clock, the 
train arriving at the Northwestern Depot at 3:25 p. m. 

The corner stone was laid at the northeast corner. On the north 
side of the stone is the following inscription: 

August 20, A. D. 1900. 

Madison B. Davis, 

Commander, Department of Iowa, 

Grand Army of the Republic. 

On the east end of the stone is the following inscription: 

H. M. Chittenden. 

Captain, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., 

Engineer and Architect. 







Abstract of Minutes.) 

Sioux City, Iowa, August 25, 1900. 

The Board of Trustees of the Association met at the rooms of the 
Scientific Association; President John H. Charles in the chair; Mrs. 
Francis N. Davis, Secretary; Geo. D. Perkins. C. R. Marks, Mitchell 
Vincent, A. M. Holman, M. B. Davis, Maris Peirce and Mrs. Charles 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: John H. 
Charles, President; Geo. W. Wakefield, First Vice President, and other 
Vice Presidents, viz.: Geo. D. Perkins, Maris Peirce, Joseph N. Field, 
Portus B. Weare, R. C. A. Flournoy, Horace G. Burt, Marvin Hughitt, 
Geo. F. Bidwell, James D. Butler, D. D.; Charles Aldrich, Mrs. Elliott 
Coues, H. D. Clark, S. P. Yeomans; Mrs. Francis N. Davis, Secretary; 
D. A. Magee, Treasurer. 

On motion of Mr. Vincent the thanks of the Association were 
tendered to Geo. F. Bidwell, of Omaha, for his kindness in furnishing 
railroad transportation to and from the grounds at the time of laying 
the corner stone. 

Sioux City, Iowa, September 6, 1900. 

Association met at office of U. S. Engineers; President Charles in 
the chair; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; Messrs. Bates, Magee, Peirce, Davis 
and Perkins present. 

Designs for bronze tablets were submitted by Gorham Co., Smith 
Co., and Paul Cabaret, and after consideration the designs of Gorham 
Co. were accepted, contract authorized and authority given to borrow 
$600, to be deposited with Captain Chittenden, to pay for tablets. 

The President announced committees: 

Committee on Finance— Maris Peirce, M. B. Davis. W. C. Daven- 
port, F. L. Ferris and D. A. Magee. 

Committee on Grounds— A. H. Burton, E. E. Lewis, George Murphy. 
T. J. Stone and H. J. Taylor. 

Committee on Legislation— Geo. W . Wakefield, Geo. D. Perkins, 
C. R. Marks, J. W. Hallam and Charles Aldrich. 

50 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

Sioux City, Iowa, October 27, 1900. 

Association met at office of U. S. Engineers; President Charles in 
the chair; Secretary Davis, Messrs. Perkins, Vincent, Davenport, Kelly, 
Stone, A. M. Holman, C. J. Holman, Bates, Davis and Mrs. Charles. 

Captain Chittenden reported progress of work, sixteen complete 
courses having been laid, and that while work might be completed in 
five weeks, it might be delayed by cool weather. 

It was the sense of the Association that thoroughness of work was 
more to be desired than hasty completion, as the season was far ad- 

Sioux City, Iowa, December 7, 1900. 

Association met at office of U. S. Engineers; President Charles pre- 
siding; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; Messrs. Stone, Marks, Magee, Burton, 
Perkins and Captain Chittenden present. 

Mr. Burton reported that the Committee on Grounds had arranged 
to do the grading in the vicinity of the monument as rapidly as pos- 
sible and to have the macadam put in next spring. 

Captain Chittenden made report of the progress of work as follows: 


Custom House. 

Sioux City, Iowa, December 6, 1900. 

President Floyd Memorial Association, 
Sioux City, Iowa. 

Dear Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report cover- 
ing the work of erection of the Floyd Monument to the present date: 

On June 26, 1900, a contract was made between the State of Iowa 
and the Minnesota Sandstone Company for furnishing the cut stone 
for the monument. The contract was to be completed on the 30th of 
September. Owing to delays which it was not found possible to avoid, 
the work at the quarry was not completed until November 17, and the 
last shipment of stone was made on November 18. Although by the 
terms of the contract payment could have been delayed until erection 
was completed, it was thought best to close the contract at once. The 
Company had done a satisfactory piece of work at a loss of from one- 
fourth to one-third of the full cost of the work, and it was felt to be 
only fair that their pay be not withheld until the work of erection is 
finished. But inasmuch as their delay prevented the completion of the 
erection during the present season, and thereby entailed considerable 
expense to the work, they were asked to bear this expense as a condi- 
tion of immediate settlement. To this they agreed and vouchers for 
final settlement were prepared and submitted to the Board of Com- 
missioners for the State of Iowa, having in charge the disbursement 
of the State appropriation. 

As a further condition of present settlement the Company were 
required to sign an agreement that if, upon resumption of the work 
of erection, there are found any stones that are defective through fault 
of the Company, they are to be replaced free of cost at the quarry, and 
if any stones have to be replaced not through any fault of the Company, 
they shall be furnished at the quarry at the contract price for that 
already furnished. 

Abstract of Minutes 51 

The total cost of the work at the contract rates was $4,594.40 

The amount deducted to cover cost of delay was , 294.40 

Making the sum due in final settlement $4,300.00 

Under date of July 16, 1900, a contract .was entered into on the 
part of the United States with Hansen Brothers, of Sioux City, Iowa, 
for the erection of the monument and the construction of the pavement 
around the base. These contractors have done satisfactory work. They 
would have completed their contract on time but for the delay in fur- 
nishing the stone. Up to the date when work was suspended on account 
of cold weather the stone work of the shaft had been carried to a 
height of 55 feet, and 3,124 cubic feet of a total of 4,460 cubic feet of 
stone had been laid. The concrete core had also been carried up to 
the same height. 

Although the rest of the stone might possibly have been laid this 
fall, it was felt to be unwise to take the chances of defective work, 
which might result if it were done in freezing weather. Moreover, as 
the work could not be finished in time to dedicate the monument this 
fall, there was no pressing necessity for continuing it at present. The 
unused stone was, therefore, carefully piled on the ground, housed 
against storms, and both the stone and the monument have been sur- 
rounded by a strong barbed wire fence. The cost of this work, as else- 
where stated, is borne by the contractors for the stone. Payment has 
been made to the erecting contractors for a portion of the work al- 
ready done, and their contract will be extended to the 31st of next 
May, by which time it is expected to have the work entirely completed. 

The contract for the steel fence around the monument was let 
to Hermann & Savage, of Sioux City, Iowa. The shop work is now 
nearly done, but is not being hurried any because it will not soon be 

The contract for the tablets was let to the Gorham Manufacturing 
Company, of New York, and is now about completed. They have been 
asked not to ship the tablets just at present, as it is hoped that an 
opportunity will soon offer for inspecting the work before it leaves the 
shop. When the tablets are received they will be placed in the office 
for the winter, where they may be seen by the public. 

All other material required in the work, with very minor excep- 
tions, has now been purchased. 

It is desirable at the present meeting to take up the question of 
the preliminary improvement of the grounds around the monument 
and the disposition to be made of the stone slab which marked the 
previous burial place of Sergeant Floyd. 

While in Madison, Wis., recently I saw Prof. J. D. Butler, who 
showed me the original Floyd journal. He desired me to express to 
the Association his hope that they would find it possible to make a 
photographic reproduction of the journal for deposit in the interior of 
the monument. Very respectfully, 


Captain, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A. 

52 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

The money statement accompanying Captain Chittenden's report 
was as follows: , 

Available Funds — 

By appropriation made by the United States $ 5,000.00 

By appropriation made by the State of Iowa 5,000.00 

By contribution made by Floyd Memorial Association 600.00 

By credit from sale of tools, Treas. Sett. No. 15608 95.25 

Total available $10,695.25 

To amount expended from United States funds, as per state- 
ment attached $ 3,091.24 

Cash balance available December 7, 1900: 

United States funds $ 2,004.01 

State funds, etc 5,600.00-$ 7,604.01 

Outstanding Liabilities, December 7, 1900, to be paid: 
From United States Funds — 

Hansen Brothers, balance on contract $ 1,150.22 

Hansen Brothers, retained percentages 113.13 

Western Union Telegraph Co., telegrams 12.32 

W. C. Davenport, team hire 6.38 

John Malmquist, stone cutting 2.40 

Office expenses (uncertain) 400.00 

Storage of cement 15.60—$ 1,700.05 

From State Funds — 

Minnesota Sandstone Company, stone $ 4,300.00 

Hermann & Savage, fence 360.00 

Hansen Brothers, storing, etc 125.75 

Webb Bros. Co., cement 160.18 

Placing tablets on monument (estimated) 50.00— 4,995.93 

From Contributed Funds — 

Gorham Manufacturing Company, tablets $ 600.00— 600.00 

Total liabilities $ 7,295.98 

Cash balance $ 7,604.01 

Total liabilities 7,295.98 

Total available balance $ 308.03 

Available balance United States funds $ 303.96 

Available balance State funds 4.07 

Available balance contributed funds 

Total available balance December 7, 1900 $ 308.03 

Abstract ot Minutes 53 

Payments to Date, December 7, 1900 — 

Date. To Whom Paid. For What Paid. Amount. 


June 1, Sundry persons pay roll May, 1900 % 63 81 

" Sundry persons payroll May, 1900 13190 

June 3, John C. Mooney hauling 109 20 

Knapp & Spencer Co shovels, etc 40 50 

Chas. E. Faeth Co wheelbarrows 52 50 

Ma y 31, Sundry persons pay roll, May, 1900 66 33 

Sundry persons pay roll, May, 1900 60 80 

Sundry persons pay roll, May, 1900 3 00 

O. L. Ferguson pay roll, May, 1900 2 00 

Fred Ackley pay roll, May, 1900 5 75 

W. W. Luckey pay roll, May, 1900 3 00 

June 18, Treas. settlement No. 15,184. cement 51 60 

June 19, Joseph Hutchinson stone 232 00 

May 31, William Moore services 2 00 

June 20, R. F. Bower services 3 00 

" Western Union Tel. Co telegrams 2 98 

June 22, John Malmquist polishing stone 40 

W. C. Davenport team hire 22 50 

H. E. Ingvoldstad excavation, etc 100 10 

June 28, Webb Bros. Co cement 325 73 

June 22, John C. Mooney hauling, etc 47 74 

June 30, Treas. Settlement No. 11,930. telegrams 33 

July 19, C, M. & St. P. Ry. Co switching 2 50 

July 30, W. F. Tuttle hauling 1 36 

George W. Kortright photographic supplies 3 50 

Aug. 15, Treas. Settlement No. 12,576. telegrams 69 

Aug. 17. G. W. Given Co sand 77 18 

Sept. 17, Sundry persons pay roll, August, 1900 5 25 

Sept. 19, Sears, Humbert & Co cement 105 00 

Sept. 21, Iowa Telephone Co messages 1 60 

Architectural Woodworks ...stakes 190 

Sept. 26, Yellowstone Park Ass'n telegrams 43 

Oct. 11, Capt. H. M. Chittenden mileage 1185 

" John H. Queal & Co lumber 39 51 

Webb Bros. Co cement 117 IS 

Sundry persons pay roll. September, 1900 20 45 

Nov. 13, Yellowstone Park Ass'n telegrams 58 

Nov. 17, W. C. Davenport team hire 18 75 

Nov. 20, Brunner & Lay cement 1 50 

Wilbur W. Wertz services 336 67 

Dec. 5, Hansen Bros erecting monument 1,018 17 

Total $3.09124 

The grading of road was referred to Committee on Grounds. 

Captain Chittenden was authorized to move the stone tablet. 

The State Board of Commissioners reported drawing $4,300 of the 
State appropriation and payment of same for stone furnished, and this 
action was approved. 

Sioux City, Iowa. January 26, 1901. 

Association met; President Charles in the chair. 
The Finance Committee was advised that $400 at least would be 
needed before dedication of monument. 

54 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

Sioux City, Iowa, March 22, 1901. 

Association met at U. S. Engineers' office; President Charles in the 
chair; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; Mrs. Charles, Messrs. Wakefield, Chitten- 
den, Holman, Marks, H. J. Taylor, Perkins, Vincent, Davis and Wattles 

Captain Chittenden desired authority for completing his plans in 
regard to paving about the monument. He reported a prospect of re- 
suming work in a week and a donation of $500 from the Union Pacific 
Railway through its President, Horace G. Burt. 

The following resolution was adopted: 

Resolved, That Captain Chittenden be authorized to complete the 
extension of the concrete paving around the monument as per plans 
submitted by him. including the steel posts at the corners of the 

On motion a committee of five, consisting of John H. Charles, C. 
R. Marks, Geo. W. Wakefield, M. B. Davis and H. J. Taylor, were ap- 
pointed to submit plans to the City Council at its next meeting, and 
Captain Chi.ttenden was requested to accompany the committee. 

Sioux City, Iowa, April 27, 1901. 

The Association met at rooms of Scientific Association; President 
Charles in the chair; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; Messrs. Perkins, Vincent, 
Chittenden, Stone, Ferris, Tees, Magee, Pinckney, Peirce, Marks, Bur- 
ton and E. E. Lewis present. 

An appropriation of $1,500 by the City of Sioux City for completion 
of roadway and pavement was reported. 

The following resolution was adopted: 

Resolved, That the thanks of this Association be given to the 
assisting force of the office of U. S. Engineers, and especially to Mr. 
Bathurst Smith, whose faithful supervision of the work of the monu- 
ment has been most gratifying to the Association. 

Captain Chittenden made a financial report showing a probable 
balance in the treasury, and spoke of the favors and concessions in 
the matter of freights from the railroads, resulting in great benefit 
to the Association. Mr. Marks was appointed a committee of one to 
present suitable resolutions at the next meeting. Captain Chittenden 
reported that the roadway and paving might not be completed as early 
as May 30. 

The question whether the dedication should be fixed for a later 
date was largely discussed. A motion by Mr. Ferris that the dedica- 
tion be fixed for May 30, 1901, carried unanimously, and a Committee 
of Arrangements with full power was appointed, viz.: D. A. Magee, 
Geo. D. Perkins and T. C. Tees by the Association; M. B. Davis, J. E. 
Ayres and W. S. Belden by General Hancock Post, G. A. R.; and L. L. 
Kellogg, A. H. Burton and E. C. Tompkins by the Mayor on the part 
of the City. 

Abstract of Minutes 55 

Sioux City, Iowa, May 8, 1901. 

The Committee of Arrangements met at the Mayor's office; all the 
members present, and also President John H. Charles and Vice Presi- 
dents Wakefield and Vincent. Geo. D. Perkins was chosen President, 
D. A. Magee, Secretary, and E. C. Tompkins, Treasurer, of the com- 

The committee decided to hold short exercises of dedication at the 
monument in the forenoon, to have a parade in the afternoon, and the 
principal address of the day at the Opera House by Hon. John A. 
Kasson, who has a national reputation as an orator and diplomat, and 
to hold a meeting at the Court House in the evening, at which Dr. 
Butler and Dr. Yeomans will speak. 

The following sub-committees were appointed: 

Transportation — George T. Bidwell, General Manager of the Sioux 
City and Pacific; Horace G. Burt, President of the Union Pacific Rail- 
road Company; Mitchell Vincent, of Onawa. 

Exercises— Geo. W. Wakefield, John C. Kelly, A. H. Burton. 

Opera House— F. L. Ferris, D. A. Magee, A. B. Beall. 

Printing— D. A. Magee. 

Finance— L. L. Kellogg, E. C. lompkins, T. C. Tees. 

Speakers and Invitations — John H. Charles, Geo. D. Perkins, M. 
B. Davis. 

Music — G. M. Gilbert, Chairman. 

At subsequent meetings the several committees made reports. The 
Transportation Committee reported securing a special train to the Park 
on the occasion and transportation for distinguished visitors, and other 
concessions. All civic and other organizations were invited by follow- 
ing formal letter: 

Inclosed find general invitation for the celebration of the comple- 
tion of the Floyd Monument. We also inclose an invitation to your 
organization to participate in the exercises, which will be of special 
interest. In addition to the dedication of Floyd's Monument, which will 
take place in the forenoon, in the afternoon there will be a general 
parade, in which the Grand Army of the Republic and Companies H 
and L, of the Iowa National Guard, will take part. An invitation has 
been extended to all patriotic and civic societies to join in the parade. 
We most earnestly and cordially invite you to take part in the parade. 
The place of rendezvous and line of march will be announced through 
the press. 

Authority was given to place a monument badge on sale. Geo. D. 
Perkins was made General Chairman for the day. A vote of thanks 
was extended to the Board of Supervisors for the generous donation 
of $800 to help defray expenses of the dedication and get the Associa- 
tion through without any debt hanging over it. 

The members of the General and Sub-committees were appointed 
by President Charles to act with him as a Reception Committee for 
the day. 

The Opera House was secured for $25, half the usual charge, A. B. 
Beall, Manager, making the reduction as his contribution to the ex- 
penses of the day. 

56 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

On report of Committee on Exercises the following programme was 

Chairman of the Day — Geo. D. Perkins. 
Officers of Floyd Memorial Association: 

President — John H. Charles. 

Secretary — Mrs. Francis N. Davis. 

Treasurer — D. A. Magee. 
Morning, 8 o'clock- 
Committees of the G. A. R. and W. R. C. to receive flowers at the 
various school houses; to proceed to Floyd, Logan Park and Mt. Calvary 
cemeteries and decorate the graves of soldiers. 
10:15 o'clock- 
Train to leave Sioux City and Pacific railway depot, with members 
of the Floyd Memorial Association, G. A. R., W. R. C, D. A. R., S. A. 
R., National Guards, civic societies, citizens and guests, for Floyd's 

10:45 o'clock- 
Invocation by Rev. W. S. Vail, pastor of Unity church. 

Music, Fourth Regiment Band. 

Report of Col. H. M. Chittenden, U. S. A., engineer in charge of the 
erection of the Floyd monument, and the formal tender of the same 
to the Floyd Memorial Association, through its president, John H. 

Acceptance by the president and response in behalf of the Associa- 
tion by Vice President George W. Wakefield. 

President John H. Charles unveils the memorial tablet. 

Address by L. M. Kean. 

Music, Fourth Regiment Band. 

Dedication service by G. A. R. 

Salute and taps. 
11:45 o'clock- 
Return by train to the city. 
Afternoon, 1:30 o'clock — 

Parade to form at Library building, march to Pearl, in Pearl to 
Fourth, in Fourth street to viaduct and return to Grand Opera House. 

Parade Committee — M. B. Davis, D. A. Magee, 0. P. McCray. 

Marshal — Captain W. S. Belden. 

Assistant Marshals — Captain W. E. Gantt, Captain Henry Nichols. 
3 o'clock, at Grand Opera House — 

Invocation, Rev. William Salter, D. D. 

Music, "Memorial Song," by Mehul; Miss Bertha Benedict, Miss 
Alice Barbour, Mrs. Frederick Heizer, Miss Lucy Kent. 

Grand Army memorial service for the dead, including "When We 
Pass Through the Mist," by G. A. R. quintet; accompanist, Mrs. Mary 
Drew Wilson. 

Music, "How Sleep the Brave?" by Fisher; ladies' quartet. 

Address, Hon. John A. Kasson. 

Music, "America." 

Abstract of Minutes 57 

Evening, 8 o'clock, at the Court House — 

Address, Dr. J. D. Butler. 

Address, Dr. S. P. Yeomans. 
Music, "America." 

The parade, arranged by Captain W. S. Belden, marshal, was as 

Platoon Mounted Police. 

Reed's Band. 

Captain W. S. Belden, Marshal. 

Company H, Fifty-Second Regiment, I. N. G., Under Command of Cap- 
tain W. E. Gantt. 

Company L, Fifty-Second Regiment, I. N. G., Under Command of Cap- 
tain H. E. Nichols. 

