NYPL RESEARCH LIBRARIES 3 3433 08236773 5 i < i \ Ll s> IN MEMORIAM Sergeant Charles Floyd PUBLIC 1 . 1 P l / ... 1 1 REPORT OF THE Floyd Memorial Association PREPARED ON BEHALF OF THE Committee on Publication BY ELLIOTT COUES. RESURGAM." SIOUX CITY: PRESS OF PERKINS BROS. COMPANY, 1897. /—I /> \\ r IN MEMORIAM Sergeant Charles Floyd REPORT OF THE Floyd Memorial Association PREPARED ON BEHALF OF THE Committee on Publication BY ELLIOTT COUES. "RESURGAM." SIOUX CITY: PRESS OK PERKINS BROS. COMPANY, 1897. ■ THENEWYORKI p lbtK>x' A8TOR, LENOX AND TJLPEN FOUNDATIONS. THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY 601294A ASTOR, LENOX AND TILDEN FOUNDATIONS R 19 L LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL No. 1. W ashing i<>\. 1). C, Jan. 1, 1896. Hon. George I). Perkins, Chairman Committee on Publication, Floyd Memorial Association, Sioux City, Iowa. Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Floyd Memorial Association which I was requested to prepare on behalf of your committee. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, Elliott Coues. LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL Xo. 2. Sioux City, Iowa, Jan. 4. 1896. John H. Charles, President Floyd Memorial Association, Sioux City, Iowa. Sir: We have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the Floyd Mem- orial Association, with the preparation of which the Committee on Publication was charged by resolution of the Board of Trustees of Aug. 24, 1895. This report contains: 1. All that is known of Floyd's antecedents, life and death. 2. All accounts of his reburial in 1857. 3. A full account of the origin, organization and proceedings of the Association before, during and after the memorial exercises of Aug. 20, 1895. Your committee believe that this report represents a valuable contribu- tion to permanent history, and that it will serve to promote the purposes of the Association; they therefore recommend its immediate publication. All of which is respectfully submitted. Geokc.e D. Pkkkins. Elliott Coues, Mitchell Vincent, Geokgk W. Wakefield, Constant K. Marks, Committee on Publication. Table of Contents. PART I. — Floyd's Life and Death. page. 1. Floyd's Antecedents, ... . 1_3 2. Floyd as a Sergeant of Lewis and Clark, - 3 3. Floyd's Journal, ... 3_ 9 4. Floyd's Death and Burial, Aug. 20, 1804, - 9-12 5. Floyd's Grave, before 1857, - - - 12-14 PART II.— Floyd's Reburial in 1857. 6. Floyd's Grave Exposed, - - 14-17 7. Floyd's New Grave, ...... 17-18 8. Floyd County, for whom named, - - - 18-21 PART III. — The Floyd Memorial Association. 9. Origin of the Association, - 21-24 10. Organisation of the Association, - - 24-27 11. Proceedings of the Association before Aug. 20, 1895, - 27-32 12. Incorporation of the Association, Aug. 20, 1895. - 32-35 13. The Obsequies of Aug. 20, 1895. .... 35 a. Afternoon Exercises, ----,- 35-44 b. Evening Exercises, ..... 44-45 14. Proceedings of the Association after Aug. 20, 1895, 55-58 IN MEMOKIAM Sergeant Charles Floyd REPORT OF THE Floyd Memorial Association PART i.— FLOYD'S LIFE AND DEATH. Section 1. Floyd's Antecedents. The Floyds were early pioneers in Kentucky. Their descendants were numerous, and it is not known with cer- tainty to which line of descent the subject of the present biography belonged. Colonel John Floyd was the most prominent of these pioneers. He was the son of William and Abidiah Floyd. He had brothers, Robert Floyd, Charles Floyd and Isham Floyd; also, brothers-in-law named Lemaster and Sturgis; but little is known of any of them. Charles Floyd, brother of Col- onel John Floyd, resided at Floyd Station when he first came to Kentucky, about 1780, and afterward in what was known as Pond Settlement, in present Jefferson County, Ky., where he had a farm on Mill Creek, a few miles from Louisville. It is probable but not certain that he was the father of Sergeant Charles Floyd of the Lewis and Clark expedition. The only direct allusion to the Sergeant's father we have found is a remark contained in Capt. Meriwether Lewis' official muster-roll of his party, dated Jan. 15, 1807, now in the archives of the War Department at Washington. Speaking of the Ser- geant's decease, Lewis adds: "His father, who now resides in Kentucky. Is a man much respected, tho' possessed of but moderate wealth. As the son lost his life while in this service I considered his father entitled to some gratuity in consideration of his loss, and also, that the deceased being noticed in this way will be a tribute but justly due to his merit."* This shows that the Sergeant's father was still living in 1807, but unfortunately omits to give his full name. *See Lewis and Clark: Ed. 1S93. p. 254. 1 2 REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. Col. John Floyd was among the brave volunteers who flocked to the standard of George Rogers Clark, to repulse Indian hostilities. He was mor- tally wounded by Indians near Floyd Station and died the same day, April 12, 1783. His brother Charles carried him off the field. For the circumstances of his death, and view of the monument which now stands on the town pike between Middletown and Simpsonville, Jefferson County, Ky., "erected by the commonwealth of Kentucky to the memory of fourteen brave soldiers who fell under Capt. John Floyd in a contest with the Indians in 1783," see English's Conquest of the Northwest, 1896, p. 751; also, preceding pp. 748- 750, for report of Col. John Floyd to the Governor of Virginia, April, 1781, on the condition of affairs in Kentucky, etc. In September, 1781, Col. John was wounded in an Indian ambuscade, on hurrying to the rescue of settlers after the disaster at Squire Boone's Station, near present Shelbyville. Col. John was also under Clark in 1782. George Rogers Clark Floyd (son of Col. John), afterward distinguished at the battle of Tippecanoe, was the one who caused the drum and fife to be played during the amputation of Clark's leg at Clarksville, Ind., early in 1809. Henry Floyd appears as a lieutenant in the forces raised by George Ttogers Clark for the famous Illinois regiment, for the reduction of Kas- kaskia, Cahokia, Vincennes, etc., 1778-9. He was among those allotted land in severalty in the Clark grant of 149,000 acres for their services in that campaign. Isham Floyd appears as a private in the same connection. George Rogers Clark was an elder brother of William Clark (of Lewis and Clark), and in this association of the Floyds with the Clarks we are evidently close upon the record of the antecedents of our Sergeant Charles Floyd. He is known to us simply as one of "the nine young men from Kentucky," as the Lewis and Clark history styles them, who joined the famous expedition. As Col. R. T. Durrett of Louisville, says, in a letter to the present writer, of November 16, 1895, the Sergeant was simply "a young man of the times," of neither fame nor fortune, but closely enough connected with persons then prominent to secure a place on the expedition as one of its non-commissioned officers. Col. Durrett knows of no contemporary news- paper which gives a notice of his death, but adds: "I think it possible, how- ever, that something might have been said of him in the 'Farmers' Library,' a weekly paper then published at Louisville; but unfortunately no file of this paper is in existence. * * * His father (believed to be the Charles Floyd already mentioned) was a respectable farmer in Jefferson County, who appeared frequently as an appraiser of dead men's estates, as witness, as juror, as magistrate, etc., all of which goes to show that he was a soli ! man of good standing in the community. I have not been able to find among the descendants and distant relatives of the Floyds, who still exist in this vicin- ity, any person who could tell me anything about Sergeant Charles Floyd. There are no near relatives here, however, and I think that it is very strange that he should have passed entirely away from the memory of the liv- ing * * *." The date and place of birth of Sergeant Floyd are unknown. He was no doubt born in present Jefferson County, Ky., about 1780-85. REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION 3 The foregoing is the sum and substance of all that is known on the sub- ject, prior to Floyd's connection with Lewis and Clark. Of this brief <<>n- nection, and its termination by death, our information is ample and precise. Sec. 2. Floyd as a Sergeant c <i Lewis and Clark. Floyd was a civil- ian, and never a soldier of the United States army, except as enlisted in the particular service of the Lewis and Clark expedition. He no doubt joined that expedition with others in the fall of 1803, at St. Louis, Mo., and went into the winter camp of the party, 1S03-4, on the east bank of the Mil issippi, at the mouth of Du Bois or Wood river, in Illinois, nearly opposite but a short distance above the entrance of the Missouri. From this point the expedition sailed in a barge and two perogues at 4 p. m. on Monday, May K, 1804. It proceeded up the Missouri to near the site of present Sioux City, Iowa, where Floyd died on the afternoon of August 20, 1804. Exclusive of his duties in Camp Du Bois, the duration of his actual service on the expedition was thus brief— a period of 99 days. That he did his duty faithfully and ably, we know. It is believed that he was the first citizen-soldier of the United States ever buried west of the Mississippi, after the acquisition of Louisiana. Sec. 3. Floyd's Journal. Both of the commissioned officers of the expedition, the four non-commissioned officers (Floyd, Pryor, Ordway, and Gass), and at least three of the privates, kept journals. Those of Capt. Lewis and Capt. Clark were edited by Nicholas Biddle and first published in 1814 as the authentic History of the Expedition. This went through many edi- tions, the latest one of 1893. The manuscript journals of Pryor and of Ord- way were utilized for the History by Biddle; but all further trace of them has been lost. The journal of Patrick Gass was first published at Pittsburgh in 1807, under the editorship of David McKeehan, and went through more editions than the Captain's own history ever did, including translations in French, German and Dutch. Nothing was known of Floyd's journal till Feb- ruary 3, 1894, when it was discovered by Reuben G. Thwaites, Secretary of the Wisconsin Historical Society, at Madison, Wis., in Lyman C. Draper's collection of documents relating to George Rogers Clark and William Clark. This is the very volume mentioned by Capt. Lewis in his letter to President Jefferson from Fort Mandan, of date April 7, 1805, communicated by Jefferson to Congress in a message dated February 19, 1806, and repeatedly published. The original publication misprinted the date as April 17, 1805. and it has generally been so given; but the original letter is on file among the Jefferson papers in the Department of State at Washington, and the wrong date is thus easily corrected. In this letter Capt. Lewis says: "I have sent a jour- nal, kept by one of the Sergeants, to Capt. (Amos) Stoddard, my agent at St. Louis, in order as much as possible to multiply the chances of saving something." This is the Flovd journal we now possess. Announcement of its discovery was promptly made in the New York Nation of February 15. 1894. The identification of the manuscript is beyond question. The dis- covery was communicated to the American Antiquarian Society of Worcester. Mass., at the semi-annual meeting held in Boston, April 25, 1S94. and pub- lished in full in the proceedings of that Society, Vol. X., N. S., Part 2. pp. 225- 252, under the editorship of Prof. J. D. Butler, who prefaced it with some crit- ical and explanatory matter, including the manuscript prospectus of Robert Fiazer's never-published journal, and a Mandan letter of William Clark to his 4 REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. brother-in-law, William Croghan. In this form the article was reissued as a separately paged pamphlet, 8vo., pp. 30, Worcester, Mass., press of Charles Hamilton, 1894, with the title: "The New Found Journal of Charles Floyd, a Sergeant Under Captains Lewis and Clark." This journal is an interesting historical relic, and on a few points it has value as a check upon the official history and upon the narrative of Gass. The most important items it contains are found on the inside of the back cover, where, among some other names (chiefly relating to the Sergeant's detail of a guard for a prisoner), occur three and possibly four names found nowhere else in all the annals of the expedition. Two of these names, "Thomas M. Winn" and "Pall," are perhaps not finisher] out; a third is "William Lebouch;" the fourth is "Lasuness," possibly standing for La Jeu- nesse. But nothing is known of any such persons in connection with the expedition. A memorandum inside the front cover has the date of May 13, 1S04; otherwise the 53 manuscript pages of the journal run from May 14 to August 18, 1804 — two days before the Sergeant's death. As printed in 8vo. it makes 14 pages, or less than half of Prof. Butler's pamphlet. The print is intended to be verbatim, literatim et punctatim, and no doubt renders the original with iidelity. Through the courtesy of Hon. Geo. D. Perkins, we are enabled to present three fac-similes of portions of the manuscript, as first printed in the Sioux City Journal of August 21, 1895, these being taken from the first and last pages, and from the inside of the back cover, where occurs the Sergeant's autograph signature — probably the only one in exist- ence. REPORT OP THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. 3 Sj YN ? * It* r t s ^01 j - ,1V ^ \ % =** S5 ^ - < £ - 1 z --■ Q i > £ Z -_ - -5 REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. r. v ™ o fa to V be V) fa JJ §° ? '5 C o be nS fa 4-» /! J o REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION e^t/t l*'lAASY r /&4 FLOYD'S SIGNATURE. The Above is a Fac-simile of the Signature Written by Sergeant Floyd on the Inside of the Cover of His Journal Carried on the Expedition. 8 REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. The eccentricities of Floyd's orthography, capitalization, and punctua- tion are great, as will be observed; but not greater than those of manuscript written by persons of average education at that time. Capt. Clark's, for ex- ample, is little different in this regard. A few of Floyd's geographical names require explanation with regard to the corresponding ones used by Lewis and Clark, or by Gass. They are chiefly the following: May 22, "Bonnon" is Bonhomme creek. May 23, "wife of Osage" is Femme Osage river. May 25, "St. Johns" is an alternative name of La Charette. May 27, "Gasganade" is Gasconade river. May 30, "Painter river" is the Grindstone creek of Lewis and Clark of same date, where no "Painter" river appears. June 2, "Granosoge" is Grand Osage river. June 3, "Grown hog" is ground- hog. June 4, "Sidder" is Cedar river. The "Creek Called Zon Cer" is conjec- tured by Butler to be for Joncaire; a similar word occurs in Clark's Codex of this date, but nothing like it is in Biddle's text, and the case remains obscure. Another of Floyd's names of this date, "Batue de charra parie" is also prob- lematical. June 5, "Kensier" is Kansas river. June 6, "Rock" creek is Split Rock creek, Roche Perce of the French; and "Sallin" is for Saline creek. June 7, "River of the Big Devil" is present Big Manitou creek. June 8, "Big River mine" is Mine river. June 10, "Deer Lick" is the Deer creek of Lewis and Clark of this date. June 12, "Plumb" is Plum creek. June 13, "Saukus" is Sacs (Indians). June 14, "Poneye" is Pawnee. June 15, "Indian Creek" is one not named in the Lewis and Clark text. "Gran Ossags" are Grand Osages. June 19, "tabor" is Tabo or Tabeau creek. June 21, the two creeks "Called Deulau" have occasioned an error on the part of Prof. Butler, who curiously brackets ("Dieu l'eau") as the proper name. The name should be Eau Beau, as rendered by Lewis and Clark, otherwise Clear- water Creek: see the full explanation of this case given in the 1893 edition of Lewis and Clark, p. 29. June 22, Floyd's remarks about the Fire Prairie creeks clear up an obscurity in the Biddle text of Lewis and Clark. June 24, "Hay" is Hay Cabin creek of Lewis and Clark; Floyd's "Creek of the Bad Rock" does not occur in Lewis and Clark. June 25, Floyd gives occasion for a mistake on Prof. Butler's part. The expression "un batteur La benne River" does not mean La Charbonniere creek, as Prof. Butler states, since he brackets ("La Charboniere"), but La Benite creek of Lewis and Clark, Lebe- nile of Gass, so called for a hunter (batteur) named Benite or Benet: see the explanation of this case in the 1893 edition of Lewis and Clark, p. 32. July 1, "Frog Tree" is the Remore creek of Lewis and Clark. July 2, "Parques" is Pare creek of Lewis and Clark. July 4, "Independance" is also Fourth of July creek in Lewis and Clark. July 6, "Whipperwill" creek is in Gass, but not in Lewis and Clark. July 9, "Monter" is Monter's creek of Lewis and Clark, the correct form of the name being probably Montour. July 10, "Pope" is Pape's creek. July 11, "Tarcio" is Tarkio, and "Granma Mohug Creek" is the Grand Nemaha river. July 13, "Tarkue" is Tarkio. July 14, "Neeshba" is the Nishnahbotna river of Lewis and Clark. July 15, "Plumb Run" is not in Lewis and Clark, and "Neinahaw Creek" is the Little Nemaha river. July 18, "Elke Sine" is Elk Sign. July 19, "Cherry Run" and "Wil- low Isd" are not in Lewis and Clark, but the latter is in Gass. July 20, "Crys Creek" is the Weeping Water of Lewis and Clark; "Piggen Creek" is not in Lewis and Clark. July 21, "Grait River Plate" is the Platte. July 28, "Beaver Creek" is the Indian Knob creek of Lewis and Clark. August 4, REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. "Council Creek" is named as seven miles above the place (Council Bluff not present Council Bluffs, Iowa) where the important councils occurred; bul no name appears in Lewis and Clark for this stream. August 7, we have the full name of Moses B. Reed, who is nowhere mentioned by name in the Biddle text, and not even in the Clark codices except as "M. B. Reed." August 8, "Littel Soue" is the Little Sioux river. August 11, "Waie Con Di Peeche or the Grait Sperit is Bad" is Waucandipeeche creek of Lewis and Clark the pres- ent Blackbird creek, at Blackbird Hill, Neb. August 12, "Red Seeder Bluffs are Cedar bluffs, not so named by Lewis and Clark. August 1", and 1»;. the number of the fish caught is not quite the same as Lewis and ('lark give (1,118), or as Gass gives (1,096). Sec. 4. Floyd's Death and Burial, Aug. 20, 1804. As we have se the last entry in Floyd's Journal is of August 18, 1804, two days before his death. The official record of August 20 stands as follows in the Biddle His- tory of the Expedition, 1814, p. 48: "Here we had the misfortune to lose one of our Sergeants, Charles Floyd. He was yesterday seized with a bilious colic, and all our care and attention were ineffectual to relieve him. A little before his death he said to Capt. Clark, T am going to leave you;' his strength failed him as he added. 'I want you to write me a letter.' He died with a composure which justified the high opinion we had formed of his firmness and good conduct. He was buried on the top of the bluff with the honors due to a brave soldier; the place of his interment was marked by a cedar post, on which his name and the day of his death were inscribed. About a mile beyond this place, to which we gave his name, is a small river about 30 yards wide, on the north, which we called Floyd's river, where we camped." To this curt and precise record the Journal of Patrick Gass (who was made Sergeant August 22, vice Floyd, deceased) adds some particulars. We quote from the original edition of 1807, p. 29: "This day (August 19) Sergeant Floyd became very sick and remained eo all night. He was seized with a complaint somewhat like a violent colic. "Monday, 20th. Sergeant Floyd continued very ill. We embarked early, and proceeded, having a fair wind and fine weather, till 2 o'clock, when we landed for dinner. Here Sergeant Floyd died, notwithstanding every possi- ble effort was made by the commanding officers, and other persons, to sa his life. We went on about a mile to high prairie hills (i. e., to Floyd's Bluff) on the north side of the river, and there interred his remains in the most decent manner our circumstances would admit: we then proceeded a mile further to a small river on the same side and encamped. Our command- ing officers gave it the name of Floyd's river; to perpetuate the memory of the first man who had fallen in this important expedition." Here it is seen that, contrary to the general belief, Floyd did not die at Floyd's Bluff, where he was buried, but a mile below — say one-third of the distance between that bluff and the present site of the town of Sergeant's Bluff, Woodbury County, la. The hour of death is not given; but it was after 2 p. m. The place of death was lowland, and the Captains proceeded for the interment to the first point above where the bluffs strike the river. The two foregoing notices remained the only known published records of the death till 1893. In the revised edition of Lewis and Clark published that year by Dr. Coues, some extracts are given, verbatim, on p. 79, from the 10 REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. original manuscript of Clark's Journal, at dates of August 19 and 20. These arc to the same effect as the Bjddle text of 1814, but reproduce Clark's quaint spelling, etc. The original manuscripts, making 3,056 pages, are those upon which Biddle worked, and are now preserved in the archives of the American Philosophical Society at Philadelphia. They were in Dr. Coues' hands when the 1893 edition of the History was prepared, and a literal copy of the whole of them is now in his possession. We thus possess the whole record pre- cisely as written by Capt. Clark on the spot at the time. The matter for the week ending with Floyd's death, August 13-20, is found in Clark Codex A, pages 176 to 179, for August 13 and 14; and in Clark Codex B, pages 3 to 14, for August 15-20. We will condense this record to August 18 inclusive, and then give verbatim all that is said of Floyd. Monday, August 13, 1804. From a camp on the boundary between pres- ent Monona and Woodbury counties, Iowa, the expedition passed on the left the boundary between Blackbird and Dakota counties. Neb.; passed on the left the site of Fort Charles, where the trader James Mackay had had a post in 1795-6; passed on the left the old mouth of the creek on which the Omahas resided; and camped on a sandbar on the left. This camp is de- scribed in a way which enables us to recognize the spot as having been in what is now the river-bottom on the Iowa side, directly opposite the present mouth of Omaha creek. The details of the place have changed considerably, but not irrecognizably. since 1804. Clark calls this camp, where they were to stay a week, Camp Fish, and Fishing Camp, from the circumstances pres- ently to be given; he makes it 3 miles northeast of the "Mahar" (Omaha) village. As soon as the expedition arrived here. Sergeant Ordway, Peter Cruzatte, George Shannon, William Werner and another man were sent with a flag and some tobacco to the village to invite the Omahas to a conference. Gass says, however, that only "a Sergeant and one man were sent to the village." Floyd says: "Sent Som of ouer men to Se if aney of the natives was at Home." August 15th. The men returned at noon, but had found no Indians. Capt. Clark and ten men went fishing with a drag in the creek, and caught 318 fish of different kinds, according to Clark; Gass says 387; Floyd says: "Capt. Clark and 10 of his men and my Self went to the Mahas Creek a fishen and Caut 300 and 17 fish of Difernt Coindes." August 16th. Capt. Lewis and 12 men went fishing; Clark says this catch was "upwards of 800"; Gass says 709; Floyd says 709, too. In the re- ports of these two exploits, Clark and Floyd agree to a single fish for the 15th; Gass and Floyd agree exactly for the 16th. We may therefore con- clude that Gass is far out for the 15th, and Clark still further so for the 16th; the total of the two catches being 1,026 or 1,027, but neither the 1,096 that Gass counts, nor the upwards of 1,118 that Clark reports. It is quite possi- ble that the wetting Floyd got on the 15th in dragging the creek led to his death. August 17th. In the evening "Labieshe" (Francois La Biche), one of a party who had been sent to the Ottoes on the 7th to arrest Moses B. Reed, a deserter since the 4th, returned. He said the rest of the party were coming in with the deserter, Reed; that they had also caught another deserter, a French boatman named La Liberte, but that he had given them the slip; and that they were bringing in three Otto chiefs. REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. 11 August ISth. The rest of the party, consisting of George Drewyer, Reu- ben Fields, and William Bratton, arrived with their prisoner, Reed, and vith the party of Ottoes and Missouries. Biddle's text of 1814 says not a word of this deserter; but the Clark Codex B, p. 7, this date, supplies the missing information, which Coues inserted in the edition of 1893, p. 77: "Proceeded to the trial of Reed, he confessed that he 'Deserted & Stold a public Rifle shot pouch Powder & Ball' and requested we would be as favour- able with him as we could consistantly with our Oathes — which we were, and only sentenced him to run the gantlet four times through the Party & that each man with 9 switchies should punish him and for him not to be considered in future as one of the Party." August 19th. A council was held with the Indians. These were Ottoes and Missouries, not Omahas. The last entry in Floyd's journal, August 18th, describes the party as "the Grand Chief of the ottoes and 2 Loer Ones and 6 Youers of thare nattion," i. e., the head chief, 2 lower ones, and G others, a total of 9; he does not mention the French interpreter who was with them. Gass simply says, "Eight Indians and a Frenchman," which is right. The ninth man was the interpreter, whose name is given in the Clark Codex B as "Mr. Fanfou." The principal chief was Little Thief, an Otto, named as Weahrushhah on August 3; the other chiefs were: Shongo- tongo or Big Horse, an Ottoe, also mentioned on August 3; Karkapaha or Crow's Head, a Missouri; Nenasawa or Black Cat, a Missouri; Sananona or Iron Eyes, an Otto; Neswaunja or Big Ox, an Otto; Stageaunja or Big Blue Eyes, an Otto, in the Codex called "Stargrahunja;" and Wasashaco or Brave Man, an Otto; total, eight. The Clark Codex gives nine, but this total in- cludes the interpreter. The Indians at conference received medals, certifi- cates, and other presents, including some liquor; "those people beged much for whiskey," says the Codex, p. 12. We have no word of the cause of Floyd's fatal illness. The Codex for August 19th finishes abruptly in these words: "Serjeant Floyd is taken verry bad all at once with a Biliose Chorlicfc we attempt to reliev him without success as yet, he gets worse and we are much allarmed at his situation, all attention to him." August 20th. "Sergeant Floyd much weaker and no better, made Mr. Fanfou the interpter a fiew presents, and the Indians a Canister of Whisky. we set out under a gentle breeze from the S. E. and proceeded on verry well- Sergeant Floyd as bad as he can be no pulse and nothing will stay a mo- ment on his stomach or bowels — Passed two Islands on the S. S. (starboard side, or right hand) and at the first Bluff on the S. S. Serg. Floyd Died with a great deal of composure, before his death he said to me 'I am going away I want you to write me a letter' — We buried him on the top of the bluff Vz mile below a small river to which we gave his name, he was buried with the Honors of War much lamented a seeder post with the Name Sergt. C. Floyd died here 20th of August 1804 was fixed at the head of his grave— This man at all times gave us proofs of his firmness and Deturmined resolu- tion to doe Service to his countrey and honor to himself after paying all the honor .to our Decesed brother we camped in the mouth of floyd's river about 30 yards wide, a butifull evening." Such is the simple yet touching language in which the death is recorded. It is our only original record, except the still briefer one already transcribed 12 REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. from Gass; for the Biddle text is of course based on the Clark Codex. It will be observed that the two accounts differ in some particulars. We are inclined to think Gass' account is closest to the facts; it seems most probable. Poor Floyd is dying on the boat, by noon of the 20th; the party lands as the end approaches; it is soon all over with the brave Sergeant. But this place is unsuitable for interment, being on low ground. They proceed a short distance, to the first bluff that reaches the river. There the sad ceremony is performed, late in the afternoon; the spot is named Floyd's Bluff; and the bereaved expedition proceeds to camp at the mouth of the first stream above, which they name Floyd's river. Both the bluff and the river have retained and will forever keep the name thus given, them. The little distant town of Sergeant's Bluff shines with a reflection of Floyd's name. Floyd's river and bluff are within the present limits of Sioux City. The bluff is to be set apart and beautified as a public park, graced with a monument, to perpetuate the name and fame of Charles Floyd, the martyr sergeant of the Lewis and Clark expedition. Sec. 5. Floyd's Grave before 1857. On the return of the expedition from the Pacific ocean, the spot where Floyd had been buried was visited, September 4, 1806. The grave had been disturbed, it was thought by Indians, but perhaps it was by wolves. They filled it up again, and passed on their way to home and friends, leaving the dead to his lonely vigil in the wilder- ness. One would have thought the memory of this humble young "man with a musket" destined to perish. But it was ordered otherwise. Floyd was temporarily forgotten; but Floyd's grave, marked with an enduring cedar post on a bold headland of our mightiest waterway, was never lost sight of; it became in the course of time a well-known landmark, allusions tc which are frequent in the records of Missouri voyaging before 1857. We select three references to noted travelers. On the 10th of May, 1811, the overland Astorian expedition under W. P. Hunt reached the Omahas. In this party were Mr. Bradbury, whose work is well known, and Mr. Thomas Nuttall, the subsequently famous botanist. The same season of that year Mr. Henry W. Brackenridge voyaged up the Missouri with Manuel Lisa, the noted fur-trader. Brackenridge was on the spot May 19th, 1811, at which date he notes in his Jdurnal (8vo., Pittsburgh, 1814, p. 230): "Encamped near Floyd's bluff and river, fourteen miles above the Mahas. Sergeant Floyd, one of the party of Lewis and Clark, was buried here; the place is marked by a cross." This is the only author who calls the post a "cross;" probably he saw it only at a distance, and mistook the object; or did not observe it particularly, and had heard it so described. But that is immaterial. In that year, and for some time afterward, the post over the grave of the celebrated Omaha chief Blackbird was still standing on Blackbird Hill. The two were almost within sight of each other — two similar memorials, yet of opposite symbolism. The one stood for the outgoing of the Indian, the other for the incoming of the white man. How emblematic were these graves! Barbarism was decaying in the grave of Blackbird; in the last resting-place of Floyd lay the germ of civilization. REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. 13 The great painter and panegyrist of the Indian, George Catlin, ascended the Missouri to the Yellowstone in 1832, in the first steamer which ever went so far as that. On his return voyage, in a canoe with two men, passed Floyd's Bluff and Blackbird Hill. He stopped at each, that his facile pencil might portray them; and his sketches form plates 118 and 117 of his celebrated series. They are in juxtaposition on the same leaf, opposite p. 4 of Vol. II. of the fourth (London) edition of his work, as if to accentuate tbe symbolism just said. Each shows the landmark surmounting the grave; and the text of Letter 32, accompanying these plates, is in part a rhapsody on the natural beauties of the scene, in which the enthusiastic traveler gives full vent to the feelings which surcharged him. His apostrophe to Floyd may be here transcribed; for Catlin's "prophetic soul" felt no more than we realize today — Floyd's name will never die! "Where heaven sheds its purest light, and lends its richest tints — this rcund-topped bluff, where the foot treads soft and light — whose steep sides, and lofty head, reach to the skies, overlooking yonder pictured vale of beauty — this solitary cedar-post, which tells a tale of grief — grief that was keenly felt, and tenderly, but long since softened in the march of time and lest. Oh, sad and tear-starting contemplation! Sole tenant of this stately mound, how solitary thy habitation! Here heaven wrested from thee thy ambition, and made thee sleeping monarch of this land of silence. Stranger! Oh, how the mystic web of sympathy links my soul to thee and thy afflictions! I knew thee not, but it was enough; thy tale was told, and I, a solitary wanderer through thy land, have stopped to drop, familiar tears upon thy grave. Pardcn this gush from a stranger's eyes, for they are ail that thou canst have in this strange land, where friends and dear relations are not allowed to pluck a flower, and drop a tear to freshen recollections of en- dearments past. Stranger! Adieu. With streaming eyes I leave thee again, and thy fairy land, to peaceful solitude. My pencil has faithfully traced thy beautiful habitation; and long shall live in the world, and familiar, the name of Floyd's Grave." Catlin states that the cedar post bore only "the initials of his name." Whether this be a fact, or a figure of speech, cannot now be determined; but it is against the express statement of Capt. Clark that "the name Sergeant C. Floyd" w r as incised, together with the date of death. Catlin's plate will be recognized by residents of Sioux City, and especially those who knew the bluff before it suffered the double encroachment of the river and the railroad. It looks up river, with the site of Sioux City in the background; and the artist represents five persons climbing the side, nearly in the same path as that by which the procession of August 20, 1895, passed up to the ceremonies of that memorable day. It is invaluable as a portrayal of the unaltered bluff and original grave; probably no other such picture exists. The original painting has teen supposed and said to be now in the Catlin collection in the United States National Museum at Washington; but our correspondence with the director of the Museum on this subject shows that such is not the case. The painting, however, may still exist elsewhere, and be brought to light hereafter. In 1S?9, the eminent scientist, Jean N. Nicollet, discoverer of the true source of the Mississippi in 1836, ascended the Missouri. He was from April 14 REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. 4 to June 12, or 69 days, in going from St. Louis to Fort Pierre. At some time in May. the exact date not given, he passed Blackbird Hill and Floyd's Bluff. We read as follows on p. 34 of his Report (Senate Doc. No. 237, 26th Congress, 2d Session, February 16, 1841, pub. 1S43, and 2d edition as House Doc. No. 52, 28th Congress, 2d Session, January 11, 1845, pub. 1845): "The next day we passed before the magnificent amphitheatre of hills, the summit of that nearest the river being surmounted by the tomb of Blackbird, a celebrated Maha chief, and murderer by poison, whose history was told in Maj. Long's first expedition, but has been since reproduced with various versions in many public prints. Several miles higher up, we got a glimpse of the vale watered by the Maha creek, in which is the principal village of the Maha nation. The hills on the left bank of the river, of which we had lost sight, again came into view towards the close of the afternoon, covered by a soft and grateful verdure. We stopped for the night at the foot of the bluff on which is Floyd's grave; my men replaced the signal, blown down by the winds, which marks the spot and hallows the memory of the brave Sergeant, who died here during Lewis and Clark's expedition. Our steamboat then started under full blast to take shelter at the mouth of the Tchan-kasndata, or Sioux river, against an impending storm, that soon after broke over us, and lasted during the night." Nicollet's beautiful map, by far the best in existence at that time, marks "Floyd's Grave," just below "Floyd's R." We could multiply references prior to 1857, but the citations made must suffice. We therefore pass at once to Part II. — the reburial of Floyd in 1857. PART II. -FLOYD'S REBURIAL IN 1857. Sao. 6. Floyd's Grave Exposed. Sioux City extends along the left bank of the Missouri from the vicinity of Floyd's Bluff up to the Big Sioux River. The bluff is situated in lot 8, section 1, township 88 N., range 48 W. Somewhat less than a mile higher up, Floyd's River empties into the Missouri on the same side; this courses through the city. A little higher up than this, a small creek also flows through the city. This was noticed by Lewis and Clark, with their usual accuracy of observation, and called by them Willow creek; it is now known as Perry Creek. A year or two before 1857, probably in 1855, a squaw-man settled with his wife at the mouth of this creek; he is still living, and known to many persons as "Joe Lionais," his proper name being Joseph Lyonrais. Up to this period, when the germi- nation of a great city was but begun, travel through the country had mainly been up the waterway of the river — the main artery of the Great West, the principal avenue of approach; but with the founding of the city came roads, and thoroughfares by land were established. One of these passed by the bluff where Floyd had been buried half a century before. But the bluff was no longer the "round-topped" one of Catlin, on whose culminating brow the cedar post had been erected over Floyd's grave. The insolent and turbulent Missouri, ever restlessly turning in its bed, ever exploring its flood-plain for new channels in which to wind its way along, ever making new bends and cutting off old ones, had exerted its incessant and irresistible force upon this miscalled one of the "eternal hills." The frontage of the bluff was fretted REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. 15 and worn out in the struggle against the flood. Constant dropping will wear away a stone; and it was not many years before the water exacted a tribute from this land. During a freshet, early in the spring of 1857, the bluff was so far washed away that Floyd's grave was exposed on the face of the now neatly vertical precipice, sixty feet or more above water level; the post, if still standing to this time, was dislodged and fell to the foot; and the re- i ins of the deceased were in imminent danger of falling, to be swept away forever. It is impossible to say now exactly when this precarious condition of the grave was first noticed, or by whom the discovery was made, or the precise state in which the remains were found by those who rescued them from impending destruction. Many persons now living witnessed the ceremo- nies with which the bones were recommitted to the earth in the safe place li'rther back from the river; some of these persons also assisted in the res- cue; and the present writer has conversed or corresponded with several. But memory is treacherous after a lapse of years, and accounts differ in de- tails. Yet there is such a substantial agreement with circumstantial differ- ence in the testimony we possess, that a reasonably accurate account can be given, as a contribution to permanent history. It is not probable that there was any sudden wash-out or down-fall of the face of the bluff, to attract immediate attention and cause a general alarm about the historic spot. It was gradual, and may have been noticed by degrees, so to speak, before the imminence of the danger aroused the community to action. The alarm appears to have been sounded late in April or early in May. Mr. M. L. Jones,* of Smithland, la., a gentleman now living at an advanced age, was one of those who observed the condition of the grave, and sent word to Sioux City. When in 1S95 the subject was re- opened a number of old citizens placed their recollections on public record, among them the following: S. T. Davis, of Sioux City, in a letter dated June 1st, 1895, printed in the Journal next day, states: "Thirty-eight years ago last Tuesday the residents of Sioux City par- ticipated in an event of no little historical importance — the reburial of the remains of Sergeant Floyd. The river had washed away the foot of the bluff on which he was buried by Lewis and Clark, so that the end of the cof- fin protruded over the water, and perhaps a hundred feet or more above it. It was proposed by some of the citizens of Sioux City to take up the remains, and reinter them further back on the same bluff." ■'Since penning' the above we have received an important letter addressed by Mr. Jones to Dr. Coues, dated Smithlan 1. T a ., December 2s 1895. It appears from this letter that the writer is the person who discovered th • exposure and gave the alarm to Sioux City. We transcribe in substance: "I first saw the grave in May. 1S54. The cedar post was almost intact then, though pieces h id been cut off by relic hunters. I p iss >d th • place frequently in 1834 55. The post stood in sight of a foot trail that ran along- near the river, thai the wagon road had to go round. I' was some 100 fe.-t or m >re fro n the edge of the bluff over;., iking th ■ river. Lat ■ in thv fall of 1856 I p issed that way. and not seeing the post in its accustomed place, 1 w -nt t<> examine it . and found that it had been cut away till only a few inches remained above ground. Late in April, is.". ; i S 1 was going that way from Sioux City, I was seized with chill and fever; but noticed that the river, then very high, was cutting into the bank-. I walked a < close to the edge of the bluff as I could: the ground had caved in, the post wis gonV, and it looked as if th ■ grave had gone, too. I was quite dizzy from my sickness, but laid down an 1 crawled to the edere, where, l oking over. I saw some ban ?s projecting from the ground. I continued on my way to the house ol a friend. Mr. Tra- versier. a Frenchman, with whom Dr. F. Wixon was stopping. We sent word to the Sioux City post-office, and Floyd's remains were secured next day. I was not present at the rescue, nor at the reburial, as I was sick for some turn; but I understood that among" the number who secured the remains were Dr. A. M. Hunt, long since deceased, and Dr. J. .1. Saville." 16 REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. The Charles City Intelligencer prints a letter, which is reprinted in the Sioux City Journal of June 23, 1895, addressed to Maj. E. B. Dyke by Dr. S. P. Yeonians, an old settler familiar with the location of the grave, and one who has often seen the post. Referring to the washing away of the face of the bluff by the river, Dr. Yeonians states that in 1856 (a slip of the pen for 1857), it was discovered that the box containing Floyd's remains was exposed for one-third its length, and being thus suspended over the river was in imminent danger of falling. To prevent this catastrophe the citizens of Sioux City formed a large party, which went to the spot to rescue the remains. Dr. Yeomans further says: "A strong cable was prepared to attach to the box, and Dr. Sloane, father of our fellow townsman, editor of the Citizen, being light of weight, volun- teered to accept the post of danger. With a rope tied around his waist, se- curely held by strong hands, he was let down over the brink of the precipice until the box was reached and the cable adjusted. The remains were then brought to a place of safety," etc. A still more circumstantial account of the finding of the remains is given in the Sioux City Journal of June 23, 1895, with refei'ence to the An- nals of Iowa of October, 1863. This is from the pen of N. Levering, chair- man of the committee appointed to rescue the remains in 1857. Mr. Levering is still living, in Los Angeles, Cal. His account may be condensed in the fol- lowing terms: In March, 1857, when the snow was rapidly melting, the water ran so high that Floyd river and the Missouri came together and overflowed what is now called South Sioux City. About this time it was discovered that the Missouri was encroaching on Floyd's Bluff, and that the grave with its contents was likely to be precipitated into the turbid flood below. A meet- ing of citizens was soon called and a committee appointed to rescue the re- mains. The committee consisted of N. Levering, chairman; Hon. M. F. Moore, Dr. S. P. Yeomans, George Weare, and Capt. J. M. White. They re- paired to the spot, accompanied by a large number of other persons (among whom were ex-Gov. C. C. Carpenter, of Fort Dodge; Hon. Addison Oliver, ex-M. C, of Onawa; C. B. Rustin, now of Omaha, Neb.; and Augustus Gron- inger, then and now of Sioux City. They found that the rushing waters had robbed the grave of a part of its contents. With much labor, and not without danger, the remains not already washed away were secured; they included the skull with its lower jaw, a thigh bone, a shin bone, and various others (see the list of bones found in 1895, as given beyond). These were taken charge of by the committee for reinterment. The coffin appeared to have been made with small oak slabs, set up on end around the body, with a covering of similar form and same material. The red cedar post originally erected by Lewis and Clark had slid into the river. It had seemed to be per- fectly sound, but had been whittled down till it was no larger than a walk- ing-stick by travelers anxious to preserve a relic of Floyd's grave. Accord- ing to some published accounts, a piece of the post had been carried to Lon- uon and deposited in a museum in that city by an English traveler. According to a letter written by Mr. Levering at Sioux City, July 25. 1863, and published in the Annals of Iowa as above said, it appears that he then transmitted to the Rev. Samuel Storrs Howe, librarian of the State REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. Historical Society, Iowa City, la., a small piece of the coffin. The English traveler above mentioned was probably George Catlin. but possibly Mr. Bradbury. Such, in effect, is the sum of the information on record concerning the exposure of the grave and the rescue of its contents from destruction, iu April or May, 1857. Some few more bones than Mr. Levering specifies were certainly recovered, for they were in evidence on opening the new grave in 1895. It is probable that some of them were scattered down the bluff, and that all those finally collected were not gathered at once. The body appears to have been laid head-on to the river; and in this case the skull, from its shape, would be likely to fall among the first. It is believed with some rea- son that the skull was in fact not found till after other bones had been taken to the city. None of the arm bones were ever recovered; and none of the skeleton above the lumbar region or middle of the body was found in 1895. except the skull with its jaw, one collar bone, and fragments of some rib?. But the large bones of the lower limbs were mostly preserved. These facts tend to confirm the belief regarding the position of the body. The tradition that the original cedar post, or any fragment of it, is still extant is not sup- ported by satisfactory evidence. The record is clear to the time of Catlin's visit, 1832, but soon becomes obscure. Nicollet's statement that in 1839 his men "replaced the signal, blown down by the winds," may mean either that the original post was set up again, or that it was replaced by a new one. Certainly a post — whether Lewis and Clark's of 1804, or Nicollet's of 1839, was a familiar object to passers-by down to 1857. At this date, Mr. Levering tells us that "it had slid into the river;" yet he describes it as being per- fectly sound, though whittled down. It may be that he thus speaks of the post as he had known it to be down to 1857, when it was finally lost, and not that he saw it at this late date; or else the expression "slid into the river" may mean only that it had fallen to the foot of the bluff, where it might have been recovered when some bones that accompanied its descent were collected. In 1895 Mr. A. M. Holman. of Sergeant's Bluff, gave some members of the present publication committee some bits of sound wood which he affirmed in good faith had been cut from the post. But these proved to be pieces of oak. It is not impossible that these were from a slab of the original coffin; but their soundness seems against such a supposition. The new grave of 1857 was marked with a headboard and footboard, which had been broken off or burnt off to the ground when this grave was opened in 1895, leaving no trace above ground, though crumbling remains of them, as of the new coffin of 1857, were found. In short, your committee has never been able to reconcile conflicting statements regarding the post, or recover the missing links of evidence since 1839. Sec. 7. Floyd's New Grave On the 28th of May, 1857. the remains thus recovered were reburied with appropriate patriotic and religious cere- monies. We are again indebted to Mr. N. Levering for the most circumstan- tial account which has reached us of this occasion. To this your committee is able to add a few names and some other particulars. The weather was propitious, and the exercises were conducted accord- ing to the programme which had been devised by the committee in charge of the proceedings. A new grave had been prepared on the same bluff. •2. 18 REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. about or rather within two hundred yards further back from the river. The occasion was of the greatest public interest to the then young town; an event in its very earliest days, destined to make permanent history. A large concourse of citizens of both sexes participated in the ceremonies. "Capt. James B. Todd, late of the U. S. Army,"* officiated as marshal. Under his direction a procession was formed at 2 p. m. in front of the United States Land Office in Sioux City. The new coffin, six feet seven or eight inches long, was neatly finished, and draped with the flag. The pall- bearers were eight, seven of whom represented as many different states. Mr. N. Levering himself was one of them, on the part of Ohio. The others whose names he remembers were: W. Craft, Virginia; T. Griff y, Kentucky; L. Kennerly, Missouri; W. H. Levering, Indiana; and D. W. Scott,** of the U. S. Army. The coffin was borne at the head of the procession, which marched to the levee, where the steam ferryboat "Louis Burns" was wait- ing to carry all who could get aboard down river to the bluff. Many per- sons also repaired to the bluff in carriages or on foot, as the boat was too small to carry them all. At the proper time the coffin was lowered into the grave by Captains Todd and Scott, Mr. W. H. Levering, and Mr. Craft. Impressive funeral services were conducted by the Rev. Thomas Chestnut, of Illinois. The orator of the occasion was the Hon. Marshall F. Moore,*** who delivered an address which, says Levering, "was very appropriate, able, and eloquent, and reflected much credit upon the honorable gentle- man." Even at this early day, the question of erecting a suitable monument to Floyd was raised and freely canvassed. The proposition met with gen- eral favor, and some steps were taken to that end; but they failed of their purpose, and the matter was dropped. Evidently, the time for such a noble consummation had not arrived. Another long interregnum was to intervene before the sleeping Sergeant should reawake and come into his kingdom in the memories of men. Sec. 8 Floyd County, For Whom Named? This question seems to your committee pertinent, and may be properly considered in connection with the events just narrated, as there is naturally an impression in the *3o given by Levering-. The name is not to be found in Heitman's Register, 1789-1880. The nearest to it is that of John Blair Smith Todd, of Kentucky, appointed to the army from Illinois; Cadet Militarj' Academy at West Point, July 1, 1832; Lieutenant and Captain Sixth Infantry. 1837-56; resigned September 16, 1856; Brig-ad ier General of Volunteers, September 19, 1861; appoint- ment expired July 17, 1862; died May 14, 1*71. Capt. Todd was elected first mayor of Sioux City and well known by many old residents, and he always signed his name J. B. S. Todd; so Levering- merely forgot the correct name. ; *The only "D. W." Scott whose name appears in Heitman's Reg-ister is David W., of Vir" ginia. appointed from Indiana, a First Lieutenant of Infantry, March 10, 1847, and honorably mustered out July 20, 1848. If this be the man, he was not in the army in 1857. : **Of New York, who had come to Sioux City to practice law in 1855, and was in the spring of 1857 elected district judg-e of the district which included all the northwestern part of Iowa. Judge Moore was then a young attorney, a graduate of Yale college, and fairly equipped for his profession. "His duties as judge somewhat interfered with his gay and festive disposition, but no one doubted his honesty, though many did his leg-al knowledge; and he, no less than the public, rejoiced at the close of his term in December, 1858," says Mr. J. C. C. Hoskins. in aletter to Mitchell Vincent. November 21, 1895. Judge Moire was early a partner in the banking house of Casady. Moore & Clark, of Sioux City. He became allied by marriage with the Ewing-s and Shermans of Ohio. At the breaking out of the war he was appointed from Ohio Lieutenant-Colonel of the Sev- enteenth Ohio nfantry October 4, 1861; he resigned February 14, 1863, and was reappointed as Colonel of the Sixty-ninth Ohio Infantry February 23, 1868; he was brevetted Brigadier-General of Volunteers March 13. 1865, for gallant and meritorious services during the war, especially at the battle of Jonesboro, Ga., and Major-General of the same for the same at the same date," and re- signed November 7. He went to Olympia, Wash., became Governor of Washington, and died in office February 2£ 1870. REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. 19 minds of many persons that the county was dedicated to Sergeant Charles Floyd— which is not the case. We propose therefore to discuss the evi- dence bearing upon the no fewer than four persons named Floyd for whom the county has been claimed, and hope to be able to settle the case in favor of the rightful recipient of this honor. 1. The letter of Dr. S. P. Yeomans, already noted in these pages in another connection as having been published in the Charles City Intelli- gencer, and in the Sioux City Journal of June 21, 1895, proceeds to discuss the origin of the county name, Floyd, which was given by legislative enact- ment in 1851. It appears that ten years afterward, on the outbreak of the war in 1861, an effort was made to change the name, because it was sup- posed to have been given in honor of John Buchanan Floyd, Governor of Virginia 1850-53. Secretary of War 1857 to December, 1860, and afterward a General in the Confederate Army. Thus, the County History of Floyd re- cords some proceedings of the State Legislature of 1862, to the following effect: Senator Redfield, of Dallas county, introduced a bill to change the name of Floyd county to Baker county, in honor of Gen. Edward Dickinson Baker, the gallant soldier who fell at the battle of Ball's Bluff. Va., Octo- ber 21. 1861. Senator Ainsworth moved to amend by changing the name to Lyon. Senator Holmes objected to this amendment, because he lived in Jones county, the name of which he desired to change to Lyon. Senator Duncombe, of Webster county, stated that Floyd county was not named for the J. B. Floyd "we hear so much about nowadays," but for "a Sergeant of Lewis and Clark's expedition." (This shows that the tradition con- necting Sergeant Floyd's name with the county had been established in 1SC2.) Senator Woodward, of Muscatine county, inquired if the senator from Dallas county had introduced his bill in pursuance of the express de- sire of the people of Floyd county. Senator Redfield replied that he had not done so for that reason, but because he was under the impression that this county had been named for "that infamous traitor, John B. Floyd;" and he withdrew the bill, upon the assurance of Senator Duncombe that the county had been named for Lewis and Clark's Sergeant. The County History states furthermore, that one B. B. Steenburg, for- merly of Floyd, was once a member of a commission to ascertain the origin of the name. The conclusion was reached in this instance that Floyd county had been so called in honor of a certain topographical engineer who died near Sioux City before the war. about the time his labors as surveyor had been completed. But it further appears from Dr. Yeoman's letter that Mr. Steenburg once told Maj. Dyke, editor of the Intelligencer, that he had no doubt in his own mind that the name was given in honor of Sergeant Floyd; that it could hardly have been given for John B. Floyd, a young man of no national reputation in 1851; but that possibly the name referred to William Floyd, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. It thus appears that thirty years ago there were already four different theories regarding the origin of the county name, all irreconcilable, and none demonstrated. 2. An unpublished letter of Mr. J. C. C. Hoskins, dated Sioux City, la.. November 21. 1895. addressed to Mitchell Vincent, Esq., of Onawa, and by 20 REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. the latter transmitted to Dr. Coues, includes the following statements, in substance: "I have always supposed that Floyd county was named for the traitor. J. B. Floyd; I think there can be no doubt of it. In the early days Iowa was overwhelmingly Democratic. In 1850, when the state was divided into 49 counties their names were with two exceptions (Cedar and Des Moines) Indian or personal. Of the 34 personal names, 14 were of Democrats active and distinguished at that day, Jeff. Davis among them; three or four were of democratic saints who had gone to their rest; others were of distin- guished soldiers of the Revolutionary or later wars; one was of Julien Du- buque, the pioneer; one of Henry, the orator; one of Marshall, the jurist (if, indeed, Marshall county was named for this judge). In or about 1852, 49 more counties were named in a similar method, though the scope of the names were wider— Adair, Bancroft, Brewer, Butler, Calhoun, Cass, Craw- ford, Dickinson, Floyd, Guthrie, Grundy, Hardin, Howard, Shelby, Wood- bury, Worth, and Wright,— at least these 17, were dedicated to Democrats; Adams, Clay, and Webster, were statesmen, not Democrats; Emmett and O'Brien, Irish refugees; Franklin, Montgomery, and Greene, were of the Revolution; Kossuth was the Hungarian patriot; Audubon was John James, the famous ornithologist; Humboldt was the scientist; of Mills and Mitchell I have no present recollection." The opinion of our veteran pioneer fellow-citizen certainly carries weight: but in this instance it must yield to conclusive evidence to the contrary. 