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Full text of "Report of the Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario for the year 1886"

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FRUIT GROWERS' ASSOCIATION 



OF ONTARIO, 



FOR THE YEAR 1886 



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PRINTED BY WARWICK & SONS, 26 AND 28 FRONT STREET WEST. 

1887. 



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AND 

Fruit Growers Association of the Province of Quebec 



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PRESENTED BY 






HOTIa4f I©!S 70S f HI H1141¥, 

Adopted 1879. 



No. 1. 
No. 2. 



No. 



ARTICLE I. 

All Books, Manuscripts, Drawings, Engravings, Paintings, Models, Furniture, and 
other articles appertaining to the Library, shall be confined to the special care of the 
Committee on the Library. 

ARTICLE II. 

When any Books or Publications are added to the Library, a list thereof shall be 
posted up in the Library Room, ai d all such additions shall be withheld from circulation 
for the term of one month. 

ARTICLE III. 

The following Books of Record shall be kept : — 

A Catalogue of the Books. 

A Catalogue of the Manuscripts, Drawings, Engravings, Paintings, Models, and 

all other article*. 

A list of all Donations, Bequests, Books, or other articles presented to the Society 

with a date thereof, and the name and residence of the dono>\ 

ARTICLE IV. 

Rare and costly Books shall not be taken from the Library Room, A list of such 
works as are to be withheld from circulation shall be made out from time to time by the 
Library Committee and placed in the hands of the Librarian. 

ARTICLE V. 

No more than two volumes shall be taken out by any member at one time, or 
retained longer than 3 weeks ; and for each volume retained beyond that time a tine often 
cents per week shall be paid by the person so retaining it. And a fraction of a week shall 
be reckoned as a whole week in computing lines. 

ARTICLE VI. 

Every Book shall be returned in good order (regard being had to the necessary 
wear thereof with proper usage), and if any Book shall be lost or injured, the person to 
whom it stands charged shall, at the election of the Committee on Library, replace it by a 
new volume or set, or pay for it at its value to the Society. 

ARTICLE VII. 

All Books shall be returned to the Library for examination on or before the first 
Saturday in July, annually, and remain till after the third Saturday of said month, and 
every person neglecting to return any Book or Bo »ks chirked to him as herein 
required, shall pay a fine of twenty cents per week for every volume so retained. And 
if at the re-opening of the Library, any Book shall still be unreturned, the person by 
whom it is retained shall pay for the said Book or set. as provided in article 6th, together 
with any fines which may have accumulated thereon ; and a notice to this effect shall be 
forthwith mai'ed to him by the Librarian. 

ARTICLE VIII. 
"When a written request shall be left at the Library for a particular Book then 
out, it shall be retained for the person requiring it, for one week after it shall have been 
returned. 

ARTICLE IX. 

Every Book shall be numbered in the order as arranged in the Books of Record, 
««.) an I every Book in the circulating department shall have a copy of the foregoing regulations 
JL affixed to it. 



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DOCUMENTS COLLECTION 

BROCK UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 

REPORT 



V 



FRUIT GROWERS' ASSOCIATION 



OF ONTARIO, 



FOR THE YEAR 1886 



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PRINTED BY WARWICK & SONS, 26 AND 28 FRONT STREET WEST. 

1887. 



016S22 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Address of Welcome. 20 

Agricultural Divisions 4 

Alexander 53 

Annual Meeting 3 

Ants, Remedy for . . 43 

Aphis 25, 53 

Apples ! 45, 61 

Apples for Export 32 

Apples for Victoria County 62 

Apples, Packing 38 

Ashes 36, 37 

Aspect of Orchards 49 

Bagging Grapes 59 

Bartlett 39 

Ben Davis 48 

Beurre Clairgeau 40 

Black Currants 30 

Black Knot , 19, 34 

Cellini 51 

Champion Quince 31 

Charcoal dust for Mildew 28 

Cherries 21 

Chrysanthemums 44 

Clapp's Favorite 39 

Coal Ashes 28, 38 

Colonial Exhibition 4 

Cranberries 34 

Cultivating Orchards 47 

Curculio-proof Plum 33 

Currants 30 

Duchess 39 

Duchess of Oldenburgh , 7 

Early Richmond 22 

Elm 17 

Evans, H. S., Resolution concerning '. . . 53 

(F. G.) 



IV. 



Page. 

Failures 46 

Fay's Currant 27, 44 

Fences 11 

Fertilizers 36 

Foreign Shipments 42 

Fruit Committee 19, 64 

Fruit Progress 41 

Fruits in North Simcoe 63 

Gardens and Lawns . 24, 38 

Gooseberries 30 

Grape Trellis \ . 26 

Grapes , 26, 56, 57, 58 

Greening 32 

Hawthorden, New 51 

Hedges 14, 63 

Hilborn * 31 

Horse Chestnut , 17 

Huckleberries 34 

Hydrangea Paniculata 43 

Imports of Fruit 43 

Infusorial Earth 59, 60 

Insect Powder 44 

King Apple 32, 33 






Madame Plantier .... 45 

Mann 32 

Manure 23 

Marlboro 28 

Maple, Soft 17 

Mcintosh Red 62 

Mildew 23, 28 

Moore's Early 27 

Moore's Ruby 44 

Mulching : 52 

Norway Spruce 14, 63 

Nova Scotia Apples 6 

Officers of the Association 3 

Ohio 30 

Oliver * 35 

Orange Quince 31 

Ornamental Trees and Shrubs 14 



v. 



Page. 

Paris Green 20, 35, 54, 55 

Pasturing Orchards 47 

Peach Apple ' 52 

Peaches 21 

Pears 22, 39 

Peewaukee . 48, 52 

Phosphates 38 

Plant Lice 44 

Plum Blight 16 

Plums 33, 54 

Preservation of Fruit 58 

President's Annual Address 4 

Pruning Trees 49 

Pulvinaria Innumerabilis- 24 

Pyrethrum 25 

Quinces 31 

Raspberries, Best Varieties 27 

Report of Directors 9 

Report of Fruit Committee 64 

Report of Treasurer 9 

Roses 25, 45 

Russian Mulberry 18 

Scion and Stock 16 

Scotch Pine 63 

Seedling 3 

Shaffer's Colossal 28 

Short Stems for Trees 44 

Small Fruits 27 

Soil 51 

Souhegan 28 

Spotted Fruit 64 

Strawberries 39 

Sulphate of Copper 23 

Sulphur for Mildew 23 

Summer Meeting 38 

Trip 25 

Tobacco Water for Aphis 25 

Tree Planting 16 

Tulips and Gladiole '. 60 

Vegetables , 35 

Vladimer Cherry 21 

Wagner , 32 

Walbridge 50, 52 



VI. 



Page. 

Walnut 15, 16, 19 

Wealthy 32, 47, 52 

Whitney's No. '20 62 

Wilson 3 

Winter Meeting 11 

Worden 26 

Yellow Transparent 52, 62 



EIGHTEENTH ANNUAL EEPOET 



OF THE 



FRUIT GROWERS' ASSOCIATION 

OF ONTARIO. 



To the Honourable A. M. Ross, Commissioner of Agriculture : 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit herewith the eighteenth Annual Report of the 
Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario. 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

L. WOOLYERTON, 

Secretary. 
Grimsby, October 15th, 1886. 



THE ANNUAL MEETING. 



The Annual Meeting of the Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario, was held at 
Toronto, on the evening of Tuesday, 14th September, 1885, at St. Lawrence Hall. The 
President, Wm. Saunders Esq., occupied the chair. 

The Secretary read the Minutes of the last Annual Meeting, and they were approved a 

The Director's Report was read and adopted. 

The President delivered his Annual address, which was received with the thanks 
of the Association ; and afterward the following resolution was passed viz : — 

Resolved, — That this Association desires to place upon record its deep appreciation of 
the many and valuable services of our retiring President, Mr. Wm. Saunders, in the 
interests of fruit growing and of Horticulture in general ; and, more particularly at the 
present time, his untiring and invaluable researches into the modes and appliances for pre- 
serving and conveying fruit, which have so materially contributed to Canada's success at 
the Colonial and Indian Exhibition. 

A Committee on Nominations was then appointed, and, this Committee having 
retired, 

Mr. Morton drew attention to a seeding plum, which originated with Mr. Wilson, of 
Wingham. It was described as large, dark purple and productive. It bore its first crop 
in 1884, had no crop in 1885, but in 1886 it yielded two bushels. It has a pleasant sub- 
acid flavour ; it clings a little to the stone, and is fine for preserving. Messrs. Morton, 
Allan and Smith were appointed a Committee to suggest a name. This Committee suggest-, 
ed that it be named " Wilson." 

The Report of the Nomination Committee was then read, which was as follows : — 

Officers of the Association. 
President. — Alexander McD. Allan, Esq., Goderich, Ont. 

Vice-President. — W. E. Wellington, Esq., Toronto, Ont. 

Directors. — Agricultural Division No. 1, John Oroil, Aultsville ; No. 2, A. A. 
Wright, Renfrew ; No. 3, R. J. Dunlop ; No. 4, P. C Dempsey, Trenton ; No. 5, Thomas 
Beall, Lindsay; No. 6, Col. J. Magill, Oshawa ; No. 7, Murray Pettit, Winona; No. 11, 
Wm. Saunders, London; No. 12, W. W. Hilborn, Arkona ; No, 3 3, Charles Hickling, 
Barrie. 

Auditors. — Charles Drury, Esq., Crown Hill ; James Goldie Esq., Guelph. 

Respectfully submitted, 

P. C. DEMPSEY, 

Chairman. 

The names were taken up in succession, and all were duly elected, according to the 
Report of the Committee. . The Association then adjourned. 

At the meeting of the Board of Directors, held subsequent to the election of officers, 
Linus Woolverton, Grimsby, was appointed Secretary-Treasurer. 



The Agricultural Divisions. 

No. 1. Stormont, Dundas, Glengarry, Prescott and Cornwall. 

•' 2. Lanark, Renfrew, city of Ottawa, Carleton and Russell. 

" 3. Frontenac, city of Kingston, Leeds, Grenville and Brock ville. 

" 4. Hastings, Prince Edward, Lennox and Addington. 

" 5. Durham, Northumberland, Peterborough and Victoria, including Haliburton. 

11 6. York, Ontario, Peel, Card well and city of Toronto. 

" 7. Wellington, Waterloo, Wentworth, Halton, Dufferin and city of Hamilton. 

" 8. Lincoln, Welland, Haldimand and Monck. 

" 9. Elgin, Brant, Oxford and Norfolk. 

" 10. Huron, Bruce and Grey. 

" 11. Perth, Middlesex and city of London. 

" 12. Essex, Kent and Lambton. 

11 13. Algorna, Simcoe, Muskoka and Parry Sound. 



ANNUAL ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 

Gentlemen, — Once more I have the honour to address you as your retiring President. 
On this occasion permit me to congratulate you on the results of the fruit harvest for the 
year. The crops of early small fruits have been abundant. Cherries aud plums have 
given a much larger yield than usual ; pear trees have in most instances borne well, and 
there is a plentiful harvest of grapes, while the apple crop, although light in some districts, 
may on the whole, taking fall and winter fruits together, be considered fair. The fruit- 
grower has thus shared in the general abundance which has characterized the season of 
1886. 

Having been absent from Canada during the early part of the summer, engaged in 
looking after the fruit interests of the country abroad, it is natural that I should take this 
opportunity of placing before you some of the methods employed, the results which 
have been reached, and indicate the probabilities of future benefits to result from the 
efforts which have been put forth. 

One of the most important events which it has ever been my privilege to call your 
attention to, bearing on t5he present and future prospects of fruit-growing in Canada, is 
the exhibition of Canadian fruits at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition held during the 
present year in London, England. When the proposition was first made that we should 
endeavour to prepare a collection of fruits to be exhibited during the following year, from 
May to November, the undertaking seemed to be beset with almost insuperable difficul- 
ties. The preservation of the form and texture of ripe fruit for so long a period past 
its time of ripening — considering the rapid chemical changes which maturing fruit under- 
goes and the constant tendency to decomposition resulting from these changes — was in 
itself a matter of no small difficulty, especially in view of the multiform character of the 
texture and structure of the different fruits our favoured climate produces. But with 
this difficulty overcome, and a suitable antiseptic fluid found which would arrest the 
natural changes which occur during and following the ripening of fruit, a still greater 
difficulty presented itself in the preservation of the many delicate shades of colour 
which adorn the surface of our fruits, and impart to them a beauty unapproached by such 
as are ripened under less favourable conditions. There is an old adage that " where 
there's a will there's a way." In this instance the will was not wanting, and by an 
extended and long-continued series of experiments the way was found which led to almost 
entire success. I say almost, because in some instances, after immersion in preserving 
fluids for many months and subsequent exposure to light and sunshine, the bright'shades 
of red, which add such a glory to some of our fruits, became gradually less brilliant, and 
eventually gave place to comparatively dull and pale colours. Notwithstanding these 



changes, which it seems scarcely possible to prevent, visitors, who are not familiar with 
the true colours of our fruits, look upon the exhibit as highly satisfactory and a brilliant 
success. Those fruits which have when ripe a white or yellow colour, have been very 
beautifully preserved, and maintain a brilliancy of hue somewhat exceeding nature, 
resulting from the bleaching influence of the chemicals used in the solutions, and the 
long exposure to light. The yellow and white apples, the pears, quinces, peaches, yellow 
plums, white cherries and currants, are all remarkably attractive and draw from visitors 
constant and merited admiration. 

Another frequent source of failure lay in the exosmodic action which takes place 
when fruits are immersed for a long time in saline solutions. By this action the juices 
of the fruit pass out through the pores in the skin, and the specimens become contracted, 
shrivelled and unsightly. Efforts were made to remedy this by dipping the fruit in 
melted paraffine, so as to give it a thin coating of this substance ; but following the use 
of this, more rapid changes occurred in the interior, gases were evolved and large 
unsightly blisters deformed the specimens so treated. 

Valuable suggestions were received from Dr. Charles Mohr,the well-known botanist of 
Mobile, Ala., based on information obtained by him from Berlin, Prussia, as to the results 
of some experiments in preserving fruit there with sulphurous acid ; also from Prof. It. 
Ramsay Wright, of Toronto University, suggested by the results he had obtained in the 
preservation of the natural colours of animal tissues by the use of hydrate of ohloral, and 
from Prof. 0. G. Hoffman, chemist to the Geologi3al Survey of Ottawa, as to the use of 
boroglyceride, a mixture of boracic acid and glycerine. With those substances many 
experiments were tried, and eventually they were found to be the most useful of all the 
chemicals tested for this purpose. 

I need not weary you with lengthy details as to how this success was finally reached; 
it was not without much thought and labour. No such exhibit on such a scale had ever 
been undertaken before, and there was very little to guide one further than indications as 
to the most promising lines of experiment to follow. The records of the patent office in 
the United States, as well as those covering English and French patents for the past ten 
or twenty years, were carefully perused with the hope of obtaining some useful hints. 
Enquiries were made at the various experimental stations in the United States, and of 
many of the leading chemists, physiologists and botanists of America, and with the aid 
of the information thus gained, added to personal experience and observation the various 
lines of experiment were mapped out. Many of the experiments resulted in absolute 
failure, some were partially successful, while others produced excellent results. Difficulties 
at first unthought of, presented themselves in a most forcible way as the experimental 
work progressed. The relative specific gravity of the fluid as compared with the fruit, 
was a serious obstacle in some cases, for where the fluid was dense so much constant 
pressure was required to keep the specimens under the surface that, after a time, they were 
forced out of shape and burst. 

By the use of solutions of sulphurous acid, the yellow and light coloured fruits have 
been well preserved, and promise to remain unchanged for an indefinite period. With a 
solution of hydrate of chloral, varying in strength from two to four per cent, or of 
boroglyceride in the same proportion excellent results were obtained with green and 
russet fruits and fair results with those having different shades of red, while solutions of 
salicylic acid in proportion of one drachm to the quart has preserved the red and dark 
grapes, with but little change of colour. The fluids used in which to dissolve these 
chemicals consisted of water alone, or water mixed with from ten to twenty per cent, of 
alchohol. 

The collection having been prepared, a suitable form of package was devised which 
provided a compartment for each glass jar, and by means of which the entire collection 
from Ontario was transported across the ocean without a single breakage, and that from 
Quebec with only a trifling loss. 

The Nova Scotia fruits were sent in a fresh condition, and consisted largely of winter 
varieties of apples. These, together with fresh winter fruit sent from Ontario, were 
shown in their natural state as long as circumstances would permit, and then bottled in 
fluids, in which they still retain a large proportion of their natural beauty. While 



Ontario, Nova Scotia and Quebec supplied the larger part of the exhibit, some fine 
samples were sent from New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and British Columbia. 
The entire collection consisted of about 1,000 jars, about one-half of which were apples, 
the other half pears, grapes, plums, peaches, quinces, gooseberries, currants, raspberries, 
blackberries, strawberries, cranberries, wild fruits, nuts, etc. These formed a prominent 
and most attractive feature of the agricultural trophy — a structure which has elicited the 
continued admiration of visitors, and drawn from members of the press, from all parts of 
the world, the highest commendations. 

It would be withholding prait;e where praise is due, were I to conceal the fact that 
more than one-half of the entire exhibit is from Ontario, and that the Ontario collection 
was mainly the result of the united efforts of the directors and members of this 
Association. 

In addition to the large collection of preserved specimens, we had at the time of the 
opening of the exhibition in May a very good assortment of select winter apples in fresh 
condition, which were sent from Nova Scotia and Ontario. Some of these were displayed 
about the agricultural trophy on plates, and others were used to fill vacancies in the 
preserved collection. It is worthy of remark in this connection that specimens of the 
Fallawater apple, contributed by the County of Middlesex, -which had been packed in 
oat-hulls, were shown by taking a few out of the packing at a time, in good condition as 
to appearance, up to the middle of July. 

On the 1 0th of May a show of flowers and fruits was held in the hall of the Royal 
Horticultural Society, to which Australia and Canada were invited to contribute fresh 
fruits, Australia, whose apple harvest takes place in March, had received a few days 
previous a large quantity of fresh fruit gathered just before shipment and forwarded in 
cold storage, whereas all the Canadian specimens had been gathered from six to seven 
months. From the Canadian apples on hand the following fifteen varieties were selected, 
all being uniformly fine and in very fair condition : — Baldwin, Northern Spy, Canada 
Red, King, Wagener, Golden Russet, Roxbury Russet, English Nonpareil, Seek no 
Further, Mann, Vandevere, Swaar, Phoenix, Ben Davis and Limbertwig. The judges 
carefully compared this collection with that from Australia, and while the Australian 
fruits were in fresher condition and some of them of larger size than the Canadian, it was 
held that the fruit from Canada was better coloured and higher-flavoured, and the judges 
finally decided to award to each collection a silver medal and certificate of merit. Con- 
sidering the disadvantages under which we were placed, the result was highly gratifying. 

To rry esteemed coadjutor and successor, Mr. C. R. H. Starr, secretary of the Fruit 
Growers' Association of Nova Scotia, I desire to express my deepest obligations. His 
assistance in every part of the work was invaluable and was ever rendered in the most 
prompt and cheerful manner. 

The Canadian fruit has done much to dispel the erroneous ideas which have so long 
prevailed, both in Great Britain and on the Continent, regarding the character of the 
climate of Canada. The question most frequently asked was, " How is it possible that 
such fine fruits as these can be grown in so cold a country as Canada 1 The visitors were 
surprised to see so large a collection of varieties, and were particularly interested in the 
display of grapes, which filled about a hundred jars. So frequently was the remark 
heard " these must have been grown under glass" that it was deemed necessary to procure 
prominent signs with the words " Canadian fruits, all grown in the open air," painted on 
them and hang them at each corner of the trophy. By this arrangement every individual 
in the constant stream of visitors was confronted by this plain statement which offered 
convincing proof that the climate of Canada could not be so cold as was generally 
supposed. 

The fact that Australia has in the past attracted a larger number ot immigrants from 
the British Isles than Canada, is doubtless mainly due to the false notions which have so 
long prevailed as to the unfavourable conditions of our climate. There is every reason to 
believe that the great interest, which has now been awakened in our fruits, will result in 
a largely increased demand for them, and that new markets will be opened to our shippers ; 
but were no advantages of this sort to result from this exhibition, the service rendered 



in correcting the erroneous opinions, from the effect of which Canada has suffered so long, 
will by the stimulus it will give to emigration during future years, amply justify any 
expense which may have been incurred in this connection. 

Before I left the exhibition in England a meeting was held of the representatives of 
the different provinces and the question of securing further exhibits of fresh fruits, field 
roots and vegetables was fully discussed. The outline of a plan of procedure was prepared, 
which was submitted to the High Commissioner, Sir Charles Tupper, and received his 
cordial approval. I was charged with the duty of submitting the proposed plan on my 
return to Canada to the Minister of Agriculture, and urging its adoption. In discharging 
this pleasing office I found the Minister of Agriculture to be equally anxious with our- 
selves that nothing be left undone to make this part of the exhibition a complete success. 
Instructions were at once given me to proceed with the necessary arrangements, to the 
carrying out of which I have since devoted every hour I could command, and with the 
kind co-operation of fruit growers and farmers everywhere, which has been most cordially 
given, the success of the undertaking is assured. 

In order to rivet the good impressions which Canadian fruits have made still more 
strongly, supplementary exhibits are now being prepared and will be forwarded during the 
next two weeks. The leading varieties of our autumn apples and pears have already been 
sent to London in considerable quantities, to be sold in the Canadian fruit markets, which 
will not only give the visitors to the exhibition the opportunity of purchasing samples of 
these fruits and thus judging of their quality, but when the returns are known and the 
condition in which the fruit reached England ascertained, I think it will be demonstrated 
that we can do a profitable business in that direction, and thus provide an outlet for our 
surplus autumn fruits, which it is difficult to dispose of at home at remunerative prices. 
As an indication of what we may expect, I received yesterday a telegram advising me 
that the first fifty boxes of Duchess of Oldenburgh apples, which were forwarded at the 
Belleville district, had reached London in excellent condition, and had all been sold at 
seven shillings per box. As these boxes contain just one bushel, and such select apples 
have been freely offering this season at from forty to fifty cents per bushel in many parts of 
the province, it will be seen that, after adding the cost of the box, twenty cents, there remains 
the difference between sixty and and seventy cents here and $1.75 there to pay cost of 
transportation and furnish profit to the shipper. 

These fruits for market purposes have been forwarded weekly for several weeks past 
in quantities of fifty or sixty bushel boxes per week. Bushel boxes have been used instead 
of barrels for the reason that fruit carries so much better in that form of package and will, 
we believe, realize higher prices than the same fruit in barrels. The varieties which have 
furnished the bulk of the fruit sent are Duchess of Oldenburgh, Red Astrachan, Gravenstein, 
and St.- Lawrence apples, and Bartlett, Clapp's Favourite and Flemish Beauty pears. A 
few bushels of plums have also been forwarded from the Goderich district as an experiment. 
As a fitting climax to the whole, arrangements have been made to make a grand display of 
fresh fruits, field roots and vegetables, during the last month of the exhibition. To accom- 
plish this purpose and to secure representation from every district, the finest specimens 
obtainable will be selected from the more important agricultural exhibitions. The first 
consignment of this character will go forward by the mail steamer leaving Montreal next 
week and will contain a choice collection selected from the Industrial Exhibition at Toronto 
and the exhibition of the Montreal Horticultural Society. Following these will come 
selections from the Provincial Exhibition at Guelph, the Dominion Exhibition at Sher- 
brooke, also collections from the Hamilton, London and Belleville exhibitions, It is ex- 
pected that collections will also be forwarded from Nova Scotia and the other Eastern 
provinces, as well as Manitoba and British Columbia, and when these are all brought to- 
gether it is believed they will form the finest display of Canadian fruit, field roots and 
vegetables ever seen. With these later shipments there will be sent about two tons of 
grapes for the Canadian fruit market, obtained from vineyards in all parts of the grape- 
growing districts from Quebec to Niagara. 

On the 12th to the 14th of October there is to be held in the hall of the Royal Horti- 
cultural Society an exhibition of English fruits, where Canadian fruits will have an oppor- 
tunity of being placed in competition with those grown in England. We hope to be able 



to place before the people of Great Britain on that occasion such a display of orchard and 
field products as will fairly astonish them. The earlier weekly shipments of fruit for 
market purposes have been made under ordinary shipping conditions, the boxes being 
placed in one of the cooler parts of the steamer, but for those selected products designed 
for exhibition, and also for the grapes which are to be forwarded at the same time, special 
refrigerating chambers are being fitted up on two of the mail steamers, where, by the use 
of ice, the fruit will be kept at an even low temperature, which will ensure its reaching its 
destination in good condition. Our vice-president for the past year, Mr. A. McD. Allan, 
will go in charge of the collection to be sent by the next mail steamer, and our esteemed 
ex-president, P. 0. Dempsey, with the shipment to be made the week following. These 
gentlemen have been selected for this duty because they are intimately acquainted with 
Canadian fruits of all classes, and for the further reason that they have both had much 
experience in shipping fruit to Great Britain. With the aid of these special experts, 
associated with Mr. 0. E. H. Starr, the Canadian representative now in charge of the fruit 
exhibit, I am sure that everything which can be done to promote the fruit interests of 
Canada abroad will be carefully attended to. 

As soon as my duties in connection with the fruit exhibit were accomplished, I visited 
the southern counties of England, the north of England and Scotland, and spent a few 
days in Ireland and in Wales. I also visited France and portions of Italy and Switzerland, 
and embraced every opportunity which presented itself to ascertain the condition of agri- 
culture and horticulture at every point in my route. In the cultivation of flowers and of 
ornamental trees and shrubs we are a long way behind these older countries and have 
many lessons to learn, the acquiring of which would add beauty to our surroundings and 
further charms and attractions to our homes, results which are exceedingly desirable, and 
which would be highly appreciated by a large proportion of the community. But in the 
more practical departments of farming and horticulture, in the rearing of stock, the 
production of grain, field roots and fruits, as well as dairy products, we are far to the front, 
and have now comparatively little to learn from Europe. In the use of labour-saving 
appliances for agricultural purposes, and in the excellence and variety of our grain, roots 
and fruits we are, on the whole, quite equal and in many respects in advance of the older 
countries referred to; while in general intelligence and skill in agriculture and horticultural 
pursuits and the readiness, yea, eagerness, shown by our farmers and fruit-growers to 
possess and to test everything likely to result to their advantage, entitles Canada to a 
position second to none. This intelligent and discriminating spirit augurs well for the 
future of our country, and will inevitably lead to the more extensive development of those 
departments of agricultural industry which are found to be most profitable and best suited 
to the conditions of our soil and climate. With such advantages secured, steady progress 
may be expected ; although we have still very much to learn, and new problems will neces- 
sarily continue to present themselves for solution, as the settlement of the country, with 
its varied climate, proceeds. During the past year a measure has been introduced by 
the Minister of Agriculture for the Dominion and received the sanction of Parliament, pro- 
viding for the establishment of experimental farms in different parts of Canada, where new 
varieties of agricultural and horticultural products may be tested, and where the many 
problems which present themselves in connection with the products of the soil will be in- 
vestigated and reported on. In the infancy of this enterprise it would perhaps be prema- 
ture to speak of its probable effects on fruit culture, but enough is known to justify the 
belief that when fairly established[these institutions will undertake such work as will result 
in enlarging the area of fruit culture in the several provinces, and thus place within the 
reach of settlers and their families these health-giving luxuries, and at the same time in- 
crease the export trade in fruits. 

I shall not trespass further on your patience. The president's term of office closes 
with each year, but it has been my pleasure to be re-elected to serve you in this position 
for several years past, during which term I have endeavoured to serve you to the best of 
my ability. I have always been opposed to anyone enjoying a monopoly of such honours 
as this Association has to bestow, and have for this reason accepted the office during the 
past two or three years under protest, and only at the urgent solicitation of friends. I 
know that there are many gentlemen connected with this Association who are well qualified 



to fill this position acceptably, and of late years other duties have devolved upon me to 
such a degree, that I am unable any longer to give that time^and attention to this position 
which its duties demand. In view of these considerations, and the possibility of someone 
re-nominating roe, I beg to state plainly and frankly that I cannot longer continue to serve 
you in this capacity. Thanking you all for the kind and prompt manner in which you 
have endeavoured to further my wishes and the interests of the Association, which I trust 
have ever been in harmony, I sincerely hope that the future career of the Fruit Grower 
Association of Ontario will be one of increasing usefulness. 



REPORT OF THE DIRECTORS. 

To the Members of the Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario : 

Gentlemen, — In submitting our report at the close of our term of office we have the 
pleasure of being able to say that there has been some increase in our membership during 
the past year, the number now on our roll being 1,980, as against 1,652 last year. We 
have endeavoured to exercise the strictest economy in conducting the affairs of the Associa- 
tion, and believe that the expenditure of the past year has been as small as was possible, 
consistently with the efficient working of the Association. 

The publication of the Canadian Horticulturist has been continued monthly, as here" 
tofore, although we have deemed it advisable to omit the coloured plate in some of the 
numbers, and to substitute therefor the less expensive plain engraving. 

We suggest to our successors the importance of continued exertions to increase the 
number of our membership, and a careful consideration of the possibility of increasing the 
attractiveness and popularity of our monthly publication. 

Since our last annual meeting the Secretary-treasurer of the Association has been 
compelled, by financial reverses, to make an assignment for the benefit of creditors. He is 
indebted to the Association to some extent, but we are unable at present to ascertain 
whether there will be ultimate loss or not to the Society. The assets of the estate are 
stated as sufficient to cover all liabilities, but in the opinion of the Directors it is probable 
there will be a deficiency, not, however, to any large amount. 

All of which is respectively submitted, 

WM. SAUNDERS, 

President. 



TREASURER'S REPORT. 

RECEIPTS. 

From 1,950 members, less commissions $1,833 30 

" advertisements 116 39 

" Government Grant 1,800 00 

" balance last audit 553 59 

Total $4,303 28 



10 



DISBURSEMENTS. 



Audit, 1885 

Reporting, three meetings 

Officers' expenses 

Freight and express , 

Postage 

Wrapping, reports and wrappers 

Canadian Horticulturist 

Plants and seed distribution . . 



Advertising 



Customs 

Stationery 

Notes and discounts , 
Guarantee premium 

Printing 

Sundries 

Clerk 

Secretary 

Editor 



Balance 



$20 


00 


179 


85 


286 


15 


22 


28 


59 


79 


15 


00 


1,104 


96 


254 20 


10 


25 


3 


70 


5 


20 


819 


95 


20 


00 


60 


75 


1 


20 


100 


00 


200 


00 


400 


00 


740 


00 


$4,303 


28 



Toronto, Sept. 14th, 1886. 

We the undersigned Auditors have duly examined the accounts of the Treasurer of 
the Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario and find them correct, shewing a balance of 
$740 at this date. 

CHARLES DRURY, ) A ,,. 
JAS. GOLDIE, V Auditors. 



11 



WINTER MEETING. 



The Winter Meeting of the Fruit Growers' Association was held in the council 
ihamber of the city of Stratford, on Wednesday and Thursday, the 10th and 11th of 
February, 1886. 

The meeting was called to order by the Vice-President, Mr. Alex. McD. Allan, of 
p-oderich, in the absence of the. President, and the minutes of the last meeting were read 
py the Secretary, Mr. D. W. Beadle. 



FENCES. 

The first topic discussed was " Fences, the best and cheapest of the future, or should 
:hey be abolished 1 " 

Mr. Beadle. — According to my notion fences are an abomination. I do not think 
we are under any inconvenience at all without them, and the quicker we get rid of them 
;he better. In the first place they are an expensive institution. I wonder if any farmer 
iver counted the expense of his fence for twenty-five years, or multiplied to find out 
what it costs the towns in the counties, for the maintenance of the fences. You are taxed 
30 keep up fences, and to keep out other people's cattle. The innumerable cross-fences, 
:hat are to be seen on some farms throughout the country are wholly unnecessary. 

There is a plan of a movable fence, that will fence in your stock, which can be built 
m any farm and which can be put on any portion of it for pasture purposes. You 
;an move the fence to any part. I think it is far less expensive than the present 
system. Mr. Beall took an excellent view of this question, and once made a careful 
estimate of the costs. I think it was put in one of our reports ; perhaps Mr. Beall, 
will be able to tell us what he made out the cost to be. It is perfectly astonishing that 
we submit to it. We must let every man know that he must take care of his own cattle. 
That this thing can be done has been demonstrated by our neighbors in the United 
States. The first move was to allow each municipality to have cattle run at large. They 
tried that for a while and found no municipality mean enough to order the fence to be 
kept up. Some years ago I happened to be in Ohatauqua and noticed there were no 
fences on the road alongside of wheat fields and vineyards for miles. No fences, and 
the people wanted to see no fences. I asked them did they land it to work well ; they 
said yes, with all but a few cantankerous people. Get rid of these unsightly fences. 

Mr. Beall. — The secretary taxes my memory too much, I can't remember the figures. 
I remember that I was surprised very much at the figures I first obtained. I went to 
work and whittled them down, and in spite of all I rould do, I found the figures something 
enormous. I found that any farmer with an ordinary number of fences, on a hundred 
acres of land, could better maintain a man to look after his cattle, than maintain the 
fences. There is no doubt that the fences are a great nuisance in Ontario. Any man has 
a right to keep cattle, horses and pigs, but he should take care of them. Another great 
evil, of fences, especially rail fences, is the immense snow drifts collected by them in winter 
time. With proper management you could secure with little cost a properly constructed 
wind-break, instead of a fence. I have found that if the money spent on fences, merely 
for keeping fences not really necessary, were expended on wind-breaks, there might be 
a surplus left. It might have amounted to hundreds of dollars. Fences cost too much 
for one thing. 

Mr. Wilson (of Seaforth). — There is another point on this fence question that has 
not been touched on — the amount of land that is not used that could be used. The fence 
around a farm occupies a large area. Another point strikes me, viz : — They are the 
greatest breeders of weeds. (Hear hear). Weeds grow enormously around these fences. 
Taking everything into consideration in connection with fences and the amount of ground 



12 



they occupy, there is a gjjeat loss. Another evil is the blocking of our roads with snow in 
winter. If we face this question carefully and agitate it, that would be a step in the 
right direction, and the abolition of our fences would follow. It would pay even supposing 
every farmer kept a man to look after his stock. 

Mr. Scott (of Michigan, United States). — I would add that, in our town, I think in 
five years the fence will be an exception on the roadside. 
Chairman. — What do they do in regard to live stock 1 
Mr. Scott. — They have moveable fences, to a considerable extent. 
Mr. A. M. Smith (of St. Catharines). — The fence is a great harbour for mice, and they 
destroy a large amount of fruit trees, and it takes a considerable amount of money out of 
the pockets of nurserymen. 

Mr. Wright (of Renfrew).— We have a great many difficulties. These fences, I 
have always thought expensive and entirely useless on a farm. I have noticed in the 
Province of Quebec, where the people are supposed to be poor, what an amount of fence 
they have. If we went to work and put cost on one side, and the argument of the fence 
on the other, we should find the balance tremendously against the fence. There is interest, 
there is money invested, and there is labour to keep these fences clean and in repair. I 
have no doubt if we put it in that way there would soon not be any fence at all. 

Mr. Jarvis (of Stratford).— There is what they call a hard law in our own country. 
That is to compel parties who keep cattle to make their own fences, and keep 'their cattle 
within bounds. I consider every man should have wire fences, and if he wants to keep 
cattle, let him fence them in. Now, if any of you have travelled in other countries and 
noticed the beautiful landscape, the lovely farms and the beautiful crossings, with nothing 
to mar or depreciate the beauty, you do not see these miserable snake fences, all for the 
old feudal idea of fencing out other people's stock. It certainly seems to be about time 
that we took this matter in hand and tried to abolish fences. In doing this we should be 
abolishing weeds ; we should make the country more beautiful by throwing open to the 
view of strangers, our attractive fields. 

The Yice-President. — Can you suggest anything to bring that about ? 
Mr. Jarvis. — Since the matter has been discussed a great many people have changed 
their minds, and are in favour of no fence. Last year we became a city, and we have a cow 
by-law. The city has also a goose by-law. Some old ladies appeared the next session 
after this by-law had been passed, and the members of the corporation caved in, and the 
goose by-law was not made imperative. I am glad for friends interested that I do not 
belong to the City Council. However, after the next election they had the courage to put 
that by-law in force. Now, if we keep geese we should take care of them. I think if we 
keep up the agitation before the farmers, in three years in the County of Perth there will 
be very few fences. I am just going to remark that, in the town of Stratford, the moment 
this by-law was passed, and the City Corporation had the firmness to stand to it, a great 
many old fences went down on our streets, and if we took a stand in the country a great 
many old fences on our roads would be obliterated. A great many people would have 
their gardens and lawns entirely free from old fences, and put a single bar up for protection, 
and the beauty of this would have such an effect that the next year one half of our city 
would be protected merely by an iron bar. I trust it wont be long before we shall throw 
our lawns open to our streets. 

Mr. Beadle. — I am going to take the part of the poor man. Just look at it for a 
moment. There are some poor people without pasture land, and they have a cow, and the 
cow destroys the trees of other people, because they have no fence. 
A Member. — That would be good for the Nurseryman ! 

Mr. Beadle. — That is the argument. I have made out of it. It is the misfortune of 
the township in which I live. We passed a by-law that everybody must take care of his 
own cattle and need not keep fences. We were besieged with the argument in favour of the 
poor man's pig. The Council rescinded the by-law and in bringing this matter up we 
looked on both sides of it. It would not be right for a municipal council to pass a by-law 
allowing cattle to run over the streets. We should, I think, get the legislature enlightened 



13 



upon the serious detriment of keeping up these fences. If lot owners in towns and villages 
would keep up the pressure upon the representatives to get such a law passed, as I have 
suggested, it would make country life more enjoyable. 

Mr. A. A. Wright. — I would just say the same argument arose in our town, respect- 
ing the poor woman's pig and rich man's pig, also. The rich man made a great plea for the 
poor man's pig. It was for his own pigs (laughter) running over the streets. The rich 
man came up to the council and said that these poor people were not able to take care of 
their pigs by having a place for them. The Mayor got up and said. " We are not going 
to tumble to the racket," and the by-law was enforced. The High School Board (it is a 
union Board) offered the school boys for every pig they succeeded in catching fifty cents 
in money. Every pig in town was impounded. There was a general " how-do-you-do," 
over it, but there were vrery few pigs to be seen after that. The Board of Health had no 
trouble from pigsties either, 

Mr. Beall. — Since leaving home a friend said to me, when I was talking about cattle, 
that he had information a short time ago from a very clever lawyer with regard to passing 
by-laws respecting cows in corporated towns thiough which railroads run. The law 
already provides that no cattle can run at large. I think we have a lawyer with us. Is 
it a fact or not 1 

Mr. Morton (of Wingham). — I am very sorry I was not in at the beginning of this 
discussion, in order to hear what points were submitted, I can go no further than the 
one point I mentioned at the Woodstock meeting. At that time I cited a case that would 
decide the point brought up then. The matter, however, was sprung upon me at that time 
A misapprenhension may exist in this Province, and more wide-spread, perhaps, as to the 
position of people keeping cows, and allowing then to ran upon the hignways. There 
is no law preventing any other animals than those mentioned in the Municipal Act from 
running on the highway. If there is no by-law passed they can run. A great many 
people presume that they are prohibited. There is no such law and they can run upon 
the highway, but they must keep them there. I may leave my fence down and any 
animal allowed to run by permission, if trespassing upon my place, by the present by-law, 
I can impound ; just the same as in the case of the by-law prohibiting. There is a case, 
Crow vs. Steepes et al, which I will read : — 

Crowe vs. Steepes, et al 46 Q. B. 87. 

A municipal council by by-law, passed pursuant to the Municipal Act, enacted that 
•ertain descriptions of animals (naming them) and all four footed animals known to be 
breachy should not be allowed to run at large in the Township, and provided for fixing 
the height of fences. The plaintiff's cattle strayed from the highway into the lands of 
defendant, Williams, whose fences were not of the height required by the by-law. He dis- 
tained them, and they were impounded. 

Held, that as the by-law did not affirmatively authorize these cattle to run at large 
by negatively providing that certain other classes of animals should not be allowed to do 
so, the plaintiff was liable at common law and under R.S.O. Chapter 195, for damage done 
irrespective of any question as to the height of the defendant's fences. 

I have examined the by-laws of the Municipal Act in the Province of Ontario, and 
out of these there are only two that allow the animals to run ; the others are purely pro- 
hibitory. They simply say " shall not run." A by-law must be passed, otherwise they 
cannot travel on the highway. Our respective Secretary is one I really find taking the 
poor woman's part. If I own any property, what right has anyone, simply because of 
poverty, to allow his or her animals to trespass and interfere with that property ] I don't 
think the poor man has any such right. As far as our town is concerned, I may say this : I left 
my gates open when the by-law was enforced, and one day when I hadn't much to do and I 
hadn't much to lose in the garden, some cows got in and I walked them to pound. I 
wanted to make a test case. I heard that the owner consulted a well known solicitor, but 
there was nothing said about it. I would like for this Association to disseminate as fully 
as possible the intentions and the ideas we entertain in this matter. I may say you could not 
distrain the animals, The animals come in the gateway, and unless damage is done, you 



14 



cannot distrain. The cows in my vicinity are of that kind which have sense enough to 
come in late at night and leave before daybreak. If a prohibitory law were passed, such as Ij 
know is in force in the State of New York, I think it would be a step in the right direc- 
tion. The fruit growers' should ask our representatives to get further legislation in that 
direction. While upon this point, I might mention one thing : the law requires land 
owners to maintain line fences between themselves and their neighbours. 

A Member. — Can a municipality pass a by-law in regard to that? 

Mr. Morton. — I think not, speaking from recollection. The general law provides 
there shall be a line fence. 

Mr. Downs (of Stratford), — There was a thought came into my mind with reference 
to the sparrows. I am not an enemy of the sparrows. There are a good many gentlemen! 
present, who have been in the old country and have seen them around the fields. 

Vice-President. — That is wandering from the question. 

Mr. Downs. — I have reference to the fence around the wheat field. We find about* 
two rods from the fence that every head of grain is stripped clean by the sparrows. The 
sparrows very seldom light in the middle of a field. Sparrows are short in flight, and I* 
hold the fence is a great harbour for them. In the old country, for two rods around the 
fence, the grain is destroyed. I think in the city of Stratford it would be a great benefit 
to have the fences permanently done away with. There is supposed to be about fifty mi lea 
of streets, I should judge, and I have a pretty good knowledge of what fences there are in 
fifty miles. I would say, if I am not mistaken, that there would be 528,000 feet offl 
fence. Put down that fence at fifty cents per foot, a low estimate for a fence. I find, at 
fifty cents, that it would cost $264,000 to put it up. Average this for fifteen years or, sayl 
three or four years, and see what it would amount to. It is said that the cows would come 
in and destroy the trees ; I rather doubt it. I think if the fences were down some 
would beautify their places, and it would certainly tend to stimulate action in that direction 
and increase the planting of trees. I hold that a person beautifying his place is a great 
stimulus to his neighbour to do the same, and therefore I think it would have an effect tar 
increase sales. 

Mr. Wood (of Stratford). — I could say I perfectly agree with Mr. Downs. It would 
be much better for the nurserymen and other men. 

Mr. Govenlock. — I would like to say that the boys are very fond of beautiful grapes, 
and the fences being down would tempt them to take some. 

A Member. — The boys would go where there are fences. • 

Mr. Morton. — Yes ; the boys like to climb over the fences. 



ORNAMENTAL TREES AND SHRUBS. 

The second topic taken up was, "Ornamental Trees and Shrubs Forest, Trees and 
Hedges, for protection and shade." 

A. M. Smith (of St. Catharines) — I like ornamental trees and shrubs, and especially 
hedges. A good many fence in their places with trees which act as wind-breaks. This 
stops the snow and protects our plants. In the Niagara district, especially during 
the last two or three winters, there have been thousands of dollars of grape vines 
lost, as well as other varieties of fruit, through the want of protection to their roots. The 
roots have been frozen and killed. This was especially true in regard to the grape-vinesJ 
I think the Quince, Red and Norway Spruce are about as good as any hedge or wind-* 
break. Then there is the White Cedar. We have noticed that snow has been a protectiom 
to currant bushes from the frost. One particular instance I noticed last season in thJ 
grapery ; a row of grape bushes had retained snow on the vines, and in that portion 
of the vineyard I did not suffer from the loss of a vine last winter. Where these cur-j 
rant bushes had been met by a full sweep, they were very much injured. Anything inf 
the line of hedges or evergreens is the best thing I know of to gather snow. 

The Vice-President. — You recommend Norway Spruce and White Cedar? 

Mr. Smith. — I recommend Norway Spruce ; I have not used any White Cedar. 



15 



Mr. Denton (of London) — I like beautiful hedges. If we had nice close hedges we 
could do away with the fences altogether. It would be nice to have hedges between farm 
and farm. I agree with my friend, Mr. Smith, in the matter of hedges as a wind-break. I 
understand from a hedge it is a cover. We have hedges as fences. I have seen Osage 
Orange and WhiteThorn used. Then there are ornamental trees of which the Spruce is to 
my mind the most useful. There is, however, nothing more beautiful for ornamental pur- 
poses than the Maple. In London the shade trees are nearly all maples. The Soft Maple 
I think is beautiful. I also like the Mountain Ash. It is an elegant tree when it is 
grown and branched out. Evergreens, to my mind, are always beautiful ; I love to seem 
them in winter. 

The Vice-President. — We want to find out the capability of this section, with regard 
to ornamental trees and shrub hedges. We would like to know what kind you find 
hardy 1 

Mr. Jarvis. — We have had plenty of locusts, but after some years they were riddled 
with worms. The Maple should not be interspersed with other trees. I find the Oak is 
a very hard grower, although it requires a little more care. A few Oaks, a few Hickories 
and Basswoods, are really beautiful. The European Linden looks very nice. Some 25 
years ago I planted a great many Walnut trees, and these trees are now very large trees, 
and in a short time will be fit to make into lumber. In the meantime they are bearing 
very luxuriantly. A great many Butternuts existed some years ago, but many of the trees 
are dead. The butternuts throughout the town bore pretty good crops until seven years 
ago. Black Walnut trees bear abundantly in this part of the country. 

The Vice-President. — Have you planted the Horse Chestnut 1 

Mr. Jarvis. — Yes; wehave some magnificent trees in this part of the country. There 
is another .tree I should mention, the native Elm and European Elm — trees that are 
generally overlooked. 

Mr. Lawrence. — Insects destroy the leaves of the English Thorn and it does not stand 
the spring frost. 

Mr. Beall. — I find these ornamental trees first rate for shade. For fields or (or 
farm use there is nothing like trees. We want something which prevents the winds from 
circulating too freely ; you want the farm somewhat screened from the wind, and if you have 
a cluster of trees, or a long avenue, the snow will be more evenly distributed, and you will 
have better protection for your cattle. There is nothing equal to the Norway and the 
Native Spruce for this purpose. 

The Vice-President. — Hedges of small shrubs get heavy with snow and droop and 
the snow drifts with the wind. 

Mr. Beall. — 1 believe above all other trees, the Black Walnut stands prominent. 
It bears a large quantity of nuts, and makes a beautiful tree. Any man that has ever had 
a Butternut or Walnut tree will never be without them. The Walnut will grow any- 
where in Ontario — I believe in any part of Canada ; it will grow in a much colder climate ; 
it will grow in Norway and in the Highlands of Scotland. 

Mr. Hilborn (of Arkona) — I think a great deal of the Scotch Pine for a wind-break. 
There are two or three hundred on our place, and they grow to be a tree in half the time 
of a Spruce. I don't know how they will succeed after they get old. 

Mr. Denton. — One tree mentioned is a perfect failure, as it is a breeder of insects \ 
that is the Locust. I do not advocate it on account of the borers, which tend to bring 
about the destruction of the other trees. 

Mr. Jarvis. — Ours have been destroyed here. There is one tree not mentioned, that 
is the Purple Leaved Beech. It is a very pretty tree, and is well adapted for the lawn. 
Two or three varieties of trees set off a lawn effectively. 

Mr. Jarvis. — Do you grow it in London, Mr. Denton % 

Mr. Denton. — It grows in our cemetery. Cut Leaved Birch is also a lovely tree. 

Mr. Morton, at this stage, explained the legal points on the previous question 
cl The Fence, etc.," by quoting the case of Dantes vs. G. T. R., and reading from the 
Ontario Report of Appeals, page 476. 

The convention adjourned at 12.30 for dinner. 



16 



THE QUESTION BOX. 

The afternoon session was begun at 2 o'clock. The following questions were put in 
and answered as follows : — 

Question. — Suppose you graft a scion of a tender tree on a hardy tree, will it 
make the graft hardy 1 

Mr. Beadle. — The answer to that question, is no. It does not change the nature of 
the scion, if it is tender. 

Question. — What is the cause of the plum blight 1 

Mr. Beadle. — If I understand it right you refer to the plums falling. So far as I 
have observed it is caused by the growth of fungus upon the leaf. I should say that the 
roots of the fungus feeds upon the leaves and therefore destroys their vitality. 



TREE PLANTING, ETC. 

The next topic taken up was the topic of " Tree Planting on streets, roadjsides and 
school grounds, and Nut-bearing Trees suitable for this section." 

Mr. Woods — We have several agricultural societies, etc., and through their influence 
we have an Arbor Day. We have a great many trees planted. It is remarkable the 
advance that has taken place, in tree planting in six or seven years. It is barely forty years 
ago since this place was covered with the original forest. We have some fifteen walnut 
trees of the variety generally grown in this place, which I think were planted, in 1850 or 
1351, and several of the trees are from fifteen to eighteen inches in diameter. We all agree 
that monotony should be avoided, and I have myself tried the experiment of planting the 
Sweet Chestnut, as well as the Walnut. I have had two planted for six or seven years, and 
they are perfectly hardy. 

Mr. Woods. — I think we ought to urge in this country and the United States, the 
desirability and feasibility of planting trees, and we should plant as far as possible the 
ordinary trees of the country. 

Mr. Burrit (of Stratford). — This place is small and we can't boast of a large 
amount of land set apart for park purposes. We have a park of four or five acres. I am 
sorry, however, to see so little interest taken in this matter. 

The Vice-President. — What varieties have you planted in your park * 

Mr. Burrit. — We tried the Horse Chestnut for one, but every one died. 

The Vice-President. — Have you a good many trees through the cemetery f 

Mr. Burrit. — We have a good many soft maples. The difficulty here is the trees 
are not properly set. The people have planted them so close together that they will have 
to cut them out, and that cannot be done with uniformity. 

Mr. Beadle. — I would make one suggestion. A word was said not to confine our- 
selves to one variety. I quite agree with that idea. My idea of beauty, and also taste 
in the matter, is the proper development of each kind, and plant the kinds to themselves. 
Take an avenue and plant it with Horse Chestnut. If you have an avenue for maples, 
plant all maples. If you plant the trees a proper distance apart, you will have avenues 
beautiful in symmetry. I wish Mr. Goldie would speak on this matter, he has had so 
much experience. 

The Vice-President. — I think that point cannot be too much considered in planting 
our streets. Whatever you are going to plant in one street, plant all of the same kind of 
trees. I have illustrated that very well around my own ground. I planted a large 
number of varieties of our native trees around my own grounds and they don't look any- 
thing like as well as if I had planted one variety. 

Mr. Downs. — Do all the trees require uniformity of depth 1 

The Vice-President. — I think they do. 

Mr. Goldie. — I think there should be a by-law to regulate the planting of trees a 
proper distance apart. They should be separated by about twenty to thirty feet. You 



17 



can in almost every city or town find trees from eight, ten., or twelve feet apart. You 
look into the future and see what they will grow to. If you do not keep prunino- them 
up, some will be sure to be killed out. The great aim in tree planting on the streets is 
to plant all of one kind and at the same distance apart, with the same distance from the 
line or the sidewalk. That will make a beautiful street. The best tree for the street, 
where there is plenty of room, is the Elm. I was in tne city of Utica last summer and 
some of the streets were planted with elms. One of the streets was like a grand dome, a 
regular arch ; but unfortunately, as everywhere else, they had planted them too close. The 
next tree is some variety of the Soft Maple; I think there is nothing grander in foliage. 
In the fall they colour up so beautifully. I have always looked upon the Sugar Maple as a 
fine tree. You don't want a tree on the street to be too thick; if it is spreading and thin 
it gives a much better shade. You notice in Toronto that the Horse Chestnut has been 
planted; but it is not a tree suitable for the street. I should recommend smaller shrub 
trees and give them plenty of room. I do not like to see natural beauty deformed or 
stunted. There is nothing gives a better impression than to have suitable trees and 
and shrubs planted, and allow them plenty of room. To grow in small grounds, 1 can 
recommend some of the varieties of Cedar. The White Cedar, for instance, is very beautiful. 
Shrubs of all varieties and grown in all situations, are very beautiful. In a climate like 
ours in this part of Ontario all hardy things will grow, but do not crowd them together. 

The Vice-President. — What about nut-bearing trees? 

Mr. Goldie. — Hickory doesn't grow. 

The Vice-President. — Have you tried Black Walnut? 

Mr. Goldie. — They are grown in the College ground. 

Mr. Woods. — The only way I can understand that the Black Walnut does not grow 
is because of the rock so near the surface. 

Mr. Goldie. — There has been none planted except in the College grounds. 

Mr. Jarvis. — Some thirty years ago, when I was planting trees around my first 
residence, we got walnuts somewhere about London. They were not grown from the nuts ■ 
they were shoots from other trees. The trees are growing splendidly, and they will 
soon be fit for timber. I planted several dozen, and they are all living. When 
I planted my new garden I got some trees from St. Catharines. I planted them 
and, after being planted some time, I came and took one up and replanted it. It 
has borne over a half bushel of walnuts. As far as my experience goes there is 
no trouble with trees, either from the nursery or from the nuts. The Butternut in 
this country grows without any trouble, but it is not quite as pretty a tree as the 
Walnut. With regard to Mr. Goldie's opinion of the elms, I think they are exceedingly 
fine trees. ° 

The Vice-President. — Which Elm would you plant — the native Elm 1 

Mr. Jarvis. — I have some European Elms, but I really like the native Elm far 
better. I think the natural growth is more beautiful. In connection with my own 
planting, there is one tree which has been overlooked, that is, the native Wild Cherry. 
It is very nice. I have one, and we get enough cherries to make lots of cherry cordial. 
The Wild Cherry makes a very pretty tree. I have also planted native White Ash, and 
as I have said before, I have planted Basswood. I hear that near Woodstock there is a 
grove of that kind of tree ; at any rate, we have Basswood honey. If a bee gets one suck 
of Basswood it is delighted. (Laughter.) When the Basswood is in blossom it has a 
beautiful scent. If I were asked to name the trees I liked best, I should say, the Elm, 
Black Cherry, Wild Cherry and White Ash. On Arbor Day it was amusing to see people 
running along in squads. Holes were dug three or four inches deep, and a man came 
along and put the trees in. There is no use of having an Arbor Day unless the trees are 
selected, nicely planted and taken care of. 