Spanish War Veterans. 

Members of General Hancock Post, G. A. R., and Other Veterans. 

Members of the Women's Relief Corps, in Carriages. 

Floyd Memorial Association and Distinguished Visitors, in Carriages. 

Mayor and Members of the City Council, in Carriages. 

Canton Soo, Patriarchs Militant, in Full Uniform. 

Civic Societies. 

Citizens in Carriages. 

The line of march was west in Sixth to Pearl; south in Pearl to 
fourth; east in Fourth to the viaduct; countermarch in Fourth to the 
Grand Opera House. 

The Tribune, of Sioux City, of May 25, 1901, gava an extended 
review of historical data and the work of the Association with pro- 
gramme for dedication of the monument, from which the following 
is quoted: 

Towering straight, conspicuous and substantial, an index finger in 
history, wnere tne hum of the adjacent city is like the murmur of the 
prairie winds that sweep the bluff where it stands, the monument to 
Sergeant Charles Floyd, patriot and adventurous explorer, of the Lewis 
and Clark Expedition of 1803, was dedicated with fitting ceremonies 
on Thursday. May 30. 

% * * ''fi * # * * * ^ * 

There are few more inspiring views in the west than was to be had 
from the capstone before the scaffolding was taken down. The wind- 
ings of the Missouri could be traced far up into South Dakota, and 
still fartner down between Iowa and Nebraska. To the west across 
the stream lie the beautiful plains of Dakota County, Neb.; westward 
is the city, and beyond this the silver thread of the Big Sioux, forming 
the boundary between Iowa and Dakota; still farther on lie the beau- 
tiful prairies and farms of Union County. South Dakota, visible for 

58 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

many miles. To the east are the great bluffs of the Iowa side of the 
river, and to the south the broad plains of the bottom spread out, 
visible on a clear day as far away as Onawa, thirty odd miles away. 
In the circle of vision lie something like a dozen towns and villages, 
besides the city, with very gems from the landscape of three of the 
States that were carved out of the Louisiana Purchase. 

The Journal of May SO- also gave an extensive review, with cuts 
of pages in Floyd's journal, of the Captains Lewis and Clark, of the 
monument, and of members of the Association. The following is from 
the editorial page: 

Memorial Day, with the old soldiers so thick about us, and with 
so many young soldiers in the field to support them, does not diminish 
in interest. There is pathos in the touching ceremony of decorating 
with flowers the graves of the soldier dead, to the number of which 
each year makes contribution. The old soldiers may give up much 
in the public exercises of the day, but this gentle office of putting 
flowers on the graves of their comrades they do not surrender. 

Memorial Day in Sioux City this year has peculiar interest, for 
the celebration of it groups the record of the soldier dead for a century. 
On the 20th of August, 1804, Sergeant Charles Floyd, the young Ken- 
tuckian member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, was buried by his 
comrades near by on a bluff overlooking the Missouri River, up which 
stream the party was making its tedious way. From time to time the 
grave, lonely in the wilderness, was discovered, observation on the 
simple cedar post noted, and cared for. Six years ago the Floyd Me- 
morial Association began the active work of marking the spot and the 
history of it in an enduring way. The bones of the Kentucky soldier 
of that long ago were reburied under a marble slab. The ground 
was purchased, and enough of it to provide a memorial park. Congress 
was appealed to, and an appropriation secured; the State Legislature 
was appealed to, and an appropriation secured. The City of Sioux City 
made contribution; the County of Woodbury added a needful sum at 
the close. Meanwhile individuals gave in time and money. The 
dedication of the noble shaft near the spot where the comrades of 
Sergeant Floyd buried him ninety-seven years ago is the result of this 
giving and of this effort. It is an enduring testimony to the heroic 
patriotism of our valley for one hundred years. 

The consummation of this work is due more to the steady purpose 
of the President of the Floyd Memorial Association than to any other 
man. The monument is a monument to him. He is an old man now, 
and a Sioux City pioneer. He is not strong in the flesh, but he is strong 
in the spirit, and his devotion to this work has brought the help that 
was needed. The building of this monument, linking together the 
beginnings of two centuries, has stimulated study of all the history with 
which the Lewis and Clark Expedition has direct and relative associa- 
tion, and thereby a wonderful view has been opened of the marvelous 
development of the republic of the United States. The monument will 
remain to direct the thought of many generations and to stimulate 
the faith and patriotism of a length of time not now to be measured. 
Not a great work, to be sure; but the landmark of a century, rich in 
memory, great in achievement, marvelous in testimony of the in- 
scrutable providence that has led the way. 

Sioux City may not soon have another such Memorial Day — such a 
day of far reach into the past; such a day of firm hold upon the present. 
It is blessed for the old soldiers who have survived to have this wonder- 
ful evidence, gathered as in flowers, in reward for the love of country, 
the sacrifice of the years, the faith in the flag, the devotion to comrades, 
which is the glory of their lives and with which they approach as 

Dedication of the Monument 59 

heroes the end of their days. The death of Sergeant Floyd in that 
long ago was a sad death; at the end of a century it is glorious. 

From a poem by E. R. Mousseau, published in the Journal of May 
30, 1901, the following lines are taken: 

Lo! years have passed since that salute's last peal 

Awoke the thunders o'er that lonely grave. 

The wild flowers' wafted incense seemed to steal 

From gaudy censers swinging o'er the brave. 

And yet today the voice of Time bids Fame 

To call from shadows of the past his name, 

And place it on a monument to rise — 

A sculptured vision 'gainst the eastern skies. 

As passing centuries shall onward roll, 

The letters written on oblivion's page 

Become a dim and blank, unmeaning scroll 

Of lives forgotten with some vanished age. 

But when the deathless hand of Memory 

Writes 'mid the ashes of the tomb, where all can see 

The names enshrined in immortality, 

A nation's herald 'mid the first shall be. 



The following account of the services in connection with the dedi- 
cation of the monument is collated from the contemporary reports in 
the city newspapers, particularly the Sioux City Journal : 

May 30, Memorial Day, 1901, was a great day, an ideal day. The 
weather could not have been finer. Not a cloud flecked the deep azure 
of the heavens, and a warm sun and a cool breeze combined to make 
the day perfect. No ceremony could have been conducted under more 
auspicious circumstances than were those of this great day. Arrange- 
ments had all been made for transportation and reception of the guests 
so that there was not the slightest delay or jar. The programme was 
followed as well as if it had been rehearsed a dozen times. The specta- 
tors were enthusiastic and the speakers were eloquent. 

Bright and early this Memorial Day flags were flung to the breeze 
from the different public buildings and bunting and flags were dis- 
played from business houses and private residences. The committees 
from the Grand Army of the Republic went to Floyd, Logan Park and 
Mt. Calvary Cemeteries with a great quantity of flowers to strew on the 
graves of the soldiers. The flowers were gathered by the school chil- 
dren and made into wreaths and clusters by the members of the 
Women's Relief Corps and other women the day previous at G. A. R. 
Hall. Besides the floral decorations by the G. A. R. a great many 
people went out to the cemeteries to place flowers on the graves of their 
dead, and the grassy mounds were nearly all brightened with flowers 
of one sort or another. Over each soldier.'s grave a small flag fluttered 
in the breeze. Carriages and conveyances of all sorts passed through 
the burial places and the cities of the dead were populous with people 
who were there to observe Memorial Day. 

60 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

The detail that went to the Floyd Cemetery was: J. S. Lothrop, 
A. D. Collier, W. A. Welch, J. H. Bulworth, J. A. Summerville, E. W. 
Rice and James Leitch. 

The detail that visited Logan Park and Mt. Calvary Cemeteries was: 
Captain M. W. Murphy, T. P. Tredwell and J. E. Huffman. 

The special train furnished free of charge by the Sioux City and 
Pacific Railway Company was loaded down with people when it left 
the Northwestern Station at 10:15 o'clock in the morning, bound 
for the monument. Every seat was occupied and a large number had 
to stand up in the aisles and on the platforms. The first three coaches 
were set apart for the members of the G. A. R. and the W. R. C, many 
of whom were present in a body. The train was in personal charge 
of George F. Bidwell, General Manager of the Sioux and Pacific and 
Elkhorn lines, and M. M. Betzner, General Agent of the Northwestern 
in Sioux City. The last coach on the train, which was the private car 
of Mr. Bidwell, was occupied by the distinguished visitors of the day. 
When the special train arrived at the Monument Park the crest of the 
steep mound was already fringed with a black line of people, and many 
were climbing upon the concrete slope of the monument's base to look 
at the tablets through the silver tinted bars of the iron fence. 

On the west side of the shaft were placed chairs for the speakers 
and notable guests. The central figure was that of the venerable John 
H. Charles, President of the Floyd Memorial Association, wrapped in 
his black cape and surmounted by a black slouch hat, from beneath 
the brim of which he smiled happily. His wife also sat near by. An- 
other personage who was pointed out and studied with much interest 
by those who found out who he was was Iowa's statesman and diplomat, 
John A. Kasson, who was chatting with Mrs. Francis N. Davis, Secre- 
tary of the Floyd Memorial Association. Another prominent figure 
was Dr. William Salter, of Burlington, who came to Iowa when she 
was one of the infant States. J. C. C. Hoskins and Mrs. Hoskins were 
numbered among those who deserve to be called old timers. There 
was N. Levering, of Los Angeles, Cal., who in 1857, had charge of the 
reinterment of the remains of Sergeant Floyd at the time they were 
nearly washed into the Missouri; Dr. S. P. Yeomans, of Marshalltown, 
an old resident of Sioux City; Dr. James D. Butler, of Madison, Wis., 
the discoverer and possessor of the journal written by Floyd on his 
trip with Lewis and Clark; Mitchell Vincent, of Onawa, to whose efforts 
were due the excellent preparations for transportation of the people 
to the monument: O. D. Wheeler, of St. Paul, Assistant General Passen- 
ger Agent of the Northern Pacific Railroad; Mrs. Elliott Coues, of Wash- 
ington, wife of the historian of the Lewis and Clark Expedition; Mrs. 
Stephen Fields, of Northboro, Iowa, whose father, William Britton, 
was a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Facing the monu- 
ment were seats for the old settlers and the wives and other guests 
of the members of the Association. Among the pioneers were Philip 
Schneider, whose residence in this city dates back to 1856; George 
Murphy, who came here in 1854: Judge Addison Oliver, of Onawa; B. 
M. Yeomans. Alexander Elliott, D. A. W. Perkins, of Newcastle. Neb.; 
John Hittle, C. R. Marks, B. P. Yeomans and Congressman Lot Thomas. 
Surrounding the monument and covering the whole available surface 
of the hill upon which the shaft rests was a throng of spectators. It 
is estimated that about 2,000 persons were gathered there to witness 
the dedicatory ceremonies. 

The great crowds gathered close about the monument. Prominent 
visitors were ushered to seats just outside the railing about the shaft. 
Reed's Band played patriotic airs. When the last strains had died 
away and all had settled in their places, Geo. D. Perkins, Chairman of 

Dedication of the Monument 61 

the day's exercises, called to order and announced that Rev. Walter 
S. Vail, of the First Unitarian Church of Sioux City, would pronounce 
the invocation: 

Our Father Who Art in Heaven: Standing in the bright sunlight 
of this beautiful day, when nature is alive with gladness, and hope 
seems in the very atmosphere, we remember the task finished, the duty 
performed, the long anxieties of waiting hearts satislied. Viewing the 
passing scenes of a century, watching the onward and steady move- 
ment of civilized life, the rise of institutions of learning and religion, 
we stand, O, Father, as we cross this century line the inspiration of 
tnat larger faith and better hope always felt when we view the worthy 
deeds and coming hopes of man. 

And seeing what has been wrought by the sacrifice of men, feeling 
that Thy hand has ever led out of wilderness into larger life, we thank 
Thee for those who have been most earnest in building up our life; 
and we remember not only those, but the brave, the strong, the true 
who have placed the foundations in the footsteps of the explorer on 
which have been Luilded the life of civilization, in its industrial, its 
educational and its religious aspects. 

And now, 0. Father, we thank Thee for these men and women who 
are here present, as well as for those who have passed on, to whose 
industry, energy, faith and good courage the present result is due. 
And now keep us all ever fixed on the highest ideals, and may our 
lives, like theirs, show forth the fruits of good. Amen. 

After a musical selection by Reed's Band, Mr. Perkins introduced 
Colonel H. M. Chittenden. 01 the Government Corps of Engineers, the 
architect and supervising engineer of the monument. He was greeted 
with applause as he arose and spoke as follows in delivering the com- 
pleted monument to the Memorial Association: 

Mr. President and Members of the Floyd Memorial Association: 
The history of the Floyd Monument has been that of continuous growth. 
In its earlier stages it was scarcely hoped to secure more than an 
ordinary snait, perhaps forty or fifty feet high, costing some $4,000 oi- 
ls, 0C0. It was expected to raise the necessary funds by private sub- 
scription. You will recall that a distinguished member of this Asso- 
ciation at that time thought it unadvisable even to ask for Government 
aid lest the movement be killed by the delays and complications which 
often characterize the execution of public works. Other counsels pre- 
vailed, however, and the Government was induced to give tne sum of 
$5 000 toward the work. The State of Iowa, upon whose soil the monu- 
ment was to stand, gave a like sum. The City of Sioux City, Iowa, in 
one of whose parks this shaft will hereafter be the most imnortant 
feature, gave $1,500. The County of Woodbury gave $800. Private 
donations added $1 000 more. The several railroads centering at this 
point have contributed free of charge all services desired of them. 
The work of erection was placed in charge of the local United States 
Engineer Office, and the services of trained employes have been avail- 
able for designing and superintendence at comparatively small cost to 
the Association. It has thus come about that the modest original con- 
ception of what the Floyd Monument should be has grown into the 
result which we have before us today — a work whose actual cost will 
come close to $20,000. 

No one foresaw so considerable a result in the beginning, nor its 
full development until near the end. The Association has proceeded 
carefully throughout. It has taken no step in the dark. No liabilities 
have been incurred for which the funds were not clearly in sight, and 
the work nas not at any time experienced a shadow oif financial em- 
barrassment. 'Its completion finds the Association with every pecuniarv 
obligation discharged and a creditable balance in its treasury. 

62 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

The monument itself is a solid masonry obelisk, built in the most 
substantial manner in careful conformity with the proportions of the 
ancient Egyptian models. The stone used is the Kettle River sandstone 
of Minnesota, well known as one of the best building stones in the 
United States. It was quarried and cut by the Minnesota Sandstone 
Company, of Minneapolis. The work of erection and the construction 
of the surrounding pavement have been done by Hansen Bros., of Sioux 
City. The steel picketing for the protection of the monument has been 
built by Hermann & Savage, of this City. The bronze tablets are from 
the foundry of the Gorham Manufacturing Company, of New York. 
The work on the monument is throughout of high grade, and nothing 
has been omitted which was considered essential to its appearance 
and permanence. 

The height of the shaft is a trifle over 100 feet above its base, which 
is 125 feet above standard low water in the Missouri River. Its dimen- 
sions are such that it possesses a factor of safety of three against over- 
turning with a wind pressure of forty pounds per square foot simulta- 
neously developed over an entire face. The foundation is a solid mono- 
lith of the best concrete that can be made, and weighs 278 tons. Its 
bearing surface upon the ground beneath is 484 square feet. The total 
pressure upon this bed is 844 tons, or one and three-fourths tons per 
square foot, and it has so far failed to produce any appreciable settle- 
ment. The actual construction of the monument has been a matter of 
just about one year's work. The foundation was laid May 29, 1900; 
the corner stone August 20, 1900; the capstone April 22, 1901, and the 
completed work is being dedicated on this Memorial Day of the 
year 1901. 

Such, Mr. President, are the essential data pertaining to the monu- 
ment erected to "perpetuate the grave and memory of Sergeant Charles 
Floyd," and to commemorate certain great events in our country's 
history with which his brief career was identified. It remains for me, 
as engineer and architect of the work, to declare it finished and deliver 
it, through you, to the Floyd Memorial Association, under whose au- 
spices it has been brought to successful completion. 

President John H. Charles was next introduced as the man "with- 
out whose unremitting care this monument would not have been built." 
As Mr. Charles slowly arose to his feet the people broke into loud 
applause. "I thank you," he said, addressing the Chairman, "and I 
thank Colonel Chittenden for the manner in which he has presented 
his work, and for his untiring efforts in assisting in accomplishing 
this grand thing for the past and the future. And now in behalf of the 
Association I receive this monument." 

Judge George W. Wakefield, Vice President of the Association, in 
behalf of President Charles and the Association, accepted the monu- 
ment, speaking as follows: 

Colonel H. M. Chittenden: In behalf of John H. Charles, the ven- 
erable and public spirited President of the Floyd Memorial Association, 
who has longingly looked forward to this day for more than forty years, 
and who has done more than any other man to bring it about, and in 
behalf of the Floyd Memorial Association and very many co-workers 
with it during the last six years, and in behalf of our City, County, 
State and Nation, each having contributed to this end, I accept and 
receive from you this memorial shaft erected to the memory of Sergeant 

Dedication of the Monument 63 

Charles Floyd and the Lewis and Clark Expedition, this finished work 
so well done, so appropriate and fitting in every detail which has been 
tendered to us with such happy and well chosen words. 

We feel a just pride in the consummation of our labors, which we 
celebrate on this national holiday, set apart for the commemoration 
of the deeds of heroism and valor of our soldiers and sailors on land 
and on sea. This occasion we cannot forget while we live, and this en- 
during shaft will serve to keep it green in the minds and hearts of 
those who come after us. It is a glorious monument. It marks the 
last resting place of one who lost his life in the service of his country. 
It commemorates the exploration of an empire wilderness and its 
growth into a vast and wonderful civilization within the memory of 
some standing here. It is a bloodless monument, and stands for the 
best in the arts of peace. It stands for the purchase of territory with 
the money of the merchant, and not by war, devastation and conquest. 
The gallant citizen-soldier resting here died of disease while on a 
peaceful mission. Great States have grown up out of this territory 
under the fostering care of peace. This shaft has been designed and 
reared with such consummate skill and care that in its erection no 
human life has been lost nor anyone maimed. 

I congratulate you, sir, the architect and superintendent in charge 
of this work, and all who have assisted in its construction, upon its 
successful completion, and assure you all that our thanks, gratitude 
and kindest wishes go with you always. 

Mr. Charles here arose and released the large American flag veiling 
the bronze tablet in the face of the shaft, and as he stood there looking 
at in the perfection of its detail the spectators cheered with enthusiasm. 

L. M. Kean, one of the descendants of Thomas Jefferson, in whose 
administration the Louisiana Purchase was consummated, was intro- 
duced and spoke as follows: 

Mr. President. Ladies and Gentlemen: We meet today for the 
establishment of one of those mile posts on the pathway of a nation's 
life, which have ever been set up by all peoples to mark their progress. 
Sometimes the movement so marked is backward instead of forward, 
though at the time this is seldom or never perceived. It would seem, 
therefore, that it is not inopportune to pause while we are bestowing 
memorial wreaths and chaplets and to consider the way we have passed 
and whither our steps are tending. Change is a law of human life, 
and no human institutions have ever yet been stable. We are fond 
of saying that our institutions will be perpetual. God grant that this 
might be so. It rests with each of us to do his part in determining 
whether the future will bear out this proud boast. No one of us can 
rightly do his nart without a clear understanding of the basis of our 
institutions and remaining ever mindful of what is permanent and 
ought to be enduring therein. 