3. In our desire to sift this matter thoroughly, and perhaps not without hope of being able to establish the claim of our hero to the honor of the county name, we have corresponded with our much esteemed friend and fellow-member of the Floyd Memorial Association, Hon. Charles Aldrich, curator of the State Historical Department at Des Moines. The result of his inquiries in our behalf would seem to show conclusively that the county was named for William Floyd, a signer of the Declaration of Independence (b. Suffolk county, N. Y., December 17, 1734, d. at Western, Oneida county. N. Y., August 4, 1821). We have pleasure in presenting Mr. Aldrich's letter in full, without further comment: Historical Department of Iowa, Des Moines, November S, 1895. Dear Dr. Coues: On receipt of your letter relating to the naming of Floyd county, I tele- phoned and secured an interview at our rooms with my friend, the Hon. P. M. Casady, of this city, who was a state senator in 1850, and a member of the committee on new counties. At that session he introduced the bill which had for its purpose the erection and naming of 50 new counties. He is a thoroughly well-preserved man of 76 years; his mind is clear, and his recollection of events of those days seems perfect. In fact, he is the active and hard-working president of one of our largest city banks. • He says: "It was at first in contemplation to name the present county of Wood- bury in honor of Sergeant Charles Floyd, and that territory was so designated in the original bill which I introduced. But this was not agreed to. and the Indian name Wahkaw was substituted for that of Floyd. The county bore the name Wahkaw for three years, when it was changed to Wood- bury, as it stands today. Later on in the session the present county of REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. 21 Floyd was so named in honor of William Floyd, a signer of the Declaration of Independence from the State of New York. This I am certain was done at the suggestion of some member of the House of Representatives who had come from the Empire State. There was a disagreement over some section or sections of the bill, and it went to a committee of conference, undergoing first and last considerable discussion upon several of the suggested names." In this state there are no stenographic reports of the debates and dis- cussions in the Legislature, and the early Journals of the House and Senate are very meager. Much of the general consideration of the measure oc- curred in Committee of the Whole, where no records whatever were kept. Floyd, the rebel, was then a young man and unknown. So was Floyd, the civil engineer. Neither of these men was mentioned in that connection. There is no positive written or printed contemporary record of this matter in existence. I take Judge Casady's recollection to be final and conclusive, and I accept it the more willingly because I heard him make this same state- ment many years ago. Much confusion has arisen over the subject through the lapse of years, and from the similarity of names, but I believe that Judge Casady sets forth the exact truth. He is a most intelligent, excellent gentleman, and I am glad that he has been spared to this day to set the matter right Very respectfully yours, CHARLES ALDRICH. Dr. Elliott Coues, 1726 N Street, Washington. D. C. P. S. — Since the above was written I have conferred with Hon. George G. Wright, ex-Chief Justice of our Supreme Court, and ex-United States Sen- ator, who was a member of the State Senate with Judge Casady in 1850. Though his attention was then more especially given to other topics of legis- lation, he now in a general way strongly supports the statement of Judge Casady, and expresses himself as having no doubt of its truth. C. A. PART III. THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION OF 1895. Sec. 9. Origin of the Association From the foregoing excursion to Floyd county we return at once to Floyd's Bluff — to the discovery of Floyd's grave of 1857— to the founding of the Floyd Memorial Association, and espe- cially to the memorial exercises of August 20. 1895, on the 91st anniversary of Floyd's death— to the end that Floyd's monument may be erected in Floyd Park, while the memory of these interesting contemporaneous events is still fresh in the minds of our patriotic and public-spirited fellow-towns- men of Sioux City. The honor of originating the Association can be rightfully ascribed to no single individual. If the idea of such an association for the purpose of erecting a monument be referable to any single occasion or event, it is dis- tinctly traceable back to 1857. It was fruitless then, but bided its time to fructify during the many years when the thought was "in the air," as may be said with literal exactitude of the position in space which the original sepulture of Floyd now occupies, suspended like Mahomet's coffin between heaven and earth. The purpose has never faded entirely from the minds of those now living who witnessed the ceremonies of thirty-nine years ago; to 22 REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. them and their descendants it is familiar. No doubt the interest reawak- ened in Lewis and Clark by the republication of the History of their Expedi- tion in 1893 contributed to the quickening of the idea. Doubtless, also, the discovery of Floyd's Journal by Mr. Thwaites, its publication by the Amer- ican Antiquarian Society, and the comment upon it by such papers as the New York Nation (February 15, 1894), tended to the same result of crystal- izing an already saturated solution of the thought. The desirability of marking Floyd's grave was expressed by the writer in correspondence with Mitchell Vincent, Esq., of March 4, 1894. From the first the project has been one of national rather than local historical significance. But the real- ization of the noble purpose remains entirely to the credit of the citizens of Sioux City and vicinity, and more especially redounds to the honor of the older residents. It would be invidious to particularize by name in such a case, where all worked together to the common end in view, and where the greatest praise that could be desired is to come from the fulfillment of the single purpose, for the accomplishment of which there has been but a single mind. Among the means to this end, none has proved more effectual than the course pursued by the Sioux City Journal from the beginning. The interest taken in the project by this paper, and the liberal policy which showed that interest by putting unlimited space at the service of the Association, not only tended to arouse public sentiment, and stimulate public endeavor, but has preserved the best record extant of the origin and progress of the Asso- ciation, both before and after the pivotal date of August 20, 1895. Your committee desires to express its obligations to the Journal for much of the material, without which the present memoir could hardly have been pre- pared. We shall draw heavily upon this contemporaneous record, as con- firming, amplifying and supplementing the minutes of meetings and other official documents which have been placed in the hands of the publication committee. The Journal of May 16, 1895, devotes a column to Sergeant Charles Floyd, with the caption "An Association for Paying the Honor Due to His Mem- ory" — perhaps the first express announcement of the fact of such a proposed organization. This notable article is unsigned, but was prepared by RJr. A. F. Statter, of the editorial staff. Among other items of interest it says: "A number of old settlers have been discussing the matter of forming a society to visit on August 20 of this year the present site of the grave, which was moved many years after Floyd's death, and hold appropriate ceremonies in honor of the first white man to be buried in this neighbor- hood. D. A. Magee is acting as secretary until an organization is formed, and a number of old settlers, such as Mitchell Vincent, of Onawa: A. M. Holman, of Sergeant Bluffs; and John H. Charles, of this city, have inter- ested themselves in the matter, and are making every effort to carry forward the undertaking. The object of the association will be to secure state legis- lation to buy the historic spot, and erect a monument to the memory of the first soldier to die on this soil after the Louisiana purchase, and to promote enough interest in this city to secure good driveways to the spot and make it a point of interest as well as of history." This article continues with extracts from Capt. Clark's original manu- script journal of dates August 19 and 20, 1804. as printed in the Coues edition REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. 2:: of the history of 1893. and other extracts from Floyd's own journal, as printed by the American Antiquarian Society in 1894; and concludes with an account of the not then successful search for the grave of 1857 by D. A Magee and others. The Journal of May 26 follows up this announcement with a four-column article on the "Proposed Floyd Monument," noting conspicuously the "wide- spread interest in the organization for its erection," and giving an extended description of Floyd's Bluff, illustrated with a double-column view from a photograph which Mr. D. A. Magee had caused to be taken. This article is unsigned; it was prepared by Mr. A. F. Statter. It announces that "the promoters of the Monument Association propose to organize it on Floyd's Bluff on the 91st anniversary of the day of his death, August 20 of this year. Much enthusiasm is developing. Not only the people of Sioux City, of Ser- geant Bluffs and of the surrounding country are interested in it, but the interest extends to all who are absorbed in the history of the United States, and especially the Western half of it." The same article concludes with a letter from Dr. Coues, dated Washington, D. C, May 22, 1895, noting the Lewis and Clark expedition, and earnestly urging "the proposition made by Mitchell Vincent and others to purchase a tract of 20 or 30 acres, to be se/ aside for a public park, upon the culminating point of which the monument is to stand." The Journal of May 29, 1895, says: "The duty of the people of Sioux City and Woodbury county in the matter of properly honoring Sergeant Floyd, whose grave is on a high bluff in the southern part of the city, is clear. The letter published in the Sunday (May 26) Journal, from Prof. Elliott Coues, of the Smithsonian Institution, ought to arouse every one to the importance of some immediate action. Several old residents have taken hold and intend to do something, and they ought to be supported by others." The New York Nation of May 30, 1895, publishes a letter from Dr. Coues. noting the steps already taken at Sioux City for a monument to Floyd, and continuing the general subject of Floyd and his journal, with remarks by an unnamed correspondent. The Journal of June 2, 1895, speaks of the "wide interest" the move- ment had already attracted, and of the applause it had won from scientists and historians, citing the New York Nation of May 30th. The Journal's article is mainly a contribution to the early history of the subject from Mr. A. F. Statter, who writes upon Brackenridge, Catlin, Nicollet, and the American Antiquarian Society's publication of Floyd's Journal. Mr. S. T. Davis also contributes to this article the letter we have already mentioned and used on p. 17, regarding the removal of Floyd's remains in 1857. The Kansas City Star of June 8, 1895, publishes an extended historical article under the caption "A Hero of the Lewis and Clark Expedition." About this first week of June the movement thus started at Sioux City ac- quired great impetus and far-reaching effect. National publicity was se- cured by an Associated Press dispatch, which immediately went the rounds of uncounted newspapers. By misprint this dispatch appeared with the heading, "Grave of Sergeant Lloyd." This error was corrected in the Wash- ington, D. C, Post of June 13, by a special letter from Dr. Coues. It is curious to remark in this connection, that the apparent mistake of "Lloyd" 24 REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. for "Floyd" simply reverts to the original spelling of the Welsh surname, of which "Floyd" is a later form. Such in brief, is the published record of the origin of this Association. The first stage of its formation was ended with the rediscovery of the grave of 1857, to which we now turn. Sec. 10. Organization of the Association. Meanwhile, on Memorial Day, May 30, 1895, Floyd's grave of 1857 was found; and on June 6 the Floyd Memorial Association was first formally organized, on, the spot. The official account of these events was furnished by Hon. C. R. Marks to the Sioux City Journal of June 10, in substance as follows: The late Dr. Wm. R. Smith was always interested in the subject, and left a bequest to assist in erecting a suitable monument. The late Mr. W. P. Holman, of Sergeant Bluffs, had often thought that something should be done, and had conferred with Dr. Smith for that purpose. Several years ago, during Congressman Struble's term of office, they had petitioned Con- gress for an appropriation for a monument, having obtained many Iowan signatures; but the matter was not pressed, lest it might conflict with a desired appropriation for the public building in Sioux City. Mr. C. J. Holman and Mr. A. M. Holman, sons of W. P. Holman; Mr. Mitchell Vincent, of Onawa; Judge Geo. W. Wakefield, of Sioux City, and others, recently visited Floyd's Bluff, but discovered no sign of the grave. "Others present: D. A. Magee, J. D. Hoskins, J. L. Follett, jr., C. R. Marks visited the bluff, and after nearly two hours fruitless search were rewarded by the discovery of the grave, at Mr. Marks' suggestion that it should be identifiable by some difference in the color of the soil. To verify this, considerable ground was tested in various spots with hatchet and trowel. Mr. Geo. Murphy finally picked out a place which answered to his recollection of the site, and on testing it with his cane found light-colored earth. Further exploration with a trowel disclosed the contour of the grave, as shown by a line of demarkation between yellow and black earth, and the gentlemen felt sure they had found the right spot. Desiring to have other witnesses of the discovery, among those interested in the case, and espe- cially to have as many as possible of those who had been present at the re- burial in 1857 meet on the bluff, the appearance of which had been much modified by removal of trees and a railroad cutting through its northwest end, they desisted from further excavation at this time. Following are the proceedings of the meeting of citizens at the grave of 1857 on Floyd's Bluff, in Sioux City, June 6, 1895, at 3 p.m.: Present: J. C. C. Hoskins, S. T. Davis, J. D. Hoskins, D. A. Magee, George Murphy, L. C. Sanborn, H. D. Clark, A. Groninger, A. M. Holman, L. Bates, E. R. Kirk, W. L. Joy, T. J. Stone, C. J. Holman, John H. Charles, J. P. Allison, W. B. Tredway, J. L. Follett, Jr., and C. R. Marks. The persons assembled recognized the place as Floyd's Bluff, most of them having been either present at the reburial of 1857, or at that time fa- miliar with the ground and the grave, as the then traveled road, the signs of which were still visible, passed from the Missouri river bank up the ravine on the north side of the bluff. No depression of the ground was visible; but the persons who had been on the bluff on May 30 pointed out a spot where the surface soil was light-colored or yellowish, in contrast with the surrounding black earth. On excavating this to the depth of a few REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. 25 inches, the whole contour of a grave was plainly visible. The western end of this was dug deeper, and the original walls of the grave in the dark- colored earth were disclosed as the mixed yellow and black soil was thrown out. At the head and foot, a few inches under ground, were found pieces of oak board about a foot long, much decayed. About four feet below the surface the coffin appeared, still in form, but so much decayed that the lid caved in when struck with the spade. The skull, including the lower jaw, and some other bones were found, in a good state of preservation; but no farther exhumation was made, as the identification was deemed complete. Thereupon the informal gathering was called to order. J. C. C. Hoskins was elected President; and C. R. Marks, Secretary. It was moved by A. M. Holman, seconded by E. R. Kirk, and carried, "that we do hereby organize ourselves into the FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSO- CIATION." It was moved, seconded, and carried, that an Executive Committee, composed of A. M. Holman, Mitchell Vincent, and George W. Wakefield, be hereby appointed to act with the President and Secretary to arrange for future meetings, perfect an organization of the Association that shall seek to perpetuate the memory and grave of Sergeant Charles Floyd, and espe- cialy to hold a meeting August 20, 1895, the ninety-first anniversary of his death. In view of the fact that the grave had been opened, thus attracting public attention, and that persons might consequently remove the bones or relics, it was moved, seconded, and carried, that the skull be taken charge of by the President and Secretary for safe keeping until the Association should redeposit it in the properly secured grave on the occasion of the proposed memorial services of August 20. The remaining bones which had been uncovered were left in the grave, which was then filled up flush with the surface of the ground. Thereupon a paper was signed by the persons present; a copy of the same being ordered to be spread upon the minutes of the meeting, and the original to be preserved. On motion, the meeting adjourned, subject to call. The following is a copy of the paper which was signed, as printed in the Journal of June 10: "We, the undersigned residents of Sioux City and Sergeant Bluffs, Io., and vicinity, do hereby certify that we were present on the afternoon of June 6, 1895, at Floyd's Bluff, where the meeting was held to identify the location of the grave where Sergeant Charles Floyd's remains were rein- terred by public ceremony May 28, 1857. The location is where, coming up the Missouri river on the Iowa side, the first high bluff reaches the river bank, and below the mouth of the Floyd river. The grave is on the crest of the ridge of the bluff which extends back from the river and hollows north and south of it, and about 360 feet back and east from the top of the railroad cut of the Sioux City and Pacific Railroad, and in a slight depression of the ridge between two higher points, and the grave runs east and west. That while the yet unbroken prairie shows at first no sign of the grave, still, guided by the memories of some of those who assisted at such burial, and still others who have visited it frequently since, which (when) the stones and cedar post placed there remained, and from surrounding local objects, and 20 REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. especially from digging for the coffin, and finding parts of it, and from, searching the surface and disclosing the exact outline of a grave 8% feet by ■iy 2 feet, shown by the lighter colored dirt with which the grave was filled at the time at the top, contrasted in well defined lines with the surround- ing black surface dirt all around it. And we dug open a part of the grave to the coffin and found bones and the skull. We identify it as the place of the reburial of Sergeant Charles Floyd. And such of us as (are) so indicated below were either present at such burial or were familiar with the ground at that time in 1857 and prior. And that the original grave (of 1804) was then a well known landmark, and by the undermining of the foot of the bluff by the river the bank had caved so that part of the coffin projected out of the river side of the bluff, which was the occasion of the reburial. And we thus fix the place where now lie the remains of Sergeant Charles Floyd, the first soldier of the United States who died in the service of the new terri- tory purchased from France. "Names of those who were present at the reburial in 1857, or who then knew the old and new grave: Wm. L. Joy, H. D. Clark, W. B. Tredway, George Murphy, John P. Allison, John H. Charles, T. J. Stone, E. R. Kirk. J. C. C. Hoskins, C. J. Holman, L. Bates, L. C. Sanborn, A. Groninger, A. M. Holman. Others present: D. A. Magee, J. D. Hoskins, J. L. Follett, jr., C. R. Marks."* In connection with this discovery and identification of the 1857 grave, and formal organization of the Association, June 6, 1895, may be noted the exact location of the grave with reference to the changes undergone by the bluff in consequence of the railroad cut of 1867-68. This information is rep- resented by the accurate plat, made by Mitchell Vincent, Esq., July 29, 1895, of the ground suggested for the Floyd Memorial Park, belonging to the Credits Commutation Company, of Sioux City, comprising a part of Lot 8, Sect. 1, Township 88 N., Range 48 W., containing 21% acres. When the Sioux City and Pacific R. R. was brought into town, Mr. Vincent, the engi- neer in charge of the earthenwork, ran the line to strike the face of the bluff close to the river's edge, and then cut through this point for 400 feet or more. The greatest depth of the cut, where the line passes the crest of the bluff, is 60 feet. The face of the cut is nearly sheer or vertical on the land side; on the water side is left for a little distance a lower irregular ele- vation, representing the ragged edge of the bluff as it was in 1857, now still further disintegrated and continually crumbling away. As stated ear- lier in this Memoir, p. 23, the location of the original grave of 1804 is now in the air, over the water, higher than and to the west of these crumb- ling fragments of the former solid face of the bluff. The railroad profiles show the summit of Floyd's Bluff to have been 97 feet higher than the mouth of Floyd's river. Allowing one foot fall of the Missouri from Floyd's river to the bluff, and making some other slight adjustments, we may say with confidence that the position in space of the 1804 grave is now in the air 100 feet over the surface of the Missouri. From the solid edge of the rail- road cut to the grave of 1857 is now a distance of about 360 feet, in a direc- *In the copy of these proceedings as printed it appears that nineteen persons were pre-ent. but the list of signatures has but eighteen names, that of S. T. Davis not appearing - . REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. -•: tun about S. E., this distance representing probably about BOO feet from the portion of the grave of 1804. The new grave is in a very slight depression of tne main crest or "hog back*' of the bluff, which runs about N. W. and S. E. for 866 feet from the edge of the cut to the road back of the whole bluff. This crest or ridge is separated on the N. E. by a gulch or ravine, 10 to 20 feet deep, from another bold prominence, shorter but somewhat higher than Floyd's Bluff proper. The culminating point of this spur is 591 feet N. E. of the middle of the railroad cut, and nearly as far N. N. E. of the new grave. All these points, and others necessary to an understanding of the situation, will be readily perceived on examination of the accompanying plat, reduced in size from the original, first published in the Journal of August 21, 1895, and herewith reproduced by the kind permission of our chairman, the editor of the Journal. Plat of Floyd's Bluff and Grave. Sec. 11. Proceedings of the Association, Before August 20, 1895. (Abstract of Minutes.) Sioux City, la., June 24. 189 The Executive Committee which was formed on June 6, at Floyd's Bluff, met in Mr. Marks' office. Present: President J. C. C. Hoskins; Secretary C. R. Marks; Messrs. A. M. Holman, Mitchell Vincent, G. W. Wakefield. President Hoskins resigned on account of ill health and probable ab- sence. His resignation was accepted with regret. Mr. John H. Charles 28 REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. was elected President; and being present, entered upon the duties of pre- siding officer. „ ^ Messrs. Horace G. Burt, of Omaha; L. Bates, of Dakota City; and L A. Magee. of Sioux City, were added to the Executive Committee. Mr. D. A. Magee was elected Treasurer of the Association. Secretary Marks was instructed to correspond with Dr. Elliott Coues, of Washington, D. C, and Prof. J. D. Butler, of Madison, Wis., to ascertain whether either or both could be present to deliver addresses at the pro- posed exercises of August 20. Messrs. Geo. W. Wakefield, C. R. Marks, and D. A. Magee, were ap- pointed a committee to confer with the owners of the ground where Floyd's grave is located, and procure a proposition for the conveyance to some au- thorized association of the ground there between the present highway and the Missouri river, for a permanent park. Messrs. A. M. Holman, Geo. Murphy and E. R. Kirk were appointed a committee to procure a suitable receptacle for the reburial of Floyd's bones, and a proper stone to mark the grave temporarily. The officers of the Association were instructed to procure the necessary stationery, and to send out circulars inviting subscriptions and memberships in the Association, upon contributions of $1.00 or more, to defray expenses of the memorial exercises of August 20, and for subsequent use in the erec- tion of a monument, etc. Adjourned to July 6, in the Court House, the members of the Association and the public to be invited to attend. (Abstract of Minutes.*) Court House, Sioux City, July 6, 1895. The Executive Committee met at 2 p. m., pursuant to adjournment. Present: President John H. Charles, in the chair; Secretary C. R. Marks, Treasurer D. A. Magee, Messrs. A. M. Holman, Mitchell Vincent, E. R. Kirk, Geo. Murphy, A. Groninger, Thos. J. Stone, F. C. Hills, W. Stinson. L. Bates, Geo. W. Wakefield, C. D. Bagley and Dr. J. Perrin Johnson. The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. Photographs of Floyd's skull, and of the landscape in the vicinity of his grave, were exhibited. Letters were read from Hon. Charles Aldrich, of Des Moines, la.; Dr. Elliott Coues, of Washington, D. G; Mr. K. G. Burt, of Omaha, Neb.; Dr. S. P. Yeomans, of Charles City, la., and others, expressing their interest in the matter and in several instances their intention to attend the memorial ex- ercises on August 20. It seemed probable that the Committee could secure the services of Prof. J. D. Butler, of Madison, Wis., on that occasion. The letter from Dr. Coues related in part to the Catlin painting of Floyd's Bluff, and questioned the wisdom of reburying Floyd's skull, which he thought would be better preserved in some historical depository. This question gave rise to considerable discussion, at the conclusion of which it was decided that all the remains should be recommitted to the grave. The letter of Dr. Yeomans expressed his intention to be present on August 20. *Based on the Secretary's manuscript in the minute book, but supplemented from the ac- count furnished to the Sioux City Journal of July 7. REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. 29 Secretary Marks exhibited the old petition to Congress, signed by 780 citizens of Iowa, which was to have been presented by Congressman St ruble during his term of office; but this matter had finally been allowed to drop, The Committee on the Stone (Messrs. Holman, Kirk, and Murphy) re- ported that a suitable slab, 7x3 feet and 8 inches thick, properly inscribed, could be delivered and securely laid on the grave, for $40. The report \\ accepted, and it was voted that the stone be prepared, and laid on August 20. This committee further reported that they were having made of pottery an urn to hold the remains. The Committee on Grounds desired and were allowed further time to re- port. The Secretary was instructed to correspond with Francis P. Harper, of New York, the publisher of Dr. Coues' edition of the History of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, in order to secure a list of the subscribers to that work for the use of the committee.. The participation of military and civic officials in the ceremonies of August 20 was discussed by Messrs. A. M. Holman, F. C. Hills and others. On motion that a Committee of five on Finance be appointed to act with the Treasurer to raise needed funds, the President appointed Messrs. F. C. Hills, Chairman; E. W. Skinner, Secretary; Mitchell Vincent, L. Bates, and C. A. Bagley. It was voted that President John H. Charles, Judge Geo. W. Wakefield, Mr. E. R. Kirk, Treasurer D. A. Magee, and Secretary C. R. Marks be consti- tuted a committee to arrange the programme for August 20th. Voted, that Dr. Elliott Coues, of Washington, D. C; Prof. J. D. Butler, of Madison, Wis.; Hon. Charles Aldrich, of Des Moines, la.; and Mr. F. C. Hills, of Sioux City, be added to the Executive Committee; and that five members of this committee be considered a quorum for the transaction of business. Adjourned to meet in the same place at 2 p. m., July 20. (Abstract of Minutes.*) Court House, Sioux City, July 20, 1895. The Executive Committee met at 2 p. m., pursuant to adjournment of July 6. Present: President J. H. Charles, in the chair; Secretary C. R. Marks, E. R. Kirk, Mitchell Vincent, A. M. Holman, C. D. Bagley. W. Stin- son, and E. W. Skinner. The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. The Secretary read several letters, including one from Mr. P. B. Weare. of Chicago, enclosing a check for $25, offering another $25 if needed, and a third $25 to mark the grave of the Indian chief War Eagle, on the Sioux Bluff. The Secretary also stated that he had written to A. C. Floyd, of Chattanooga, Tenn., said to be a relative of Sergeant Charles Floyd. The Committee on Grounds reported that they had conferred with F. L. Eaton, of the Credits Commutation Company, who represented the desired ground, and H. J. Taylor, the Company's attorney; that they had visited the ground; that the opinion had been expressed that in any event a parcel of ground large enough for the proposed monument could be obtained; and moreover, that a larger tract, sufficient for the proposed park, might be i: A brief notice of this meeting appears in the Journal of July 30 REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. granted on certain terms, if the Floyd Memorial Association could give satisfactory assurances of ability to equip and maintain such a park. The committee were allowed further time. The Committee on Stone reported on prices ranging from $30 to $40, according to quality, etc. They were authorized to use their own judgment in selecting a suitable stone, which was directed to be engraved with the following inscription: (Inscription follows in the minutes: see beyond, p. 45.) Adjourned to meet August 3, at same time and place. (Abstract of Minutes.*) Court House, Sioux City, August 3, 1895. The Executive Committee met at 2 p. m., pursuant to adjournment of July 20. Present: President John H. Charles, in the chair; Secretary C. R. Marks, Messrs. G. W. Bagley, Mitchell Vincent, G. M. Pardoe, G. W. Wake- field. The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. The Committee on Ceremonies for August 20 reported the following pro- gramme: A. For the Afternoon, at the Grave: I. Procession from the railroad train to the top of the bluff. 1. Gen. Hancock Post, G. A. R., with fife and drum. 2. Old Settlers. 3. Officers of the Association, speakers on the occasion, and other in- vited guests. 4. City and county officials. 5. Other organizations which might be invited and wish to participate. 6. The public. II. Viewing the remains in the urn, and examining Floyd's Journal. III. Short address by Judge Wakefield, on behalf of Sioux City. IV. Short funeral sermon by Prof. Butler. V. Singing of "Nearer My God to Thee." VI. Prayer. VII. Ceremony of reburial of the remains, conducted by the G. A. R. VIII. Short addresses by Dr. Coues, Dr. Yeomans, and others. IX. Setting of the stone over the grave. B. For the Evening, at the Young Men's Christian Association Audi- torium. X. Address on the Lewis and Clark Expedition, by Dr. Coues. XI. Address on Sergeant Floyd, by Prof. Butler. This programme was carried out, without material modification: see date of August 20, beyond, p. 37.) On motion this report was adopted, and it was voted to invite the Gen. Hancock Post, G. A. R., to take charge of the ceremonies of reburial. The officers of the Association were authorized and instructed to extend invitations to be present at the ceremonies to such persons as they might desire as guests, and also to formally invite the speakers to deliver the ad- dresses contemplated in the programme. A committee consisting of Messrs. G. W. Wakefield, G. M. Pardoe, and C. H. Lewis, was appointed and authorized to prepare for execution articles of incorporation of the Floyd Memorial Association, to be ready August 17. *A short notice of this meeting- appears in the Journal of August 4. REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. 31 Mr. Mitchell Vincent was appointed a committee of one to arrange for a railroad train to transport the Association, its guests, and the public, from Sioux City to Floyd's Bluff, on August 20. Adjourned to meet at the same time and place, August 17. (Abstract of Minutes.*) Court House, Sioux City. August 17, 1895. The Executive Committee met at 2 p. m. pursuant to adjournment of August 3, President Charles in the chair, and Mr. E. W. Skinner acting as secretary in the absence of Mr. Marks. This meeting was a public one, at- ended by about 40 persons, in addition to the officers and committees of the Association. Among those present were Judge Geo. W. Wakefield, Mitchell Vincent, D. A. Magee, F. C. Hills, A. M. Holman, Dr. Elliott Coues, Prof. J. D. Butler, Rev. H. D. Jenkins, W. L. Joy, James F. Toy, Capt. and State Senator J. S. Lothrop, H. C. Cheyney. representing Supt. H. G. Burt, of the S. C. and P. R. R., Dr. J. Perrin Johnson. Arthur F. Statter, H. A. Johns, Hon. Geo. D. Perkins. Before the meeting was called to order, Dr. Coues and Prof. Butler were introduced to the persons present. The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. Mr. Vincent, the Committee on Transportation, reported that arrange- ments had been made with H. G. Burt, General Manager of the Sioux City and Pacific Railroad, and with H. C. Cheyney, the local agent, for a train to leave the station at 1:35 p. m. on August 20, to convey members of the Association and their guests to Floyd's Bluff and return, free of charge, and to transport the public at the rate of 15 cents for the round trip. The report was approved and accepted. Mr. Skinner, on behalf of the Committee of Arrangements, reported that they had sent out about 450 invitations to prominent persons throughout the country, and read extracts from many of the letters of acceptance or regret. Among those from whom replies had been received were: Governor Frank D. Jackson, Des Moines. la.: R. A. Smith, of Okoboji, an old settler of Northern Iowa: Henry Sabin. Superintendent of Public Instruction, Des Moines; United States Senator Wm. V. Allen, Madison, Neb.; M. W. Davis, Iowa City, la., Secretary of the State Historical Society, who desired that the Board of Curators of that Society should be represented on the occasion by Hon. Geo. D. Perkins, a member of that board and the editor of the Sioux City Journal; ex-Governor C. C. Carpenter, of Fort Dodge, la., who had been present at the Floyd ceremonies of 1857; Hon. J. Sterling Morton, Sec- retary of Agriculture, Washington, D. C; Maj. W. V. Lucas. Superintendent of the Soldiers' Home at Hot Springs, S. D. ; J. F. Duncombe, of Fort Dodge; the veteran Gen. Geo. W. Jones, first United States senator for Iowa; F. H. Halsell. Sioux Rapids. la.; Hon. P. M. Cassady, Des Moines, State Senator in 1850; H. G. McMillan, Rock Rapids, la.; Fletcher Howard, Com- missioner of Pharmacy, Sheldon, la.; State Geologist Samuel Calvin. Iowa City: H. W. Trimble, Keokuk. la.; Adjutant General John R. Prime, Des Moines; B. F. Gill, Des Moines; H. C. Wheeler, Odebolt. la.; United States Senator Wm. B. Allison, Dubuque, la.; United States Senator John H. Gear, *A full report of this important meeting, the last one held before the ceremonies of the 2i>th. appears in the Journal of August 18. from the pen of Mr. Arthur F. Statter. and has been used bv your committee to supplement the official manuscript minutes. The unsigned draft of the Ar- ticles of Incorporation also appears there. 32 REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. Burlington, la.; Representative D. B. Henderson, Dubuque; J. K. P. Thomp- son, Rock Rapids; Hon. Chas. Aldrich, Curator State Historical Department, Des Moines; C. L. Davidson, Hull, la.; Judge G. S. Robinson, of the Supreme Court, Sioux City; Rev. T. M. Shanafelt, Superintendent of Baptist Missions, Huron, S. D.; Prof. J. E. Todd, State Geologist, Vermillion, S. D.; Thomas Thorson, Secretary of State, Canton, S. D., and many others. Mr. A. M. Holman, on behalf of the Committee on the Stone, in the ab- sence of the chairman, E. R. Kirk, reported that the stone had been cut and inscribed, and was ready to be laid on August 20; and also, that the earthen- ware urn had been made to contain the remains. The report was accepted, and the committee was instructed to have everything in readiness for set- ting the stone at the appointed hour. Judge Wakefield, chairman of the committee appointed to draft for exe- cution Articles of Incorporation of the Floyd Memorial Association, read the said Articles, which had been drafted, and which on motion were ap- proved and accepted. (For these articles, see below.) On motion of Mr. G. M. Pardoe, at the suggestion of Rev. H. D. Jen- Inns that seats should be provided at the grave and photographs of the scene be taken, the chair appointed for those purposes a committee consist- ing of C. J. Holman, D. A. Magee, and H. A. Johns, who were authorized to engage a photographer, and requested to select the persons to be seated, including certain Omaha Indians. On motion of Mr. E. W. Skinner, the chair appointed the following persons a Committee on Reception for Tuesday, August 20: Mayor C. W. Fletcher, Messrs. F. C. Hills, W. L. Joy, John P. Allison, Mitchell Vincent, Geo. D. Perkins, T. J. Stone, C. J. Holman, C. A. L. Olson, J. Perrin Johnson, and Geo. W. Wakefield. Judge Wakefield offered the following resolution which, on motion of Mr. Perkins, was adopted: "Resolved, that the Mayor and Common Coun- cil, city officers, and county officers, be and they are hereby invited and re- quested to attend the memorial services at the grave at 2 p. m. on August 20; and that ladies and gentlemen and the public generally be also invited to participate." Judge Wakefield reported that the members of the Hancock Post, G. A. R., would meet at the Post Hall at 1 p. m., on the 20th, in uniform and wearing their badges, and march in procession to the railroad station, with fife and drum. Adjourned to meet at the grave on Floyd's Bluff on Tuesday, August 20, at 2 p. m. Sec. 12. Incorporation of the Association, August 20. 1895. ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION. Know all men by these presents, that we, the undersigned, hereby asso- ciate ourselves and agree to become a corporation under Chapter Two, Title Nine, of the Code of Iowa of 1873 and amendments thereto, and for that purpose we have adopted, agreed to, signed and do hereby certify the fol- lowing Articles of Incorporation. REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION 33 ARTICLE I. The name of this corporation shall be "The Floyd Memorial Associa- tion," and its principal place of business shall be at Sioux City, Woodbury County, Iowa. ARTICLE II. The business and object of this corporation shall be to commemorate the death and burial of Sergeant Charles Floyd, and the Lewis and Clark Ex- pedition, of which Sergeant Floyd was a member, and for that purpose to acquire and hold necessary real estate and other property, to erect a monument and establish and maintain a public park and to exercise such powers as are given by statute to corporations other than those for pecu- niary profit. ARTICLE III. This corporation shall commence on the twentieth day of August, A. I'. 1895, and the members thereof shall be the undersigned, together with such other persons as have contributed or may hereafter contribute the sum of one dollar or more to the support of this corporation. ARTICLE IV. The business of this corporation shall be conducted by a board of seven trustees, who shall be elected annually at the annual meeting of the mem- bers on the twentieth day of August in each year, except that when said date shall fall upon Sunday, then such annual meeting and election shall be upon the Monday following. Ten members shall constitute a quorum at corporate meetings. The trustees shall hold for one year, or until their successors are elected and qualified. Each member shall be entitled to one vote in person or by proxy. Until the twentieth day of August, A. D. 1896, John H. Charles. C. R. Marks. Mitchell Vincent. A. M. Holman, L. Bates, D. A. Magee and Geo. W. Wakefield shall be and constitute the first board of trustees and shall conduct said business. ARTICLE V The board of trustees shall elect from their number a president, and from the members of the corporation fifteen vice presidents, a secretary and a treasurer, appoint subordinate officers, till vacancies in said board, call special meetings of the members, make and adopt by-laws for the manage- ment of corporate affairs and do any and all things necessary for the trans- action of the business of the corporation. Written contracts and > onvey- ai ces of the corporation shall be signed by the president and al by the secretary, and in cases of instruments requiring an acknowledgment. the same shall be made by the president in the name of the corporation. In case of absence or inability of the president one of the vice presidents shall sign and acknowledge such contracts and conveyances. The duties of the several officers of this corporation shall be such as are usually performed by like officers, ana orders on the treasurer shall be drawn \>y the secretary. ARTICLE VI. This corporation is not for the pecuniary profit of its members, and the private property of the members shall in no case be liable for corporate debts. 34 REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. ARTICLE VII. These articles may be amended at any annual meeting of the members, by a vote of two-thirds of the members present. Witness our hands this twentieth day of August, A. D. 1895. (Signatures) James Davie Butler, Elliott Coues, Charles Aldrich, T. M. Shanafelt, S. P. Yeomans. Jno. H. Charles, Geo. D. Perkins, A. M. Holman, Geo. W. Wakefield, C. R. Marks, Arthur F. Statter, Henry J. Taylor, C. J. Holman, J. C. C. Hoskins, W. C. Davenport, L. Bates, Wm. L. Joy, (Mrs.) D. A. Crockwell, T. C. Tees, F. L. Ferris, Mrs. Frances N. Davis. Bertha Wakefield, Frederick C. Hills, Frank A. Magill, R. Buchanan, John M. Pinckney, G. S. Robinson, H. D. Jenkins, Mitchell Vincent, C. A. Benton. STATE OF IOWA, Woodbury County— ss. Be it remembered, that on this 20th day of August, 1895, before me, George W. Wakefield, Judge of the District Court in and for the Fourth Judicial District of Iowa, personally appeared James Davie Butler, Elliott Coues, Charles Aldrich, T. M. Shanafelt, S. P. Yeomans, John H. Charles, Geo. D. Perkins, C. R. Marks, Mrs. Francis N. Davis, and Bertha Wakefield, to me personally known to be the persons who respectively signed said names to the foregoing articles and certificate of incorporation, and sever- ally acknowledged said instrument to be their voluntary act and deed. In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand this 20th day of August, A. D. 1895. (Signed) GEO. W. WAKEFIELD, District Judge in and for the 4th Judicial District of Iowa. REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. 85 STATE OF IOWA, Woodbury County— ss. Be it remembered, that on this 20th day of August, 1895, before me, the undersigned, C. R. Marks, a Notary Public in and for said Woodbury County, personally came A. M. Holman, Geo. W. Wakefield, Arthur F. Statter, Henry J. Taylor, C. J. Holman, J. C. C. Hoskins, W. C. Davenport, L. Bates, W. L. Joy, Mrs. D. A. Crockwell, T. C. Tees, F. L. Ferris, Frederick C. Hills. Frank A. Magill, R. Buchanan, John M. Pinckney, G. S. Robinson, H. D. Jenkins, Mitchell Vincent, and C. A. Benton, each to me personally known to be the persons who respectively signed said names to the foregoing arti- cles and certificate of incorporation and severally acknowledged the said instrument to be their voluntary act and deed. In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and affixed my Notarial Seal at Sioux City the day and year last above written. (Signed) CONSTANT R. MARKS, (L. S.) Notary Public in and for Woodbury County, Iowa. STATE OF IOWA, Woodbury County. Filed for record this 20th day of August, A. D. 1895, at 6 o'clock p. m., and recorded in Book 27, Miscel., Page 514. W. C. HILLS, Recorder. T. C. Tees, Deputy. Section 13. The Obsequies of August 20, 1895.* (A. AFTERNOON EXERCISES.) Floyd's Bluff, Sioux City, la., 2 p. m., Tuesday, August 20, 1895. The Association, met pursuant to adjournment of August 17, on the 91st anniversary of the death of Sergeant Charles Floyd, in the presence of a large concourse of citizens, to conduct the solemn ceremony of laying his remains in their final resting-place, with the military honors due the brave soldier, and befitting civic tribute to his memory. The day was fine, and the order of exercises which had been determined upon was carried out according to the programme. No untoward incident marred the occasion. The assemblage numbered fully five hundred persons; among them were the following, who attended or participated in the event as officers and members of the Association and its invited guests, officers and members of the Han- cock Post, G. A. R., other civic and military officials, members of the press, old settlers, and the public: Hon. Charles Aldrich, Curator State Historical Department, Des Moines, la. Mrs. Ainsworth, Onawa, la., journalist. C. D. Bagley, Sioux City. Charles Baldwin, Sioux City. L. Bates, Dakota City, Neb. C. A. Benton, Credits Commutation Co., Sioux City. *Your committee's relation of these imposing? ceremonies is based ;1) On their participation in the programme, all the members of the committee having? been present on the occasion, and three of them anions? the speakers; [2) On Secretary .Marks* official minutes of the exercises, con- sidered as proceeding's of the Association; and (3) On the very full accounts published in the Sioux City Journal and Times of August 20 and 21. These papers printed eleven columns of illustrated articles on the event, one o! unprecedented local interest and just local pride, as well as of national historic significance. The Associated Press dispatch from Sioux City of August 20 was wry gen- erally used by papers throughout the United States. Your committee acknowledge with thanks their indebtedness to the editor of the Journal and his reportorial staff, and particularlv to Mr. Statter, who aftenvard furnishel Dr. Coues with a much more extensive list of names of persons present than had before been prepared. 36 REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. Ellis Blackbird, otherwise Shongoska or White Horse, grandson of Chief Blackbird, Omaha Agency, Neb. L. M. Brown, Sioux City. C. A. Bryan, Sioux City. R. Buchanan, Sioux City. A. H. Burton, Sioux City. Prof. J. D. Butler, Madison, Wis., bearer of Floyd's Journal, and deliv- erer of the funeral oration. Miss Butler, Madison, Wis. President John H. Charles, Sioux City, presiding over civic ceremonies. Mrs. John H. Charles, Sioux City. R. J. Chase, Sioux City. H. C. Cheyney, Sioux City and Pacific R. R., representing Maj. Horace G. Burt, of Omaha, Neb. Col. A. D. Collier, Sioux City. Dr. Elliott Coues, Washington, D. C, speaker on behalf of Lewis and Clark's Expedition. Mrs. Elliott Coues, Washington, D. C. E. E. Crady, Sioux City. Mrs. D. A. Crockwell, Sioux City (or Mrs. Dr. Crockwell, Salt Lake City, Utah.) W. C. Davenport, Sioux City. M. B. Davis, Sioux City, comrade G. A. R. E. G. Dilley, Sioux City. James Doughty, Sioux City. David Douglas, Sioux City, locomotive engineer of the train. Henry Fontanelle, Omaha Agency, Neb., in charge of the Omaha Indians, Shongaska and Sindahaha. F. L. Ferris, Sioux City. G. M. Gilbert, Sioux City, leader of the choir. Rev. Elinor E. Gordon, Sioux City. Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Green and family, Sioux City. August Groninger, Sioux City. Mrs. A. Groninger, Sioux City. J. W. Hallam, Sioux City. J. H. Hamilton, Sioux City. Atlee Hart, editor North Nebraska Eagle, Dakota City, Neb. Dr. J. L. Hanchette, Sioux City. » Mr. Herman, Sioux City. Frederick Clark Hills, formerly Sergeant Company E, 117th New York Volunteers, Senior Vice Commander Hancock Post, No. 22, G. A. R.. and President Board of Education, Sioux City. A. M. Holman, Sergeant Bluffs. Mrs. A. M. Holman, Sergeant Bluffs. C. J. Holman, Sergeant Bluffs. -Airs. C. J. Holman, Sergeant Bluffs. Frederick Holman, cadet U. S. N., Annapolis, Md. J. C. C. Hoskins, ex-President of the Association, Sioux City Mrs. J. C. C. Hoskins, Sioux City. J. D. Hoskins, Sioux City. REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. James Hutchins. Sioux City. Robert Ingersoll. Sioux City. Rev. H. D. Jenkins, Sioux City, deliverer of the prayer and benediction. Mrs. H. D. Jenkins, Sioux City. Miss Anna and Miss Ruth Jenkins. Sioux City. Paul Jenkins. Sioux City. Frederick Johnson, cadet U. S. A.. West Point. N Y. Dr. G. A. Johnson, Sioux City. Dr. J. Perrin Johnson, Sioux City. "Win. L. Joy, Sioux City. E. R. Kirk, Sioux City. L. D. Letellier, Sioux City, a pioneer. C. H. Lewis, Sioux City. D. S. Lewis. Sioux City. John W. Lewis. Sioux City. Arthur Linn, Canton, S. D. W. G. Linn, Sioux City. Geo W. McGibbons, Sioux City, comrade G. A. R. F. A. Magill. Sioux City. Treasurer D. A. Magee, Sioux City. J. A. Magoun, Jr., Sioux City. Secretary C. R. Marks, Sioux City, in charge of the remains. Mrs. C. R. Marks, Sioux City. Russell A. Marks, Sioux City. George Murphy. Sioux City. Capt. C. O'Connor, Homer, Neb. Charlotte O'Connor, Homer, Neb. G. M. Pardoe, Sioux City. Judge Isaac Pendleton. Sioux City. Miss May Pendleton, Sioux City. Hon. Geo. D. Perkins. M. C, Sioux City, speaker on behalf of the Board of Curators of the Iowa State Historical Society. Mrs. Geo. D. Perkins, Sioux City. Mrs. H. A. Perkins, Sioux City. Prof. J. L. Pickard, Burlingame. Kas. John M. Pinckney. Sioux City. Mrs. John M. Pinckney. Sioux City. John S. Potts, city editor Evening Times, Sioux City. Commander Eugene W. Rice. Hancock Post. No. 22. G. A. R.. Sioux City, presiding over military ceremonies. Judge G. S. Robinson. Sioux City. Dr. Grant J. Ross. Sioux City. Rev. Mary A. Safford. pastor Unitarian Church, Sioux City. Robert H. Sayre, South Bethlehem, Pa. Rev. T. M. Shanafelt. Superintendent of Baptist Missions. Huron. S. D. Sindahaha, otherwise Glistening Tail. Omaha Agency. Neb. E. W. Skinner. Sioux City. Arthur F. Statter, reporter Sioux City Journal. Whitfield Stinson, Sioux City. Thomas J. Stone, Sioux City. 38 REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. S. W. Swiggett, Sioux City. Henry J. Taylor, Sioux City. T. C. Tees, Sioux City. Prof. J. E. Todd, State Geologist, Vermillion, S. D. Mitchell Vincent, C. E., Onawa, la. J. P. Vincent. Onawa, la. Judge George W. Wakefield, Sioux City, speaker on behalf of the city. Mrs. Lycurgus Wakefield, Sioux City. A. J. Westfall, Sioux City. B. P. Yeomans, Sergeant Bluffs. Mrs. B. P. Yeomans, Sergeant Bluffs. Dr. S. P. Yeomans, Charles City, la., speaker on behalf of the old settlers. George W. Young, Sioux City, chief of police. The train on the Sioux City and Pacific R. R. was advertised to leave the station at 1:30 p. m. At that hour, when the Hancock Post had marched with drum and fife to the station, and the citizens had also assembled, it was found that the means of transportation were insufficient to con- vey the throng. But Mr. H. C. Cheyney procured two additional coaches in a few minutes, and at 1:45 the train started, with the veteran engineer, David Douglas, at the throttle. The train soon stopped in the cut at the foot of Floyd's Bluff, and its 400 passengers alighted. Fully 100 others came in private conveyances. The procession from the train ascended to the top of the bluff, headed by the Hancock Post. A photograph of the ascent was taken as the procession moved up the south face of the acclivity. When all had gathered about the grave, beside which stood two urns containing the remains of Sergeant Floyd, President Charles opened the exercises in a few fitting words, and introduced Judge George W. Wake- field, who spoke on behalf of Sioux City, in substance as follows: ADDRE5S OF JUDGE WAKEFIELD. "We have met today to mark an historic spot in memory of a volunteer citizen soldier of the early days of the republic. On this occasion the pres- ent clasps hands with the past, today with the days of Washington and Jefferson. It is well for us to stop in the midst of our labors and take a momentary retrospect and thereby realize the rapidity of our nation's growth and the importance of the Louisiana purchase. When Sergeant Floyd died and was buried on this bluff the frontier was along the line of the Allegha- nies, and the lower end of Lake Ontario was an almost unbroken wilder- ness. From that frontier our civilization has extended westward by rapid strides down the Ohio, across the Mississippi, over the great plains and the heights of the Rockies and down to the Pacific ocean. Sergeant Floyd was one of the pathfinders exploring for this civilization a vast region, an empire in extent, stretching from the "Father of Waters" to the wave-washed shores of Oregon. We meet to commemorate the life and death of this man. a volunteer soldier, enlisted in the service of the United States. It is very largely the names of generals and great captains that occupy and engross the historic page and memorial slab, but today our hero is the man with the musket, and without the stalwart service of such there would be no generals or great captains. REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. 39 "The man with the musket who is faithful to every call of duty is the true hero. The people of Sioux City have a just pride in preserving this historic spot and the memory of this pioneer soldier. They have, with other interested friends, organized the Floyd Memorial Association and planned this memorial celebration. They extend to all a most hearty invitation to join in this work to the end that at no distant day we may dedicate a monument where today we place a simple slab. It is the duty of the present to preserve the ancient landmarks. Let us do our duty." THE FUNERAL ORATION. President Charles next introduced Prof. James D. Butler, who appeared carrying in his hand the original manuscript journal of Sergeant Floyd, to deliver the funeral oration. Prof. Butler spoke in substance as follows : "All ye that are about him bemoan him, and all ye that know his name say: 'How is the strong staff broken and the beautiful rod.' — Jer. xlviii., 17." "Let us roll back the tide of time and imagine ourselves standing ninety- one years ago on this selfsame spot. About noon a flotilla comes in sight — three boats, one of twenty-two oars, the others each of six. They come to land at the base of the bluff and bring ashore a man at the point of death. They try in every way inventive love can dictate to relieve and rally him. He revives a little and says to the leader of the party, 'I want you to write me a letter,' murmurs a few words of father and mother far away in Ken- tucky. Then, looking around at many an eye tearful though unused to weep, he enters his last agony, cries, 'I am going to leave you,' and all is over. With noiseless step death steals on man. No plea, no prayer delivers him; From midst of life's unfinished plan With sudden hand it severs him. Ready, not ready, no delay. Forth to his judge's bar he must away. "All are in silence, some one perhaps pours out audible prayer for the parting spirit and for those around, none of whom in such a moment can forget their own brittle thread of life. "The little utmost that can be done to honor the dead is done at once, that in paying last honors saddened hearts may throw off something of their burden. Boards provided for mending the boats are shaped into a coffin, one of the flags, brought along to show nationality in councils, serves for a winding sheet, and strong arms bear the lifeless loved one, now loved more than ever, up to the height of land. A grave has already been fash- ioned there and two ropes from the boats lower it into its last resting place. In the face of death all men have serious moments. Committing dust to dust, all feel what shadows we are and what shadows we pursue. All thank God for him who hath abolished death and brought the life of immortality to light. But grief is restless and finds a solace in action. The tallest cedar within reach, topped with the stars and stripes, is set up over the grave, and the words "Charles Floyd, August 20, 1804," are cut into it. A dis- charge of muskets follows as a requiem. Then the whole band, too brol* on hearted to linger, with folded hands, casting a last look at the heape 40 REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. earth, go down the slope, launch their boats and the same evening push on further into the great lone land. They do with their might what then- hands find to do, realizing as never before that there is no work in the grave. "Two years must drag their slow length along before Floyd's fellow- soldiers can return from the farthest west and behold his memorial post, which, let us thank God, was predestinated to be proof against undermining waters below, prairie fires sweeping around, and cyclones assailing from above, till it insured everlasting remembrance to the site of Floyd's inter- ment." HON. GEO. D. PERKINS' REMARKS. Geo. D. Perkins, who represented the Board of Curators of the State Historical Society, was then introduced by President Charles. "Standing here," he said, "on the verge of this new-old grave, we are re- minded that it is the unexpected that happens. The Louisiana purchase in 1803 was unexpected. It was the state of war between France and England that rendered that purchase possible. Out of this purchase an empire west of the Mississippi river has been created, controlling in large measure the destinies of the great republic. Without this acquisition it may be doubted if the government of the United States could have long survived. The rapid settlement of this vast territory was the unexpected, for prior to the pur- chase the steamboat and the steam railway were unknown. The mighty transformation since Lewis and Clark and their faithful companions made their slow way up the Missouri river, here, was beyond all the thought of that time. The occasion was one of pride to the people of Sioux City, and of honor to the state and to the country." With a few remarks touching the marking of Sergeant Floyd's grave, and the obligation of caring for it, he brought his brief address to a close. At this point in the programme the exercises were placed in charge of Gen. Hancock Post, G. A. R., and the military ceremonies were formally opened by Post Commander Eugene Rice. Dr. H. D. Jenkins then offered prayer, which was followed by the singing of "Nearer My God to Thee," by a chorus led by Mr. G. M. Gilbert. COMMANDER RICE'S ADDRESS. Post Commander Rice then delivered the following address: "Comrades: One by one as the years roll on we are called together to fulfill the duties of respect to our country's dead. The present — full of the cares and pleasures of civil life — fades away, and we look back to the time when the heroes of our republic gave their lives in its service. As in the conflict of the 60s, when we, too, were soldiers of the republic, and gave our service for the maintenance of the Union and for the triumph of the cause represented by the Stars and Stripes — the flag so dear to our hearts — so in the earlier years of our nation's life was this same flag dear to the heart of this soldier of the republic, Sergeant Charles Floyd, who gave his life to his country in this then newly discovered wilderness, almost a century and whose remains we today reconsign to the bosom of our common the " \er — earth — thus giving in these ceremonies a tardy recognition of serv- genei his country. REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. II "As time rolls on we too shall have fought our battles through and be laid to rest, our souls following the long column to the realms above. 