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Full text of "Report of the Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario for the year 1887"

DOCUMENTS ( 



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BROGKUNIVbKSIIY. 
REPOfflWARY 



OF THB 



FRUIT GROWERS' ASSOCIATION 



OF ONTARIO, 



FOR THE YEAR 1887 



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PRINTED BY WARWICK h SONS, 26 & 28 FRONT STREET WEST. 

1888. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Brock University - University of Toronto Libraries 



http://archive.org/details/reportoffruitgro1887frui 



DOCUMENTS COLLECTION 

BROCK UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 

REPORT 



OF THE 



FRUIT GROWERS' ASSOCIATION 



OF ONTARIO, 



FOR THE YEAR 1887 



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%xmUt\ lnj (tox&tv of m f jefli^l^tive 3t«mMjj. 













PRINTED BY WARWICK & SONS, 26 & 28 FRONT STREET WEST. 

1888. 



CONTENTS 



Page. 

Agricultural Divisions 176 

American Golden Russet Apple 99 

Annual Address of the President 3 

Annual Meeting 137 

Aphis on Cherry leaves 67 

Apple barrels 56 

Apple gathering 99 

Apple growing in Britain 9 

Apple Orchards, Profits of 31 

Apple Packing 44, 46, 100 

Apple Spot 61, 64 

Apples as Fodder for Stock 36, 95 

Apples, Auction Sales of 145 

Apples, Best Markets for 145, 147 

Apples, Culling for Packing 50 

Apples in Kent County 30 

Apples in Nova Scotia 78 

Apples for Grey County 88 

Apples, Kinds for Shipping 96 

Apples, Order of Shipping different varieties , 7 

Apples, Storing of 101 

Ashes ... 81 

Asparagus, Salt for 47 

Blackberries for the Garden 14 

Black Heart 92 

Black Knot - 57, 120 

Belle Angevine Pear 147 

Bidwell Strawberry 127 

Blight in Pear Trees . 27 

Brighton Grape 22 

British Fruit Markets 5 

Brockville Beauty Apple 91 

By-laws of the Association 177 

Canadian Fruits in England 175 

Canada at the Colonial Exhibition . . •. 48 

Canker Worm, Remedy for 66 

Carbolic Acid 67, 68 



IV. 



Page. 

Champion Grape 19 

Crescent Strawberry 126 

Codling Moth, How to Spray for 65, 67 

Cold Blast 7 

Colonial and Indian Exhibition 4, 52, 168, 175 

Coloring of Fruit 43 

Columbia Pear 58 

Commercial Fertilizers 80 

Constitution of the Association 176 

Copenhagen Apple Market 51 

Culling Apples 50 

Cultivation of the Orchard 102 

Curculio, to Destroy 58, 60 

Currants for the Garden 15 

Dempsey Pear 10 

Dewberries 22 

Dominion Strawberry 41 

Doyenne Boussock 87 

Election of Officers for 1887-88 138 

Evergreens, Transplanting of 115 

Eurgomia Inda 44 

Excursion at Grimsby 138 

Experiment Stations 48, 76 

Fameuse, Spots on 62 

Fertilizers for the Orchard 104 

Fertilizers, Commercial : 80 

Freestone Peach, Early 41 

Fruit as an Article of Diet 157 

Fruit Garden for home use 12 

Fruit Committee, Report of 86, 123, 171 

Fruit Growing in Kent County 37 

Fruit Preservation, with Acids 41 

Fruit, Imports of 154 

Grapes, Cultivation of 113 

Grapes for Garden 15, 17, 18, 20 

Grape Growing, Past, Present and Future of 71 

Grape Growing, Will it Pay 72, 165 

Grapes from High Altitudes in Ontario 158 

Grape Culture and Temperature 162 

Grape Preserving for Winter 165, 166 

Grapes, Shipping of 7, 167, 168 

Grapes, Trellising 75 

Grapes, Varieties of 74, 75, 163, 164 

German Prune at Collingwood 10, 117 



V. 



Page. 

Greening Apple, Productiveness of , 98 

Green Corn for Foreign Market Ill 

Golden Queen Raspberry 20 

Gooseberries for the Garden 15 

Ground Cherry 130 

Hillborn Raspberry 20 

Honest Packing 5 

Horticulture in Schools 4 

Hyposulphite of Soda for Apple Spot 64 

Industry Gooseberry 22 

Indian Cetonia .- 44 

Imports of Fruits from United States 154 

Jessica Grape 163 

Judging Fruits 10, 69 

Kerosene as a wash for Fruit Trees 33 

Kerosene Emulsion for Aphis , • 67 

Knottiness in Pears 24 

Lady Grape 22 

Lacon Strawberry 128 

Lawns and Lawn Decorations 130 

Lawn Making 134 

Lawn Making, Paper by J. A. Morton 135 

Lombard Plum 115 

Low Headed Trees 25 

Lyon, T. T. , Address at Chatham by 22 

Mammoth Cluster Raspberry 21 

Markets for Apples 6, 9 

Markets for Apples, Foreign Ill, 147 

Markets for Apples, American , 148 

Markets for Apples, Indian 51, 149 

Markets for Apples, Copenhagen, Covent Garden 51 

Manure, Green or Decomposed 85 

Melons, Nutmeg, for Shipping Ill 

Mildew on Grapes 65 

Moore's Early Grape 19 

Moore's Ruby Currant 20 

Mulching 25, 40 

McLellan Apple 65 

Niagara Grape, Hardiness of ' 167 

Nitrate of Soda for Strawberries 41 



VI. 



Page. 

Officers for 1887-88 2 

Ohio Raspberry 20 

Ontario Apple 24 

Orchards, Cultivation of 102 

Orchards, Discussion on 88 

Orchards, Drainage of 109 

Orchards, Fertilizers for 104 

Orchards, Pruning of 107 

Packages for Fruit 7 

Paris Green 59 

Packing Apples 101 

Peach Borer 170 

Peaches for Market 29 

Pears, Best Six Varieties 87 

President's Address 3 

Prince of Berries 128 

Phosphoric Acid 81 

Pocklington Grape 163 

Potash for Apples 107 

Plum Culture 115, 119 

Plums for Foreign Markets 113 

Plums, Packing of 120 

Quality in Vegetable Life 150 

Raspberries for Garden 14, 1 6, 19 

Raspberry Culture 25 124 

Red Pound Apple 91 

Rose Slug, to Destroy 132 

Roses for Lawn 133 

Route for Shipping to London, England 6 

Salicylic Acid for Fruit Preservation 42 

Salt as a Fertilizer 46 

Shaffer Raspberry 22 

Small Fruits, Paper on 23 

Sparrow, House 10 

Spanish Grapes 168 

Spraying for Codling Moth 66 

Statutory Provisions 1« 6 

Strawberries for Garden 14, 17, 20 

Strawberry, Cultivation and Fertilizing 129 

Strawberry, Paper on 126 

Strawberry in Simcoe and Grey 124 

Seneca Queen Strawberry 1"7 

Stirling Pear 8 ? 

Shipping Facilities for Fruit 167 



Vll. 



Page. 

Storing Apples 101 

Superphosphates, to Make 82 

Summer Meeting 88 

Summer Pruning of Orchard • 107 

Shrubs for Lawn 131, 136 

Slug on Cherry, Remedy for 68 

Trade in Fruit and Fruit Trees with United States 153 

Treasurer's Report 174 

Trellises for Fruits 19 

Trenton Apple 10 

Trees for Lawn 136 

Trees and our Every-day Life 138 

Triomphe Strawberry 21 

Turner Raspberry 39 

Underdraining, Importance of 94, 109 

Value of Apples in the Orchard 49 

Vergennes Grape 165 

Wash for Bark of Fruit Trees ■ 34 

Walnut and Larch at Guelph 139 

Walnut, Profits of an Acre . 140 

Web-worm, to Destroy 95 

Wilder, the late M. P 79 

Winona, Experience at 168 

Winter Meeting 12 

Winter Injury to Raspberries 171 



LIST OF GENTLEMEN CONTRIBUTING PAPERS TO THIS REPORT. 



Allan, Alex. McD. , President of the Association, Goderich 3, 52 

Blue, Archibald, Assistant Commissioner of Agriculture, Toronto 153 

Brown, Prof. Wm., Agricultural College, Guelph 139, 150, 158 

Bucke, P. E. , Ottawa 23 

Croil, John, Director for District No. 1, Aultsville 61 

Gott, B. , Arkona 12 

Hoskins, M.D., P. H., Newport, Vt ■ 104 

Morse, S. P., Milton ; 61 

Morton, J. A., Director for District No. 10, Wingham ' 134 

Panton, M.A., Prof. J. H., Agricultural College, Guelph 120 

Robinson, P. C, Owen Sound 126 

Wilson, F. W. , Chatham 30 



NINETEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



FRUIT GROWERS' ASSOCIATION 

OF ONTARIO. 



To* the Honorable the Commissioner of Agriculture : 

Dear Sir, — I have pleasure in transmitting to you the Nineteenth Annual Report 
of the Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario, a volume containing an immense amount 
of the most valuable information on the subjects of fruit, flowers and forestry. 

Three public meetings for discussion have been held during the year, continuing for 
two days each. A most careful report of these meetings has been made by the aid of an 
able stenographer, which will, no doubt, aid materially in the progress and development of 
horticulture and sylviculture in our country. 

A volume of The Canadian Horticulturist for 1887 also accompanies this Report, a 
monthly journal which is highly appreciated by the members of our Association as a 
medium of communicating individual experience in practical horticulture. 

Trusting that the earnest efforts of the past year may be esteemed worthy of your 
approval, 

. I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

L. WOOLVERTON, 

Secretary. 



OFFICERS FOR 1887-88. 



President : 
Alexander McD. Allan Goderich 

Vice-President : 
Andrew M. Smith St. Catharines. 

Secretary-Treasurer and Editor : 
Linus Woolverton Grimsby. 

Directors : 






Agricultural Division No. 1 John Croil, Aultsville. 

Agricultural Division No. 2 A. A. Wright, Renfrew. 

Agricultural Division No. 3 Eev. Geo. Bell, LL.D., Kingston. 

Agricultural Division No. 4 P. C. Dempsy, Trenton. 

Agricultural Division No. 5 Thos. Beall, Lindsay. 

Agricultural Division No. 6 W. E. Wellington, Toronto. 

Agricultural Division No. 7 Murray Pettit, Winona. 

Agricultural Division No. 8 £.. H. Pettit, Grimsby. 

Agricultural Division No. 9 Fred. Mitchell, Innerkip. 

Agricultural Division No. 10 J. A. Morton, Wingham. 

Agricultural Division No. 11 J. M. Denton, London. 

Agricultural Division No. 12 Albert Hill, Wyoming. 

Agricultural Division No. 13 G. 0. Caston, Craighurst. 

Auditors : 

Charles Drury - Crown Hill. 

James Goldie Guelph. 

Executive Committee : 

The President. | The Vice-President. 

The Secretary. 

Finance Committee : 

A. H. Pettit Grimsby- 

Murray Pettit Winona. 

Thos. Beall Lindsay. 



THE PRESIDENT'S ANNUAL ADDRESS. 



At the annual meeting of the Association, held at Grimsby, in the county of Lincoln, 
on the 28th and 29th of September, 1887, the president, Alex. McD. Allan, Esq., of 
Goderich, delivered the following address : 

Ladies and Gentlemen, Members of the Ontario Fruit Growers' Association : — 
Probably no point in this Province could have been so appropriately chosen for our 
annual gathering as this beautiful village of Grimsby, embedded in the midst of the 
fruit Eden of Ontario. 

A few amongst us, whose heads have grown hoary under a weight of years, can look 
back to the early days when this great Niagara district, as well as the rest of our Pro- 
vince, was largely a forest, broken only by occasional small clearings and rough roadways 
leading to small villages of seldom more than a dozen cottages each. Society, as under- 
stood now-a-days, had no place in our country then, and yet these old pioneers assure us. 
that those were among their happiest days. Along with the hardest of daily toil they 
held converse with nature and all her charms. Neighbours were dear to each other, thev 
consulted together in everything; their feelings and interests were the same ; a universal 
friendship prevailed. 

" There is a pleasure in the pathless woods, 
" There is a rapture by the lonely shore, 
" There is society where none intrudes, 
" By the deep sea, and music in its roar — 
" We love not man the less, but nature more 
" In these our interviews." 

And yet now-a-days we frequently hear of those whose great desire is to leave the 
farm and seek the town or city in quest of so-called society. The question is often 
asked, " Why do young men leave the farm'?" Looking at this question from a horti- 
cultural standpoint, I am satisfied that, amongst other replies, it may be answered that 
early training has much to do with it. If boys were trained to give a reason for every 
piece of work done ; to know something of the science of tilling the soil, the " whys " 
and " wherefores " of everything connected with agriculture and horticulture, and above 
all, to create in the youthful mind a desire to search more deeply into nature and its 
great works, we would hear less of this desire to keep aloof from the industry of agri- 
culture. Interest each child in some plant or flower, and as he or she grows older that 
interest will grow, and the desire will become keener to search more deeply into nature's 
great fields. There is nothing that will make so marked an impression for good, for 
tender, refined feeling in our children as to lead them into a study of the works of our 
great Creator in the forest as well as the fruitful fields, orchards and gardens. These 
early lessons are remembered through life, for the interest is kindled in school days when 
habits are forming. The school house as well as the school yard should contain a sort of 



Kindergarten or object lesson, and every child should have some special tree, plant or 
flower to care for. I believe this matter should receive the deepest attention, not only 
from all parents, but also from our educational departments and seats of learning, and I 
trust this Association will continue to work towards such a desirable end. I believe our 
common school system of studies is getting beyond the requirements of our country and 
its best interests, inasmuch as it is calculated to induce our young men and women to leave 
the field and orchard and seek some profession or other calling in life. Agriculture and 
its sister horticulture demand the brightest and best of our sons and daughters, and the 
best interests of our country demands their study and labour too. If an interest in these 
studies were created in schools I believe ere long We could find a more general desire, and 
a more intelligent desire in the rising generation to excel in these sciences. Such a 
study would tend to make better men and women of our children. Lead a boy to take 
an interest in the cultivation of some tree, plant or flower and you make an impression 
upon his young mind that will deepen with age ; it will have an elevating tendency in 
his nature, a refining influence on his character that will, as he grows older, lead those 
he comes in contact with, to point up to him as one of " nature's noblemen." Under 
the influence of such studies we would have fewer criminals and a more prosperous as 
well as a better and happier people. 

Since our last annual meeting it has been my pleasant lot to assist in representing 
Canada at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition in London, England, in the interests of 
fruit ^rowers and shippers. As you are already well acquainted with the nature and 
extent of our fruit display on that occasion, it is not necessary to enlarge upon that. 
Suffice it to say that it was at once the largest and finest display of fruits ever seen, not 
only in Britain, but in all Europe. Our Dominion Government could not have done 
anything to so thoroughly correct the erroneous impressions of our country held by the 
people generally in the old world as by placing before them to see, feel and taste the 
luscious fruits of our orchards, gardens and vineyards. That exhibit did more for our 
country than all the literature and emigration agents could have accomplished in a 
quarter of a century. Our fruits told dwellers in Britain of a climate far superior to 
anything they had given Canada credit for, and the variations of that climate stretching 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Some years ago I made the statement at one of our 
meetings that I believed we could grow the finest apples in the world. My experience 
in Britain's markets, where I met apples from almost all other fruit growing countries, 
has confirmed the impression. We have struck the happy medium in climate and soil in 
order to produce apples of the highest degree of excellence in flavour, form and colour. 

Our apples have taken the British buyers by storm, and consumers there will not 
purchase any others so long as they can obtain a suitable article from us. Britain wants 
the best, and the best only. There is no better market for a choice article, and I do not 
know so poor a market for an inferior article. Canada has gained a good name for generally 
honest culling and packing, and it is absolutely necessary that we do not allow a spot to 
tarnish our character. I wish my words could reach the ears of every orchardist as well 
as shippers in our fair country. I would entreat of them, not only for their own best 
interests, but also for the sake of the fair fame of our country, to exercise the greatest 



care in the cultivation, selection and packing of our fruits. Let the grower see to it 
that he leaves nothing undone that can be done to excel in the production of the choicest 
fruits, and that when he comes to dispose of it, to allow nothing pass to the shipper but 
the best. Above all things, teach your children to be scrupulously honest in picking and 
culling out the apples ready for packing. Never encourage a child to think it smart to 
get a spotted or wormy apple off on the buyer, by hiding it in the middle of the basket 
or barrel. Be honest towards your children, yourself, your customers and your country, 
and you will not only have the satisfaction of reaping reach pecuniary rewards but of 
being a benefit to your country, a guide to your associates, and an instructor for every- 
thing that is just and right in your own family. Let the shipper see to it also that he 
acts in strictest honesty with his customers. Let the brand always indicate truly what 
the barrel contains. Let every specimen be sound and clean for a good brand of fruit. 
And if a choice lot is wanted, they should be made of even size and good colour in the 
barrel. Under no circumstances let the brand indicate anything better than the fruit in 
the barrel fairly demands. A more difficult question now comes, namely, to whom shall 
we ship 1 All the fruit markets of Britain are full of so-called fruit brokers, whose only 
desire seems to be to make their commissions, and they always do this, no matter how 
they may sacrifice the interests of the shipper. This class of brokers are what we know 
as curbstone brokers, and are irresponsible. In conversation, they are quite persuasive, 
"child-like and bland, ,; as Bret Harte would put it ; but do not trust them. Then there 
is a large class of brokers who, although they are financially responsible, they have not 
the accommodation to hold fruit in storage, or they do not care to so far consider the inter- 
ests of the shipper as to hold for favourable markets, but force everything off at auction 
no matter what may be the state of the market. By all means, it is to our best interests 
to avoid this class. There is a class of brokers again, who are interested in retail fruit 
stores, the result of which is that when they handle fruit on consignment the interests of 
the shipper are cruelly sacrificed, and these retailers are supplied at prices that ensure 
large profits to the broker. But there is still left a thoroughly responsible and trust- 
worthy class who do all they can to protect the interests of the shippers, and where there 
is any possibility of realising prices that will ensure profit to the consignor, they will 
invariably accomplish that desirable end at a very reasonable cost. You will find this 
class of dealers often at the dock or railway depot examining the goods sent, and trying 
to make sale to some retailers without incurring cartage or market expense. 

During my four months' stay in Britain I visited all the fruit markets, searched out 
the various classes of dealers and their ways of doing business, and hence I know whereof 
I speak. It would take up too much space to attempt to name firms, but at any time 
I will be pleased to give every information in my possession to those who desire to ship. 
I can recommend good responsible houses in most of the chief towns and cities, whose 
business records have been looked into or tested. Generally speaking, it is a mistake to 
ship on consignmeut to any but the three great distributing centres of trade, I mean 
London, Liverpool and Glasgow. There is another important point I desire shippers to 
notice, it is this : That the experience of the past has shewn that fruit shipped to London 
direct by water, has received much more damage in transit than when shipped via Liver- 



pool and thence by rail to London. It is a very common thing to find in cargoes shipped 
direct to London by water, barrels with only a few pecks in them, and from the fact that 
the few left are clean, fine samples, it is natural to conclude that they have been tam- 
pered with either when passing up the Thames or when in charge of the dock com- 
panies. I have made frequent visits to the docks to see cargoes discharged, and almost 
always remarked an amount of careless handling that was startling. Barrels of apples 
standing in the storage sheds open and passers by having every chance to pilfer that 
could be desired. I remonstrated with these dock companies, and for the time being 
things were attended to better ; but, no doubt, when my back was turned the same care- 
lessness was repeated. I would, therefore, advise shippers to ship to London always via 
Liverpool. This has a further advantage of an extra market, as if the consignee in 
London finds he can sell to advantage considering the difference in freight by stopping 
the cargo and disposing of it in Liverpool, he will do so. British railways are a huge 
monopoly, the result of which is that they so combine in freight charges as to put it 
beyond the interests of shippers to send consignments direct to inland cities and towns. 
They do not carry at a proportionately low rate compared with our through rates to 
British ports. 

Our markets for apples are extending, and there is no doubt but they will extend 
still farther within a few years, as the high flavour, beauty in form and colour and keeping 
qualities of our apples becomes more widely known. A very fine line of business was 
opened last year with buyers for the markets of Norway, Sweden and Denmark, and 
by exercising care in selecting Und packing, this trade can be largely increased. I am 
confident that by proper management a good trade can be established with these countries 
in dried fruits as well as canned goods. Then, with the connection of a fast line of 
steamships on the Pacific Ocean with our Canadian Pacific Railway, our apples will find a 
profitable market in the far East. There is still another market nearer home that will 
prove one of the most important to growers in Ontario. I refer to our own great North- 
west. Even now, although the population is small and very scattered, the trade has 
assumed wonderful proportions. And it has one very desirable feature, in that it is a 
market for our early and fall apples, that would otherwise be of comparatively little value. 
Of course there are some fall apples that we can ship to Britain profitably under some 
circumstances. If the British, Belgian and German crops are short, then our fall apples, 
if carried in good order, will command about the same prices in Britain that winter sorts 
bring. But if there is a surplus in the countries that supply Britain with that class of 
apple, as well as a fair crop in Britain herself, then we must seek another market for 
early and fall kinds. The same thing does not hold good to the same extent as regards 
winter varieties. Nearly all the kinds grown in Belgium and Germany for export are 
what we would call fall cookers ; they have very little if any colour and their flavour is 
generally somewhat insipid. The result is that however large these crops may be (the 
British crop included) they cannot find profitable sale when our winter fruit appears in 
the markets. Of fall varieties we have one that is sure of ready sale at high prices. I 
refer to the Gravenstein. Even this season it has sold as high as $6.00 per barrel ; St 
Lawrence has made $4.20, and Colvert $4.05 for good samples. 



If our steamship companies would provide a cold blast for the compartment where 
fruit is stored it would be a boon to shippers and consumers alike, as that would ensure 
fruit carrying without the slightest damage by heating. The introduction of a cold blast 
would not necessitate much if any expense to the Company, and would, I believe, greatly 
facilitate and ensure the interests of all concerned. With its aid we could successfully 
ship such apples as Duchess of Oldenburg, and realize high prices. 'And if the market 
demand would permit, even such pears as Clapps' Favorite, Bartlett, Flemish Beauty and 
Boussock could be shipped. 

In shipping our winter apples, shippers would find it greatly to their advantage to 
provide good storage so that varieties could be sent forward in proper season when the 
market demand is best for each particular variety. It is folly to send a mixed cargo at 
an early season, as there is then no proper demand for a long keeping kind. Shipments 
should continue through winter until early spring. Such a season as the present, if I 
were advising shippers as to the order in which special kinds should be shipped, it wouW 
be thus : In September and first week of October ship all Twenty-Ounce, and Ribston's, and 
Blenheims; follow this with Kings. Send some Baldwins and Greenings through 
November and December, finishing shipments of these kinds in January. The first Spies 
should be sent forward in December, and continued on through January into February. 
Ontario and Wagner will also cover the same season. Hold the Russets until March, if 
possible, along with Mann, and send them forward then as the demand rises, taking care 
to examine every barrel before leaving the storehouse to see that there is no decay or 
shrinkage. Other kinds that I have not named can be sent forward in their proper season 
for using. But the time for shipping must be determined each season according as the 
-crop matures early or late. It is invariably a good time to ship extra large and fine 
specimens about the first of December, so as to get the Christmas market on or about the 
15th of that month. 

In any case, it pays to store long keepers here rather than ship early, as they will 
realize much better prices, besides keeping better in this dry climate that in the damp and 
clammy winters of Britain. 

The large grape crop of the present season and the exceedingly low prices, causes 
the growers to ask what are the prospects of obtaining markets for an increasing supply 1 
I firmly believe that if proper cold storage can be secured on the steamships, Britain will 
soon prove to be a good market for our open air grapes. But as the taste for them is 
one that must be acquired largely, such a trade must be approached with all due care. 
The only class of grape consumers in Britain are those who can afford to pay very high prices 
for hot-house varieties, and those who are satisfied with the poor quality of the ordinary 
Spanish white grape of commerce. I have no doubt at all that our grapes would find a 
ready class of consumers if once introduced in competition with the Spanish grape. It 
will be necessary to test various ways of carrying our grapes and various packages, so as 
to ensure their arrival in perfect condition. Those packed in berry boxes tightly enclosed 
in a case containing some ten or a dozen such boxes, carried better than in any other way to 
the Colonial at London last year. The square boxes used last year for apples and pears were 
not after all so serviceable as good neat barrels. Fruit could not be packed tightly in the 



boxes, and hence bruised badly. Undoubtedly the barrel is by far the best package yet tried 
for apples Jand when the quarter hoops are driven down far enough to allow the barrel roll 
upon them, it saves the fruit from bruising in the bilge of the barrel. 

I cannot too severely condemn employees of railways and steamships for the rough 
manner'in which they handle every kind of fruit package. Of the fruits shipped to the 
Colonial Exhibition, fully ten per cent, of the apples were damaged, twenty per cent, of 
pears, and ninety per cent, of plums and grapes. The express companies were no exception. 
It is high time that something were done to compel these corporations to exercise neces- 
sary care in handling packages. 

Both growers and shippers will be anxious to hear something about market prospects . 
Reports in the newspapers have been discouraging alike to grower and shipper, but as I 
was receiving widely different reports at the same time, I concluded that the published 
reports were from a class of fruit brokers who would like very well to see shippers make 
a little profit in order to hold their trade, and hence they sent out wcrd that export apples 
should ; be purchased at thirty to forty per cent, lower than last year, as the British and Euro- 
pean crop was very large. These brokers would like to see shippers make their profit on 
this side of the ocean by reducing the price to the grower, instead of in the markets of 
Britain. No doubt early prospects were in favour of a generally good crop in Europe, but 
what are the facts now? Britain passed through a long, tedious and severe winter, a 
cold, backward spring, and a summer of unusual heat and drought. It is generally 
admitted throughout Kent (and this county sends more apples to the London market than 
any other) that the aggregate yield of marketable fruit will not exceed an average crop, 
and these are mainly early kinds. In midland counties prospects are less favourable than 
last year. Orchards have suffered severely from continued drought and blight, and 
growers agree that the crop will be under an average. The west or cider counties report 
a small crop of doubtful quality. In the north, where the cultivation of the apple is 
only nominal, indications point to an average crop of fair quality. Taken altogether, we 
are safe to conclude that the apple crop of the United Kingdom will not exceed that of 
1886, with quality and size of samples inferior. Another point I may here mention that 
is well worth remembering ; it is this : that British apples are mostly cookers, and it is 
rare to find an apple grown there combining both cooking and dessert qualities. This 
and a most important point, they concede readily to Canada. 

Advices from the chief shipping ports of France, as well as the interior, agree that 
the quantity of apples suitable for the English markets will about equal that of last year. 
In the south-west Rennets and Dieudonne's promise fairly, but it is admitted by shippers 
that the quantity available for export is yearly less important ; it is said that the shade of 
the apple trees is injurious to the vines amongst which they grow, and that when the 
trees die out they are not generally replaced. 

Reports from the apple sections of Belgium and Holland indicate an average yield of 
early kinds, which are all disposed of before this date. Late varieties, which are exten- 
sively grown for the English markets, are a fairly good crop, and shippers claim the 
winter export trade will be fair. The outlook in Germany is favourable, but advices 
from Hamburg, Stettin and the interior cannot at present be relied upon with any degree 



of certainty. However, the quantity available for export is never large, and it is probable 
that local consumption will exhaust the supply. 

Shipments of early apples from Portugal commenced in June. Prices are low owing 
to the inferiority of this fruit. Crops are reported light, and arrivals after September, if 
any, will have no influence on the British markets. 

Therefore, I conclude that shippers should make more money in the British markets 
this year than was realized last year, and if they fail to do so it must certainly be on 
account of the inferiority of their brand. 

After visiting many orchards in various parts of Britain and discussing apple-growing 
with growers and dealers, I have arrived at the conclusion that British growers have 
become discouraged, and hence the fact that hundreds of acres of orchards are sadly 
neglected, and are in a state of decay. Many kinds have been grown that are mere cum- 
berers of the ground. Indeed, for many years past, there has been a practical dearth of 
home grown apples in the Brisish markets, in consequence of inclement weather in the 
autumn preventing the maturing of the wood, and keen frosts in late spring destroying 
the blossom. Apple growing in Britain is rapidly waning, and there are some like indica- 
tions throughout Europe. In the United States the crop varies as it does in our own 
country. We do not find that competition in our own North-west that we have had on 
account of the smallness of the crop, even of early fruit in Missouri. The apple crop for 
all Western States, taken as a whole, is under the average considerably. In New York 
there will be about half a crop, with Newtown's scarce, and in the Eastern States the 
crop is scarcely any better. Altogether, the apples for export from the States will be 
under that of last year considerably. 

The Nova Scotia crop is scarcely up to a half. 

Our own crop for export will be under that of last year, but the sample of fruit will 
be better. There is rejoicing all over our land by growers and shippers on account of the 
absence of the fungus spot, even Fameuse is perfectly clean this year, and contrary to 
earlier expectations samples will be fully up in size with superb colouring. 

A word still to the shippers and I leave this question. Packed and ready for ship- 
ment, it is for the exporter to decide with promptitude, if he has not already done so, as 
to the market to which he will consign his fruit. It is a mistake to have fixed ideas on 
this subject. Putting all your eggs in one basket means success or failure, and is opposed 
to the best rules of business. It may be difficult for shippers to come to a decision as to 
the best market to take. Too much reliance should not be placed upon market reports 
mailed from broking firms, for they are, as a rule, apart from prices actually realised, 
couched in language sufficiently encouraging to induce shippers to consign to Liverpool 
when they should take London or Glasgow, or vice versa. Market forecasts too are 
usually held out as one would wish them to be, rather than as they are likely to be. The 
necessity of always making arrangements with the steamship agents well in advance of 
contemplated shipments, in order to avoid being shut out, must also be borne in mind. 
Those who have had their fruit shut out, and have been compelled to await the following 
steamer, know from experience the value of this suggestion. Influence should also be 
brought to bear on the agents in regard to the storage of the fruit. Apples should never 



10 



bestowed under or mixed with general or any other cargo, and they should always be 
stowed away from all heating influences. 

Among new fruits likely to find a place in general cultivation, I would name my old 
friend Mr. P. C. Dempsey's new pear, which I shall here name " Dempsey." It is a 
cross between Bartlett and Duchess D'Angouleme, and bears not only the markings of 
both parents well blended together, but also flavour and season of ripening well defined. 
I believe # this pear will yet come in as one of the most valuable on our list. I earnestly 
wish growers would strive, by hybridization and the growing of seedlings, to produce a 
winter pear of size and excellence. Take for your aim, for example, the Vicar for size 
and Josephene De Malmis for quality. Mr. Dempsey has also produced a new apple, 
the Trenton, by crossing the Golden Russet and Spy. The Trenton has the appearance 
as if of the Fameuse family ; form and size goes with the Russet parent ; flavour richer 
than Fameuse and colour more intense and covering. 

In plums, I do not know anything that has taken my fancy for general purposes as 
the Prune, grown at Collingwood. I have had an opportunity of tasting the fruit this 
season and, if I may judge by the few specimens sent to me, I must pronounce it much 
superior to the well known German Prune in flavour. It is of good size and in general 
appearance resembles German Prune, and is a splendid shipper. Growers in Collingwood 
report that they can make more money out of this than any other variety. 

The system of judging fruits at Fairs must be improved upon and conducted scientifi- 
cally or exhibitors will not derive any practical benefits, and growers will be kept in the 
dark, as in the past. A scale should be adopted with maximum points for each variety, 
the highest number being the maximum of the most valuable fruits. A scale of one to ten 
would cover all, and if introduced and used by all judges, we would find a decided 
improvement in the growing of only the best kinds. All fruits should be judged upon 
points, and the man who is not able to give such a judgment should not be employed. 
The single judge system would have the effect of weeding out incompetent men, and I 
believe the sooner it is adopted by Exhibition Associations, in the horticultural depart- 
ment at all events, the better for all concerned. 

The English sparrow is still widening its field of mischief. This season I lost two 
trees of Huling's Superb plums by the sparrow, and many others complain of its depreda- 
tions among the plums and grapes. As soon as the fruit ripens well they seem to pick 
holes to extract the juices, probably to quench thirst; at all events they take a marvel- 
lously short time to destroy a crop of plums. My two trees of Huling's Superb were 
loaded and I was not able to find a whole plum in three days from ripening. Growers 
are reporting some new feature of evil in the sparrow from time to time, and I hope this 
Association will take the matter up at an early day, and if possible suggest a remedy. 

After a winter of more than usual severity and a summer of extraordinary heat and 
drouth, we are early into fall weather. Already we can almost say : 

" Leaves are dead and woods are red, 
Autumn skies are soft and pale." 

The orchardist should make early provision for winter. 

Our thanks as fruit-growers are due to the Dominion Government for the good done 



11 



in our interests and for our country through the Colonial Exhibition. Personally, I 
would not feel that I had done justice if I neglected to refer to the very many courtesies, 
the prompt attentions and interest in the welfare of Canada, expressed in the actions of 
Sir Charles Tupper, our High Commissioner, who was ever ready and willing to do all 
that was possible in every way to advance the fruit interests of Canada. Nor can I for- 
get the cheerful attentions and quick, executive ability of Mr. C. C. Chipman, the Cana- 
dian Accountant in London. And I feel under deep, personal obligations to Mr. J. B. 
Thomas, of Covent Garden Market, London, one of the oldest and foremost fruit dealers 
of Britain, for innumerable acts of kindness in assisting me to gain information concern- 
ing the trade. 

And now, my friends, before closing, let me ask one and all to work, speak, write 
and think for the interests of horticulture. Enlist the sympathies of your friends and 
neighbours ; spread everywhere the necessity of cultivation, more planting, growing only 
the best varieties, and buying and selling honestly. In our Association we want all 
classes of our people, especially do we want the influence of woman, and I believe even 
now our women are fairly enlisted and willing to work for the grand elevative interests 
of horticulture. Let us work up enthusiasm in our subject, and thus solidly and surely 
elevate the standard of everything that is good. There is room always for improvement, 
and we should never rest fully satisfied with the results of past experiments, but go on 
working up to a high ideal and encouraging others to work too. 

" Let us act that each to-morrow- 
Find us farther than to-day." 



12 



THE WINTER MEETING. 



The Winter Meeting was held in the Town Hall, Chatham, on Wednesday and 
Thursday, the 9th and 10th of February, 1887. 

The President, A. McD. Allan, Esq., in calling the meeting to order, expressed- a 
hope that the local members and visitors from the County of Kent, of whom there was a 
fair attendance, would freely avail themselves of the opportunity of taking part in the 
debates of the Association, one of the especial objects of holding the meeting in Chatham 
being that points in regard to fruit culture in the County of Kent might be brought for- 
ward. 



A CIVIC WELCOME 

Mr. H. A. Patterson, Mayor of Chatham, then extended a welcome to the Associa- 
tion, on behalf of the Town Council and inhabitants of Chatham, in the following 
terms : — 

Gentlemen, — It affords me great pleasure to have the honour of welcoming your 
Association to Chatham. I have no formal address to- offer — no written address, — but 
will, in a few words, offer you that welcome on behalf of the inhabitants of Chatham. 
There are few parts of this Dominion in which the fruit-grower has so many things 
lavished upon him by nature as in this County of Kent, and I much regret that/ a far 
more lively interest has not been evinced in this meeting by the fruit-growers of this 
vicinity, though I am confident that later on in your proceedings you will find a great 
increase in attendance. I again bid you welcome to Chatham, and am confident that 
your treatment here will be such that you will go away, feeling that Chatham is at least 
not the most forsaken place in the world. 

The President, on behalf of the Association, thanked the Mayor for the cordial wel- 
come extended, assuring him that the meeting at Chatham had been looked forward to 
with interest by them, and would doubtless be long remembered. They were well aware 
that Chatham was the chief town in one of the most important agricultural counties of 
the Province of Ontario, which was saying a good deal, and that the County of Kent was 
making its mark in the Province. He felt assured that the attendance, though com- 
paratively small at the time of opening, would be larger during the progress of the meet- 
ing, and that the discussions carried on would be marked by ardour and ability. As he 
had other remarks to make at a subsequent stage of the meeting, he would not now tres- 
pass further on the time at command, but proceed with the programme. 



THE FRUIT GARDEN FOR HOME USE. 

The Secretary read the following paper, contributed by Mr. B. Gott, of Arkona : 

Gentlemen, — The word " garden " comes to us through the Anglo-Saxon tongue 
and is derived from the old German gart, and signified a piece of ground enclosed for the 
purpose of growing vegetables, flowers, etc., for the family. The Latins used the word 
" hortus " for the same purpose, hence also we have our significant word " horticulture." 
I may be allowed to remark, in the first place, that as the word garden purports so our 
ideas always point to an enclosed or guarded piece of ground in which flowers, vegetables, 



13 



fruits, etc., are properly cared for and grown. We, therefore, have but little sympathy 
either with the teachings or practices of some in our day, who discard the idea of an 
enclosure and place their feeble efforts at gardening anywhere in the open field without 
marks or protection, and are at once liable to the inroads of cattle and depredators, and 
to be changed from year to year. On the contrary, -we say, fence a spot of ground, large 
or small, somewhere on the farm most convenient and best adapted for the purposes 
designed ; let that spot of ground become sacred to those purposes and forever known as 
the home garden, and untrod by depredators of. any kind and unbrowsed by hungry 
cattle, or untouched by devouring pig. There the various fruit, floral or vegetable 
relics, peacefully, securely and tenderly rest and thrive from year to year, and 
there are planted for future bloom or fruit the newest and choicest importations and the 
latest purchases obtainable. There the members of the family stroll at eventide and 
there they walk at early morn to see the late developments. There they practise their 
interesting art and tickle the fertile earth, and there they learn over new lessons of use- 
fulness and genial profit. From thence they minister to each other wonder and delight, 
and foster the good of each. 

The fence about the plot, whether square, rectangular or oblong in form, or whether 
large or small, may be both ornamental and useful, but, of course, the useful is the 
essential idea. It should be straight, strong, light, and as durable as possible. The best 
garden fences are made of good cedar posts and durable pickets, but many beautiful, 
serviceable fences are lately being made of posts and wires, ornamentally fashioned, and 
are recommendable if not made of barbed wires. * The idea attached to a fence is protec- 
tion to that within and freedom from harbourings of all nuisances and all destroyers. It 
need not necessarily be very expensive, but it must be effective and as durable as possible, 
not necessarily close and high, like an old English fence, to hide from view all that is 
within, but it must be strong and it may be as beautiful as possible. The requirements 
of the home garden differ very greatly in accordance with the position, the intelligence, 
the character and the number of those composing the home. The best idea of home to 
us is that of an assemblage of friends and those we love under a common roof. It is the 
habitation of a family of friends mutually working for each other's good and well-being both 
here and hereafter. Let us then picture to ourselves such a home amongst the middle classes 
of our beautiful country, where we have many of them, and consisting of eight persons of 
different ages, father and mother and six children, half boys, a circumstance not by any 
means difficult to find, and may fitly be called a model family. The family so constituted 
will require then a plot of ground liberal in its dimensions, the form and shape of it makes 
but little difference, but it should be convenient and a rich, well drained loamy soil. 
The whole should be thoroughly and systematically planted with all the various and best 
fruits of the season. I shall not attempt in this connection the larger or orchard fruits, 
as apples, pears, etc., since these cannot properly be brought into the list for home garden 
culture. Neither shall I take into account here the questions of culture and prepara- 
tion of soil, laying out the beds their sizes and shapes, or whether there shall be any beds 
at all or not. Our duty will be rather the consideration of the kinds of fruits to plant. 
I would suggest that regularity of design or plan be adopted as may best suit the loca- 
tion and the family tastes and needs. The old forms d dividing the plot into exact 
squares with posts from 6 to 8 feet in width, leading all round and the borders of these 
squares regularly planted with gooseberry or currant bushes, raspberry or strawberry 
plants need not necessarily be followed, but I would strongly recommend a system or 
plan of some sort simple and easily worked, and according to which even the visitor 
may know how to find the class of fruits he is in search of. I may suggest, too, 
some flowers in the garden. I do not know here how far you will be disposed to agree 
with me, but on account of my prevailing whim, I venture to broach it. I do so much 
love to see the flowers " that ever turn towards the sun," as the Helianthus and the 
ever-varied and gay-coloured Phloxes, with many other favourites, that I should be 
strongly tempted to stick them into every vacancy to bloom by the pathway. And then 
they are such an attraction, you know. 

The implements and accessories of the garden should be plentiful and efficient. The 
ordinary implements for stirring the soil, and keeping it well pulverized and free from 



14 



weeds, must be close at hand for ready and constant use whenever needed. Implements 
for pruning, training, grafting, shearing, clipping, etc., must also be in good condition 
and ready for use in proper time and season. 

I would further suggest that a cheap but serviceable greenhouse be provided. Perhaps 
you will think this superfluous, but in the experience of many years it is found to be advan- 
tageous and profitable. How many new kinds of fruit plants you receive in an 
enfeebled condition, or perhaps in the cold of winter, could be nursed and cared for here 
and brought safely through 1 Again, how much profitable testing, experimenting and 
propagating may be quietly done here, even in the slack months'? This is all very inter- 
esting and very profitable. In this connection cellars and storehouses are absolutely 
needed and must be provided. These must be ample and commodious, free from excessive 
dampness and from frost and vermin. Their inside must be well ventilated and pure, 
and provided with slatted slide boxes and cribs for the hardier fruits, and commodious 
shelves for the smaller ones during the winter. These must be directed by circumstances. 

I should like to say a word or two about fruit preservation. This is one of the most 
important questions connected with the whole subject of fruit supply. The methods of 
canning and preserving that must be understood are now so many and so varied that this 
alone would form an ample theme of itself ; but they must be all known and practised 
in order to have a liberal supply of good and wholesome fruit for the table whenever the 
supply outside is no longer obtainable. Evaporation by means of artificial process, as 
is now practised, is one of the best methods for supplying the larger and fleshy in all 
seasons. For the berries and other delicate fruits, canning and conserving are the 
methods most resorted to, and eminently good and satisfactory. After those necessary 
digressions that will meet your approval, I shall come at once to speak as briefly as 
possible of the fruits themselves in order. 

The strawberry, in its earliness, its simplicity of treatment and ready growth, and 
in its fine and delicate internal and external qualities, must be the first on the list of 
desirable fruits for family use. In obtaining plants of this fruit the question of length 
of season should be in view. 

We advise to secure good healthy plants, as near at home as possible, and plant 
them in the spring of the year, in rows 2 feet apart and 12 inches in the rows, on good 
dry previously prepared soil. I cannot now detain you by descriptions of the 
varieties mentioned, but shall simply state the names of those I think the most deserving 
of notice and in the order of their qualities and season of ripening. For early, Canada, 
Bidwell, Orescent, Ontario, Manchester, Daniel Boone, Wilson and Mr. Henderson's 
new one " King of the North." For medium, the Crimson Cluster, Henderson, both 
new ones. For late, Prince of Berries, Maggie and Jewel. The last mentioned is Mr. 
Augur's new strawberry from Connecticut, and is by many strides the most valuable and 
promising berry I have yet seen. The whole of those named need not necessarily be 
planted at once, unless the demand is for novelties and variety, but enough of them may 
for good family supply. 

The raspberry is properly the succeeding family fruit of the season, and cannot now 
be dispensed with. It is very popular, easily grown on almost any soils, and possesses so 
many really good qualities of merit, that it asks or need no recommendations from me. 
The varieties, like those of the strawberry, are fortunately very various and very many 
to choose from. For early reds, the Hansell, Marlboro', Herstine, Turner, Red Antwerp 
and Franconia. For late, Clarke and Cuthbert, the last having more good qualities in it 
than any other one berry amongst us. For early, black, Tyler, Souhegan, Seneca. For 
late, Mammoth Cluster, Gregg and Shaffer. For beautiful yellow or white nothing 
can be finer than Caroline and Brinckle's Orange. The last mentioned is the highest 
and best flavoured of all, and although a little tender in the cane, yet by selecting 
favourable spots to grow it, or by laying it down in the winter, it may be made 
eminently successful. 

The blackberry, for family use, is not so greatly favoured as the fore-mentioned, and 
chiefly for the reason that the canes cannot be made so snug, neat and inoffensive as they, 
but the fruit is most delightful and highly relished. Though we acknowledge, to some 
extent, the justness of this complaint, yet we insist that there need not be so much com- 



15 



plaining if proper methods of pruning and training are adopted. It is well known that 
the Americans grow acres upon acres of them, and without unusual trouble. The new 
Canadian blackberry, called Gainor, is said to have many good qualities, and we know 
the Snyder to be almost all that could be desired. But no blackberry has appeared with 
such large, fine and delicious flavoured fruits as the famed Kittatinny, which you may 
plant. 

Gooseberries are becoming more and more a popular fruit, in great demand, and 
no family fruit garden could, for a moment, be considered well stocked without a liberal 
supply of these in their best sorts. The new American gooseberry, Industry, offered by 
Mr. Barry, is known to be very good, hardy and productive. Good things are also said 
of Prof. Saunders' Pearl. We have had a large experience with Houghton, Smith's 
Improved and Downing, all very good. The English sorts Crown Bob and White Smith, 
may be grown, with care, and are then very large and fine. All these sorts may be 
improved by sulphuring as a precaution against mildew, etc. 

Currants must also form a part of every collection of family fruits. They are good 
growers, sure bearers and always reward the care and attention given to them. The 
famed Fay's Prolific is good, but is nothing better or different, as we can see, from 
the older and tried sort called Cherry. Both will yield results as nearly identical as 
possible. Raby Castle and Old Red Dutch are very prolific and good. For black, Lee's 
Prolific and Black Naples can be relied upon. For white, the White Grape and the 
White Dutch are both delightful and will fill the bill. 

I scarcely know whether I shall have space or whether you will forbear with me 
should I include in this list the popular and delicious fruits known amongst us as cher- 
ries, plums and peaches. They are all very attractive, and in their place and season, 
there is nothing that can supplant them. AH families like them, and when the fruit can 
be had in proper quality and quantity they are very profitable. But there's the '-rub," 
for during the last few years past these fine fruits have been conspicuous by their absence, 
and in many localities they were not very encouraging. Nevertheless, it may be well for 
a family to attempt a few of them in their most desirable varieties. 

Hardy grapes are, perhaps, the most popular fruits produced amongst us, and can 
be grown so easily in greater variety and greater excellence in all the colours of red, white 
and black than any other. It is our firm belief that any family owning but a small 
piece of ground can make grapes the best fruits to plant, and can grow more of them 
than any other. Even outside locations all along by the fences, and even the walls of 
the buildings, may be made very serviceable for grapes, and the general appaarance of the 
whole improved by them. We would advise then, every family, by all means to plant 
some grapes. Plant a sufficiency for the liberal use of the family and enough to last till 
[rapes come again. For a family as presupposed, a vineyard of say 50 plants, well cared 
for, will give them a return that will be at once grateful and gratifying. Plant two-year- 
old plants in well prepared ground eight feet by twelve feet, thoroughly cultivate the 
ground and keep it clean. In two years the vines will begin to show a supply of tempting 
and delicious fruit. If in the open air ground, they should then be trellised by planting 
eight feet posts in the rows between the plants, and firmly fixing three wires to them, and 
have the canes fastened to these. We have known vines trellised thus to produce 20 lbs. 
each the third year. Last year our own 200 vines produced an average over the whole 
of 22J lbs., and realized for us a good sum. 

The varieties of grapes are now very great and very different, and the choice of 
these is a very important matter. For black, we give the preference to Moore's Early 
as the best early grape on the list, and Worden's seedling next. Concord is the most 
popular and is a very good and profitable grape. Wilder is very large and very good, known 
also as Roger No. 4 ; it is, indeed, the largest grape in cultivation amongst us. For red, 
we say Brighton is at the head of the list ; it is also very profitable. Lind'ey and Delaware 
are good and should not be omitted. We fruited Jefferson last year, and it is very fine 
indeed. For white, the claimants are being multiplied, but the best in our culture is 
Lady, and the next Jessica. Niagara has a good deal said about it and it may be good, 
and we know that Golden Pocklington is so. From |our; reading of the recommendation, 
we should think that the new grape " Empire State " is something immense, that's all we 



16 



know about it. Any family who takes these fine fruits and succeeds with them to any- 
thing near their capabilities, will be so far pleased with the results that they will not 
regret any amount of labour or pains spent upon them. 

Of nectarines and quinces, I do not know how to recommend them. The nectarine 
is, indeed, a very desirable fruit, but it is in vain to try to grow it in exposed places or 
where you cannot succeed with plums. Quinces are not grown as much as they should 
be, and for the reason that their use is not understood. It is a question just where 
they come in, in family economy. The best quince is the Orange that can be nicely 
grown in favourable places. 

Of mulberries, dewberries, huckleberries and cranberries, it is scarcely necessary 
for me to speak, as almost all families are already pretty well acquainted with them. It 
is well known that in the case of cranberries that they cannot be produced only in 
special favourable locations. Huckleberries are in varieties, and can be made serviceable 
and good. Dewberries have not been very successful, but the late new one called 
Lucretia is very fine and good. Mulberries are also in variety. Downing's everbearing 
is one of the oldest and best. The newer one called Russian has a good deal said about 
it, but though smaller than the other, is in nothing better as we can see. It would be 
well to plant some of these fruits by way of experimenting, for it is quite possible to 
learn much by mere experimenting. Some locations are better suited to their needs than 
others, and so in what I might fail might be another man's abundant success. In this 
way we each of us add something to the general fund of knowledge, one of the prime 
objects of life, you know. 

You will say of tigs and oranges, that this sounds too much south to be relishable in 
our snows, but we have tried them, and, in a small measure, have succeeded ; but we 
must acknowledge that the luxury is hardly worth the expense. The best way to do 
with these is to have them in large tubs and remove them to frost- proof underground 
cellars in winter. 

Hardy nuts may be made profitable in properly planted orchards, but it is only in 
some sorts that they can be used for family gardening. It is a great pity that some of 
our fruit and best nuts are forbidden fruit to us by our climate. I believe that the 
filbert nut may be grown in sheltered and favourable locations, but not to such perfection 
of size and quality as in England. I would recommend its being tried. The same 
remarks will apply to the Spanish chestnut, a rich and desirable product when it can be 
procured. I believe, too, that under very favourable locations and conditions the American 
hard-shell almond might be profitably produced, and so also with the Japan persim- 
mon. Why not experiment in these fine nuts 1 But what I hang my fancy over the 
most is the American peanut. I do most decidedly think that this serviceable nut may 
be grown, if properly considered. And now I think I have exhausted my list and my 
task is done, how well, you will judge. Not half has been said that might profitably 
have been said, but I have aimed at being but merely suggestive, confident in your mature 
wisdom to fill up anything lacking on my part. Let us hope that our efforts at producing 
good fruits may be steadily progressing as is our country. 