Mr. Wright.— The varieties that we grow in our section of the country so far north 
are not exactly the same as those you grow here. The principal varieties there are the 
different kinds of maples— Hard Maples— which, of course, you have here ; Soft Maples, 
which you have in abundance, and the Red River Maple, which is a very beautiful tree 
and a very rapid grower. We have more difficulty in getting the Hard Maple to grow 
than any other tree. The Soft Maple is very beautiful when the frost touches its foliage ; 
2 (f. g.) 



18 



it changes into such varieties of colour. The Red River variety, especially, is a rapid 
grower. I quite agree with my friend the Secretary this time that we should confine 
ourselves to a variety ; and with respect to space I quite agree with my friend, Mr. Goldie r 
that twenty-hve to thirty feet is a proper distance to plant trees apart. Another tree is 
the Elm ; I thought so much of it, and I planted so many around my grounds, that I have 
named it " Elmhurst." I received favourable impressions from the Lower Lachine Road 
from Montreal, near the old Fraser estate, where you see the branches interlock. It is 
the finest drive I ever saw. The tree is perfectly hardy and you get it anywhere, but it 
is not a very rapid grower. Another tree, the Basswood, is really beautiful. There are 
some beautiful specimens growing around the English Church in the City of Quebec. So 
far as Black Walnut is concerned, I know nothing about it ; we have never attempted 
to grow them in our section. Butternut is a native of our section. There is what we call 
the Bitter Walnut, which produces an ordinary bitter nut. The Hickory tree, which we 
sometimes call the bitter walnut, is magnificent looking in its second growth. For an 
ornamental tree it is really beautiful. 

Mr. Scott. — Have you got the Round Elm ? It is the tree above all others. My 
farm is the Elm Fruit Farm. I have half a mile of Elm trees planted, and the rows of 
Elms in front of my place have doubled the value of my place. I had a man from 
Chicago offer me double what it cost me. 

The Vice-President. — What other trees have you? 

Mr. Scott. — On one side I have ornamental trees, and the Black Walnut grows wild. 

Mr. Denton. — What is your soil. I should understand it to be a strong soil 1 

Mr. Scott. — It is. 

Mr. Downs. — Is the Russian Mulberry a suitable ornamental tree 1 

Mr. Beadle. — Some gentleman in London fruited it, and it was very beautiful, 
and the fruit valuable. The trees we have in this country are all from the trees brought 
us. There is a great variety of Russian Mulberries. 

Mr. Woods. — Mr. Jar vis has one he fruited here. 

Mr. Beadle. — I look forward to the time when we shall get hold of a good variety, 
and by protecting it as we do our apples and pears, we may succeed, and get mulberries 
as good as the English Mulberry. Englishmen have seen it at home and know that it is 
very valuable. I trust we will succeed in having the Russian Mulberry grow farther 
north. It is a pretty looking tree. Meanwhile we must have patience. 

Mr. Beal. — For tree planting on the roadside, I should say plant Walnuts. 

The Vice-President. — How far apart? 

Mr. Beal. — The statute says thirty feet, and all trees can safely be planted at that 
distance. Some of my friends are not satisfied to put them thirty feet apart, but put two in 
that space and afterward they will cut the middle one down. I would advise you to 
plant this tree, not because it is the most beautiful tree, but because it grows very rapidly. 
It will make in ten years a larger and more handsome tree than the Maple in thirty 
years. 

The Vice-President. — 1 hear complaints frequently made against roadside planting, 
that the roads do not get a chance to dry up after a heavy rain. 

Mr. Beal. — I think the trees planted will do the very opposite ; they help .to dry the 
road by absorption. The trees take up a large amount of moisture. If you have a row 
of trees on each side of a road, it will help to dry that road ; there is no doubt about 
that. I know there is a place in the Township of Whitby, four miles in length, where 
there is one of the driest roads I know of, and it is planted with trees. 

The Vice-President. — The evaporation from the trees comes from the soil. 

Mr. Beadle. — I wish I were big enough to hold all the knowledge and I would be a 
living cyclopaedia. I fully corroborate what Mr. Beal has said in regard to the trees. 
There are a large number of leaves growing and each one requires moisture, and the 
moisture comes from the roots. Gallons and gallons of water are required for this pur- 
pose. The water a tree consumes is something astonishing. I cannot speak accurately 
just now how many gallons is required, but it is very many that a tree evaporates in 
course of a day. Suppose it is only a few gallons : in a short time a tree will have taker 
up so much water from the soil by pumping up steadily that the roadside will be dry. 



19 



Trees planted on the roadside are a benefit on a warm summer day for the shade they 
afford, and people will not mind the little mud there may be after a shower. The sooner 
we wake up to the benefit of tree planting on the country roadsides the better will it be 
for us everywhere, for our own comfort, our taste and for the value of our property, if we 
wish to sell it. 

George Copeland (of Hespeler). — In regard to the question of trees on the road- 
side, I may say that I know wli3re there was an avenue of trees and the road was muddy 
from the time the frost came out in the spring until the frost entered it again, but after 
the cutting down of the trees the mud disappeared entirely. In regard to the planting of 
trees in school grounds, I may say that around our school-house we have one of the finest 
school grounds that any person can have the privilege to look upon, and there have been 
planted chiefly maple trees. There are, as well, one or two other trees that take my eye, 
and one is the ordinary Tamarack ; it makes a beautiful tree, especially if the ground is 
somewhat inclined to be damp. Another one is the Ironwood tree; it makes a beautiful 
tree. 

Mr. Gilchrist. — Our cities devote $200 or $500 on tree planting and I am certain 
that 75 per cent, of that money is thrown away. If we had a commission of three gentle- 
men in this city, who were thoroughly acquainted with tree planting, and who should, for 
a series of years, continue that work, we would accomplish good results and get value for 
the money expended. As regards the distance of planting trees, the Walnut makes a 
beautiful shade tree for the street, but you cannot plant this to have any effect, unless you 
plant the trees a good distance apart. I passed through Esprey, four years ago and saw a 
Walnut tree, twenty-two years old, planted from the seed. It was six feet in circumference, a 
foot from the ground. We measured it. For nearly fifteen years the branches had been inter- 
lacing. The distance of planting, I think, should depend entirely on the variety, and we 
should get the distance to plant each tree. One gentleman mentioned the White Ash, but 
it has a fault. If the frost comes early in the fall, you have a poor tree for the rest of the 
season. There is no doubt that the streets should be well planted with trees and we 
should have a universal law. Trees were planted, for instance, in Guelph, eighteen feet 
apart. I would appoint a commission in all our cities to look after our streets. I like 
the roads about the City of Washington. I am told that the gentleman who laid them out 
had taste and ability to do it properly. These streets from end to end are planted with 
such varieties as are suited to grow in the soil. A commissioner is appointed to look 
after the streets and parks. 

Mr. Smith. — I object to the Black Walnut for a street tree, particularly where it is 
planted near the sidewalk. If Mr. Gilchrist owned a small lot adjoining he wouldn't get 
much good out of his garden. I never saw anything that grows and flourishes so well as 
the Black Walnut. 

Mr. Morton. — The proper method of planting trees is an important question. 



FRUIT COMMITTEE. 

Messrs. Jarvis, Gilchrist and Smith were appointed as a Committee to examine the 
fruits on exhibition. 



THE BLACK KNOT. 

The subject next discussed was " Black knot on Plum and Cherry trees, its cause, pre- 
vention and cure." 

Mr. Beadle. — (Exhibiting a specimen of black-knot). The gentleman who sent this 
here is Mr. Hamilton. He has sent you that black-knot, which was found on one of our 
ornamentals called Prunus Triloba. It is a very pretty ornamental shrub, loaded with 
double flowers early in the spring time, and I am sorry to,see it is troubled with the black- 
knot. 



20 



Mr. Gilchrist. — With regard to the black-knot, I understand that if we cut it off 
before midsummer, no doubt we should get rid of ir. I think we should look to the appoint- 
ment of an inspector. 

The Vice-President. — Do you not find the law respected 

Mr. Gilchrist. — No ; farmers don't take any notice of it. 

Mr. Downs. — About fifteen years ago, I had some fine plum trees m my garden. I 
noticed the black knot first on the Purple Gage. I cut the branches off, and I went on 
doing this for several years till I got part of the tops of the trees cut off. The result was 
that the trees died out. 

The Vice-President. — What varieties of plums had you ? 

Mr. Downs. — I had Green Gage, Washington, and Purple Gage. 

Mr. Street (of Stratford). — A few years ago, this was the finest section in the 
country for plums, but the black-knot has destroyed a good many of the trees. I find it 
spreads very quickly. 

The Vice-President. — There is no doubt that some varieties are much more exempt 
than others. 

Mr. Denton. — General Hand is a tree that always flourishes. 

The Vice-President. — It gets a good crop. I am very sorry that we have got so far 
discouraged that we would make up our minds not to plant any more plum trees. In the 
first place, we have varieties not subject to black-knot, such as I think the Yellow Egg, 
Washington, and Coe's Golden Drop. If we would use some care in the matter when we 
have young trees, and early in the season when the knot is forming, cut it out with a good 
sharp knife, scrape out all the excrescence and use a little salt, we might prevent the black- 
knot from gaining ground. By watching young trees you will find you will get over the 
difficulty. The curculio is not a formidable pest. We use Paris green, and it is very 
successful. Throughout the United States, our friend from Michigan says, it is used a 
great deal by the plum growers. I use it a couple of times in the season. 

Member. — How is it applied 1 

The Vice-President. — I usually put a teaspoonful in a pail and fill it half-full of 
water, and apply at once through a very fine rose. A pailful will spray, say ten full 
grown trees. I use it just as the young plums are formed. If we have a heavy rain, I 
apply it again. Our experience is, that after these precautions, we have a frill stock of 
plums. 



ADDRESS OF WELCOME. 

The Mayor and a deputation from the City Council of Stratford waited upon the 
Association. The Mayor welcomed the members of the Association in these words : — 

Mr. Vice-President, — I appear at the suggestion of our Council, to extend to you a 
hearty welcome to the City of Stratford. As soon as we heard of your intention of having 
the winter meeting here, I determined that the council should meet and extend to you a 
welcome. I may say, we have at least a number of gentlemen who entertain lively 
recollections of your former meeting some years ago in Stratford. Although at that time 
tree planting was not carried on to any great extent, I have no doubt that your meeting 
gave it an impetus, and that we have not been the losers. I need not refer to the antiquity 
-of the process of tree planting. It is mentioned early in history, not only in profane 
history, but in the Bible ; it is mentioned at the beginning of Genesis. Our first parents 
were placed in a garden of trees, from which they were to get their food. We find the 
Association, aided by individual efforts, exerting an influence in this important direction. 
The plan of coming together to exchange notes is a good one. Formerly individuals could 
not come together in this way. It was almost impossible in former times to get an 
association together in order to discuss these important subjects. We hope the meeting 
will be profitable to you all : we have no doubt it will be profitable to us. We intend to 
do all we can as representatives of the people of Stratford to make you as comfortable as 
possible. I might, before concluding, refer to what has been done in this city. The 
council established an Arbor day two years ago, which I hope will become an annual 



21 



institution. The first year we planted 1,500 trees, and last year we planted 800 or 900 
more. If you walk or drive through the streets of Stratford you will find a great number 
of the avenues lined with trees, in a thrifty and in a healthy condition. I do not know 
anything further to say, except that I wish to make a personal remark. I see in your 
chair a gentleman whom I have known since boyhood, and I rejoice to see he is such an 
authority in this branch that you have esteemed it advisable to make him your Vice- 
President. Again, on behalf of the City Council and citizens of Stratford, I welcome you 
to our city, and hope this meeting will be profitable to all. 

The Vice-President made a suitable address in reply, expressing his appreciation of 
the cordial welcome extended by the city of Stratford to the Fruit Growers' Association 
of Ontario. 



PEACHES AND CHERRIES. 

Subject — " Peaches and Cherries, earliest and best varieties for cultivation in this 
section." 

Mr. Essence. — I have not been successful with cherries, although I have always tried 
to get the best quality. 

The Vice-President. — "What cherries have you cultivated 1 

Mr. Essence. — I have cultivated the ordinary red varieties. 

Mr. Steet. — In 1877 I ordered some peach trees from my worthy friend, Mr. Beadle, 
and procured three, Early Beatrice, Foster, and Early Crawford. In 1879 the first tree 
fruited very fine peaches. In the winter of 1881 — it was a very severe winter— and 
the poor tree got its death. The Foster fruited very well, but it died the same winter. 
The Early Crawford is not yet dead, but has never fruited. 

Mr. Jarvis. — I have gone through the mill thoroughly, in regard to peaches. I have 
tried for the last thirty years to grow them, but I am throwing away time and money. I 
plant them, and the next year, or the following, they are sure to be killed. I planted some 
from seed. I had one fine crop of peaches last year, but last winter they were killed to 
the ground. In regard to cherries, I have grown successfully a large English cherry. I 
planted these trees on the north side, and they have grown to an immense size. The fruit 
almost hangs like grapes. In regard to the Early Richmond, one tree last year was partly 
killed by the frost, but it looks very well this year. The Kentish, if they remain on the 
tree long enough, are a very good substitute for the English Cherry. In regard to the 
portion of Manitoba I was in, viz., the Poplar Bluffs, the Little Wild Cherry was infested 
with black -knot. I was astonished. I went into the woods and examined the fungus, 
and found that it exists worse there than here. With plum trees I have been very 
unfortunate. The black-knot is not on the Lombard, or McLaughlin They are growing 
to be large trees, and I trust they will be free from the black-knot. 

Mr. Beall. — Have you robins here? 

Mr. Jarvis. — We have robins here that rob us all. (Laughter). I wish the Fruit 
Growers' Association would get the law changed regarding the killing of robins. We 
really cannot preserve our trees on account of the numerous birds. Last year was a poor 
year for cherries ; there were not enough cherries to make it worth while fighting the 
robins. Something will have to be done if we want a large crop of cherries. We should 
allow the boys to shoot them. 

Mr. Downs. — I would like to ask if there is any advantage in planting cherry trees 
near a fence ; any advantage to be gained regarding protection against robins. I have 
seen them in the old country grown very successful, trained up similar to the way you 
train grape vines. 

The Vice-President. — That is a point I cannot answer, and there is no authority on 
it. It has not been tested. 

Mr. Beadle. — Mr. Budd and Mr. Gibb speak of some cherries found in the Vladimir 
district, Russia. They grow about the height of a good size currant bush in that climate. 
They are loaded with fruit. It is a cold climate, the thermometer falling to forty-five 



22 



degrees below zero. In the summer time the hot, dry winds are a very severe test. If 
the Fruit Growers' Association would get some and propagate a few, or say some ten 
members, with ten dollars each, would send and get some of these Vladimir cherries to try. 
Mr. Budd says : "It is far better than any of the cherries we have." 

About the birds, now ; if we throw netting over our trees it keeps the birds away. 
I have thrown netting over my own cherries, otherwise it is hard to keep the birds away. 

I want to throw out one thought about the peach tree, that may be of some use to you. 
If a peach tree succeeds in bearing fruit, and it is a success, plant from that tree and grow 
other trees. Let them fruit ; you may get some pretty good peaches. You would likely 
get some a little more hardy. Keep on propagating, and you may succeed in getting a 
variety of peach sufficiently hardy to endure our climate. There is a limit to peach 
culture. It may be that you get the winter so cold that the peaches fail to survive. If 
the trees are healthy, grown well and trained so that the roots are protected, the winter 
does not often kill the wood of the tree. Last winter the least proportion of any year 
was killed. We live in hopes that we will get peach trees that will not winter kill. 
Taking succeeding generations from trees in your locality. 3^011 may succeed. 

Mr. Essence. — It is very gratifying indeed to hear that, in Mr. Beadle's experience in 
propagating and getting a hardy class of fruit, he has been successful. I hope the few 
remarks dropped will encourage others to make an effort in a similar direction. The little 
I have tested in that way was the only success I had in peach growing. It was suggested 
by a gentleman that, in order to grow peaches, you should cover them up and protect the 
roots by tramping snow or ashes, or anything, about them. He was known to have peaches 
in this way for many years in succession. I was very much pleased to learn that they 
fruited well. Everything of this kind is encouraging, as a test to show the possibility of 
growing peaches. 

Mr. Beall. — What kind of soil would be suitable for peaches 1 

The Vice-President. — Light sandy loam soil. 

Mr. Wright (Renfrew). — Of course we can't attempt to grow a great deal. The hardiest 
cherry in Renfrew is the early Richmond. We have three other cherries j one is a seed- 
ling sent from the State of Minnesota last year. It stands three feet high ; not a single 
twig was injured and the thermometer went 40 degrees below zero. I have the French 
cherry ; it is a seedling from the coast of Labrador. It was brought by a priest, and it 
was propagated, and they gave me one of the trees to try. Then I have the Vladimir 
cherry, but it has not been in my possession long. I grow ordinary cherries by covering 
the roots with pea straw or manure. 



PEARS. 



Mr. Beadle. — I call your attention, by the way, to the collection of pears sent here, 
at my request, by Messrs. Ellwanger and Barry, of Rochester, N. Y. I thought it would 
interest our people to see the pears, and to notice how they keep. Mr. Beadle explained that 
the varieties were:— -The Lawrence, Josephine D'Malines, Clapp's No. 64, the Beurre 
Anjou, Winter Beurre Gris, Dana's Hovey, Columbia and Easter Beurre. The difficulty 
in keeping pears may be avoided by keeping them warm. If they are exposed to the air 
they shrivel and get tough as a piece of leather. Shut them up tight and do not expose 
them to the air. There is the Summer Doyenne; I have a good many of those. There is 
another one, Manning's Elizabeth. For home use there is the Tyson ; I like it very much. 
There is the Bartlett and the Clapp's Favourite. There is an endless variety of pears, and 
it is a matter of taste which you choose. The Flemish Beauty is a hardy pear and does well. 
I suppose the most money is made out of the Bartlett. There are localities where the 
Flemish Beauty has been profitable. The Beurre Clairgeau is a very nice pear. 

Mr. Smith. — There is the Doyenne Boussock ; it is a good pear. 

Mr. Beadle. — Yes ; and there are some fine Beurre D' Anjou. 

Mr. Scott (of Michigan). — Now, the Bartlett keeps for about two weeks. People 
find they can't keep it longer. Prices in Chicago and New York markets ranged from 



23 



$12.00 to $4.00 in two weeks. For home use the Mount Vernon is a pretty good pear, a 
very early bearer and about the size of the Lawrence. Does the Flemish Beauty crack 
here at all? 

Mr. Horn. — No sir. 

Mr. Essence. — My Flemish Beauty trees, for the last two years, have been loaded 
down very heavily, but there is no colour to the fruit. 1 apprehend the reason is too 
much foliage. I think they are kept from the sun. I have the Yicar of Wakefield, and 
have taken many prizes with it, although I have only one tree of that variety. I have 
had it thirty years. There is never a year I have not fruit on it. 

Mr. Steet. — My place has a very stiff clay soil. Last autumn my Flemish Beauty 
for the first time cracked. I attributed that to the wet weather. 

The Association adjourned at 6 o'clock to meet at 8 o'clock 



The evening meeting was called to order by the President, Mr. Saunders, after which 
the question drawer was dealt with. 



SPREADING MANURE. 

Question. — The best method for spreading manure between rows of raspberries 1 
Mr. Hilborn. — That is to avoid injuring them. The last plantation, I put the plants 

far apart so that I could drive through with one horse between the rows. 

Mr. Scott. — When the snow is on the ground, I take a sleigh, a narrow one, to draw 

out the manure. In the spring, I take my spading fork and spade it in, thus killing all 

the little weeds. 



MILDEW ON GRAPES. 

Question. — What remedies would this Association recommend for the mildew on 
grape-vines 1 

Mr. Beadle. — The best remedy I know of is sulphur. The best way to apply it is to 
blow it upon the leaves or upon the fruit, just as early as you see the slightest appearance 
of mildew. One of my neighbours says before mildew comes. 

Mr. Morton. — I saw an extract taken from a French perodical, and in that article it 
was claimed that sulphur had been satisfactory in all cases. There is also the kerosene 
emulsion sprayed on the inside of the leaves, which came into public notice in 1885. I 
notice a French preparation made up of lime water, mixed with a solution of sulphats of 
copper in water, forming a bluish paste, which is found a good preventive as well as 
remedial agent. One application has been found sufficient. 

Mr. MacD. Allan. — I have made a practice of using sulphur very early in the season, 
just as the blossoms are on the grape-vines. I have my grapes training on trellises. I 
work the soil up, well and sprinkle it quite thickly with sulphur. A few pounds of it goes 
a great way. I use it again in a small quantity some weeks after, when the grapes are 
fully formed. I was astonished with the Prentiss grape, that seems to mildew in spite of 
anything. I have noticed in going through the vineyards of some of the successful grape 
growers, that their soil was impregnated with sulphur. I have been very successful the 
last three or four years and have not the slightest sign of mildew. 

Mr. Morton. — This is the receipt I spoke about : Eighteen lbs. sulphate of 
copper mixed with twenty-two gallons of water, also six and a-half gallons of water mixed 
with thirty-four lbs. lime. Mingle these two mixtures together and they form a bluish 
mixture. Apply to the leaves with a small broom, taking care not to let it get on the 
grapes. 

The President. — Throw it on in a semi-liquid state. 



24 



Mr. Morton. — It is in French, but I saw the translation in 1885. They say put it 
on early, about June. They say it sticks well on the leaves. Frequent showers will not 
remove it. 

The President. — What about the fruit ; will it stick on the fruit ? 

Mr. Morton. — They don't say that it will be injurious. I would recommend caution 
and not trust too much to new fangled ideas. 

The President. — There is another form of pest I think could be referred to in this 
question, the Pulvinaria Innumerabilis. "Within this white substance is the egg mass of 
a family of lice. It is hardy in the winter, and sticks on the grape-vine until spring, when 
they gradually obtain their matured form. The best measure to adopt is to brush them off 
in the winter. A person going along with a whisk can destroy nineteen-twentieths of 
these egg-masses. A solution of whale oil, soap, and soda kills the lice as they come out of 
the egg. They infest Basswood and Maple also. 



GAKDENS AND LAWNS. 

The next topic discussed was, " Gardens and Lawns in city and country. " * 

Mr Jarvis. — If there is anything pleasing to the eye and pleasant to the family it is 
a beautiful lawn and garden, well stocked. In all these cases, the first thing to accomplish 
is to have your ground in proper shape, under-drained well and the soil level. I always 
like to see my sods level. I find that along with grass seeds, you get over-stocked with 
weeds and among others dandelions. I find it much better to get sod and have the 
plot properly sodded. After that is done, have it well watered and rolled directly after a 
heavy rain. 

Mr. Goldie. — Beginning with ornamental trees and shrubs, there are the fine Japans, 
which are being generally introduced in the country. Among the ordinary flowering 
shrubs in cultivation are the different varieties of Lilac, which are very beautiful. For 
small lawns and shrubberies there is the Cedar, of which there are a good many varieties. 
They are very beautiful, easily grown and hardy. Mr. Jarvis mentions about sodding and, 
I think, it would be best for a small piece. For a large piece, say as large as this room, 
it would cost a good deal to cover it with sod. If you want to make a lawn, begin early 
in the autumn by raking it up and scraping it level in time to sow it in the month of 
September. The best grass is the Kentucky blue grass. There is another variety called 
the Rhode Island grass. I would never manure very heavily. To make a good lawn 
requires a good deal of labour. 

The President. — When you are top-dressing, what kind of manure do you prefer % 

Mr. Goldie. — Stable manure. 

Mr. Beall. — What time do you prefer to sow grass seed % 

Mr. Goidie. — I prefer to sow it in August or the beginning of September. The 
next spring the grass is ready to start. 

The President. — Do you recommend sowing anything with the grass % 

Mr. Goldie. — Oats and sometimes barley in sowing it in the spring, but spring sow- 
ing with barley is very apt to kill half the grass. If you sow in summer you do not need 
to sow anything with it. 

Mr. Gilchrist (Guelph). — There is the Geranium, the new double, which has become 
very popular, but it generally loses its petals. Another very good plant is the Verbena ; 
it stands a good deal of frost. 

Mr. Beadle. — Do you use Phlox Drummondii ? 

Mr. Gilchrist. — Yes, a large quantity. 

Mr. Beall. — Portulacca? 

Mr. Gilchrist. — Yes. 

Mr. Mitchell (Innerkip). — There are certain plants we consider very useful for the 
masses of our people. There is the Geranium and others already mentioned, but of course 
I place the rose ahead of anything else. Going over the varieties, I will tell you what I 
consider the best. If you want a brilliant display in spring or in the early summer months, 



25 



take General Jacqueminot. Alfred Calomb and that hybrid perpetual rose, the Marshall P. 
Wilder. I believe it is not very well known in Canada. You cannot go astray in 
Marshall P. Wilder. It is equally as good as Alfred Oolomb. The Victor Yerdier is 
another perpetual. La France is a capital bed rose and also a perpetual bloomer. It 
never kills out. For the general masses, as I said before, the Geranium is a valuable 
plant and very popular. Then there are Gladioli, of which there are so many varieties. 
You do not get tired of them and they will bear a great amount of abuse. 

A Member. — Is there such a thing as a White Perpetual Moss rose 1 

Mr. Mitchell. — Yes; there is a White Moss, the Countess of Murinais. 

The President. — Explain the term "perpetual." 

Mr. Mitchell. — We use the word " perpetual," but it should be Hybrid Perpetual. It 
means a rose that is crossed with a perpetual. 

The President. — Some would fancy it meant blooming all the time and, looking at 
the English of it, I am not surprised at such a conclusion, but the fact is they bloom only 
once early in summer. 

Mr. Gilchrist. — Have you any remedy for the mildew 1 

Mr. Mitchell. — I use for the mildew nothing but sulphur. It has already been dis- 
cussed. There is nothing like beginning in time, and do not get discouraged ; I have 
been sometimes at the thought of losing my roses. I think the main secret is vigilance, 
and real love for roses. 

Mr. Jarvis. — What do you use for the thrip 1 

Mr. Mitchell. — Solution of whale oil and soap suds. I put it on twice, and that is 
all I have done to out-door roses ; I have, perhaps, sixty kinds altogether. There is also 
something like the Saw Fly, a green worm ; I think they roll the leaf up. 

The President. — That is called a leaf-roller. 

Mr. Mitchell. — I have always been able to fight these things ; I have had several 
writing for information on the matter. If you have any trouble, only write to me and, 
if possible, I will answer the question. 

Mr. Beadle. — I will ask Mr. Mitchell to write a paper on the subject for the Horti- 
culturist. I would say that our friend Mr. Mitchell has struck the key note on flowers. 
If you want to gain any distinction, you must have a genuine Jove for the thing in your 
heart. The Rev. Reynolds Hole says : — " To have a beautiful rose in your garden, you 
must have a beautiful rose in your heart." Enthusiasm must exist if you expect to succeed 
in growing fine roses only ; with watchfulness and care you may succeed in doing anything 
well. With regard to some of these rose pests, there are many flies. We have the Aphis, 
which gathers on the young, tender roots, and with their little beaks, suck out the vitality. 
For that, I find tobacco water the best remedy. That other, which Mr. Mitchell referred 
to, the thrip, is a little, white fly ; they have two periods of existence ; at one period of 
their existence, they have no wings ; whale oil is sure to be effectual if taken in time ; 
soap water has been effectual in destroying them ; if you allow them to get large, I find it 
almost impossible to hurt them with soap water. 

Mr. Essence. — I am very fond of roses. In passing my grounds, for seasons you 
would see it full of roses. One rose, fully ten feet high, was covered with bloom. The 
rose bushes are always thrifty. The only thing I have to fight against is the thrip. I 
notice them before they get winged, and capture them with whale oil soap. I have also 
used successfully, tobacco smoke. You place some sort of cover over the bush, and keep 
the smoke from escaping. It will kill every one. 

Mr. Myers. — At what time does the thrip come on the leaves? 

The President. — Sometime in June. 

Mr. Morton. — I have discovered a new variety of rose. The last two years my rose 
developed most wonderful foliage, perfectly white. I saw thrip on it, and I experimented 
to see what would kill it. I tried coal oil emulsion. The first dose, I killed something. I 
killed my rosebush. I found excellent success in Pyrethrum powder. You can get it for 
about eighty cents a pound. Dilute it in water, about two ounces to a gallon of water. With 
this I disposed of the aphis and the thrip. 



20 



GRAPES. 

The next subject under discussion was, — fl Grapes ; earliest and best varieties for cul- 
tivation in this section." 

Mr. Scott. — My experience does not extend much beyond the Early Concord. ; I 
also like the Worden ; I forgot to mention the Cottage, and also a white grape called the 
Lady. 

Mr. Jarvis. — I have been growing grapes for many years. I made a great mistake. 
I lirst planted the Isabella, and then got the Clinton. It scarcely ripens before the frost 
comes, and kills all the fruit. It has acted this way for thirty-five years. About seven 
years ago the earliest grape known was the Jackman. I planted one of the Washington 
grapes and it covers all the side of my fence. It bore last year very well. The grapes 
are fine and large. I will say in regard to the Jackman, that it makes good preserves. 

Mr. Mills. — Moore's Early ripened before any other grape I had. The Salem and 
Delaware ripened about the same time. As far as manuring grapes is concerned, I use 
nothing but ashes. 

Mr. Yandell. — The William is my fancy grape. 

The President. — It has a larger bunch than the^Delaware. 

Mr. McCarthy. — I have had experience with the Isabella, and I find it is a failure. 
Of the Fox grape, I have three vines, and one of them will very soon take in half the 
orchard. This season we made twenty gallons of wine off a single vine. The Fox is very 
closely allied to the Clinton, which I also have, and somewhat tender. It is a black grape ; 
a little darker than the Clinton. The berries are about the same. 

The President. — Are you sure it is not the Clinton 1 The Fox grape is a wild grape 
found more abundantly in eastern cities. The grapes drop before they are ripe. One berry 
would be enough for any person. 

Mr. McCarthy. — I got it from Mr. Stephens under that name. I always considered 
it a well-named grape. 

The President. — The colour of the Fox grape will vary from pink to purple. It is a 
grape used very little for food. It is, however, the parent from which Rogers got all his 
hybrids. 

Mr. Yandell. — Rogers' No. 4 ripens very well. 

Mr. Steet. — I have been very successful with grapes. I have grown Rochester 
No. 1, and Salem. I have two fine vines ; one on each side of the front verandah, very 
thickly set. I have planted vines, but have not fruited them. I have had the Burnet 
grape for some years ; it has not fruited with me. 

Mr. Buckim. — I grow a few varieties, chiefly the Concord, Clinton and Delaware. I 
do not give much attention to them, and do very little pruning. 

Mr. Myers. — I would like to hear if any person had any killed last fall. I have to 
say as far as growing grapes with profit is concerned, it has proved a failure with me. 
Except you lay them down and cover them up in the winter, you cannot grow grapes around 
here. 

Mr. Yandell. — I have tried several classes of trellisses. I left one vine above the 
snow and it was dead in the spring. I have covered up my grapes since. 

The President. — My man and I have covered 200 grape vines in a day. 

Member. — Do you cover the whole vine or just the tips 1 

The President. — It is not necessary to cover every part of the vine with earth. 

Mr. Govenlock, of Seaforth, had on exhibition, a model of a movable trellis, in which 
the vines could be laid down and covered up in winter to protect them. He explained the 
mechanical bearing of the trellis. 

Mr. Govenlock. — I like pruning grapes after the leaves have thoroughly left. As 
far as my experience in grapes is concerned, it may be useful to you. About ten or fifteen 
years ago I got the Clinton, Isabella, Delaware and Hartford. I find the Clinton running 
over trees, but they have done very well. The Delaware is, however my favourite grape. 
I have taken prizes with them for ten years. 

Mr. Myers. — Supposing I was planting an acre and a-half of grapes, how would you 
prepare the soil 1 



27 



Mr. Smith. — Dig a drain and use unleached aches. Be sure to plant the grapes 
deep enough. In our section grapes were killed the first winter after they were planted, 
from not being planted deep enough. They were frozen out. The Early Victor, I have 
not fruited much yet. Moore's Early and Worden are the best blacks for the market. 

Mr. Smith. — Eor an early white grape, I don't know anything better than Jessica. 

The President. — I suppose the varieties you mention ripen at St. Catharines early 

Mr. Smith. — Yes. 

Mr. Beall. — Moore's Early is the earliest I have. The Jessica does not fruit with me. 

Mr. Jarvis. — What is the time for Moore's Early ? 

Mr. Beall. — It ripens about 20th or 25th September. We had a heavy frost on the 
17th October last. I didn't see a ripe grape last year; of the black grapes, none ripened. 
The Niagara grape ripens about the 25th September ; the Delaware and Brighton about 
the same time. With regard to the laying down of grape vines, they should be pruned, 
so as to be laid down with the greatest facility. 



SMALL FRUITS. 

The next topic taken up and discussed was, " Gooseberries, Currants, Raspberries and 
Strawberries, earliest and best varieties for cultivation in this section." 

Mr. Little. — In berries I would mention the Duncan ; it is a famous berry. Next 
to that, May King and the Crescent seedling. 

The President. — Is it a good bearer ? 

Mr. Little. — Yes ; a good bearer. The Ironclad is another new variety, which has 
done very well with me. There are better berries than these, taking the size into account. 
Mount Yernon, Manchester and Cumberland are all good. 

Mr. Little. — The berries that sell best have no white tips. 

The President. — Will you mention the best raspberries 1 

Mr. Little. — The Taylor is a good black cap. The Souhegan is not so valuable as 
others, on the account of its liability to rust. 

The President. — That is, the plants get affected with the rust 1 

Mr. Hopkins. — There is another good variety — the Hilborn. I think it is just as 
large as any of the new varieties. 

The President.— What about red ones.'? 

Mr. Hopkins. — I give the Cuthbert preference in the red berries. 

The President. — How have you found the Marlboro' in regard to fruiting ? 

Mr. Hopkins. — I have not fruited it. 

The President. — Do you think much of the Turner ? 

Mr. Hopkins. — It is not as well flavoured as others. It is a very good market 
berry. 

Mr. Little. — The Brandy wine, like every new variety, has been lauded up to the sky. 

A Member. — I would like to ask Mr. Little what kind of soil he has 1 

Mr. Little. — I raise my berries upon dark loam. I get good fruit also upon clayey 
loam. 

Mr. Myers. — The great trouble in growing strawberries is, just about the time a 
nice bloom is on, the frost in this section of the country cuts it off. 

Mr. Smith. — I grow Fay's Currants. Among the new varieties of fruit, there are but 
few that fulfil the originator's claims ; but this currant is one among the few. 

The President. — Did you find the Fay fruit as heavily last year as it did before 1 

Mr. Smith. — Quite so ; and it grew on one side of the garden in quite a neglected 
fashion. 

Mr. Scott. — I haven't fruited it very long, but I think it is the best currant grown 
for the market. 

The Association adjourned at 10.35 p.m. 



28 



The President took the chair at 10.45 Thursday, when the discussion of the previous 
evening on " Small Fruits " was resumed. 

Mr. Peters. — I grow a few of the Cuthbert, and next to it, I would take the Niagara; 
it is very hardy. I have the Clark ; it is a nice berry. It has done well with me. The 
best fruiter is the Saunders. 

The President. — I would like to say for the information of the members, that there 
were some five or six of these hybrids which had a great resemblance to each other, but 
there was a marked difference between the time of ripening, and some difference between 
the ripened fruit. They all have that characteiistic of being heavy bearers. 

Mr. Peters. — This berry I have is a very heavy bearer. It bears an immense crop 
of fruit. 

The President. — Have you tried propagating it yourself, and how do you propagate it I 

Mr. Peters. — Yes ; I propagate from the tips. 

The President. — That is singular. I never found them producing tips in my ground. 
These hybrids are pure crosses of the Philadelphia raspberry, and Doolittle black cap. 
The Philadelphia is the male. 

The President. — What about strawberries 1 

Mr. Peters. — The Sharpless and Glendale have succeeded very well with me. I also 
have the Colonel Cheney. I didn't succeed with the Manchester or Bidwell. The Crescent 
Seedling berries are very small. 

The President. — Have you done anything in gooseberries % 

Mr. Peters. — My soil is heavy clay. I have large size White Smith. I have also 
grown the Downing, but it produced a very small crop. 

The President. — How does the Downing compare in size with the White Smith? 

Mr. Peters. — It is not quite as large. 

Mr. Steet. — I have imported a great many gooseberries from England and Scotland. 
Our Horticultural Society goes in for the largest. We show our fruit in the City Hall, 
and we go in to get as many prizes as we can. 

The President. — You cultivate the biggest you can get ? 

Mr. Steet. — Yes ; I don't stick to the names. If they mildew I spread coal ashes 
around them. I like the acid flavor of the gooseberry, and I think with me they do just as 
well as they do in England. 

The President. — I would suggest, if that is the general experience, to plant all 
English gooseberries and ship them to all parts of Canada. In the London market they 
generally sell from fifteen to twenty cents a quart. If you can get them here without 
mildew, I would advise you all to grow them. 

Mr. Peters. — I have grown White Smith for fifteen years, and never had the least 
mildew on it. 

Mr. Downs. — I would like to ask what is the best preventive for the mildew. In 
Downing's Seedling I have no trouble with the mildew, but in some of the larger sorts 
every one is affected. 

The President. — What is the character of your soil 1 

Mr. Downs. — Heavy. 

The President. — Is the Lawton Blackberry hardy here 1 

Mr. Downs. — I got one two or three years ago, and I planted it about eight feet 
rom the fence. The next year I had some very large berries, but only a few straggling 
canes came up, and finally they seemed to die out. 

Mr. Jarvis. — I wish to reply to Mr. Downs, on the Lawton. I am confident if he 
hadn't a good crop he didn't take good care of it. It is a neighbourly sort of blackberry. 
I imported the Lawton at the same time as I did the Highland Cranberry. The Cran- 
berries were a failure, but the Lawton I have had ever since. Some years I have had 
magnificent crops. This last year I had a very nice crop of Lawtons, and they are a fine 
berry. They require to remain on the bush till they get thoroughly ripe. With regard 
to raspberries, I have a very old kind. It is the Brinckle's Orange. Year after year 
we have had splendid crops. They have the peculiarity of bearing a second crop. 

Mr. Smith. — Are the canes hardy 1 

Mr. Jarvis. — Yes, very hardy. With regard to gooseberries, I have had only one 



29 



variety, and I don't know the name of it. I have had it a number of years ; I got it 
from Mr. D. W. Harris, of England. It bears immense crops. For the mildew I use 
charcoal dust on all my gooseberry bushes. There were a few years I didn't use it and 
still there was no mildew. Last year, in one night, the mildew seemed to strike all my 
gooseberries, and I had a very large crop. I believe if I had still attended to the old 
system of covering them with charcoal dust, I would have had no mildew. I heard that 
my grandmother kept gooseberries free from mildew by planting them in old charcoal 
pits. That is the way they planted their gooseberries, and they grew them free from 
mildew. The last time the Association met here there were some very fine gooseberries 
shown. There were some immense ones and all free from mildew. 

Mr. Hilborn. — There are many newer varieties, several of which I do not wish to 
say much about. I will give an opinion in one or two years. Many leading varieties 
have been tested for years, such as Crescent Seedling, which has proved most productive 
and profitable. The Daniel Boone, Manchester, Wilson and Crescent, I tf/ink, would be 
the best. One of the newer varieties, the Atlantic, is the most profitable I have seen, 
and I believe it is going to be a good market berry. It is about the size of the Wilson. 
It is fully firmer than the Wilson. 

Mr. Smith. — Have you grown Parry 1 

Mr. Hilborn. — I can't say much about it; but I have fruited Woodruff No. 1. 

The President. — How is it for size ? 

Mr. Hilborn. — It is a good large size ; not quite equal to Manchester. 

The President. — You would recommend it for amateur culture, and not for market. 

Mr. Hilborn. — Not for market. 

The President. — Suppose you were restricted say to half dozen kinds for general 
•cultivation and for market ; what would you suggest ? 

Mr. Hilborn. — Crescent Seedling, Daniel Boone, Manchester, Wilson, Atlantic and 
•Captain Jack. I have about eighty varieties, most of them have good points. 

The President. — Does the Caroline raspberry fruit well with you 1 

Mr. Hilborn. — Yes ; it is a little soft, but will carry well. 

Mr. Smith. — It is a cap 1 ? 

Mr. Hilborn. — Yes ; although a sucker. Tyler is the best early black cap. The 
Tyler and Souhegan are preferred, although I think the Tyler is a little ahead on my 
ground. The size of the fruit is just a shade larger. The Souhegan is liable to rust. 

The President. — Mr. Little, you have raised some of the newer varieties. The 
Souhegan — have you ever found the winter to kill it 1 

Mr. Little. — I have not found the winter to kill it. 

The President. — You found this plant (Souhegan) on Mr. Hilborn's grounds last 
summer 1 

Mr. Little. — Yes ; I think it the best quality of black cap I have seen. It is 
medium early ; not quite as early as Tyler. It is of good size, and is not so easily affected 
by cold as the Mammoth Cluster. 

The President. — Have you any other variety *? 

Mr. Little. — I have Mammoth Cluster and Gregg. 

The President. — Is the Gregg perfectly hardy with you ] 

Mr. Little. — No, it is not. I planted varieties to come in, however, at different 
times. There is the Shaffer's Colossal, the best of the many purples. There is none 
other more hardy and productive. Its colour is against it for a market berry, especially 
if it gets a little over-ripe. I think there is none better for canning or table use, according 
to my taste. 

The President. — What varieties of red raspberries do you prefer 1 
Mr. Little. — The Turner and Cuthbert. 

The President. — Would you put the Turner before the Cuthbert? 

Mr. Little. — Yes ; the Turner is ahead. It is the hardiest red raspberry I have 
seen. The Clark is too tender. 

The President. — Have you tried the Marlboro % 

Mr. Little. — It has large berries ; is of a medium quality, but not firm. 

Mr. Morton. — Have you the Ohio 1 



30 



Mr. Littlk. — I had the Ohio for several years ; I found it a medium sized berry of 
very good quality. 

The President. — What about gooseberries of the English varieties, the Whitesmith, 
for instance. How many years have you grown it? 

Mr. Little. — Two or three years. I had the Crown Bob, and planted it at the 
same time, but the mildew was bad on it. There is also the Industry, a very strong 
grower, and free from mildew. 

Mr. Hilborn. — Among the market seedlings, I find Smith's Improved the best, 
The Downing was very good this year, but mildewed on sandy soil. It was all right on 
clayey loam. Among blackberries, I succeeded best with the Snyder. 

The President. — What about currants 1 

Mr. Hilborn. — Raby Castle, Victoria, and Fay's Prolific, has fruited two years to a 
small extent. 

The President. — Can you distinguish any difference between Raby Castle and 
Victoria ? » 

Mr. Hilborn. — Raby Castle is a little stronger, and has a slightly larger bunch. 

The President. — What is your opinion about Fay's Prolific 1 

Mr. Hilborn. — Fay's Prolific is not quite as long. 

The President. — What do you think of the Cherry ? 

Mr. Hilborn. — It is not productive enough. 

The President. — Have you fruited Moore's Ruby ? 

Mr. Hilborn.— Yes ; this year. 

The President. — What does it promise? 

Mr. Hilborn. — It is the most promising of any of them. 

A Member. — What is the size? 

Mr. Hilborn.— The size is about the same as the Victoria or Raby Castle.. 

Mr. Downs. — What is the best mode of pruning black caps that grow very long 
canes ? I think last year the canes grew ten feet long. Is it best to let the canes grow 
so long ? 

Mr. Hilborn. — The best time to prune them, is when the bush gets two feet or two 
and a half feet high. It makes a stronger bush. It will stand up, grow more fruit and 
stand winter better. If the laterals get too long pinch them off. At the time of 
pruning, pinch off the undergrowth. 

The President. — The advantages of that is the plant becomes more stocky and it is 
not so liable to break off, and will produce a much larger quantity of fruit. 

Mr. Hilborn. — It brings about a great many more branches. It is reasonable, that 
the higher you get up the more liable they are to be killed with the winter. I have many 
blackcurrants. I like the Black Naples ; but Lee's Prolific which has been referred to 
has not done very well with me. The fruit has not grown large, and it has not been 
productive with me. 

Mr. Smith. — My experience is similar to Mr. Hilborn's. I regard the Atlantic and 
Mrs. Garfield as very good varieties, and with me they did fairly well last year. My 
experience would differ a little on black caps. I think the claim that the Tyler is a little 
earlier than the Souhegan is unfounded ; for I had them side by side and could not see 
fifteen minutes difference in the time of ripening. The only difference I could notice was 
that I thought the Souhegan was a little the stronger grower. In regard to red berries for 
market, we have never had anything to beat Highland Hardy. 

The President. —Do you find it a strong grower ? 

Mr. Smith. — Not quite so strong as the Turner, but fully as productive. 

The President. — Do you find it firm enough to ship ? 

Mr. Smith. — Fully firmer than the Turner, but not quite as firm as the Cuthbert, 
There is the Reliance, which is a good bearer. There was a gentlemen spoke about 
Niagara being hardy ; with me it is not hardy. 

The President. — Do you think the Caroline worthy of a more extensive cultivation ? 

Mr. Smith. — If there were a demand for yellow raspberries it might be, but I have 
never found any great profit in growing it. I have the Brinckle's Orange as well, and it 
is a better flavoured berry. In the matter of gooseberries, there has been some remarks 



31 



made with respect to the Saunders. From what I have seen I think it is most 
promising. 

Mr. Smith. — It is about the size of the Downing. 

Mr. Copeland. — I can say something of the Hilborn black cap, which I have fruited 
myself. I have many other berries, and after making a comparison, I have concluded 
that the Hilborn raspberry is really the best in quality. It is not as large as some other 
berries, but it is hardy. Last winter didn't kill it in the least, while the Gregg was killed 
back by its side. We considered last winter pretty hard on the black caps. 

Mr. Smith. — What variety do you find the best in blacks ? 

Mr. Scott. — The Snyder is our main crop. I think there is more money in Snyder 
than any other berry. I can't grow Kittatinny. 

The President. — Have you tested Wilson's Junior 1 

Mr. Scott. — Not sufficiently, but I find we have to cover the plants up. 

Mr. Smith. — How do you cover them 1 

Mr. Scott. — I ruin a furrow along one side of the row, bend the vines over and cover 
the tips ; or I take a spade and go around and remove a little dirt. 

Mr. Beall. — Do you turn the berries from the furrow 1 

Mr. Scott. — I turn them into the furrow ; cutting the roots will not affect the 
berries. 



THE QUINCE. 

The Quince varieties and cultivation was then taken under consideration, and the 
following discussion ensued : — 

Mr. Peters. — 1 have tried to grow them ; but cannot succeed. I have never been 
able to get any fruit yet. 

Mr. Downs. — I have tried them without success. The only quinces I ever saw 
were immediately opposite my place, grown by Mr. James. He had a very fine healthy 
tree. 

Mr. Smith. — We have tried several varieties in our locality ; but I have seen nothing 
yet better than the old Orange. It is earlier than the Champion. 

Mr. Beadle. — The Orange quince is the best variety we can grow. The Champion 
quince is too late for us. Meech's Prolific was illustrated in the January number of the 
Agriculturist of this year. It comes into bearing quite late ; later than most of our 
quinces. Apple and Orange are slow enough. 

Mr. Scott. — The Champion has that peculiarity too. The Orange quince is the 
only variety we can grow. The Champion is too late ; we can't ripen it. 

Messrs. Jarvis, Gilchrist and Smith at this stage presented their report on the 
exhibition of fruits. 



AN INVITATION. 

Mr. Scott. — Gentlemen, — I want to say, as I am about to leave for home, that we 
intend to hold our June meeting in Lansing, Michighan, and shall be glad to extend a 
welcome to you all. The Agricultural College is located there and will be a point of 
interest. I have always deemed it a great pleasure to come to your meetings, feeling we 
are brothers. (Hear hear.) I know that the fruit growers' of Michigan will do all in 
their power to welcome you. 

The President. — As members of the Canadian Association, we are all very glad 
indeed that Mr. Scott has been with us, from Michigan. We are geographically near 
them, and we are always glad to have any representatives from the States to favour us 
with their presence. I hope we shall have, as far as knowledge of fruit culture is 
concerned, complete reciprocity. I am very glad to see the spirit that has characterized 
these meetings. We have had a goodly attendance ; not only last night but all through 
yesterday, which is in every way creditable to this district. 

The Convention adjourned at 12.35, p.m. for dinner. 



32 



The President called the Association to order at 2.35, when the following topic was 
opened for discussion : 

APPLES, BEST VARIETIES FOR EXPORT. 

Mr. MacD. Allan. — I can speak for my own section only, and shall give the leading 
varieties that would suit. There is a great amount of money in the Baldwin, and in our 
western district it is an apple that does very well. It is a regular and very abundant 
bearer. It is tolerably heavy, and a good size, is a splendid shipper and packs well. The 
Northern Spy is a splendid apple for the market. The American Golden Russet comes 
next. The King of Tompkins County is veiy attractive, and an apple that commands a 
very high price in the markets of the Old Country. It ships very well ; it is not a very 
heavy bearer, but does fairly well. It is an apple liable to be blown off by the wind. 
Wagner is an apple I think more of the more I see of it ; I would, prefer it to any other 
for my own use. It is just the size wanted in the Old Country for dessert, and is there- 
fore an apple with a good deal of value in it for the export trade. There is the Rhode 
Island Greening, which I believe, for two or three years was cried down in the British 
markets, but it is coming up again. It stood higher in the British markets this last 
season. I believe that for general purposes, it is better than the Baldwin. The Baldwin 
loses its eatable flavour and becomes too woody to be a very good cooker. The Northern 
Spy, we make a good deal of money out of in the Old Country, although when you have 
planted out an orchard of trees you have to wait nearly a life time before they come into 
bearing. It bears very regularly, and crops that pay very well. The Mann is an apple 
spoken of a great deal, and this last season it brought a really high price. As a shipper, 
it keeps splendidly, in fact, the Mann is an apple for use towards the spring. This apple, 
I find, retains its high quality. If you pit it the same as potatoes, on opening the pit in 
the spring, you will find them good. It is as good in quality as the Rhode Island Green- 
ing. If you store them up and ship early in the spring to the Old Country, you will 
realize a good price. There is an apple not spoken much about ; it is the Cabashea. It is 
an apple that holds its own in the Old Country markets. Ithas a good deal of the Baldwin 
quality ; it is a large apple, fairly well coloured, and commands a very good price. 
There is an apple called Esopus Spitzenburgh, which is one of the finest apples we have, 
and of very high quality ; it is not a very good cropper. The Roxbury Russet is a later 
cropper than the American Golden Russet ; it fetches a good price, but not as high. We 
have another apple that holds its own, that is the Cranberry ; it does very well in the 
English markets. Another very good variety is the Ribston Pippin. If you saw the 
difference between ours and those grown in the Old Country, you would hardly believe it 
was the same. On one occasion, a gardener near Glasgow, sent me out some grafts. He 
had received some of our Ribston apples which he said were of a different quality from the 
Ribston he had. It was different in appearance in every way. The man who sent out 
the grafts afterwards received some of the fruit from me, which showed the difference in 
quality was only a question of location between the Old Country and this. We can take 
trees from the Old Country, plant them here and show an entirely different and superior 
quality. So there is no question that we have the inside track of the entire world on 
apples. In foreign markets we have met the apples of Holland and the United States ; 
but you see that the Canadian apples are quoted from one to two shillings and sixpence 
higher. The Wealthy is a good apple, and will keep a long time ; it is an apple not 
inclined to spot ; it is a good shipper. Swayzie Pomme Grise is a nice apple, but it is not 
one that at the present prices will ever pay the grower ; it is on the small side ; at the 
present rate, it fetches $4.00. It would require to fetch about $8.00 or $9.00 in order to 
pay the grower. The Esopus Spitzenburgh is not a profitable apple for the grower ; it is 
a very great pity, for it is an apple that would command a very nice price in any market. 

Mr. Woods. — With respect to this neighborhood, I may say that about thirty years 
ago we had some very fine Snow apples, but they started to spot some years ago. This 
year we got some magnificent crops of Snow apples. I think one thing about the Spitzen- 
burgh is, that it is a very difficult tree to grow indeed ; I have tried it three or four times 
and it has failed. A most remarkable thing occurred in 1881. In that year we had a 
severe winter. I had a row of trees, in which the Wagner was planted alternately, and 



33 



they were the only ones I lost in the orchard. Three Wagners were grown on the side of 
a hill, and those very trees were the only ones killed. It was mentioned in the Horticul- 
turist. In my experience, the Wagners are the worst trees in the orchard. 

The President. — What other varieties have you 1 

Mr. Woods. — In my neighbourhood, there are Maiden's Blush and American Golden 
Russet, chiefly. 

Mr. Frame. — I find the Spitzenburgh is a very tender tree. My trees are all dead, 
both young and old. They bore thin crops. 

Mr. John Parker. — I have been growing a few, and make the most money out of 
the Golden Russet. 

Mr. McKeown. — I have made the most money out of the Baldwin, King of 
Tompkins County, Northern Spy, and Golden Russet. 

The President. — Which would you put first ] 

Mr. McKeown. — Baldwin and Northern Spy is my favourite. 

Mr. Skinner. — I find the best ones for market are the Baldwins and King of 
Tompkins County. I find this danger in the Baldwin, that it gets winter killed a great 
deal. I find the Russets stand very well. The Wagner and Mann apples are very good. 

Mr. Monteith. — In the southern portion of this county, I think more parties are in 
favour of King of Tompkins than any other variety. They appear to command the very 
best local prices in Stratford, and in my own opinion it comes first, and the Spy next. 
As to the Baldwins, I don't like them. 

Mr. O'Loane. — The Golden Russet, Baldwin, Ribston Pippin, Northern Spy and 
Greening, seem well suited to this part of the country. 

The President. — Is it your opinion that the fruit industry might be extended 1 

Mr. O'Loane. — I think it might be extended with profit. 