'Let us so live that when that time shall come to us those we leave behind may say above our graves: 'Here lies the body of a true-hearted. brave and earnest defender of the republic' " Following Commander Rice's address Comrades G. W. McGibbons. F. C. Hills and M. B. Davis made short responses, and each dropped a flower Upon the urn containing the remains. The G. A. R. exercises were con- tinued by the Rev. H. D. Jenkins, who spoke as follows: DR. JENKINS' ADDRESS. 'Comrades of the Grand Army of the Republic: We who are accus- tomed to meet from time to time to pay funeral honors to the brave, are met today to deposit the ashes of an old soldier of the republic in a more fitting sepulcher than they have heretofore received, over which in due time shall rise a lofty monument or commemorative shaft. "Beside the beautiful waters of the Potomac rests the father of his country, in a tomb from whose site the visitor looks out upon the capital of a great nation and the marble palaces of its representatives. Beside the noble stream of the Hudson lie the mortal remains of that great general whose sword, followed by your muskets, preserved the liberties so dearly won, and that mausoleum by the most famous of our eastern rivers has become already a sacred Mecca to the great Empire State. Beside the broader flood of the Missouri, upon this glorious height, we redeposit today the ashes of that humble soldier who carried the flag of Washington into new and unexplored regions, and whose sacrifice and toil helped to make possible the victories of Grant. No one can read the story of that heroic band who in 1804 pushed its bateaux up this river in the face of unknown dangers and well known foes, without recognizing in it the pioneers of civilization, of freedom and of faith, for all of which God had destined this vast continent. "You know the story of Arnold von Melchthal, called Winkelried, who in 130S gathered into his arms a sheaf of Austrian spears, by sacrifice of his own life making way for the advance of freedom in the persons of his compatriots who pressed forward where he fell. So it was with this man whose name we speak with reverence, confronting an inhospitable wilder- ness, but opening it up to free labor, free schools and free states. "Upon this lofty eminence, looking out. over three states whose joint population is nearly 3,500,000, under a sky as genial as that of Italy, amid farms bursting with opulence, beside railways burdened by our present harvests, beside a city whose palaces of trade are builded of marble, jasper and chalcedony, we recommit his body to the grave, leaving it in the keep- ing of that God who will reward every man according to his work, and there may it rest undisturbed until the last day. In the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit. Amen and Amen." ADDRESS OF DR. COUES. President Charles having resumed charge of the exercises, at the con- clusion of the military programme. Dr. Elliott Coues, the eminent Lewi? and Clark historian, was the next speaker introduced. He spoke briefly on behalf of the Expedition, as follows: 42 REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. "Ladies and Gentlemen: Instead of any poor remarks of my own on this interesting historic occasion, we will hear the very words which were penned on this spot by Capt. William Clark, on the day of Sergeant Floyd's death, August 20, 1804: " 'Died with a great deel of composure, before he died he said to me l am going away I want you to write me a letter— We buried him on the top of the bluff y 2 mile below a small river to which we gave his name, he was buried with the Honors of War much lamented, a seeder post with the Name Sergt. C. Floyd died here 20th of August 1804 was fixed at the head of his grave— This man at all times gave us proofs of his Determined reso- lution to doe service to his country and honor to himself after paying all honor to our Decesed brother we camped in the mouth of floyd's river about 30 yards wide, a butiful evening.' " ADDRESS BY DR. YEOI1ANS. Following Dr. Coues, Dr. S. P. Yeomans, an early pioneer of Sioux City, who was present at the reburial of Floyd's remains in 1857, was introduced by President Charles, to speak on behalf of the old settlers. We give a synopsis of his interesting and appropriate address: "The occasion of this assemblage, with all its connecting incidents, is so unique as to be rarely, if ever, paralleled in human history. We are here to consign to their final resting place the remains of a fellow-being who died nearly a hundred years ago; to pay the last tribute of respect to one of whose life and history we have little knowledge beyond the fact that he fell at his post of duty in the service of our country. "These honors to one of whom we know so little fittingly exemplify the great cardinal doctrine of the Christian world, the kinship of the race, the brotherhood of man. Charles Floyd is a stranger to us, belonging to another age; probably no living being has ever looked upon his face, or grasped his hand. But 'a man is a man for a' that,' having a common origin and a common destiny with us, and the claims of our common humanity for sympathy and such aid as we may bestow in the time of calamity and help- lessness. "It is not extravagent to assume that Sergeant Floyd, with all the others composing the expedition of Lewis and Clark in 1804-06, were as truly heroes as thousands of others whose names are emblazoned upon the pages of history. This expedition was esteemed of great national importance; it was authorized by act of congress upon the urgent recommendation of President Jefferson. Ample time was taken to select the men composing it, who, by their courage, prudence and physical endurance were fully qualified to per- form the arduous duties required. It involved an entire separation for two years from every vestige of civilization, a traversing of two of the longest and most important rivers in North America, with no means of transporta- tion, aside from their frail boats, propelled with their own strong arms, with no knowledge of the rapids and cataracts that were before them. It in- volved the scaling of mountain heights, whose towering peaks were capped with everlasting snow. It involved encounters with savage beasts, as fero- cious as those found in the jungles of Africa, and the meeting with Indian *ribes in overwhelming numbers, who could be conciliated only by shrewd- ness, tact and diplomacy. REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. 43 "There can be no question that men who voluntarily assumed perils and hardships like these belonged to the highest type of heroes. "As we stand by this open grave there comes to us a sense of a mystical association between the opening and closing years of the century, which seems naturally to lead the mind to the contemplation of existing condi- tions at these remote periods of time, comparison with which will indicate the growth and development of our nation. "We have in our immediate presence an object lesson that epitomizes this general process of change and development. Forty years ago I came to Sioux City in the first stage coach ever seen north of Council Bluffs, to establish a United States land office. Upon the banks of the Floyd, within your city limits, was a camp of 300 Indians, and for a considerable time thereafter all the eating was done at the table of the late Dr. John K. Cook. Within these four decades there has grown up this magnificent city, with a system of railroads radiating in every direction, stately mansions, hotels and business blocks, churches, school houses, and a teeming multitude of busy and prosperous citizens. I am glad to greet so goodly a number of the old settlers that were here at the beginning, who endured the toil of sowing and planting, and who, in their declining years, are reaping in rich profusion the reward of their labor." Upon the conclusion of Dr. Yeoman's address, the participants in the ceremonies were grouped about the open grave and photographed in several different views. The two receptacles containing the remains were then lowered into their final resting-place. One of these was an urn-shaped jar made for the pur- pose by Holman Brothers, of Sergeant Bluffs; but as this proved too short to hold the long bones, the latter were placed in a similar but narrower and higher earthenware jar, which had been provided by Secretary Marks. The remains thus interred were: The skull, including the lower jaw; the right femur, 18 inches long: a tibia, 15 inches; a fibula, 14% inches; part of the other fibula; one vertebra; one clavicle; and portions of several ribs- all in good preservation. The inscription upon the urn was: SERGEANT CHARLES FLOYD. Dikd August 20, 1804. Reinterred May 28, 1857. : Memorial Services August 20, 1895. A wreath and other floral offerings were placed upon the grave, which, after it had been filled up, was covered with the large stone slab made by M. C. Carlstrom, laid flat upon the ground. The inscription reads: Sergeant CHARLES FLOYD DIED Aug. 20. 1804. Remains removed from 600 Feet West and Reburied at This Place Mav 28. 1857. This Stone Placed Aug. 20. 1895. 44 REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. The articles of Incorporation of the Floyd Memorial Association were numerously signed at the grave, as well as earlier in the day; and after the benediction had been pronounced by Dr. Jenkins, the assemblage dis- persed, and the Association adjourned to meet at the Auditorium of the Young Men's Christian Association, in Sioux City, for the exercises of the evening programme, at 8 p. m., the same day. (B. EVENING EXERCISES.) Y. M. C. A. Auditorium, Sioux City, la., 8 p. m., Tuesday, August 20, 1895. The large audience which gathered in the Y. M. C. A. Auditorium for the •evening exercises was called to order by President Charles at 8 o'clock. The stage was occupied by the speakers of the occasion. Dr. Coues and Prof. Butler, by President Charles, Prof. J. E. Todd, Prof. Pickard, Rev. Dr. Jenkins, and Mr. J. C. C. Hoskins. Secretary Marks, at the suggestion of Dr. Coues, offered the following resolution, which was unanimously adopted: Resolved, That the special thanks of the Floyd Memorial Association be and they are hereby tendered to Mr. H. G. Burt, of Omaha, General Mana- ger of the Sioux City and Pacific Railroad, for the many courtesies and favors by which he has shown his interest in the Association, and greatly promoted its purposes. The following resolution was also introduced by Secretary Marks and unanimously adopted: Resolved, That the thanks of this Association be and they are hereby tendered to the Gen. Hancock Post, G. A. R., for its cordially rendered serv- ices in honoring the grave and memory of Sergeant Charles Floyd, in re- depositing of his remains and placing a stone over the grave this day. President Charles then introduced Dr. Coues as the historian of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, who had been invited to deliver the address of the evening on that subject. Dr. Coues arose and delivered a most interesting address upon the famous Lewis and Clark Expedition. Dr. Coues, as the historian of these explorers, probably knows more about their travels, hardships and adventures than any other living man, and his words were listened to with rapt attention by the audience. Dr. Coues has a strong, clear voice, and the faculty of keeping his hearers in perfect sympathy with him in his subject. At the close of his address he was tendered a hearty round of applause. Dr. Coues spoke substantially as follows: DR. COUES' EVENING ADDRESS. "Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: Lewis and Clark's Expedition is our national epic of exploration, conceived by Thomas Jefferson, wrought out by the great pioneers who showed the way from the Mississippi to the Pacific, and first given to the world by Nicholas Biddle in the year 1814. Being the latest historian of this ever memorable enterprise, I have been asked to give you some account of a journey which, from the day it was finished until today, has never ceased to be on the tongues of men, has never ceased to be a model of all such undertakings, and will never cease to bear fruit until our great West is no longer great. "In the year 1803 we had nothing west of the Mississippi. In that year -one of the greatest statesmen America ever produced bought from the great REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. 15 founder of the Napoleonic dynasty the whole of the country between the British and the Spanish possessions, which had been called by the French Louisiana, and was almost entirely unknown. By a stroke of the pen. with- out a drop of blood, and for much less money than Sioux City represents to- day, this vast possession became ours — as we trust forever. •Jefferson naturally wished to know what sort of a bargain he had made and determined to find out. For this purpose he appointed his private secre- tary, Meriwether Lewis, of Virginia, a captain in the army, gave him carte blanche to organize an expedition, gave him a letter of credit addressed to all the world, and minute instructions for the conduct of the enterprise— which was nothing less than a journey across the continent, by the principal waterways— the Missouri on this side of the great divide, the Columbia thence to the Pacific. Capt. Lewis selected his friend, William Clark, of Virginia, as his associate — and thus were linked two names which will live so long as men love to hear of deeds of greatness. "The winter of 18C3-4 was passed in camp at the mouth of Du Bois or Wood river, in Illinois, nearly opposite the mouth of the Missouri, and on Monday. May 14, 1804, the expedition started with forty-five men all told, in one large and two small boats. Besides the two captains, there were nine young Kentuckians, fourteen United States soldiers, two French watermen, one hunter, and a negro slave; besides which, a corporal and six soldiers and nine watermen were engaged to go only as far as the Mandans. There were afterward several changes in the composition of the permanent party, so that when it left the Mandans, April 7, 1805', it consisted of thirty-one men. one woman, and her new-born baby. "The lecturer said he should be obliged to condense to the utmost, to bring up even a part of the most important facts of so long protracted an expedition. Passing over the early stages in a few words, he brought the expedition to the vicinity of the Little Sioux, Inyan Yankey, or Eaneahwa- depon river, on August 7. 1804. In thus approaching Sioux City, the lecturer called attention to an interesting chart of the Missouri flood-plain in Monona county, drawn by Mitchell Vincent, of Onawa. which showed how great had been the changes in the river since the time of Lewis and Clark. Some places they navigated in their boats would now require "prairie schooners." being scleral miles to the right or left of the present channel. Several camps w-ere pointed out as the explorers passed the present site of Decatur and Blackbird hill, and on August 14 found themselves on the Omaha creek a few miles below this city, where they remained until the 20th, to hold a council with Otto and Missouri Indians. Here Sergeant Floyd was taken violently ill with the disease which ended his life next day, about noon. when the expedition had almost reached the bluff where he was buried and which still bears his name, as does aito the river close by, where the expe- dition camped after paying the last honors to their deceased comrade. "To show how minute and exact were the observations made on this voy- age the lecturer cited the case of the little creek now called Perry, flowing: through the city, which, together with Prospect hill, was duly and recogniza- bly described, before the explorers reached the Big Sioux. Tchankasndata, or Watpaipakshan river. "On August 22 Patrick Gass was elected a sergeant to fill the vacancy caused by Floyd's death, and subsequently became one of the historians of 46 REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. the expedition, whose published narrative antedated that of Lewis and Clark by seven years. "The following October saw our travelers safely at the villages of the Mandan and associated Indians, at and a little below Knife river, about 65 miles above Bismarck, now the capital of North Dakota. Here they spent the winter in quarters which they built and named Fort Mandan, awaiting the opening of navigation. They raised our flag for the first time among these Indians, cultivated friendly relations with them, entered also into diplomatic relations with British traders, and the following April saw them ready to resume their arduous journey toward the setting sun. On the 7th of that month they sent the large boat back down the Missouri, bearing dis- patches to the president and others, which was the last word heard from or of the party till they returned to St. Louis in September, 1806. "They soon passed the mouth of the Little Missouri, and were then be- yond any point which white men had ever reached. The mouth of the Yel- lowstone was reached April 25. They went on and discovered Milk river, which they named from the color of the water; they passed the Musselshell; they reached Judith's river, which Capt. Clark named for the lady he after- ward married; they reached Maria's river, which Capt. Lewis named for a lady whom he never married; and on June 13 the roar of the Great Falls was first heard by Capt. Lewis, who had gone ahead of the main party. No white man's eye had ever rested before on these cataracts, or on the won- derful fountain which there bursts out of the ground with water enough to make a sizable river. "They were occupied a full month in making a portage past the falls, dragging their boats and baggage seventeen and three-fourths miles to the place where they could be launched again in smooth water. They went on again and named Smith's and Dearborn's rivers for the then secretary of the navy and of war respectively. They soon entered the stupendous chasm they called the Gates of the Rocky Mountains, swept past the present site of Montana's capital; and then Capt. Clark, who was in advance, at one moment discovered the three great rivers which unite to form the Missouri— the Jefferson, the Madison, and the Gallatin, so called from the president and two of his cabinet — names they bear today. With an unerring instinct, the explorers chose the Jefferson as the main continuation of the Missouri, and went up it as far as they could push or drag their boats. In passing its three principal branches, they named them Philosophy, Philanthropy and Wisdom rivers, in recognition of the three great qualities to be found in Jefferson; but a later age ("which knew not Joseph") changed these names to Willow creek, Stinking Water and Big Hole river. "Arrived at the end of possible navigation, the captains fortunately fell in with some friendly Shoshone Indians and learned something of the terri- ble route before them across the continental divide and through the huge nest of mountains in Idaho. They had "bucked against the Rockies" in about the worst place they could have found. They, however, went quite easily over the first and main divide at a point now known as Lemhi pass, which Capt. Lewis, first of white men, surmounted on the 12th of August. They were then on the Pacific water-shed, and Capt. Clark made a reconnoissance down the Lehmi and Salmon rivers, but found that route impracticable. The expedi- tion was then conducted northward over a mountain range and into the pleas- REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. 47 ant valley on the east side of the Bitter Root mountains, which they de- scended northward nearly to the present site of Missoula, Mont. There they turned west up the stream they call Traveler's Rest creek, now known as the Lo Lo fork, and were soon involved in the terrible mountains already men- tioned, where they suffered much from hunger and cold. "But on the 24th of September they found themselves once more on navi- gable waters — on the Kooskooskee or Clearwater river— at the junction of its north fork with the main stream. There they built boats and prepared for the dangerous navigation to the ocean. Down the Kooskooskee they came to the mouth of the Snake or Lewis river, and down this till October 16, when they reached the Columbia itself. No foot of white man had ever be- fore been set on the mountains they had thus passed — no canoe of white man had ever cleft the Columbian current above tide-water. Sweeping on rapidly they reached the great falls of the Columbia; they glided through the Dalles; they were soon on tide-water, and on the 7th of November the Pacific ocean burst upon their view. "Hugging the north shore, and at one place barely escaping shipwreck, they kept on till, on the 14th of November, Capt. Lewis stood upon the shore of the ocean at Cape Disappointment. Then after a few days, during which Capt. Clark pushed explorations along the coast, the expedition ascended the Columbia to a place where it was narrow enough to be crossed in their frail boats, passed to the south side and came down to the mouth of a little stream they called the Netul, up which, about three miles, they found a good place for winter quarters. They built a fort, which they called Fort Clat- Prof. Elliott Coues. sop and prepared to pass a dismal winter. By this time they were of course out of provisions; but they managed to live by shooting elk, and trading what odds and ends they possessed with the Indians for fish and roots. 48 REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. "They had expected to find here some trading vessel, and it had been intended that some of the party should come home by way of Cape Horn or the Cape of Good Hope, perhaps.- But no vessel came that year; and so, on Sunday, March 23, 1806, they abandoned Fort Clatsop and set their faces to recross the continent. They ascended the Columbia to the falls in boats, and thence went on horseback to the mouth of the Walla Walla river. There, striking across country, they reached the Kooskooskee at the pres- ent site of Lewiston, Idaho. They kept up this river to near the place now known as Kamai, and there settled down in Camp Chopunnish on May 14 for a month, to wait till the snow should be sufficiently melted to permit ihem to repass the fearful mountains by the same trail as before — what has since become known as the Northern Nez Perce trail. Having safely accom- plished this, they found themselves once more at the mouth of Travelers Rest creek, July 1, 1806. "Here it is important to remember that the expedition was divided in two, to proceed by different routes to the Missouri, and meet again on that river below the mouth of the Yellowstone. "Capt. Lewis took nine men and went by Missoula, up the Big Black- foot river, and crossed the continental divide July 7, at what has since be- come known as Lewis and Clark's pass — though Capt. Clark was never there. This brought him to the headwaters of Dearborn river, and he easily passed thence along Sun river to the old camp at the Great Falls of the Missouri. Leaving here all his men but three, Lewis started with George Drewyer and the two Fields brothers to explore the source of Maria's river. He went up this river within ten miles of the place where it issues from the Rocky Mountains, and thus attained by far the northernmost point ever reached by any member of the expedition. Soon after he started to return there oc- curred the only serious collision with Indians during the whole expedition. A party of treacherous Blackfeet who had come into camp with professions of peace rose up in the night to kill the four white men. The result was that Capt. Lewis killed one Indian. Reuben Fields killed another, and the Indians were whipped out of sight, leaving their horses and equipments in the hands of the brave whites. The fight occurred July 17, near the conflu- ence of Two Medicine Lodge and Badger creeks, in the vicinity of the pres- ent Blackfoot agency and Piegan postoffice. Capt. Lewis then beat a hasty retreat and by a forced march reached the Missouri at the mouth of Maria's liver. There to his joy he met those of his men he had left at the Great Falls, and some of Capt. Clark's men with them. But how the latter got there we must now inquire. "When the parties separated at the mouth of Traveler's Rest creek, Capt. Clark and all his men pushed up the valley of the Bitter Root river southward, and then turning eastward crossed the continental divide at a new place— that since known as Gibbon's pass, from having been c \ised by Gen. John Gibbon when chasing Chief Joseph in our last Nez Perce war. Capt. Clark was thus on the old Bitter Root and Bannock stage route. He made this pass July 6, came by Bannock, and July 8 was again at the place, at the head of navigation of the Jefferson, where the whole party had been the August before. He descended the Jefferson to the junction of the Madison and Gallatin. There he sent a sergeant and a few men to continue down the Mis- souri and effect a junction with the men Capt. Lewis had meanwhile left at REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. 49 the Great Falls; and it was this party which, continuing down the Missouri, so fortunately re-enforced Capt. Lewis at the mouth of Maria's river. "But Capt. Clark had his own exploration to make. This was the ex- ploration of the Yellowstone river. He ascended the Gallatin, passed Boze- nian, and on making the Bozeman pass, July 15, he soon struck the Yellow- stone at the present site of Livingston, Mont. In all this exploration the Indian woman Sacajawea, who knew the country well, was of the greatest possible assistance, and Capt. Clark praises her highly. He continued down the Yellowstone on horseback till he found cottonwood timber large trough for boats, built a couple and navigated the whole river down to its junction with the Missouri on August 3; but he did not, as some have thought, see anything of the Yellowstone above Livingston, nor was he or any member of his expedition ever in Yellowstone Park; though John Colter, one of the men, did enter the park and discover Yellowstone lake in 1807. "The two great captains had planned to meet at the mouth of the Yellowstone, and so well had they arranged matters that they got there nearly at the same time. Clark was a little ahead, however, and he kept on slowly a little distance, knowing that Lewis could not be far behind. And. in fact, the latter was soon on hand, but in a sad plight. He had been shot by accident by one of his men with whom he was hunting, who had mistaken him for an elk. The wound, which was through the hips, was severe and painful, though not dangerous. "The expedition was happily reunited on the Missouri, a little above the mouth of the Little Missouri. August 12, and proceeded on to the Mandans. They found that their fort of the first winter had been destroyed by fire. Here John Colter was discharged at his own request, and the interpreter. Chaboneau, and his wife were also discharged. An Indian chief named Shahaka and some other persons were taken aboard, to be carried to the si at of government to visit their great father, and the expedition continued to descend the Missouri. "One little known date which interests us in the present connection is September 4, on which day the expedition returned to Sioux City. The journal notes that Floyd's grave was examined on that day. It was found dis- turbed, as they thought, by Indians, but perhaps it was by wolves. They filled it up again and passed on. "No special incident marks the rest of the journey home. The hardy explorers swept rapidly down the swelling current of our mightiest river, and reached St. Louis in safety about noon of the 23d of September, 1806. "Thus was brought to a happy conclusion the most memorable expe- dition in the history of our country — one accomplished at the utterly insig- nificant expense of about $2,500, which Congress had appropriated for the purpose, and with the loss of but a single life — that of him whom we honor today." PROF. BUTLER ON FLOYD. President Charles next introduced Prof. Butler, the aged scholar, who displayed the original journal of Sergeant Floyd, discovered by Mr. R. G. Thwaites, among the manuscripts of the State Historical Society, at Madi- £ H 1 9 Q /? A 4 50 REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. son, Wis. Prof. Butler's subject was "Sergeant Charles Floyd," and a synop- sis of his remarks is as follows: "What do we know about Sergeant Floyd? We know little, but we know enough to make us lament that we know no more— enough to believe him worthy of a lasting memorial — the best memorial that we can secure. "He enlisted in Kentucky among the choice and goodly young men picked out there by Capt. Clark for exploring the vast and unknown West. He was selected by the captain of that corps of explorers as the fittest man tor his second in command. These Kentuckians, joining a party under Capt. Lewis, started from near St. Louis May 14, 1804, on a transcontinental ex- pedition which no white man had ever accomplished, and which it is not likely that any Indian had ever undertaken. Floyd was from the first a sergeant among these adventurers, and on the 99th day after starting up the Missouri he was brought ashore near the foot of his bluff, having been prostrated the day previous with mortal sickness, and he died there on that same day, Monday, August 20, 1804, just ninety-one years ago. "He was buried on Floyd's Bluff, a cedar post erected to mark the spot, and the branch which empties into the Missouri just above was named in his honor Floyd's river. He was the first soldier, and probably the first citizen, of the United States who died in the Louisiana purchase. His toma- hawk, stolen on the Pacific slope, was sought out with gi-eat pains and ran- somed with a great price for carrying home as a memento to his friends in Kentucky. We have other proofs in what high estimation he was held by his officers and his men. The Washington records of the war office fur- nish a touching testimonial in his favor from Capt. Lewis. When Con- gress was about to give a land and money bounty to the survivors of the expedition, that officer urged granting to the heirs of Charles Floyd as many acres and dollars as fell to either of the sergeants who had served all the way to the western ocean and back. "Sergeant Floyd, amid infinite difficulties, kept a journal day by day of the toilsome advance up stream — a chronicle unbroken till within two days or" his death. We know much about that journal. We find Capt. Lewis describing it as "one of the best of the seven which had been kept by his men," and transmitting it to St. Louis in the barge which, on April 7, 1805, he dispatched down the Missouri from the Mandan villages. This manu- script was buried, as it were, in a Kentucky grave, but at length resurrected by Lyman C. Draper, a man beyond all men sagacious of such quarries from afar. When this heart's core of Floyd's life had been exhumed and borne safely to Wisconsin, it lay hidden for a generation in Draper's fire-proof at Madison. Floyd's narrative would never have been recognized but for its self-evidencing testimony — bearing witness to itself — that this unique relic, so long lost, so wide wandering, so ready to perish and so long sleep- ing soundly in its own sheets, accidentally caught the eye of Reuben Gold Thwaites, secret" .y of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, on the 3d of February. 1 d93. This discovery was made known to the American Anti- quarian S( ,.iety in Worcester, Mass., the mother and model of all similar institution ) in America. A request was made by that Association to James D. Butler, one of their members, that he would deliver an address on the new-found treasure trove at their next Boston meeting. On hearing the ad- REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. 51 dress the Antiquarian Society voted to print every word of the Floyd journal verbatim, literatim et punctuatim. "Brackenridge, journeying on a vessel of the American Fur Company in 1811, speaks of the cedar post. In 1832 George Catlin was a passenger on the first steamer which ever ascended the great river as far as the Yellow- stone, and he came down the same season in a canoe with two half-breed oarsmen; he landed at the bluff, found the cedar intact, sat on the mound, plucked flowers there, wrote a page in description of the same, and from sketches then drawn painted a picture which was exhibited in London and Paris, as well as in our Atlantic States. In 1839 Nicollet, making the first accurate map of the Missouri, under orders from the secretary of war, found the monumental cedar fallen down, but, although a cyclone was im- pending, would not let the steamer scud for shelter till his men had set it upright. In 1857 the mighty river broke the banks that bind her in and tore in pieces this fettering bluff. When the dwellers near came hither they found that undermining water had caused a landslide, so that one end of the Floyd coffin projected from a sheer precipice, and a man lowered by a rope reported the skull to have fallen out. It was immediately discovered below, and, with the other bones, reinterred at a safe distance from the verge. "You all know the rest, how all dwellers in this region who knew the story of Floyd have felt that in neglecting to honor Floyd they were themselves dishonored. •"You know how the sacred spot of interment through the trampling of horses and cattle had become indistinguishable, and how discordant on that matter were the opinions even of those who had assisted at the reburial. You remember last Decoration Day. what a gathering on the bluff, what a testing the earth with trowels, the discovery of the hallowed ground by its color and shape, the disinterment, and the organization on June 6 of this Floyd Memorial Association. "It is a great joy to me that I am permitted on this anniversary to show you here the autograph, yes, the autograph journal of Floyd, not a line erased, not a word obscured, a writing that in some particulars serves to cor- rect, complete or illustrate the official reports of Lewis and Clark, a work that will yet be reproduced in photographic fac similes by Iowa and per- haps Missouri as unsurpassed in antiquity by any of their literary remains or written chronicles. Nor can I without emotion bring again to the bones of its author this manuscript, so often ready to perish, or to lurk unknown forever, but which, after well-nigh a century of wandering, comes home to do him homage. Such a reunion moves our wonder like that vision of the prophet in the valley of dry bones when there was a shaking and the bones came together, each to his fellow, bone to his bone. O, that Floyd, when ready to perish here ninety years ago, could have forseen this day, this con- course, his remains so cared for. and this book which I now bring to its author coming back from adventures stranger than fiction! The vision would have sweetened even the bitterness of death. "What is the aim of our Association? ' We propose to erect such a memorial over the bones we now deposit in God's acre that henceforth there shall be no uncertainty where they lie. A memorial slab already provided we today place over the dust we delight to REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. honor. Its marble will naturally last longer than the cedar post, and can defy the pocket-knives of relic-hunting vandals. But it is nothing to what we expect. We view it as the first stone in a structure worthy of the hero who here fell, and of his endeavors stretching to Pacific shores. "In a small Vermont mountain town the best monument in the grave- yard commemorates a minister who died there very poor. Its history as told me was this: For a long time after the minister's death he had no grave- stone, but one morning a large lump of slate was observed on his grave and found to have been rolled there by a half-witted laughing-stock of the vil- lage, who had rudely inscribed it with these lines: 'This simple stone may mark the spot Where our dear pastor lies, Till a better one shall take its place, Or till the dead shall rise.' "The fool roused the wise to their duty. Our hopes are sanguine that this history will be seen to repeat itself in regard to the Floyd memorial. "Floyd who was in the forefront of our crusaders who first bore a line of light into and through the thick darkness that had hitherto brooded over all the trans-Mississippi. It was not the will of God that he should be frost- bitten during the winter among the Mandans, nor share in the frequent famines with no food but the flesh of dogs, horses and whales, and not much of that, nor was he, like his survivors, worn out in the month long portage at the Great Falls, nor did his eyes fail through vainly watching for a sail to succor amid want of all things on the Pacific. "But he was ready and eager for all this, and even more. He is proved to have been so not only by his being preferred to many good men for an arduous position, and by his disappointing no expectation, and by his loss being so greatly lamented, but by the touching testimonial to his character from his commander, a captain as sternly just as Cato the Censor, or the first Brutus. Therefore, the willing mind that was in him — let it be ac- cepted for the deeds he would have done had not his Maker been pleased to cut him down in the midst of his days. I see Floyd's shadowy ghost among us today, rejoicing to join in our gathering for doing him honor. With reason does he claim a memorial in the goodly land he laid down his life in spying out for us. The Eschol cluster he plucked for us there I bring you today in his journal, a bunch of grapes that shall never decay or wither. "Our memorial will have a national significance. In commemorating Floyd we do our best to honor the discovery of that trans-Mississippi Amer- ica which, world famous for the wonders and wealth of nature, is fast filling with millions of men, and may yet control and shape the destinies of the whole. "Exploring the trans-Mississippi was in Jefferson's thoughts before the Revolutionary war ended. Despairing of penetrating the Spanish cordon from the east he sent Ledyard to Russia, hoping to enter the terra incognita by way of Bering straits. No half-faced fellowship in the great West could content him. He held that the valley of the Mississippi must remain value- less to us all till we became masters of its mouth. There is one spot on the glebe, said he, where the people must be our natural and necessary enemies, and that is the kingdom which holds the entrance of the Mississippi, our REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. 53 front door, our only gateway from the West to the commerce of the world. For that gateway he was ready to fight not only England that he hated and Spain to which he was indifferent, but France which he loved. "Spain, viewing the trans-Mississippi as a greater Mexico, would have made a fearful fight against us in order to retain it. Her infatuated sover- eign gave it away to Napoleon. That emperor, needing money more than a wilderness he could not defend against England, sold it to us. As soon as Jefferson indulged any hope of securing such an inestimable jewel he began preparations to prove its value. The purchase, completed April 30, 1S03, was not known to him before the 2d of July, and three days after- ward his private secretary, Capt. Lewis, started from Washington, adven- turing to the shore washed by the fartherest sea — an exploration which, as Humboldt once said, revealed to the world a vaster and more valuable region than any other party of explorers had ever brought to light. In 1890 more than 14,000,000 already inhabitated that wilderness, to whom and their children, the Floyd monument here will be a focus of historic interest. ""The expedition in which Floyd was a martyr drew a line of light along the Missouri nearly to its fountainhead. It doubled the strength of our claim to the Pacific slope for a thousand miles further west. In subsequent negotiations we claimed Oregon and Washington because we were the first to discover the mouth of the Columbia. But the British had a counterclaim, for they had first ascended that river above tidewater. This claim would have had weight and might have cost us a war had not the comrades of Floyd been foremost in descending the Columbia to the ocean. "In honor, then, of our first soldier who died on the Missouri, one who so did his duty for a hundred days that we know he would have done it well for a thousand, as moved by shame that you have ignored and neglected his grave so long, as glorying in the earliest grave of trans-Mississippi America, that of one of our foremost pathbreakers hitherward, build ye for Floyd a worthy monument, an ornament to your city, seen afar on land. 'The path of duty is the way to glory.' " At the conclusion of this address resolutions complimentary to both speakers were passed, and the audience dispersed. On motion the Association adjourned for one year or at the call of the President, the Board of Trustees, to meet in the Court House at 2 p. m. on August 24, to perfect its organization by the election of permanent officers, and transact other business. On the following day, August 21, the Sioux City Journal, in publishing the full report of the foregoing exercises, presented an editorial leader, which we transcribe for its intrinsic interest, and to complete the record of the occasion. It is as follows: SERGEANT CHARLES FLOYD: "The reburial of the remains of Sergeant Charles Floyd, a member of the Lewis and Clark expedition of ninety-one years ago, conducted under the auspices of the Floyd Memorial Association of Sioux City, yesterday, was a historical event of great interest. The presence of Dr. Coues. of Washington, D. C, and Dr. Butler, of Madison, Wis., added vastly to the public interest. 54 REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. "The Louisiana purchase, under the Jefferson administration, stands as the most important acquisition of territory ever made by the government of the United States. Indeed, it may be suggested that but for this fortu- nate outcome with France the young republic would not have long sur- vived. It was the fear of England that induced Bonaparte to hastily con- clude the treaty by which this vast territory, exceeding in extent the territory wrested from the British by the revolution, became annexed to the domain of the United States. "Mr. Livingston, who represented this government, joined by Mr. Mon- roe, had no authority to negotiate for the territory included in the purchase. Communication with Washington would require at least three months, and the European complications were such that immediate action must be had. Understanding President Jefferson's views, and having confidence in his approval, the treaty was negotiated. The purpose Mr. Jefferson had was to secure the free use of the Mississippi river, particularly at New Orleans; but such was the attitude of England that Bonaparte felt that in order to keep the Louisiana territory out of the hands of the British it was the part of wisdom to dispose of it to the United States. "The purchase was made for $15,000,000. The population of the United States at that time numbered about 6,000,000, and the pledge of $15,000,000 was probably equal to a pledge of more than $500,000,000 at the present time. "Mr. Blaine, in his 'Twenty Years of Congress,' speaking of the good fortune of the country in that matter, says: " 'England's acquisition of Louisiana would have proved in the high- est degree embarrassing, if not disastrous, to the union. At that time the forts of Spain, transferred to France, and thence to the United States, were on the east side of the Mississippi, hundreds of miles from its mouth. If England had seized Louisiana, as Bonaparte feared, the Floridas, cut off from the other colonies of Spain, would certainly have fallen into her hands by easy and prompt negotiations, as they did, a few years after, into the hands of the United States. England would thus have had her colonies planted on the three land sides of the union, while on her ocean side the formidable navy confronted the young republic. No colonial acquisition ever made by her on any continent has been so profitable to her commerce, and so strengthening to her military position, as that of Louisiana would have proved. This fact was clearly seen by Bonaparte when he hastily made the ti'eaty ceding it to the United States. That England did not at once attempt to seize it, in disregard of Bonaparte's cession, has been a source of sur- prise to many historians. The obvious reason is that she dreaded the com- plication of a war in America when she was about to assume so heavy a burden in the impending European contest. The inhabitants of the union in 1803 were six millions in number, of great energy and confidence. A large portion of them were accustomed to the sea and could send swarms of pri- vateers to prey on British commerce. Independent citizens would be even more formidable than were rebellious colonists in the earlier struggle with the mother country, and, acting in conjunction with France, could effectively maintain a contest. Considerations of this nature doubtless induced the Addington ministry to acquiesce quietly in a treaty whose origin and whose REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. 5& assured results were in every way distasteful, and even offensive, to the British government.' "This negotiation enabled the United States, in course of time, to settle territorial disputes with Spain, and enabled the government finally to ex- tend its borders to the Pacific ocean. It is impossible to measure the im- portance of the Louisiana purchase. The country then acquired forms to- day the States of Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, Minnesota west of the Mississippi river, Colorado north of the Arkansas, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming and Montana. "The history of this transfer, and its correlatives, forms a most inter- esting study in our national history. The negotiation preceded the intro- duction of steam navigation, and the settlement of the country west of the Mississippi was regarded as extremely remote. Indeed, Mr. Livingston as- sured the French that settlements would not be made beyond the Missis- sippi river for one hundred years. "Lewis and Clark organized their expedition in 1803, starting from St. Louis. They were absent two years and a half. Sergeant Charles Floyd, one of the party, died just below Sioux City and was buried by his compan- ions on the bluff overlooking the Missouri river on the 20th of August, 1804. The Floyd river was named in honor of the dead sergeant. The body was moved back from the edge of the bluff by citizens of Sioux City in 1857, and the grave in time was obliterated. It was discovered this summer and the remains have now been placed in a secure casket, and in yesterday's ceremonies a marble slab, suitably inscribed, was placed to mark the spot of burial. It is the purpose of the Association to care for the grave and to further improve the ground. E. P. HEISER. Sec. 14. Proceedings of the Association After August 2 J, 1895. (Abstract of Minutes.) Court House, Sioux City, August 24, 1895. The Board of Trustees of the Floyd Memorial Association met at 2 p. m., pursuant to adjournment of August 20. Present: President John H. Charles, in the chair; Secretary C. R. Marks, Treasurer D. A. Magee, Judge Geo. W. Wakefield, Mitchell Vincent, Esq., of the Board; also, Dr. Elliott Coues, Hon. Geo. D. Perins, R. Buchanan, Jr., Arthur F. Statter, R. J. Chase, C. A. L. Olson, and Wm. Huddleson. The minutes of several previous minutes were read and approved. The election of permanent officers being in order, and the necessary motions having been carried, the following persons were unanimously elected: President — John H. Charles, Sioux City, la. Vice-Presidents — 1. Judge Geo. W. Wakefield, Sioux City, la. 2. Prof. J. D. Butler, Madison, Wis. 3. Dr. Elliott Coues, Washington, D. C. 4. Horace G. Burt, Omaha, Neb. 5. Mitchell Vincent, Esq., Onawa, la. 6. Hon. Geo. D. Perkins, Sioux City, la. 7. Dr. S. P. Yeomans, Charles City, la. 8. Hon. Charles Aldrich, Des Moines, la. 9. Rev. T. M. Shanafelt, Huron, S. D. 56 REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. 10. W. P. Garrison, Esq., New York, N. Y. 11. Col. Wm. Hancock Clark, Detroit, Mich. 12. George Murphy, Esq., Sioux City, la. 13. Vacancy. 14. Vacancy. 15. Vacancy. Secretary — Hon. C. R. Marks, Sioux City, la. Treasurer — D. A. Magee, Esq., Sioux City, la. President Charles was desired to nominate three persons to fill the vacancies in the list of Vice-Presidents. The chair requested and was al- lowed time to consider the case. (The appointments subsequently made were: 13. Col. Meriwether Lewis Clark, Louisville, Ky. 14. Maj. John O'Fallon Clark, St. Louis, Mo. 15. Jefferson Kearney Clark, Esq., St. Louis, Mo.) A letter was read from Col. Wm. Hancock Clark, of Detroit, Mich., eld- est grandson of the celebrated explorer, William Clark, regretting that, owing to misdirection, the invitation to the ceremonies of August 20 did not reach him in time for him to attend, and expressing his trust that the Association would "bring forth good fruit in so noble a cause." It was voted that a set of the photographs taken of the memorial cere- monies of August 20 be presented to Dr. Coues, Prof. Butler and Dr. Yeo- mans. It was suggested to publish in book form the obsequies of August 20, together with such other historical and official matters as should show the origin, organization and proceedings of the Association, as a report for use in promoting the final objects in view — the erection of a Floyd monument, and the establishment in perpetuity of a Floyd park. The suggestion took the form of a motion that the chair appoint a Publication Committee for this purpose. This motion being carried unanimously, President Charles appointed thereupon the following committee: Hon. Geo. D. Perkins, chair- man; Dr. Elliott Coues, Mitchell Vincent, Esq., Judge Geo. W. Wakefield, and Secretary C. R. Marks. On further consideration of the subject, Dr. Coues was requested to prepare the report for the press, in consultation with Chairman Perkins. The By-Laws for the government of the Association, having been drafted, were read, and on motion unanimously adopted, as follows: BY-LAWS OF THE ASSOCIATION. Section 1. The Board of Trustees shall meet annually on the Saturday following its election at 2 o'clock p. m., and shall also hold regular meetings on the last Saturday of January, April, July and October at 2 o'clock p. m. Special meetings may be called at any time by the President, or in his ab- sence from Sioux City by a Vice-President, notice of such special meeting to be given each Trustee personally or by written or printed notice mailed to each Trustee at least twenty-four hours before the time of such special meeting. A majority of the Trustees shall constitute a quorum. Section 2. Special meetings of the members may be called by the Board of Trustees, notice of such special meeting to be given by one publication in a newspaper published in Sioux City on the day prior to such meeting. REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. 57 Section 3. In addition to the officers provided for by the Articles of In- corporation there shall be appointed by the President annually the following standing committees of five members each: On finance, on grounds, on leg- islation. Section 4. These By-Laws may be added to, altered, modified or amended at any meeting of the Board of Trustees, provided that a majority of the Trustees vote in favor thereof. The appointment of standing committees by the chair being in order, President Charles said that he desired time to consider this important mat- ter, and would therefore defer the appointments for a few days, when he would communicate them by letter to Secretary Marks. There being no further business, the Board adjourned sine die. The following standing committees were appointed by President Charles, per letter to Secretary Marks, dated Sioux City, September 11, 1895: Committee on Finance— 1. E. W. Skinner, Chairman, Sioux City. 2. James F. Toy, Sioux City. 3. Wm. H. Beck, Sioux City. 4. A. M. Jackson, Sioux City. 5. T. A. Black, Sioux City. 6. Geo. M. Pardoe, Sioux City. 7. Robert Buchanan, Jr., Sioux City. Committee on Legislation— 1. Geo. W. Wakefield, Chairman, Sioux City. 2. Geo. D. Perkins, Sioux City. 3. J. S. Lothrop, Sioux City. 4. C. H. Lewis, Sioux City. 5. Charles Aldrich, Des Moines. Committee on Grounds — 1. C. R. Marks, Chairman, Sioux City. 2. John P. Allison, Sioux City. 3. George Murphy, Sioux City. 4. Mitchell Vincent, Onawa. 5. A. M. Holman. Sergeant luffs. (Abstract of Minutes.*) Court House, Sioux City, December 28, 1895. The Board of Trustees of the Floyd Memorial Association met at 3 p. m., pursuant to call of the President. Present: John H. Charles, in the chair; Geo. D. Perkins, Geo. W. Wakefield, Mitchell Vincent, Whitfield Stinson, E. W. Skinner, Robert Buchanan, Jr., and Secretary C. R. Marks. The chair stated that the meeting had been called to consider the reports of the Publication Committee, and of the Committee on Grounds, and to transact other business. Hon. Geo. D. Perkius, chairman of tin' Publication Committee, made a report of progress in the preparation of the proposed report. He had con- ferred with Dr. Coues, in Washington, D. C, who had informed him that the report was practically completed, and would be transmitted to the committee in a few days. Hon. C. R. Marks, chairman of the Committee on Grounds, reported that nothing had been done toward purchasing the ground for the desired park, and he had no figures to submit from the owners of the property. Mr. n sub;tan;e as reported in the Sioux City Journal of December 29, 1895. 58 REPORT OF THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION. Marks and Judge Wakefield were requested to call upon the Credits Com- mutation Company, to ascertain definitely upon what terms the land could be purchased. Three propositions were to be made: (1) Asking a donation of a small piece of ground about the grave. (2) Offering to buy 2iy 2 acres at a certain price. (3) Offering to buy the 2iy 2 acres, conditional upon a rebate by the owners upon the making of certain improvements by the Asso- ciation. An interesting letter, addressed to Dr. Coues by Reuben T. Durrett, LL. D., of Louisville, Ky., President of the Filson Club, and transmitted to Judge Wakefield for any use he might wish to make of the information it contained, was read to the Board. It related to the parentage and early life of Sergeant Floyd, as presented in the opening pages of the present re- port. Other letters were also read; and there being no further business, the Board adjourned. SECOND REPORT OF THE Floyd Memorial Association. iA <A 4* 4\ COMMITTEE: GEO. D. PERKINS, JNO. C. KELLY, E. W. CALDWELL, MRS. FRANCIS N. DAVIS, GEO. W. WAKEFIELD. r / IN MEMORIAM Sergeant Charles Floyd SECOND REPORT OF THE Flovd Memorial Association PREPARED BY THE Committee on Publication SIOUX CITY: PERKINS BROS. <>^~.? g Sfe t ' CO.. PRINTERS 1901 -1 i • J6313 .,, LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. Sioux City, Iowa, Sept., 1901. John H. Charles, President Floyd Memorial Association, Sioux City, Iowa. Sir: We take pleasure in transmitting herewith the second report of the Floyd Memorial Association, prepared for publication. We have set forth in this report a brief abstract of the first, and then proceeded with a full account of the subse- quent work of the Association, the ceremonial of laving the corner stone, and the dedication of the completed structure. We congratulate you upon the success which has attended the hopes and labors of the Association, a success which has only been made possible through your earnest leadership. Respectfully submitted, Geo. D. Perkins, John C. Kelly, E. W. Caldwell, Mrs. Francis N. Davis, Geo. W. Wakefield, Committee on Publication. CONTENTS. Pages. PART I .—Abstract of First Report 7- 8 I. Charles Floyd ; 7 II. Reburial in 1857 8 III. Floyd Memorial Association 8 PART II. — Proceedings and Laying of Corner Stone 11- 40 IV. Proceedings Before Aug. 20, 1900 11-20 V. Appropriation by Congress 20- 22 VI. Iowa Legislature 22- 24 VII. Floyd Park and Title 24-30 VIII. Plans for Monument 30-36 IX. Laying the Foundation 36-38 X. Laying the Corner Stone ... 