F. W. Wilson. — It gives me great pleasure to have the privilege of being present 
at this meeting, as I have always taken a very lively interest in the proceedings of the 
Association ; and felt great satisfaction on learning that the present meeting was to be 
held in the town to which I belong. Speaking of fruits best adapted to this county, I 
may say that my experience leads me to the conclusion that, for the basket, the Marl- 
borough for an early red raspberry, and the Cuthbert for late, are the best, while one 
not mentioned at all — the Ohio — is the best black. It is hardy, productive, of good 
colour, and well adapted to our climate ; the bushes are well shaped and stand up well, 
and I think it is in every way the best black raspberry of all. The Souhegan and Gregg 
are also good. The Ohio is also a good evaporating raspberry, which is likely to be of 
great advantage in disposing of surplus stock. Of gooseberries, I think the Downing is a 
long way ahead of any of our well tried varieties. I believe that the Industry, which I 



17 



have been growing, is going to be one of our best. It is a very fine red fruit, and almost 
mildew proof. In grapes the Champion is the most profitable, but it is almost unfit to 
eat ; therefore, for home use. and markets we wish to hold, I would prefer Moore's Early, 
the Worden and the Concord as the best black grapes, and the Lady and the Niagara as 
the best white. 

The President. — Have you any vineyards in Kent ? 

Mr. Wilson. — Very few. In the southern corner of the county, among the islands, 
they grow very large quantities, some in this county, and some in the adjoining county of 
Essex. I was never there to see myself, but I believe on the islands there are many 
hundreds of acres. Plums are almost a failure here ; I think the Early Canada is the 
best, because the hardiest. For cherries I believe in the Early Richmond, which is much 
the best variety of English cherry, on account of its extreme hardiness and productiveness. 

Mackenzie Ross. — I believe I am one of the oldest members of the Association in 
the County of Kent, and may fairly claim the honour of being the father of the Horticul- 
tural Society in 1877. We are very much indebted to Mr. Smith for sending us two 
things, the Niagara, and another white grape giving promise of great things, the little 
Jessica — which is going to take the lead of anv other grape. I do not do much in small 
fruit, but there is a berry — the Shaffer — of which I had a lars;e quantity last year, and 
realized fifteen cents clear, while pthers were going for five cents. 

A. R. Everett.— The Hansell and Cuthbert are the best red raspberries I have 
tried. The Mammoth Cluster was prominent for a long while, but it does not stand out 
now like the Gregg, which is as good as the Ohio. In grapes I have the Delaware. In 
strawberries I have had success with the Sharpless and Crescent. I have grown the 
Wilson and the Crescent together, and the Crescent has yielded me almost one third 
more — a hundred bushels to the half acre — last year, and the land was not in the best 
condition either. With cherries I have not had much success ; of gooseberries I never 
tried many, but the American varieties seem to be the best. I think the old Duchess is 
the best white grape I have. I have tried black currants — Lee's Prolific — and they did 
first rate. 

A Member. — Did you find the Gregg perfectly hardy here 1 

Mr. Everett. — It has been with me. 

F. W. Wilson. — I have great respect for the opinion of Mr. Everett, who I know to 
be a highly practical gardener, but I must adhere to what I have said about the Ohio, 
which, with me, has done very well. When speaking before I omitted to make any 
mention of strawberries, a fruit for which the soil of this county is particularly well 
adapted. I have been growing about eighteen kinds, covering an area of about a quarter 
of an acre, and I gathered from them last year a crop amounting to 192 bushels per acre. 

The President. — Do you give the preference to any particular varieties? 

Mr. Wilson. — For bearing I think the Orescent is the best, with the Wilson and 
Bid well next, and then, probably, the Manchester. The James Vick I find inclines too 
much to vines, and does not grow much fruit. It fertilizes well. 

Mr. Smith. — Did you ever attempt to grow it away from other varieties 1 

Mr. Wilson. — No. In fertilizing it is necessary to select varieties which bloom 
within three da) s of each other j the Manchester and the James Vick, and the Wilson 
and the Orescent grow best together. The Sharpless I find almost a failure ; it grows the 
best berry, but scarcely any of them. Peaches do not succeed very well here. The 
Spanish' chestnut, I think, would be a profitable fruit to grow in this section, and the 
dwarf English walnut, which comes into bearing at about three years of age, and with 
fruit fully as large as the ordinary English walnut, is a lowheaded tree, and said to be 
giving great satisfaction in other parts of the country where similar conditions to those 
prevalent in this county are found. 

Mr. Bark well. — The Concord is the best grape, but the Lady is good and takes my 
fancy. The cherry currant succeeds well, and is a fine grower. In black currants I grow 
chiefly the Black Naples variety. I think, for strawberries, nothing can beat the Wilson 
and Sharpless. In raspberries the Mammoth Cluster appears to do well enough with me. 
In cherries I have the English May Duke, but it does not seem to do very well ; the blight 
affects it ; I would like to know what we can do for that. 

2 (F.G.) 



18 



Mr. Wilson. — My experience is that the only early cherry that will give any satis- 
faction is the Early Richmond. 

Mr. Barkwell. — In regard to grapes, the Concord is the grape grown by all large- 
growers, but I believe for profit, after that, the Champion. 

The President. — Do you recommend the Champion for home consumption? 

Mr. Wilson. — No, the Champion is good for somebody else to eat, but I don't want 
the job ; but it is a good grape to make money out of, if you can get somebody else to 
suck it. 

Mr. Mackenzie Ross. — I find that the Champion gives more money, because it goes 
into the market here two or three weeks earlier than any other variety, selling for fifteen 
or twenty cents a pound ; and I think most of you will go in for what yields the most 
money. It is not a very luscious fruit, but for a person so constituted that he wants 
some acid early in the season the Champion is all right. 

The Secretary. — You will observe that the subject of grapes comes up for discussion 
further on in the programme, under the head of " Grapes for the market." We are at 
present discussing fruit for home use — everyone wants to know what to plant in order to 
secure a supply for their families. Keeping that in view, I would suggest the following 
list, which will give a family a variety of the different colours of grapes for home use. For 
black grapes I would suggest Moore's Early, the Worden and the Concord ; I would leave 
out the Champion altogether, because Moore's Early is just as early, and a grape of good 
quality ; while the Worden just comes between the two, and the Concord can be kept 
for a long time. For white grapes I would recommend the Niagara and the Empire State. 
I had the privilege, with Mr. Smith, of testing the Empire State at Rochester, and its 
quality is excellent, which, for home use, is a most important consideration. I would also 
add the Pocklington, though I do not think it succeeds very well everywhere, not being 
as hardy as the Niagara, but at Grimsby we have had good success with it, and some very 
fine shipments have been made. Among the reds I would suggest the Lindley and the 
Brighton. There is one criticism I want to make on this paper in regard to the home 
garden, and that is the idea of fencing in a little square with a high fence, for a home 
garden. That was the kind of garden I had to begin with — the kind my grandfather had, 
and which was the prevailing kind in days gone by, when they had more time to work 
with the spade and hoe, and pull weeds by hand, than we have now. In a garden of this 
description, into which you cannot get a horse, and in which the fence is in your way, 
you must do everything with a spade and hoe, and my memories of the past are that it 
was pretty hard work. I have now torn away all this fence around the garden, so that I 
can get a horse and a little plough in, and I plant everything in the garden for home pur- 
poses in nice long rows, side by side, so that I can cultivate nearly everything with a 
horse, and do as little digging as possible. Besides this, where you have a fence all 
around the edge of your garden it is sure to be a mass of weeds, unless you have more 
time than I have ; and it also harbors insects. 

Mackenzie Ross. — I propose, Mr. Secretary, that you add to your list of grapes the 
Jessica, which is one of the most delicious I know of. And then there is the Lady, which 
cannot be beaten. 

A Member. — I think the Triomphe de Gande is the sweetest berry we have, and the 
Crescent and Wilson next. In currants I think the White Grape and Cherry are both 
good home fruits, but not very profitable. I have not tried Fay's Prolific. In black- 
berries I think there is nothing better than the Kittatinny. The dewberry is a nice 
fruit for the home garden, and should be more looked after than it is ; I tried one and 
found big berries on it. They stand the winter well, and if cultivated would, I think, 
yield a large crop. As for the garden itself, I would have a long fence, but fenced in. 
The Secretary. — You would have it so that a horse could be got in 1 
A Member. — Yes ; you could work it easier and better, and with more satisfac- 
tion. I believe in long rows. 

Mr. Dempsey. — I will give you my opinion of what the home garden should be, and 
how and where to select it. I would select, if possible, a site that was long, as has been 
already suggested, and which might be cultivated with a horse ; and I would have it, if 
at all practicable, thoroughly protected from the wind. The question arises how this 



19 



should be done. I would plant firm trellisps for all nw Hr+1* Q ^i * j 

aTv ThL I' You 1 can ? row any variety of fruit on trellises just the sam 

f "L° the L W ^' and ? TOW the . m ln a »y fo ™ you like. I assure you a Lden nW 



e as m 



that r a fI a r t ad Tt tmg * he u° h r pi0n aS a B»I* to be U™ for prohl Wh 'n I hetd 

The President.— What about Moore's Early ? 
hour's ground is safe enough for you "P*™* What will ripen in your neigh, 

^irwff w KJf r R r as r , the necessity ° f •**« ^ *» 

fertilizer around ^as anywhlre ekf ""^ " 6 had t0 «"■* ab ° Ut three timea a * ™" 

>ut Ttu^rz^^^^^x^^ so far , made r th ; « 

nore in regard to the market thar, f^T ' ay ' SOme ot us have s P oke n 

>een definite enough as t locaHties »t, pUrP ° SeS - • ^ '^ ^ We haVe not 
nay he recommended for this conn vo V " Z"" 7 , J n P ortant e,emen t- because what 

m Le, will not dolor 37? SS^M? ^ ^"V 6 ^ Cl ™ ate 
>o define distinctly the locality he r^d!!' ; f • " be neoessar y f or every speaker 

: make this remark becaus I hnv. f ' f and g ' V ? US a 8 eneral idea of the climate. 

Icfo'f th soil o climat"™ ' wTo^ f ° ""^^ " ^ CaUSe ' -"et^r^tthe 
len^teTl^toS&iifTlif^t h ° me garden in such a cl ™ate as you haye 
■ert, Gregg and Camline and W W ITT^ ras F' bCTrie « *e HerstiAe, Cuth- 
uite agree* with Mr Ros's who I'beMe" ff ' ^"^ C ° l0SSal J in re S ard to which I 
: think for home use it i'slne'of thi I ' !" ' ° nly g entleman who has mentioned it. 
, market berry Tt ,ri !v f Z T ™ netle8 that has ever been introduced. As 

Lt for horn use it Lnsurpa e7 e Itfr ", COl ° Ur ^ ^^ H with the ma ^ > 
^acidnayour, which SKL^r35rtfJ!^SSS!att 



20 



varieties raised,— because in our own home we use a great deal of canned fruit— I have 
come to the conclusion that Shaffer's Colossal surpasses every other variety. 1 he Caroline 
has not been mentioned. It is a yellow variety, of good quality. This is the first year 
„ have fruited it extensively, though we have had it out for several years in limited 
miantities For a shipper I do not recommend it, but for home use it is of good quality 
„nd is rendered very attractive for the table by its beautiful appearance. I am sorry to 
»v that I am unable to agree with Mr. Wilson as to the Ohio. I am not speaking 
merely of my own personal experience, but I find from my own experience and that of 
others that, as a general rule, it is a small berry, and in no way to be compared with the 
Ore*, which I consider is ahead of all the black-caps that have ever been introduced, 
Axeent it may be the Hillborn, which we have not yet tested to any great extent. Irom 
whit I have heard of the Hillborn, I am inclined to think it may possibly supersede the 
Ore- on account of hardiness. Samples of it which I have seen were equal in quality 
to the Gre<"» and surpassed it in appearance on account of its bloom and glossiness. 1 
«n alto told it is hardier. The Gregg is a little on the tender side, but I think in this 
sec'tmn or sections west of Hamilton, that may be classed in the Niagara District, it may 
be Termed perfectly hardy. It succeeds further east-in Montreal,-but there the snow 
fail Protects it. It also succeeds in the vicinity of Toronto, unless when we have 
musuany severe winters. In grapes for home culture and the table, I would not want 
eXr the Pocklington or Niagara, neither of which are in my opinion a high quality oi 
Trape I would pu°t in my garden Moore's Early, the Jessica, the Empire State, he 
Brighton: and a grape that has not been mentioned, Rogers No. 4, which I consider the 
best of the Rogers' varieties, being both productive and of good size. I would recommend 
it Toth as a home and market berry. Then there is another variety that I would strongly 
recommend, but only in sections where the Concord will ripen ; the Vergennes, which is 
"Trape of -ood quality and excellent appearance, and valuable for the home garden 
Now we come to gooseberries. I think most of the speakers this morning have looked 
at ^berries from a market point of view solely. Certainly the Downing and Smith a 
Improved are old and reliable varieties, but we have another, the Industry, far surpassing 
them and, so far as it has been tested, well adapted to this country, having been tested 
liueW n the United States. At a large horticultural meeting which I attended last 
June In Washington, it was spoken of as the leading gooseberry, and I am strongly in 
favour of it, both for home and market uses. Its productiveness is enormous its quality 
coed and its size and appearance will always make it valuable. In currants, the Cherrl 
STd White Grape have been the leading varieties, but I believe fay's Prolific is superior 
not only t' ** productiveness, but for its size and appearance. In ^quality it is much hk. 
Cherry White Grape is superior to either of them in quality. The best red currant fo, 
Si Moore's Ruby, a cross of Cherry and White Grape, originated by Jacob Moore 
?h! oris nator of the Brighton Grape. This is superior in quality, but not quite so larg. 
a reaitry though more productive than either Fay's or Cherry, as far as our testin, 

the last three yen™ has demonstrated. In strawberries for the garden I value th ; 
Manchester very highly- Orescent, I am not fond of, except for the market. I don' 
con ider t of hTgn quality, and, for the garden, I would prefer berries of a superior qua hty 

1 consmer Manchester, as I have said, at the head of the list, but in addition would plan 
the "ml and the Sharpless, and also the Wilson, than winch, when fully ripened 

the '' e Mr e B TJf (oTLindty).-you spoke of the Caroline raspberry ; how does that con, 

^ M^Velungton.-I do not think it is fully up to Brinckle's Orange in quality, bu 
that is a different question in most sections. I intended to have spoken of the ne. 
Golden Queen. We have not tested it sufficiently yet to speak positively, but froi 
Crolden yueem dest ined to be largely sought after. It is said to be a seec 

3of t. e C "thber -at east it was found in a plantation of Cuthbert and has the sam 
app g ea a nee -and, what is very desirable, it has good shipping qualities I would nc 
appearance, aim j further tested for a year or two, but at th 

r::ffi W ^ be safe in trying it in small quantities. From whs 
Ihlve learned of it I believe it is going to be a very desirable variety, and in its colon 



21 



will be quite the equal of the celebrated Cuthbert, which I regard as the best red rasp, 
berry for general use that has ever been introduced. 

Mr. Wilson.— Different people have different experiences, and that has a good deal 
to do with their opinions. I have not at all withdrawn my idea that the Ohio is the 
best black raspberry. The Mammoth Cluster is dwindling out, and the Gregg, though a 
good berry, is not nearly as good in colour as the Ohio. As for the Caroline, which I have 
been observing for several years, although it is hardy and a heavy cropper, it will not 
keep, and if you cannot take the berries just when they are ripe, they are <*one. 

Mr. Wellington. — They are hot shippers. I spoke of them only for home use. 

Dr. McCully. — The berry that did best with us last winter was an old-fashioned 
one, not much spoken of now— the Mammoth Cluster. It was a dry season, and its flavour 
was superior, though it was not so large as some other berries. A gentleman who lives 
near me had the Gregg and other improved berries, and it was freely admitted that the 
dry weather affected mine less than the others. We were thinking that we would have 
had to take a back seat with our old Mammoth Cluster, but we did not have to do it, for, 
saken all in all, it held its own with any other berries we had on the lake shore.' In 
regard to strawberries, I was glad to hear another old kind spoken of, the Wilson, for I 
relieve it is the best market berry we have in this section of the country. The. Triomphe 
le Gand I have not heard mentioned this morning, but it certainly has not lost its name- 
vith us yet, and I understand from gentlemen who grow it in our section that they get a 
;ent a quart more for it in this market than any other variety, and sometimes sell all 
hey have before there is a market for the others at all, which is a verv ^reat triumph 
ndeed, I think. J tt V' 

The President.— Leaving aside the market, what do you consider the best for home 
ise ? 

Dr. McCully.— I like the flavour of the Triomphe better than that of any other berry 
have ever had, though, of course, it is not an early berry. There are some new 
aneties— the Sharpless, for instance -which are very nice, but I doubt if they are equal 
o the Triomphe, though growing larger ; I don't think the taste is superior to the 
Yiomphe, though the berries are very fine. I have not had much to do with berries 
xcept for my own use, and the old Mammoth Cluster did so well last year that I have 
nought perhaps I could not get anything better. 

The President — Do you grow currants 1 

Dr. McCully.— No ; we grow a great many other things, and currants require so 
mch care that we have given them up. We grow a great many cherries, which take the 
ad of almost everything. We grow just the common Kentish cherry ; they are very 
&&. I have one kind that comes in later than the rest, which I have not been able to 
nd anywhere else ; I do not know its name, but it is a very red cherry, growing in 
lusters, sour in taste, but pleasant in flavor. It is a good bearer, bearing every year ; 
nd if I knew its name I should be inclined to have a good many more. 

The President. — Do you grow any grapes ? 

Dr. McCully.— I do not, out my neighbours grow the Concord largely. Of course 
lere are other grapes grown, but it seems to take the lead. We have not fruited the 
ocklmgton or Niagara yet. They are high in price, and we thought we were doing 
ore for the nurseries than ourselves in buying them, and did not go in for them. 

A. M. Smith— There is a raspberry which has not been mentioned, I think, which is 
iluable not only for home use, but for the market, on account of its earliness and sood 
lahties. I refer to the Souhegan, which comes in ten days befor you get the Greeg and 
■me other varieties. In regard to the Caroline raspberry," I must beg leave to differ a 
:tle from Mr. Wellington. It certainly is a hardy, productive and fine-looking berry, 
it, as far as my judgment goes, most insipid in taste ; the most insipid in the whole 
llection. 

President Lyon, of the Michigan State Horticultural Society, was invited to address 
e meeting, and did so in the following terms: I am a little out of my own 
rntory this morning, but I have discovered that a little difference in the 
ographical or political situation of my state and this province does not make 
ach difference in the people. Although we are supposed to be talking exclusively 



22 



-about fruit for the family, we find it almost impossible to forget altogether the " almighty 
dollar," which is, of course, a very important consideration, and cannot be kept entirely 
out of sight, even in the discussion of what to grow for home use. I observe this par- 
ticularly in strawberries, which is naturally the first fruit we talk about, being generally 
the first we eat. Some years ago, not very far from here, I received four varieties from 
Mr. Arnold. I have not heard it mentioned it here to-day, and yet with me, after seven 
or eight years' experience, one of these, the Alpha, is preferable for an early strawberry. 
It is of good quality and fair size, and ripens early. There are two or three others a little 
earlier, but they are unproductive, and, even for family use, we must have something 
fairly productive. I hear a number of varieties of other fruit spoken of, and am rather 
surprised at hearing some of them recommended for the home garden, particularly the 
Gregg raspberry, which, to my apprehension, is one of the poorest berries of its class 
grown, as far as quality is concerned. It is productive, and you get money for it in the 
market because it is large. If you were to hand out half a dozen apples to a child he 
would pick the biggest one, even though it was good for nothing, and it is the same way 
in the market ; and we have to remember that fact when talking about berries and other 
fruit for our own use. We would hardly think, in our state, of growing the Gregg for 
home use. It is a late berry, coming along a little later even than the Mammoth Cluster, 
which is far better in quality. The Souhegan and the Tyler seem to be so nearly identical 
as to be practically the same. I would add one or the other of them for family use, 
though they are not, perhaps, so profitable. I think a good deal of the Caroline and 
Brinckle's Orange for home use. It is perhaps true, as has already been said, that 
Brinckle's Orange is nearly out of the question by reason of its unproductiveness and 
want of hardiness, but as to the Shaffer — we always drop off the extra handle and call 
Shaffer's Colossal the Shaffer — it is one of the most vigorous and productive we have, and 
of good size. I call it a good market berry. The market will require a little talking up 
before people will accept it, but when once it is known in the market it commands a good 
price, and is probably as profitable as anything we have. I certainly consider it very de- 
sirable for the home, because it is productive, large, and of good quality. There has been 
a fruit mentioned here, which, it seems to me, will bear more consideration than it has 
received, though it is comparatively new — the dewberry. There are a number of varieties 
which are comparatively unproductive and undesirable, but within the last six or eight 
years we have taken up the Lucretia, which for the past five or six yeirs has borne very 
fine crops. It possesses the merit of coming in at a time when thers are no blackberries 
in the market, and on that account seems to me to be very desirable. It is a difficult 
berry to handle, but for our own use we find it good. I have not heard many cherries 
mentioned. The Montmorency is somewhat superior in size, and fully equal, it seems to 
me, to the Early Richmond and the Kentish, and I know no reason why it should not in 
part take their place. It ripens a little later than the Early Richmond, but is very 
similar in most respects. In regard to grapes, I will venture to ask the question, why 
the Lady was not introduced into the family list 1 It is comparatively unproductive, but 
it seems to me to do better as it gets older ; and being a child of the Concord, possesses 
the hardiness, though not the vigour of that variety; and when you come to the particular 
taste required for the family, the fruit, it sterns to me, is head and shoulders above every- 
thing else. It is earlier than Moore's Early with us, or any other satisfactory variety that 
has been well tested, and I think should occupy a very prominent place in the list for the 
home garden, where you do not want so much quantity as a suitable quality. We are 
yearly thinking more and more of the Brighton in our state ; it is being shown extensively 
at our fairs, and is very highly esteemed, as well for its quality as its productiveness. 1 
know it has been claimed that it is a little liable to mildew, but I do not think the difficulty 
in that respect is a serious one, and it seems to me worthy of a prominent position. The 
Worden, within the last two or three years, has taken a more prominent place with u» 
than formerly, on account of its being earlier than the Concord, and at the same time 
equally hardy and productive. I think it stands quite well with us. I do not like to 
speak of quality when discussing the Concord, for I don't think it is quite so high as somi 
of the gentlemen have placed it. I think more of quality than I do of quantity when you 
•come to the home garden. I was a little surprised when I heard the Empire State men- 



23 



tioned ; I would like to know if it has been really tested in this province at all. It has 
not been with us, so far as I have learned. We have heard a great deal of it, but have 
not tried it far enough to recommend it for any purpose. 

Mr. Wellington. — We have fruited it for two years. 

President Lyon. — It takes a number of years fruiting to settle the qualities of any 
new variety. I notice in gooseberries that the Industry is coming into favour. There is 
one thing, however, which I notice in almost every foreign variety — They succeed for a 
few years with reasonable treatment in good soil, while, unless they have special care, 
they soon after fall under the influence of mildew. It is only by special treatment from 
persons who know how to handle them we can permanently succeed. 

A. M. Smith. — I will supplement the remarks of the last speaker in regard to the 
Industry, by saying that a year ago last spring I raised some plants, and a couple of them 
which were planted in a corner were almost forgotten, and consequently neglected. When 
I came to investigate these plants last- summer I found a few berries on them, and they 
were badly mildewed. 



ON SMALL FRUITS. 



A paper on this subject by P. E. Bucke, of Ottawa, was then read, as follows : 
Whilst the warmer portions of our climate is devoted to the growth of a general fruit 
list, in the colder portions of the Dominion an intensified attention should be given to 
those fruits which can only be raised with a fair amount of success. The principal hope 
of the horticulturist in the clear and bracing air of the lovely valley of the noble Ottawa, 
as far as twenty years of practical experience has taught me, is still centered in the small 
fruits, including grapes. It seems strange to me that so many look upon this berry busi- 
ness with contempt, whilst others treat it with indifference, and the rest of mankind with 
neglect. Where people can and do cultivate the larger fruits successfully, the three rural 
states above referred to may be pardoned, but where no others can be extracted from the 
generous soil, the free air and the azure sky, owing to climatic influences, it seems a shame 
when the breast of mother earth gives us the opportunity of sucking the sweets of these 
delicious and promptly responding fruits, that they should be so slighted, neglected, or 
forgotten. There are no fruits which give so long a period of freshness, or which supply 
the gap at that season when this article of diet is so much required by the human system. 
June, July, August, September and October are the seasons of the strawberry, the rasp- 
berry, the gooseberry, the currant and the grape, and it is during these months we have 
what is called the " heated term," when fresh fruit is so acceptable. Every farmer, every 
gardener, every man who has a city lot, every man who has a thousand acres, every man 
who has a brick-yard or a saw-mill, should also have his small fruit patch. We all know 
how much facilities have increased for shipments, how much they have been improved by 
the various means of handling, by the diversity of packages suitable for the various classes 
of fruits ; but no one will for a moment contend, that knows the difference, that fruits 
shipped at all are to be compared for a single instant, either for brightness of colour or 
purity of aroma, to those which are gathered and placed on the table by the same delicate 
hand. I think I hear some of the shippers in the audience say, '* My dear Bucke, you 
are talking nonsense ;" but I know, and I say in these election times, without fear of 
successful contradiction, that by far the largest majority will say I am right when I give 
my vote for fresh-picked fruit for immediate table use. And I further say, there is not 
an inch of inhabited territory in Canada to-day, except some original character has placed 
his mansion on some high and lofty boulder, that cannot be made to produce four or five 
months' fresh fruit for the season when it is most required, and with proper canning it 
can be made to last the family throughout the year. What then shall we plant 1 First, 
some well-tried varieties of strawberries, such as Wilson's, Manchester, or Crescent. 
Second, raspberries — Franconia for early, Cuthbert for a good cropper and later berry; 
and if you want more raspberries, plant more Outhberts. Shall we plant currants 1 Yes ; 
Fay's Prolific. This variety gives longer bunches, which makes it more easily picked, and 
the berries, with high cultivation, are very fine. Shall we plant white currants ? Yes ; 



24 



a few bushes of White Grape, just to eat fresh. They look like pearls amongst the cream 
and sugar setting; when thoroughly ripe are juicy and sweet, but the colour does not suit 
the tidy housewife for canning or jelly, so we will only have a few bushes for fresh fruit. 
Shall we have black currants 1 Yes ; we will have Lee's. Not that it is so prolific that 
it has been cracked up to be, but it is sweeter and has a nicer flavour than the old 
Naples. There is nothing better for a first class roly-poly pudding. What shall we have 
next 1 We will have some gooseberries. What sorts 1 Well, Smith's and Downing — the 
latter to plant in the sh ide of trees or fence, as they do not endure the sun so well, and 
further, when they are to be had, the Oonn and Ottawa. Well, Professor, what next? 
Why, some grapes, of course. What are the most successful cultivated at Ottawa] In 
favoured localities almost any variety may be grown with a fair amount of success, but 
for general culture we will recommend a few Champions ; they are not by any means a 
first-class berry, but they are sure to ripen, and make an excellent wine. Do you recommend 
the use of wine 1 Yes, "homemade;" but not sherry or any imported, doctored stuff. 
Then we will plant Moore's Early, Rogers' 9, 14 and 15, also some Brightons. What 
about the Niagara and Pocklington ? Both good grapes, but too late for the north. 

How sweet are the cornfields that spring from the earth, 

Much sweeter the flowers that grow from hid roots ; 
Of all the rich blessing that follow us north, 

The best is the fairy-like, healthy small fruits. • 



The meeting then adjourned at 12.30 until 2 p. m. 



On resuming in the afternoon a Committee on fruits was appointed, consisting of 
Messrs A. M. Smith, F. W. Wilson, and W. E. Wellington. 

QUESTION DRAWER. 

The Question Drawer was then opened, and the following questions read and answers 
given. 

KNOTTINESS IN PEARS. 

Question. — Is there any well ascertained cause or remedy for knottiness in the fruit 
of the pear 1 

Mr. Dempsey. — I can only answer that question by saying I do not know. There 
are varieties which are all knot. We imported several varieties some years ago, which, 
were said to be very tine in Europe, and there is nothing but knots in them now, and 
they are unfit to eat. I made some experiments last year upon an apple and pear tree, 
and may say I was successful in a small way, but I cannot at present give any certain 
remedy. 



THE ONTARIO APPLE. 

Question. — Is the Ontario Apple attracting attention, and is it a profitable fruit for 
shipment to Britain 1 

The President. — The Ontario, as far as export is concerned, is a new apple. Not 
very many were exported this year, but 1 sold fair quantities of it sent from different 
shippers at prices ranging from seventeen shillings to twenty-two shillings per barrel. 
It is an apple that does not spot, and in the future will command a high price in the 
British market ; where, as far as it is known, it is well thought of now. I am confident 
that in the future it is going to be a valuable apple, as it has points in its favour as between 
the Wagener and the Northern Spy, which make it valuable. Shippers sending it have 
lost little or nothing in the shipping, as it carried well ; and I consider that the prices it 
brought, for a new variety going into the market, were extra good. 



25 



MULCHING. 

Question. — Do you approve of mulching strawberries, raspberries, currants, goose- 
berries and blackberries with sawdust ; if not what with, and when 1 

A. M. Smith.— It all depends upon what kind of sawdust. I do not think pine 
sawdust is a very good article for mulching. If you get hardwood in a decayed state it is 
a very good thing for raspberries or anything of that kind. My habit of mulching straw- 
berries is generally to cover them with a good coat of straw in the fall of the year and to 
rake it between the rows. Sometimes I have run it through the straw cutter, and 
scattered it under the leaves atter the first weeding, before the ripening of the fruit. 

The President. — Would you use straw also in the raspberries'? 

Mr. Smith, — Well, if you can get it, you can use to advantage decayed sawdust and 
chip manure. I have had access to the yard of the Great Western Railway, where they 
have stored and sawed large quantities of wood, and the sawdust and bark and chips have 
been allowed to remain and decay. I find that a very good mulch for raspberries. 

Mr. Wilson. — I do not mulch raspberries in winter, but strawberries planted near 
them. I manure up around the strawberries in the fall, and then, in the spring, bring it 
right off into the raspberries. The raspberries seem to need it much more in the summer, 
and the strawberries in winter. 

Mr. Everetts. — The reason I put that question in the box was because I mulched my 
strawberries with soft wood chiefly — elm, oak and bass ; — and they did first rate. 

Mr. Lyon. — I think it is very desirable to mulch strawberries late in the Fall, 
for the purpose of protecting them and bringing them through the winter in good condition. 
I am not an advocate of mulching anything during the growing season. I regard that 
kind of mulching as simply an excuse for neglecting and not cultivating them, and I 
believe cultivating will do more than mulching in the way of inducing growth. As to 
raspberries and blackberries I do not know that I would mulch them at all ; I would 
rather use the cultivator ; I do not know that any good effect is to be derived by 
mulching them in winter. It may be different in this climate, but in mine I would not 
do it at all. 

RASPBERRY CULTURE. 

Question. — What causes Blackcap berries to fruit on the tops of new canes 1 

A. M. Smith. — It seems to be the early growth that generally fruits in the fall ; some 
varieties are more inclined to do that than others. 

The Secretary. — I suppose the bushes made a mistake, and thought it was next year. 

A Member. — There are certain varieties of Blackcaps that invariably produce a 
second crop from the canes grown that season, and I suspect that the tendency is so nearly 
general that when a peculiar season comes round it produces the same effect upon others 
that do not usually do it. 

The Secretary. — I think it is entirely owing to the nature of the season. If there 
is an early growth and a rest that can be compared with the winter's rest, and later in the 
season such climatic influences as would induce their development, it would be like another 
season, and thus tend to produce fruit. 

Mr Wilson. — While the raspberry is being discussed it might not be out of place to 
ask what is the prospect of the new raspberry that has been so much talked about and 
advertised, and which bear* two or three times in the summer — the Earhart. 

Mr. Wellington. — I know nothing definite about it ; only what I have read in the 
Rural New Yorker and some other papers. The Rural speaks rather favourably 
of it ; they have fruited it, and think it is worthy of propagation. 



LOW HEADED TREES. 



Question. — Which are the best for large fruit, low headed trees or high, taking 
cultivation and picking into consideration *? 

The Secretary. — I have had some experience in regard to this question. For the 
sake of picking and so on — a lazy idea, I suppose — I left a good many trees with low 



26 



heads. My experience has proved to me that it was a great mistake, for I have been 
pruning them up higher and higher ever since. I find them most inconvenient ; I do not 
approve of low headed trees for cultivation, certainly. 

The President. — Did you find any difference in the fruit of the low headed tree and 
the high ? 

The Secretary. — I have not found any advantage. 

Mr. Wellington. — I cannot agree with the Secretary in that. I believe that the 
best and proper way is to grow trees low headed. In the first place the stem of a high 
headed tree is exposed to the sun, especially early in the season, and to the action of the 
wind in Autumn, which I believe has a very injurious effect on its life and health 
generally. A low headed tree is its own shade to its stem. As far as cultivation is con- 
cerned it is true that it is easier with a high headed tree, but I would take my chances 
on the low headed one, and use hand cultivation where I could not get the cultivator in. 

The President. — What would you designate a high or low headed tree 1 

Mr. Wellington. — Ycu will find them all the way from seven to ten feet in some 
orchards. They are all heights, but in taking them from the nursery I consider a tree 
headed at five feet is the right thing, and you can prune them a trifle higher than that as 
they grow, and as you make the shape of your tree. 

The Secretary. —Mr. Wellington and I do not differ so very greatly ; I would con- 
sider that a rather high headed tree. I think we should have mentioned what trees were 
referred to, whether apples, pears, peaches or other trees. I have been in the habit lately 
of heading pear trees as low as possible ; they grow in a very upright way, and therefore 
you can get near them even though the branches are very near the ground. I have found 
it of great advantage to allow the branches of pear trees to grow low, because very often 
they are troubled with the blight, as you all know, and in that case by cutting off the tops 
of the trees you will have a good tree left. 

Mr. Wellington. — That applies with even greater force to the peach tree. I believe 
I can extend the lite of a peach tree one third or a half by growing it as a low headed 
tree, and also produce better fruit than on a tall scraggy tree, such as is commonly seen 
in peach orchards. 

Mr. Pettit. — 1 quite agree with that. The tree will grow better, and you will get 
a better class of fruit. 

Mr. Wellington. — I have trees branching as low as four feet, and even three, and 
I find everything in favour of the low headed tree. Take it in the spring of the year, 
when the sun is bearing strong on the trunk of the tree, and there is a long stem exposed 
to it, a sharp frost afterwards bursts the bark, and I have not found the same effect in low 
headed trees. 

Professor Panton. — I should say a peach tree should have a trunk of about a foot 
and a half, and an apple tree between four and five feet. 

Dr. McCully. — On the Lake Shore we had them so low that we could not cultivate 
them, but that plan was given up after a number of years, and I only know of one large 
orchard with trees growing in that way now. We have come to the conclusion that under 
the present circumstances we can get a great deal more fruit by having the trees trimmed 
up higher, and the rule now is to trim them up so a horse can pass under the trees with- 
out the harness and hames carrying off the bark. With a peach tree it is different ; my 
own experience is altogether in favour of the low-headed tree. When frosts were severe 
on young trees, if I had low buds near the ground, the trees would start and grow after 
the tops were killed ; I saved the tree by having the branches low. I am in favour of 
heading them low for the first few years until the wood becomes firm. I think it is the 
better plan when trees are young to branch them low. Apples, I am in favour of trim- 
ming high. 

The President. — What length of trunk do you call high 1 

Dr. McCully. — So that a man's horse can work freely under the tree. 

The President. — You don't require to run the horse very closely ; would five feet 
b3 high enough 1 

Dr. McOully. — No; it would require six feet to allow the animal to pass freely 
under the tree. 



27 



Mr. Everetts. — I differ from you entirely. I have seen mere trees blighted by 
'being long and leaned over with the wind than in any other way. There may be a little 
more hand work in having them low, but it is the best. 

Mr. Dempsey. — There are several advantages derived from having trees low headed* 
In the first place, we look upon the tree as a lever and the surface of the soil as the ful- 
crum, and when the tree becomes a full foliaged one, the stress will come very much 
more on the roots in a high -headed than in a low-headed tree. I have planted low and 
high-headed trees at the same time, and, although the low ones would be much smaller, 
perhaps two or three years younger than the others, I have invariably found that they 
doubled the high ones in growth. This is a very great advantage, I assure you, in the 
low-headed over the high-headed tree. I prefer a tree about four or five feet high, and 
for cultivation, a good cultivator that can be swung under the tree. Then use the hoe 
freely ; it does not hurt us to hoe a little bit. I do not think it is wise to plough too 
-close to the trunk of a tree, because a certain quantity of the roots would be destroyed 
that way. 

F. W. Wilson. — If cherry trees are very low it is difficult to gather the fruit. 
Oherry trees should have a stem about four feet high, and apple trees between five and 
six feet. There seems to exist here some difference of opinion as to what a high or low- 
headed tree is, Mr. Wellington thinks five feet is a low-headed tree, while others believe 
it is pretty high. I think it should be about five or six feet. If it is less it runs on the 
ground, or at all events, so close as to spoil the fruit. 

Mackenzie Eoss. — I have an orchard that was planted in 1873, mostly Greenings 
a,nd Ribston Pippins. I have some Bibston Pippins as pretty as ever you gazed upon, 
and I cultivate them every year. One year I plant it with potatoes, and the next year 
with corn. I contend that we get the best fruit from low trees. In the first place a 
storm has less effect on a low tree than on a high one, and then you can gather the fruit 
much easier. We see many fine articles in the papers about people losing their fruit 
trees when they are young, and what is the reason of it ? It is simply because they do 
not clean them up. Some of our fruit growers should be ashamed to see their orchards, 
with brush piled up almost as high as the tops of the trees, harbouring rats and mice and 
other vermin. If you keep your trees clean, and before the winter sets in hill them up a 
little bit with good earth, mice will never destroy them. 

The President. — I think you are right. What would you consider a low-headed 
tree ? 

Mackenzie Ross. — Beginning from three feet. When you have a one-horse plough 
you can squeeze it in very close to the roots ; then if the boys come along with a hoe they 
can clean that out ; then go back with the hoe and pack earth in, adding a pitchfork or 
two of light manure on the top, which retains the moisture and prevents the sun from 
penetrating into the roots. That is my mode of culture, and I prefer a low tree. 



BLIGHT IN PEAR TREES. 

Question. — To what cause may blight in pear trees be attributed, and what is the 
best mode of treatment 1 

Mr. Dempsey.— Either cut the blight away or cut the tree down, and get it out of the 
way as fast as possible. 

The President. — That is the universal experience with blight ; the knife is the only 
remedy. 

Mr. Everetts. — Is it necessary to destroy the tree altogether 1 

The President. — The moment you observe the blight, cut down below it. You 
will find sometimes that you will have to cut pretty close to the roots to get below 
the blight. 

Dr. McCully. — In 1872 I bought forty pear trees. I did not come into direct pos- 
session of them, but had the privilege of attending the trees. I hired a man from the 



28 



village, and we got some of the best, fine rotten manure we could find to put around the 
trees. After doing this with part of them we left, and did not go back. As far as we 
went with the manure those trees all had the blight, and where we had stopped, the 
blight stopped. This led me to the conclusion that the manure was one of the causes, 
and I have never put any manure to any of my pear trees since, and I have been very 
little troubled with blight. Whenever I see any indications of blight now I immediately 
use the knife, and put the wood in the cooking stove. One of my neighbours had a nice 
little orchard close to his barn, where the ground was saturated. He lost all his trees ; 
they died off one or two at a time, till now he has only one tree. I had some very fine 
pears at the time, and he came over to me and wanted to know how it was that he could 
not grow pears as I could. I told him what my former experience had been, and that 
probably the close vicinity of his orchard to the barn was what caused the blight. 

Mr. Ripley. — I had four pear trees, two of which were very large. They stood two 
and two together at about a hundred yards apart, and when I first got the place two of 
them were bearing very heavily. There was then a heavy sod around them. After a 
while I thought that in order to make them bear better I would let the hogs go in and 
root around them. The very next spring after I did that the blight took them, and 
destroyed both of the trees. I believe if I had left the sod growing strong my pears, 
would have lived longer. 

Dr. McCully. — I work my pears nearly every year with a plough, and I do not find 
that cultivating the soil has any ill effect on pears. They get no manure. 

The Secretary.— I think the cause for blight now assigned by scientists is bacteria 
— a very minute form of life, whether animal or vegetable is scarcely known, which is- 
hardly to be detected by the most powerful glass ; and to which, also, are attributed many 
of the diseases of the human system. Scientists profess to have discovered that in all 
cases of blighted limbs these minute organisms are present, and they are assigned as the 
cause of the blight. If that is true it is possible that what has been stated by members- 
here to-day is also true — that when pear trees are manured very heavily with barn yard 
manure, a very soft, succulent growth is induced, which would be more subject to the 
entry of these germs or minute forms of life, and therefore it might be explained in that 
way. 

Professor Panton. — I might say that I have here a diagram, showing the bacteria 
to which the Secretary has referred. Pear blight, like all similar troubles, has raised 
much discussion and many theories as to its cause. In the earlier stages of the discussion 
it was attributed to certain conditions of the weather, and then the theory was advanced 
that it was caused by an insect. That insect does sometimes bring about something of the 
nature of pear blight, but still that is not now considered to be the cause. Then came 
the frozen sap theory — that the alternate frost and fine weather brought about in the sap 
conditions of a more or less poisonous nature. Then there was the fungus theory, which 
I think Prof. Mills upholds, but of which, I think, no specific description has been given. 
The latest researches — and they seem to have been pretty accurate, and carried on with 
great care — trace its origin to the presence of these bacteria — exceedingly small organ- 
isms. Wherever trees are blighted these are found in the sap, and healthy branches 
inoculated with that sap become blighted. When the same sap was strained, and these 
organisms eliminated, the inoculation was not productive of blight, but wherever these 
bacteria are found in it it produces blight. It is not 'the same as the bacteria that bring 
about rottenness, because these minute organisms in the juice of growing pears will 
multiply at a great rate, which the ordinary bacteria off decay will not do, their proper 
condition being in decaying matter, or matter which is about to decay. The experiments 
have been carried on with great care, and now they have got to the source of the trouble 
the difficulty presenting itself is as to what is the remedy. So far the best results have 
been obtained from trying to work on the condition of the tree. There are three things 
which have to be considered in regard to all these fungi — the atmosphere at the outset. 
That is something almost beyond our control, but certain conditions of the atmosphere 
are very favourable to fungous growth. Then there is the tree or plant affected — to 
watch its growth and vigour, and then, again, there is the growth of the fungus itself. 



29 



So far nothing seems to nave been discovered that will work upon the fungus, but they 
are working on the vigour of the tree. The tree needs to be grown vigorously, but not 
luxuriantly, since the latter condition, as the Secretary has said, is the one in which they 
would be more subject to the entry of these microscopic organisms. In the case which 
has been mentioned, where so much manure was used, a condition of extreme succulence 
was induced which was favourable to the entry of this small organism. The whole thing, 
at present, seems to consist in bringing about a healthy, vigorous, but not too luxuriant 
growth. A specific cure to kill the thing itself has not yet been obtained. What has 
been mentioned is best — the knife. In cutting it is necessary to cut quite a piece below 
the blight ; — to prevent the disease you must go down till you come upon the green, 
natural sap. If there is the least bit of the sap left that is discoloured the tree will go 
on and die ; you must cut the green, healthy wood below. 



THE BEST MARKET PEACHES. 

Question. — Which are the six best varieties of market peaches ; three early and 
three medium to late ? 

The Secretary — We have a good deal of experience down at Grimsby most years, 
but last year — 1 might say for the last three or four years — we have not had much 
opportunity of testing any variety. From my own experience of those I have tested I 
consider the following ones very reliable and satisfactory, although there are other sorts 
which I am growing but have not yet fruited. For the three early ones I would recom- 
mend the Alexander, Hale's Early, and the Early Crawford. The latter is certainly the 
best early peach, as far as quality is concerned, but it is not so hardy as the others ; we 
frequently get a crop of Alexander or Hale's Early when we do not of the Early Craw- 
ford. The others are also earlier ; indeed the three come in succession, the Alexander 
first, then Hale's Early, and after that the Early Crawford. For medium to late I would 
recommend the following three varieties :— r the Old Mixon which immediately succeeds 
the Crawford, the Smock, a late peach which when it matures — and it does most years — . 
is very fine, and the Lemon Cling, which, if you do not have too many, is a very good 
market peach. 

Mr. Pettit. — I cannot add anything to Mr. Woolverton's list. I think for six 
peaches you could not go astray on those he has mentioned. 

A. M. Smith. — It-is so long since I have grown any peaches that I am hardly in a 
position to say much, but if I were confined to six varieties I think I would prefer the 
Rivers to Hale's Early, which I do not consider a reliable peach. 

A Member. — What about the Early Barnard 1 

The Secretary. — I have grown it in years gone by. It is a very excellent peach as 
a rule, if the tree is not neglected. It is a very fine yellow peach, but not equal to the 
Crawford, and for that reason I discarded it. In regard to the Early Rivers, it is rather 
delicate, and shows bruises very easily, which is the principal objection. 

Dr. McCully. — You have not mentioned the late Crawford. 

The Secretary. — It does not bear very well. 

A Member. — What do you think about Hale's July 1 

The Secretary. — I have not fruited it. 

The Member. — It will bear earlier, keep longer, and is a better producer and shipper 
than any other grown. They produce more or less every year. This year they were a 
full crop. 

Another Member. — What about the Foster. 

The Secretary. — It is very good. It comes in with the Early Crawford nearly. I 
do not think it is superior to the Early Crawford. 

Mr. Wilson. — The Early Canada appears to be hardy, and I think the Foster here 
is a better peach than the Crawford. 



30 



THE APPLE IN KENT. 

The following paper was read by Mr. F. W. Wilson : 

The first apples raised in America were on Governor's Island, in Boston harbour, in 
1639. 

In Kent we have the standard of excellence for their culture. We have the soil,, 
climate, lake protection and shipping facilities to make it the fruit garden of the world, 
and we are making great strides toward that end. 

Every man, woman and child in Kent should be thankful to our government for 
having our interests so well represented in the metropolis by the agency and efforts of 
our ex-president, Prof. Saunders, and his assistant vice-president, P. C. Dempsey, our 
present president, A. McD. Allan and others. The people of Kent were certainly too 
careless of their display at this great Colonial and Indian exhibition. Though there have 
been no prizes given for fruits sent : the best collection from Kent were from Mr. Ross, 
containing, according to our best and latest government reports, only thirty-five varieties 
of apples, two of pears, one of peppers ; while Mr. P. C. Dempsey alone showed sixty 
varieties of apples, twenty-four of pears, twenty-eight of grapes, two of currants, six of 
gooseberries, one of plums and one of cranberries — 122 varieties in all. 

Orchards of good winter varieties of apples produce an annual average crop, at low 
estimate of first and second class fruit, of the value of $100 per acre. And the pig feed 
and pasture in orchard would pay for all the work at trees and fruit. The hogs do much 
benefit by destroying the codling moth and other insects. If the cultivator evaporates 
his own fruit he gets much more than that from it all. 

I believe that the most profitable varieties of apples in this locality are, in order of 
merit, the Baldwin, Ben Davis, R. I. Greening, Golden Russet, Northern Spy and 
Phoenix. They are much better than any of the new Russian and ironclad apple trees, 
which are used in the northern parts of the country where these better varieties will not 
succeed. It does not require an ironclad apple tree to stand the climate here. 

One of the greatest mistakes made in our climate is we do not pick our apples soon 
enough. With the list mentioned we can start in the latter part of September with 
Greenings and Ben Davis, and finish with Baldwins, Golden Russets and Northern Spy 
about the middle of October. They should be handled very carefully and tastefully, 
having light stepladders, and wire hooks for hanging the baskets on either the limbs or 
the ladder. Begin by gathering the fruit off the outside of the tree before climbing into 
it ; you are not liable to shake so many down this way. Instead of pulling the apples off 
with a jerk and breaking off the bud along with the apple, so that you will not have 
fruit for the next year or two, turn the apple up and it breaks of quite readily, and you 
can do it rapidly. Put the apples gently into the basket and pour them into piles very 
carefully and cleanly. Use only very neat, clean barrels, and keep the different varieties 
and qualities separate. Don't put in any very inferior stock. Shake down frequently 
and press closely into barrel, placing the layers near each end with the stems toward the 
end. After the barrels are nailed tightly and honestly stenciled, keep them on their side 
in preference to standing on end. It is generally most profitable to sell early, so that the 
fruit can be placed on the foreign markets before the arrival of apples from the more 
northern localities, and before the flood of oranges from Spain. The British people prefer 
a bright red colour, while Americans are suited with Greenings and even Bellflowers. 

There are now over 7,000 acres of apple orchard in Kent county, and its export in 
1886 was about 50,000 barrels o£ first-class apples and 15,000 bushels of bulk fruit for 
evaporatidn in York state, besides a large amount for plenteous home consumption for a 
population of over 50,000 in Kent, and a large amount of cider, vinegar, waste and pig 
feed. Wherever people are there is a demand for fruit. It is the most beautiful and 
valuable food in the world. Dr. Tanner's first food after forty days' fast was fruit. Fruit 
was the first, original and natural food of man. Many live on it only. It is a luxury, 
necessity, appetizer, stimulant, nerve tonic, food and medicine all in one. 

The best temperature in which to keep this flower of commodities is as near freezing 
point as possible without actual freezing In this way they will keep all year round. 

" Cleanliness is next to godliness " as well in the fruit garden as with ourselves. 



81 



We should be careful to have clean fences, to keep out all brush, weeds, etc., and wash 
the trees in early part of June with a solution made as follows : " Mix as much baking 
soda into wa'ter as it will dissolve, and then mix with soft soap to the consistency of or- 
dinary house paint, and opply with a brush." It will make them shine with health and 
vigor, and destroy bark lice and keep away borers. The best preventative for apple spot 
and codling moths is to spray the trees when the blossoms are falling, and again a week 
later with a solution of three ounces of Paris green and three pounds of hypophosphites 
of soda to each thirty-gallon barrel of water, throwing the spray so it falls on the upper 
side of the leaves. 

I consider fruit culture to be the finest occupation in the world. I must have been 
born a fruit grower, for when a boy I was almost always to be found among the fruits, so 
I can heartily say, as did Robbie Burns, " Be aye stickin' in a tree, Jock, it'll aye be 
growin' when ye'r sleepin'." 



ARE APPLE ORCHARDS PROFITABLE? 