Mr. Dempsey. — I would like to ask Mr. Allan, what does he think of the Yellow 
Bell Flower ? 

Mr. MacD. Allan. — It is not a very good apple. 

Mr. Dempsey. — Our experience is that it is a very good apple. 



PLUMS. 



The next topic taken up was " Plums, culture and the best variety for this section." 

Mr. Uhbelacker. — I believe I am called a crank on plums. Be that as it may, I 
have grown a great many varieties. In 1881 must of the best varieties were killed. I 
grow some of Pond's Seedlings, Glass Seedlings, Yellow Egg, Washington, Lombard, 
Smith's Orleans, and Ooe's Golden Drop. My plum orchard is getting very straggling, 
although the trees are growing without black knot. 

The President. — What are the best plums 1 

Mr. Uhbelacker. Pond's Seedlings, Washington, Yellow Egg and Lombard. 

The President. — Do you grow McLaughlin 1 

Mr. Uhbelacker. — Yes; we had a fine crop in 1884, 

The President. — Does the Glass Seedling keep free from curculio *? 

Mr. Uhbelacker. — It is curculio proof. 

The President — Can you sell it well in the market 1 

Mr. Uhbelacker. — Yes, very well. * 

The President. — Have you found it a good bearer ? 

Mr. Uhbelacker. — Very good. 

The President. — An early bearer 1 

Mr. Uhbelacker. — We have had three crops off it, after some nine or ten years, 
rhe most profitable plum is the Lombard. 

The President. — Have you tried Yellow Gage? 

Mr. Uhbelacker. — Yes; but before the fruit gets ripe, it rots. The very best plums 
kre the Pond's Seedlings. 

uTuMr. Harrison. — I grow the Yellow Egg, Washington and Blue Egg. I have kept 
|he black knot off them. 

3 (F. G.) 



34 



The President. — Do your Washington trees bear heavy crops'? 

Mr. Harrison. — No, Sir. 

Mr. Woods. — I had a good deal of black knot, and tried the well-known plan of the 
knife. I found cutting it out thoroughly, and applying shellac dissolved in alcohol, two- 
or three times, to be a good remedy. 

The President. — That would be a suitable remedy to prevent fungus fro m spreading. 

Mr. Woods. — I tried coal tar, but it did not affect the curculio. I have tried to catch 
the worm. 

The President. — You would have to get up early. I have jarred the trees at. 
midnight, and found them active. 

Mr. Steet. — Do they work at night 1 

The President. — Yes, and in the day time too. 

Mr. Steet. — I have grown plums a great deal and very successfully ; I have grafted a 
number on wild plum stocks. I have grown all kinds, the Washington is a very prolific 
bearer here ; it is a very fine plum, but its bears heavily only once in three or four years. 

The President. — What has been your experience with the Bradshaw 1 

Mr. Steet. — It is a very good plum. We did very well until the black-knot came 
along ; previous to that they were borne down every year with fruit. 

The President. — Have you grown Glass Seedling 1 

Mr. Steet. — I have some Glass Seedlings that were sent oub by the Society. I don't 
think a great deal of them ; they are not very good bearers. 

Mr. Buchanan. — I have the Washington, Glass Seedling and Imperial Gage. 

The President. — You find these three varieties succeed well 1 

Mr. Buchanan. — Yes. 

Mr. Uhbel acker. — Pond's Seedling or Smith's Orleans have never had the black 
knot, The Lombard is the worst with us in that regard. 

Mr. Jarvis. — Pond's Seedling and Imperial Gage — I have these without black knot. 
The Lombard has the black-knot. 



CRANBERRIES AND HUCKLEBERRIES. 

" Cranberries and Huckleberries ; would it pay to cultivate them ?" 

Mr. Woods. — I don't think cranberries and huckleberries would pay. Five miles 
from here in the centre of a swamp, is what is known as the huckleberry patch all over 
this country. Hundreds visit it ; indeed, so great is the rush, and the season is so long, 
that the Railway Company sends out a car and leaves it there on a side track ; there is the 
station and tickets are issued to huckleberry pickers. People go out in hundreds from 
South Woodstock, and I don't know from how far. People come even from Waterloo 
County. 

Mr. Steet.— I think the cranberry is a very good fruit : it is very nice for pies and 
puddings. 

Mr. Beadle. — In Ontario both the cranberry and huckleberry grows wild. I may 
state, that a gentleman in Michigan, named Staples, says huckleberries can be cultivated 
in gardens. The High Bush cranberry we use, is very different fruit from the cranberry 
of commerce. The cranberry you buy in the market grows in marshes. It is from a low 
trailing plant which creeps along in the marsh. The botanist, however, has come to the 
conclusion, that the High Bush cranberry is the Snow Ball. 

Mr. BuRRiTT.--If the cranberry and huckleberry could be cultivated profitably, I 
have a swamp that might be turned to good advantage. 

Mr. MacD. Allan. — You require first of all, a good piece of land. It would never pay 
to go and plant out bushes on marsh land. To ensure good large crops, it is necessary to 
have peat land. Take offthe top peat early, put three inches of sand over it, and it should 
be so situated as to be kept free from weeds. You must have a piece of land for no other 
purpose but for the growth of cranberries. 

Mr. Woods. — Is the High Bush cranberry cultivated at all ? 

Mr. Beadle. — Not to any extent j I have grown some, however, as ornamentals. 



35 



VEGETABLES, Etc. 

11 Vegetables, the best and most profitable variety of cabbage, cauliflower, celery, 
peas, beans, corn, asparagus, turnips, potatoes, etc ; how to grow them, and destroy the 
noxious insects, to which potatoes and the cabbage tribe are subject. Fertilizers etc." 

Mr. Transom. — I grow several varieties of tomatoes. The best variety is Living- 
stone's Favourite. There is also Livingstone's Perfection ; but Livingstone's Favourite ia 
my choice. 

The President. — What variety of cabbage do you grow ? 

Mr. Transom. — Henderson's Early. 

Mr. Peters. — In Cauliflower I like Dwarf Erfurt. In celery I like Eed Celery, I 
also grow the White Plume. 

Mr. Beadle. — Do you find it hard to keep well ? 

Mr. Peters. — It is just for summer use. In asparagus I have a very good plant. 
I take particular pains in laying the bed out ; I clean off the rubbish and put on decom- 
posed manure ; I laid it out five years ago, and have had a splendid crop ever since. 

A Member. — How do you plant Asparagus 1 

Mr. Peters. — About eight or ten inches in the rows. 

The Presidfnt. — In potatoes, what varieties do you grow ? 

Mr. Peters. — The Beauty of Hebron principally ; it is a fine early kind. 

Mr. Jarvis. — Asparagus can be planted just as easy as potatoes. In the cutting of 
Asparagus some people are afraid of beginning the second year. I commenced cutting the 
second year, and I have cut ever since. With regard to cauliflower and cabbage, I have 
not grown any lately on account of the nasty worm. During my visit to the North-west, 
I saw a cabbage that weighed forty-two pounds. I suppose you will not believe it ; but, it was 
put on the scales. It was at the Exhibition, in Brandon, two years ago, where I saw a. 
White China Winter radish, weighing thirteen pounds. There were others there weighing 
from eleven to thirteen pounds. 

At this stage of the meeting, the Committee that was appointed on the exhibition of 
fruits, reported on a seedling exhibited by Mr. Oliver, who wished the society to name it. 
They reported it as follows : — " Free open calyx, good quality, and well worthy of an ex- 
tended trial. By far the best seedling on exhibition." 

The Society by a unanimous vote named it the Oliver. 

The discussion on Vegetables, etc., was then continued : — 

Mr. Wade. — I raise Henderson's Early Summer cabbage, and the Drumhead Savoy. 
The only cauliflower I grow with success is the Extra Early Paris. In celery I have 
Henderson'^ Half Dwarf. I think this is the celery I prefer, as it keeps in the winter. 
On the cabbage I have used air-slacked lime ; I dust it on. The only application that was a 
success, however, was one quarter pound of hellebore, and one quarter pound of slacked lime 
mixed in water thoroughly. I have kept the cabbages perfectly clean. I have tried 
numerous cures, and this is the best I have ever got yet. 

Mr. Hilborn. — Did you ever try Paris green ? 

Mr. Wade. — I wouldn't try it on my cabbage. If you try it on cabbage, you try it 
on yourself. 

The President. — A good dose of hellebore would be bad, too. 

Mr. Wade. — Not one quarter pound to half gallon of lime on 1,500 cabbages. I have 
heard of people using Paris green on cabbages. 

Mr. Hilborn. — I am acquainted with one grower who thought it was safe to use it r 
but, he said he wouldn't try it again. 

Mr. Dempsey. — I have used Paris green on cabbages for over two years. I have 
used it with plaster of Paris. 



36 



COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS FOR CLAY SOILS. 

Mr. W. A. Macdonald (Agricultural Editor of the Farmers' Advocate, London, Ont.) 
— My attention has been directed to a circular relating to commercial fertilizers 
which was handed around amongst the members yesterday, and I wish to say a 
word about it in connection with this subject. I see that special fertilizers are manufac- 
tured to suit the requirements of all kinds of crops, including fruit trees. For example, 
on page 10 you see that the special fertilizers for potatoes and fruits contain large percen- 
tages of potash. It is true that potatoes and fruits are greedy potash feeders, but this does 
not always justify the use of potash fertilizers for this crop. Mine is a clayey soil, and I 
have tried different kinds of potash fertilizers for potatoes, and I find that it does not pay 
to apply them. For the purpose of ascertaining the reason why, I made a mechanical 
analysis of my soil, and found that the coarser portion, which is usually regarded as sand, 
had in it a large percentage of fragments of alkaline rocks, which yield large quantities of 
potash. This proves that special fertilizers manufactured for certain crops are of question- 
able value, unless the character of the soil is also taken into consideration. Of course, the 
manufacturers cannot ascertain the composition of every soil to which their fertilizers are 
applied, although they can easily find out the composition of the crop, and unless the 
farmer or the fruit grower can accurately describe the soil when ordering the fertilizers, 
there is little hope that they can be profitably used. Some manufacturers say that their 
fertilizers are good for all soils, but this is all nonsense. Some general fertilizers will pro- 
duce good results on almost any poor soil, but the application will, in most instances, be a 
wasteful one ; for most soils are deficient in only one or two constituents of plant food, so 
that the other constituents of the fertilizer are entirely wasted and often produce injurious 
results. Phosphates are the most deficient constituents in most soils, and you run "very 
little risk in their application, but I would not, as a rule, recommend the use of potash or 
nitrogen in the commercial form ; if the soil is deficient in these constituents, ashes should 
be used for the former and farmyard manure or clover plowed under for the latter. I 
have found by repeated experiments that ashes are useful, or at least not injurious, even 
when potash is abundant in the soil, while sulphate of potash is injurious to such soils. 

A Member. — About what yield of potatoes did you get 1 

W. A. Macdonald. — My yield was 350 bushels per acre where I applied fertilizers 
to the best of my ability ; where no fertilizers were applied, the yield was 265 bushels per 
acre, and where I applied several mixtures such as are usually found in the markets, of 
which I did not know the analysis, my average yield was 260 bushels per acre. I shall 
never again use a fertilizer without receiving an analysis with it, and I shall always order 
it more for special soils than for special crops. I am confident that fruit growers could 
make money out of fertilizers if they organized in some way for the purpose of experiment- 
ing and learning the results. I assure you I would most gladly co-operate, and you will 
also have the sympathy of the fertilizer men. It has been said that commercial fertilizers 
would prevent potato rot, but I have not found it so. I have had an average of about 
-eighteen per cent, rotten where I used fertilizers, and about the same percentage where I 
used nothing ; but where I applied barnyard manure, there was about forty per cent, 
rotten. I have over thirty varieties of potatoes, and my favourite variety is the White 
Star. 

The President. — I think caution should be exercised, in the use of fertilizers, lest 
we arrive at rash conclusions. A few experiments should not be taken as an infallible 
guide. There are various other conditions, besides the character of the soil, which should 
be taken into consideration, such as the rainfall, light, heat, etc. We have also, to con- 
sider whether the constituents in the fertilizers are stable or'not. A few weeks ago, I had 
occasion to visit the Experiment Station at New Haven, Conn., and I found to my sur- 
prise, that large quantities of Canadian ashes were used in the Eastern States, and high 
prices were paid for them. It occurred to me that if these people could afford to pay such 
high prices, our people should pay more attention to them, and use them at home. This 
is an interesting subject, and I think more experiments should be undertaken and reported 
at our meetings, for mutual information. 



37 



Mr. W. A Macdonald. — I don't wish this meeting to understand that I have any 
particular confidence in the few experiments I have made, and I should not have men- 
tioned them, if they did not corroborate thousands of experiments conducted in other parts 
of the world. In fact I knew what would be the result before I started my experiments, 
but I find that it is necessary to demonstrate truths to the farmers in this way ; else they 
come to the conclusion that my teachings are theoretic. I use my experimental grounds 
as a sort of text-book or blackboard, asdt were. It requires no further demonstration to 
prove that the fertilizers applied should correspond with the natural deficiencies in the 
soil, and as soon as farmers and fruit growers get this into their heads, they will profit by 
their investments. Of course your President is right when he says that there are many other 
conditions to be considered besides the character of the soil, but^these are too complicated 
for discussion here ; I was speaking of average conditions. 

A Member. — What is the value of ashes ? 

W. A. Macdonald. — Unleached hardwood ashes contain four to eight per cent, of 
potash, and two to three per cent, of phosphoric acid, which, according to the present 
market prices of these constituents, give them a value of eight to twelve dollars per ton, 
and then \ou have thirty -five to thirty-eight per cent, of lime thrown in. 

Mr. Jarvis. — With regard to ashes. For years all along East Toronto they gathered 
ashes for the purpose of making potash. Men came from the United States, and bought 
up these ashes, and took it over and distribute it through their country. We have lying 
around this town hundreds of tons. Ashes have great manurial value. 

Mr. Frame. — As a Canadian farmer I have been growing acres of potatoes for the 
last thirty years, and making money out of them. I take all sorts and try them for the 
markets. There is the White Star, which is a fine potato. The Buck Eye is a very good 
potato, and grows very well in heavy clay land. (The speaker here explained his method 
of planting potatoes, etc.) The Early Rose and Late Rose has taken the market in the 
meantime. We kill the beetles with Paris Green. We mix a pound of Paris Green to 
about sixty pounds of plaster, and take a perforated canister and run along the rows very 
quickly. 

The President. — In planting potatoes how do you cut your seed? Do you prefer 
them in pieces or single eyes 1 

Mr. Frame. — Single eyes. 

A Member. — Do you ever use manure] 

Mr. Frame. — Yes ; I always use manure ; I always work it well into my land. 
Nothing has been said with regard to turnips. I think, if you manure in the right 
time, you will get a splendid crop of turnips. During the summer months I clean my 
hen house to have it nice and dry. I put the manure aside and save it for my turnips. 
There are a great many agricultural papers which speak of this manure. I consider this 
hen manure the best of all manures. In regard to fertilizers, I am under the impression 
it is rather expensive paying $30 to $40 a ton. As to the buying up of the ashes by the 
States, I think they need it more than we do, as their land requires it more than ours. 

Mr. Beadle, — Have you an orchard 1 

Mr. Frame. — Yes; a very good one. I may say there is no money in the orchard. 
I think there is more money in other crops. The great difficulty is the frost does so much 
mischief to the orchards. 

Mr. Beadle. — Do you fertilize your orchard ? 

Mr. Frame. — No ■ we use all we get for the fields. 

Mr. Beadle. — Put 500 bushels of unleached ashes in your orchard. 

Mr. Frame. — A farmer must not have too many irons in the fire. If he has, he 
cannot attend to them all. 

Mr. Hay. — I find the best results in cultivation follow if you have the ground nice 
and mellow. I spread loose straw over it in the spring, and then I plough it up. I had a 
fine crop of potatoes. There is grert difficulty with the ordinary manure in scattering it. 
Loose straw can be scattered nice and even. The result of my experience was satisfactory. 

The President. — Did you try it the second season ] 

Mr. Hay. — We tried it twice. 

Mr. Woods. — There is some value in growing fruit. Mr. Frame would lead one to 



38 



believe that we cannot grow fruit in this neighborhood, and that it does not pay. He 
gave as his reason why he thought it would not pay, that there would be too many irons 
in the fire. I think if he would pay even a little attention, his orchard would pay him. 

Mr. Trow. — I think we pay too little attention to our orchards. I should fancy if 
we were more careful we would get more fruit. I shall have to pay more attention in 
future to my orchard. When I purchased my property I had a dozen different varieties 
of plums, but there is nothing left of them now. 

Mr. McKeown. — I want to get some information on picking and packing apples'? 

Mr. MacD. Allan. — The method we always follow, is to pick our apples by hand and 
lay them in heaps upon the ground. The varieties the shipper wants should be sorted out 
and divided into separate heaps ; one heap being for the apples that are good, clean, and 
free from spots, etc. Then they go through the sweating process. After this we send a 
man to pick them over carefully and see none are bruised. Then they pick out the 
different sizes and high coloured apples, after which we proceed to pack by taking the 
choice apples, packing with the stems down. The barrel is then pressed down and 
securely nailed. When the barrel is opened at Liverpool, London or Glascow, they open 
the top of the barrel with stems all up, and they look nice. With regard to keeping 
apples; some prefer them upon shelves in a cellar. You should keep the temperature as 
near the freezing point as possible. 

Leading citizens expressed their gratification they had felt in listening to the discus- 
sions, and votes of thanks of the customary nature were passed. The Association then 
adjourned to meet in Lindsay. 



SUMMER MEETING. 



The summer meeting of the Association was held in Lindsay and Bobcaygeon, on 
the 7th and 8th of June. The opening day at the former place was marked by a large 
attendance of prominent local fruit-growers and others from important sections of the 
Province. Mr. P. 0. Dempsey presided, and, after routine, questions were asked and 
answered. 



COAL ASHES. 

Question. — What are the fertilizing qualities of coal ashes ? 

Prof. Panton said it was of very little use. A heavy, close soil might be opened by 
it, but it contained no plant food of any value, 

Mr. Morton (of Wingham) believed that barn-yard manure, if well taken care of, 
was better than any of the artificial fertilizers, but in the way much of it was kept, it 
was worth little more than straw. 

Prof. Panton had seen better results with barn-yard manure than any other kind. 

Mr. John Croil (of Aultsville) said that the quality of commercial fertilizers varied 
just as much as barn-yard manure. 

Mr. McDonald (of London). — A great deal depends on the quality of fertilizers as 
well as manure. Manure from well fed cattle would be worth from two to three dollars 
a ton, but a large percentage of the soil in this country would be benefited in the greatest 
degree if commercial fertilizers were mixed with barn-yard manure. Some soils, how- 
ever, such as those in the vicinity of Guelph, are more benefited by potash, and ashes 
would therefore be the cheapest and most effective fertilizer. In the vicinity of London 
and most other parts of the Province, phospates could be most advantageously used in 
connection with barn-yard manure. The phosphate mines near Ottawa were the richest 
in the world, and if oujk* farmers and fruit-growers were induced to use the product as 
extensively as they should, the price would be materially reduced and brought within 
the reach of all. 

Mr Dempsey (of Trenton). — Wood ashes have always produced good results 
with me. 



39 



A SMALL GARDEN. 

Question. — How could I best lay out a half acre for fruit and vegetables 1 

Mr. W. W. Wright (of Renfrew) suggested that everything be planted in rows, so 

as to permit of easy cultivation. Plant small fruits so that the snow would be likely to 

lodge and protect them. 

Mr. Geo. Colvert had noticed that if vegetables were planted within fifteen feet of 

trees they always suffered. 



STRAWBERRIES. 

A short discussion took place on strawberries and the time of planting. The spring 
was favoured as the best season for planting, and for varieties, high testimonies were 
given in favour of Crescent Seedling, Wilson, Capt. Jack, Manchester, Daniel Boone, 
Bidwell and Sharpless. 

PEARS. 

Mr. Beall (of Lindsay). — I do not know that there are four varieties that would 
succeed in this neighbourhood. The Flemish Beauty and Clapp's Favourite are the only 
two we can hope to grow with any degree of success. 

A Member. — Have you tried Beurre d'Anjou ? 

Mr. Beall. — Yes, but it will not live. The Flemish Beauty, however, does very 
well indeed. 1 have never had any trouble with it at all. T have one of Clapp's 
Favourite bearing this year for the first time, and the trees seem perfectly healthy. 

Mr. Wright. — Have you any of the Russian pears 1 

Mr. Beall. — I have not. 

Mr. A. M. Smith (of St. Catharines). — Have you tried the Beurre Hardy ? 

Mr. Beall. — Yes, I have also a Vicar of Wakefield tree. It has blossomed twice, 
but I have seen no fruit. When it does bear, however, perhaps it will do well. 

Dr. Cross (of St. Catharines). — 1 might say something about pears and how little 
I have made out of them. About twenty years ago I planted a great variety, and 
as fast as one tree died I planted another. Death was not caused by winter-killing, but* 
by blight. Most of my trees I planted over the second time, and some of them the 
third time, but for the last ten years I have planted principally the Duchess and they 
are now doing very well, and have had very little blight ; but of . all the varieties I 
started out with, I have only some eight or ten now. The Bartlett and Duchess are the 
only ones I make anything out of for the market. I treat a pear tree as I would a 
strawberry. I keep the ground well manured, allow no weeds to grow, and apply coal 
ashes to keep the ground loose. The Bartlett trees that I have, give me from a barrel 
to two and a-half barrels per tree, which are worth five dollars a barrel. The Seckel 
is very hardy, but gives a good deal of trouble to thin, so as to keep few on ; but they 
do not weigh much and it takes a great many to fill a basket. They make good pickles 
and keep pretty well. Of Clapp's Favourite I planted twelve trees about six years ago, 
and I believe I have one left ; so that what little I make from my pear trees is off the 
Duchess and Bartlett. Still what I get from them satisfies me very well for the 
cultivation. 

Dr. Herriman (of Lindsay). — Down a little south of this, they have the Bartlett, 
Flemish Beauty and the Bonne de Jersey ; these do very well on clay soil. 

Mr. Glendinning (of Manilla). — I only find- two varieties that seem to stand the 
test — Clapp's Favourite and Flemish Beauty. I have tried the Seckel, but the trees 
grow a few years and then die of blight. I also tried the Duchess, but it blighted badly. 
It died the second year. When I came on my farm there were a number of pear trees 
just coming into bearing; I do not know what variety they, were, but at all events 
every one died. Clapp's Favourite and Flemish Beauty seem to stand the test all right ; 
in fact I have not known a Flemish Beauty in this neighbourhood to die. Clapp's 
Favourite has been planted extensively. These two kinds are the only ones which seem 



40 



to be generally cultivated in this immediate locality. Sometimes we see a fine collection 
of pears, but on inquiry it is found they were grown south of the ridges, which divides 
our county into two sections for fruit growing. I cannot, therefore, name four varieties 
for this section ; but the two I have mentioned, will, I think, grow almost any place 
where it is well drained and the locality at all favourable. 

Mr. John Oolvert (of Lindsay). — My experience in the cultivation of pears is this : 
Some ten years ago, a man came around with samples preserved in a bottle. I took 
four trees and paid him five dollars. After that I got another tree, which proved to be 
the Flemish Beauty. It is nourishing well. Blight killed the others. This Flemish 
Beauty does very well, and last fall I took first prize with the pears off that tree. 

Mr. Morris (of Fonthill). — I understand the question is, four varieties for this 
neighbourhood. I cannot understand why Clapp's Favourite should do well, and Beurre 
D'Anjou fail. Tt is the hardiest we have at Fonthill. Several varieties were mentioned 
that are hardy and ought to do well here. The Seckel should succeed. The list of very 
hardy trees, however, is limited. We have a kind that originated at Oshawa, which has 
proved very hardy there. There are some trees there sixty years of age, which have not 
been injured, and we are in hopes that it will fill the bill for a very hardy tree. We 
are cultivating some varieties of Russian pears and should be glad to place some in the 
hands of somebody here to test. 

Mr. Beall (of Lindsay). — Something may have been wrong with the Beurre D'Anjou, 
at all events, after trying some forty varieties, I have only the two left that I mentioned. 
Mr. Beadle (of St. Catharines). — I do not know any pears we have been growing 
for any length of time that are more hardy than Clapp's Favourite and Flemish Beauty. 
We are, however, experimenting with trees from Russia, but it is too soon to say whether 
they will grow with us, or whether when grown if the fruit will be satisfactory. They 
have some jaw-breaking names. It will take four or five years to settle the questions 
involved. The two varieties named here are the only two that seem to do in very cold 
latitudes. 

Mr. Frank Wanzer (of Hamilton). — I have a rich pear which seems to do well in 
the neighborhood of Hamilton. It is called Beurre Clairgeau. 

Mr. Morris (of Fonthill) — My experience is that it is very tender and the fruit inferior. 
Mr. P. C. Dempsey (of Trenton). — I have had a great deal of experience in growing 
pears. Some trees, by cutting off the blighted portion will grow again ; but the Beurre 
Clairgeau all died with me. It is one of the tenderest we have ever tried to grow. There 
is the Urbaniste ; any one who has nerve and patience enough to cultivate a tree twelve 
or fourteen years before seeing any fruit, will find it a superior pear. I have never seen 
one inch of the tree blighted, and I have never noticed any effect from the frost. I only 
cultivated two trees, and the reason I do not cultivate more is because I have not patience 
to wait for the fruit. It is perfectly hardy. Most of the early varieties are hardier 
than the later, for the reason that the exertion in maturing the crop is sooner relieved, 
and the tree resists the severity of the winter better. I do not know any winter variety 
it would be safe to try here except Josephine de Malines. Doyenne Boussock is as hardy as 
Flemish Beauty, and I think I can produce ten pears of that variety as easily as I can 
one of the Flemish Beauty. 

Mr. Smith (of St. Catharines. — How is it for blight 1 

Mr. Dempsey. — I have it on clay loam and light sand, but none of them have blighted.. 
I do not eat them, as they are not to my taste, but no pear commands as high a price as 
Doyenne Boussock when we ship them. I have several Persian pears ; but unfortunately 
paper labels were used, which the mildew rendered illegible. I have several varieties ; I 
cannot tell you what they are ; but they came from Belgium and are apparently hardy, 
and produce a crop annually of good fruit. I have one which has made regular growth 
every year and it has got to be quite a tree, producing four or five bushels of pears 
annually. It is superior to Flemish Beauty. To you people here, 1 would say try more 
varieties. Do not be satisfied with three or four, but write to some of the nurserymen 
and tell them to send you ten or twenty of the most hardy varieties. Let them make the 
selection. Do not depend wholly on the agent's colored plate. Nurserymen will 
lway send you good stock, if you send directly to them. 



41 



Mr. Morris (of Fonthill). — Mr. Pettit has handled one of the earliest varieties and a 
good pear too — the Beurre Giffard. 

Mr. Pettit (of Winona). — I have fruited this pear for the last fifteen years and it has 
never failed to give a very good crop, and there is no appearance of blight whatever. The 
pear ripens about the first of August, and coming into the market at that time, a sweet 
rich pear, commands a high price. I do not know how it would answer on pear stock ; 
I grow mine on quince. It appears to be hardy in every way. 

Mr. Dempsey. — I think it is called Giffard now. 

Mr. F. Wanzer (of Hamilton). — Has anything been said about Winter Doyenne 
and White Doyenne. They are excellent pears with me. For blight I have tried iron 
twinings or filings. I place them about two feet from the trunk, where they rest together 
and form an excellent protection from sudden changes of temperature. By this plan I 
have succeeded for the past two years in saving a tree from blight that was always so 
affected before. It is a Clapp's Favourite. One or two gardeners in Hamilton have tried 
the. same experiment with good results. 

The Association then adjourned for dinner. 9 



Ther3 was a large attendance in the afternoon, and a quarter of an hour was spent 
in examining the specimens of fruit laid on the tables. 



FRUIT PROGRESS. 

Mr. J. L. Payne, of the Department of Agriculture at Ottawa, read a paper as 
follows : — 

I propose, in a simple way, to give you such figures as I have been able to collect, 
relating to the foreign trade of Canada in fruit. I have to express a feeling of regret 
that the details of the trade are not available, but such as they are, they show very 
gratifying increases within the last fifteen years. Perhaps it would be better to preface 
the trade returns with a compilation of figures from the Census, showing how the 
cultivation and production of fruit has been developed within the past three decades. 
The figures are : — 





Year. 


Gardens 

and 
Orchards. 


Fruits. 


PROVINCE. 


Bushels of 
Apples. 


Pounds of 
Grapes. 


Bushels of 
other Fruits. 


Ontario 


1861 
1861 
1861 


Acres. 
88,869 
33,417 








Quebec 








Nova Scotia 


186,484 




4,335 








Total 




122,286 


186,484 




4,335 




1871 
1871 
1871 
1871 


Ontario 

Quebec 

New Brunswick 

Nova Scotia 


207,011 

46,458 

7,591 

13, 614 


5,486,504 
409,903 
126,395 
342,513 

6,365,315 


1,028,431 

88,099 

1,705 

8,167 

1,126,402 


242,878 

100,878 

2,471 

12,736 




Total 




274,674 


358,963 






Ontario 


1881 
1881 
1881 
1881 
1881 
1881 
1881 
1881 


304,805 

54,858 

11,452 

21,624 

2,585 

2,955 

2,771 

285 


11,400,517 

777,557 

231,096 

908,519 

31,501 

190 

28,100 

175 


3,697,555 

158,031 

2,108 

35,015 

795 

13 

2,961 

30 


644,707 
155,543 

6,122 

18,485 

2,547 

1,443 


Quebec 

New Brunswick 


Nova Scotia 


P. E. Island 


Manitoba 


B. Columbia 


12,347 
25 


The Territories 


Total 




401,235 


13,377.655 


3,896,508 


841,219 



42 






Statistics, having special reference to Ontario, are only available in the reports of 
the Ontario Bureau of Industries, which show that while in 1882 there were 213,846 
acres in garden and orchard, there were but 191,266 acres so used in 1885. This is 
clearly an error ; but is explained to have arisen from the fact that the first estimate 
was merely approximated. It is not likely that a less acreage of fruit trees exists now 
than three years ago. The Census returns are, however, reliable.* 

The following have been our foreign shipments of fruit since 1870 : 



Year. 
• 


Quantity. 


Value. 


1870 


Barrels. 

20,810 

45,920 

106,568 

61,243 

51,084 

63,397 

84,107 

77,888 

53,213 

87,101 

146,548 

334,538 

212,526 

158,018 

51,019 

228,936 


58,811 


1871. .' 


98,857 


1872 


264,015 


1873 


183,348 


1874 


128,915 


1875 


176,295 


1876 


170,005 


1877 


194,942 


1878 


149,333 


1879 


157,618 


1880 


347,166 


1881 


645,658 


1882 


540,464 


1883 


499,185 


1884 


173,048 


1885 


635,240 







This class of fruit exported was almost wholly apples. It will be seen that 
considerable fluctuations have occurred, which were consequent upon a falling off in the 



* The acreage of orchard and garden given in the reports of the Bureau of Industries is for township 
municipalities only, and since 1882 it has been taken by the township assessors. Referring to the 
discrepancy between the census and the assessment returns the report of the Bureau for 1884 says : " The 
reduced area of orchard and garden is no doubt owing to the difficulty of obtaining uniform acreages from 
farmers in successive years, and this difficulty is increased where the aggregate is made up of a large 
number of parts. There are not many farmers who know the exact area of land they have in orchard and 
garden, and a difference of one-half or even one quarter of an acre more or less in one year than another 
may make a decided change in the whole quantity. It very rarely occurs, indeed, that in the oldest and 
best settled townships the area of assessed land is the same one year after another, as recorded on the 
assessment rolls." As for the reliableness of the census returns, it is a question of degree. The census 
enumerator gathers the returns once every ten years, and the assessor once every year. 



43 



supply. On the whole, however, we buy more fruit than we sell, and some of it of the 
classes grown in Canada. This will be seen from the statistics for 1886, of imports : — ■ 



Kind. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Apples, dried 

Currants, dried 

Dates, dried 

Figs, dried 

Prunes and plums, dried 

Raisins, dried 

All other, dried 



556,551 lbs. 
5,019,862 lbs. 

849,807 lbs. 
1,089,146 lbs. 
1,755,862 lbs. 
7,762,830 lbs. 



Apples, green 

Berries, green 

Cherries and currants, green 

Cranberries, plums and quinces, green. 

Grapes, green 

Peaches, green 

Oranges and lemons, green 

All other, green 



27,507 bbls. 
226,398 qts. 

49,685 qts. 
7,611 bush. 
587,515 lbs. 

19,239 bush. 



In cans 



735,086 lbs. 



Total value. 



34,683 
174,487 
24,374 
51,703 
65,050 
353,124 
12,687 



61,919 
27,524 
4,492 
26,301 
46,159 
59,482 
334,492 
90,068 



42,075 
1,408,620 



If you ask who are our customers, the answer is, that of the 238,936 barrels of 
apples shipped out of the Dominion in 1885, Great Britain took 207,659; the United 
States, 25,320; Newfoundland, 4,915; St. Pierre, 569; Germany, 6 ; B. W. Indies, 
243; S. W. Tndies, 39; D. W. Indies, 5, and British Guiana, 180. Of the $32,980 
worth of " other fruit" exported, the United States took $27,666 worth. 

The three greatest fruit exporting countries are Spain, Italy and Greece. In 1880, 
Spain headed the list with 121,200 tons, valued at $8,400,000. 

It may also be of interest to you to know that each inhabitant of Great Britain 
and France, is estimated to consume ten pounds of fruit in the course of a year. 



QUESTIONS. 



Question. — How and when to propagate Hydrangea Paniculata? 

Mr. Beadle. — It propagates very readily from layers. The time would be when the 
wood is sufficiently ripe not to damp off; or take the young wood of this year, and lay it 
down as soon as it would bear laying down, 



REMEDY AGAINST ANTS. 

Question. — How can we best destroy ants and not injure the plants, grass, etc. 1 

Mr. Beadle. — What harm do the ants do? 

Mr. Croil. — They throw up the earth on the lawn. 

Mr. Beadle. — I have never been very much troubled with them, although my soil is 
what they like to work in, sandy. I find phospate of lime, with a little slacked lime or 
ashes, seems to keep them in check, although I have no experience in destroying them. 
They work in the paths, but not in the lawn. 

A Member. — A plan I have heard of, is to saturate a sponge with sugar and water, 
into which the ants will go, and then dip it in hot water. 



44 



Mr. Morton (of Wingham). — I have effectively banished them by making holes in 
the ant hills or around them and pouring coal oil therein. It causes them to leave for 
fresh pastures. 

Mr. Beadle. — Does the coal oil injure the grass 1 

Mr. Morton. — Yes ; if you scatter it over the top ; but if you dig a hole three inches 
deep it will not affect the grass. I have poured probably a teacupful on the surface 
near trees and it has not injured the tree. 

Mr. Wilqress (of Cobourg). — I tried the sponge and it did not answer, I tried coal 
oil and it killed the grass I have also tried ashes and hot water, but cannot get rid of 
them. The only way is to dig them out. They are a perfect nuisance. 

Mr. Head (of Lindsay). — If you will make an emulsion with sour milk or skim 
milk and coal oil, and add water, my experience is that you may syringe even delicate 
plants with it, without fear of injury. I am sure this would drive ants from the places 
mentioned. 



ANOTHER PEST. 

Question. — " What is the best remedy for the black insects that infest Chrysanthe- 
mums " ? 

Mr. Beadle. — I cannot answer that question until I know whether black lice is- 
referred to. 

Mr. Morton. — I think it is one of the plant lice. 

Mr. Beadle. — One remedy is tobacco smoke, so long as you can confine the smoke. 
I know of nothing better. 

Mr. Morton (of Wingham) — There is a most excellent remedy for nearly all insects, 
called Dalmatian, or Persian Insect Powder. The California powder, called Buhach, 
answers best. If you can get it fresh it gives very good results, but as a rule you cannot 
tell how long it has been in the shops. It must be kept in glass stopper vessels, or the 
volatile principle evaporates and the powder loses its destroying power. The best way 
I have found of using pyrethrum is to put it in alcohol or hot water and syringe the plants 
with it. I think a great deal is wasted if applied dry. It is certainly an excellent thing 
for destroying all forms of insect life. I would not be sure of the proportion I used, but 
I think it is one ounce of pyrethrum to two gallons of water. I think I have sometimes used 
a stronger mixture than that. It is not expensive, and if a plant is badly affected with 
lice you may give it an extra dose. If I depart from the formula, it is to make it a little 
stronger ; but [ think an ounce to two gallons would be about right. 

Mr. Dempsey. — We sometimes treat insects to a little poison mixed with a sweet 
principle. Arsenic is what we use. 



A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CURRANTS. 

Question. — " Please explain the difference between Moore's Ruby and Fay's Prolific 
Currant. Where can Moore's Ruby be got, and at what price 1 

Mr. Morris (of Fonthill). — Moore's Ruby is not quite as large as Fay's, but has much 
longer bunches and is probably three or four times as productive. They are as pro- 
ductive as any currant grown; but their great merit is in the flavour, which is very mild. 
They are not generally sold yet, but are worth about $1.10 in a retail way. We have 
had them side by side receiving the same treatment. 



SHORT STEMS FOR TREES. 

Question. — " Which is the more advisable, long or short stems for fruit trees ; and 
what height of stem is recommended ?" 

Mr. Pettit (of Winona). — The question was discussed some years ago in the 

Grimsby Fruit Growers' Association, and Mr. Morris took a stand in favour of low 



45 



heading. Since that time I have been watching it pretty closely and I am inclined to 
think that Mr. Morris is right ; that a tree with more head and less trunk grows better 
and will withstand the blight better, and not be as likely to become sun burned or have 
the bark injured as one with a long trunk. In peach trees, with a low head, you can culti- 
vate twice as close as when you attempt to run them up. In picking there is also an 
advantage, and for all the reasons I should certainly favour low heading. 



ROSES. 

Mrs. Beall, of Lindsay, presented several plates of roses in bloom, and at the request 
of the Association she described them as follows : — "That is the Baltimore Belle ; it is a 
climbing rose and grows in clusters ; it does not winter-kill with ordinary treatment, 
although we find it necessary to lay it down ; it must be trained up again in the spring 
in order to get a good supply of bloom. This rose is the Madame Alboni, which we have 
to cover, as well as almost all our roses, to protect them in winter. We cover them with 
a little pea straw or grass and then throw brush over it to keep it from blowing away. 
Anything we lay down, however, we generally put a stick of firewood on top. It is to my 
mind sure death to a plant to place a board over it." 

Mr. Beadle. — It must not be covered so tightly as to smother it. A friend of mine 
wanted to take particular care of a rose bush and covered it over with a barrel and covered 
the barrel over with manure. He succeeded, as you might suppose, in keeping the frost 
out, but it never showed a sign of life afterward. 

Mrs. Beall. — This Madame Alboni is a free bloomer, and is one of the most enjoy- 
able of all roses on account of its abundant perfume. Some of our roses, although beau- 
tiful to look at, lack this quality ; but this particular variety is to be cultivated for 
that quality as well as its fine appearance. 

Mr. Beadle. — Here is one of the Provence roses, which blooms only once in summer j 
it is not remontant ; it is something like the old Cabbage rose, although not the same 
as I have been in the habit of growing ; it is not so full, and is a little deeper shade 
of colour. The Cabbage rose, I still think, is one of the finest grown. This one was given 
to Mrs. Beall as a Cabbage rose. Here are two roses very much alike. One is La Heine 
and the other is the Duke of Edinboro.' They are remontant, and are of a rich colour. 
They look as though they might have been grown on one bush, but they have not. This 
is another old variety, Caroline D'Canso, very much cultivated and admired. Here is a 
white summer rose, the best white rose we have, and the most profuse bloomer — Madame 
Plantier ; it is almost free from thorns • it does not bloom again in the autumn. We 
talk about remontant roses being perpetual. We call them hybrid perpetuals. I am 
reminded by this of a boy going through the oars crying out " Hot mince pies," some- 
body bought one and found it cold, having been frozen. He said, " I thought you called 
those hot mince pies." " Yes," answered the boy, " that's the name of them." 
These roses, however, although called perpetuals, will actually bloom until the snow 
comes. It is one of the most perpetual of the perpetuals. Here is one other free bloomer, 
Jules Margottin, in which you see is another shade of colour. As to insect remedies for roses, 
1 have exhausted my knowledge in the August number of the Horticulturist, and presume 
most of you have read it there. 

Mr. Morris (of Fonthill). — With respect to cultivation, make the soil as strong and 
rich as possible, and keep it thoroughly cultivated during the season. They will not do 
well in the grass or lawn, where they are sometimes planted. As the subject on the pro 
gramme was to name twelve of the best varieties, I have written down that number : — 
General Jacqueminot, La Reine, Louis Van Houtte, Prince Camille de Rohan, Coquette 
des Alps, Victor Verdier, Madame Plantier, Salot, Perpetual White, Crested Moss, 
Queen of the Prairie and Gem of the Prairie. 

Mr. A. A. Wright (of Renfrew, Ont). — Out of my forty varieties these are the 
ones I have selected : I have divided them up, first as to coloured roses. First of all I 
put Alfred Colomb. The reason is because, it is very striking in colour aud is the 



46 



hardiest rose we have, which in our section of the country is of paramount importance. 
It is a very free bloomer and is a fine scented rose. The next is General Jacque- 
minot, a fine grower, hardy, and one of the proudest roses we have ; so red and bright. 
The next is Baron de Bonstetten ; then Louis Van Houtte, and last of all, Anne de- 
Diesbach. Among pink roses, I do not think any one will dispute the right to place at 
the head of the list La France, in odour, colour, and everything except hardiness. It is 
the finest rose we grow at all. Next I place La Reine, and then for size, as it is the largest of 
any rose I have, and perhaps the largest grown, unless it be the new American Beauty, is 
Paul Neyron. In whites there is the Madam Plantier, and in yellow, Harrison's Yellow. 
Among moss roses is the Park Moss. The Polyantha, which is small, is an enormous 
bloomer and bears in clusters. The best among these is the Mignonette. With respect 
to treatment, I protect all my roses, and to do this I first build a sort of fence about 
them, two and a half or three feet high, by driving down sticks. The object is to get the 
snow to lie on top of the roses. I peg the bushes down with sticks and then bring forest 
leaves by the wagon load, which, being light, prevents the rotting of the stems in the 
spring. I put over all a coating of pea straw, which does not blow away with the wind. 
If you have any trouble in that way throw boughs over them. A lady in Ottawa has an 
improvement over this in the use of dry cow manure, which she puts under the rose before 
cohering, and she says it prevents rotting in the spring. I cut back my roses consider- 
ably before pegging down, and after uncovering in the spring I cut them back again. 
With reference to manure, you should have the ground as rich as you can get it. I take 
a little garden trowel in the spring, scrape the earth away, and then go to my henery and 
put as much of manure around the plant as I think will not injure it. This I cover over 
with earth, and after the first rain the plants will grow as rapidly as you ever saw any- 
thing. You cannot have the ground too rich. Then, with reference to insects, I cannot 
»ive you anything so complete as has just appeared in the Horticulturist. 

Mr. Harris. — I left off the Washington and Alfred Colomb because they are slow 
^rowers. Budded roses in the hands of those not used to them are valueless, and I do 
not recommend them for general use. La France is one of the choicest roses ; but I do 
not think Mr. Wright can carry it over the second year. It is too tender for general 
cultivation. 

Mr. Dempsey (of Trenton). — I have had it for twelve years in one spot. If I had to 
throw aside every other rose 1 cultivate, La France would be the last to go. 



APPLES. 

Question. — What have been the failures in this neighborhood 1 

Mr. Beall (of Lindsay). — There have been many failures in this neighbourhood, but 
our people are too modest to let the outside world know about it. There are some places, 
however, where they do very well. Within a few miles of this place, I believe we have 
some of the best fruit land in Canada. I know you will not agree with me ; but that is 
my opinion, nevertheless. With the exception of peaches, we have a climate well 
adapted for all the principal classes of fruit, including apples and grapes. We can grow 
better grapes than anywhere along the north shore of Lake Ontario. The best samples I 
have seen exhibited anywhere away from the Provincial Exhibition, have been at Orillia, 
away north of this. In speaking of failures, I think we may attribute them to two main 
causes. First, to undrained land. That is the greatest cause we have. We have now a great 
quantity of under-draining going on, but it is not the kind which will do most good. 
Our drains are usually two and a-half feet deep, in heavy clay soil. That, I say, is not 
sufficient for an apple orchard, because a large proportion of the roots on an apple tree 
above fifteen years of age, are lower than two and a-half feet. I have found thousands of 
roots down three and a half feet, and rotten at that. The next cause is every person 
being determined to grow tender varieties. In setting out an orchard of a few hundred 
trees, so many people want at^least fifty varieties. Now, I do not think I can name 
twelve arieties that I believe to be suitable for this soil. If a farmer has a field to sow 




47 



with wheat, he does not ask his neighbors how many varieties he should put in ; he 
knows it would be folly to put in many. It is as great folly to make his ground a place 
for testing apples. I do not think you can find more than eight or ten varieties suitable 
for this neighborhood. The question is asked : — " Should orchards be cultivated after 
commencing to bear fruit 1 " No. There should be no ploughing or planting of other 
crops ; but if some light cultivation were done, it might be of some advantage. In taking 
away a crop we rob the soil of a certain amount of nutriment which the trees should 
get. I think there is not nearly enough manure applied to our orchards, and perhaps Mr. 
Panton might show us what kind of manure would be best suited for such a purpose. 

Mr. J. Croil.— Would you have the orchard seeded down ? 

Mr. Beall. — All crops take nourishment from the soil; but if you have grass, cut 
it and leave it there. 

A Member. — What about pasturing ? 

Mr. Beall. — For pasturing, I would prefer sheep. There are certain breeds of 
sheep that will not bark the trees, while others will. The next question is with relation 
to the most desirable aspect for an orchard. If I could have everything as I would like, 
I should like a north-western proclivity. Let the land lie pretty much up towards the 
north-west, but not to the south-east. The cold would be about the same on either side, 
but if the snow lies on the ground it will protect the roots of the trees. " Are wind 
breaks necessary 1 ?" I think they are, but the question turns on what wind-breaks really 
are. I do not think a high, close board fence is a wind-break. I do not think matted 
rows of pine or spruce are wind-breaks. It is in one sense, but it is not what we require, 
or what is necessary. I think it keeps off too much of the win.]. I would prefer three, 
or four rows of deciduous trees, which would allow the wind to pass through, but 
would at the same time break its force. Three or four rows on the north and west sides 
will screen the orchard as it needs to be. As to the varieties which may be profitably 
grown in this section, I might name the Red Astrachan. I do not think, however, there 
is a very great deal of profit. It is the earliest we have, and is the earliest we can grow 
profitably. The next apple, that is next in order of ripening, but which should really be 
placed at the head of the list with respect to profit, is the Duchess of Oldenburg. As 
much can be got out of that tree here as in any part of the world. They will bear every 
year. The next is the St. Lawrence. This does well and is profitable to grow, because 
it is fine in appearance and will bring a good price. 

Mr. Croil. — Does it spot? 

Mr. Beall. — No ; never to any extent. We have never had any apple to spot here 
but the Fameuse, and that not badly. The next apple is Keswick Codlin, and then 
Colvert. I do not grow it myself, but I find excellent samples brought in from all 
directions. The next is the Snow apple. That does well here. Then there is the 
Haas. The next is the Wealthy. I am satisfied it is a most excellent apple, 
and after further testing, I shall expect to find the Snow apple given up and the Wealthy 
put in its place. I have given you eight varieties, but there is one more which I have 
down and of which I have heard a good deal — the Yellow Transparent. I have no 
winter apple down, because I do not think any winter apple can be profitably grown here. 
None of the russet family would be considered profitable here, although I have recom- 
mended so many of my friends to get the Golden Russet. 

Mr. Dempsey. — Will not the Tolman Sweet grow here? 

Mr. Beall. — Yes; but there is no profit in it. 

Joseph Wilkinson (of Cambridge). — I have had some failures. I came here some 
thirty years ago. I planted fifty apple trees when I came, and there is only one of them 
left now, and that is the Vandevere. These trees grew beautifully for some years and 
then when they began to bear, they died branch by branch, until only the one 1 have 
mentioned is there now. I read about a Scotchman who dug a hole, filled in a lot of 
stones, put in a tree and filled it around with earth; I tried that, but only one St. 
Lawrence tree is left. Those trees did not die of wet feet. Those I planted on a heap 
of stones would grow immensely, two or three feet in a year, for several years. I thought 
perhaps the soil was too rich and they grew tender. Two of the trees I planted on 
stones were crab apples, and they are still healthy. The St. Lawrence is not healthy, 



48 



although there yet, and in a few more years will be dead. The next thing I tried was 
to plough up the soil and make it into ridges, in which I planted rows of trees. These 
grew for some years, and now there is about a third of them left, although they are dying 
branch by branch. The most healthy tree there now is the Duchess of Oldenburg. 
They are beautiful apples and bear abundantly every year, but the fruit will not keep. 

Mr. Beall. — What kinds are those which fail ? 

Mr. Wiikinson. — The Russet was one. I planted a whole row of seedlings after 
trying the alternate plan, ten or eleven feet apart. They have neither had cultivation 
nor pruning, and they are healthy. My idea is they are there because nothing was done, 
and the nearer we come to the condition of the forest, the better'chance the trees will 
have. The cultivation of the ground around the trees and the pruning lets in the sun 
and breakes the earth ; whereas, if we had a mulch on the ground, it would keep out the 
sun and prevent injury by frost in winter. Most of you are acquainted with the trees 
at Sturgeon Point. There was a beautiful orchard there before the hotel was built, but 
now the trees are dying one after another, because, I think, the conditions of the forest 
are taken away. 

Mr. Croil. — Did you prune any of your trees 1 

Mr. Wilkinson. — Yes ; I think I pruned the first lot in winter. 

Mr. Dempsey. — You cultivated the soil with the first lot and made the ground very 
rich] 

Mr. Wilkinson. — Yes ; but the last lot I did not either cultivate or manure. 

Dr. Herriman. — Did you have a wind-break around the first lot ? 

Mr. Wilkinson. — No. With respect to varieties, I may say that the Duchess of 
Oldenburg is the best I have found. 

Mr. Glendinning (of Manilla). — We have near here as good a section for fruit 
growing as can be found in the northern part of this Province. We can grow many 
varieties ; more, indeed, than I could name. I will name a few of them that we find 
profitable. I would take two summer apples, the Red Astrachan and Duchess, both 
hardy and good bearers. For two fall apples I should put St. Lawrence and Fameuse. 
It is given as a winter apple by some, but it is not. If I were going to add two more 
to the list of fall apples, I would add Oolvert and Keswick Codlin. The Golden Russet 
is the best winter apple we have ; it is a sure grower, and we very seldom see a branch 
killed. I have seen some that took a sort of a blight in the summer time and died back, 
but it is not common. I have never seen a large tree affected that way. The next one 
is the Wagner. It is a short lived tree, but as it comes into bearing very young, if it 
only lives fourteen or fifteen years, it has paid for its cultivation. The apple is a good 
one. There has been a good deal said about the Tolman Sweet, but we find it profitable. 
They like it for baking purposes. It is a sure grower and a good bearer. Among the 
new varieties I would name the Wealthy as a very good apple and quite equal to all 
that is claimed for it. There is nothing, however, which shows greater promise of 
hardiness than the Pewaukee, the only fault of which is a tendency, to allow the fruit 
to be blown off when it is pretty well grown. Then last, but not least, I would put the 
Ben Davis ; it is hardy, a good bearer and of good quality. As this question relates 
largely to the market, we find that those which have a fine appearance bring better prices 
than those of good quality. I have given you ten or twelve varieties, which I think is 
sufficient. 

With regard to those varieties that are not doing well, the King is suffering badly ; 
they did very well until the spring of 1885, when the effects of the winter began to be 
seen, and the bark of a great many trees turned black, and scaled off in places. The 
Northern Spy did not appear to be affected until this year, when we found them dying. 
It was the winter of 1885 that did the damage ; the bark is bursting off, and one-half of 
the tree seems to die after leafing out and blossoming. The Baldwin has been extensively 
planted, but very few of them ar« living. They were bought because of the high praises 
bestowed on them as a market apple, and while they may do in other sections of the 
country, they do not answer in this. 

I have pruned generally in June. I am of the opinion that orchards would be better 
seeded down ; I have top dressed mine every second year with manure, and find that the 



49 



trees do well. I seeded down with red clover and June grass. If you mow it, it comes 
up the second time and leaves soft places, on which the apples fall. If you plant timothy, 
and mow it, when the apples fall the stubble runs through them. There is nothing of 
that kind with the clover and grass, which, to my idea, answers better than anything else 
I have seen. As to the aspect, I know what I am going to say will not meet with the 
approval of many prominent fruit growers. My orchard lies over a high ridge, part of it 
facing the south-east, and part of it north-west. I give my preference to the south-east. 
I know that it has been said and argued, that a north-west aspect has a tendency to keep 
trees from blooming early in the spring. Well, that depends on circumstances ; I have 
had the same kind of a tree in bloom on a north-western aspect before one on a south- 
eastern aspect. We do not, however, look upon early blooming as a detriment. I do not 
know whether it is the locality, but during the thirteen years I have been on my farm, I 
have not seen a single blossom destroyed by spring frosts. My reason for preferring this 
eastern aspect, is this : when we come to the fall of the year, we suffer from high winds, 
and a great many apples are blown off ; if the trees catch the north-west wind at that 
season of the year, we lose in the fall, but never in the spring, and by being shielded from 
these fierce winds, we generally have a fair crop. I have noticed also, that winds in the 
spring of the year affect the blossoms and prevent them from setting. It is not necessary 
that we should have frosty winds to do damage, for I have seen dry, hot winds as 
destructive as cold ones. There are some varieties which seem more susceptible to 
the action of the wind than others. The Ribston Pippin has been mentioned to me, but 
as a general thing, the Keswick Codlin suffers most ; if there happens to be any high 
winds during the blossoming, we get comparatively few apples. In regard to wind- 
breaks, I believe them to be very necessary. 

Dr. Herriman. — Have you a wind-break on the north-west ? 

Mr. Glendinning. — Not all along the north-west ; but I have on a part. I have 
noticed that a great many more apples are shaken off where there is no wind-break. 