38- 46 PART III. — Proceedings and Dedication of Monument 47-1 <»."> XL Proceedings Prior to May 30. 1901 47-59 XII. Dedication of Monument 59- 93 XIII . Proceedings After May 31, 1901 94-100 XIV. Floyd-Further Data 100-104 XV. Honorable Mention 104-105 ILLUSTRATIONS. .John H. Charles Frontispiece Captain H. M. Chittenden Facing page 30 Floyd Monument Facing page 48 Captain Meriwether Lewis Facing page 70 Captain William Clark Facing page 82 IN MEMORIAM SERGEANT CHARLES FLOYD. SECOND REPORT OF THE Floyd Memorial ASSOCIATION. PART I ABSTRACT OF FIRST REPORT. CHARLES FLOYD. The Floyds were early pioneers in Kentucky, and no doubt Charles Floyd was born about 1780-85 in present Jefferson County. Captain Lewis reported that his father lived in Kentucky. Lewis and Clark enlisted nine young men from Kentucky, one of whom was Charles Floyd, and who was appointed a sergeant in the command that was to explore the Louisiana Purchase. The expedition left Wood River, 111., at 4 p. m., Monday. May 14. 1804. Floyd kept a journal from this time until two days before his death, which has been preserved and published. He died a few miles below the site of Sioux City August 20, 1804, from "bilious colic," and was buried on the first high bluff reached after his death, and the place marked by a cedar post. He did his duty faithfully and ably. His grave was visited by all the early navigators and explorers, and this bluff, his grave and the cedar post, became a noted landmark. He was the only man who lost his life in the enterprise. 8 Report of Floyd Memorial Association II. REBURIAL IN 1857. The grave of Charles Floyd was on a bluff situated in Lot 8, Section 1, Township 88, Range 48, in Woodbury County, Iowa. After the settle- ment at Sioux City, in the spring of 1857, it was found that the erosion of the Missouri was about to carry away the grave and remains. A committee of citizens secured a portion of the latter for reinterment. On May 28, 1857, the remains so recovered were reburied with appro- priate patriotic and religious ceremonies on the same bluff, some 600 feet east of the site of the first grave. It was proposed to erect a suit- able monument, and although generally favored, the times were not propitious and the proposal rested. III. ASSOCIATION OF 1895. In the spring of 1895 some of the older settlers, searching for the place of reburial, found that the external means of identification had been obliterated by the frequent feet that follow civilization. On Memorial Day a party of citizens, following directions of Mr. George Murphy, and pursuing tests of surface earth suggested by Mr. C. R. Marks, discovered the grave of reburial. On June 6, 1895, the grave so discovered was opened in presence of nineteen persons, and it was found to contain the remains deposited in 1857. The persons present then effected the preliminary organization of the Floyd Memorial Association, and took charge of the grave and contents. The immediate purpose of the Association was to place a memorial stone over the grave until a suitable monument could be erected. This purpose was promptly carried out, and on August 20, 1895, in the presence of many witnesses, the remains placed in urns were deposited in the grave and a large stone slab duly inscribed laid flat upon the ground above them. A number of appropriate addresses were delivered. In the evening of that day articles of incorporation were duly adopted, stating the object of the Association to be "to com- memorate the death and burial of Sergeant Charles Floyd and the Lewis and Clark Expedition, of which Sergeant Floyd was a member, and for that purpose to acquire and hold necessary real estate and other property, to erect a monument and establish and maintain a public park." The corporation so formed embraced in its member- ship those signing and all who had or should thereafter contribute to its support. The organization was perfected, and the first report, in- cluding the proceedings in 1895, was prepared by Dr. Elliott Coues, of Washington, D. C. This report was published and largely distributed in 1897 to awaken interest in the objects of the Association. PART II. PROCEEDINGS AND LAYING CORNER STONE. PART II. PROCEEDINGS AND LAYING CORNER STONE. IV. PROCEEDINGS BEFORE AUGUST 20, 1900 Abstract of Minutes. Sioux City. Iowa, January 25, 1896. The Board of Trustees of the Floyd Memorial Association met; John H. Charles in the chair, and M. Vincent. D. A. Magee, E. W. Skinner, A. M. Holman, G. J. Ross, R. Buchanan and C. R. Marks, Secretary, present. The Committee on Grounds reported that the ground on which Sergeant Floyd's grave is located belongs to the Credits Commutation Company and is incumbered by mortgage with other property; that the Company would donate one acre, including the site of the grave, and would sell about fifty acres at $100 per acre, and would donate any sum up to $50 per acre that the Association would expend in improving such grounds as a park. The Trustees voted to make the Company an offer of $500 for such ground and to expend $1,000 in improvements within two years. The plaster cast of Sergeant Floyd's skull, made by Dr. G. J. Ross, was exhibited, and it was voted to have two more casts made, one to be presented to Dr. Elliott Coues and the other to the State Historical Association. Sioux City. Iowa, January 30, 1897. Board met; John H. Charles in the chair; C. R. Marks, Secretary; Geo. W. Wakefield, M. Vincent, W. Stinson and R. Buchanan present. Sioux City, Iowa, August 20, 1897. Annual meeting of the members of the Association; John H. Charles presiding; C. R. Marks. Secretary; J. A. Magoun, Jr.: C. A. L. Olson, A. M. Holman, M. Vincent, Maris Peirce. Geo. D. Perkins, R. Buchanan and Eri Richardson present. The following named persons were elected Trustees for the ensuing year, viz: John H. Charles, Geo. D. Perkins. Geo. W. Wakefield. Maris Peirce. C. R. Marks, Mitchell Vincent and A. M. Holman. The annual meeting adjourned and the new Board met at once and organized. The Committee on Grounds reported that the Credits Commutation Company, representing the owner, gave permission to the Association 12 Report of Floyd Memorial Association to fence one acre, including site of Floyd's grave, and to plant same to trees. It was thereupon voted to fence the same and set trees thereon. It was also voted to publish an edition of 1,000 copies of the report of the Floyd Memorial Association, prepared by Dr. Elliott Coues, in memoriam Sergeant Charles Floyd. The following officers and standing committees were named for the ensuing year, viz: John H. Charles, President; C. R. Marks, Secretary; D. A. Magee, Treasurer; Geo. W. Wakefield, First Vice President; and other Vice Presidents, Dr. Elliott Coues, Prof. James Davie Butler, H. G. Burt, M. Vincent, Dr. S. P. Yeomans. Charles Aldrich, T. M. Shanafelt, W. P. Garrison, Wm. Hancock Clark, Jefferson Kearney Clark, M. Lewis Clark, John O'Fallon Clark, R. C. A. Flournoy and L. Bates. Committee on Legislation— Geo. W. Wakefield, Geo. D. Perkins, J. S. Lothrop, C. H. Lewis and Charles Aldrich. Committee on Finance — Maris Peirce, James F. Toy, W. H.->Beck, R. C. A. Flournoy and G. M. Pardoe. Committee on Grounds C. R. Marks, Jno. P. Allison, M. Vincent, A. M. Holman and Geo. D. Perkins. Sioux City, Iowa, January 29, 1898. The Board met; John H. Charles in the chair; C. R. Marks, Secre- tary; Maris Peirce, M. Vincent, E. R. Kirk, A. F. Statter, A. Groninger, G. M. Pardoe, D. A. Magee, O. C. Tredway, C. A. Benton and Mrs. Francis N. Davis present. The committee reported the publication in pamphlet of the me- morial report prepared by Dr. Elliott Coues at a cost of $75, which had been kindly advanced by the President, John H. Charles. It was voted that John H. Charles, M. Vincent, F. C. Hills and Maris Peirce procure plans for a monument and report estimated cost at a future meeting. The Committee on Legislation was directed to take steps to secure an appropriation from Congress and the State Legislature for building a monument over Floyd's grave. Sioux City, Iowa, August 20, 1898. Annual meeting of the members; John H. Charles in the chair; Geo. W. Wakefield, Acting Secretary; D. A. Magee. G. M. Pardoe, Mrs. Francis N. Davis, Miss Bertha Wakefield, C. A. L. Olson, J. Amerland, Dr. Grant J. Ross. J. A. Magoun, Jr.. W. C. Davenport, M. B. Davis. J. D. Hoskins, A. F. Statter, Geo. D. Perkins and Mitchell Vincent present. The following persons were elected Trustees for the ensuing year, viz: John H. Charles, Geo. W. Wakefield, Mitchell Vincent. A. M. Hol- man, Mrs. Francis N. Davis, M. B. Davis and D. A. Magee. The special Committee on Grounds and Plans reported that the ground was fenced and trees planted, and that a monument upon a plan presented would cost from $6,000 to $10,000, varying with the material that might be used, and the report was referred to the new Board of Trustees. Abstract of Minutes 13 Upon adjournment of annual meeting the new Board met and or- ganized. Mrs. Francis N. Davis was elected Secretary, and the other officers and members of standing committees were re-elected for the ensuing year. Sioux City, Iowa, January 28, 1899. The Trustees met in the rooms of the Scientific Association; John H. Charles in the chair; Mrs. Francis N. Davis, Secretary; D. A. Magee, Geo. M. Pardoe, Geo. W. Wakefield, C. R. Marks, Mitchell Vincent and A. M. Holman present. The Committee on Legislation reported a bill had been introduced in Congress for an appropriation of $10,000 to aid in the erection of a monument over Floyd's grave and Hon. Geo. D. Perkins was making every effort to secure its passage. The Committee on Grounds reported a proposition from the Sioux City Stock Yards Company to sell 22% acres surrounding Floyd's grave for $1,000, and the Company would give the Association $100 for every $10,000 expended by the Association within ten years. It was on mo- tion voted that the President, John H. Charles, be authorized to accept the proposition. D. A. Magee, C. R. Marks and G. M. Pardoe were appointed to re- quest an appropriation of $500 from the City Council and also from the Board of Supervisors for the purchase of grounds. Dr. Elliott Coues, M. Vincent, Geo. W. Wakefield, A. M. Holman and Mrs. Francis N. Davis were appointed Committee on Monument. Sioux City, Iowa, March 25, 1899. The Board met in special session; President John H. Charles in the chair; Mrs. Davis, Messrs. Pardoe, Peirce, Vincent, Davis, Holman, Wakefield and Statter present. The Committee on Grounds reported that the Sioux City Stock Yards Company had agreed to furnish deed with an accurate survey and description of land by metes and bounds. Mr. Charles reported a gift of $100 from Mr. P. B. Weare, of Chi- cago, toward the fund. The following resolution was adopted: Resolved, That the thanks of the Floyd Memorial Association be hereby extended to the Hon. Geo. D. Perkins for his efficient services in procuring an appropriation from Congress to aid in the erection of a monument to the memory of Sergeant Charles Floyd. Sioux City, Iowa, April 30. 1899. Board met; Geo. W. Wakefield in the chair; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; Messrs. Magee, Davis, Perkins, Marks and Statter present; also Captain Sanford and Mr. Wood, of the government service. Captain Sanford read a communication from the Chief of the Corps of U. S. Engineers, directing him to confer with the Association in the matter of the monument, and presented two plans of different sized obelisks, one to cost $7,000 and the other $13,000— whether the govern- ment would require a deed of the site. Mr. Charles being absent, adjourned to May 5. 14- Report of Floyd Memorial Association Sioux City, Iowa, May 5, 1899. Board met; John H. Charles in the chair; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; Mrs. Charles, Miss Wakefield. Messrs. Perkins, Marks and Wakefield present. Upon motion of C. R. Marks it was unanimously voted that one acre of ground, including the remains of Sergeant Floyd and the monu- ment thereon, be deeded to the United States Government. Committees reported that deed for the land had been delivered to Mr. F. L. Eaton for execution, and that the Board of Supervisors had refused to make donation toward the monument. Portus B. Weare, of Chicago, was chosen Vice President, vice M. Lewis Clark, deceased; and Frank H. Peavey was elected Honorary Vice President. The plans were discussed. Sioux City, Iowa, July 29, 1899. The Board met in special session; John H. Charles in the chair; Mrs. Davis. Secretary; Mrs. Charles, Messrs. Perkins, Davis, Amerland, Peirce. Cody, Magee, Wakefield, Belden and Davenport present. The object of the meeting was to secure money to pay for the land purchased. Mr. Charles proposed in case $500 should be raised by August 19 he would guarantee the remaining $500 would be forthcoming. The proposition was accepted, and Messrs. Davis, Amerland, Wake- field and Davenport were added to the committee to present matter to City Council and Board of Supervisors. Monumental designs by the American Sculptors' Association were considered. It was voted that the purchase of the land be made first and the improvements be decided upon later. Sioux City, Iowa, August 21, 1899. The annual meeting of members was held at the Court House; John H. Charles in the chair; Mrs. Charles, Mrs. Greenwood, Messrs. Peirce, F. C. Hills. Statter, Pardoe, A. M. Holman. Amerland. Perkins. Marks, Magee, Davis and Vincent present. The following named persons were duly elected Trustees for the ensuing year, viz.: John H. Charles, Geo. D. Perkins, C. R. Marks, Mitchell Vincent, M. B. Davis, A. M. Holman and D. A. Magee. The plans prepared under direction of Captain J. C. Sanford were presented by Mr. Bathurst Smith, Assistant U. S. Engineer. The following resolution, presented by C. R. Marks, on motion of Maris Peirce, was adopted: Resolved, By the members of the Floyd Memorial Association, in annual meeting assembled, That the action of the Board of Trustees in negotiating for the purchase of so much of Lot 8, in Section 1, Township 88 north. Range 48 west, of the 5th principal meridian, as lies west of the Sergeant Bluffs and Sioux City Road and east of a line drawn parallel to and one hundred feet distant from the east line Abstract o( Minutes 15 of the right of way of the Sioux City and Pacific Railroad, for the sum of $1,000. be and the same is hereby approved, and payment be made out of any money of the Association; that the proposition made by said Trustees to convey one acre of said tract so contracted for, including the site of the grave of Sergeant Charles Floyd, to the United States on which to expend the appropriation byCongress of $5,000, be and the same is hereby approved; and the Board of Trustees is hereby directed to sur- vey and cause to be conveyed to the United States one acre of ground accordingly for said purpose, and substantially as heretofore laid out and fenced oy the Association; that the proposition made by said Board to the City of Sioux City, to convey the remainder of said tract to the said City for a public park, in consideration of the sum of $500 to be paid therefor by the said City, which has been accepted by the said City, be and the same is hereby approved and confirmed, and the Board of Trustees is hereby directed to carry out said proposition and cause the remainder of said tract to be conveyed to the City of Sioux City for a public park accordingly; that the proposition of John H. Charles to buy Lot 11, Block 9, in Smith's Walnut Hill Villa Addition to Sioux City, for the sum of $250 be and the same is hereby accepted and ap- proved, and the Board of Trustees is hereby directed to make sale of said lot and cause deed thereof to be made accordingly; that the Asso- ciation co-operate with the United States in the erection of the monu- ment at the grave of Sergeant Charles Floyd and with the City of Sioux City in improving the said park. President Charles expressed his desire to have the foundation of the monument laid this year; the shaft seventy-five feet in height, of Sioux Falls quartzite, in place next year, and ready for dedication on August 20th, 1900. Mr. Perkins moved that the Association approve Mr. Charles' sug- gestion and that they will use all efforts to carry them out. Carried. The Trustees were authorized to meet for organization August 26. Sioux City, Iowa, August 26, 1899. The Trustees met at the office of C. R. Marks; John H. Charles presiding. The following officers and committees were elected and appointed for the ensuing year: John H. Charles, President: D. A. Magee, Treasurer; Mrs. Francis N. Davis, Secretary; Geo. D. Perkins, First Vice President: other Vice Presidents, Geo. W. Wakefield. Dr. Elliott Coues. Washington, D. C; Charles Aldrich, Des Moines. la.: H. G. Burt, Omaha, Neb.; Jas. Davie Butler, Madison, Wis.; H. D. Clark, New Haven, Conn.; Geo. Weare: T. C. Powers, Helena. Mont.; P. B. Weare, Chicago, 111.; Jos. N. Field. Manchester, Eng.; W. P. Garrison. New York; R. C. A. Flournoy; W. Hancock Clark, Detroit, Mich.; Leslie M. Shaw, Des Moines. la. Finance Committee — Maris Peirce, M. B. Davis, W. C. Davenport. G. M. Pardoe, D. A. Magee. Committee on Legislation— Geo. W. Wakefield, Geo. D. Perkins. Charles Aldrich. Lot Thomas. Committee on Grounds— Mitchell Vincent, C. R. Marks. A. M. Hol- man, J. M. Lewis. Milton Perry Smith. Committee on Monument — Geo. D. Perkins, Geo. W. Wakefield. Mitchell Vincent. Jno. H. Charles and M. B. Davis. 16 Report of Floyd Memorial Association Committee on Inscription — Dr. Elliott Coues, Geo. W. Wakefield and Mitchell Vincent. The following resolutions, on motion of C. R. Marks, were adopted: 1. Resolved, That the Floyd Memorial Association purchase from the Sioux City Stock Yards Company the following tract, in the City of Sioux City, County of Woodbury, to-wit: So much of Lot 8. in Sec- tion 1, Township 88 north, Range 48, west of the 5th principal meridian, as lies west of the Sioux City and Sergeant Bluffs Road and east of a line drawn parallel to and 100 feet distant from the east line of the right of way of the Sioux City and Pacific Railroad, for the sum of $1,000, taking the conveyance in the name of the Association; and that any funds now in the hands of the Association, or hereafter coming into its hands, be appropriated for that purpose, said tract to be sur- veyed and properly and sufficiently described. 2. Resolved, That this Association sell and convey to the City of Sioux City for park purposes for the consideration of $500, all the tract voted to be purchased of the Sioux City Stock Yards Company, excepting one acre reserved where is now fenced including the grave of Sergeant Charles Floyd; and that the President and Secretary are hereby authorized to make the proper and necessary conveyance of the same by proper description. 3. Resolved, That upon procuring title from the Sioux City Stock Yards Company to the whole tract of about twenty-one acres, including the grave of Sergeant Charles Floyd, that this Association convey to the United States one acre of said ground, including the grave of Ser- geant Charles Floyd, as now fenced, for the purpose of erecting a monu- ment thereon to the memory of Sergeant Floyd under the appropriation of $5,000 made by Congress; and that the same be procured to be sur- veyed by the City Engineer of Sioux City, Iowa, so as to obtain an accurate description; and that the President and Secretary are hereby authorized to execute a proper deed for that purpose. Resolved, That this Association sell and convey to Jennie T. Charles, for the consideration of $250, Lot 11, Block 9. in Smith's Wal- nut Hill Villa Addition to Sioux City, and that the President and Sec- retary be and are hereby authorized and directed to execute the proper and necessary conveyance therefor; and that the net proceeds of said sale, over and above the sum paid for taxes thereon be appropriated for the purpose of aiding in the erection of a monument at the grave of Sergeant Charles Floyd. Sioux City, Iowa, January 27, 1900. The Association met; President Charles in the chair; Mrs. Davis Secretary; Mrs. Charles, Messrs. Perkins, A. M. Holman, Pardoe, Vin- cent, Marks and Magee present. The object of the meeting was to secure an appropriation from the State of Iowa toward the erection of the monument, and communica- tion with Senator E. H. Hubbard was directed. Mr. Perkins made offer of resolutions as follows: Mr. President: Since the last meeting of this Association has occurred the death of Dr. Elliott Coues. We all remember with rare pleasure his visit to Sioux City in 1895. At that time the organization of this Association was perfected. Dr. Coues was one of its incorpo- rators and became one of its Vice Presidents. The report made up to that time, including all that is known of Floyd's antecedents, life and death, accounts of his reburial in 1857, together with a full account of Abstract of Minutes 17 the origin, organization and proceedings of this Association, up to and including the memorial exercises of August 20, 1895, was the generou work of his hand. Therefore, Mr. President, I beg to submit the following resolutions, and I move the adoption of the same and that they be ordered placed on the record: Resolved, That this Association has heard with profound regret of the death on Christmas Day, 1899, of Dr. Elliott Coues, a memii-r and an officer of this Association. Resolved, That in the death of Dr. Coues this Association has lost its most distinguished member, whose research and ripe knowledge piaced in enduring form the history of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, in which Sergeant Floyd lost his life. Resolved, That in the death of Dr. Coues the country has lost a scientist of wide and deserved power, whose contributions to scientific literature will preserve his name in the history of our time. The resolutions were unanimously carried, and President Charles directed that a copy be sent to the family of Dr. Coues. A communication from Captain H. M. Chittenden was read, giving directions as to form of title winch would be acceptable to the United States, and thereupon Mr. Marks offered the following resolution, which was unanimously carried: Resolved, That this Association tender to the United States the acre of ground owned by the Association and the right of way thereto, where Floyd's grave is situated, for the purpose of erecting a monument thereon under the appropriation of Congress, and that the President and Secretary are hereby authorized and directed to'make such written offer and to execute the necessary deeds therefor. Resolved. Tha,t the proper steps be taken to procure any necessary act of the Iowa Legislature ceding title to such land to the United States. Captain Chittenden submitted designs for monument varying in cost from $15,000 to $17,000, depending upon material selected. Sioux City, Iowa, April 7, 1900. Association met at office of United States Engineers, called by President Charles to decide upon materials and plans. Captain H. M. Chittenden presented an extended report as to materials and cost of monument. The report was referred to a special committee consisting of John H. Charles, Mitchell Vincent and Geo. D. Perkins, said committee, in connection wuh Captain Chittenden, to determine and select the style and design of monument, to select the stone to be used in construction of the same, and to award contract for said stone. A request that the City surround the grounds with a suitable fence was made to Mayor Burton. April 25. 1900, names were suggested for the State Commission of five to expend the appropriation of $5,000 by the State of Iowa. 18 Report of Flovd Memorial Association Sioux City, Iowa, May 5, 1900. The Association met; John H. Charles in the chair; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; Messrs. Marks, Perkins, C. J. Holman, Burton, Peirce and Captain Chittenden. The following resolution offered by Mr. Marks was unanimously adopted : Resolved, That Captain H. M. Chittenden be appointed as engineer to execute that portion of the work of erecting the Floyd monument which is to be done under the State appropriation of $5,000, act of April 7, 1900, and that he be authorized to make the necessary purchases of materials and services and enter into the necessary contracts for this purpose. Captain Chittenden presented programme for work upon the foundation, which with the plans were referred to the Executive Com- mittee, and after consideration that committee reported the following: That the plans for the proposed monument as presented by Captain Chittenden be accepted as far as relates to the foundation and the general design of the superstructure; that Captain Chittenden, engineer in charge of Floyd Monument, be and he is hereby authorized and directed to advertise for and make contracts and purchases for the following work, viz: Sand, broken stone or gravel and cement for concrete of foundation, and to incur such other expense as is necessary for the construction of the foundation; that he be authorized to adver- tise for proposals for the necessary stone for the erection of the monument. On motion of Mr. Marks the report was unanimously adopted by the Association. May 9, 1900, Executive Committee met and approved plan for super- structure, specifications for stone for the shaft, and letter to railroads in regard to transportation presented by Captain Chittenden. Sioux City, Iowa, May 31, 1900. Association met at office of U. S. Engineers; President Charles in the chair; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; Mrs. Charles. Messrs. Magee, Davis, Peirce, C. J. Holman, Burton, Statter, Powers, Bates, Vincent, Perkins, Marks and Captain Chittenden present. Captain Chittenden reported that on Tuesday, May 29, the founda- tion was completed, except cleaning up of debris, and the cost would approximate $1,500, and that he had received eight bids for stone, which he submitted. After discussion final decision was postponed. On motion of Mr. Marks it was voted that the remains of Sergeant Floyd be placed upon the present concrete base and inside the first course of the shaft. A letter from Hon. Lot Thomas was read, stating that "cannon captured in the Spanish War have been apportioned out among the States, subject to the disposal of the Governors thereof, and the Gov- ernment has none of them left on hand for distribution," and that the Government still has on hand a large number of heavy cast-off ordnance Abstract oi Minutes 19 which might be obtained, and if any one desired he would be pleased to serve the Association in any way possible in relation thereto. Sioux City, Iowa, June 23, 1900. Association met at office of U. S. Engineers; President Charles in the chair; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; Mrs. Charles, Messrs. C. J. Holman, Dr. J. Perrin Johnson, Marks, Burton, Davis, A. M. Holman, Wakefield. Peirce, T. J. Stone, Vincent, Magee and Captain H. M. Chittenden present. The bids for stone were presented with specimens, and the follow- ing gentlemen were heard separately in behalf of their respective com- panies: Mr. Hale, for the Kettle River Quarry; Mr. Field, for the Rut- land, Vt., Quarry: Mr. Burke, for the Fall River, S. D., Quarry, and Mr. Bowers, for the Black Hills Quarry at Custer, S. D. After a full consideration it was voted to select stone for the monu- ment at a price within the appropriations, and upon a ballot taken the Kettle River sandstone was selected by a vote of nine to four. A committee to draft suitable inscription on tablets for the monu- ment was appointed, consisting of John H. Charles, Mrs. Francis N. Davis, Mitchell Vincent. Geo. D. Perkins and Geo. W. Wakefield. Sioux City, Iowa, July 14, 1900. Association met at Scientific Association rooms; John H. Charles in the chair; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; Mrs. Charles, Miss Bertha Wake- field, Messrs. Marks, Vincent, Magee, Davis. C. J. Holman, Burton, Wakefield and Pardoe present. It was resolved that the ceremonies of laying the corner 'stone of the Floyd Monument be held if possible on August 20, 1900. and that a committee of five be appointed by the President, of which he shall be one, who shall have full power to make all arrangements for the occasion, and to fix some other date, should the exigencies of the occa- sion so require; and that it is the sense of this meeting that the exer- cises be in part of a military character, such committee to have power to appoint sub-committees. The following were named: C. R. Marks, M. B. Davis, A. H. Bur- ton, Geo. W. Wakefield and John H. Charles. Sioux City, Iowa, July 28, 1900. Association met at the rooms of Scientific Association; John H. Charles presiding; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; Messrs. Wakefield, Davis, A. M. Holman, Vincent and Burton present. Committee on Inscription was empowered, from suggested inscrip- tions, to compile and adopt the inscriptions to be placed upon bronze tablets. Report of Committee of Arrangements and Plans for reburial of remains in base of monument and box and contents to be placed in corner stone approved. 20 . Report of Floyd Memorial Association Sioux City, Iowa, August 18, 1900. Association met at office of U. S. Engineers; President Charles in the chair; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; Captain H. M. Chittenden, Messrs. Burton, Marks, Perkins, Davis and Kean present. The Committee on Arrangements reported all plans for laying the corner stone August 20 were perfected, and the report was approved. Captain Chittenden reported that he had visited quarry and in- spected the stone to be used, the quality of which perfectly satisfied him and would be shipped as needed. He suggested that the bronze tablets be placed on the east and the west faces of the monument, and that $600 be placed in bank to cover any possible deficiency in appropriation on account of cost of tablets, to which President Charles assented. The specifications for bronze tablets, as offered by Captain Chitten- den, were approved. V. APPROPRIATION BY CONGRESS. The Committee on Legislation, appointed August 20, 1898, prepared a bill for an appropriation, and the same was introduced by Hon. Geo. D. Perkins, member of Congress for the Eleventh District of Iowa in the House of Representatives. December 15, 1898, numbered K. R. 11,181, referred to the Committee on the Library and ordered to be printed. The following is a copy of the bill so introduced: A BILL for an Act to Provide for the Erection of a Memorial to Ser- geant Charles Floyd: Be It Enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress Assembled. That the Secretary of War be and he is hereby authorized and directed, in co-operation with the Floyd Memorial Association, to cause to be erected over the remains of Sergeant Charles Floyd, a member of the celebrated Lewis and Clark Expedition, who died and was buried August' 20, 1804, near the present site of Sioux City, a fitting monument commemorative of that expedition and of the first soldier to lay down his life within the Louisiana Purchase; and that for the cost and., expense of erecting said monument the sum of $10,000, or so much thereof as may be neces- sary, be and the same is hereby appropriated out of any money in the treasury not otherwise appropriated. January 9, 1899, the committee mailed to Mr. Perkins a condensed statement of the known facts concerning Sergeant Charles Floyd and the organization and objects of the Association, which was received by him on the 13th. Mr. Perkins at once sent a copy of the same to each member of the Committee on Library, with a personal letter urging the appropriation. February 7, 1899, Mr. Harmer, from the Committee on the Library, submitted the following report upon the bill, being report No. 2022, viz.: The Committee on the Library, having had under consideration the bill (H. R. 11,181) to provide for the erection of a memorial to Sergeant Charles Floyd, submit the following report: The bill authorizes the Secretary of War, in co-operation with the Floyd Memorial Association, to cause to be erected over the remains Appropriation by Congress 21 of Sergeant Charles Floyd, a member of the celebrated Lewis and Clark Expedition, a fitting monument commemorative of thai expedl tion and of the first soldier in the service of the United Stall - to lay down his life within the Louisiana Purchase. President Jefferson, soon after the Louisiana Purchase in ISO::, or- ganized an expedition under the command of Captains Lewis and Clark to explore the new domain. Charles Floyd, a young man from Kentucky, was enlisted with others for this service, and was ap- pointed sergeant. The whole command, numbering forty-five men. started on its perilous journey from Wood River, 111., May 14, 1804, in a barge and two pirogues, and made its way among savage tribes up the Missouri River over the mountains, and thence by the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean, and returning reached St. Louis September 23, 1806. Only one man lost his life during the entire expedition, and that man was Sergeant Charles Floyd. He died a few miles below the site of Sioux City, August 20, 1804, and was buried on a high bluff a short distance up the river on the east side, and the place marked by a cedar post. Sergeant Floyd kept a journal during the time of his service in the expedition, which has been published. He did his duty faithfully and ably, as is abundantly shown by the testimony of the captains and others. His grave was visited by all the early navigators and explorers, and this bluff, because of his burial there, became a noted landmark. Shortly after the settlement at Sioux City, in 1857, it was found that the erosion of the Missouri River was about to carry away the grave and remains, whereupon the latter were secured and removed some 600 feet further east on the same bluff, where they were buried with appropriate ceremonies and honors. In 1895 the Floyd Memorial Association was organized "to commem- orate the death and burial of Sergeant Charles Floyd, and the Lewis and Clark Expedition, of which he was a member," and on the 20th of August in that year the Association caused a stone slab, duly marked, to be placed over the grave, having in view at a later time the erection of a more imposing memorial. The Association has since secured twenty-two acres of ground, and caused a portion of the same to be fenced and planted to trees, and the purpose of the Association is to maintain the same as a Memorial Park. Plans for a modest yet suitable monument have been prepared. It is sought in this bill to secure an appropriation of $10,000 to aid in the erection of the proposed monument and in thus fittingly com- memorating that famous expedition and the last resting place of one who gave his life as a pathfinder for the civilization which has followed. Your committee regard the work of national importance and moment, in which the Government may well take interest and to which the small sum asked for may well be appropriated. This report was committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union and ordered to be printed. Notwithstanding the favorable report, it was apparent tnat the press of business incident to the closing days of the session would render it impossible to reach a vote upon the original bill. Mr. Perkins, fully appreciating this danger, and aided by Senator Wm. B. Allison, secured an amendment to the general deficiency bill appropriating $5,000 to aid in erecting the monument. It required great energy and watchfulness for the safety of this amendment. Mr. Perkins remained at the Capitol prac- tically all night at the close of the session looking after it, and 22 Report of Floyd Memorial Association it was due to his efforts entirely that the paragraph remained in the bill. The appropriation, as found in 30, Statutes at Large, 1214-1225, is as follows: Ch. 427. An Act Making Appropriations to Supply Deficiencies in the Appropriations for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1899, and for Other Purposes: Be It Enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress Assembled, That the following sums be and the same are hereby appropriated out of any money in the treasury, not otherwise appropriated, to supply deficiencies in the ap- propriations for the fiscal year 1891 and for prior years, and for other objects hereinafter stated, namely: :j: :js * * * # $ $ 3fc $ 4 MONUMENT TO SERGEANT CHARLES FLOYD. To enable the Secretary of War, in co-operation with the Floyd Memorial Association, to cause to be erected over the remains of Sergeant Charles Floyd, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, who died and was buried August 20, 1804, near the present site of Sioux City, Iowa, a fitting monument commemorative of that expedition and of the first soldier to lay down his life within the Louisiana Purchase, $5,000: Provided, that the total cost and expense to the United States of erecting said monument shall not exceed $5,000. ****** * # # * # Approved March 3, 1899. VI. IOWA LEGISLATURE. The Committee on Legislation caused a bill to be prepared to be presented to the Twenty-eighth General Assembly of Iowa asking an appropriation of $10,000 to aid in the erection of the Floyd Monument. On January 19, 1900, Senator E. H. Hubbard introduced this bill, being Senate File No. 50, a bill for an act to provide for and aid in the erec- tion of a memorial to Sergeant Charles Floyd. It was read first and second time and referred to Committee on Appropriations. President Charles had a circular printed setting forth reasons for the appropriation and furnished the same to Senator Hubbard and Representatives Barrett and Santee for distribution. Senator Hubbard gave especial care and attention to secure the appropriation. April 3, 1900, Senator Garst, from the Senate Committee on Appro- priations, submitted the following report: Mr. President: Your Committee on Appropriations, to whom was referred Senate File No. 50, a bill for an act to provide for and aid in the erection of a memorial to Sergeant Charles Floyd, beg leave to report that they have had the same under consideration and have in- structed me to report the same back to the House with the recommenda- tion that the same be amended. Section 1 be amended by striking out the word "ten" in the third line and inserting in lieu thereof the word "five," and when so amended that the bill do pass. WARREN GARST, Chairman. Appropriation by Legislature 23 This report was adopted, and on motion of Senator Garst the Senate took up Senate File No. 50, and upon his motion the amendment reported by the committee was adopted. The bill was read as amended. Senator Garst moved that the rule be suspended and that the bill be considered engrossed and the reading of the bill just had be its third reading, which motion prevailed. On the question, "Shall the bill pass?" the yeas were 36; the nays were 1; absent or not voting, 13. So the bill having received a constitutional majority was declared to have passed the Senate and its title agreed to. In the House of Representatives, on April 14, 1900, Senate File No. 50, on request of Mr. Dows, was read first and second time, taken up and considered without reference to committee. The bill was read for information, and Mr. Dows moved that the rule be suspended and that the reading just had be considered a third reading of the bill, which motion prevailed. On the question, "Shall the bill pass?" the yeas were 68; the nays were 12; absent or not voting, 20. The bill having received a constitutional majority was declared to have passed the House and the title agreed to. The action of the House was at once reported to the Senate by House message, which was placed on file. Thereafter the bill was duly enrolled and on April 7, 1900, approved by the Governor. This act is Chapter 168 of the Laws of the Twenty-eighth General Assembly, of which the following is a copy: CHAPTER 168. ERECTION OF A MEMORIAL TO SERGEANT CHARLES FLOYD. S. F. 50. An Act to Provide for and Aid in the Erection of a Memorial to Sergeant Charles Floyd: Be It Enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Iowa: Sec- tion 1. Amount Appropriated.] That there is hereby appropriated out of any money in the State treasury, not otherwise appropriated, the sum of $5,000, or so much thereof as may be necessary, to provide for and aid in the erection over the remains of Sergeant Charles Floyd, a member of the celebrated Lewis and Clark Expedition, who died and was buried August 20, 1804, near the present site of Sioux City, Iowa, a fitting monument commemorative of that expedition, and of the first soldier of the republic to lay down his life within the Louisiana Pur- chase. Sec. 2. Special Commission — How Appointed — Duties.] The Gov- ernor of the State shall appoint a special commission of five members, who shall serve without compensation, to carry out the provisions of this act, and in so doing to co-operate with the Hon. Secretary of War and the Floyd Memorial Association. Such commission shall have entire control of the funds herein appropriated, and the same shall be paid out on bills approved by them. They shall file with the Auditor a complete account of all expenditures, and with the Governor a full report of their proceedings upon the completion of their labors. Sec. 3. In Effect.] This act, being deemed of immediate importance, shall take effect and be in force from and after publication in the Iowa 24 Report of Floyd Memorial Association State Register and the Des. Moines Leader, newspapers published at Des Moines, Iowa. Approved April 7, 1900. I hereby certify that the foregoing act was published in the Iowa State Register April 12. 1900, and in the Des Moines Leader April 13, 1900. G. L. DOBSON, Secretary of State. May 1. 1900, Governor Shaw announced the Floyd Memorial Com- mission, appointed under this act, as follows: Geo. D. Perkins, Asa H. Burton, C. R Marks, of Sioux City; Mitchell Vincent, of Onn.wa, and C. J. Holman, of Sergeant Bluffs. Senator Hubbard also introduced a "bill for and secured the passage and approval of the following act: CHAPTER 185. GRANTING JURISDICTION OVER CERTAIN GROUNDS IN WOOD- BURY COUNTY TO THE UNITED STATES. S. F. 340. An Act Granting Jurisdiction to the United States Over One Acre of Ground, Including the Grave of Sergeant Charles Floyd, in Woodbury County, Iowa: Be It Enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Iowa: Sec- tion 1. Jurisdiction Ceded.] Exclusive jurisdiction is hereby ceded to the United States over the following real estate, situated in Woodbury County Iowa, to-wit: A tract of ground containing one acre, including the grave of Sergeant Charles Floyd in Government Lot eight (8), in Section one (1), Township eighty-eight (88), Range forty-eight (48), west of the Fifth P. M., being the tract conveyed by the Floyd Memorial Association to the United States by deed dated February 14th, 1900, subject to all the provisions of Section four (4) of the Code. Sec. 2. In Effect.] This act, being deemed of immediate importance, shall take effect and be in force from and after its publication in the Iowa State Register and Des Moines Leader, newspapers published in Des Moines, Iowa. Approved March 22, 1900. I certify that the foregoing act was published in the Iowa State Register and the Des Moines Leader March 30, 1900. G. L. DOBSON, Secretary of State. VII. FLOYD PARK AND TITLE. Floyd Park embraces the following described land, situate and being in the County of Woodbury and State of Iowa, to-wit: Com- mencing at a point on the north line of Government Lot eight (8), in Section one (1), in Township eighty-eight (88), north of Range forty- eight (48), west of the Fifth Principal Meridian; eighteen hundred and eighty (1880) feet west of the northeast corner of the southeast quarter Floyd Park and Title 25 of said Section one (1); thence south twenty-two (22) degrees ami lit'teen (15) minutes, east seven hundred and ninety-three (793) feet; thence south ten (10) degrees, ten (10) minutes, east seven hundred (700) feet to the south line of Government Lot eight (8); thence south eighty (80) degrees, twenty-live (25) minutes, west seven hundred and fifty-seven (757) feet to a point on said south line one hundred (100) feet east at right angles of the east right of way line of the Sioux City and Pacific Railroad; thence northwesterly parallel with and one hundred (100) feet at right angles from said right of way line to a point on the north line of said Lot eight (8). eight hundred and six (806) feet west of the point of beginning; thence east along said north line eight hundred and six (806) feet to the place of beginning. The following is a copy of the Government plat of the original survey of said Section one (1): SEC 34 SEC 35 ~~*---. |900 VII 2 000 1 CO A36.32 Ee-+ + FLOYDS GRAVE, THOMPSONS 6 o o o o o d ,c\J o o ? William B. Thompson entered said land September 18, 1854, and the same was patented to him June 15, 1855. (Abstract of Original Entries, page 211.) 26 Report of Floyd Memorial Association The seat of justice for Woodbury County was located July 18. 1853, by the Commissioners on the southeast quarter of said Section one (1> (Auditor's Office Minute Book A, page 2). August 12, 1857, W. B. Thompson made a deed of trust of said land with other land to Casady & Clark to secure $120 to> Miles White (Mortgage Record A, page 146), which was foreclosed by a trustee's sale, and deeded July 20, 1860 (Record of Land Deeds D, pages 30-32), to Elias A. White, of Baltimore, Md. October 4, 1860. Elias A. White conveyed said land by deed (Record D, page 70) to Miles White, of Baltimore. The will of Miles White was admitted to probate in the Circuit Court of Decatur County, Iowa, on April 27, 1876 (Miscellaneous Record D, pages 4-9), and under the fourteenth paragraph his son, Francis White, became the owner of said land (Miscellaneous Record G, page 591, and L, page 416). February 23, 1887, Francis White and Jane E., his wife, conveyed by warranty deed (Book 31, page 234) said land to Thalia B. Tredway, who with her husband made mortgage upon the same to Francis White (Book 39, page 312), which mortgage was satisfied by Francis White March 28, 1887 (Book 38, page 553). The Union Stock Yards Company filed articles of incorporation and amendments thereto, which were recorded in Woodbury County (Mis- cellaneous Record G. page 259; L, page 323; Q, page 475), for the purpose among others of buying, owning, leasing or selling real estate. March 10, 1887, Thalia B. Tredway and Wm. B., her husband, con- veyed by deed of warranty (Book V, page 553) the said land to the Union Stock Yards Company. July 1, 1887, the Union Stock Yards Company made trust deed (Book 43, page 539) of said land with other lands to the Union Loan and Trust Company, Which trust deed was satisfied upon the margin of the record April 9, 1888; and April 5, 1888, another trust deed was made to the Union Loan and Trust Company (Book 47, page 427), which was satisfied on the margin August 3, 1889. July 1, 1889, the Union Stock Yards Company made its trust deed (Book 64, pages 267-275) of this with other lands to the Missouri, Kan- sas and Texas Trust Company. The London and Sioux City Colony and Investment Company, for the purpose of loaning money on real estate and purchasing and dis- posing of same, filed in Recorder's office its articles and amendment thereto (Miscellaneous Record R, page 480; W, page 57). April 4, 1891, the Union Stock Yards Company made its deed (Land Record 39, page 467) of said land to the London and Sioux City Colony and Investment Company. August 11, 1891, the East Sioux City Improvement Company filed its articles of incorporation (Miscellaneous Record U, page 63) for the purpose of buying and selling real estate. Floyd Park unci Title 27 October 4, 1892, the London and Sioux City Colony and Investment company made its deed (Book 40, page 464) of said land to the East Sioux City Improvement Company. April 27, 1893, at the suit of A. L. Stetson, H. P. Chesley was ap- pointed Receiver of the Union Stock Yards Company by the District Court of Woodbury County, Iowa. October 7, 1893, this suit was re- moved to the United States Circuit Court. September 5, 1893, the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Trust Company commenced suit in the United States Circuit Court against the Union Stock Yards Company to foreclose its mortgage of July 1, 1889, and therein, October 4, 1893, H. P. Chesley was appointed Receiver of the mortgaged property (Record 2, page 4); and on February 13, 1894, the said suit by A. L. Stetson was consolidated with this foreclosure action (Record 2, page 33); and May 24, 1895, decrees were entered foreclosing the said mortgage (Record 2, pages 155-162, wherein a sale was ordered and W. D. Turner was appointed special master to make sale, who on July 2, 1895, sold the land embraced in Floyd Park to the Sioux City Stock Yards Company without right of redemption, and on July 20, 1895, such sale was approved and confirmed by the Court (Journal 2, page 225), in pursuance of which, July 23, 1895, W. D. Turner, Special Master, conveyed by deed the said land to the Sioux City Stock Yards Company. October 30, 1894, the Sioux City Stock Yards Company filed its articles of incorporation (Miscellaneous Record Z, page 475), for the purpose, among others, of buying the property of the Union Stock Yards Company (Amendment thereto, Book 26, page 302). July 17, 1895, the East Sioux City Improvement Company conveyed by quit claim (Book 44, page 490) the said land to the Sioux City Stock Yards Company. July 1, 1895, the Sioux City Stock Yards Company made its trust deed (Book 122, pages 360-391) of this with other lands to the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Trust Company. October 2, 1899, the Guardian Trust Company, a corporation under the laws of Missouri, Trustee, the name of the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Trust Company having been changed to Guardian Trust Com- pany, made its release of the land described above as Floyd Park from the lien of the trust deed, dated July 1, 1895, recorded in Mortgage Record Book 122, pages 360 to 391, inclusive (see Book 140, page 330); also affidavits as to change of name (Miscellaneous Record 34, page 23). August 20, 1895, the Floyd Memorial Association filed its articles of incorporation (Miscellaneous Record 27. page 514). May 15. 1899 the Sioux City Stock Yards Company made its war- ranty deed (Book 50, page 335) of the land described as Floyd Park for the consideration of $1,000 to the Floyd Memorial Association. September 30, 1899, the Floyd Memorial Association made its war- ranty deed (Book 50, page 364) in consideration of $500, conveying to the City of Sioux City all of said land described as Floyd Park, except- ing and reserving therefrom a tract containing one acre in the southern 28 Report of Floyd Memorial Association central portion thereof, including the grave of Sergeant Charles Floyd, such tract reserved bounded and described as follows: Beginning at a point nine hundred and fifty-one (951) feet south, six (6) degrees, twen- ty-five (25) minutes west, of a point on the north line of Government Lot eight (8), in Section one (1), in Township eighty-eight (88) north, of Range forty-eight (48), west of the Fifth Principal Meridian, eighteen hundred and eighty (1880) feet west of the northeast corner of the southeast quarter of said Section one (1); thence north seventy-four (74) degrees, no minutes, west two hundred and fifty-three (253) feet; thence at right angles south sixteen (16) degrees, no minutes, west one hundred and seventy-two (172) feet two (2) inches; thence south seventy-four (74) degrees, no minutes, east two hundred and fifty-three (253) feet; thence north sixteen (16) degrees, no minutes, east one hundred and seventy-two (172) feet two (2) inches to place of begin- ning. Also reserving as appurtenant to said tract excepted a right of way two rods in width from the east line of said acre tract excepted easterly in a straight line where the Floyd Memorial Association may select to the public highway on the east line of said premises conveyed. October 6, 1899, the Sioux City Packing Company released the land described as Floyd Park from the lien of its judgments against the Sioux City Stock Yards Company (Judgment Docket J, pages 124 and 187). On February 14, 1900, the Floyd Memorial Association, by John H. Charles, its President, attested by Mrs. Francis N. Davis, its Secretary, made its warranty deed to the United States of America of the one acre so excepted and reserved from its deed to the City of Sioux City, and delivered the same with abstract of title to H. M. Chittenden, Cap- tain, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., to be forwarded to the proper officer of the United States authorized to receive the same. May 1, 1900, said deed and abstract were returned to the Association with the following explanatory letter, to-wit: UNITED STATES ENGINEER OFFICE. Custom House. Sioux City, Iowa, May 1, 1900. MR. JOHN H. CHARLES, President Floyd Memorial Association, Sioux City, Iowa. Dear Sir: On the 10th ultimo I wrote to the Chief of Engineers asking early attention to the question of title to the Floyd Monument site, and on the following day I submitted recommendations in regard to the expenditures of the Government appropriation, accompanied with a copy of the recent act of the Iowa Legislature making an appropria- tion for the monument and site, and a copy of the resolution adopted by the Floyd Memorial Association at its meeting. Yesterday I received a renly to these two letters, the substance of which I communicate to you herewith. In reference to the title to the site the following extract from the letter of the Chief of Engineers will explain itself: "The Comptroller of the Treasury has decided that the purchase of the site is not authorized by the statute; that it is not necessary Floyd Park and Title 29 that the title should be conveyed to the I'nited States before the money can be expended on the monument, and thai the provisions of Section 355, Revised Statutes, do not apply to this case; that is, thai cession of jurisdiction over the site by the State is not necessary, the act of Congress, in his opinion, contemplating that the monumenl is to be erected on land owned or controlled by the Floyd Memorial Assoriation. In view of this decision of the Comptroller the proposed deed of con- veyance from the Floyd Memorial Association in favor of the United States and the abstract of title to the premises are returned herewith, with request that you return them to the proper officer of the Memorial Association. Title not having passed to the I'nited Slates, the State act ceding jurisdiction, referred to in your letter of the 11th instant, does not become operative." The title to the site would thus appear to be at present with the Floyd Memorial Association, and the Government appropriation is, therefore, available without further conditions. This is a much better arrangement than before, for it has always seemed to me to be an awkward situation for the Government to own this site with the implied obligation of caring for it in the future. As the situation now is, the Government stands in the same relation to the work as does the State of Iowa, viz.: It contributes $5,000 to assist the Floyd Memorial Asso- ciation in erecting the monument. It is the desire of the Department that the whole work shall be carried out according to the wishes and in conformity with the plans of the Association. In my second letter I made the following recom- mendations in reference to tne expenditure of the Government appro- priation: "That this money be applied to the proposed work in the payment of such items in its cost as may be found most expedient; the monu- ment to be of stone of recognized durability; the work to be of first quality; the general design the same as that shown on the accompany- ing drawings; and that authority be granted to commence the work without delay." Referring to the expenditure of the State appropriation. I recom- mended that: "I be authorized to extend to the State the privilege of conducting its share of the work in connection with this office, and of making use of the office force and equipment to the extent that may be necessary for that purpose." Touching these recommendations, the following extract from the letter of the Chief of Engineers is given: "The plans and general details forwarded by you have been sub- mitted to the Secretary of War, with recommendation that they, to- gether with the recommendations contained in your letter of the 11th instant, be approved." So far as I can see the matter now rests entirely in the hands of the Association to proceed with the work without further restriction or delay. I may say in regard to the foundation of the monument that it will be important to put the concrete in in a single day when it is commenced, and this will necessitate a pretty large force of men. It will be difficult to get these for so short a time, unless they can be taken from some other work where they are already employed. If this work can be done while the government work is going on across the river, this entire force can be taken off for a day to do the concrete work. But to take advantage of this opportunity the work should be done before the end of this month. I take this opportunity to inform you that I saw the general manager of the Sioux City and Pacific Railroad in Omaha Saturday and secured his agreement to put in a switch near the site of the monument at the expense of the Railroad 30 Report of Floyd Memorial Association Company. The work will be begun at once. The deed and abstract are inclosed herewith. Very respectfully. H. M. CHITTENDEN, Captain, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A. Two inclosures. Upon receipt of this communication with deed and abstract, the following resolution was adopted by the Association: Whereas, By resolutions duly passed at the annual meeting of the members of the Floyd Memorial Association, and at former meetings of the Board of Directors of said Association, the President and Secre- tary were authorized to execute a deed to the United States of the acre of ground in Floyd's Memorial Park, upon which the grave of Sergeant Charles Floyd is located; and, Whereas, On the 14th day of February, A. D. 1900. the President and Secretary of this Association executed and delivered such deed to Captain H. M. Chittenden, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., at Sioux City, Iowa, for the United States, with abstract of title to the same; and, Whereas, Under date of May 1st, 1900, said Captain Chittenden, with written communication, has returned said deed and abstract of title to the President of this Association, stating that he forwarded said papers to the Chief of Engineers of the U. S. A., and that in a letter recently received from said Chief of Engineers he is informed that the Comptroller of the Treasury has decided that the purchase of the monument site is not authorized by the United States statutes, and that it is not necessary that the title should be conveyed to the United States before the money appropriated by Congress can be expended, and therefore returns the deed; it is therefore hereby Resolved. That the return of said deed be accepted and that the resolution heretofore passed authorizing the conveyance of the title to the United States be and is hereby revoked and rescinded. The title to the one acre is now in the Floyd Memorial Association. and the title to the residue of Floyd Park is in the City of Sioux City. By his letter of January 20, 1899, I. C. Elston, President of the Sioux City Stock Yards Company, stated the concession of the Company on purchase of the ground as follows: What I intended to say was that we would sell you the land at an agreed price of $1,000 cash, and this Company would donate $100 for every $10,000 worth of improvements you placed upon the land deeded to you, until the aggregate cost of such improvements reached $50,000 and the amount of donations made by this Company reached $500, and the time within which your Company would be allowed to claim such donations should be limited to ten years. VIII. PLANS FOR MONUMENT. Before the appropriation by the United States in aid of the monu- ment, President Charles procured and presented to the Association a plan of monument estimated to cost about $10,000. In April. 