The great charter of our liberties recites "That all men are created 
equal: that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable 
rights: that among them are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness." 
This is the keystone of the arch of our institutions. We find then that 
the cardinal principle of our system" is a recognition that every human 
being has "inalienable rights." Not only rights, but rights of such 
nature and dignity that not even he himself can divest himself of them 

64 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

save by forfeiting them as the necessary penalty of personal trans- 
gression. Such rights necessarily imply corresponding duties, not the 
least of which is the recognition of any respect for the like rights of 
every other human being. In short, the bedrock of our whole fabric is 
pure righteousness; not only as between man and man, but as between 
people and people. For a people to have such a foundation for their 
institutions is a new thing upon earth. No other people on God's green 
earth has or ever had a like basis for their institutions. Surely it is 
a basis which ought to be enduring and to sustain enduring institutions. 
This ideal of the application of the standard of pure righteousness 
to all our dealings as individuals and a community is the standard 
the fathers set up for us to live by. They worked towards it, and 
succeeding generations have according to their lights endeavored to 
live by it. This alone is the reason that our diplomacy has been so- 
uniformly successful even when we were a weak and struggling nation. 
So long as this principle and this standard are kept in sight and lived 
by, not only in our relations amongst ourselves as individuals, muni- 
cipalities and States, but also in our dealings and relations with other 
peoples, tribes and nationalities, just so long is there a safe and sure 
guaranty for the liberties and rights of the individual citizen. When 
this standard and this ideal is lost sight of or ignored, then the free- 
dom of the individual citizen is instantly put in jeopardy, and safety 
is only to be found in a return to first principles. 

For these reasons it is good for us each and every one to go back 
from time to time and refresh ourselves by a study of and reflection 
upon the fundamental principles of our institutions. It is necessary 
that we from time to time refill our lamps, trim the wicks and relight 
them at the sacred fire that burns forever on the altar of the temple 
of our political religion. If we fail to do this we are in danger of find- 
ing ourselves in darkness. The way is ever beset with dangers, pit- 
falls, snares and byways leading to destruction. Sordid greed of in- 
dividuals or communities, personal ambitions and even personal 
hatreds, the undue stimulation of erroneous and distorted ideas of 
national grandeur; all these and more dangers we meet upon the way, 
and without the light of truth to guide our feet we are ever liable to 
be misled or to fall by the wayside. It is, therefore, the highest duty on 
the part of each and every one of us to see to it that nothing is done 
to impair or distract from this high ideal. That the standard of 
righteousness is ever kept in mind and sight that we may enjoy and 
hand down to our children and children's children, even as we have 
received it, this high exalted ideal of the basic principles of our insti- 
tutions. That our institutions may be made perpetual in the only way 
in which it is possible for them to be so, namely, by deserving so to 
be in the sight of God as well as the aspiration of man — that American 
Liberty so beautifully typified by the French sculptor. Bartholdi, in 
his colossal statue placed in New York harbor may really enlighten the 
world with a flame that cannot die, because it is ever fed by the im- 
perishable elements of righteousness and truth. 

Let each of us, then, as we depart hence to our several homes, go 
with a firm resolve, by thought, word, act and vote, ever to see to it 
that there be no change or detraction from this high ideal of the 
fathers. That no man be permitted to do anything to undermine this 
foundation stone of our institutions. That the keystone be kept in 
place and the perfect arch remain intact. That the blessed heritage 
we have received be handed down pure and undefiled to the remotest 
generation. And may every man who would lead this people astray 
and in aught detract from their high ideal, set up any other standard 
for personal or national action, and so undermine and take away 

Dedication of the Monument 65 

in the least degree the rights of the individual, meet the fate of the 
Jew who laid his sacrilegious hand upon the ark of the covenant of 
the living God. 

The ceremonies of dedication were then performed by the officers 
of General Hancock Post of the G. A. R., under command of Depart- 
ment Commander M. B. Davis. These ceremonies were performed 
with great dignity and solemnity, and made an impressive dedication 
of the noble shaft. The guard of honor, composed of details from 
Companies H and L, of the Fifty-second Regiment. I. N. G., under 
command of Lieutenant Charles Kloster. was posted beside the monu- 
ment within the inclosure of the fence. The guard was made up as 
follows: Sergeants Eric Knos and Charles Feuchter; Privates Carl 
Anderson, George W. Finch, William Johnson, Robert McClintock and 
William Rolf. The Stars and Stripes were then raised on the flag staff, 
and as they slowly unfurled to the breeze the band played the familiar 


strains of the "Star Spangled Banner." The symbol of the army was 
then posted in front of the shaft. This was represented by Elmer 
Peterson, dressed in the uniform of a soldier and bearing a musket, with 
fixed bayonet, haversack and canteen. The symbol of the navy, which 
was then set up, was represented by William Dale, dressed in the cos- 
tume of a jackie and holding a large anchor, crossed with a cutlass and 
boarding pike. In the name of Fraternity, that it might be spread 
among men, in the name of Charity, that charity might be shed abroad 
in all hearts, in the name of Loyalty, that the spirit of loyalty may be 
known and established everywhere, as Commander of the Department 
of Iowa of the Grand Army of the Republic Colonel Davis dedicated 
the memorial shaft to the memory of Sergeant Charles Floyd. Post 
Chaplain Captain T. C. Prescott offered the prayer of dedication. 

Dr. James Davie Butler was introduced to show the audience the 
precious journal of Sergeant Floyd, which he found in the historical 
collection at Madison, Wis., his home. "We have here,'" he said, as 
he lifted in his hand a small book, "an obelisk which Sergeant Floyd 
erected himself. This monument endures forever. It is preserved by 
the art preservative of all arts. Its lines have gone out in all the earth. 
These stones may perish, but these lines shall endure. While these 
words go abroad everywhere, this obelisk is stationary, and some day 
it will be resolved back again to the sand of which it was first agglom- 
erated. This book is Sergeant Floyd's enduring monument. The date 
of his last entry was August 18. On August 20 he was buried here." 

The bugler, H. H. Clubb. then blew "retreat," the flag was lowered, 
the symbols were removed and the crowd began to break up. A firing 
squad of twenty-four men discharged three volleys with almost perfect 
precision, and the echoes of the last volley had not ceased to resound 
over the hill tops when the beautiful clear notes of the bugle sounded 
"taps," thus completing finally the establishment of tne magnificent 
memorial to Sergeant Floyd. 


® FLOYD ® 





AUGUST 20, 1804. 


ERECTED A. D. 1900 










APRIL 30, 1803. 










68 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

The exercises of the afternoon commenced at ~ o'clock, when 
the column of the parade, made up of the veterans of the Civil War, 
the siou\ City c panies of the Iowa National Guard ami represents 

lives of the civic societies, moved from its place of organization at 

Sixth ami Douglas St feels and took I lie line of march down Fourth 
Street to the viaduct and returning to the Opera House for the after- 
noon memorial services. There was an unusually good representation 

of the members Of the (I. A. R, in the line of march under the standard 
of General HanCOCk Post, and as the line of veterans, many of whom 
are bent with accumulated years, passed before the holiday crowd it 

was repeatedly cheered. 

The parade was led by a company of mounted police in Charge of 
Officer William T. Reeve, himself an old soldier and a member of the 
<!. A R, Following the mounted police marched Heed's Hand. Caplain 
W S Belden, Marshal of the Hay, mounted on a bay charger, headed 

the column. General Hancock Pos1 was under the command of w. 
L. wilkius. Companies ii ami i.. under the command of Captains 

Gantt and Nichols, led the second division of Hie parade. Woodlawn 
Guards, Of Camp No, 2, W. 0. W.. with thirty men in line, and Canton 
Sioux. Patriarchs Militant, with thirty six in line, made an excellent 

appearance in uniform. Four carriages carrying the city officials 

brought up the rear of the parade. The line of march was from Sixth 
and Douglas Streets, west on Sixth to Hearl, thence south to Fourth 
Street, east on Fourth to the viaduct and return lo the Opera House. 

Every seal in the (Hand Opera House and much of the available 
Btanding room was occupied at the exercises incident to the dedication 

hi the Floyd Monument. The programme began at :; o'clock, just fol- 
lowing the parade. Heed's Band, sealed in the orchestra pit. played 
The Ninth and South'' am' stirred every heart with patriotism. 

The scene on the Stage was an Inspiring one. Flaborale decora- 
tions, consisting Of the national colors, had been artistically arranged 
about tin- sta^e by A 1' McKown. a well known young designer. In 

the background was a huge iia^ covering the roar wall of the stage. 
The Bcenery consisted of a woodland, and tia.^s were protruding from 
the thes The big pillars on the rlghl and left of the stage near the 
footlights were covered with bunting, and stretched across them were 
small bine Bags with the word "Liberty" iii silver letters. Strung 
across the Btage up In the flies was a huge black streamer with gold 

letters, marked "The spirit of 76." Flags bung from the boxes, bunt- 
ing dra|icd the balconies, and the effect was artistic and beautiful. Down 

.11 the front of the Btage and with its folds hanging forward on the 

piano in I he orchestra pit was a rich while silk flag, Signifying I'eace. 
It contained cream silk stripes and silver stars 

On the Btage was seated a distinguished gathering, In the front 
row sat John II Charles, the venerable Hresident of the Floyd Memorial 
Association, who was the objot-t of much interest. \roiind him sat 
Hon. John \ Kassou. the speaker of the day; Congressman Hut Thomas. 
ReV. William Salter of Burlington, \^v. J. D. Butler of Madison. Wis.: 

Dedication of the Monument 69 

Dr. S. P. Yeomans of Marshalltown, Colonel M. B. Davis of Sioux City. 
Geo. D. Perkins, the Chairman, and about fifteen other persons, many 
of them being pioneer residents of Sioux City. Mrs. John H. Charles 
and Mrs. Elliott Cones, of Washington, D. C, her guest, also sat upon 
the stage. 

Mr. Perkins asked the audience to rise, and Rev. Dr. William 
Salter, of Burlington, delivered the invocation. He thanked the Divine 
Being for the brave men who had laid the opening of the way for the 
civilization that followed in the great west, and he commended to a 
special Providence those who had been interested in the work of com- 
memorating the lives of the brave pioneers. He commended the country 
of the exploration of the brave pioneers to a special blessing of pros- 
perity and peace. He asked for the further opening of the avenues 
of commerce and the establishment of schools and religious institutions 
that the new west might be the home of a free and happy people. 
He asked that the monument just dedicated might call succeeding 
generations to acts of heroism like those which it was erected to com- 
memorate. Rev. Dr. Salter concluded by reciting the Lord's prayer. 

A quartette consisting of Mrs. Fred Heizer and Misses Lucy Kent, 
Alice Barbour and Bertha Benedict sang "The Warrior's Sleep." Arthur 
Solberg recited the addiess of Lincoln on the battlefield of Gettysburg. 
A number of old soldiers sang "Passing Through the Mist," the words 
and music of which were composed by G. M. Gilbert, a member of 
General Hancock Post. G. A. R. Those who sang were: Mr. Gilbert, 
M. B. Davis, T. C. Prescott. H. W. Allen and William T. Reeve. Mrs. 
Mary Drew Wilson accompanied them on the piano. 

Then followed the Grand Army memorial service to the dead. 
Commander W. L. Wilkins. of the Post, was in charge. Adjutant George 
M. Pardoe read the general orders from the National and State Depart- 
ments concerning Memorial Day. and after a few words by the Com- 
mander a salute to the dead was given. A ritualistic service of the 
Post was given. 

Chairman Perkins arose and paid a tribute to President Charles, 
of the Floyd Memorial Association. "I feel it a distinction to stand 
here representing the President of the Floyd Memorial Association." 
said Mr. Perkins. "I wish to state that we owe to him." and the speaker 
turned and pointed to Mr. Charles, "the credit for having the beautiful 
shaft which we dedicated today, for it was his perseverance, his patience 
and his energy, extending over a period of many long years, that made 
it possible for us to gather today on such an occasion as this. The 
shaft which we have dedicated is not only to commemorate the Louis- 
iana Purchase, not only to commemorate the Lewis and Clark Expedi- 
tion, but. I might add. it is a beautiful and fitting memorial to John 
H. Charles." These words touched the heart of the well loved old man. 
and he broke into tears, while the band struck up softly a patriotic air. 

In introducing the speaker of the day. Hon. John A. Kasson. of 
Des Moines. Chairman Perkins referred to him as a man who had 
grown up with Iowa, who loved his State and who had not onlv con- 

70 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

tributed to the advancement of Iowa but of his country. Mr. Kasson 
spoke for about one hour, an'd his address was listened to with unusual 
attention. At the conclusion Chairman Perkins on behalf of the Asso- 
ciation and the audience as well expressed the greatest degree of appre- 
ciation for the scholarly effort of the distinguished Iowan. 

The band played "America" as the large audience dispersed. 

The address of Hon. John A. Kasson upon the dedication of the 

Floyd Monument and what it signifies, is a marvelous exposition not 

only of the annals connected with the great Louisiana Purchase, but 

of the philosophy of history connected therewith and growing out of 

it, and of the application of that philosophy to events in these later 

times. He said: 

Fellow Citizens: The occasion which has brought this great as- 
sembly together evokes the memory of many important events in our 
national history. To all except the aged pioneer it seems impossible 
that only a century ago all the fair land we look upon from your historic 
bluff and all westward to the continental range of mountains was a 
desert and under the dominion of despotic Spain; that all the land east- 
ward to the Mississippi, as well as all toward the setting sun was at 
that time, and had been for unrecorded ages, in possession of wild 
beasts and savages of the human race. 

Only ninety-seven summers have passed since a roving Indian 
standing on this highland would have witnessed a scene altogether 
new and strange to him. A barge fifty-five feet long, having a fore- 
castle forward and a cabin aft, carrying twenty-two oars and a square 
sail, drew near this shore on its passage up the great river of the 
Missouri. It was accompanied by two smaller open boats, and alto- 
gether they carried about forty pale faces, chiefly soldiers. A number 
of the men landed at the foot of the bluff and ascended it, bearing 
gently a burden which they deposited in a grave, and marked the spot 
with a rude cedar post. Upon its face was inscribed the name of Ser- 
geant Charles Floyd, of the United States Army, who had died that 
day, August 20, 1804. No priest's prayer or blessing was heard; but 
certain simple honors of the military service broke the sad silence of 
the ceremony. After this solemn act these pale faces descended the 
bluff to the boats; and the barge with its pirogues moved a mile up the 
river into the mouth of a tributary stream, then thirty yards wide, 
where the company camped for the night. The brilliant stars of this 
western firmament drew their eyes and their thoughts heavenward, 
whither their brave companion had just departed, and made the scene 
more beautiful than the day. In honor of the dead they dedicated to 
his memory both the burial bluff and the little river in which they 
were moored. Thenceforth for all time these two objects in nature 
shall preserve the name of their dead comrade. So does a name — a 
mere sound in the air — become more imperishable than any structure 
of human workmanship. Unaffected by flood or tempest, or war's 
destructiveness, it is repeated from father to son, for all generations. 

Thus prematurely died and was buried the courageous young Ken- 
tuckian. He had enlisted for a long and adventurous service which 
was expected to lead him along many mighty rivers, among many wild 
and strange tribes, and over unknown mountains, until his eyes should 
finally rest upon that great and distant ocean which washed the west- 
ern shores of the unexplored continent. Although he perished in the 
earlier stage of the enterprise this lonely burial, which cut off his hopes 
and his career, has preserved his name and memory among mankind 


Commander of Lewis and Clark Expedition. 

Dedication ot the Monument 71 

above that of his comrades who continued the struggle to the end, 
and who returned to receive the rewards voted by an appreciative 

President Jefferson had in the winter of 1802-3 conceived the plan 
of an exploring expedition up the Missouri and across the mountains 
to the Pacific with the view of scientific investigation and of opening 
trade with the Indians, and also of finding a feasible route for the 
limited commerce of that day across the continent. He hoped also to 
divert the fur trade of the northwest into the hands of Americans. He 
obtained an appropriation from Congress of $2,500, with which he pro- 
ceeded to organize a company under the leadership of Captains Merri- 
weather Lewis, his private secretary, and William Clark. The details 
of that expedition are interesting, but are already so well known that 
tnere is no occasion to repeat them in this address. Its success was 
only accomplished by the exercise of all the virtues known to the life 
of the frontiersman. It required valor, perseverance, mutual trust, 
self confidence, vigilance, knowledge of the instincts and character- 
istics of the savage, inventive resource, endurance, continuous toil and 
unlimited courage. The explorers left their camp opposite the mouth of 
the Missouri on May 14, 1804, and sixteen days from their departure 
saw the last cabin of the white man, about one hundred miles from the 
mouth of the river. It was ninety-seven years ago this day that they 
bade farewell to these huts of semi-civilization. Thenceforward for 
many, many weary months, upward, along the endless windings and 
shifting sandbars of that treacherous river, and through the gorges 
and over the trackless ridges of confused mountains, and down the 
unknown streams rushing to the Pacific Ocean, abandoning their old 
boats and building new, in peril of starvation, in peril of drowning, 
in peril of wild beasts and of wily savages, they pushed their way 
over flooding waters and pathless forests to their desolate destination 
on an uncharted ocean coast, in the far region of the sunset. Every 
morning found them ignorant where their evening would be. The sun 
by day and the stars by night were the only familiar things of the 
visible universe. When in the opening of a second winter season 
they arrived on the bleak and desolate ocean shore at the mouth of a 
great river, it was only to encounter the incessant cold rains of winter, 
tne increasing dangers of famine, and the attacks of disease. After 
four tedious months of waiting beside the deserted waters of the Pa- 
cific, hoping vainly for sight of a vessel that should take their home- 
ward messages around Cape Horn, in the third spring of their expedi- 
tion they turned their steps again into the continental wilderness on 
their return (if God would permit it) to the land of civilization and of 
expectant friends. 

Again the weary hunt for wild food, again the endless tugging at 
the oars up stream, again the rugged transit of mountain ranges, once 
more the search for new passes and new waters of navigation in the 
tangled web of mountains, until at last in the summer of 1806 their 
boats were again launched upon the Missouri. Then for the first time 
they felt themselves truly "homeward bound." Now the swift current 
of the great stream which was lately their enemy became their friend. 
Every lapping wavelet now sang of the nearing home. The stars, ever 
brilliant in that clear atmosphere, now seemed to shine with increas- 
ing luster as they rose up from the distant east, where anxious friends 
were awaiting the long expected tidings. Familiar scenes of old camp- 
ing places appeared as they swiftly descended the river. More cheerily 
than on the upward voyage they now leaped into the stream to push 
their boat from the ever lurking, ever changing sandbars. Instead of 
fifteen or twenty miles a day as on their upward voyage, they now 
counted fifty, sixty, even seventy miles per day. There was little 
halting on their homeward course. But as they came by the bluff on 

72 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

which we stood today the strong magnet of memory drew them to 
the shore. Once more the expedition halted at this landing that they 
might visit the grave of their dead comrade. They restored it to a 
condition of safety, and then bade the sacred deposit a long farewell. 
Little did they know, not one of the toil worn heroes ever dreamed, 
of a future scene like that we look upon today. They saw only a soli- 
tary grave mound in a vast desert region, far away from the abodes of 
civilization. We behold a splendid monument commemorating the 
spot where they laid their comrade in his last camping ground, while 
jubilant thousands celebrate the brilliant deeds of the men who then 
sailed sadly away from the shore. They looked up stream and eastward 
upon a limitless solitude, stretching far away to the north and to the 
Mississippi. Our eyes look upon a populous and prosperous city which 
shall watch forever over this grave, and around it a rich and happy 
State of the American Union with more than 2,000,000 of patriotic in- 
habitants, who today recall with pride the story of the first American 
pioneers of the great west. It is a transformation scene unmatched 
in any oriental story. But these pilgrims of the wilderness, ignorant 
and undreaming of all this incredible future, passed on, plying their 
oars until at the end of nineteen days they met a joyous welcome from 
the villagers of St. Louis, and rested from their labors. 