Mr. Morris (of Fonthill). — We have, so far, heard two causes of failure in this 
northern soil — bad planting and tender varieties. I would like to add another, viz., 
late cultivation. Cultivating late in the season tends to make the trees tender for the 
winter. The work should be done early. £ do not think you can get too much growth 
early in the season, but stop cultivating as early as this — the middle of summer. Another 
cause of failure was that spoken of by Mr. Pettit, and that was trees in cold sections 
having too long stems. These are exposed to the sun and are killed on the south-west 
side. If you notice, young trees will suffer that way. Then, if you have a wide, large 
top, the wind cannot sway it over. I used to make this matter of low stems a hobby, 
but at th.3 Grimsby meeting I got such a set-back that I feel it gratifying to know that 
I made one convert, at least. Nurserymen generally think the right time to prune is just 
when the winter is over. June is, I think, the worst month in the year, unless you can 
do it without getting into the tree. The bark of the tree is loose, and if you step on it, 
or take hold of it, it is liable to peel or remain loose. There is a danger of doing a great 
deal of damage in that way. Prune, say, in April. I would recommend you to culti- 
vate trees from the time they are planted until you are done with them, bearing in mind, 
however, to confine yourself to the early part of the season. I have noticed that one way 
of cultivating orchards, is to sow buckwheat. The plowing and harrowing come just at 
the right time. Cultivate as often as you like, early in the season. As far as wind- 
breaks are concerned, I would recommend the plan suggested by Mr. Beall, not to shut 
out the wind, but break its force. Where the wind cannot get through, I have noticed 
that the trees are more subject to the codling moth, and other insects of that kind. The 
list of apples I would recommend are as follows, of all well-tried sorts : — The Wealthy, 
Duchess of Oldenburg — I have left out the Red Astrachan, as it is not so ha/dy as the 
Duchess of Oldenburg, and the apples come in at very nearly the same season — and the 
Yellow Transparent. I think this latter is going to be a very good apple for cold sections, 
and the Duchess of Oldenburg will follow right after. Then I would name the Wall- 
bridge, American Golden Russet, Tolman Sweet, Alexander, St. Lawrence, and Canada 
Baldwin, which was originated in Lower Canada or Quebec, and is very popular in that 



4 (f. g.) 



50 



section. For a very late keeping apple, I would recommend the Mann. The list might 
be extended, and, if so, I would include the Ben Davis and Oolvert. 

Mr. Robinson (of Lindsay). — I take the following :— The Red Astrachan, which is 
fine and hardy here. The Duchess of Oldenburg everyone can grow. The Tetofsky, a 
Russian apple, is hardy and a good bearer. The St. Lawrence I find very hardy. I 
would like to mention the Canada Red and Alexander. Keswick Codlin I had bearing 
for some time, but they are dying. The Canada Baldwin I am growing now, and think 
it will be hardy. The Wagner I do not think is very hardy here. 

Mr. Beadle. — Have you tried .the Mcintosh Red 1 ? 

Mr. Robinson. — I have had it a few years, but some of my trees have been killed by 
over-pruning. 

Mr. Beall. — Do you think the Ben Davis will grow here % 

Mr. Robinson. — No; I had a number of them, but they are all dying, or are dead. 

Mr. G. Smith (of Lindsay). — I have had the Keswick Codlin growing for ten years, 
and it has fruited every alternate year, nearly, since I planted it. It seems to be per- 
fectly hardy here. I live forty miles to the west. 

Mr. Glendinning. — Mr. Morris mentioned the Walbridge. It has been generally 
considered a hardy variety, but it is not so in our section. I had only one tree, and it 
died. It seemed to suffer around the base of the limbs first. I was talking to a a man 
who sold a good many trees of that variety during the last three or four years, and he 
said the general verdict was, they were not hardy. I am sorry for that, as I thought it 
was going to be a good variety. 

Dr. Herriman (of Lindsay). — I have seen many fine orchards planted on a northern 
exposure, well drained, and protected both by hedges and wind-breaks, to which the pro- 
prietors attribute much of their success ; and what I have heard to-day confirms the idea 
that one cause of failure is want of wind-breaks. Many trees that I have seen have 
been planted for over twenty years, and are still bearing well. I might name the Wag- 
ner, Alexander, Snow, Tolman Sweet, Golden Russet, Northern Spy. There is also a fine 
apple called the Yellow Bellflower, which is doing well. To show you how different is 
the result, with different people, one man got seven trees and they are all living \ another 
man planted seven and they are aJl dead. There was no wind-break in the latter case, 
and the soil was a little too shallow. I have noticed that a number of orchards, lying in 
low, wet soil, without drainage, have died. This section of country has a ridge of nice 
warm clay loam, and all the orchards I have seen doing well, are those placed on nice,, 
well-drained soil. The two orchards I spoke of, as being successful, have a northern 
aspect, and are drained into Sturgeon Lake. It is not a thick wind-break, but I have 
noticed that there is also a fine, heavy bit of woods to the north. 

Mr. J. L. Payne (of Ottawa). — The Spitzenburg apple is a favourite at Ottawa. Will 
the tree grow here 1 ? 

Mr. Beadle. — No. 

Mr. Coates (of Cambray). — My orchard is]on a sandy loam, sloping to the south, and 
on the west I have a wind-break, not quite finished, composed of cedars and spruce. My 
trees have done better than those in an open space, but the tree that has not succeeded 
with me has been the Baldwin. The Red Astrachan appears to be a tree that does well 
on my place, although half of my Bellflowers have died. The Duchess of Oldenburg 
bears every year, and the tree is hardy. The Snow apple also succeeds, and so does the 
Tolman Sweet. I have the Roxbury and Golden Russet, and the Ben Davis doing well, 
and I have one tree of the Ontario which is doing even better than the Ben Davis. The 
Ben Davis was slightly injured last year by the frost, but not much. The Ontario bears 
a fine crop every year, and is a very fair apple. I think orchards should not be culti- 
vated after they commence to bear fruit. I give them a top dressing, every other year,, 
of rotted manure, from which I can see an advantage. As to the time of pruning, I 
find the trees do better if the operation is performed early than if delayed. The time I 
select is just as the bud breaks. 

Mr. Dempsey (of Trenton). — There is something for all to learn if we take a proper 
view of this discussion. You will find that most of the failures have taken place in 
gardens where the land is manured highly and where it is a strongs heavy clay loam. 



51 



Evidently cultivation has been carried on from spring to fall as long as the frost was 
out of the ground, preparing the soil for a crop of vegetables, or something else, to 
follow in the spring. Where we find in the country parties growing orchards on 
a more favourable site, they are succeeding in producing almost every variety of 
apples, and failures are exceedingly rare. Now, I think this idea is worthy of 
our attention. We learn this from the discussion of to-day, if we only give it a 
thought. 

With respect to soil, my mind has not been changed by what I have heard. If you 
read the reports you will see that I have said I would rather have a drifting sand than 
heavy tenacious clay for growing apples. I have seen the Baldwin apple flourishing in a 
section of the county where the climate is as severe as in the town of Lindsay, on soil 
where a pine stump had actually drifted out. The Baldwin tree had been planted just a short 
distance from where this stump was standing, and the finest Baldwin apples I ever looked 
at were grown on that land. Grass will not grow there ; but the apple was flourishing 
and giving perfect satisfaction. 

You talk of cultivation ; I know a very large orchard of some two thousand trees 
where the man was persuaded it was unnecessary t© cultivate and still he wanted to raise 
a few acres of beans, and on the portion where he grew the beans the apples were fully 
double the size of those on the portion he left to grass, although top dressed liberally and 
the grass not taken off. He was taking a crop of beans off and using no fertilizer. Just 
that one observation was sufficient to satisfy me that we should cultivate our orchards 
early in the season. Again I visited an orchard where the man was practicing cultivation 
by sowing red clover whenever the ground became a little lean and mixed in red timothy. 
The next year he would have a stand of clover you would think was a year or so old and 
he would then plow it under. He was manuring his orchard in this way and making a 
success of it. There are various ways of making a success of an orchard, but we must 
come down to ask where do we find them flourishing 1 It is on a northern exposure in 
preference to a southern. The best wind-break I have seen was a natural one. If we 
want to make a success of fruit culture we must select a favourable site. Do not be 
afraid of getting the soil to light. Speaking of drainage ; where my house is, and where 
I commenced to plant, it was a bog soil, some of heavy clay and some of lightish loam. 
In preparing it, I under-drained five feet deep. I supposed that was sufficient. It cost 
me more than the land, and more than the land would bring if it were offered for sale 
to-day with the orchard on it. I cannot grow the Baldwin nor the Greening on it, but 
strange to tell you, I can grow the Roxbury Russet on it, an apple tenderer than any of 
them. The Yellow Bellflower is hardy on it. There are a few varieties that succeed on 
it. The Tolman Sweet is doing very well and the Ribston Pippin is succeeding well. I 
think it is next to impossible to underdrain land that is unsuitable for orchard purposes 
and make a success of it. The roots have gone down below five feet. 

With respect to varieties there are a few that I have not heard spoken of that 
might do well here. One' is the Hawthornden New. It originated in Scotland, is 
perfectly hardy in the northern part of that country, and to say that it is productive does 
not convey the proper idea. It will produce such an amount of fruit that the trees cannot 
bear it, and next year you will find a crop there again. I have not known an inch of it 
to be frozen. There are several varieties worthy of trial, if nurserymen would propagate 
them. The Cellini is a very large fine apple, far superior to the Col vert. It will produce 
two bushels to one of Colvert with me. Our object is to cultivate winter apples. 

I think most of your failures here have been from the causes you have mentioned. 
Pruning has something to do with it. I had an uncle who had the idea that his orchard 
was too thick ; so he sent his man into the orchard with an axe, thinking that by severe 
pruning he 'could double the size of his apples. He ]ost all his trees. It must have been 
planted with hardy varieties for many of those trees were from sixty to seventy years 
old, grown from seed. The axe did it. 

Mr. MacDonald (of London). — With respect to soil, we know that trees are great 
feeders on potash, and on sandy soil a liberal quantity of ashes should be used. 

Dr. Herriman (of Lindsay). — With respect to the packing of trees and sending them 
to customers, my experience in one case was not very satisfactory. I ordered fruit trees 



52 



to be sent to Manitoulin Island, but when they got there the roots were dry and they 
soon died. I ordered some more and when they came I was delighted. They were 
beautifully packed in a box with nice chari straw thrown about the roots, and on opening 
the box the bark was found to be green and new, roots had begun to grow. Every one 
of those trees are growing and doing well. I am quite convinced that a great deal of 
harm is done through defective packing. The small fibrous roots should never get dry 
before being put into the ground. Mr. Dempsey made an observation that the soil could 
scarcely be too light. My experience is that trees have not flourished on light land. 

Mr. Dempsey. — There is no doubt that you can make a perfect success by growing 
apples on a sandy soil. It must, however, be cultivated and manured. 

Mr. Morris. — You do not get the quality of fruit. To get that you want heavier 
soil. 

Mr. Dempsey. — That is true, but how easy it is to apply lime to sandy soil. There 
is more potash contained in clay soil, but how easy it is to apply potash. We want to 
get rid of these ash buyers. We don't need them any more. Let us scatter the ashes 
over our apple orchards. We can give the trees the feed they require on sandy soil. 

Mr. Douglas (of Manilla). — One thing has been lost sight of in this section, and 
that is proper cultivation. It may be that cultivation late in the season has done much 
harm. Some of the older orchards with us are those having a northern aspect, and have 
been kept in grass a large portion of the time. The trees there are fifty years of age, and 
of those that have been planted half that time, not so many are alive as the older ones. 

Mr. Morris (of Fonthill). — I do not think grain should ever be sown among trees, 
except it be buckwheat. I remember planting a lot of trees myself. Half were planted 
in wheat and the other half in corn. That half planted in the wheat was nearly full of 
borers. They attack a tree that is unhealthy. The soil was clay loam. Nothing tends 
to set trees back more than by drying up the ground. 

Mr. MacDonald. — What is your experience about guiding the roots. 

Mr. Morris. — They will take their own course. 

Mr. MacDonald. — Has the soil any influence ? 

Mr. Morris. — Yes ; if it is hard they will spread instead of going down. 

Mr. Beadle. — I will corroborate what Mr. Morris has said. A neighbor who had a 
fine apple orchard asked me to go and see it. He had a beautiful field of rye in his 
orchard, and nearly every young tree was turning yellow in the leaves. I said your trees 
are dying for want of water, and they did die. 

Mr. Dbmpsiy. — Just as quick as the grain begins to brighten, the rays of the sun are 
reflected on the under side of the leaf and the tree is injnred. You may see the same 
effect by turning a grape leaf over and exposing it. It will be killed in nearly twenty 
minutes. You can do the same with an apple tree. Just as soon as the grain begins to 
change its color, so that the rays of the sun are reflected on the under side of the leaf, it 
has the same effect as a mirror. You may experiment with a mirror if you like. Mulch- 
ing is really a system of cultivation. It opens the soil so as to receive a certain amount 
of the atmosphere; but when you commence to mulch you must continue. If you do 
not, after a while all the roots will be found on the surface. If you go to the forest and 
rake away the leaves, as I have done in search of plants, you will find that the roots are 
running right under the surface. 

Mr. A. A. Wright (of Renfrew). — There is nothing to keep clay soil so light and 
pliable as mulching; but you must continue it forever, or those roots coming to the surface 
will die. If you can continue it, it is certainly a fine way to work clay soil. 

Now I want to say one word about the Yellow Transparent apple. In the north it 
is one of the earliest and hardiest apples we have. There is no other apple that will 
ripen so early ; it is a fine size, smooth, of good flavor and one of the earliest. The 
Tetofsky has been mentioned, but it h really nothing like so good as the Yellow Trans- 
parent, and has a habit of dropping its fruit, which is not true of the Yellow Transparent. 
The tree, too, is fine and shapely. The Wealthy stands at the head of the list in our 
section of the country, and ought to be planted in every section where there is a difficulty 
in getting hardy trees. The Wallbridge and the Pewaukeeare not hardy enough. Some 
can grow\t in favoured localities, but as a rule it will not succeed. The Peach of Montreal 



53 



is very fine. You cannot ship the fruit any distance, as it is very easily bruised and 
looks bad ; but if you can pick it and take the fruit to market in baskets, there is none 
other that sells so well, and the tree is as hardy as any you can find. The only objection 
you can have to it, is that it is a fall apple and will not keep. The Alexander is perfectly 
hardy in our section, large in size, and for selling we have none that does better. The 
Duchess of Oldenburg is hardy, but not so much so as the Wealthy. In many catalogues 
you will find that the Duchess of Oldenburg has been placed at the head of the list ; but 
it cannot compete in our section with the Wealthy. I have come to the conclusion that 
there is no other apple tree hardier than the Wealthy. The Duchess of Oldenburg is a 
magnificent apple and as grown in northern sections is superior to those grown in 
southern counties. 

Mr. Beadle. — Have you grown Scott's Winter 1 

Mr. Wright. — I have, and a fine apple it was. I allowed the birds, however, to 
get into the tree and spoil it for a market apple. I have had the Canada Baldwin, and 
so have many of my neighbors ; but we have only one tree there living. I have no faith 
in its living to any size. Might I just say a word with reference to the people in this 
section. They have been troubled with a good many conflicting stories regarding the 
hardiness of the Eussian apples ; but as far as my experience goes they are not as hardy 
as represented. I have had more failures in Russian varieties than I ever expected. I 
do not want to discourage you, and do not give them up hastily. 

Mr. Beadle. — Will you make out a list of those which failed, so that I may publish 
them? 

Mr. Morris. — There is one encouraging feature about the fruit grown in cold 
sections like this, and that is, the further north it is grown the better is the quality. 
The keeping qualities are better. The Rhode Island Greening becomes a fall apple in 
the south, while in the north it becomes a good winter apple. ] am sure the flavor is 
better on clay. 

Mr. Dempsey. — The best apples I ever saw grew on sandy soil; but it had the 
benefit of a dressing of leached ashes. The application has not been repeated for eight 
years, and up to last fall they were the finest Northern Spys I ever saw. 



RESOLUTION OF CONDOLENCE. 

Moved by A. A. Wright, and seconded by J. Croil and 

Resolved — That the Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario have learned with deep 
regret of the death of Mr. Henry S. Evans, late Secretary of the Horticultural Society of 
Montreal. By his removal not only has our sister Province lost one of her most able 
and willing workers, but a blank has been left in the entire Horticultural community 
which it will be hard to fill. We have all admired his estimable private character, his 
many Christian virtues, as well as the untiring efforts he put forth so long and so effec- 
tually in furthering the cause of Horticulture, and we regret exceedingly that he has in 
the Providence of God been removed at an age when he had apparently before him many 
years of usefulness. We beg to tender our sympathies to his widow and family in their 
deep affliction. 

Carried by a standing vcte. 

The Association then adjourned until the evening. 



On resuming in the evening the " Question Box " was opened. 
A DESTRUCTIVE GRUB. 

A sample of a grub was placed on the table, and it was announced that a gentlemen 
had sent it from Cornwall, where it had preyed upon his black currant bushes. A request 
was made that it might be named and a remedy suggested. 



Mr. Beadle. — It is the larva of a beetle, which both in the larva and perfect state 
feeds on plant lice. It does not eat anything but living creatures that I know of j it 
certainly never injures the leaves of any plant. This is one of the provisions the 
Almighty has made to keep things in check. When the plant lice become numerous, 
these enemies also become numerous. I have seen more of the lady bird, their larva? 
and chrysalids this year than at any time within twenty or thirty years ; they also are 
very numerous. The gentleman has found this larva on the under side of the leaf of 
his currant bush, and has taken it for granted that it was feeding on the leaf, whereas 
it was feeding upon the plant lice. These little fellows were doing what they could to 
save the currant bushes. I see that Mr. Saunders, in his work on " Insects Injurious to 
Fruit," speaks of this little beetle and the help it affords in keeping the aphis in 
check. 

Mr. Beall. — Is the whole difficulty this year from the aphis 1 

Mr. Beadle. — As far as my knowledge goes it is ; my neighbor called my attention 
to his currants and I found the bushes covered with them. 

Mr. Beall. — I imagine there are other difficulties. I think I have seen great 
quantities of the red spider ; it is along with the aphis this year. We have had very 
hot dry weather, and it seems to be troublesome only then. 



A CORDIAL WELCOME. 

At this stage the Mayor of Lindsay was introduced, and in a speech full of kind 
words, welcomed the Association to the town. 
Mr. Dempsey replied. 



PLUMS. 



Mr. Robinson (of Lindsay). — I certainly did take the prize for plums, and I have two 
or three kinds that are fairly successful. I have some growing now very nicely of the 
Lombard variety. My choice, however, is Pond's Seedling. I think most of the people 
know that plum trees are very liable to the curculio, they are our greatest trouble here ; 
there are diseases among the trees, but this is the chief trouble here. 

Mr. Smith. — Are you troubled with the black knot 1 

Mr. Robinson. — I have seen none ; I have heard of it, but have not seen any. I 
have twenty to thirty trees, mostly Lombards. I have also the Yellow Egg, Victoria 
and one or two other kinds. 

Dr. Purcell (of Port Hope). — I applied Paris green and destroyed the curculio and 
the plum too. I am anxious to learn whether others have had a similar experience ; that 
is to have the leaves wither where the Paris green fell. 

Mr. Smith. — You have used it too strong. 

Mr. Pettit (of Winona). — It has been used a great deal in our neighbourhood and is 
considered a good remedy ; bnt the gentleman who has used it here has applied it too 
strong. I think the proper strength is four ounces to the barrel of water. I used it my- 
self last year, and while we had not any plums for. years before, we had a very good crop, 

Mr. Dempsey. — A teaspoonful to a pail of water is, I think, the proper strength. 

Dr. Purcell. — I used even less than that. 

Mr. Beall. — I think there is a good deal of misunderstanding with respect to the 
application of Paris green. I did not think there was any difficulty until the last six 
months, and now I think there is a good deal. There is no doubt that Paris green will be 
an injury to foliage in certain cases, but I am quite satisfied that it can be so applied as 
to effect not only a remedy but prevent injury to the tree in the least degree. My friend, 
the Doctor, from Port Hope, used a teaspoonful in a pail of water and he thinks that is 
too strong. Now, suppose he should use half a teaspoonful, he might find that to do very 
well ; but suppose he used a teaspoonful in three gallons of water and makes it do for 



55 



half a dozen trees. It depends on how much goes on each tree. I have never experi- 
enced any harm from using Paris green, but I noticed in the Horticulturist a letter from 
my friend Mr. Thompson, who used to live in this neighbourhood. He has evidently 
applied the water so that his trees are all injured on one side. Now, if properly applied 
it would not effect the trees in that way. It should be thrown over the tree in such a 
way that the spray would fall in the calyx of the flower. In shooting against the tree you 
do not effect an equal distribution. It should fall down upon it. Then a good deal 
depends upon the instrument you use. One man said he got a pump and shot it into the 
tree. The only proper way is to use a fine rose syringe, as fine as can be obtained, and 
then you get your fluid so finely separated that there is practically no drop at all. It is 
like a fog falling on the tree. As to whether Paris green is an effectual remedy is another 
matter. Some six years ago I began experimenting with Paris green. I had two red 
plum trees standing near together, that I cared very little about. They bore large quan- 
tities of red plums every year, but they were so badly destroyed with curculio they were 
worth almost nothing. I applied Paris green to one and not to the other. The foliage 
was not injured, but on the tree I applied Paris green to I had a good crop of plums, 
while the other tree was as bad as in any other year. The next year I reversed the order, 
and applied it to the other tree and not the first one. The consequence was I had a re- 
versed order of fruiting. There was a crop on the one I had sprayed, but not on the 
other. Our vice-president, Mr. MacD. Allan, in an orchard of a thousand trees, selected 
four trees on which the Paris green was not applied. He took every care that none fell 
on those trees, and he had a plentiful crop on all but those four trees. He tried four 
other trees the next year with the same result. It seems to me a man will not regret 
applying Paris green if he does so carefully. I applied it just as the blossoms are com- 
mencing to fall and just when the blossom has left the tree. The insect does not eat the 
Paris green, and there is nothing known to show how the effect is produced. It is suffi- 
cient to know that it is accomplished. 

Dr. Cross (of St. Catharines). — I think the reason is apparent. Paris green is very 
caustic and prevents the curculio from laying its eggs. 

Mr. Pettit. — I have found that if you spray a tree with Paris green as often as you 
wish and as early as advisable, you will find that a great many of the blossoms are marked 
by these insects. The philosophy of the thing, I have always thought, was that the poison 
lodges there just when the insect begins to feed on the bloom. 

Mr. Robinson. — lam under the impression that it is the strong sense of smell which 
this insect has. 

Dr. Purcell. — I applied some to two St. Lawrence apple trees, with the result that 
the leaves fell off the tree, and with them a great portion of my apples fell to the ground. 
The reason I applied it to the St. Lawrence was because of the beneficial effect upon 
another tree I do not know the name of. The codling moth takes them as soon as they 
are the size of walnuts. I had three barrels off that tree and they kept until six weeks 
ago. It was the success with this tree that led me to apply it to the St. Lawrence, with, 
however, a very different result. 

Mr. Beadle. — I wish to ask this gentleman whether there is not some free arsenic 
in some of the Paris green. Mr. J. P. Williams, of Prince Edward County, who had a 
similar experience to Dr. Purcell, said he was afraid he had put it on too strong. I have 
this impression that arsenite of copper is not soluble in water ; but if there be free arsenic, 
it is soluble in water, and I can understand why the leaves are scorched and fall to the 
ground. Perhaps there is some gentleman here can tell us whether there is anything 
in it. 

Mr. Morton (of Wingham). — As far as the argument that it is not soluble in water 
and therefore cannot be injurious, is concerned, it is not valid. I do not say it is the 
case in this instance, but there are substances in themselves insoluble in water, which, 
when brought in contact with other substances, chemical decomposition takes place. It 
may therefore be that the arsenic set free would have the same effect as the arsenic in a 
mechanical compound. I do not say that has been the case in this instance, but with re- 
gard to the action of Paris green, I have discovered this, that it would effect a tree at one 
time that it would not another. The same quantity, as near as I could come at it, 



56 



was applied in one case as in another. After giving it some attention I found almost in- 
variably that the sun was shining brightly when it injured the leaves. Another thing is, 
that unless you pay close attention, you will not have an even mechanical mixture. It 
certainly will not dissolve, and, unless you keep it agitated, you are very apt to have one 
application containing a greater proportion than another. 

Mr. Beall. — There is another idea which I merely advance just now. I applied 
Paris green to currant bushes, gooseberry bushes, and I think toother things, and it never 
affected the leaves in the least. If it were free ar.senic that did the injury, I should think 
it would affect all leaves alike. Several complaints have been made, and I have noticed 
that in each instance, it has been the St. Lawrence apple that has been affected. Is it 
not possible the leaves of that tree are more easily affected than others 1 

Mr. Croil. — What kind of a syringe do you use? 

Mr. Beall. — I use one of those English fine brass syringes ; It is not very large. 
I think it has an*inch and a-quarter, or an inch and a-half bore. I paid $4.50 for mine, 
but they can be bought cheaper. I have nearly three hundred trees, and my man can 
go over them all in a day. 

Mr. Beall (of Lindsay), — As to the kind of plums that can be grown with profit in 
this vicinity, I am in some doubt. I have cut down a great number of plum trees, some 
of them five or six inches. I have in fact, given up all idea of growing them for profit. 
I do not think it can be done just in this locality. There may, however, be other 
situations within a few miles of this locality where they will succeed. I know one man 
in the very centre of this town who has grown the Lombard plum, and has had fine crops 
every year, and never had a curculio on his place. His neighbours have plenty. It is 
Mr. Huskell. 

Mr. Beadle. — Why can't you grow plums profitably 1 Is it on account of the 
curculio ? 

Mr. Beall. — No ; the trees this year showed inflorescence very large. There was a 
beautiful prospect of a crop, but the supply will be very limited. A light frost just comes 
at blooming time and destroys the blossoms. I am satisfied that the plum tree is not 
suitable for this soil. I do not think it is the climate. 

Mr. Dempsey. — I think you have beautiful soil for plum trees. 

Mr. Beall. — As plum trees begin to bear the trouble begins. Overbearing kills 
them off. With respect to variety, I know of no other that will succeed except the 
Lombard. 

Mr. Morton. — Don't you think if the plums were thinned out the tree might be 
saved ? 

Mr. Beall. — No doubt of it. 

Mr. Dempsey. — There is one plum tree, I presume, you have never tested in Lindsay. 
It beai-s the name of our honoured President. I have had the privilege of looking at the- 
original tree for several years, and I have never noticed the black knot on it, although the 
Lombards, and other varieties beside it have been covered and killed. I have never seen 
it fail to bear a crop so large, that the tree was in danger of breaking down. The next 
year it comes out green to the end of the branches. I do not know whether the tree can 
be had or not. When you can get it, try it. I believe it can be grown anywhere. The 
name is the Saunders. It is a superior plum, a trifle smaller than the Lombard, yellow 
in colour, and it is early. While the Lombards sell at Belleville for fifty cents a bushel, 
these brought $1 a peck. 

Mr. Beadle. — An abundant supply would affect the market. 



GRAPES. 

Mr. Beall (of Lindsay). — I am quite satisfied that any grape can be grown here 
that will not ripen later than the Concord. It would require a Jittle more care than these 
Yankees exhibit, but it could be done. I will leave it to others to name the varieties. 
While on my feet, however, I will relate a circumstance that may interest you. I fruited 
the Jeflerson grape last year, and it was ripe when the Concords were green. I under- 



57 



stood from the originator that there was no use in sending it here, as it could not be 
grown in this m ighbourhood. This, however, is its fourth year \ but of course only a few 
bunches were on it. I have perhaps thirty varieties altogether, and I am satisfied there 
is no difficulty in getting any grape to ripen. I can get a good crop from the Agawam, 
which is later than the Concord. 

Mr. Beadle. — This question of early bearing grapes is important. If you take a 
grape-vine and let it bear fully, the fruit will be from one to two weeks later in ripening 
than if you cut off a third. That is a fact. You can make ten days' difference in the 
ripening of your grapes. Perhaps the Jefferson Mr. Beall speaks of, was more warmly 
located than the Concord. 

Mr. Beall. — No ; scarcely as favourable. 

Mr. Beadle. — Well, it had this in its favour, it was a four year old vine and had 
only a few bunches on it. I thoroughly believe that in nine cases out of ten, if three- 
fourths of the fruit were cut off, the rest would ripen. 

Mr. Dempsey. — That is not the only advantage. We used to have close competitions 
for exotic grapes, and if we wanted to get a five pound bunch of Black Hamburgs, 
we used to cut off all the bunches on a vine but one or two. We would then be very 
careful to keep that vine well fed. We would not only cut off two-thirds of the bunches, 
but we would thin out the berries on each bunch. By that means we would actually get 
a larger bunch, but greater weight. I have tried this with grapes in open ground. If you 
want a close bunch remove half the berries. The vine matures better, the foliage is 
healthier, and the fruit will weigh more and command higher prices. I think it will pay 
to thin out Concord grapes. I know it pays to thin the Delawares. I have seen it set 
such a large crop of grapes that the foliage would fall, and they had no flavour. 

Mr. Morton (of Wingham). — Mr. Dempsey might also have told us about the trick 
of ringing grapes for show purposes. It prevents the sap from returning, though not of 
going up ; you get show, but no quality. 

Dr. Herriman (of Lindsay). — What is the best manure 1 

Mr. Dempsey. — I have never found anything superior to bone dust ; if I can get 
plenty of that I am satisfied. 

Mr. Beall. — How about ashes 1 

Mr. Dempsey. — I apply them, but I prefer bone dust. 

Mr. Morton. — What about soil 1 

Mr. Dempsey. — Any soil will do for grapes. 

Mr. James Watson (of Lindsay). — I wish very much to know something in relation 
to the pruning of them. If they are very rampant in growth how should they be treated? 
I have been in the habit of pinching them as soon as the flowers seem to leave, and then 
when they get about the size of a pea I have cut them back. I have noticed that this 
sometimes checked them too severely. I have been very successful in growing them and 
have a beautiful promise, but from the heavy growth of wood I do not know what to do. 
I have one vine extending sideways thirty-five feet. 

Mr. Pettit (of Winona). — It is a pretty difficult thing to explain pruning to a man 
outside of the vineyard and the vines not before you ; so much depends on the strength 
of the vine. I have done a great deal of it and have watched the result of others' work. 
From the distance Mr. Watson speaks of his vine growing, I fancy he would have too 
much wood. The less old wood you make the vine carry the better. 

A Member. — Do you prune in the summer ? 

Mr. Pettit. — Very little. 

A Member. — Do you clip the leaves off? 

Mr. Pettit. — No. The question of manure was spoken of. I have used consider- 
able quantities of ashes and salt, and a very suitable manure consisting of a compost made 
of dead horses and cattle. I never found anything to answer like this compost. I made 
one lot of six horses and two cattle, and saw dust and muck, and after it was well rotted 
1 used it principally on the Delawares, and I never saw such fine grapes as were grown 
from the use of it. My soil is a heavy wash soil from the mountain. This Jefferson 
grape you speak of has been rather tender with me ; it winter kills. I have tried it in 
a row of over fifty varieties and it has done nothing. Mr. Beall says that any grape that 



58 



will ripen with the Concord will ripen here. That will give you a good list of the follow- 
ing varieties, viz : —Champion, Moore's Early, Massisoit, Delaware, Niagara, Jessica, 
Brighton and Hartford. 

Mr. John Croil. — What space would you allow each vine % The old Hampton 
Court vine, nearly one hundred years old, and which had 1200 bunches on it, has wood 
nearly as thick as your leg. 

Mr. Pettit. — You cannot compare that vine with vineyard cultivation. If we were 
to attempt to carry that much wood, I fear there would not be much profit in it. Give 
them twelve feet on the trellis and ten feet between the rows ; the Delaware will answer 
with eight feet. They should be about five feet high or a little more than that. In 
pruning we adopt a rough-and-ready way ; we go along with something like a currant 
cutter and knock off the ends just as they begin to stand out and take hold of the trellis. 
I never, however, practice the so-called system of summer pruning. I always claimed 
that it is weakening to the vine and you do not get as good a setting of fruit the next 
year. I do not think the young wood will mature the fruit bud so well, as when these 
shoots are allowed to grow. 

Mr. Dempsey (of Trenton). — I am disposed to show a good deal of charity with 
respect to the cultivation of grapes. My first experience in grape culture was all based 
upon European authority, and while the directions applied very well to exotic grapes 
they were were than useless when applied to our American varieties. We used to depend 
on the spur system, and considerably to what they called the rising and dormant bud ; 
that is to prune as close to the old wood as we could and depend on it to raise the bud. 
That system is worse than useless when you undertake to practice it on American 
varieties. They will not mature sufficiently to produce bunches the following year 
or that year ; so we have to adapt our methods to the variety we are dealing with. 
Dr. Grant, in his book on the beautiful system of training grapes, took every one of his 
ideas from European books ; that did harm in Canada. In cultivating an American 
variety, we should remember that we want this year's shoot for next year's fruiting, and 
if we want good bunches we must take that shoot from last year's branch ; thus avoid- 
ing the old wood as much as possible. I am just giving you the theory, if you can pick 
it up. When it comes to summer bunching, we train to two wires. We tie the fruiting 
canes to the wire, one about two feet from the ground and the other about five. Each 
branch sets from two to four bunches, and after they run out horizontally thereon we 
bend them down. We do not lop them off any more except in the case of the Brighton. 
If we did not do that we could not sell grapes at three cents per pound. 

Mr. Pettit. — I agree with what you have said. I find that beginners invariably 
leave too much wood. They ruin their vines thinking they have pruned them. 

The Association then adjourned to meet the next afternoon in Bobcaygeon. 



SECOND DAY. 



The Association met on July 8th, at Bobcaygeon. The members and their friends 
had taken a steamer at Lindsay in the morning, and after a most enjoyable trip 
arrived at Sturgeon point. There the vineyard of Mr. Knowlson was visited, and 
methods of cultivation discussed in a general and informal way. On arriving at Bob- 
caygeon, lunch was partaken of, and immediately afterward the Association assembled in 
the Town Hall. Business was at once proceeded with. 



PRESERVATION OF FRUIT. 

Question. — " Will Mr. Morton give the process of preservation of grapes exhibited 
by him at Lindsay yesterday 1 " 

Mr. Morton. — I do not want to claim the credit of what is not due to me. I did 
not preserve the grapes ; I got them from my father at Brampton. The process is very 
simple. They take ordinary building sand, and after washing it to rid it of clay, dry 



59 



it thoroughly ; then a close box is taken, and about two inches of this sand put in the 
bottom ; the grapes are packed on top moderately close ; sand is then sifted over them 
and shaken down, so as to fill the spaces ; the top is put on and the box left in a cool dry 
cellar. I spoke of this to the Provincial Treasurer, and he said he had no difficulty in 
keeping grapes for over a year by the very same method, and that for a number of years 
he had been doing so. Rogers' No. 19 he found to be the best keeper. You 
are all aware you need not attempt this plan with some grapes. The best and most 
suitable are those which have a thick skin. Hon. Mr. Ross says he prefers, in putting 
them down, to take ordinary linen tissue paper and wrap each bunch in it before putting 
on the sand. This prevents the sand from touching them, as when one bursts or shrivels 
up the sand adheres to it and some of the mucous attaches to others. 

Mr. Beadle. — I want to call your attention to two articles which appeared, one in 
the July number of the Horticulturist and the other in the previous number, in which 
an account is given of Mr. Torrance's discovery of infusorial earth and its preservative 
qualities when applied to fruit. His theory is that it preserves the fruit by excluding 
the atmosphere, preventing the .least possible changs in temperature and permitting no 
moisture to enter. This uniform temperature, he contends, will keep fruit a long time. 
Some autumn apples which he put away in a box with infusorial earth about it, was not 
opened, I think, until May, and the apples were still fresh. The apple used was the 
Alexander, a fine showy fruit, which is not a long keeper. This earth is found in Nova 
Scotia and is composed of minute shells. If plums or peaches were to be preserved, his 
method is to wrap each specimen in tissue paper, place them in trays and put this 
infusorial earth over, so as to fill all the interstices, then place the trays in a box and 
sprinkle the earth into it so as to fill all the remaining spaces. Then the box is set 
away wherever you like. He thinks it is impossible, no matter where you sit it, for any 
heat to get in. Mr. Jack, of Beauharnois, tried keeping some grapes, so Mr. Bucke 
writes me, and he forgot all about them being out in his shed until the thermometor had 
gone down below zero. He placed the box in his cellar, and when he opened it in the 
winter, he found the fruit in fine condition, sound and fresh. Mr. Chas. Gibb, of 
Abbotsford, tried keeping some butter for a time in this infusorial earth, to see if it 
would impart any flavour to it ; but after keeping it a week, he could not detect the 
slightest change. The butter was as sweet as when it went in. The inference is that 
this stuff is inodorous, and possesses no power of communicating flavour, and yet has 
the power of maintaining a uniform temperature, and keeping out the atmosphere, and 
moisture. 



RESOLUTION OF REGRET. 

On motion of Mr. D. W. Beadle, seconded by Mr. Morton, the following resolution 
was unanimously adopted : — 

Resolved. — That this Association desires to express deep regret that we have not 
been permitted to enjoy the pleasure of meeting with one of its esteemed members, Mr. 
John Knowlson, who has been a pioneer in grape culture in this vicinity. 



BAGGING GRAPES ON THE VINES. 

Mr. A. M. Smith (of St. Catharines). — I should like to ask if any of the members 
have had any experience in bagging grapes on the vines. It is receiving attention on 
the other side of the line and from the results that are reported, it is a desirable thing 
to test. It is said to be a protection from rot and mildew, and I understand has had 
the affect of producing a finer appearing fruit. 

Mr. Pettit. — I have not had any experience, but have often thought I would try 
it ; I know it has been largely carried on in Ohio, on account of the rot. 

Mr. A. A. Wright (of Renfrew). — I always bag the specimens I am going to exhibit. 
I take a two pound, satchel bottom, manilla paper bag ; but before I put in my fruit I 



60 



clip off the corners of the bottom. Then you slip the bag over your bunch of grapes, 
when the grapes are about the size of a small pea and tie a string around it. It is a 
splendid protection in many ways. Your bunch is better and children do not pick off 
the berries, nor chickens get at them. 

Mr. Smith. — I have been informed that the bags may be had for seventy-five cents 
a thousand, and girls can pin them on for a very small percentage on that price. I have 
seen line samples of fruit that had been grown that way. 

Mr. Pettit. — I would like to ask Mr. Wright if he gets his grapes a good colour and 
plump 1 

Mr. Wright. — I always thought I got a better specimen in every way, and if the 
frost happens to come the bag protects the grapes. 

Mr. Wanzer (of Hamilton). — I have bagged grapes to protect them from wasps in 
certain seasons of the year, but I always found those bunches to be more or less rubbed, 
especially if they were where the wind could get any play at them. 



GRAPES. 

Mr. Beall (of Lindsay). — I would like to go back to the subject of preserving 
fruits. In this neighbourhood there are, I believe, a great many deposits of infusorial 
earth and if any are discovered of good quality it would be well to make the matter 
known. 

Mr. Bick (of Bobcaygeon). — We have tried some of the earth in this neighbourhood* 
without success. Let me now ask a question : I have been troubled with frost in the 
fall ; what sorts of grapes would be likely to answer best ? 

Mr. Morris (of Fonthill). — Perhaps the Champion would be most suitable for this, 
section. The Hartford, Early Victor, Moore's Early, and if the Concord will ripen in 
Lindsay, it also should ripen here. 

Mr. Pettit. — I would add Wyoming Red ; it is early and would be a relief from 
the black. 

Mr. Wright. — I would add Brighton also, for red. 

Mr. A. M. Smith. — And Jessica for white. 

Mr. Thompson (of Bobcaygeon). — I do not know much about grapes, but I believe 
it is hard to get them to grow here. Why, I do not know. 

Mr. Wright. — Cannot you get them to grow 1 

Mr. Bick (of Bobcaygeon) — Yes. 

Mr. Wright. — You no doubt have varieties that ripen too late ; but if you get those 
that have been named you will be safe. The Martha and Lady will also ripen early, ; 
well as those named. 

Mr. Thompson. — I think the Brighton grape has been chiefly grafted here. 



TULIPS AND GLADIOLI. 

Mr. Beadle (of St. Catharines). — I have not had much experience in cultivating 
tulips. I get a few every once and a while and put them in the ground and let them 
stay there until they run out. I have never taken them up at all, or taken any trouble 
with them. They will stay in the ground in our climate, but they run out after a time. 
They do not come true to colour after a few years. This matter of growing tulips is one 
largely dependent on skill and knowledge of the subject. In Holland, where so many 
are grown, great attention and study are put into the work. They sow seeds and grow 
tulips, and then handle them in such a way as to break the colours and secure rich Mend- 
ings. I suppose the best and cheapest way is to do as I have done unless you find that 
winter kills them and then I say, take them up and after they have died down, pack 
them in sand and put them in your cellar ; then put them in the ground in the spring as 



61 



early as you can get them out. Now, with reference to the gladiolus, it wants altogether 
different treatment. It will not endure the winter in the ground even where I live, 
unless we cover the ground in such a way as to keep the frost out. In preference, to 
that, however, I take up the bulbs in the autumn before the ground freezes and take off 
all the little bulblets that have formed on the main bulb. If I want to multiply my 
stock I save these little bulblets ; if not I throw them away. Then I take these bulbs 
and put them in perfectly dry sand. If there is any moisture the bulbs will decay. The 
mice are very fond of them and you must see that they cannot get at them. Apart from 
the mice, keep them dry and cool, where they will not freeze, and planting them out 
in the spring as early as you like. Give them, if you can, a light sandy soil. Now, to 
come back to the little bulblets, by which you increase your stock. You may put these 
into a paper bag and hang it up and let them stay there one summer and plant them the 
following spring. If you plant them the very next summer, ten to one you lose all of 
them. If, however, you plant them the year after, they are much more likely to grow 
and do well. 

Mr. Hillborn (of Arkona). — To what depth do you plant bulbs 1 

Mr. Beadle. — Three inches. 

Mr. Hillborn. — Some say six to eight inches. 

Mr. Beadle. — I never do it. 

Mr. Wright. — I never put them in sand. I simply throw them into a cheese box 
and leave it on the potato bin. 

Mr. Beadle. — Mine would shrivel up if I did that. 

Mr. Dempsey. — My wife just keeps them in a little basket. 

Mr. Morris. — I pack them up about the first of August, and place them in the 
greenhouse in the shade so that the sun will not strike them. I let them lie there until 
the first of October, and plant them out again. 

Mr. Croil. — It is the simplest way to keep your bed clean to follow Mr. Morris' 
plan. 

Mr. Douglas (of Manilla). — Does going to seed destroy them ? 

Mr. Morton (of Wingham). — The whole effort of the plant is to go to seed. If 
growers of pansies want to show flowers, they keep taking off the first bloom before the 
seed has become set and the vigour is thrown into later blossom. The way I do is to cut 
off the stem as soon as the blossom is past. 



APPLES. 

Mr. Burchard (of Bobcaygeon). — One of the greatest causes of failure here is the 
apple tree borer. We lose more trees from that cause than any other. 

Mr. Dempsey. — Wash your trees with soft soap thinned with lye to the consistency 
of paint. Do that every year, and if the borer is tempted to deposit his eggs at the base 
of the tree, the washing down of this alkali will prevent him. 

Mr. Beadle. — That is what I have used and found effective. 

Mr. Dempsey. — One application is sufficient. 

Mr. Beadle. — Kill the borers already in the tree with a bit of wire. 

Mr. Bick. — Is whitewashing an injury to the trees 1 

Mr. Dempsey. — No ; but it does no good. It does no harm and it may do a little 
good. 

Mr. Benters (of Bobcaygeon). — What 1 have noticed here and in other places, is 
that when our trees come to be bearing nicely, they begin to die. If you could name 
some varieties you think I would do well to plant, I shall be pleased to hear them. 

Mr. Morris (of Fonthill). — This question was gone over so thoroughly yesterday, 
that 1 do not think it necessary for me to repeat what was then said ; but let me correct 
a false impression which this gentleman has formed respecting late cultivation. He 
thinks ploughing in the fall is late cultivation. I call it late cultivation in the middle of 
summer after the trees have ripened and formed their terminal buds for the season. I do 
not think any cultivation after that will affect them injuriously. 



62 



Mr. Fairbairn (of Bobcaygeon). — I have tried to cultivate an orchard. I have gone 
in for fine fruits, but they have invariably failed. Of the Tolman Sweet 1 do not think I 
have ever lost one.. I do not know ten varieties that would grow here. Some Snow 
apples bore six or seven years, but they are all gone. 

Mr. Dempsey. — Have you planted the Duchess of Oldenburg ? 

Mr. Fairbairn. — Yes ; and they are doing well. 

Mr. Dempsey. — Have you the Wealthy 1 

Mr. Fairbairn. — 1 have not. 

Mr. Dempsey. — Have you the Walbridge ? 

Mr. Fairbairn. — A few. 

Mr. Dempsey. — Does the Golden Russet fail? 

Mr. Fairbairn. — No ; they have nourished. The borer attacked them, but we tried 
this remedy you speak of and it drove them off 1 

Mr. Dempsey. — I think if the varieties you have named will do well here, you can 
get twenty others. 

Mr. Robinson. — Have you tried the St. Lawrence? 

Mr. Fairbairn. — Yes ; and they are doing pretty well. 

Mr. Robinson. — Have you tried the Alexander? 

Mr. Fairbairn. — I have very few. 

Mr. Wright (of Renfrew). — If you plant the Wealthy you will find it very good. I 
will also suggest the Yellow Transparent, which ripens early, but does not keep very long. 
It is very hardy. Another is the Peach, of Montreal. I would not advise you to plant 
many of those as they will not ship. 

Mr. Dempsey. — What is the difference between the Irish Peach and the Peach, of 
Montreal. 

Mr. Beadle. — They are not identical. 

Mr. Wright. — The Duchess of Oldenburg is very hardy. The Alexander and 
Scott's Winter is a fine red apple and does nicely. It keeps right into the winter. I 
have the Mcintosh Red. It does not stand the cold with me, but it ought to here, if you 
can grow the Russet and Tolman Sweet. 

Mr. Croil (of Aultsville). — The Mcintosh Red spots badly. 

Mr. Wright. — You can grow the Tetofsky and Walbridge, but the former is not so 
good as the Yellow Transparent, andjthe fruit drops badly from the tree. If you desire a 
crab apple, I would advise you to buy Whitney's No. 20. 

Mr. Morris (of Fonthill). — I will give you the best I think advisable for you to try : 
— Wealthy, Duchess of Oldenburg, Yellow Transparent, Walbridge. American Golden 
Russett, Alexander, St. Lawrence, Canada Baldwin, and Mann. The list could be ex- 
tended by adding Ben Davis, Scott's Winter, and a dozen more could be grown here. 

Mr. Wright. — We have tried the Mann apple in Renfrew and it will not grow. 
It winter kills every time. It is a splendid kee'per, and if you can grow it here, I would 
advise you to get it. Plant two to one of the Wealthy. 

Mr. Dempsey. — I would commence by planting Yellow Transparent, and then the 
Duchess to follow. The Wealthy next, and then I would plant my winter apples. The 
Wealthy would go into December. I know all of these apples I have mentioned are good 
ones and will give you satisfaction, and are hardy wherever I have seen them growing. 

Mr. Bick (of Bobcaygeon). — I planted an orchard about twenty years ago, of two 
hundred trees — the Golden Russet, Tolman Sweet, Northern Spy and Snow apple are 
living yet ; all the rest died. 

Mr. Robinson. — How long will the Yellow Transparent keep? 

Mr. Dempsey. — If it is ripe at breakfast time eat it. It is one advantage, however r 
that you may have Yellow Transparent for ten days or more. The fruit ripens unevenly, 
and when you have a specimen fit to use, you will keep finding others until they are all 
gone. They come in ahead of the Duchess ; they come in with the Early Harvest. 



63 



HEDGES. 



Mr. Beall (of Lindsay). — I have tried Native spruce for a hedge, and I like it very- 
much ; but during the last few years I thought I would rather take Norway spruce. 
I thought the Native spruce was the best we could get ; but if I were going to plant 
another hedge, I would take the Norway. We can get Norway spruce that has been 
two or three times transplanted, and I think it makes a better hedge than the Native. 
The Arbor Vitas would make a good hedge. The proper time to plant, I think, is in the 
spring of the year. If I could get at them, I would take them up when they make the 
first start in the spring, and have them planted the same day ; that would be some- 
where about the middle of May, or the latter part. I would plant Norway spruce two 
feet apart, and I think they should be pruned once a year, sometime about the first of 
August, or just about when the trees have made all their growth. 

Mr. Morris (of Fonthill). — There are two spruces natives of this country. The 
Black spruce is not worth anything, but the White spruce is better than the Norway. 
I do not know whether it can be got in this neighbourhood or not. Next to that the 
Norway spruce is best. I differ, however, from Mr. Beall as to the time of pruning. 
I would prune about the middle of June. At that time the new buds would form back 
of where it was cut, which would not be the case in August. 

Mr. Hillborn (of Arkona). — For a wind-break I like the Scotch pine. It grows 
much more rapidly. 

Mr. J. Oroil (of Aultsville). — Nothing makes a prettier fence than cedar. We 
take the trees from the bush on a wet day, dig a ditch and put them in closely. Cover 
over the earth and you will hardly ever see a failure. 

Mr. A. M. Smith (of St. Catharines). — I have grown fine hedges from cedar and 
spruce, and I agree with Mr. Morris as to the time of pruning. 

Mr. Bick (of Bobcaygeon).— Mr. Boyle has a fine hedge, and he has been pruning 
every day since the first of May. 

Mr. Boyle (of Bobcaygeon). — And some of them look pretty sick. My trees have 
been pruned so much there is hardly anything left to judge by. I do not know what 
shape to prune them into. I never cut the bottom, but the top, and I should like 
information on the subject. 

Mr. Beadle. — I have some notions about that, but perhaps they are only notions. 
If you wish to confine your hedges within any space, you must shear them ; but I think 
the prettiest American white spruce or Norway's I ever saw, were those which grew just 
as nature taught them, and upon which the knife had not been used. When the 
branches are straggling out you can pinch off those that are ahead quite easily, and in 
time they branch out regularly. You can make your hedges quite syrn metrical, but in 
nine cases out of ten, they will grow that way themselves. 

Mr. Morris — I do not think that Norway spruce should be planted on the side of 
a house. Smaller evergreens are preferable, and I think the Arbor Vitae is the prettiest. 
of all trees for a lawn. Hedges must be pruned of course. 

Mr. Beadle. — I should make a light hedge in the shape of an acute triangle. It 
stands the snow best. 

Mr. Boyle. — Is the month of June too late to transplant ? 

Mr. Beadle. — I would prefer to plant just as soon as the buds begin to push out. 

This closed the discussion, as the members were obliged to leave in order to catch 
the boat. 



FRUITS IN NORTH SIMCOE. 

The following report on fruits in North Simcoe was handed in by Mr. G. C. Caston, 
of Vespra : 

The Season of 1886 has been a very favourable one for fruit in this section of country, 
as those who visited our Central Exhibition at Barrie can testify. People from southern 
and more favoured localities, were surprised at the display of apples and grapes grown in 



64 



this northern county. The specimen of grapes, especially some of Rogers Hybrids, 
could scarcely be excelled anywhere in Ontario. Although the weather has been very 
wet and broken, yet we have had no frost severe enough to kill grape-vines, and the 
foliage is as green now in the middle of October as it was in August, so that all the 
varieties have ripened perfectly. Moore's Early, Early Victor, Worden, Vergennes, 
Prentiss, Rogers' No. 3, 15, 19, and the Concord, have all ripened well with me. Worden 
and Champion were the first to ripen — both about the same time, the Concord being the 
last and latest; and I would advise beginners not to plant too many Concords. What 
is wanted here in a grape, is early ripening, combined with hardiness and good quality. 
The Concord has proved very hardy with me but is too late in ripening. As for mildew, 
that is a thing we know nothing of here so far ; and if we put down our vines and cover 
them in winter they come through safe, and if we can only get our grapes to ripen early 
enough to escape the frost, I do not see why grape culture should not be a successful and 
profitable enterprise, even so far north as Simcoe County. 

Straivberries were a fair crop, although affected somewhat by the hot dry weather of 
July. 1 grow the Wilson, Sharpless, Crescent and Triomphe De Gande. I prefer the 
Wilson and Crescent ; they have done the best with me. 

Raspberries are not much cultivated here owing to an abundant wild crop. I 
have the Cuthbert and the Gregg ; X don't wish anything better, and I doubt if anything 
better can be found at present. 

The Apple Crop will be a fair average one, although there is a great deal of 
fungoid or spotted fruit, the Snow, Red Astrachan, Early Strawberry, and many 
other varieties being badly spotted. Golden Russets are very fine. The Wealthy is one 
of the coming apples for this county ; it seems to be as hardy as the Duchess, bears 
early and perfectly free from spots. Another kind likely to do well here is the Pewaukee ; 
it is a fine, clean, hard fruit here, and seems perfectly hardy. 

Plums have been a comparative failure with me ; I have tried a good many varieties, 
but they always die as soon as they get about large enough to bear, and the only way I have 
succeeded in raising a few of the finer kinds, is by top grafting them into native seedlings. 

I believe that we must look largely to Russia for a list of hardy fruits suitable to the 
colder parts of Canada. I am one of those who believe that it will never do to take fruit 
from a warm climate to a colder one ; but that in order to succeed, you must get a fruit that 
has been acclimated in a country colder than our own. And the sooner our nurserymen 
take hold of the Russian fruits, the better for them and their customers. I would also 
suggest that some arrangements should be made next year between the Fruit Growers' 
Association and the Directors of our large central exhibitions, whereby some competent 
Pomologist might be appointed to visit our principal fairs and see that the fruit is properly 
named, and correct any errors that may be made. Often samples of fruit are thrown out 
by the Judges because incorrectly named, and very often the Judges are wrong them- 
selves and do not know the names of some of the fruit on exhibition. I think the Fruit 
Growers' Association should make the appointment and the Directors should pay the 
expenses. It would be well worth all it cost to have proper classification and nomen- 
clature, and thus save all disputes. 



FRUIT COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 

Report of the Committee on Fruits exhibited at the meeting of the Fruit Growers' 
Association of Ontario, at Stratford, February, 1886. 