This question was taken up in connection with that of fruit culture in the County 
of Kent, and elicited the following discussion : 

The Secretary. — Are apple orchards profitable ? If I am to answer that question 
in accordance with my experience of the last three years, I say most emphatically, no ; 
they are not. They have been profitable, but for the last three years I do not think our 
orchards have averaged a bushel a tree in the yield, and they have been decidedly un- 
profitable. I have a neighbour in Grimsby who has an orchard of six hundred large trees, 
which have been twenty-five years planted. I speak of him particularly, because he has 
Baldwins. In all that time there have been three or four good crops, which paid well, 
and had such a yield been continued every alternate year, the orchard would have been 
very profitable ; but the owner of that orchard is now feeling thoroughly disgusted with 
apple culture, and inclined to sell out and get away somewhere. I remember the time in 
our own orchard when there was never a failure like this at all. We have taken in one 
year from one Greening apple tree twenty barrels of apples. This, perhaps, would seem 
a little astonishing, but it is an enormous tree, and, I suppose, about seventy-five years of 
age. Now, as to what is the cause of the present barrenness in our orchards in that section ? 
There have been a good many different theories. I was over at the Rochester meeting a few 
weeks ago, and the same complaint was general in the state of New York. All the reports 
coming in were to the effect that they had never been so unfortunate before, and every kind 
of theory was suggested as to the cause. One man thought it was due to an electric storm 
at a certain season, another that it was attributable to a lack of manure, a third that want 
of cultivation was the cause, and so on. Most of the speakers agreed in attributing the 
failure, during the last season particularly, to the apple aphis, which had been very 
abundant. I do not know if the people of Kent were troubled in that way, but we in 
Grimsby suffered with it just in the same way. When the apples were small, just about 
the size of a hickory nut, the trees were full of these little green aphides. It was held 
by some that these little insects sucked the juices of the leaves and stems, and thus caused 
the leaves and apples to fall off. I noticed a paper that was read the other day at the 
meeting of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, in which, speaking of the degeneracy 
of orchards, the reader held that they were running out ; that many of the varieties we 
have cultured so long, the Spitzenberg, for instance, were run out. I do not know, how- 
ever, that that is a settled question. We can only theorize, of course, and I have been 
inclined to attribute the failure to a disease we do not understand fully, that has affected 
them with these minute fungi, whose dreadfully destructive powers we are only just 
beginning to appreciate. I think, perhaps, they have something to do with it. The 
leaves and fruit have both been found to be affected by them, and it is quite possible that 
the trouble is due to causes so small that we, who are in the business of cultivating fruit 
trees, are not able to quite understand them. I am in hopes, however, that our scientific 
friends, who are making a study of these things at the agricultural colleges and experi- 
mental stations, will find some means of re-invigorating our orchards by checking these 
fungi, and that in the not distant future we shall again see prosperity in apple culture. 



32 



I have not yet given up all hope in the apple orchard, Mr. President, though I have felt very 
much discouraged during the last three or four years. 

Mr. Pelham. — I planted an orchard with something like $130 worth of trees I got 
from the McG-ill Brothers. I planted all kinds of roots between them. I afterwards 
sowed it with timothy and got hay off it for four years, and the blight struck it more or 
less every year. Since that I have had only grass, and I have not seen a sign of it. A 
very important thing is good trimming — to scrape the trees and keep this scruff off them. 
I wash my trees, and keep the bark clean and bright ; I use a lye soap suds lotion. In 
the last eight years there has not been a sign of blight, either in apples or pears, and I 
have ail varieties. 

The Secretary. — Is your orchard in pasture 1 

Mr. Pelham. — Yes, for the last four or five years. For eight years I got hay off, and since 
that it has been in pasture. Daring the last four years I have spread the manure from 
the animals there. 

The President. — Do you generally get a medium crop every year ? 

Mr. Pelham. —I get a beautiful crop almost every year. They vary a little, and I 
could hardly tell the average, but the trees are fit to break down sometimes it is so large. 
I do not believe in leaving too much top ; if you have too much wood your fruit is bound 
to be small. There is more in working them, and keeping the bark clean and smooth. 

The President. — Do you sell in the local market 1 

Mr. Pelham. — Yes ; chiefly in different parts of Kent. 

The President. — Do you find many refuse fruit among your apples, or do they gen- 
erally turn out pretty smooth ? 

Mr. Pelham. — All pretty smooth. 

The President. — Are you troubled with the codling moth in the apple 1 

Mr. Pelham. — A little, but I watch for it. 

The President. — Do you do anything to prevent its ravages 1 

Mr. Pelham. — No ; only the washing and scraping. 

The President. — What do you do with the fruit that drops ? 

Mr. Pelham. — I feed it to pigs. I pick it up immediately, for if you do not, that is 
where the harm comes in. Do not allow fallen fruit to lie there. 

The President. — You are keeping it in pasture ; what stock do you pasture there ? 

Mr. Pelham. — Horses, principally. Since it has been in pasture I have not seen a 
limb affected, either pears or apples. I do not believe in allowing a tree to grow too high; 
from tive to six feet, so you can get under it, I find best. 

Tne Secretary. — This gentleman who lias just been speaking seems to have struck 
on an important point — that is, with reference to keeping the bark of trees clean by some 
means or other. I noticed recently that an experiment had been tried by a gentleman 
residing in England who was very much troubled on account of moss and kindred growths 
on the trees of his orchard. He used kerosene, and washed his trees in the fall with it, 
and then in the spring scraped them clean, which was very easy to do after applying this 
kerosene in the autumn. He said the result was most astonishing, both in the growth of 
the trees and the qualities of the fruit. Perhaps some gentleman present here can give 
us some information in regard to this article, whether it would be safe for us to apply it 
freely to the bark of trees. 

Prof. Panton. — I am not prepared to say from experience, but one thing is certain, 
it would drive off insects. 

Mr. Everett. — I would not like to try it very heavily. I once made use of it to 
kill insects and it killed the tree. Soap-suds, however, I have found to be a good thing. 
Prof. Saunders. — I think the use of coal oil in its undiluted state could not fail to 
be detrimental to the tree —you would get rid of the tree without any trouble. If the 
kerosene is emulsified by shaking it with soap or milk — a very violent shaking for a 
considerable time will convert it into a cream or butter — it can be used with water quite 
safely, either on the trunks or foliage of trees, stronger, of course, on the trunks than on 
the foliage. I have known, however, several instances in which kerosene was applied to 
destroy insects, where its application in the undiluted form resulted in the destruction of 
the trees also. 



33 



CURE FOR BLIGHT IN FRUIT TREES. 
The Secretary then read the following extract to which he had referred : 
The Rev. Henry P. Duns'er states that in six fruit-growing counties he found in all, 
except a few new-planted orchards, that the trees were covered with mosses, lichens, and 
in a state of canker and neglect. He asks, "Can anything be done to renovate our present 
orchards ?" He says that when fruit trees are found in this miserable condition, the 
reason assigned is that they are decaying from age, or, if this theory be contradicted by 
the known age of the trees, then that their roots have worked to a cold, dead soil. Neither 
of these is the true reason. Trees said to be past their prime are capable of renovation, 
and the roots of plants find the soil that suits them as skillfully as the ferret follows the 
rat. He attributes the decay to the state of the bark, which fails to supply to the head 
of the tree what is necessary for growth and fruit-bearing. Moss, lichens and other 
parasites consume for their own support the sap as it rises, and deprive all other parts of 
vitality. The roots are generally healthy, whilst the tree slowly dies. Trees die, not 
because their roots fail to support them, but they die, alas / as many poor waifs and strays 
of humanity die, the victims of a neglected and unclean skin. The remedy for this is the 
application to the bark of a substance powerful enough to cleanse it, but leave the tree 
not only uninjured but with increased vitality. That substance is petroleum, or that 
preparation of the natural oil so called, which is known to commerce under the name of 
paraffine, the oil now so commonly used in our domestic lamps. Marvellous results have 
followed from its use. The discovery was accidental. An apple infected with American 
blight eriosoma, appeared to be dying. It was intended to give it a coat of common oil, 
but the oil lamp not being at hand, paraffine was tried, not without misgivings. Almost 
a pint was used with a painter's brush wherever the blight appeared. All traces of the 
blight were obliterated, »nd the moss, I believe, soon turned black and died. The 
following spring the bark was scraped clean, care being taken not to hurt the inner 
tissues. The success was complete, and resulted in a good crop. 

Prof. Saunders. — I am reminded, after hearing that, of the story of a certain 
naturalist, who described the lobster as " an insect which is red, and walks backwards." 
His statement was found to be true with the exception of three particulars, first the lobster 
is not an insect, second it is not red, and third it does not walk backwards. In all other 
respects the description was perfectly accurate. The gentleman in the present case says 
the tree derives its nourishment through the bark, which is quite a new idea, and one 
which I would like to see demonstrated — I think it would be very difficult to bring for- 
ward any proof of that being the case. Wts all know that the bark decays and falls off, 
and is more a protection than a source of nutriment to the tree. If he visited British 
Columbia, where the atmosphere is very moist, he would see the youngest trees covered 
with moss and linchens, and continuing to grow and bear fruit under the circumstances. 
He confounds paraffine and petroleum, which are two distinct things, and does not re- 
congnize the difference. Those who are familiar with the process of refining coal oil will 
know that it consists of lighter and heavier oils, which are at decidedly different points 
as to temperature. The heavy oils approximate more nearly to the vegetable oils, and 
we all know it is safe to apply linseed oil ; it may therefore be that the paraffine oil he 
uses is a heavy oil ; in which case it is quite different from what we know as petroleum or 
burning oil. I think it is quite probable, or at all events possible, that the application 
of some of the heavier coal oils might not have this detrimental effect, which I should 
expect to see result from the use of any of the ordinary burning oils we use. This 
Englishman, like many of his countrymen, has come to conclusions on insufficient premises 
— I do not mean that to apply to all Englishmen, but I have associated with some English- 
men, across the water, who came to conclusions on very insufficient premises, and who, 
like people everywhere else, required some little enlightenment. 

The Secretary. — It looks reasonable to suppose that moss and similar growths 
would extract a certain amount of sustenance or strength from the tree, and that it would 
be advantageous to remove them. 

Prof. Saunders. — It is reasonable on the surface, but these mosses have no roots 
that penetrate the bark to any extent — they attach themselves mechanically, and derive 
3 (F.G.) 



34 



their entire sustenance from the atmosphere. There is no drain on the life of a tree 
covered with them, though I do not think it can be said that they are conducive to the 
health of a tree, and I think it is very much better to remove them as we would remove 
dirt from the human skin. We know that children who are brought up in dirty alleys 
often grow up robust and healthy, but that is not the result of the dirt, but of exposure 
to the open air. I do not think dirt is detrimental to health, otherwise we should not 
find so many exceptions as we do in the course of investigations. 

Prof. P anton. — It is easily seen that lichens cannot take much nourishment from the 
tree, for we tind them on stones as well. 

Mr. Wilson. — I would like to hear Professor Saunders' opinion as to what is the 
best substance to apply. 

Prof. Saunders. — I can only give my own opinion in reply to that. For a number 
of years I have used the following with good effect — a mixture of either soft or hard soap 
— it is immaterial which — and water in which some washing soda had been previously 
dissolved, about as much as the water would take up ; make the mixture about the con- 
sistency of ordinary house. paint, and apply with a brush from the base of the tree to the 
crotch, and sometimes over the larger branches. This will be found exceedingly useful 
in keeping it clean, and will also prevent the borer from depositing its eggs on the bark 
of the tree, which is of much more consequence than the presence of moss and lichens. 
The application might be made in the first ten days of June ; it will form a sort of glossy 
coat or varnish over the tree, which is distasteful to the borer, and will prevent it from 
depositing its eggs on the bark, as well as in the tree. 

Dr. McCully. — I think, from my observation as a resident of this county, that the 
production of fruit is not in as healthy a state as some years ago, for which I think 
several reasons might be given. One of the reasons is that it is not as much looked after, 
owinp 1 to the low prices which have been common — it is not such a fruitful source of 
revenue to the grower, and for that reason he is looking around after something else. 
Another reason is that a few years ago many of our orchards were just coming into full 
bearing ; they were, if I may so speak, in their prime, and were not fully developed and 
covering the land. Now they are fully developed and the land is too small for them : 
there is not a sufficient amount of air and the sun's rays reaching the tree to enable them 
to come to full perfection, and a great deal of the fruit is stunted. 

Prof. Saunders. — What distance are the trees apart? 

Dr. McCully. — All distances. A fruit tree agent comes along and wants to sell 
some trees, and he persuades the farmer to crowd as many into a given space as he con- 
scientiously can, and in this way the farmer gets a few more trees on his lot than he 
otherwise would have done. Many orchards in my part of the country are planted as 
close as 25 or 30 feet, and some are planted 20 by 30, and the trees have grown so that 
they are interlacing one another, and many of them dying on that account. Mr. Sander- 
son the owner of one of the best orchards on the Lake Shore, cut out one half of his 
trees. The previous year one half of his fruit was bad, and, as he said, he was determined 
to have less fruit and yet more fruit. The result surpassed his most sanguine hopes, and 
he realized a much larger revenue from the orchard. On the Lake Shore they will not 
now think of planting trees closer than forty feet square, and if you asked them why, 
they will tell you, " We have the open space in which we can grow crops, and we find at 
the same time that we get more perfect fruit and more of it." We crop our orchards 
every year, and manure too. It takes the bulk of the manure to manure the orchards : 
the trouble is that the orchards are starving for manure, and have to get it on a great 
many farms on the Lake Shore at the expense of the rest of the land. The farm yard 
manure has all to go to the orchard, and they grow the finest fruit you can imagine, but 
where they do not get it the fruit is not of the same excellent quality, and we have a 
larger number of orchards than we have the means of fertilizing. It has gone so far that 
I have heard farmers swear — you know they do break out sometimes — that they would 
cut down the rest of their trees that they could not manure ; that the land was not yield - 
ins them what it would if in the natural state without an orchard at all, and I believ,. 
that will be the result, that many will eventually cut down their orchards. When tree, 
die they are not planting any in their places, the vacancies are not filled up any more 



35 



As I have already said, there are many causes why fruit in this county is not in the con- 
dition it was some lime ago, but at the same time let no one imagine that this county does 
not grow fruit. Last year some thirty or forty thousand barrels of apples were shipped 
from this county, one man putting out ten thousand, and another six thousand barrels — 
just one half the thirty thousand, and a little more. We grow an immense quantity of 
apples here, but the great trouble is the want of trimming ; they are not properly pruned. 
A great many of the trees grow up just like bushes, no trimming of any account beini; done 
to them at all, and the deep soil of this county is sufficient to grow a tremendous brush 
top in an apple tree, and a tremendous crop of apples besides, in spite of all these defects. 
Another reason why apple orchards are not in their proper state is because proper sites 
were not selected, the orchards being all put upon the highest portions of the ridge. 
There is a high ridge, and all the water dips this way for twelve miles, and for half a mile 
into the lake. They planted their orchards on the highest part of this land, and in dry 
summers these trees are dried out at the roots ; I have seen trees totally die in our orchard 
for want of moisture. If we had them on lower ground, where the water would reach the 
roots, and manured them, we would have magnificent crops, because orchards situated in 
those places have borne well when ours on the ridge are lacking. I think it a great mis- 
take to plant orchards in such a position, and am of opinion that one of the greatest 
elements of success in the culture of apple orchards is the selection of a suitable site, and 
then to give proper attention to pruning and so on. It has occurred to me to ask the 
question whether the shell bark is a protection to them, or whether it is a harbour for 
insects, and would be better removed, perhaps there is some gentleman here who has some 
experience that will enable him to say. Of course this new, fresh bark is exposed to 
the blasting winds of winter, and I have often thought that perhaps the removal of the 
shell bark was hurtful to trees. Of the different varieties of apples the Greenings are the 
favourite with us. There are other good apples too, such as the Russet, which is a favour- 
ite. The Ben Davis is not a very great favourite ; we think most of the Baldwins, 
Greenings and Russets, and there are men in our section who out of a thousand trees have 
planted nine hundred and ninety-nine Greenings. The Spitzenberg we do not grow at 
all, it does not amount to anything with us, but in from the shore, on clay ground, they 
can grow the finest Spitzenbergs I have ever seen. 



APPLES AS FODDER FOR STOCK. 

The President raised this subject by the question, — How do you use your refuse 
1 

Dr. McOully. — I mostly feed them to the stock on the farm. We gave a lar»e 
quantity of apples as a bonus to assist a man in establishing an evaporator at Buckhorn 
but last year he did not run it ; although he seemed to get very fair prices for the fruit it 
did not pay. 

The President. — Have you ever considered the question of feeding stock with refuse 
apples 1 

Dr. McOully. — No, only in a general way. I have found that to feed about a bushel 
to a milch cow a day, makes a considerably larger flow of milk, but I have never tested 
it by weighing the milk or testing the cream or butter. At the same time one needs to 
be careful, for it will founder cows too ; I have seen cows eating when we were makin^ 
cider, and seen them foundered several times. 

The Secretary. — Professor Mills has said that the elements of a perfect food require to 
be in the proportion of one to five, that is one part of albuminoids to five of carbo-hydrates ° 
and I have read somewhere that the apple contains about that proportion, and is therefore 
a perfect food. If that is the case, it is a matter for consideration whether it would not 
pay us, or the farmers who scarcely know whether their orchards are profitable or not to 
grow apples solely for feeding purposes. A gentleman at Rochester (Mr. Brooks) stated 
that even if farmers could not sell their apples at all it would be the rankest folly to cut 
down their orchards. He said that a good proportion was two quarts of meal to four 
quarts of apples, and that cattle would do as well on this food as they would if fed wholly 



36 



upon meal. He said further that a gentleman of his acquaintance had put up one thou- 
sand bushels of apples last fall, and fed them all to his stock with the best results. 

Prof. Panton. — I do not think that an analysis of the apple would show that it con- 
tained the proportions of the necessary elements requisite to make it a perfect food ; the 
difficulty is that the apple contains a great excess of the carbo-hydrates over the albumi- 
noids, and is far from being in the proper proportion. At the same time, when fed with 
something else rich in albuminoids, sucli as meal formed from ground peas, or oats, or bran, 
it makes an excellent food, but fed alone the apple contains too great an excess of carbo- 
hydrates to make it a successful food. As Dr. McCully has remarked, a great deal 
depends upon judicious feeding. If you started out to feed apples to cows that had not 
been accustomed to them, and fed them half a bushel or so a day, the results would 
probably be serious and not at all satisfactory ; but if you commenced with small propor- 
tions and worked up to about half a bushel at a feed with some meal — pea meal, or made 
from a mixture of peas and oats — to raise the proportion of albuminoids, you would have 
a very good feed stuff, and in that way, I think, the excess of apples that cannot be 
disposed of in the market might be successfully and profitably got rid of. 

Dr. McCully. — How would bran do 1 ? 

Prof. Panton. — Very well ; that is where the whole thing rests. The analysis of the 
apple reveals too small a proportion of albuminoids to carbo-hydrates, smaller than one to 
five, and to make up for this you must add bran or something rich in albuminoids. You, 
must not bring animals into it at once, but by degrees work them up to it, which may be 
done with safety, and the experience of those who have tried it in this way has been that 
it is instrumental in increasing the flow of milk and its value as well. 

Prof. Saunders. — There is one point in connection with the use of apples in this 
manner that has not been brought out — their healthfulness in moderate quantities. That 
is a point which I think needs to be emphasized. If you feed apples judiciously to stock 
and cattle it will produce in their constitution a degree of health and vigour which will 
enable them to make the best use of the other food that is given them, and to draw more 
good from it. 

Dr. McCully. — The most successful effort I ever made in raising calves was by giving 
them plenty of milk and allowing them to run iu the apple orchard. I never saw animals 
thrive so well as they did under those circumstances. A gentleman told me last fall that 
his sons had been endeavouring to make a certain calf they had gain three pounds a day in 
weight, and they fed it for thirty days in the maimer advocated by the professor, with plenty 
of ground oats, bran and such like, at the same time allowing it to run among the apples. 
At the end of the time they only lacked ten pounds of being able to fill the bill, and this 
gentleman said he felt sure that the apples bad a great deal to do with their success. 

William Macdonald. — I have a great many opportunities of talking over these 
matters with farmers, and have come to what is to me a satisfactory conclusion. In the 
first place, I almost invariably find that cattle-feeders feed them to cows, and very seldom 
to fattening animals ; for this, I think, a very good cause can be assigned. There is in 
milk, in some shape, a large percentage of phosphate of soda, in which apples are also 
rich, and this, taken in conjunction with the fact that the milch cow is an animal whose 
nervous system — which is chiefly composed of phosphoric acid and soda — is extraordinarily 
developed, may have the effect of supplying the necessary constituents. Another thing, if 
fed in winter they are very valuable as a succulent food alone, much more so than roots. 
The acid in the apple is very cooling, and has also a medicinal effect. This agrees with 
the experience of those who keep apples till early in the spring, and feed them in the 
warm weather ; they find extraordinary results from their medicinal effects when changing 
from dry grain fodder. 

Mr. Wilson. — I would like the Professor to tell us what is the best feed to use with 
apples — peas, oats, shorts, bran, or what ? There are many who have orchards, and, as he 
says, the proper way is to bring stock up to apples gradually, it would be interesting to 
know the best feed to use with them. 

Prof. Panton. — Peas first, and corn and bran by weight, taking a pound of each. 

Mr. Macdonald. — Put new process bran and peas. I would not recognize corn at 
all, and shorts is somewhat inferior to bran. 



37 



FRUIT GROWING IN KENT. 

Mr. Mackenzie Ross. — The question has been asked, "What kind of fruits can we 
grow in Kent ?" For my own part, I make more money out of early apples than out of 
late ones, and I think every fruit grower will agree with me when I say, I think our fall 
apples are the finest we possess. I never fail in making from 80 to 100 cents out of a 
bushel of Duchess of Oldenburg. It is a handsome, hardy apple, and comes into bearing 
when it is young. The Red Astrachan is a little too acid, and the crop is very often 
inferior. I would feel very sorry to be without the Russian apples. I have a few, planted 
in 1873, the first of which is Peter the Great. I have also the Grand Duke Oonstantine, 
Count Orloft, Grand Sultan, NicolaiefF and Red Transparent. They are the handsomest 
apples I have, and I always get twenty or thirty cents a bushel more for Russian apples 
than any others. They are very beautiful and smooth, and always perfect, and I have 
very fine crops. Then, of course, the old Early Harvest is no longer considered worth 
planting. Then we have that charming apple called the Kentish Fillbasket and the 
Beauty of Kent. Then there is another charming apple, the Gravenstein ; I am sorry 
that in this part of the country it is not a late apple. Then we have the Sweet Bough, 
I remember when travelling through this county in 1873, selecting fruit to be sent to 
Boston, coming to a gentleman's orchard, and he said to me, "There is an apple that 
won't hurt you if you eat a bushel of them." I never saw a more beautiful apple than 
the large Sweet Bough. Then comes the Hawley and then the Alexander ; and what is 
more beautiful than the St. Lawrence % The Rev. Dr. Matheson once said to me that it 
could never be properly grown out of the Island of Montreal, but I have seen samples in 
the garden of the warden of the County of Kent that were astonishing. The Ben Davis, 
though an extremely handsome apple, I consider very inferior. Then we have the Swayzie 
Pomme Grise, the Russett, the Hastings, and I believe if I went on I could name over a 
hundred varieties in my own collection. 1 don't think I have too many. Some people, if 
they were going to put out a hundred apple trees, would plant ninety-nine Baldwins ; and 
I have seen one gentleman cut down a charming orchard of Ribston Pippins to make room 
for the Baldwin. 

The President. — Does the Ribston Pippin do well here ? 

Mr. Ross. — It does, and the Blenheim Pippin. As I have said before we consider 
the County of Kent, with genial climate, has no superior for growing either apples or 
pears. I would say to those gentlemen who have no Russian apples, by all means get 
some. Unfortunately they all come in early, but they are most charming fruit. 

Mr. Langford. — I have an apple orchard, but I don't make much money out of it, 
and I have been thinking whether it would not be better to cut it down, and make more 
money out of the space in some other way — in raising crops of some kind. I have proba- 
bly a thousand trees, and for the fruit of at least one hundred of them I cannot get a. 
buyer at all, either the trees are not the right kind or the buyers don't come here. In 
regard to my orchard, I have been very much pleased at what I have heard to-day, and 
now have a notion not to cut it down \ after hearing of the good success met with at the 
Colonial Exhibition I think probably there will be a market for our apples, and we shall 
find them more profitable. 

The President. — What varieties do you find best and grow most of 1 

Mr. Langford. — Unfortunately I have a good many Talman Sweets, and they seem 
to be a dead letter. 

The President. — The only market for them is the Boston market. 

Prof. Saunders. — They are splendid growers; you should top-graft them. 

Mr. Bogler. — I am more interested in plums than in apples. I have a small orchard 
of plums, and my experience is that the Lombard is the best. I brought several varieties 
on the market last year that I considered were finer, but somehow the Lombards always 
sold first. The only trouble I have with my plum trees is that they are generally over- 
loaded. I lost a good tree last year from that cause. One year, when the hogs and cows 
had been kept out of the orchard the year before, I found a number of curculio, still in 
the chrysalis state. I let my fowls in the orchard and they scratch up the ground and 



38 



destroy them — as soon as I let the hogs and fowl in I would see the fowls after- 
wards under these trees every morning. The hogs, I find, are remarkably fond of the 
unripe fruit, and will travel all over picking it out. 

Mr. Tyler. — I am in the southern portion of the County of Essex, about sixty miles 
from here and three-quarters of a mile from Lake Erie. I am principally growing peaches 
and apples. I have sixty-five trees now, from one to five years old, all of which are looking 
well ; and I had a very good crop last summer. Most of my apple trees are in bearing; 
it is eleven years since they were set. I have a number of Greening and Baldwin trees, 
some Golden Russet, Sweet King, Northern Spy and Ben Davis; the early and late 
Crawford Peach, the Smock, Alexander and Waterloo. I had somewhere about 5,500 
baskets of peaches. I marketed some in Chatham, some in Windsor, some at home ; 
about 800 baskets went to London, some to Hamilton, and fifty or seventy-live baskets, I 
think, to Brampton. I feel inclined to go on with peach culture. 

A Member. — Do you cultivate your peach orchard ? 

Mr. Tyler. — Yes, but as a tree gets larger I do not go so close to it. The soil is 
very poor— sand and gravel — and I use barn yard manure, what little I do use. Peach 
trees, I think, are better without manure. 

Mr. Pettit. — Are there a considerable quantity of grapes along the shore? 

Mr. Tyler. — Yes, quite a number. I have one vine of Moore's Early, the Concord 
and the Delaware. 

Mr. Pettit. — What number of acres do you think are occupied in vineyards on the 
islands ? 

Mr Tyler. — I could not tell. 

President Lyon. — What is your practice in pruning peach trees ? 

Mr. Tyler. — I would run them up one foot from the ground, and I would cut away 
very few of the lower limbs. 

The President. — Are you troubled with winter killing. 

Mr. Tyler. — No. In 1883 winter killing hurt me, but it was a hard winter, and 
there was a very heavy storm came and swept the snow off, and the trees were exposed 
all winter. 

Dr. McCully. — What is your principal early peach ? 

Mr. Tyler.— The Alexander. 

Dr. McCully. — How does the Crawford grow 1 

Mr. Tyler. — It grows very fine and fast, but I think it is not worth cultivation. 

The President. — Is it not a good grower ? 

Mr. Tyler. — It is a good grower, but it grows no peaches. It is five years old, and 
[ don't think I have averaged half a dozen peaches a year. The Early Rare Ripe fruited 
very well ; I am growing some seedlings I have been cultivating, 

Mr, Eveuetts. — Have you the Mountain Rose Peach ? 

Mr. Tyler. — Ye.s, I have some. It is a middling good peach, not a very good flavour 
I think. It is below the standard in quality, although it sells very well. I have the 
Old Mixon, which is one of the best, of course ; you cannot get many of them. 

A Member. — I come from a county where they have been trying to grow peaches 
without much success. Ten or fifteen years ago a number of parties went into peach 
culture on the Lake Huron shore. The locality was thought to be favourable, but winter 
killing interfered so much that we had almost abandoned it. 

The President. — What about other fruit? 

The Member. — We have light soil up there, and have to study what is best adapted 
for it. 1 went up there expecting that the favourable influence of the lake would help 
me a great deal, but as regards preventing spring frosts it has very little influence. It 
keeps oli fall frosts, however, to some extent, and I think perhaps if we paid more 
attention to grapes the influence of the lake might help us. We are going into straw- 
berries and raspberries, and I was interested in hearing the opinions expressed as to the 
varieties of small fruit, although the matter under discussion relates of course to small 
fruits for families more than for markets. We are encouraged, however, to believe they 
can be grown on our light land. 

The President.— Do you make a specialty of any kind of fruit? 



39 



The Member. — I have tried pears. I am afraid, however, that they will not do ; the 
3oil is too light. The trees did well when young, and have not been troubled with blight, 
but they seem to be lacking in vigour, and I am afraid pear growing is not going to be a 
success on that light land. Neither is apple growing to the extent small fruits and grapes 
will be. Mr. Hill, an acquaintance of mine, is growing small fruits in another part of 
the county, on a different soil. 

Mr. Hill. —During the last two years I have taken an interest in fruit, and this is 
my first visit to a meeting of this association. I have for several years past had pleasure 
in reading the Horticulturist, which I believe has been the means of interesting me 
in fruit, to make money out of it. When I first went into the centre of the County of 
Lambton I interested myself in pears extensively for an ordinary person, having some 
three or four hundred trees. A good many of these have had the blight, some kinds more 
than others. The Dr. Reeder is a very excellent flavoured pear, and has stood the blight 
excellently, and another kind called the Beurre D'Anjou is almost free from blight ; but I 
have not found growing pears a success. I have latety gone into the culture of small 
fruit, and hope in the course of two or three years to give you some experience in that line. 

The President. — What kind of small fruit ? , 

Mr. Hill. — Strawberries and raspberries. The last two years I have been reaping 
the harvest of two acres each year. Last year 1 sold off the two acres $640, and the pre- 
vious year $630. Two years ago I planted the Turner, which is hardy and ripens quite 
as fast as I want a raspberry to. I find it too soft for the foreign market, however, but 
as we have a good local demand, 1 get them there in good shape. Last summer was my 
first real crop of the Turner. I had about two acres, about a quarter of which is inj.ured 
in a way I will speak of again, and out of the two acres 1 last year took $200. I have a 
large number of Outhberts which seem to be bearing. I am going into blackberries exten- 
sively, as I find they will be a good market berry, though not so good for home use. In 
growing my strawberries I just take one crop. I plant them in rows about four feet apart, 
and about a foot and a-half in the row; cultivate them thoroughly with ahorse cultivator, 
and encourage all the plant I can, doing as little hand work as possible. I cover with 
straw and rake off in the spring late, so as to keep the plants back as much as possible. 
By doing this I find I have larger fruit, and get one or two cents per box for it more in 
our market than is given for that from any other place. My fruit is both larger and oet- 
ter in quality. I have grown several varieties, and find none so good for the market as 
Wilson's Albany. 

A Member. — Have you tried the Crescent l 

Mr. Hill. — Yes, but there is one fault with it. It ripens earlier than the Wilson, 
but the fault I have with the Crescent is that it will not stand shipping. The Wilson 
will stand much better. I like the Manchester and the Wilson best of all. 

The President. — Do you pick the Wilson when perfectly ripe, or wait till it becomes 
darker 1 

Mr. Hill. — I caution the pickers to have them well ripe, and those who bring in a 
basket of fruit poorly ripened don't get paid for picking it ; it is just set aside. I get my 
pickers from the town and pay them by the box, from a cent and a half to two cents over 
the rest. I have little cards printed " one quart," " two quarts," " six quarts," and so on, 
and we have a little card so many quarts, and we just hand out this ticket to the picker 
and take the basket. 

The President. — Did you ever try crates instead of baskets'? 

Mr. Hill. — No ; I have seen them tried, but don't like them. In my raspberry 
patch, about a quarter of an acre of it on the lowland, which is my best soil, my raspber- 
ries turned yellow and produced hardly any fruit, while on the soil just a couple of feet 
higher, the canes are very strong. I hope some of the professors will be able to tell me 
the cause and advise me what to do. I think the strawberries were more profitable than 
raspberries. I would suggest that in preparing a plantation the plants should never be 
taken from the crop in the field, as in that way you take the outside plants, which are 
very poor. The plan I would adopt in future is to have a piece of soil well adapted for 
growing roots, and keep it especially for growing plants, and never touch my field at all ; 
have a place specially for plants, dig them all up, and plant again. 



40 



A Member. — Did you grow raspberries in hills or rows ? 

Mr. Hill — In rows six feet apart, and from thirty to thirty-six inches in the row,, 
keeping them all perfectly clean and thoroughly cultivated. We take out a lot immedi- 
ately after the fruit is off. The tendency of raspberries, of course, is to bend down, and I 
this year took the precaution to have my man when thinning out, which I think is neces- 
sary, especially for the Turner, take out the leaning ones as well as those that were weakly, 
so my plantation has perfectly straight canes ; all standing up quite straight. 

Mr. Wilson. — Don't you think old plants bear earlier in the season % 

Mr. Hill. — They might, but I could realize fully two cents a box more for mine. 
The red ones grow up probably about two feet. The Turner shoots do not grow up so 
high in the first pla^e, but sprout out lower down, forming a very heavy branch — very 
heavy at the base. 

A Member. — How many plants do you set to the acre of blackcaps? 

Mr. Hill. — If you plant them about six feet and a half apart, and about three and a 
half feet the other way, about 1,800 plants, perhaps, to the acre. 



THE QUESTION DRAWER. 

On reassembling in the evening the question drawer was opened, and the following 
questions read and discussed : 

THE PEACH LOUSE. 

Question. — Is there anyone present who knows the habits of the peach louse, and 
what is the best way of destroying it % 

The Secretary. — I have not met with a peach louse ; we have an apple bark louse. 

A Member. — It comes in the month of July, and is very small, like what you find on. 
the cherry. 

The President. — We have something about the same among the peach growers on. 
the western shore. I suppose it is the aphis ; I expect that is what is intended. There is 
just one process that applies to all these as well as aphides on the apple or cherry tree. 
In our vicinity its spread has been prevented by destroying it on its first appearance. 

A Member. — I have done so, and it has not spread a great deal ; I find it on some 
trees much worse than others. 



MULCHING PEACH TREES. 

Question. — When is the best time to mulch peach trees, and when should the mulch 
be removed 1 

The Secretary. — I have never been iu the habit of mulching peach trees at all. I 
don't understand what purpose there can be, unless to protect the roots in winter time. 
They don't require mulching in summer, because we keep them cultivated. I suppose the 
writer refers to the winter season, to protect the roots. 

A Member. — The object is to keep the tree back in the spring — so as to make it late 
in the spring. It is not liable to a change of weather during the winter. 

The President. — A friend of mine told me not long ago that he tried growing two 
or three varieties of peaches in the County of Perth, where they do not grow naturally at 
all, and, as the frost set in late, he had water under the trees, and he allowed it to freeze 
well and covered it with a strong, heavy mulch. But at the same time he just killed his 
trees in the spring by holding that on too long, all except one tree on the north side of 
the building, where it was naturally frozen till late in the spring. That tree did well and 
bore fruit. The action of the sun on the heads of the trees while the root power was dor- 
mant, evidently had the effect of killing them. 

Dr. McOully. — I thought the gentleman referred to planting trees. We mulch aa 
soon as possible after planting, in order to retain the moisture. 



41 



EARLIEST FREESTONE PEACH. 

Question. — What is the earliest freestone peach worthy of cultivation ? 

Dr. McCully. — The Early York comes in earlier than the Crawford, and I think it 
is one of the best peaches in the country. It is good for the market, not being easily 
injured by transportation, and it is of very fine flavour. We have two kinds here, a small 
variety which is very productive, and a large kind called the Honest John, a most mag- 
nificent peach in every way, its only fault being that the market requires a yellow peach. 
For my own part I think the white peaches are superior to the yellow. I am told, too, 
that the Yellow Rare Ripe is an earlier peach than any other. 

A. M. Smith. — The Early Purple is the earliest perfect freestone peach I know of, 
but it is small. We used to cultivate a peach at Grimsby called the Honest John, which 
was a yellow peach, and ripened fully a week ahead of the Early Crawford. There seems 
to be some confusion about the Honest John, there being several called by that name. 
We had some flesh and some yellow coloured. I believe there is a peach known as the 
Schumacher, that is claimed to be a freestone. Do you know anything^bbut it, Mr. 
Lyon? 

President Lyon. — It is quite an early peach, but not of very good quality ; it is a 
freestone peach. 

THE DOMINION STRAWBERRY. 

Question. — What do you think of the Dominion strawberry as a market fruit? 

A. M. Smith — In our section where we are near the market we have nothing that 
pays better, but it is not a very good shipper. It comes in after the Wilson, and with us 
is very profitable, but it will not stand shipping too far. 



NITRATE OF SODA FOR STRAWBERRIES. 

Question. — Could nitrate of soda be profitably employed in growing strawberries, 
on light soils ; and if so can a constant 'supply of the unadulterated article be obtained in 
this country ? 

Prof. Panton. — I don't know that it has ever been tried. It might be applied with 
a certain degree of success but I cannot speak from experience. In regard to its being 
obtained pure I could not say. I think it is worthy of trial, but it would be risky for 
too light sandy soil. I would like to mix something with it, some farmyard manure, to 
give it more retentive power. I know it has been found excellent on grass land and 
some of the cereals. The quantity for ordinary crops is about two hundred pounds to 
the acre. Dried blood has a wonderful effect on Strawberries, not on the berry immedi- 
ately, but between the rows. 

Mackenzie Ross. — About a year ago I had about a thousand loads of night soil 
drawn on to my place and ploughed it in, and I venture to say there were no better 
strawberries than I had that year. The first year it was a little too hot. The Sharpless 
under this manure did tremendous. 

Prof. Panton. — In reference to night soil I have heard lately a good deal of its use 
by market gardeners down at Carleton, but they have to watch for fear of it burning, and 
they try mixing it with farmyard manure with very good results. By itself they are 
very much afraid of it. 



FRUIT PRESERVERS. 

Question. — Are fruit preserving powders or liquids being successfully and profit- 
ably used ? 

Prof. Saunders. — I shall have to ask whether the idea is to bring out the use 
of solutions or powders for preserving food to be eaten afterwards, or merely for 
exhibition. 

The Secretary. — I think it is for use. 



42 



Prof. Saundehs. — As far as my experience goes I should say that J do not yet know 
of any fluids for preserving fruits so that they will retain a sufficient proportion of tbeir 
natural qualities to make them so palatable as to be attractive on the table for eating 
purposes. Salicylic acid is perhaps the least objectionable of any, and I do not think the 
acid has anything to do with producing the insipid character of the preserved specimen, 
I think water has more to do with it. I think that water without the addition of any 
chemical at all would entirely destroy the freshness of the fruit, that is its freshness and 
flavour for the table. I do not look for the .introduction of anything of that sort that 
will prove of much value. I think, however, that these solutions are exceedingly valuable 
to fruit growers and institutions where it is necessary to preserve specimens for future 
reference, so as to indicate the size, form and general appearance of the fruit, but I don't 
think we are going to get anything better than a strong solution of sugar to preserve our 
fruit so as to preserve the natural flavour and fitness for the table. 

Mr, Beall. — I think there is one exception. I have seen in my own house goose- 
berries preserved or kept for three years with nothing but water; of course kept in air- 
tight jars, and just as nice when taken out as the first day. 

Prof. Saunders.— That would not apply to ripe gooseberries- 
Mr. Beall. — I don't know. These were just ordinary fruit such as you would obtain 
for preserving, not ripe. Of course the water had been boiled first, and allowed to cool, 
and they were kept in air tight jars. 

Prof. Saunders. — The character of the green gooseberry is hardly such as to tempt 
anyone to eat it raw, and it has not such a flavour as I was thinking of. I am glad, 
however, to learn that they can be preserved in that way, because it will be useful in 
preserving samples. 

Dr. McOully. — I referred in the question to preserved specimens such as we have 
here to-day ; not for domestic purposes. I have seen fruit preserving powders advertised 
that would keep green fruits fresh any length of time. 

Prof. Saunders. — The use of these powders is comparatively old ; they have been 

going the rounds this last five or six years, and as far as I have seen they are all salicylic 

acid, sometimes coloured so as to disguise it, and sometimes mixed with sugar. I know 

some years ago, when they were first introduced, people who were desirous of preserving 

their grapes and other fruits paid twenty-five or fifty cents for the receipt, and took it to 

a druggist, and found they were buying salicylic acid, and they did preserve them, so far 

as appearance was concerned anyway. The law of diffusion of fluids, where the fruit is 

ripe, always results in a lot of water finding its way into the fruit, and a lot of saccharine 

matter finding its way out. The result was that at the end of a year nobody wanted to eat 

the grapes, and the business died out after the first year — nobody tried it a second time. 

Now, in regard to Dr. McCully's point, that of preparing solutions to preserve fruit for 

exhibition purposes, it will take some time to explain. I have worked at it some months 

with different kinds of fruits, and the results attained varied with different kinds of 

fruit I find that any fruit of light colour — yellow or white fruit — will preserve best in 

a solution of sulphurous acid, the acid you realize the presence of by the nose when you 

light a match. Now that frequently averts any tendency to decomposition, and the 

form, and colour and character of yellow peaches, yellow apples, and yellow raspberries 

and ripe gooseberries is preserved, and all fruits of that character preserve 

admirably in that fluid ; and pears, also, will preserve in it in such a manner as to excite 

admiration. They are a little more delicate looking than is natural, but of course for 

exhibition purposes that is no detriment, for they certainly retain their form and attractive 

brilliancy. That was the fluid used at the Colonial Exhibition for all that class of fruits. 

I learned subsequently that it has been used in some German collections in a similar way, 

and the fruit kept for several years without any change. At the time I left the Colonial 

Exhibition the fruits had been in the fluid some four or six months, and did not seem to 

have suffered at all in appearance The green colours were not so difficult to preserve ; 

some were preserved by salicylic acid and some hydrate of chloral, varying from three 

to five per cent, in strength ; others in boro-glycerit^, which is a mixture of boraoic acid 

and glycerine, also about five per cent, in strength. These two solutions were found to be 

the best for green and also red fruits, but the success attending the preservation of red 



43 



•colours was only partial, in some instances very partial. I do not think there is any pro- 
bability of our being able to find a chemical to preserve the red colour of fruits under 
such conditions as had to be submitted to at that exhibition, where the fruit were 
exposed to the sun light all summer long. Some of our red apples could hardly be 
recognized on account of the lack of colour. That is a class of experiments I hope to con- 
tinue carrying on, and in the course of time I may be able to give the results of 
my endeavours in that direction. I do not wish to depreciate the results we obtained 
at the Colonial, for, apart from a purely horticultural standpoint, the fruits were very 
beautiful, and considered admirable by the great bulk of the public, but they would not 
have withstood the criticisms of a horticultural expert. Still, on the whole, the exhi- 
bition was very fine, and a grand success. Solutions of salt, I have since learned, are 
perhaps better for the preservation of plums and such fruits as will sink in a solution 
of salt than the others I have named, bnt I found that solutions of salt were 
not well adapted to apples and pears, because the specific gravity of the fluid 
was so great as to force the specimens to the top, and no matter what devices were resorted 
to keep them under, the pressure required kept them out of shape, and they burst and 
were destroyed in that way. There were many difficulties in the way, which were all 
surmounted in a way which I think did credit to the country. With regard to the 
strength of the sulphurous acid, the strength I used was about one-half, or in some in- 
stances one-third the strength it is ordinarily found in commerce. That is, it is a water 
saturated solution of the acid, and that diluted with one or two parts of water. The 
salicylic solution was made by dissolving a drachm of the acid in a small quantity of 
alcohol — about an ounce or two, and adding to that solution a gallon of water. It would 
partially precipitate, but if stored some time would almost all dissolve, and the small 
portion that did not dissolve was separated by straining through muslin. 

Mr. Beall. — I wrote to you, I think, telling you that a friend of mine had used 
spirits of turpentine; did you try it? 

Prof. Saunders. — I did not, because the regulations of the exhibition would not 
admit of the use of any inflammable spirits such as spirits of turpentine, on account of the 
likelihood of fire in case the bottle was broken. I propose to try it when I have an 
opportunity of doing so without risk. 

Prof. Panton. — 1 have been experimenting in the same direction for a most important 
purpose. I think it would be exceedingly interesting if some fluid could be found which 
would preserve apples and similar fruits in their natural appearance for this purpose. I 
have for quite a time been watching Prof. Saunders' researches. I have tried salcylic 
acid and it has given me the best results, but I found out that there was a tendency to 
precipitate the salcylic acid from the solution. The strength was about sixty grains to 
the gallon, and I used about a quart of alchohol. 

Prof. Saunders. — Mine was about one or two ounces, added to a gallon of water. 

Prof. Panton. — I noticed that raspberries maintain their colour pretty well in the 
salcylic acid. While you could scarcely say it is the natural colour, it is not so bad ; but 
strawberries lose colour almost in a week or two. So far as my experience with it has 
gone, it seems that you might be very much discouraged in trying to dissolve salcylic 
&cid. 

Prof. Saunders. — A good plan would be to use a little borax, which is itself an 
•antiseptic. 



COLOURING OF FRUIT. 

Question. — Is it practicable to obtain colour in fruits independently of the ripening 
or maturing process ? 

Prof. Saunders. — I cannot see the object of propounding such a question ; I don't 
know anyone who would have experience in that matter. 

President Lyon. — The object, I presume, is to bring out the relative conditions under 
which colour and ripening are produced. There is an idea, for instance, that colour in 
vegetation is the effect of frost. I don't quite believe it ; I don't know whether others do 
yet. 



44 



Prof. Saunders. — You mean the red colouring matter in the leaves of trees? 

President Lyon. — No, in fruits. 

Prof. Saunders. — Tt seems to be a general law of nature that the red colours do not, 
as a rule, obtain until the fruit reaches a stage known as ripeness, or, at least, the stage 
of maturity which will be the result of keeping. 

President Lyon. — In our state of Michigan we have great variations in different locali- 
ties, otherwise apparently under about the same conditions, in the colouring of the same 
kinds of fruit. The Rhode Island Greening in some places will be without the slightest 
colouring, while in others it will assume a most brilliant hue, and the same is true of 
almost all other fruits — they colour much more in some localities than others. I have 
never heard the cause of the difference explained. 

Prof. Saunders. — It was remarked at the Colonial Exhibition this last year that the 
fruit from Quebec had a much higher colour than the same from Ontario, and we know 
hardy Russian fruits are almost all characterized by brilliant colours, which corroborates 
what has been said by Mr. Lyon. 



THE INDIAN CETONIA (Euryomia Jnda.J 

Question. — There is a kind of bug that has been found on peach trees by a gentle- 
man near me. What is it *? 

Prof. Saunders. — I should think it must be the Euryomia Inda, a family of insects- 
with whose larval history I am not much acquainted. There are several species, all of 
which are found feeding on sweet fruits. This species before us comes quite early in the 
season, and a later brood make their appearance in the autumn. Of course they don't get 
fruits in the spring, and what they feed on then I don't know ; probably sweet sap, or 
wounded trees and shrubs. I know I have found them in such situations. Most people, 
I know, think they are bees, for they fly around in the day time. They merely feed on 
the ripe fruits ; I cannot say whether they puncture sound specimens, or only resort to- 
those already cracked or punctured by other insects. They have never been sufficiently 
abundant to constitute a serious source of trouble to fruit growers. 



APPLE PACKING. 

Question. — What is the most expedient and profitable way to pack apples for the 
market 1 

The President. — I don't know that I can add anything to the advice I have already 
so frequently given. The besc way we know of is to. pack in barrels, and the most profit- 
able way is to include none but first-class specimens. There are certain kinds of apples, 
such as the Swayzie Pomme Grise, and possibly the Wagener and Fameuse, which it will 
pay to pack in half barrels ; the same shape as any other barrel, but only half the size. 
From a test of it which I made in the British market, I believe it will pay well. But so 
far as packing is concerned, there is no better way than in barrels. Many have talked a 
great deal about boxes, but after my experience of the past season I still prefer barrels to- 
boxes. It seems, so far, that in boxes we have not been able to pack the apples so tight 
that they will not move, whereas a barrel properly packed is perfectly solid, and they 
carry admirably. At the same time, while advocating barrels, I would have them with 
as little bilge as possible. There is a barrel that I tried myself some years ago that is a 
great idea ; it has large quarter hoops, and when you roll the barrel upon these hoops the 
bilge never touches the ground at all in the rolling. So far as we examined them there 
was very little in the way of bruising; they carried admirably. Perhaps something of 
that sort might be made. 

The ^ECRErARY. — What do you think of the barrel without any bilge 1 

The President. — I don't know; that barrel rolls on the top and bottom hoop. I. 
did try a few Tomlinson barrels ; I think they were made out of whole timber. 

Prof. Saunders. — What is the objection to boxes 1 



45 



The President. — The fruit was not packed tightly, and consequently they shook 
about and were bruised more than in the barrel ; there seemed so be a difficulty in getting 
them in. 

A Member. — In regard to the time apples should be picked — I think we pick our 
apples altogether too late. 

The President. — Do you refer to winter or summer apples t 

The Member. — Any apples. 

The President.- -There is a season of the year we must pick winter apples. You 
may leave them as late as you can without danger of frost, but in such a section as this 
they must be picked in the late fall. All I have to say is that they are sufficiently ma- 
tured for shipping purposes when the apple has reached its normal size and colour. A 
great many people, I have found, pick their apples and pack them at once. I handled 
some apples from a man last year who said he made a specialty of that, and if he did I 
hope he never will again, for certainly his apples arrived in the worst possible condition — 
all wet and rotten. I believe strongly in what I have always practised myself — leaving 
the apples on the ground several days, and always packing in perfectly dry weather. 
Rain or any thing of that sort will not hurt them, and there is also this advantage, that 
an apple which has naturally colour, but which from being on the inside of the tree or in 
the shade has not attained it, will gain the natural colour by being allowed to remain on 
the ground for a few days. 

Mr. Beall. — Are summer apples the same as winter apples in that respect 1 ? 

The President. — If you ship to a distance you will have to pick them before the 
time of ripening. The Duchess of Oldenberg will ship, bat you have to pick it before it 
is thoroughly matured. Of course, for the local market, I would leave them till thoroughly 
matured. 

Mr. Ross. — In this county last year we were a month earlier than usual. On the 
20th of September, the date of the Provincial Exhibition, fruits were thoroughly ripe, 
while those of other sections were green. Probably last summer was the hottest we have 
ever experienced, and the apples taken down from the trees blistered from the heat. The 
Ribston Pippins fell before they were entirely ripe, and the heat was so intense that the 
fruit did not keep on account of being too ripe in the barrel. Although in England it is 
one of the best and longest keepers ; in this county it is not. It is matured in Septem- 
ber, and will not keep very long. I think we should be governed by the season. 

Dr. McCully. — I had some experience in picking apples too early, and they all puck- 
ered down under the skin and shrunk. I am of opinion that there is no invariable date 
for apples to ripen. A man will have to exercise his common sense and be a sort of 
expert in the business. With us on the Lake Shore it is left a good deal to the buyers ; 
when they are ready we are willing to pick them, and therefore they are sometimes picked 
too soon, and sometimes a little late. We generally do better to take them a little on the 
green side, because we escape the equinoctial winds. Occasionally these winds come along 
and knock down thousands of barrels. I know some of the best orchards where Baldwins 
were left to get colour, and a big wind came along and they were all shaken onto the 
ground, and hundreds of barrels of them were lost. I think we cannot tell exactly, but it 
is a good plan to pick winter apples quite early. 

The President. — But, as you say, if you pick them a little too much on the early 
side they will shrivel. 