1899, Captain J. C. Sanford, representing the United States, submitted two plans and estimates, differing in size but otherwise similar. The CAPTAIN H. M. CHITTENDEN. Plans for Monument 31 dimensions proposed for the larger were seventy-five feet from base to summit, eight feet square at the bottom and six feet six inches at the top, the estimated cost of which was $13,000. The proposed dimensions of the smaller were sixty feet high, five feet square at bottom and four feet one inch at the top, estimated to cost $7,000. It was contemplated that granite or quartzite would be used in the construction. It was also then proposed at some time to surmount the shaft with an ideal bronze figure of Floyd. Both plans were plain obelisks, and Captain Sanford and Mr. Wood, G-overnment Engineer, reported that on examination it was found that the topographical conditions around the grave made this style of monument most desirable. The matter of adopting a plan was postponed until an appeal could be made to the Legislature of Iowa to aid the enterprise. January 26, 1900, Captain H. M. Chittenden reported the wishes of the Government as then understood with plans estimated and recommendations as to the monument as follows: UNITED STATES ENGINEER OFFICE. Custom House. Sioux City, Iowa. January 26, 1900. MR. JOHN H. CHARLES, President Floyd Memorial Association, Sioux City, Iowa. Dear Sir: In view of the approaching meeting of the Floyd Me- morial Association, I have thought it probable that you would like to know what progress has been made in this office in the preliminary work connected with the erection of the Floyd Monument. In assigning this work, so far as the expenditure of the Govern- ment appropriation is concerned, to the Engineer Office in this city, the Chief of Engineers, United States Army, directed the officer in charge to co-operate fully with the Floyd Memorial Association, and gave him the following instructions for his guidance in the matter of acquiring a site for the monument: "It will be necessary to purchase, or to receive a deed of gift to the United States of, the site on which the monument is to be erected. "The authority of the Secretary of War will be required for the acquisition of the site selected, and before payment of the purchase money or acceptance of the land, an abstract of title and draft of pro- posed deed of conveyance to the United States, with a sketch showing the location and dimensions of the site, should be submitted, with a view to securing the opinion of the Attorney General on the title, as required by Section 355, Revised Statutes. When the question of the acquisition of the site has reached such a point as to require the assist- ance of the District Attorney in the preparation of the title papers, please inform this office, in order that recommendation may be made to the Secretary of War that the Attorney General be requested to direct the District Attorney to co-operate with you in the premises." At a meeting of the committee of the Association having this mat- ter in charge, held November 28, 1899, I was informed that the Asso- ciation was ready to deed a suitable site to the United States. The Chief of Engineers was notified accordingly, and replied under date of December 5th that steps had been taken to cause "the proper United States District Attorney to co-operate * * * in the preparation 32 Report of Floyd Memorial Association of the necessary title papers." The letter further contained the fol- lowing suggestions and instructions: "It is assumed from your letter of the 28th ultimo that the Asso- ciation proposes to convey the site to the United States at a nominal cost. If this be the case, it would be desirable to have a written tender from the Association, for the purposes indicated, to be submitted to the Secretary of War with other papers. "If it is proposed to apply any portion of the appropriation to the purchase of the site, a written proposition from the owners, setting forth fully the proposed terms, should be submitted for the action of the Secretary of War. "You are also requested to submit, with the title papers, a sketch showing the metes, bounds and location of the area of one acre in relation to the exterior bounds of the entire tract of twenty acres and the right of way to the highway, giving width and length of the right of way." Understanding that 'the Association intends to deed the monument site and right of way without cost to the United States, it is suggested that a formal resolution to that end be adopted at an early day and communicated to this office, for transmission to the War Department. It is also desirable that the final deed and all necessary papers per- taining thereto be prepared for the use of District Attorney as soon as he shall call for them. A survey of the grounds has teen made and is now being plotted, for transmission with other papers. With these, essentials completed, the matter of the title would seem to be in a way for final action by Attorney General's Department. In connection with the work just described a good deal of study has been given to the question of a suitable design for a monument and its probable cost. It is, of course, understood that, so far as any present official action by this office is concerned, it must be based upon the Congressional appropriation, that being the only money now in sight for the work. But as steps are being taken to secure a material addition to the amount given by the Government, it is presumed that the Association would like to consider not only designs that will fall within a cost of $5,000, but others as well, which will represent more nearly the total amount hoped for. The effort has, therefore, been made to secure some preliminary designs and estimates costing different sums, and these are herewith submitted to the Association with approximate estimates of cost. One of these estimates is for a monolithic obelisk resting on suit- able base or die. The design corresponding to a height of 47.2 feet can be erected, including foundation and all expenses, for $5,000. The material proposed by the party making the estimate is Vermont granite. For $10 000 a monument of similar design, fifty-five feet high, can be built. These designs would give a very good result, similar to those shown in the accompanying photographs of monuments erected by the same party at Washington's birthplace and for Washington's mother. It is questionable, however, if they would fully satisfy the condi- tions of the proposed work at Floyd's grave. It would seem that the character of the site, as well as the purposes of the work, require a monument which shall be imposing in appearance, and visible at a great distance, dominating the entire valley in its vicinity, rather than an example of fine artistic work, whose merits, to be appreciated, must be examined close by. For a monument of considerable height, there is no more suitable design than the ancient Fgyptian obelisk, which rises directly from the ground without visible base or pedestal' Plans for Monument 33 A design for such an obelisk, in coursed masonry, one hundred feet high, following the most approved proportions in the ancient examples, has been prepared. Sketches showing elevation, sections, and perspec- tive view, are submitted herewith, with estimates of quantities of materials required for construction. The cost of such a monument for different kinds of stone and qualities of work will be about as follows: Rockville Granite. For tine hammered work $19,000.00 For rock face work 15,000.00 Bedford Limestone. For rubbed face work $14,500.00 For rock face work 13,500.00 Carthage Limestone. For rubbed face work $17,000.00 For rock face work 14,500.00 Kettle River Sandstone. For patent hammer dressed work $10,000.00 A seventy-five-foot monument will cost about three-fifths as much as one one hundred feet high, and will, therefore, for some of the above classes of stone, fall within $5,000. Any of the above stones are suited to the work, preference being given in the order of granite, limestone, and sandstone. The pitched face ashlar work, or rock face, will be much cheaper than dressed work and will look well. The work ought, of course, to be done in the most thorough manner known to the mason's art. At the base of the monument suitable blocks of polished granite can be set in to receive whatever inscriptions are thought desirable, and even bronze relief tablets, with emblematic designs, can likewise be inserted. The foregoing, so far as my present studies go, seems to offer the largest results which the available or prospective funds of the Asso- ciation can be expected to realize. If the Association are able to develop their plans for raising funds before the ensuing summer, say by July 1, 1900, it will be possible to erect the monument during the following autumn. It will give much satisfaction to this office if such a result can be accomplished. Very respectfully, H. M. CHITTENDEN. Captain, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A. It is requested that the drawings and photographs be returned after examination, as they are needed for use in this office. On April 6, 1900. Captain Chittenden made a further report in writing, recommending plan of monument which was substantially adopted in the construction, the Kettle River sandstone being used. The following is a copy of such report and plan: UNITED STATES ENGINEER OFFICE. Custom House. Sioux City, Iowa, April 6, 1900. MR. JOHN H. CHARLES, President Floyd Memorial Association, Sioux City, Iowa. Dear Sir: Since my last report to the Floyd Memorial Association, dated January 26, 1900. the following progress has been made toward 34 Report of Floyd Memorial Association the acquisition of the grounds and the selection of a design for the Floyd Monument: On February 17th I transmitted to the department all the papers relating to the title to the acre of ground on which the monument will stand, and they are now presumably in the hands of the proper govern- ment official for final examination. On March 8th I had an interview with Mr. H. G. McMillan. United States Attorney for the Northern District of Iowa, who has been designated by the Attorney General's Department to examine the title. At that time Mr. McMillan had not yet received the title papers, but said that he would call the attention of the Department to the matter with a view of obtaining them as soon as possible. Mr. McMillan assured me that there would be no charge against the appropriation on account of his services. An exhaustive study has been made of the design of an obelisk and its foundation in order to determine one which shall possess the necessary stability in every part and at the same time economize ma- terial to the utmost. For a monument one hundred feet from base to apex the following dimensions for the various parts give what seem to be the most satisfactory result: Foundation of concrete. 22 feet square at base, 14 feet square at tor and 8 feet thick. Upon this will rest two courses of large blocks, whose aggregate thickness will be 5 feet. This particular feature may be modified upon further study by omitting the base courses and carrying the concrete up to the base of the obelisk. A granitoid pavement 12 inches thick will surround the monu- ment, making, with the monument base, a square of 22 feet. The obelisk as proposed will be 9 feet square at base, 6 feet square at top of main shaft, and the pyramidion will be 9 feet high. These are the true proportions of the Egyptian obelisks. The shaft will have a concrete core 4 feet 6 inches square at the bottom and 3 feet square at the top. The walls will be 27 inches thick at the base and 18 inches at the top of the main shaft. There will be seventy-two courses in the main shaft, varying in thickness from 18 inches at the bottom to 12 inches at the top. There will be six blocks in each course, all the blocks in one course to be of the same dimensions and the same form except as to the bevel of the corner stone. It is thought advisable to surmount the pyramidion with an aluminum apex in order to avoid the necessity of working the stone to a point. There should probably be a permanent iron fence set in the pave- ment around the monument, of sufficient strength and with proper arrangement at the top to prevent its being climbed over or broken through. This precaution will be necessary if the monument is to be preserved from the desecration of vandals. The pressure on the bed of the foundation due to the weight of the monument and its foundation will be 142 tons per square foot. The weight of the earth fill around the foundation will increase this .31 of a ton. If the wind should ever blow with a force of 40 pounds per square foot against the entire face of the monument it would increase the pressure on the side away from the wind by .45 of a ton. making a total maximum pressure at any point of 2.18 tons. The soil where the monument is to be built will stand from 2 to 3 tons and probably more without appreciable settling. The stability of the monument against overturning is such that with a wind force of 40 pounds per square foot over an entire face of the monument, it will still have a factor of safety of three. Plans for Monument .".." In regard to the finish, it appears to me that for a work of this class a smooth finish of some sort is important. The regularity and accuracy of the work will be largely obscured if the surface is left rough. With a course 18 inches thick the projections cannot be re- duced beyond 2% to 3 inches without leaving tool marks on the face, which should not be allowed. A projection of 3 inches on a face which is nowhere over 9 feet across is too large to look well. The face should be plain, and should be laid with the utmost accuracy, so that anyone examining the monument from close by will see that it is a piece of skillful and artistic work. Its importance in the future will depend in no small degree upon this evidence of good work. More- over, a smooth surface will gather dirt much less than a rough face. On the other hand a rough face will cost considerably less. In designing the courses the dimensions have been made to con- form to the general proportions of the monument. The top stones are two-thirds the size in linear dimensions of those in the bottom course, for the shaft diminishes in size by one-third from the bottom to the top. All the vertical courses have a corresponding convergence, which is also carried out in the pyramidion. Thus every line on the monument bears a true relation to the finished work. In seeking information as to the best stone to use a number of samples have been obtained. They all come under the three classes of granites, limestones and sandstones, including under the first the several stones of South Dakota and Minnesota. Four samples of true granites have been received: The Ortonville Red. the St. Cloud Gray, the Rockville. Minnesota, and the Syenite, Missouri, granite. Undoubtedly the best result of all could be obtained with the granites, for they are the best and most enduring of all building stones. The main objection to their use is the cost. With a rock face the cost would be about $15,000: with a ten-cut face, about $19,000. All of the Minnesota granites will cost about this figure. The Missouri granite cannot be had quite as cheap, considering the extra freight due to the greater distance. It would thus appear that the best that can be done with a true granite is to use a rock face finish, at a cost of about $15,000. In getting figures on the various Sioux Falls stones, I have not been as successful as I could wish. I have not found anyone who would consider the proposition of getting out a bill of stone like that required. All replies to my inquiries state either that the quarries will not yield the required dimensions or that the dealers are not equipped for getting out that class of stone. If this stone is used it will have to be of rough face, for any smooth finish short of polish does not look well; moreover, the cost of such a finish would be prohibitory. The best work with this stone which has fallen under my observa- tion is that in the St. Thomas and St. Joseph Church buildings in this city. It consists of a wall about 6 inches thick backed by other ma- sonry. The courses are entirely irregular, but the whole effect is pleasant. It is not likely, however, that a work would have the same stability if built of such small parts as one built of larger blocks, such as are proposed. The cost of the best work of this class, according to information derived from the contractor who built the St. Thomas Church, would be about 75 cents per square foot or $1.50 per cubic foot. For the monument the wall would need to be made at least a foot thick and the whole cost of the work would fall a little under $10,000. Five samples of limestones have been procured, viz.: One from Carthage Mo.: two from Bedford, Ind.: and two from Mankato. Minn. The Carthage stone in outward appearance is entirely satisfactory, but there is a possible doubt as to its durability, as there are no existing 36 Report of Floyd Memorial Association works of long standing built of it. Several examinations have been made at my request of buildings in Rock Island, St. Louis and Kansas City, and all are entirely favorable. But there is still some evidence that it will pit up under the action of the weather, and I would there- fore hesitate in recommending it. The cost with this stone in smooth finish would be about $15,000, or about the same as rock face granite. The Bedford limestones have stood the test of experience and can be relied upon without hesitation. The building in which this office is located is a splendid example. An examination of the smooth work on the tower and the facings of the doors and windows will show how well it holds its color even in the heart of a city. It is durable, of pleasing appearance, and the very best finish can be had at a reasonable rate. The cost of the monument built of this stone with a smooth finish will be about $13,000; in rock face about $11,000. The Mankato pink stone will cost about the same as the Bedford buff limestone. Its analysis and tests indicate a good stone, but I have seen no structure built of it. Prices have been received from other quarries at Mankato and Kasota, from which the total cost will range $9,600 rock face to $12,000 fine finish. Only one sandstone has been considered, the Kettle River sand- stone of Minnesota. All authorities agree that it is a most excellent stone. I have examined one structure built by it, the Elk Point Court House, and although as a piece of masonry work it is most discreditable, the exposure of the stone for two years shows that it loses none of its bright pink color. The main drawback with this stone will be the danger of cracking the edges during construction, for the stone is somewhat soft on coming from the quarry. The analysis and tests of the stone are entirely satisfactory. By careful selection a uniform color could be produced and the effect would be good. The cost for a smooth finish would be a little less than for the Bedford limestone. All the foregoing estimates of cost include a 15 per cent, increase for contingencies. They also include full freight rates, which the Gov- ernment has to pay. As it is not improbable that important concessions on rates can be secured, and as the utmost care will be taken to elim- inate contingencies, there may be a reduction in these items. Moreover, when it comes to actual bids, the prices quoted on stone may be some- what reduced. In regard to the inscription, the best method will be to place it upon a bronze tablet set into the face of the monument. The tablet will cost $15 per square foot and the setting probably $5 per square foot. Coming now to the programme of work, it is suggested that the foundation be put injuring the present spring; that the contract for the stone be also let this spring, giving the contractors all summer to ■ get out the order; and that erection of the shaft be begun about the 1st of September. Very truly yours, H. M. CHITTENDEN. Captain of Engineers, U. S. A. IX. LAYING THE FOUNDATION. The concrete foundation was laid May 29, 1900. The following statement is copied from the Journal of May 30: At six o'clock last night one hundred and ten men took up their dinner pails and returned from a high bluff three miles south of the Laving the Foundation 'O city, leaving behind them completed the foundation for the great monument which is to be erected as a lasting memory to Sergeant Charles Floyd, whose remains lie in a grave within a few feet of the site of the proposed structure. All day yesterday the men worked in the hot sun under the per- sonal supervision of Colonel H. M. Chittenden, United States Engineer in charge of the government work, with headquarters in Sioux City, and who is to also have charge of the erection of the monument under instructions from the War Department. The great mass of stone and mortar, 22 feet square at the base, 14 feet square at the top and 11 feet high, "will set" as one solid mass. It will be a stone without any cracks, joints or connections to weaken it in the whole, containing 143 cubic yards and weighing 200 tons. Interlaced through it are thirty-two heavy steel rails. It was a scene of the greatest activity on the knoll where the monument is to stand. Early in the morning a Sioux City and Pacific special train from the city took Colonel Chittenden, his assistants and a large force of workmen to the sidetrack at the base of the bluff. Everything had been placed in readiness for the commencement of the work on the knoll. There were eleven huge vats of water to be used in mixing the concrete. On every side were heaps of crushed stone, piles of sand, bags of cement, and there were an abundance of wheelbarrows, shovels and other tools to be used in the work of the day. Two government tents had been placed in position, and in fact there was nothing lacking to carry out the plans of the engineer. The excavation for the foundation had been all prepared, stagings had been built, runways for the barrows had been laid, and each man had been assigned to his particular work. With Colonel Chittenden was his assistant. Bathurst Smith, and several of the other men in his office. Promptly at 7:25 a. m. the order was given to begin the work which it was planned to complete in ten hours. The caisson was built up as the work proceeded, and this will hold the mass of material in compact form until it has set properly. In order to have it set as one mass, it is necessary to do the entire job in as short a space of time as possible. It had been estimated it would take just ten hours to complete the task, and it did not take much longer. Colonel Chittenden was right on the spot every minute, coat off and displaying the greatest interest in the work. He carefully watched the mixing of the material, and at every side of the excavation were his assistants to see every- thing was properly done. This great mass of concrete will be allowed to set until the fall, when it is planned to commence the erection of the superstructure. The superstructure which is to stand on this foundation will weigh approximately 420 tons. The material of which it is to be built is to be decided upon tomorrow afternoon at a meeting of the committee to which was referred the final decision as to the material to be used and its color. The other members of the Association have also been invited to be present and to advise with the committee. Colonel Chit- tenden is a member of the committee, and will probably make a report of the work as it has progressed so far. When completed the monument is to rise 100 feet above the ground. The foundation will come almost to the level of the ground, and the monument will be cut stone. Under the plans as prepared the base of the monument will be about nine feet snuare. The structure will be built of stone with concrete inside, making it a solid mass. Within a few feet of the present site of the monument is the stone slab, laid August 20. 1895. covering the two urns which contain all that is left of Charles Floyd. This is the grave to which the remains were 38 Report of Floyd Memorial Association tenderly removed in 1857, when the early residents of Sioux City found that the rude coffin built in 1804, containing the body, was protruding over the high bluffs, and the entire contents of the pioneer grave would have been lost had they not been carried back farther on the hill and carefully reburied. Then the grave remained untouched until 1895, and it was with difficulty it was found. George Murphy finally dis- covered it by poking about in the ground with a cane and outlining the spot. It was into this same grave the bones were again placed. Some of the members of the Association, however, have suggested that once more the bones be taken up, and that they be placed inside of the monument. This will be hollow until the concrete is placed inside, and the suggestion is to place the remains inside before the concrete is laid. The matter probably will be discussed at the meeting of the Association. It would not be necessary to take any action, how- ever, until fall, when work is to be commenced on the superstructure. Quite a number of visitors went to the scene of the work for laying the foundation. John H. Charles, the venerable President of the Floyd Memorial Association, and who has taken so much interest in the proposed monument, and has done so much to insure its construction, drove to the site of the grave in the morning, accompanied by Mrs. Charles and Mrs. F. N. Davis, Secretary of the Association. C. J. Hol- man. of Sergeant Bluffs, spent the morning on the knoll. Mitchell Vincent, of Onawa, another active member of the Association, arrived about 11 o'clock, and it was not long before C. R. Marks and L. M. Kean were on hand. They all expressed their pleasure at the work which was being done, and they look forward to the day when the erection of the superstructure will begin, and when President Charles will unveil with due ceremony the Floyd Memorial Monument. X. LAYING THE CORNER STONE. On August 20. 1900, the annual meeting of the Association was held at the site of the monument, and at this meeting the corner stone was laid and the remains of Sergeant Charles Floyd deposited within the monument. The Morning Journal of that day contained the fol- lowing editorial: An interesting ceremony will take place this afternoon on the occa- sion of the laying of the corner stone of the monument about to be erected in memory of Sergeant Charles Floyd and the historical events associated with the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804. The Floyd Memorial Association was organized five years ago and there has been constant effort since that time to provide the funds necessary for the purchase of the ground and the erection of a suitable shaft. The site of the monument is not far removed from the spot where Sergeant Floyd was buried by his comrades on the 20th of August, 1804. It is a sightly place, overlooking the Missouri River, and discloses picturesque views of adjacent country in Iowa. Nebraska and South Dakota. These States are in the family of States west of the Mississippi River that had their inception, unconsciously at the time, in the Louisiana Pur- cnase under Jefferson's administration in 1803. It is ninety-six years ago today since Sergeant Floyd died and was buried on the range of bluffs that has since borne his name. The day following his death Laying the Corner Stone 39 the explorers came to the river flowing through the eastern part of Sioux City, and the river was named for him to further commemorate his memory. Sergeant Floyd was the only member of the expedition who died during the two and a half years the expedition was out. He was the first citizen soldier to die in the service in the great territory added to the domain of the United States by the purchase from Prance. The occasion for the monument is so rich in historical incident that it might seem a slight task to provide the way for its erection, but the work of the Association has been attended with discouragements. Five years have elapsed since the Association was fully organized. Five years ago today the remains of Sergeant Floyd were reburied in an enduring urn, and a marble slab, properly inscribed, placed to mark the spot. It was hoped that the influence of that interesting occasion would lead to cash deposits for the larger work of erecting a suitable monument, but the Association found a rugged way before it in the task of providing the necessary money to complete its undertaking. Happily, Congress was induced to make an appropriation of $5,000 to the fund and the Iowa Legislature was induced to appropriate an equal amount. These joint appropriations enabled the Association to complete its plans. John H. Charles, the President of the Association, has kept the business of the Association close to his heart. But for his solicitude and unabating interest it is safe to say the completion of the monument would still be in the shadowy future. It is a matter of the highest gratification to him, and to all those who have been working with him, that the end of the work is now in sight. The shaft will be one hundred feet high. It will commemorate the most notable event in our history and wall be the most pretentious monument so far erected within the borders of our State. The corner stone laying will occur on this anniversary day of Sergeant Floyd's death and burial. The work will be completed before November. The order of exercises planned for the day was substantially car- ried out. The account of the meeting and ceremonies, with the ad- dresses, published in the Journal of August 21st, sets forth the same at length as follows: The ceremony of laying the corner stone of the Floyd Monument was performed yesterday afternoon, and on the bluff overlooking the stream which he helped to explore at the opening of the century now stands the beginning of the tribute of this people to one of the men who assisted in making so much of the history of this great northwest. Yesterday morning the remains of the explorer were removed from their resting place, which was but a few feet from the present monument site, the spot being marked by a stone slab, which was placed over the grave by the Association August 20, 1895, when the remains were reinterred for a second time. The remains were placed in an urn which was deposited in the center of the base of the monu- ment and covered during the ceremony with concrete. There was some delay in the assembling of the members of Com- panies H and L and Reed's Band at the Armory, and the march was not begun from there until 1:25 o'clock. To the tap of a drum they filed off with guns glittering in the blazing sun down Sixth Street to Ne- braska, thence down Nebraska to Fourth. The members of General Hancock Post, No. 22, G. A. R., were to have been escorted from that point to the train, but the heat was cause for this and other formal plans to be abandoned. In the sun and dust the guardsmen to the number of sixty tramped to the waiting train, and, when they had crowded into the two coaches, already well filled, the signal was given to start. General Agent Cheyney was on hand to take personal charge 40 Report of Floyd Memorial Association of the special train furnished for the Floyd Memorial Association, no charge being made to passengers. The train left at 1:35, crowded to the platform steps with sweltering people. The baggage car was full and the aisles of both coaches were packed. There were some on the aepot platform who could not find even standing room. Probably 250 people went on the train. At the monument site, on the brow of the bluff above the Sioux City and Pacific tracks, crowds had already gathered in a black cluster of vehicles and people. Hundreds had driven from the city and others had driven in from the surrounding country. The cars discharged their hundreds, the guardsmen formed in line and to the music of a quickstep from the band they moved up the blistering hot slope in a scattering body. The heat was intense and many of the gray haired veterans of the G. A. R. struggled against deadly faintness which the suffocating warmth of the cars had begun. There were fears that prostrations would result. Later Andrew Anderson, of Company L, did topple over, but was soon revived. At the monument site, at almost exactly 2 o'clock, Rev. J. C. Mc- Clintock's voice invoking a blessing upon the memorial work stilled the talking of the throng. Geo. D. Perkins then spoke as follows: It is entirely fitting that the ceremonies of this day and time should be in the hands of the volunteer soldiers of the United States. Sergeant Charles Floyd was a volunteer soldier. He was the first citizen soldier, so far as is known, to die in the service of his country in the great territory west of the Mississippi River. Of his antecedents we know little. We know that his ancestors were Kentucky pioneers. The name of his father we do not know with certainty. The date and place of his birth are obscure. He was a humble, almost unknown, citizen of the young republic. Charles Floyd joined the Lewis and Clark Expedition in the fall of 1803 at a point in Illinois near the confluence of the two great rivers. From that point the expedition set forth in May, 1804, for the exploration of the unknown territory acquired from France. On the river just below us, and not far down stream, Sergeant Floyd, on the 20th of August, 1804, after an illness of a few hours, died. His comrades, with such honors as they could bestow, buried him not far from this spot on these Floyd bluffs. They marked his grave with a cedar post, the life of which linked that day with the pioneer life of Sioux City. The expedition of which Sergeant Floyd was a member was absent two and a half years; the active service of Sergeant Floyd with it was confined to ninety-nine days. In that brief time he wrote his history and made his name enduring. The journal kept by Floyd, singularly enough, disappeared with him until this later time. It was discovered at Madison, Wis., by the Secretary of the State Historical Society, on the 3d of February, 1894. It now has its place in the historical collection of the Lewis and Clark Expedi- tion. It is an unpretentious piece of writing. It narrates the simplest events. But it has relationship to the greatest event in our western history. The life destiny of every one of us is related to that history. All these great States west of the Mississippi River are intimately re- lated to that history. In that history was fashioned the anchor to the United States of America. The life of Sergeant Charles Floyd was a simple life. His mind was occupied with simple things. Yet his simple life and thought were associated with the mightiest events in our politi- cal and social and business history. No one can measure the influence of the Louisiana Purchase upon the history of the century. This being true, no one can measure the influence of that purchase upon the history of the world, written and yet to be written. The name of Laying the Corner Stone -Al Sergeant Charles Floyd was linked with the inception of that history; he had the part of a humble citizen soldier; he was faithful in his place. Nearly one hundred marvelous years have passed since the little band of explorers laid away here in the wilderness the mortal remains of their comrade. It was to them only a circumstance more mortal than the days of his service in camp and on the voyage. He was to be remembered by them alone. Wonderfully strange! The name of this poor soldier is a national heritage. We gather here today to place the corner stone of an enduring monument to his memory. We idealize the life and service of Sergeant Floyd. In honoring his memory we honor achivements of his time of which we are the beneficiaries. Tn nonoring his memory we honor the faithful service of unknown mil- lions of men. In honoring his memory we express our devotion to liberty, to country, and to the best hope of the world. The shaft which is to rise from this foundation is not alone for Sergeant Floyd. The cedar post was placed by the few; but this shaft, enduring as to time, is a testimonial from the Nation and from the State. It will stand as a testimonial to the service of one man; it will stand as a testimonial to the service of the expedition which made the first journey of the white man hitherward; it will stand as a testimonial to the courage, the patriotism, the foresight of the fathers of the republic; it will stand as a testimonial to the devoted lives of all the pioneers who have blazed the way for the millions who have followed; it will stand as a feeble testimonial to the providences of God, for whose leadership we continue to pray, and whose goodness and mercy throughout all the days of our national life we humbly acknowledge. What we owe. what our State and country owe, to what extent the future may be indebted, to the heroic pioneers in this land no words can measure. Their time and ours is not far separated. Even here today we may look into the faces of some of them and take their hands. The monument we are building here is to them. The names of some who gathered here upon this spot five years ago, and who gave such inspiration to the wor±v now about to be consummated, are enrolled upon the same great scroll as Sergeant Floyd's. We miss them today. We shall miss them more on the later occasion when we gather to commemorate the com- pletion of this work. But this monument will be also to them. The inception of this work cannot be definitely stated. We can at least trace it to the time when a few of our own pioneers gathered here in 1857 to rescue the remains of Sergeant Floyd from the passion of the river and give them safe reburial on this farther bluff. It does not appear, however, that any definite action looking to the erection of a permanent monument was taken until the Floyd Memorial Asso- ciation was organized in June, 1895. J. C. C. Hoskins was the pro- visional president, and C. R. Marks the provisional secretary. Later in the month Mr. Hoskins, on account of ill health, resigned, and John H. Charles was chosen to succeed him. The organization was completed and duly incorporated on the 20th of August following, when the remains of Sergeant Floyd were reburied for the second time and covered with the marble slab you see here. Mr. Charles is still the President of the Association. We are indebted to him for the opportunity of witnessing the laying of this corner stone today. The difficulties attending the work of the Association during the five years of its existence have been many. Mr. Charles has held the Associa- tion together, given liberally of his time and money, and he has held steadfastly to the purpose which is now so far on towards consum- mation. His devotion has inspired the devotion of others. Together they have met all difficulties and thus far and to this extent they have overcome all difficulties. The work was begun with empty hands. Even the spot of ground where the grave was belonged to alien acres. 42 Report of Floyd Memorial Association J The twenty-one acres connected with this monument have title now in the City of Sioux City. With the completion of this work the Asso- ciation may be expected to lapse, but there is faith that the City of Sioux City is enduring. The hope is that some day the ground will be parked and the place made beautiful. Certain it is that the mon- ument about to rise here will appeal constantly to public spirit and speak ceaselessly of the devotion of other men. It is needless for me on this occasion to undertake to outline to you the work of the Asso- ciation. The evidence is presented here that it has been well done. The members of the Association are grateful to all the sources of their help. Some have done little and some have done much. The Con- gress of the United States and the Legislature cf the State of Iowa, in a material way, have done most. Without these public appropria- tions this anniversary day could not have witnessed the ceremonies of this hour. It is proper that I should mention now the sense of obligation felt by the Association to Captain Chittenden, of the Army Engineer Corps, in charge of the Sioux City office, and under whose immediate super- vision and direction this monument is being erected. His service has been freely given in all the details of the work, and his knowledge and experience have greatly simplified the work of the Association and proved of great economy to the available funds of the Association. Congratulations are due to all who have been directly interested in this work. The grave made here so long ago has been a landmark of the century. W T e are emphasizing it now and making it a more enduring landmark for the centuries to come. When the comrades of Sergeant Floyd climbed the steep ascent to put away his body they looked forth on the same wonderful landscape which greets our eyes this August day. Over the abyss of years we cry Hail! and catch the echo. We feel our relationship to them and to this one whose bones are here. We leave the work of our own hands and the meditations of our hearts here as a testimony to generations yet to be of our rela- tionship to them. There was a visitor here in 1832 — George Catlin, the English painter and panegyrist. There were the same bluffs, the same mighty river, the same sweep of landscape fading away in the southerly hills. But there was vast loneliness. The loneliness of the solitary grave was supplemented by the picture of the surrounding wilderness. His apos- trophe and rhapsody bring us over the rugged way of the years nearer this living present. And this is what he wrote sixty-eight years ago: "Where heaven sheds its purest light, and lends its richest tints — this round-topped bluff, where the foot treads soft and light — whose steep sides and lofty head reach to the skies, overlooking yonder pic- tured vale of beauty — this solitary cedar post, which tells a tale of grief — grief that was keenly felt, and tenderly, but long since softened in the march of time and lost. Oh. sad and tear-starting contemplation! Sole tenant of this stately mound, how solitary thy habitation! Here heaven wrested from thee thy ambition, and made thee sleeping monarch of this land of silence. Stranger! Oh, how the mystic web of sympathy links my soul to thee and thy afflictions! I knew thee not, but it was enough; thy tale was told, and I, a solitary wanderer through thy land, have stopped to drop familiar tears upon thy grave. Pardon this gush from a stranger's eyes, for they are all that thou canst have in this strange land, where friends and clear relations are not allowed to pluck a flower and drop a tear to freshen recollections of endearments past. Stranger! Adieu. With streaming eyes I leave thee again, and thy fair land, to peaceful solitude. My pencil has faithfully traced thy beautiful habitation; and long shall live in the world, and familiar, the name of Floyd's grave." Laying the Corner Stone !-."> And here, on the anniversary of his death, with nearly a century of time lying between, we lay the corner stone for the shaft that is to perpetuate the record marked by the cedar post Before starting for Yellowstone Park in the evening after the cere- monies, Captain Chittenden sent to Mr. Perkins the following note: Sioux City, Iowa, August 20, 1900. My Dear Mr. Perkins: Before leaving town I want to thank you earnestly for the plain words of commendation bestowed upon the work of this office in connection with the Floyd Monument. Very truly yours, H. M. CHITTENDEN. Immediately after the conclusion of Mr. Perkins' address, Judge George W. Wakefield arose and announced that it had been decided instead of holding a meeting in the Court House to elect a Board of Trustees as usual on the evening of the anniversary of Sergeant Floyd's death, the election would be held at once. He therefore made a mo- tion that the present Board of Trustees be unanimously re-elected, which was quickly seconded and carried. The following constitute the Board of Trustees: John H. Charles, Geo. D. Perkins. C. R. Marks, M. B. Davis and D. A. Magee, of Sioux City; Mitchell Vincent, of Onawa, and A. M. Holman, of Sergeant Bluffs. Seated on the platform at the base of the monument were Colonel Madison B. Davis, Department Commander of the G. A. R. for Iowa; George A. Newman, Assistant Adjutant General for the Iowa Depart- ment, G. A. R.; Post Commander Chase, of General Hancock Post, No. 22, G. A. R. ; Senior Vice Commander W. S. Belden; Junior Vice Com- mander H. W. Allen, Chaplain C. H. Richardson, John H. Charles, President of the Floyd Memorial Association; Mrs. Francis N. Davis, Secretary; Mayor A. H. Burton, Geo. D. Perkins, Judge George W. Wakefield, E. H. Hubbard, C. R. Marks and Rev. J. C. McClintock. Previous to the commencement of the ceremony of the corner stone laying, Mayor A. H. Burton advanced to the base of the monument and above the urn which contained the remains of Sergeant Floyd he deposited a copper box. Mayor Burton said he had gathered together various articles as a representative of the committee selected for the purpose, which were to be placed in the monument base beside the remains. Shortly after the placing of the box and urn in its place, a concrete cover was made by Colonel Chittenden's corps. The box con- tained the following articles: Acts of Congress in relation to the erection and appropriation of the Floyd Monument; acts of the Iowa Legislature: history of the Lewis and Clark Expedition; printed accounts of the Floyd memorial services at different times; minutes of the meetings of the Association up to January, 1900; Polk & Co.'s directory of Sioux City, 1900-1901; municipal directory of 1901; United States coins and postage stamps; copies of the city papers containing accounts of the laying of the stone slab over Sergeant Floyd's grave, in August, 1895; Saturday's Times and Tribune and Monday morning's Journal; copies of the Northwestern Catholic and Union Advocate; official State register; G. A. R. button; photograph of President John H. Charles. The ceremony of the corner stone laying took place. The exercises were very impressive. Having been invited on behalf of the Floyd Memorial Association to do so, Colonel Davis and Colonel Newman 4-4 Report of Floyd Memorial Association conducted the exercises of the day. In the name of the soldiers and sailors of this great republic, Colonel Davis thanked President Charles for the honor conferred upon him. He then ordered the members of the guard of honor to take their places beside the monument shaft. The guard advanced. It was composed of nine stalwart young men, members of Companies H and L, under the leadership of First Lieut- enant Lindsay Kinney, of Company L, as follows: Corporal Knott, Privates Freary, Libbey, Anderson, Taylor, Hoag, Oliver, Smead. At the raising of the American flag Reed's Band played the "Star Spangled Banner." Post Commander Chase then read a scriptural quotation in its application to the navy, after which the officer of the guard was ordered to present the symbol of the navy, a large anchor draped in black, accompanied by a sailor to guard it. Senior Vice Commander Belden read a scriptural quotation as it related to the army. Colonel Davis then commanded the officer of the guard to bring forth the sym- bol of the army, a Springfield rifle, and detailed a soldier to guard it. Junior Vice Commander Allen then was asked to read a scriptural quotation as it related to the work under way, and read in reply: "The stone which the builders rejected the same has become the head of the corner," and other verses showing the application to the corner stone laying. Turning to Assistant Adjutant General Newman, Colonel Davis said at the conclusion of this portion of the ceremony: "If our work be well done, what can be your proclamation?" to which Colonel Newman replied: "The proclamation of Peace." As a concluding portion of the ceremonies, Colonel Davis said: "In the name of Fraternity I lay this corner stone," at the same time casting a vase of water over the stone. Flowers were strewn over the stone as he said, "In the name of Charity and Loyalty I lay this corner stone." In closing the ceremony Colonel Davis gave the stone three light raps with his gavel. During the exercises thanks were offered to the Almighty by Rev. C. H. Richardson, Chaplain. In addition to the ritual commonly used on such occasions, several very appropriate suggestions in connection with the ceremony were carried out in accordance with the ideas of some of the members of the Association. These added to the interest of the corner stone laying, but the most pleasing feature and most appropriate that could have been imagined was the actual assistance in the corner stone laying lent by President John H. Charles, who presided at the occasion. His untiring efforts in behalf of a suitable remembrance being made to the life and deeds of Sergeant Floyd have done much to enthuse others in the work, and to him is largely due the success the Association has met with since its organization. After the ceremony of the corner stone laying had been nearly completed by Colonel Davis and the stone had been lowered into place by Colonel Chittenden and his corps of workers, this gray haired old man, who had to be assisted from the platform to the spot, stooped down and knelt on the ground while he slowly applied several trowels of concrete between the corner stone and the stones on which it rested. After a selection by the band, E. H. Hubbard delivered an address, as follows: Fellow Citizens: We are at the final resting place of the first soldier of the republic to mingle his dust with the soil of the Louisiana Purchase. Ninety-six years ago today, but a short distance from this spot. Sergeant Floyd lay dying — his the only life to be sacrificed in that memorable expedition breaking the path across the continent. The eyes of the dying soldier may have rested upon the same glorious panorama of azure sky, of winding turbid river, of verdant plain and distant hills as that which now spreads before us. His comrades stood beside the open grave on yonder bluff, looking east and west and north Laving the Corner Stone 4-5 and south. They were encompassed by the unbroken wilderness and left him there in its lonely silence while they, bending to their oara again, pressed on to the fulfillment of their task. And lo! a miracle! Men still live who saw the light on that day. Scarcely two generations have come and gone, but a moment in history, and great states, popu- lous cities, farm and herd, factory and mine, millions of men, with their multiplied industries, occupy the land that was wilderness. We have realized the Arabian story. The genius of freedom has touched the desert with his wand, and palaces and blooming gardens spring from the waste. Here in this calm and peaceful spot, looking down on hill and plain, river and city, shall rise this monument of State's and Nation's gratitude for duty well performed. A memorial, too, of the wisdom and prophetic ken of that great man who. setting at naught political consistency, and valuing the welfare of his country rather than his interpretation of the constitution, fearlessly overriding all narrow technical objections, seized the opportunity offered by Na- poleon's hostility to England, and forever assured the greatness of the republic by making it master of the heart of the continent. Jefferson, doubtless, saw clearly only the immediate political consequences of the purchase. To him it meant, above all else, that the Mississippi should flow through the territory of the United States. To him and to his advisers the region beyond the Mississippi was an inhospitable waste, the settlement of which, if it were ever settled, was an affair of centuries. The timid reasonings of those partisans who opposed the purchase, urging that it was unconstitutional, that the land was worthless, that it would involve us in expensive war, were paralleled by the absurdity of some of the arguments on the other side. For example, it was gravely urged that up the Missouri somewhere was a great mountain of salt, enough to supply the world, an acquisition of immense value. But now upon this height, looking back along the course of history, trivialities, temporary policies disappear and this great event rises in its true proportions. Here for the first time do we see the United States asserting itself as a nation, assuming the rights and powers of a nation. Stronger than the logic of his politics, stronger than any limitation of written constitution, the necessities of the situation forced Mr. Jefferson into a recognition of national life, of the essential and necessary solidarity of the republic, and into a step which could in no way be reconciled with any theory of a mere confederacy or league of states. It is not difficult to see what would have been the probable course of events had this opportunity passed. With the downfall of Napoleon, if not before. Great Britain would have seized Louisiana. The young republic would have been hemmed in on all sides by a jealous and powerful foe. The growth of the great west and middle west, over- balancing the slave power, would have been Impossible. Faction would have torn asunder the discordant States. We might have anticipated the uneasy and troubled history of the South American republics, and the century, instead of witnessing this onward march of a free people, the development of the resources of a continent, this building of a home for peace and industry and freedom, might have seen the petty strifes of petty states enfeebled by the contentions of faction, their industry paralyzed by continual war. But how useless are these "might have beens." At every crisis in our history wisdom has counseled and courage has fought. Our destiny beckons us onward, still onward. To what we shall attain no man can dream. May the republic erected on a sure foundation stand firm and true from generation unto generation. At the conclusion of Mr. Hubbard's address the closing number, the national anthem, "America." was played by the band and many 4-6 Report ot Floyd Memorial Association present joined in the singing. Following this the salute to the dead of three volleys was fired over the grave, and "taps" was sounded by Musician Eric Knos. The crowd then broke up and there was a general scramble down the side of the hill for the train, where the first arrivals secured seats, for the crowd was so large that quite a number had to stand on the steps. Others made their way to carriages on the opposite side of the hill. The start for the city was made at 3:15 o'clock, the train arriving at the Northwestern Depot at 3:25 p. m. The corner stone was laid at the northeast corner. On the north side of the stone is the following inscription: August 20, A. D. 1900. Madison B. Davis, f Commander, Department of Iowa, Grand Army of the Republic. On the east end of the stone is the following inscription: H. M. Chittenden. Captain, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., Engineer and Architect. PART III. PROCEEDINGS AND DEDICATION OF MONUMENT. FLOYD MONUMENT. PART III. PROCEEDINGS AND DEDICATION OF MONUMENT XI. PROCEEDINGS BEFORE MAY 30, 1901. Abstract of Minutes.) Sioux City, Iowa, August 25, 1900. The Board of Trustees of the Association met at the rooms of the Scientific Association; President John H. Charles in the chair; Mrs. Francis N. Davis, Secretary; Geo. D. Perkins. C. R. Marks, Mitchell Vincent, A. M. Holman, M. B. Davis, Maris Peirce and Mrs. Charles present. The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: John H. Charles, President; Geo. W. Wakefield, First Vice President, and other Vice Presidents, viz.: Geo. D. Perkins, Maris Peirce, Joseph N. Field, Portus B. Weare, R. C. A. Flournoy, Horace G. Burt, Marvin Hughitt, Geo. F. Bidwell, James D. Butler, D. D.; Charles Aldrich, Mrs. Elliott Coues, H. D. Clark, S. P. Yeomans; Mrs. Francis N. Davis, Secretary; D. A. Magee, Treasurer. On motion of Mr. Vincent the thanks of the Association were tendered to Geo. F. Bidwell, of Omaha, for his kindness in furnishing railroad transportation to and from the grounds at the time of laying the corner stone. Sioux City, Iowa, September 6, 1900. Association met at office of U. S. Engineers; President Charles in the chair; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; Messrs. Bates, Magee, Peirce, Davis and Perkins present. Designs for bronze tablets were submitted by Gorham Co., Smith Co., and Paul Cabaret, and after consideration the designs of Gorham Co. were accepted, contract authorized and authority given to borrow $600, to be deposited with Captain Chittenden, to pay for tablets. The President announced committees: Committee on Finance— Maris Peirce, M. B. Davis. W. C. Daven- port, F. L. Ferris and D. A. Magee. Committee on Grounds— A. H. Burton, E. E. Lewis, George Murphy. T. J. Stone and H. J. Taylor. Committee on Legislation— Geo. W . Wakefield, Geo. D. Perkins, C. R. Marks, J. W. Hallam and Charles Aldrich. 