Pears. — Messrs. Ellwanger & Barry, Rochester, N.Y., exhibited twelve plates of 
pears, in a fine state of preservation, consisting of the following varieties : Beurre Alex- 
ander Lucan, resembling Belle Lucrative in appearance, quality good ; the Winter Nelis, 
an extra sample, in good condition, quality good ; Columbia, extra size, beautiful in 
appearance, quality not so good ; Beurre D'Anjou, very fine sample, large and well- 
flavoured ; Winter Beurre Grise, a remarkably fine large russet pear, not yet fully 
matured ; Beurre Easter, fine siz,e, and when fully matured, of good quality ; Doyenne 



65 



D'Alencon, medium in size and quality ; Clapp's No. 64, a high coloured beautiful pear, 
resembling Clapp's Favourite in size and appearance, and very fine quality ; Duhamel 
resembling a medium sized Flemish Beauty, quality good. 

Apples. — From A. M. Smith, St. Catharines ; — Princess Louise, a new variety, 
beautiful in colour, resembling Maiden's Blush, mild, subacid, good ; Rhode Island Green- 
ing, fair sample, old variety ; Northern Spy, medium sample ; American Golden Russet, 
good sample ; the Twenty Ounce Pippin and the Cranberry Pippin, fair. 

The Stratford Horticultural Society showed a collection of twenty-five plates, consist- 
ing of King, Baldwin, Spy, American Golden Russet, Swaar, Swazie Pomme Grise, and 
others, being fair to good samples and in good condition. 

Three plates of apples, shown by Mr. John Dempsey, of Baldwin, Spy and others, 
fair samples. 

Eleven plates, shown by Nelson Monteith ; — King, Spy, Fall Pippin, Spitzenburgh, 
Snow and others — fair samples and well kept ; also one plate of Vicar of Winkfield Pears, 
a very good sample and sound. A plate of apples, said to be seedlings of Nprthern Spy, 
appears to be of no special merit. 

Two plates of apples shown by I. P. Woods — Northern Spy and Ribston Pippin- 
very fine samples, well kept, in fact the best samples shown. 

Grapes. — By A. M. Smith, St. Catharines ; — the Niagara ; the first of the kind shown 
here, a fine white grape, quality good and hanging well to the bunch, showing signs of 
being a splendid keeper and shipper ; Vergennes, large red grape, in good condition and 
medium quality, a good shipper. 

By George Sanderson, of Catawba, N. Y.: the Catawba in splendid condition and 
decided flavour, old and well known. 

A Seedling Apple shown by F. O'Brien, of Hibbert, size large, splashed with red on 
light green ground, open calyx, good quality and well worthy of extended trial ; by far 
the best seedling exhibited. 

P. R. JARVIS, Chairman. ) 

A. GILCHRIST, > Members of the Committee. 

W. W. HILBORN, J 



5 (f. g.) 



SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



OF 



ONTARIO. 



jg vhxUA fit} Mm of tfoe <$tgtotatHft ^emtrty. 




PRINTED BY WARWICK & SONS, 26 & 28 FRONT STREET WEST. 

1887. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Acanthia lectularia 

iEgeria acerni 

Agrotis C-nigrum 

Alaus oculatus 

American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science 

Amphidasys betularia 

n cognataria 

Amphion nessus 

A New Library Pest 

Anisopteryx pometaria 

ii vernata 

Anisota rubicunda 

Annual Address of President 

H Meeting of Entomological So- 
ciety of Ontario 

Annual Report of Council 

ii Statement of Secretary-Treas. 

Anobium 

Anthomyia angustifrons 

Ant Lions 

Apatela Americana 

Aphides, Unusual number of 

Aphis aceris 

ii mali .... 



it rosse 

n or plant louse . 

Apple-tree borers 

ii plant louse. 
Army worm 



PAGE. 

35 
24 
29 
32 

7, 12 
39 
28 
40 
46 

17,61 

61 

26 

6 

1 
2 
3 
46 
17 
19 
27 
14 
33 
56 
39 
56 
57 
58 
59 



S 



Bacon beetle 38 

Bark lice 59 

Basket-worms 28, 55 

Bean maggot 17 

" weevil 60 

Bed-bug 35 

Beginning an acquaintance with wild 

bees 51 

Bellamira scalaris 30 

Bethune, Rev. C. J. S., article by. . . , 55 

Blissus leucopterus 20, 63 

Book notices 21 

(m.y 



PAGE 

Bruchus fabae 60 

n obsoletus 60 

n pisi 6 

Buffalo, Chinch-bug at 20 

t. tree-hopper 16, 18 

Butterflies of the Eastern United States 21 

C 

Cabbage butterflies 6, 60 

Cabbage moths 61 

Calloides nobilis 30 

Canker worms 17, 61 

Capsus goniphorus 33 

Catalogue of Canadian Plants 21 

Catastega aceriella 28 

Catocala obscura 14 

ii relicta 40 

Cecidomyia aceris 29 

ii destructor 6, 13, 43 

Cerasa bubalus 16, 18, 33 

Cheese-fly 38 

Chinch-bug 20, 62 

Chionobas Jutta, home of. ... 10 

Chrysobothris femorata 31, 57 

Cicindela ancocisconensis 14 

ii vulgaris 43 

Claypole, Professor, article by 12 

Clisiocampa sylvatica 27 

Clover insects 63 

ii seed midge 13, 63 

Clytanthus ruricola 30 

Codling- worm 4, 64 

Coleophora malivorella 54 

Colorado potato beetle 6, 45 

Conotrachelus nenuphar 6 

Corn plant louse 13 

Corthylus punctatissimus 32 

Corymbites sulcicollis 32 

Cossus ligniperda 54 

Crambus mutabilis 12 

ii zeellus 13 

Cucujus clavipes 32 

Cypripedium spectabile 51 



IV. 



D 

PAGE. 

Dactylopius adonidum 38 

Dermestes lardarius 38 

Dicerca divaricata 31 

ii lugubris 31 

Dorcus parallelus 31 

Doryphora 10-lineata G, 45 

Dryobius sexfasciatus 30 

E 

Eacles imperialis 29 

Edema albif rons 25 

Electric light, destruction of insects by. 12 

Election of officers 8 

Elaphidion parallelum 15 

it villosum 15 

Enchodes sericea 32 

Entomological Club of A. A. A. S. . . 7, 12 

Entomology, popular papers on 15 

Ery throneura rosae 39 

Eupsalis minuta 32 

Eutrapela transversa 27 

P 

Fall web-worm 17 

Flea, the 36 

Flesh-fly, the 37 

Fletcher, J., articles by 21, 43 

French, G. H., "Butterflies of Eastern 

U. S" 21 

Fumea nitidella 54 

Fyles, Rev. T. W. , articles by. .10,33,39,42 54 

G 

Gastropacha Americana 28 

„ quercifolia 39 

Geometra Papilionaria ■ . 39 

Glycobius speciosus 29 

Gnathocera cephalica 52 

Gracilaria Packardella 28 

Grain moth 37 

Guignard, J. A., article by 51 

B 

Hagen, Dr. H. A., article by 46 

Harrington, W.H., .. 22 

Hepialus argenteo-maculatus 27 

Hessian fly in England 6, 43 

Heterophleps triguttata 28 

House fly, the 33 

Hyperchiria lo 26 

Hyphantria textor 17, 29 



Z 

PAGE. 

Ibalia maculipennis 24 

Incurvaria acerifoliella . 27, 55 

Indian and Colonial Exhibition, insects 

sent to 2,4 

Insects affecting food o7 

it house plants 38 

n personal comfort 33 

Insects troublesome in the household . 33 

Iphthinus opacus 32 

J 
Jack, J. G., articles by 16, 18 

K 

Kallima paralekta 40 

L 

Lady's slipper, the showy 51 

Larch injured by saw-flies 16 

Lecanium acericola 33 

n acericorticis 33 

n hesperidum 38 

Lepisma domestica 47 

ii saccharina 47, 48 

Leptalis orise 41 

Leucania unipuncta 59 

Leucospis affinis . 52 

Library pest, a new 46 

Limacodes laticlavia 29 j 

Liopus variegatus 30 

Lithacodes f asciola 25 

Lithocolletis aceriella 28 

m clemensella 28 

n lucidicostella 28 

Louse, the 35 

Lygus monachus 33, 

u 

Macoun, J., " Catalogue of Canadian 

plants " 21 

Macroglossa diftinis 40 

ii pelasgus 40, 41 

Mallota posticata, larvse of 11 

Mamestra picta 61 

Maple trees, insects affecting 22 

Meal-worm, the 37 

Mealy-bug, the 38 

Megachile brevis 52 

„ centuncularis 52 

n ' frigida 53 

ii melanophsea 52 

optiva 24, 52, 53] 

ii pugnata 53 

.1 scrobiculata 53 



2/L — Continued. 

PAGE. 

Meromyza Americana 13 

Methona psidii 41 

Mimetic analogy 39 

Moffat, J. A., article by 19 

Montreal Branch, report of 5 

Mosquito, the 12, 34 

Musca domestica 33 

ii vomitoria 38 

Mytilaspis pomorum 59 

N 

Nadata gibbosa 28 

Nematocampa filamentaria 28 

Nematus Erichsonii 17 

Notes of 1885 on insects 16 

Noxious insects, remedies for 55 

Nyctobates Pennsylvanica 32 



Oak-pruners 15 

Obituary 22 

OEdipoda sulphurea 40 

Ophiusa bistriaris 27 

Orgyia lencostigma 29 

Ormerod, Miss, " The Hessian Fly". . 43 

Orthosoma brunneum 30 

Oryssus terminalis 24 

P 

Pediculus humani-capitis 35 

Phyllia foliata 39 

Phymatodes variabilis 15 

Pieris rapse 6, 60 

Piophila casei 38 

Plant louse, the 39, 56 

Platoeceticus Gloveri 55 

Platycerus quercus 31 

Platysamia cecropia 26 

Plum curculio 6 

Plusia brassica3 61 

Popular papers on Entomology 15 

Psylla annulata 33 

Ptilinus ruficornis 31 

Pulex irritans 36 

Pulvinaria innumerabilis 32 

Pyrochroa f emoralis . '. 32 

E 

Rattling locust 40 

Red spider 38 

Reed, E. B. , article by 1 

Reed, Lawrence, article by 11 

Remedies for noxious insects 55 



PAGE. 

Report of Council 2 

.i delegate to Royal Society 

of Canada 3 

Report of Montreal Branch 5 

Royal Society of Canada, report of 

delegate to 3 

s 

Saperda calcarata 17 

n Candida 57 

M tridentata 30 

Sarcophaga carnaria 37 

Saunders, Prof. W., article by 6 

ii M elected life member 8 
it ii "Insects Injurious 

to Fruits " 55 

Saunders, Prof. W., resignation of . . . 2, 8 

Saw-flies on larch 16 

Scale insect, the 38 

Schizoneura lanigera 58 

Semiotellus cuprseus 52 

Shaw, W. D., death of 22 

Sheath-bearing insects 54 

Stegania pustularia 27 

Stenoscelis brevis 32 

T 

Telea polyphemus 25 

Tenebrio molitor 37 

Termites 49 

Tetranychus telarius 38 

Thrips, the 39 

Thyridopteryx ephemerref ormis 28, 55 

Tiger beetles, note on 42 

Tinea granella 37 

Tomoxia bidentata 32 

Townsend, C. H. T., article by. 15 

Tremex columba 17, 23 

IT 

Upis ceramboides 32 

Urographis f asciatus 30 

V 

Van Duzee, E. P., article by 20 

Yolucella, the 42 

W 

Wheat-stem maggot 13 

White ants 49 

Wild bees 51 

X 

Xestobium affine 31 

Xiphydria albicornis 23 

Xyloterus politus 32 

Xylotrechus colonus 30 



SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



?o the Honourable the Commissioner of Agriculture : 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit herewith for your consideration the Seventeenth 
Annual Report of the Entomological Society of Ontario, prepared in accordance with the 
provisions of our Act of Incorporation. 

The Society held. its annual meeting in the City of London on Wednesday, October 
Oth, 1886, when the officers for the ensuing year were elected, and the ordinary business of 
he Society transacted. 

I also submit herewith the minutes of the annual meeting and the audited annual 
nancial statement of the Society. 

The publication of the Canadian Entomologist, now in its nineteenth year, is regularly 
aaintained. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

EDMUND BAYNES REED, 

Secretary-Treasurer. 



.NNUAL MEETING OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF ONTARIO. 

The annual meeting of the Society was held pursuant to notice in the Society's rooms, 
London, Ontario, on Wednesday, October 20th, 1886, at 8 o'clock. 

The Vice-President, Rev. C. J. S. Bethune, M.A., D.C.L., of Port Hope, in the chair. 

Present : Mr. James Fletcher, Ottawa ; Mr. J. Alston Moffatt, Hamilton • Rev. Thos. 
V. Fyles, South Quebec ; Mr. A. W. Hanham, Hamilton • Capt. Gamble Geddes, Toronto ; 
>r. J. R. White, Toronto ; Mr. J. M. Denton, Mr. J. Bowman, Dr. Burgess, Dr. Arnott, 
>r. Woolverton, Mr. H. P. Bock, Mr. Laurence Reed, Mr. Werner, Dr. Wishart, Dr. 
Ktchell, of London, and the Secretary-Treasurer, Mr. E. Ba'ynes Reed. 

The minutes of the previous meeting having been printed and circulated among the 
tembers, their reading was dispensed with, and they were duly confirmed. 



The Secretary read a letter from the President, Professor Saunders, regretting his 
inability to be present at the meeting, and stating that he would be unable to continue in 
active participation in the work of the Society, or to act as Editor of the Canadian 
Entomologist, inasmuch as he had accepted the Government appointment of Director of 
the Experimental Farm Stations, and consequently the whole of his time would necessarily 
be fully occupied. 

The report of the Council, the audited financial statement of the Secretary-Treasurer,, 
the report of the Librarian, the report of the Delegate to the Royal Society of Canada, and 
the report of the Delegates to the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 
were laid before the meeting, and on motion duly received, discussed and adopted. 

The report of the Montreal Branch was read by the Seoretary and ordered to be 
printed in the Annual Report. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL FOR 1886. 

The Council are able to report progress in the work whieh has been so long and 
successfully carried on by the Society. 

The Canadian Entomologist has been issued as usual, and the high character of its 
articles fully maintained. 

As stated at the last annual meeting the Society, in compliance with the request of 
the Dominion Government and with the cordial approval of the Provincial Government, 
prepared and sent to England their whole collection of Canadian insects, to form part of 
the Indian and Colonial Exhibition. 

The collection contained some ten thousand insects representing the various orders. 

They reached their destination in safety and have been well taken care of. 

The Council desire to express their thanks to those members of the Society who gave 
so much time and assistance in preparing and arranging the collection, especially mention- 
ing Mr. J. Alston Moffat, of Hamilton, Mr. W. H. Harrington, of Ottawa, and Mr. F. B. 
Caulfield, of Montreal. 

A number of electrotypes of insects not hitherto figured have been procured for the 
illustration of the annual reports. These have been drawn and engraved from specimens 
in the Society's collection. 

During the spring of this year a Farmers' Institute was organized in the County of 
Middlesex, and the Council thought it proper that the Society should be represented 
thereat, and accordingly Messrs. Denton and Reed attended the meeting and gave infor- 
mation on entomological matters of interest. 

It is with deep regret that your Council has to announce that their esteemed Presi- 
dent and Editor is compelled to withdraw from active participation in the work of the 
Society, owing to his having accepted the onerous duties of the Director of the Experi- 
mental Farm Stations. 

The Council, while congratulating Professor Saunders upon this recognition of his 
abilities and zeal in the public service, would desire that the Society should place on record 
their appreciation of the valuable services which, for a period now extending over a quarter 
of a century, he has rendered to the cause of scientific and economic entomology, and they 
would suggest the propriety of making Professor Saunders a life member of the Society. 

The Council further suggest that all ex-presidents be members ex-offtcio of the Council 
of the Entomological Society. 

The report of the Montreal Branch will be submitted in due course. 

The Society was duly represented at the meeting of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science at Buffalo, and a report of the delegation will be presented. 

The report of the Secretary-Treasurer is submitted herewith. 
Presented on behalf of the Council, 

E. BAYNES REED, 

Seer etary-Treasu rer . 
London, Ont., 

October 20th, 1886. 






ANNUAL STATEMENT OF THE SECRETARY-TREASURER OF THE 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF ONTARIO FOR THE 
YEAR ENDING OCTOBER 18th, 1886. 

Receipts. 

Balance from previous year $ 265 35 

Members' fees, sale of Entomologist, etc 199 37 

Provincial grant, 1886 1,000 00 

Collectors' material — pins, cork, etc 44 13 

Interest on Savings' Bank account 7 28 

Dominion grant for Colonial and Indian Exhibition 300 00 

$1,816 13 
Disbursements. 

Canadian Entomologist, printing, paper, stationery, etc $423 12 

Library account 250 61 

Expenses of report for 1885, including engraving, electrotyping 

and wood-cuts 189 35 

Annual vote to Editor and Secretary 175 00 

Rent . . 80 00 

Caretaker 10 00 

Collectors' material — pins, cork, etc 115 20 

Insurance 41 25 

Expenses preparing collection for Colonial and Indian Exhibi- 
tion, Insurance, etc 353 00 

Sundries, postage, telegrams, fuel, etc 41 33 

Expenses of delegation to A. A. A. S., Buffalo 36 70 

Balance 100 57 



,816 13 



We certify that we have examined the above account with books and vouchers, and 
found the same to be correct. Balance in hand and in bank, one hundred dollars and fifty- 
seven cents. 

H. P. BOCK, 



London, Ont., Oct. 18th, 1886. 



SRS, } Auditors - 



REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF ONTARIO TO THE 
ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

As delegate from the Entomological Society of Ontario, I have much pleasure in 
announcing that the Society which I have the honour to represent, continues its labours 
with undiminished energy and success. Its membership is large, and it is everywhere 
recognized as one of the most important scientific institutions of the country. 

Its monthly publication, the Entomologist, continues to receive the support of, and to 
be welcomed by Entomologists of all places, and Vol. XVII. for 1885 is a most valuable 
addition to the recorded knowledge of American insects. The contributors to this volume, 
forty in number, include the leading Canadian workers, and many of the best known 
•entomologists of the United States. A complete set of the Entomologist and of the 
Annual Reports will be found to contain a vast store of information in regard to the 
structure, classification, distribution and habits of our insect foes and friends. 



The title " Entomological Society of Ontario," might lead manf to suppose that it 
work was limited to this Province, but in reality it is carried on by members in all part 
of the Dominion, from Prince Edward Island to British Columbia. The fauna of the 
latter province, and of the North-West Territories, has been investigated during recent 
years by several experienced collectors, and large additions have been made to Canadiai 
lists, and many new species discovered in the several orders of insects. 

Through the contributions of members, the collection maintained by the Society has 
rapidly increased in size and value. By special request of the Dominion Government this 
collection has been sent to the Colonial Exhibition just opened in London. It was first 
carefully re-arranged by members having special knowledge of the various orders, and was 
much improved by having a large proportion of the old specimens replaced by fresh 
material, and by having a large amount of new material incorporated. The collection, as 
thus arranged and enlarged, fills over one hundred large cases, and will undoubtedly 
favourably impress all beholders with the great number and variety of our insects. 

The Society has learned with pleasure that a competent Entomologist is proposed to 
be employed in connection with the Experimental Farm to be started for the investigation 
of scientific agriculture. Such an officer is a decided essential, and his duties will be, to- 
quote from Prof. Saunders' Report to the Department of Agriculture, " to investigate the 
habits of insects destructive to farm and garden crops, fruit, etc., as well as those affecting 
animals, with a view of testing such remedies as may be available for their destruction. 
He should also prepare such collections for the museum at the Central Station as would 
illustrate the insects injurious and beneficial to vegetation, and duplicate collections of a 
similar character as early as practicable for each of the sub- stations." 

In this connection it may be stated that Mr. Fletcher, who is at present acting as 
Honorary Entomologist to the Department of Agriculture, has, under exceptionally 
unfavourable conditions, and without being able to devote his time to the work, or to' 
employ needed assistance, published a Report containing a large amount of information 
about the insects which were found to be most injurious during the past year. The Report 
is based upon his personal observations in different sections and upon voluminous corres- 
pondence from all parts of the Dominion. It is an earnest of what might be accomplished 
by an Entomologist having the necessary equipment and assistance to prosecute and 
record investigations. 

Fortunately neither from Mr. Fletchers' Report, nor from that of the Entomological 
Society, do we find that any especially destructive new pests were met with during the 
past year. Nor were some of the old ones so abundant and devastating as formerly. The 
ravages of the Larch saw-fly (Nematus Erichsonii), and of the Spruce bud-moth (Tortrix 
furaiferana) shows signs of decrease. The Clover-seed midge (Gecidomyia leguminicola)> 
continued to do serious injury over extended areas, but if farmers will act upon the 
suggestions which have been made in our reports regarding the cultivation of this crop, 
they can harvest a good yield of seed. 

Two of the most destructive insects in Canada for many years past have been the 
Codling-moth (Carjoocapsa pomonella), and the Plum-curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar) y 
the former destroying or injuring probably one-fifth of our apple crops, and the latter, often 
causing a total failure of the crop of plums. Numerous remedies have been proposed and 
employed against these pests, but the labour required was in each instance considerable, 
and the results were scarcely ever entirely satisfactory. Experiments made during recent 
years by our members have, however, proved that Paris Green is an efficient and practicable 
remedy, when mixed with water and sprayed upon the trees as soon as the flowers have 
been fully fertilized. 

These facts are mentioned by me in order that a knowledge of them may be distributed 
by the Fellows of your Honourable Society and by the Delegates attending this meeting. 

The loss to the country occasioned by the ravages of insects upon crops of all kinds,, 
is so enormous that it becomes the duty of every Society interested in Natural History or 
the Economic Sciences to do what may be in its power to enable agriculturists to combat 
their small but numerous foes, and thus add to the prosperity of the country. 

W. HAGUE HARRINGTON, 
May, 1886. Delegate. 



MONTREAL BRANCH— ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF ONTARIO. 

The thirteenth annual meeting of this Branch was held at the residence of the President, 
G. J. Bowles, Esq., on Tuesday, May 25th, 1886, at 8 o'clock p.m. 

The President read the following report of the Council for the year : — 

The Council beg to submit the Thirteenth Annual Report of the Branch. 
Seven meetings have been held during the year, at which the following papers have 
been read : — ,, 

1. Insects of Canada and Norway. — G. J. Bowles. 

2. On Physonota unipuncta, Say, and its supposed varieties. — F. B. Caulfield. 

3. Euchcetes egle and its white variety. — G. J. Bowles. 

4. On the hybernation of Formica herculeana. — G. J. Bowles. 

5. Notes on some species of Silphidce occurring in the vicinity of Montreal. — 
F. B. Caulfield. 

6. The Catocalas. — G. J. Bowles. 

7. Notes for 1885 on injurious and other insects. — J. G. Jack. 

8. Notes on Ceresa bubalus, the Buffalo Tree-hopper. — J. G. Jack. 

9. Notes on the Zygcenidce. — G. J. Bowles. 

10. On some collecting grounds in the neighbourhood of Montreal. — F. B. Caulfield. 

11. List of Orthoptera taken in the vicinity of Montreal. — F. B. Caulfield. 

• Of these papers, Nos. 1, 3, 4, 6 and 7 have been published in the Canadian Ento- 
mologist, and No. 5 in the Society's Annual Report for 1885. 

Your Council have much pleasure in stating that the meetings have been well 
sustained, and that a number of species have been added to our local list. 

The Hemiptera have been taken up by Mr. Bowles, and a number of species 
identified, and the Orthoptera, through Mr. Caulfield's exertions, have been increased from 
six species to thirty. 

The number of species added to the Montreal lists during the year is as follows : — 

Lepidoptera 81 

Coleoptera 142 

Hymenoptera 5 

Orthoptera 24 

Diptera 15 

Neuroptera , . , 10 

Hemiptera 15 

Total 292 

Which, added to the list of last year, makes the total number on the Montreal list 1,395 > 
divided as follows : — 

Lepidoptera 565 

Coleoptera 581 

Hymenoptera 104 

Orthoptera ' 30 

Diptera 74 

Neuroptera 22 

Hemiptera 19 

Total species 1,395 

While congratulating the Society upon the work accomplished during the year, your 
Council would remind the members that much still remains to be done, even in the 
favourite orders Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. In the former, the Micros have been almost 
entirely neglected, and special attention should be given to these and to the early stages of 
all the families. In Coleoptera the number of Dytiscidm and the smaller Carabidce might, 



with a little work, be largely increased, and the food habits of our wood-boring beetles 
would well repay investigation. In the remaining orders a beginning only has been made, 
and there is a vast and almost unworked held before us. 

Your Council would therefore urge upon the members the necessity of continued zeal 
and energy in carrying out the pleasant task of working up the insect fauna of our district. 

The whole respectfully submitted, 

GEORGE JOHN BOWLES, 

President. 

The report having been adopted, th« election of officers took place, with the following 
result : — 

G. J. Bowles, President ; H. H. Lyman, Vice-President ; F. B. Caulfield, Secretary- 
Treasurer ; J. G. Jack, W. H. Smith, W. D. Shaw, J. F. Hausen, Council. 

The President read a paper on the " Cotton moth "(Aletia argillacea), giving its history 
up to date, with a record of its occurrence north of the. cotton belt. 

Mr. Lyman showed some rare Lepidoptera taken at Hudson's Bay by Dr. Robert Bell. 
The President showed a number of Canadian Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, after which 
the meeting adjourned. 

F. B. CAULFIELD, 

Secretary. 



In the absence of the President, his Annual Address was read by the Secretary. 

ANNUAL ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY OF ONTARIO. 

Gentlemen, — It is seldom that a season passes in Canada with so little to record in 
in reference to the injuries caused by destructive insects. Not only have we been favoured 
by a kind Providence with a bountiful harvest, but our farmers have in great measure 
been free from the losses which usually occur from insect pests. 

The Colorado potato beetle, Doryphora decemlineata, has proved destructive to potato 
vines in a few localities, and where the application of the usual remedies has been neglected 
or too long delayed, they have destroyed the foliage to such an extent as to injure the crop ; 
but where the use of Paris green has been promptly resorted to no difficulty has been 
experienced in keeping this pernicious insect within due limits. 

The Plum Curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, has been far less prevalent than usual, so 
that in many instances good crops of plums have been secured, even where no efforts have 
been made to keep the insect in subjection. The plum crop generally has been a good one 
and plum culture has consequently received a considerable impetus. 

The worm of the Cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapce, although still plentiful, is no longer 
the terror to cabbage growers it formerly was, its natural enemies having multiplied to a 
degree sufficient to keep it within some reasonable degree of subjection. The general 
immunity which has of late prevailed regarding the pea-weevil, Bruchus pisi, still continues 
and pea culture has become more general. Even the codling-worm, that perennial plague 
to the apple grower, has been less injurious than usual, so that our apple and pear crops 
have been freer than common from this obnoxious insect. Indeed there seems to have 
been a general scarcity of insect life during the past season, of which collectors in this 
department of natural history in Canada generally complain. 

Our large and important crops of cereals have been almost entirely free from insect 
pests, but this experience has not by any means been universal. In the mother country 
much consternation has been caused of late by the sudden appearance of the Hessian fly in 
the wheat fields in considerable force, so that very serious injury has occurred in many 
quarters. When first notioed specimens of the infested grain were submitted to Miss 
Eleanor A. Ormerod, Consulting Entomologist to the Royal Agricultural Society, who at 
once divined the cause, found the linseed-like chrysalis in the wheatstalks and promptly 



suggested the usual remedies for this trouble ; advice which, if persistently followed will,, 
no doubt, soon reduce the numbers of the insects to about their normal proportion. Mr. 
Whitehead also has been actively engaged in investigating this important subject and in 
disseminating information among farmers. 

Having been absent in Europe during the spring and early summer months, I have 
been unable to give the usual attention to Entomological subjects. While in England I 
had the privilege of seeing several fine collections of insects, but none gave me more 
pleasure in inspecting than that of the immortal Linnaeus, the results of whose painstaking 
work is carefully preserved in the library of the Linnaean Society. Through the kindness 
of Dr. James Murie, the librarian, I was permitted to inspect this interesting cabinet,, 
where every specimen bears evidence of having been mounted and named by this great 
master in natural history. One could not help dwelling in thought on the marvellous 
progress which has attended the study of natural science, since the master mind of this 
wonderful genius was brought to bear on the simplification of its nomenclature. 

Every facility was also afforded me for examining the marvellously complete collec- 
tions of insects in the natural history department of the British Museum in Kensington, 
under the kind guidance of Messrs. Butler and Kirby. Both these gentlemen did all in 
their power to make my visits to that institution both pleasant and profitable, and showed 
me many kindnesses which will never be forgotten. The collections of butterflies here are 
especially wonderful in their completeness. Take for instance the species composing the 
genera Pier is and Colias, and beginning with the plain ground colour of white or yellow, 
one can trace the black bordering of the wings through all the different gradations from 
the faintest marginal outline to the heaviest and widest bands, and the transition is so 
gradual that it is extremely difficult to say where one species ends and another begins. 

While passing through the extensive grape-growing regions in the south of France, a 
sharp eye was kept on the vineyards with the view of detecting evidences of Phylloxera. 
I am pleased to report that I saw but few indications of its presence, and from enquiries 
made, the conclusion was reached that this insect pest which, a short time ago, was so 
exceedingly destructive to the vine-growing interests, is now doing comparatively little 
harm. It was the occasion of much regret that the limited time at my disposal would not 
permit me to visit any of the noted collections of insects to be found in most of the large 
cities in Europe. 

While in London an opportunity was afforded me, which I gladly availed myself of, 
that of visiting the South Kensington Museum, in company with Miss Ormerod, and of 
inspecting the work of that talented lady as displayed in the cases of insects mounted, and 
the preparations made by her to illustrate the life history of injurious insects and depict 
their ravages, forming a most interesting and complete series of object lessons in this 
important economic department of entomological science. I was also present at one of the 
monthly meetings of the Entomological Society of London, where I had the good fortune 
to meet many entomologists of note, including the venerable Professor Westwood, H. T. 
Stainton, Esq., Mr. MoLachlan, and others. All treated the stranger with the greatest 
possible courtesy and kindness, and at the same time manifested the warmest interest in 
everything relating to the progress of entomology in Canada. 

During the past year there have appeared several important works on economic ento- 
mology, prominent among which may be mentioned the reports from the Entomological 
Bureau of the Department of Agriculture at Washington, under the direction of Professor 
C. V. Riley, and the report of Professor J. A. Lintner, State Entomologist of New York. 
In both these publications are recorded a number of useful observations and many new 
facts relating to the life history and habits of the species treated of. Among other 
important works on entomology may be mentioned the continuance of that magnificent 
work on the " Butterflies of North America," by W. H. Edwards, and a volume on the 
"Butterflies of the Eastern States," by Gr. H. French, of Carbondale, Illinois. 

At the recent meeting of the Entomological Club of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, held in Buffalo, N.Y., our Society was represented by the Presi- 
dent, Vice-President, Secretary, and Mr. J. Alston Moffat. Our Society was honoured in 
the election of our Secretary, Mr. E. Baynes Reed, to be Secretary of the Club. The local 
members did all in their power to make the gathering a pleasant one, and in addition to 



the ordinary meetings, special entomological excursions took place which were much enjoyed 
by all. The collections of the several members residing in Buffalo, and the fine library 
belonging to the Society of Natural Sciences, were freely opened to the visiting members. 

The entomological collections in the American National Museum at Washington are 
being rapidly augmented under the energetic direction of the Curator, Mr. John B. Smith. 
The valuable private collections which have been acquired, added to the large amount of 
material constantly accumulating and being rapidly arranged, have already made it a most 
valuable collection of reference. 

In accordance with a request made by the Minister of Agriculture for the Dominion, 
the valuable collection of our Society was specially prepared for exhibition during last 
winter, and forwarded early in the spring to the Colonial and Indian Exhibition in London, 
where it has been an attractive object to visitors throughout the summer. In the work of 
preparation most valuable aid was rendered by one of our esteemed fellow members, Mr. 
J. Alston Moffat, who devoted many weeks of consecutive labour to this end. Mention 
should also be made of the valuable aid rendered by our esteemed Secretary-Treasurer, 
Mr. E. Baynes Reed, and of his son Lawrence, also of a member of our Council, Mr. J. M. 
Denton, for it is to the combined efforts of these several individuals that our great success 
has been mainly due. 

In bringing these brief remarks to a close, I desire to refer to the pleasure it has given 
me during many years past to fill to the best of my ability the post of honour in which, 
year after year, you have been pleased to place me. Public duties of an important 
character, which I have recently undertaken, will, from this time forward, necessarily 
engross all my time, and in case my name should be mentioned again in connection with 
the position of President, I beg to state frankly that I shall be no longer able to serve you 
in this capacity. I regret also that I shall be compelled to relinquish the work of editing 
the Canadian Entomologist, a position which I have long filled with much pleasure to 
myself and, I trust, with some acceptance to the Society. In taking leave of the many 
kind friends who have rendered so much assistance to our journal by their valued contribu- 
tions, I would, while sincerely thanking them for past favours, bespeak for my successor a 
continuance of their kind services. 

With many thanks for all past favours, 

I have the honour to be, 

Your obedient servant, 

WM. SAUNDERS. 



Moved by Mr. Fletcher, seconded by Rev. Thos. W. Fyles, 

That the society learns with regret that their esteemed friend, Prof. Saunders, has 
found it necessary to withdraw from the Presidency of their body, and also from the 
Editorship of their organ, The Canadian Entomologist ; but recognizing the importance of 
the work Prof. Saunders has been called upon to superintend, and the wisdom of the 
choice made in him by the Government, it congratulates the Professor upon this recogni- 
tion of his abilities and zeal in the public service, and respectfully tenders to him a Life 
Membership in the society. 

The resolution was carried unanimously by a standing vote. 



ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 

The following named gentlemen were duly elected as officers of the Society for the 
ensuing year : 

President. — James Fletcher, Ottawa, Ont. 

Vice-President.— "Rev. C. J. S. Bethune, M.A., D. C. L., Port Hope, Ont. 

Sec.-Treas. and Librarian. — E. Baynes Reed, London, Ont. 



Council. — W. H. Harrington. Ottawa ; Rev. T. W Fyles, Quebec ; J. Alston 
Moffat, Hamilton, Ont. ; G. J. Bowles, Montreal ; J. M. Denton, London, Ont. 

Editor " Canadian Entomologist.'" — Rev. C. J. S. Bethune, Port Hope. 

Editing Committee. — Wm. Saunders, Ottawa ; J. M. Denton, E. Baynes Reed, 
London, Ont. ; Capt. Gamble Geddes and Dr. White, Toronto. 

Auditors. — W. E. Saunders, H. P. Bock, London. 

Delegate to Royal Society. — W. H. Harrington, Ottawa. 

On motion of Mr. E. B. Reed, seconded by Mr. A. W. Hanham, the Society resolved 
that all ex-Presidents of the Society be ex-officio members of the Council. 

Rev. Mr. Bethune, and the Sec.-Treas., gave a report of the meeting of the Entomo- 
logical Club of the A. A. A. S., at Buffalo, which they had attended. 

Dr. White introduced the question as to whether the interests of the Society would 
be better served by making its headquarters at Toronto, where possibly a larger work 
might be carried on than in London ; his idea being that by lectures on economic ento- 
mology in the different educational institutions the science might be brought forward more 
prominently, and thus attract greater attention from students. 

Capt. Geddes, also of Toronto, while agreeing in the main with the previous speaker, 
suggested that Toronto should first form a branch society, and thus manifest an interest 
in entomology, which would bring its claims more prominently before the people and 
scientific gentlemen. 

Mr. Fyles thought, without drawing any comparison between the two cities, Toronto 
and London, that London, as the centre of one of the most important farming sections of 
the Province, was a more appropriate locality for the headquarters of the Society than 
Toronto. 

Mr. Reed was glad when any subject was discussed that would tend to widen the 
usefulness of the Society. The main object of the formation of the Society was to 
promote the knowledge of practical entomology among the farming community, while at 
the same time the Society was gradually doing good work in the prosecution of the more 
scientific portion of the study. He thought the above-named object was better served by 
keeping the Society in its present condition|than it would be by any alteration in its 
scheme of working in a more purely dry scientific direction. 

Rev. C. J. S. Bethune felt that the right nail was struck on the head by Capt. Geddes 
in proposing that a branch be formed in Toronto. He suggested that Capt. Geddes and 
Dr. White endeavour to form a branch there. He thought the removal hardly practicable, 
and the Society would never consent to be merged into any other society. He understood 
that many gentlemen in Toronto were willing to help on the scheme of lectures, which 
should, he thought, aim rather at interesting the outside public than at the instruction of 
advanced students. The matter might be left in the hands of the Editing Committee and 
the Council to make an effort to start them. 

Mr. E. B. Reed thought that the Government might be induced to give a grant in 
addition to the one already received to assist these lectures. 

Dr. White was in favour of getting the study introduced in the educational system 
of the Province. 

Dr. Wolverton spoke in favour of keeping the headquarters in London until Toronto 
had as large or a larger society. While Toronto was the seat of learning there were too 
many other institutions there, and amongst them the Entomological Society would dwindle 
down to almost nothing. 

Mr. J. M. Denton reminded the meeting that the London people had made the collec- 
tion, and the library, such as it was, and so far this city was the leading centre in this 
respect. 

On motion of Mr. Denton, seconded by Dr. Wolverton, Dr. White and Capt. 
Geddes were requested to obtain all necessary information respecting public lectures on 
entomology under the auspices of the society, and to report to the Editing Committee at 
their earliest convenience. 



1U 



Mr. E. B. Reed read a letter from Miss E. A. Ormerod, Consulting Entomologist to 
the Royal Agricultural Society of England, thanking the Society for a copy of their 
sixteenth annual Report, and referring to the discovery of the Hessian fly in England. 

Rev. T. W. Fyles read a short paper on a saw-fly larva, Hylotoma dulciaria, which 
he found attacking the foliage of the white birch in Quebec. 

At 11.30 p.m. the meeting adjourned to the following morning. 



The meeting re-assembled Thursday at 10 a.m. 

Mr. A. W. Hanham read a paper "on the Stridulation of Geotrupes Blackbui-niV" 

Capt. G. Geddes read a paper " Notes on the Genus Colias in the imago or perfect 
state." 

Mr. Fletcher thought it possible that G. Hagenii is a tetramorphic form of C. Eury- 
theme, and made further remarks on Capt. Geddes's paper. 

Capt. Geddes asked if Argynnis c/iariclea and Argynnis Boisduvallii had been taken 
east of the Rocky Mountains in Canada. 

Mr. Fletcher said that A. charilea had been taken at Neepigon and Hudson's Bay. 



THE HOME OF CHIONOBAS JUTTA. 

BY THE REV. T. W. FYLES, SOUTH QUEBEC. 

Rev. T. W. Fyles read the following paper on " The Home of Chionobas Jutta." 

To the north-west of Bergerville, in the vicinity of Quebec, lies a tract of country 
.known as the Gomin Swamp. It derives its name from a French physician and botanist, 
who, 200 years ago, took up his residence in that locality, to study its flora, which is 
remarkably rich. I was informed, some time since, by the President of the Montreal 
Branch of our Society, that the Gomin Swamp was the only known place, in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Quebec, in which Chionobas Jutta could be found. He furnished me 
with a pen-and-ink map of the approaches to the swamp, and, very accurately, named the 
time of the appearance of the insect as that from the first to the fifteenth of June. The 
weather being particularly favourable, on the 31st of May, of the present year, I set out 
on an exploring expedition, accompanied by a gentleman from England who was visiting 
me. Following the directions given me we found the place. It is skirted by a thick and 
tangled growth of scrub, through which a few cattle-tracks lead into the swamp itself. 
Which of these tracks to choose we did not know, for time and changes had made some 
confusion in the land-marks. We asked a " canny Scot," who happened by, to tell us 
what to do ; but he would not venture an opinion. Indeed, he seemed to think it infra 
dig. to be questioned on such a trivial matter. We then applied for information to two 
children of the Emerald Isle — father and son — who, with the ready kindness of their 
race, were profuse in their directions. Unfortunately they differed in opinion — the 
council was divided. In questions of locality, it is always wise to take the opinion of 
the bird's-nesting, hare-and-hounds part of the community, so we chose the route pointed 
out by the son. But what a route ! I began to despair for my English friend's immacu- 
late broadcloth at the very outset ; and, the further we went, the worse we found it, until 
we were — I was going to say landed — but, until we were fairly sioamped in the swamp 
itself. Did you ever experience the pleasant sensation of sinking deep in sphagnum, and 
feelin» the cold marsh water ooze over the tops of your boots, and churn and gurgle 
between your toes ? Gloomy thoughts oppressed my mind, as I looked at my friend, of the 
traveller in Ireland, who found a hat on the surface of the bog he was crossing, and, 
lifting it, found a head beneath, at which he tugged by the hair, until he brought up a 
man, who coolly asked him to bear a hand for his horse was below. My first thought 
was to place my companion in a position of safety. I looked round, and noticed in the 



11 



distance a growth of young birches, which seemed to indicate a dryer spot. What work 
we had to reach it ! How exhaustively we studied, with reference to our surroundings 
and their appearances, the degrees of comparison of the adjective treacherous. At length 
we reached our goal. We found it to be a ridge thrown up, for drainage purposes, by the 
owners of the land beyond, We took off our boots, and emptied them of water, and then 
proceeded to refresh the inner man. After a while, I left my friend to make acquaintance 
with the swamp mosquitos (who were disposed to be quite familiar), and went in search of 
0. Jutta. Relieved from fraternal cares, I now could give my attention to the surround- 
ings. What wonderful prospects did these present! The whole marsh was aglow with 
the rosy flowers of Rhodora Canadensis, that charming plant whose 

' ' Beauty is its own excuse for being. " 

The clustered pitchers of the Sarracenia purpurea (a plant named after another French 
botanist, Dr. Sarassin) tufted the surface of the moss ; and, all around, the stemless 
lady's slipper, Gypripedium acaule, displayed its elegant blossoms. Suddenly a fluttering 
brown object arose before me, made a short flight, and then settled a few yards away. I 
noticed the mottling of the underwings, brought down my net, and, shouting to my friend 
"I have it," captured my first specimen of C. Jutta. Soon a second specimen arose; but 
another insect-admirer was in the field who was more agile than I. A specimen of the 
King Bird, Tyrannis Garolinensis, gave chase to the butterfly, and, after much doubling 
and twisting, caught it, and disposed of it effectually. It was long before another speci- 
men rewarded my search ; but at length a third did make its appearance, and I had the 
good fortune to secure it. By this time my muscles were so strained by the uncertain 
footing that every movement gave me pain, and I was obliged to abandon the hunt for 
that day. I rejoined my companion and set out for home, very wet, and very tired, but 
possessed by the proud consciousness that I had captured Chionobas Jutta. 

Captain Geddes said that his only captured specimen of this insect was identified by 
Mr. W. H. Edwards, and was taken in the Rocky Mountains at a great altitude. 



NOTES ON LARViE OF MALLOTA POSTICATA. 

Mr. Lawrence Reed read some notes on "Larva? of Maltota postieata," as follows : — 

During the recent heavy gale of October 15th a large limb of a maple tree, standing in 
our boulevard, was blown down. 

While removing it the next day I noticed that the centre of the limb, from the fork 
where it was attached to the tree was much decayed, for about one foot from the top. 

Thinking this had been caused by some of our wood-boring beetles, I examined the 
black casting which seemed to fill up the hole, and discovered some twelve or thirteen 
larvae embedded rather firmly in the pithy substance. These are, I think, the maggots of 
some dipterous insect, and from their rat-tailed appearance they belong to some species 
of Heliophilus. Upon placing some of the larva? in water, the tails were observed to come 
to the surface of the water, as it is said, for breathing purposes. We find a Heliophilus 
mentioned in Edwards, Plate 7, figure 28. Harris also gives an account of the larvae, 
saying : — " The larvae of a few are aquatic, and are provided with very long, tubular tails, 
through which they breathe, and have been called rat-tailed maggots. Some of the 
largest and most beautiful of these flies live, in the maggot state, in rotten wood." 

Professor Lintner has given a full description of the insect in his First Annual Report 
of the New York State Entomologist, 1882, page 211, -and named it as above. 



12 



THE DESTRUCTION OF INSECT LIFE BY THE ELECTRIC LAMPS. 

BY PROFESSOR CLAYPOLE, AKRON, OHIO. 

The following paper was also read for Professor Claypole"on the destruction of 
insects by electric light." 

In the early part of the year 1885, an installation of about one hundred electric 
lamps was established in the city of Akron, 0.* It soon became evident that these lamps 
would prove a fine field for entomological work. Several members of our Scientific club 
accordingly watched them through the summer with great success. One point that came 
under my own observation seems deserving of notice as showing the enormous destruction 
of insect life by this new mode of illumination. 

It was by no means an unnusual occurrence to find in the morning the glass globes 
from a quarter to half full of various kinds of insects. Most of these were more or less 
burnt, but from the charred mass good specimens were frequently obtained, and many in 
•a state sufficient for identification. 

A single instance will illustrate my purpose now. On different days I took from 
every lamp examined more than one hundred specimens of the little grass moth (Crambus 
mutabilis, Clem). This gives a total from 110 lamps of more than a million individuals 
destroyed during the three months, or 100 days, of their occurrence. This large number 
must be largely increased by those, probably as many, which were totally consumed, and 
left no trace behind. 

Other insects were also destroyed in numbers nearly as great, especially several species 
of the Tiger Moths. 

It would most naturally be expected that so wholesale a slaughter of insects, the greater 
part of which had probably not laid any eggs, would be followed by a diminution of their 
number. Accordingly this season has somewhat disappointed our expectations from this 
source. The swarms around the lamps have been much smaller than in 1885. 

It is also worthy of notice, that it has become a matter of common observation that 
the number of insects coming into the houses during the summer evenings has been very 
much reduced by, or since the introduction of the electric lamps. 

It may therefore follow that one result unexpected, and uncalculated, may follow the 
change in the mode of illumination. We may largely reduce the number of our insect 
plagues in towns. Of course, this can only apply to those that are attracted to the light — 
a large number — but not the most annoying. The mosquito, for example, has no special 
love for the lamps. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE 

ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 

The Club met at Buffalo, N.Y., on August 17th, 1886, at the rooms of the Buffalo 
Society of Natural History, fourteen members being present. 

The session continued at intervals during the meeting of the A.A.A.S. The follow- 
ing persons were in attendance during the meeting: — J. A. Lintner, Albany, N.Y. ; J. H. 
Comstock, Ithaca, N.Y. : S. A. Forbes, Champaign, 111. ; L. M, Underwood, Syracuse, 
N.Y. ; T. B. Stowell, Courtland, 111. ; Rev. R. Benjamin, Cincinnati, O. ; E. W. Claypole, 
Akron, 0. ; Dr. J. B. Tweedale, St. Thomas, Ont. ; D. S. Kellieott, E. M. Chamot, 
O. Reinecke, C. D. Zimmerman, Ph. Fischer, E. P. Van Duzee, Buffalo. 

The Entomological Society of Ontario was duly represented by Mr. Wm. Saunders, 
Rev. C. J. S. Bethune, Mr. J. Alston Moffat, and Mr. E. Baynes Reed. 

The President, Professor J. A. Lintner, took the chair, and Mr. E. B. Reed acted as 
Secretary in the absence of Mr. J. B. Smith, of Washington. 

* See report of the Entomological Society of Ontario for 1885, page 19. 



13 



The President gave his annual address, which was a very able review of the progress 
of entomology, as shown in publications which have appeared since the last meeting. 

Professor Lintner also alluded to the absence of some who were usually attendant at 
the Olub meetings, referring especially to Professor C. V. Riley, who was then in Europe 
for the benefit of his health. 

Dr. D. S. Kellicott, on behalf of the Buffalo Society of Natural History, placed the 
rooms at the disposal of the members of the Olub. 

The Presidenc paid a high compliment to the contributions to entomology that had 
emanated from the rooms where they were meeting. 

Professor Comstock explained a new method of arranging collections by which loss of 
time is avoided in transferring specimens so as to make room for additional species, or 
making necessary changes in their arrangement. The main feature in this plan consists in 
having moveable blocks on which the insects are pinned, but made in sections to fit 
the cases. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year : — 

President. — Professor J. H. Comstock, Ithaca, N.Y. 
Vice-President. — Professor S. A. Forbes, Champaign, 111. 
Secretary. — Mr. E. Baynes Reed, London, Ont. 

The following is a summary of papers read before the meeting during the session : — 
Professor S. A. Forbes — Notes of the Past Year's Work : The Hessian Fly, 
Cecidomyia destructor has been found to hibernate in Southern Illinois as a naked white 
grub, not forming puparium until May following, and emerging before harvest ; these are 
probably the offspring of a mid-summer brood, which develop in volunteer wheat. The 
Clover Seed Midge, C. leguminicola, was observed first in 1879 in Illinois. A new 
Chalcid parasite, Tetrastichus, has been reported, but its worst enemy so far observed was 
Triphleps insidiosus. The young of this species are often so abundant on the clover heads 
as to be mistaken for the injurious midge, but a little observation will show their beneficial 
character. The Wheat-stem Maggot, Meromyza Americana, is shown to have three broods 
instead of two only. Eggs and half-grown larva? were found in abundance, August 4th. 
Two species of Melanotus, communis and cribulosus, were bred to maturity, and a third 
Elaterid not yet determined, of which figures and precise descriptions have been prepared. 
Larvae of these, and of Agriotes mancus, and of a Gardiophorus, were reported as 
injurious to Indian corn, the peculiar larvae of the last boring the roots in all directions in 
sandy soil. M. cribulosus pupates in July and forms imago in September. The Corn- root 
Worm, Diabrotica longicomis, is reported as seriously affecting crops in Southern Illinois. 
The common pale Flea Beetle, Sy sterna blanda, was bred from larvae feeding on kernels of 
sprouting corn in the earth. Epiccerus imbricator taken feeding on leaves of pear ; eggs 
laid in single layer on leaves, concealed by the insect fastening together the opposed 
surfaces of the leaves. Larvae of Sphenophorus parvulus found to infest the roots of 
meadow grass (timothy). The midge sucks the sap from stems of wheat and corn. The 
Corn-plant Louse, Aphis maizis, was very injurious; observation shows that they are 
strictly dependent on the ant, Lasius alienus, which mines along the principal roots, 
collects the plant lice and conveys them into these burrows and there watches over and 
protects them. The ants have nothing to do with the hibernation of the lice, their winter 
nests never containing them in any form, either in corn-fields or other situations ; the facts 
indicate that the lice hibernate as wingless females on the earth of fields previously infested. 
The Currant Worm, JVematus ventricosus, was mentioned as a case of retarded development. 
Mr. Bethune had noticed a similar case in Attacus promethea. The Root Web-worm, 
Grambus zeellus, was very destructive to corn in Illinois. A detailed description was 
given of its earth nest and the method and character of injury done to corn by this species. 
It hibernates as a larva, pupates in a tubular nest in June, emerging June and July. 
A paper was read from H. Garman : Contribution to Life History of Aphis maizis. 
Paper read from W. L. Deveraux : A Dangerless Insecticide for Collecting Bottles. 
The best vegetable container of prussic acid is the bark of the wild cherry, Prunus serotina, 
to be used for the Serotina bottle for young collectors, like the Laurel bottle of European 
entomologists. 



14 



In the discussion that took place, 

Professor Forbes stated that the attacks of myrmis had considerably lessened the 
number of grasshoppers in Illinois. 

The President called attention to the unusual number of Aphides in New York State. 
They had been found on apple, black currant, tomato, and on potato in the Eastern States, 
The hop crop was almost destroyed by them in New York. 

Mr. Bethune had also found them very numerous on the north shore of Lake 
Ontario. 

In reply to a question, Professor Lintner stated that European entomologists had 
come to the conclusion that the Aphis of the wild cherry and the hop were identical. 

Mr. Fischer called attention to the probable identy of Spilosoma fuliginosa and 
rubricosa. He also exhibited a specimen of Catocala obscura, just taken by him for the 
first time in Buffalo. 

The President called attention to the fact of the earth worm being the host of a 
parasite, and therefore dangerous to fowls and poultry. 

An excursion of members of the Club took place to Ebenezer, where a very pleasant 
afternoon was spent, and some interesting captures were made, among the most interesting 
being Cicindela ancocisconensis. 

The Club adjourned to the call of the President at the next meeting of the 
Association. 



15 



POPULAK PAPEES ON ENTOMOLOGY 



THE OAK-PRUNERS : ELAPHIDION PARALLELUM, Newm, AND PHYMA- 
TODES VARIABILIS, Fab. 

BY C. H. T. TOWNSEND, CONSTANTINE, MICH. 

In last year's Report I noticed with interest the article by Mr. Clarkson on Elapliidion 
villosum, Fabr. I have reason to believe that the same is partly the case also with E. 
parallelum, Newm., which I find to be the common oak-pruner here. But I do not agree 
that it is always, or even in the majority of instances, the case with either species. As 
bearing on this subject I give the following extract from my notes for 1885, which relates 
also to Phymatodes variabilis, Fab. : — 

" Last fall (Sept.) I laid in a large supply of red, white and black oak and hickory 
twigs, containing larvae of oak-pruners. The majority were red oak and hickory, but all 
were kept in separate boxes. Also a large box full of sawed hickory wood which contained 
wood-boring larvae, These were all kept regularly moistened. During May and June, as 
I was absent from home at the time, another person, a lady, collected and saved for me a 
bottle full of beetles from the vicinity of these boxes (all taken from and around the large 
box of hickory wood, she says). These I afterward examined, and found the bottle to 
contain 145 Phymatodes variabilis, Fab., and 18 Elapliidion parallelum, Newm., besides 
two Tenebrionidce of uncertain origin. As to which the two species proceeded from, the 
twigs or the hickory wood, the lady, who examined the twigs from time to time without 
being able to discover a single specimen among them, is almost certain that they all came 
from the large box of sawed hickory, on the underside of the papers covering which she 
was able to pick them off in large numbers, as well as all over and around the box and on 
the wood inside. Upon examining a good number of the twigs of each kind later in the 
season, I found not an insect in them (with the exception of one which contained a dried 
and shrivelled larva that had not transformed), but they showed every sign of the insects 
having emerged as perfect beetles. The E. parallelum, Newm., must have come from the 
twigs, while the P. variabilis, Fab., all proceeded from the sawed hickory wood. Packard 
gives the latter species as living only in white oak, but I am confident that these came 
from hickory, though I cannot conceive what became of the other numerous Elaphidions 
which must have emerged from the twigs." 