Mr. Ross. — Yes, a man must be an expert. I think the most approved plan of pick- 
ing with us is to pick them into the barrels, wi.h the barrel on a sort of sleigh or stone 
boat, and then to draw them into the stable, or shed, and allow them to stand with the 
heads open for a week or so. Keep them dry and cool, and away from the sun. We 
sometimes find when we pick our apples, especially Greenings, — and I leave them in piles 
under the trees — that if there is the least spot and the skin is broken they will commence 
at that spot, and in not more than three or four days it will have spread all over them ; 
a ferment of some kind seems to have taken place. If the apple is kept in a dry place, it 
is not probable that this would happen in that way. And then there are some particular 
seasons when atmospheric conditions affect apples in that way, which makes lying out of 
doors bad, and sometimes occasions a great deal of loss. In the hot falls, when the apples 



40 



are left a good while on the trees, we always find more destruction from rot than when? 
the weather is cold and the apples are not so ripe. 

Mr. Lyon. — You send a good deal of fruit across the water, I understand, and 
I have heard the opinion expressed, that it would be good policy to send good fruit packed 
one by one, each wrapped in paper ; that that course would be profitable. Has that been 
done 1 

The President. — Well, packing in paper has been tried, but I don't know that I 
would recommend it. We only tried it on a small scale. I don't know that it is neces- 
sary ; but as to packirg one by one, I believe, no matter what it costs the shipper to pack, 
it is better to pay it than to pack imperfectly. It is better to pick them up one by one, 
and be sure there is nothing wrong about an apple — no spot, wrinkle or worm hole, and 
to see that the barrel from top to bottom contains nothing but perfect apples. People on 
the other side don't begrudge the price ; they make no question about that. What they 
want is to be sure they have a good article, and they don't want a medium or poor article 
at any price. I don't think it would pay to pack even line specimens in tissue paper on 
an extended scale. It might pay for a few barrels for Covent Garden market, but for 
other markets I don't think it would. Packing in paper might have some effect in pre 
venting the spread of disease in a barrel if any of the apples happened to be affected, but 
I don't think there is anything to be gained in general snipping. 

Mr. Dempsey. — In regard to packing in boxes, I •think I would rather risk tender 
varieties in boxes, not square boxes as we make them, two half-bushel boxes in one, but 
a bushel box made in one, square or as near as you can get it. [ recommend picking 
them carefully, as you suggest. Every apple that has a spot or worm hole should be left 
out, and if there is a vacancy in the box which might be filled by a smaller apple, don't 
put it in; it is better to stuff in a piece ot paper than fill the vacancy with a medium or 
inferior apple. Never send a poor apple, whatever may be the temptation ; try to have 
every specimen perfect. I have seen some varieties of apples sold in England, and so has the 
President, from 19s. and from that to 21s. In the ordinary market here, I don't think 
people would make a shilling difference in these apples for their own use, but the English 
are so particular that they will pay any price for a perfect thing. They have plenty of 
money, and don't want our poor fruit ; th^y have plenty of that sort of their own. They 
can buy their own green fruit for about two shillings a bushel in the market this year, so 
you can easily see what nonsense it would be for us to send our poor fruit there to compete 
with theirs at such prices as that. Some will say at once, " what shall we do with our 
culls'?" One of the largest fruit growers that we have in our county — one who takes the 
greatest t—mble to select his fruit — has all these culled winter apples, Ben Davis, Russets 
and Spys put carefully away to keep till the winter. He is now engaged in grinding them 
up into cider, which he is selling at twenty-five cents per gallon. A barrel of apples will 
make six gallons. How much more, I ask you, do you get for good apples than he is get- 
ting for his c*ulls 1 He is actually receiving more for his culled apples to-day than we 
generally get for our best apples in the fall, so it is utter nonsense for us to think of pack- 
ing for exportation poor apples when we can make as much by manufacturing them into 
cider ; that is winter apples. 

Mr. Wilson. — What do you do with the cider 1 
Mr. Dempsey. — Sell it at twenty-five cents per gallon by the barrel. 
Mr. Wilson. — I had thousands of gallons for ten cents last year, and it was often as 
low as three cents. 



SALT AS A FERTILIZER FOR ONIONS AND STRAWBERRIES. 

Question. — Should salt be sown before or after planting onions ; is it useful for 
strawberries, and when should it be applied 1 

Prof. Panton. — I should be inclined to sow it just immediately after the onion. I 
believe it would have some effect on onions, as it has a good effect on asparagus, celery and 
mangolds. Regarding its application, I say just immediately after sowing, not a long time 
before, because it is a soluble compound, and would leach the soil. I don't know that 
there have been any great results. Regarding strawberries, I could not say from experi- 



47 



ence. I hear a great deal about salt as a fertilizer, and from what I can gather from the 
United States, it seems to be popular on loamy soil ; on clay it is of little or no service- 
One of the chief functions claimed for it is attracting moisture, but it seems also to have 
a salutary effect in breaking up compounds in the soil ; alkalies and the phosphate of lime 
seem to be acted upon to a certain extent. I have heard that good results have been 
noticed a year afterwards. It is generally believed that you get the results the first year,, 
but latterly very practical men who have discussed this matter, claim that as good results 
have been produced the second year as the year previous. It is claimed for it, and no- 
doubt there is a good deal of evidence in its favour, that it brings what might be termed 
a vigourous growth in vegetation, and it has a tendency, in a soil where yr>u are afraid of 
a luxuriant growth, to make the plant take a firmer and better hold. This is particu- 
larly apparent in the case of low-lying soils, where the sowing of salt se^ms invariably to- 
bring about a healthy condition in the plant. A great many have also spoken in its 
favour this winter as assisting in resisting rust and fungoid growths, and these things 
may also be applicable to the strawberry. 

Mr. Wilson. — How much salt should be put on mangolds and asparagus, it is not 
generally known 1 

Prof. Panton. — I heard a person remark that he ^iad actually put as much as twenty 
hundred weight to the acre ; that is a ton. 

Mr. Wilson. — Not for asparagus 1 

Prof. Panton. — No. I think the application should be from two to four hundred' 
weight. I would never say a ton ; this person I speak of had done it accidentally. 
Some one said he thought six hundred weight was beyond the mark, and this person 
said he had seen a ton put on, and it did not entirely kill the vegetation. For a garden 
I would recommend about the same quantity, two to four hundred weight per acre. 

Mr. Beall. — I have used for the past twelve or fifteen years half a barrel on 400 squai e 
feet. I think it is better now than fifteen years ago. 

Prof. Saunders. — Did you try one part and let the other go without ? 

Mr. Beall. — No. 

Prof. Saunders. — I have been taught that wild asparagus grows in brackish water 
or water impregnated with salt on the sea shores of Europe. I was surprised to find wild 
asparagus growing in the Alps, thousands of feet above the level of salt water, and 
thriving remarkably well, and I thought we had not reached the bottom facts yet, and 
that possibly salt was not so essential as we have been in the habit of thinking. 

Mr. Ross. — I have a large bit of asparagus, planted fifteen years ago, and I used to 
give it a liberal supply of salt, but lately T have not given it any at all, and I think I 
have better asparagus now. I use very little salt, and I think it is just as good asparagus 
as any I see in the country ; I doubt if we require salt for it at all. What you want for 
asparagus is plenty of manure. They used to dig a trench three feet deep, and put in 
lots of old shoes and rubbish, and then put a lot of manure on top of that. I am under 
the impression that there is nothing like having your land thoroughly pulverized and rich, 
then put in your plant and give it plenty of manuring, once a year if possible, before ther 
winter sets in. It is a very hardy plant, and as Prof. Saunders has said it is a plant that 
jrows in Europe as well as in the wild west. I doubt very much the necessity of salt 
for it at all. It is just an old woman's notion. 

Prof. Saunders. — Mr. Ross is carrying the idea further than 1 intended to go. I 
did not intend to repudiate salt Some years ago, when running a farm, [ planted pease 
on land, and ran some furrows down and planted asparagus in the furrows the same way 
as corn, and with only a top dressing of manure I had asparagus on that as fine as any F 
ever saw growing in anv beds prepared with all the paraphernalia that has been referred 
to. I think as far as that is concerned it is unnecessary. 

Mr. MacDonald. — Salt has another action that has not been mentioned. A libera* 
dressing of manure on the surface will, if it is applied too thickly, do more injury this* 
good. Salt has the same action as plaster, it dissolves some of the soluble constituents^ 
and carries them down to the roots of the plant, it acts on deep rooted and shallow rooted 
plants in different ways, it is beneficial to both clover and grass, but on different principles,. 



48 



In clover it carries the soluble constituents down to the roots, and with grass the chloride 
of lime formed from the salt does not injure the grass as much as many other plants. 
There are many conditions of climate, cultivation and so on to betaken into consideration 
before salt can be intelligently applied, and I think it should never be applied in a greater 
quantity than 450 pounds to the acre. 

Dr. McOully. — I have had great success in salting beds of Canada thistles. If you 
get right at them you will never be disappointed. I don't limit the quantity, I am very 
liberal in the matter, and T tell you it is good for Canada thistles. 



EXPERIMENTAL STATIONS WANTED. 



Question.— Ought not fruit growers to ask the Dominion and Ontario Governments 
to establish one or more stations for testing fruits and experimental purposes ? 

Prof. Saunders. — The whole system of experimental agriculture is at present in its 
infancy. I am doing my best to work order out of chaos, and have not reached any 
definite conclusions on the point mentioned, and would therefore rather be excused from 



answering. 



Mr. Ross.— I think the County of Kent might show something to them if a station 
were established in it, because the climate is congenial to fruit. 

Prof. Saunders. — It is the intention to make the central experimenta? station fall 
in with the work carried on at the different farm stations by distributing plants and seeds 
which it seems desirable under the circumstances to test in the different sections of the 
various Provinces, and thus far it will meet the want indicated in the query ; it is im- 
possible at the present time to go any further into the particulars than that. 

The meeting was then adjourned till the next morning at nine o'clock. 



CANADA AT THE COLONIAL EXHIBITION. 

In the evening a banquet tendered to the association by the County Council of Kent 
was held in the Garner House, and after the usual loyal and patriotic toasts had been 
disposed of that of "Canada at the Colonial" was proposed, coupled with the names of 
President A. McD. Allan and P. C. Dempsey. 

Mr. Allan. -The subject with which you have so kindly coupled the names of Mr 
Dempsey and myself is indeed a very comprehensive one, for during the three months we 
were over in the old country we saw a great deal. Speaking for myself, it was the first 
time I had crossed the Atlantic, and the first opportunity, therefore, I had had of seeing 
or personally knowing much about our parent nation. To do full justice to "Canada at 
the Colonial " would be a task of many hours, but as the audience present is a mixed 
one, consisting mainly of gentlemen interested in agriculture and horticulture, it may, 
perhaps, be well to touch only upon a few of the features of that great exhibition, in 
which they will be specially interested. To begin with cattle, as we have many farmers 
here, I had an. opportunity at the great Smithfield Cattle Show, considered the 
great fat stock show of England, of judging, as far as my judgment goes in such 
matters, of the quality of the stock, taking it for granted that at that show I saw 
the best specimens of the particular grades of stock in that country. Tt was 
acknowledged there that they never had a finer exhibition of fat stock, especially 
ho^s. I must say that according to my judgment our own stock breeders could hold 
their own with those of Great Britain in all points but one. Our roots and vegetables 
attracted much attention on the part of the farming community in England, and 
they were fain to acknowledge that even with their high state of cultivation they 
could not grow better or even as good roots as those produced in Canada. At the Smith- 
field show the roots were beautifully trimmed up, but compared with ours they were not 
the average size, and there was not as much feed to the acre of grain there as witih us, 
although thev manure and cultivate their soil to a far higher degree than our farmers do 






49 



here. Mr. Dempsey and I felt proud of our roots and vegetables. Then, as to our fruits. 
There has been heretofore a very wrong impression prevalent in Britain regarding our 
country. The general impression, even among the better educated class of people there, 
is that " this Canada of ours " is a land of snow and ice, where polar bears and Indians 
may be encountered almost everywhere. I have often been asked if I wasn't afraid of 
the Indians, and on such occasions would sometimes refer them to my head as a specimen 
of the Indian's prowess with the scalping knife. I do not think our Dominion Govern- 
ment could have devised anything more effectual in dispelling that idea of Canada than 
was the display of fruits grown in the Dominion made at the Colonial Exhibition. At 
the beginning of the season there was nothing but the fruit in jars, preserved in acid, 
which were admired very greatly ; but the British public were suspicious of them, and 
entertained in many instances serious doubts of their being genuine fruits. The remark 
was often made, " Oh, yes, it is all very well ; it looks very pretty, but for all we know 
it may be wax." I have often heard them when exchanging opinions with each other, express 
a doubt as to whether they were really specimens or waxen imitations of fruit. When 
the unpreserved fruit came to hand we had often to allow them to taste and see for them- 
selves in order to dispel the allusion, and certainly our display astonished them very much 
indeed. The display was arranged in such a way as to attract the greatest amount of 
popular attention. The building in which it was exhibited was a large conservatory, run- 
ning from east to west, and we laid out the fruits, commencing at the eastern end with 
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and the eastern part of the Dominion, province by province, 
finishing up with British Columbia at the western extremity, showing the fruit of Canada 
from ocean to ocean. They were arranged in groups of provinces, not societies, showing 
the province the fruit was grown in and the particular society by which it was sent, or, 
if an individual, the name of the person. As far as we could we had the name of the 
grower on each plate, giving the name of the fruit and its particular variety, and of s^ich 
a display as we had I assure you we felt very proud. I did expect at the time the fruit 
was being collected here that our exhibit would be something grand, but in my most 
sanguine anticipations I fell far short of the reality ; I never expected it would be so 
perfectly grand as it turned out to be. As I said to Mr. Dempsey, after working all 
night to get it in order, I felt like goiDg to Oxford street and investing in the highest 
plug hat to be found in all England. I don't know how any Canadian could feel other- 
wise than proud of such a magnificent display. We did our best to give all the 
information we could to the people, and to keep our exhibit before them. Wherever you 
would look your eye would be attracted by a label with " Canada " conspicuously marked 
in gold leaf letters ; we wanted to keep their attention upon our country as much as 
possible. Other labels showed the particular part of the Dominion from which they 
came, and we had also an attractive yellow label with black letters, on which was printed, 
" All Grown in the Open Air by Ordinary Field Culture," which attracted much atten- 
tion, and the thousands of people looking at that and seeing the brilliancy of the colouring 
of our fruit as compared with their own, could hardly believe that ours had been grown in 
the open air, the impression, even of the fruit growers being, that we must have employed 
some species of hot-house culture to produce such brilliant colouring and colossal dimen- 
sions. Now, from my experience there I have come to the conclusion — and being a 
shipper myself I feel privileged to make the statement — that our system of purchasing 
fruit from the grower and paying the grower has been a wrong one. I suppose the 
practice this year has been the same as in former years, the buyer paying as a rule an 
average of one dollar per barrel for winter fruit ; that has been the general rule. Now, 
I believe the way we ought to buy the fruit is according to its variety. I have made a 
calculation upon some few varieties according to the prices obtained in the British market. 
The King of Tompkins County is worth per barrel in the orchard $1.50 ; Fallawater, $1.30 ; 
Baldwin, $1; American Golden Russet, $1.15; Mann, $1.15. The Northern Spy, 
spotted as we have had it this year, is worth about 90 cents, but if you can get a first-class 
quality without spot, it is worth $1.40. If I take the Swayzie Pomme Grise according 
to the best prices obtained, it is worth a great deal more — $2 ; but I don't think I would 
be justified in putting it at that. I am quite satisfied, at all events, that it would be to 
the interest of shippers in buying hereafter to purchase fruit in that way, if not upon that 

4 (F.G.) 



50 



scale, upon one something like it, paying for each variety as it grows. If you find a par- 
ticular variety grown to perfection, pay the growers for it, and in that way there will be 
encouragement for them to grow to perfection the kinds which will obtain the highest 
price. We did not have much opportunity of testing Grimes' Golden on the British 
market, because we got so little. Rhode Island Greenings would give $1 this year, and, 
by-the-by, I think it is going to excel the Baldwin in the British market for price. This 
year Greenings came up wonderfully, and I found that the prejudice in the British market 
against green fruit is dying out. They are looking more now to quality, and for that 
reason I believe that before very long the Rhode Island Greening will bring a higher 
price than the Baldwin. I don't know that it is necessary for me to say much in regard 
to packing, except that it will pay a shipper, no matter what it costs him, to cull them 
out thoroughly, and secure nothing but the most choice specimens, perfectly clean, and 
without spot or wrinkle. Then they should be sized and coloured — that is, all the apples 
of one size and colour put together in one barrel, and marked according to what they 
are. Be honest with the man at the other side and the consume^ and let your apples 
always be fully up to the standard of the brand marked on the barrel, and you will find 
the British buyers will pay the highest price for them, and in that way you will realize 
better prices than you can by mixing different fruits in one barrel. I would advocate 
having three classes or brands, and you will realize better prices for the large and highly 
coloured apples, whereas if you mixed smaller ones with the larger ones, and green fruit 
with that which is highly coloured, you will only get prices below the medium, not the 
average at all. If you cull them out you will get three different prices, and for the poorest 
brand of the three you will get nearly as much as you would have done for the mixed 
ones, while for the highest quality you will raceive the highest price going. The buyers 
in England are on the lookout, and when you have adopted a brand and they find that 
the apples are good, they will be on the alert for it, and if a barrel of a certain brand is 
foitnd to contain apples inferior to what is represented, they will avoid that brand ; so it 
is a point on which shippers cannot be too careful. If in shipping one year your apples 
did not turn out to be as good as represented, your next year's shipments, even though 
they might consist of the finest apples that could be obtained, would be injured by it. 
Many shippers this year took advantage of the Colonial Exhibition to ship to the London 
market in preference to others, and doing so, shipped direct by water. From my own 
experience, I would warn them against doing this, for I found that the experience of 
every man 'there who had received fruit from this side direct to London by water was 
disastrous. The fruit was injured on the passage up the Thames, and arrived in the 
market fully a week later than if landed at Liverpool and forwarded on to London by 
rail, thus entailing a double loss — the loss of a week's time, and the damage and pilfering 
consequent of their having to pass through so many hands. For this pilfering, the steam- 
ship companies blame the dock hands, and they in turn blame the custom house officials, 
and you can get no satisfaction at all ; and we found that much better prices were always 
realized by shipping via Liverpool by rail to London. Besides that, coming up the River 
Thames is expensive. The dock companies' fees were something enormous, — eightpence 
per barrel landed on the dock, and then fees to the Duke of Bedford and goodness knows 
who not. The railways do charge too high a rate, however, from Liverpool to London at 
present, but they are going to pull the rates down. I have talked that matter oyer pretty 
thoroughly with the officials there, and I also suggested that the railway companies should 
provide accommodation at their stations centrally located in the city, where buyers could 
in a reasonable time buy, and the fruit be disposed of without expense, no rent being 
charged if the fruit is disposed of, instead of dealing at Covent Garden market, where 
the ubiquitous Duke of Bedford has to be paid a fee of three half-pence on every barrel. 
The railways took that up pretty well, the Midland so heartily that they had bought out 
half a block and started a new depot expressly for this purpose before I left, so that next 
year they will compete strongly for all the Canadian fruit going to London, and there 
will be no rent or charge to the shipper, and the fruit can be sold right in their own 
depot or kept for a reasonable length of time without charge, a point which will be of 
areat value to our shippers. Then there is another point. All the last part of the season, 
through December, I cabled shippers sending me fruit to ship to London via Liverpool, 



51 



and I made an arrangement at London that if the Liverpool prices were better than the 
London prices, to stop it at Liverpool and sell there. If it would pay the difference in 
freight we allowed it to come on to London straight and sold there. Some of the gentle- 
men I dealt with in London also did business in Liverpool, and in that way I had the 
advantage of two markets ; then, again, in other markets. Liverpool, of course, is the 
distributing point ; they handle more than London or Glasgow. I found the markets 
varied a good deal with the supply and demand. I had one cargo, I remember, of 14 000 
barrels, of which I had advice. The moment the steamer was in the Mersey, I thought 
to sell in Liverpool, but prices went up in Glasgow and I sent it on there • but before 
the vessel had arrived at Glasgow I had sold the 14,000 barrels in Copenhagen, Denmark 
I took the night train to Glasgow, had them transhipped, and got my money in Glasgow' 
That is the best sale 1 made— 32s. That, however, was delivered free in Copenhagen' 
but after paying all the expenses there was a very handsome profit left for the shippers* 
several of whom were concerned. Speaking of that, I believe that Copenhagen is goin<J 
to be a valuable market for this country. Apples from this country have been received 
in Sweden, Norway and Denmark before, but I think this year they know them prettv 
thoroughly and appreciate them, as we were able to send them a very fine sample of fruit 
At the same time, I am sorry to say that we got some brands in England that were not 
up to the mark. The packing generally was good. I find that the packers generally have 
got into a systematic method of working and generally pack well, if they would onlv 
cull out properly, and stop the miserable practice of putting in small and wormy fruit in 
the centre of the barrel, thinking the buyers will never find them. The buyers are verv 
particular, and open up one end of the barrel and go down a little way, then turn it over 
after closing the barrel and investigate the other end, and if there is any suspicious 
appearance they will shake it out to see what it contains. They go through it here and 
there until they learn thoroughly the kind of fruit they are receiving from that particular 
shipper. Even if they have received several consignments of number one fruit from a 
shipper, they will turn over a barrel of his shipments here aLd there, so a shipper can 
never expect to escape if he establishes a reputation and then tries to trade on that with 
inferior fruit, I tested the matter of shipping in half barrels. I took out a number of 
small barrels that are used for shipping Virginia Newton Pippins in ; it would take about 
two and a quarter of them to make a barrel of the size of ours. I lined these with'paner 
and filled them with choice Swayzie Pomme Grise apples, and then went round to sonm 
of the best buyers and handed them a few apples to taste, telling them I was goin* f n 
offer a few for the Christmas trade. They were offered there and started at 20 shilling 
running up to 27 shillings the half barrel, the highest price ever known there except for 
Virginia Newton Pippins, for which very high prices are paid. That was better than 54 
shillings for our barrel, but I do not think a large trade could be done in that wav 
There is a certain fancy trade which can be done in Covent Garden market for Christmas 
but tfre trade would be very limited, of course. There are many other markets oDenina 
out for us, an important one of which is India. I look for the time when the Canadian 
Pacific Railway will have a first-class steamship line running across the Pacific and w 
can do a good trade with India in apples. I understand that at the present time th* 
price there is equal to sixteen cents per apple for Canadian apples, It seems that some 
American and Canadian apples have found their way to India in vessels carrying ice «3 
the prices realized have been sixteen cents per apple. I have been told by officers of th7 
Indian service I have met, that although the market there would not be a very lame <ml 
—because the class of people who could afford to pay for a luxury of that kind are nnf 
numerous— still it would pay, and that some of our varieties that will carry long distant 
would find a market there. As far as the distance is concerned, I don't apprehend Z 
trouble m that respect myself. With a first-class line of steamers, such as the Canadian 
Pacific intend running, I do not think there will be any more risk in shipping there than 
to Liverpool Then we tried France and Germany, and although the prices were no? 
very extra, they being fruit growing countries and their people knowing little or nothina 
in regard to our apples, we got prices that under the circumstances rather astonished u? 
that paid expenses at all events, and in some cases a little over. From all that we ha 
lone and seen, I feel confident that there is market room enough for all the apples 



52 



can possibly grow, and I am more satisfied than ever that in this Province of Ontario, or, 
"this Canada of ours," we can grow apples equal, nay, superior to any country in the 
world, not even excepting our good friends across the line; for, taking the average of the 
market during the last year, our apples sold for an average of three shillings a barrel 
more than theirs did. I am under the mark when I say that. On regular market days, 
when lots of fruit are being offered, you will see the buyers there in hundreds waiting 
around for something to suit them. If any European fruits are offered they are very 
indifferent, and don't seem to care at all. Then when the American fruit is offered the 
bids begin to come in, but when the seller announces from his stand that he is about to 
dispose of a few thousand barrels of Canadian apples, you will see them crowding right up 
to the desk to see what he has to offer, and the bids come in lively then, I assure you. It is 
the liveliest business I have seen for some time, to see our fruits sold in Covent Garden and 
other markets of Britain. I think I am not far astray when I say that the effects of this 
Colonial Exhibition in all our departments will be something grand for our country. 
From the conversation we had with farmers and others having sons and friends desiring 
to emigrate, we found that they were all anxious to gain a little more information of our 
Dominion, about the state of agriculture and horticulture, and they were all much inter- 
ested when they came to see our display of fruits and vegetables. Every day we were 
told of relatives who were going to emigrate, for they are over-populated there in every 
direction, and all had made up their minds to come to Canada. We did our very best to 
give them reliable information, to let them know what the country is without overshooting 
the mark, and explained to them carefully our climate and other matters of interest. We 
did not want them to come here with the idea they were going to land in a perfect paradise 
at once, but told them the kind of people we are, and, indeed, from their remarks, I 
believe they thought we were about the liveliest people they had ever met ; our methods 
were quite different from theirs. That is one point I noticed in Great Britain. You see 
the spirit of progress in Canada in all departments of agriculture, horticulture and every- 
thing else which is lacking in Britain. People there seem to have the idea that everything 
in that country is done and finished, and certainly many things there are brought to a 
much more perfect state than they are here. The buildings look as if they were built to 
last forever, and the farms and lanes and gardens are very beautiful. But the people have 
settle'd down to that idea, and they are loth to adopt any new improvement. That is a 
point in which we have a great advantage in this country. I don't think I could give 
our Government too high a word of praise in speaking of that Colonial Exhibition, and 
of everything I observed there of the conduct of our Canadian affairs. I think everything 
was done there that could be done to advance the interests of the country in every depart- 
ment, and I believe that the result will be reaped at no distant day. I believe that when 
the spring opens we shall see a tide of immigration of a better class than we have ever 
had before. I am receiving by every mail letters from England and Scotland containing 
inquiries as to the prospect here, many of them being something like this: — A young man 
writes to say that he has eight hundred pounds to invest, and wants to go into farming or 
fruit growing, but would like first to engage with some farmer or fruit grower for the 
purpose of becoming acquainted with our methods, and in the meantime look around for 
an opening to invest his money to the best advantage. Many inquire in that way, young 
men who say they are not afraid of work. They say they were brought up on a farm, 
but cannot make anything at home. We have invited them in the warmest possible way, 
winding up by telling them that in coming to Canada they will still be under the old 
flag always clear to them, and are coming to live with one of the children of the mother 
country. 



REPORT ON THE COLONIAL EXHIBITION. 



At a subsequent stage the following report on the Indian and Colonial Exhibition 
was read by the President: 

Gentlemen, — Presuming that a short report of our visit to the Colonial and Indian 
Exhibition, held in London, England, during the past season will be of some interest to 



53 



you, especially in so far as it relates to fruits and vegetables, we beg to submit the 
following : 

When assisting at home in the work of collecting specimens for the display we looked 
forward with much interest to the time when such display would be arranged upon the 
tables at the " Colindries," as we anticipated that it would be both large and fine in 
samples. But although our anticipations were large we were actually astonished at the 
result, both as regards the number of specimens and their general fine appearance when 
laid upon the tables. It is only repeating the expression of a number of newspapers as 
well as many thousands of visitors, when we say that the fruit display of Canada at that 
Exhibition, was the largest and finest ever seen together in Europe. The immense con- 
servatory of the Royal Horticultural Society was filled completely, and still we had five 
hundred plates of apples to exhibit at the Edinburgh Exhibition. 

The conservatory in which these fruits were exhibited we took to represent Canada* 
and our display was laid out in provinces beginning with British Columbia on the west 
andcontinuing eastwards until it closed with Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, thus 
shewing fruits representing the vast stretch of country from ocean to ocean. Each sec- 
tion was designated by a large printed card shewing to what province it belonged, and 
this surmounted by another on coloured cardboard stating that " these specimens were 
grown in open air by ordinary culture." Besides these large coloured cards were to be 
seen in every point to catch the eye bearing the important inscription, " Canada." Thus 
laid out it was a grand picture, shewing as it did most conclusively that our country is 
not, as had been thought by many thousands in Britain a land of eternal ice and snow, 
wild Indians and polar bears, but a land possessed of a variation of climates, and scarcely 
any too severe to grow some variety of fruit, and most of it capable of producing the 
finest samples. It was a living picture that did not appeal in vain to the thousands who 
looked upon it so admiringly, it was a picture that eloquently and truthfully told of the 
beauties and goodness of our country and its climates, and it was a picture that took a 
firm grasp upon the hearts of the people and made an indellible impression upon their 
minds. 

To give an idea of the extent of this display we give each collection as follows : — 

British Columbia, apples, 180 plates ; pears 54 plates; making a total from that 
province of 234 plates. 

Provincial Exhibition, Guelph, apples, 356 plates ; pears, 84 ; peaches, 23 ; quinces, 
24 ; plums, 19 ; grapes, 138 ; making from that exhibition a total of 644. 

Bay of Quinte" Agricultural Society, apples, 288 plates ; pears, 68 ■ quinces, 2, grapes, 
80 j making a total from that society of 438 plates. 

West Riding of Huron Agricultural Society, apples, 234 plates ; pears, 66 ; quinces. 
4 ■ grapes, 51 ; and plums, 13 ; making a total from that society of 368 plates. 

Besides exhibits from Ontario from individual growers of apples, 49 plates ; pears> 
22 ; plums, 7 ; and grapes, 13. In all 84 plates. 

Or by the Province of Ontario, a total of 1,534 plates. 

The Montreal Horticultural Society bad apples, 198 plates; pears, 4 ; cranberries, 1; 
203 plates. 

Abbotsford Horticultural Society had apples, 47 plates, and pears 11 plates — 58. 

Dominion Exhibition at Sherbrooke had apples, 76 plates ; pears, 9 ; and grapes, 16 
plates — 101 ; making for Quebec province a total of 362. 

Nova Scotia province had of apples, 334 plates ; and pears, 3 ; or a total of 337 



New Brunswick province had of apples, 144 plates ; and pears 5 ; or a total of 149 
plates ; making a total for the Dominion of 2,616 plates. 



54 



Besides this display, earlier in the season there was laid upon the tables a small dis- 
play consisting of 140 plates of apples, 10 of pears and 4 of plums from the Province of 
Quebec ; 134 of apples, 37 of pears and 11 of plums from Ontario ; and 82 of apples and 
7 of pears from Nova Scotia. There was also exhibited at the Edinburgh Exhibition a 
surplus, being fruit sent from London, Ontario, and the Niagara district, that could not 
be got on the tables at the Colonial of 419 plates of apples and 9 of pears ; 63 of apples 
from Quebec, 10 of apples from Nova Scotia and 8 from New Brunswick. Thus making 
in all exhibited during the season, from Ontario, 2,144 plates ; from Quebec, 579 plates ; 
Nova Scotia, 436 plates j British Columbia, 234 plates, and New Brunswick, 157 plates. 
Making for the Dominion during the season a grand total of 3,550 plates. 

When the Exhibition closed we selected from the tables the best specimens for the 
Industrial Exhibition at Glasgow, making fully 500 selected plates of apples. Besides 
which a collection sent from Prince Edward Island which arrived too late to be displayed 
at the Colonial was forwarded also to Glasgow. All the remaining specimens were dis- 
tributed amongst leading citizens, charitable institutions, and wherever we considered that 
the most credit as well as benefit would result to our country. In a number of instancee, 
both in England and Scotland, we placed small collections of choice long-keeping kinds 
in the windows of leading fruiterers with a display card showing that they were of 
Canadian growth. 

Of the fruit sent over by the Government to test commercial values, we found that 
plums sent in bushel boxes did not carry well, indeed there was not enough to make 
up one box out of all that was sent over. But while we feel satisfied that had these been 
sent in cold storage they would have carried well ; we would recommend that plums should 
be sent in smaller packages, and in any case they should be shipped only when not perfectly 
ripe. The early pears also were too ripe when shipped to carry by ordinary freight. But 
apples carried fairly well and realized good prices for fine samples, Duchess of Oldenburg 
and St. Lawrence brought seven shillings per box. We believe that in these cases also 
if all had been in cold storage they would have arrived in perfect condition. But grapes 
whether in or out of cold storage did not as a rule carry well. Of the varieties specially 
observed the following carried perfectly, Prentiss, Clinton, Telegraph, Rogers 44, Arnold's 
hybrids. The following were fair: — Vergennes, Rogers 36, 22, 9, Burnet, Allen's hybrid. 
We could get some fairly good bunches in each box of the following, Delaware, Iona, 
Diana, and the rest of Rogers grapes not already mentioned. But Lady Washington, 
Concord, Hartford Prolific, Champion and Niagara were so shelled off that it was 
only possible to get enough to make a plate or two for the tables. Prof. Saunders' new 
grapes " Kensington " and " Emerald " which were packed in a box with other fruits 
carried perfectly. But we believe a large share of the loss (probably most of it) was due 
to the roughness in handling the packages in transit, and if the grapes had been packed 
in handle baskets we believe they would all have carried fairly well. The express com- 
panies deserve the utmost censure for the way such things are handled by them, indeed 
the fruits could not have been worse off in this respect had the Government sent all by 
ordinary freight. If we were to endeavour to find a market in Britain for our grapes it 
would be difficult to introduce them for dessert, as their quality is not as good as that of 
the home grown hot-house grapes and those imported from France. Besides cultivating 
a taste for them we would require to sell at a low enough price to enable those to eat 
grapes who cannot aftord to pay high prices for hot-house varieties. But sufficient has 
been seen and tested by manufacturers to assure us that they will become decidedly 
popular for wine making, and if the provisions of our liquor Act will permit of it there 
will be no difficulty in establishing large manufactories in grape growing districts for the 
purpose of wine making. Already one firm has signified its intention of establishing such 
a factory provided the law does not interfere. Their intention is to manufacture wines 
from grapes and also clarified cider from apples. The tests that have been made have 
been eminently satisfactory. One gentleman who used some of our refuse apples in 
cider making said that the quality of the juice extracted was so strong that it would bear 
twenty per cent, of water added, and then be as good as the juice of English apples. It 
was instructive to observe the difference between the British fruits in the market and 
the samples shown on exhibition tables, the former being wretchedly small and spotted, 



55 



while the latter were simply magnificent in size, but fineness of form and colour were 
wanting. The samples shown at the Crystal Palace show, as well as those exhibited in 
the conservatory at the annual exhibition of the Royal Horticultural Society were all 
wall grown fruits, and besides^ many of the growers admitted that they required high 
cultivation and manuring in order to produce such specimens. Indeed it was most evident 
from the spreading eyes and knotted and ribbed forms of the apples, especially that such 
was the case. In point of flavour from all the tests we could get, such fruit is very in- 
sipid compared with our naturally grown specimens, and there is a wonderful want of 
tenderness in flesh in all English apples and pears. An English Duchess of D'Angouleme 
is scarcely better than a sweet turnip, indeed they do not pretend to eat it at all, and 
many growers who tasted some of our specimens were astonished at their richness. 

We hope our steamship lines will be induced to place in all their vessels a cold storage 
compartment for shipping our early and soft fruits. Our early apples especially can all 
be shipped to Britain successfully, and we believe prices will rule high for them, as local 
early varieties as well as thos^ from the Channel Islands and Belgium are inferior to ours 
both in colour and flavour. 

The Boyal Horticultural Society very kindly met and examined a number of seed- 
lings and hybrids in our fruit list and their report will be forthcoming. They also 
examined many of our regular varieties and will no doubt give their views in their report. 
Besides the silver medal awarded to our exhibit last spring that society also granted us a 
special medal for our general display of fresh fruits. 

But our fruit tables did not claim all the attention of the public when we placed the 
roots and vegetables on one large table. Farmers and their sons were continually examin- 
ing that table, and certainly it did look most attractive when arranged in three large 
pyramids, one on each end of the table and another in the centre with specimens covering 
the space between. People seemed quite dazed at the sight and but one opinion was 
expressed by all, namely, that England could not produce such fine specimens. We never 
before in our experience gave much thought on the question of raising large pumpkins and 
squashes, but gentlemen, you should hear us waxing eloquent over a 200 pound squash, 
or a rich coloured mammoth pumpkin. Daily when in conversation with people, farmers 
and their sons would express their determination to come to our country. Many of the 
vegetables were strange to most of the visitors of course, and it was amusing to hear the 
questions asked regarding them. But there was intense interest evident in every visitor. 
Our green corn attracted very general attention and the enquiry of thousands who had 
been either in Canada or the United States and had tasted corn in the ear, was "why 
don't you send corn over to this country 1" We believe there is a very large market in 
England for our table sweet corn, and if cold storage on our steamships be adopted this 
is another article that can be successfully shipped. Tomatoes also are wanted in large 
quantities, especially the smooth varieties, and we believe high prices will be obtained, as 
those in the markets from the Channel Islands do not average so large as ours, nor are 
they so bright in colour. 

It was remarkable, and to us most interesting, to see that the object of our display 
was so universally accomplished in the fact, that everyone spoke out and in their wonder 
at the sight before them, remarked that Canada must have a finer climate than had been 
thought when such fruits, roots and vegetables would grow to such perfection. People in 
Britain were brought up to think of our country as little better than a polar region, but 
now that they are convinced by staring at actual facts and handling the specimens before 
them that such is not the case, we look for an increased emigration to our country; 
and we will not be disappointed for the people we met and conversed with are evidently in 
earnest, desiring to improve their condition in life by changing from an over-populated 
country and high taxation to a rising country where there is room for every honest 
industrious man. 

At the close of the exhibition we divided the roots and vegetables among those who 
will exhibit them in their shop windows as long as they remain in condition. 

We believe it would pay our Government to send over fruits and vegetables to some 
of the exhibitions in inland cities in England, where the population is largely agricultural 
I would have the effect of drawing thousands of young farmers to our country who are 



56 



now either going into other pursuits or emigrating to the United States or Australia ; for 
they know more about these countries than they do about ours because they have seen 
more of their produce exhibited in such a way as we now recommend : 

To advertise a country by showing its products is the most convincing, most truthful 
and by far the cheapest method. 

Alex. McD. Allan. 
P. C. Dempsey. 

Prof. Saunders. — I think the thanks of this association are due to the President and 
his associate, Mr. Dempsey, for this very full report of the Colonial Exhibition. I am 
much pleased to find that the views of those gentlemen are so fully in accord with my 
own in this matter, with regard to the exhibit of grapes. That exhibit, even from a com- 
mercial standpoint, was got up more to illustrate the character of our climate than with 
a hope of introducing our grapes for actual sale as a source of profit to this country. 
When in England, in the spring, we had grapes in bottles only, and people would often 
congregate around the stand and wish for an opportunity of handling and tasting these 
grapes, and could scarcely believe they could have been grown in the open air in a country 
so cold as this, when they in England could not do it. It required a great deal of argu- 
ment and persuasion to convince them these things were genuine, and I was so strongly 
impressed by this that I thought it would be one of the wisest things we could do to send 
over a quantity of these grapes, which could be handed round and tasted by the hundreds 
of thousands of people daily visiting the exhibition, and thus demonstrate to them that 
these things were solid, substantial realities, and that we could grow these grapes in the 
open air. I think the delegation have stated the results very correctly, and pointed to 
the fact that it is highly probable that this exhibit will have more direct influence on 
immigration for years to come than anything the government has ever done in this way. 
I found on inquiry that a large proportion of immigration from Great Britain went to 
Australia, and was told that they did not like to go to a climate where they would have 
to suffer so much cold as in Canada. The average Englishman does not take any special 
pains to make his house warm, and when the thermometer goes down to zero there is 
much suffering among those who live in such houses, and they reach the conclusion that 
if they suffer so much at home, what must it be in Canada where it is frequently twenty 
and thirty below zero. They know nothing of our system of keeping comfortable and 
warm, and, in fact, we do not suffer half as much from cold here as people in England do. 



THE QUESTION DRAWER. 

Business was resumed on Thursday morning at 10.30, when the following questions 
were read and discussed : 

APPLE BARRELS. 

Question. — I would like to ask the President if he noticed when in England whether 
the Nova Scotia apple barrels were the same size or smaller than ours 1 

The President. — They were smaller than ours. The same barrel has been used for 
a great many years there, one containing two bushels and three pecks, I believe. They 
were observably smaller than ours in all the markets. 

Mr. Everetts. — The same size as the American ? 

The President. — I found that the American barrels there varied in size. I think 
the Nova Scotia barrel was the size of most of the American barrels. The standard for 
apples is three bushels, the same size as a flour barrel. 



57 



BLACK KNOT. 



Question. — Can black knot be sufficiently controlled to make plum growing 
profitable ? 

Prof. Saunders. — There is so much in the character of the season to influence black 
knot, that that is a very difficult question to answer without some preliminary explan- 
ation. Some seasons it prevails to such an extent that it would be exceedingly difficult 
to keep it under anything like reasonable control. I think as a rule there is no difficulty 
in keeping it under control if plum growers are careful to watch for the first indications, 
and to remove them and burn the knot, so as to destroy the spores of the iungus which 
are forming in that knot. If taken in its inception in that way and watched carefully, 
there will be little difficulty as a rule in keeping this class of disease under. There are 
exceptional seasons, however, when it is exceedingly difficult. Forty-five years ago now, 
almost all of you will remember, not only plum trees, but cherries almost all over Ontario 
became so affected with it, especially the common red cherry, that in many districts whole 
orchards had to be cut down and destroyed. There are sections of the country where 
formerly many cherries were yielded in which none are now grown on account of that and 
the following seasons. Since that time it has become comparatively scarce and less 
troublesome. When it abounds like that it is most difficult to deal with, because it 
requires a great deal of labour in the way of cutting off the affected branches. Still, even 
under those circumstances, I think a little more industry and energy in the work would 
avail to keep it under control. There is no patent way, however, of getting over the 
trouble ; the old-fashioned way of cutting off the branches and cutting out the knots 
seems to be the only feasible plan yet. I think a solution of carbolic acid, perhaps, is as 
good as anything to apply for the purpose of destroying the spores that may be left in the 
branches of trees where the knot has been troublesome, and arresting their power of 
germination. 

A Member. — Is there any perceptible indication of the disease before the bark 
opens % 

Prof. Saunders. — I don't know of any way of detecting the presence of the disease 
until the bark opens, so that the knot has got a firm root on the tissues of the wood. Unless 
it would be possible to indicate in advance where the black knot will break out, I do not 
know any feasible method of prevention. 

The Member. — Is there any danger of it spreading 1 I have seen lately, on the 
cherry trees of a man five miles back of me, swarms of them ; the trees were literally 
covered with them. Some have told me there is a danger of it spreading to the apple trees. 

Prof. Saunders. — It has never been known to affect any trees other than the plum 
and cherry, and there is no probability of its spreading to the apple. The plum has been 
most affected by it until within the last few years ; in fact, formerly it was regarded as 
distinct on the cherry, but closer investigation showed that the same form of fungus 
affected both varieties, and was capable of being transferred from one to the other. Why 
it has taken a particular liking to the cherry more than the plum is difficult to account 
for, but we know in many districts the trees are completely covered with black knot, 
especially the sour cherries. The only wise course to pursue when trees are past redemp- 
tion is to cut them down and burn them, and plant fresh the next season. 

Mr. Denton. — Does black knot attack the nectarine and peach and stone fruit 
generally ? 

Prof. Saunders. — I think there is no case on record of either the peach, apricot or 
nectarine being attacked. 

The President. — Have you heard of black knot in the wild hickory tree 1 ? I have 
seen it. 

Prof. Saunders. — It is a distinct form, I think. 

Mr. Denton. — I had a nectarine growing in my garden, and after black knot had 
attacked the plums it took the nectarine, and I lost the nectarine ; not that I claim it 
died with black knot, but still I found that the black knot had taken it. 

Prof. Panton. — In travelling through the country I have been astonished at finding 
so many trees completely covered with black knot. People don't try this plan of cutting 



58 



down, and some I have found who did cut away the affected limbs, threw them in the 
fence corners, which is simply a means of scattering it. There are no less than five 
different kinds of spores, three of which have been conclusively proved to produce black 
knot. It is a fungus which spreads with tremendous rapidity, and the best treatment is 
to cut it off. People don't do that ; they ask for specific remedies for it, but will not 
apply what they are told to it. The best plan is to cut it off and burn it, because if you 
don't burn it you are scattering spores by the million into the orchard. 



THE COLUMBIA PEAR. 

Question. — What do you think of the Columbia pear 1 I think it ought to be more 
extensively grown. It keeps with less care than any other variety, and longer after being 
ripe. I have thirty-six varieties on my place, and have a good chance to judge. I think 
the Columbia is as good as any variety I have, and more valuable on account of its coming 
in ripe at this season of the year. 

Mr. Dempsey. — I do not think it is much approved of in our section. It is very 
subject to blight, and I lost a quantity of them, though I am not prepared to say that it 
is more subject to it than other varieties. I have lost a large number of varieties. One 
of the pears I prefer is the Josephine de Malines ; I am willing to stop right there for a 
winter pear. Perhaps just at this point I had better tell you something of the way in 
which we enjoy it. We have them yet, and have had since the 1st of December. We 
take a small quantity of them for about two weeks in our living room, where the 
thermometer is from sixty to seventy, and they ripen up beautifully ; all that one could 
desire in a winter pear. 

Prof. Saunders.— My experience is very limited. There is one feature in regard to 
it generally understood — it is very slow in coming into bearing ; it requires many years 
growth before you get any fruit. 

Mr. Dempsey. — That is correct. 

Prof. Saunders. — It is very good and useful when sufficiently far advanced. 

The President. — We are all anxious to get returns as soon as possible, but the fact 
that a tree is somewhat tardy in bearing is not against it in the ultimate result. In spite 
of that defect it is assuming quite a prominent position as a market variety, because when 
it does bear, it is good. One defect it has is that it is not large and somewhat inclined to 
drop off, especially in windy localities ; but even then, specimens two-thirds grown will 
ripen up and make very nice market fruit. I think as we have so few desirable satisfac- 
tory winter pears it would be well to plant this, at least moderately for market, as well as 
for other purposes. 



BEST MEANS OF DESTROYING THE CURCULIO. 

The best means of destroying the curculio, and the question, Cl Are any varieties of 
plum curculio proof f ' was next taken up for discussion. 

Prof. Saunders. — The old method of destroying them by jarring the tree and collect- 
ing the insects has been largely superseded in many districts by the use of Paris Green in 
the proportion of a teaspoonful of the poison to a pailful of water, kept in a constant state 
of agitation and sprayed on the foliage of the trees ; in the first place, about the time 
when the blossoms are falling or the young fruit shooting, and then again in the course 
of two weeks, and sometimes making a third application. Most people, however, find 
two applications sufficient to overcome the difficulty. How the result is brought about I 
am not prepared to say, but it is said that curculio will not attack trees so treated to any 
material extent, and by this method as a rule, a crop of plums may be secured. Experi- 
ments have been tried — I think the President can tell you more about it than I can — by 



59 



taking alternate rows of trees, and treating one and leaving the other without. The 
results pointed very conclusively to the importance and practical usefulness of this method 
of treatment for curculio. In reference to varieties being curculio proof, there are certainly 
some varieties which seem to have in the texture of their integuments or the character of 
their pulp, some qualities which make it difficult for the curculio to deposit eggs, or if 
they are deposited, for the larva to feed on the fruit, and these varieties are more or less 
exempt ; but they do not as a rule constitute the better class of plums and the 
most desirable varieties to grow. I think there are gentlemen here who know more about 
that than I do. 

The Secretary. — Do you think that the plan which has been tried by a certain 
writer would be at all likely to succeed 1 He says he has wound cotton batting around 
the trees for about a foot up from the ground, tied with pack thread, and as the curculio 
very seldom flies but climbs the tree, it finds great difficulty in climbing over this cotton. 
He says that trees so treated were exempt. 

Prof. Saunders. — I think the gentleman must be astray in his conclusions. The 
curculio flies quite readily ; I have seen them fly at night as well as in the day time. I 
would like to know what means of locomotion from one orchard to another the curculio 
has if it does not fly 1 If you plant a tree five miles from any other they will find their 
way to it, and unless they had some appliance for flying they would be a long time in 
walking the distance. I do not think that would give any greater security for the plum 
against curculio than it would to a cherry against robins. I do not think that remedy 
has any practical value. 

The President. — Quite early in the history of peach planting on the west shore of 
the State of Michigan, one of our early planters set out quite an extensive orchard, with 
a natural growth of timber between that and another orchard quite a distance away. He 
found he had no trouble in the spring, when they first commenced, until there was a wind 
from the direction of the other orchard, and then he had plenty of curculio. The idea 
must be that in some way a knowledge of the existence of this orchard had been conveyed 
through the atmosphere and they made a break in that direction, and I am quite sure 
they did it by flying. A neighbour of mine thought he had made a discovery — perhaps 
he had — of a process for driving them away by smoking the trees with coal tar and a 
little sulphur, doing it very thoroughly. The curculios left him, but when they found 
themselves getting short of pasture, that process did not answer the purpose ; they could 
stand a little of it. I doubt if all these experiments are not liable to that objection. 

Mr. Everetts. — Will Paris green injure the trees ? A neighbour of mine, who is 
now dead, thought it hurt the trees. 

Prof. Saunders. — I think there is no danger in using Paris green of the strength 
indicated, if the liquid is kept well agitated while being sprayed on the trees. Being a 
heavy powder, it will settle in the vessel if not constantly stirred. I knew a gentleman 
who put a quarter of a pound to a oarrel, and he complained to me that it had injured 
his trees very seriously, but on inquiry I found that he had used the water on the top, and 
when he came to the bottom had turned the whole quarter pound on a very few trees, 
which were very seriously damaged, of course. That, however, arose from his not having 
kept the mixture in a constant state of agitation. The trees upon which he had sprayed 
the water — the top of the barrel — were not affected in any way, not even the effect he 
expected of killing off the curculio, because the poison was not properly distributed, but all 
settled in the bottom. 

The President. — Our district was for many years noted as a plum-growing district, 
but the plum growers became discouraged by the ravages of curculio and black knot, and 
for many years the plum crop was comparatively small. Now, however, they are going 
into plums again, and our crop the last two years has been enormous ; plums last year 
were actually a drug on the market. So far as black knot is concerned, we do not fear it 
much ; we merely cut it off. The curculio does not appear to have the same effect now ; 
it is either weakening or leaving us altogether. We have made use of Paris green for 
the destruction of the curculio for many years and find it very effectual, using it in the 
proportions indicated by Professor Saunders. We never found any difficulty in using it 
*n those quantities, but if used stronger there is a danger of killing the tree. 



60 



Take a patent pailful of water to a teaspoonful of Paris green, mixing it with a cup in 
the water till it is a perfect liquid j keep it constantly stirred, and apply to the trees 
with a fine rose syringe. On full-grown trees, a pail will spray from six to ten trees. 
The first application should be made immediately after the blossom drops, when the young 
plum is formed, and the second about ten days afterwards. Even if the Paris green did 
destroy some of the fruit, it would have been of benefit to our trees this last year, for 
they were laden down so heavily that in many instances they were broken down com- 
pletely with their crop of fruit. I do not believe, like many, that the Paris green kills 
the insect, but I incline to think there is something in the odor of it that drives them 
away. I have examined very closely for the purpose of finding that out, but never could, 
though examining for that very purpose. So far as curculio proof plums are concerned, I 
do not think there is a plum at all that we can call actually curculio proof. There are 
varieties that seem to be so perfectly hard at the season of the year the curculio seeks 
them, that it does not seem to be able to insert its proboscis into the plum, or, if he can, 
the egg does not come to maturity. Such varieties as Yellow Egg, Coe's Golden Drop 
and Moore's Arctic, I have never found any trouble with at all, simply on account of the 
extreme hardness of the plum at the time of year the curculio carries on his operations. 