But this lofty monument is not erected solely to commemorate 
the modest life and humble career of the army sergeant whose bones 
were deposited in this soil long before the plow of civilization had 
disturbed it. Nor will this memorial only serve to celebrate the splen- 
did exploration accomplished by his more fortunate companions. It 
also perpetuates the memory of a great historic act which influenced the 
fate of three nations and opened the way to new liberties for mankind. 
It changed the development of our people, and gave a new pathway to 
the march of our young republic. It is this historical significance of 
the monument which induced the National Congress, the Legislature 
of Iowa, and the patriotic people of Sioux City to combine their efforts 
for its erection. It is my honorable and welcome duty today, fellow 
citizens, to invite your attention to the history of that great acquisition 
in our national progress which this monument will forever commemo- 
rate; and to indicate its influence upon the later destinies of the 

Before the outbreak of the Anglo-French war of 1776 the French 
king claimed under the name of "Louisiana" not only all of the Missis- 
sippi Valley west of that river, but also all the valley on the east of it 
lying north of Spanish Florida and eastward to the Alleghany Moun- 
tains. The country north of the upper Ohio, however, was regarded 
as a part of Canada. The Count de Vergennes in his memorial on the 
subject addressed to the King of France says that the Apalachian Moun- 
tains "separate the new France from the new England as distinctly as 
in Europe the mountains of the Pyrenees separate France from Spain" 
("separent aussi distinctement la nouville France de la nouville Angle- 
terre, que les Monts Pyrenees separent, en Europe, la France d'avec 
l'Espagne"). The Louisiana of that day may be generally described 
as embracing the whole region north of Spanish Mexico and Spanish 
Florida, from the Alleghanies to the Rocky mountains, and from the 
sources of the Mississippi to its mouth, with the exception of that 
northeastern part which was tributary to the great lakes north of the 
Ohio and was therefore associated with Canada. 

The French were very active in establishing tradine posts and 
making agreements with the Indians for common hostility to the 
English. Along the undefined boundaries aggressions were continually 
occurring without waiting for declarations of war. When the war of 
1756 came it proved exhaustive for both parties, but ended most dis- 

Dedication oi the Monument 73 

astrously for the French. They were obliged in the end to surrender to 
the British all Canada and all of Louisiana lying east of the Mississippi, 
with the exception of New Orleans and the block of adjacent land ex- 
tending east to the boundary of west Florida. The delta east of the 
river, and all the remainder of Louisiana to the west and northwest 
of the river as far as the mountains was about the same time ceded 
to Spain in compensation for her losses in the war as the ally of France. 

The retention by the French king in his treaty with England of 
the lower east bank of the river, which gave to the jealous Spaniard 
the control of both banks for a long distance above the mouth, and of 
the whole gulf coast, was destined to cause much angry excitement 
and trouble in the future, with much contention between the United 
States and Spanish governments; and it led later to a great change in 
the policy of the United States. The treaty of peace of 1763 assured to 
England the free navigation of the river to its mouth. But commerce 
in barges and flat boats required a depot near New Orleans for its 
transfer to ocean going vessels. France, however, had relieved herself 
of all trouble on this account by her secret transfer of the territory 
to Spain. After the peace of 1763 England found French interests with- 
drawn from the American continent; and Spain was in possession of 
all the Mississippi region which France had owned or claimed, except 
that portion toward the Alleghanies which was ceded by the treaty 
to England. 

This was the situation when our revolutionary war again disturbed 
the international conditions in respect to Louisiana. Naturally the 
sympathies of the French people and government were with our 
American patriots because England was our adversary. But the me- 
moir of Count de Vergennes before referred to shows that the motive 
of France for participating in the revolutionary war as our ally was 
found in the hope of inducing Spain to retrocede Louisiana, and of re- 
covering Canada for herself. The memoir expressly mentions the 
danger to both Spain and France if the Americans should succeed in 
their revolution. The French statesman says that "the United Prov- 
inces of America, after shaking off the metropolitan yoke, will be in a 
condition to give the law to France and Spain in all America, and they 
will invade their possessions at the moment when the two crowns 
would be least thinking of it." The French government was not so 
desirous for our success as for the loss by England of her American 
colonies and later acquisitions, and for the restoration to France of her 
own former possessions. But even with her aid the war had no such 
result. England retained Canada, and conceded to the revolted colonies 
their independence, together with all the territory held by England 
south of Canada and east of the Mississippi. 

This territory seemed to our fathers vast enough for many genera- 
tions of Americans. So late as 1801 Jefferson in his inaugural message 
congratulated the American people on "possessing a chosen country, 
with room enough for our descendants to the hundredth and thousandth 
generation." And yet in that same generation, during that very admin- 
istration, the expansion of the territory of the republic began, not by 
will of President or Government, but by that providential force of 
development that has so often in our history overborne or compelled 
the will of man. The story of this wonderful transformation of public 
opinion and statesmanship may be briefly told. 

After the establishment of our independence, and indeed before it, 
our already scattered poDulation had begun to feel its way across the 
Alleghanies into the fertile lands of the great valley beyond. All the 
transportation of their products seaward must follow the current of 
the rivers flowing into the Gulf of Mexico. Spain, now holding all 

74 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

the outlets through east and west Florida, and the entire gulf coast as 
far as Mexico by her acquisition of Louisiana, was arbitrary, selfish 
and jealous of this right of transit through her territory. The United 
States Government by treaty in 1795 had secured from Spain the right 
of depot at New Orleans for products of the United States for the 
term of three years only, with provision for its continuance or for the 
establishment of another depot on the banks of the river. For a few 
years this arrangement was continued undisturbed. Then came a 
report from Europe that Spain under the commanding influence of 
Bonaparte had retroceded New Orleans and the entire province of 
Louisiana to France. In the subsequent excitement among the colonists 
the Spanish intendant for some unknown reason cancelled the privilege 
of depot for our citizens. The Americans of the whole valley sud- 
denly became aware of the frail tenure by which they held their com- 
mercial privileges. They became angrily excited and were ready for 
immediate war and the capture of New Orleans if the depot privilege 
were not restored. 

The report of the retrocession was afterwards verified, and the 
title to Louisiana was again in France. It had been effected by a secret 
treaty executed in October, 1800, but the terms were not published 
until many years afterward. The Americans of the valley, foreseeing 
the closing of their only commercial gateway, flooded Congress with 
their remonstrances, threatened to take measures for their security 
into their own hands, and boldly announced that their national alle- 
giance depended on national protection. The more violent among them 
indicated the possibility of organizing an independent republic west 
of the Alleghanies, of seizing the control of the Mississippi and its 
valley, and expelling both France and Spain. 

President Jefferson became profoundly alarmed by the energetic 
action of the west. He wrote to our minister (Livingston) at Paris 
that the possession by France of New Orleans would force the United 
States into alliance with England. He summoned Monroe to go with 
all speed of preparation on a special mission to Paris, the object of 
which was declared to be to purchase New Orleans and the Floridas, 
or so much of them as the powers in possession could be persuaded to 
part with. His purpose was wholly limited to the question of acquiring 
lands or permanent depots on the east of the Mississippi, and on the 
rivers running through Florida, for the convenience of our commerce, 
which required outlets to the Gulf of Mexico, the northern shore of 
which would now be wholly controlled by Spain and France against 
the interests of the United States. This control by two foreign and 
allied powers was rightly regarded as more dangerous to American 
interests than was the sole dominion of Spain. France under Bona- 
parte, then first consul, was a much more dangerous neighbor than the 
King of Spain. The simple presence of French sovereignty at the 
mouth of the Mississippi was a provocation to the hostile fleets of 
Europe, and particularly an invitation to the fleets of England to enter 
and seize New Orleans and the mouths of that great river. This would 
establish Great Britain, already intrenched upon our northern frontier, 
on the other flank of the young republic, involving a thousand dangers 
to our growing interests in the newly settled valley of the west. 

French recklessness of international obligations on the high seas 
had already been disastrous to our commerce on the Atlantic Ocean. 
Eastern merchants had numerous and just claims against the French 
for their seizures of our vessels and cargoes on the ocean, and now 
they were to control also the commercial outlet of the continental 
inland, and to invite thither the presence of warlike fleets. The in- 
stinct of danger which developed itself in the west was fully justified. 
Jefferson, who during his long residence in Paris had become impreg- 

Dedication of the Monument 7.~> 

nated with French ideas and French sympathies, was slower in appre- 
ciating the dangers than were the people of the valley. Indeed his 
adhesion to French ideas and French interests had years before caused 
a certain alienation of sentiment between him and Washington. The 
terrible excesses of the French revolution, its gross infidelity and its 
shocking bloodshed in the effort to abolish Christianity and law, had 
offended all Washington's sentiments of religion and humanity. The 
sympathies of Washington were on the side of the religious civiliza- 
tion of his English forefathers; while Jefferson looked complacently 
upon the violent destruction of all that was sanctified by ages of faith 
and custom. So now, after Washington's death, himself in the Presi- 
dent's chair. Jefferson was far behind other responsible citizens of the 
republic in his appreciation of the perils arising from French reckless- 
ness in resort to war and international violence. He did not lead, but 
followed, the people in their protest against the fresh introduction of 
the power of France into the very center of our continent. 

Jefferson's proposed measure of relief was limited and altogether 
inadequate to provide for the future interests of the United States. 
His instruction to his envoy was to obtain "a cession to the United 
States of New Orleans and of west and east Florida, or as much thereof 
as the actual proprietor can be prevailed on to part with." That is 
to say. their attention was called exclusively to the gulf coast line 
extending from the Mississippi to the Atlantic. This appeared to be 
the maximum of his wishes. There was no hint of our requiring or 
of purchasing the great territory west of the Mississippi. He then pro- 
ceeded to instruct them touching a possible reduction of even this de- 
mand, if necessary. If no grant of territorial jurisdiction could be 
obtained they were to secure mere rights of deposit, with the privilege 
of holding real estate for commercial purposes. In respect to the 
Floridas. the envoys were to secure-depots at the mouths of the rivers 
which ran from the United States through Florida to the sea, together 
with their free navigation. And the sum within which they were to 
negotiate for any or all of these concessions was $2,000,000. 

It thus appears that Jefferson had never contemplated the acquisi- 
tion of what is called the "Louisiana Purchase." Popular opinion has 
attriouted to him a remarkable and statesmanlike foresight in nego- 
tiating for that vast tract of country west of the Mississippi in order 
to provide for the future needs of the then young republic. The truth, 
however, compels us to recognize the fact that neither the American 
people of that day — who were few in number compared with the extent 
of their existing territory, and who already possessed ample lands 
beyond their power of cultivation — nor their statesmen, in their farthest 
vision, foresaw the amazing development destined to come before the 
end of the century. Jefferson's plans, not anticipating but following 
the demands of the "west," only sought to provide for an existing 
emergency, and to acquire in perpetuity a right which had been once 
conceded to the United States by Spain— the right of a free depot and 
transfer of their products. That was the attitude of our Government 
when Monroe sailed for France. Its eyes were directed to the south, 
not to the west. 

The real scene of the story of the Louisiana Purchase is on the other 
side of the Atlantic. It is iaid in Paris, where the proposal of the 
greater transaction had its origin in the breast of the powerful master 
of the French Republic. 

The first consul, under the pressure of European hostilities, was 
contemplating an act of transcendent importance to our country. He 
had secretly held all of Louisiana at his disposal since October, 1S00, 
although our ministers in France and Spain had been kept in ignorance 
of it. So late as in the spring of 1803 Talleyrand deceptively denied the 

76 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

French title in a conversation with Livingston. But now a renewal of 
the war with England was threatened. The British navy was dominant 
on the sea, and an English expedition might at any time seize New 
Orleans, and France would lose the colony without compensation. His 
thoughts were already bent on a sale to the United States by which he 
hoped not only to satisfy our large pecuniary claims which we were 
pressing against his government, but to obtain besides a large surplus 
to reinforce his treasury for the coming war. He directed Marbois, 
his Minister of Finance, to offer the entire province of Louisiana to the 
United States, and to demand in compensation 100,000,000 francs, to- 
gether with an assumption by our Government of the American claims 
against France for her outrages on our commerce. He said to his 
advisers, with some passion in his voice, that England coveted that 
colony and could easily make a descent there; but she should not have 
it. For France to retain it would be folly. He would cede the whole to 
the United States. This was the situation when Monroe arrived in 
Paris; for this startling proposal had been already communicated to 
Livingston, who could hardly credit the sincerity of the offer. 

The prospect of this vast and complete acquisition which would 
for the second time eliminate French control from the American conti- 
nent and settle the question of commercial depots forever, aroused 
intense interest in both the American envoys, but especially in the 
mind of Livingston. Communication with the United States by occa- 
sional sailing vessels was slow and uncertain. In that day neither tele- 
graph nor steamship was available. A royal message to the English 
Parliament had just announced the British preparation for renewing 
the war with France. If anything was to be done with Louisiana it 
must be done quickly. Our envoys could not wait for new instructions. 
With true American courage they resolved to take the responsibility 
upon themselves, and without authority win a new empire for the 
young republic. They protested against the extravagance of the sum 
demanded as beyond the resources of the American Government, and 
succeeded in reducing the amount of purchase money to 60,000,000 
francs, and in limiting the assumption of American claims to 20,000,000 
francs. They then concluded the three treaties with all haste. They 
were signed on the 30th of April, 1803. The war cloud hanging over 
the English Channel burst eighteen days after the signature. When the 
name of the plenipotentiaries were appended to this unexpected con- 
vention of purchase, Livingston enthusiastically grasped the hands of 
Marbois and Monroe, ?aying: "We have lived long, but this is the 
noblest work of our lives!" The praise for this magnificent accomplish- 
ment is more due to Robert R. Livingston than to any other American; 
and some city or county in every State formed out of this imperial pur- 
chase should bear his name in commemoration of his courageous states- 

The purchase money was indeed a great sum to pay out of the 
limited treasury and unestablished national credit of the United States 
of that day. Bitter opposition was aroused in this country against the 
ratification of the treaty. The acquisition was derided as of little worth, 
wholly unnecessary, and tending to weaken the old States. It was de- 
clared to be an excessive extension of territory which would lead to a 
disruption of the Union. The prophets of woe were as effusive then 
over the enlargement of our territory as they have been ever since over 
the successive expansions which have illuminated the pages of our 
national history. The evil predictions of 1803 are now buried deep in 
the drift of time. The very names of the false prophets are in oblivion, 
while the many happy millions who inhabit the twelve States and two 
Territories now lying within the limits of the Louisiana Purchase have 
forever repudiated the old forecasts of evil. Instead of diminishing, the 

Dedication of the Monument 77 

older States have greatly increased their population and prosperity with 
the settlement and development of the new. The newer States have 
also forged new bands for the strengthening of the Union. The bra ( 
blood offered to the Nation in its historic struggle for liberty and 
union, and in its struggle for the maintenance of the national power 
and glory abroad, has flowed from the veins of men who were nourished 
on this new soil of the republic. Patriotism, courage, energy flow forth 
with every heartbeat of the child of the new west. He has subdued 
the savagery which dominated the prairies and plains and mountains 
of the Louisiana of 1803. He has covered the rolling prairies and plains 
with grazing herds and smiling harvests, with school houses for happy 
children and churches for an untrammeled religion. He has uncovered 
the hidden caves of rich metals in the great mountains of northwestern 
Louisiana, and has enriched his whole country with the elements of 
a new and unbounded prosperity. Wnenever and wherever his nation's 
flag has been thrown to the breeze at home or abroad., in Mexico or 
Alaska, in Cuba or other islands of the sea, under the great wall of 
China or in the mountain fastnesses of Luzon, wherever deeds of loy- 
alty, of courage and of daring are required, there, in the front rank of 
volunteers, is heard the quick response of the loyal sons of the west. 
New strength has been acquired for the Constitution and Union, new 
hope for the country's prosperity is created with every new breath 
born in the expanded territory of our republic. 

It may be confidently affirmed that our national character has not 
deteriorated during the century in which we have followed the provi- 
dential law of our national growth and development. We have seen 
in what manner this law was introduced and historically established. 
I call it providential because neither our statesmen nor our people 
proposed it, or foresaw it. The national representatives of that day. 
including Jefferson himself, when informed of the convention signed 
by our envoys in Paris doubted its constitutionality, or were astounded 
by the resulting increase of the public debt. They adopted it chiefly 
because of the evident perils to existing national interests which would 
follow its rejection. 

The whole story of Louisiana involves much that is dramatic and 
unexpected. De Soto merely crossed its central river and died without 
discovering its mouth or exploring its course, although his decimated 
followers later escaped through its outlet without any act of possession. 
Consequently Spain acquired no title to the river valley. Then came 
France, whose explorers from Canada made discoveries from the sources 
downward and later found its outlet by sea and took possession up- 
ward. Her right to the country was therefore beyond dispute. Had the 
French retained possession of all their discoveries they would have 
imprisoned the future American republic between the Alleghanies and 
the Atlantic. But this was not the Divine purpose. England conquered 
Canada, and eastern Louisiana followed the fate of her sister province 
and became British colonial territory. As a consequence, the latter fell 
to the United States upon the recognition of their independence. So 
it happened that our people at the end of the Revolutionary War 
found themselves in possession as far as the Mississippi, but there were 
barred from all further western progress so long as Spain held all the 
vast territory west of the river. 

Had our boundary remained there for a hundred years no human 
mind can conceive the change it would have made in the destiny of 
this Nation. Without the wheat fields and corn fields and the cattle 
ranges of the prairies and plains of the trans-Mississippi, without the 
lead and iron ores of Missouri, without the vast deposits of gold and 
silver and copper of the western mountain ranges, with no roads across 
the continent, with no harbors on the Pacific Coast, without possession 

78 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

of the mouth of the Mississippi, without any access to the Gulf of 
Mexico, above all without the inspiration to our individual activities 
and national development, that these sources of wealth have afforded— 
no human intellect, no poet's imagination, can portray what would have 
been our fate or our condition today, as influenced or controlled by the 
nations which might have possessed them. What wars might have 
ensued, what liberties mignt have perished, what miseries might have 

But at the providential moment there appeared upon the European 
horizon a new and dominant personal force in the French Republic 
which overawed Spain, and her king yielded to the demand of "Citizen 
Bonaparte," and restored Louisiana to France. This again threatened 
to be a more serious obstacle to our growth than was the power of 
Spain; for the military force of France was far greater. But two 
years later France finds it impracticable to retain Louisiana owing to 
her naval inferiority to England, and Bonaparte suddenly, without the 
knowledge of the Government at Washington, conveys the title finally 
and forever to the United States. Even then Spain, alarmed at the 
absolute and final disposal of the country by France, protests our title 
because of an alleged condition attached to her retrocession to France. 
This condition was officially notified to the United States, that Louis- 
iana snould never be conveyed by France to a third power. But Bona- 
parte imperatively insisted that delivery should be made to him under 
the cession of 1800, which was done; and he immediately thereafter. 
on the 20th of December, 1803, transferred the possession of New 
Orleans to the United States. The Lewis and Clark Expedition, con- 
ceived without expectation of our possible ownership, was thus enabled 
to explore the territory of Louisiana under our own flag. But we had 
at that time no acknowledged title to the country westward of the 
mountains to the Pacific Coast. Spain, Great Britain and Russia were 
on that coast before us. Equally in the order of Providence, and just 
in time, the New England Captain Gray, under the American flag, was 
the first to enter the mouth of the great river of Oregon in 1792, which 
under international law gave to the United States the claim of dis- 
covery; and this claim was strongly reinforced by the succeeding ex- 
ploration of Lewis and Clark. With this inchoate right on the Pacific 
Coast the United States was able by later treaties to permanently 
establish our title on that shore, with well defined limits between the 
Spanish territory on the south and the British on the north. 