In my notes for 1884, under date of 18th September, I extract also the following : — 
" Found an oak-pruner in the pupa state, inclosed in its silken white cocoon, inside a red 
oak twig. The end of the twig was not closed up, as is usually the case, but the passage 
was open, and a couple of inches up from the end the larva had changed to the pupa state, 
leaving its cast off skin below it in the passage." 

Upon reading the account by Dr. Fitch, of E. villosum, Fabr., I find he says that 
" some of the worms enter their pupal state the last of autumn, and others not till the 
following spring. Hence, in examining the fallen limbs in the winter, a larva may be 
found in one, a pupa in another." Now, though I have found the pupa of E. parallelum, 
Newm., very early in the fall (18th Sept., as stated above), and Mr. Clarkson has found 
the imago of E. villosum, Fabr., in November, I am inclined to think that these early 
metamorphoses were from eggs deposited earlier than others, or that by some favourable 
circumstances these individuals developed more rapidly and thus metamorphosed earlier 
It is my opinion that both these species may assume the imago state either in the fall or 
the following spring, some, more forward than others, attaining this state in the fall. 
Perhaps favourable years, when some of the eggs may be deposited earlier in the summer 
than usual, produce the autumn imagos, which then remain within the twigs during the 
winter and emerge early in the spring. These in turn, if the season is at all favourable, 
will lay their eggs earlier than fche others, and thus continue the early metamorphosis. 



16 



Toward the conclusion of his account Dr. Fitch says that "in at least three-fourths of 
the fallen limbs no worm is to be found," it having been devoured by birds either at the 
time the branch fell or afterward. The ground under oak and hickory trees here I have 
known some years (1884) to be covered with the twigs early in September, blown down 
by heavy winds, and at such times nearly all of the larva; are destroyed by insectivorous 
birds, which extract them from their burrows, if they have not already been dislodged. 
This explains why so few of the beetles were obtained from the twigs I had saved — only 
18 beetles from a large supply of the twigs, every one of which had certainly fallen that 
season, and been occupied at the time — the birds had destroyed all the others, and that 
very soon after their fall ! But I cannot concur in the view taken by Dr. Fitch, that the 
larva severs the branch that it may fall to the ground, thus to aid its transformation. It 
is very probable that the larva cuts the twig to stop the flow of sap, the dead wood being 
necessary to mature its growth, and is conscious of none of that " consummate skill and 
seemingly super-terrestrial intelligence " which the worthy Doctor so enthusiastically 
attributed to it. 



NOTES OF 1885 ON SOME INJURIOUS AND OTHER COMMON INSECTS. 

BY JOHN G. JACK, CHATEAUGUAY, QUEBEC. 

Read before the Montreal Branch Entomological Society of Ontario, 9th February, 1886. 

The past season was remarkable, in our locality, for the general scarcity of diurnal 
Lepidoptera, and also of many of the Coleoptera, especially among the Scarabeidae, 
Cerambycidae and Buprestidae. Many species of these, usually plentiful, seemed rare this 
year, and even Lachnostema fusca was not nearly so abundant or injurious as it is 
generally. Perhaps, with the exception of Colias philodice, the most common butterfly 
was D. archippus, which I have never seen so common. I do not think I saw a single 
specimen of P. cardui, although it was very abundant last year. Pieris rapce was less 
numerous and appears to be decreasing in numbers every year, largely owing, no doubt, to 
the attacks of the parasite Pteromalus puparum. The birds also, especially the Fly- 
catchers, do not get full credit for the good work they do. Insects of all other orders 
seemed to be about as abundant as usual, and several species proved to be more than 
usually numerous and destructive. 

The Buffalo Tree-hopper (Ceresa bubalus, Say) was again very abundant, doing very 
much injury to apple and pear trees in young orchards. On July 5th I found some larch 
trees (Larix Americana) with the foliage very much destroyed by saw-fly larvae, and on 
examining the trees in the woods and surrounding country, I found that they were all 
attacked. At this time most of the larvae seemed to be a little more than half grown, and 
they continued to feed until about July 15th, when some of them made cocoons. Many 
of the trees were now entirely defoliated, and the branches and twigs literally covered with 
the larvae, many of which were dropping to the ground, and with the falling " frass " made 
a sound like that of fast falling rain drops. Three days later (July 18) very few of the 
larvae were to be found, most of them having formed cocoons among the old leaves and 
debris, or in the loose surface soil at the base of the trees or in the vicinity. When 
collecting some of these cocoons on July 19th, I found that very large numbers had already 
been collected and the larvae taken out by some small animals, probably mice and moles, as 
there was a perfect network of small burrows under the old leaves and grass. The empty 
cocoons were collected into little heaps, and a very large handful could often be gathered 
at a single grasp. 

Having been kept in a moderately warm room, some of the imagines emerged from 
the cocoons on December 22nd, and continued to do so almost daily until January 17th of 



17 



this year. The larvae, cocoons and imagines agreed exactly with the figures of Nematus 
Erichsonii (Hortig), in Professor Riley's report to the U. S. Department of Agriculture 
for 1883. 6 

I had noticed these larvae on the larch trees in former years, but they were not so 
generally abundant, and I had not the opportunity to study them. 

My father has told me that about thirty years ago the tamarack woods were entirely 
defoliated, and looked as though scorched by fire, and he thinks that the saw-fly larvae were 
probably the cause. It was more noticeable at that time, as there were large tracts of land 
covered with tamarack forest that have now entirely disappeared. 

Another insect has proved to be peculiarly injurious this season to young growing 
beans. It is a small dipterous fly, and specimens sent to Professor Riley were determined 
by him as Anthomyia anyustifrons, Mirgen ( = A. calopteni, Riley), the larvae of which 
have been hitherto known to feed upon the eggs of Caloptenus. During the past summer 
the larvae attacked a field of golden wax-beans that were planted about June 15th, and on 
that part of the field that was most seriously injured, at least nine-tenths of the crop was 
destroyed. About ten days after planting, as very few of the beans had grown to the 
surface of the ground, an examination was made for the cause, and it was found that nearly 
every bean was infected by from 1 or 2 to 20 or 25 small, long, white maggots. Some of 
the beans attacked had hardly sprouted, while most of them had grown from one to two 
inches, but being planted deeply, they had scarcely reached the surface. Both the stems 
and seed-leaves were attacked. These larvae were first noticed on June 25th ; by the 28th 
many of them had pupated, and hardly a maggot could be found after July 2nd. The flies 
emerged about July 10th. If this bean- feeding habit of the insect should become general 
it might prove very annoying. 

Grasshoppers of several species were very abundant and injurious, hundreds of bushels 
of grain having been destroyed by them, while pasture and grasses were much injured, and 
many young fruit trees were defoliated. Some farmers reported in early September' that 
their buckwheat had been so devoured by grasshoppers that only the stumps of the stalks 
remained. 

Cicada canicularis Harr. was not so common this season as it has been some years, 

Females of the fall canker-worm moth (Anisopteryx pometaria) were taken depositing 
eggs on apple trees, Nov. 21-24. This insect is not common in our part of the country 
and is not noticeably injurious. ' 

Larvae of the pear-tree slug (Selandria cerasi) were found as late as October 30th, or 
later. They are not abundant and give us no trouble. 

The fall web-worm, Hyphantria textor, has become more abundant and troublesome 
during the past three or four years. Young larvae were first noticed July 10th, and new 
lots continued to hatch until about the middle of August. 

A fresh specimen of the cotton moth (Aletia xylina, Say) was taken September 19th. 

On July 12th, a large number of small parasitic flies emerged from a dead cut- worm 
(Noctuidae). These parasites are evidently the Copidosoma truncatelluw Dalman, which 
is so well figured by Professor Riley in his Report to the U. S. Department of Agriculture 
for 1883. 

Early in December I took a living specimen of Cyrtophorus verrucosus Oliv. in the 
wood of the wild red cherry (P. pennsylvanica Linn.), and also found a large number of 
larvae which I think were of the same species, as they occupied similar cavities to that of 
the beetle. The larva of a Lepidopterous insect (probably ^Egerian) was found under the 
bark of the same tree. 

On December 8th, a living pupa of Tremex columba was taken from the heart of a 
green beech log, the log being over ten inches in diameter. At the same time larvae of 
Saperda calcarata were taken from the heart of Populus tremuloides. 



18 



NOTES ON CERESA BUBALUS, Say. 

BY JOHN G. JACK, CHATEAUGUAY BASIN, QUE., CAN. 

Read before the Montreal Branch Entomological Society of Ontario, 9th February, 1886. 

During the past two years, but more especially this season, we have been very much 
troubled and annoyed by the attacks of the Buffalo Tree-hopper (C. bubalus Say) on the 
youn« trees in the orchard. Most of the trees have been seriously injured by having the 
bark cut up by the ovipositors of these insects, when depositing their eggs. These incisions 
and the eggs in them were so numerous that in many cases it was impossible to raise the 
bark for the purpose of "budding " the trees. 

The incisions and eggs are usually most abundant on the south and upper side ot the 
limbs, comparatively few being found on the shady or under sides. The first imagines 
were noticed in the orchard on July 16th, and a few days later they became quite abundant. 
On the young tender twigs of the apple trees, especially those nearest to the ground large 
numbers of the insects were found busily extracting the juices with their tender beaks. 
Upon close examination the twigs plainly showed the traces of their punctures, ihey 
were also very abundant on beans, potatoes and several kinds of weeds, in many cases 
completely covering the stems, and all engaged in feeding upon the juices of the plants. 
Bean-stalks that were attacked in this way were considerably injured, as numerous dark 
knotty formations occurred at the places that were much punctured, so that the growth ot 
the plant was decidedly checked. ... 

The insect was first noticed depositing eggs about August 12th, and a few incisions 
were then to be found on the branches. This depositing of eggs continued until October 
8th when a severe frost killed a great many of the tree-hoppers, although a few escaped 
and continued the work until October 26th. After that date they were not noted. 

Some of the eggs of the season of 1884 were collected last spring and kept in a very 
ti"ht box. They were hatched during the first week in June, and with them were a 
number of small Dipterous flies, evidently parasites upon the eggs of Ceresa. I watched 
for these parasites in the summer and autumn, and first found them August 31st, on limbs 
where the tree-hoppers were depositing eggs. The parasites were found in larger numbers 
a little later, and I had the satisfaction of distinctly seeing a number of them insert the 
abdomen and sometimes almost the entire body deeply into the gaping slits made by the 
ovipositors of the tree-hoppers. Professor Riley thinks that the parasite may be an 
undescribed species. 

As I did not know the best conditions or food for the young larvae of Ceresa, 1 placed 
them in a glass jar and gave them the tender twigs and leaves of apple trees. From these 
they seemed to extract the juices, and they could be seen in rows on the ribs of the leaves, 
with extended beaks, while little particles of a clear gummy substance were often found at 
the places where the insects had been sucking the juices. I afterwards added bits of 
grasses, etc., to their food, but after some time they ceased feeding, and finally they all 
died, none of them being more than half grown. This was about July 5th, and about this 
time I found a number of the larvae about some raspberry canes in a shady place, and on 
July 13th I took more of them among low juicy grasses and thistles, growing thickly in a 
cooi, moist place, several rods from any trees of any kind. On July 17th, nearly all these 
larva? changed to the adult form. * 

The larva becomes much elongated as it begins to cast the last envelope, and one ot j 
them, noticed when just beginning the operation, took three hours to complete it. 

The full grown larva is about 8 m.m, in length, and light green m colour, somewhat 
lio-hter than the mature insect. The young larvae appeared to be of a darker green than 
they were at a later period of their growth. The general shape is triangular, like that of 
the mature insect, but the broad horn-like projections are not seen in the larva. The eyes 
are prominent. On the front of the elevated thorax, and behind each eye, are two short, 
strom* spines, one above the other, armed with several lateral prongs or forks ; higher up, 
near the apex of the triangular shaped thorax, are two more, somewhat larger armed spines, 



19 



and the last two visible thoracic segments are each provided with a pair of these branching- 
spines that are still longer. There is also a pair of these spines, each armed with about 6- 
or 7 barbs, on each of the abdominal segments next to the terminal. These are graduated 
in length, the shortest being on the last segments, and the longest hardly more than a 
millimeter in length. The thoracic spines project forwards, while those on the abdominal 
segments are drawn forward at the base and then curve back, strongly suggesting the dorsal 
fin of a fish. On the last segment, which is long and tapering, there are two short armed 
spines directly above the anal opening, which is terminal. The ventral surface of the 
abdomen is scatteringly covered with short, strong bristles or hairs. The legs are also 
covered with stiff hairs. 

The eggs, in batches of from five or six to a dozen (rarely more), are deposited 
obliquely in the bark, and often the incision continues into the wood, if the bark is thin. 
In this way the bark and wood become fastened together, and will not separate at any 
season, and the dark spots in the wood and the rough knotty bark bear evidences of the 
injuries for many years. 

The eggs are of a dirty transparent white, about 1.5 m.m. in length, smooth, slightly 
tapering, and sharply rounded towards the interior end, but tapering much more gradually 
at the exterior end. Although normally round, the sides are generally found to be more 
or less flattened by pressure from the tissues of the wood and bark of the tree. So 
numerous were these eggs on some trees that a careful estimate shows that there must be 
at least from six to eight hundred eggs in a section of the branches not more than an inch 
long and half an inch in diameter. 

I have not been able to find a remedy, and perhaps the best is to destroy as many of 
the egg-bearing limbs as possible. It is to be hoped that the little parasitic flies will 
increase, and this seems probable. On September 17th I found five or six tree-hoppers 
ovipositing on a piece of branch about four inches long, and on the same section were 



twelve or fifteen of the parasitic flies. 



NOTES ON ANT LIONS. 



BY J. ALSTON MOFFAT, HAMILTON, ONT. 



As my former notes on the Ant Lions were of interest to some of our readers, 
perhaps a few additional particulars on the same subject may not be objectionable to them. 
Having had another opportunity of observing their habits, I made the best use I could of 
it. The abdomen of the nymph is somewhat heart-shaped, flat beneath and very much 
rounded above, thickest near the thorax, and sloping off suddenly to the sides and tail, 
which is an acute point. The thorax is long, and with the head is narrow and flat above, 
a form no doubt well adapted to its requirements. Its mode of travelling is backwards, 
always "advancing to the rear," one side contracted, which produces a circular movement, 
so that when one was placed in the centre of the palm of the hand, it made two rounds 
before it dropped over the side. As soon as it touched the sand it put itself instantly out 
of sight under the surface, where it lay for a short time perfectly quiet. When it began 
the formation of its pit, which I watched to its completion, it commenced by a jerk of the 
head and thorax, which threw the sand off and exposed them to view. It lowered them 
at once, made a sudden start back, when the sand covered them ; then another jerk and 
another backward move rapidly executed, always throwing the sand to the outside. In its 
first round it described a circle of about an inch in diameter, reducing the circle with each 
round. A mound was formed in the centre and the sand ran into the trench from both 
sides, and thus it worked away without a halt until the mound was all thrown out, and the 
pit had assumed the funnel shape, when it took a rest, after which it began throwing out 
the sand from the centre at its leisure, deepening and widening the pit very much. The 
time occupied in the first part of the operation may have been about half an hour. 

One that I was watching, after it had made nearly a round in commencing a pit, 
seemed to be dissatisfied with the location, and started off on a prospecting tour to find one 



20 



more to its liking. Its course was quite discernible by the disturbance of the surface sand, 
although it never appeared in view. In its travels it met an obstruction, a piece of broken 
pine limb about four inches long and an inch and a-half in diameter, imbedded about an 
inch in the sand. Against this it struggled until it raised it out of its bed, moving one 
end along an inch and a half, when it was sufficiently elevated to permit the nymph to 
pass on without going below its ordinary depth. It had travelled hither and thither over 
a space of twelve or fourteen inches without stopping, before I left it. It is most amusing 
to place one on its back and watch it get on its feet again. Although I am afraid the 
operation is quite indescribable by me, I can tell what it does not do ; it does not spring 
up like like an Elater ; it does not stretch out its legs as beetles generally do, they being 
very short, it could not nearly reach with its feet the surface on which it is lying ; it does 
not seem merely to roll over, for when it has got on its feet, it is in the identical spot it 
was when on its back. But while one is watching it attentively, it suddenly assumes that 
hazv, indefinite appearance that anything will when in rapid vibration, and when again 
distinctly seen it is resting quietly on its feet, but what it did more than vigorously shake 
itself, or how it accomplished the " presto change," I cannot say. I watched it again and 
again but could make nothing more of it. 

The species to which these nymphs belonged would be either abdominalis or obsoletus, 
and they must have been nearing maturity, as some were out on the wing at the time. I 
took two abdominalis, one of them with a most unseemly length of abdomen, extending 
full three-fourths of an inch beyond the wings, which I take to be a female. 



OCCURRENCE OF THE CHINCH-BUG (BLISSUS LEUCOPTEBUS, Say) 

AT BUFFALO, N. Y. 



BY E. P. VAN DUZEE. 



This pernicious insect has been very abundant here for many years. As early as 1874 
I found it in considerable numbers among moss on dry, grassy hill-sides at Lancaster, N. Y. 
This season (1886) it was remarkably abundant in a dry upland hay field near the same 
locality. I have also taken it at Ridgeway, Ont. Ordinarily the short winged form 
predominates, but in hot, dry summers, such as those of 1881 and 1886, they mostly 
acquire fully developed membranes. I find on comparison with a lot of perhaps one 
hundred fully developed examples from Kansas, that ours are quite uniformly larger and 
more robust, with longer hairs on the pronotum. 

Professor J. A. Lintner says (Second Annual Report N. Y. State Ent., page 150) that, 
previous to its appearance in St. Lawrence county in 1882, the only recorded occurrence of 
this insect in New York State is that mentioned by Dr. Fitch (Second Report, 1856, 
p. 287). From this it appears that it has not been recorded, if indeed it occurs generally 
in this State. Its early introduction at this locality is only natural, considering the 
immense grain traffic which yearly passes through this city direct from the infected States 
of the West, on its way to the seaboard ; yet it does seem strange that its first appearance 
in sufficient numbers to attract general attention should have been in Northern New York, 
quite aside from any of the main lines of transportation, unless, as Professor Riley suggests 
(Science, vol. ii., p. 621), it be a native species, which, through an unusual series of 
favouring circumstances, has increased enormously in certain localities. That it has not 
been reported as an injurious insect in this locality seems to me no proof that it has not 
been injurious. To be sure, it has not appeared in such overwhelming numbers as to force 
itself upon public notice as in other places, but from my own observations I think that no 
inconsiderable part of the injury to hay fields charged to the dry weather is in reality the 
work of this insect, or rather the combined effect of the two. For example, the hay field 
at Lancaster mentioned above, which last year yielded an abundant crop, is literally ruined 
and will have to be plowed under in the spring, while other fields less protected, where the 
bug was not found in numbers, escaped injury; and I know of several other fields near 
this city apparently affected in the same manner. 



21 



I have always found this insect in hay fields, generally in timothy or clover 
ccasionaHy among wild grasses. I do not recollect ever having taken a specimen in a 
rain field ox any kind. If it has so thoroughly acquired the habit of subsisting upon the 
ultivated cereals in the West why should it not affect the same plants here, especially if 
has been introduced from that section of the country through commercial transportation* 
. would be highly interesting to learn of its occurrence in this State at localities distant 
rom main railroad lines. 



BOOK NOTICES, 
he Butterflies of the Eastern United States : by G. H. French, A.M. 

This book is indicative of the progress made in Zoology, and particularly in Ento- 

o ogy, m that such work is possible, and that it is appreciated. In a plain, simple, and 

ill compete and thorough way, it presents the facts known about a large and distinct 

;oup of living objects, which attract the interested attention of every lover and student 

nature 1 he first question which a student asks of a newly found object is, « what is 

I-l a \ ° * J6 ! T 6S ^u thm t 1 he SC ° pe ° f this Volume ' this nation will be answered 
.sily and satisfactorily. The work has been done carefully and well. The writer has 
own his good judgment quite as much in what he has left out, as in what he has put in 
t w ?? has ^ 1S ?^ acce P^ d the work ^Ich the great body of Entomologists has 
.ne before him. He has not felt that a woe rested upon him if he failed to revise 
iich commonly means to ignore all such work. He has not tried to create a chaos and 
U it science. He has evidently preferred to present the facts of this subject, rather than 
display himself. For what he has done, and for what he has omitted to do he deserves 
anks. The volume is well printed, and its many illustrations, though in many cases 
miliar, are still the best extant. While we recognize their abundance, we still wish 
ere were more, and hope that it will at some time be possible to figure in such a book 
ery species mentioned. We trust that this work will be followed by others equallv 
jntonous in every division of the wide Entomological field. 

tal ^Vn ° anadian Plan ts. Part III. ; Apetala3 : by John Macoun, M.A., F.L.S., 
.b.K.S.C., Montreal. 1886. 

The last publication issued by the Geological and Natural History Survey forms the 
rd part of Professor Macoun's Catalogue of Canadian Plants. Part I, Polypetal* and 
rt II., Gamopetalae, have already been noticed in these pages. Part III Apetala? 
Ties the work on to the end of the Exogens and completes Volume I. 

The value of this important work, which is quite indispensable to every student of 
nadian botany, is much enhanced by the Addendum and comprehensive index of the 
ole volume contained in the present part. In the former we find corrections and 
litions to the information recorded under each species in Parts I. and II. so as to brin^ 
( knowledge of the whole of the plants mentioned down to date, and in 'the latter not 
y are the orders, genera and species given, but every synonym also appears. 

By the publication of this work Professor Macoun confers a lasting benefit upon the 
mtific world. No living botanist has the knowledge of Canadian plants which he has 
uired. Possessed of a keen faculty of observation which almost amounts to an instinct 
has had the advantage of travelling extensively and of collecting and studying in their 
lve habitats most of the plants which have been found growing spontaneously in 
lada. Moreover, by generously assisting all who apply to him for information, he has 
ired the hearty co-operation in his work of all the active Botanists in Canada so that 

"Catalogue of Canadian Plants" is not only a record of his own vast experience 
ich extends over a period of more than thirty years of constant study, but also includes 

work of all other collectors and Botanists who have investigated or written upon the 
a of the Dominion. 



22 

=» 

So closely are the studies of Botany and Entomology associated together that some 
knowledge of Botany is actually a necessity to the Entomologist ; particularly is this the 
case in the interesting work of investigating the life-history of insects. It frequently r 
happens that a very slight knowledge of the affinities of a given plant may save from 
starvation valuable larvae which have been transmitted to a distance from the place where 
their proper food plant occurs. Most larvae will subsist upon plants of the same genus or 
others closely allied to them. 

A good instance of this is presented in the numerous Coliades, all of which will 
nourish upon the common white clover (Trifolium repens), although in a state of nature 
they may, according to the species, feed upon plants belonging to a dozen different genera. , 
all of which, however, will be found to be of the same natural order as the clover (Legu- 
minosce). The Argynnides, again, will all feed upon our common blue violet ( V. cucullata), 
as will the Plerides upon common and easily procured cruciferous plants. 

On the other hand, for a right understanding of the shapes and positions of flowers, 
and for a full appreciation of the beautiful methods by which fertilization of the ovules is 
secured, a knowledge of the structure and habits of insects is of inestimable value. 

There is, too, an economic aspect of this case, for if insects will survive upon plants 
which are only and perhaps distantly allied to their natural food, it is obviously necessary 
that the cultivator should take this into consideration when engaged in the constant strife 
which he has to wage against injurious insects, and we even find that some species will 
actually flourish better upon such cultivated plants, when grown in large numbers : the 
Colorado potato beetle may be instanced in this connection, which thrives so luxuriantly 
upon the cultivated potato, but which, when confined to its natural food, the Solanwm 
rostratum, eked out but a precarious existence. Otherwise it is useless to abstain from the 
cultivation of any crop which has been badly attacked, as a means of starving out ite 
insect enemies, in a locality where there are numerous wild plants or weeds which are 
allied to the plant which it is desired to grow. This must be borne in mind with regard tc 
the many pests affecting cereals which are able to find ample temporary lodgment in the ft 
various wild grasses. 

OBITUARY. 

We deeply regret to announce the death of Mr. William D. Shaw, of Montreal, on th» 
29th of June, 1886, at the early age of nineteen years. The deceased was well known fbi 
his early application to science, he having been the leading spirit in founding the Montrea = 
Chapter of the Agassiz Association. Of this Chapter Mr. Shaw was Secretary an( ] 
Treasurer, and in 1885 was appointed General Secretary for Canada. Mr. Shaw was alsi 
a member of the Council of the Montreal Branch of the Entomological Society I 
Ontario, a member of the Natural History Society of Montreal, and a member of th< 
Astro-Meteorological Association. A devoted student of science, his loss will be deeplj 
felt by his fellow workers. Unassuming, guileless and upright, his memory will ever tx 
held in loving remembrance by those who had the privilege of knowing him. 



INSECTS INFESTING MAPLE TREES. 

BY W. HAGUE HARRINGTON, OTTAWA. 

Of recent years increasing attention has been paid in Canada to the subject o 
Forestry, especially in the Province of Ontario. As yet, however, our magnificent forelfc 
have not been entirely destroyed, despite the reckless and short-sighted manner in whicl 
they have been invaded by lumberman and settler, and the time has hardly come fo k 
planting, although it cannot be far distant in some districts. It cannot be wasted labouinf 
nevertheless, to endeavour to find out what is known of the diseases and enemies of eaci 
tree, in order that when required the knowledge may be available. For ornamenta 1 1( 



23 



.argues many of our trees are already grown, and our citizens are continually paying 
.ore attention to the transplanting of shade trees. The streets in our towns and viC 
he hSnft 6d an t d " had ? d ^ elm - ma l>H basswood, etc., and it is to be hopldtha 
he hab. of setting out trees by property holders will become more universal. The maple 
i undoubtedly one of the most important of the trees usually selected for shade It is 

It" Its g fi TsV na , largede 1'' ee ; anditS Vari ° US Spe ° ieS have each disti ^tive excel- 
,nc,es Its fine shapely green leaf is even recognized as the emblem of our nationalitv 

,s a shade tree tor our cities and towns it is probably unrivalled, its vitality and robust 
rowth making it exceedingly valuable for street planting. In our magnificent forests it 

^>KES and a " sugar bush " is an objecf of pride - d p^r; e fi 

^VTyt :^^ 

.ey are not so badly infested as the oak, hickory, £ine and Se o h^ecies " ue n 

'r 6 8 °2 W Z E* Ba £*2 *? Wr qUite f° Ugh enemieS - ^ "he" annua S 

*10 if lli 16 ?8 } ?q ?7 f pUbhsh f a P a P er describing eight injurious species-Nos. 

iu, U 10, lb, 18, 19, 37, of present paper, and notes on these and other species have 

P In IsTrtbTl ^ i° ?"'*»». rP° rt f> ^ ™ *e Canadian EntoJ^Z 

In 1881 the United States Entomological Commission published (Bulletin No 7) an 
.ceedingly valuable report by Dr. Packard on insects injurious to forest and shape 
t ,f n . tha ' re P° rtt ^ty-seven species of insects are enumerated as infestin™^ 
am able in the present paper to double this list, and had my time permitted me to do 
stice to the subject, and more fully examine recent entomological ST it 7s certain 
at many more species would have been added. records, ic is certain 



HYMENOPTERA. 



• ) VZtot^tV* thlS ° rder £ "M bel ° ng bees ' Was *> s > ^neumons, saw-flies, 

-ally attacked by it, and particularly old tree's rtJkg^? X?emate 

Fig. 1 measures from an inch and a quarter to an inch 
and a half in length, and has a cylindrical body, the 
extremity of which is rounded and terminated by a 
short tail. The head, thorax, and antenna are rust- 
ye ow, with black markings; the legs a light ochre-- 
yellow with blackish thighs; the abdomen black, with 
transverse yellow bands ; the wings smoky and expand- 
ing about two inches. The male is smaller and has the 
abdomen flattened, as are also the hind le^s The 
abdomen of the female is provided with a long slender 
borer, which is more than half an inch long, and which 
projects considerably beyond the horny tail which ter- 
minates the body. With this borer the insect makes 

Fig i bole \ m _ the bark Z W00d 0f the tree > itt w ^h she 

deposits her eggs. This boring is a work of much dif- 

i .w ^i . faculty, and so firmly is the weapon often driven into 

wood that the poor insect cannot withdraw it, and she remains a prisoner untU death 

i grubs when hatched bore into the tree and feed upon its substance until fu ™ ' 

17 are cylindrical fleshy worms, with rounded horny heads, and are furn shed with 

Its™ 8 ' SUltS / f ° r .w r W °, rk ° f b ° ring thr0Ugh and de ™ ri *S ^e wood Th 
ect insects emerge from the trees during August, September and October, during which 
iths they may be seen depositing their eggs in the manner described g 

hp'mf I "f ^ albtC ?T 6 } HaniS - In the r8 P° rt for 1883 > under the title « A new foe 
he maple, I gave a full description of the appearance and habits of this horn Z £ 




24 



that I shall now make but a brief mention of it. It is much smaller than the preceding, 
species, the females only ranging from half an inch to somewhat over three-quarters of anj 
inch in length, while the males are correspondingly smaller. It is black with white mark- 
ings, and the antenna are usually white, with the exception of the basal joints, whence 
the specific name. They appear during June and July, both upon old and young trees, 
and in this city I have noticed them to especially attack newly transplanted trees. The| 
maple being generally used as a shade tree is planted annually in large numbers, and it is I 
while they are less vigorous from the effects of transplantation that the Xiphydria selects] 
them as suitable for the deposition of her eggs. I have seen trees hardly more than an 
inch in diameter attacked. 

3. Oryssus terminalis, Newman. This insect belongs also to the Uroceridse, but the 
abdomen is blunt and rounded at the extremity instead of terminating in a horny point. 
The ovipositor is concealed in the abdomen, instead of projecting therefrom and being 
protected by sheaths. It is very slender, hair-like, and longer than the insect itself. The) 
insects are about as long as those of Xiphydria, but are much stouter in form. The head! 
and thorax are black ; legs and antennae black, with markings of white ; abdomen black, 
or more or less red ; wings clear, with a dusky patch near the tip. Active and restless ii 
their motions, they might easily be mistaken for some species of wood wasps. Theii 
habits have not hitherto, so far as I am aware, been definitely known or recorded, bul| 
specimens have been taken by me, both in the act of emerging from the trunk of a dead 
maple, and in the act of ovipositing therein. They appear in June. 

4. Ibalia maculipennis, Hald. This curious species belongs to the family Cynipidae 
or gall-forming hymenoptera, and is much larger than any of our other species. It i$ 
nea°rly three-quarters of an inch in length, and the wings expand about an inch. The heac 
and thorax are stout, but the abdomen is compressed laterally until it is very thin, anc 
has the shape almost of a knife-blade. The ovipositor is very long and slender, and whei 
not in use is retracted and coiled up in the abdomen. The insects are rare, and hav< 
only recently been recorded (by Provancher) as occurring in Canada. I find both sexei 
upon old trees in June, and have found the female ovipositing in the bark. The genera 
colour is yellow, with brown spots upon the head and thorax, and with black bands upoi 
the abdomen and the legs. It is possible that the larvae may be parasitic upon those! 
one or more of the insects mentioned in this paper. 

5. Megachile optiva Oress., or a very closely allied bee, (Fig 2 represents a comma 
leaf-cutting bee) sometimes greatly dis- 
figures maples by cutting pieces out of 
the leaves for the purpose of making 
its cells. I have seen a small tree 
nearly defoliated by these bees, of 
which the habits are most interesting 



Lepidoptera.. 



This order, which consists of butter- 
flies and moths, furnishes a formidable 
list of species infesting the various 
varieties of maples. The following 
species are recorded : — 

6. JEgerii Acerni, Clem. Of recent 
years this moth has become generally 
known as a borer in the maples. It 
belongs to a genus containing several 
well-known injurious moths, such as 
^E. Bubi,the raspberry borer, jE. Tipula 
formis, the currant borer, jE. Exitiosa, 
the peach-tree borer, etc. It was 
figured and described in Report No. 12 (1881), and was then stated to be increasing ^ 
numbers every year, and to be very destructive, especially to young maples. In 188 




Fig. 2. 



25 



Report No. 14) Professor Saunders also referred to it, in his address as president of the 
Entomological Society, as prevailing to an alarming extent in the neighbourhood of 
jondon, to the serious injury of the shade trees. It has been very destructive also in 
irge portions of the United States, especially in Ohio, Illinpis and Missouri. It appears 
o prefer the red maple, but also infests the sugar maple, and to a smaller extent the other 
arieties. The moth is wasp-like in appearance ; the wings being transparent, while the 
ead is orange, the thorax yellow, and the abdomen bluish-black, banded with golden- 
ellow. The eggs are laid in crevices of the bark, and in a few days the larvae emerge, 
nd burrowing inward feed upon the inner layers of the bark and the sapwood. Irregular 
avities are thus formed, which are packed with the excrements and morsels of wood. The 
trva when full grown is about two-thirds of an inch long ; white, with a yellow head 
nd reddish legs. It may be readily distinguished from the larvae of the Uroceridse, 
lready described, or from those of some beetles which will hereafter be mentioned, by the 
ict of its having sixteen legs, while the others have either only six, or are footless. When 
illy grown the larva spins a cocoon, and the moths begin to emerge in June, and may be 
>und during that and the following months. Trees with smooth bark do not seem to be 
btacked, and those suffer most which have already been the victims of injuries, or of the 
stacks of other borers. It is therefore recommended to coat the bark with a mixture of 
)ft-soap and a strong solution of washing-soda, made about as thick as paint. This will 
ot, of course, kill the larvae already at work, but will prevent the laying of eggs. I have 
>und the evidences of the presence of this species in increasing numbers during the past 
vo seasons in Ottawa. 

7. Lithacodes Faciola, H. S., is a small moth, of which the larva is known as the 
aple-slug. This slug is of a flattened elliptical shape. The moth is small, and has a 
ght band running across the anterior wings. 

Edema Albifrons, Sm and Abb. This greyish moth expands about an inch across 
le wings, the anterior of which have a white patch on the costal border. The caterpillars 
•e smooth and striped, with yellow and fine black lines, with head and hump on eleventh 
:gment red. They are sometimes very abundant in the autumn. In 1883 they were 
jtecially so in this neighbourhood, and apparently elsewhere. At the annual meeting of 
ie Entomological Society, in October of that year, Mr. E. Baynes Reed reported them 
i common in London on the maples, and on elms in Toronto and Montreal, while other 
embers reported them common on oak. The moths may be found at rest during the day 
i the trunks of the trees. 

9. Telea Polyphemus, Hubner. This is one of our largest moths, the wings expanding 
>out five inches. The caterpillar, Fig. 3, is, when fully grown, about three inches long, 

and correspondingly stout, 
of a pale green, with 
small orange or reddish 
tubercles on the segments, 
and oblique whitish lines 
on the sides of the pos- 
terior ones. It is most 
frequently found upon 
oak, but feeds also upon 
maple, and, from the 
length of its existence in 
the caterpillar state, its 
remarkable size, and enor- 
mous appetite, it can do 
much damage. The moth 
is of a dull ochre-yellow 
colour, with a clear eye- 
like spot in each wing, 

d a dusky band, edged with whitish-red running parallel to the outer margins. 




Fig. 3. 



26 



10. Platysamia Cecropia, Linn. This moth is closely allied to the foregoing, and 
is still larger. The caterpillar, Fig. 4., in nearly four inches long, and is a remarkable and 




Fig. 4. 

beautiful example of insect life. The general colour is a pale green, or bluish green, but 
the body is studded with elevated tubercles of green, blue, yellow, and red colours. When 
fully grown it spins a large triangular cocoon, from which it emerges as a most beautiful 
moth, of a size and richness of colour that causes it to appear quite a tropical insect.^ Its 
expanded wings measure from five to seven inches across, and are of a rich brown, with 
beautiful markings of black, red and white. It is known generally to fruit-growers and 
others, as it feeds on a great variety of trees, and the caterpillars, cocoons, and moths are 
all such conspicuous objects as to attract the attention of the least observant. It is a 
well-known feeder upon the apple and other fruit trees, which it attacks more frequently 
than it does the maple. ra yJS 

11. Eyperchiria lo, Fabr., is closely allied to the preceding, but is a much smaller 
moth, only measuring from two and one-half to three and one-half inches across the 
expanded wings, the male being much smaller than the female, and darker in colour. The 
caterpillar, Fig. 5, is much more remarkable than the moth, and when fully grown is more 
than two inches long. It is of a pale green colour, 
with a whitish line down the sides, and is set 
with bunches of spines arising from small tubercles 
(several on each segment). These spines shown 
in Fig. 6, much magnified, can inflict very painful 
wounds, much resembling those from nettles, and 
sometimes in picking corn or currants one experi- 
ences a very unpleasant sensation, if the back of 
the hand — which, of course, is always very sen- 
sitive — should come in contact with a hidden spe- 
cimen. Hence this larva is known as the " sting- 
ing caterpillar," although it has not a genuine 
sting. It feeds on a great variety of plants. I 
have not found it myself upon maple, but it has 
been so found by Dr. Packard (page 111 of Bul- 
letin on Insects Injurious to Forest and Shade 
Trees). 

12. Anisota Rubicunda, Fabr. The larva of 
this species is known as the green-striped maple 
worm, and depredates upon the red and silver 
maples. In the Western States — Illinois, Mis- 
siouri, and Kansas — it is said to prove during 
certain years very destructive ; so much so as to discourage people from planting the 
above named varieties of maple. In Canada it is by no means so common, but has 






27 



een found at times abundant. Prof. Saunders described the larva in the Canadian 
Entomologist for 1870, so that it has been known in Ontario for 
twenty years. When fully grown it is about one inch and three- 
quarters long ; its colour is yellowish-white, with green stripes. 
When fully grown they enter the ground and pass the winter 
there as pupae ; not emerging until the following summer. The 
perfect insect is a beautiful moth (Fig. 7). The front wings 
are rose colour, with a pale yellow band ; the hinder wings, pale- 
yellow; thorax, yellow; abdomen and legs, rose-coloured. They fly at 
the wings of the male expand about two inches. 

13. Clisiocampa Sylvatica, Harris. The appear- 
ace and habits of the " tent-caterpillar " moths are 
>o well-known to need description. 1 have no record 
f them attacking maples in Canada, but they are in- 
uded in Dr. Packard's list. 

14. Hepialus Argenteomaculatus, Fabr. A moth 
jferred to this species has been bred by Mr. Fletcher Fig. 7. 
•om a larva found boring in the base of a spiked maple, — Acer spicatum. 

15. Apatele Americana, Harris, is known as the maple dagger-moth, or maple owlet- 
oth, and is one of our larger species, expanding about three inches. The fore wings are 
?eyish, with various lines and markings of black and white, and the hind wings some- 
hat darker in colour. The caterpillar is covered with long yellow hairs, and has pencils 

long black hairs ; its length is about three inches. It is found feeding in the autumn. 

16. Stegania Pustular ia, Guenee, the lesser maple span-worm, feeds on the leaves in 
irly summer. It has been bred and described by Prof. Saunders. About the middle 
' June it is fully grown, and produces the moth early in July. The larva is small, not 
uch more than half an inch long ; bluish-green, with thickly set longitudinal stripes of 
hitish and yellowish ; skin much wrinkled and folded. When a maple tree is suddenly 
rred the caterpillars may be seen suspended underneath it by silken threads, by which 
.ey soon regain their feeding place. The moth expands about an inch ; is white, with 
ddish spots on the border of the fore wings. 

17. Eutrapela Trausversata, Packard, is called the large maple span- worn, and the 
terpillar feeds upon the red maple in July. It is a rather slender " looper ; " that is a 
terpillar that progresses by drawing the posterior part of its body up to its front' feet, 
Ld then carrying these forward until it extends its full length again. It produces a large 
illowish moth. 

18. Ohpiusa Bistriatis, Hubner, the maple semi-looper, or banded maple moth, has 
sen bred and described by Prof. Saunders, who found it late in July upon the silver 
aple, Acer dascycarpum. The caterpillar is nearly one and one-half inches long. The 
lour is brownish green, with numerous streaks and dots of pale brown. Before pupating 
makes a snug little case by cutting a leaf and folding it over and fastening it with silk, 
le moth expands about one inch and three-quarters ; the fore wings are a rich chocolate- 
own, and the hind wings a reddish brown, all having destinctive markings. 

19. Incurvaria Acerifoliella Fitch. This is a very small moth, but its larva? are 
pable of greatly disfiguring trees, if not of permanently weakening and injuring them, 

the enormous numbers in which they frequently occur. During the past two summers 
has been very noticeable in one locality near this city. In 1885 a considerable area, 
obably five acres, of large trees was entirely defoliated, or rather the entire foliage was 

cut and eaten that it had a brown withered appearance, as if the trees had died, or had 
en scorched. The trunks of all the trees in the neighbourhood, not only of the maples, 
3re covered with the columns of these little case-covered caterpillars, and they were 
ickly scattered all over the ground. Last season they were equally injurious and covered 
rhaps twice the area formerly infested. I have seen occasional evidences of the presence 

the moth in other localities, but it is only in that mentioned that it appears in such 
Qumerable quantities. The worm is only about a quarter of an inch long, but it 
jures the leaf not only by feeding upon its tissues ; it is a regular tailor and cuts neatly 
>m the leaves oval, or nearly circular, pieces to form a case with which to pretect itself. 



2cS 



These pieces are at first very small, but as the grub grows it cuts out larger blankets for | 
itself, and when it is fully grown, these are about the diameter of its own length. 
Sheltered by this case the worm feeds upon the softer part of the surface of the leaf, 
forming upon it rings and irregular patches. When the larvae are numerous more than 
one will be found upon each leaf, and the work of destruction proceeds more rapidly. 
When tired of their location they crawl away, bearing their cases with them, to seek fresh 
feeding grounds. When blown to the ground with falling leaves they apparently crawl up 
the nearest trunk again. When mature they drop to the ground, or fall with the leaves, 
and changing to pupa? in their cases emerge the following spring as pretty little moths, of 
a dark blue colour, with bright orange yellow heads, which may be frequently seen in early 
summer upon the leaves or flying from tree to tree. When a serious attack, such as I 
have described, occurs in a grove, upon shade or ornamental trees, or in a sugar-bush, it 
would be well to burn over the leaves, and to let pigs or cattle range the ground so as to 
destroy as many as possible of the pnpae. 

20. Thyridopteryx Ephem- 
erctformis Haworth. This is 
a very curious insect known 
as the " bag-worm," because 
the larva forms a bag to protect it 
(Fig. 8/J while feeding. The female 
passes her whole life in this case, 
being wingless. It is a rather 
southern insect and will not likely 
occur in Canada. Among its food 
plants Mr. Lintner enumerates 
maple. In Fig. 8, a represents 
the caterpillar ; f, the same in its 
bag, fully grown ; b, the male 
pupa ; c, the female moth, legless 
and wingless ; d, the male moth ; 
e, section of female pupa in the 
bag, as found in winter. 

The following species are also 
given by Dr. Packard as infesting 
the maple: — 

21. Gastropacha Americana Harris. The American Lappetmoth, which is also 
sometimes found upon apple and cherry trees. 

22. Nadata Gibbosa Sm-Abb. Also on oak. 

23. Nematocampa filamentaria, Guen. I have bred this moth from larva found upon 
hickory, Carya amara. It is described and figured in " Insects Injurious to Fruits," 
Saunders, as feeding on plum trees. The caterpillar is remarkable as having four long 
slender fleshy filaments arising from the fifth and sixth segment. It occurs also on oak. 

24. Amphidasys Cognataria, Guenee. This is a large handsome moth, expanding 
two inches or more. The caterpillar is a greenish "looper " sometimes attacking currant 
bushes, and feeding on various plants. 

25. Heterophelps Triguttata H.-Sch. 

26. Lithocolletis Aceriella, Clemens. The larva of this little moth mines in the 
upper surface of the leaves, forming a flat blotch therein. 

27. Lithocolletis Lucidicostella, Clemens. The larvae form tentiform mines in 
under surface of leaves. 

28. Lithocolletis clemensella, Chamb. The larvae of this species have the habits of 
previous one. 

29. Gracilaria Packar delta, Chamb. The caterpillar rolls the leaf downward into a 
conical figure. 

30. Catastega Aceriella, Clemens. Of this species only the larvae were known to Dr. 
Packard, and although they occur here the moth has never been bred. The larva at first 
mines the leaf, but subsequently it constructs a case of its frass. 




29 



33. Hyphantria Textor Harris. 



The following species are stated to feed on maples by Dr. Thomas, Entomologist for 
State of Illinois : — 

31. Agrotis C-nigrum Linn. Larva known as "Spotted Cut-worm," feeds on grass, 
vegetables, pear tree and maple. 

32. Eacles Imperialis Hubner. A very large moth, extremely rare in Canada. 
Caterpillar about three inches long, with rows of spinous tubercles. Feeds on sycamore, 
oak, pine, maple, etc. 

This species is very abundant and obnoxious 
throughout Canada, being known as the Fall 
Web-worm, from the fact that the young larvae 
live and feed together in a web which they spin 
upon the branches of the plant upon which 
they are hatched. The moth itself is a small 
white miller (Fig. 9, c). The larvae (Fig. 9, a) 
feed on nearly all trees and shrubs. 

34. Limacodes laticlavia Clem. 

35. Orgyia leucostigma Sm.-Abb. A common 
moth, having a caterpillar (Fig. 12) covered with 
yellowish hairs \ four brush-like yellowish tufts 
on back ; two pencils of long black hairs on 
segment behind he^d, pointing forward, and 
another on the posterior end pointing backward. 

including: 




Fig. 9. 
Feeds on a great variety of trees, 




oaks, apple, spruce, larch, maple, etc. Fig. 10 
represents the male moth ; fig. 11a the wing- 
less female ; b a young caterpillar hanging by 
its silken thread ; c and d pupae ; fig. 12, the 
caterpillar fully grown. 

DIPTERA. 

In this order, that contains the flies, 
insects distinguished by having only two _,. 

wings, we do not find many species attacking 

the maples. Indeed I have no personal knowledge of any, and Dr. 
Packard only mentions the following species which does not appear in 
our Canadian lists of Diptera. It belongs to a genus in which we have 
several well known destructive insects, popularly known as midges, 
such as the Wheat midge, C. tritici, and Clover-seed midge, C. lequ- 
| mincola. 

36. Cecidomyia aceris Shimer, on Acer dasycarpum, the silver 
maple. 

| COLEOPTERA. 

Of beetles we find quite a long list infesting the maple, 
species belong to the Cerainbycidse, or long-horned beetles, a 
containing nearly all the large beetles of 
which the larvae are known as " borers," 
and of which species infest all our trees, 
although some trees, such as the pine and 
hickory, are much more infested than are 
the maples. 

37. Glycobius speciosus, Say, is uni- 
versally known as the sugar-maple borer, 
and has been frequentlv referred to in our 
Reports (See Nos. III., VIII., IX., XL 
and XII.) The beetle (Fig. 13) appears to 
he rare in this neighbourhood, but in the 




Fig. 10. 



Ten 
family 





Fig. 11. 



30 




western part of the Province it is unfortunately sometimes very destructive. At 

London it has been accused by Professor Saunders and Mr. Reed 

of doing great injury to trees throughout the city. The larvae 

bore into the solid wood, both of young trees and of large ones, 

and Dr. Packard cites several cases where healthy, vigorous 

trees perished from their attacks. The beetle is nearly an inch long, 

of a rich velvet-black above with bright yellow markings. The head 

is yellow , the thorax has two yellow transverse lines on each side ; 

the wing- covers have a yellow band across the middle, above which a 

" W " with oblique bands over it ; the tips yellow, with a black dot 

on each, and band above ; legs and under parts of body yellowish. 

The larva is hatched in July or August, from an egg deposited on, or 

Fl £- 13, in, the bark, and burrows at first between the bark and wood, but the 

following spring, when large, it bores into the solid wood. Like the " apple borer" it 

should be searched for by the sawdust ejected from the burrow, and be dug out. 

38. Calloides nobilis, Say. This beetle is much rarer than the former, and resembles 
it in general appearance, except that the yellow markings are not so numerous or extensive. 
I have captured it on maple trees in June. It is recorded as infesting the chestnut, of 
which we have none here. 

39. Xylotrechus colonus, Fabr. A beetle similar in shape to the preceding species, 
but averaging only about half an inch in length, has been found under the bark of an old 
sugar-maple (by Mr. G. Hunt). The species bores in the oak also, and I have taken 
specimens upon hickory. The markings of the elytra are whitish. 

40. Clytanthus ruricola, Oliv. This is a very pretty beetle, which I find upon several 
trees, including maples. It is nearly of the same size and shape as the preceding beetle, 
but is of more elegant appearance, and has longer, slenderer legs. It has the rich black 
and yellow of the maple-borer, but the head is black j there are no transverse lines on the 
thorax ; and the elytra lack the yellow tips and middle band. 

41. Bellamlra scalaris, Say. This beetle is of a different form, being long and slender, 
especially the males. I have taken the female ovipositing in a maple stump in July. 
Her length is over an inch ; the head is constructed behind the eyes so as to form a neck ; 
the thorax is narrow ; the elytra pretty wide at the shoulders but tapering rapidly to the 
apex, and shorter than the abdomen. Colour reddish, (sometimes dark), with feet and 
antennae more yellowish, the elytra glistening with a fine pubescence. This beetle has 
been found to attack birch. 

42. Dryobius sex/asciatus, Say. This a handsome longicorn recorded by Mr. C. G. 
Siewers of Newport, Ky., as found under bark of dead maple, (Can. Entomologist XII., 
pg. 139). As it does not appear to be found in Canada I need not give any description ot 
it here. 

43. Orthosoma brunneum, Forst. This is one of our 
largest beetles, and its larva is a formidable grub, which may 
often be found in old pine logs and stumps, and occasionally it 
occurs in other kinds of wood. I have on two occasions taken 
the beetles (Fig. 14). under the bark of dead sugar-maples. 

44. Urographis fasciatus, DeGeer. Is a grayish beetle, 
with several wavy black bands. It is slightly over half an inch 
long, and the abdomen of the female is prolonged into an oviposi- 
tor that protrudes beyond the wing covers. It infests also the 
oak and hickory. 

45. Liopus variegatus, Hald. This is a smaller beetle 
which I have once or twice captured crawling on the trunks of 
old sugar maples. 

46. Saperda tridentata, Oliv., is the elm- tree borer, which 
often does great injury to elms. It belongs to a genus which 
contains several of our best known borers, among others the apple- 
tree borer (S. Candida) the linden borer (S. vestita), the poplar 
borer (S. calcarata) and the hickory borer [S. discoidea), 1 have 




Fig. 14. 



31 



not seen any mention of it attacking the maple, but I have bred specimens of the beetle 
from pupae taken under the bark of a fallen sugar-maple. These pupae were found in May, 
and the beetles appeared on 15th June. The larva is a flattened white grub, about half 
an inch long, mining between the wood and bark, and loosening the latter, to the injury of 
the trees infested. The beetle has a lateral red line bordering the thorax and elytra, giving 
off three tooth-like projections on each elytron, whence the specific name. 

The Lucanidae are beetles whose larvae live in decomposing wood, subsisting on the 
juices thereof, like those of several of our largest Scarabaebidae. Such habits are rather 
beneficial than otherwise, as the reduction of fallen timber is thereby hastened, but in 
some cases injury may be done to living trees by the enlargement of accidental crevices and 
cavities. Injury may, however be done by the beetles themselves as they sometimes attack 
foliage. 

47. Platycerus quercus, Weber. On 6th May 1881 I noticed young maples evidently 
attacked by some insect, as many of the leaf buds, then almost ready to open, were partly 
withered and destroyed. On examination I found within several of the buds beetles, then 
new to me, which proved to be the species under consideration. The beetle had first 
gnawed a hole into the centre of the bud, and then in concealment had feasted on the 
tender substance of the young leaves. In one instance a pair of beetles (male and female) 
were found in the same cavity. I have since found the beetles upon the leaves of various- 
trees, and the larvae in old logs and stumps of elm, etc. The beetle is a little less than 
half an inch long ; flattened and black with sometimes a greenish hue ; the antennas have 
the terminal joints lamellate, and the mandibles in the male are prolonged like a pair of 
pincers, those of the female are shorter and she is reddish underneath. 

48. Dorcus parallelus, Say is a much larger beetle, being an inch long. The male 
has head, thorax and abdomen all of equal width, (whence the specific name) but in the 
female the thorax is more round in front and the head smaller. The jaws of the male are 
large and toothed, those of the other sex small. The beetles are found under the loose bark 
of old sugar-maples, the larvae living in the decaying parts of the trees. 

49. Ptilinus ruficornis, Say. Family Ptinidae. This is a little brownish beetle not 
more than one-fifth of an inch long, and having the head almost hidden by the thorax. 
The male is much smaller and has pretty reddish pectinate antennae. The beetles are very 
common and attack various trees, both living and dead. When a tree — say oak, hickory 
or maple — has been injured by blazing or peeling of bark, this little beetle may frequently 
be seen boring into the exposed wood ; or if the iujury is an old one perhaps numbers may 
be found emerging. I have seen great numbers issuing from maple trees, leaving the 
wood riddled with small holes. 

50. Xestobium a fine, Lee, belonging to the same family is recorded by Dr. Packard 
as found in a stump of red maple. I do not know whether it occurs in Canada or not. 

51. Chrysobothris femorater, Lee ; family Buprestidaa, is well 
known as the flat-headed apple-tree borer, (Fig. 15), which has 
been described and figured so often in our reports. In the Wes- 
tern States this beetle is said to very seriously injure soft maples. 
I have not observed it to attack our maples here, but have found 
it to infest hickories. 

52. Dicerca divaricata, Say., belongs to the same family and 
is larger. It greatly infests old, and particularly dead maples, 
and I have frequently seen the females depositing eggs in such 
trees. On a bright sunny day in mid-summer an examination of 
any dead maple or beech will probably show one — perhaps many — 
of these beetles crawling lazily up and down the trunk or sunning 
themselves thereon. This species is readily distinguished from 

Fi 15 others of the same family (all hard beetles with bronzy or other 

metallic lustres) by the prolonged tips of the elytra diverging. 
53. Dicer ca lugubris, Lee. The only specimen of this beetle which I have taken, was 
on a shade maple. It is a blackish beetle about the size of the apple-tree chrysobothris. 




32 




Fig. 16 



54. Stenoscelis brevis, Boh., is a small blackish beetle found boring in poplar and 
maple, but does not probably do much injury. It belongs to the family Calandridse. 