Mr. Ross. — I had the Arctic bearing last year, and it was full of curculio. 

Mr. Denton. — I have found that smoking has a good effect ; that making a fire of 
rubbish, especially old rags and a little tobacco, forces the curculio to leave the tree. 
Whether it kills it or not T am not able to say, but they will leave that bough and fly to 
some other. I have found curculio in the city in sugar barrels ; whether attracted by the 
sugar or not, I don't know. I have made up my mind that they fly from place to place. 

Mr. Ross. — I was unfortunate in not being present when black knot was being discussed, 
and there is something in that connection that I would like to know. Last year I was 
invited to Dr. Riddell's garden with a gentleman by the name of Everetts, I think. 
There were a great many nice trees affected, and we cut off one of the affected limbs and 
opened the part, and we found in it a grub. We then went through about a dozen, and 
found the same in all of them. Perhaps Prof. Saunders could tell us the insect that 
deposited that grub. 

Prof. Saundeks. — The larva found in the black knot is that of the curculio, which 
frequently deposits its eggs on the knot, on which the larva appears to have the faculty 
of feeding and thriving as perfectly as on the plum itself. This has given rise to the 
impression that the black knot was caused by this insect, whereas it has merely taken up 
the knot as a place of residence. In regard to what Mr. Denton has said, anything that 
imparts a foreign odour to the plum tree seems to throw the curculio off his track. No 
doubt insects have some sense of smell, by which they detect particular trees which bear 
the fruits they are looking for — something analagous to our own sense of smell, but far 
more acute. I know in many instances the insertion of elder branches, which have a 
strong odour, among the branches of the plum has protected the crop from curculio, which 
can only be explained by the insect having been thrown off its scent ; it has come to the 
conclusion that it cannot be a plum tree on account of the odour. The different plans of 
smoking the tree seem to be explainable in the same way, and all have their value ; but 
you can understand that where one has an orchard of five hundred or a thousand trees, 
to kindle a fire and smoke each one thoroughly would be a rather tedious undertaking, 
and in that case Paris green would be a much more practicable remedy. Anyone who 
has only a few trees may adopt any of these methods with a certain amount of success. 

A Member. — Would the introduction of wild plums into the orchard be of any 
benefit, on account of their superior attractiveness, to curculio 1 

A. M. Smith. — They would be very liable to introduce black knot, which is worse. 

Prof. Saunders. — I do not think it would be of any avail. The number of curculio 
in any district is something not easily determined, and if you offer special attractions for 
them they will no doubt come to the entertainment. I don't think it would be wise to 
plant wild plum trees with that object ; I don't think the insects would confine themselves 
to the wild trees. 



61 



THE SPOT ON THE APPLE. 

The following paper was contributed by S. P. Morse, of Milton : 

The following observations are local, mainly confined to one orchard. An apple so 
diseased as not to be fit for shipping is put down as a total loss, for no man can make a 
living at growing culls. 

Early Harvest, Fameuse, Rambo and Dominie, 100 per cent, or total loss ; Yellow 
Bellflower, 50 per cent. ; Northern Spy, 30 per cent. ; Rhode Island Greening, Ladies' 
Sweet, Twenty-Ounce and Fall Pippin, 20 per cent.; Tallman Sweet, Spitzenberg and Sweet 
Bough, 10 per cent. Some other slightly affected varieties exempt from spot, were : 
Duchess Oldenberg, Baldwin, Fall Orange, Maiden's Blush, Fallawater, Grimes' Golden, 
King of Tomkins Oounty, Eibston Pippin, Red Canada and all the Russets, as also all 
the Crabs and some seedlings on trial. 

I observed that wherever the fruit was attacked the leaf blight was present, though 
not always in equal degree ; that shade, cold and damp seemed to encourage the growth 
of fungus ; and, that thin-skinned fruits appeared more liable to its attacks than the 
thick-skinned. The influence of sun and shade respectively was very clearly proved in 
the case of the Fameuse, where closely planted or crowded. Taking my stand on the 
south or south-east side, the fruit appeared well coloured and fair, though small. Go to 
the opposite side, and a mass of withered, black and frowning faces looked complainingly 
down. A Fameuse that happened to stand by itself on a bold shoulder of a high hill 
looking square in the face of Boreas, was loaded with small, clean fruit. Yet the leaf 
was somewhat injured, the probable cause of the small size of the fruit. The Spy and 
Bellflower were most affected at the calyx, so likewise the Twenty-Ounce. These varieties 
hang pendent from twigs, which averts the calyx from the light and retains any wet that 
may gather on the apple about it. Some varieties, such as the Westfield Seek-no-further 
and Swaar dropped nearly all thin fruit, but did not spot. Such varieties as did this 
exhibited most damage to the foliage, as a rule. I have not the means of proving whether 
this is a new or old enemy, as A. J. Downing fifty years ago mentioned the "spot" on 
the Fall Pippin. It is certain that the clearing of the country of forests and some 
cosmical changes have caused considerable climatic changes, sufficient it may be to render 
our present climate unfriendly to many of our old, and till late, hardy kinds. Some time 
ago I called the attention of the Horticulturist to the fact that in this region all the black 
ash on high and low lands alike, — trees of second growth as well as those a hundred years 
old, — are dead ; they died almost in a day, in the last of May, 1885. A little to the 
north and west of this locality, hundreds of apple trees and nearly all the better class of 
plums and cherries of all kinds have yielded to the destroyer or the changes the diseases 
produce by the changes and the sudden vicissitudes so trying to all living things. Every 
variety may be said to have its habitat in which it attains its highest possible develop- 
ment. Whatever changes the conditions which go to create this habitat, if destroyed, 
destroys the adaptation, produces a retrograde movement and decay. Some other facts 
and suggestions present themselves, but I have already made this paper longer than I 
intended. At some future time, when I shall have further verified my observations, I 
may submit the results, if desired. 



A paper on the same subject by John Croil, of Aultsville, was also read, as follows : 

The above being one of the subjects for discussion at our winter meeting, which I 
will be unable to attend, I venture a few remarks, as the disease seems to be worse in our 
district than in most places. 

I speak rather feelingly on the subject, as my orchard (which my neighbours were 
pleased to call one of the best, if not the best in these counties) is entirely ruined. The 
trees are the picture of health. The fruit, mostly Fameuse, I had no difficulty in selling 
a few years ago at a dollar a bushel ; this year and last, it failed to repay the expense of 
gathering. 

No doubt the spot is, as you say, a species of fungus, but we have failed to find 
either the cause or the cure. Some seem to think the disease will run itself out. The 



• 2 



chances of that seem to be very few. A disease which has gone on increasing for a 
quarter of a century or more, and which is reported from all quarters to be worse now 
than ever it was. is a stubborn one. 

In the annual report of our association for 1869, p. 71. is the following, being a 
report of the fruit crop in the County of Lincoln : — The "black spot." as it is called, is 
worse than ever known be: ially on the Early Joe. Early Harvest and Golden 

hich are nearly worthless. Almost all varieties are more or less affected I 

ican, Rami 3 White Juneating, Dutch Mignonne, Duchess 

of Oldenbergj Gravenstein. Ealdwi: aberg, Northern S raar and Seek-no- 

further are slightly touched by it ; whilst the Ribston Pippin. > • - • : wn Pippin, King of 
Totupkir. . Roxl niy -\n I Golden Russet, especially the latter, are good. 

Of the above apples the same thing might be said to-day. The workings of the 
\se have been very puzzling. If it is in the soil or the atmosphere, what change has 
come over these to produce and continue it I Orchards we have here, within a few miles 
of us. grafted fruit, with soil and situation seemingly very similar to ours, all of them 
like ours close to the St. Lawrence, bearing fruit very little spotted, of kinds the same 
and alike cultivated. Within the distance named and under similar circumstances, a 
neighbour of mine has a large orchard planted the same year as mine (1869.) This year 
his Fameuse. like mine, were badly spotted : his Tallmans were free from spot. Mine. 
which were not affected till now. were this year as badly spotted as the Fameuse. In 
rar- come acr of Fameuse very lightly affected : these almost invariably 

are on sa: : ^m. 

At one of our meetings I showed Mr. Dempsey a sample of my Wealthy apples, and 
to my inquiry what apple it was. he replied, if it was not spotted he would say it was the 
Wealthy. It was the Wealthy, and from reports I gave you in the December number of 
the Hor: will see that it does not sustain its character of being entirely free 

from spot. I hope I may be wrong when I say I fear it will not remain on the spot free- 
list The American Golden Russet has never been known to spot in our district. I 
might aliL :he Duchess with it. bin would have trouble to name a third. 

I never saw a tree subject to the spot recover, and as apples spotted to any extent 
will not pay the expense of growing, barely of gathering I believe in the advice given us 
in the January H it them down and burn them is sound, and just such 

as I have given t but to me it's like drawing teeth, very unpalatable. I hope 

the discussion m nay bring good results. 



The Secretary. — I was somewhat surprised to find the Newtown Pippin classed as 
almost - ind that the Golden Sweet was subject to spot in the County of Lincoln. 
I have known the latter for a number of years, and it is almost entirely free. I feel so 
much interest in this question that I must ask you to allow me to make a few remarks 
also. We v egin to feel that this is one of the most serious questions in regard to the future 
of our apple culture that can be brought up. I am very hopeful that discussions on this 
matter may be helpful to us, because I am certain that unless we can either find varieties 
proof against this spot, or some remedy for the spot itself, we shall have to give up apple 
culture. Its course with us has been somewhat as follows. It began in the Snow apple, 
in which I think I noticed the first signs about 1870, and in our section of the country 
it is now utterly useless. The app'-r- _ .idler every year and we are cutting 

down our trees or else top-grafting them. The Fall Pippin is another of the 
same kind, and its history is the same, but with it, instead of getting smaller, 
the apples are fewer in number : we do not get a crop on more than half our 
ars ago, in 1874. we shipped a car load of them at a time in 
one season, but now we never get more than twenty or thirty barrels of apples off 
the same trees. I am sorry to say it is also coming on the Greening, which has been 
referred to by our President as one of the apples now gaining favour in the markets of 
the old country. They have been worthless, especially in the older orchards, for the last 
three or four years, and not only worthless but the crop has been very much decreased. 



63 



The Rambo is one of the worst, it is as bad as the Snow, and another apple that I am 
very sorry to see beginning to be affected is the Northern Spy. There are a few on the 
table, just put there to show you how the spot is beginning to affect them ; at the calyx 
end you will see how it affects them. I have planted a large orchard of these apples, and 
it disappoints me very much. The Spitzenberg does not show so plainly, but it has ceased 
to bear a profitable crop. The Early Harvest is another of the very worst ; almost as bad 
as the Snow. The Baldwin has not been a good cropper for the last three or four years, 
and I am inclined to attribute it to the same cause, although it does not show this scab 
to the same extent. The new apple, the Wallbridge, I have not fruited, but I noticed in. 
the last Montreal report that it is subject to the spot. Altogether only a few varieties 
are free with us. The American Golden Russett is clear and beautiful, and the Graven- 
stein might be classed on the free list. The Red Astrachan is clean and the Duchess of 
Oldenburg is one of the very finest. The King apple is scarcely affected at all, and the 
Mann is clear. The Alexander also I think might be put upon the free list. The 
Wealthy has the reputation of being free, and the Ribston Pippin is one of the very best 
— perfectly free from spot. 

President Lyon. — Has anyone had any experience or made any investigation with 
reference to the time when this disease originates. I think very little is generally known 
on the subject, and I think it is very important that this shonld be learned if we are to 
devise any means of arresting it. I suspect from the little observation I have made on 
the subject that it appears very early after the fruit begins to swell, if not early after 
the blossom. 

Prof. Panton. — It is said to be from a very early period of the apple's existence, from 
the time it is as small as a pea. 

President Lyon. — I might add that there seems to be seasons when the disease dis- 
appears entirely, even on the varieties most affected ; that is, the Snows sometimes come 
out perfectly bright and clear, while most seasons they are entirely ruined. 

Prof. Saunders. — I have observed the spot on very small apples, before they are the 
size of a hickory nut, and there is no doubt it attacks the fruit very soon after it is 
formed. President Lyon has pointed to a very important matter, and that is the character 
of the season and its influence on the spot. This last year, in the Province of Quebec, 
spot has prevailed to an extent never before known, and that may perhaps account for the 
adverse account of the Wallbridge, to which the Secretary has just referred. Heretofore 
there has been no difficulty in obtaining large quantities of Fameuse apples near Montreal, 
almost if not entirely free from spot, but this last year I had the greatest difficulty in 
getting a few bushels to send to the Colonial Exhibition. Every grower told me that he 
had never had such an experience before, it resulted in the almost entire destruction of 
their crops, as far as the markets were concerned. It is to be hoped the thing will pass 
away there as readily as it has come to them, although it is to be feared they may be 
troubled in this matter for some years to come. 

The Secretary. — It rather increases than diminishes with us, and never entirely 
disappears. 

Prof. Saunders. —It seems to be worse some years than others ; this last season has 
been much worse than any ever known before. 

Prof. Panton. — What kind of a season has it been 1 

Prof. Saunders. — I have been away most of it, and have had no opportunity of 
judging. At a late meeting of the vine growers in France the subject of mildew on grapes 
was investigated by scientific men, and some very useful information was conveyed to the 
public on the use of a mixture of sulphate of copper and lime as a deterrent for mildew, 
and it might possibly be worth testing in regard to the fungus on the apple. A paper 
was read at the meeting of the Western New York Fruit Growers' Association on this 
subject, in which was given the proportions used. I took them down, but I don't happen 
to have it with me, and cannot give the proportions from memory, but the sulphate of 
copper is dissolved in water, in the smallest possible quantity, and the lime is taken and 
slacked, and exposed to the air in a fine powder, and the solution of sulphate & copper 
added to the lime, and the whole mixture dried in the sun. It was tested on the grapes 
and they have had wonderful results. I think it is a thing well worth trying. It not 



64 



only kept the vine free from mildew, but had the effect of invigorating the plant so that 
it has held its foliage very late in the season, and retained its dark green colour. 

The Secretary. — Some of you, will remember, perhaps, Professor Saunders recom- 
mending us to experiment on the apple spot by spraying with a solution of sulphur and 
water, and also, I believe, among other remedies, the use of a solution of hypo-sulphite of 
soda. I tried the sulphur very faithfully, but could not find the slightest difference in the 
trees that were sprayed. I am sorry I did not try the other, as I believe others have met 
with a measure of success in using it, and in the last report of the New York experi- 
mental station, Professor Arthur, of Geneva, gives his experiences in its use. The quantity 
he used was one pound to ten gallons of water, and he syringed half of each tree with it, 
making applications on the 6th of May, the 9th of May, and the 15th of May, with the 
following result. The proportion of uninjured fruit on the syringed part of the trees was 
greater than on the other, and the fruit was also superior in size, and he adds, which 
makes it very practicable for us, it may be applied at the same time the spraying with 
Paris green is done ; it can be mixed with the Paris green and water when spraying the 
trees for codlin moth. I would suggest that fruit growers should make the experiment 
this summer. I am going to try it, for I think it is a very important thing. T hope 
science will come to our aid, and rid us of this very serious disease. 

Prof. Saunders.. — Some chemicals are very expensive, but this happens to be a very 
cheap one. 

Mr. Dempsey. — We had very few first-class apples this year on account of the spot, 
but if the same remedy will destroy apple spot that will destroy mildew, I am satisfied it 
can be quite easily accomplished. We find that a simple application of sulphur on grape 
vines when they are beginning to start their growth is quite sufficient to make a nice, 
clean crop. Throw the sulphur on the ground, or so it scatters on the ground, and we 
find that we have no mildew, even in the varieties most prone to it. We have also found 
it very efficacious to apply sulphate of iron sown broad-cast over the soil. When 
this was done we found no difficulty with our grapes. I don't know whether this will 
agree with the scientific developments of Professors Saunders and Panton, but it occurs 
to me that there is a possibility of destroying apple spot by an application of either 
sulphate of iron or sulphate of copper. 

Prof. Saunders. — In this paper to which I have referred the effect of the different 
substances was indicated by black lines, showing what proportion of success had attended 
these different methods by illustrating the relative good done. Sulphate of iron made a 
very short line indeed on this scale. In these experiments in France sulphur also failed 
to come up to the expectations formed, but this mixture of sulphate of copper and lime 
filled up the scale, indicating that they were almost entirely successful in stemming the 
virulence of this disease. I think at the same time that we should test everything likely 
to prove of service. The action of sulphate of iron may not be the same on the apple as 
on the grape, and therefore both should be experimented with. 

Mr. Dempsey. — Could the sulphate of copper not be safely used mixed with Paris 
green in spring for the codlin moth and syringed on the tree at the same time, as soon 
as we discover fruit on the apple trees ? 

Prof. Saunders. — I have had no personal experience ; I am merely reporting what 
I have heard second-hand, and in these experiments the sulphate of copper when used 
alone did not give half as good results as it did when lime was associated with it, and the 
opinion of the French chemists was that there was some combination between the lime 
and sulphate of copper which made them more effective when used in combination than 
where sulphate of copper was used in solution by itself. 

Prof. Panton. — Of the three mixtures spoken of, sulphur, sulphate of iron and the 
sulphate of copper and lime, the latter, as has been said by Prof. Saunders, gave the most 
favourable results in the experiments made by the French chemists. Mr. Dempsey tells us 
that where he scattered sulphur on the plant and the soil he has found satisfactory results. 
If that is an established fact it is worth following up by others, so as to make it still more 
definite. I can imagine that the fumes arising from the formation of sulphurous acid as 
the sulphur is acted upon by the sun and atmosphere, would be death to these mildews. 
I would not have so much faith on the subject of iron, but of course all of these things 



65 



have to be judged by the results. I could understand better and be more in favour of 
the sulphate of copper and lime, because there the lime may take hold of the oxide and a 
certain amount of acid be evolved. I am inclined to favour this mixture of sulphate of 
copper and lime more than pure sulphate of iron. I don't doubt sulphate of iron and 
lime might be tried. 

The President. — I can corroborate Mr. Dempsey in regard to sulphur on grapes. I 
used it for several varieties of my grapes that were affected by mildew. I was in the 
habit of sprinkling -the sulphur upon the vine, but for the last three or four years I have 
practised scattering the sulphur — which, as I think Mr. Dempsey said, is a very cheap 
substance — all over the soil under the vinery, and I find no difficulty in any of the varie- 
ties we Lave ; no mil lew at all. I have a perfectly clean crop of Concords, and even of 
the Burnet, which ufed to mildew all over. So far as mildew in the grape is concerned 
we have got fairly rid of it, and I believe with Mr. Dempsey that by following this up in 
the same way with other substances, we may attain the end we have in view. 

Mr. Ross. — I have two hundred grape vines, and I never saw mildew on one of 
them. 

The President. — This is the County of Kent, you must remember. 
Mr. Dempsey. — I know a recipe for destroying mildew on the grape. Put a certain 
quantity of lime in a bottle, and when syringing the vines put in a certain quantity of 
this liquid. I have known that remedy to clear them perfectly in a vinery. It is a theory 
I got from an English person. 

A Member. — It is a good, practical remedy. Throw some lime and sulphur in the 
same pot. We used to have proportions to mix it, but that is not necessary; nearly equal 
parts, or a little more lime or sulphur, it does not matter. After boiling for a few hours 
the liquid is put away in a jug to be used in small quantities. 

The President. — These remedies sometimes fail when applied by simple sprayino- 
without force, and succeed under other circumstances. We can hardly judge of the 
preparations spoken of unless we know the circumstances under which they are applied. 
I have known cases in which preparations intended to destroy insects have failed when 
applied without much force, but succeeded admirably when sufiicient force was given to 
thoroughly permeate the whole surface. 

The Secretary.— A question was handed in which I reserved, to be dealt with under 
this head : " Will it pay to spray apple trees with Paris green for codlin moth ?" I sup- 
pose I may answer that from experience. It certainly does pay, and pay well. Formerly, 
when we did not use it, we were becoming discouraged, as we now are with the spot, and 
began to feel that if things went on like that we should find apple culture unprofitable. 
I am sure that some years I have had to throw out fully one-third of my apples on account 
of codlin moth, and that is a serious consideration. But since we have used Paris <*reen 
I don't think there is one barrel in ten, perhaps in twenty ; so it pays very well indeed 
and the labour is not very great. 

The President. — What is your proportion, and how is it used ? 
The Secretary.— My plan is to use one horse and a market waggon. Some use two 
horses, but I find one answers as well. At first horses are very much afraid when you 
begin to use the pump ; it is rather terrifying to them. I use a pump similar to Field's 
force pump, niadeat Oakville. I use a coal-oil barrel, which answers the purpose very 
well indeed, to which I attach the pump and screw it down fast in the head, in which 
also a little opening is left through which to pour in the water, the whole arrangement 
being securely tied to the waggon by four ropes, one at each corner. I first mix up the 
Paris green well with a smaller quantity of water and put this in the barrel, and then 
pouring in the rest, pail after pail, will mix it most thoroughly. Of course I have a stick 
for stirring it up every little while and keeping it well in suspension. Two men will a 
over a large area of ground in a day with this arrangement, By having it mounted in*a 
waggon you can reach pretty high trees. I have tried it in a truck or stone-boat, which 
answers for young trees, but in a waggon you can reach the top of quite large trees and 
the spray is distributed beautifully fine all over them. 

Prof. Panton. — How many ordinary trees could be syringed with one barrel ? 
The Secretary. — Twenty -five or thirty. 

5 (F.G.) 



66 



Prof. Saunders. — How much Paris green to the barrel? 

The Secretary. — Three ounces to fifty gallons of water. I was rather careful,, 
because I found that injurious results followed sometimes from using as much as four 
ounces to the barrel. 

A Member. — How often did you go over them 1 

The Secretary. — Sometimes not more than once, unless there happened to be a 
heavy rain shortly after using it. 

The President. — At what time do you apply it ? 

The Secretary. — Almost as soon as the apples are formed, while they are still stand- 
ing upright. 

Prof. Saunders. — Did you find it cleared away the canker worm as well ? 

The Secretary. — I did ; we have been a good deal troubled with canker worm, and 
at one time it was a question how to get rid of it ; but I find the Paris green quite 
effectual in that way. I may state also that I have tried London purple and found it 
quite as effective as Paris green as far as I have noticed of it. It certainly mixes with 
the water better, but I found. that injury resulted also from the use of it too strong, and 
have not used as strong a solution as is reeommended by some. I found one-third of a 
pound to forty or fifty gallons to be sufficient. 

A Member. — Is there any brand we can be sure of 1 

Prof. Saunders. — Owing to the demand for a cheap article Paris green is often 
adulterated. Paris green will dissolve entirely in ammonia, and if you have any 
sample of doubtful purity take as much as will lie on a five cent piece and put 
it in a bottle of ammonia. If it leaves a white powder at the bottom you may 
be sure it is not Paris green. When Paris green is pure it is uniform in its action, 
and always contains about the same proportion of arsenic. London purple is quite a 
different thing, it is a waste powder that arose in the manufacture of aniline dyes, in 
which arsenic is one of the important constituents ; and formerly the manufacturers were 
obliged to send it out into mid-ocean and dump it to prevent any danger of bad effects 
upon the community. There is no uniformity or stability about it ; it is a mixture of 
arsenic and lime in variable proportions, some times twice as strong as at others, and fori 
that reason I never recommend its use. You may get good results in two or three 
instances, and on using the same quantity next time youVill find the foliage of your trees; 
or plants injured. I think when you know of a remedy that is safe, and uniform in its 
action, it is not wise to change for one less uniform in its results. 

Mr. Dempsey. — With respect to the use of a nozzle for spraying trees, I believe I 
use one a little cheaper than any other [ have ever seen used. It requires a little practice 
to use it properly, but I find it much more satisfactory than anything else I have met 
with. We simply unscrew the patent nozzle and throw it away, and by clapping a finger 
over the ring of the nozzle I can arrange the spray just as I like ; it only requires a little 
practice. You can arrange to increase the force of your pump by throwing a smaller 
spray, or throw it larger and spread it further if you wish, just to suit the circumstances. 
And just here is another point, perhaps I use a more powerful pump than most people 
do, a three inch cylinder pump, which will throw water thirty feet high quite easily. 
When the poison is thrown up so that it descends like rain it generally strikes about 
all the fruit that is standing erect, and I find it has the best effects upon the fruit. 

Prof. Saunders. — While on my feet I intended to have referred to one more of the 
exact experiments that had been tried in regard to the effect of Paris green upon the 
codlin moth and cut worm. Professor Forbes, of Champagne, Illinois, two years ago in- 
stituted a series of careful experiments, taking alternate trees of the same varieties of 
fruits and spraying one end leaving the other unsprayed ; keeping a record of the number 
of times they were sprayed and all particulars, and submitting each apple from each tree 
to a careful examination. The results, as far as I can give them from memory, were that 
about three-quarters of the crop was preserved by the use of Paris green on alternate 
trees. It is the only very exact experiment I know of that has been carried on. They 
may be repeated in another county with better results. 

The Secretary. — I noticed the result of an experiment at the New York station. 
They used Paris green on the 3rd, 5th and 17th of June, and the result was that of the 



67 



trees sprayed thirteen per cent, were wormy, and of those not sprayed thirty-five per 
cent I would Jike to bring up the question of kerosene emulsion, to see if any li^ht can 
be thrown on that. I tried it last year on some apples and cherry trees, but without 
much success, perhaps because I did not use the correct proportions. I only used one 
gallon of kerosene to half a pound of soap and forty gallons of water, I find that Prof 
Riley recommends two gallons of kerosene for the same amount. Of course I mixed it 
hot, got the soap and water boiling and put the kerosene in afterwards, and churned it 
up thoroughly in barrels. I suppose my lack of success must have been owing to mv not 
having used enough kerosene. 

Prof. Saunders.— Did you churn the kerosene with the whole quantity of water 1 1 

The Secretary.— Afterwards ; I mixed it first in the pot. I used one gallon of 
kerosene, half a pound of soap, and forty gallons of water. 

Mr. Everetts.— In regard to nozzles, I have done a good deal of spraying, and the 
best nozzle I have ever had yet is one in which the water comes out with a twist and vou 
can gauge it in spraying by turning a thumbscrew. I have seen it advertised in the 
American Agriculturist, and they keep them in the hardware stores. You can arrange 
to spray the tf hole side of the tree almost. I do not remember the name of it 

The Secretary. — Is not there a half moon 1 

Mr. Everetts.— No, it is just like a shut-off tap. As you turn one way it shuts off 
the water entirely, and the other way a straight stream. 

The Secretary.— The cyclone nozzle is arranged with both a round and a half 
moon aperture, and by these you can regulate the stream of spray to any size you please. 

THE APHIS ON CHERRY LEAVES. 

^ ^ Th ^i neXt 8Ul 5 e ? ^ ken UP f ° r discussion was > " The Aphis on Cherry Leaves : Extent 
ot the Plague, and best means of checking it." 

The Secretary.— I have had some experience, but I am afraid it is not' worth any- 
thing, because it wa« unsuccessful. It was the application I have just been describing a 
kerosene emulsion which I tried u P on ths cherry trees. It did not remove the aphis and 
we suffered very badly with it • indeed our trees were covered with them last season and 

althonT eS f"" 6 largdy ^ f ° r ? lpping - The leaVGS Were J' ust black with them and 
although in former years we have had the same plague we never had it so terribly bad as 

thliTZ' f T ^^ ^f i° US t0 deSlr ° y the aphis ' but 1 su PP° se owin S to the fact 
tr it a-ain LweveV 110 ker0Sene to make {t thoroughly effective I failed. I shall 

The President.— Did you try carbolic acid 1 

The Secretary. — No, sir. 

Prof Saunders.— I cannot throw very much light on this question. My oppor- 
tunities of testing remedies have not been very great in that line, as the few tvel I have 
grown have not been badly affected, and the birds which feed on them have made a point 

reird t g I ° f ** 7^' The evidenCG which haS been accumulating, howeve^" 

regard to kerosene emulsions, points to their being useful, to put it very mildly for 
the aphis. They have been tried for the apple aphfc and in many instances found 
beneficial, and would probably be so also for the cherry 

The President.— I have tried carbolic acid. I was just going from home when it 
appeared, and the trees were perfectly covered with it when I heard of it Ttlld the 
man in charge to make a mild solution of carbolic acid and apply it with a syringe and 

wTs T rotd Mm tot^" F ^T ^S™^* * ^L what 4^2^ 
hZl + w ^ . ^ Ve Xt miM en0U ^ h S0 dt would not in J^ r e the trees. It did not 

injure the trees, but it cleaned off the aphides and we saw nothing more of them 

but ^n^ VERETTS ;~l n I 885 tHey WGre Very tWck in m ? distric t; and not only they 
^^^^t^ ^ ^ ^ fl6Shy P- tof ^e under side of the leaLfm 7 ; 

sW P H f plfl UNDER V That iS a S ?n g ' a s]im 7- look ^g thing-the pear tree or cherry tree 
slug. Hellebore or Pans green will get rid of that entirely. * 



68 



The Secretary. — What would be the proper amount of carbolic acid to use in 
water 1 

Prof. Saunders. — The proportion of about an ounce to a quart. 

The President. — I don't think my man used so much as that. 

Prof. Saunders. — It varies so much in its strength in commerce ; it depends upon 
whether you get the higher grades or the crude acid, which is a different chemical. You 
would have to know what grade of the acid was used before you could advise as to the 
proportions. 

The Secretary. — I have used it for the aphis on the rose. 

Mr. Beall. — I was going to ask if you used crystals. Of course I am not a chemist, 
but, as I understand it, it is in a crystal state, and there is crude carbolic acid, which is a 
heavy fluid. I used that, and I could not use a quarter of an ounce in a gallon but what 
it would burn up the foliage. 

Prof. Saunders. — My remarks apply to the higher grades, in the crystal state. 

Mr. Beall. — You would not recommend the crude acid ? 

Prof. Saunders. — No, not for purposes such as we are now discussing. The clear 
acid — or sometimes it is a little pink — is the most convenient form to use, and should be 
used. It is ordinarily sold for chemical purposes. 

The President. — I fancy that would be the kind my man used. 

President Lyon. — I had a row of forty or fifty young cherry trees attacked by the 
slug, and after a day or two found two hundred upon them. Being in haste I applied 
road dust right then, and on returning next day found only half a dozen, or perhaps a 
dozen left on the whole row. I tried it a second time, and that was the last of them. 
They certainly did not get away in any other way than being destroyed by the sand in 
each case. There is no doubt of the success of the Professor's plan, but sometimes it is 
troublesome to go to the expense and labour of preparing chemical solutions, and the road 
dust or sand will actually effect the object. We have found no necessity for more than 
one or two applications. 

Prof. Saunders. — Your experience does not correspond with that I had. I used to 
have an abiding faith in this road dust remedy, but after several applications I found it 
did not give the result expected. I thought I would try an experiment, and I took the 
branch of a pear tree that was badly affected by slugs, counted the number of slugs, and 
kept a record of them. I then took some road dust and was very careful to pepper each 
one all over with the dust, and then tied up the branch so that the birds could not get at 
it to pick off the slugs. On going back the next day, or two days after, I forget which, I 
found that the slugs had crawled out of this covering of sand and dirt and were feeding 
away as before on the leaves of the trees. I am not quite sure whether the number was 
at all diminished or not, but certainly not to any extent that would warrant me in includ- 
ing this as a remedy. I tried a second application on the same insects, and on visiting 
them again found they had crawled out a second time, and I thought if they could do that 
it was not worth while to pursue the experiment any further, as far as the practical out- 
come was concerned. These insects went on and completed their growth as if nothing 
had happened. I came to the conclusion that road dust acts mechanically by covering 
the slimy coats of the insects with a heavy weight, which causes them to roll off the tree. 
When it is thrown on with considerable force a large proportion of them would be dis- 
lodged, but while I would not like to be understood as disapproving the remedy, I do not 
think it is one which can be relied upon to succeed every time. I think it depends very 
largely upon the way in which it is applied. 

A Member. — Have you seen air-slacked lime applied 1 

Prof. Saunders. — No, but I understand it has been used very effectually j but it is 
an unpleasant thing to use. 

Mr. Smith. — I effectually rid my trees of a large quantity by sprinkling with 
unreached ashes and hellebore, in the proportion of a handful of hellebore to a peck of 
ashes. 

Prof. Saunders. — The hellebore alone would have done it. 

Mr. Beall. — I have used air-slacked lime on cherry trees. I did it for two years, 
and it only required one application each year to perfectly effect my object, but on applying 



69 



it the third year I found it almost worthless. I began to think over the matter the next 
day. I could not make it out how it was, and then I remembered I had made a mistake 
in the time of putting it on. On the third occasion I had put it on early in the morning, 
when there was a heavy dew, and it had little effect. After this third time I applied it 
in the middle of the day, when it was hot and dry, and the next day after that application 
there was not a slug to be seen. It requires to be put on during the heat of the day, 
when everything but the slug itself is dry. 

Mr. Huggard. — About six years ago I found it affecting not only the cherry and 
pear trees, but also the mountain ash as well. Lime was the only available thing I could 
get at the time, and I tried it in the morning with no satisfactory results, but in the 
middle of the day, or any time when the foliage is quite dry, it kills them every time in 
a couple or three hours. We have applied it for the last three or four years. It is easily 
applied ; anyone can sprinkle it on, and I will guarantee it a good cure. 

Mr. Beall. — I might say that people think the application is objectionable if there 
is much wind, but by getting on the windward side of the tree and throwing it high, no 
unpleasant results will follow. 

Prof. Saunders. — Supposing there is no wind 1 

Mr. Beall. — I throw it up. 

Prof. Saunders. — Do you run away then 1 

Mr. Beall. — Oh, no ; there is always wind enough if you keep on the windward 
side. 

Mr. Huggard. — If you- make a little trowel out of a shingle and throw it up into 
the tree it will spread it quite effectually. 

President Lyon. — There is a little experience I had with pear trees which may be 
useful. Some years ago I had thirty or forty varieties of pear trees planted, two or three 
of each kind, planted in a row adjacent to each other. Some of these had very glossy 
foliage and the others quite the reverse. I had occasion to pass through them three times 
a day during the period at which the slug makes its appearance, and I made it my busines 
to look out for them. During the whole season I failed to discover a single slug on any 
of the glossy foliaged trees, while the others were invariably attacked. I applied the 
remedy of which I have already spoken every time I passed through, and I had no diffi- 
culty in keeping them almost entirely under subjection. They always appeared upon the 
varieties with the rough foliage. 

Prof. Saunders. — What varieties ? 

President Lyon. — An old variety, called the Louise Bonne de Jersey. 

Prof. Saunders. — We suffered very much in the vicinity of London. I know my 
pear orchard was as if a fire had passed through it when I came back, I was astonished ; 
nearly the entire foliage of the orchard was gone. Out of something like a 100 varieties 
I could not observe any difference in their liability to its attack. 

President Lyon. — I guess if they had been driven to it they might have attacked the 
smooth trees with me, but they had plenty of pasture in the others. 

The President. — My experience in regard to road dust tallies with that of President 
Lyon. I have used road dust, and find it very effectual in dry weather when the slug is to be 
found in large numbers on the trees. I have once in a while thrown in a little dry wood 
ashes with the dust, but generally have taken just the road dust alone. 



POINTS TO BE OBSERVED IN JUDGING FRUIT. 

Mr. Beall. — The question I propose is, by what standard shall we judge fruit or 
apples. My reason for taking this question up was because of the difficulty which exists 
at our township and county fairs in judging, or rather the evil results of the judgments 
given there. I have seen so much of this at different places that I have come to the con- 
clusion that it is almost like a lottery ; no man can have any idea before hand of what 
the results will be, no matter how good his fruit may be he is never certain of receiving 



70 



a prize, simply because the taste of one or more of the judges differs from his own, and 
for the same reason the prize often goes to inferior fruit. I am speaking more par- 
ticularly, of course, of the small societies, the township societies, where only a few prizes 
are offered. For instance, a prize is offered for the best variety of winter apples, the best 
plate of winter apples. Well, I remember one instance in which there was an excellent 
plate of Russets on the table, and another of Talman Sweets, which got the prize as being 
the best winter apple on the table, and I have seen other cases just as erroneous in my 
judgment. I saw two of the judges in that case afterwards, and asked them their reasons 
for giving such a judgment. They said the Talman Sweet was just as large and better, 
and in their judgment they thought nothing was equal to the Talman Sweet. If there 
was a standard established by this association or some other body having authority mor- 
ally, to which they could refer and see that one must be judged by a higher standard than 
another, I think it would have a better effect. We know that at large fairs the numerical 
system has been almost altogether adopted, but at small places people don't know any- 
thing about that. I think every apple should have a numerical value, for different 
purposes. For instance, an apple might be valued at say ten for a dessert apple, but 
for market purposes only five or six, and so on. I think it would prove of great advan- 
tage if a standard were established by this association, and the judges in small places 
would be greatly aided by it in the performance of their duties. 

Mr. Wellington. — I don't think any standard would be of much service to judges 
who would make such a judgment as that described by Mr. Beall. The only effectual 
standard in that case would be to turn them out and appoint better men. As to our 
establishing a standard as to numbering, I don't see how it is to operate. In the case 
say of winter apples, there might be a plate of what we would consider inferior winter 
apples that would be graded as two, and a very much superior plate very much less, and in 
that way you could not give justice to one which might be graded for a particular purpose. 
I think the judging of fruit depends a good deal upon the men who are selected as judges, 
who should be men having a practical knowledge of fruit ; then they will not run to the 
largest apple, but will have some knowledge of an apple's value as a shipper or keeper or 
dessert apple, or whatever purpose it may be used for, and will look to colouring and 
average size, and not monstrosity. That is my idea of judging ; I don't think we could 
benefit a judge by setting up any numerical standard. 

The President. — I have had considerable experience in regard to this matter, both 
here and across the line, in judging fruits, and I have always adopted as one particular 
point in judging any fruits, to take into consideration the commercial value of each 
variety presented. I think that is a point which should never be forgotten in judging 
apples or any other fruit. In coming to a conclusion, take into consideration in the first 
place, the correct or incorrect naming of the varieties. The judge is supposed to be a 
practical man who knows the most possible about each variety, and what a perfect sample 
of each variety should be. He takes up an apple off a plate, and looks at it to see if, in 
his judgment, it is a perfect sample of its variety; or, if it is not, how far below that 
does it fall, judging all points ranging from one to five, or one to ten, if you please. Give 
the proper number of points to each variety, and, adding up the whole, give the prize to 
the collection receiving the largest number of points. In awarding these points, the 
general points that each apple should have, in order to be a perfect variety or sample, 
should be taken into consideration. Then take into consideration the commercial value. 
For instance, those varieties having the highest commercial value will have a chance of 
the prize, even if the samples themselves are not quite up to the mark as some other col- 
lection consisting of varieties not so valuable in the general markets. The collection 
having a large number of winter apples stands a better chance, as a rule, of the prize, 
than one made up largely of summer and fall apples, which are not commercially so 
valuable as the others for general cultivation. 

Mr, Everetts. — I think it would give judges a better chance if one were for packing, 
another shipping, another cooking, and so on. 



71 



THE PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF GRAPE GROWING. 

At the opening of the afternoon session the following paper was read by A. M. 
Smith, of St. Catharines : 

The cultivation of grapes, if not practised by the antediluvians, was one of the first 
industries of which we have any record after the flood, and from that time to the present 
it has been in many parts of the world one of the most important, and it has furnished one 
of the most healthful articles of sustenance known to civilized man, and though many, 
like Noah who planted the first vineyard, have imbibed too freely of the fermented juice 
of the vine, and like him have shamefully exposed themselves, it still remains, when 
properly used, the most beautiful, lucious and healthful fruit that God has given us. 
Though, by the way, I have heard it argued by a distinguished divine, that Noah did not 
get drunk because his wine was fermented, but his grandson, Canaan, wanted to have a 
little fun and drugged the old gentleman, hence the curse that he pronounced upon 
Canaan. Be that as it may, we know that the proper use of the grape always 
brings health and enjoyment, while the improper use brings worse curses upon the human 
race than were ever pronounced upon Canaan. 

I have often thought it would be interesting to know more of the methods of propa- 
gation, culture and varieties of the grapes grown by the ancients ; whether Noah raised 
his vineyard from seeds or cuttings preserved from the flood, the distance apart he planted, 
and whether he trained to stakes or trellis, and whether they were all one variety or not. 
There can be no doubt of the superior size and productiveness of ancient grapes when we 
read of the famous grapes of Eshcol, and from what we know of the climate there and the 
varieties at present produced, we have no doubt about their- superior qualities ; but I 
doubt if as many named and distinct varieties were shown at their provincial and horti- 
cultural shows, as were exhibited at Toronto, Guelph, London and Hamilton last fall. 

Although the grape is indigenous to America and was found in nearly all parts of 
the country by the first settlers, and was utilized for wine making in Florida as early as 
1564, the varieties were so inferior to those of Europe that the importation of foreign 
varieties began at an early date. 

The first attempt to establish a vineyard in the British North American colonies was 
made by a London company in Virginia prior to 1620, and though in a measure successful, 
the varieties did not do as well as in their native soil and climate. In 1683 William 
Penn attempted to start a vineyard near Philadelphia, without success, and in 1793 
another vineyard on a large scale was planted near there by a company which only lasted 
a few years, and it was abandoned. Other vineyards were planted in various parts of the 
States, both of native and foreign varieties, and considerable wine was made, though as a 
general rule they were not successful until the Catawba was introduced by Major Adlum, 
of Georgetown, D. C, when a new era began in grape culture. The Major claimed that 
he had conferred a greater benefit upon the American people than he would have done by 
paying off the national debt, and, I presume, no one in the grape producing regions of the 
United States would now dispute him. This variety and the Isabella, introduced from 
South Carolina, were the two varieties first planted on Cayuga Lake, , in the year 1854, 
which is now known as one of the most famous grape-growing regions in the United 
States. On an area of five by twenty five miles on the shores of this lake, there is from 
eight to ten thousand acres of vineyard yielding an annual income of nearly half a million 
dollars, and although many other varieties have been introduced, a large proportion of 
Oatawbas are still grown there. 

My experience in Canada in grape growing began with these same two varieties 
bout the same time, at Grimsby. I then knew of no other varieties excepting a native 
wine grape, as it was called, something like the Clinton which grew there, and from 
vhich— with the aid of pie-plant juice, sugar and water, with, perhaps, sometimes some- 
thing stronger — was made what was called a " pure native wine." The Isabella flourished 
md ripened well at Grimsby ; the Catawba was too late, not ripening oftener than once 
n five or six years, which is too long to wait for a crop even of grapes. But soon other 
varieties began to multiply — the Concord, Delaware, Hartford, Diana and numerous 
ihort-lived ones, such as Perkins, Hyde's Eliza, Northern Muscadine and the 



72 



famous Ontario, which were preceded by the Adirondac, Walter, Allen's Hybrid, Martha 
and ;others ; and finally Rogers' Hybrids, Moore's Early and so on, down to the present 
list of Brighton, Pocklington, Niagara, Vergennes and hundreds of others (more or less) 
that are now clamouring for public favour. 

With the introduction of new varieties the cultivation began to extend, till from a 
few scattered vines along the Niagara peninsula, there are now several hundred acres in 
the same territory, and small vineyards are scattered all over the country from Windsor 
to Montreal, the product of which is no small addition to the health and wealth 
of the country. Foremost in value to the producer, if not to the consumer, 
in varieties stands the Concord. Though not the earliest or best in quality, it is 
good enough for the masses and it will ripen in most parts of Ontario, and its healthy and 
vigourous growth and exemption from rot and mildew, its great producing and shipping 
qualities, make it unsurpassed among the black grapes for market. But the Worden, one 
of its offsprings, is fast gaining on it in reputation on account of its earliness, it being 
about a week earlier than the Concord. Moore's Early is earlier still, of about the same 
quality, though not quite as productive, and would be more valuable to localities subject 
to early frosts. Some of Rogers' black grapes are valuable in some localities and seasons, 
but there is too much foreign blood in them to stand our rigorous and variable climate. 
The same may be said of his red ones, as they are even more subject to mildew and rot y 
though in some seasons his Nos. 3, 9, 15 and 22 do well in some sections. The Delaware,, 
among red grapes, holds its own as well as any, though I think the Vergennes for hardi- 
ness, productiveness and long keeping is going to advance to the front as a market grape y 
though of inferior quality to the Delaware. The Brighton, where it escapes the mildew, 
is a profitable grape and unsurpassed in quality. In white grapes for market, I think it 
will be conceded by all who have tried it, that the Niagara stands where the Concord 
does among black for vigour, productiveness, shipping and keeping qualities — head 
and shoulders above every other variety, though for earliness and quality, others such as 
the Jessica and Lady may surpass it ; and what shall I say of hundreds of other new 
claimants of public favour? No doubt some of them have come to stay, but the majority 
will not be heard of in a few years outside of the catalogues of the enterprising originators 
who are pushing their sale, or from some of their customers who are lamenting over a. 
waste of time and money in buying them. I would not be understood as condemning the 
testing and disseminating of new varieties, but I would make it a criminal offence for a 
man to sell or recommend tender or late varieties to plant in a section where he knows 
they will not grow, or ripen if they do grow. The great reason why grape culture has 
not advanced more in Canada, particularly in the colder parts, is because so many have 
tried tender, late and worthless varieties recommended by tree agents and nurserymen, 
and because these failed, have come to the conclusion that grapes will not succeed in their 
climate. I believe if a careful and judicious selection of varieties from the kinds we now 
have were made, that there are but few places in Ontario, where, with proper care and 
protection, they would not succeed. Further than this, I believe the time is coming when 
we shall have good grapes that will grow and ripen as far north as our wild grapes grow. 
Our late President, Prof. Saunders, tells us that he found wild grapes growing on the 
Assiniboine River, in the far north-west. What is there to hinder the selecting of seeds 
from the best of these, and crossing and re-crossing them with our best hardy and early 
varieties, until we produce something good that will stand the winters even in that 
climate ? Cherries and apricots are grown in as cold a climate in Russia, and if apricots, 
and cherries, why not grapes? I believe when the plans are matured which Prof. 
Saunders is inaugurating in connection with our experimental farms throughout the- 
Dominion, we shall not only grow grapes but other fruits, in sections that we do not even 
dream of growing them in now, and that a majority at least of the inhabitants of the 
whole Dominion will actually sit under their own vines, if not fig trees. 

But it is even now being asked, " will it pay to grow grapes?" "Is there no danger 
of overstocking the market ?" In answer to the first question I would say, yes ; at a cent 
a pound in the Niagara district, it will pay. Grapes can be grown as cheaply one year 
with another as potatoes. Four tons to the acre is about an average yield of Concords or 
Niagaras, which at one cent per pound would be eighty dollars per acre. What crops do- 



73 



you raise on your farms that pay better than that ? But aside from their value in dollars 
and cents, it pays to have such luxuries around your homes for your children and friends. 
There is no fruit more healthful, and there is very little trouble or expense in growing a 
few vines, and the enjoyment of having lucious grapes from September till February — as 
you can easily have — will well repay you for a few dollars outlay. In regard to the 
second question, — " is there danger of overstocking the market?" — I answer, no. I recently 
attended the meeting of the Western New York Horticultural Society, and learned some- 
thing of the amount of grapes grown there. One county alone shipped 3,800 
tons last fall, at an average price of two and a half cents per pound ; and this was not the 
largest yield, two other counties combined producing 16,000 tons, and I wondered where 
they all went to, till one dealer from Philadelphia stated that the house he represented 
had from the 3rd of September to the 23rd of December sold 332 tons, and then 
when I knew there were ten more such dealers in the same city and as many more in 
twenty or thirty other cities, I could see through it. 

The people in this country are only beginning to appreciate grapes. A few years 
ago a ton of grapes would have supplied all the cities in the Dominion, and now there are 
dozens of dealers in our cities who sell more than a ton a day, and some five or six tons 
of table and cooking grapes, to say nothing of the large amount made into wine. 
It is only a short time since our wives began to cook grapes, and perhaps all of 
them have not begun yet. But my wife would not think her winter stock of 
fruits complete if she had not plenty of canned grapes, besides jellies and unfer- 
mented wine ; and, by the way, I think there is a chance for some enterprising 
man to make a fortune in some of these Scott Act counties in the manufacture of this 
article, and the keeping of grapes for winter use is but little understood. You can just as 
well have good grapes on your table from September to February as apples, with about 
as little trouble. I have specimens here on the table that were kept by simply wrapping 
the clusters in paper and putting them in open boxes and baskets in my cellar. But I 
will not tire your patience any longer, but simply advise you to plant grapes if you have 
land enough. If you do not wish to grow for market, grow enough for your own families 
and a few to give to the poor, and take the juice in its natural state without running it 
through a barrel, and you and your families will be the healthier and happier for it. 



President Lyon. — In regard to this canning grapes, man is a cooking animal and 
woman preeminently so, and the tendency is to cook what they ought to keep and use 
fresh. I would give more for one pound of fresh grapes than for ten pounds canned or 
cooked, for my own use. 

A Member. — Is the Empire State one of the best varieties, or how does it compare 
with the Niagara ? 

A. M. Smith. — It is a comparatively new grape, and has not been fruited in Canada 
to any extent. Mr. Woolverton and I saw the fruit this winter at the Rochester meeting, 
and I was very agreeably impressed with it. It is very good in quality, but I was a little 
disappointed in regard to its earliness. We here in Canada don't want anything later 
than the Concord. The Empire State has been represented by agents to be considerably 
earlier than that. I took the liberty of inquiring particularly of the introducer in regard 
to that — how much earlier they claimed them to be. He said they did not claim it was 
any earlier. 

Mr. Wellington. — We have fruited it two years, and as far as that test can be 
depended upon I am very favourably impressed with it. I think myself the quality is 
the best of the out-door white grapes ; that is my opinion after eating the fruit of a num- 
ber of varieties. 

President Lyon. — Do you grow Allen's Hybrid 1 

Mr. Wellington. — Not extensively ; only for amateurs in this country. I would 
not call the Empire State better than the Hybrid. I am speaking of out-door grapes, 



74 



and I think the Empire State will come within that scope. As far as earliness is con- 
cerned, it is not earlier than the Concord. It was claimed that it was, but then it was 
ripened under peculiarly favourable circumstances. It is going to ripen about the same 
time as the Concord, as far as I can judge. The bunch is large and elongated; the berries 
are not quite as large as the Niagara, I think, but it is going to be a good keeper. I did 
not see the specimens exhibited at Rochester by the Horticultural Society. I think it is 
a grape which will take its place amongst our best varieties. As to the hardiness of the 
vine, we have tested that pretty thoroughly. We consider that the Pocklington is as 
hardy as necessary, but three years ago it stood in the same row with both the Pocklington 
and Concord, and was the least injured of the three. I think that was a pretty fair test, 
and wherever I have seen it grown it has stood the winter remarkably well. It is a better 
grower than the Pocklington, which will be a consideration of some weight with a great 
many. 

Mr. Huggard. — In regard to the over producing, I am prepared to believe that there 
are ten times as many grapes used in Canada to-day as ten years ago. I know in the 
vicinity I lived twelve years ago (east of Toronto) there were only three or four parties 
in the town had any grapes at all. It was then generally believed that you could not 
succeed in ripening grapes there. Now, however, you can hardly find a garden without 
plums or grapes, or both of them, especially the earlier varieties ; and a finer exhibit of 
grapes than that made at the County Fair at Whitby a year ago last fall I have not seen 
for years — all grown in the immediate vicinity, white, red and black, and a great many 
varieties of them. People are inquiring after them much more now than at any previous 
time, and showing an inclination to use them if they can get them. 