50 Report of Floyd Memorial Association Sioux City, Iowa, October 27, 1900. Association met at office of U. S. Engineers; President Charles in the chair; Secretary Davis, Messrs. Perkins, Vincent, Davenport, Kelly, Stone, A. M. Holman, C. J. Holman, Bates, Davis and Mrs. Charles. Captain Chittenden reported progress of work, sixteen complete courses having been laid, and that while work might be completed in five weeks, it might be delayed by cool weather. It was the sense of the Association that thoroughness of work was more to be desired than hasty completion, as the season was far ad- vanced. Sioux City, Iowa, December 7, 1900. Association met at office of U. S. Engineers; President Charles pre- siding; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; Messrs. Stone, Marks, Magee, Burton, Perkins and Captain Chittenden present. Mr. Burton reported that the Committee on Grounds had arranged to do the grading in the vicinity of the monument as rapidly as pos- sible and to have the macadam put in next spring. Captain Chittenden made report of the progress of work as follows: UNITED STATES ENGINEER OFFICE. Custom House. Sioux City, Iowa, December 6, 1900. MR. JOHN H. CHARLES, President Floyd Memorial Association, Sioux City, Iowa. Dear Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report cover- ing the work of erection of the Floyd Monument to the present date: On June 26, 1900, a contract was made between the State of Iowa and the Minnesota Sandstone Company for furnishing the cut stone for the monument. The contract was to be completed on the 30th of September. Owing to delays which it was not found possible to avoid, the work at the quarry was not completed until November 17, and the last shipment of stone was made on November 18. Although by the terms of the contract payment could have been delayed until erection was completed, it was thought best to close the contract at once. The Company had done a satisfactory piece of work at a loss of from one- fourth to one-third of the full cost of the work, and it was felt to be only fair that their pay be not withheld until the work of erection is finished. But inasmuch as their delay prevented the completion of the erection during the present season, and thereby entailed considerable expense to the work, they were asked to bear this expense as a condi- tion of immediate settlement. To this they agreed and vouchers for final settlement were prepared and submitted to the Board of Com- missioners for the State of Iowa, having in charge the disbursement of the State appropriation. As a further condition of present settlement the Company were required to sign an agreement that if, upon resumption of the work of erection, there are found any stones that are defective through fault of the Company, they are to be replaced free of cost at the quarry, and if any stones have to be replaced not through any fault of the Company, they shall be furnished at the quarry at the contract price for that already furnished. Abstract of Minutes 51 The total cost of the work at the contract rates was $4,594.40 The amount deducted to cover cost of delay was , 294.40 Making the sum due in final settlement $4,300.00 Under date of July 16, 1900, a contract .was entered into on the part of the United States with Hansen Brothers, of Sioux City, Iowa, for the erection of the monument and the construction of the pavement around the base. These contractors have done satisfactory work. They would have completed their contract on time but for the delay in fur- nishing the stone. Up to the date when work was suspended on account of cold weather the stone work of the shaft had been carried to a height of 55 feet, and 3,124 cubic feet of a total of 4,460 cubic feet of stone had been laid. The concrete core had also been carried up to the same height. Although the rest of the stone might possibly have been laid this fall, it was felt to be unwise to take the chances of defective work, which might result if it were done in freezing weather. Moreover, as the work could not be finished in time to dedicate the monument this fall, there was no pressing necessity for continuing it at present. The unused stone was, therefore, carefully piled on the ground, housed against storms, and both the stone and the monument have been sur- rounded by a strong barbed wire fence. The cost of this work, as else- where stated, is borne by the contractors for the stone. Payment has been made to the erecting contractors for a portion of the work al- ready done, and their contract will be extended to the 31st of next May, by which time it is expected to have the work entirely completed. The contract for the steel fence around the monument was let to Hermann & Savage, of Sioux City, Iowa. The shop work is now nearly done, but is not being hurried any because it will not soon be needed. The contract for the tablets was let to the Gorham Manufacturing Company, of New York, and is now about completed. They have been asked not to ship the tablets just at present, as it is hoped that an opportunity will soon offer for inspecting the work before it leaves the shop. When the tablets are received they will be placed in the office for the winter, where they may be seen by the public. All other material required in the work, with very minor excep- tions, has now been purchased. It is desirable at the present meeting to take up the question of the preliminary improvement of the grounds around the monument and the disposition to be made of the stone slab which marked the previous burial place of Sergeant Floyd. While in Madison, Wis., recently I saw Prof. J. D. Butler, who showed me the original Floyd journal. He desired me to express to the Association his hope that they would find it possible to make a photographic reproduction of the journal for deposit in the interior of the monument. Very respectfully, H. M. CHITTENDEN. Captain, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A. 52 Report of Floyd Memorial Association The money statement accompanying Captain Chittenden's report was as follows: , Available Funds — By appropriation made by the United States $ 5,000.00 By appropriation made by the State of Iowa 5,000.00 By contribution made by Floyd Memorial Association 600.00 $10,600.00 By credit from sale of tools, Treas. Sett. No. 15608 95.25 Total available $10,695.25 To amount expended from United States funds, as per state- ment attached $ 3,091.24 Cash balance available December 7, 1900: United States funds $ 2,004.01 State funds, etc 5,600.00-$ 7,604.01 Outstanding Liabilities, December 7, 1900, to be paid: From United States Funds — Hansen Brothers, balance on contract $ 1,150.22 Hansen Brothers, retained percentages 113.13 Western Union Telegraph Co., telegrams 12.32 W. C. Davenport, team hire 6.38 John Malmquist, stone cutting 2.40 Office expenses (uncertain) 400.00 Storage of cement 15.60—$ 1,700.05 From State Funds — Minnesota Sandstone Company, stone $ 4,300.00 Hermann & Savage, fence 360.00 Hansen Brothers, storing, etc 125.75 Webb Bros. Co., cement 160.18 Placing tablets on monument (estimated) 50.00— 4,995.93 From Contributed Funds — Gorham Manufacturing Company, tablets $ 600.00— 600.00 Total liabilities $ 7,295.98 Cash balance $ 7,604.01 Total liabilities 7,295.98 Total available balance $ 308.03 Available balance United States funds $ 303.96 Available balance State funds 4.07 Available balance contributed funds Total available balance December 7, 1900 $ 308.03 Abstract ot Minutes 53 Payments to Date, December 7, 1900 — Date. To Whom Paid. For What Paid. Amount. 1900. June 1, Sundry persons pay roll May, 1900 % 63 81 " Sundry persons payroll May, 1900 13190 June 3, John C. Mooney hauling 109 20 Knapp & Spencer Co shovels, etc 40 50 Chas. E. Faeth Co wheelbarrows 52 50 Ma y 31, Sundry persons pay roll, May, 1900 66 33 Sundry persons pay roll, May, 1900 60 80 Sundry persons pay roll, May, 1900 3 00 O. L. Ferguson pay roll, May, 1900 2 00 Fred Ackley pay roll, May, 1900 5 75 W. W. Luckey pay roll, May, 1900 3 00 June 18, Treas. settlement No. 15,184. cement 51 60 June 19, Joseph Hutchinson stone 232 00 May 31, William Moore services 2 00 June 20, R. F. Bower services 3 00 " Western Union Tel. Co telegrams 2 98 June 22, John Malmquist polishing stone 40 W. C. Davenport team hire 22 50 H. E. Ingvoldstad excavation, etc 100 10 June 28, Webb Bros. Co cement 325 73 June 22, John C. Mooney hauling, etc 47 74 June 30, Treas. Settlement No. 11,930. telegrams 33 July 19, C, M. & St. P. Ry. Co switching 2 50 July 30, W. F. Tuttle hauling 1 36 George W. Kortright photographic supplies 3 50 Aug. 15, Treas. Settlement No. 12,576. telegrams 69 Aug. 17. G. W. Given Co sand 77 18 Sept. 17, Sundry persons pay roll, August, 1900 5 25 Sept. 19, Sears, Humbert & Co cement 105 00 Sept. 21, Iowa Telephone Co messages 1 60 Architectural Woodworks ...stakes 190 Sept. 26, Yellowstone Park Ass'n telegrams 43 Oct. 11, Capt. H. M. Chittenden mileage 1185 " John H. Queal & Co lumber 39 51 Webb Bros. Co cement 117 IS Sundry persons pay roll. September, 1900 20 45 Nov. 13, Yellowstone Park Ass'n telegrams 58 Nov. 17, W. C. Davenport team hire 18 75 Nov. 20, Brunner & Lay cement 1 50 Wilbur W. Wertz services 336 67 Dec. 5, Hansen Bros erecting monument 1,018 17 Total $3.09124 The grading of road was referred to Committee on Grounds. Captain Chittenden was authorized to move the stone tablet. The State Board of Commissioners reported drawing $4,300 of the State appropriation and payment of same for stone furnished, and this action was approved. Sioux City, Iowa. January 26, 1901. Association met; President Charles in the chair. The Finance Committee was advised that $400 at least would be needed before dedication of monument. 54 Report of Floyd Memorial Association Sioux City, Iowa, March 22, 1901. Association met at U. S. Engineers' office; President Charles in the chair; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; Mrs. Charles, Messrs. Wakefield, Chitten- den, Holman, Marks, H. J. Taylor, Perkins, Vincent, Davis and Wattles present. Captain Chittenden desired authority for completing his plans in regard to paving about the monument. He reported a prospect of re- suming work in a week and a donation of $500 from the Union Pacific Railway through its President, Horace G. Burt. The following resolution was adopted: Resolved, That Captain Chittenden be authorized to complete the extension of the concrete paving around the monument as per plans submitted by him. including the steel posts at the corners of the monument. On motion a committee of five, consisting of John H. Charles, C. R. Marks, Geo. W. Wakefield, M. B. Davis and H. J. Taylor, were ap- pointed to submit plans to the City Council at its next meeting, and Captain Chi.ttenden was requested to accompany the committee. Sioux City, Iowa, April 27, 1901. The Association met at rooms of Scientific Association; President Charles in the chair; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; Messrs. Perkins, Vincent, Chittenden, Stone, Ferris, Tees, Magee, Pinckney, Peirce, Marks, Bur- ton and E. E. Lewis present. An appropriation of $1,500 by the City of Sioux City for completion of roadway and pavement was reported. The following resolution was adopted: Resolved, That the thanks of this Association be given to the assisting force of the office of U. S. Engineers, and especially to Mr. Bathurst Smith, whose faithful supervision of the work of the monu- ment has been most gratifying to the Association. Captain Chittenden made a financial report showing a probable balance in the treasury, and spoke of the favors and concessions in the matter of freights from the railroads, resulting in great benefit to the Association. Mr. Marks was appointed a committee of one to present suitable resolutions at the next meeting. Captain Chittenden reported that the roadway and paving might not be completed as early as May 30. The question whether the dedication should be fixed for a later date was largely discussed. A motion by Mr. Ferris that the dedica- tion be fixed for May 30, 1901, carried unanimously, and a Committee of Arrangements with full power was appointed, viz.: D. A. Magee, Geo. D. Perkins and T. C. Tees by the Association; M. B. Davis, J. E. Ayres and W. S. Belden by General Hancock Post, G. A. R.; and L. L. Kellogg, A. H. Burton and E. C. Tompkins by the Mayor on the part of the City. Abstract of Minutes 55 Sioux City, Iowa, May 8, 1901. The Committee of Arrangements met at the Mayor's office; all the members present, and also President John H. Charles and Vice Presi- dents Wakefield and Vincent. Geo. D. Perkins was chosen President, D. A. Magee, Secretary, and E. C. Tompkins, Treasurer, of the com- mittee. The committee decided to hold short exercises of dedication at the monument in the forenoon, to have a parade in the afternoon, and the principal address of the day at the Opera House by Hon. John A. Kasson, who has a national reputation as an orator and diplomat, and to hold a meeting at the Court House in the evening, at which Dr. Butler and Dr. Yeomans will speak. The following sub-committees were appointed: Transportation — George T. Bidwell, General Manager of the Sioux City and Pacific; Horace G. Burt, President of the Union Pacific Rail- road Company; Mitchell Vincent, of Onawa. Exercises— Geo. W. Wakefield, John C. Kelly, A. H. Burton. Opera House— F. L. Ferris, D. A. Magee, A. B. Beall. Printing— D. A. Magee. Finance— L. L. Kellogg, E. C. lompkins, T. C. Tees. Speakers and Invitations — John H. Charles, Geo. D. Perkins, M. B. Davis. Music — G. M. Gilbert, Chairman. At subsequent meetings the several committees made reports. The Transportation Committee reported securing a special train to the Park on the occasion and transportation for distinguished visitors, and other concessions. All civic and other organizations were invited by follow- ing formal letter: Inclosed find general invitation for the celebration of the comple- tion of the Floyd Monument. We also inclose an invitation to your organization to participate in the exercises, which will be of special interest. In addition to the dedication of Floyd's Monument, which will take place in the forenoon, in the afternoon there will be a general parade, in which the Grand Army of the Republic and Companies H and L, of the Iowa National Guard, will take part. An invitation has been extended to all patriotic and civic societies to join in the parade. We most earnestly and cordially invite you to take part in the parade. The place of rendezvous and line of march will be announced through the press. Authority was given to place a monument badge on sale. Geo. D. Perkins was made General Chairman for the day. A vote of thanks was extended to the Board of Supervisors for the generous donation of $800 to help defray expenses of the dedication and get the Associa- tion through without any debt hanging over it. The members of the General and Sub-committees were appointed by President Charles to act with him as a Reception Committee for the day. The Opera House was secured for $25, half the usual charge, A. B. Beall, Manager, making the reduction as his contribution to the ex- penses of the day. 56 Report of Floyd Memorial Association On report of Committee on Exercises the following programme was adopted: Chairman of the Day — Geo. D. Perkins. Officers of Floyd Memorial Association: President — John H. Charles. Secretary — Mrs. Francis N. Davis. Treasurer — D. A. Magee. Morning, 8 o'clock- Committees of the G. A. R. and W. R. C. to receive flowers at the various school houses; to proceed to Floyd, Logan Park and Mt. Calvary cemeteries and decorate the graves of soldiers. 10:15 o'clock- Train to leave Sioux City and Pacific railway depot, with members of the Floyd Memorial Association, G. A. R., W. R. C, D. A. R., S. A. R., National Guards, civic societies, citizens and guests, for Floyd's Bluff. 10:45 o'clock- Invocation by Rev. W. S. Vail, pastor of Unity church. Music, Fourth Regiment Band. Report of Col. H. M. Chittenden, U. S. A., engineer in charge of the erection of the Floyd monument, and the formal tender of the same to the Floyd Memorial Association, through its president, John H. Charles. Acceptance by the president and response in behalf of the Associa- tion by Vice President George W. Wakefield. President John H. Charles unveils the memorial tablet. Address by L. M. Kean. Music, Fourth Regiment Band. Dedication service by G. A. R. Salute and taps. 11:45 o'clock- Return by train to the city. Afternoon, 1:30 o'clock — Parade to form at Library building, march to Pearl, in Pearl to Fourth, in Fourth street to viaduct and return to Grand Opera House. Parade Committee — M. B. Davis, D. A. Magee, 0. P. McCray. Marshal — Captain W. S. Belden. Assistant Marshals — Captain W. E. Gantt, Captain Henry Nichols. 3 o'clock, at Grand Opera House — Invocation, Rev. William Salter, D. D. Music, "Memorial Song," by Mehul; Miss Bertha Benedict, Miss Alice Barbour, Mrs. Frederick Heizer, Miss Lucy Kent. Grand Army memorial service for the dead, including "When We Pass Through the Mist," by G. A. R. quintet; accompanist, Mrs. Mary Drew Wilson. Music, "How Sleep the Brave?" by Fisher; ladies' quartet. Address, Hon. John A. Kasson. Music, "America." Abstract of Minutes 57 Evening, 8 o'clock, at the Court House — Music. Address, Dr. J. D. Butler. Music. Address, Dr. S. P. Yeomans. Music, "America." The parade, arranged by Captain W. S. Belden, marshal, was as follows: Platoon Mounted Police. Reed's Band. Captain W. S. Belden, Marshal. Company H, Fifty-Second Regiment, I. N. G., Under Command of Cap- tain W. E. Gantt. Company L, Fifty-Second Regiment, I. N. G., Under Command of Cap- tain H. E. Nichols. Spanish War Veterans. Members of General Hancock Post, G. A. R., and Other Veterans. Members of the Women's Relief Corps, in Carriages. Floyd Memorial Association and Distinguished Visitors, in Carriages. Mayor and Members of the City Council, in Carriages. Canton Soo, Patriarchs Militant, in Full Uniform. Civic Societies. Citizens in Carriages. The line of march was west in Sixth to Pearl; south in Pearl to fourth; east in Fourth to the viaduct; countermarch in Fourth to the Grand Opera House. The Tribune, of Sioux City, of May 25, 1901, gava an extended review of historical data and the work of the Association with pro- gramme for dedication of the monument, from which the following is quoted: Towering straight, conspicuous and substantial, an index finger in history, wnere tne hum of the adjacent city is like the murmur of the prairie winds that sweep the bluff where it stands, the monument to Sergeant Charles Floyd, patriot and adventurous explorer, of the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1803, was dedicated with fitting ceremonies on Thursday. May 30. % * * ''fi * # * * * ^ * There are few more inspiring views in the west than was to be had from the capstone before the scaffolding was taken down. The wind- ings of the Missouri could be traced far up into South Dakota, and still fartner down between Iowa and Nebraska. To the west across the stream lie the beautiful plains of Dakota County, Neb.; westward is the city, and beyond this the silver thread of the Big Sioux, forming the boundary between Iowa and Dakota; still farther on lie the beau- tiful prairies and farms of Union County. South Dakota, visible for 58 Report of Floyd Memorial Association many miles. To the east are the great bluffs of the Iowa side of the river, and to the south the broad plains of the bottom spread out, visible on a clear day as far away as Onawa, thirty odd miles away. In the circle of vision lie something like a dozen towns and villages, besides the city, with very gems from the landscape of three of the States that were carved out of the Louisiana Purchase. The Journal of May SO- also gave an extensive review, with cuts of pages in Floyd's journal, of the Captains Lewis and Clark, of the monument, and of members of the Association. The following is from the editorial page: Memorial Day, with the old soldiers so thick about us, and with so many young soldiers in the field to support them, does not diminish in interest. There is pathos in the touching ceremony of decorating with flowers the graves of the soldier dead, to the number of which each year makes contribution. The old soldiers may give up much in the public exercises of the day, but this gentle office of putting flowers on the graves of their comrades they do not surrender. Memorial Day in Sioux City this year has peculiar interest, for the celebration of it groups the record of the soldier dead for a century. On the 20th of August, 1804, Sergeant Charles Floyd, the young Ken- tuckian member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, was buried by his comrades near by on a bluff overlooking the Missouri River, up which stream the party was making its tedious way. From time to time the grave, lonely in the wilderness, was discovered, observation on the simple cedar post noted, and cared for. Six years ago the Floyd Me- morial Association began the active work of marking the spot and the history of it in an enduring way. The bones of the Kentucky soldier of that long ago were reburied under a marble slab. The ground was purchased, and enough of it to provide a memorial park. Congress was appealed to, and an appropriation secured; the State Legislature was appealed to, and an appropriation secured. The City of Sioux City made contribution; the County of Woodbury added a needful sum at the close. Meanwhile individuals gave in time and money. The dedication of the noble shaft near the spot where the comrades of Sergeant Floyd buried him ninety-seven years ago is the result of this giving and of this effort. It is an enduring testimony to the heroic patriotism of our valley for one hundred years. The consummation of this work is due more to the steady purpose of the President of the Floyd Memorial Association than to any other man. The monument is a monument to him. He is an old man now, and a Sioux City pioneer. He is not strong in the flesh, but he is strong in the spirit, and his devotion to this work has brought the help that was needed. The building of this monument, linking together the beginnings of two centuries, has stimulated study of all the history with which the Lewis and Clark Expedition has direct and relative associa- tion, and thereby a wonderful view has been opened of the marvelous development of the republic of the United States. The monument will remain to direct the thought of many generations and to stimulate the faith and patriotism of a length of time not now to be measured. Not a great work, to be sure; but the landmark of a century, rich in memory, great in achievement, marvelous in testimony of the in- scrutable providence that has led the way. Sioux City may not soon have another such Memorial Day — such a day of far reach into the past; such a day of firm hold upon the present. It is blessed for the old soldiers who have survived to have this wonder- ful evidence, gathered as in flowers, in reward for the love of country, the sacrifice of the years, the faith in the flag, the devotion to comrades, which is the glory of their lives and with which they approach as Dedication of the Monument 59 heroes the end of their days. The death of Sergeant Floyd in that long ago was a sad death; at the end of a century it is glorious. From a poem by E. R. Mousseau, published in the Journal of May 30, 1901, the following lines are taken: Lo! years have passed since that salute's last peal Awoke the thunders o'er that lonely grave. The wild flowers' wafted incense seemed to steal From gaudy censers swinging o'er the brave. And yet today the voice of Time bids Fame To call from shadows of the past his name, And place it on a monument to rise — A sculptured vision 'gainst the eastern skies. As passing centuries shall onward roll, The letters written on oblivion's page Become a dim and blank, unmeaning scroll Of lives forgotten with some vanished age. But when the deathless hand of Memory Writes 'mid the ashes of the tomb, where all can see The names enshrined in immortality, A nation's herald 'mid the first shall be. XII. DEDICATION OF THE MONUMENT. The following account of the services in connection with the dedi- cation of the monument is collated from the contemporary reports in the city newspapers, particularly the Sioux City Journal : May 30, Memorial Day, 1901, was a great day, an ideal day. The weather could not have been finer. Not a cloud flecked the deep azure of the heavens, and a warm sun and a cool breeze combined to make the day perfect. No ceremony could have been conducted under more auspicious circumstances than were those of this great day. Arrange- ments had all been made for transportation and reception of the guests so that there was not the slightest delay or jar. The programme was followed as well as if it had been rehearsed a dozen times. The specta- tors were enthusiastic and the speakers were eloquent. Bright and early this Memorial Day flags were flung to the breeze from the different public buildings and bunting and flags were dis- played from business houses and private residences. The committees from the Grand Army of the Republic went to Floyd, Logan Park and Mt. Calvary Cemeteries with a great quantity of flowers to strew on the graves of the soldiers. The flowers were gathered by the school chil- dren and made into wreaths and clusters by the members of the Women's Relief Corps and other women the day previous at G. A. R. Hall. Besides the floral decorations by the G. A. R. a great many people went out to the cemeteries to place flowers on the graves of their dead, and the grassy mounds were nearly all brightened with flowers of one sort or another. Over each soldier.'s grave a small flag fluttered in the breeze. Carriages and conveyances of all sorts passed through the burial places and the cities of the dead were populous with people who were there to observe Memorial Day. 60 Report of Floyd Memorial Association The detail that went to the Floyd Cemetery was: J. S. Lothrop, A. D. Collier, W. A. Welch, J. H. Bulworth, J. A. Summerville, E. W. Rice and James Leitch. The detail that visited Logan Park and Mt. Calvary Cemeteries was: Captain M. W. Murphy, T. P. Tredwell and J. E. Huffman. The special train furnished free of charge by the Sioux City and Pacific Railway Company was loaded down with people when it left the Northwestern Station at 10:15 o'clock in the morning, bound for the monument. Every seat was occupied and a large number had to stand up in the aisles and on the platforms. The first three coaches were set apart for the members of the G. A. R. and the W. R. C, many of whom were present in a body. The train was in personal charge of George F. Bidwell, General Manager of the Sioux and Pacific and Elkhorn lines, and M. M. Betzner, General Agent of the Northwestern in Sioux City. The last coach on the train, which was the private car of Mr. Bidwell, was occupied by the distinguished visitors of the day. When the special train arrived at the Monument Park the crest of the steep mound was already fringed with a black line of people, and many were climbing upon the concrete slope of the monument's base to look at the tablets through the silver tinted bars of the iron fence. On the west side of the shaft were placed chairs for the speakers and notable guests. The central figure was that of the venerable John H. Charles, President of the Floyd Memorial Association, wrapped in his black cape and surmounted by a black slouch hat, from beneath the brim of which he smiled happily. His wife also sat near by. An- other personage who was pointed out and studied with much interest by those who found out who he was was Iowa's statesman and diplomat, John A. Kasson, who was chatting with Mrs. Francis N. Davis, Secre- tary of the Floyd Memorial Association. Another prominent figure was Dr. William Salter, of Burlington, who came to Iowa when she was one of the infant States. J. C. C. Hoskins and Mrs. Hoskins were numbered among those who deserve to be called old timers. There was N. Levering, of Los Angeles, Cal., who in 1857, had charge of the reinterment of the remains of Sergeant Floyd at the time they were nearly washed into the Missouri; Dr. S. P. Yeomans, of Marshalltown, an old resident of Sioux City; Dr. James D. Butler, of Madison, Wis., the discoverer and possessor of the journal written by Floyd on his trip with Lewis and Clark; Mitchell Vincent, of Onawa, to whose efforts were due the excellent preparations for transportation of the people to the monument: O. D. Wheeler, of St. Paul, Assistant General Passen- ger Agent of the Northern Pacific Railroad; Mrs. Elliott Coues, of Wash- ington, wife of the historian of the Lewis and Clark Expedition; Mrs. Stephen Fields, of Northboro, Iowa, whose father, William Britton, was a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Facing the monu- ment were seats for the old settlers and the wives and other guests of the members of the Association. Among the pioneers were Philip Schneider, whose residence in this city dates back to 1856; George Murphy, who came here in 1854: Judge Addison Oliver, of Onawa; B. M. Yeomans. Alexander Elliott, D. A. W. Perkins, of Newcastle. Neb.; John Hittle, C. R. Marks, B. P. Yeomans and Congressman Lot Thomas. Surrounding the monument and covering the whole available surface of the hill upon which the shaft rests was a throng of spectators. It is estimated that about 2,000 persons were gathered there to witness the dedicatory ceremonies. The great crowds gathered close about the monument. Prominent visitors were ushered to seats just outside the railing about the shaft. Reed's Band played patriotic airs. When the last strains had died away and all had settled in their places, Geo. D. Perkins, Chairman of Dedication of the Monument 61 the day's exercises, called to order and announced that Rev. Walter S. Vail, of the First Unitarian Church of Sioux City, would pronounce the invocation: Our Father Who Art in Heaven: Standing in the bright sunlight of this beautiful day, when nature is alive with gladness, and hope seems in the very atmosphere, we remember the task finished, the duty performed, the long anxieties of waiting hearts satislied. Viewing the passing scenes of a century, watching the onward and steady move- ment of civilized life, the rise of institutions of learning and religion, we stand, O, Father, as we cross this century line the inspiration of tnat larger faith and better hope always felt when we view the worthy deeds and coming hopes of man. And seeing what has been wrought by the sacrifice of men, feeling that Thy hand has ever led out of wilderness into larger life, we thank Thee for those who have been most earnest in building up our life; and we remember not only those, but the brave, the strong, the true who have placed the foundations in the footsteps of the explorer on which have been Luilded the life of civilization, in its industrial, its educational and its religious aspects. And now, 0. Father, we thank Thee for these men and women who are here present, as well as for those who have passed on, to whose industry, energy, faith and good courage the present result is due. And now keep us all ever fixed on the highest ideals, and may our lives, like theirs, show forth the fruits of good. Amen. After a musical selection by Reed's Band, Mr. Perkins introduced Colonel H. M. Chittenden. 01 the Government Corps of Engineers, the architect and supervising engineer of the monument. He was greeted with applause as he arose and spoke as follows in delivering the com- pleted monument to the Memorial Association: Mr. President and Members of the Floyd Memorial Association: The history of the Floyd Monument has been that of continuous growth. In its earlier stages it was scarcely hoped to secure more than an ordinary snait, perhaps forty or fifty feet high, costing some $4,000 oi- ls, 0C0. It was expected to raise the necessary funds by private sub- scription. You will recall that a distinguished member of this Asso- ciation at that time thought it unadvisable even to ask for Government aid lest the movement be killed by the delays and complications which often characterize the execution of public works. Other counsels pre- vailed, however, and the Government was induced to give tne sum of $5 000 toward the work. The State of Iowa, upon whose soil the monu- ment was to stand, gave a like sum. The City of Sioux City, Iowa, in one of whose parks this shaft will hereafter be the most imnortant feature, gave $1,500. The County of Woodbury gave $800. Private donations added $1 000 more. The several railroads centering at this point have contributed free of charge all services desired of them. The work of erection was placed in charge of the local United States Engineer Office, and the services of trained employes have been avail- able for designing and superintendence at comparatively small cost to the Association. It has thus come about that the modest original con- ception of what the Floyd Monument should be has grown into the result which we have before us today — a work whose actual cost will come close to $20,000. No one foresaw so considerable a result in the beginning, nor its full development until near the end. The Association has proceeded carefully throughout. It has taken no step in the dark. No liabilities have been incurred for which the funds were not clearly in sight, and the work nas not at any time experienced a shadow oif financial em- barrassment. 'Its completion finds the Association with every pecuniarv obligation discharged and a creditable balance in its treasury. 62 Report of Floyd Memorial Association The monument itself is a solid masonry obelisk, built in the most substantial manner in careful conformity with the proportions of the ancient Egyptian models. The stone used is the Kettle River sandstone of Minnesota, well known as one of the best building stones in the United States. It was quarried and cut by the Minnesota Sandstone Company, of Minneapolis. The work of erection and the construction of the surrounding pavement have been done by Hansen Bros., of Sioux City. The steel picketing for the protection of the monument has been built by Hermann & Savage, of this City. The bronze tablets are from the foundry of the Gorham Manufacturing Company, of New York. The work on the monument is throughout of high grade, and nothing has been omitted which was considered essential to its appearance and permanence. The height of the shaft is a trifle over 100 feet above its base, which is 125 feet above standard low water in the Missouri River. Its dimen- sions are such that it possesses a factor of safety of three against over- turning with a wind pressure of forty pounds per square foot simulta- neously developed over an entire face. The foundation is a solid mono- lith of the best concrete that can be made, and weighs 278 tons. Its bearing surface upon the ground beneath is 484 square feet. The total pressure upon this bed is 844 tons, or one and three-fourths tons per square foot, and it has so far failed to produce any appreciable settle- ment. The actual construction of the monument has been a matter of just about one year's work. The foundation was laid May 29, 1900; the corner stone August 20, 1900; the capstone April 22, 1901, and the completed work is being dedicated on this Memorial Day of the year 1901. Such, Mr. President, are the essential data pertaining to the monu- ment erected to "perpetuate the grave and memory of Sergeant Charles Floyd," and to commemorate certain great events in our country's history with which his brief career was identified. It remains for me, as engineer and architect of the work, to declare it finished and deliver it, through you, to the Floyd Memorial Association, under whose au- spices it has been brought to successful completion. President John H. Charles was next introduced as the man "with- out whose unremitting care this monument would not have been built." As Mr. Charles slowly arose to his feet the people broke into loud applause. "I thank you," he said, addressing the Chairman, "and I thank Colonel Chittenden for the manner in which he has presented his work, and for his untiring efforts in assisting in accomplishing this grand thing for the past and the future. And now in behalf of the Association I receive this monument." Judge George W. Wakefield, Vice President of the Association, in behalf of President Charles and the Association, accepted the monu- ment, speaking as follows: Colonel H. M. Chittenden: In behalf of John H. Charles, the ven- erable and public spirited President of the Floyd Memorial Association, who has longingly looked forward to this day for more than forty years, and who has done more than any other man to bring it about, and in behalf of the Floyd Memorial Association and very many co-workers with it during the last six years, and in behalf of our City, County, State and Nation, each having contributed to this end, I accept and receive from you this memorial shaft erected to the memory of Sergeant Dedication of the Monument 63 Charles Floyd and the Lewis and Clark Expedition, this finished work so well done, so appropriate and fitting in every detail which has been tendered to us with such happy and well chosen words. We feel a just pride in the consummation of our labors, which we celebrate on this national holiday, set apart for the commemoration of the deeds of heroism and valor of our soldiers and sailors on land and on sea. This occasion we cannot forget while we live, and this en- during shaft will serve to keep it green in the minds and hearts of those who come after us. It is a glorious monument. It marks the last resting place of one who lost his life in the service of his country. It commemorates the exploration of an empire wilderness and its growth into a vast and wonderful civilization within the memory of some standing here. It is a bloodless monument, and stands for the best in the arts of peace. It stands for the purchase of territory with the money of the merchant, and not by war, devastation and conquest. The gallant citizen-soldier resting here died of disease while on a peaceful mission. Great States have grown up out of this territory under the fostering care of peace. This shaft has been designed and reared with such consummate skill and care that in its erection no human life has been lost nor anyone maimed. I congratulate you, sir, the architect and superintendent in charge of this work, and all who have assisted in its construction, upon its successful completion, and assure you all that our thanks, gratitude and kindest wishes go with you always. Mr. Charles here arose and released the large American flag veiling the bronze tablet in the face of the shaft, and as he stood there looking at in the perfection of its detail the spectators cheered with enthusiasm. L. M. Kean, one of the descendants of Thomas Jefferson, in whose administration the Louisiana Purchase was consummated, was intro- duced and spoke as follows: Mr. President. Ladies and Gentlemen: We meet today for the establishment of one of those mile posts on the pathway of a nation's life, which have ever been set up by all peoples to mark their progress. Sometimes the movement so marked is backward instead of forward, though at the time this is seldom or never perceived. It would seem, therefore, that it is not inopportune to pause while we are bestowing memorial wreaths and chaplets and to consider the way we have passed and whither our steps are tending. Change is a law of human life, and no human institutions have ever yet been stable. We are fond of saying that our institutions will be perpetual. God grant that this might be so. It rests with each of us to do his part in determining whether the future will bear out this proud boast. No one of us can rightly do his nart without a clear understanding of the basis of our institutions and remaining ever mindful of what is permanent and ought to be enduring therein. The great charter of our liberties recites "That all men are created equal: that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights: that among them are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness." This is the keystone of the arch of our institutions. We find then that the cardinal principle of our system" is a recognition that every human being has "inalienable rights." Not only rights, but rights of such nature and dignity that not even he himself can divest himself of them 64 Report of Floyd Memorial Association save by forfeiting them as the necessary penalty of personal trans- gression. Such rights necessarily imply corresponding duties, not the least of which is the recognition of any respect for the like rights of every other human being. In short, the bedrock of our whole fabric is pure righteousness; not only as between man and man, but as between people and people. For a people to have such a foundation for their institutions is a new thing upon earth. No other people on God's green earth has or ever had a like basis for their institutions. Surely it is a basis which ought to be enduring and to sustain enduring institutions. This ideal of the application of the standard of pure righteousness to all our dealings as individuals and a community is the standard the fathers set up for us to live by. They worked towards it, and succeeding generations have according to their lights endeavored to live by it. This alone is the reason that our diplomacy has been so- uniformly successful even when we were a weak and struggling nation. So long as this principle and this standard are kept in sight and lived by, not only in our relations amongst ourselves as individuals, muni- cipalities and States, but also in our dealings and relations with other peoples, tribes and nationalities, just so long is there a safe and sure guaranty for the liberties and rights of the individual citizen. When this standard and this ideal is lost sight of or ignored, then the free- dom of the individual citizen is instantly put in jeopardy, and safety is only to be found in a return to first principles. For these reasons it is good for us each and every one to go back from time to time and refresh ourselves by a study of and reflection upon the fundamental principles of our institutions. It is necessary that we from time to time refill our lamps, trim the wicks and relight them at the sacred fire that burns forever on the altar of the temple of our political religion. If we fail to do this we are in danger of find- ing ourselves in darkness. The way is ever beset with dangers, pit- falls, snares and byways leading to destruction. Sordid greed of in- dividuals or communities, personal ambitions and even personal hatreds, the undue stimulation of erroneous and distorted ideas of national grandeur; all these and more dangers we meet upon the way, and without the light of truth to guide our feet we are ever liable to be misled or to fall by the wayside. It is, therefore, the highest duty on the part of each and every one of us to see to it that nothing is done to impair or distract from this high ideal. That the standard of righteousness is ever kept in mind and sight that we may enjoy and hand down to our children and children's children, even as we have received it, this high exalted ideal of the basic principles of our insti- tutions. That our institutions may be made perpetual in the only way in which it is possible for them to be so, namely, by deserving so to be in the sight of God as well as the aspiration of man — that American Liberty so beautifully typified by the French sculptor. Bartholdi, in his colossal statue placed in New York harbor may really enlighten the world with a flame that cannot die, because it is ever fed by the im- perishable elements of righteousness and truth. Let each of us, then, as we depart hence to our several homes, go with a firm resolve, by thought, word, act and vote, ever to see to it that there be no change or detraction from this high ideal of the fathers. That no man be permitted to do anything to undermine this foundation stone of our institutions. That the keystone be kept in place and the perfect arch remain intact. That the blessed heritage we have received be handed down pure and undefiled to the remotest generation. And may every man who would lead this people astray and in aught detract from their high ideal, set up any other standard for personal or national action, and so undermine and take away Dedication of the Monument 65 in the least degree the rights of the individual, meet the fate of the Jew who laid his sacrilegious hand upon the ark of the covenant of the living God. The ceremonies of dedication were then performed by the officers of General Hancock Post of the G. A. R., under command of Depart- ment Commander M. B. Davis. These ceremonies were performed with great dignity and solemnity, and made an impressive dedication of the noble shaft. The guard of honor, composed of details from Companies H and L, of the Fifty-second Regiment. I. N. G., under command of Lieutenant Charles Kloster. was posted beside the monu- ment within the inclosure of the fence. The guard was made up as follows: Sergeants Eric Knos and Charles Feuchter; Privates Carl Anderson, George W. Finch, William Johnson, Robert McClintock and William Rolf. The Stars and Stripes were then raised on the flag staff, and as they slowly unfurled to the breeze the band played the familiar ft strains of the "Star Spangled Banner." The symbol of the army was then posted in front of the shaft. This was represented by Elmer Peterson, dressed in the uniform of a soldier and bearing a musket, with fixed bayonet, haversack and canteen. The symbol of the navy, which was then set up, was represented by William Dale, dressed in the cos- tume of a jackie and holding a large anchor, crossed with a cutlass and boarding pike. In the name of Fraternity, that it might be spread among men, in the name of Charity, that charity might be shed abroad in all hearts, in the name of Loyalty, that the spirit of loyalty may be known and established everywhere, as Commander of the Department of Iowa of the Grand Army of the Republic Colonel Davis dedicated the memorial shaft to the memory of Sergeant Charles Floyd. Post Chaplain Captain T. C. Prescott offered the prayer of dedication. Dr. James Davie Butler was introduced to show the audience the precious journal of Sergeant Floyd, which he found in the historical collection at Madison, Wis., his home. "We have here,'" he said, as he lifted in his hand a small book, "an obelisk which Sergeant Floyd erected himself. This monument endures forever. It is preserved by the art preservative of all arts. Its lines have gone out in all the earth. These stones may perish, but these lines shall endure. While these words go abroad everywhere, this obelisk is stationary, and some day it will be resolved back again to the sand of which it was first agglom- erated. This book is Sergeant Floyd's enduring monument. The date of his last entry was August 18. On August 20 he was buried here." The bugler, H. H. Clubb. then blew "retreat," the flag was lowered, the symbols were removed and the crowd began to break up. A firing squad of twenty-four men discharged three volleys with almost perfect precision, and the echoes of the last volley had not ceased to resound over the hill tops when the beautiful clear notes of the bugle sounded "taps," thus completing finally the establishment of tne magnificent memorial to Sergeant Floyd. INSCRIPTION WEST FACE. ® FLOYD ® THIS SHAFT MARKS THE BURIAL PLACE OF SERGEANT CHARLES FLOYD A MEMBER OF THE LEWIS AND CLARK EXPEDITION HE DIED IN HIS COUNTRY'S SERVICE AND WAS BURIED NEAR THIS SPOT AUGUST 20, 1804. GRAVES OF SUCH MEN ARE PILGRIM SHRINES SHRINES TO NO CLASS OR CREED CONFINED. ERECTED A. D. 1900 BY THE FLOYD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION AIDED BY THE UNITED STATES AND THE STATE OF IOWA. INSCRIPTION EAST FACE. IN COMMEMORATION OF THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE MADE DURING THE ADMINISTRATION OF THOMAS JEFFERSON, THIRD PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. APRIL 30, 1803. OF ITS SUCCESSFUL EXPLORATION BY THE HEROIC MEMBERS OF THE LEWIS AND CLARK EXPEDITION OF THE VALOR OF THE AMERICAN SOLDIER AND OF THE ENTERPRISE. COURAGE AND FORTITUDE OF THE AMERICAN PIONEER, TO WHOM THESE GREAT STATES WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER OWE THEIR SECURE FOUNDATION. 68 Report of Floyd Memorial Association The exercises of the afternoon commenced at ~ o'clock, when the column of the parade, made up of the veterans of the Civil War, the siou\ City c panies of the Iowa National Guard ami represents lives of the civic societies, moved from its place of organization at Sixth ami Douglas St feels and took I lie line of march down Fourth Street to the viaduct and returning to the Opera House for the after- noon memorial services. There was an unusually good representation of the members Of the (I. A. R, in the line of march under the standard of General HanCOCk Post, and as the line of veterans, many of whom are bent with accumulated years, passed before the holiday crowd it was repeatedly cheered. The parade was led by a company of mounted police in Charge of Officer William T. Reeve, himself an old soldier and a member of the <!. A R, Following the mounted police marched Heed's Hand. Caplain W S Belden, Marshal of the Hay, mounted on a bay charger, headed the column. General Hancock Pos1 was under the command of w. L. wilkius. Companies ii ami i.. under the command of Captains Gantt and Nichols, led the second division of Hie parade. Woodlawn Guards, Of Camp No, 2, W. 0. W.. with thirty men in line, and Canton Sioux. Patriarchs Militant, with thirty six in line, made an excellent appearance in uniform. Four carriages carrying the city officials brought up the rear of the parade. The line of march was from Sixth and Douglas Streets, west on Sixth to Hearl, thence south to Fourth Street, east on Fourth to the viaduct and return lo the Opera House. Every seal in the (Hand Opera House and much of the available Btanding room was occupied at the exercises incident to the dedication hi the Floyd Monument. The programme began at :; o'clock, just fol- lowing the parade. Heed's Band, sealed in the orchestra pit. played The Ninth and South'' am' stirred every heart with patriotism. The scene on the Stage was an Inspiring one. Flaborale decora- tions, consisting Of the national colors, had been artistically arranged about tin- sta^e by A 1' McKown. a well known young designer. In the background was a huge iia^ covering the roar wall of the stage. The Bcenery consisted of a woodland, and tia.^s were protruding from the thes The big pillars on the rlghl and left of the stage near the footlights were covered with bunting, and stretched across them were small bine Bags with the word "Liberty" iii silver letters. Strung across the Btage up In the flies was a huge black streamer with gold letters, marked "The spirit of 76." Flags bung from the boxes, bunt- ing dra|icd the balconies, and the effect was artistic and beautiful. Down .11 the front of the Btage and with its folds hanging forward on the piano in I he orchestra pit was a rich while silk flag, Signifying I'eace. It contained cream silk stripes and silver stars On the Btage was seated a distinguished gathering, In the front row sat John II Charles, the venerable Hresident of the Floyd Memorial Association, who was the objot-t of much interest. \roiind him sat Hon. John \ Kassou. the speaker of the day; Congressman Hut Thomas. ReV. William Salter of Burlington, \^v. J. D. Butler of Madison. Wis.: Dedication of the Monument 69 Dr. S. P. Yeomans of Marshalltown, Colonel M. B. Davis of Sioux City. Geo. D. Perkins, the Chairman, and about fifteen other persons, many of them being pioneer residents of Sioux City. Mrs. John H. Charles and Mrs. Elliott Cones, of Washington, D. C, her guest, also sat upon the stage. Mr. Perkins asked the audience to rise, and Rev. Dr. William Salter, of Burlington, delivered the invocation. He thanked the Divine Being for the brave men who had laid the opening of the way for the civilization that followed in the great west, and he commended to a special Providence those who had been interested in the work of com- memorating the lives of the brave pioneers. He commended the country of the exploration of the brave pioneers to a special blessing of pros- perity and peace. He asked for the further opening of the avenues of commerce and the establishment of schools and religious institutions that the new west might be the home of a free and happy people. He asked that the monument just dedicated might call succeeding generations to acts of heroism like those which it was erected to com- memorate. Rev. Dr. Salter concluded by reciting the Lord's prayer. A quartette consisting of Mrs. Fred Heizer and Misses Lucy Kent, Alice Barbour and Bertha Benedict sang "The Warrior's Sleep." Arthur Solberg recited the addiess of Lincoln on the battlefield of Gettysburg. A number of old soldiers sang "Passing Through the Mist," the words and music of which were composed by G. M. Gilbert, a member of General Hancock Post. G. A. R. Those who sang were: Mr. Gilbert, M. B. Davis, T. C. Prescott. H. W. Allen and William T. Reeve. Mrs. Mary Drew Wilson accompanied them on the piano. Then followed the Grand Army memorial service to the dead. Commander W. L. Wilkins. of the Post, was in charge. Adjutant George M. Pardoe read the general orders from the National and State Depart- ments concerning Memorial Day. and after a few words by the Com- mander a salute to the dead was given. A ritualistic service of the Post was given. Chairman Perkins arose and paid a tribute to President Charles, of the Floyd Memorial Association. "I feel it a distinction to stand here representing the President of the Floyd Memorial Association." said Mr. Perkins. "I wish to state that we owe to him." and the speaker turned and pointed to Mr. Charles, "the credit for having the beautiful shaft which we dedicated today, for it was his perseverance, his patience and his energy, extending over a period of many long years, that made it possible for us to gather today on such an occasion as this. The shaft which we have dedicated is not only to commemorate the Louis- iana Purchase, not only to commemorate the Lewis and Clark Expedi- tion, but. I might add. it is a beautiful and fitting memorial to John H. Charles." These words touched the heart of the well loved old man. and he broke into tears, while the band struck up softly a patriotic air. In introducing the speaker of the day. Hon. John A. Kasson. of Des Moines. Chairman Perkins referred to him as a man who had grown up with Iowa, who loved his State and who had not onlv con- 70 Report of Floyd Memorial Association tributed to the advancement of Iowa but of his country. Mr. Kasson spoke for about one hour, an'd his address was listened to with unusual attention. At the conclusion Chairman Perkins on behalf of the Asso- ciation and the audience as well expressed the greatest degree of appre- ciation for the scholarly effort of the distinguished Iowan. The band played "America" as the large audience dispersed. The address of Hon. John A. Kasson upon the dedication of the Floyd Monument and what it signifies, is a marvelous exposition not only of the annals connected with the great Louisiana Purchase, but of the philosophy of history connected therewith and growing out of it, and of the application of that philosophy to events in these later times. He said: Fellow Citizens: The occasion which has brought this great as- sembly together evokes the memory of many important events in our national history. To all except the aged pioneer it seems impossible that only a century ago all the fair land we look upon from your historic bluff and all westward to the continental range of mountains was a desert and under the dominion of despotic Spain; that all the land east- ward to the Mississippi, as well as all toward the setting sun was at that time, and had been for unrecorded ages, in possession of wild beasts and savages of the human race. Only ninety-seven summers have passed since a roving Indian standing on this highland would have witnessed a scene altogether new and strange to him. A barge fifty-five feet long, having a fore- castle forward and a cabin aft, carrying twenty-two oars and a square sail, drew near this shore on its passage up the great river of the Missouri. It was accompanied by two smaller open boats, and alto- gether they carried about forty pale faces, chiefly soldiers. A number of the men landed at the foot of the bluff and ascended it, bearing gently a burden which they deposited in a grave, and marked the spot with a rude cedar post. Upon its face was inscribed the name of Ser- geant Charles Floyd, of the United States Army, who had died that day, August 20, 1804. No priest's prayer or blessing was heard; but certain simple honors of the military service broke the sad silence of the ceremony. After this solemn act these pale faces descended the bluff to the boats; and the barge with its pirogues moved a mile up the river into the mouth of a tributary stream, then thirty yards wide, where the company camped for the night. The brilliant stars of this western firmament drew their eyes and their thoughts heavenward, whither their brave companion had just departed, and made the scene more beautiful than the day. In honor of the dead they dedicated to his memory both the burial bluff and the little river in which they were moored. Thenceforth for all time these two objects in nature shall preserve the name of their dead comrade. So does a name — a mere sound in the air — become more imperishable than any structure of human workmanship. Unaffected by flood or tempest, or war's destructiveness, it is repeated from father to son, for all generations. Thus prematurely died and was buried the courageous young Ken- tuckian. He had enlisted for a long and adventurous service which was expected to lead him along many mighty rivers, among many wild and strange tribes, and over unknown mountains, until his eyes should finally rest upon that great and distant ocean which washed the west- ern shores of the unexplored continent. Although he perished in the earlier stage of the enterprise this lonely burial, which cut off his hopes and his career, has preserved his name and memory among mankind CAPTAIN MERIWETHER LEWIS. Commander of Lewis and Clark Expedition. Dedication ot the Monument 71 above that of his comrades who continued the struggle to the end, and who returned to receive the rewards voted by an appreciative Congress. President Jefferson had in the winter of 1802-3 conceived the plan of an exploring expedition up the Missouri and across the mountains to the Pacific with the view of scientific investigation and of opening trade with the Indians, and also of finding a feasible route for the limited commerce of that day across the continent. He hoped also to divert the fur trade of the northwest into the hands of Americans. He obtained an appropriation from Congress of $2,500, with which he pro- ceeded to organize a company under the leadership of Captains Merri- weather Lewis, his private secretary, and William Clark. The details of that expedition are interesting, but are already so well known that tnere is no occasion to repeat them in this address. Its success was only accomplished by the exercise of all the virtues known to the life of the frontiersman. It required valor, perseverance, mutual trust, self confidence, vigilance, knowledge of the instincts and character- istics of the