Our acquisition of Louisiana had been accomplished by the pacific 
methods of diplomacy. But the permanent possession of it by our 
Union was only to be preserved at the cost of great treasure and by 
the sacrifice of many lives. In less than twelve years from the date 
of the cession by France, while we were at war with Great Britain, 
that power dispatched an expedition to seize the mouth of the river, 
accompanied by an army for the capture of New Orleans. The men 
of the lower valley rushed to arms, met the invading enemy, and drove 
him back to the sea. The dramatic feature of Louisiana's history again 
appears in the fact that this battle was fought after the signature of 
peace, of which the tidings had not yet reached the combatants. This 
battle, however, brilliant as it was on the part of the American volun- 
teers, hardly rises to the dignity of tragedy in comparison with the 
prolonged struggle which followed a half century later. 

This incomparable valley, dowered with inexhaustible wealth, and 
like Helen of Troy possessed of the fatal gift of beauty, was destined 
to become the scene of the greatest conflict known in the history of 
the American continent — a conflict, please God! never to be renewed. 
On the 30th day of May, devoted by the affection of the American peo- 
ple to the memory of the heroes of the war for the Union, we cannot 

Dedication ot the Monument 71* 

forget the splendid services of the men who by their indomitable cour- 
age again saved the lower Mississippi to the United States together 
with all the original Louisiana on both banks below the mouth of the 

In our great civil struggle Louisiana and its river once more became 
the mighty stake played for in the terrible game of war. Again the 
question was presented of the northern right of access to the sea by 
way of the river, and of the control of the delta at its mouth. Vaster 
commercial interests than ever before were in suspense. Once more, 
also, a Bonaparte appeared on the borders of the scene gazing eagerly 
from Mexico upon the still coveted territory which had been ceded 
by his great predecessor. The brave and stalwart men of the valley, in 
former contests united, were now unhappily divided into hostile camps. 
As never before, it was now a battle of giants, equally brave, equally 
resolved. The issue hung long in a balance, the opposing scales of 
which were filled with the blood of the brave. But the great hearted 
men of the upper valley clothed themselves in the panoply of the Union, 
drew in a mighty inspiration from the sentiment of expanding human 
liberty, and fought four long years to regain the untrammeled freedom 
of the great river from all its sources to the sea. The bones of our 
heroic dead who perished in that fearful struggle lie scattered along all 
the river shores from the Missouri to the gulf. But they did not die 
in vain. We owe it to their unfaltering courage that since the end of 
these years of battle, and we trust for all time to come, every rivulet 
that falls eastward down the rugged ranges of the Rocky Mountains, 
or that ripples southward from the far springs of the Canadian frontier, 
or that leaps westward down the slopes of the Alleghanies, dances 
along all its winding way through the old Louisiana to the southern 
sea under the folds of the star spangled banner and to the music of 
the Union. All hail to the memory of these heroes dead; and all hail 
to their comrades who live to salute the dawn of this day dedicated 
to the memory of their deeds! 

Such is the outline of the story of Louisiana, first tossed to and fro 
between France and Spain, and then imperiously tossed by the French 
■executive to the envoys of the United States. Later it was twice sub- 
jected to the wager of battle. Its acquisition is especially significant 
in our history, as it was the first enlargement of that original territory 
which our fathers thought sufficient for our children until the "hun- 
dredth generation." Based upon Louisiana, the repu^ic continued 
its expansion across the middle of the continent from the great ocean 
of the sunrise to the greater ocean of the sunset. Our republic did 
not dream yet of the wider expansion which was still enfolded in the 
shadow of her future destiny. She awaited the reappearance of the 
Index finger of Providence. 

But important events of history have taught us one great truth 
of our heredity as a people. Expansion is in the blood of our race. 
Organized liberty demands a broadening sphere of action. A single 
generation may pause to organize and utilize what a previous one has 
acquired. But a succeeding generation will reassert the inherent im- 
pulse of the race. Under Christian auspices it is the providential law 
which from age to age opens up new regions to the influences of higher 
civilization and uplifts the inferior races by contact with the superior. 
The right to enforce civilized usages among mankind is higher and 
bolier than the right to maintain barbaric practices and inhuman laws. 
The better has an inherent moral right to expand over the worse. The 
justice and humanity of the motive will forever consecrate the onward 
movement with a Divine sanction. Peace and order, liberty and pros- 
perity, education and morality, have hitherto followed the advancing 
flag of the American republic. Wild beasts have given place to peace- 

80 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

ful herds and flocks. The wandering wigwam has been replaced by the 
settled home. The ground of tne war dance is occupied by the school 
house, and the pole hung with scalp locks by the steeple of the church. 
The vast desert spaces are now laughing with harvests, and the various 
tribes of the white men are dwelling there in unity. Who can doubt 
that such expansion is in accord with the purposes of the Almighty in 
tne regeneration of the world? 

In this spirit and with such purposes the expansion of the republic 
has more widely advanced in later years. The beneficent changes to 
be wrought in the alien races may require a full generation or more for 
their accomplishment. The work of the school house is slow. The 
work of the church is dilatory. But we have the glorious assurance 
of the past that we are doing the will of the Great Ruler of Nations 
while we follow our providential law. Since the middle of the last cen- 
tury we have been led on step by step beyond the ocean boundary of 
our continent, following the sun in his western course until scores of 
islands of the southern and central Pacific have come peacefully under 
the dominion of the United States. The Alaskan Islands carried the 
jurisdiction of the republic within the longitudes of northern Asia. 
By an unforeseen emergency of the Spanish War, declared for another 
and a humane purpose, we came into the unexpected possession of the 
Philippine Islands on the south of the Asiatic continent. Like Louis- 
iana, their purchase and annexation were unforeseen by the statesmen 
and people of our country; and like Louisiana, they will in the process 
of civilization reveal unexpected resources for the blessing of mankind, 
and for the advancement and security of the republic. 

We look back with amazement, and with gratitude, upon this 
century of our history. The first year of the nineteenth century found 
our youthful nation barred on the west by our great mediterranean 
river, and shut off from the sea on the south, with the barriers guarded 
by two formidable military powers of Europe. Our incipient commerce 
was wantonly destroyed on the high seas, the common prey of warring 
European navies, without fear of reprisals or punishment. Even the 
paltry powers of the Barbary Coast levied tribute on our commercial 
vessels and held captured citizens in slavery. Our political parties at 
home were more hostile to each other than to the foreigners who in- 
sulted our flag. The republic was neither respected nor envied, neither 
courted nor feared, by any power of Europe or Asia or Africa. 

But now, in the first year of the twentieth century, all this is 
changed. Our matured nation is in possession of the whole northern 
shore of the gulf, including all the peninsula of Florida, with her juris- 
diction extended across the continent to the shore of the Pacific, and 
leaping thence to the farthest coast of Alaska. Our flag floats over a 
thousand islands of the western ocean. It was the first to be welcomed 
in the harbors of Japan. Korea and of China as the emblem of inter- 
national peace and justice. The fame of our navy is wafted around 
the world by every wind that blows, and the flag that covers its guns 
assures protection to our commerce on every sea and in the harbors 
of every continent. The republic is respected and honored as one of 
the great powers of the world. At home a common patriotism unites 
our political parties as never before. It has been exhibited during 
this month when all parties in various sections of this great country 
have been assembling to greet and acclaim a president who is himself 
the soul of patriotism and national honor. It is a marvelous expansion, 
a marvelous transformation, a miracle of the nations! 

Thanks be to the Almighty Power which has so directed our destiny 
that in this first summer of the new century, and in the third genera- 
tion of the explorers of the west, the sun never sets upon the territory 

Dedication of the Monument 81 

of the republic. That brilliant orb which today gilds the summit of 
Iowa's historic monument will shed his bright beams in every hour of 
his daily circuit around the globe upon some State or Territory, some 
plain or mountain or island shore, over which floats the beneficent 
flag of our expanded republic, carrying in its folds the assurance of 
peace and liberty, order and security, education and civilization to all 
the inhabitants. May this memorial stand for ages to come to remind 
our children of the manly virtues of their race, which in the nineteenth 
century made the republic so glorious in the annals of history. 

With the same spirit that had characterized the other services of 
the day, the exercises connected with the dedication of the Floyd Monu- 
ment were concluded in the evening with a gathering at the Court House 
which filled the auditorium. Geo. D. Perkins presided as Chairman. 
With him sat President Charles, Dr. Butler. Dr. Yeomans, Judge Lever- 
ing. Rev. Dr. William Salter of Burlington, Charles Aldrich of Des 
Moines, Curator of the Iowa State Historical Society; Rev. Dr. J. C. Mc- 
Clintock and C. R. Marks. Dr. McClintock delivered the invocation. 

In introducing Dr. Butler, Chairman Perkins referred to others 
who were present six years ago at the organization of the Floyd Me- 
morial Association, several of whom from abroad were in attendance 
to participate in celebrating the fruition of the hopes inspired at that 
time; but the absence of Dr. Elliott Coues was regretfully noted, who 
since then has gone to his eternal home, but for whose helpfulness a 
profound acknowledgment was expressed, as in season and out of sea- 
son he had given his time and his great ability as historian of the 
Lewis and Clark Expedition to promote the purpose for which the 
Association was organized. Dr. Butler was presented as likewise a 
contributor to the knowledge of the world regarding the expedition 
of Lewis and Clark, for it was he who in 1894 had discovered the journal 
of Floyd, after it had been lost ninety years. Dr. Butler held up before 
the audience the bound volume of manuscript which had had such a 
romantic career, and it was greeted with cheers. He spoke as follows: 

What is this which I hold up before your gaze as a sort of secular 
ostensorium? It is the monument which Sergeant Floyd builded wiser 
than he knew — O, how much wiser than the world knew — built for 
himself and which shall outlast all memorial stones. 

The forms of mind are not idols of clay. Thanks to their hand- 
maids, alphabetical writing and the typographic "art preservative," 
they are eternal. The lines of this book have gone out through all the 
earth, and its words unto the ends of the world. But the obelisk on 
yonder bluff must stand stationary till it shall crumble into the sand 
from which it was conglomerated. Stones must perish, but this chron- 
icle shall endure. 

What does this manuscript contain? It shows us fifty-three pages 
of Floyd's notes by the way in his own hand writing up to this scene 
of his death, detailing the first ninety-six days of the earliest and most 
important American exploration of the trans-Missouri world — the most 
veritable discovery of America that was ever achieved. It is the only 
testimony by a sharer in that enterprise which has thus far been printed 
in the very words of its writer. 

The journals of Captains Lewis and Clark not only came tardily 
from the press, but they were Bowdlerized. Biddleized and Allenized 

82 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

and this garbled text was reproduced, most unwillingly, by Dr. Coues. 
The dream of his life, as he assured me, was to edit the original codices, 
with not a stripe erased and not a star obscured. But his fate was to 
die without tasting that crowning joy. 

The journal of Patrick Gass, who at Floyd's grave had been chosen 
sergeant in his stead, was printed seven years earlier than the official 
report. It saw the light the next spring after the glorious return, but 
it had been already licked into shape, like a bear's cub, by the Irish 
schoolmaster McKeehan, and the manuscript thrown away as a useless 
rubbish. If the text of Gass could now be read as he wrote it we could 
not enough prize it as a complement and supplement to Lewis and 
Clark and Floyd, a sort of fourth gospel. Floyd's legacy, neither re- 
vealed nor imagined to exist at all until since the most recent editions 
of Gass, as well as of Lewis and Clark, is more than a fourth gospel; 
it is more than any of them a first gospel, the protoevangelion. So it 
must remain till the original of the captains shall be printed, as Dr. 
Coues declared it was sure to be by the National Government. 

Is there any cloud of doubt on the genuineness or veracity of this 
gospel? Not a shadow of it. Handwriting, spelling, words, things 
noted are beyond counterfeiting. Then, undesigned coincidence and 
differences in relation to the other witnesses testify to its reliability 
as conclusively as Paley's Horace Paulinae did to the new testament 
as a history. 

This newest and yet oldest gospel came forth like a sunburst. 
Bight years ago Dr. Coues, dedicating his invaluable edition of Lewis 
and Clark to the people of the great west, had no thought of such a 
culmination as possible. In the same year of his publication, 1893, 
his book was reviewed by me in two issues of the New York Nation 
(Nos. 1,478-79. October 26 and November 2, 1893). While admitting that 
it seemed ungracious to suggest that such an investigator as Coues 
could have neglected anything, I censured him because he had made no 
search for collateral journals, I proved the existence of one which had 
very oddly became known to me. One of Lewis' men, Robert Fraser. 
went from my native town, Rutland, in Vermont, and when he left had 
forgotten to pay for a hat he had bought from an uncle of mine. On 
his return to St. Louis, going for entertainment to an inn he found 
the keeper of it was that self-same uncle. Debtor and creditor recog- 
nized each other and the debt was collected — the dead horse resurrected. 
Fraser then issued a prospectus for publishing a 400-page volume of his 
own journal, and a copy of this proposal was sent to my father. It was 
one of my heirlooms, and was printed in my review. I also quoted 
the statement of Captain Lewis in the spring after Floyd's death, that 
he had sent down to St. Louis the journal of a sergeant. I also stated 
tnat the letter from which I learned this fact, though printed in the 
American Archives (Indian Affairs I., p. 706), in Biddle and elsewhere, 
would be sought in vain throughout the four octavos of Coues. 

That sergeant's journal, an independent witness from the upper 
Missouri, I hope to satisfy you was the book I now hold in my hand, 
though in my review I credited it to no author whatever. The words 
of Lewis in his letter to the President, dated Fort Mandan, near Bis- 
marck, April 7. 1805. were these: "I have sent a journal kept by one 
of the sergeants to Captain Stoddard, my agent in St. Louis, in order 
to multiply as much as possible the chances of saving something." 

It seems to me clear that that sergeant was Floyd. The omission of 
his name is not surprising. Lewis had never mentioned it in his notes 
till the time of Floyd's death, nor yet the name of any other sergeants 
up to that date, unless when one was on detached service. It was not 
expedient to send down the journals of living sergeants, for they were 

Dedication of the Monument 83 

not yet half made — and there was no more paper within a thousand 
miles. For securing Clark's and his own journal Lewis had been fur- 
nished by Jefferson with tin cases in which he was to solder them one 
by one, water tight. But these cases could not safeguard Floyd's 
journal, for their width was five inches, while this book measures six. 
Its size urged Lewis to hurry it out of harm's way with all speed. I 
charged Dr. Coues with heresy, for he had maintained that the journals 
of the captains must be copies, because their field notes could not be 
so well preserved as he saw their writing to be, but must have been 
water soaked and weather stained. But when he heard of the tin boxes 
which fitted them like a glove he was no longer heretical. 

The love of Lewis for Floyd would prompt him to forward his 
journal to home friends as soon as he could. His affection is manifest 
in his testimonial as soon as he arrived in Washington. He thus spoke 
to the authorities. "Charles Floyd," said he, "was a young man of 
much merit. His father, now living in Kentucky, is a man much re- 
spected, but possessed of moderate wealth. As the son lost his life 
in this service I consider his father entitled to some gratuity in con- 
sideration of his loss, and also that the deceased being noticed in this 
way will be a tribute but justly due his merit." (Am. Archives. Mili- 
tary Af. I., p. 207.) 

Clark was still more sure than Lewis to speed this volume home- 
ward without delay. The dying words of Floyd were addressed to 
Clark, and they were these: "I am going to leave you, and I want 
you to write me a letter." Whether Clark could or could not write to 
Floyd's home friends, he could give convoy to this book, with a letter 
he did write to his brother-in-law, and which came to our library to- 
gether with this book. At least he must have brought this book to 
Floyd's father, with a certain other relic of his son, which it cost him 
much to secure. 

More than a year after Floyd's death, at the point where the west- 
ward bound adventurers first found the Columbia navigable, the toma- 
hawk of Sergeant Floyd was missed and supposed to be stolen, but as 
their business demanded haste they could do nothing for regaining it. 
Next year, however, on returning to the same camp they ascertained 
that the tomahawk was in the possession of Indians on a neighboring 
river. "This weapon," says the Biddle compilation, '"we were anxious 
to obtain in order to give to the relatives of our unfortunate com- 
panion. Sergeant Floyd." The original narrative, as I learned from 
the secretary of the philosophical society who holds it in custody, 
specifies Captain Clark instead of "we" as desirous of returning it to 
Floyd's friends. It adds: "The man who had this tomahawk had 
purchased it from the thief and was himself just expiring when our 
envoy Drewyer arrived. His relatives were the more unwilling to 
give up the tomahawk because they intended to bury it with its owner. 
They were at length induced to surrender it on the second day through 
the influence of two chiefs who had accompanied Drewyer. and in con- 
sideration of a handkerchief and two strands of beads which had been 
sent by Captain Clark and two horses given by the chiefs to be killed 
agreeable to the custom at the grave of the deceased. At this bargain 
it would seem that the horses were "thrown in," for five beads was the 
price of a horse. 

These beads and the handkerchief represented a serious sacrifice 
on the part of a captain, all of whose goods for supolying his thirty 
comrades with food and transportation for 3,000 miles might, as he 
writes, be tied up in a pair of handkerchiefs. Who will believe that 
Clark, who was so careful and troubled about Floyd's hatchet, neg- 
lected the earliest possible opportunity of hastening this journal of the 
dead son to his mourning father, whose home, in the judgment of 

84 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

Colonel R. T. Durrett, the highest Kentucky historical authority, was 
near that of Clark's sister, to whom he was himself sending various 
seeds? But the only question after all is whether this writing was 
brought down the river in the return boat of 1805 or in the boat of the 
captains themselves in 1806. It was in St. Louis, perhaps Kentucky, in 
the spring of one year or the fall of the next. After Floyd's narrative 
had been brought down the great river nothing previous to 1893 had 
been discovered concerning that writing, nor had his name been men- 
tioned as a possible journalist. But on February 3 of that year Mr. 
Thwaites, Secretary of the "Wisconsin State Historical Society, found 
this chiefest of finds without seeking it. He was examining a high pile 
of manuscripts, bound and unbound, which had been accumulated by 
Dr. Draper, his predecessor, during fourteen years of pilgrimage, largely 
up and down Kentucky, in quest of historical documents. 

This book had been brought to Wisconsin by Draper, who in 1854 
had become the first Secretary of the Historical Society, and was its 
real soul to the end of his long career. It was one sheaf of a harvest 
so vast that his successor has not as yet been able to thrash it all out. 
It was one jewel among such Kohinoors as have made for themselves 
a fitting casket, created for their setting a more costly fireproof than, 
as far as I can learn, has ever been built for any society called historical 
in all the world. 

At first sight of this book of books I was amazed that Draper, who 
for a generation had known me as a sharer in his pursuits, and that 
I felt especial interest in trans-Missouri, had never spoken to me about 
Floyd's journal. His reticence became less mysterious the more I con- 
sidered what manner of man my friend Draper was. The eyes and the 
heart of a miser are fixed far less on the savings he has already 
hoarded than on those outside which he hopes for. Draper was a 
colossal collector. His first savings were laid out on a fireproof in 
which he stored his accumulations. Everything rich and rare in anti- 
quarian eyes his lifework was to imprison behind its iron door. What- 
ever he could hide there he made his will bequeathing to the Historical 
Society, and then turned his back upon it with his eyes set upon fur- 
ther conquests. 

"Notwithstanding his capacity 

Received as the sea, naught entered there, 

Of what validity and pitch so'er, 

But fell into abatement and low price, 

Even in a minute." 

This little book I view as the acorn from which an obelisk grander 
than any oak has grown. No sooner was its discovery noised abroad 
than the American Antiquarian Society, the oldest in America and but 
eleven years younger than the century, invited me to address them at 
their next annual meeting in Boston, concerning a document so full 
of sidelights on other journals, one never before thought of as ex- 
isting at all, so long hidden and so unexpectedly revealed. They printed 
the find at once, every word of it verbatim et literatim, both in their 
volume of proceedings and in separates. Vol. IX., pp. 224-252. 