Mr. Dempsey. — I don't know that I could add anything to what has been said by 
Mr. Smith. I can see no danger of overstocking the markets, because lately the markets 
have been steadily increasing with us. The demand seems to increase faster than the 
supply, and I am therefore quite encouraged in grape culture, and shall certainly have no 
hesitation in increasing my plantation. 

Mr. Pettit. — With regard to this Empire State about which so much has been said, 
I have not fruited it yet, but I can see no object in going in for it very largely until we 
are more fully convinced that it is a grape that will be productive and healthy and will 
stand our climate. We have already a grape second to none, the Niagara, a grape that 
has been thoroughly tested and has proved itself all that can be desired. If it has a fault, 
it is that it is a little liable to winter kill at the roots when young ; but aside from that, 
in our section, it is everything that can be desired. I do not just agree with those who 
have spoken in regard to overstocking the market. In other countries wine-making has 
for many years been a great outlet for a large number of grapes, and if we have that cut 
off from us here to a great extent, with the territory there is in Ontario suitable tor grape 
culture, I am inclined to think our markets will be pretty well shut. At any rate, we 
will see the newer varieties selling at very low prices. I am free to admit that the demand 
has increased very rapidly since I began to ship grapes some ten or twelve years ago, but 
at the same time the supply is increasing very rapidly too. I have tested a good many 
new varieties, but as my experience has turned out, I cannot say very much for some of 
those mentioned in the paper. The Worden is growing in favour. Of course we cannot 
call it a very new variety, as is Moore's Early, and of course the old Concord is being 
largely planted yet. Among the whites, I would say that the Niagara is far ahead of any 
other for profit. I find it the most profitable by far of ten or twelve varieties I had some 
years ago. I am better pleased with the Pocklington now than I was when it was young ; 
it took a long time to get any fruit, but now the vines are growing older, it produces much 
better. A grape that among the whites is what the Champion is among the blacks is the 
Noah, which, except the Niagara, is the most profitable I have. I always ship it to 
Montreal, and it generally gives me good returns. Coe's Giant is a new kind I have 
fruited a few years. It has lately shown signs of tenderness and winter killing, whether 
from being overloaded the season before or not, I could not say. It is of fine flavour, and 
a very large grape. I have the Early Victor, which is another fine-flavoured grape, but 
the clusters are very small indeed, and it is not an attractive grape, nor is it early enough 
to be profitable where you can grow the Worden or Moore's Early. The Jefferson I have 



75 



fruited for some years, but I could not recommend it on account of it being so late. The 
Duchess I have found rather tender in the wood of the roots, not like the Niagara. The 
root seems to stand any amount of frost, but the wood kills ; and then it spots too much 
with a small black spot, which spoils its appearance. The Prentiss I should not plant at 
all for market ; it is too much like the old Isabella. The Lady Washington is a very 
productive white grape, but rather late and not good enough in flavour. 

Mr. Huggard. — Speaking of new grapes, there is one that I have not heard men- 
tioned, which I consider second to none ; it is the earliest of a lot of twenty that I have. 
I mean the Janesville. It is about as large as the Concord and very compact, and it is 
as good for sale as any grape I ever saw. To my taste the quality is ahead of the Concord, 
and those who have had the privilege of tasting both of them prefer to pay me two cents 
more for the Janesville than the Concord, although the Concord is rather larger. I quite 
agree with Mr. Pettit's statement about the Prentiss. I consider it useless in our section, 
and the Duchess also has proved nearly so, being too small, too late and too tender for 
general cultivation. We have the Champion growing in all its glory, but 1 do not set 
much value on it as to quality ; it is inferior. The Pocklington has fruited with me for a 
few years, and this year I was rather disgusted with it, but last season I had a few clusters 
of the finest fruit I ever saw. The Eogers grapes do well if covered, but it is absolutely 
necessary to protect them during the winter ; if you do not they will freeze like to the 
ground, and in some instances die out altogether. The Delaware is a standard variety 
of great excellence and highly esteemed, and brings the highest price, but the Janesville 
is the hardiest, and stands unprotected. 

A Member. — What is the best method of preparing the land, and which are the best 
kinds of grapes to plant for general purposes 1 

Mr. Pettit. — Well, I would prepare the ground about the same as I would for a 
crop of corn or potatoes. Lay out the vinery so the rows will be a good length. If you 
have only an acre or two make the rows fully twice as long as the vinery is wide, which 
saves time in cultivation. I would plant the ordinary plants of grapes about eleven feet 
apart ; I work my vineries with a gang-plough, and eleven feet is just right for two 
rounds on the row. I use nothing else in the way of a plough but that, and that is one 
object I have in planting them at that distance, which I think is a fair one. If the ground 
required it I would underdrain it, and if in low soil would subsoil it. It pays well to 
prepare the ground thoroughly in the first place. In regard to the kinds of grapes suit- 
able, that varies a great deal with different localities. In my own section, in black grapes, 
I think fully one-half, or even more, are planting Concords. We will say half Concords, 
and the other half equally divided between Moore's Early and the Worden. Of course, 
there are a good many No. 4 planted, and some of the other black Rogers, but 'they are 
not as reliable as the three I have mentioned. In red grapes I would plant the Delaware, 
Brighton and Lindley, and there are some other of the red Rogers very promising. 
Coming to white grapes, for profit I would stop right at the Niagara, although in some 
sections not as genial as ours, perhaps some of the more hardy varieties would be more 
profitable. 

Mr. Everetts. — How many wires on the trellis 1 

Mr. Pettit. — I use three ; some are only using two. 

Mr. Everetts. — How far apart are the posts? 

Mr. Pettit. — A post for every two vines. 

A Member. — How high ? 

Mr. Pettit. — About seven feet. 

A Member. — How do you like the Kniffen system 1 

Mr. Pettit. — With some varieties it takes better than others. I do not think you 
■could grow Delawares for any length of time successfully on the Kniffen system. The 
Niagara succeeds better with that system than any other. 

Mr. Langford. — I would like to ask Mr. Pettit and those who go in for raising 
grapes extensively, if it is possible to raise them successfully without a trellis. I have 
been in a country where they raise grapes extensively and do not use a trellis, but raise 
them on shrubs — what they call a bush. 



76 



Mr. Pettit. — There are vineries in our section that have been conducted on that 
system for a long time, quite near us. I don't think, however, it has been a success, and 
I am sure it would not be for dessert grapes. 

Prof. Saunders. — How far apart are the rows 1 

Mr. Pettit. — I think they would be about eight feet, if not more, perhaps. A great 
many of the grapes I have seen are sandy and poor, and don't come up like those raised 
on a trellis. 



THE RELATIONSHIP OF EXPERIMENTAL STATIONS TO 
FRUIT GROWERS. 

Prof. Saunders then addressed the meeting on the relationship of the Experimental 
Stations to be establishe I by the Dominion Government to fruit growers. He said: I 
shall not detain you for any length of time on this subject, but I think it well on this 
occasion to bring to your notice what is intended to be done at the Experimental Farms 
to be established by the Dominion Government, by way of feeding and encouraging fruit 
growing throughout the Dominion. It would be much pleasanter for me to speak of work 
that had been accomplished than of that which it is proposed to do, for, unfortunately, 
we all make plans that are not carried out, and one item of actual experience is worth 
two or three proposed experiments. In the present instance I cannot point to any work 
that has been actually accomplished, further than that in the fruit way we have been 
successful in securing a large number of varieties of hardy Russian trees, part of which 
have been obtained from Prof. Budd, of Iowa, and others from nurserymen who have 
introduced from Russia a large number of varieties. Others have been secured, and it is 
the intention — in fact, negotiations in that direction are now being carried on — to secure 
standard varieties of fruits to be planted out in an orchard ; both large and small fruits. 
It is proposed to proceed on the assumption that we do not yet know what is hardy and 
what is not in the neighbourhood of Ottawa, where the central station is located, prac- 
tically ignoring the experience we have already gained, and for this reason, that I have 
found that the experience of all those with whom I have talked has been more or less 
mixed up with elements of uncertainty. A man will tell me that he has tried such and 
such a variety, and found that it is not hardy. He thinks he got the variety, but will 
admit that it came to hand in bad order, and as it did not grow he has jumped to the 
conclusion that the variety of fruit is not adapted for his district. That experience may 
be valuable or it may not, but I do not think it would be safe for a public institution to 
rest upoii.it. I think that every variety that it is at all within the reasonable range of 
probability will succeed, should be tried and a record made of the conditions under which 
the test is made, before we can be absolutely sure that it will not succeed. Then, it is 
not intended to limit the test to one tree, but to have three in every case, and five in most 
instances ; and some means will be adopted to protect the trunks of these trees. Most of 
you have had a large experience and know that young trees, pears especially, are very 
often killed by the action of the sun on their trunks in spring time, after severe weather 
in the winter. You find a discoloration and disease in the bark which is communicated 
to the tree, which often dies from exposure to these variable conditions of temperature. 
It will be interesting, I think, to work out the problem of how far some protection — if 
nothing more than a piece of board tacked up to shade the tree — will be successful in 
preserving it from the bad results of exposure of that sort. Some claim that wrapping 
with straw in such a way as not to exclude the air would perhaps tide a tree over the 
first two or three years, until the bark thickens and it becomes covered with integumens 
better calculated to resist the extreme temperature and trying conditions to which it is 
submitted on first coming from the nursery. I mention this as one of the lines in which we 
propose to make thorough tests, with a view to determining whether some of these sup- 
posed tender varieties cannot be tided over the period of their infancy, until sufficiently 
established to be grown successfully. Then this large collection of trees and vines and 
shrubs of a fruit-growing character will have added to them annually such varieties of 
newer kinds as ean be obtained, which will be tested and a report of their comparative 
merits given to those interested in bulletins, which will be issued from time to time, giv~ 



77 



ing details of the work done. Another point upon which tests are desirable is the effect 
of hardy stocks upon scions. Some die, though we cannot see any reason why they 
should ; it is just a question if it does not arise from the roots being killed by the action 
of winter, and the stocks being tender. Most of our stocks are grown in France, where 
conditions of temperature very different from ours prevail. In the North-west we find 
the wild plum growing in great profusion, and yet I am told that plums cannot be grown 
there — they are too tender. I claim that where there is a wild fruit it is possible to take 
it and improve and crop it, and in that way obtain fruit desirable for cultivation and use. 
Now, how far our hardier varieties of plums would prove hardy in the North-west 
territory, grafted on to the native stocks, would be an interesting question to work out, 
and is one that will claim our early attention. I have found in the eastern part of 
Manitoba wild grapes, and was surprised at the size some of them grow to — large trees. 
It is not supposed that grapes can be grown in the North-west, but, with that as a start- 
ing point, I do not see why they cannot be improved as in Ontario and the eastern states, 
and made the equal of what they are in the latter localities. Forty years ago we had 
nothing but the Isabella, and before that nothing but European kinds, which would not 
succeed at all in western New York. Now we have almost countless varieties, some early, 
some late ; some adapted to one district, and some to another, but all the outcome of the 
practical experiments of fruit growers themselves. It is proposed in these institutions to 
help fruit growers, and to take up lines of experiments not so easily carried on by indi- 
viduals, which involve the sacrifice of more time and pains than they can devote to such 
pursuits, and to endeavour to originate in this country new varieties adapted not only to 
Ontario, but to extend the area of fruit culture to more northern regions in the older 
provinces, and to Manitoba and the territory further to the west. Another point which 
I think will be exceedingly interesting, is the getting together of the wild fruits of the 
different provinces of the Dominion, so as to have them grown side by side and test their 
relative merits. I found on inquiry that on the Selkirk range of mountains, at a high 
elevation, they are growing gooseberries, and the fruit is represented to me as being as 
large as the English gooseberry. That is a single instance, and it is likely that by taking 
that gooseberry and cross-fertilizing it, its objectionable features — which is a peculiar skin 
which reminds one of turpentine — may be eliminated, and we may obtain gooseberries 
from that source which will prove of great service throughout the Dominion. Things of 
this sort are being continually suggested to me, and we hope to get them together and 
make the most of the wild fruits we have, and to originate new varieties adapted to the 
provinces in which these grow by improving on these native wild fruits. Then it is pro- 
posed to test the value of the different fertilizers on these different fruits, growing them 
under varying conditions ; to test the value of wood ashes, for instance. We know that 
they are valuable, but no experiments have been made to test their relative value by 
having one piece of ground fertilized by them, and an adjoining piece left without them. 
It does seem to me a matter of regret that our wood ashes should be sent hundreds of 
miles to the United States and sold at double the price we are willing to pay for them, 
and yet at which they are considered cheap as fertilizers by those who buy them. I think 
this altogether wrong. If a bushel of ashes is worth twenty cents in Michigan, it surely 
should be worth ten cents in Chatham. There is no reason why they should be carried 
away from us and sold at double the price when they might so profitably be made use of 
at home. The same remarks apply to our phosphates, thousands of tons of which are 
shipped away across the water and manufactured into valuable fertilizers, and used by 
farmers with good results. If they are so valuable abroad, there is no reason why they 
should not be equally so at home. Then, this association is interested not only in fruit, 
but in vegetables and the important matter of forestry. It is proposed that this should 
be taken up as opportunity offers, and that associated with the experiments of forestry 
tests will be made, not only of trees having an economical value, but of trees for orna- 
mental purposes. As has been remarked both here and at our gathering last night, the 
cultivation of ornamental varieties of trees and shrubs and flowers has an elevating 
tendency, and induces in people's minds a degree of refinement and culture not easily 
attainable by any other means. So, while practical experiments will claim the first and 
greatest share of attention, I hope the more aesthetic, and, as some people would call it, 



78 



high-toned portion of the work will not be neglected. If we can ascertain not only the 
relative economic value of our trees for commercial purposes, but the value also of certain 
varieties for their ornamental effects on the landscape, adding charms to the surroundings 
of our homes, it will be a great gain. Sufficient attention has never been given to this 
important matter by our farmers, who, if they made the surroundings of their homes 
more attractive, would find their sons less prone to desert home and farm for the allure- 
ments of a city life. It is one of the greatest mistakes to imagine that the occupation of 
farming is not as respectable as any professional pursuit. There is no higher or more 
ennobling occupation in the world than that of farming. The farmer who tills the soil, 
bringing forth from it those crops, which, by a beneficent arrangement of .temperatures • 
and "seasons a wise Providence has ordained it shall afiord, furnishes a foundation upon, \ 
which all the civilizations of the world rest, and it is from the products of the soil that 
we derive the foundations of all our arts and manufactures ; in short, the most essential 
pursuit in every community in every age has been that of agriculture. We know that all 
other departments of arts, industries and sciences have received aid from government, but 
the actual work done in the interest of the farming community has been comparatively 
small. I think this new departure is one in the right direction, and it is my hope that 
the results will be such in the course of time as to convince you of that fact. We are 
undertaking to do for the farmers and fruit growers of Canada that which they cannot do 
for themselves. That is, carrying on a series of exact experiments, the results of which j 
will be reported faithfully and honestly, and which will afford opportunities for the judg- 
ment of the different varieties of fruit which do not at present exist. The nurseryman ! 
who places his products before us may be honest in his opinion, but when a man has 
money in a thing he is liable to be biased, and may fail to see imperfections which are , 
visible to others who have not any interest at stake. It will be to your interest to have 
these things tested at an institution where there will be no monetary bias ; no interest to 
be served but that of truth and the good of the community ; and I think the results of 
the tests and trials thus conducted cannot fail to save the fruit growers of Canada ; 
the loss of a great deal of money which in the past has been spent on 
worthless things, and to materiallv aid and further their interests and impart a 
valuable stimulus on the progress of fruit culture. I think a great work has been done- 
this year at the Colonial Exhibition in opening up the markets for our apples. The 
excellent report submitted by the President to-day shows that markets are opening up to 
an extent never before known. In connection with the important question of apples, we 
know very little about what our Dominion can do. I was surprised when visiting Nova I 
Scotia to find what was being done there. It is estimated that from Annapolis alone 
there were shipped to Britain and the United States 300,000 barrels, and the Nova Scotia 
Gravensteins are considered the finest dessert apples to be had. The same state of affairs 
should prevail in British Columbia, where pears will grow in the greatest abundance and 
free from blight, spot or other disease ; and the most extraordinary grapes grow there 
that I have ever seen. If, as suggested by' our President, we are to have a line of steamers 
connecting with India, Australia and New Zealand, there is a large field for work m this 
Dominion in carrying on such experiments as I have been describing. The object will be 
to consider the interests not only of Ontario and Quebec, but those of the Maritime and 
Western Provinces and British Columbia, and to do all that is possible to be done 
towards advancing the interests of fruit growers in all parts of the Dominion. One thing 
I particularly request you all to do, and that is to be good enough to send your names to 
the Experimental Station at Ottawa for entry on the list of those to whom are to be sent 
the Bulletins of the association, the first of which will be issued in a short time. There 
is one point I have omitted which is, perhaps, the most important of any in regard to fruit 
crowing ; that is, the getting together of all the seedling fruits which can be found in the 
Dominion and testing them side by side. I know you have in this district seedling 
apples and pears, some of which may be of value. By all, I do not mean all varieties of 
seedling apples and those that are worthless, but everything giving promise of sufficient 
value to be worth testing elsewhere, either on account of hardiness or other good qualities. 
We would like to get scions, or if possible young trees of such varieties, so that they may 
be ^rafted on fruits and put out in nursery rows until large enough to plant in orchards 



79 



to be tested side by side. I was pleased to find in Nova Scotia seedlings of plums and 
cherries which I think will be of great service to us in the west, and the only way in 
which we can arrive at accurate conclusions in regard to them is by the methods I have 
endeavoured to detail to you — of growing them side by side in an experimental orchard, 
where from year to year their value as croppers and that of the fruit itself can be tested 
by careful and accurate notes, made by persons qualified to judge. 



THE LATE MAESHAL P. WILDER. 

The following resolution referring to the decease of Marshal P. Wilder, was read 
and adopted : 

Whereas, on the 16th December, 1886, occurred the death of M. P. Wilder, President of the 
American Pomological Society, at the advanced age of eighty-eight years ; and whereas, we in Canada, as 
well as our friends in the United States, have shared in the beneficent results of his life, devoted as it has 
been with the most untiring zeal and in the most unselfish manner to the advancement of horticultural 
science. 

Therefore Resolved, That we do receive the intelligence of his death with the deepest regret, 
recognizing his loss as not merely a local or even a national one, but as a continental one ; and that we 
extend to his family our sincere sympathy, and order that a copy of this resolution be sent to them by the 
Secretary of this association. 

Mr. Dempsey. — I had the pleasure of being for several years acquainted with the 
late President Wilder, and a more sociable gentleman I never had the privilege of meet- 
ing. An enthusiast in fruit culture ; he was always ready to try new varieties offered to 
the public, and his reliability in pointing out the results of his tests caused his opinions to 
be largely sought for and placed implicit confidence in. A 1 though at such a ripe old age 
we could hardly be surprised at his removal from our midst, yet we cannot but mourn 
his decease. The gap caused by the loss of such a man from our ranks cannot but be 
hard to fill ; yet, being a believer in the theory that where the workman is removed 
another will be raised to take his place, I believe that it will be filled, and look to Presi- 
dent Barry, of New York, as the man who will fill it. 

Prof. Saunders. — I, too, had the pleasure of a personal acquaintance with President 
Wilder. The last occasion upon which I met him was a year ago last December, at which 
time I spent a very pleasant afternoon at his house near Boston. He then, in the course 
of his conversation, took occasion to impress on me the deep interest he felt in our Fruit 
Growers' Association of Ontario, and the subject of fruit culture all over our Dominion, 
as well as in the United States. He conversed freely about Ontario and Nova Scotia, 
and the general progress made in fruit culture during the past quarter of a century. He 
desired me at all times to convey to our people here the sentiments of warm friendship he 
entertained towards Canadian fruit growers, and his desire to render them every assist- 
ance consistent with his advanced age. He was expecting every year to be his last ; yet 
while able to do anything, he most unselfishly gave his strength and intellect to the 
advancement of the interests of fruit culture and horticulture generally. He spoke to 
mt especially in regard to a subject then attracting much attention, which he brought 
prominently before the fruit-growing public — the necessity for simplifying the nomencla- 
ture of our fruits. He particularly requested me to urge this upon our Canadian fruit 
growers. We know it has been proposed to drop many of the unnecessary names of 
fruits, and to bring their nomenclature within reach of the memory of men with ordinary 
reasonable intelligence. He had also a great horror of obnoxious names, such as " Big 
Bob," "Captain Jack," "Jumbo," and so on, and thought the substitution of something 
more euphonious and conveying a more refined impression to the minds of the public was 
desirable. I concur most heartily in the sentiments expressed in the resolution, and 
desire to add to it my tribute of sincere regret at the loss of one whose life work was 
given in so unselfish a manner to the great interest of fruit culture, and whose place it 
will indeed be exceedingly hard to fill. 

President Lyon. — My recollection of the late President Wilder runs back as far as 
some time in 1860, when I met him at the first meeting of the American Pomological 
Society ever held in the State of New York. I have often met him since, and had a*deal 
of correspondence with him. I do not know whether it is generally known, but I suppose 



80 



it is, that the late Colonel Wilder stood at the back of the Pomological Society, and that 
if he had not done so it would hardly have occupied the position it does to-day : and it 
becomes quite a problem, in my estimation, what its future is going to be now he is lost 
to it. 1 believe, however, that that is partially provided for by his will. Sometime 
before his death he intimated in his correspondence tome that he had made some provision 
in that direction, and I have since learned that he left $6,000, the income of which is to 
be devoted to the benefit of the society. This will do very much to supplement what he 
had done for it before, during his lifetime. The world seldom produces two such men in 
succession in any particular sphere, and there is a very serious doubt in the minds of 
many members of that society if his place can be filled. The name of a very excellent 
man (Mr. Barry) has been mentioned here in connection with the position, and it is very 
w-VJ he J w J llUss u ume i I*. and X he does I am confident that he will do all that President 
Wilder did in his lifetime. At the same time the society has won a very favourable 
reputation under the administration of the late President Wilder, and become much 
stronger to bear any burdens that may be cast upon it. It is to be hoped its friends will 
stand by it, and that it may continue, at least as long as any of us shall remain, to stand 
as a monument of the worth of its first President. 



COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS. 

The subject of commercial fertilizers for garden and orchard was next taken up, as 
follows : 

Prof. Panton. — After taking a walk around the suburbs of Chatham, and hearing so 
much at these meetings of the natural fertility of the soil in the County of Kent, there is 
a natural inclination to think that this question is not one calling for any consideration 
here. As there may be some unfortunates at present, however, who do not reside in the 
cheerful town of Chatham or farm the fertile fields of Kent, a few remarks on the subject 
of fertilizers may not be altogether out of place. A fertilizer, or manure, may be defined 
as a substance disposed to increase the fertility or productiveness of the soil, either by 
supplying food directly or indirectly. Now, it is found that as far as the application of 
fertilizers or manurial agencies is concerned, there are three elements requiring particular 
observation ; the presence of these elements seems to be necessary for successful plant 
growth. They are nitrogen, potash and phosphoric acid — the N. P. P. I sometimes term 
them. The other ingredients essential to plant life are likely to be found in the soil 
itself, our soil being of such a character that its constituents possess more or less of the 
necessary ingredients, but the nitrogen, potash and phosphoric acid are sometimes in small 
quantities, and it is one or two of these elements we are after in the consideration of 
fertilizers. Now, at the very outset there seem to be two classes of fertilizers, one of 
which contains all these things (nitrogen, potash and phosphoric acid), and fertilizers of 
this class are generally known as complete or general manures. Manures of the other 
class contain only one or two of these elements, and the term special, or specific, is applied 
to them ; that is, they are for special purposes. It is to these commercial fertilizers that 
we have now to direct our energies for a little time. Well, for the phosphoric acid we 
look in bones, in the formation of which there is a large quantity of it, and in a mineral 
substance called " apatite," which, when worked upon by the chemist with sulphuric 
acid, produces what is known as superphosphate of lime. Just let us look at that super- 
phosphate for a minute. Bones, as I have already said, contain this acid, and I am sure 
everyone in the room will agree with me that bones are a most excellent fertilizer. This 
phosphoric acid is very powerful, and holds in combination what we in chemistry term 
three molecules of lime ; that is, if we took three portions of lime, this acid is strong 
enough to hold them together in chemical combination. When a bone is put into the 
soil, nature, through the agency of rain or the decomposition of vegetable matter in the 
soil, supplies an acid, which is carbonic acid. Now, this acid, acting in the soil through 
the agency of rain or decomposition, lays hold of one of these molecules of lime, and a 
certain amount of phosphoric acid is freed. The strength necessary to hold three mole- 
cules has now only to hold two, and consequently you get a certain amount of phosphoric 



81 



acid. The chemist says we will put in a stronger acid, and puts in sulphuric acid, which 
takes up two of these molecules and leaves the phosphoric acid altogether free ; and that 
is wherein the superphosphate of bones is more fertilizing in a short time than the ordi- 
nary bone. Nature is slow and steady in her action on the bone, but the chemist is 
quick, and the result is that he gets the use of the phosphoric acid in a very short time 
after it is applied to the soil. Now for the potash side of the question. There are two 
or three sources from which we seek that element. One is called pottassium chloride, 
and another potassium sulphide ; but by far the best and to be had right at home, is 
ashes. If Prof. Saunders, through the experiments of which he has given us a sketch, 
succeeds in impressing the farmers of this country with a sense of their value^ he will in 
that alone have accomplished a valuable work. It is astonishing that a fertilizing 
material of so much strength as hard wood ashes should be thrown aside here, and yet on 
being shipped to the other side realize a good price. Ordinary ashes contain a high per- 
centage of potasV., and also a certain amount of phosphoric acid. Even when leached a 
large proportion cf potash remains in them, the leaching only taking away twenty or 
thirty per ^nt. So that ashes become a most valuable fertilizer in supplying potash, 
and, to a certain extent, phosphoric acid, and whoever throws them away is wasting a 
most valuable manurial agent. From calculations made, basing the price of potash on a 
comparison with other fertilizers, a ton of good wood ashes is put at twenty dollars, taking 
the cost price of these various manuring constituents. The basis of this calculation I 
shall refer to further along. So above all things, save your ashes, for it is generally 
conceded that for orchards there is no fertilizer that produces such satisfactory results. 
In the application of fertilizers to orchards there is an element requiring consideration, 
which it is not necessary to consider in farm manuring. In the case of a farm, by the 
rotation of crops, while you may lose in one constituent you gain in another, which is 
not the case in orchard cultivation or horticulture, where you have the one crop all the 
time. If a farmer makes a wrong application the succeeding season's crop will get the 
benefit of it, but in the orchard, on account of the fixed nature of the crop, it can hardly 
be looked at in the same way, and the fruit grower has therefore to look more closely to 
results than the general farmer. The third ingredient I mentioned (nitrogen) we look 
for in nitrate of soda, something we have already mentioned in the compound of ammo- 
nium sulphate and in the dried blood to which I referred, which, if it can be obtained, is 
a most excellent fertilizer, especially for strawberries. The effect of from three to four 
hundred pounds per acre, between the rows, is productive of marvellous results, because 
it gives the equivalent of about fourteen per cent, of ammonia and seven per cent, of 
phosphoric acid. Now, then, the question presents itself about the purity of these 
fertilizers, a point which I am anxious to particularly emphasize. At places where large 
quantities of these artificial fertilizers have been used, it has been found on close examin- 
ation and actual analysis that a great many of them have been mere farces ; that men 
have been buying things as fertilizers for special purposes at thirty-five and forty dollars 
per ton, the estimated cost price of which per ton was not more than a dollar and a half 
or two dollars. How can you estimate the cost per ton of a fertilizer % I will try in a 
few words to make that clear, so that you will be able to calculate it for yourselves. 
Hitherto, in the use of fertilizers in Canada, we have been working in the dark, because 
we had no analysis to work upon ; it has not been required. Now, however, the 
Dominion Government has stepped in and required that all persons selling artificial 
fertilizers shall produce an analysis of what they are selling, stating the percentage of 
each ingredient it contains. By making a reasonable estimate of the cost of these to the 
manufacturer, a fair idea of the value of the fertilizer may be obtained. Nitrogen may 
be estimated at from fifteen to twenty cents per pound, potash at from five to seven 
cents, phosphoric acid from four to twelve cents ; these are the commercial values, and 
leave the manufacturer a fair price. There is no regular fixed price, but you will see in 
the spring of the year, particularly across the lines, printed schedules of what they think 
the values of these ingredients are, and I have no doubt but our Dominion Government 
will publish what they consider the estimated value per pound of nitrogen, phosphoric 
acid and potash. Now let us see how the price of the manure is made out. You have 
the analysis, which tells you that it contains so much per cent, of nitrogen, which means 

6 (F.G.) 



cS2 



so many pounds of nitrogen in each hundred pounds of the fertilizer. The analysis also 
shows you the percentage of potash and phosphoric acid. All you have to do then, is to 
take this schedule giving you the prices for that year, and if nitrogen is worth twenty- 
five cents per pound and the fertilizer contains five per cent, of it, it would make one 
dollar and a quarter for that. If it contains eight per cent, of potash, and potash is 
valued at eight cents per pound, that will be sixty-four cents. Then if the percentage of 
phosphoric acid is five per cent., and the value of the acid twelve cents per pound, that 
will be sixty cents. You will add these three amounts together, which will give you the 
price per hundred pounds of the fertilizer, and that again multiplied by twenty will be 
the value per ton. Now, if you find this estimated value per ton of a fertilizer is about 
ten dollars, and your agent is asking you thirty dollars for it, it shows that there is a 
tremendous margin, and very likely a great deal of adulteration in it. In places where 
this system has been carried on, in the earlier stages of this detective business of setting 
the chemist on the manufacturer, the frauds that were discovered being perpetrated on 
ignorant purchasers were surprising. As I said before, farmers and fruit growers were 
paying thirty-five and forty dollars per ton for manures, the estimated cost of which was 
not more than one dollar and a half, all sorts of tricks being resorted to in order to induce 
them to purchase. You will find that this system of analysis will bring about a much 
more satisfactory state of affairs, and inspire people with much greater confidence in this 
class of fertilizers. In the past men have bought alleged fertilizers from time to time, 
and on trying them found no appreciable results, and consequently they pooh-pooh all 
artificial fertilizers now. The other day, down at Carleton, a very energetic gentleman — 
something like our friend Mr. Mackenzie Ross here — got up to speak, and said to me. 
" You come from Guelph ; I am going to go for you." I said, " Well, what is the 
trouble V Well, it was all about a fertilizer manufactured in the vicinity of Guelph some 
years ago. A great many of the market gardeners around Carleton had bought it, and 
from their description of it, I believe if an analysis of it had been made it would not have 
been found worth more than three or four dollars a ton. This gentleman himself was so 
disgusted with it that he frightened the manufacturer into taking it back and paying the 
freight on it. Well, we have the means now of avoiding that sort of thing, and if you 
were not previously aware of it, I tell you know that you ought not to buy any fertilizer 
without being acquainted with its analysis, and when you know that you can easily 
calculate its cost by this schedule of prices. If you do not know where to lay hands on 
that, write to the Agricultural College at Guelph or to the Experimental Station, and any 
of us will furnish you with the rates. If the estimated cost is less than the selling price, 
then you are paying too dear for your whistle. We come now to the home manufacture 
of fertilizers, which I believe is well worth consideration by fruit growers and gardeners. 
Make your own. You have your wood ashes, and as regards your superphosphate, you 
can make that too. It is generally conceded by persons who have tried it that a saving 
of twenty per cent, is effected in doing so, and at the same time you are sure of having 
the pure thing. I will give you a mixture or two that you will find most excellent for 
orchards and gardens — first by bulk. Take one part — a barrel, pail or any similar vessel 
of that kind will do — of bone dust, two parts of ashes, one-third of water (enough to 
saturate it) and one-sixth of what you ordinarily call plaster ; this will make a most 
excellent superphosphate. You will have a mixture that has phosphoric acid in the 
bones and potash in the ashes. Of course it will lack nitrogen, but you get that in farm- 
yard manure, and if you like you can apply that. The phosphoric acid, however, is more 
likely to be deficient in the soil than the nitrogen, and it is that for which we are looking. 
Another excellent mixture I can give you by weight — one part of bone, one of ash, 
about a quarter of slacked lime and about one-eighth of crude carbonate of soda. After 
that is mixed a little while, if you will add some soil, say one-fifth of the bulk, you will 
have an excellent mixture for the orchard. Another point I desire to impress on you is 
that you should know what to believe. I think that horticulturists and fruit growers 
should be observing men, and I am sure those present here are, otherwise the discussions 
of the last two days could not have been conducted in the vigourous manner they were. 
Now, in the application of fertilizers there is a great need of observation, and if I were a 
fruit grower I would try little experiments of my own in the orchard and field, and see 



83 



for myself whether a certain application of ashes or superphosphates brought about good 
results ; nature gives the best answers to all these questions. In the early days of agri- 
cultural science there was a rage prevalent in the country for sending a box of the soil of 
the farm to a chemist for analysis. Now, there can be but little of it in a box, and the 
ingredients are in such small proportions that a chemist might make a mistake in detecting 
them, or he might find the quantities there and yet not in the condition. You might 
take some soil that you knew would produce a very poor crop to a chemist, and after 
analyzing it he might send you a very fine statement of it. There is more to be learned 
now from the mechanical condition of the soil than from the chemical. Of course there 
must be the constituents in the soil, but it is wonderful how we have been favoured by 
Providence in this part of the country in giving us a sufficiency of these constituents. 
The trouble is, however, that we do not throw enough skill into their cultivation to "make 
the most of them. High culture, thorough culture, is something the necessity for which 
those who are trying to wring their sustenance out of the soil must become fully impressed 
with at the present time. That a market gardener can get as much out of one aere as a 
farmer does out of ten is only the effect of high culture ; they plough thoroughly, dig 
thoroughly and add plenty of manure. You cannot lay much stress upon an analysis of 
the soil. The only case iu which it is of much benefit is where — as is sometimes the 
case — there is an ingredient in the soil which may bring about a poisonous effect upon 
vegetation, and there the detection of that element becomes a vital matter. But taking 
the soil in general you cannot make much out of a chemical analysis, whereas if you 
experiment with a fertilizer the result is transparent. You may take a good result as a 
true reply from nature that she wants some of the constituents contained in that 
fertilizer. Therefore, T say, be experimentalists ; get all the help you can from the 
College or the Experimental Station at Ottawa, but remember that there are conditions 
surrounding us that may not affect you, and the best plan of all is to keep your eyes 
open, and keep them fixed on the soil. I think if you apply some of these fertilizers 
from time to time you would soon have a pretty rational idea of the condition of your 
soil, and what fertilizers are likely to bring about favourable results in connection 
with it. 

Mr. Mackenzie Ross. — There is another fertilizer which has not been mentioned — 
soot. If the soil is well worked and pulverized, then the soot sown, and after that 
cleaned out and hoed, and a row of wood ashes run between the rows it has a good 
effect. Then there is another fertilizer. When you go out on a frosty morning you see 
the heap of manure round in the barn yard smoking. Now, that vapour goes up into 
the clouds, and comes back to us in the rain, and there is no fertilizer on the earth equal 
to what we get from the clouds. Is it any thing else than the ammonia which ascends 
from the manure 1 ? 

Prof. Panton. — The ammonia that you send up from your manure pile may be 
blown over to Guelph, where we may get the benefit of it. 

Mr. Daniel Wilson. — I am not a gardener, but a plain farmer, and have listened 
with attention to the remarks of the gentleman — who has been speaking, and who I am 
told is a professor from the Agricultural College, — out of which I endeavoured to get as 
much information as I could. He has told us all about the necessary ingredients — the 
superphosphate and so on, and he has also told us that we are blessed with different kinds 
of soils. Well, certainly we are blessed with different kinds of soil, from what I have 
seen of Guelph and the banks of the Thames. In conversation with Professor Brown, at 
the College, I asked him what it took to put the land in a fair state of cultivation, 
and he told me fifteen tons of barnyard manure and three hundredweight of phosphate 
to the acre. Well, I told the professor, and I tell you here, that if you applied that 
in this county you would not get anything but straw. But take that straw and put 
it in your barn yard manure, nnd don't let that grand fertilizer go to waste. I don't 
think, gentlemen, that you and I would differ about the necessity of superphosphate 
for the county of Kent, if you had travelled through it as much, or lived in it as long 
as I have. If you looked at the orchards in the various parts of this county you would 
find too much fruit ; too much vegetation ; too much force of sap. What we want here 
instead of any forced growth is proper pruning of our orchards : the chemical propertiea 



84 



necessary for plant growth are right here. We have from six to ten feet of vegetable 
soil on the bank of this river, extending through a large portion of the county. If the 
farmers would apply at the proper time what is going to waste in their barnyards there 
would be no necessity for telling us what superphosphate is composed of. As an 
Englishman said, " Muck the field, and it is sure to give you a crop." How much 
manure do you think there is going to waste in this town 1 In almost all parts of it 
horses are kept, and you will find an immense quantity of manure going to waste. If 
there is any fertilizer needed on the farm remove that and put it where it is needed, 
and never say a word about chemicals. You would never try to make me believe I 
wanted chemicals, if you came and walked over my farm. It is necessary that you 
should have a mixed system of farming — pasture some and till some ; you cannot till 
all nor pasture all. Keep about as much stock as you can, and put the manure out at 
the proper time, and you will find that good returns will repay you for your labour. 

Prof. Saunders. — What time do you put your manure on your fields ? 

Mr. Wilson. — The best time is to take it out as soon as possible previous to 
applying it ; take it on the land in its raw state, particularly on what is called sandy 
loam, and plough it in for the spring crop. 

Mr. Dempsey. — There is manufactured in our neighbourhood a superphosphate 
made out of fish gathered from the lake, which are submitted to the action of sulphuric 
acid. What would be the probable value of that as a fertilizer 1 

Prof. Panton. — I think it would be a good fertilizer, but the best way is to ask 
for the analysis. In reply to Mr. Wilson's remarks, I would remind him that I said at 
the outset that here we were in paradise, and that the question of artificial manures in 
the countv of Kent was not one calling for consideration. 

Mr. Wellington. — I just wish to corroborate what has been said by Professor Panton 
in regard to the value of ashes as a fertilizer for trees. That is as far as I can go. 
What we learn by experience we know, and for a number of years I have used wood 
ashes for trees. We have in the same block, barnyard manure and ashes, and the com- 
parison has always been in favour of the wood ashes ; you could tell the trees to which 
they had been applied without the least effort. The ashes are productive of a smooth, 
clean gro v\ th, and we value them so highly as a fertilizer that we keep teams constantly 
employed scouring the country as far as twenty miles around gathering hardwood ashes. 
It is a mistake, no doubt, for the people who have them to let them go, but they are 
certainly extremely valuable to the fruit grower. We usually pay ten cents per bushel 
for them but at the present I believe we are paying as high as fifteen cents. 

Mr. Macdonald. — In regard to the application of fertilizers generally, there is a 
point worthy of observation, which is this : As Professor Panton said the other day 
in reference to bacteria, the attention of fruit growers is being turned to dealing with 
the plant itself — to making it hardy and strong. Now, that does not apply to bacteria 
alone but to almost everything else. If you make a hardy, thrifty tree, in any manner 
whatever, it is more able to resist diseases of all kinds — parasites, bacteria, fungoid 
growths and everything else. Now this is something which can be done by the 
judicious application of fertilizers, and in no other manner that I know of, and in this 
respect there are two ideas which ought to be corrected, which were expressed here 
yesterday. It was proved here yesterday by a man of experience that where barn- 
yard manure had been applied it proved detrimental to his trees, producing blight. 
Now that was the effect of creating too much woody growth, something which all nitro- 
genous fertilizers do ; and nitrate of soda — which has been spoken of here — is one of 
these and I do not think it would be wise to apply it in any large quantities, especially if 
you have much barnyard manure with it. I say that the proper way to create a 
vigorous growth in a tree is by the application of other than nitrogenous fertilizers, and 
of course these have to be applied according to the condition of the soil. I proved this 
beyond a doubt myself in several experiments I made with potatoes ; where I used an 
excess of barnyard manure I had always a larger growth of tops 5 which were not so 
stron^ and healthy, and able to resist diseases as much as smaller tops with larger 
tubers. I have found by accurate weighings where I applied 20 tons to the acre I had 
forty per cent of rotten potatoes and where I applied other manure I had only fifteen per 



85 



cent. I think someone said here that we could not depend on artificial fertilizers to 
supplant barnyard manure. Perhaps we can't, but by the use of them barnyard manure 
can be economized. If you have only enough barnyard manure for ten acres apply it 
to twenty acres, using with it some artificial fertilizer containing elements that the soil> 
to which it is to be applied, needs. Don't think so much about the plant. Of course, 
some plants are benefited by certain fertilizers more than others, but as a usual thing 
it is the soil that must be looked to more than the plant in choosing a fertilizer. Whether 
it is in fruit or anything else you must ascertain whether the soil is deficient in potash 
or phosphoric acid. You can easily tell if you have sufficient nitrogen ; if the vegeta- 
tion is profuse you have enough nitrogen. I think three-quarters of this country could 
be benefited by the application of phosphates in some form or another. It is complained 
by fruit growers and farmers that these fertilizers are too high in price, and there is a 
good deal of truth in it. It has long been supposed that phosphate should be dissolved 
before beneficial effects can be produced. The tendency now, however, is not to have 
phosphates so soluble as formerly — it is not considered necessary to have them so very 
soluble. They have machines now for grinding this apatite as fine as flour, and if held 
up to the wind it flies away like dust. The finer this phosphate can be made the 
more valuable it is as a fertilizer. I think if experiments were tried in a systematic 
manner by applying some of this phosphate flour to the trees around the roots when 
planting, and then watching the results carefully, both where it had been applied and also 
where it had not, the comparison would be productive of some valuable experience. 

Prof. Saunders. — I would like to hear whether barnyard manure is better green 
or decomposed — a little further light on that point would be valuable. From some 
inquiries made I find it is used in the green state during the winter, carting it directly 
on to the fields, and letting the leaching be done there. I think this is one of the most 
practical points that has come before us, because by the ordinary methods of keeping 
barnyard manure, where the barnyard is not so situated as to retain the drainage, there 
is a large loss to the farmer. If that can be avoided by taking the manure out during 
the winter months, teaming it out to such places as it may be useful in the spring, it is a 
thing we ought to know. Those who have tried the plan of carting their manure out 
to the fields every day say that they get better crops in that way than they did when 
they allowed it to accumulate in the yard and rot. Others, again, urge that it is better 
to rot it first ; there are two sides to the question, and I would like to hear from some 
of those present their views on the subject. 

A Member. — If you want the manure to have its effect quickly it must be applied 
in the rotten state. Where it is applied green the benefit is not gained till the next year. 

F. W. Wilson. — That is not my experience. I never got any good by piling 
manure. I think I got more immediate benefit with the spring manure than when it 
was piled. It beats me to know how any good can be derived by piling it, for the good 
properties are evaporating all the time. I believe in ploughing it in in the spring. 

Prof. Panton. — For the orchard I would say look after your ashes, and if you 
make that mixture you will find it an excellent fertilizer ■ and in the garden — for that, 
I think, is what we are talking about — I think well rotted manure would be the best. 

Mr. Macdonald. — I have had little experience in rotten manure. I last year tried 
cow dung without any urine on an onion plot of about a quarter of an acre, at the rate 
of sixty-two horse loads to the acre. I put part on in the fall and ploughed it down, 
another part *I put on as a top dressing. The manure happened to be full of all sorts 
of weeds, and I got the benefit of them. Where I ploughed it under I had a tremendous 
pile of the onion maggot, where it was used as a top dressing there were less, and least 
of all where there was no manure put at all. I don't know whether that proves anything 
or not, but it is my experience. There are a great number of conditions to be observed 
in the application of manure, whether rotted or green. If absorbents are used with the 
green manure, so that the liquid goes with it, it is very strong, and acts as quickly as 
fermented manure, but if it is put on in connection with straw without being fermented 
it must be put on clay soil. Then in some cases it might be beneficial, but in others 
might have the reverse effect. Its effect is beneficial in this way, that it opens the soil 
for the absorption of ammonia and moisture from the atmosphere, but you cannot get 



86 



any moisture from the loam because moisture will not enter coarse manure on the surface 
of the soil. So that whether manure is fermented or not depends a good deal upon the 
circumstances. Never apply green manure on light soil, but fermented manure may be 
employed on light soil. If you apply manure green you must be careful of weeds, and 
often, even if fermented at the ordinary temperature, it will not kill them ; it requires a 
high temperature. 



VOTES OF THANKS. 



On motion of Mr. F. W. Wilson, seconded by Mr. John Macklin, a vote of thanks 
was tendered the President and Directors of the Association for having chosen Chatham 
as the place for the winter meeting. 

On motion of Mr. F. W. Wilson, seconded by Mr. Mackenzie Ross, the thanks of 
the Association and Meeting were tendered to Mr. President Lyon, of the Michigan State 
Association, for his presence and valuable aid in carrying on the various discussions. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON FRUITS. 

The report of the committee on fruits was presented as follows, and taken as read : — 
Your committee have carefully examined and find — 

E. Tyhurst, of Leamington, shows six varieties, all fine specimens, N. Spy, Baldwin, 
King, Ben Davis, Golden Russet, and one variety although strongly resembling 
Fallawater, your committee did not recognize, all very fine. 

T. T. Tyhurst, Harwich, shows five varieties, R. I. Greening, Flushing, Spitzenburg, 
King, Baldwin, N. Spy, all very good. 

Joseph Ripley, Kent Bridge, shows excellent specimens of Fallawater, Gloriamundi, 
R. I. Greening, and fair of Baldwin and Phcenix, which is commonly and erroneously 
called Red Canada, and the Bradt Seedling, a russet shown by Stone and Wellington, 
about the size of American G. Russett, but evidently quite distinct. Quality superior. 
Also Canada Baldwin which was grown in Quebec, hardy and beautiful. 

W. McKenzie Ross, shows Nick-a-Jack, a fair large apple, valuable for long-keeping 
qualities ; a very superior large apple improperly labeled White Winter Pearmain ; 
excellent specimens of Bellflower, Northern Spy ; good Ben Davis, American Golden 
Russet, Wagener, Cayuga Red Streak, R. I. Greening and Lady, and fair specimens of 
Grimes Golden and Mann, and a seedling of no particular merits — 13 varieties in all. 

Richard Tyhurst, a sweet and large red seedling apple of good appearance. 

Thomas Beall, of Lindsay, a large red seedling of no marked quality in appearance. 
Excellent specimens of Pewaukee and Ontario apples. 

T. R. Merritt, St. ^Catharines, shows the Columbia, a very good winter pear, a little above 
medium size and of superior quality. The committee are of opinion that this pear 
should be better known. Also the following specimens in a fair state of preservation : — 
Oswego Beurre, Vicar of Wakefield, Winter Nelis, Easter Beurre, President Druard, 
Mount Vernon, and Josephine de Malines, a very well flavoured winter pear. 

A. M. Smith, specimens of the Champion Quinces, which show wonderful keeping 
qualities ; also, Vergennes grapes which were kept wrapped in paper and in an open box 
in the cellar. The Vergennes cannot receive too high a recommendation for high and 
excellent keeping qualities. Many bunches were as perfect as when plucked from the 
v ine. Also, Niagara in fair condition, showing it can be called a good keeper. 



87 



A. A. Wright, Renfrew, shows very good specimens of celery of the White Plume 
variety. While the specimens are well grown, to our mind this variety lacks quality. 
The appearance is good, but the stocks lack that crispness so necessary to good celery. 
They are pretty, but tough. 

L. Wolverton, of Grimsby, shows some perfect specimens of Spanish chestnuts and 
pecan nuts. 

(Signed,) A. M. Smith, \ 

F. W. Wilson, > Committee. 

W. E. Wellington, 



BEST VARIETIES OF PEARS. 

The six best varieties of pears, (a) for home use, and (b) for market, was then 
discussed. 

The Secretary. — Not including the newer kinds which have not been tested, I 
would name the following six, given in the order of ripening, for home use : — Rostiezer, 
a small but delicious pear, the Bartlett, Clapp's Favourite, Sheldon, Angouleme and Anjou. 
For the market, the Rostiezer, Bartlett, Ulapp's Favourite, Anjou, and the Howe)], not 
a pear of very excellent quality, but large in size and an abundant bearer, which has 
produced very large crops with me, and which I think is a very desirable market pear. 
The Anjou is a most beautiful pear. At Rochester, at the meeting of the New York 
State Horticultural Society, President Barry exhibited some of the best specimens 
I ever saw. That was on the 26th of January last, and they were preserved in 
the most excellent condition. They were equal in size to our Duchess, and they 
were surpassingly beautiful in appearance. The sight of them made me ambitious 
to plant largely of the Anjou pear. President Barry said there was nothing extraordinary 
in the method of culture, just ordinary good care had produced the results. 

Mr. Mackenzie Ross. — There is a pear called the Elliot, not usually called early, 
which is one of the loveliest we possess. It comes in at the same season with the 
Doyenne D'Ete. Clapp's Favourite is perhaps one of the finest pears we possess, both for 
market and home use. We have about twenty-five trees of them, and our practice is to 
place the fruit on a floor between woollen cloths, leaving them for thirteen days. At the 
end of that time one would not think they were the same pears, they are just as yellow 
as you please. The Bartlett, as the Secretary has said, is a delicious pear, and will give 
satisfaction in almost any place, but it is a little tender. We prefer in our section, or 
'even further north, Doyenne Boussock, which will produce twice as many pears as the 
Bartlett. With the Anjou we find some fault, it is rather a shy bearer ; I might say 
very shy indeed. I have a tree that has been twenty or more years planted, and which 
never produced me a bushel of pears but one year — a large tree too. The pear itself is 
all I could ask in a pear. I would substitute for it as a winter pear the Josephine De 
Malines, and allow me to say here that in winter pears I recommend the . same for 
market as for home use. We get more satisfaction from our winter pears since we have 
learned how to handle them. After gathering them we keep them as cool as we can 
safely* until near the time they are wanted for use, and then bring them up into a 
warm room and force the maturity as fast as possible. A winter pear ripened in a tem- 
perature of 70 is very much superior in flavour to one ripened in a lower temperature. 
The Doyenne Boussock did not give satisfaction for several years ; it seemed as if we 
could not mature the fruit at all. Now, however, since we have learned how to handle 
thsm, we find they are a very nice pear indeed, but they want to be ripened so you would 
almrst think they were rotten, and when in this state their flavor is delicious. This is 
also the case with the Clairgeau. 

President Lyon. — There is a pear which I am surprised has not attracted more 
attention as a market variety. I refer to the Sterling. It has never had anyone to 
push it. Mr. Downing spoke of it as suiting him very well, and it is of better quality 



88 



than the average market pear. It is a very clear, brilliant yellow, with red crimson 
cheeks. It wonld ripen here about the 1st of September. The flesh is clear and white, 
and very sweet, and the taste to those who like a sweet pear is very pleasant. It is 
one of the most attractive pears that can be put on a market stand, and brings a very 
high price. The tree is a strong, handsome, upright grower, and in sixty years acquaint- 
ance with it I have never known a case of blight ; when all others were blighted it was 
all right. I know trees that were planted in 1825 which were perfect the last time I 
saw them. The only case of blight or anything approaching it which has ever come 
under my notice was caused by a stock which was grafted on it, but even then there was 
no blight as far as I could see in the variety itself. Anyone trying it. will find it a pro- 
fitable tree, and desirable as well for their own use. 
The meeting then adjourned sine die. 