savage, inventive resource, endurance, continuous toil and unlimited courage. The explorers left their camp opposite the mouth of the Missouri on May 14, 1804, and sixteen days from their departure saw the last cabin of the white man, about one hundred miles from the mouth of the river. It was ninety-seven years ago this day that they bade farewell to these huts of semi-civilization. Thenceforward for many, many weary months, upward, along the endless windings and shifting sandbars of that treacherous river, and through the gorges and over the trackless ridges of confused mountains, and down the unknown streams rushing to the Pacific Ocean, abandoning their old boats and building new, in peril of starvation, in peril of drowning, in peril of wild beasts and of wily savages, they pushed their way over flooding waters and pathless forests to their desolate destination on an uncharted ocean coast, in the far region of the sunset. Every morning found them ignorant where their evening would be. The sun by day and the stars by night were the only familiar things of the visible universe. When in the opening of a second winter season they arrived on the bleak and desolate ocean shore at the mouth of a great river, it was only to encounter the incessant cold rains of winter, tne increasing dangers of famine, and the attacks of disease. After four tedious months of waiting beside the deserted waters of the Pa- cific, hoping vainly for sight of a vessel that should take their home- ward messages around Cape Horn, in the third spring of their expedi- tion they turned their steps again into the continental wilderness on their return (if God would permit it) to the land of civilization and of expectant friends. Again the weary hunt for wild food, again the endless tugging at the oars up stream, again the rugged transit of mountain ranges, once more the search for new passes and new waters of navigation in the tangled web of mountains, until at last in the summer of 1806 their boats were again launched upon the Missouri. Then for the first time they felt themselves truly "homeward bound." Now the swift current of the great stream which was lately their enemy became their friend. Every lapping wavelet now sang of the nearing home. The stars, ever brilliant in that clear atmosphere, now seemed to shine with increas- ing luster as they rose up from the distant east, where anxious friends were awaiting the long expected tidings. Familiar scenes of old camp- ing places appeared as they swiftly descended the river. More cheerily than on the upward voyage they now leaped into the stream to push their boat from the ever lurking, ever changing sandbars. Instead of fifteen or twenty miles a day as on their upward voyage, they now counted fifty, sixty, even seventy miles per day. There was little halting on their homeward course. But as they came by the bluff on 72 Report of Floyd Memorial Association which we stood today the strong magnet of memory drew them to the shore. Once more the expedition halted at this landing that they might visit the grave of their dead comrade. They restored it to a condition of safety, and then bade the sacred deposit a long farewell. Little did they know, not one of the toil worn heroes ever dreamed, of a future scene like that we look upon today. They saw only a soli- tary grave mound in a vast desert region, far away from the abodes of civilization. We behold a splendid monument commemorating the spot where they laid their comrade in his last camping ground, while jubilant thousands celebrate the brilliant deeds of the men who then sailed sadly away from the shore. They looked up stream and eastward upon a limitless solitude, stretching far away to the north and to the Mississippi. Our eyes look upon a populous and prosperous city which shall watch forever over this grave, and around it a rich and happy State of the American Union with more than 2,000,000 of patriotic in- habitants, who today recall with pride the story of the first American pioneers of the great west. It is a transformation scene unmatched in any oriental story. But these pilgrims of the wilderness, ignorant and undreaming of all this incredible future, passed on, plying their oars until at the end of nineteen days they met a joyous welcome from the villagers of St. Louis, and rested from their labors. But this lofty monument is not erected solely to commemorate the modest life and humble career of the army sergeant whose bones were deposited in this soil long before the plow of civilization had disturbed it. Nor will this memorial only serve to celebrate the splen- did exploration accomplished by his more fortunate companions. It also perpetuates the memory of a great historic act which influenced the fate of three nations and opened the way to new liberties for mankind. It changed the development of our people, and gave a new pathway to the march of our young republic. It is this historical significance of the monument which induced the National Congress, the Legislature of Iowa, and the patriotic people of Sioux City to combine their efforts for its erection. It is my honorable and welcome duty today, fellow citizens, to invite your attention to the history of that great acquisition in our national progress which this monument will forever commemo- rate; and to indicate its influence upon the later destinies of the republic. Before the outbreak of the Anglo-French war of 1776 the French king claimed under the name of "Louisiana" not only all of the Missis- sippi Valley west of that river, but also all the valley on the east of it lying north of Spanish Florida and eastward to the Alleghany Moun- tains. The country north of the upper Ohio, however, was regarded as a part of Canada. The Count de Vergennes in his memorial on the subject addressed to the King of France says that the Apalachian Moun- tains "separate the new France from the new England as distinctly as in Europe the mountains of the Pyrenees separate France from Spain" ("separent aussi distinctement la nouville France de la nouville Angle- terre, que les Monts Pyrenees separent, en Europe, la France d'avec l'Espagne"). The Louisiana of that day may be generally described as embracing the whole region north of Spanish Mexico and Spanish Florida, from the Alleghanies to the Rocky mountains, and from the sources of the Mississippi to its mouth, with the exception of that northeastern part which was tributary to the great lakes north of the Ohio and was therefore associated with Canada. The French were very active in establishing tradine posts and making agreements with the Indians for common hostility to the English. Along the undefined boundaries aggressions were continually occurring without waiting for declarations of war. When the war of 1756 came it proved exhaustive for both parties, but ended most dis- Dedication oi the Monument 73 astrously for the French. They were obliged in the end to surrender to the British all Canada and all of Louisiana lying east of the Mississippi, with the exception of New Orleans and the block of adjacent land ex- tending east to the boundary of west Florida. The delta east of the river, and all the remainder of Louisiana to the west and northwest of the river as far as the mountains was about the same time ceded to Spain in compensation for her losses in the war as the ally of France. The retention by the French king in his treaty with England of the lower east bank of the river, which gave to the jealous Spaniard the control of both banks for a long distance above the mouth, and of the whole gulf coast, was destined to cause much angry excitement and trouble in the future, with much contention between the United States and Spanish governments; and it led later to a great change in the policy of the United States. The treaty of peace of 1763 assured to England the free navigation of the river to its mouth. But commerce in barges and flat boats required a depot near New Orleans for its transfer to ocean going vessels. France, however, had relieved herself of all trouble on this account by her secret transfer of the territory to Spain. After the peace of 1763 England found French interests with- drawn from the American continent; and Spain was in possession of all the Mississippi region which France had owned or claimed, except that portion toward the Alleghanies which was ceded by the treaty to England. This was the situation when our revolutionary war again disturbed the international conditions in respect to Louisiana. Naturally the sympathies of the French people and government were with our American patriots because England was our adversary. But the me- moir of Count de Vergennes before referred to shows that the motive of France for participating in the revolutionary war as our ally was found in the hope of inducing Spain to retrocede Louisiana, and of re- covering Canada for herself. The memoir expressly mentions the danger to both Spain and France if the Americans should succeed in their revolution. The French statesman says that "the United Prov- inces of America, after shaking off the metropolitan yoke, will be in a condition to give the law to France and Spain in all America, and they will invade their possessions at the moment when the two crowns would be least thinking of it." The French government was not so desirous for our success as for the loss by England of her American colonies and later acquisitions, and for the restoration to France of her own former possessions. But even with her aid the war had no such result. England retained Canada, and conceded to the revolted colonies their independence, together with all the territory held by England south of Canada and east of the Mississippi. This territory seemed to our fathers vast enough for many genera- tions of Americans. So late as 1801 Jefferson in his inaugural message congratulated the American people on "possessing a chosen country, with room enough for our descendants to the hundredth and thousandth generation." And yet in that same generation, during that very admin- istration, the expansion of the territory of the republic began, not by will of President or Government, but by that providential force of development that has so often in our history overborne or compelled the will of man. The story of this wonderful transformation of public opinion and statesmanship may be briefly told. After the establishment of our independence, and indeed before it, our already scattered poDulation had begun to feel its way across the Alleghanies into the fertile lands of the great valley beyond. All the transportation of their products seaward must follow the current of the rivers flowing into the Gulf of Mexico. Spain, now holding all 74 Report of Floyd Memorial Association the outlets through east and west Florida, and the entire gulf coast as far as Mexico by her acquisition of Louisiana, was arbitrary, selfish and jealous of this right of transit through her territory. The United States Government by treaty in 1795 had secured from Spain the right of depot at New Orleans for products of the United States for the term of three years only, with provision for its continuance or for the establishment of another depot on the banks of the river. For a few years this arrangement was continued undisturbed. Then came a report from Europe that Spain under the commanding influence of Bonaparte had retroceded New Orleans and the entire province of Louisiana to France. In the subsequent excitement among the colonists the Spanish intendant for some unknown reason cancelled the privilege of depot for our citizens. The Americans of the whole valley sud- denly became aware of the frail tenure by which they held their com- mercial privileges. They became angrily excited and were ready for immediate war and the capture of New Orleans if the depot privilege were not restored. The report of the retrocession was afterwards verified, and the title to Louisiana was again in France. It had been effected by a secret treaty executed in October, 1800, but the terms were not published until many years afterward. The Americans of the valley, foreseeing the closing of their only commercial gateway, flooded Congress with their remonstrances, threatened to take measures for their security into their own hands, and boldly announced that their national alle- giance depended on national protection. The more violent among them indicated the possibility of organizing an independent republic west of the Alleghanies, of seizing the control of the Mississippi and its valley, and expelling both France and Spain. President Jefferson became profoundly alarmed by the energetic action of the west. He wrote to our minister (Livingston) at Paris that the possession by France of New Orleans would force the United States into alliance with England. He summoned Monroe to go with all speed of preparation on a special mission to Paris, the object of which was declared to be to purchase New Orleans and the Floridas, or so much of them as the powers in possession could be persuaded to part with. His purpose was wholly limited to the question of acquiring lands or permanent depots on the east of the Mississippi, and on the rivers running through Florida, for the convenience of our commerce, which required outlets to the Gulf of Mexico, the northern shore of which would now be wholly controlled by Spain and France against the interests of the United States. This control by two foreign and allied powers was rightly regarded as more dangerous to American interests than was the sole dominion of Spain. France under Bona- parte, then first consul, was a much more dangerous neighbor than the King of Spain. The simple presence of French sovereignty at the mouth of the Mississippi was a provocation to the hostile fleets of Europe, and particularly an invitation to the fleets of England to enter and seize New Orleans and the mouths of that great river. This would establish Great Britain, already intrenched upon our northern frontier, on the other flank of the young republic, involving a thousand dangers to our growing interests in the newly settled valley of the west. French recklessness of international obligations on the high seas had already been disastrous to our commerce on the Atlantic Ocean. Eastern merchants had numerous and just claims against the French for their seizures of our vessels and cargoes on the ocean, and now they were to control also the commercial outlet of the continental inland, and to invite thither the presence of warlike fleets. The in- stinct of danger which developed itself in the west was fully justified. Jefferson, who during his long residence in Paris had become impreg- Dedication of the Monument 7.~> nated with French ideas and French sympathies, was slower in appre- ciating the dangers than were the people of the valley. Indeed his adhesion to French ideas and French interests had years before caused a certain alienation of sentiment between him and Washington. The terrible excesses of the French revolution, its gross infidelity and its shocking bloodshed in the effort to abolish Christianity and law, had offended all Washington's sentiments of religion and humanity. The sympathies of Washington were on the side of the religious civiliza- tion of his English forefathers; while Jefferson looked complacently upon the violent destruction of all that was sanctified by ages of faith and custom. So now, after Washington's death, himself in the Presi- dent's chair. Jefferson was far behind other responsible citizens of the republic in his appreciation of the perils arising from French reckless- ness in resort to war and international violence. He did not lead, but followed, the people in their protest against the fresh introduction of the power of France into the very center of our continent. Jefferson's proposed measure of relief was limited and altogether inadequate to provide for the future interests of the United States. His instruction to his envoy was to obtain "a cession to the United States of New Orleans and of west and east Florida, or as much thereof as the actual proprietor can be prevailed on to part with." That is to say. their attention was called exclusively to the gulf coast line extending from the Mississippi to the Atlantic. This appeared to be the maximum of his wishes. There was no hint of our requiring or of purchasing the great territory west of the Mississippi. He then pro- ceeded to instruct them touching a possible reduction of even this de- mand, if necessary. If no grant of territorial jurisdiction could be obtained they were to secure mere rights of deposit, with the privilege of holding real estate for commercial purposes. In respect to the Floridas. the envoys were to secure-depots at the mouths of the rivers which ran from the United States through Florida to the sea, together with their free navigation. And the sum within which they were to negotiate for any or all of these concessions was $2,000,000. It thus appears that Jefferson had never contemplated the acquisi- tion of what is called the "Louisiana Purchase." Popular opinion has attriouted to him a remarkable and statesmanlike foresight in nego- tiating for that vast tract of country west of the Mississippi in order to provide for the future needs of the then young republic. The truth, however, compels us to recognize the fact that neither the American people of that day — who were few in number compared with the extent of their existing territory, and who already possessed ample lands beyond their power of cultivation — nor their statesmen, in their farthest vision, foresaw the amazing development destined to come before the end of the century. Jefferson's plans, not anticipating but following the demands of the "west," only sought to provide for an existing emergency, and to acquire in perpetuity a right which had been once conceded to the United States by Spain— the right of a free depot and transfer of their products. That was the attitude of our Government when Monroe sailed for France. Its eyes were directed to the south, not to the west. The real scene of the story of the Louisiana Purchase is on the other side of the Atlantic. It is iaid in Paris, where the proposal of the greater transaction had its origin in the breast of the powerful master of the French Republic. The first consul, under the pressure of European hostilities, was contemplating an act of transcendent importance to our country. He had secretly held all of Louisiana at his disposal since October, 1S00, although our ministers in France and Spain had been kept in ignorance of it. So late as in the spring of 1803 Talleyrand deceptively denied the 76 Report of Floyd Memorial Association French title in a conversation with Livingston. But now a renewal of the war with England was threatened. The British navy was dominant on the sea, and an English expedition might at any time seize New Orleans, and France would lose the colony without compensation. His thoughts were already bent on a sale to the United States by which he hoped not only to satisfy our large pecuniary claims which we were pressing against his government, but to obtain besides a large surplus to reinforce his treasury for the coming war. He directed Marbois, his Minister of Finance, to offer the entire province of Louisiana to the United States, and to demand in compensation 100,000,000 francs, to- gether with an assumption by our Government of the American claims against France for her outrages on our commerce. He said to his advisers, with some passion in his voice, that England coveted that colony and could easily make a descent there; but she should not have it. For France to retain it would be folly. He would cede the whole to the United States. This was the situation when Monroe arrived in Paris; for this startling proposal had been already communicated to Livingston, who could hardly credit the sincerity of the offer. The prospect of this vast and complete acquisition which would for the second time eliminate French control from the American conti- nent and settle the question of commercial depots forever, aroused intense interest in both the American envoys, but especially in the mind of Livingston. Communication with the United States by occa- sional sailing vessels was slow and uncertain. In that day neither tele- graph nor steamship was available. A royal message to the English Parliament had just announced the British preparation for renewing the war with France. If anything was to be done with Louisiana it must be done quickly. Our envoys could not wait for new instructions. With true American courage they resolved to take the responsibility upon themselves, and without authority win a new empire for the young republic. They protested against the extravagance of the sum demanded as beyond the resources of the American Government, and succeeded in reducing the amount of purchase money to 60,000,000 francs, and in limiting the assumption of American claims to 20,000,000 francs. They then concluded the three treaties with all haste. They were signed on the 30th of April, 1803. The war cloud hanging over the English Channel burst eighteen days after the signature. When the name of the plenipotentiaries were appended to this unexpected con- vention of purchase, Livingston enthusiastically grasped the hands of Marbois and Monroe, ?aying: "We have lived long, but this is the noblest work of our lives!" The praise for this magnificent accomplish- ment is more due to Robert R. Livingston than to any other American; and some city or county in every State formed out of this imperial pur- chase should bear his name in commemoration of his courageous states- manship. The purchase money was indeed a great sum to pay out of the limited treasury and unestablished national credit of the United States of that day. Bitter opposition was aroused in this country against the ratification of the treaty. The acquisition was derided as of little worth, wholly unnecessary, and tending to weaken the old States. It was de- clared to be an excessive extension of territory which would lead to a disruption of the Union. The prophets of woe were as effusive then over the enlargement of our territory as they have been ever since over the successive expansions which have illuminated the pages of our national history. The evil predictions of 1803 are now buried deep in the drift of time. The very names of the false prophets are in oblivion, while the many happy millions who inhabit the twelve States and two Territories now lying within the limits of the Louisiana Purchase have forever repudiated the old forecasts of evil. Instead of diminishing, the Dedication of the Monument 77 older States have greatly increased their population and prosperity with the settlement and development of the new. The newer States have also forged new bands for the strengthening of the Union. The bra ( blood offered to the Nation in its historic struggle for liberty and union, and in its struggle for the maintenance of the national power and glory abroad, has flowed from the veins of men who were nourished on this new soil of the republic. Patriotism, courage, energy flow forth with every heartbeat of the child of the new west. He has subdued the savagery which dominated the prairies and plains and mountains of the Louisiana of 1803. He has covered the rolling prairies and plains with grazing herds and smiling harvests, with school houses for happy children and churches for an untrammeled religion. He has uncovered the hidden caves of rich metals in the great mountains of northwestern Louisiana, and has enriched his whole country with the elements of a new and unbounded prosperity. Wnenever and wherever his nation's flag has been thrown to the breeze at home or abroad., in Mexico or Alaska, in Cuba or other islands of the sea, under the great wall of China or in the mountain fastnesses of Luzon, wherever deeds of loy- alty, of courage and of daring are required, there, in the front rank of volunteers, is heard the quick response of the loyal sons of the west. New strength has been acquired for the Constitution and Union, new hope for the country's prosperity is created with every new breath born in the expanded territory of our republic. It may be confidently affirmed that our national character has not deteriorated during the century in which we have followed the provi- dential law of our national growth and development. We have seen in what manner this law was introduced and historically established. I call it providential because neither our statesmen nor our people proposed it, or foresaw it. The national representatives of that day. including Jefferson himself, when informed of the convention signed by our envoys in Paris doubted its constitutionality, or were astounded by the resulting increase of the public debt. They adopted it chiefly because of the evident perils to existing national interests which would follow its rejection. The whole story of Louisiana involves much that is dramatic and unexpected. De Soto merely crossed its central river and died without discovering its mouth or exploring its course, although his decimated followers later escaped through its outlet without any act of possession. Consequently Spain acquired no title to the river valley. Then came France, whose explorers from Canada made discoveries from the sources downward and later found its outlet by sea and took possession up- ward. Her right to the country was therefore beyond dispute. Had the French retained possession of all their discoveries they would have imprisoned the future American republic between the Alleghanies and the Atlantic. But this was not the Divine purpose. England conquered Canada, and eastern Louisiana followed the fate of her sister province and became British colonial territory. As a consequence, the latter fell to the United States upon the recognition of their independence. So it happened that our people at the end of the Revolutionary War found themselves in possession as far as the Mississippi, but there were barred from all further western progress so long as Spain held all the vast territory west of the river. Had our boundary remained there for a hundred years no human mind can conceive the change it would have made in the destiny of this Nation. Without the wheat fields and corn fields and the cattle ranges of the prairies and plains of the trans-Mississippi, without the lead and iron ores of Missouri, without the vast deposits of gold and silver and copper of the western mountain ranges, with no roads across the continent, with no harbors on the Pacific Coast, without possession 78 Report of Floyd Memorial Association of the mouth of the Mississippi, without any access to the Gulf of Mexico, above all without the inspiration to our individual activities and national development, that these sources of wealth have afforded— no human intellect, no poet's imagination, can portray what would have been our fate or our condition today, as influenced or controlled by the nations which might have possessed them. What wars might have ensued, what liberties mignt have perished, what miseries might have befallen! But at the providential moment there appeared upon the European horizon a new and dominant personal force in the French Republic which overawed Spain, and her king yielded to the demand of "Citizen Bonaparte," and restored Louisiana to France. This again threatened to be a more serious obstacle to our growth than was the power of Spain; for the military force of France was far greater. But two years later France finds it impracticable to retain Louisiana owing to her naval inferiority to England, and Bonaparte suddenly, without the knowledge of the Government at Washington, conveys the title finally and forever to the United States. Even then Spain, alarmed at the absolute and final disposal of the country by France, protests our title because of an alleged condition attached to her retrocession to France. This condition was officially notified to the United States, that Louis- iana snould never be conveyed by France to a third power. But Bona- parte imperatively insisted that delivery should be made to him under the cession of 1800, which was done; and he immediately thereafter. on the 20th of December, 1803, transferred the possession of New Orleans to the United States. The Lewis and Clark Expedition, con- ceived without expectation of our possible ownership, was thus enabled to explore the territory of Louisiana under our own flag. But we had at that time no acknowledged title to the country westward of the mountains to the Pacific Coast. Spain, Great Britain and Russia were on that coast before us. Equally in the order of Providence, and just in time, the New England Captain Gray, under the American flag, was the first to enter the mouth of the great river of Oregon in 1792, which under international law gave to the United States the claim of dis- covery; and this claim was strongly reinforced by the succeeding ex- ploration of Lewis and Clark. With this inchoate right on the Pacific Coast the United States was able by later treaties to permanently establish our title on that shore, with well defined limits between the Spanish territory on the south and the British on the north. Our acquisition of Louisiana had been accomplished by the pacific methods of diplomacy. But the permanent possession of it by our Union was only to be preserved at the cost of great treasure and by the sacrifice of many lives. In less than twelve years from the date of the cession by France, while we were at war with Great Britain, that power dispatched an expedition to seize the mouth of the river, accompanied by an army for the capture of New Orleans. The men of the lower valley rushed to arms, met the invading enemy, and drove him back to the sea. The dramatic feature of Louisiana's history again appears in the fact that this battle was fought after the signature of peace, of which the tidings had not yet reached the combatants. This battle, however, brilliant as it was on the part of the American volun- teers, hardly rises to the dignity of tragedy in comparison with the prolonged struggle which followed a half century later. This incomparable valley, dowered with inexhaustible wealth, and like Helen of Troy possessed of the fatal gift of beauty, was destined to become the scene of the greatest conflict known in the history of the American continent — a conflict, please God! never to be renewed. On the 30th day of May, devoted by the affection of the American peo- ple to the memory of the heroes of the war for the Union, we cannot Dedication ot the Monument 71* forget the splendid services of the men who by their indomitable cour- age again saved the lower Mississippi to the United States together with all the original Louisiana on both banks below the mouth of the Ohio. In our great civil struggle Louisiana and its river once more became the mighty stake played for in the terrible game of war. Again the question was presented of the northern right of access to the sea by way of the river, and of the control of the delta at its mouth. Vaster commercial interests than ever before were in suspense. Once more, also, a Bonaparte appeared on the borders of the scene gazing eagerly from Mexico upon the still coveted territory which had been ceded by his great predecessor. The brave and stalwart men of the valley, in former contests united, were now unhappily divided into hostile camps. As never before, it was now a battle of giants, equally brave, equally resolved. The issue hung long in a balance, the opposing scales of which were filled with the blood of the brave. But the great hearted men of the upper valley clothed themselves in the panoply of the Union, drew in a mighty inspiration from the sentiment of expanding human liberty, and fought four long years to regain the untrammeled freedom of the great river from all its sources to the sea. The bones of our heroic dead who perished in that fearful struggle lie scattered along all the river shores from the Missouri to the gulf. But they did not die in vain. We owe it to their unfaltering courage that since the end of these years of battle, and we trust for all time to come, every rivulet that falls eastward down the rugged ranges of the Rocky Mountains, or that ripples southward from the far springs of the Canadian frontier, or that leaps westward down the slopes of the Alleghanies, dances along all its winding way through the old Louisiana to the southern sea under the folds of the star spangled banner and to the music of the Union. All hail to the memory of these heroes dead; and all hail to their comrades who live to salute the dawn of this day dedicated to the memory of their deeds! Such is the outline of the story of Louisiana, first tossed to and fro between France and Spain, and then imperiously tossed by the French ■executive to the envoys of the United States. Later it was twice sub- jected to the wager of battle. Its acquisition is especially significant in our history, as it was the first enlargement of that original territory which our fathers thought sufficient for our children until the "hun- dredth generation." Based upon Louisiana, the repu^ic continued its expansion across the middle of the continent from the great ocean of the sunrise to the greater ocean of the sunset. Our republic did not dream yet of the wider expansion which was still enfolded in the shadow of her future destiny. She awaited the reappearance of the Index finger of Providence. But important events of history have taught us one great truth of our heredity as a people. Expansion is in the blood of our race. Organized liberty demands a broadening sphere of action. A single generation may pause to organize and utilize what a previous one has acquired. But a succeeding generation will reassert the inherent im- pulse of the race. Under Christian auspices it is the providential law which from age to age opens up new regions to the influences of higher civilization and uplifts the inferior races by contact with the superior. The right to enforce civilized usages among mankind is higher and bolier than the right to maintain barbaric practices and inhuman laws. The better has an inherent moral right to expand over the worse. The justice and humanity of the motive will forever consecrate the onward movement with a Divine sanction. Peace and order, liberty and pros- perity, education and morality, have hitherto followed the advancing flag of the American republic. Wild beasts have given place to peace- 80 Report of Floyd Memorial Association ful herds and flocks. The wandering wigwam has been replaced by the settled home. The ground of tne war dance is occupied by the school house, and the pole hung with scalp locks by the steeple of the church. The vast desert spaces are now laughing with harvests, and the various tribes of the white men are dwelling there in unity. Who can doubt that such expansion is in accord with the purposes of the Almighty in tne regeneration of the world? In this spirit and with such purposes the expansion of the republic has more widely advanced in later years. The beneficent changes to be wrought in the alien races may require a full generation or more for their accomplishment. The work of the school house is slow. The work of the church is dilatory. But we have the glorious assurance of the past that we are doing the will of the Great Ruler of Nations while we follow our providential law. Since the middle of the last cen- tury we have been led on step by step beyond the ocean boundary of our continent, following the sun in his western course until scores of islands of the southern and central Pacific have come peacefully under the dominion of the United States. The Alaskan Islands carried the jurisdiction of the republic within the longitudes of northern Asia. By an unforeseen emergency of the Spanish War, declared for another and a humane purpose, we came into the unexpected possession of the Philippine Islands on the south of the Asiatic continent. Like Louis- iana, their purchase and annexation were unforeseen by the statesmen and people of our country; and like Louisiana, they will in the process of civilization reveal unexpected resources for the blessing of mankind, and for the advancement and security of the republic. We look back with amazement, and with gratitude, upon this century of our history. The first year of the nineteenth century found our youthful nation barred on the west by our great mediterranean river, and shut off from the sea on the south, with the barriers guarded by two formidable military powers of Europe. Our incipient commerce was wantonly destroyed on the high seas, the common prey of warring European navies, without fear of reprisals or punishment. Even the paltry powers of the Barbary Coast levied tribute on our commercial vessels and held captured citizens in slavery. Our political parties at home were more hostile to each other than to the foreigners who in- sulted our flag. The republic was neither respected nor envied, neither courted nor feared, by any power of Europe or Asia or Africa. But now, in the first year of the twentieth century, all this is changed. Our matured nation is in possession of the whole northern shore of the gulf, including all the peninsula of Florida, with her juris- diction extended across the continent to the shore of the Pacific, and leaping thence to the farthest coast of Alaska. Our flag floats over a thousand islands of the western ocean. It was the first to be welcomed in the harbors of Japan. Korea and of China as the emblem of inter- national peace and justice. The fame of our navy is wafted around the world by every wind that blows, and the flag that covers its guns assures protection to our commerce on every sea and in the harbors of every continent. The republic is respected and honored as one of the great powers of the world. At home a common patriotism unites our political parties as never before. It has been exhibited during this month when all parties in various sections of this great country have been assembling to greet and acclaim a president who is himself the soul of patriotism and national honor. It is a marvelous expansion, a marvelous transformation, a miracle of the nations! Thanks be to the Almighty Power which has so directed our destiny that in this first summer of the new century, and in the third genera- tion of the explorers of the west, the sun never sets upon the territory Dedication of the Monument 81 of the republic. That brilliant orb which today gilds the summit of Iowa's historic monument will shed his bright beams in every hour of his daily circuit around the globe upon some State or Territory, some plain or mountain or island shore, over which floats the beneficent flag of our expanded republic, carrying in its folds the assurance of peace and liberty, order and security, education and civilization to all the inhabitants. May this memorial stand for ages to come to remind our children of the manly virtues of their race, which in the nineteenth century made the republic so glorious in the annals of history. With the same spirit that had characterized the other services of the day, the exercises connected with the dedication of the Floyd Monu- ment were concluded in the evening with a gathering at the Court House which filled the auditorium. Geo. D. Perkins presided as Chairman. With him sat President Charles, Dr. Butler. Dr. Yeomans, Judge Lever- ing. Rev. Dr. William Salter of Burlington, Charles Aldrich of Des Moines, Curator of the Iowa State Historical Society; Rev. Dr. J. C. Mc- Clintock and C. R. Marks. Dr. McClintock delivered the invocation. In introducing Dr. Butler, Chairman Perkins referred to others who were present six years ago at the organization of the Floyd Me- morial Association, several of whom from abroad were in attendance to participate in celebrating the fruition of the hopes inspired at that time; but the absence of Dr. Elliott Coues was regretfully noted, who since then has gone to his eternal home, but for whose helpfulness a profound acknowledgment was expressed, as in season and out of sea- son he had given his time and his great ability as historian of the Lewis and Clark Expedition to promote the purpose for which the Association was organized. Dr. Butler was presented as likewise a contributor to the knowledge of the world regarding the expedition of Lewis and Clark, for it was he who in 1894 had discovered the journal of Floyd, after it had been lost ninety years. Dr. Butler held up before the audience the bound volume of manuscript which had had such a romantic career, and it was greeted with cheers. He spoke as follows: What is this which I hold up before your gaze as a sort of secular ostensorium? It is the monument which Sergeant Floyd builded wiser than he knew — O, how much wiser than the world knew — built for himself and which shall outlast all memorial stones. The forms of mind are not idols of clay. Thanks to their hand- maids, alphabetical writing and the typographic "art preservative," they are eternal. The lines of this book have gone out through all the earth, and its words unto the ends of the world. But the obelisk on yonder bluff must stand stationary till it shall crumble into the sand from which it was conglomerated. Stones must perish, but this chron- icle shall endure. What does this manuscript contain? It shows us fifty-three pages of Floyd's notes by the way in his own hand writing up to this scene of his death, detailing the first ninety-six days of the earliest and most important American exploration of the trans-Missouri world — the most veritable discovery of America that was ever achieved. It is the only testimony by a sharer in that enterprise which has thus far been printed in the very words of its writer. The journals of Captains Lewis and Clark not only came tardily from the press, but they were Bowdlerized. Biddleized and Allenized 82 Report of Floyd Memorial Association and this garbled text was reproduced, most unwillingly, by Dr. Coues. The dream of his life, as he assured me, was to edit the original codices, with not a stripe erased and not a star obscured. But his fate was to die without tasting that crowning joy. The journal of Patrick Gass, who at Floyd's grave had been chosen sergeant in his stead, was printed seven years earlier than the official report. It saw the light the next spring after the glorious return, but it had been already licked into shape, like a bear's cub, by the Irish schoolmaster McKeehan, and the manuscript thrown away as a useless rubbish. If the text of Gass could now be read as he wrote it we could not enough prize it as a complement and supplement to Lewis and Clark and Floyd, a sort of fourth gospel. Floyd's legacy, neither re- vealed nor imagined to exist at all until since the most recent editions of Gass, as well as of Lewis and Clark, is more than a fourth gospel; it is more than any of them a first gospel, the protoevangelion. So it must remain till the original of the captains shall be printed, as Dr. Coues declared it was sure to be by the National Government. Is there any cloud of doubt on the genuineness or veracity of this gospel? Not a shadow of it. Handwriting, spelling, words, things noted are beyond counterfeiting. Then, undesigned coincidence and differences in relation to the other witnesses testify to its reliability as conclusively as Paley's Horace Paulinae did to the new testament as a history. This newest and yet oldest gospel came forth like a sunburst. Bight years ago Dr. Coues, dedicating his invaluable edition of Lewis and Clark to the people of the great west, had no thought of such a culmination as possible. In the same year of his publication, 1893, his book was reviewed by me in two issues of the New York Nation (Nos. 1,478-79. October 26 and November 2, 1893). While admitting that it seemed ungracious to suggest that such an investigator as Coues could have neglected anything, I censured him because he had made no search for collateral journals, I proved the existence of one which had very oddly became known to me. One of Lewis' men, Robert Fraser. went from my native town, Rutland, in Vermont, and when he left had forgotten to pay for a hat he had bought from an uncle of mine. On his return to St. Louis, going for entertainment to an inn he found the keeper of it was that self-same uncle. Debtor and creditor recog- nized each other and the debt was collected — the dead horse resurrected. Fraser then issued a prospectus for publishing a 400-page volume of his own journal, and a copy of this proposal was sent to my father. It was one of my heirlooms, and was printed in my review. I also quoted the statement of Captain Lewis in the spring after Floyd's death, that he had sent down to St. Louis the journal of a sergeant. I also stated tnat the letter from which I learned this fact, though printed in the American Archives (Indian Affairs I., p. 706), in Biddle and elsewhere, would be sought in vain throughout the four octavos of Coues. That sergeant's journal, an independent witness from the upper Missouri, I hope to satisfy you was the book I now hold in my hand, though in my review I credited it to no author whatever. The words of Lewis in his letter to the President, dated Fort Mandan, near Bis- marck, April 7. 1805. were these: "I have sent a journal kept by one of the sergeants to Captain Stoddard, my agent in St. Louis, in order to multiply as much as possible the chances of saving something." It seems to me clear that that sergeant was Floyd. The omission of his name is not surprising. Lewis had never mentioned it in his notes till the time of Floyd's death, nor yet the name of any other sergeants up to that date, unless when one was on detached service. It was not expedient to send down the journals of living sergeants, for they were Dedication of the Monument 83 not yet half made — and there was no more paper within a thousand miles. For securing Clark's and his own journal Lewis had been fur- nished by Jefferson with tin cases in which he was to solder them one by one, water tight. But these cases could not safeguard Floyd's journal, for their width was five inches, while this book measures six. Its size urged Lewis to hurry it out of harm's way with all speed. I charged Dr. Coues with heresy, for he had maintained that the journals of the captains must be copies, because their field notes could not be so well preserved as he saw their writing to be, but must have been water soaked and weather stained. But when he heard of the tin boxes which fitted them like a glove he was no longer heretical. The love of Lewis for Floyd would prompt him to forward his journal to home friends as soon as he could. His affection is manifest in his testimonial as soon as he arrived in Washington. He thus spoke to the authorities. "Charles Floyd," said he, "was a young man of much merit. His father, now living in Kentucky, is a man much re- spected, but possessed of moderate wealth. As the son lost his life in this service I consider his father entitled to some gratuity in con- sideration of his loss, and also that the deceased being noticed in this way will be a tribute but justly due his merit." (Am. Archives. Mili- tary Af. I., p. 207.) Clark was still more sure than Lewis to speed this volume home- ward without delay. The dying words of Floyd were addressed to Clark, and they were these: "I am going to leave you, and I want you to write me a letter." Whether Clark could or could not write to Floyd's home friends, he could give convoy to this book, with a letter he did write to his brother-in-law, and which came to our library to- gether with this book. At least he must have brought this book to Floyd's father, with a certain other relic of his son, which it cost him much to secure. More than a year after Floyd's death, at the point where the west- ward bound adventurers first found the Columbia navigable, the toma- hawk of Sergeant Floyd was missed and supposed to be stolen, but as their business demanded haste they could do nothing for regaining it. Next year, however, on returning to the same camp they ascertained that the tomahawk was in the possession of Indians on a neighboring river. "This weapon," says the Biddle compilation, '"we were anxious to obtain in order to give to the relatives of our unfortunate com- panion. Sergeant Floyd." The original narrative, as I learned from the secretary of the philosophical society who holds it in custody, specifies Captain Clark instead of "we" as desirous of returning it to Floyd's friends. It adds: "The man who had this tomahawk had purchased it from the thief and was himself just expiring when our envoy Drewyer arrived. His relatives were the more unwilling to give up the tomahawk because they intended to bury it with its owner. They were at length induced to surrender it on the second day through the influence of two chiefs who had accompanied Drewyer. and in con- sideration of a handkerchief and two strands of beads which had been sent by Captain Clark and two horses given by the chiefs to be killed agreeable to the custom at the grave of the deceased. At this bargain it would seem that the horses were "thrown in," for five beads was the price of a horse. These beads and the handkerchief represented a serious sacrifice on the part of a captain, all of whose goods for supolying his thirty comrades with food and transportation for 3,000 miles might, as he writes, be tied up in a pair of handkerchiefs. Who will believe that Clark, who was so careful and troubled about Floyd's hatchet, neg- lected the earliest possible opportunity of hastening this journal of the dead son to his mourning father, whose home, in the judgment of 84 Report of Floyd Memorial Association Colonel R. T. Durrett, the highest Kentucky historical authority, was near that of Clark's sister, to whom he was himself sending various seeds? But the only question after all is whether this writing was brought down the river in the return boat of 1805 or in the boat of the captains themselves in 1806. It was in St. Louis, perhaps Kentucky, in the spring of one year or the fall of the next. After Floyd's narrative had been brought down the great river nothing previous to 1893 had been discovered concerning that writing, nor had his name been men- tioned as a possible journalist. But on February 3 of that year Mr. Thwaites, Secretary of the "Wisconsin State Historical Society, found this chiefest of finds without seeking it. He was examining a high pile of manuscripts, bound and unbound, which had been accumulated by Dr. Draper, his predecessor, during fourteen years of pilgrimage, largely up and down Kentucky, in quest of historical documents. This book had been brought to Wisconsin by Draper, who in 1854 had become the first Secretary of the Historical Society, and was its real soul to the end of his long career. It was one sheaf of a harvest so vast that his successor has not as yet been able to thrash it all out. It was one jewel among such Kohinoors as have made for themselves a fitting casket, created for their setting a more costly fireproof than, as far as I can learn, has ever been built for any society called historical in all the world. At first sight of this book of books I was amazed that Draper, who for a generation had known me as a sharer in his pursuits, and that I felt especial interest in trans-Missouri, had never spoken to me about Floyd's journal. His reticence became less mysterious the more I con- sidered what manner of man my friend Draper was. The eyes and the heart of a miser are fixed far less on the savings he has already hoarded than on those outside which he hopes for. Draper was a colossal collector. His first savings were laid out on a fireproof in which he stored his accumulations. Everything rich and rare in anti- quarian eyes his lifework was to imprison behind its iron door. What- ever he could hide there he made his will bequeathing to the Historical Society, and then turned his back upon it with his eyes set upon fur- ther conquests. "Notwithstanding his capacity Received as the sea, naught entered there, Of what validity and pitch so'er, But fell into abatement and low price, Even in a minute." This little book I view as the acorn from which an obelisk grander than any oak has grown. No sooner was its discovery noised abroad than the American Antiquarian Society, the oldest in America and but eleven years younger than the century, invited me to address them at their next annual meeting in Boston, concerning a document so full of sidelights on other journals, one never before thought of as ex- isting at all, so long hidden and so unexpectedly revealed. They printed the find at once, every word of it verbatim et literatim, both in their volume of proceedings and in separates. Vol. IX., pp. 224-252. This publication, if not the creator of your zeal, was at least the match which kindled it into a blaze. It was straightway followed by the Sioux City awakening, by the study of Coues' monumental work- by shame that Floyd, though his name on the river and his title on the bluff were indelible, lay without a stone to mark the spot, indeed that no mortal knew where he was buried. It was only after much baffled and renewed endeavor that his remains, so soon forgotten after the reburial of 1857, were detected six years ago on this Soldiers' Me- morial Day. Then and there was formed the Association which devised and constructed and now dedicates the obelisk on the bluff. Dedication oi the Monument 85 The Floyd obelisk reminds me of two others. The first, in Egyptian Thebes, is one of the supreme wonders I have twice voyaged far up the Nile to gaze upon. It is confessedly the beau ideal of its class in ma- terial, height and proportions. It is reproduced here more strikingly than in any other work I can call to mind. Spite of earthquake and lightning, tyrants and time, it has stood, wanting eight years, for seven times 500 years. Can you wish anything more than an equal longevity for the companion shaft we have this day dedicated? Thirty- five centuries were a goodly heritage. The other obelisk of which I am reminded is scarcely inferior to anything but the first. It is the only one of the twelve transported to Rome in her grand era which has never been thrown down. It stands as a memorial of martyrs, of the protomartyrs under Nero, of the earliest burning of Christians at the stake recorded in a pagan writer. With allusion to those whom this witness saw sealing their testimony with their blood that obelisk is inscribed: "Christ lives, Christ reigns, Christ conquers. Christ delivers his people from all evil. Christus vivit. Christus regnat, Christus vincit. Christus vindicat suum populum ab omni malo." May God permit this memorial of ours to be as lasting as Egyptian syenite, and may it forever bear witness to that martyr faith to which we owe our civilization from foundation to topstone. "We have here with us tonight others who were discoverers in con- nection with the event we are celebrating," said Chairman Perkins. "In addition to the discoverer of Floyd's journal, we have the discoverer of the idea of erecting a monument to Floyd — President John H. Charles, who for many years has looked forward to the coming of this day. We also have Colonel Chittenden, whose service in so many ways has been invaluable. We have here likewise the men who built the beautiful shaft, and managed it so admirably that not a single accident occurred. We have men here who in 1857 assisted in rescuing the remains of Floyd, one of whom is Dr. S. P. Yeomans. whom I take great pleasure in introducing." The Chairman's references to Dr. Butler. President Charles, Colonel Chittenden. Hansen Bros, and Dr. Yeomans were vigorously applauded. Dr. Yeomans responded- as follows: Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: I have two reasons why I would like to have been excused from the position of a speaker on this occasion. One is that I have been so closely associated with the history of Sioux City that I feel very much at home here, and would much prefer to be considered one of the hosts and listen to and help entertain the distinguishd gentlemen who honor us with their presence today than to appear as an invited guest. The other is that I think one who has reached to nearly eighty years should have learned to yield cheerful obedience to that great law of nature, "The survival of the fittest," and to step aside and give place to younger and abler men upon public occasions like the present. Yet, appreciating the honor of a place on your programme. I shall briefly respond to your invitation. There are three methods of preserving and transmitting to future generations the tragedies, incidents and events of human history. One is by recorded annals, another by monuments and mausoleums, and still another by the oral testimony of witnesses. This humane and patriotic enterprise, having reached its consummation in the com- pletion of the beautiful shaft we have dedicated today, you have the combined advantage and benefit of the three methods mentioned. 