This publication, if not the creator of your zeal, was at least the 
match which kindled it into a blaze. It was straightway followed by 
the Sioux City awakening, by the study of Coues' monumental work- 
by shame that Floyd, though his name on the river and his title on 
the bluff were indelible, lay without a stone to mark the spot, indeed 
that no mortal knew where he was buried. It was only after much 
baffled and renewed endeavor that his remains, so soon forgotten after 
the reburial of 1857, were detected six years ago on this Soldiers' Me- 
morial Day. Then and there was formed the Association which devised 
and constructed and now dedicates the obelisk on the bluff. 

Dedication oi the Monument 85 

The Floyd obelisk reminds me of two others. The first, in Egyptian 
Thebes, is one of the supreme wonders I have twice voyaged far up the 
Nile to gaze upon. It is confessedly the beau ideal of its class in ma- 
terial, height and proportions. It is reproduced here more strikingly 
than in any other work I can call to mind. Spite of earthquake and 
lightning, tyrants and time, it has stood, wanting eight years, for 
seven times 500 years. Can you wish anything more than an equal 
longevity for the companion shaft we have this day dedicated? Thirty- 
five centuries were a goodly heritage. 

The other obelisk of which I am reminded is scarcely inferior to 
anything but the first. It is the only one of the twelve transported 
to Rome in her grand era which has never been thrown down. It 
stands as a memorial of martyrs, of the protomartyrs under Nero, of 
the earliest burning of Christians at the stake recorded in a pagan 
writer. With allusion to those whom this witness saw sealing their 
testimony with their blood that obelisk is inscribed: "Christ lives, 
Christ reigns, Christ conquers. Christ delivers his people from all 
evil. Christus vivit. Christus regnat, Christus vincit. Christus vindicat 
suum populum ab omni malo." May God permit this memorial of ours 
to be as lasting as Egyptian syenite, and may it forever bear witness 
to that martyr faith to which we owe our civilization from foundation 
to topstone. 

"We have here with us tonight others who were discoverers in con- 
nection with the event we are celebrating," said Chairman Perkins. 
"In addition to the discoverer of Floyd's journal, we have the discoverer 
of the idea of erecting a monument to Floyd — President John H. Charles, 
who for many years has looked forward to the coming of this day. We 
also have Colonel Chittenden, whose service in so many ways has been 
invaluable. We have here likewise the men who built the beautiful 
shaft, and managed it so admirably that not a single accident occurred. 
We have men here who in 1857 assisted in rescuing the remains of 
Floyd, one of whom is Dr. S. P. Yeomans. whom I take great pleasure 
in introducing." The Chairman's references to Dr. Butler. President 
Charles, Colonel Chittenden. Hansen Bros, and Dr. Yeomans were 
vigorously applauded. Dr. Yeomans responded- as follows: 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: I have two reasons why I 
would like to have been excused from the position of a speaker on this 
occasion. One is that I have been so closely associated with the history 
of Sioux City that I feel very much at home here, and would much 
prefer to be considered one of the hosts and listen to and help entertain 
the distinguishd gentlemen who honor us with their presence today 
than to appear as an invited guest. The other is that I think one who 
has reached to nearly eighty years should have learned to yield cheerful 
obedience to that great law of nature, "The survival of the fittest," and 
to step aside and give place to younger and abler men upon public 
occasions like the present. Yet, appreciating the honor of a place on 
your programme. I shall briefly respond to your invitation. 

There are three methods of preserving and transmitting to future 
generations the tragedies, incidents and events of human history. 
One is by recorded annals, another by monuments and mausoleums, 
and still another by the oral testimony of witnesses. This humane 
and patriotic enterprise, having reached its consummation in the com- 
pletion of the beautiful shaft we have dedicated today, you have the 
combined advantage and benefit of the three methods mentioned. 

86 Report ol Floyd Memorial Association 

No more appropriate situation for this memorial could have been 
found. Located in the very heart of the great west, within the limits 
of the Louisiana Purchase, directly overlooking the grand river along 
which the Lewis and Clark Expedition journeyed, and at the very place 
where Sergeant Charles Floyd died and was buried, it would seem to 
be the very place for commemorating a most important event in the 
history of our country. 

The monument will stand a thing of beauty while the years, cen- 
turies and ages come and go, and, though cold and silent as the famed 
Sphinx, it will tell to oncoming generations stories of the most thrilling 
interest. As the car of progress rolls on toward the distant future 
and your beautiful city reaches a condition whose magnificent propor- 
tions no man can picture, long after we all shall have passed away, 
this shaft will tell the story of your protracted efforts from year to 
year to protect the remains and honor the memory of a fellow citizen 
who has been dead for nearly one hundred years; one to whom you were 
bound by no ties of kindred and of whom you had no knowledge fur- 
ther than that he fell in the service of our country and in the line of 
important duty. It will tell the story of Captains Lewis and Clark and 
their little company of stalwart men as, without the beating of drums 
or the flourish of trumpets, they quietly entered upon an exploration 
requiring courage and heroism equal to that of the soldier who storms 
'a battery or faces a line of bristling bayonets, involving a journey of 
10,000 miles through a trackless wilderness, consuming two years and 
four months of time, entirely cut off from a base of supplies or relief 
from any emergency; through a country inhabited only by savage 
beasts and wild Indians, with intervening streams and roaring cata- 
racts and frowning mountains whose towering peaks were covered 
with everlasting snow, all for the purpose of bringing to the knowledge 
of the American people the vastness and wonderful possibilities of the 
region added to our domain by the Louisiana Purchase. 

By association and suggestion it will tell the story of our country's 
history, the landing of the Pilgrim fathers and the long, weary struggle 
for national existence; the Revolutionary War resulting in our inde- 
pendence, the organization of our own government, the thirteen original 
States skirting the Atlantic Ocean with what was then deemed an ample 
supply of territory to the west, and with no thought or ambition to 
extend our possessions to the Pacific. 

It was then that a small number of statesmen, more profound and 
farseeing than others, began to extend their vision toward the western 
horizon to catch a view of the future of our country and to consider 
the obstacles that were in the way of our progress. Those men fore- 
saw that the Mississippi, with the Missouri and other navigable af- 
fluents, must become great arteries of commerce, and that the valleys 
through which they coursed must, in the nature of things, become the 
homes of an immense population; and they realized that we were vir- 
tually cut off from any participation in the advantages that must 
result from the settlement and cultivation of those vast, fertile valleys, 
for the reason that this vast region was in the possession of a foreign 
power. Viewing the subject from our present standpoint, with our 
possessions upon the Pacific Coast, our nation would have been bi- 
sected from the Gulf of Mexico to the British possessions on the north 
by a foreign power, forming an everlasting barrier to land communica- 
tion between the east and the west except by the permission of another 
nation. It was to meet, in a small measure, this difficulty, that Thomas 
Jefferson, the third president of the United States, conceived the idea 
of securing national access to the Mississippi River in order that we 
mieht, to some extent, have a legal interest in the commerce of that 
stream. To this end James Monroe was appointed a special agent to 

Dedication ot the Monument 87 

act with our Minister to France, Mr. Livingston, in the negotiation of 
a treaty with France for the purchase of the province of Louisiana. 
It is worthy of note that neither of the negotiators, nor. so far as it is 
known, any other American statesman, entertained a thought of secur- 
ing the entire French possessions in America. In the negotiations our 
agents were limited to an offer of $2,000,000 for the small province they 
hoped to secure. Owing to fortuitous circumstances or providential 
leading the time was auspicious for a success whose magnitude fairly 
staggered our agents. 

A great war was impending between the Napoleonic dynasty and 
England. The emperor's exchequer was low, and, while he realized 
the ultimate value and importance of the French possessions in Amer- 
ica, he was persuaded that it would be wrested from him by his implac- 
able foe, England, and he much preferred that it should fall into the 
hands of America. He therefore proposed to cede the entire territory 
for $15,000,000. The proposition was accepted, the treaty signed and 
promptly ratified by the United States Senate, thus consummating the 
most successful real estate deal ever made in this country. Over-sensa- 
tive conservatives were abundant who denounced Mr. Jefferson for 
recklessly squandering the public money for worthless mountains and 
barren plains, but if those captious critics were alive today, and would 
read in the current news that the property value of Iowa, but one of 
the States included in this purchase, is just returned at $542,000,000, 
they would confess that Mr. Jefferson made a good investment. 

To comprehend the magnitude of the Louisiana Purchase we need 
to look at the map and see what it embraces. Within the limits are 
Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, North and South Dakota, Ne- 
braska, Oklahoma, Indian Territory, Montana, part of Colorado, most 
of Kansas, most of Wyoming, a territory embracing 883,072 square 
miles, 565,166,000 acres, an area almost equal to the original thirteen 

In 1890 the population within its limits exceeded twice that of the 
United States at the time the treaty was made. Though but partially 
developed, this domain forms the brightest jewel in our diadem; with 
forests exceeding in grandeur and value the cedars of Lebanon; im- 
mense areas of arable and fertile land yielding abundant harvests and 
unlimited pasture for vast herds of cattle and sheep that supply the 
markets of the world with their choice products; gold and silver that 
has already added materially to the world's supply: coal and iron and 
lead in great abundance; waterfalls with power sufficient to propel the 
machinery of the world; scenic beauties as weird and fantastic as may be 
found in any part of the world; and all this would have been forever 
lost to us if we had not improved the opportunity for securing it. Had 
England succeeded in securing it, as Napoleon feared, it would have 
been beyond our reach for all time to come. In estimating the value 
of this purchase, we must consider that without it the vast region 
extending westward to the Pacific would probably never have been 
acquired, therefore the indirect benefit is beyond computation. 

It is not extravagant to say that there is still another story that 
this monument will tell the listening pilgrims that may come here to 
study the wonders it teaches. It will tell of the stupendous contest 
that has been raging all along the line of human history between 
civilization and barbarism, beginning with Israel's host as they entered 
the land of Canaan with title deeds authenticated and confirmed by the 
hierhest authority in the universe. Possession was secured and retained 
only by long and bloody wars with nations and peoples who cumbered 
the ground and were in the way of progress. Since then Rome. France 
and England all afford striking examples of this great unceasing 
struggle of the ages. 

88 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

More than 2,400 years ago a Persian army of 100,000 trained soldiers, 
tilled with pride at their Asiatic conquests, crossed the Aegian Sea and 
landed upon European shores. They were supplied with all the destruc- 
tive appliances then known to warfare. They were opposed by only 10,000 
Athenian soldiers, with no other means of assault or defense than the 
shields and spears of ancient times. After a council of war, held upon 
the mountainside at whose base the enemy were establishing their 
bivouac, it was resolved to make an immediate attack, though every one 
of their number should meet a martyr's fate. After a hand to hand 
contest of five hours the Persians fled in wild disorder to their boats, 
leaving thousands slain on the sanguinary field of Marathon. Had the 
result been different, as seemed almost absolutely certain, barbarism 
would have dominated the world. Art, science, painting, sculpture, 
literature, poetry, the fruit of European civilization would have been 
lost to the world. The illiterate, idle, non-progressive spirit of the 
Orient would have been universal. 

We shall observe but iaintly if we do not discern in this as well 
as all other great conflicts of the ages involving the warfare of human- 
ity the overruling providence of Almighty God. In these mighty up- 
heavals we shall find that above the roar and smoke of contending 
armies is an allseeing eye and an almighty arm that so rules and 
manipulates the movements that the result shall be a purer philosophy, 
an uplifting of the race to a higher plane and an advance in human 

Providential leading in the affairs of our Nation from the very be- 
ginning seems to me too apparent to admit of doubt. Our national 
advantages are scarcely paralleled. The fertility of our soil, the variety 
of our productions; our great lakes and rivers affording national high- 
ways for commercial intercourse and interchange of commodities; our 
extended seacoast east and west bringing us into close relation with the 
great centers of trade throughout the world, with our vast mineral 
wealth, are but indices of the most beneficent interest of Him who pro- 
vided us with a land literally flowing with milk and honey. And, to 
preserve the fitness of things, this land with its immense possibilities 
was held in abeyance until the Mayflower was wafted to our shores 
freighted with a band of men and women endowed with the natural 
qualities for founding a great republic. They were firm in the main- 
tenance of their religious convictions, devoted to the principles of 
liberty, industrious and frugal, with a proper appreciation of the im- 
portance of education. Their descendants are found in all parts of 
the Union, and the impress of their wisdom and practicability is stamped 
on all general and local measures of public policy. - 

The story of our great Civil War will be brought to mind as men 
gaze upon this monument of other days, and they will listen eagerly 
to the relation of the thrilling tragedies that filled the land with lament- 
ation. It will be rehearsed that with all our prosperity we had fostered 
a relic of barbarism, thrown around it the protection of the law until 
it had become a part of the very warp and woof of our social and 
civil system. 

In our grand Declaration of Independence appealing to the Supreme 
Ruler of the Universe for the rectitude of our intentions we proclaimed 
to the world that we held it to be self-evident that all men were created 
free and equal, endowed by the Creator with the inalienable right of 
life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, and yet we permitted a sys- 
tem of human slavery to grow with our growth until 4,000.000 human 
beings were held in abject bondage. It is not strange that the senti- 
ment of the northern people revolted against so flagrant a departure 
from the declaration of the fathers. Our own ablest statesmen, Web- 
ster, Clay, Calhoun. Benton and others, sought by various compromises 

Dedication of the Monument 89 

to allay the storm and restore amicable relations between the estranged 
sections. But despite all their efforts the feeling of animosity became 
more and more intensified as the years passed until the most conserva- 
tive people realized that we were standing on a volcano whose mutter- 
ing thunder gave warning of an eruption that would convulse our 
Nation from center to circumference and leave the noble temple of 
liberty a chaotic mass of ruins. 

At length the crisis came. The tiring upon the Star of the West 
followed by the assault upon Fort Sumter inaugurated a long and 
bloody fratricidal war. Are we to consider that after guiding and 
protecting our Nation through all the perils of the past a merciful 
Providence had deserted us in the hour of our extremity? Nay, verily. 
We must remember that good Christian people throughout the north 
and south, recognizing slavery as a great social and moral evil, but 
one beyond the power of man to remedy, had reverently besought the 
Almighty to interpose in our behalf and show us the way of removing 
this stain from our civilization. Will not our faith permit us to believe 
that these prayers were heard and answered, and that our trials and 
sufferings were but disciplinary means to accomplish the end sought? 
It required seven scourges to procure a reluctant assent from Pharaoh 
to tne departure of the Israelites from the bondage of Egypt and even 
the destruction of his whole army in the Red Sea. So it would seem 
needful that the defeat of Bull Run should occur; that the fearful strife 
should be continued for years with serious doubts as to whether Wash- 
ington or Richmond were in greater peril, for the apparent purpose of 
educating our people to a full knowledge of the great purpose to be 
accomplished. When that point was reached our martyr President by a 
single stroke of his pen was able to give freedom to every slave in 
the land and speedy success was assured. The work was done and our 
Nation was permitted to enter upon a career of prosperity and progress 
unparalleled in the history of this or any other nation. 

And now. while we may very properly point with pride to the 
terrific battle fields of Donelson. Shiloh, Chickamauga. Chancellorsville. 
Vicksburg and the Wilderness, to the brilliant naval engagements upon 
the Mississippi, the duel of the Monitor and the Merrimac at Hampton 
Reads and of the Kearsage and Alabama off the coast of France, and 
we may honor and hold in grateful remembrance the names of Grant. 
Sherman, Sheridan, Logan and other chiefs who so gallantly led our 
forces to a brilliant success, not forgetting the boys in blue, who never 
flinched or faltered when duty called them to suffer and to die, if 
need be, in defense of the old flag which represented all that is great 
and glorious in the history of our country; while rejoicing af the return 
of peace, and that the animosities of the fearful strife are rapidly 
disappearing, let us reverently join in the exclamation of the psalmist: 
"The Lord reigneth. let the earth rejoice." The story of the late 
Spanish War and the convulsion of China are too recent and the results 
too incomplete to find a place in the chronicles of history, but we do 
know that the valor of our soldiery has been maintained at Santiago 
and Manila Bay, and that the magnanimity and generosity of our 
Government has been exemplified in the treatment of our vanquished 
foes, and tnat there is not a doubt that the finale will be another victory 
of civilization over barbarism and the extension of light, liberty and 
happiness among the people of the earth. 

And now, gentlemen of Sioux City and members of the Floyd Me- 
morial Association, go on with your work. You have completed the 
memorial shaft. Adorn and beautify the surrounding park. Make it a 
thing of beauty and a joy forever, and let it stand for all time as 
sacred to the memory of Sergeant Charles Floyd and to Captains Lewis 
and Clark and other comrades, as well as a monument to commemorate 

90 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

the wisdom and patriotism of Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe and 
Livingston, who added an empire to our domain. More than this, let 
it stand as a beacon light, a landmark upon the highway of human 
progress, of development and civilization. 

The introduction of Judge Noah Levering, of Los Angeles, Cal., 
led Chairman Perkins to refer most feelingly to Judge Isaac Pendleton, 
whose portrait hangs on the wall of the court room. "No citizen re- 
calls the genial personality of Judge Pendleton," said Mr. Perkins, 
"without a feeling of regret that he is not here to greet his old time 
associate, Judge Levering, for between them was a relationship such 
as has existed between few men of the early days. To both of them I 
was indebted for many kindnesses in my early residence here, and one 
of the earliest historical contributions to the Journal after I took pos- 
session of it was a series of annals from the pen of Judge Levering, 
whose reminiscences of the beginnings of things in Sioux City are thor- 
oughly interesting. While he says he cannot speak to us at any length 
tonight, I want to ask him to arise and accept the welcome which I 
know this audience will be most gratified to give him." The greeting 
was altogether as cordial as Mr. Perkins had anticipated, and was a 
tribute which Judge Levering profoundly appreciated. It was he who 
in 1857 took charge of the remains of Floyd after discovery of the en- 
croachment of the river upon the grave, and kept them until their re- 
interment. He declared he would very much like to speak quite fully 
regarding the circumstances, but he felt himself unable to do so. 

Notwithstanding the difficulties under which he labored, however, 
he desired to correct an error which is widespread concerning the con- 
dition of the remains. He said the bones recovered at the time were 
all that were in the grave, and that neither the skull nor any other 
part of the skeleton rolled into the river, as had been reported. The 
encroachment of the river had not removed any of the bones, but what- 
ever were missing was due to disturbance by wild animals, as discovered 
by the earliest visitors. Judge Levering told of taking the remains to 
his own home, and of the objection raised by his wife to the presence 
of the ghastly relics, and their subsequent removal to the office of 
Judge Moore, where they remained until reinterred. 

Mr. Perkins made announcement that he had just heard that M. 
L. Jones, formerly a resident of Smithland, who made the discovery 
in 1857 that Floyd's grave was being washed away, had recently died 
at his new home in California. 

During the evening several patriotic songs were sung by the 
audience under the leadership of G. M. Gilbert, including "Columbia," 
"Lift Up Your Eyes, Desponding Freemen," "Marching Through 
Georgia" and "America." 

In closing the meeting, Chairman Perkins expressed on behalf of 
the General Committee and the Floyd Memorial Association their 
grateful thanks to all who had contributed to making the dedicatory 
exercises throughout such a splendid success, and to the citizens who 
had attended the various gatherings in such large numbers. 