SUMMER MEETING. 



The summer meeting of the Association was held in the town hall, Colling, ood, 
commencing on Wednesday, June 29th ; the President, A. McD. Allan, in the chair. 

The Secretary read a letter from Mr. William Saunders, Director of the Central 
Experimental Farm, Ottawa, expressing regret at his inability to be present at the meet- 
ing, he being engaged in locating the Experimental Farm in Nova Scotia ; and conveying 
kindest regards to the president, directors and members of the Association. 



A GENERAL DISCUSSION ON ORCHARDS. 

The first subject on the programme for discussion was " The Apple; varieties adapted 
to the counties of Simcoe and Grey." The President called on Mr. W. W. Cox, of 
Colling wood Township, to lead the discussion. . 

Mr. Cox.— I live on the mountain in Collingwood township, where the soil is a red 
clay loam. In regard to the varieties of apples which may be grown in these counties, 
I might say that almost any of the known varieties can be successfully grown, and they 
will produce splendid specimens of fruit ; the main trouble is that we cannot get people 
to pick and ship them right. I will mention a lew of the summer apples [ have seen here, 
though of course there may be a great many more. They are the Early Harvest, 
Keswick Codlin, Red Astrachan, Sweet Bough and several others, of all of which I have 
seen very fine specimens. 

The Secretary.— What about the Early Harvest 1 Doesn't it spot here I 
Mr. Cox.— Now I remember, I believe I did see some spotted at Clarksburg. 
In autumn varieties, there are the Alexander, Colvert, Gravenstein, Duchess of Olden- 
burg and Fall Pippin, which all do well ; I never saw the like of what we had at the 
show here. 

The President.— Do you consider the Duchess of Oldenburg a fall apple here t 
Mr. Cox.— Yes, we call it a fall apple here. Then there is the Maiden's Blush— 
I have seen some of the most beautiful specimens of this apple here I ever saw in my life,— 
and the St. Lawrence and the Twenty-ounce Pippin. 
The President. — Does the St. Lawrence spot 1 

Mr. Cox.— I never knew it to spot at all. In winter varieties, we have the 
Baldwin, King of Tompkins County, Roxbury Russet, Talman Sweet, Kentish Fill 
Basket, Mackintosh Red, Ribston Pippin, Northern Spy, Rhode Island Greening, Wagener 



89 



and the Mann apple, all of which do well and produce very fine specimens. Of course 
the soils vary a good deal about here : go a mile and you will perhaps find it very 
different, and some of the soils just around the town here will not grow what we can 
out on the clay. 

The President. — Do you find a variation in the fruit on these different soils 1 

Mr. Cox. — Yes. We find that they succeed far better on the clay soil, where we 
have a strong natural drainage. 

The Secretary. — Did you say you had the King of Tompkins? 

Mr. Cox. — Yes. It does splendidly, it is hardy and bears well —that is over the 
mountain, I could not say for those down here. 

Mr. Beadle. — Any trouble with them dropping off immaturely 1 

Mr. Cox. — They have not found any fault with them in this respect. 

The President. — Do you find any trouble in regard to hardiness further inland ? 

Mr. Cox. — There used to be, but I think it is being overcome now that the country 
is getting more cleared up. A friend of mine who has seven hundred acres of land there 
says his trees are doing better now than they did a few years ago. Take a range across the 
rear, over the mountain, a few miles from Owen Sound back from the bay, and I never 
saw anything finer in my life than the apples are. One of the judges of the Provincial 
Show told me he had never seen finer fruit ; he could hardly believe that the Baldwin 
could be grown as we grow it here, and when he came to look at the other varieties he 
said, "Well, I never saw such fruit in my life before." The great, trouble has been to 
get people to take care of their trees; they don't take any care of them, and then if they 
don't do well they blame the agent or the nurseryman. 

The President. — You think any of the known varieties can be grown in these, 
counties 1 

Mr. Cox.— Yes. 

The Secretary. — In our Report for 1884 a list was given of varieties suitable for 
Simcoe and Grey, in which two or three were mentioned as not being hardy — the King 
md the Baldwin were spoken of as being tender. Now, it seems from what we have 
heard to-day, that they are not at all tender ; the Report is scarcely correct in that 1 

Mr. Cox. — Well, there might be some places back in Melancthon and Osprey where 
the soil is very mucky — sort of swampy, and in such places certain apples will not do. 
But all around here, for a radius of twenty miles, I think there is no difficulty with the 
ipples mentioned ; except, as I have already said, that people don't take care enough of 
them. 

Dr. Aylesworth, Jr., of Collingwood. — The counties of Grey and Simcoe are very 
large, and the soil in Grey is very different from that of Simcoe. If you go east or west 
3f this town for a few miles you will find this clay which has been spoken, of, but go 
Bast and you will find sand for miles, and the northern part of Simcoe is like Muskoka 
and that region, where you cannot grow anything at all to speak of. But along this lake 
shore, on this clay ground, anything may be grown — any kind of fruit of medium hardi- 
ness. In this sand around the town, however, you can grow neither apples or pears. 
When you get above the mountain, away from the lake four or five miles, most of the 
ipples mentioned will not be found hardy, but anywhere along the lake they can be grown. 

Mr. T. B. White. (Collingwood township). — I live in the Beaver River valley, where 
:he soil is a clay loam, though at the back of that there is more sand. My land, however, 
;s mostly clay loam with a hard pan bottom, not in every respect first class, but good 
land. As regards apples, I find that I can grow the Northern Spy, Russets, Snow Apples, 
A^strachans, and some others, the names of which I don't just remember, all of which do 
well with me. I had one — I think it was a Rhode Island Greening — which I tried twice, 
Dut did not succeed with it. 

The President. — For an early variety what do you prefer 1 

Mr. White. — The Red Astrachan. 

The President. — Does it spot 1 

Mr. White. — No. 

The President. — Do you have any small apples ? Is the crop generally of good size ? 

Mr. White. — Yes. Last year they had the appearance as if they were going to be 



90 



very small, but there came on a tremendous rain, and they all turned to be a good size ; 
the whole orchard. Speaking of localities, Dr. Aylesworth, T think, said two or three 
miles from the lake, certain kinds would not be hardy ; I think we might say six or seven, 
or eight miles. 

The President. — You think they are subject to winter killing further inland 1 

Mr. White. — Oh, yes ; I think so. South of us, in Osprey, they have poor success. 
Men there have planted year after year, and still have no orchards ; though they think 
they have done better of late years with selected kinds. 

Mr. Brillinger, of Collingwood. — I have seen a good deal of fruit tested, though I 
don't grow any myself. Mr. Cox is a mountaineer; he can only speak of the mountain. 
When you come down here on to this light land it is very different. At Stayner, about 
nine miles south of this, the King is not hardy enough ; two years ago a great many of 
them were killed. A man who had a very large orchard there told me he lost a great 
number of them by winter killing. 

Mr. Wright, of Renfrew. — How low does the thermometer generally register here"? 

Mr. Brillinger. — I think as low as 32 below zero. 

Mr. A. M. Smith, of St. Catharines. — A little too cold for the Baldwin. 

Mr. Brillinger. — It is very seldom so low as that, but I have seen it that low. 

Mr. Carpenter. — I think 32 below is exceptional weather ; we do not often get it 
below 20. 

Mr. Conn, of Collingwood township. — The only thing I have ever noticed wrong 
with my apple trees is that the last few years they have spotted ; some trees that I had 
in an old garden were nearly all spotted. 

The Secretary. — Were the Greenings spotted with you ? 

Mr. Conn. — Yes, very badly. 

The Secretary. — The Snow Apple ? 

Mr. Conn. — Yes. The closer they are placed together the worse they are; if you 
get out in the open they are not so bad. Spitzenbergs have done pretty well, and 
Wageners don't spot very much. 

Mr. Beall, of Lindsay. — Is the Spitzenberg healthy with you *? 

Mr. Conn. — Yes, it produces a good crop. The Baldwin does not winter kill with 
me. 

Mr. Beall. — How old are your Spitzenberg trees 1 

Mr. Conn. — About twelve years ; we planted the first about fifteen years ago. 

Mr. Hickling, of Barrie. — I have been growing apples now for between thirty and 
forty year-;, and I find that while some do well for a time, others totally fail. I have 
just madft a note of those which I consider the most choice, and which can be the most 
easily produced, for market purposes. For summer apples I would notice the Early 
Harvest, which has done very well for a time, but for the last few years has been badly 
subject to spot, and in some instances the trees have failed. The next on the list is the 
Bed Astrachan, a very popular apple, and good for marketing ; I think it is spotted a 
little, but not so bad as some others. Then there is another apple which is not very gen- 
erally known around here — the Williams' Favorite, a red summer apple. Then there is 
another called the Porter, a very good serviceable apple, which answers either for dessert 
or cooking. The Early Joe is too small for market, though the trees are very prolific, 
and strong, and healthy. It comes in for cooking on account of its growing faster than 
the others ; it answers as a green apple. 

The President. — Don't you find the Duchess of Oldenburg desirable ? 

Mr. Hickling. — I have not come to that yet. There is the Summer Pearmain, a 
very nice apple. Of course some of these apples might almost be called fall apples in 
this part of the country. The Duchess of Oldenburg, taken on every point, I think is 
the apple for market and for domestic use, though it does not ripen so early as some 
others, but it comes into bearing very early. For fall apples there is the Alexander, a 
very showy apple, but I think a little tender. The St. Clair is very good, although the 
last few years it has taken the spot. Then there is the Fall Pippin and the Colvert, 
though I don't think I need occupy your time with a description of them. I have an 
apple in my orchard — the name of which I do not know, — but from the picture in the 



91 



Horticulturist, I think it resembles the Yellow Transparent- -a clear yellow, tinged on 
one side with crimson. It is a very showy, pretty apple, and comes in, I think, in the 
latter end of September. 

The Secretary. — Then it would not be the Yellow Transparent, that is too late 
for it. 

Mr. Hickling. — It resembles it very much, but I do not know the name of it. For 
winter apples I should include the Golden Russet, Northern Spy, Fameuse, the Ontario, 
— which is a new apple that is doing very well. 

The Secretary. — Does it pay you to grow the Snow apple? 

Mr. Hickling. — Yes, it is not. so bad the last year or so as formerly j it seems tome 
that this year I have not seen any spot whatever on them ; other years I noticed it almost 
as soon as the apple was formed. Whether it is going to be free or not I cannot say, but 
I hope it is. The Swayzie Pomme Grise is a very good winter apple, and the Seek-no- 
further does remarkably well ; it bears heavy crops, and is very good for the market. The 
Rox-bury Russet is a good apple, and the Yellow Bellflower, and the Rhode Island 
Greening. 

The President. — Do you find these varieties all sufficiently hardy in your section 1 

Mr. Hickling. — I think so, take them on the whole. 

The President. — You are close into Barrie 1 

Mr. Hickling. — Yes. 

The President. — Is there any difficulty further inland ? 

Mr. Hickling. — It was a general complaint two years ago all over that the Baldwin 
was badly affected by winter killing, but this last winter it does not seem to have suffered ; 
the trees seemed to stand it very well. Of course there are many varieties which I 
have not mentioned, but I think those I have included are the principal ones. 

The Secretary. — Is not the King apple tender with you ? 

Mr. Hickling. — I don't know that it is, though perhaps it is not as hardy as some 
others. 

Mr. Brokovski. — I live in the township of Medonte. I think the hardiness of 
apples is influenced to a great extent by the kind of land they are grown on. We have 
planted a number of trees, and have a very inferior orchard at the present time, but I 
think we will try again. 

The President. — Have you underdrained your orchard 1 

Mr. Brokovski. — There is no necessity for doing so ; it is perfectly dry without 
The Northern Spy does not succeed at all there j it grows up six or seven years and then 
winter-kills — dies out in a year or two. I don't think there is one in that part of the 
country. The St. Lawrence used to do well at one time, but it is failing now. The 
Duchess of Oldenburg succeeds admirably. There is another variety, the Brockville 
Beauty, not a very large apple, high colored, and having a fine flavour, which does very 
well In fall apples I think the Haas (or the Fall Queen) succeeds best. Fallawater 
also succeeds moderately well. We have tried the Mann apple, but it is not a success ; 
but our only experience with it was in an unfavourable locality, and it would hardly be 
fair under the circumstances to condemn it. 

The President. — You say your section does not require drainage? 

Mr. Brokovski. — It does not ; it is rolling land. 

The President. — Have you ever tried draining ? 

Mr. Brokovski. — No. 

The President. — Then I should recommend you to do so. 

A Mr. Smith. — You say you have a hard clay bottom 1 

Mr. Brokovski. — Yes, in some places. The strata varies, some places there is a 
clay bottom, and in some sandy — when you get up high — and then clay beneath, and 
then when you get down lower again a kind of fine sand. We are introducing the 
Wealthy as a winter apple, and it seems to do very well. The Baldwin does not seem 
to succeed. There is another winter apple called the Red Pound, which is grown there 
considerably. It is a good deal like the Pearmain in shape, very large and red, with 
brown spots showing through it. 



92 



The President. — I think it is one of the Pearmains. I know they call it the Red 
Pound. 

The President. — I think the Baldwin should succeed there. They grow it away 
east in Mr. Oroil's district and Mr. Beall's. 

Mr. Beall. — I found it, but not just in our neighbourhood. 

Mr. Croil. — How low did you have the thermometer last winter % 

Mr. Brokovski. — I think about thirty was the lowest. I think that is what tried 
the trees very much when it went down so low. The afternoon before it had been up in 
the thirties above, and at nine o'clock the next morning it was down to thirty below. 

The President. — You say that in your district there is a rock formation. Is it 
limestone % 

Mr. Brokovski. — No. Granite, I think. 

The President. — In that district, you say, they can grow fruit % 

Mr. Brokovski. — Yes. That is about twelve or thirteen miles from me, but in the 
same township. There is no apparent difference in the soil in just looking at it. The 
, trees stand the winter very well there, too. 

Mr. Wright, of Renfrew. — Is it near the shore % 

Mr. Brokovski. — No. There is no apparent difference in the situation, slope, or 
anything else. That is the most remarkable part of it. I think the Snow apple is 
beginning to spot very badly, and in the winter the bark seems to break down near the 
ground, worse than any other variety. The Mackintosh Red seems to run out a little, 
and the bark cracks. There is a tree called the Gideon, which I got a couple of years 
ago, and it seems to give great promise. 

Dr. Aylesworth, Sr., of Collingwood. — My experience is varied, and not over 
successful. Mr. Cox's statement that all kinds of apples in a general way succeed here 
is correct — that is under suitable circumstances, but in my experience I have found both 
the Baldwin and the Greening a failure through the black heart. 

The President. — Have you any special varieties you like ? 

Dr. Aylesworth. — I have a variety of seedlings that I value very highly, and one \ 
of which Dr. Hoskins, who I had hopes of seeing here, has a very high opinion. Some 
six years ago he stated in the Rural New Yorker that he had a seedling which he 
esteemed very highly, grafts of which he would send to any one sending him the postage. 
I sent a shinplaster, as we call it, to him, and he sent me about a dozen. I suc- 
ceeded with two, one of which is still alive, and which I value very highly. It is an 
early apple, ripening in the latter end of the month of August. It is semi-transparent, 
and the first apple, or the largest of the first apples I got from it, was eleven inches in 
circumference, and weighed, I think, eight and a half ounces, and people who tasted it 
considered it almost equal to a peach. I have also this seedling of my own which I 
think just as much of ; Dr. Stevens and some others have tasted the fruit and think very 
highly of it. I am grafting from both of these, and intend to propagate them if 
possible. 

Mr. Gilfoyle, of Collingwood. — -Although I am not a fruit grower, I handle a good 
many apples, and my choice for good keeping varieties is the Northern Spy, which I find 
a very satisfactory apple to handle. 

The President. — Do you find they are grown in large quantities around here % 

Mr. Gilfoyle. — Not a great many in this immediate neighbourhood, but between 
here and Meaford, say within ten or twelve miles, they seem to be a greater success. 

The President. — Do you find there is a belt of country in which it succeeds better 
than in other places % 

Mr. Gilfoyle. — I cannot speak as to that ; I have not been in the localities, and 
only know that it is from that vicinity they come to this market. I do not know any- 
thing at atl about the culture of apples. 

Mr. Stewart, of Dunedin. — Where I live we can grow any kind of tree almost, and 
two miles from us they cannot grow any tree at all. Our soil is a mixture — heavy and 
light, and for drainage it is splendid. I think the King of Tompkins is the best apple 
there ; we find it hardy. The Alexander and the Wagener also do very well, the latter 
will bear the second year and continue on. The Red Astrachan is a very good apple, 



93 



and the Baldwin dees very well with us ; mine is only just commencing, but with my 
neighbours it does splendidly. I think the difference between our section and the other 
I have spoken of is occasioned altogether by the soil ; the other is high and level, ours 
high and rolling. Colverts stand there all right. % 

The President. — Do you grow the Snow Apple? 

Mr. Stewart. — Yes, but last year it spotted badly. I find other varieties also spot, 
but the Talman Sweet did not spot last year. The Baldwin, I believe, is a hard apple 
to grow in some places, but it is a good regular bearer and a good keeper. It is not 
hardy enough for our section unless top-grafted on some hardy stock. I have a neigh- 
bour who says the King of ^Tompkins County is a little tender, but I say it is not, and 
we only live 120 rods apart, so you see 1 it takes a man to judge for himself, and not to 
listen to all he hears. 

Dr. Aylesworth, Sr. — "Prove all things." (Laughter.) 

Mr. Stewart. — If a man listens to everything he hears, he will never have an 
orchard. 

Mr. Moberly, of Collingwood. — I cannot call myself either an apple grower or an 
apple exporter, though I take a great interest in fruit generally, but I have listened with 
much interest to what has been said by the different gentlemen regarding the class of apples 
that can be grown in these counties. One of the early varieties spoken of, the Red 
Astrachan, is no doubt a fine apple and a prolific grower, but I would not advise anyone 
to grow more than one or two trees of it, just for home use and local consumption ; be- 
yond that it is valueless. When it ripens it is a beautiful apple to eat, but the moment 
it gets in the slightest degree over ripe it is almost like a sponge, and valueless for any 
purpose whatever. Another apple mentioned, the Duchess of Oldenburg, is, so far as 
my experience goes, a most prolific grower. I have a tree that is full of apples every 
year — beautiful apples. It is slightly later than the Red Astrachan, and it is an apple 
that keeps a little longer, but it also, you may say, is an apple valuable only for home 
use and local consumption. It has struck me that in choosing trees for an orchard 
people are apt instead of taking the experience of others as a guide to what are the best 
varieties for keeping and exporting, to take the book that is presented to them by the 
fruit man, and choose what in the illustrations seems to be the handsomest and biggest 
apple, thinking that when they have got that they will have something no one else has, 
and be able to make a good deal out of it, instead of looking for an apple of good keeping 
qualities, suitable for export. I was talking to a gentleman the other day whom I had 
met at the Queen's Hotel, Toronto, who came from Oregon, and among other things he 
told me that they had at times immense quantities of apples there, that were rotting on 
the ground. I inquired the reason, and found it was just about what I have stated. 
These farmers had raised a quantity of apples not fit to export, and although they had 
an enormous quantity of them they were valueless, because no one would buy them, and 
all the time and money spent in raising them was lost. It seems to me to be of the 
greatest importance to find out the apples that are going to be exporting apples, and 
those which will keep for the winter, and for fruit growers to turn their attention to such 
varieties. Then there will be a market for the fruit grown in this and other parts of 
the country where perhaps the market at present is small. If that were done I am satis- 
fied that the apples grown in this section — the townships of Oollingwood, Nottawasaga, 
St. Yincent and probably others — would produce enormous quantities of apples, which 
would prove a source of wealth to them. The soil is peculiarly adapted for it, the 
formation being almost entirely limestone, which, I take it, is a good formation for fruits 
of all kinds. In the town here we of course cannot grow apples to any great extent, 
the soil being almost altogether sand. In my own garden apples are growing very well, 
though not to the same extent they would, pe '>aps, if the soil were a little stronger. 
We have very little soil over our rock here, six. or seven inches in some places, and in 
others seven or eight feet, but the whole of this country is underlaid with solid rock, 
which in some places crops out through the surface. We find, however, that trees grow 
very well. Much of this land which gentlemen have spoken of as not being adapted to 
pple growing, although apparently dry and sandy on top, may be springy down below 
-a hard, cold, springy subsoil. Not being a fruit grower myself it would be difficult 



94 



for me to give as good an opinion with regard to the influences on fruit that would have 
to be grown for export as some of the gentlemen of more experience, but I am satisfied 
that what we have to turn our attention to is growing fruit suitable for export, and I 
am confident we could produce any quantity of them in this part of the country, and I 
am also sure that this will have to become to a very great extent an apple or fruit 
country — that we shall have to turn our attention more and more to that branch of 
industry. Now, there is an apple grown in New Brunswick, the name of which I 
forget, which is a very s;ood apple, and which I do not think is grown up here at all. 
It is exceedingly good for exportation. The Annapolis Valley, of Nova Scotia, sends 
out an enormous quantity of apples every year, and I do not see why'we should not 
here. We do not export apples to the extent we should, and I think one of the reasons 
is that we grow a great quantity of apples that are of no use, and, in many cases, a 
mere loss of time and money to the farmer who raises them. If these were replaced 
by varieties suitable for export, buyers would come in amongst us and make a business 
of securing them, instead of, as at present, the farmer marketing a few bushels of his 
own. If we had a large quantity of fruit of that kind people would come up here and 
make a business of buying it — perhaps on the trees. I think it is very important for 
farmers to be apprised of what goes on in these meetings, in order that they may ascer- 
tain of their own knowledge, or by the experience of ther neighbours in different 
sections of the country, the different kinds that succeed under varying circumstances, 
because it takes a tree a long time to grow — in the case of the Northern Spy you have 
to wait ten years before you get a crop. Therefore they do not want to plant varieties 
that are useful only for domestic and local purposes, but such varieties as will have a 
value for exportation. 

The President. — In the course of this discussion one point has been settled in my 
mind ; that is the necessity for thorough underdraining. In all the localities in which 
the speakers were uncertain on this point it seems to me that it is a necessity. I think 
it would be pretty hard to find a tract of land where underdrainage would not do some 
good, and even on the rolling land where you are successful you would be still more 
successful — your trees would be healthier and the fruit finer if a thorough system of 
underdrainage were adopted. After a time, when the land has been thoroughly under- 
drained and cultivated, it may be found that some of the varieties at present considered 
not hardy enough in this section will prove sufficiently hardy to be successfully grown. 
However, we have coming into the market a great many varieties of excellent apples 
which will be quite hardy enough for any of these sections. I think Mr. Moberly has 
struck the keynote. There is no doubt at all that in other sections of the country as 
well as this farmers have been planting varieties they ought never to have planted. As 
a rule one or two early trees for the early summer are quite sufficient for home use, 
and three or four at the outside would be quite sufficient of fall fruit. What is wanted 
is winter fruit, not late fall, because we can now ship all winter to the foreign markets. 
We do not find a sufficient quantity of the long keeping varieties, and I would advise 
those who have too many trees of the early kinds to top graft them with some well 
known standard winter variety, such as succeeds best in their particular locality, and 
commands the best price in the foreign markets. I think by this course they would be 
encouraged to go much more extensively into fruit growing. Our markets are increas- 
ing rapidly year after year, and by planting such varieties as are well known to be suc- 
cessful in your own particular variety, — for which you must rely on your eyes and the 
evidence of your neighbours — and which are in demand in foreign parts, I think you 
will find it profitable ; bearing in mind always to begin by thoroughly underdraining. 

Dr. Aylesworth, Jr. — Some eleven years ago I planted 900 apple trees in a very 
favourable position on the side of the mountain, thoroughly drained naturally, and facing 
the east. I planted the Northern Spy, the Golden Russet, the Baldwin, and the Green- 
ing. The first two have done exceptionally well. The Baldwin and Greening, I think, 
from the character of the trees supplied, are largely a failure ; but there are some splendid 
specimens of each kind. I have also planted two or three each of several other varieties : 
the Snow, Red Astrachan, Talman Sweet, and two or three others, the names of which I 
do not remember just now, all of which have done well. 



The Secretary. — There is a variety spoken very highly of in Maine, which I don't 
think anyone in Canada has tested ; it is the McClellan. A gentleman says that o 
seventy varieties he tried, it was the most successful. I would like to know if anyone 
has tried it here 1 

The President. — There is another apple which is not grown here, which, in Maine, 
is one of their very best — the Nodhead. I have seen apples from some sections here 
called the Nodhead, but they are not at all like it. Their's is a long-keeping, very fine 
winter apple, and has a good flavour. The McClellan, too, is a good keeper, and a high 
coloured apple. It is grown all over the State of Maine, and the eastern part of New 
Hampshire, in almost every orchard. 

Mr. A. M. Smith. — I would like to know if the Ben Davis is grown here % 

Mr. Cox. — It is grown here upon the face of the mountain, and it does splendidly. 



At one o'clock the meeting adjourned until 2.30 p.m., and on reassembling, the 
question drawer was opened, and the following queries discussed : — 

VALUE OF APPLES FOR FEEDING MILCH COWS. 

Q. — Of what value are apples for feeding milch cows % 

Mr. Croil. — I have used apples for that purpose, but my experience is that they 
are very poor feed. I thought afterwards that a little corn would have done much more 
good than the apples. I fed them raw, but if cooked and mixed with grain, they might 
have done better. Some of my neighbours say their cows do not give such a large flow 
of milk on apples. 

The Secretary. — Have you tried meal with them 1 ? 

Mr. Croil. — No. I think that way it might have been better. 

The Secretary. — At our last meeting Prof. Panton stated that when mixed with 
bran, pea meal, or chopped stuff, they made a very good food, and a gentleman who had 
used them moderately in that way, said their use had been productive of very good 
results, and believed it would pay any man to grow apples if only for that purpose. 

Col. McGill. — You would have to cook your apples then to get the full effect of 
them on the flow of milk. They have a decided influence if you cook the apples and mix 
them with meal \ they are'productive of improvement in the flow of milk — that has been 
my experience. 

A Member. — Does it pay for the cost and extra labour of cooking ? 

Col. McGill. — Yes, if you were going to feed apples, and expected to get any benefit 
from them. 

Mr. Beadle. — If you could market them at a merely nominal price it would pay 
better to sell them and feed meal. 



HOW TO DESTROY CATERPILLARS. 

Q. — What is the best way to exterminate caterpillars ; I have tried soft soap, but it 
does not affect those remaining in the web 1 

Mr. Beall. — You will remember someone saying some time ago that eternal vigi- 
lance was the price of apples j it is certainly so in regard to these caterpillars. I like the 
plan of looking for them in the early morning, when they are in the web in the fork of 
the tree. It is only as the day advances and the weather warms, that they begin to travel 
out and feed. At evening, too, you will find them in the web, and you can take a forked 
stick and pull web, caterpillar, and all down. Another thing is to look for the cluster 
of eggs on the twigs early in March, before the leaves are out. If your orchard has been 
at all infested the year before, it is probable some of the moths have escaped and laid 



96 



their eggs on the twigs — I suppose you are all familiar with that fact. They are easily 
seen as you look through the top of the tree by projecting the limbs of the tree against 
the sky, and with the scissors on the end of a pole, you can clip them off and bring them 
down. If they are left on the ground it does not matter much, though I usually make 
sure of them by gathering them all up — except a few that may escape me in the grass or 
weeds; they cannot eat grass, however, and scon perish. There is another way of getting 
at these fellows, of another class, — I am speaking now of the tree tent caterpillar. There 
is another variety which I may call a tent caterpillar, though it does not make a tent. 
They were very abundant about London and St. Thomas a few years ago — the country 
was infested with them. They come from the forest, and go by the name of the forest 
tent caterpillar. They make a very slight web indeed, but they have the habit of gather- 
ing on the trunk of the tree some time during the twenty-four hours, in a great heap — 
seem to be built on top of one another, and you can easily manage to crush them. I have 
mentioned these to cover the two varieties of what are known as tent caterpillars. These 
last do not make a tent, so you cannot get at them always in the manner spoken of, with 
the forked stick, but the moth lays its eggs in a ring, and the ring of eggs can be cut off 
early in the spring the same as the tree tent caterpillar. 



O' 



BEST APPLES FOR, FOREIGN MARKETS. 

The discussion of the apple was then resumed, having in view " Varieties of foreign 
markets," as follows : — 

The President. — This is a question in regard to which, in different localities, there 
is room for considerable variation. The subject is one in which I have had some amount 
of experience for a good many years, and in speaking of the best varieties for foreign 
markets, I should in the first place include those possessed of good keeping qualities — 
winter varieties. Take, for instance, the Baldwin, out of which a good deal of money has 
been made in all the sections in which it has been grown. The Rhode Island Greening, 
an apple which some years ago was low down in price on the British market, is now ris 
ing, owing to its good keeping qualities. A good specimen of the Rhode Island Greening 
will now stand alongside the Baldwin, in price, in almost any of the British markets. It 
was formerly objected to on account of being green, the British taste being for a highly 
coloured apple, out they are now getting over that as an objection, and looking more to 
the quality, than the appearance. We all know that for keeping purposes, for our own 
use, most of us would prefer the Greening to the Baldwin. Then there is an apple that 
is grown pretty largely throughout this Province, and which has been considered, and 
bought by shippers, as a fall apple — the Twenty-Ounce ; it is a valuable apple for the 
British market where it is well known, and commands a very high price. There was a 
time when in Britain they wanted a medium sized apple for dessert purposes, but now 
they want to get as much apple as they possibly can for the price, and large apples are in 
demand and bring a high price. The Fallawater, for instance, brings a high price, though 
it has very little colour. The King of Tompkins County, which has not only a very fine 
appearance, but also excellent qualities, is much sought for at good prices. The Northern 
Spy, too, is a great favourite there in any of the markets you go to; it is an apple of very 
high quality, and therefore has held its own. Last year it was spotted pretty badly, but 
notwithstanding that, it stood pretty well to the front of Canadian apples in the market. 
The Ben Davis, although not a very large apple, is one that holds the market very well, 
simply because it is an apple of good average size and colour, and fine appearance. Still 
I would hardly advise growers to plant very freely of Ben Davis, because the quality is 
rather low, and I do not think it will continue to hold the market very long. I think in 
Britain they will, by and by, begin to know and appreciate high quality in an apple, in- 
stead of looking merely to colour, as was formerly the case. The Ribston Pippin is an 
apple I would like to see grown largely wherever it will succeed, and with it I might 
mention the Blenheim Pippin, or Blenheim Orange, as it is sometimes called. Both these 
apples command the highest price in the markets of Great Britain ; probably they are at 



97 



the top of the list for price ; and we can grow them much finer here than any they can 
produce there. I think it is probable that the Bibston Pippin and Blenheim Orani are 
more extensively grown in the Annapolis Valley, of Nova Scotia, than any other variety 
and they make more out of them than any other variety, too. They are apples of such 
good quality that they are sure to hold the market. 

A Member.— Do they compare favourably with ours 1 

The President.— They do. Then there is the Wagener ; it is a little on the small 
side, and is not sufficiently well known on the markets to be appreciated as it ou<rht but 
there is no doubt it will be appreciated as it becomes better known abroad. The* Ameri 
can Golden Russet will always hold its own, but it should be stored here and shipped 
towards the spring of the year in order to realize its proper value. The Roxbury Russet 
too, should be held late here, and if shipped then, will command a very high price on the 
British or other foreign markets. It is an apple which is sold by the Nova Scotians by a 
different name— the Nonpariel, which, I believe, is one and the same with the Roxbury 
Russet. The Spitzenberg is an apple that would bring a good price, but there is 
something about the local Spitzenberg as a shipper, that I do not understand • I 
found it last year a very poor shipper, arriving in England in very poor condition ■ 
barrel atter barrel that were opened were in a state of decay. It is an apple 
of the very highest quality as a dessert apple, but it is one that growers of experience 
do not care very much for growing, being a slow grower and a poor bearer The 
fewayzie Promme Grise I tested last year in the London market for the Christmas 
trade— I put some of them on the market on the 15th of December for the Christmas 
holidays ; I packed them m small barrels known as half-barrels. After explaining them 
pretty well to buyers on the market, they sold for twenty-seven shillings per half-barrel 
that is ntty-four shillings per barrel— the ordinary fruit barrrel. I gave the people there 
to understand that to grow that particular kind of apple we would have to ^t at least 
thirty shillings per half -barrel. It is a very small apple, and it takes a great many to fill 
a barrel, and in growing a large orchard I think the grower would run a great risk in 
order to make any money. It is an apple which I suppose most of you know, and is pos- 
sessed of the highest quality known in an apple. A good many confound it with the 
Pomme Grise, or Montreal Pomme Grise, which is quite a different apple, though of verv 
high quality too, and which should bring a high price on the foreign markets There is 
no demand for sweet apples, and I would not advise anyone to ship the Talman Sweet to 
the British market • they don't want it there. We have other varieties of apples —our 
early apples-the Duchess of Oldenburg, for instance, out of which, if some of the 'steam- 
ship companies would start a line of cold storage, as much money could be made as out of 
any other variety grown in Canada. You would have to pick them a little ahead of time but 
the Duchess will keep very well when picked a little on the early side, and colour nicely 

TJr W a?X f ^ % 6 T Dl f u 6 m ? ney in Shipphlg in that wa ^ at that seas ™ of the 

year. At that season m England they handle principally German and Belgian apples 

which would not at all compare with the Duchess. I tested them in small quantities and 
realized good prices : twenty-four shillings per barrel in small packages. Then the Fameuse 
if grown clean and clear from spot, would be appreciated in the British market • they 
would be willing to pay a hgure that would pay the grower here. If grown clean, the 
Fameuse can be shipped m the ordinary way, without cold storage, and will arrive there 
very well-that is the Snow apple. The Col vert also arrived in very good condition and 
brought fair prices. The Wealthy would ship there very well, indeed, and wouS also 
realize a paying figure. The Cranberry Pippin would ship there very well, and sel well 
I also saw some Mackintosh Reds there which were brought from the vicinity of Oshlwa 
and which, I think, were sold very well. The Mann apple sold very well, indeed it is 
a long keeper and should not be shipped until spring, when it would bring a hi«* 'price 
I sold the Ontario at a general average of twenty-two shillings per barrel for what I did 
Blenheim g Tom P kms alwa ? s sells hi S h > with ** BibBton Pippin and the 

The Secretary.— What about these hardy varieties, Cellini and Fall Queen ? 
The PREsiDENT.-They have not been tried there-at all events I have never met 
them m the market. Nor the Wallbridge, I think, at present. 

7 (F.G.) 



98 



The Secretary. — I don't think there has been very much money in growing the 
Baldwin for shipping, of late at all events, if we may judge by its conduct with us in 
the Niagara District. We cannot get any apples off our trees any more ; they do not 
produce any fruit of any consequence at all, and what there has been is not at all up to 
its former siie or appearance. I have a neighbour who has a large orchard almost 
entirely Baldwins, who feels almost ruined by them. It is a fine, big orchard, trees 
twenty-five or thirty years old, and beautiful trees too ; but he gets no fruit in it, and 
what he does get is not fit to ship ; he has been selling it at fifteen cents a bushel to the 
canning factory, which is very discouraging in an apple of which we have been planting 
very largely. This year we hoped to have had a large crop, but instead of that the 
promise is of a small crop again. The Greening is giving us better satisfaction, and it 
shows up splendidly for this year — the fruit looks beautifully clear, and the trees are 
well loaded The Greening yields more fruit than any other variety, and if, as you 
say, it is going to be in demand in the old country, it will be very profitable for us. 
We have one old tree of Greenings that has given us fifteen or sixteen barrels several 
times, and on one occasion we picked twenty barrels off it. It is about eighty years 
old. In regard to the King, I have quite a large number of trees of good size, and if 
it would only bear well I would think it was one of the best, it is such a beautiful 
apple, and when you open up a barrel has a most agreeable aroma. In shipping it 
always returns the highest prices of any, but we fail to get enough fruit to make us 
think very highly of it. The Ribston does well in our section ; always clear and beautiful, 
and bears well. The Spitzenberg, however, which has been spoken of, is a perfect failure, 
worse, far worse than the Baldwin. I do not remember that you mentioned the American 
Golden Russet, of which we think very highly j it is beautifully clear and has borne 
most abundantly, especially after the tree reaches its age it does remarkably well. 

The President. — There is a gentleman here from Glasgow, Mr. Cecil, who can tell 
us that the feeling of the British markets is strongly in favour of Canadian over all 
other apples. 

Mr. Cecil. — I am not a practical apple grower. My business is selling apples, in 
which there is a large business done during three months of the year, and I may say 
that the prospect of profit this year is exceedingly good. A good many of the varieties- 
which have been mentioned here to-day are not known on the Glasgow market, and I 
think the people there want to be educated up to a higher taste. About the only- 
varieties that are known there are the Colvert, Baldwin, Russet, King of Tompkins and 
Northern Spy. 1 believe that in the course of time people will begin to appreciate 
Canadian apples even more than they do now, especially if they are picked very carefully, 
which in Belguim, or even the United States of America, is not usually done. I think 
the Canadians have a better name for packing than any people from whom we get 
apples. 

Mr. Be all. — The President has named sixteen varieties. Does he recommend any- 
one who is setting out an orchard of two or three hundred trees to set out all these 
varieties ? 

The President. — By no means. If they could adopt and plant two varieties it 
would be better than sixteen. What they require to do is to plant only those which in 
their own particular locality succeed best, and confine themselves principally to winter 
fruit. 

Mr. A. M. Smith. — Suppose all the varieties you mentioned would succeed well ? 

The President. — Then I would select from the sixteen those out of which I thought 
the most money could be realized. 

Dr. Aylesworth, Sr., of Collingwood. — I should.be inclined, if going largely into 
apple growing, to confine myself to one variety — the Russet. It is an early bearer, and 
what is more important, its keeping qualifies are great. A great fruit exporter who was 
here a few years ago advised me to confine myself to Russets. I don't think it would 
pay me at 75 years of age to go into it, but if I were young I should go largely into 
apple growing in this part of the country. I planted some Russets six years ago in 
my garden here, and last year, five years after planting, I had some fruit, and here 
/producing specimens) is some of last year's crop off those little trees. And now, while 



99 



I am on my feet, here is my seedling that I was speaking of this morning. (Showing 
seedling). 

Col. McGill. — There is a very large orchard of American Golden Russets about a 
mile and a half or two miles from my place — some six or seven acres set out entirely 
with them, and although it has been there twelve or fourteen years I don't think they 
have gathered one bushel of apples per tree in that orchard since it was set out. The 
trees are healthy and grow well, but it is very seldom in our section (Oshawa) that you 
can get such specimens as this — not one year out of ten. I have grown them for the 
last forty years. 

The President. — The moral in that case is not to grow American Golden Russets in 
that section. 

Col. McGill. — Yes, there is no money in it, They are good keepers and high 
flavoured, but we cannot fill the barrels. 

A Member (referring to Dr. Aylesworth's specimens). — Were these grown in 
Collinorwood % 

Br. Aylesworth, Sr. — Right in my garden. 

The Secretary.— I think the orchard of which Col. McGill speaks has not had time 
yet. I have had a good many trees of the same variety planted twenty-five years, and it 
is only for the last five years they have been actually paying. They are now bearing 
excellently. 

Col. McGill. — My. trees have been out forty years, and they have not paid me yet. 



BEST MODES OF GATHERING APPLES. 

Mr. Beadle. — The easiest way is to shake them down. 

The President. — I am sorry to hear you say that in the presence of a Glasgow 
merchant. 

The Secretary. — The Americans suspend canvas under the tree, and shake the 
apples iuto that — they have a patent on it. 

Col. McGill. — We sell our orchard by the barrel, and gather our own apples. We 
gather them with a ladder, into a basket holding about half a bushel, and put them into 
the barrel carefully as we gather them, always taking care to gather them when dry. 
I generally pack them myself, and my sons and the hired man gather them. Then we 
turn them over on their side, and store them, if they are to be shipped before the heavy 
frost, in a shed, where they are kept from the rain. We used at one time to gather in 
bags, and sometimes we would get them jammed or shaken — they come out best in 
baskets. 

The Secretary. — I suppose we all follow very much the same plan Col. McGill has 
described, using a ladder and a basket. I have found it a very good idea to have spikes 
in the bottom of the ladder, which is a great help in raising it, and will give it a good 
hold in the ground. A long ladder is apt at times to slide, and I have found these 
spikes a great convenience. I have tried several modes of gathering my crop : some- 
times we have gathered them into a number of baskets and carried them indoors where 
we had lots of room, and packed them there on the floor, but of late I have practised 
gathering them immediately into the barrels in the orchard. I have also tried leaving 
them in piles, but that I found productive of a good deal of trouble. Lately, as I 
have said, I have tried this picking them immediately into the barrel, and heading them 
up, taking them into a cool place and leaving them there on their sides. Then when 
the packing time comes, late in the season, I empty them out two barrels at a time 
upon a packing table or upon straw on the floor. I have been using a packing table 
about twelve feet long with sides all round it, and an inclination so that the apples will 
be disposed to roll towards me. Two persons can very easily empty out a couple of 
barrels on this table and throw out the poor specimens, and so, quickly cull them over, 
Sf parating them into the different classes, and putting them into the barrels and marking 
them according to their grade. I think that, generally speaking, is one of the most 



100 



satisfactory methods I have tried. The only difficulty is that if the weather is very 
close in the place where they are stored — if it is not cool enough — they are apt to ripen 
a little faster than if left in heaps on the grass or same other such place. With summer 
apples, the course is a little different. I ship them away in baskets. The Red 
Astrachan trees I go over a good many times because they ripen so unevenly, and by 
picking them off early they sell remarkably well. It pays to gather the early apples as 
they ripen. I think that a picker, such as was shown in the Horticulturist is a good 
and useful tool for gathering Red Astrachans, at least before the trees get too large. I 
have them brought down from the trees in that way and placed in baskets on the ground, 
then a boy comes along with an express waggon and takes them inside the packing house, 
where they are picked over and classified. The extra select are packed in twelve quart 
baskets, and the second grade in barrels. 



BEST MODES OF PACKING APPLES. 

Col. McGill. — I always have the packing of my own orchard and some of one or 
two neighbours. We invariably pack in flour barrels, and with a press, pressing them 
down. There is as much injury in pressing them too hard as in not pressing them hard 
enough. If you press too hard you destroy the outside course, especially on the head. 
We always place the bottom rows down, beginning at the head end, making that the 
bottom and taking out the bottom of the barrel, which leaves the stem end always up 
to view. We then put them in carefully, and if there are any imperfect specimens we 
throw them to one side, and a good many are thrown out in that way. W"e shake the 
barrel carefully about every half bushel, so as to get them close together, and round it 
up nicely so that the head will be perhaps two or three inches from the chime, and then 
we press them down with the press. If they are small apples we do not round them up 
so much as large ones, because the small ones pack closer. 

The President. — As a matter of fact, where a barrel of apples has been properly 
packed by a scientific packer it should be impossible on opening either end to tell from 
which end it has been packed. Choose a solid place on the ground and place your 
barrel upon a solid piece of plank. Lay the first course of apples with the stem end 
dov/n. The packer should not take special samples for this course, but just take them 
as they come, and place them so as to make a solid row on the bottom. The next row 
also should be put in carefully, with the blossom end down. The barrel should be care- 
fully shaken down on that solid plank after each basketful. When the packer comes 
to the top of the barrel he evens them off according to the variety. One variety will 
press down closer than another, and that is where a little judgment and experience is 
required. A man must know every variety he is packing in order to know how many 
to put in the barrel ; whether he will fill it to the chine, an inch above the chine, or 
even further. Then the last row has to be so placed as to be in an oval position before 
you put the press on, with the stems up, so that when you put the press on they will 
press down evenly and level, and afterwards on opening the barrel you cannot tell which 
end you commenced at. That is a barrel packed properly, and it will carry, and carry 
thoroughly. If the apples before packing have been what we call sweated — and the 
best place to sweat apples is on the ground, they should, if possible, remain on the 
ground for a week after being picked from the tree — they will carry much better. Of 
course in wet weather they are better taken in to the barn floor or some other convenient 
place, but as a rule they should remain for a week or ten days after being picked ; the 
skin toughens in that time. I find quite a difference in the Northern Spy, which has 
such a tender skin, in places where they are left on the ground to toughen and get 
through this sweating process — they will carry much better. Before packing, the first 
thing to do is to make up your mind how many grades you are going to have in the 
pile from which you are packing. There will be two grades at least, and the chances 
are, not more than three. For instance, take a Baldwin grown on the inside of a tree, 
that is apt to be rather green. That will be one grade. All the medium sized apples 
— have them all the one size as much as possible, — and pretty high colored, that is 



101 



another grade. Grown at the top of the tree or on the outside limbs apples will be 
much smaller, but high in color. That will be your third grade. A barrel of apples 
when opened should be all as near of the one size and color as it is possible to have 
them. If you pack your barrels in that way, and brand them accordingly, the buyers 
in Britain and elsewhere will soon get to know that that brand represents well selected, 
honestly packed apples, and the result will be that they will pay a fancy price for 
it. The price is not so much a consideration with them as it is to get the very best 
article. & J 

Mr. Cecil.— The marking is a very important point. You want to have it so that 
people can ask for a certain brand and know that they will get just what they want. 
The oranding should be made a point of, and done very clearly and distinctly so as to 
get well known among the buyers. 



BEST MODES OF STORING APPLES. 

The Secretary,— I usually ship in the fall, and have never stored any great 
quantity, but some of my neighbours have, and although only using ordinary cellars, 
they have met with considerable success. 

The President.— I believe the only secret about the whole matter is to select a 
cellar sufficiently cool. If you are under freezing point it is sufficient. Apples will 
stand a good deal more than potatoes or any other vegetable. The cellar must be dry, 
however,— dry and cool; and see that your apples are without spot or blemish. It 
might be well in handling them in the following spring if you find a barrel that looks 
suspicious in any way, to open it in case of any decay from natural causes. They will 
show it by becoming a little slack, or by wet through the barrel. I believe myself that 
this system of storing is bound to gain ground largely in this country, because bv our 
present system of shipping the fruit the moment it is packed you are shipping" fruit 
for two seasons, whereas if you ship only the varieties required for immediate sale on 
the market, and hold back the long keeping varieties for a later season, you will find 
the prices much better. For instance, such apples as the Mann or Russets should not 
be shipped until on towards the spring of the year, and with our present arrangements 
we can ship all winter without danger of frost. Take them to the station on a moder- 
ately mild day, and the moment they are in the car they are safe. 

Mr. Mitchell — Is there no method of storing without barrels ? 

The President.— No, the barrel is the best method of storing altogether. Bins 
have been tried, but they do not do, they are apt to be filled up too high, and apples do 
not keep as well in that way. 

Dr. Aylesworth.— I have a friend in Oolborne named Simmons who has a cellar 
above or partially above ground, in which he keeps his apples in barrels. He keeps it, 
as you say, at a proper temperature, below or at the freezing point, in the room. I saw 
and tested apples in his house in the month of October which had been kept in that 
way till October of the second year, and they were as well preserved as if it were the 
first winter. 

The Secretary.— I saw an account of an experiment that had been tried which it 
might be worth while to test. A man who had some B.usset apples had stored them in 
barrels packed between layers of maple leaves, dry maple leaves. He stated that he 
opened them up in July and found them then as fresh and spicy as the first day they 
were packed. I don't know if anyone here has tried that or not. 
• Mr. Beadle. — What is the advantage of the maple leaves? 

The Secretary.— Well, I don't know whether the saccharine matter of the maple 
leaves would help the flavour any, but they would help at all events to keep them 
air tight. 

Mr. Beadle. — I have found no difficulty in doing that without the leaves. 

The President.— Perhaps the maple leaf would have the same effect in Canada as. 
the stars and stripes on the other side. 



102 



The Secretary. — I think it is worth our while to experiment, for if we can keep 
our apples till the right time there will be a great gain in it — it would be of great 
advantage. 

Mr. Croil. — I kept some over at my house in dry sand, and we had them a month 
ago quite good. Others I kept in barrels were destroyed. 

A. W. Wright, of Renfrew. — I may say that we find the proper way to keep our 
apples is in a cellar as cold as we can keep them, and if they are touched with the frost 
it does not hurt them. There is only one apple that we don't keep barreled up, and 
have great trouble in keeping, and that is the Greening. I think I sent our former 
Secretary some apples up to show him how they went. We always tried to get them 
sold by the 1st of February, because they got all bruised the same as if you had hammer- 
ed them with a club or something of that kind. If they are kept in open boxes they 
don't seem to act in the same way, but of course that takes a good deal of storage room. 
All the other apples but Greenings we keep in barrels in as cold a place as we can, and 
we have no trouble at all with them. 

Mr. Beadle. — I presume that you are aware that the B-usset apple if left in open 
barrels is very apt to shrivel. A gentleman at Niagara had forty or fifty barrels of 
that variety one time, which he made up his mind to store over the winter and ship in the 
spring. He put them in his cellar, and during the winter there came on a heavy fall 
of snow, shortly after. As is very apt to be the case in our latitude, there then cime 
a very sudden thaw, and this snow melted away very rapidly, and a great deal of water 
ran into this cellar containing the apples. It was a cemented bottom, and held water 
like a dish kettle, and when he looked into his cellar and saw all the water, and his 
barrels about one-third submerged in it, he thought they were gone. In the spring, 
however, when he took them out and opened a barrel or two to examine them, he found 
that they had never before been so sound and safe as that year. That led him to the 
conclusion that next time he wanted to store apples, he would submerge them in water. 
So much for your dry cellar. 

The President. — Following out that line of argument the people of Collingwood 
have excellent facilities for storing apples — they can put them in the bay. 



CULTIVATION OF THE ORCHARD. 