86 Report ol Floyd Memorial Association No more appropriate situation for this memorial could have been found. Located in the very heart of the great west, within the limits of the Louisiana Purchase, directly overlooking the grand river along which the Lewis and Clark Expedition journeyed, and at the very place where Sergeant Charles Floyd died and was buried, it would seem to be the very place for commemorating a most important event in the history of our country. The monument will stand a thing of beauty while the years, cen- turies and ages come and go, and, though cold and silent as the famed Sphinx, it will tell to oncoming generations stories of the most thrilling interest. As the car of progress rolls on toward the distant future and your beautiful city reaches a condition whose magnificent propor- tions no man can picture, long after we all shall have passed away, this shaft will tell the story of your protracted efforts from year to year to protect the remains and honor the memory of a fellow citizen who has been dead for nearly one hundred years; one to whom you were bound by no ties of kindred and of whom you had no knowledge fur- ther than that he fell in the service of our country and in the line of important duty. It will tell the story of Captains Lewis and Clark and their little company of stalwart men as, without the beating of drums or the flourish of trumpets, they quietly entered upon an exploration requiring courage and heroism equal to that of the soldier who storms 'a battery or faces a line of bristling bayonets, involving a journey of 10,000 miles through a trackless wilderness, consuming two years and four months of time, entirely cut off from a base of supplies or relief from any emergency; through a country inhabited only by savage beasts and wild Indians, with intervening streams and roaring cata- racts and frowning mountains whose towering peaks were covered with everlasting snow, all for the purpose of bringing to the knowledge of the American people the vastness and wonderful possibilities of the region added to our domain by the Louisiana Purchase. By association and suggestion it will tell the story of our country's history, the landing of the Pilgrim fathers and the long, weary struggle for national existence; the Revolutionary War resulting in our inde- pendence, the organization of our own government, the thirteen original States skirting the Atlantic Ocean with what was then deemed an ample supply of territory to the west, and with no thought or ambition to extend our possessions to the Pacific. It was then that a small number of statesmen, more profound and farseeing than others, began to extend their vision toward the western horizon to catch a view of the future of our country and to consider the obstacles that were in the way of our progress. Those men fore- saw that the Mississippi, with the Missouri and other navigable af- fluents, must become great arteries of commerce, and that the valleys through which they coursed must, in the nature of things, become the homes of an immense population; and they realized that we were vir- tually cut off from any participation in the advantages that must result from the settlement and cultivation of those vast, fertile valleys, for the reason that this vast region was in the possession of a foreign power. Viewing the subject from our present standpoint, with our possessions upon the Pacific Coast, our nation would have been bi- sected from the Gulf of Mexico to the British possessions on the north by a foreign power, forming an everlasting barrier to land communica- tion between the east and the west except by the permission of another nation. It was to meet, in a small measure, this difficulty, that Thomas Jefferson, the third president of the United States, conceived the idea of securing national access to the Mississippi River in order that we mieht, to some extent, have a legal interest in the commerce of that stream. To this end James Monroe was appointed a special agent to Dedication ot the Monument 87 act with our Minister to France, Mr. Livingston, in the negotiation of a treaty with France for the purchase of the province of Louisiana. It is worthy of note that neither of the negotiators, nor. so far as it is known, any other American statesman, entertained a thought of secur- ing the entire French possessions in America. In the negotiations our agents were limited to an offer of $2,000,000 for the small province they hoped to secure. Owing to fortuitous circumstances or providential leading the time was auspicious for a success whose magnitude fairly staggered our agents. A great war was impending between the Napoleonic dynasty and England. The emperor's exchequer was low, and, while he realized the ultimate value and importance of the French possessions in Amer- ica, he was persuaded that it would be wrested from him by his implac- able foe, England, and he much preferred that it should fall into the hands of America. He therefore proposed to cede the entire territory for $15,000,000. The proposition was accepted, the treaty signed and promptly ratified by the United States Senate, thus consummating the most successful real estate deal ever made in this country. Over-sensa- tive conservatives were abundant who denounced Mr. Jefferson for recklessly squandering the public money for worthless mountains and barren plains, but if those captious critics were alive today, and would read in the current news that the property value of Iowa, but one of the States included in this purchase, is just returned at $542,000,000, they would confess that Mr. Jefferson made a good investment. To comprehend the magnitude of the Louisiana Purchase we need to look at the map and see what it embraces. Within the limits are Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, North and South Dakota, Ne- braska, Oklahoma, Indian Territory, Montana, part of Colorado, most of Kansas, most of Wyoming, a territory embracing 883,072 square miles, 565,166,000 acres, an area almost equal to the original thirteen States. In 1890 the population within its limits exceeded twice that of the United States at the time the treaty was made. Though but partially developed, this domain forms the brightest jewel in our diadem; with forests exceeding in grandeur and value the cedars of Lebanon; im- mense areas of arable and fertile land yielding abundant harvests and unlimited pasture for vast herds of cattle and sheep that supply the markets of the world with their choice products; gold and silver that has already added materially to the world's supply: coal and iron and lead in great abundance; waterfalls with power sufficient to propel the machinery of the world; scenic beauties as weird and fantastic as may be found in any part of the world; and all this would have been forever lost to us if we had not improved the opportunity for securing it. Had England succeeded in securing it, as Napoleon feared, it would have been beyond our reach for all time to come. In estimating the value of this purchase, we must consider that without it the vast region extending westward to the Pacific would probably never have been acquired, therefore the indirect benefit is beyond computation. It is not extravagant to say that there is still another story that this monument will tell the listening pilgrims that may come here to study the wonders it teaches. It will tell of the stupendous contest that has been raging all along the line of human history between civilization and barbarism, beginning with Israel's host as they entered the land of Canaan with title deeds authenticated and confirmed by the hierhest authority in the universe. Possession was secured and retained only by long and bloody wars with nations and peoples who cumbered the ground and were in the way of progress. Since then Rome. France and England all afford striking examples of this great unceasing struggle of the ages. 88 Report of Floyd Memorial Association More than 2,400 years ago a Persian army of 100,000 trained soldiers, tilled with pride at their Asiatic conquests, crossed the Aegian Sea and landed upon European shores. They were supplied with all the destruc- tive appliances then known to warfare. They were opposed by only 10,000 Athenian soldiers, with no other means of assault or defense than the shields and spears of ancient times. After a council of war, held upon the mountainside at whose base the enemy were establishing their bivouac, it was resolved to make an immediate attack, though every one of their number should meet a martyr's fate. After a hand to hand contest of five hours the Persians fled in wild disorder to their boats, leaving thousands slain on the sanguinary field of Marathon. Had the result been different, as seemed almost absolutely certain, barbarism would have dominated the world. Art, science, painting, sculpture, literature, poetry, the fruit of European civilization would have been lost to the world. The illiterate, idle, non-progressive spirit of the Orient would have been universal. We shall observe but iaintly if we do not discern in this as well as all other great conflicts of the ages involving the warfare of human- ity the overruling providence of Almighty God. In these mighty up- heavals we shall find that above the roar and smoke of contending armies is an allseeing eye and an almighty arm that so rules and manipulates the movements that the result shall be a purer philosophy, an uplifting of the race to a higher plane and an advance in human progress. Providential leading in the affairs of our Nation from the very be- ginning seems to me too apparent to admit of doubt. Our national advantages are scarcely paralleled. The fertility of our soil, the variety of our productions; our great lakes and rivers affording national high- ways for commercial intercourse and interchange of commodities; our extended seacoast east and west bringing us into close relation with the great centers of trade throughout the world, with our vast mineral wealth, are but indices of the most beneficent interest of Him who pro- vided us with a land literally flowing with milk and honey. And, to preserve the fitness of things, this land with its immense possibilities was held in abeyance until the Mayflower was wafted to our shores freighted with a band of men and women endowed with the natural qualities for founding a great republic. They were firm in the main- tenance of their religious convictions, devoted to the principles of liberty, industrious and frugal, with a proper appreciation of the im- portance of education. Their descendants are found in all parts of the Union, and the impress of their wisdom and practicability is stamped on all general and local measures of public policy. - The story of our great Civil War will be brought to mind as men gaze upon this monument of other days, and they will listen eagerly to the relation of the thrilling tragedies that filled the land with lament- ation. It will be rehearsed that with all our prosperity we had fostered a relic of barbarism, thrown around it the protection of the law until it had become a part of the very warp and woof of our social and civil system. In our grand Declaration of Independence appealing to the Supreme Ruler of the Universe for the rectitude of our intentions we proclaimed to the world that we held it to be self-evident that all men were created free and equal, endowed by the Creator with the inalienable right of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, and yet we permitted a sys- tem of human slavery to grow with our growth until 4,000.000 human beings were held in abject bondage. It is not strange that the senti- ment of the northern people revolted against so flagrant a departure from the declaration of the fathers. Our own ablest statesmen, Web- ster, Clay, Calhoun. Benton and others, sought by various compromises Dedication of the Monument 89 to allay the storm and restore amicable relations between the estranged sections. But despite all their efforts the feeling of animosity became more and more intensified as the years passed until the most conserva- tive people realized that we were standing on a volcano whose mutter- ing thunder gave warning of an eruption that would convulse our Nation from center to circumference and leave the noble temple of liberty a chaotic mass of ruins. At length the crisis came. The tiring upon the Star of the West followed by the assault upon Fort Sumter inaugurated a long and bloody fratricidal war. Are we to consider that after guiding and protecting our Nation through all the perils of the past a merciful Providence had deserted us in the hour of our extremity? Nay, verily. We must remember that good Christian people throughout the north and south, recognizing slavery as a great social and moral evil, but one beyond the power of man to remedy, had reverently besought the Almighty to interpose in our behalf and show us the way of removing this stain from our civilization. Will not our faith permit us to believe that these prayers were heard and answered, and that our trials and sufferings were but disciplinary means to accomplish the end sought? It required seven scourges to procure a reluctant assent from Pharaoh to tne departure of the Israelites from the bondage of Egypt and even the destruction of his whole army in the Red Sea. So it would seem needful that the defeat of Bull Run should occur; that the fearful strife should be continued for years with serious doubts as to whether Wash- ington or Richmond were in greater peril, for the apparent purpose of educating our people to a full knowledge of the great purpose to be accomplished. When that point was reached our martyr President by a single stroke of his pen was able to give freedom to every slave in the land and speedy success was assured. The work was done and our Nation was permitted to enter upon a career of prosperity and progress unparalleled in the history of this or any other nation. And now. while we may very properly point with pride to the terrific battle fields of Donelson. Shiloh, Chickamauga. Chancellorsville. Vicksburg and the Wilderness, to the brilliant naval engagements upon the Mississippi, the duel of the Monitor and the Merrimac at Hampton Reads and of the Kearsage and Alabama off the coast of France, and we may honor and hold in grateful remembrance the names of Grant. Sherman, Sheridan, Logan and other chiefs who so gallantly led our forces to a brilliant success, not forgetting the boys in blue, who never flinched or faltered when duty called them to suffer and to die, if need be, in defense of the old flag which represented all that is great and glorious in the history of our country; while rejoicing af the return of peace, and that the animosities of the fearful strife are rapidly disappearing, let us reverently join in the exclamation of the psalmist: "The Lord reigneth. let the earth rejoice." The story of the late Spanish War and the convulsion of China are too recent and the results too incomplete to find a place in the chronicles of history, but we do know that the valor of our soldiery has been maintained at Santiago and Manila Bay, and that the magnanimity and generosity of our Government has been exemplified in the treatment of our vanquished foes, and tnat there is not a doubt that the finale will be another victory of civilization over barbarism and the extension of light, liberty and happiness among the people of the earth. And now, gentlemen of Sioux City and members of the Floyd Me- morial Association, go on with your work. You have completed the memorial shaft. Adorn and beautify the surrounding park. Make it a thing of beauty and a joy forever, and let it stand for all time as sacred to the memory of Sergeant Charles Floyd and to Captains Lewis and Clark and other comrades, as well as a monument to commemorate 90 Report of Floyd Memorial Association the wisdom and patriotism of Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe and Livingston, who added an empire to our domain. More than this, let it stand as a beacon light, a landmark upon the highway of human progress, of development and civilization. The introduction of Judge Noah Levering, of Los Angeles, Cal., led Chairman Perkins to refer most feelingly to Judge Isaac Pendleton, whose portrait hangs on the wall of the court room. "No citizen re- calls the genial personality of Judge Pendleton," said Mr. Perkins, "without a feeling of regret that he is not here to greet his old time associate, Judge Levering, for between them was a relationship such as has existed between few men of the early days. To both of them I was indebted for many kindnesses in my early residence here, and one of the earliest historical contributions to the Journal after I took pos- session of it was a series of annals from the pen of Judge Levering, whose reminiscences of the beginnings of things in Sioux City are thor- oughly interesting. While he says he cannot speak to us at any length tonight, I want to ask him to arise and accept the welcome which I know this audience will be most gratified to give him." The greeting was altogether as cordial as Mr. Perkins had anticipated, and was a tribute which Judge Levering profoundly appreciated. It was he who in 1857 took charge of the remains of Floyd after discovery of the en- croachment of the river upon the grave, and kept them until their re- interment. He declared he would very much like to speak quite fully regarding the circumstances, but he felt himself unable to do so. Notwithstanding the difficulties under which he labored, however, he desired to correct an error which is widespread concerning the con- dition of the remains. He said the bones recovered at the time were all that were in the grave, and that neither the skull nor any other part of the skeleton rolled into the river, as had been reported. The encroachment of the river had not removed any of the bones, but what- ever were missing was due to disturbance by wild animals, as discovered by the earliest visitors. Judge Levering told of taking the remains to his own home, and of the objection raised by his wife to the presence of the ghastly relics, and their subsequent removal to the office of Judge Moore, where they remained until reinterred. Mr. Perkins made announcement that he had just heard that M. L. Jones, formerly a resident of Smithland, who made the discovery in 1857 that Floyd's grave was being washed away, had recently died at his new home in California. During the evening several patriotic songs were sung by the audience under the leadership of G. M. Gilbert, including "Columbia," "Lift Up Your Eyes, Desponding Freemen," "Marching Through Georgia" and "America." In closing the meeting, Chairman Perkins expressed on behalf of the General Committee and the Floyd Memorial Association their grateful thanks to all who had contributed to making the dedicatory exercises throughout such a splendid success, and to the citizens who had attended the various gatherings in such large numbers. Dedication of the Monument ( J1 The Sioux City Journal of May 31, 1901, contained the following editorial comment on Mr. Kasson's address: The address of Hon. John A. Kasson, on the occasion of the dedica- tion of the monument erected here to the memory of Sergeant Charles Floyd, of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, is a distinct contribution to the history of the Louisiana Territory and Purchase. Mr. Kasson has employed his art and knowledge to weave that history into fasci- nating story. Those who had the fortune to hear Mr. Kasson's address in his own splendid diction, or who may rise from the reading of it, cannot fail of a feeling of exaltation over the wonderful drama of the century founded in the mystery of Providence in the great Valley of the Mississippi. The Lewis and Clark Expedition was planned in advance of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory by the United States, and at a time when no American statesman had so much as a dream of adding this great domain to the possessions of the United States. The com- mercial idea dominated at the opening of the nineteenth century as it does now at the opening of the twentieth century. We are disposed to think in the push and confusion of our environment that we have fallen upon peculiar times; but not so. Commerce then as now was the mighty force employed in opening the way to the eager feet of civilization. One hundred years ago, before the time of railroads and before the age of steam, commerce sought the waterways. The young republic sought protection for its trade on the way to the sea; and the route through Florida and the right of depot at New Orleans became matters of the greatest moment at Washington. The thought that our country could ever need the territory adjacent to and west of this valley of the continent for the settlement of an expanding population was beyond the power of mortal man. It was literally thrust into our keeping, under the exigencies of European politics, against the protest of many of our wise men. Out of this territory we have carved twelve great States and have remaining two great Territories. Wonderful trans- formation! A few years after our acquisition of the territory of Louisiana we were again at war with Great Britain; and in that period is recorded the memorable struggle for the possession of New Orleans. Half a century later we were at war with ourselves; and Mr. Kasson throws into graphic language the story of the heroic struggle of that time for possession of the Mississippi Valley and the way to the sea. History repeats itself; the parallel drawn by Mr. Kasson serves to give the dullest mind a grasp on the epoch-making events under which the union of these States has been wrought and preserved. In this con- nection Mr. Kasson pays a splendid tribute to the soldiers of the west- ern armies, fitting well the day and the occasion. Another noticeable parallel drawn by Mr. Kasson relates to expan- sion. The Louisiana Purchase was a providential provision for the future of our country, out of time as it appeared to men, but in the nick of time as is plain enough in the retrospect. Now, as an incident in the Spanish-American War. new territory has been added from the islands of the sea. so that now the sun does not set on the flag of the great republic. The purpose of McKinley or of the Congress was not to add to the territory of the United States, as it was not the purpose of Jefferson or of the Congress nearly one hundred years ago. It is not surprising that Mr. Kasson is able to offer no other explanation than that the Nation has been providentially led. "It is a marvelous expansion, a marvelous transformation, a miracle of the nations!" 92 Report of Floyd Memorial Association The Tribune of May 30, 1901. contained an extended editorial and account of the dedication and a poem by Will Reed Dunroy. The monument to Sergeant Charles Floyd was dedicated, the me- morial tablets unveiled, today. The occasion is a historic one. The monument is the joint tribute of the State of Iowa and the United States Government to the first American soldier who lost his life in the empire-making adventure of Thomas Jefferson. The tablet might well have been engraved with the words, "To the memory of the first soldier who gave his life in carrying out the plans by which Thomas Jefferson laid the foundation of the greatness of the American Re- public." If Thomas Jefferson had not been occupied with writing the Declaration of Independence, representing the young republic in France, adopting a constitution and serving as President, he might have been the commander of the expedition which left the bones of one of its members on Floyd's Bluff. Long before American independence was achieved, Jefferson was a believer in a republic that should include North America. After the Revolution, when he was at Paris, John Ledyard, a Connecticut Yankee and adventurer, who had traveled almost, all over the world, came to Jefferson. "I want to travel from St. Petersburg across Russia and Siberia." he said, "and thence, crossing Behring Strait, down the western slope of the American Continent, across the Oregon Divide, down the Mis- souri and up the Ohio. I want to circumnavigate the globe, as nearly as it can be done by land. I will lay claim to the far west in the name of the American Republic; I will give it the right of discovery, to claim the Missouri Valley, the Pacific Slope, and the great northwest part of the continent." Jefferson, already confident that sooner or later the republic would be able to crowd Europe out of the western valleys, joined in the plan. He secured for Ledyard passports from the Czar of Russia, and with an expedition the Yankee started across the steppes of Russia and Siberia. He actually got almost to the Behring Straits. Then he was forced to give it up. He returned, and the expedition was a failure. Jefferson was sorely disappointed. Ten years later, when he was President, he had the good fortune to be able to send the expedition, but he started it at the other end of the route, and for the purpose of exploring what by that time, in the due development of his ambitions, had been made part of his country. Jefferson had many of the instincts of an explorer and adventurer; but greater things than mere topo- graphical exploration were destined for him. The Floyd Monument is really a commemoration of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. After he had bought Louisiana from Napoleon. Jefferson set out to explore it. There were wonderful stories told of the new region. The opponents of the purchase — and they were many —pointed out the ridiculousness of such an acquisition. The country was inhabited by millions of savages who could never be controlled. It was a great desert, dotted by inaccessible mountains; civilized men could never occupy it. To buy it would be to assume responsibility for the Indians and the adventurers who would dispute for its posses- sion. These arguments won many. The Jefferson crowd, however, was not without imagination. The story was invented that up near the headwaters of the Missouri was a wonderful mountain of salt. It was a hundred miles long and no man could tell how high it was. Composed of pure crystals of rock salt, it glittered in the sun like the Gates of Paradise, and no man could turn his eyes upon it. when it shone in the full splendor of a summer afternoon's sun. without injury to the eyes not used to such supernatural beauty. Here was all the salt the world could want in all time: and salt was a mighty desirable thing Dedication of the Monument 93 in tho.se days, before the supply got so large that two able-bodied trusts, working overtime, could not control it. The mountain of salt argument actually had a large influence in determining public opinion in favor of the purchase of Louisiana. Jefferson had his way. He and Napoleon, at least, were two men who could see far enough into the future to know that they had done a work of empire-making. "I have this day established an enemy of England that will one day humble her pride," said Napoleon as he signed the documents which made Louisiana American property. And in this day, when American com- merce, American expansion, American finance, American power in every department of activity is accepted as the great menace to the power, not of England alone but of all Europe, it seems that Jefferson and Napoleon must have had prophetic vision. These are some of the thoughts that are suggested by the ceremony today, celebrating deeds that changed the course of history. He sleeps beneath the stately shaft Beside the winding river, Where prairie grasses clothe the sod And stunted willows quiver; The waters murmur as they flow In a requiem, softly, faintly low, And the west winds sigh and shiver. No word can reach his earth-stopt ears However loudly spoken; To words of praise, to words of blame His dust can give no token; He holds his vigil on the hill, In endless quiet, deep and still, In dignity unbroken. Above his solemn resting place The meadowlarks are singing; Around the stately obelisk The butterflies are winging: With reverence and peace draw near The grave of the sleeping pioneer While paeans of praise are ringing. His restless feet have turned to dust, His wanderings are ended: But still his spirit bides with us With courage high and splendid; His strong example paved the way For all the triumphs of today — His hopes on us descended. He sleeps beneath the stately shaft Enwrapped in solemn glory: Eternal hills lift up their heads About him, old and hoary; And like a finger, pointing high. The shaft lifts upward to the sky And tells its deathless story. — Will Reed Dunroy. 94 Report of Floyd Memorial Association XIII. PROCEEDINGS AFTER MAY 31, 1901. Abstract of Minutes. Sioux City, Iowa, June 15, 1901. Association met at office of U. S. Engineers; President Charles in the chair; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; Messrs. Perkins, Stone, Burton, Hol- man, Vincent, Tees, Chittenden, Marks and Davis present. Captain Chittenden presented the following financial statement to date: Available Funds — By appropriation made by United States $ 5,000.00 By appropriation made by State of Iowa 5,000.00 By contribution by the Floyd Memorial Association 600.00 By contribution by the Union Pacific Railroad Company 500.00 By appropriation made by tne City of Sioux City 1,500.00 Total amount available $12,600.00 To amount expended from United States appropria- tion $ 5,000.00 To amount expended from State of Iowa appropria- tion 5,000.00 To amount expended from Floyd Memorial Asso- ciation contribution 600.00 To amount expended from Union Pacific Railroad contribution 99.90 To amount expended from City of Sioux City appro- priation 536.91— $11,236.80 Balance available $ 1,363.20 Balance Union Pacific Railroad contribution $ 400.11 Balance City of Sioux City appropriation 963.09—$ 1,363.20 Outstanding Liabilities — Hanson Brothers, paving $ 591.33 Grading 132.82 Sodding 120.00 Water 19.20 Hauling stone, etc 18.00 Survey 16.20 Hermann & Savage, steel bars : 6.20 P. S. Beekley, sand 9.90 John Leonard, sand 38.50 Joseph Hutchinson, crushed stone 93.50 G. N. Railway Co., freight on sand 14.58 C. St. P., M. & O. Railway Co.. steel posts 23.23 R. J. Barrett, cutting stone 6.50 Western Union Telegraph Company .75 Iowa Telephone Company .25 Photographs 15.00 Team '. 15.00 Survey 15.00 Grading, 300 cubic yards, at 10 cents 30.00 Sodding 70.00 Fence 50.00 Total liabilities $ 1,285.96 Abstract of Minutes 95 Balance $ 1,363.20 Liabilities 1,285.96 Balance $ 77.^ 1 Probable receipts from sale of material :tit.uu Probable balance $ 167.24 D. A. Magee, Treasurer, presented his report of receipts and dis- bursements from July, 1895, as follows: To Officers and Members of Floyd Memorial Association: As Treasurer, I beg leave to report that I have received into my hands from all sources the following amounts, to-wit: 1895. July 6, John H. Charles. C. R. Marks " Geo. Murphy. . . . C. D. Bagley A. M. Holman.. E. R. Kirk .$ 5 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 5 00 5 00 July 23, P. B. Weare 25 00 July 25, Eri Richardson L. L. Kellogg W. S. Belden Thos. Green J. Amerland R. J. Chase C. L. Wright ■" Selzer Bros C. H. Lewis Perkins Bros. Co.... R. Buchanan T. G. Henderson J. J. Dunkleberg. . . . S. M. Marsh Isaac Pendleton " A. Groninger " Jas. Twohig Jos. Twohig , H. L. Warner J. A. Magoun N. Emmuns T. P. Gere C. W. Fletcher C. A. L. Olson F. L. Eaton ■" J. Sampson J. W. Power H. P. Chesley G. W. Sheepley J. W. Baley A. W. Whisler " Jas. Puck Wm. Milchrist E. H. Bucknam T. J. Stone D. S. Lewis " J. A. Burns A. L. Stetson F. M. Shanafelt 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 2 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 2 00 1 00 2 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 no 1 00 2 00 i oo IN'.I.V July 25, Judge VanWagenen.if " Geo. M. Pardoe G. W. Wakefield.... W. C. Hills W. L. Joy Davidson Bros F. C. Hills N. Desparois T. C. Tees Geo. C. Reed J. D. Hoskins C. A. Benton Jas. Doughty W. C. Davenport.... A. H. Burton F. A. Magill G. A. Johnson J. L. Hanchett J. M. Bolton J. C. C. Hoskins M. E. Follis F. L. Ferris H. J. Taylor G. S. Robinson Hattenbach & Magee E. R. Evans " John T. Spencer M. E. Kelly J. P. Karney D. C. Heffernan E. S. Holman Stinson & Gribble. .. " Schrieber Bros Hart & Smead T. V. Brennan W. H. Warner Prof. Haupt E. B. Wilbur Geo. Murphy, (Pictures) B. Gribble W. O. Avers D. C. Smiley H. H. McCormick... . 1807. Sep. 22. Bertha Wakefield .... 1 mi 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 00 1 50 1 00 1 mi 1 00 1 00 1 On 1 00 1 00 1 00 50 1 00 1 00 1 mi 1 00 1 00 96 Report of Floyd Memorial Association 1897. Sept. 22, Luther Coombs $ .1 00 Robert H. Sayer 5.00 Maris Peirce 1 00 T. C. Veits 2 00 1898. June 29, Francis Davis 1 00 C. A. Benton, (Floyd History) 25 C. R. Marks 75 A. Groninger 25 Mitchell Vincent 2 00 A. F. Statter 25 F. C. Hills 50 Feb. 24, P. W. Peterson Granite Co 1 00 C. R. Marks. (Floyd Histories) . 2 00 1899. May 9, P. B. Weare $100 00- Aug. 11, H. D. Clarke 25 00 Aug. 19, J. C. C. Hoskins 15 00 Oct. 7, City of Sioux City... 500 00 Nov. 7, Jos. N. Field 250 00 1900. Apl. 17, Col. Chittenden 1 00 Sep. 15, T. C. Power 50 00 Sep. 25, F. M. Hubbell 50 00 Dec. 20, Interest on Deposit.. 50 Dec. 24, F. H. Peavey 200 00 1901. May 27, Woodbury County ... 800 00 Stock Yards Co 100 00 May 30, Sale of Badges 27 00 Total $2,264 50 The following disbursements have been made, to-wit: Date 1895. To Whom Paid. . For What Paid. Amount, June 11, Perkins Bros. Co letter heads, postal cards, etc..$ 5 90< June 23, E. W. Skinner labor, etc 1150 June 25, M. A. Bancroft printing 3 10 Aug. 1, postage Aug. 21 newspapers and urn Perkins Bros. Co. et al printing 1 1 14 00- 40 25 50 30 Sept. 11. M. C. Carlstrom memorial stone 42 20 Sept. 25, N. J. Berston teams and hacks Oct. 1, Peavey & Stephens chairs Dec. 31, P. C. Waltermire photographs 5 00 1896. Aug. 31, John H. Charles 94 85. 1899. Marks attorney city appropriation 500 00" H. Charles president \ . . . . 290 00 Oct. 7 Dec. 5, John 1900. Sept. 14 M. B. Davis ex pense corner stone. 3 00 Sept. 18, Fourth Regiment Band laying corner stone. . 40 00 Dec. 20, John H. Charles. President. .. payment on note 175 50. 1901. Jan. 3, Security National Bank payment on note 200 00' May 27, Security National Bank payment on note 200 00 May 31, Dr. Yeomans ticket to Mason City 6 66' June 3, P. C. Waltermire 500 buttons for badges 50 00 Hotel Garretson bill Dr. Yeomans 3 25 H. A. Jandt & Co ribbons for badges 18 00' Perkins Bros. Co printing 22 75- C. Reuschling janitor court house 2 50' A. B. Beall opera house 25 00' June 8, J. M. Pinckney flags W. A. Spencer gathering flowers W. S. Stratton moving organ to court house. W. S. Belden horse used as marshal of day.. A. Lindholm Co chairs at monument W. E. Davis postage for invitations 20* 75 50 00 30 96 Abstract of Minutes 97 June S, A. 1'. McKowan decorating opera house $ in 00 Pelletier Dry Goods Co bunting for opera house 4 20 \V. C. Davenport hack to monument :S 00 Sioux City Bus & T. Co hacks 3125 W. E. Gantt horse, aide to marshal 2 00 D. A. Magee livery to monument, drayage and revenue stamps 2 50 J. H. Carmody assistance at opera house 2 00 Fourth Regiment Band services at unveiling 75 00 June 14, J. A. Kasson expenses, etc 100 00 Total $1,91132 Recapitulation — To total amount amount received $2,264.50 — By total amount paid out $1,911.32 By cash on hand 326.18 By cash on hand from sale badges 27.00 Totals $2,264.50 $2,264.50 C. R. Marks, Committee on Resolutions, presented a number which were unanimously adopted. The resolutions are as follows: Resolved, That the thanks of the Floyd Memorial Association are hereby extended to Captain H. M. Chittenden, U. S. Engineer, for his invaluable services in the designing and superintending the erection of the monument to the memory of Sergant Charles Floyd. That the Association highly appreciates his technical knowledge and skill, so freely given for our benefit, and the heart and soul with which he has entered upon the work, surpassing us all in his love and enthusiasm in commemorating this historic event. That without his aid our work could not have been so successfully and economically consummated. That copies of this resolution be forwarded to Captain Chittenden by the Secretary. Resolved by the Floyd Memorial Association, That the thanks of this Association are hereby extended to the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad Company and its officers for their liberality and sub- stantial donation of freight charges in carrying material for the erec- tion of the monument in Sioux City at the grave of Sergeant Charles Floyd, who died upon the Lewis and Clark Expedition. That by this most substantial aid, added to that of others, we have been enabled to secure the site of Floyd's grave and erect a shaft one hundred feet high that will commemorate his name and the his- toric event of the purchase and exploration of the great Northwest at the commencement of the last century. That by the public spirited aid of this Company and others a monu- ment has been erected double in cost and value of the original appro- priations of the United States and the State of Iowa of $5,000 each. That copies of this resolution be sent to such Railroad Company. Resolved by the Floyd Memorial Association. That the thanks of this Association are hereby extended to the Illinois Central Railroad Company and its officers for their liberality and substantial donation of freight charges in carrying material for the erection of the monu- ment in Sioux City at the grave of Sergeant Charles Floyd, who died upon the Lewis and Clark Expedition. 98 Report of Floyd Memorial Association That by this most substantial aid, added to that of others, we have been enabled to secure the site of Floyd's grave and erect a shaft one hundred feet high that will commemorate his name and the his- toric event of the purchase and exploration of the great Northwest at the commencement of the last century. That by the public spirited aid of this Company and others a monu- ment has been erected double in cost and value of the original appro- priations of the United States and the State of Iowa of $5,000 each. That copies of this resolution be sent to such Railroad Company. Resolved by the Floyd Memorial Association of Sioux City, Iowa, That the thanks of the Association are hereby extended to the' Union Pacific Railroad Company and its officers for the donation of $500 made by it towards the erection of the monument at Sioux City, Iowa, at the grave of Sergeant Charles Floyd, who died upon the Lewis and Clark Expedition. That by the aid of this donation and other generous ones we have been enabled to secure the site of Floyd's grave and erect a shaft one hundred feet high on Floyd's Bluff that will commemorate the purchase and exploration of the great Northwest at the commencement of the last century, and that copies of this resolution be sent to said Rail- road Company. Resolved by the Floyd Memorial Association. That the thanks of this Association are hereby extended to the Sioux City & Pacific and the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad Companies and their officers for their liberality and substantial donations of freight charges in carrying material for the erection of the monument in Sioux City at the grave of Sergeant Charles Floyd, who died upon the Lewis and Clark Expedition. That by this most substantial aid. added to that of others, we have been enabled to secure the site of Floyd's grave and erect a shaft one hundred feet high that will commemorate his name and the his- toric event of the purchase and exploration of the great Northwest at the commencement of the last century. That by the public spirited aid of these Companies and others a monument has been erected double in cost and value of the original appropriations of the United States and the State or Iowa of $5,000 each. That copies of this resolution be sent to such Railroad Companies. Resolved by the Floyd Memorial Association, That the thanks of this Association are hereby extended to the Great Northern and the Willmar and Sioux Falls Railway Companies and their officers for their liberality and substantial donations of freight charges in carrying material for the erection of the monument in Sioux City at the grave ■of Sergeant Charles Floyd, who died upon the Lewis and Clark Ex- pedition. That by this most substantial aid, added to that of others, we have been enabled to secure the site of Floyd's grave and erect a shaft one hundred feet high that will commemorate his name and the his- toric event of the purchase and exploration of the great Northwest at the commencement of the last century. That by the public spirited aid of these Companies and others a monument has been erected double in cost and value of the original appropriations of the United States and the State of Iowa of $o,000 each. That copies of this resolution be sent to such Railroad Companies. Resolved by the Floyd Memorial Association, That the thanks of this Association are hereby extended to the Chicago, St. Paul, Minne- ;apolisand Omaha Railroad Company and its officers for their liberality Abstract of Minutes '.)'.) and substantial donation of freight charges in carrying material for the erection of the monument in Sioux City at the grave of Sergeant Charles Floyd, who died upon the Lewis and Clark Expedition. That by this most substantial aid, added to that of others, we have been enabled to secure the site of Floyd's grave and erect a shaft one hundred feet high that will commemorate his name and the his- toric event of the purchase and exploration of the great Northwest at the commencement of the last century. That by the public spirited aid of this Company and others a monu- ment has been erected double in cost and value of the original appro- priations of the United States and the State of Iowa of $5,000 each. That copies of this resolution be sent to such Railroad Company. Resolved by the Floyd Memorial Association, That the thanks of this Association are hereby extended to the Combination Bridge Com- pany and the Union Terminal Railway Company and their officers for their liberality and substantial donation of freight charges in carrying material for the erection of the monument in Sioux City at the grave of Sergeant Charles Floyd, who died upon the Lewis and Clark Ex- pedition. That by this most substantial aid, added to that of others, we have been enabled to secure the site of Floyd's grave and erect a shaft one hundred feet high that will commemorate his name and the his- toric event of the purchase and exploration of the great Northwest at the commencement of the last century. That by the public spirited aid of this Company and others a monu- ment has been erected double in cost and value of the original appro- priations of the United States and the State of Iowa of $5,000 each. That copies of this resolution be sent to such Companies. The Committee of Arrangements for the dedication made a full report, among other things stating that the Board of Supervisors had appropriated $800 to complete the work and pay expenses of dedication, for which a vote of thanks was recommended. This appropriation was placed in hands of Treasurer of the Association. Expenses of dedi- cation, $375.82, were itemized and all appear in the Treasurer's report above. Report approved. Sioux City, Iowa. July 27. 1901. Association met in rooms of Scientific Association; Vice President Wakefield in the chair; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; Miss Bertha Wakefield. Messrs. Marks, Davis and Burton present. On motion of Mr. Marks a committee consisting of Geo. D. Perkins. E. W. Caldwell, J. C. Kelly, Geo. W. Wakefield and Mrs. Francis N. Davis was appointed and directed to compile and prepare for publica- tion in pamphlet form a report of the proceedings and work of the Association from December, 1895, the closing date of former report. On motion of Mrs. Davis a portrait of John H. Charles. President of the Association, was adopted as the frontispiece in such publication. John H. Charles, M. Vincent and C. R. Marks were appointed to purchase in behalf of the Association a suitable present for Captain Chittenden in recognition of his valuable services. 100 Report of Floyd Memorial Association Sioux City, Iowa, August 20, 1901. Association met in annual session in the rooms of the Scientific Association; President Charles in the chair; Mrs. Davis, Secretary; Messrs. Wakefield, Magee, Tees, A. M. Holman. Vincent, Davis, Burton and Perkins present. The Committee on purchase of gift to Captain Chittenden reported the purchase of Parkman's History, and the committee was directed to present the same to Captain Chittenden. The Treasurer reported the receipt from U. S. Engineers the sum of $95.56. A. H. Burton was requested to provide for keeping cattle out of the grounds. The following named persons were elected Trustees for the ensuing year: John H. Charles, Geo. W. Wakefield. Mitchell Vincent, Geo. D. Perkins, D. A. Magee, A. M. Holman and C. R. Marks. The Trustees met immediately and the following officers were duly elected: President, John H. Charles; Vice Presidents, Geo. W. Wake- field, Geo. D. Perkins, Maris Peirce, Joseph N. Field, of Manchester, England; Portus B. Weare, of Chicago; R. C. A. Flournoy, Horace G. Burt, of Omaha; Marvin Hughitt, of Chicago; George F. Bidwell, of Omaha; James Davie Butler, D. D., of Madison, Wis.; Charles Aldrich. of Des Moines; Mrs. Elliott Coues, of Washington, D. C; H. D. Clark, of New Haven, Conn.; S. P. Yeomans. of Marshalltown. XIV. FURTHER DATA REGARDING FLOYD. After the completion and dedication of the monument and the provision for this report further information in regard to the lineage of Sergeant Charles Floyd came to the Association in the following letter: Ellicott City, Md., July 25, 1901. The Floyd Memorial Association. Dear Sirs: Having seen in Harper's Weekly of July 6 an account of the interesting and beautiful monument erected to Sergeant Floyd at Sioux City, I write to draw your attention to one statement in the article, which, though made in good faith, is really very incorrect, namely, that nothing is known of Floyd's family. My grandmother, now living at the advanced age of eighty-two. is a daughter of John Floyd, who was Governor of Virginia in 1829. Governor John Floyd was a first cousin of Sergeant Floyd and father of John B. Floyd, Secretary of War under Buchanan. We have in our family records and letters which trace the history of the Floyds from the date of their coming to this country to the present day. These documents were lent by my family to Mr. Theodore Roosevelt, who made use of them in writing his book, "The Winning of the West." Sergeant's Floyd's father was a surveyor, one of several brothers ;vho emigrated from Virginia to Kentucky, co-pioneers with Daniel IhitH Regarding Floyd 101 Boone. The first association existing between the family of Floyd and General George Rogers Clarke was in 1782, when the State of Virginia authorized General Clarke to raise troops for the defense of Kentucky, at that time open to the depredation of the Indians, who were incited by the British. Colonel John Floyd commanded a company of volun- teers. Overtures were made to Clarke and Floyd by the British Gov- ernor, Hamilton, to betray the country to the British and be rewarded with an extensive grant of land and any title under that of Duke. Colonel Floyd named one of his sons, George Rogers Clarke, after his friend and fellow-soldier. This Colonel John Floyd was an uncle of Sergeant Floyd. Very truly yours. MARY FLOYD McMULLEN. The Sioux City Tribune of August 17, 1901, contained the following more extended letter from Miss McMulIen: Ellicott City, Md., August 13, 1901. To the Editor of the Tribune: It is with pleasure that I respond to your courteous request of August 10, and regret that the delay conse- quent upon looking through some family papers somewhat retarded the mailing of my letter. I find to my great disappointment that I can give you really no details of the life of Sergeant Charles Floyd. I have written to one or two relatives in what is, I fear, a vain hope that they may be able to throw some light on the history of this interesting man. Reasoning, however, by analogy, we may gain some idea of his personality by read- ing the story of those of his relatives whose history is well known to me. The Floyds were an adventurous, roving race, and early in the eighteenth century, finding their native Welch valleys too narrow, three brothers of the name sailed west across the Atlantic, to find in the new country of America a field worthy of their restless spirits. One brother, John, settled in the northern colonies; the youngest, Charles, went, to Georgia; William settled in the eastern part of Virginia. Per- haps he found the rich and populous colony too crowded; perhaps he heard the call of the great western wilderness with ears only too eager for such a summons. We can only guess his reasons, but we know that he soon left the fertile tide-water country and faced westward to Amherst County, then a very wild region. Here he met with a family named Davis, whose ancestors had come from Wales. Mr. Robert Davis had a daughter, Abediah, whom William Floyd married. Twelve children were the result of this union; five sons, John, William. Isham. Charles and Nathaniel, and seven daughters, Mrs. Sturgis, Mrs. Pryor. Mrs. LeMaster, Mrs. Drake, Mrs. Powell, Mrs. Alexander and Mrs. Twole. Charles Floyd was, I am nearly certain, the father of Sergeant Charles Floyd. I have not succeeded in discovering whom he married, nor if he had other children. John, the eldest son of William Floyd and Abediah Davis, was born in 1747 in Amherst County. He became a surveyor and was associated with Colonel William Preston, whose cousin, the beautiful and fasci- nating Jane Buchanan, he married; not, however, without a long and romantic courtship. When the duties of the surveyor's office permitted he rode with Colonel Daniel Trigg as deputy sheriff. In the year 1775 John Floyd made his first expedition into Ken- tucky, where he surveyed all the best lands on Elkhorn Creek, many in Clark County, in Woolford County, Shelby County and Jefferson County. He returned to Virginia after unbelievable sufferings. In the Revolutionary War John Floyd had command of a privateering schooner, the "Phoenix." His career on the high seas, though brief. 102 Report of Floyd Memorial Association was not the least thrilling episode in a life crowded with adventures. He sailed to the West Indies and captured a splendid prize, but on his return, deserted by fortune, he was captured while almost in sight of the Virginia shores and taken a prisoner to England. After a romantic escape and flight to France he succeeded in returning to America, bringing his sweetheart, Jane Buchanan, a pair of silver shoe buckles. In the year 1779 William Floyd died. His pioneer spirit descended, like the prophet s mantle, upon his son, John Floyd. In October of 1779 he. with his wife, his brothers, Charles, Isham anu Nathaniel, his sisters, Jemima and Abediah, with their husbands, LeMaster and Sturgis, migrated to Kentucky. Two unmarried sisters, who afterwards married, one a Mr. Pryor, the other a Mr. Alexander, accompanied them. They settled at Bear Grass, near Louisville. When a convention was called to enact laws for the infant colony, John Floyd made an address, saying "he felt that he had placed his foot upon the threshold of an empire." This expression was looked upon as the boast of an ardent tempered man. Time has proven it was prophetic. John Floyd was always one of the most prominent men in the companies organized to repel Indian depredations. To quote from Collins' Kentucky. P. 303: "He accompanied Boone in the pursuit and rescue of his daughter and her companions, whom the savages had decoyed and captured in 1776. and his contemporaneous account of that thrilling occurrence does equal credit to his scholarship and pen." Of John Floyd's life-long friendship with General George Rogers Clark I have already spoken. This daring pioneer at last lost his life at the hands of the savages he had so bravely resisted. On the 12th of April, 1183, Colonel Floyd, his brother Charles and Mr. Alexander Breckenridge were riding to Salt River, about twenty miles from Floyd's Station. The scarlet coat worn by Floyd proved a splendid target for an enemy's weapon. He was fired upon by Indians in ambush. As the gallant soldier reeled in his saddle, his brother Charles sprang behind him, and, supporting him in his arms, galloped to the nearest house. All efforts proved un- availing to save the life of this brave pioneer, and at the early age of thirty-six he died, expressing with his last breath the greatest sorrow and concern for his young wife and his children. No portrait exists of John Floyd, but he is described by those who knew him as being of commanding stature, slender, but muscular, with curling dark hair, handsome features and piercing brilliant dark eyes. To quote again from Collins: '^'loyd was a conspicuous actor in the stirring scenes of those times. He was an ornament and a benefactor of the infant settlement. No individual among the pioneers was more intellectual or better informed; none displayed on all occasions that called for it a bolder and more undaunted courage." John Floyd left three sons. William, who died in infancy; George Rogers Clark Floyd, of Tippe- canoe fame, and John Floyd, afterwards Governor of Virginia and a man of great prominence in political life before the war. In 1782, Isham, a brother of Colonel John Floyd, was killed by the Indians on the west bank of the Ohio River. He was quite young, merely a boy. The savages tortured him for three days in a most in- human manner; scalped him, cut off his ears, fingers and toes, finally tore out his heart and threw it to the dogs. Colonel John Floyd's brothers-in-law. Sturgis, Pryor. Drake and LeMasters, were also killed by the Indians. I do not know the date of the death of Charles Floyd, the father of Sergeant Charles Floyd, nor that of William Floyd, but Nathaniel, the youngest of the brothers, lived to the advanced age of ninety-five, dying in 1840. Mention is made of his having seen service at New Orleans. To quote from a letter from Mrs. John Floyd to one of her Data Regarding Floyd 103 sons: "From the year 1755 to the battle of New Orleans, your paternal ancestors unsheathed their swords and poured out their blood for their country." This is but a brief and hasty outline of the Floyd family. A mar- tial, adventurous race: these qualities, with the virtues of courage and energy, must have been the inheritance and birthright of Sergeant Charles Floyd. We can well fancy, after glancing at the history of his forefathers and kinsmen with what eagerness he must have volunteered for service on an expedition that could not but appeal to every instinct of his heart and mind. That daring expedition, fraught with dangers, difficulties and undreamed hardships that went into the mysterious ana ever-alluring west. Very sincerely yours, (MISS) .MARY FLOYD Mc MULLEN, Ellicott City, Md. August 22. 1901, Miss McMullen wrote the Secretary that she was seeking further information from other members of the family. Benjamin F. Gardner, of Louisville, writing August 16, 1901, states that in 1880 a monument was erected near Eastwood by the State of Kentucky to the memory of Colonel John Floyd and members of his command, who were killed by the Indians. Judge Noah Levering, in an interview published in the Sioux City Journal of May 28, 1901, made statement concerning Floyd's remains as follows: It was in the latter part of March, -1857, that Dr. Sloan, who lived at Sergeant Bluffs, discovered while driving along the river bank to Sioux City that the remains of Sergeant Floyd were about to be washed into the river. He told me about it, and I called the attention of a number of citizens to the fact. A meeting was held in the office of the Receiver of the United States Land Office in the evening, and a committee was named; of which I was made chairman, to visit the grave and rescue the remains if possible. The next day it was very windy, a typical March day in this sec- tion, but we went to the grave, and on top of that bluff we could scarcely hold our feet. Some of us crawled over to the edge of the bluff, and looking over we saw a leg bone protruding from the ground about six inches. Nobody was lowered over the precipice with a rope, as has been reported somewhere in history. A young man who said he was from Indiana, and whose name I did not get. said he would dig out the bones if a rope were tied to him to insure his not falling over the bank. We had a rope along with us. and this was tied about his waist. With a spade he began digging near the edge of the bank, and the committee lay down in the grass and held the rope. The arm bones were gone, but the other bones and a part of the old coffin were there. The coffin was not a box, for there was no lum- ber on the expedition. It was surmised that the body was staked around after being placed in the bottom of the grave, and sawed up pieces of timber were placed over the top. I afterward sent a piece of this wood to the Iowa Historical Society in Des Moines. I wrapped up the bones of Sergeant Floyd in a blanket and carried them home with me. Well, naturally, my wife was not highly pleased to have such a ghastly bundle about the house, and I carried them down to the office of Judge M. F. Moore, who was County Judge here and was in later vears the first Governor of Washington Territory. 104 Report of Flovcl Memorial Association ► On May 20, after a good deal of labor, I secured, by collection, suffi- cient money to have a coffin made and dig a new grave for the remains. Judge Moore delivered the oration during the ceremonies, and it was indeed a fine one. The bones were interred about six hundred feet back on the bluff. A cedar post which had been placed at the original grave had been washed into the river and lost. I am quite sure it was not the original post left by the comrades of Sergeant Floyd, for that one bore an in- scription, according to the records they left. The one washed away must have been about the third post, and I think it must have been placed there by Nicollet, the noted traveler, in 1839. It was evident he did not know just where the body lay and placed the post near the feet of Sergeant Floyd. XV. HONORABLE MENTION. John H. Charles, President of this Association from its organiza- tion, whose portrait is given as the frontispiece to this report, has been the chief moving spirit in our work, making it possible to complete and dedicate the monument in so short a time. He has been a great and steadfast leader to whom all honor is due, and whose memory will go down the ages so long as the monument endures. The Sioux City Journal of May 30, 1901, contained the following words of tribute: To no one man can be given the credit for building the handsome obelisk that marks Sergeant Charles Floyd's grave, yet one above all others has been inseparably linked with that monument throughout its inception and growth — John H. Charles, the venerable President of the Floyd Memorial Association. A generation of men here and else- where has been deeply interested in thus commemorating the services of the young man who sacrificed his life in the exploration that opened to the United States the great empire of the trans-Missouri country, but none has been so loyal at all times as he; other men have favored ihe project, others gave it their sympathy and encouragement, and still others labored for it and gave of their money to build it, but he made it a part of the plan and purpose of his life, and for years it has been his one great ambition to accomplish this act of justice to the memory of the brave explorer. Dr. William R. Smith, whose active business life was in and devoted to Sioux City, ever kept in mind the building of this memorial to Ser- geant Floyd. By his will, made in April, 1894, he bequeathed to his executors a sum of money to be used and expended by them in the erection, or in aid of the erection, at some place as they might deter- mine, "of a monument to the memory of Sergeant Floyd, who died and was buried near Sioux City, while exploring the Missouri River, accom- panying the expedition of Lewis and Clark, and after whom Floyd River was named." Dr. Smith died July 1, 1894. and this provision of his will when proved no doubt stimulated the inquiry which resulted Honorable Mention 105 in the identification of Sergeant Floyd's grave in 1895, the organiza- tion of this Association and the completion of the work. The exe- cutors of his will, Rebecca O. Smith and Milton Perry Smith, executed the trust imposed April 11. 1898, by conveying to the Association Lot eleven in Block nine in Smith's Walnut Hill Villa Addition to Sioux City, Iowa, at a stated consideration of $250. This lot was sold for $250 to Mrs. Jennie T. Charles, and the proceeds used in purchasing the grounds for the monument and park.