Dedication of the Monument ( J1 

The Sioux City Journal of May 31, 1901, contained the following 
editorial comment on Mr. Kasson's address: 

The address of Hon. John A. Kasson, on the occasion of the dedica- 
tion of the monument erected here to the memory of Sergeant Charles 
Floyd, of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, is a distinct contribution 
to the history of the Louisiana Territory and Purchase. Mr. Kasson 
has employed his art and knowledge to weave that history into fasci- 
nating story. Those who had the fortune to hear Mr. Kasson's address 
in his own splendid diction, or who may rise from the reading of it, 
cannot fail of a feeling of exaltation over the wonderful drama of the 
century founded in the mystery of Providence in the great Valley of 
the Mississippi. 

The Lewis and Clark Expedition was planned in advance of the 
purchase of the Louisiana Territory by the United States, and at a 
time when no American statesman had so much as a dream of adding 
this great domain to the possessions of the United States. The com- 
mercial idea dominated at the opening of the nineteenth century as it 
does now at the opening of the twentieth century. We are disposed 
to think in the push and confusion of our environment that we have 
fallen upon peculiar times; but not so. Commerce then as now was 
the mighty force employed in opening the way to the eager feet of 

One hundred years ago, before the time of railroads and before the 
age of steam, commerce sought the waterways. The young republic 
sought protection for its trade on the way to the sea; and the route 
through Florida and the right of depot at New Orleans became matters 
of the greatest moment at Washington. The thought that our country 
could ever need the territory adjacent to and west of this valley of the 
continent for the settlement of an expanding population was beyond 
the power of mortal man. It was literally thrust into our keeping, 
under the exigencies of European politics, against the protest of many 
of our wise men. Out of this territory we have carved twelve great 
States and have remaining two great Territories. Wonderful trans- 

A few years after our acquisition of the territory of Louisiana we 
were again at war with Great Britain; and in that period is recorded 
the memorable struggle for the possession of New Orleans. Half a 
century later we were at war with ourselves; and Mr. Kasson throws 
into graphic language the story of the heroic struggle of that time 
for possession of the Mississippi Valley and the way to the sea. History 
repeats itself; the parallel drawn by Mr. Kasson serves to give the 
dullest mind a grasp on the epoch-making events under which the 
union of these States has been wrought and preserved. In this con- 
nection Mr. Kasson pays a splendid tribute to the soldiers of the west- 
ern armies, fitting well the day and the occasion. 

Another noticeable parallel drawn by Mr. Kasson relates to expan- 
sion. The Louisiana Purchase was a providential provision for the 
future of our country, out of time as it appeared to men, but in the 
nick of time as is plain enough in the retrospect. Now, as an incident 
in the Spanish-American War. new territory has been added from the 
islands of the sea. so that now the sun does not set on the flag of the 
great republic. The purpose of McKinley or of the Congress was not 
to add to the territory of the United States, as it was not the purpose 
of Jefferson or of the Congress nearly one hundred years ago. It is 
not surprising that Mr. Kasson is able to offer no other explanation 
than that the Nation has been providentially led. 

"It is a marvelous expansion, a marvelous transformation, a miracle 
of the nations!" 

92 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

The Tribune of May 30, 1901. contained an extended editorial and 
account of the dedication and a poem by Will Reed Dunroy. 

The monument to Sergeant Charles Floyd was dedicated, the me- 
morial tablets unveiled, today. The occasion is a historic one. The 
monument is the joint tribute of the State of Iowa and the United 
States Government to the first American soldier who lost his life in 
the empire-making adventure of Thomas Jefferson. The tablet might 
well have been engraved with the words, "To the memory of the first 
soldier who gave his life in carrying out the plans by which Thomas 
Jefferson laid the foundation of the greatness of the American Re- 
public." If Thomas Jefferson had not been occupied with writing the 
Declaration of Independence, representing the young republic in France, 
adopting a constitution and serving as President, he might have been 
the commander of the expedition which left the bones of one of its 
members on Floyd's Bluff. Long before American independence was 
achieved, Jefferson was a believer in a republic that should include 
North America. After the Revolution, when he was at Paris, John 
Ledyard, a Connecticut Yankee and adventurer, who had traveled 
almost, all over the world, came to Jefferson. 

"I want to travel from St. Petersburg across Russia and Siberia." 
he said, "and thence, crossing Behring Strait, down the western slope 
of the American Continent, across the Oregon Divide, down the Mis- 
souri and up the Ohio. I want to circumnavigate the globe, as nearly 
as it can be done by land. I will lay claim to the far west in the name 
of the American Republic; I will give it the right of discovery, to 
claim the Missouri Valley, the Pacific Slope, and the great northwest 
part of the continent." 

Jefferson, already confident that sooner or later the republic would 
be able to crowd Europe out of the western valleys, joined in the plan. 
He secured for Ledyard passports from the Czar of Russia, and with 
an expedition the Yankee started across the steppes of Russia and 
Siberia. He actually got almost to the Behring Straits. Then he 
was forced to give it up. He returned, and the expedition was a failure. 
Jefferson was sorely disappointed. Ten years later, when he was 
President, he had the good fortune to be able to send the expedition, 
but he started it at the other end of the route, and for the purpose of 
exploring what by that time, in the due development of his ambitions, 
had been made part of his country. Jefferson had many of the instincts 
of an explorer and adventurer; but greater things than mere topo- 
graphical exploration were destined for him. 

The Floyd Monument is really a commemoration of the Lewis 
and Clark Expedition. After he had bought Louisiana from Napoleon. 
Jefferson set out to explore it. There were wonderful stories told of 
the new region. The opponents of the purchase — and they were many 
—pointed out the ridiculousness of such an acquisition. The country 
was inhabited by millions of savages who could never be controlled. 
It was a great desert, dotted by inaccessible mountains; civilized men 
could never occupy it. To buy it would be to assume responsibility 
for the Indians and the adventurers who would dispute for its posses- 
sion. These arguments won many. The Jefferson crowd, however, 
was not without imagination. The story was invented that up near the 
headwaters of the Missouri was a wonderful mountain of salt. It was 
a hundred miles long and no man could tell how high it was. Composed 
of pure crystals of rock salt, it glittered in the sun like the Gates of 
Paradise, and no man could turn his eyes upon it. when it shone in 
the full splendor of a summer afternoon's sun. without injury to the 
eyes not used to such supernatural beauty. Here was all the salt the 
world could want in all time: and salt was a mighty desirable thing 

Dedication of the Monument 93 

in days, before the supply got so large that two able-bodied 
trusts, working overtime, could not control it. The mountain of salt 
argument actually had a large influence in determining public opinion 
in favor of the purchase of Louisiana. Jefferson had his way. He and 
Napoleon, at least, were two men who could see far enough into the 
future to know that they had done a work of empire-making. "I have 
this day established an enemy of England that will one day humble 
her pride," said Napoleon as he signed the documents which made 
Louisiana American property. And in this day, when American com- 
merce, American expansion, American finance, American power in 
every department of activity is accepted as the great menace to the 
power, not of England alone but of all Europe, it seems that Jefferson 
and Napoleon must have had prophetic vision. These are some of 
the thoughts that are suggested by the ceremony today, celebrating 
deeds that changed the course of history. 

He sleeps beneath the stately shaft 

Beside the winding river, 
Where prairie grasses clothe the sod 

And stunted willows quiver; 
The waters murmur as they flow 
In a requiem, softly, faintly low, 

And the west winds sigh and shiver. 

No word can reach his earth-stopt ears 

However loudly spoken; 
To words of praise, to words of blame 

His dust can give no token; 
He holds his vigil on the hill, 
In endless quiet, deep and still, 

In dignity unbroken. 

Above his solemn resting place 

The meadowlarks are singing; 

Around the stately obelisk 

The butterflies are winging: 

With reverence and peace draw near 

The grave of the sleeping pioneer 

While paeans of praise are ringing. 

His restless feet have turned to dust, 

His wanderings are ended: 
But still his spirit bides with us 

With courage high and splendid; 
His strong example paved the way 
For all the triumphs of today — 

His hopes on us descended. 

He sleeps beneath the stately shaft 

Enwrapped in solemn glory: 
Eternal hills lift up their heads 

About him, old and hoary; 
And like a finger, pointing high. 
The shaft lifts upward to the sky 

And tells its deathless story. 

— Will Reed Dunroy. 

94 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 



Abstract of Minutes. 

Sioux City, Iowa, June 15, 1901. 

Association met at office of U. S. Engineers; President Charles in 
the chair; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; Messrs. Perkins, Stone, Burton, Hol- 
man, Vincent, Tees, Chittenden, Marks and Davis present. 

Captain Chittenden presented the following financial statement 
to date: 

Available Funds — 

By appropriation made by United States $ 5,000.00 

By appropriation made by State of Iowa 5,000.00 

By contribution by the Floyd Memorial Association 600.00 

By contribution by the Union Pacific Railroad Company 500.00 

By appropriation made by tne City of Sioux City 1,500.00 

Total amount available $12,600.00 

To amount expended from United States appropria- 
tion $ 5,000.00 

To amount expended from State of Iowa appropria- 
tion 5,000.00 

To amount expended from Floyd Memorial Asso- 
ciation contribution 600.00 

To amount expended from Union Pacific Railroad 

contribution 99.90 

To amount expended from City of Sioux City appro- 
priation 536.91— $11,236.80 

Balance available $ 1,363.20 

Balance Union Pacific Railroad contribution $ 400.11 

Balance City of Sioux City appropriation 963.09—$ 1,363.20 

Outstanding Liabilities — 

Hanson Brothers, paving $ 591.33 

Grading 132.82 

Sodding 120.00 

Water 19.20 

Hauling stone, etc 18.00 

Survey 16.20 

Hermann & Savage, steel bars : 6.20 

P. S. Beekley, sand 9.90 

John Leonard, sand 38.50 

Joseph Hutchinson, crushed stone 93.50 

G. N. Railway Co., freight on sand 14.58 

C. St. P., M. & O. Railway Co.. steel posts 23.23 

R. J. Barrett, cutting stone 6.50 

Western Union Telegraph Company .75 

Iowa Telephone Company .25 

Photographs 15.00 

Team '. 15.00 

Survey 15.00 

Grading, 300 cubic yards, at 10 cents 30.00 

Sodding 70.00 

Fence 50.00 

Total liabilities $ 1,285.96 

Abstract of Minutes 


Balance $ 1,363.20 

Liabilities 1,285.96 

Balance $ 77.^ 1 

Probable receipts from sale of material :tit.uu 

Probable balance $ 167.24 

D. A. Magee, Treasurer, presented his report of receipts and dis- 
bursements from July, 1895, as follows: 

To Officers and Members of Floyd Memorial Association: As 
Treasurer, I beg leave to report that I have received into my hands from 
all sources the following amounts, to-wit: 

July 6, John H. Charles. 

C. R. Marks 

" Geo. Murphy. . . . 

C. D. Bagley 

A. M. Holman.. 
E. R. Kirk 

.$ 5 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
5 00 
5 00 

July 23, P. B. Weare 25 00 

July 25, Eri Richardson 

L. L. Kellogg 

W. S. Belden 

Thos. Green 

J. Amerland 

R. J. Chase 

C. L. Wright 

■" Selzer Bros 

C. H. Lewis 

Perkins Bros. Co.... 

R. Buchanan 

T. G. Henderson 

J. J. Dunkleberg. . . . 

S. M. Marsh 

Isaac Pendleton 

" A. Groninger 

" Jas. Twohig 

Jos. Twohig , 

H. L. Warner 

J. A. Magoun 

N. Emmuns 

T. P. Gere 

C. W. Fletcher 

C. A. L. Olson 

F. L. Eaton 

■" J. Sampson 

J. W. Power 

H. P. Chesley 

G. W. Sheepley 

J. W. Baley 

A. W. Whisler 

" Jas. Puck 

Wm. Milchrist 

E. H. Bucknam 

T. J. Stone 

D. S. Lewis 

" J. A. Burns 

A. L. Stetson 

F. M. Shanafelt 

1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 

1 00 

2 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 

1 00 

2 00 

1 00 

2 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 no 

1 00 

2 00 

i oo 


July 25, Judge VanWagenen.if 

" Geo. M. Pardoe 

G. W. Wakefield.... 

W. C. Hills 

W. L. Joy 

Davidson Bros 

F. C. Hills 

N. Desparois 

T. C. Tees 

Geo. C. Reed 

J. D. Hoskins 

C. A. Benton 

Jas. Doughty 

W. C. Davenport.... 

A. H. Burton 

F. A. Magill 

G. A. Johnson 

J. L. Hanchett 

J. M. Bolton 

J. C. C. Hoskins 

M. E. Follis 

F. L. Ferris 

H. J. Taylor 

G. S. Robinson 

Hattenbach & Magee 
E. R. Evans 

" John T. Spencer 

M. E. Kelly 

J. P. Karney 

D. C. Heffernan 

E. S. Holman 

Stinson & Gribble. .. 

" Schrieber Bros 

Hart & Smead 

T. V. Brennan 

W. H. Warner 

Prof. Haupt 

E. B. Wilbur 

Geo. Murphy, 


B. Gribble 

W. O. Avers 

D. C. Smiley 

H. H. McCormick... . 

Sep. 22. Bertha Wakefield .... 






















































































1 00 


Report of Floyd Memorial Association 


Sept. 22, Luther Coombs $ .1 00 

Robert H. Sayer 5.00 

Maris Peirce 1 00 

T. C. Veits 2 00 


June 29, Francis Davis 1 00 

C. A. Benton, 

(Floyd History) 25 

C. R. Marks 75 

A. Groninger 25 

Mitchell Vincent 2 00 

A. F. Statter 25 

F. C. Hills 50 

Feb. 24, P. W. Peterson 

Granite Co 1 00 

C. R. Marks. 

(Floyd Histories) . 2 00 


May 9, P. B. Weare $100 00- 

Aug. 11, H. D. Clarke 25 00 

Aug. 19, J. C. C. Hoskins 15 00 

Oct. 7, City of Sioux City... 500 00 

Nov. 7, Jos. N. Field 250 00 


Apl. 17, Col. Chittenden 1 00 

Sep. 15, T. C. Power 50 00 

Sep. 25, F. M. Hubbell 50 00 

Dec. 20, Interest on Deposit.. 50 

Dec. 24, F. H. Peavey 200 00 


May 27, Woodbury County ... 800 00 

Stock Yards Co 100 00 

May 30, Sale of Badges 27 00 

Total $2,264 50 

The following disbursements have been made, to-wit: 
Date 1895. To Whom Paid. . For What Paid. Amount, 

June 11, Perkins Bros. Co letter heads, postal cards, etc..$ 5 90< 

June 23, E. W. Skinner labor, etc 1150 

June 25, M. A. Bancroft printing 3 10 

Aug. 1, postage 

Aug. 21 newspapers and urn 

Perkins Bros. Co. et al printing 





Sept. 11. M. C. Carlstrom memorial stone 42 20 

Sept. 25, N. J. Berston teams and hacks 

Oct. 1, Peavey & Stephens chairs 

Dec. 31, P. C. Waltermire photographs 5 00 


Aug. 31, John H. Charles 94 85. 


Marks attorney city appropriation 500 00" 

H. Charles president \ . . . . 290 00 

Oct. 7 

Dec. 5, John 

Sept. 14 

M. B. Davis ex 

pense corner stone. 

3 00 

Sept. 18, Fourth Regiment Band laying corner stone. . 40 00 

Dec. 20, John H. Charles. President. .. payment on note 175 50. 


Jan. 3, Security National Bank payment on note 200 00' 

May 27, Security National Bank payment on note 200 00 

May 31, Dr. Yeomans ticket to Mason City 6 66' 

June 3, P. C. Waltermire 500 buttons for badges 50 00 

Hotel Garretson bill Dr. Yeomans 3 25 

H. A. Jandt & Co ribbons for badges 18 00' 

Perkins Bros. Co printing 22 75- 

C. Reuschling janitor court house 2 50' 

A. B. Beall opera house 25 00' 

June 8, 

J. M. Pinckney flags 

W. A. Spencer gathering flowers 

W. S. Stratton moving organ to court house. 

W. S. Belden horse used as marshal of day.. 

A. Lindholm Co chairs at monument 

W. E. Davis postage for invitations 


Abstract of Minutes 97 

June S, A. 1'. McKowan decorating opera house $ in 00 

Pelletier Dry Goods Co bunting for opera house 4 20 

\V. C. Davenport hack to monument :S 00 

Sioux City Bus & T. Co hacks 3125 

W. E. Gantt horse, aide to marshal 2 00 

D. A. Magee livery to monument, drayage 

and revenue stamps 2 50 

J. H. Carmody assistance at opera house 2 00 

Fourth Regiment Band services at unveiling 75 00 

June 14, J. A. Kasson expenses, etc 100 00 

Total $1,91132 

Recapitulation — 

To total amount amount received $2,264.50 — 

By total amount paid out $1,911.32 

By cash on hand 326.18 

By cash on hand from sale badges 27.00 

Totals $2,264.50 $2,264.50 

C. R. Marks, Committee on Resolutions, presented a number which 

were unanimously adopted. The resolutions are as follows: 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Floyd Memorial Association are 
hereby extended to Captain H. M. Chittenden, U. S. Engineer, for his 
invaluable services in the designing and superintending the erection 
of the monument to the memory of Sergant Charles Floyd. 

That the Association highly appreciates his technical knowledge 
and skill, so freely given for our benefit, and the heart and soul with 
which he has entered upon the work, surpassing us all in his love and 
enthusiasm in commemorating this historic event. 

That without his aid our work could not have been so successfully 
and economically consummated. 

That copies of this resolution be forwarded to Captain Chittenden 
by the Secretary. 

Resolved by the Floyd Memorial Association, That the thanks of 
this Association are hereby extended to the Chicago, Milwaukee and 
St. Paul Railroad Company and its officers for their liberality and sub- 
stantial donation of freight charges in carrying material for the erec- 
tion of the monument in Sioux City at the grave of Sergeant Charles 
Floyd, who died upon the Lewis and Clark Expedition. 

That by this most substantial aid, added to that of others, we 
have been enabled to secure the site of Floyd's grave and erect a shaft 
one hundred feet high that will commemorate his name and the his- 
toric event of the purchase and exploration of the great Northwest at 
the commencement of the last century. 

That by the public spirited aid of this Company and others a monu- 
ment has been erected double in cost and value of the original appro- 
priations of the United States and the State of Iowa of $5,000 each. 

That copies of this resolution be sent to such Railroad Company. 

Resolved by the Floyd Memorial Association. That the thanks of 
this Association are hereby extended to the Illinois Central Railroad 
Company and its officers for their liberality and substantial donation 
of freight charges in carrying material for the erection of the monu- 
ment in Sioux City at the grave of Sergeant Charles Floyd, who died 
upon the Lewis and Clark Expedition. 

98 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

That by this most substantial aid, added to that of others, we have 
been enabled to secure the site of Floyd's grave and erect a shaft 
one hundred feet high that will commemorate his name and the his- 
toric event of the purchase and exploration of the great Northwest at 
the commencement of the last century. 

That by the public spirited aid of this Company and others a monu- 
ment has been erected double in cost and value of the original appro- 
priations of the United States and the State of Iowa of $5,000 each. 

That copies of this resolution be sent to such Railroad Company. 

Resolved by the Floyd Memorial Association of Sioux City, Iowa, 
That the thanks of the Association are hereby extended to the' Union 
Pacific Railroad Company and its officers for the donation of $500 made 
by it towards the erection of the monument at Sioux City, Iowa, at the 
grave of Sergeant Charles Floyd, who died upon the Lewis and Clark 

That by the aid of this donation and other generous ones we have 
been enabled to secure the site of Floyd's grave and erect a shaft one 
hundred feet high on Floyd's Bluff that will commemorate the purchase 
and exploration of the great Northwest at the commencement of the 
last century, and that copies of this resolution be sent to said Rail- 
road Company. 