55. Eupsalis minuta, Drury, is a peculiar long- 
snouted beetle belonging to the family Brenthidse, of 
which it is the sole Canadian representative. Fig. 1 6 
shows the insect in its different stages. It has a 
cylindrical body ; thorax egg-shaped and tapering gra- 
dually to the head, which is prolonged in a straight 
snout, hardly as long as thorax ; beak of female 
slender with very small jaws, that of male heavier 
with strong curved jaws. Smooth and glossy ; 
brown, with broken yellow lines on wing- covers. 
Size extremely variable, from one quarter to seven- 
eighths of an inch. The larvse of this beetle bore in 
various kinds of oaks, usually in felled trees or stumps, 
burrowing, it is stated, in all directions through the 
heart wood. On 22nd May, 1882, I obtained about 
twenty beetles from under the bark of a large fallen sugar-maple. The larvae had appar- 
ently lived chiefly on the inner layers of the bark and on the sap wood. On another oc- 
casion I found specimens emerging from a maple stump. 

The following beetles are also found upon maples, but cannot do much injury, 
except, perhaps, the last two, should they become very abundant. 

56. Cucujus clavipes — Fab. A brilliant, flat, pinkish beetle, found with its larvse, also 
flat, under bark of various dead trees, especially birch and elm, occasionally of maple. 

57. Alaus oculatus, Linn. Larva, inhabits decaying wood of 
various trees. Fig. 17 represents the well-known beetle. 

58. Corymbites sulcicollis, Say. Beetles found in crevices of 
bark or under loose portions of large sugar maples ; rare. 

59. Nyctobates pensylvanica, De Geer. 

60. Ipthimus opacus, Lee. 

61. Upis Ceramboides, Linn. These three species are large, 
somewhat flattened, black beetles, often found under loose bark of old 
trees. The larvae live in decaying wood of various kinds. 

62. Enchodes sericea, Hald. Beetles found in old maple logs. 
Several other species of the same family — Melandryidaa, also occur 
on old trees, probably to feed on fungous growths. 

63. Tomoxia bidentata, Say. Mordellidae. I have always 
found these beetles on old maples or maple stumps. 

64. Pyrochroa femoralis, Sec. Beetle under bark of dead 
trees. 

65. Corthylus punctatissimus, Zimm. Scolytidae. Stated in classification of the 
Coleoptera of North America to depredate on maple trees. It is nearly allied to 
Monarthrum mail (Fitch), a minute beetle which attacks apple trees. 

66. Xyloterus politics, Say. Belongs to same family, and has been reported by M. 
Lintner attacking maples. 







Fig. 17. 



Hemiptera. 



The insects contained in this order are popularly known as bugs. They have a 
slender jointed proboscis with which they suck the juices either of plants or animals. The 
species are numerous, varying in size from the Aphides — tiny " lice " feeding upon plants 
— to the great Belostoma, a rapacious water-bug, preying even upon small fish. Although 
some kinds of trees are attacked by many species of bugs, the maples seem to be more 
favored, and to have but few hemipterous depredators. I have only found the following 
species recorded : — 

67. Pulvinaria innumerabilis, Rathvon. This is a species of scale-insect or bark- 
louse, which of recent years has been found badly infesting maple trees in many portions 



33 



of Ontario. In the Entomologist for August, 1884 (vol. XVI., page 141), may be found 
a full account of it by Prof. Saunders, who suggests that it might with great propriety be 
designated the maple tree bark-louse instead of, as it is commonly called, the grape vine 
bark-louse. It was first described in 1884 by Dr. Rathvon, of Lancaster, Pa., who 
observed it for several years on basswood, and who gave it the name innumerabilis on 
account of its immense numbers. The lice appear in the form of brown scales ; those of 
the females having waxy filaments projecting from them. The eggs are laid among these 
filaments, and are very numerous — from 500 to 2,000 — the female commencing to lay in 
the latter part of May, and continuing for several weeks until she dies. The young lice 
when hatched are yellowish white, and can move freely about. They soon spread all over 
the branches, and seek the twigs and places where the bark is tender. Selecting suitable 
spots, they insert their beaks and commence to devour the sap, gradually assuming the 
scale- like form and becoming incapable of further change of habit or position. When fully 
*rown the male emerges from his scale and appears as a delicate, minute two-winged fly, 
but the females always retains her degraded form. 

68. Lygus monarchus, Uhler. This bug has only recently been described (Can. 
Ent, Vol. XVIII., page 208) by Mr. Uhler, who states that it is a very common insect 
n some localities, and has been taken by him on maples, alders, and many other trees and 
shrubs. He has found it near Quebec, and it seems to have a wide distribution in the 
United States. 

69. Gapsus goniphorus (Say.) is a brilliant red or scarlet bug, found not unfre- 
piently on various trees, including maples. Mr. Fletcher informs me that it is nocturnal 
n its habits. 

70. Ceresa bubalus (F&b.) is one of the tree-hoppers, its popular name being the Buffalo 
;ree-hopper. It is found upon a great many species of trees, and like all these insects 
ives upon sap drawn from the tree by means of its proboscis. 

Dr. Pachard mentions also the following : 

71. Psylla annulata, Fitch. On sugar maples. 

72. Aphis aceris, Linn. On acer pensylanica. 

73. Lecanium acericola, Walsh and Riley. 

74. Lecanium acericorticis, Fitch. On silver maple. 



:NSECTS TROUBLESOME IN THE HOUSEHOLD AND HOW TO DEAL 

WITH THEM. 

BY THE REV. THOMAS W. FYLES, SOUTH QUEBEC. 

Certain insects are so troublesome within doors that they may well be denominated 
' Household Pests." Many of the species are easily recognized by the most careless 
tbservers ; and yet their life-histories are to many persons altogether unknown, as are 
Iso the right methods to abate the annoyances they occasion. 

It shall be my effort to give, in this paper, a brief account of the most troublesome 
>f these insect offenders and to point out some of the remedies that may be used against 
hem. 

I shall tell of some insects affecting (1) Personal Comfort, (2) Food, and (3) House 
5 lants. 



I. — Insects Affecting Personal Comfort. 

1. The House Fly (Musca domestical) belongs to the family Muscidce, in the order 
liptera. The beautifully reticulated eggs of the insect are laid by the parent fly in horse- 
mnure. They hatch in twenty-four hours, and a week suffices to bring the maggots to 
iieir full growth. In turning over the manure pile, in the summer months, the farmer will 
nd them in abundance, as he will also the pupae, which, in form and size, resemble grain, 

2 (EN.) 



34 




but in colour are a reddish brown. The perfect fly bursts from the pupa-case in six or 
seven days. Seen under the microscope it is a remarkable and beautiful object. Its 
eyes are compound, each presenting four thousand facets. Its wings are beautifully 
hyaline, flashing in the light rich tints of purple and crimson. 
The labium, or tongue, terminates in a sucking disk, divided 
into two leaves, which are ribbed underneath like a rasp (Fig. 
18). It is the friction of these ribs which leaves the sensation 
of a bite upon the skin, when the insect has tried its powers 
upon us. 

Insects belonging to the genus Musca are very prolific. 
Leeuwenhock calculated that in three months, the natural and 
unchecked increase from one pair of flies would be 700,000. 
Vast numbers of the maggots of the house-fly are eaten by 
domestic poultry, and vast numbers of the perfect insects by 
hornets and wasps. The fly, moreover, is subject to a strange 
disease, in which the abdomen becomes distended and a fluffy 
substance appears in the joints. The fungus is Sporendonema 
muscat. It spreads through the system, saps the life and the fly succumbs. 

Much may be done to keep down the numbers of the house-fly. The horse-barn 
should be placed at a distance from the dwelling house. The manure pile should be 
frequently turned, and the poultry allowed free access to it. The house should be 
supplied with doors and blinds of gauze-wire or netting, which will admit light and air, 
so necessary to the health of the inmates, and shut out flies and other intruders. Care 
should be taken to destroy every fly that shows itself in the winter — hibernating insects 
will start fresh colonies in the spring. A simple and very effective fly-trap may be made 
thus : — Fill a tumbler to within an inch of the top with strong soap-suds. Take a slice 
of bread, cut in the centre of it a hole about an inch in diameter ; moisten the under 
surface ; spread it freely with Muscovado sugar ; place it with the sugared surface down- 
ward, over the tumbler, so that the hole may come in the centre. The flies will soon 
discover the sugar, descend through the hole, and very soon attempting to fly, will be 
engulfed. When the flies blacken the suds they can be taken out and thrown into the 
stove. 



Fig. 18. 





Fig. 19. 



Fig. 20. 



2. The Mosquito (Culex ) belongs to the family Culicidoe in the order Diptera. 

Several species of the genus Culex are assigned to British North America. The names 
of these different species are suggestive, — excrutians, impatiens, implacabilis, pro- 
vocans, stimulans, etc. The mosquito lays her eggs in a boat-shaped mass on the surface 
of the water. She delights in pools, for her progeny feed upon the decaying matter which 
abounds in stagnant water. They are familiarly known as " wrigglers." They are often 
seen in rain-water which has been allowed to remain too long in the butt. The breathing 
apparatus of the larva is situated at the extremity of the body, and is described by 
Packard asa" star-like respiratory tube which connects with the tracheae." The creature 
is often seen hanging with its head downwards and its respiratory organ at the surface of 



35 



the water. Its large head and thorax act as a weight to keep it in position. The pupa 
or nymph is active also and moves with a succession of jerks, and by means of two swim- 
ming leaves, or paddles, placed at the end of the abdomen. One month suffices to carry 
the mosquito through its preliminary stages. The pupa rises to the surface ; the skin 
divides, and the perfect insect steps out, using the empty case as a raft until its wings, 
having been shaken out and dried, are in a condition for flight. 

It is the female mosquito only that attacks us. Fig. 19 represents the female, 
magnified ; and Fig. 20 the mouth parts much enlarged. The weapon she uses consists 
of a number of lancets, which, compressed in the wound they make, form a tube through 
which the blood is drawn. The shrill warning of its approach which the creature gives is 
caused by the rapid vibration of its wings. 

The mosquito, however troublesome, is doubtless a beneficial insect. Its larvae 
consume decaying matter which would generate miasma and the perfect insects do their 
best to drive men from unhealthy localities. As a tract of country is made fit by thorough 
drainage, for human habitation, they disappear. Drainage is the great remedy against 
them. Wire doors and blinds will keep them out of the house, and the application of a 
little salt and water will allay the irritation of the wounds they give. As a preventive 
against their bite [and against those of the Black Fly, (Simulium molestum which is found 
in Company with them] woodmen and tourists make use of pennyroyal, oil of tar and 
carbolic ointments. 

3. The Bed Bug, (Acanthia lectularia) belongs to the family Membranacei in the order 
Hemiptera. This disgusting creature finds its way, unexpectedly, to new quarters. It is 
sometimes brought in the clothing after a journey. It is sometimes introduced in parcels 
and in second hand books, etc. It is well to know its history, and how to deal with it. 
When I was a boy it was known in the " Home Counties " as the " London Bug n ; and 
housekeepers in those parts examined suspiciously all packages from London. Southall, 
who wrote 150 years ago, tells us that the creature was brought over from Ameriea in 
timber for the re-building of the city after the great fire of 1666. We learn from other 
sources that the bug was not known in Europe previous to that event. This may well 
have been, for trade with America had been carried on for many years before the fire 
occurred. But, probably, the main colony was introduced in the way that Southall says. 
The name bug is an old word signifying a terror. Psalm xci, 5, in the early versions of 
the Scriptures reads "Thou shall not be afraid of any bugge by night." 

The female bed-bug lays her eggs, about fifty in number, in crevices. They are oval, 
small and white, and are protected by a coating of varnish. They hatch in about three 
weeks, and in three months the young attain their full size. There are four broods in 
a year. The full grown bug is two-and-a half lines in length, rust-red in colour, flat and 
wingless. Its abdomen is disproportionately large. Its antennae are four-jointed and its 
beak has a three-jointed labium, or sheath. 

To keep the house clear of this pest extreme cleanliness is necessary. The walls of 
bed -rooms should be lime-washed or painted — not papered. Iron bedsteads are preferable 
to wooden ones. The joints of wooden bedsteads should be washed with a solution of 
bi-chloride of Mercury. It can be applied with a paint-brush or a feather. The floors 
should be often washed with scalding water. To eradicate bugs when they have well 
established themselves, rooms should be well fumigated with brimstone. The modus 
operandi is thus given by Dr. Lintner, State Entomologist of New York, in his Second 
Annual Report, page 18 : — " Place in the centre of the room a dish containing about four 
ounces of brimstone, within a large vessel, so that the possible overflowing of the burning 
mass may not injure the carpet or set fire to the floor. After removing from the rooui 
all such metallic surfaces as might be affected by the fumes, close every aperture, even 
the key-holes, and set fire to the brimstone. When four or five hours have elapsed the 
room may be entered and the windows opened for a thorough airing." 

4. The Louse (Pediculus humani capitis) belongs to tHe family Pediculi?ia, in the order 
Hemiptera. This insect is quite as disgusting and unwelcome as the last described. 
Yet, despite the care of fond mothers and careful nurses, it does occasionally find its way 



m 



to the heads of children, especially of such as are wont to make chance acquaintances. 
The insect itself is of a venturesome disposition, as Burns has sung : — 

" Ye ugly, creepin' blastit wonner, 
Detested, shunn'd by saunt and sinner, 
How dare you set your fit upon her, 

Sae fine a leddy ! 
Gae somewhere else and seek your dinner 

On some poor body." 
***** 

" Now haud you there, ye're out o' sight, 
Below the fatt'rils, snug and tight ; 
Na, faith ye yet ! ye'll no be right 

Till ye've got on it, 
The vera topmost, tow 'ring height, 

O' Miss's bonnet !" 

Perhaps Bums regarded the louse too unfavourably. There is reason to believe that 
the insect has brought distinction to at least one noble family. Quartered, 2nd and 3rd, 
in the arms of the Earl of Lathom are those of Bootle : — 

"Gules on a chevron, engrailed, between three combs argent, as many crosses patee, fitchee of the field." • 

The combs are represented as veritable " small tooth-combs." Under what circum- 
stances the distinction was granted I know not. It may be that in former days some 
lady of the Bootle line proved herself particularly useful in the royal nursery ; or that the 
suzerain observed, on some noteworthy occasion, that each retainer brought into the field 
by the head of that family, was, with his familiars, truly a host ; or that in the days 
when hair-shirts were seldom changed, and St. Jerome's advice to Rustique, " Never 
Hatter the body by the use of the bath," was held in high esteem, some particularly 
saintly Bootle — perchance on his return from pilgrimage — was honoured by his king in 
having allotted to him the suggestive combs and crosses, " ut reg." as Debrett has it. 
However the case may be, we have here an instance of a noble family attaching import- 
ance to its " small tooth combs '; and we learn from it that things aristocratic and things 
vulgar are sometimes brought into juxta-position. 

Leeuwenhock has told us that the increase from one female louse may in eight weeks 
number live thousand. No wonder that the lodgement of a creature so fecund is dreaded. 
The eggs or " nits " of the louse hatch in eight days ; and the young attain their growth 
in less than a month. The insect is wingless. Its abdomen is large and has nine seg- 
ments. Each of six legs terminates with a hook. Its antennae are filiform and five- 
jointed. It has a retractile beak or sucker. Its eyes are not faceted. 

A comb smeared with white precipitate ointment and run through the child's hair 
will soon dispose of this obnoxious pest. 

5. The Flea (Pulex irritans) belongs to the family Pulicidai in the order Diptera. 

The eggs of the flea, which are oval and one forty-fifth of an inch in length, are laid 
in hearth rugs, etc., or in the fur of animals, from which they are shaken to the floor or , 
ground. The larvae live in the dust and dirt, and feed on decaying vegetable substances. 
They are footless, long, and somewhat hairy ; and, at the end, they have two long spines. 
In colour, the head is honey-yellow, the rest of the body, white. The antennae are three- j 
jointed. These larvae attain their growth in twelve days, and then form a silken cocoon 
in which they undergo the pupal change. The insect remains in pupa about two weeks. 
In the perfect flea, the body is compressed, the wings are represented by minute scales on 
the thorax ; the beak or rostrum is formed both for laceration and suction j the eyes are 
simple ; the skin is polished and horny, and set with sharp bristles pointing backwards ; 
the long, hindmost pair of legs are formed for leaping. A flea can leap thirty times its own 
height. 

Dogs and cats troubled with fleas should be frequently washed with strong soap-suds. 
To banish fleas from the house old Tusser's remedy (quoted by Kirby and Spence) may be 
tried : — 

" While wormwood hath seed get a handful or twain 
To save against March, to make flea to refraine, 
Where chamber is sweeped and wormwood is strown, 
No flea for his life dare abide to be known." 



37 



II. — Insects Affecting Food. 

6. The Grain Moth (Tinea granella) belongs to the family Tlneidce in the order 
Lepidoptera. In its perfect state this insect is about one-third of an inch long. It has 
glossy fore wings marbled with grey and brown, and spotted with dark spots. Its hind 
wings are blackish. There are two broods in the year. The first appears in May, and 
the second in August. The young from the latter live through the winter. 

The caterpillars, as soon as they are hatched commence to eat the grain, and to spin 
a web, mingling with it rejected fragments of their food, and, as they increase in size, the 
grain itself. Where the creatures abound the whole surface of the grain in the bin will 
be found tangled into a crust of webs and damaged grain. The caterpillars, that tlo the 
mischief, are yellow or buff in colour, and have reddish heads. When full grown they are 
half-an-inch long. They creep into some nook or crevice to spin their cocoons which are 
about the size of a kernel of wheat. The chrysalis is brown and shining. 

To remedy, in a measure, the effects of the creature's operations, the grain should be 
passed through a fan. To prevent attacks it should be kept in barrels, headed up, or in 
small tight bins, in cool and dry apartments. 

7. The Meal Worm (Tenebrio molitor). This grub is the larva of a beetle belonging to 
the family Tenebrionidce in the 1 order Coleoptera. The beetle is very common, and is 
sometimes called the "black beetle," and sometimes the "flour beetle." 

The larva is about an inch long. It is cream coloured and has twelve clearly marked 
segments, besides the head. It is smooth and glossy. It abounds in corn-mills, flour- 
stores, bakeries, etc. It often does much damage on ship-board, biting its way through 
and through the biscuits stored in casks. It is sought for by bird-fanciers as food for 
their pets. 

The perfect insect is of a compact oyate form. Its colour on its first appearance is 
chestnut brown, but exposure darkens this rapidly into blackish brown. The elytra 
cover the abdomen and are striated. The legs and antennae are long and slender. 

To keep the store- room free from the worms, kill the beetles. 





Fig. 22. 



8. The Flesh Fly (Sarcophaga carnaria) be]ongs to the family Muscidce in the order Dip- 
■tera, Fig. 21. It is black, striped and checkered with grey. Its legs are stout and hairy. 
Its head is rather small. It is viviparous — it deposits living maggots, the eggs hatching 
within its own body. It is marvellously prolific, producing as many as 20,000 larvae, Fig. 



38 



22. The voracity of these is so great, and their growth so rapid, that it is said they will' 
increase two hundred times in weight in twenty-four hours. Linnaeus asserted that three 
female flies and their immediate progeny would devour a horse more quickly than would 
a lion. 

The well-known Blow Fly, or Blue Bottle (Musca vomitoria), in the same family and 
order, unlike the flesh fly, lays eggs. 

The larvae of both the above-named flies are pointed at the head and truncated at the 
tail. They are used by anglers, and are ealled gentles. 

To preserve meat from fly-blows, keep it in ice-houses, refrigerators, or wire safes. 

9. The Bacon Beetle {Dermestes lardarius) belongs to the family Dermestidm in the 
order Coleoptera. This insect is well known, and is much dreaded by Entomologists on 
aecount of the destruction it works among their dried specimens. The creature lays its 
eggs upon stuffed birds, skins, hams, dried meat, etc. The hairy larva is whitish brown 
above, and white beneath. Its body is elongated and tapers towards the tail, which ends 
in two spines. The cast skins of the larvae are often the tokens of its presence. The 
perfect beetle is about a quarter of an inch long. Its colour is dull black, relieved by a 
broad greyish band across the base of the elytra. This band is a growth of thick grey 
down, and the spots that are found in it are places where the down is wanting. The 
insect is oblong and compact. Its elytra cover the abdomen. The antennae are clavated. 

The use of benzine will save the stuffed birds ; and care and cleanliness will banish 
the beetles from the larder. 

10. The Cheese Fly (Piophila casei) belongs to the family Muscidce in the order Diptera. 
The larvae of this insect are the well-known "hoppers" found in cheese. They are 
whitish in colour ; and in shape they are tapering — pointed at the head and truncated' 
behind. The head is furnished with mouth-hooks, by means of which the creature draws 
itself along. It has the power of leaping four or five inches. To accomplish the feat,. 
it brings its head and tail together, grappling the edge of the latter with the hooks at the 
mouth, and then, suddenly quitting its hold, it is jerked by the rebound to the distance 
named. 

The perfect insect is a shining black fly, three- twentieths of an inch in length. Its- 
wings are transparent, and its hindmost and middle legs are yellow. 

To preserve cheese from the fly, keep it in a closely covered earthen jar. 

III. — Insects Affecting House Plants. 

11. The Scale Insect {Lecanium hesperidum). Oleanders, rose-bushes, abutilons, etc., 
are often infested with this creature which belongs to the family Coccidw in the order 
Hemiptera. The scale is convex, smooth and shining. It is dark brown in colour and of 
an oval shape. The short legs and thread-like antennae «are hidden by the shell. The 
insects are found lying longitudinally, with the head upwards, on the stems and branches. 
The damage they do is caused by suction — the creatures insert their beaks and imbibe 
the sap, and so doing weaken the plants. The young larvae are of a yellowish colour. 

The presence of the scale insect betokens too dry an atmosphere. 
Wash the affected plants with a mixture of kerosene oil, milk and water, in equal 
parts. It can be applied with a rag or sponge. 

12. The Mealy Bug (Daetylopius adonidum). This also belongs to the Coccidce. It is 
universally distributed. When full grown it is one-eighth of an inch in length. It is of 
an oblong shape flattened at the head. It has two long spines at the end of the body, 
and other spines along the side. It is covered with a white mealy substance. The male 
is a winged insect. 

Whiskey applied with a brush will kill the bugs. 

1 3. The Red Spider (Tetranychus telarius). This pest is a mite belonging to the family 
Trombidiince, in the order Aptera or wingless insects. The creature is very minute and' 
can hardly be distinguished by the unassisted eye. It varies in colour from green to brick- 
red. Like other mites it has eight legs. It works on the under side of the rose-leaf, 
lacerating it with its jaws and draining its juices by means of its beak or sucker. It 



39 



spins a fine web as a protection to itself and its young. The leaves attacked by it turn 
yellow and drop off; and, unless the pest is overcome, the plant will soon be entirely 
denuded. 

For a remedy, dust the under sides of the leaves with flour of brimstone. Exposing 
the affected plant to a good shower is beneficial. 

1 4. The Thrips (Erythroneura rosce) belongs to the family Cercopidce in the order Hemip- 
tera. It is almost as injurious to the rose-bush as the red spider. The perfect insect 
is a little more than a tenth of an inch long, and has a yellowish body, and white trans- 
parent wings. Its eyes are brown. The female lays her eggs in June. The empty pupa- 
skins of the species are often very conspicuous on the under side of the leaves. Affected 
plants^should be well showered with an infusion of tobacco. 

15. The Plant Louse (Aphis rosea) Fig. 23, belongs to the 
family Apliidce in the order Hemiptera. The winged males 
and females of the species appear in the fall. The insect is 
green, flask-shaped — the abdomen being large and round. 
The wings are transparent, much longer than the body, and 
have a few veins which extend outward from the costa. The 
upper wings are nearly twice as large as the lower. The head 
of the insect is small. It is furnished with tapering antennae 
and with a long tubular beak. The eyes are globular. The 
legs are long and the feet two-jointed. At the upper side of 
the body, near the extremity, are two little tubes or pores, 
which exude, in droplets, a honey-sweet fluid. 

The female aphis, having outlived her mate, lays her eggs 
and dies. The eggs hatch in early spring, and produce wing- 
less females. These are viviparous, and bring forth, in each 
Fig. 23. case, about ninety young ones resembling themselves. The 

new brood rapidly attain their growth, and produce other 
wingless females j and so the ever-increasing multitudes are generated until, in the final 
autumnal brood, winged males and females again appear. Eeaumur calculated that the 
descendants of one female would, unchecked, amount, in five generations, to five thousand 
nine hundred and four millions nine hundred thousand. 

The sweet fluid exuded from the abdominal tubes of the aphis is known as " honey- 
dew." It is this fluid which attracts ants, and is the cause of their diligent attendance 
upon the creatures that produce it. 

To destroy the aphis, sprinkle the plants affected with tobacco water, or wash them 
with suds made with carbolic soap. 

The writer of the preceding notes on troublesome insects has drawn largely upon 
information supplied in valuable papers which have appeared from time to time in the 
publications of the Entomological Society. 




MIMETIC ANALOGY. 

BY THE REV. THOMAS W. FYLES, SOUTH QUEBEC. 

Insects have numerous enemies, and it is interesting to notice the provisions made 
-for their preservation from them. One of the most remarkable of such provisions is the 
likeness which they, in many cases, bear to objects among which they are placed, or to 
living creatures with which they consort — creatures less likely to be molested than they. 
This resemblance is called Mimetic Analogy. 

The caterpillars of Geometra papilionaria, which feed upon the birch, closely 
resemble, in colour, size, and general appearance, the catkins of .that tree. They attain 
their growth as the catkins attain theirs. The caterpillar of Amphidasis betulana is the 
-exact counterpart of an oak twig. The brown bifid head of the larva resembling two 
unopened buds of the plant. One insect (Phyllia foliata) would be mistaken for a bunch 
of green leaves, and another (G astro pacha quercifolia) for a bunch of dry ones. Dr. 



40 



Hartwig, in his fascinating work on the Tropical World, thus tells of a leaf-like 
butterfly : — 

" Mr. Wallace describes the Kallima paralekta, a large, beautifully coloured butterfly 
when flying, but which, when alighted, cannot be distinguished from a dead leaf, except 
upon the closest scrutiny. He had often seen it flying, but had never been able to 
capture one. At last he actually saw one alight close by where he was standing, but it 
disappeared as if by magic. At last he detected it, and having secured it, was able to 
perceive how it was able to hide itself, when in plain view. The upper end of the wings 
terminates in a fine point, while the lower wings are lengthened out into a short thick 
tail ; between these points runs a dark line like the midrib of a leaf, with marks on each 
side resembling leaf-veins. When the wings are closely pressed together, the whole out- 
line is exactly like that of a half -shrivelled leaf, which it then resembles in colour. The 
tail of the hind wings forms a perfect stalk, and rests upon the twig, while the insect is 
supported by the middle pair of legs, which are hardly to be distinguished from the twigs 
around. The head is drawn back between the wings, at whose base is a notch to let it 
in. Knowing all this, one must look closely at the picture which he gives in order to 
distinguish the alighted butterfly from a leaf." 

Many insects hide their glories 
under sober coloured fore wings. 
This is especially the case with 
the Catocalidee. An insect of 
this race, in repose, resembles a 
piece of bark, or of lichen ; but, 
when displayed, its beauty is 




marvellous. I remember a hunt 

I had, many years ago, for a 

specimen of Catocala relicta, 

(Fig. 24) in the sugar-bush, near 

the farm-house, over the brow of 

Mount Royal. The insect was 

at rest on the trunk of a tree, 

ng- ' ' just above my reach. It was 

disturbed by my efforts to secure it, and flew off. I watched it threading its way 

amongst the maples for some moments ; and then it disappeared. I proceeded in the 

direction it had taken, and, after half an hour's search, discovered it again. Again it 

escaped me. It was too good a prize to be lightly abandoned, so I once more set 

out in pursuit, and I went 

across the bush, 

And through and through the bush 
And round and round the bush, 

and, after three hours' search, I found it, and had the satisfaction of boxing it. 

Who has not been startled, when walking along a dusty roadway in the fall to see 
the Rattling Locust (CEdipoda sulphurea), which perhaps he had mistaken for a piece of 
dirt, suddenly spring up at his feet, spread its handsome sulphur-coloured and black 
uncler-wings, and fly off with a series of snaps which sounds like an explosion of derisive 
laughter 1 

But the most interesting instances of Mimetic Analogy, are those wherein one 
species of animated creatures bears a resemblance to another with which it consorts. 
When the apple-trees are in blossom, great numbers of large humble bees, noisy, fierce, 
well armed fellows, which neither boy nor bird would have the hardihood to molest, may 
be seen hovering over the blossoms. But, mingled with them, and closely resembling 
them in size, colour and mode of flight, will be found the yellow-belted moth, Amphion 
nessus, and the " Clear wings," Macroglossa pelasgus and Macroglossa diffinis. A fear of 
the bees secures the moths, just as, in the east, a wholesome dread of the military escort 
saves the peaceful traveller from the Bedouins. 

In South America, there are certain butterflies which have an offensive odour— so- 
bad an odour that the birds and the dragon-flies will not honour them with their attention. 



41 



With thein are others of different genera, and quite inoffensive, but so closely resembling 
the ill-smelling ones in general appearance that it requires a trained eye to distinguish 
between the kinds. 

The theory of Natural Selection is, that nature in the weaker creatures is straining 
after a resemblance to the stronger. But, oh, do not think that perfection would be 
reached when the weaker butterfly, Leptalis orise, became as ill-savoured as its associate, 
Methona psidii and Macroglossa pelasyus, could sting as sharply as Bombus terricola, and 
other fancied improvements in insect economy had been made ; for while these changes 
were taking place the birds and the dragon-flies would often, it will be perceived, have 
to go supperless to bed, and they too, to use the words of Mrs. Chick, would find it 
necessary to "make an effort," and would rise superior to their sense of smell ; and then 
there would be a general disarrangement of aims • so that, after all, we cannot wonder 
that untold centuries, as believers in Darwinism tell us, were necessary to change the 
monad into the man. 

" Not one or two ages sufficed for the feat, 
It required a few millions the change to complete ; 
But now the thing's done and it looks rather neat, 
Which nobody can deny." 

This theory of Natural Selection runs counter to certain long-received statements, 
among which is this: " He hath made everything beautiful in its season ; there can 
nothing be added to it, and nothing taken away from it." 

nr»>ui Southey, in one of his poems has shewn us that we could make no improvement 
even upon the pig — that alterations would but mar its pig-perfection : — 

" Jacob ! I do not like to see thy nose 
Turn'd up in scornful curve at yonder pig, 
It would be well, my friend, if we, like him, 
Were perfect in our kind ! * * * 
* * * Give thy fancy scope, 
And thou will find that no imagined change 
Can beautify the beast. Place at his end 
The starry glories of the Peacock's pride, 
Give him the Swan's white breast ; for his horn hoofs 
Shape such a foot and ankle as the waves 
Crowded in eager rivalry to kiss, 
When Venus, from the enamor'd sea arose ; 
Jacob, thou canst but make a monster of him ! 
All alteration man could think would mar 
His pig-perfection." 

And a class of students once tried their hands at insect manufacture, but were not 
eminently successful. They took the thorax of one species, the head of another, the 
abdomen of a third, the legs of a fourth, the wings of a fifth, and the antennae of a sixth ; 
and by the aid of mucilage, and with careful manipulation, they succeeded in setting up 
a very extraordinary object. An innocent-looking individual of their number was chosen 
to be spokesman ; and they presented themselves in a body before one of the professors 
distinguished for his knowledge of Natural History — " Would the Professor oblige them 
so much as to tell them the name of that bug?" The old gentleman took it — looked at 
it — put it down, and took out his glasses and examined it again — and a twinkle was seen 
in his eye, " Gentlemen," he said, " that is a remarkable bug — a very remarkable bug ! 
It looks to me like a specimen of the hum-bug." 

The instances of Mimetic Analogy which I have hitherto brought forward have 
betokened providential care for the safety of insects, without loss or detriment to the 
creatures to which there has been a resemblance. I will now cite one or two of a some- 
what different character. 

There are certain species of parasitic bees called cuckoo bees, which do not construct 
cells, and provide a store of pollen for their own larvae, but visit the nests of their more 
industrious relations, and lay their eggs in the cells which the owners had prepared for 
their own young. A bee comes to deposit an egg in a cell which she has previously stored 
with pollen ; but the cuckoo bee has been before her, and she finds an egg therein. She 

turns away — we can almost fancy her saying to herself, " Dear me, how forgetful I am" 

and goes to work upon another cell. 



42 



The cuckoo bee bears a close resemblance to the bee whose domain it invades. The 
chief difference that appears is that, whereas the industrious bee has the broad hollowed 
shank which all the pollen collectors have, the parasite has a rounded shank. 

But there is a third insect, strangely like both the others, which frequents the nest r 
and which is not a bee at all, but a two-winged fly — an insect more to be dreaded than 
the cuckoo bee. The young of the cuckoo bee eats the pollen that has been provided for 
another larva ; the young of the fly eats the larva itself. Mr. Noel Humphreys thus 
describes the creature and its operations : — 

" This odious looking creature, with its broad tail, armed with sharp spines, and its 
muscular body tapering to the head, and furnished with rigid serrations along each side, 
forms a striking contrast to the soft helpless larva of the bee. Like all the larvse of the 
Syrphidre to which the genus Volucella belongs, it is blind, but resting attached by the broad 
tail, it moves its head rapidly about as a feeler, before changing its position. The spines 
at the tail may be adapted to enable it to raise itself up the smooth sides of the cell of 
the bee larva, in case that one infant bee should prove insufficient, and that it might 
require to pass on to the next cradle. But it may be as well to describe the progress of 
the parasitic larva on the supposition that one baby bee will prove enough for its purpose. 
The devoted larva of the bee, then, is gradually eaten alive by the parasite, which, with 
seemingly horrible instinct, spares all the actually vital parts, taking only the more fleshy 
portions, until the carnivorous young Volucella feels itself full fed and ready to undergo 
its torpid state of change. Then the last remains of the wretched infant bee are greedily 
consumed, and the parasite passes into its sleepy chrysaline stage, taking its long siesta 
in the comfortable cradle whose infant tenant it has^ devoured, and from which it event- 
ually comes boldly forth in all the pride of its winged and perfect state, walking out of the 
bee-home as from its own proper abode, and attracting no notice whatever from the bees 
in whose nursery it has performed the odious act of eating a baby bee, and appropriating 
its comfortable cradle cell. The stolid unconsciousness with which the bees allow this 
insect vampire to pass out and escape from the scene of its horrid proceedings with im- 
punity, has induced some naturalists to believe that the carnivorous Volucella owes its 
safety to the complete disguise in the colouring of the bee, which is supposed to be so 
perfect as to deceive the bees themselves into the belief that these strangers are members 
of their own fraternity.' * 

Instances of Mimetic Analogy are not confined to the insect tribes. Did the reader 
ever see a flock of young grey turkeys throw themselves upon a granite rock and lie 
motionless keeping a watchful eye on the hawk gliding in the sky above them 1 How 
closely do the female Bob-o'link and its eggs resemble in their colours the foliage around 
the nest ! How difficult it is to distinguish the young of the ruffed grouse as they 
crouch in the herbage when an intruder comes suddenly upon them. It cannot be doubted 
that numberless lives are prolonged, by the resemblances to surrounding objects, and the 
instinct to make the most of these resemblances, with which God in His providential care 
has gifted so many of His creatures. 






NOTE ON THE TIGER BEETLES. 

BY REV. THOMAS W. FYLES, SOUTH QUEBEC. 

The insects called Tiger Beetles (Figs. 25 and 26) are predatory 

in their nature, very active in their habits, and elegant in their 

appearance. Many of them are perfect gems, clean cut and 

polished. 

The plan pursued by the larvse (Fig. 27) of the 

Tiger Beetles for capturing their prey was first made 

known by M. Desmarets. The account reads like a 

chapter in one of those dreadful sensational stories, in 

which trap-doors are made to open upon indescribable 
Fig. 25. Fig. 26. Fig. 27. horrors< 

The Cicindela larva sinks a narrow shaft about a foot deep in the soil, then climbs 





43 



to the top of it, covers its broad flat head with sand, and waits. By-and-bye some poor 
innocent, taking the air, steps upon the living door of the deadly oubliette. Down goes 
the larva instanter, and down goes its prey ; and what transpires when they reach the 
bottom must be left to the imagination. 

The perfect insect is as voracious as the larva, but it hunts down its victims in the 
face of day and often has to do battle for the prize. I have in my cabinet a specimen of 
C. vulgaris which has a peculiar lump upon one of its front legs. That lump is an 
honourable distinction. It is the head of a large ant (F. Pennsylvanica) slain in single 
combat — the whole head. How much more complete a decoration than the necklace of 
the teeth of his slaughtered foes, which the South Sea Islander used to wear, is this ! 
On that fatal day — the day of the combat — the beetle and the ant set out from their 
respective abodes, each with courage high and appetite keen. Both were distinguished 
warriors, and 

" When Greek meets Greek, the tug of war begins." 

They met, and, as the Yankees say, " went for one another." The ant seized the beetle 
by the leg, but that was enclosed in armour of proof. The beetle seized the ant by the 
neck — a smaller neck than poor Ann Boleyn's ; no wonder the head came off ! But those 
deteimined jaws held on grimly in death. No effort of the conqueror could relax them 
and by no effort could he reach the head to bite it away ; and so he carried it about with 
him as a trophy of victory. 



THE HESSIAN FLY. 

BY JAMES FLETCHER, OTTAWA. 

The above is the title of an admirable pamphlet just issued by Miss Ormerod, Con- 
sulting Entomologist to the Royal Agricultural Society of England, and adds one more 
to the many boons for which the agricultural classes in England are indebted to this 
talented lady. Although all the information published is contained in twenty-one of the 
small pages of a crown octavo. pamphlet, so methodical is the arrangement and so concise 
are the statements, that it may be said to contain all that it is important for the farmer to 
know of what has been positively ascertained concerning the habits of this destructive 
insect, and the most approved remedies for keeping it in check. With Miss Ormerod's 
pamphlet he can, in a few minutes, learn from her excellent illustrations whether an attack 
upon his crop should be ascribed to the Hessian fly or not, and if so he will also find 
himself provided with advice as to the best steps to take to limit the injury to the smallest 
possible amount. 

Immediately upon the first appearance of the Hessian fly in England, Miss Ormerod, 
with characteristic promptness, visited the fields attacked and at once identified the 
marauder. That there should be no mistake in the matter, she referred specimens to the 
highest authorities, and amongst others to our ex-President Prof. Saunders. All of these 
agreed with her that it was the true Hessian Fly. She then lost no time in writing to 
the newspapers, and in describing how the attack might be recognised. In a few weeks 
she had examined all the literature on the subject, and had accumulated a vast amount of 
information as to the extent of the injury committed ; so that before the winter set in she 
was able to give the farmers good practical advice as to the best means of stamping out 
the new enemy. This she has now consolidated into the useful report under consideration. 
We have first a short historical sketch of the fly as an injurious insect ; then ah estimate 
of the injury caused during the past season in England and Scotland, which was consider- 
able. In one English and three Scotch localities, the loss was calculated to be several 
bushels to the acre. The appearance of the attacked crops is described in a plain, intelli- 
gible manner, together with the insect in its different stages, from the egg to the perfect 
insect, and an abstract js given of its life-history. The important question, " Where does 
the Hessian fly come from?" is then discussed. This treats of the different means by 



44 



>r 



which the insect may be introduced, and it is shown that it may come in the " flax-seed 
state amongst seed-grain, or in straw which, having come from infested countries, either as 
straw-cargoes or as packing, is used for horses and cows in London, and then sent out to 
farms in the country as slightly used litter, or as " long-manure." When this is the case, 
says Miss Ormerod, " a sufficiently large proportion of the flies in the flax-seed state are 
likely to develop to cause mischief, such as we have seen in the past season. On the first 
farm on which the attack was observed, near Hertford, I found, on enquiry, that London 
manure had been used of mixed kind, but mainly cow and horse manure, in ' very long ' 
condition." 

An observation of the greatest importance was made by Mr. Palmer, of Revell's 
Hall, near Hertford, viz., that the flax-seeds are separated from the straw in threshing. 
This was previously thought not to be the case ; as however, they are thus loosened from 
the straw, they are of course liable to be mixed with grain and with it transmitted from 
place to place ; but, in Mr. Palmer's case, they were not found amongst the grain, nor in the 
chaff, but in the dust and rubbish which falls beneath the threshing machine. In a 
handful of siftings he found no less than fifteen " flax-seeds." This rubbish is compara- 
tively worthless, and if English farmers are careful always to burn it upon a waste spot, 
it will certainly reduce the number of the parent flies from which another serious attack 
may originate. It is the custom amongst our best Canadian farmers to do this in districts 
where the wheat midge (weevil) is prevalent, and it is attended with very satisfactory 
results. 

Our authoress continues : " From the above observations it appears that puparia or 
1 flax-seeds ' may be transmitted in corn rubbish. In samples of screenings and ' sweep- 
ings ' from imported corn I have found, besides a large amount of live and dead beetles, 
also weed-seeds, smut and other matters undesirable to spread abroad, (as may easily be 
done where these are used for poultry food, and thus thrown out in farm yards), and as 
with these broken bits of stem are to be found, it appears at least possible that " flax- 
seed " may also be conveyed. In Dr. Packard's paper on the subject, he alludes to the 
possibility of the pest being transmitted in wheat." 

The best methods of pievention are treated of at some length, and their applicability 
to the farming process in vogue in England is reviewed. The favorite preventive 
remedy — late sowing — is shown to be applied in England as an ordinary part of the 
regular arrangements of the work on most farms. As a rule, wheat is not sown until some 
time after the 20th September, the date which we consider the latest it is necessary to 
wait to avoid attack, and thus the young wheat plants are not up until after the autumn 
brood of the fly is dead. The importance of this point cannot be laid too much stress 
upon, for if late sowing be regularly practiced, the Hessian fly must be dependent, for its 
subsistance upon self-sown plants in fields which had been attacked, or upon rye or other 
grain sown as sheep-feed. This reduces to narrow limits the lines in which experiments 
may be successfully tried to prevent this enemy to England's staple crop from establish- 
ing itself and getting beyond the control of the farmers. 

Perhaps, the most satisfactory feature about this outbreak of the Hessian fly in 
England, is the fact that it has appeared in so many places, and has thus been brought 
forcibly before the attention of farmers in all parts of the kingdom, and they being aroused, 
will now see the necessity of promptly carrying out the instructions necessary for its 
extermination. 

The Royal Agricultural Society, through Miss Ormerod, and the Government, through 
Mr. Whitehead, have done everything in their power to apprise the farmers of their 
danger, and have put in their hands as weapons, with which they may confidently hope to 
cope successfully with their new enemy, concise information as to its life-history and 
habits, which will enable them to recognise it at once, and apply without delay the proper 
treatment. 

Briefly, this consists of (a) late sowing of the main crop, so that there is no accom- 
modation ready for the autumn brood by which a large proportion will necessarily perish 
without egg-laving ; (b) feeding off, or ploughing in any early-sown or volunteer crops, 



45 



which may be found to be infested, so that the eggs and maggots may be destroyed ; 
(c) deep ploughing by which loose puparia, or infested stubble may be buried too deeply in 
the ground to allow the perfect flies to emerge. 

From the historical sketch which is given of the occurrence of C. destructor, it would 
appear that although a watch has been kept upon it since its first outburst as a destruc- 
tive scourge in North America, in the year 1786, it had never been actually identified as 
occurring in Great Britain until July, 1886. 

The large number of widely separated localities, however, from which its ravages 
have now been reported, might lead one to the conclusion, either that it must have been 
established for some time previous to that date, and that it was only Miss Ormerod's. 
energy and zeal which then brought its operations to light ; or that some special circum- 
stance has taken place during the past summer by which it has been distributed over the whole 
kingdom ; or again, that some special climatic condition has allowed it to exist where it 
had failed to do so before. For several years Miss Ormerod has had an active and 
observant body ot intelligent workers in all quarters of Great Britain, and it is strange, if 
it existed at all, that nothing has been heard previously of its operations. Nevertheless, 
on the other hand, from the large quantities of straw and seed grain imported annually 
into the British Isles from countries known to be infested by this fly, together with the 
present rapid and easy methods of transport, it is at least extremely probable that it has 
been introduced over and over again, and it is difficult to understand why it has not long 
before now secured a firm foothold there. May it not be hoped that the law which applies 
with regard to many noxious weeds, will also be found to hold good in the case of this 
injurious insect % 

The existence of any plant as an aggressive weed in a given locality, appears to be- 
not so much a question of the introduction of the seed, as of the plant finding there the/ 
conditions suitable to its growth and healthy reproduction. There are many plants, for 
instance, troublesome weeds here, which must have been frequently introduced into 
Europe from this Continent, (or in some instances taken back again to the place whence 
we originally received them), but which have never yet taken forcible possession of culti- 
vated ground, e. g, the Common Purslane (Portulaca oleracea), Hound's Tongue or Burrs 
(Cynoglossum officinale), Small Burrs (Echinospermum Lappula), and the common Fox- 
tail Grasses (Setaria glauca and viridis) ; and then, although relatively they are far 
fewer, there are some which must have been frequently introduced on this continent, but 
which, except in a few localities, cannot (or do not) exist for more than two or three 
seasons, e. g, the Common Scarlet Corn Poppy (Papaver Rhceas), Scarlet Pimpernel 
(Anagallis arvensis), Common Groundsel (Senecio vulgaris), Corn Gromwell (Litlw- 
spermum arvense), and the Common Nettles (Urtica dioica and U. urens). In the same 
way there is no doubt whatever, that the Colorado potato bettle (Doryphora 10-lineata), 
has been many times conveyed to the British Isles on transatlantic steamships ; but not 
finding there conditions suitable to its requirements it has failed to establish itself. 

Miss Ormerod, quoting from Bulletin 4, U. S. Ent. Com., tells us that "the original 
habitat of the Hessian fly is considered most probably to have been Southern Europe and 
Western Asia, i. e., about the shores of the Mediterranean Sea," a district with a summer 
climate of far greater heat and aridity than is found in the British Islands. Again, in 
North America, where, whether introduced or indigenous matters not in this connection, 
this pest to our sorrow flourishes to a most remarkable degree, it has always dry, hot 
weather during the periods in which it passes through its active stages. 

In view of the above facts, and notwithstanding that it has occurred in considerable 
numbers in many parts of Great Britain during the past summer, I think it probable that 
its widespread appearance as an injurious insect, was due either to some special cause 
which had not existed before, or to some unusual climatic condition, rather than to its 
having established itself in a new habitat suitable to its reproduction and increase. 
Furthermore, if the farmers can only be frightened sufficiently to induce them to 
obtain the pamphlet under consideration, and to follow closely the advice which is there 
offered them, I cannot help thinking that before very long Miss Ormerod will be able to 
relegate the Hessian fly to a place amongst the foes she has conquered. 



40 



A NEW LIBRARY PEST.* 

BY DR. H. A. HAGEN, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 



Everybody now-a-days has books, even if he never reads them. It has become an 
acknowledged fashion — the more books the larger the wisdom, the finer the culture. The 
climax is reached in France, where you can buy as decoration for fine rooms large libra- 
ries, where all the prominent classic authors are represented only by the handsomely 
lettered backs of the volumes, stored in cabinets with glass doors. The key of the 
cabinets is invariably mislaid ; in fact, the cabinets do not open at all. But even where 
book-cases contain real volumes, it is interesting to observe which authors are never taken 
out. In German private libraries, the binding of Klopstok's masterpiece, the Messiah, is 
almost invariably as fresh as possible, and in England and here I have often seen Paradise 
Lost in a very fine condition. As an instance of the contrary, when I was a young man, 
an older prominent naturalist singled out a volume from my library in a condition best 
to be described by book and binding in tatters, and then exclaimed : " That is just how I 
like to see books." It was on bugs, and my scientific digestive organs were at that time 
in excellent condition. Later I was always interested in picking out books in similar 
condition in libraries, in order to have an idea of the taste and favorite studies of the 
patrons. I should state that the first prize could be given to a copy of Peppy 's Memoirs, 
in the truest Billingsgate condition, greasy as candles. It was in a library intended foi 
the culture of the young. 

Let that be as it is ; but certainly no owner of books likes to have his property 
destroyed except by himself. I had believed until recently that the most obnoxious 
enemies of books were my special friends, the insects. But I see now that I was decidedly 
wrong. A most interesting publication, " The Enemies of Books," by William Blades, in 
London, which has gone through three editions during the past five years, shows 
conclusively that men are far greater enemies of books, at least in old England. Mr. 
Blades describes everything injuring books — fire, water, gas, heat, dust, neglect and 
ignorance. Then come two short chapters on the book-worm and other vermin, followed 
by chapters on bookbinders and collectors. The small volume contains facts which will 
be read with virtuous astonishment and disgust. A rich shoemaker, John Bagford, one 
of the founders of the Antiquarian Society, in the beginning of the last century, went 
from library to library, tearing away title pages from rare books of all sizes. These he 
sorted out according to nationalities and towns, and so formed over a hundred folic 
volumes now preserved in the British Museum. Others collect initials on vellum, all rich 
in gold and colors, floral decorations ranging from the 12th to the 15th century, all nicely 
mounted on stout cardboard. A Mr. Proeme collects only title pages, to follow a sense 
less kind of classification. One of his volumes contains coarse or quaint titles, showing 
how idiotic or conceited some authors have been : " Bowels Opened in Diverse Sermons,' 
" Die and be Damned," and many others too coarse to be quoted. Certainly it is sure that 
the poor bugs cannot compete with such rivals, except some more enterprising ones, 
apparently bound west, and going straight through eighty folios of patristic works, making 
them look like a spy glass, in a fashion never dreamed of by Ohrysostomus and his 
partners. 

Nearly six years ago, I was invited to make a communication about library pests, at 
the meeting of the librarians in Boston. After a review of the literature then at my 
command, I came to the conclusion that only two insects were to be considered very 
dangerous and obnoxious in North America, the Anobium and the White Ants. The 
Anobium is a small beetle, which is also very destructive to old furniture and old 
picture frames. All who have the infirmity to indulge in the love for old furniture, will 
have often observed with disgust small round openings in their treasures, out of which a 
fine mealy dust falls in little heaps on the floor. I observed myself such a case long ago 
when I was a boy, but I confess that the remembrance of this case is always accompanied 



Read before the Boston Thursday Club. 



47 



by a strong itching of my right ear. A lady cousin of mine, who was a lover and lucky 
owner of such old jewels, had decided to take care of them herself. I had been naughty 
enough to write the date in these dust heaps with my fingers. When I impudently 
ventured to show her about a fortnight later the date I had written still undisturbed, the 
O'.ly acknowledgement of my service came forth with admirable dexterity. 

Use every man after his desert, and who should 'scape whipping ? 

Ne yertheless I gave up forever this kind of chronological record. 

Three additions to my communication before the librarians have been published, but 
they contain only isolated cases, certainly nothing of general importance. Of course the 
insects mentioned had injured books, and as everybody likes to have his own little pest, 
the new comers were chronicled with some emphasis. Nevertheless I have followed up 
the matter carefully during these six years, and would be able to give a nice list of names 
of more or less queer composition. Six years ago a part of the publication on book pests, 
was not to be found here. But in the meantime I have been able to get some of them, 
the most important ones through the splendid custom of the public library of ordering 
books wanted by scientists for their study. 

There is, in fact, no end of obnoxious creatures. " Misery acquaints a man with 
strange bedfellows." Perhaps the word obnoxious is not exactly in the right place, as 
probably those bedfellows may consider the intruding stranger decidedly obnoxious. 
Nevertheless, as such philosophical views would destroy every legitimate museum's 
business, we are bound to our accustomed impoliteness towards all intruders. 

One morning Mr. It. T. Jackson, assistant in Geology in the Museum, asked my advice 
and help against a new pest in his department. The stones and petrefacts were left 
untouched, but all the new labels, written during the past year, were more or less injured, 
or nearly destroyed. Of course this is a serious danger for a collection, as the specimens 
lose their value if the locality or the scientific name is lost. A new form of labels had 
been chosen last year, printed on excellent card paper. The stones are kept in small 
square open boxes, the label is folded in the middle ; upon the lower half the stone is laid, 
to keep the label in place ; upon the upturned half the locality and the name are written 
in order to afford an easy view of the contents of the collection. Now, since last winter 
this upper half has appeared to be scraped on both sides in such a manner that the 
writing is injured and in some cases has disappeared. The lower half of the label was 
similarly injured, so far as not covered by the stone ; the under side of the lower half 
proved never to be injured, and was apparently protected by the bottom of the box, to 
which it was pressed by the weight of the stone. The damage is a considerable one, as 
the whole collection has again to be provided with new labels. A careful research led to 
the discovery of an insect belonging to the genus Lepisma, which lived in the boxes and 
cabinets. The old labels of common writing paper were never attacked, therefore it was 
to be presumed that the finish of the new labels was the attraction to the insects. Indeed, 
Professor C. L. Jackson found the new labels finished on both sides with starch, and 
without doubt the starch covering attracted the Lepisma. I was rather puzzled by this 
fact. It has been known for more than a century that the greatest library pest, Anobium,. 
does not like starch. Therefore it was recommended to use in binding books only such 
paste as was made of pure starch without meal, of course also with the addition of several 
drugs of the most vicious odour ; and now a new customer proves to prefer starch to other 
things. It is, by the way, a queer but very common association of ideas that substances 
with an unpleasant scent to man should also be unpleasant to insects. But the virtuous 
hater of Rockfort or Limbourg cheese would directly be disabused by discovering with a 
common hand lens a lively carnival of bugs in those disgusting dainties. 

The Lepisma destructive to the labels is a true American insect, described by Pro- 
fessor Packard as L. domestica. It belongs to a small group of insects with the euphonious 
name Thysanoura, and there are half a dozen species known in the United States. The 
principal one found in Europe is the L. saccharina, better known as the small blue Silver- 
fish. This little insect is found in dark places or corners near provisions, running very 
fast, and being so soft that it is crushed by the lightest touch. In Europe it has always 



48 



been considered, but without proof, as imported from America. It has been known there 
for more than 200 years, but its existence cannot be traced befoie the discovery of 
America. The whole body of the insect is covered with very fine iridescent scales, which 
have been used as a delicate test object for microscopes, and are the cause of its vulgar 
name, Silver-fish. 