Resolved by the Floyd Memorial Association. That the thanks of 
this Association are hereby extended to the Sioux City & Pacific and 
the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad Companies and their officers 
for their liberality and substantial donations of freight charges in 
carrying material for the erection of the monument in Sioux City at 
the grave of Sergeant Charles Floyd, who died upon the Lewis and 
Clark Expedition. 

That by this most substantial aid. added to that of others, we have 
been enabled to secure the site of Floyd's grave and erect a shaft 
one hundred feet high that will commemorate his name and the his- 
toric event of the purchase and exploration of the great Northwest at 
the commencement of the last century. 

That by the public spirited aid of these Companies and others a 
monument has been erected double in cost and value of the original 
appropriations of the United States and the State or Iowa of $5,000 each. 

That copies of this resolution be sent to such Railroad Companies. 

Resolved by the Floyd Memorial Association, That the thanks of 
this Association are hereby extended to the Great Northern and the 
Willmar and Sioux Falls Railway Companies and their officers for their 
liberality and substantial donations of freight charges in carrying 
material for the erection of the monument in Sioux City at the grave 
■of Sergeant Charles Floyd, who died upon the Lewis and Clark Ex- 

That by this most substantial aid, added to that of others, we 
have been enabled to secure the site of Floyd's grave and erect a shaft 
one hundred feet high that will commemorate his name and the his- 
toric event of the purchase and exploration of the great Northwest at 
the commencement of the last century. 

That by the public spirited aid of these Companies and others a 
monument has been erected double in cost and value of the original 
appropriations of the United States and the State of Iowa of $o,000 each. 

That copies of this resolution be sent to such Railroad Companies. 

Resolved by the Floyd Memorial Association, That the thanks of 

this Association are hereby extended to the Chicago, St. Paul, Minne- 

;apolisand Omaha Railroad Company and its officers for their liberality 

Abstract of Minutes '.)'.) 

and substantial donation of freight charges in carrying material for 
the erection of the monument in Sioux City at the grave of Sergeant 
Charles Floyd, who died upon the Lewis and Clark Expedition. 

That by this most substantial aid, added to that of others, we 
have been enabled to secure the site of Floyd's grave and erect a shaft 
one hundred feet high that will commemorate his name and the his- 
toric event of the purchase and exploration of the great Northwest at 
the commencement of the last century. 

That by the public spirited aid of this Company and others a monu- 
ment has been erected double in cost and value of the original appro- 
priations of the United States and the State of Iowa of $5,000 each. 

That copies of this resolution be sent to such Railroad Company. 

Resolved by the Floyd Memorial Association, That the thanks of 
this Association are hereby extended to the Combination Bridge Com- 
pany and the Union Terminal Railway Company and their officers for 
their liberality and substantial donation of freight charges in carrying 
material for the erection of the monument in Sioux City at the grave 
of Sergeant Charles Floyd, who died upon the Lewis and Clark Ex- 

That by this most substantial aid, added to that of others, we 
have been enabled to secure the site of Floyd's grave and erect a shaft 
one hundred feet high that will commemorate his name and the his- 
toric event of the purchase and exploration of the great Northwest at 
the commencement of the last century. 

That by the public spirited aid of this Company and others a monu- 
ment has been erected double in cost and value of the original appro- 
priations of the United States and the State of Iowa of $5,000 each. 

That copies of this resolution be sent to such Companies. 

The Committee of Arrangements for the dedication made a full 
report, among other things stating that the Board of Supervisors had 
appropriated $800 to complete the work and pay expenses of dedication, 
for which a vote of thanks was recommended. This appropriation 
was placed in hands of Treasurer of the Association. Expenses of dedi- 
cation, $375.82, were itemized and all appear in the Treasurer's report 
above. Report approved. 

Sioux City, Iowa. July 27. 1901. 

Association met in rooms of Scientific Association; Vice President 
Wakefield in the chair; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; Miss Bertha Wakefield. 
Messrs. Marks, Davis and Burton present. 

On motion of Mr. Marks a committee consisting of Geo. D. Perkins. 
E. W. Caldwell, J. C. Kelly, Geo. W. Wakefield and Mrs. Francis N. 
Davis was appointed and directed to compile and prepare for publica- 
tion in pamphlet form a report of the proceedings and work of the 
Association from December, 1895, the closing date of former report. 

On motion of Mrs. Davis a portrait of John H. Charles. President of 
the Association, was adopted as the frontispiece in such publication. 

John H. Charles, M. Vincent and C. R. Marks were appointed to 
purchase in behalf of the Association a suitable present for Captain 
Chittenden in recognition of his valuable services. 

100 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

Sioux City, Iowa, August 20, 1901. 

Association met in annual session in the rooms of the Scientific 
Association; President Charles in the chair; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; 
Messrs. Wakefield, Magee, Tees, A. M. Holman. Vincent, Davis, Burton 
and Perkins present. 

The Committee on purchase of gift to Captain Chittenden reported 
the purchase of Parkman's History, and the committee was directed to 
present the same to Captain Chittenden. 

The Treasurer reported the receipt from U. S. Engineers the sum 
of $95.56. 

A. H. Burton was requested to provide for keeping cattle out of 
the grounds. 

The following named persons were elected Trustees for the ensuing 
year: John H. Charles, Geo. W. Wakefield. Mitchell Vincent, Geo. D. 
Perkins, D. A. Magee, A. M. Holman and C. R. Marks. 

The Trustees met immediately and the following officers were duly 
elected: President, John H. Charles; Vice Presidents, Geo. W. Wake- 
field, Geo. D. Perkins, Maris Peirce, Joseph N. Field, of Manchester, 
England; Portus B. Weare, of Chicago; R. C. A. Flournoy, Horace G. 
Burt, of Omaha; Marvin Hughitt, of Chicago; George F. Bidwell, of 
Omaha; James Davie Butler, D. D., of Madison, Wis.; Charles Aldrich. 
of Des Moines; Mrs. Elliott Coues, of Washington, D. C; H. D. Clark, 
of New Haven, Conn.; S. P. Yeomans. of Marshalltown. 



After the completion and dedication of the monument and the 
provision for this report further information in regard to the lineage 
of Sergeant Charles Floyd came to the Association in the following 

Ellicott City, Md., July 25, 1901. 
The Floyd Memorial Association. 

Dear Sirs: Having seen in Harper's Weekly of July 6 an account 
of the interesting and beautiful monument erected to Sergeant Floyd 
at Sioux City, I write to draw your attention to one statement in the 
article, which, though made in good faith, is really very incorrect, 
namely, that nothing is known of Floyd's family. 

My grandmother, now living at the advanced age of eighty-two. 
is a daughter of John Floyd, who was Governor of Virginia in 1829. 
Governor John Floyd was a first cousin of Sergeant Floyd and father 
of John B. Floyd, Secretary of War under Buchanan. We have in our 
family records and letters which trace the history of the Floyds from 
the date of their coming to this country to the present day. These 
documents were lent by my family to Mr. Theodore Roosevelt, who 
made use of them in writing his book, "The Winning of the West." 

Sergeant's Floyd's father was a surveyor, one of several brothers 
;vho emigrated from Virginia to Kentucky, co-pioneers with Daniel 

IhitH Regarding Floyd 101 

Boone. The first association existing between the family of Floyd and 
General George Rogers Clarke was in 1782, when the State of Virginia 
authorized General Clarke to raise troops for the defense of Kentucky, 
at that time open to the depredation of the Indians, who were incited 
by the British. Colonel John Floyd commanded a company of volun- 
teers. Overtures were made to Clarke and Floyd by the British Gov- 
ernor, Hamilton, to betray the country to the British and be rewarded 
with an extensive grant of land and any title under that of Duke. 
Colonel Floyd named one of his sons, George Rogers Clarke, after his 
friend and fellow-soldier. This Colonel John Floyd was an uncle of 
Sergeant Floyd. Very truly yours. 


The Sioux City Tribune of August 17, 1901, contained the following 
more extended letter from Miss McMulIen: 

Ellicott City, Md., August 13, 1901. 

To the Editor of the Tribune: It is with pleasure that I respond to 
your courteous request of August 10, and regret that the delay conse- 
quent upon looking through some family papers somewhat retarded 
the mailing of my letter. 

I find to my great disappointment that I can give you really no 
details of the life of Sergeant Charles Floyd. I have written to one or 
two relatives in what is, I fear, a vain hope that they may be able to 
throw some light on the history of this interesting man. Reasoning, 
however, by analogy, we may gain some idea of his personality by read- 
ing the story of those of his relatives whose history is well known 
to me. 

The Floyds were an adventurous, roving race, and early in the 
eighteenth century, finding their native Welch valleys too narrow, three 
brothers of the name sailed west across the Atlantic, to find in the 
new country of America a field worthy of their restless spirits. One 
brother, John, settled in the northern colonies; the youngest, Charles, 
went, to Georgia; William settled in the eastern part of Virginia. Per- 
haps he found the rich and populous colony too crowded; perhaps he 
heard the call of the great western wilderness with ears only too eager 
for such a summons. We can only guess his reasons, but we know 
that he soon left the fertile tide-water country and faced westward to 
Amherst County, then a very wild region. Here he met with a family 
named Davis, whose ancestors had come from Wales. Mr. Robert 
Davis had a daughter, Abediah, whom William Floyd married. Twelve 
children were the result of this union; five sons, John, William. Isham. 
Charles and Nathaniel, and seven daughters, Mrs. Sturgis, Mrs. Pryor. 
Mrs. LeMaster, Mrs. Drake, Mrs. Powell, Mrs. Alexander and Mrs. 
Twole. Charles Floyd was, I am nearly certain, the father of Sergeant 
Charles Floyd. I have not succeeded in discovering whom he married, 
nor if he had other children. 

John, the eldest son of William Floyd and Abediah Davis, was born 
in 1747 in Amherst County. He became a surveyor and was associated 
with Colonel William Preston, whose cousin, the beautiful and fasci- 
nating Jane Buchanan, he married; not, however, without a long and 
romantic courtship. When the duties of the surveyor's office permitted 
he rode with Colonel Daniel Trigg as deputy sheriff. 

In the year 1775 John Floyd made his first expedition into Ken- 
tucky, where he surveyed all the best lands on Elkhorn Creek, many 
in Clark County, in Woolford County, Shelby County and Jefferson 
County. He returned to Virginia after unbelievable sufferings. In 
the Revolutionary War John Floyd had command of a privateering 
schooner, the "Phoenix." His career on the high seas, though brief. 

102 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 

was not the least thrilling episode in a life crowded with adventures. 
He sailed to the West Indies and captured a splendid prize, but on his 
return, deserted by fortune, he was captured while almost in sight of 
the Virginia shores and taken a prisoner to England. After a romantic 
escape and flight to France he succeeded in returning to America, 
bringing his sweetheart, Jane Buchanan, a pair of silver shoe buckles. 
In the year 1779 William Floyd died. His pioneer spirit descended, 
like the prophet s mantle, upon his son, John Floyd. In October of 
1779 he. with his wife, his brothers, Charles, Isham anu Nathaniel, his 
sisters, Jemima and Abediah, with their husbands, LeMaster and Sturgis, 
migrated to Kentucky. Two unmarried sisters, who afterwards married, 
one a Mr. Pryor, the other a Mr. Alexander, accompanied them. They 
settled at Bear Grass, near Louisville. When a convention was called 
to enact laws for the infant colony, John Floyd made an address, saying 
"he felt that he had placed his foot upon the threshold of an empire." 
This expression was looked upon as the boast of an ardent tempered 
man. Time has proven it was prophetic. 

John Floyd was always one of the most prominent men in the 
companies organized to repel Indian depredations. To quote from 
Collins' Kentucky. P. 303: "He accompanied Boone in the pursuit and 
rescue of his daughter and her companions, whom the savages had 
decoyed and captured in 1776. and his contemporaneous account of that 
thrilling occurrence does equal credit to his scholarship and pen." 
Of John Floyd's life-long friendship with General George Rogers Clark 
I have already spoken. 

This daring pioneer at last lost his life at the hands of the savages 
he had so bravely resisted. On the 12th of April, 1183, Colonel Floyd, 
his brother Charles and Mr. Alexander Breckenridge were riding to 
Salt River, about twenty miles from Floyd's Station. The scarlet coat 
worn by Floyd proved a splendid target for an enemy's weapon. He 
was fired upon by Indians in ambush. As the gallant soldier reeled in 
his saddle, his brother Charles sprang behind him, and, supporting 
him in his arms, galloped to the nearest house. All efforts proved un- 
availing to save the life of this brave pioneer, and at the early age of 
thirty-six he died, expressing with his last breath the greatest sorrow 
and concern for his young wife and his children. No portrait exists 
of John Floyd, but he is described by those who knew him as being of 
commanding stature, slender, but muscular, with curling dark hair, 
handsome features and piercing brilliant dark eyes. To quote again 
from Collins: '^'loyd was a conspicuous actor in the stirring scenes 
of those times. He was an ornament and a benefactor of the infant 
settlement. No individual among the pioneers was more intellectual 
or better informed; none displayed on all occasions that called for it 
a bolder and more undaunted courage." John Floyd left three sons. 
William, who died in infancy; George Rogers Clark Floyd, of Tippe- 
canoe fame, and John Floyd, afterwards Governor of Virginia and a 
man of great prominence in political life before the war. 

In 1782, Isham, a brother of Colonel John Floyd, was killed by the 
Indians on the west bank of the Ohio River. He was quite young, 
merely a boy. The savages tortured him for three days in a most in- 
human manner; scalped him, cut off his ears, fingers and toes, finally 
tore out his heart and threw it to the dogs. Colonel John Floyd's 
brothers-in-law. Sturgis, Pryor. Drake and LeMasters, were also killed 
by the Indians. 

I do not know the date of the death of Charles Floyd, the father 
of Sergeant Charles Floyd, nor that of William Floyd, but Nathaniel, 
the youngest of the brothers, lived to the advanced age of ninety-five, 
dying in 1840. Mention is made of his having seen service at New 
Orleans. To quote from a letter from Mrs. John Floyd to one of her 

Data Regarding Floyd 103 

sons: "From the year 1755 to the battle of New Orleans, your paternal 
ancestors unsheathed their swords and poured out their blood for their 

This is but a brief and hasty outline of the Floyd family. A mar- 
tial, adventurous race: these qualities, with the virtues of courage and 
energy, must have been the inheritance and birthright of Sergeant 
Charles Floyd. We can well fancy, after glancing at the history of his 
forefathers and kinsmen with what eagerness he must have volunteered 
for service on an expedition that could not but appeal to every instinct 
of his heart and mind. That daring expedition, fraught with dangers, 
difficulties and undreamed hardships that went into the mysterious 
ana ever-alluring west. 

Very sincerely yours, 


Ellicott City, Md. 

August 22. 1901, Miss McMullen wrote the Secretary that she was 
seeking further information from other members of the family. 

Benjamin F. Gardner, of Louisville, writing August 16, 1901, states 
that in 1880 a monument was erected near Eastwood by the State of 
Kentucky to the memory of Colonel John Floyd and members of his 
command, who were killed by the Indians. 

Judge Noah Levering, in an interview published in the Sioux City 
Journal of May 28, 1901, made statement concerning Floyd's remains 
as follows: 

It was in the latter part of March, -1857, that Dr. Sloan, who lived 
at Sergeant Bluffs, discovered while driving along the river bank to 
Sioux City that the remains of Sergeant Floyd were about to be washed 
into the river. He told me about it, and I called the attention of a 
number of citizens to the fact. A meeting was held in the office of 
the Receiver of the United States Land Office in the evening, and a 
committee was named; of which I was made chairman, to visit the 
grave and rescue the remains if possible. 

The next day it was very windy, a typical March day in this sec- 
tion, but we went to the grave, and on top of that bluff we could 
scarcely hold our feet. Some of us crawled over to the edge of the 
bluff, and looking over we saw a leg bone protruding from the ground 
about six inches. Nobody was lowered over the precipice with a rope, 
as has been reported somewhere in history. A young man who said 
he was from Indiana, and whose name I did not get. said he would 
dig out the bones if a rope were tied to him to insure his not falling 
over the bank. We had a rope along with us. and this was tied about 
his waist. With a spade he began digging near the edge of the bank, 
and the committee lay down in the grass and held the rope. 

The arm bones were gone, but the other bones and a part of the 
old coffin were there. The coffin was not a box, for there was no lum- 
ber on the expedition. It was surmised that the body was staked 
around after being placed in the bottom of the grave, and sawed up 
pieces of timber were placed over the top. I afterward sent a piece of 
this wood to the Iowa Historical Society in Des Moines. 

I wrapped up the bones of Sergeant Floyd in a blanket and carried 
them home with me. Well, naturally, my wife was not highly pleased 
to have such a ghastly bundle about the house, and I carried them 
down to the office of Judge M. F. Moore, who was County Judge here 
and was in later vears the first Governor of Washington Territory. 

104 Report of Flovcl Memorial Association 


On May 20, after a good deal of labor, I secured, by collection, suffi- 
cient money to have a coffin made and dig a new grave for the remains. 
Judge Moore delivered the oration during the ceremonies, and it was 
indeed a fine one. The bones were interred about six hundred feet back 
on the bluff. 

A cedar post which had been placed at the original grave had been 
washed into the river and lost. I am quite sure it was not the original 
post left by the comrades of Sergeant Floyd, for that one bore an in- 
scription, according to the records they left. The one washed away 
must have been about the third post, and I think it must have been 
placed there by Nicollet, the noted traveler, in 1839. It was evident 
he did not know just where the body lay and placed the post near the 
feet of Sergeant Floyd. 



John H. Charles, President of this Association from its organiza- 
tion, whose portrait is given as the frontispiece to this report, has been 
the chief moving spirit in our work, making it possible to complete and 
dedicate the monument in so short a time. He has been a great and 
steadfast leader to whom all honor is due, and whose memory will go 
down the ages so long as the monument endures. The Sioux City 
Journal of May 30, 1901, contained the following words of tribute: 

To no one man can be given the credit for building the handsome 
obelisk that marks Sergeant Charles Floyd's grave, yet one above all 
others has been inseparably linked with that monument throughout 
its inception and growth — John H. Charles, the venerable President of 
the Floyd Memorial Association. A generation of men here and else- 
where has been deeply interested in thus commemorating the services 
of the young man who sacrificed his life in the exploration that opened 
to the United States the great empire of the trans-Missouri country, 
but none has been so loyal at all times as he; other men have favored 
ihe project, others gave it their sympathy and encouragement, and 
still others labored for it and gave of their money to build it, but he 
made it a part of the plan and purpose of his life, and for years it has 
been his one great ambition to accomplish this act of justice to the 
memory of the brave explorer. 

Dr. William R. Smith, whose active business life was in and devoted 
to Sioux City, ever kept in mind the building of this memorial to Ser- 
geant Floyd. By his will, made in April, 1894, he bequeathed to his 
executors a sum of money to be used and expended by them in the 
erection, or in aid of the erection, at some place as they might deter- 
mine, "of a monument to the memory of Sergeant Floyd, who died and 
was buried near Sioux City, while exploring the Missouri River, accom- 
panying the expedition of Lewis and Clark, and after whom Floyd 
River was named." Dr. Smith died July 1, 1894. and this provision 
of his will when proved no doubt stimulated the inquiry which resulted 

Honorable Mention 105 

in the identification of Sergeant Floyd's grave in 1895, the organiza- 
tion of this Association and the completion of the work. The exe- 
cutors of his will, Rebecca O. Smith and Milton Perry Smith, executed 
the trust imposed April 11. 1898, by conveying to the Association Lot 
eleven in Block nine in Smith's Walnut Hill Villa Addition to Sioux 
City, Iowa, at a stated consideration of $250. This lot was sold for 
$250 to Mrs. Jennie T. Charles, and the proceeds used in purchasing the 
grounds for the monument and park.