The earliest notice of the small European species is in R. Hooke's Micrographia, a 
folio, London, 1665. It was printed at the expense of the Royal Society, and is an 
account of innumerable things examined by the microscope. The book is still respected 
for the accuracy of the author's observations. Mr. Blades calls it most amazing tor its 
equally frequent blunders. I have reason to suppose that the absurd blundering is more 
on Mr. Blades's side. R. Hooke calls it book-worm, and states that it corrodes and eats 
holes through the leaves and covers of books. The figure is, for the time, tolerably good 
and recognizable. On Mr. Hooke's authority, Lepisma was reported as obnoxious to 
books. As Mr. Hooke has apparently mixed up the destructions done by Anobium with 
those of Lepisma, of which in the following hundred years no damages were observed, the 
whole observation was doubted, and Prof. Herman, in Strasbourg, in his prize essay on 
library pests, declared (1774) that Lepisma was erroneously recorded as obnoxious. This 
was the reason that I did not mention Lepisma in my communication to the librarians, the 
more so as in the past hundred years no new observations had again been recorded. I 
did not mention other remarkable facts, as the Jehthio-Bibliophage, a codfish which had 
swallowed three Puritanical treatises of John Frith, the Protestant martyr. No wonder, 
after such a meal, the fish was soon caught and became famous in the annals of literature. 
This is the title of a little book issued upon the occasion : " Vox Piscis, or the Book -fish, 
containing three treatises which were found in the belly of a Codfish in Cambridge 
Market, on midsummer eve, 1626"; great was the consternation at Cambridge upon the 
publication of this work. 

Nevertheless, just after the delivery of my communication, new proofs of the 
depravity of Lepisma came forward. 

" God made him, and therefore let him pass for a man." 

Prof. Westwood, of Oxford, showed to the Naturalists' Association in 1879, a framed 
and glazed print of which the plain paper was eaten by Lepisma, while the parts covered 
by the printing ink were untouched. I accept this as a sufficient proof of obnoxiousness, 
the more so as the white paper is often the best part of a print. Prof. Westwood 
mentioned that the same fact had been observed in India, where some of the Government 
records had been injured in the same manner. 

Patrick Brown states in his Natural History of Jamaica, that Lepisma saccharina is 
very common there, and is extremely destructive to books and all manner of woollen 
clothing. This notice had been reproduced by Linnaeus, but was later considered as not 
reliable. 

Mr. De Rossi writes, in 1882, as follows': Lepisma saccharina likes damp places and 
destroys in my house paper hangings from inwards entirely. Muslin curtains were 
perforated and the living animals found near fresh holes. Probably the curtains were 
starched, though it is not stated. Also, insect boxes and the wings of butterflies have 
been damaged. 

Prof. Liversidge, in Sidney, reports the same year L. saccharina as very common in 
New South Wales. It does not do so much harm to books, as it cannot well get in 
between the closely pressed leaves of a book, but it injures loose papers, maps and labels : 
the loose edges of piles or bundles of letters suffer more than the central portion. Writing 
paper, too, probably contains more attractive matter in the way of size. The labels were 
written only fifteen months ago, and some hundreds have been rendered totally 
worthless. 

The same calamity is reported by Mr. H. Lucas, assistant in the Museum of the 
Jardin des Plantes, in Paris. L. saccharina destroys labels of white paper, but the parts 
printed with oil and minium remain untouched. The labels on starched paper were very 
much injured, but only the white parts. When leaving for the country in 1862, he put in 
a drawer various articles of clothing, all starched, collars, cuffs and bonnets, and returning 
after six weeks, he found numerous holes, round or oval, in a bonnet, and Lepisma near by. 



49 



On the labels of Polyps, Madrepores and others in the Museum, the writing was in a great 
part destroyed. Dr. Aube, in Paris, says that the black part of the backs of bound books 
was nearly destroyed, probably by Lepisma. 

Mr. Samuel Henshaw, Assistant of the Society of Natural History in Boston, 
enclosed purposely living Lepisma with soft paper, part of a newspaper, in a glass jar, 
and ascertained that the insects had eaten large holes in the paper. 

The well-known antiquary, Mr. Quaritch, in London, had complained, 1870, of the 
ravages done to books ; and Mr. Lewis, in London, after careful examination, stated that 
by eating parts of the bindings the books were caused to fall to pieces ; yet he considered 
it impossible for Lepisma to bore holes in the books, which were probably made by 
Anobium. Prof. Packard, in his Guide, reports of silk and silken tapestry eaten by 
Lepisma, which also devour the paste, making holes in the leaves of books. Also Mr. 
Home, in London, alluded to the damages done to silk garments in India by Lepisma. 
The insect evidently attacks the silk on account of the stiffening matter in it, but never- 
theless makes holes in the fabric. Finally, Mr. Adkin showed a species of Lepisma which 
damaged account books kept in the iron safe of an office in London. 

After all these reliable facts, there is of course no doubt that Lepisma, when left 
undisturbed, may become very obnoxious. The question, Why has that not been observed 
long ago 1 may be answered by the well known " I awoke one morning and found myself 
famous ! " I think there is a very simple explanation. There are so many rogues who 
work in the same way, that the swiftest one to disappear is often easily overlooked, 
Many times I have been told by ladies that their silk dresses, always black ones, had 
been destroyed by carpet bugs, and have always answered that the carpet bugs only 
attack wool. Indeed, I confess that I have only recently learned that these aristocratic 
desires belong to the Silver-fish. 

If we tabulate all the facts, we find directly that all damages, except those to paper 
and its combinations, have been inflicted on silks, clothing and muslin curtains which 
were invariably starched or finished with some stiffening size, making them more easily 
eaten or eroded. Secondly, the backs of books have been more or less seriously injured. 
But just here paste had been used in quantity. The gold lettering of the backs is com- 
monly done by putting the gold on paste and burning the hot brass letters into the back. 
I have been assured that in one case only the gold of the lettering had disappeared. 
There is no wonder that silken and paper tapestry has been eaten ; but it is to be hoped 
that the industry now common of making paper hangings solely of arsenic may induce 
Lepisma to emigrate to more hospitable quarters. 

That labels in collections have been destroyed, is observed here, in France and in New 
South Wales. All those labels were starched. Prints have been destroyed in England ; 
letters, when lying loose or in heaps, and Government records in England, in New South 
Wales and in Boston. I think many gentlemen present will find the most rascally 
instance of destruction is the making erasures in account books in the safe. 

After all these facts, there is no doubt that maps, engravings, collections of photo- 
graphs, herbariums, even label catalogues, are in evident danger. But if we look more 
closely at the injuries reported, we find directly that all such papers, when pressed firmly 
together, were not reached by Lepisma, and in this way a large number of accidents may 
be avoided. Engravings and maps, which would suffer if pressed too hard, will be 
perfectly safe in simple pasteboard boxes, provided that they are made to close perfectly, 
so that it is impossible for Lepisma to find an entrance. Insect powder sprinkled in the 
nooks and corners where Lepisma is often observed — in Cambridge, behind the kitchen 
stove or range — kills directly all reached by the powder, and I should recommend the 
same for. silk dresses or the closets and drawers in which they are stored. Concerning 
valuable engravings, I would cover the backs of those framed with common paper fastened 
on with a paste mixed with insect powder or tincture. I consider, therefore, Lepisma as 
not dangerous when proper care is taken to prevent the danger. 

The most dangerous enemies to papers and books are the White Ants, the Termites, 
because they destroy everything and avoid the daylight when they work. As I had 
before this the pleasure of delivering a communication on this subject, I will give only 
some additional facts which have come to my knowledge during late years. The com- 



50 



mon white ants of the United States are to be found everywhere, from Manitoba down to> 
the Gulf of Mexico, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific. In the mountains in Oolorado r 
Washington Territory and Nevada, they ascend to 5,000, and even above 7,000 feet. It 
is of course not possible to exterminate them, but they must behave if they intend to live 
together with man. Their depredations should not exceed certain limits allowed t«> 
them. Everybody is accustomed not to forget for one moment the precautions necessary 
to protect his property against destruction by fire, and if the same precautions were taken 
and not for one moment forgotten, against the destruction by white ants, I think all that 
men are able to do would have been done. Of course, very valuable property we ai e 
accustomed to shield by fire-proof buildings, and similar caution will be necessary to pro- 
tect very valuable property, i. e., libraries, against white ants. Buildings should be stone 
or brick, and all stumps or roots of trees taken out of the bottom of the cellars to a depth 
of six feet before the cellar floor is carefully cemented. Outside the building should be 
surrounded by a deep open area • no flower beds, shrubs, ivy, as the necessary manure is 
the greatest attraction for white ants. 

Large cities are certainly in less danger, at least some parts of them. I am sure 
that all that is called Back-bay in Boston, will be free from white ants, if they are not 
brought in by nice parks and similar fineries. The older parts of Boston are by no 
means free from the pest, but for palpable reasons the owners of infected property do not 
like to speak of such things. Their presence in the State House, in the so-called Dungeon, 
was noted in the papers four years ago. As nothing has been done to prevent the pest 
from entering other parts of the building, it is very probable that they* have spread 
further. The note in the newspapers about the sudden break down of the wooden stand 
supporting the ensigns and standards, looks very suspicious. Perhaps white ants may 
know more about it. In the Dungeon only the taxation papers of the State were stored, 
and the white ants, when I saw it, had arrived at the twentieth year of this century. 
According to another notice in a newspaper (I cannot say if it is true), the archives of 
the Board of Health have been placed in the Dungeon — as the notice stated — for preser- 
vation. As the State House was built on a place that was formerly a beautiful garden, 
it is very possible that stumps not taken out may be the cause of the presence of the pest. 
To find out where the white ants came into the Dungeon, and to follow their gangs out- 
side the building, would be the first and most important step to take. Indeed, two years 
ago a Bill asking for a paltry sum for this purpose was brought before the Legislature, 
but laid upon the table. In a boarding house in France, infested by white ants, the 
floor of the dining room suddenly came down two flights, together with the table board- 
ers. It is gratifying to learn that nobody was hurt, and, as it is stated, they lost only 
their appetites for one day. So we may hope that if the Legislature should come down 
in a similar soft manner, they may lose only their appetites for one day, and that this 
argumentum a posteriori may be followed by an enlightenment about the pest. Indeed, 
the State House is not the only place infested by white ants in those parts of the city. 
A few months ago an old bachelor, in a house very near Mt. Vernon street, had to take 
out all the injured lumber supporting the walls and to replace it by new. When told by 
one relation that it was rather dangerous, he answered that he felt very comfortable, as 
it was only every ten years he had to meet this expense. In the neighborhood of the 
State House, in small courts, are some sickly-looking old trees, probably dear old pets of 
the owners. They have decidedly the appearance of knowing something about white 
ants. That may be as it is, but I believe that no library here is more in danger than 
that in the State House, and I am told that it contains very rare books, difficult or 
impossible to be replaced. The Athenaeum, situated near the State House on one side 
bordering on an old churchyard, seems at first in a rather dangerous situation. But the 
very substantial building, with high, and, I believe, vaulted basements, makes danger to 
the library appear very improbable. Nevertheless, it would be reasonable to always 
have the pest in mind, and to often make a revision of those parts of the library which 
are little or rarely used. The Public Library does not seem in danger, but I know the 
surroundings only imperfectly. After all these gloomy predictions, I may assert that 
nobody would be happier than I if they were forever unfounded, and the librarian might. 
say, What's Hecuba to him, or he to Hecuba ! 



51 



BEGINNING AN ACQUAINTANCE WITH WILD BEES. 

BY J. A. GUIGNARD, OTTAWA. 

On a hot, bright day of July, 1883, I visited a cedar and larch swamp near Ottawa, 
particularly rich in plants of that magnificent Canadian orchid, the showy Lady's Slipper, 
{Cypripedium spectabile). Their conspicuous pink and white blossoms were at the time 
in all their glory ; however, they were not exactly the attraction for me. My object was 
to find out, if possible, what insects know how to appreciate them and take advantage of 
their store of nectar. Which of those dwellers of the air could it be, that so far trusted 
the curious mocassin-shaped lip, as to dare to penetrate its recesses 1 Having observed 
the behaviour of flies imprisoned in such flowers,* I had been led to understand how 
certain insects of proper size, in their search for the sweat juices, mast be the agents of 
fertilisation of the plant. They enter through the large aperture above, but on account 
of the peculiar conformation of the cavity, they can coma out only through on? of the 
smaller openings under the anthers at the base of the flower, and th^re, if of proper size, 
must of necessity rub their backs against the anther above, thu3 detaching som j of the 
gummy pollen, which they afterwards unconsciously carry to the stigmas of other flowers. 

Though I had before taken advantage of every opportunity of watching Cypripedium 
flowers, I had not yet succeeded in finding any live insects in them. But, as I now kept 
peering into every lip that I could see amongst the high herbs and grass, at last I noticed 
a dark object in one of them. I quickly threw my net over the flower and very soon 
there came out a bee through one of the posterior apertures. A bee, I said ; — it wa3 at 
least an insect very like the honey-bee, as to size and general appearance, but blacker and 
more massive in all the parts of its body. The p interior legs, however, were shorter and 
lacked the characteristic width of the part which the honey-bee uses as a basket for 
cirrying pollen from the flowers to the hive. But this deficiency in the wild inject was 
amply compensated by a thick lining of black hair covering all the lower surface of the 
abdomen ; and in many specie3 of this and allied genera, I have since often found this 
brush loaded with white, yellow, red, or brown pollen altogether coacealing the hairs. 

In Lady's Slippers, however, such a brush was of no use to the insect, as the adhesive 
pollen of the stamens could only mat the hair, coating and crippling at the same time 
the le<*s and other organs which might become besmeared with it. The anther, never- 
theless, does not let the bee escape without some pollen adhering to its bick, where it 
can least impede its movements. I replaced the insect several times in different flowers, 
and saw it always follow in them the same road; it immediately disappeared in the 
narrow passage under the stigma, which retained some of the pollen and issued under one 
of the anthers after a more or less energetic struggle, according to the size of the aperture 
and the rigidity of its edges, which always become relaxed with age. If introduced into 
a flower of small size, from which it could not force its way as before, the insect had a 
very quick method of regaining its liberty ; it immediately began to bite and tear away 
the walls of its prison with its two powerful jaws or mandibles, and very soon enlarged 
the opening or cut a new hole. The mandibles are indeed remarkable instruments, stout 
and strong, compared to which those of the honey-bee are like knife blades by the side 
of lumbermen's axes. They are triangular in shape and toothed on the inside edge, 
where they close against each other, so as to form excellent nippers. 

I had never previously felt the need of much knowledge of bees, nor indeed of any 
other insects, but I very naturally felt now a desire to know the name of this useful 
servant of the showy Lady's Slipper. I therefore brought it to entomologists of my 
acquaintance, — eminent entomologists, deeply versed in the lore of beetles, of moths, of 
butterflies, but who, to my great disappointment, had up to that time somewhat neglected 
that of bees, so that I could not get from them the help I wanted. I then turnei to 
books, and again, was not a little astonished to find that there was not one single work in 
English treating of the classification of American bees in the same way as the numerous 

* See "Le Naturaliste Canadien," Vol. XIII. (1882), p. 221 and XVIth Report of the Entom. Soc. of 
Ont. (1886), p. 45. 



52 



works on the North American flora, elaborately describe the different orders, genera 
and species of plants. I was, therefore, glad to find the information desired in a French 
work published in Quebec, Abbe' Provancher's " Petite Faune Entomologique," just then 
completed to the end of the order Hymenoptera, which comprises the bees, wasps, ants, 
ichneumon-flies, saw-flies, etc. After some little labour, I succeeded in ascertaining in 
that too modestly named Fauna, both the generic and specific names of my insect, — 
Megachile melanophcea, i.e. the black-brown Leaf- cutter. 

The name of the genus having thus been obtained, it was easy to gather more 
information in works treating of Hymenoptera, especially in those describing the labours 
of the parent bees on behalf of their offspring. Thus I found that the habits of the 
Leaf-cutters were observed and described by the French naturalist Reaumur, as early as 
the beginning of the last century. Mr. E. Baynes Reed, in the Second Annual Report of 
the Entomological Society of Ontario (p. 24), and Mr. W. H. Harrington in the XVIth, 
(p. 53), have given the principal facts of their history, how they cleverly cut circular 
pieces of leaves with their mandibles, and use these pieces in the construction of the cells 
of their nests. 

Megachile centuncularis, L., which is spread all over the continent of Europe and 
also occurs commonly in Canada, chooses for its nest either an old post or decaying tree 
or the soft mortar of an old wall, or again burrows in the ground (Smith, Brit. Museum 
Cat. I. p. 174). The powerful mandibles are of course the instruments used to dig the 
gallery in which the cells are then placed end to end from the bottom up to its mouth. 
The bees also sometimes take advantage of cavities which they find suitable for their 
purpose, such as a nail hole, or the deserted tunnels of wood-borers. I have seen 
repeatedly come in ana out of such holes the active little M. optiva, which is easily 
recognized by its red ventral brush, and Gnathocera cephalica, Prov., a bee very closely 
allied to the Leaf-cutters, but which at last stopped the aperture with mud, and probably 
like other bees builds its cells of that substance. I was not able in the latter case to 
ascertain what was the material of the nest itself, as it was in a post of a public bridge. 
But I opened, after its completion, the nest of M. optiva, which was in a board of a shed 
and found it to be composed of several rows of cells packed up side by side, the cavity 
being too wide for a single row. The insect seemed, however, to have always made as 
many cells as possible in one line, according, no doubt, to its habit of doing so in the 
straight galleries which it digs itself. The cells were formed with morsels of leaves and 
flowers of scarlet runners. The aperture itself, which was just large enough to admit the 
insect, was stopped up with about twelve round pieces laid on each other, each slightly 
larger than the hole, but forced in so as to fit perfectly, the last one outside being a red 
one. The nest contained about twenty cells which I was very careful to secure and pre- 
serve in the hope of procuring the perfect insects, and if possible, by some happy 
chance, to obtain in the number a male, that sex of this species still being unknown to 
science. My hopes, however, were doomed to disappointment. After the return of 
spring, weeks succeeded weeks, but the cells still remained closed ; and finally, instead of 
the bees, there issued from them through tiny holes, scores and scores of a Chalcidite r 
Semiotellus cuprceus, Prov. These small parasites had not spared a single one of the 
larvae for which the mother Megachile had on the preceding summer provided with so 
much solicitude and industry. 

On a subsequent occasion, I found the broken stem of a sun-flower in the hollowed 
pith of which some Leaf-cutter had built half a dozen cells with morsels of rose leaves. 
These pieces were much looser than those in the nest of M. optiva, and made the cells 
appear much larger, so that I expected to see much larger bees come out of them. They 
proved, however, to be of a rather smaller species, M. brevis, Say (Fig. 18), of which I 
have found the males very abundant, but have never been fortunate enough to secure 
a female. From this nest I obtained only males, two of them, and — four parasites, again 
Chalcidites, but much larger than in the preceding case, so that each had required a whole 
Megachile larva for its subsistence. These parasites were two males and two females of the 
pretty wasp-like Leucospis ajjinis, Say ; other species of the same genus have also been* 
found in Europe infesting Megachile nests. 



53 




A most peculiar situation for the nest of a Leaf-cutting bee has been described by 
Mr. E. Bavnes Eeed in the article already mentioned. The cells were made in th e 
rolled-up leaves of a plum-tree (Fig. 
28). I have seen M. optiva at work 
cutting pea leaves, and I suspect the 
same insect had removed the circular 
pieces that were wanting from leaves 
of an ash-leaved maple that grew 
close by. 

The males of many species of 
Megachile have the anterior tarsi very 
oddly dilated and fringed with long 
hairs ; some have besides the first joint 
grooved in front forming a remarkable 
pouch. In M. frigida, this pouch 
extends only to the end of the first 
joint ; but in M. scrobiculata it projects 
above the second, and in M. pugnata 
even projects over both the second 
and third. Of what use this appendage 
can be to these insects is not easy 
to conjecture. I found in one two little 
particles of vegetable fibre which seemed Fi g- 28. 

to have been nipped from some young plant-stem or branch. Could it be that the male 
helps the female in the preparation of the nest, and brings in his pouches masticated 
vegetable matter for the purpose ? Smith (I. c, p. 158), states that such matter is found 
closing the cells of an Osmia, a genus belonging to the same sub-family as the Megachile, 
the Dasygastrae (so called from Dasys, hairy, and Gaster, belly). In the two nests 
which I have examined, I could not, however, find anything else in the cells besides a 
crust composed of pollen grains united by some gummy matter having no sweet taste 
that I could perceive. The pollen, examined with the microscope, seemed to come alto- 
gether from flowers of composite, with the exception of a few stray grains, in one case, 
of evening primrose, in the other, of pumpkin. 

It is a most interesting sight to watch the busy mother bee intent at work on a 
composite head of flowers. It collects the honey by protruding its long tongue into one 
corolla after another, while with the posterior legs it brings the stamens of other flowers 
against its ventral brush, which retains the delicate pollen granules. When gathering 
pollen only, it may occasionally be noticed, moving rapidly over the disc of flowers while 
sweeping the stamens with its brush. But who will ever succeed in witnessing the 
manner in which the pollen is afterwards removed from the brush, heaped in the prepared 
cell and mixed with honey to form the food, of the larvae not yet born 1 I have noticed 
once a Gnathocera female just coming out of its nest, re-enter it backwards either to 
deposit pollen or more likely to lay an egg, and soon come out again, but only to go in 
once more, head first this time, to see if all was right and then fly away. 

After I had once been induced, as I have related, to give some attention to Hymen- 
optera, and seeing how great a part this order of insects plays in the fertilisation of 
plants, I could not stop at my first steps in their study, and have found, whenever I had 
the possibility, much pleasure and instruction in trying to improve my first acquaintance 
with them. There is yet so much unknown as to the life history of those that have been 
observed at all, so many have as yet received no attention whatever, that they offer an 
immense field of discovery for any one willing to use his eyes in observing what is going 
on about him on all sides. In the middle of the city of Ottawa, in my house and yard 
(the latter ten yards by four, but as thickly filled with plants as they can grow), I have 
captured specimens of more than 1 20 species of Hymenoptera alone, about 30 of which 
when submitted for identification to Abbe Provancher, our highest Canadian authority 
on Hymenoptera, have been declared by him to be new to science. 



54 



SHEATH-BEARING INSECTS. 

BY REV. THOMAS W. FYLES, SOUTH QUEBEC. 

It has been said that man is the only animal who is born naked, and the only one 
who can clothe himself. This is not strictly true. At any rate quite a number of cater- 
pillars are expert tailors. 

The smallest of the English thick-bodied moths is Fumea nitidella. As soon as the 
tiny caterpillar of this insect bursts from the shell, it commences to make itself a coat. 
The workman in his finished work, seen by the naked eye, resembles a minute pillar of 
pith set on end. Seen through a microscope the covering is thimble-shaped, and appears 
as if made of tissue-paper of variegated colours (Rev. E. Tearle in Ent. Int. No. 147) ; 
and the caterpillar, seen through the same medium, resembles that of Cossus ligniperda. 
The young exquisite, when sporting its elegant attire, walks with its fore legs, and holds 
its coat on with its hind ones, toppling about unsteadily. Sometimes it is quite extinguished 
by its apparel. It reminds one of a little child wearing its father's hat — you see the 
laughing face for a moment, and then the big chapeau slips over it, and it is gone. 

As the Nitidella grows, it finds it necessary not only to enlarge, but to strengthen its 
coat; so it attaches to it ribs made of small pieces of pine-needles, or of stems of grass, 
which seem to answer the purpose admirably. 

The coat of the Nitidella is an important article. It is not only the winter clothing 
of the caterpillar, it is also the case which protects the chrysalis. The female, indeed, 
never leaves her coat ; she creeps as a perfect insect. (In one sense, perhaps, she ought 
not to be called a perfect insect, for she has only rudimentary wings.) She creeps from 
under her coat and then takes her seat upon it. She sits upon it with as much determination 
as an old lady in a railway station sits upon her trunk to keep it safe. She holds her court 
upon it. She lays her eggs around it, and at its foot she dies. The coat is her home in 
life, and her monument in death. Her infant progeny, opening their eyes to the light, see 
her good work, and go and do likewise — they take, severally, in paper of their own 
, manufacture, a pattern of the coat. 

The Coleophorse, of which forty-one are described by Stainton in his Natural History 
< of the Tineina, afford remarkable instances of caterpillars having the power to clothe 
themselves. Mr. Lane Clarke, who turned one of these insects out of its case, thus describes 
its proceedings for the formation of a new one: — 

"It had fixed near the edge of the leaf, and was carefully eating out the parenchyma 
of each serrature, leaving the edges untouched, as it thereby saved a seam in the tent, yet 
emptying each tooth to make it light and less brittle. When all was clear, the larva 
measured a gentle curve a little larger than its body, and began to draw the cuticle to- 
gether on the opposite side to the serratures — tacking it loosely at first, and biting the 
membrane between the fibres, sewing it more neatly then, and careful not to cut the 
supporting braces formed by the nerves of the leaf. Then it rubbed the interior of the 
case with its head, as if to smooth it, and presently began to darken it with a web of fine 
silk, rendering further operations invisible, only I preceived that one end was left open," 
* * * « and that the fibres were cut mysteriously away, when the 

tent, by powerful muscular action, was raised from the leaf, and the Coleophora marched 
off to refresh himself in a new excavation." (Int. Obs., vol. IV, p. 4.) 

In Europe the Coleophorse are met with at every turn, on the heath of the commons, 
on the elms in the green lanes, on the plants by the way-side. They look like moving 
atoms of the plants they feed on ; and they have the power of throwing themselves strangely 
into position to deceive the over curious eye. 

Of the case-bearers of this continent, the apple-tree case-bearer (Coleophora malivorella, 
Riley) is an interesting example. The larva of this insect feeds upon the buds and leaves 
of the apple tree. The case it constructs for itself is curved like the handle of a _ pistol. 
The moth appears in July. It is mottled, brown and white, and is about half-an-inch in 
expanse of wings. The young larra feeds on the under side of the leaves, until the frost 
comes ; then it fastens its case to a twig, making itself comfortable for the winter ; in spring 
it feeds up upon the buds of the tree, and in June it goes into chrysalis. 



oiy 



The basket-worms of the Southern States are instances also of creatures that construct 
coverings for themselves. Thyridopteryx ephemerae for mis (Haworth) is found on a variety 
of trees. The young larvae appear in May. Each of them forms a case of pieces of the 
leaves it feeds upon, held together by a silken web. As it increases in size it enlarges its 
covering, till at length it hangs like a small purse or bag. When about to undergo the 
pupal change the insect fastens its case to a twig. The female moth is apterous. After 
she has been impregnated she retires into her case to lay her eggs ; having laid them she 
falls to the ground and perishes. The male is black, and has transparent wings. 

Platcecelicus Gloveri (Packard) in its habits closely resembles the insect just described. 
It is found in Florida, feeding upon the orange and the fig. The female moth is light- 
coloured, and apterous. The male is an elegant little creature, with feathered antennae, 
and is of a dark-brown hue. 

The larvae of some insects belonging to the genus Incurvaria have the habit of con- 
structing flat cases for themselves. Incurvaria acerifoliella (Haworth) is one of the insects 
that, of late years, have worked their way northward from the United States. It did not 
come under my observation until the year 1881. In that year and in the following it was 
exceedingly abundant. In the county of Missisquoi the leaves throughout extensive maple 
woods were so skeletonized by it, that they presented a scorched appearance that was very 
remarkable. Looking at the groves from a short distance one might have thought that a 
hot blast had passed over the country, or that autumn had come before its time, and had 
browned, instead of crimsoning, the maple leaves. 

The Acerifoliella larva bites, from the leaves, discs, about two-eights of an inch or 
three-eights of an inch in diameter. It joins several of these together, and takes up its 
domicile within. When it feeds, it thrusts out its head and fore-legs, and then eats the 
parenchyma of the leaf away, working systematically from a centre. When full fed it 
finds its way to the ground, and turns to a pupa within its leafy covering. The perfect 
insect has glossy blue fore wings ; the hind wings are brown, shot with purple ; the head 
is decorated with a tuft of yellow hairs. In the years mentioned, clouds of these beautiful 
little moths would rise from the foliage shaken by the passers-by. 

We cannot but admire the instinct, which, in every case, impels the larva to form a 
covering so well adapted to secure the possessor's comfort through the vicissitudes ot the 
seasons, and, at the same time, so likely, by its resemblance to surrounding objects, to 
prevent attacks from insectivorous creatures. 



REMEDIES FOR NOXIOUS INSECTS. 

BY THE REV. C. J. S. BETHUNE, M.A., D.C.L., PORT HOPE. 

For the convenience of farmers and fruit-growers, I propose in this paper to set 
forth, in alphabetical order, under the popular names of the insects, the remedies that 
have been found by practical experience the most useful in counteracting their ravages. 
As far as possible, I shall also give a wood cut of the insect, so that all may know what 
particular enemy is referred to. In many instances the remedies are familiar and in 
general use, but I think it desirable to insert them in order to make the list as nearly 
complete as possible. Free use is, of course, made of the writings of our leading economic 
entomologists, such as Professor Riley, Chief of the United States Entomological Com- 
mission at Washington ; Dr. Lintner, State Entomologist of New York ; and Professor 
Saunders, of London, whose name is familiar to all our readers, and whose work on 
Insects Injurious to Fruits should be in the hands of every intelligent farmer and fruit- 
grower in Canada. 



56 



APHIS, OR PLANT-LOUSE. 



It may almost be said of this familiar pest that there are as many varieties of plant 
lice as there are species of plants in the world ; nearly every form of vegetable life 





Fig. 29A. 

Fig. 29B. 

has its own Aphis to suck its juices and to impair its vitality. It would, therefore, 
be an endless task to attempt to enumerate all the different kinds of Aphis that are 
to be met with and fought against ; the same remedies, however, will apply with almost 
equal efficacy in all cases, allowance being made for the difference of application requisite 
in treating, for instance, an apple tree and a wheat plant, a hop vine and a window flower. 
The illustration (Fig. 2 9 A) given herewith represents a highly magnified winged male and 
wingless female of the plant-louse attacking the apple (Aphis mali, Fabr.) ; the species 
infesting other plants are very similar, varying chiefly in colour from pale green to 
deep black. Fig. 29 B represents the winged form of the woolly Plant-Louse of the 
apple, a group of the larvae, and a twig perforated by the insect. 

The ordinary remedies for this pest are (1) watering the infested plants with strong 
soap-suds, or a decoction of coarse tobacco; (2) dusting with lime or sulphur ; (3) 
exposing them to the fumes of strong tobacco. The first remedy is applicable to most 
•cases, and the third only to plants in pots, or those sufficiently small to be covered over 
while undergoing fumigation. 

Many experiments have recently been made both in England and the United States, 
for the purpose of finding out a cheap and thoroughly effective remedy against this and 
other insect pests. Coal oil (or kerosene) is so cheap, so universally an article of 
domestic consumption, and so deadly to all insect life, that experiments have been 
especially directed towards its employment as an insecticide. The great difficulties to 
be overcome are its destructiveness to vegetation, when applied undiluted, and the 
almost impossibility of diluting it, beyond a mere mixing of a momentary character with 
water or other liquid. These difficulties have, however, been at last solved by means 
of " emulsions." One of these, recommended by the United States Department of 
Agriculture, is made as follows : — 

" Take of refined kerosene (coal oil) two parts, and of sour milk one part. Mix in 
a pail, or tub, by continuous pumping with a force-pump back into the same vessel 
through the flexible hose and spray nozzle. After passing once or twice through the 
pump the liquids unite and form a creamy emulsion, in which finely divided particles of 
oil can be plainly detected. Continue the pumping until the liquid curdles into a white 
and ^listening butter, perfectly homogeneous in texture, and stable. The time required 
for producing this butter varies with the temperature. At 60° it will be from one-half 
to three-quarters of an hour ; at 75°, fifteen minutes; and the process may be still more 
facilitated by treating the milk up to, but not beyond, the boiling point. 

" Upon standing for a day or two the milk (if sweet has been used) will curdle, but 
it only requires to be stirred, not churned again, to bring it back to its former smooth- 
ness. But if sour milk is used no fermentation ensues, and if not exposed to the air the 
butter can be kept unchanged for any length of time. 






57 



" When needed for use, the butter will mix readily with any proportion of water, if 
first thinned with a small quantity of the liquid." In using the emulsion for killing 
plant lice, or other insects, care should be taken to dilute it at least twelve or sixteen 
times with water and then try the effect on a small portion of the infested plant ; if it 
is found to injure the foliage, then dilute still further. One pint of the butter will 
usually suffice for two gallons of water. Dilute only as needed for immediate use. The 
cost of this article, which is very effective, is exceedingly trifling. 

Another emulsion is made with coal oil and soap instead of milk. When a moderate 
quantity is required, take two gallons of coal oil, half a pound of common bar soap, soft 
soap, or whale-oil soap, and one gallon of water. Dissolve the soap in the water, and 
add it boiling hot to the coal oil. Churn the mixture, as before, by means of force-pump 
and spray nozzle, for five or ten minutes. The emulsion, if perfect, forms a cream, which 
thickens on cooling, and should adhere without oiliness to the surface of glass. Dilute 
before using, one part of the emulsion to nine parts of cold water. The three gallons of 
emulsion thus made produce, when diluted, thirty gallons of wash at a cost of about one 
cent per gallon. 

These emulsions have been found thoroughly effective remedies, not only for plant 
lice, but also for many other insects. They can be used in the field, hop-yard or orchard 
on a large scale, and in the garden with equal efficiency. In England, similar washes 
have been applied to hop-yards for the destruction of the Aphis by the aid of steam 
power. 

Apple Tree Borers. 

There are two beetles whose larvae are especially injurious to young apple trees; they 
are familarly known as the flat-headed and round-headed borers, from the shape of the 
grubs. The former belongs to the family Buprestidse,. and is a common insect all over 
North America. Its scientific name is Chrysobothris femorata, Fabr; the annexed wood- 
cut represents the grub and the perfect insect. It does but 
little noticeable harm to healthy full-grown trees, but is often 
very destructive to young, freshly transplanted, or sickly trees. 
The presence of the borer within the trees may often be detected 
by the discoloration of the bark over the spot where it is at work, 
the cavity beneath causing a dried and flattened appearance, 
and also by the presence of its sawdust-like castings, or the 
exudation of sap. In such cases, the simplest remedy is to cut 
out the grub with a knife, or destroy it by means of the inser- 
tion of a stiff wire. 

The best preventive remedy for this insect, so far as known 




at present, is a 
Soft-soap and 
adherence, is 
thick paint by the 
of these washes, to 
and twigs as far as practicable, as 
borer does not confine its work to 



Fig. 30. 
consistency of s 
in water. Any 



wash made of soft-soap and carbolic acid, 
lime, with a little dissolved glue added to cause 
also recommended; or soft-soap reduced to the 
addition of a strong solution of washing soda 
be effective, must be applied to the branches 
well as to the trunks of the trees, for this 
any particular part. The application of the 
wash should be made in May, and again in early July and late August, in order to 
prevent the deposit of eggs by the female beetle. A gentleman (quoted by Professor 
Riley), who has had much experience with this beetle in the West, states that he has 
taken as many as a hundred borers from one small tree, and advises that "those 
having trees subject to attacks should look over them every week if possible, or 
every two weeks at least, from the first of June to the fall, for exudation of sap from 
the bark, which is a sure indication of their presence. When noticed, the borer may be 
destroyed by cleanly cutting out a small slice of the bark." This method involves great 
labour, but it is worth doing in the case of a young orchard that is found to be infested 
by this creature. The writer just referred to states that "carelessness in this respect the 
past season has cost me more than three hundred trees, all young." 

The round-headed apple tree borer (Saperda Candida, Fabr., Fig. 31c) is not nearly so 
ommon as the species just referred to. It is found in the Niagara district and other parts of 



58 






the western peninsula of Ontario, but I have never met with it north of the lake or east of 

Toronto. The beetle can be 

at once recognized by the two 

creamy-white stripes running 

the whole length of its brown 

body, while the grub (Fig. 3 l<x), 

may be distinguished from 

the other species by its round, 

ohestnut-brown and shiny 

head and thick body. For a 

full description of the insect 

and its habits, the reader is 

referred to Saunders' "Insects 

Injurious to Fruits." The 

remedies to be employed in warding off the attacks, or destroying this insect, are the same 

as those given above for the flat-headed borer; it should be noticed, however, that 

the work of this creature is almost entirely confined to the base of the tree, near the 

ground, and therefore it can be more easily detected and dealt with. A sure indication 

of its presence is afforded by the castings which, when first discharged, "look as if they 

had been forced through barrels of a minute double-barreled gun, being arranged closely 

together in two parallel strings." When observed, a sure remedy may be found in 

cutting out with a knife, or probing the burrow with a wire. 

Apple-root Plant-louse. 

This insect (Schizoneura lanigera, Hausm.) has two forms,in one of which it attacks, 
the branches of the apple tree; in the other it works under ground upon the roots. 

In the former character it seldom does much 
damage, but, if troublesome, it can be got rid 
of by the vigorous use of a stiff brush wet with 
one of the solutions referred to for use against 
borers. It may be at once recognized by its 
habit of living in clusters covered with woolly 
down. 

The underground form is represented in 
the accompanying wood -cut, fig. 4; a repre- 
sents a root covered with knots caused by this 
insect ; b a wingless louse, shewing the blueish- 
white cottony substance with which it is 
covered, and c a winged specimen. It attacks 
the tender roots, sucking their juices, and weakening, oftentimes seriously, the life of the 
tree. When an apple tree is found to be sickly without any evident cause, the presence 
of this insect may be suspected. The tree should then be dug about, and the earth 
removed from the roots in order to see whether they are knotted as in the figure, which 
would indicate the work of the louse. 

The simplest remedy, when the roots are uncovered and the lice are brought to view, 
is to scald them with hot water, nearly boiling, or to drench them with strong soap-suds. 
For the use of coal oil against this and other underground pests, such as the .grape 
Phylloxera, etc., a plan has been devised by Dr. Barnard, of Washington, D. C, that 
seems to be effective. The great difficulty hitherto in the use of coal oil for root insects 
has been its application on, or just beneath, the surface of the ground, and close to or 
above the roots; when applied in this way its contact with the roots themselves and their 
consequent destruction can hardly be avoided. Dr. Barnard employs what he calls a 
"nether inserter," which is thus described (Psyche, vol. iv, p. 134) : " It consists of a tube 
which is made to fit closely around a central solid shaft somewhat longer than the tube 
and pointed at its lower end. The tube may have an internal diameter of 15 mm. (about 
half an inch) and the shaft a diameter of 12 mm. The upper end of the tube expands 
like a bowl. The upper portion of the shaft is weighted with a heavy ball so disposed 







59 



that the shaft can be grasped above the ball. By withdrawing the shaft partially from 
the tube and then returning it with force, as the lower end of the tube rests on the 
ground, both tube and shaft can be driven into the ground to any required depth. The 
shaft is then wholly withdrawn and the insecticide poured into the tube, by which means 
it is placed beneath the roots without coming into contact with them. The tube is then 
withdrawn and the hole made by it filled up with earth. The insecticide (coal oil, or 
whatever may be used) being volatile, rises through the ground and becomes diffused. 
In a later communication to the same journal {Psyche, iv., 143), Dr. Barnard speaks of 
the effective use of this instrument against the grape Phylloxera, and states that the same 
treatment applies in the case of all other root insects or subterranean pests, mentioning 
among others the insect now before us, the apple-root plant-louse, or American Blight- 
Aphis, as it is sometimes called. The great point in the application of this remedy is 
evidently the distribution of the coal oil, or other insecticide, beneath and beyond the 
danger of contact with the roots, the destruction of the insect pest being caused by the 
passage upwards to the surface of the vapour of the petroleum. 

The Army Worm. 

Almost any caterpillar that appears in large numbers and covers a wide area of 
country is locally called "The Army Worm," but the species to which the name properly 
belongs from its habit of devastating whole fields at a time, marching on in regular column to 
fresh pastures and devouring all green things as it goes, is the Leucania unipuncta. Haw, 

Fig. 33 represents the caterpillar in 

the attitude of eating, and fig. 34 the 

moth. 

This insect may be found every 

summer in small numbers, and so far 

has seldom appeared in destructive 

hosts in Canada. The best and 

simplest remedy for it is to apply 

Paris green copiously to the fields 

where it abounds, or, when it has 

commenced its march, to broad strips 

of meadow immediately in front of its main body, taking care to plow 

under the poisoned surface as soon as the remedy has done its work. 

The moth, which appears towards the end of summer (we have taken 

it this year late in October), can easily be captured by hundreds by the 

process of "sugaring," that is by spreading a mixture of coarse sugar 

and stale beer on fence boards and trees at dusk, and visiting the bait 
with a lantern during the night. 

Bark Lice. 





Fig. 34. 



There are two or three kinds of bark lice injurious to fruit trees, but the 
species that is most common and destructive in Canada is that represented in 
the adjoining wood-cuts (Fig. 35 A and 35B), and known from its shape as the 
oyster-shell bark louse (Mytilaspis pom- 
orum, Bouche). To get rid of this pest, 
which if let alone will soon cover the bark 
of the whole tree from top to bottom, 
two or three operations are necessary : 
first, during the winter or in early spring 
examine the orchard and scrape the 
scales off every infested tree as far as 
they can possibly be reached; but as 
the scales will be found on the smaller 
branches and twigs which cannot be got 
at, the insect must be further fought 




Fig. 



at the time when the eggs are hatching 



Fig. 35B. 



60 



and the young lice are crawling over the limbs; this takes place about the end of May or 
early m June, according to the season. As soon as observed, the twigs where the young 
lice appear, should be brushed with a strong solution of soft-soap and washing soda, or 
showered with a solution of washing soda in water, made by dissolving half a pound or 
more in a pailful of water. The emulsions mentioned for use against the Aphis may 
also be employed with effect. 

The Bean Weevil. 

This insect, Bruchus obsoletus Say (B. Fabce, Riley), is 
often exceedingly injurious to bean crops, especially in the 
neighbouring state of New York. The wood cut, Fig. 36, 
represents the tiny beetle life size, and a highly magnified ; 
6, an infested bean from which the insects have emerged. 

In order to get rid of this pest, seed beans intended for 
next year's sowing should be carefully examined in the 
autumn or winter, and if found to be infested by the insect, 
should be placed in tight boxes— tins would be the best — 
in a very warm place. In a very short time, the heat will 
FlG - 3( ^- cause the creature to complete its transformations and come 

out of the bean ; it can then be easily killed by dipping in hot water, or left to die ; the 
beans, if not badly perforated, may then be safely used for sowing the next spring. 
fr. Another method, similar in its character, is to keep the beans in tight vessels in a 
dry place over one year before sowing; by doing so, the beetles will come out and die 
during the first summer and leave the seeds in good order for the following year. There 
is, of course, some danger of a failure to germinate, if kept so long in a warm and dry 
place. Dipping for a few moments in very hot water just before sowing may also be 
employed as a remedy. 

Cabbage Butterflies. 






Fig. 37. Fig. 

There are three white butterflies whose caterpillars feed on the cabbage, all belonging 
to the same genus Pieris, but the only one whose injuries are serious is the imported 
species, P. rapes, Linn. Fig. 37 represents the male butterfly ; Fig. 38 the female ; and 
Fig. 39, a, the caterpillar, and b, the chrysalis. As this has become of late years one of 
our commonest butterflies, every one is no doubt familiar with it ; and 
every gardener must know equally well the green caterpillar, clinging 
closely to leaf or stem, and resembling so nearly the colour of the plant, 
whether cabbage, cauliflower or mignonette, as to be scarcely distinguish- 
able without close searching. 

It is difficult to apply remedies for this pest as the caterpillar feeds 
within the folds of the leaves, and any poisonous preparation applied 
for its destruction is liable to remain within the cabbage and render it 
unfit for food. This is certainly the case with violent poisons, such as 
Paris green or hellebore; but the "Persian insect powder," made from 
the flowers of the Pyrethrum, may be used with good effect. It should 
be dusted freely on the infested plants, or mixed with water and poured 
or syringed into them. While destructive to most insect life, this 
Fig 39. remedy is quite harmless to man, and in any case can be pretty well 

removed by washing before the vegetable is cooked. It has been found at the New 




61 



York Agricultural Experiment Station, that a mixture of one part of powdered Pyrethrum, 
with three parts of plaster or air-slacked lime is quite effective in destroying this insect. 
It is applied with a small bellows, by inserting the nozzle among the leaves, so that the 
powder is driven through the plant. Another mixture, cheaper than the foregoing, is one 
part of the powder to twenty of flour, applied in the same way ; experiments with this 
showed that the caterpillars were killed by it in twelve hours. 

A still cheaper remedy, and one more quickly applied, is the following : — Dilute one 
table-spoonful of the cheapest black carbolic acid in one gallon of water, apply sparingly 
after heavy rains, and at intervals of three or four weeks, if the caterpillars are observed. 
It is said by those who have tested it, to give them uninjured crops of cabbage. 

Cabbage Moths. 



The caterpillars of two kinds of moths, 
are also injurious to the cabbage and allied 
plants. One of these, the Cabbage Plusia, P. 
brassicae, Riley, has of late years become 
increasingly destructive in some of the neigh- 
bouring States, and is also found in this 
Province. Fig. 40, a represents the larva, b 
the chrysalis, and c the perfect insect. The 
caterpillar is pale green, lined with white, 
and has a few scattered black hairs rising 
from small white spots ; when walking it 
loops its body in a peculiar manner, as shown 
in the cut. The moth, which is dark gray, 
almost brown, is especially distinguished by 
the silvery spots on the forewings. 





Fig. 41. 



Fig. 40. 



The other cabbage moth is represented 
in Fig. 41, in both stages of caterpillar 
and perfect insect. It is known as the 
Zebra, Mamestra picta, Harris, from the 
peculiar markings, which render the cater- 
pillar quite handsome. 

As the larvae of both these moths feed 
for the most part on the outside of the 
plants they infest, they may often be kept 
in check without difficulty by hand pick- 
ing. They may also be destroyed by 
sprinking the plants with hot water a 
little below the boiling point. The 
Pyrethrum insect powder may be employed 
as well ; a tablespoonful thoroughly mixed 
through two gallons of water and sprinkled 
over the plants, is said to be effective in 
destroying the caterpillars. 



Canker Worms. 



There are two species of insects whose caterpillars are commonly known as canker 
worms ; the moths of one species, Anisopteryx pometaria, Harris, appear chiefly in the 
autumn, those of the other, A. vernata, Peck, partly in the autumn, but most abundantly 
in the spring. They resemble each other very much in appearance, and possess the same 
habits ; the remedies to be employed against them are therefore the same in both cases. 



62 



Fig. 42, represents the Fall Canker worm, as it is termed ; a the male moth, b the 
female, natural size, c joints of female antenna, d one joint of female abdomen, magnified 
The resemblance between the two species will be observed by comparing the above with 





Fig. 42. 



Fig. 43. 



Fig. 43, which represents the Spring Canker worm ; the letters have the same references, 
with the addition of e, the ovipositor of the female, magnified. The worms themselves 
are geometers, or loopers, that is, they alternately loop up and extend their bodies when 
walking. If disturbed, and also when fully grown, they let themselves down from the 
branches of the trees by silken threads. They especially infest the apple tree and elm, 
but are also known to attack the cherry, plum, linden and other trees. They are usually 
confined to small localities and do not spread with any rapidity, owing to the wingless 
female being incapable of flight, or travelling to any great distance. Remedies may, 
therefore, be successfully applied where they are found, as there is little danger of a fresh 
invasion when one colony is exterminated. 

The most effective remedies against this insect are those based upon the habits of 
the moth. As the female has no wings, it is obliged, in order to lay its eggs, to climb up the 
tree from the ground where it passes its pupa state. It is evident, then, that if she can be 
prevented from doing so, there will be no new brood of worms. One of the simplest 
modes of accomplishing this, which has been successfully employed for many years, is to 
encircle the trunk of the tree a short distance above the ground with a band of cloth or 
of thick paper, folded to a width of four or five inches, and covered with tar or a mixture 
of tar and molasses. The bandage must be tightly tacked to the tree on the lower edge 
to prevent any of the insects from creeping under it, and the ring of tar must be renewed 
every few days to prevent its becoming too hard to stop the moths from crossing it. Care 
must also be taken to keep the tar sticky during cool evenings, for the moth is nocturnal 
in its habits ; for this purpose it is well to mix with it some raw oil or molasses. The 
bandages must be applied in the latter part of October, and kept on till the leaves are 
expanded the following spring ; it is also necessary to look to them during any mild 
weather in the winter. Tin, lead and wooden troughs, filled with oil, have also been used 
to encircle the trunks of the trees, with the same object in view, but the tar bandages 
are the simplest, cheapest, and most effective if attended to. 

Another kind of remedy consists of collars of tin or other material, fastened round 
the tree and sloping downwards like an inverted funnel. These are employed to prevent 
the moths from ascending the tree, as the insect will climb up as far as it can, and then 
.travel round and round beneath the protector till it becomes exhausted and falls to the 
ground. The eggs, however, will, in such cases, be deposited in large numbers beneath 
the obstruction, and unless they are brushed off and destroyed the tiny young worms will 
manage to crawl through any crevice and get to the foliage above. 

Should the moths succeed, through oversight or neglect, in getting up the trees and 
depositing their eggs, and thus produce a swarm of the caterpillars upon the foliage, it 
will be necessary to resort to other measures for the destruction of the pest. The simplest 
and most effective is to spray the trees by means of a force-pump with a mixture of Paris 
green, or London purple, and water. This may be done with safety upon apple trees so- 
early in the season as the time when the canker worm is prevalent. 



The Chinch Bug. 

This terribly destructive insect has happily given us no trouble in Canada as yet, 
though a few specimens have from time to time been found by Entomologists. But it has 



63 




Fig 44. 



come so very near to us that it is well to be on our guard against it, and to know how to 
repel its attacks in case of necessity. Dr. Lintner, in his Report for last year, gives an 
account of its appearance in large numbers, and of the damage it inflicted on several 
farms in St. Lawrence county, New York, at Morristown, opposite Brockville, and other 
places near the river further west. During the seasons of 1882 and 1883 it was abundant 
and destructive, but was afterwards apparently killed out, partly by the measures taken 
to exterminate it, and partly by the unfavourable weather. 

The chinch bug (Blissus leucopterits, 
Say) is a very tiny creature, and not likely to 
be recognized by any one unfamiliar with 
insects. The annexed wood cut (Fig. 44) 
represents the creature highly magnified on 
the left, the hair line beneath shewing the 
actual size ; the figure to the right represents 
an ordinary bug, shewing the difference in 
shape from the chinch bug. Should any 
farmer observe in the autumn patches of dead 
grass in his meadows, looking as if winter- 
killed, and on inspection find minute insects 
at the roots smelling like ordinary bed bugs, 
he will do well to send some specimens at 
once to a competent entomologist for identifi- 
•cation (Mr. James Fletcher, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, is the proper person to 
apply to). If it should prove to be the chinch bug, the following remedies may be 
employed : — 

1. Burn the dead grass on the infested spot and fifteen or twenty feet around it. 
This may be done by spreading over it a covering of straw and setting fire to it when the 
wind is favourable. 2. Plough the burned area, or, better still, the whole field, in broad 
and deep furrows, turning the sod completely and flatly over, not permitting it to be in 
ridges. 3. To insure the more effective burying of the insects that may be feeding upon, 
or preparing to pass the winter among the roots of the grasses, harrow the ploughed 
surface slightly and follow with a heavy rolling. 4. If it can be obtained, spread gas-lime 
over the infested parts at the rate of 200 bushels to the acre. It should only be applied 
to the parts of the meadow actually attacked, as when fresh it will kill the grass. 

„ Clover Insects. 

Between twenty and thirty insects are known to entomologists as more or less 
injurious to clover in Canada, while many more are found in the United States. The 
most important of these — seven in number — have been so fully and satisfactorily 
■described and illustrated by Mr. Saunders, in a late issue of these reports (12th Annual 
Report of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 1881, pages 37 to 48), that I need only 
refer the reader to his paper, and not attempt to repeat the matter here. The Clover Seed 
Midge is also referred to by Mr. James Fletcher, in his report for 1885, to the Minister of 
Agriculture at Ottawa (pages 12 and 13); the remedy that he has found most effective in 
Ontario, where this tiny insect has proved very injurious where clover is grown for seed, 
he gives as follows : — 

" The only instances where any seed has been reaped are where, instead of allowing 
the clover to stand in the field till the end of June, it has been fed off by cattle and sheep 
till the beginning or middle of June, and then left to go to seed for the autumn 
crop. . . . The verdict of all the growers who have tried the experiment now seems 
to be that two crops cannot be secured, and to get any seed at all the first crop must be 
pastured until the beginning, and not later than the middle, of June. In this way the 
minute larvae of the flies, which- are to lay the eggs for the second brood, are eaten by the 
cattle at the same time as the clover and destroyed. It is quite apparent that, if all 
persons will adopt this plan, much good will be done, and if some fall dressing for the 
land can be devised to destroy the hibernating brood, we may hope before long to get rid 
of this injurious insect." 



64 



The Codling Worm. 

Every fruit-grower is, of course, perfectly familiar with this destructive and most 
troublesome insect. It is wide spread over the whole Dominion from Nova Scotia to 
British Columbia, and destroys every year a large proportion of the crop. The accompany- 
ing wood cut (Fig. 45) illustrates its mode of burrowing into the fruit of the apple. 

For a long time it was supposed that the only 
satisfactory remedy for this pest was to entrap the 
worms, when about to change to the pupa state, by 
means of bandages of carpet, cloth, or sacking tied 
around the trunks of the trees during the months 
of June, July and August. These bandages require to 
be removed every few days and passed through an 
ordinary laundry " wringer " in order to kill all 
worms or pupae that may be attached to them, and 
then replaced on the trees. In a large orchard this 
plan involves an immense deal of continuous labour. 
Happily, it has recently been discovered that the 
insect may be kept under control far more easily 
and effectively by the use of Paris green. A very 
small quantity of the poison diluted in water — 
some experimenters say as little as a table-spoonful 
in a barrel of water is sufficient — should be sprayed 
upon the trees as soon as the blossoms have well passed maturity, and before the young 
fruit has turned down from its increasing weight. Animals should, of course, be kept 
away from the orchard till after heavy rains have removed any danger to them from the 
poison. This remedy is supposed to operate in two ways — first, by killing the young 
worms that consume what may be attached to a blossom, and, secondly, by causing the 
parent moth to abstain from laying her eggs on trees that have been so treated. However 
this may be, we are informed that the remedy is most effective, and we strongly recom- 
mend our readers to try it during the coming season. 

These notes on " remedies " have extended to so much greater length than the writer 
anticipated that he must defer the continuation of them to another year, by which time 
he hopes to be able to give the results of further experiments made with reference to many 
more of our most obnoxious insects. 




Fig. 45. 



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