Mr. Beall. — The cultivation of the orchard, in my opinion, commences a year before 
the trees are planted. As has already been remarked to-day by the President, it is a 
most important matter that the land should be thoroughly drained. As I see that "The 
drainage of the Orchard" is to be the subject of a future discussion here I will say no 
more on that point, but proceed with the preparation of the S3il, which is a most im- 
portant point, for many reasons. The soil for an orchard should be as thoroughly 
prepared as if a man were going to put in a crop of wheat. This should be done near 
the fall of the year, and I would also advise that after the land has been thoroughly 
prepared as for a wheat or any other crop, that during the middle of October, when 
the land is dry, it should receive still another ploughing, and that that ploughing should 
be done in such a way that the open furrow will, be left exactly where the row of trees 
is to be. I am supposing, of course, that a man is putting out a pretty large orchard — \ 
say of two hundred trees. The furrows, then, should fall exactly where the rows of 
trees will be, and these furrows should be left open during the winter. The main 
object in that is to facilitate the planting of the trees in the spring. After the land is 
prepared the next thing is to select your varieties, and in respect to that point I think 
there is an erroneous idea current. What has been said here before to-day, that the fewer 
the varieties a man plants the better for profit — provided, of course, that these are well 
chosen — is, in my opinion, correct ; certainly the number of varieties should be small, 
one or two, or at most three. I consider this a very important point, because when a 
man has too many varieties he will find difficulty in finding a purchaser for them, and a 
large portion of them will probably be wasted. That decided, the next step is the 
purchase of the trees, which is another very important point. I \vould advise that the trees 



103 



should be purchased as near home as possible ; it is by no means absolutely necessary 
to go a long distance to some large nurseryman to get trees, and if a man does not 
raise them himself I would have him procure them as near home as he can. If, how- 
ever, he cannot do this, and has to send away for them, I would strongly recommend 
that he should never buy from an agent. When purchasing from a nursery I would 
advocate sending directly to it for the trees, and with the order should be sent the 
amount of money to pay for it. If a man sends direct to the nursery, and his order is 
accompanied by the full catalogue price and a request to the nurseryman to send him the 
best possible stock, in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred he will get better satisfaction 
than in any other way, because the nurseryman who would not put in first-class stock under 
such conditions is unworthy of the name of a nurseryman, and should be drummed out of 
the business. The planting of the trees should be done in the spring ; I do not believe in 
planting trees in the fall. Let the nurseryman keep them through the winter if he wants to. 
Then in the spring, if the land has been prepared in the way I have described, there will 
be no necessity for digging pits in which to place the roots ; the furrow will be sufficiently- 
deep, except, perhaps, a shovel or two of loose earth to be taken out. The earth which 
was thrown up from this furrow in the fall will have become so beautifully pulverized that 
it will fit around the roots very nicely indeed in the spring. I am satisfied that two men 
can plant more trees in one day by this method than they could in a week following the 
ordinary plan. After the trees are planted the cultivation of the orchard should consist 
altogether in the raising of root crops of some description. A crop of corn is a very 
good thing, I think, because it shelters the trunks of the trees the first year, a time 
when they specially need shelter from the sun. For the first eight or ten years I would 
recommend that nothing but hoed crops of some kind should be grown, and during that 
time no grass should be allowed to grow around the roots of the trees. Where no grass 
is allowed to grow there will be no loss from mice girdling the trees. The next import- 
ant consideration is to keep the trees clean, that is, free from insects. Of pruning I 
shall say nothing, because I believe that is the subject of a special discussion. I may say, 
however, that when a man has his trees planted he should be able to do his pruning with 
his finger and thumb, or nearly so. The trees are liable to the ravages of insects of 
various kinds, and the bark should therefore be kept thoroughly clean. Alkaline washes, 
perhaps, are the best preventive of diseases of that kind that can be found. Let this 
be done early in the year whether the trees seem to need it or not, and I think it will be 
found a great preventive of damage by insects. A very good preparation for washing 
trees would be soft soap, or a mixture of tobacco juice — taking care not to make it 
too strong— which is very effectual in preventing the growth or spread of the aphis. 

Mr. White.— You would prefer keeping the land under cultivation % 

Mr. Beall. — Yes, for six or eight years, keeping it thoroughly clean. 

The President. — After that would you seed it down ? 

Mr. Beall. — Well, I would rather some other person should answer that question 
who has had more experience than myself. 

Mr. Mitchell. — Do you think it is possible to make a decoction of tobacco juice 
so strong as to injure a tree ? 

Mr. Beall. — I don't know, I would not to like to say that. I know there is no 
trouble of getting rid of lice with it. 

Mr. Mitchell. — I do not think there is any danger of making it too strong. 

Mr. Beall. — A neighbour of mine told me he had injured his trees by using tobacco 
juice too strong. 

Ool. Stevens, of Oollingwood. — What do you think of whitewashing trees with 
lime. I always use a great deal with alkaline wash. I do not know that it benefits the 
trees any, but it lets me know when my man is covering the trees. 

Mr. Beall. — The advantage of putting in lime is this — take, for instance, washing 
soda, if you add lime to it, it makes it caustic, and the same way with other washes. 
Mixing with lime makes them more caustic, and they have more effect on insecUlife. 

The President. — In regard to the cultivation of an orchard I think there will be a 
good deal of difference of opinion among different growers. For my part, after the first 
three or four years I do not believe in cropping an orchard. I believe in feeding it for 



104 



the sake of the trees themselves, and certainly when you have come to about the bearing 
period I would not think of putting a root or any other crop into it. Once in a while, if I 
found the trees were running a little too heavy to wood, I would seed it down with a 
heavy crop of clover, and turn that down like summer tallow. I have found that very 
beneficial, the clover opens the soil. I approve of occasional sowings of clover or buck- 
wheat, which is very good to feed the land. I would not seed down the orchard unless 
the land was particularly rich and running too heavily to wood. By seeding down you 
will run into fruit more readily, but as a rule I would feed and cultivate the orchard for 
the sake of the trees themselves. I think one crop is enough to have on one piece 
of land. 

A Member. — How long do you keep it cultivated ? 

The President. — Always. Of course as the trees grow old you will have to fork 
around the trees. 

Mr. Croil. — How wide apart are your trees 1 

The President. — About thirty feet. 

Mr. Croil. — You do not have any trouble in ploughing that, but in ten years' time 
you will hardly be able to plough it at all, if your trees are thirteen years old now, as 1 
think I heard you say they were. 

The President. — Oh, yes, I have trimmed the orchard so I can plough it any time. 
I have it trimmed up. 

Mr. Croil. — In my own case the trees are not so high. I could not pretend to 
plough through my orchard, which has not been planted more than 22 or 23 years, I think. 
Of course you could not begin to fork an orchard all over, and I think [ would do harm 
now to go in among those trees with a plough, though I would much rather have it culti- 
vated if possible. 



FERTILIZERS FOR ORCHARDS. 

The following paper on Fertilizers for Orchards prepared for this meeting by T. 
H. Hoskins, M. D., Newport, Vt., was read by the Secretary. 

It is a fact not often properly understood by those who plant orchards, that they 
require rich land, fully kept up in fertility, to make the necessary growth and become 
profitably productive through the long course of years during which a good orchard may 
be expected to continue. There can be no reasonable expectation of realizing profit 
from apple trees planted upon poor, dry soil. " Manuring in the hill " is a shiftless pro- 
vision for annual crops ; it is useless for an orchard, the roots of which, when it has 
arrived at full bearing, occupy all the soil, not only as to its tillable surface, but to a 
great depth. 

Undoubtedly, the best land for an orchard is a naturally strong, deep, moist, (but 
not wet} soil, such as in its original state supported a vigourous forest, chiefly of decidu- 
ous trees. It may be stony, or even rocky — if not ledgy — but it should be fertile, with 
no obstruction to the descent of the roots to permanent moisture. Though strong land 
is essential, heavy clays are not the most desirable. In all the drift region of North 
America, the good grain and potato lands are good orchard lands. The least favourable 
exposures are south and south-west. 

If the land chosen for an orchard is but lately cleared, or if long tilled, has been so 
farmed as not to impair its fertility, no special preparation is needed before setting the 
trees. But if, though, naturally suitable, it has been cropped to an extent impairing 
its productiveness of tillage crops and grass, its best condition should be restored as com- 
pletely as possible. The promptest, cheapest, most effective means of doing this is to 
dress it heavily with coarse ground bone and unleached hardwood ashes, sown upon the 
surface and ploughed in. One thousand pounds of the bone, and one hundred bushels of 
the ashe§ to the acre is none too much. It would be profitable, in the long run, to double 
this quantity at the beginning. Such a dressing is far preferable to one of any sort of 
stable manure, or vegetable compost. Any land upon which water stands more than 
twenty-four hours after a rainfall, however heavy, is not fit for an orchard without 



105 



thorough tile-draining, and is not safe, even with it, because there is always the risk 
of the tiles being obstructed with roots, and the trees becoming unthrifty in consequence. 

The number of trees to the acre is a question, upon which there can be no hard 
and fast rule. If a man has plenty of suitable land, not too costly, he may as well begin 
by setting his trees 40 feet each way. In all that great orcharding region south and east 
of the great lakes, where the tall or wide-spreading varieties flourish, 40 feet is the 
minimum distance, especially when the sorts to be planted do not begin to bear freely in 
less than ten or twelve years after being planted out. The rouis should never be nearer; 
yet in the rows other short-lived species of fruit trees may alternate with the apples'. 
But the case is changed, when we come to the dwarf-growing and early-bearing varieties 
of apples, of which there are many among what are called the ironclad sorts. An orchard 
of such sorts as Wealthy, Yellow Transparent, Oldenburgh, etc., may be very profitably 
set out in rows 30 feet apart, with the trees in the rows 15 feet apart. So set, many 
thousands of barrels may be grown in a large orchard before any check from overcrowding 
will occur. But when this time comes, alternate trees in the rows must be removed at 
once. The orchard then will stand 30 by 30, and the trees will live out their natural 
lives without harm by contiguity. 

Until prevented by the shade, an orchard on moderately level land is benefited by 
cultivation in low annual crops (not grain), or of small fruits, between the rows. Not 
only are these crops profitable, but the tillage and fertilization they require contribute 
to the prosperity of the orchard. I have for many years grown strawberries, currants, 
gooseberries and raspberries in this way, utilizing the land in fruit production almost 
from the start, with profit, and with great benefit to the young orchard. If the currants 
and gooseberries are planted in the rows between the trees running north and south, or 
nearly so, they have the very desirable effect of holding the snow nearly level all through 
the orchard, preventing drifts and bare spots, both of which are injurious. This may be 
continued for some time after the early bearing sorts of apples, esnecially summer and 
autumn fruit, have begun to bear quite freely, and these garden grown apples are always 
so large and fine as to bring very high prices, compared with the same sorts grown in 
grassed orchards. 

But the time will come when cultivation must be abandoned, and the orchard per- 
manently laid down to grass. Before doing this, the original dressing of ground bone 
and ashes should be most liberally repeated. Of all grasses for the orchard, Poa Pratensis 
(June Grass, Kentucky blue grass), seems to me most suitable, and nature generally sees 
to it that it shall naturally take possession, anyway, if the land be right, and has been 
handled as above described. This grass should be treated like a lawn, and mowed by a 
horse lawn mower often enough so that no stems shall form, all through the season until 
the apples are nearly ripe, leaving it as it falls, without removal or raking. This makes 
a perfect bed for the fruit to drop on with the least injury. After the apples are all 
gathered and removed the mower should go through again. This will break up a great 
many nests of mice, but the main protection to be relied upon against mice and rabbits 
is the surrounding of every tree with a boxing of lath, half-barrel staves, or any similar 
strips of rather narrow, thin wood. These are rapidly applied, a single turn of strong 
white cotton wrapping twine being all that is needed to secure them. There is no ob- 
jection to leaving them on the year round, but if this is done they should be turned the 
inner side out, after the final mowing and re-tied. A great many codlin worms will be 
found to have spun themselves up on the inner sides of these strips, and when turned, 
these will be cleared off very quickly by the birds. 

The future fertilization of a well managed orchard, after this, is a very simple 
matter. As the grass is not carried off, nothing is taken out of the soil except what is 
consumed in the growth of the trees and the crops of fruit. This is best restored by a 
moderate top-dressing of fine, well rotted manure, applied every second year, broadcast 
under the trees. Half the orchard can be dressed in this way each year, and an orchard 
carried on in all respects as above described, cannot fail to be productive, and will cer- 
tainly be profitable if the right varieties have been planted and the fruit is properly 
handled and wisely sold. 



106 



The Secretary. — As barnyard manures are scanty, we find wood ashes very con- 
venient; as they are not only very valuable, but are easily procured, which is a great 
inducement for us to use them freely. I have been buying wood ashes this spring, and 
having them put up around the trees in the orchards, and the man I get them from 
gathers them and applies them for ten cents a bushel, so I consider I could not possibly do 
better than that. That is unleached ashes. He not only gathers them, but scatters them 
under the trees throughout the orchard. I am, therefore, using them very freely, and already 
begin to see a great deal of benefit from their use. I don't know that I want anything 
else as long as I can get them at that price and any quantity of them, particularly for 
the peach orchard, where I find them exceedingly valuable. I have been putting them 
around peach trees for years, and, while a great many of the neighboring orchards are 
gone with the yellows and are worthless, mine is in good condition, and is well loaded 
with fruit this year. I attribute this very largely to the free use of ashes. Potash is 
considered by some to be a specific cure or antidote for yellows, and it looks very much 
as if there were something in that theory, when my orchard is succeeding so well under 
that treatment. I do not know that I could say I have noticed it personally, but I have 
frequently heard it stated that the quality of fruit where potash fertilizers are used is 
really very much better than under any other conditions. I have certainly found it very 
satisfactory as far as I have tried it. 

Col. Stevens. — I entirely agree with Mr. Woolverton in regard to the efficacy of 
wood ashes, but sometimes we want a little of something else. I find that phosphates are 
produced in very large quantities on the Canadian Pacific Railroad, but are taken home 
to England to be manufactured, and then are brought out to this country, probably in an 
adulterated state. I would like a little more information as to the benefits of phosphates 
in horticulture, not only for orchards, but for other fruits. We have a large supply of 
them in Canada, and I do not see why we should not use them. 

Mr. Beadle. — I have been using all the unleached ashes I could get, and I am going 
to hire that man the Secretary speaks of as soon as he gets through with him. 

Mr. Flemming (of Collingwoo.l). — I can corroborate all that has been said in favour of 
wood ashes. I experimented with them on a very poor tree in my garden — it was dying 
in fact — and after using the ashes two years it survived, and is now doing very well. I 
am convinced that all that has been said about ashes is quite correct. I used them on 
grape vines, too, with apparently good results, and I am very much in favour of them as a 
manure. 

W. W. Cox. — Six years ago I got a quantity of wood ashes and spread them to the 
depth of about six inches in the bottom of a packing box. I then put a layer of bones, 
and then more ashes. I then set it in a convenient place, and told the people in the 
house to empty their soap suds, dish water and stuff on it, and told them I wanted it 
saved. When I went to look at it six months after there was not a sign of bone left. 
I had at that time, in one row, two Flemish Beauties, two Clapp's Favorites and two 
Bartletts, and I put some of this mixture around one of each of those trees. Well, I 
saw the greatest difference in the world between the trees to which it had been applied 
and the others, and I am convinced that there must be great nourishment either in bone 
or ashes. 1 could see the difference in the leaves and in the wood of the trees. 

The Secretary. — At the meeting of the Western New York Horticultural Society, 
Mr. S. 0. Woodward was speaking of the exhaustion of the soil of the apple orchard, 
and maintained that the failure of apple orchards for the past few years was caused by 
their being literally starred out. It was no wonder, many of the speakers thought, that 
poor results were met with in orchards which were not treated with the same care as any 
other part of a farm would be, but just let alone until they completely exhausted the 
soil. Mr. Woodward said that one hundred barrels of apples removed from the soil as 
much phosphoric acid as one hundred bushels of wheat, and as much potash as fifty 
bushels of wheat — that they drew on the soil as heavily as grain. Well, one hundred 
parts of ashes contains ten parts of potash, six of phosphoric acid and seventy of lime, 
just in the right condition for being taken up by the roots of the growing tree, and this 
explains to us very readily why ashes are so valuable as a manure for the orchard. 






107 



A. A. Wright. — I quite agree with all that has been said in favor of ashes, but it 
might be added that it is very necessary to take the precaution of not allowing them to 
get near the trunk of the tree, because, if unleached, they are sure to kill them. If you 
avoid this, and don't apply them too heavily, they are an excellent fertilizer. 

The Secretary. — That is quite right, and is something which should be particularly 
observed. A great many people when using ashes, or any other fertilizer, will put it in 
close to the truuk of the tree, where it is really likely to do least good. They forget that 
the roots of the tree — and the fine fibers that take in the nourishment, extend out quite a 
long distance — further than one has any idea of who has not tested the matter. We have 
some trees right on the bank of the lake, trees ten or twelve years of age, and I was 
perfectly astonished at the length of some of the roots that were hanging over the bank. 
They were twelve or fourteen feet long, and quite small in circumference, and not very 
far from the surface, either, which shows that when we apply a fertilizer without covering 
the ground further than the top of the tree spreads, we make a mistake. 

The President. — It is astonishing to see how the practice prevails of piling manure 
right around the trunk of a tree; yet you might just as well try to live by cramming 
your dinner down in your boots as try to nourish a tree by heaping this manure around 
the trunk. 

Mr. Hickling (of Barrie). — I have found very beneficial results from the use of 
bones, ashes and the like, and I find also that salt is good, especially sowing it broadcast 
over the ground. I find, too, that salt is very good for vines when put on in the fall of 
the year ; it has very good effect, especially if dug into the soil. 

The President. — I come from a salt country, and Mr. Hickling's remarks bring me 
to my feet at once. We have used salt pretty largely in my district, and I advocate its 
use, not only for growers of fruit, but grain and everything else. When I am buying 
apples for the foreign market, if I find an orchard that is kept clean, pruned and attended, 
to properly, and well salted, I invariably, without further question, make an offer of 
twenty -five cents a barrel more for the apples, for they are better in every way; the salt 
brings out the colour and flavour much better. Salt in the orchard is a grand thing; I use 
it continually, and it is astonishing the quantity of salt they will take. You can sow it the same 
as sowing anything else — by the handful, broadcast over the orchard, and it will do good 
and not hurt anything in the least, and you will be sure to find it beneficial. I remember 
some years ago of offering to send one of my men to clear out the shop of a blacksmith in 
our town. He thought me exceedingly kind — and I was, to myself — and accepted my 
offer. I continued to clear out his shop every year as long as he allowed me, but soon 
everyone else wanted to clear out blacksmith's shops. A little of that refuse, the parings 
from horses' hoofs, round a tree, especially pear trees, will produce wonderful results, and 
the iron filings are a magnificent thing for a garden or orchard. And I cannot imagine 
anyone in this section, where there is a light, sandy soil, selling one pound of ashes, for 
every pound of them is worth gold right here. I find that salt is very good for grape 
vines, but in that case it must be used in smaller quantities. There is one tree that salt 
is not good for — the Norway Spruce. Don't put any salt about it, for it will kill it. If 
you have a geranium bed or pot, and want to bring out the radiance of the blossom and 
improve its color, just take as much salt as you can put between your finger and thumb 
and it will do it. 

The President. — It is not so much as a fertilizer as a sort of tonic to the soil. It 
brings into life in the soil dead ingredients more than anything else will. 

A Member. — What quantity to the acre % 

The President. — Just broad cast as thick as you can sow it by the hand — 400 
pounds to the acre. 

SUMMER PRUNING OF ORCHARDS. 

Summer pruning of orchards was the next branch of apple culture taken up for 
discussion. 

Mr. Beadle. — If you want to hear my opinion about summer pruning, I can only 
tell you, don't do any such foolish thing. The time to prune an orchard for me is the 



108 



spring of the year, just as the buds are starting ; the growth commencing. I have tried 
beginning my pruning when the orchard was young, and when it is properly carried on — 
I don't say that I always follow my own rule, I get crowded out sometimes — the proper 
way to prune the orchard is to take off the limbs when they are quite small. When trees 
are interfering with each other so as to exclude the light and air, thin out sufficient to 
admit them, and do it while the branches are small. The spring is the best time to do 
it, because then the wound has plenty of time to heal over before the winter. As for 
summer pruning, I don't know anything about it — it is something I never did, and cannot 
advocate. A jack-knife is quite large enough to prune with, and the time is just when 
the buds begin to swell. I want the sap to get into circulation ; but I don't want the 
tree in full foliage, for it checks the growth after the leaves have got out large and full. 
If you cut a tree severely whilst in full leaf you destroy the roots below that are nourishing 
it ; for this reason, that it is as essential to root development to have foliage as it is to 
foliage to have roots — one helps the other to grow. The roots take up nourishment from 
soil to the leaves, and the leaves digest it. It is a sort of compound action, somewhat 
analogous to our respiration and digestion. If you cut off two-thirds of the foliage of a 
tree and dug up the tree three or four weeks afterwards, you would find a certain pro- 
portion of the roots below dead, just for want of that nourishment ; and, therefore, I say 
again, don't do any such foolish thing as to summer prune your orchard — that is, in the 
general acceptation of the term. 

Mr. Morton, of Wingham. — If you cut off two-thirds of the leaves in the spring, 
would it not injure the tree ? 

Mr. Beadle. — It would. I am simply calling attention to the effect of the reciprocal 
relation between the leaves and the roots, and that to destroy that balance is to injure 
the tree. In transplanting a tree you take off part of the roots, and you cut the top so 
there will not be too many leaves for it to nourish, until both roots and limbs have regained 
their balance. 

Col. Stevens. — You advocate June pinching with the finger and thumb 1 ? 

Mr. Beadle. — Yes ; if you have occasion to check the growth of a tree, the finger 
and thumb is the best thing to do it with. 

Ool. Stevens. — And that in June ? 

Mr. Beadle. — Yes ; July, or any time you find the leaves growing too long and 
want to check it. 

W. W. Cox. — I don't think I would like summer pruning the way it is done by 
farmers here — cutting off the limb with an axe or a saw — but, when I plant an orchard, 
I always like to go round the trees at least once a month. I used to practice that when a 
boy. The head gardener used to go round first and take off the shoots, next the men 
with a knife, and the boys behind to rake up. I have always adopted that plan ever 
since. If I see any shoot going the wrong way in a plant, I rub the shoots off, and try 
to get them formed without a knife or anything of that sort. I don't want to cut off a 
lot of wood when a tree gets old, and if that plan were adopted it would not be necessary. 

The Secretary. — I have tried summer pruning more or less, and at one time pruned 
young trees rather severely, hoping to throw them into bearing. I found, however, that 
it was checking the growth of the tree altogether too much, and I don't think I got 
enough fruit to pay for it. I think the matter has been made pretty clear here to-day 
that if we go constantly over our orchards, and rub off shoots where they need it any 
time during the growing season, we are doing the right thing. We are saving the strength 
which the tree would be expending in growing shoots where they are not wanted. 

Mr. Morton, of Wingham. — It appears to my mind very conclusively that summer 
pruning is the best. You must remember that pruning is one thing and butchering 
another. To cure a man of a felon on his finger it is not necessary to let it spread all 
over his arm, and then cut it off. My definition of pruning a tree is, training it in such 
a way that it will expend its energies in the most profitable direction. When super- 
fluous shoots are growing the tree is expending its energies uselessly for the time being, 
and when you come to cut them off the tree gets a nervous shock — for it has a nervous 
life — and the reason the shock is not felt in the spring is, because the tree is not in active 
life at the time ; there is a certain shock, but on account of the circulation not being in. 



109 



activity, it is not felt so greatly as if it were in full growth in the summer time. Now, 
the removal of a bud is just as effective, and just as mush pruning, as the removal of the 
branch which would have grown from it. If it is in a place where it would be useless 
when grown the bud should be removed, and the tree not allowed to waste its energy in 
growing a limb which will have to be cut off in the spring. 

The President. — I think the spring is the proper time for pruning. I do not approve 
of cutting off a large limb ; but if, for some special reason, one has to go off that is the 
end of it, and it must go. In that case I would cover the wound with wax, or some such 
substance, to protect it from the weather. Another reason why spring is the best time 
is, because then the grower has more time at his disposal than later on in the season. It 
is just as the sap is moving and spring coming in nicely that the grower has usually a 
good deal of leisure time on his hands, and can attend to the pruning better than any 
other time. By summer pruning I understand removing such buds as appear to be grow- 
ing in the wrong direction, or are evidently of no use for the future fruit bearing of the 
tree. In that case, I would remove such buds, and by removing them at that age you 
will do less harm than at any other time. 

Mr. Brillinger. — If you were growing a tree and there were more branches on one 
side than the other, what would you do 1 

The President. — I always manage to control that from youth upwards, year after 
year. I like to prune my trees so as to give an upward tendency as much as possible, 
and let the branches drag as little as I can. I like to see the trees neat and looking 
upwards. 

The Secretary. — Some people make a practice of cutting out the leading branch of 
a tree, which I consider very unwise. 

The President. — It is a very foolish thing to do, because a main limb is leading 
directly to the heart of the tree, as it were, and there is very apt to be injury from that, 
especially if the limb has attained any size before removal. 

The Secretary. — For instance, the Northern Spy — you could not make it spread 1 

The President. — It would be a very unfair thing to make it try. 



DRAINAGE OF THE ORCHARD. 

The last feature for discussion in regard to the apple was announced as Drainage of 
the Orchard, and the President called upon Mr. Croil to read a paper on that subject. 

Mr. Croil. — I suppose most of you are aware of the dislike the Scotch entertain to 
readers, in the kirk. They cannot bear ministers who read their sermons, and I have 
heard a story told of a couple of old Scotch ladies who were on their way to kirk, 
when one inquired of the other, " There's anither mon coming to preach the day, d'ye 
ken wull he be a reader?" "Hoot, toot, woman," replied the other "he canna be a 
reader, for he's aye blind." " Thank God," said the other, " I wish they were all blind." 
Now, I am not blind, but I am not a reader, so I shall call on Mr. Beadle, who will 
introduce this subject much better than I could. (Laughter). 

Mr. Beadle. — I should thoroughly underdrain the ground before I planted the 
orchard if the subsoil was not naturally gravelly or porous so that the water would soak 
through. The depth of the drain would depend somewhat on the tile, but I would sink 
down five feet if I could. My experience has taught me a principle which may seem 
rather paradoxical — that it is not the water which comes from above that causes the 
trouble, but that which comes from below. As the earth fills with water the water keeps 
coming up. You dig a hole in a piece of land early in the spring, where the soil is not 
porous, and by and by you will see water at the bottom of that hole, and in a week after 
it will be full of water. Perhaps it has been running down into the hole 1 That is not 
the trouble. If you could take the level of the water in your whole field you would find 
it was just the same as in that hole. So, as I said before, it is the water coming up from 
below that is the cause of the trouble, and apple trees planted in that soil will do 
poorly. For apple trees you must have a porous soil, aerated and warm, in order to be 
successful. 



110 



The Secretary. — Do you think the roots of the apple tree ever go down five feet 1 ? 
Mr. Beadle. — No ; but if you sink your drain down five feet deep you escape all 
chance of being injured by frost ; and another thing, your tile will not need to be placed 
so close together. You can drain at less expense a larger area than you can near the 
surface, because you would then have to put them closer together. You can see, if you 
think for a moment, the philosophy of that, if you accept my proposition that it is the 
water coining from below that does the damage, and not the water from above. That 
comes down and sinks into the ground and has to stop there, because it meets water there 
and cannot run off fast enough. If before getting down five feet you reach a clay soil 
that is impervious to water, or hard sand which is almost impervious to water, it is not 
much use going any deeper. I am supposing you have a porous soil. The soil where I 
live is about five or s x feet deep before you get to any hard pan or clay, and I have been i 
putting the tile clear down to the hard pan — the impenetrable soil below — and I get the 
best results. In some parts of my draining I was obliged to stop before getting that 
depth. Now, I think I have explained the whole thing. The proper plan is to drain the 
orchard first and plant the trees afterwards. If you first plant the orchard and then 
drain it, you will have trouble in draining, and there will be danger of injury to the 
trees. A year after you planted it you might perhaps be able to drain in the centre of 
the trees ; but by doing your draining before planting you can lay out your drains to the 
best advantage, availing yourself of any peculiarities in the natural conformation of the 
earth ; thus making a system of piping underground to the very best advantage, and in 
the most economical and thorough way. Then, if possible, I would like to plant my trees 
between the rows of tiles, though I would not insist on that. I do not think if they are 
down four feet they will be choked. 

A Member. — Supposing you can only get your tile down as low as three feet 1 
Mr. Beadle. — What is the trouble, hard pan? You just lay your tiles on the 
surface of the hard pan — so the surface of the tiles lies level with the surface of the 
hard pan. 

Mr. Beall. — I would like to corroborate some things Mr. Beadle has said, although 
it hardly seems necessary. But I am inclined to think the statement he made with 
regard to the depth of the drain was hardly understood rightly. I think it was under- 
stood that the deep drain would not cost any more to construct than the shallow one ; 
but that is not the impression he intended to convey. What he meant to say, and did 
say, was that a given area could be drained at less expense at a depth of five feet than 
three feet. The principle of that is this : — English engineers, who have done so much 
draining, find that in ordinary soil the benefit of the draining only extends to the square 
of the depth each way, that is to say, if you go down three feet with a drain you only 
drain nine feet of land on each side of that drain. So, with a drain down three feet, 
you only drain a strip eighteen feet wide. If you go down five feet, by the same rule 
you drain fifty feet in width ; and the consequence is that it will cost less to put in a 
drain four or five feet deep than one three feet deep, that is by the acre. They found 
that out a good many years ago, and it is not a theory merely, but it has been proved by 
actual experiment on the low lying lands of the east coast of England. There was another 
principle laid down which was at first regarded as a theory which could never be sub- 
stantiated — that a piece of well-drained land had an increased capacity for maintaining 
heat in such a degree as to make it much better than undrained land in the same spot, 
the improvement in this respect being equal to a change of location to three degrees 
further south. There is a very improper idea abroad respecting the actual use of under- 
draining. The idea prevails among most people that the object of underdraining is to get 
rid of the surface water ; that if the surface water is got off it is all 'right, and nothing 
more is required. Now, as a matter of fact, not one drop of water should run o/f the 
surface, it must all run through the soil, for the rain contains a large quantity of valuable 
manure, which should run into the soil, and if land is properly drained it takes in the 
summer rain, and the land is warmed ; because the temperature of the rainfall is much 
higher than that of the soil itself. The rain percolating through the soil warms it. 
Then, again, frost will not accumulate or go down nearly so deep in well drained soil as in 
soil that is not drained. In our country, where we have considerable snow, at any time 



Ill 



during the winter you can run a stick down into ground that has been well drained. 
There is never any frost after we get a foot and a half or two feet of snow. The frost 
only gets down where the soil is wet. 

Mr. White, of Collingwood. — I think this question of deep drainage depends sc 
much on the differences in the soil that no hard and fast rule as to depth can be laid down. 
I have an orchard myself which I am sure would not be benefited by going down five ; 
feet. It is hard pan and is never wet : I have been twenty feet through it, and never a- 
drop of water ; it does not seem to penetrate. I therefore think it is a matter in which 
every one should use his own judgment to a great extent, and he will find it more to his 
advantage than sticking to cast-iron rules in all cases. 

Mr. Morton. — The soil we have in this country is a good deal different from that of 
the old country ; we do little subsoiling here. There, lots of the land is ploughed two feet 
deep with a subsoil plough. In Scotland, where aid is given to draining, some years ago 
no aid would have been given to any drain under four and a half feet deep ; but I have 
been informed that within the last few years aid has been extended to drains of three 
and a half feet deep. That is because it has been found that this very deep drainage is 
not adapted to the generality of soils that require improvement by drainage. If there is 
a substratum of impervious soil near the surface a deep drain would not have as bene- 
ficial an effect as one somewhat shallower. I think the generality of our soil would be 
better drained at a depth of three and a half or four feet than at six feet. 



• THE FOREIGN MARKETS 

The Foreign Markets was the next subject of discussion, and was divided into three 
heads, (a) What Fruits and Vegetables can be profitably shipped, (6) How to pack for 
Foreign Markets, and (c) How to ship. 

The President. — This matter has been pretty well gone into already, with the 
exception of vegetables, upon which we have not touched. So far as I can see at present 
there are no vegetables that we could profitably ship to the British markets, unless there 
happened to be a dearth in the potato crop there and in Europe generally. In that 
event it might pay us to ship potatoes, but while their present source of supply holds 
out it would not be profitable to ship them from here. 1 do not know of any other 
vegetable which I think would pay, unless you choose to call green corn a vegetable. 
That I believe would pay, if it could be shipped over to Britain in the ear. It would 
be quite a novelty there ; for people hardly know at present what it is. We had a 
large quantity of green corn at the Colonial Exhibition, and we had it cooked and served 
up at the tables of the Exhibition restaurants. The people were greatly amazed at it, 
and had to call in the assistance of some of the Canadians present to show them how to 
eat it. When they saw us munching those cobs of green corn they thought it something 
very peculiar, and I have no doubt many of them concluded that we really came from 
the North Pole. But they very soon took to eating it, and when they found out how 
delicious it was they were very anxious to get it, and we found that it could be sold at 
a very high figure. They were ready to pay almost anything for it, and we were repeat- 
edly asked by dealers and the owners of restaurants if some method could not be devised 
for shipping our green corn in the ear to Britain. We took this corn over in cold 
storage, and it kept beautifully, and was as fresh as if just picked. Another point I 
advised the people of Montreal, where they make a specialty of fine crops and nutmeg 
melons, to take notice of ; and that is that they would sell for a higher price there than 
any other melon. They are much finer than any they have there. The Spanish melons 
are larger ; but they are so rich that no one wants to eat them. People said after tasting 
our melons that they were not too rich, but were still luscious enough to be palatable 
and attractive. We succeeded in selling these melons in London at enormous prices, 
and the demand seemed to be good for any amount of them. People there were astonished 
at our mangels ; at the Smithtield show we ourselves were surprised to see how much 



112 



finer they were than those grown in England, and the same with our turnips. It would 
be an experiment, at present, to ship any of these articles, but green corn and melons I 
am inclined to think would pay. I did not think of tomatoes, which I believe would 
pay if we could get them there in good order. They, too. wonld require cold storage. 
They seemed to think in the London markets that they got the best tomatoes from the 
Channel Islands, but ours are much superior to them in colour and smoothness, and I 
believe it would pay to ship them if they could be got there in good order. In regard 
to fruit, it might pay to ship plums, but they, again, would require cold storage. Our 
early plums might pay if the crop there was short ; everything depends upon that. 
Plums have never been shipped to any extent; we tried some last year, but only 
succeeded in getting a few over there. Last year, however, they had an abundant crop 
of their own, and the market was pretty well glutted, so it would not have paid. 
Neither would it be profitable to ship pears there ; because they have a continual inflow 
from Fiance and Belgium. 

The Secretary. — What about grapes? 

The President. — They would not pay at all. People in England don't know what 
to make of our outdoor grapes ; they cannot grow a grape in the open air there at all ; and 
the result is that the only grape they have a taste for is the hothouse grape. They 
have no taste for anything else, and consider ours very insipid, and quite unfit for use. 
The only way in which the produce of our vines could be made profitable by English 
consumption would be if they were converted into wine ; if manufactories were 
established in this country. I learned from some firms there that tests had been made 
of several of our varieties for wine producing purposes, and had found them very fine, 
but on account of the Scott Act being in force in so many parts of Canada they did not 
see any inducements to come out here. One firm made offers to come to Belleville at 
once and establish at once a business of manufacturing wine, and cider from our apples, 
but was deterred on hearing of the Scott Act. They made a test from refuse apples for 
which we had no use, and which we offered to anyone choosing to make the test. The 
result of that test was that after 25 per cent, of water had been added to the juice of 
our apples they made a better article than the English grown varieties, showing that the 
quality of our apple juice is much better than that of British apples. 

A Member. — I suppose they could not be educated up to using our pumpkins 1 
The President. — No, I think they are like squashes — too bulky to ship. I did 
see some sold at Covent Garden market at something like five shillings, but I do not 
think it would pay to ship them 

Col. Stevens. — Do I understand that our outdoor grapes are more insipid than 
English hothouse grapes ? 
The President. — Yes. 

Col. Stevens. — Then English hothouse grapes must be much better than our hot- 
house grapes ; for some of our outdoor varieties are beautiful. 

The President. — I should have said that the English consider our outdoor grapes 
insipid. There is quite a difference, however, between our hothouse grapes and those 
grown in England ; the latter, I think, are more fleshy and richer. 

The Secretary. — What about bushel boxes for shipping purposes'? 
The President. — I believe that if we adopt a smaller package than the regular sized 
barrel for shipping apples, it should be a half barrel. I have been advising their 
adoption this year, and shall use them myself to a considerable extent. You cannot 
pack as firmly or well in square boxes, and when the boxes are tumbled over, the fruit 
is apt to be bruised. I think the softer varieties of apples would ship better in half 
barrels, and they will sell better. The half barrel is easier to pack, and it is also easier 
for the consumer or purchaser on the other side to see if you have packed properly, and 
that the sample is maintained all through the package. I would not recommend wrapping 
extra good varieties in tissue paper, as has been spoken of and tried ; I do not think it 
would pay, because they ship well enough without it. 

Mr. Moberly. — Would not the whole barrel with a division answer the same pur- 
pose as the half barrel 1 



113 



The President. — I do not think the same object would be gained ; the half barrel 
is easier to handle- 

Mr. Cecil, of Glasgow. — I think many people would buy the half barrel who would 
not take the whole one. 

Mr. Cr )IL. — At the Centennial some tive or six barrels of apples were sold to go 
to Barbadoes. They were in half barrels, and arrived there in excellent condition ; 
while some American apples which were packed in whole barrels did not carry so well. 
It was thought it was because there was too much weight in the centre. 



AN EVENING OF SPEECH AND SONG. 

The proceedings of the evening session, which was attended by an audience of ladies 
and gentlemen that taxed to its utmost the seating capacity of the town hall, was 
enlivened by a number of songs rendered in a very pleasing manner by Miss Duffy, Miss 
A. McQaade and Mr. Charles Kelly, the intervals between them being occupied by short 
speeches on subjects of interests to horticulturists generally. 

Mr. John Nettleton, Mayor of Collingwood, who opened the proceedings, expressed 
the pleasure that had been felt by himself and the citizens of Collingwood generally on 
learning that it was the intention of the Association to hold their summer meeting at 
that place. His knowledge of fruit growing, he said, was not very extensive, but after 
having been present at the forenoon session and hearing the highly practical and profitable 
discussions, he felt as if he knew enough to go to work the next morning and become a 
successful fruit grower. When present at the Colonial Exhibition in England, he had 
felt a peculiar pride in the magnificent exhibit of Canadian fruit, which filled the English 
with astonishment, especially when they learned that the specimens had all been grown 
in the open air. This tended to dissipate their preconceived idea that Canada was a 
country of eternal frosts and snows, an idea, he was sorry to say, which many Canadians 
helped to strengthen by sending to England portraits of themselves enveloped in huge 
furs, standing in the midst of wastes of snow and ice. Even at the Lord Mayor's show 
in London, Canada was represented, or rather, he might say, misrepresented, by a repro- 
duction of the Montreal Ice Palace, which was carried round on a float. This kind of 
thing, he thought, tended to create false impressions of the climate and resources of the 
Dominion, and should be discontinued. He hoped that the Association would find their 
visit to Collingwood both profitable and pleasant, and would carry away such pleasant 
memories that a future visit from them at no distrnt date might be looked for. 

President Allan thanked the Mayor for the very kind welcome extended to the 
Association, and assured him that the Association had derived great pleasure from their visit 
to the beautiful town of Collingwood, with which they were quite charmed. From what 
he had heard and seen of the beautiful climate and fertile soil of its immediate vicinity, 
he was led to believe that in the future the culture of fruit would be entered into much 
more extensively, and that in the future agriculturists would in all likelihood rely more 
upon their fruit crops than those of grain. In one branch of fruit culture, plum growing, 
they were certainly second to no part of Canada ; he had never in his life seen more 
beautiful trees than in Collingwood, and believed that with a little care it was quite 
feasible for them to enter into peach culture as well. 



CULTIVATION OF THE GRAPE. 

At the request of a gentleman in the audience Col. McGill, of Oshawa, spoke on the 
Cultivation of the Grape. I am rather taken by 'surprise by this request, he said, but 
being, as the Secretary reminds me, a military man, as well as a fruit grower, I know no 
surrender. The cultivation of the grape has been with me a study and a delight, and I 
have some sixty or seventy varieties, which I have planted more for pleasure than profit. 

8 (F.G.) 



114 



The soil upon which they are growing is a sandy loam, and they comprise some twenty 
of what are known as Rogers' Hybrids, commencing with No. 3 and, omitting here and 
there a doubtful variety, running up to No. 44. Then I have the Concord and the Niagara, 
both well known varieties. As I understand there are some amateurs in the audience, 
for whose especial benefit I am supposed to be speaking, I will describe the manner in 
which I prepare my ground. I first prepare it by thorough summer fallowing, and, 
where the soil is not naturally porous, thorough underdraining is also necessary ; it needs 
to be a strong, well manured piece of ground. Then I set the vines out, ten feet apart 
each way. I cut them back the first winter to two buds — after one season's growing ; the 
second season I cut them back to about eighteen inches, and the third year I form the 
system of the future trellises or training. I cultivate them straight up and down the 
trellises, and in the fall trim them — I prune them immediately after the foliage drops in 
the fall, pruning to what is called the spur. I cut my vines no longer at twelve or 
fourteen years, than they were when I began, but I increase in the arms and the root. 
I have my trellises with four wires ; some people think three sufficient. I have no 
difficulty in ripening the Ooncord, Delaware, Salem, Rogers' 22 or 53, Brighton, Burnet, 
Niagara, Pocklin^ton, Clinton, Rogers' 9, Agawam, Rogers' 19, 15 and 43, and No 5. 
Then I have the Worden, which ripens six to ten days before the Concord. From what I 
can learn of your vicinity I think you want nothing here later than the Concord to be a 
success. I have that wonderful little white grape, the Jessica ; I call it the Jessie, for it 
is so nice, and we have a number of very nice young ladies down our way called Jessie, 
so I call my grape after them instead of the Jessica. I think it is a very fine and early 
grape. The only artificial manure I use — if it may be called so — is hard wood ashes, and 
an occasional small application of salt on the top of the ground. I have to be very 
careful of the latter. I use the ashes and barnyard manure alternately — every alternate 
year — not together, because the force of the barnyard manure would be neutralized if 
used with the ashes. I do no summer pruning with the exception of cutting out the 
useless laterals that grow alongside of the fruit bud, and the stem on which the fruit 
grows. After taking out and reducing the number of clusters to what I think they 
ought to be on the second leaf past the last bunch of fruit, I just nip off the young bud, 
which prevents the exhaustion of the force of the vine in this direction, for, like every- 
thing else, it wants to get as far from the root as it possibly can, and that, it is my 
impression, sends the force that would have been expended in those limbs back into the 
fruit. When I began growing grapes I was exceedingly anxious to get all the grapes I 
could so as to be able to show my friends what a number of bunches I could grow on 
my small vines, but I soon discovered that in that way I was destroying the vitality of 
ray vines, and my experience is that a vine which has been over-fruited one year requires 
two or three, or even more years to recuperate its exhausted energies. Rogers' 15 is 
sometimes a very rampant grower, and so is Coe's Giant ; they will throw out limbs 
sixteen or seventeen feet long, and I sometimes stop their wild career a little, but further 
than that I do no summer pruning. I may perhaps say that I was the first man in 
Ontario county who thought of raising grapes in the open air, and I think those acquainted 
with the horticultural exhibitions in that part of the country will admit that I have been 
very successful. It must be borne in mind by those contemplating going into grape 
culture that it is not all sunshine ; but in this part of the country, from what I have 
learned, there should be no difficulty in any lady or gentleman growing all the grapes they 
require for their own immediate consumption. 

An address by the President dealing with the Canadian Exhibit at the Indian and 
Colonial Exhibition, was followed with musical selections, and a very entertaining and 
instructive session was brought to a close by the singing of the National Anthem. 



115 



SECOND DAY. 

On re-assembling on Thursday morning, the following question was read and dis 
cussed : — 

Q. — What is the best time for transplanting evergreens ? 

Mr. A. M. Smith. — Any time from the middle of April to the first of June. Pro- 
bably if you were sure of planting them after wet weather it might be left pretty late. 
About the time of the starting out of the summer's growth is about as good a time as 
any. I think it is a safe rule to plant them at any period between the time when the 
frost is out of the ground until the first of July, provided it is done on a damp day, and 
the root is not allowed to be killed by the wind or sun. As fine a hedge as I have ever 
seen, consisting of fifty spruce trees, was planted on Dominion Day. The transplanting 
was done on a damp, cool day, and not one tree is wanting in the whole lot. 



PLUM CULTURE, 



The Plum : kinds which succeed in the counties of Grey and Simcoe, was then taken 
up for discussion as follows : — 

Mr. W. W. Cox, (of Collingwood). — The list of plums that may be grown in those 
counties is a long one. The following is a list of those which have been grown here, and 
which I have had experience in growing, and have judged at several exhibitions : — They 
are the Bradshaw, Coe's Golden Drop, Duane's Purple, the General Hand, German Prune, 
Imperial Gage, Lombard, Pond's Seedling, Prince's Yellow Gage, Reine Claude de Bavay, 
Red Egg, Smith's Orleans, Washington, Yellow Egg, Glass' Seedling, Moore's Arctic, 
and Purple Gage. Those I have mentioned all do well. I have been told by a gentle- 
man who lives in the town of Collingwood that the General Hand did well with him for 
several years, but has since failed. 

Mr. A. M. Smith. — If you were making a selection for market purposes, for profit, 
what varieties would you choose ? 

Mr. Cox. — The German Prune, Glass' Seedling, and the Lombard. Dr. Aylesworth 
has a Glass' Seedling, one sent out by the Fruit Growers' Association. I went over to 
the Doctor's place this morning and took off a branch which you will see lying upon the 
table, and I never saw a better leaf on a plum tree in my life — that tree has done wonders. 
The Doctor has 6,500 trees, and there is not one in the orchard that has done better, and 
it markets well, too. 

Mr. Smith. — Is the Imperial Gage a profitable plum ? 

Mr. Cox. — I don't know about that ; it has always done well, and is a nice plum, 
but nothing like the Lombard. 

The President. — Is Coe's Golden Drop regarded as a valuable plum ? 

Mr. Cox. — Well, some people think very highly- of it, but for shipping I think there 
is nothing like the German Prune. A man in this town was telling me the other day of 
a shipment of his which, by the train or boat being behind, were delayed in transit for 
a considerable time, yet they turned up in splendid order at their destination. He said 
be believed they would ship to the Rocky Mountains and back again and still be in good 
order. The Duane does very well aronnd here, I am told, but I have not had any ex- 
perience with it, and don't understand anything about it in this country. Glass' Seed- 
ling bears every year around here, 

Mr. W. B. Hamilton, (Collingwood). — From the little experience I have had I think 
the Lombard is the best plum for this part of the country. It is a vigorous grower and 
lasts long. I have a tree now, the stem of which is larger round than my head, and it 
grows as high as this room, and produces very largely every year ; we have had a crop 
from it ever since it first began to bear. That is something I cannot say of any other 
plum, though, as a rule, plums do very well in this part of the country. For snipping 



116 



purposes and profit I should say the Lombard is far the best plum grown in this part of 
Canada. 

Dr. Aylesworth, Jr., of Collingwood. — I shipped quite a quantity of Lombards to 
Winnipeg last year. One shipment, containing 183 baskets, was some three weeks on 
the way before reaching Winnipeg, and yet all but four baskets were in perfect order. 
They were shipped in the ordinary 16 quart baskets, and cases made to hold 12 baskets 
in each case. Glass' Seedling was not as well received as the Lombard. I think any 
plujm I know anything about will grow here, and do well. As between dark plums and 
yellow ones, I think the dark are preferable for market purposes. 

Mr. Manning Brown, (of Collingwood). — My experience of the Lombard is that 
one would need to keep an extra row all along, or one between two, to keep the trees 
alive. After four years I do not think the Lombard will grow at all — they bear them- 
selves to death. You may go now to any Lombard tree and you will find the limbs 
loaded down, and any man of sagacity must know it will kill the limb. It does with 
me pretty nearly every time. The Washington plum tree stands about the longest of 
any I have tried in our sandy ground. It does not bear so profusely, but it bears every 
year, and just about as much as it can ripen ; it does not hurt itself in bearing. For a 
market plum I do not think any thing equals the German Prune in Collingwood. 

The President. — It is only of late years they have been growing the German Prune. 

Dr. Aylesworth. — The apparent discrepancy between Mr. Brown's experience and 
my own is probably explained by the difference in the soil. His experience has been in 
sandy soil in the town and vicinity, and my orchard is on the side of the mountain in a 
heavy clay loam. I planted about 600 Lombards eleven years ago, of which 500 are alive 
and bearing, never having been replaced. 

Mr. Hamilton. — The large tree I spoke of grows in a place which, in the spring and 
fall of the year, is covered with water, and it has stood as 1 said. Mr. White tells me 
it must be 25 years, or at least 20 years, old. I bought it as a Lombard ; that is all I 
know about it. It bears large purple fruit. 

Dr. Stevens. — I have been very successful with the Washington, which bears very 
well with me ; and another plum, not yet mentioned, the Dawson, does remarkably well, 
and, I think, is the best we have for preserving. I have several trees of the Dawson 
which bear every year, and give no trouble at all. The Washington has borne very well 
with me. These are the two best plums I have in my garden for bearing. I think the 
plum called the Jefferson bears very well, and is a very fine plum for eating, but no good 
for shipping. After being 24 or 36 hours in the house it is not fit to look at. 

Mr. Brillinger, of Collingwood. — I am sorry we have not men here who cultivate 
the German Prune. Some trees are 30 years old, and the trunk of one of them measures 
over three feet in circumference. They are regular bearers, and among the very best 
shippers that we have. I think the German Prune is actually the most profitable we can 
grow in this part of the country. They are a great deal cultivated in the Dutch settle- 
ment. 

Mr. White, of Grey. — I have no experience of this German plum ; but I grow 
Lombards, and they are not very long livers — with us at all events. My place is back 
away from the sandy soil Mr. Hamilton has spoken of, and the soil is a heavy clay, with 
some loam in it. The Glass' Seedling I got from this Association a number of years ago 
has done very well. Last year it was loaded ; but, owing to the extremely dry weather, 
was not able to bring the fruit out to full perfection. 

Mr. Hickling (of Barrie.) — I have half a dozen different kinds of plums. I think the 
German Prune is a very good hardy fruit, and, as I have heard said here this morning, 
bears very regularly. The fruit is a very nice, sweet plum, especially for preserving, and 
is a very good shipper. Still my preference is for Glass' Seedling, which, I consider, the 
best shipping plum we have. The Lombard, I think, is a little on the soft side, although 
it ships very well for short distances. The soil in my section, I think, is different from 
what it is here, where it is very light and sandy. Ours is more of a clay loam, a rich 
soil ; and I must say, from my experience in shipping plums to Muskoka and other 
parts that Glass' Seedling is the best. I have quite a number of them, which I got by 
propagation from the one I received from the Association some years ago, and they are 






11T 



all now bearing well. I find the Lombard sufficiently hardy ; it does very well ; and the 
Prune does very well indeed. Mine are not so heavily loaded as those around here seem 
to be, but there are very fair crops on them. 

Mr. Brillinger. — Does not the German Prune ship as well as Glass' Seedling ? 

Mr. Hickling. — I think the Seedling preferable on account of its size. 

Mr. A. M. Smith. — -Do growers ever practice thinning out 1 ? If two-thirds of these 
were taken off you would have just about as much fruit in bulk, and of much better 
•quality, capable of realizing a much better price. We find that to be the case in our 
peach growing ; if a tree is overloaded we thin it out, and get just as much fruit in bulk 
and quality, and worth twice as much on the market. This thinning out process would 
prevent the bearing themselves to death of which one gentleman has spoken here this 
morning. 

Mr. Cox. — Some person here has said the Lombards will not ship well. There were 
75 bushels I had picked at one time when I got word that they could not be shipped. I 
left them in the packing house for two days, and then got word we could ship them. I had 
swept the floor of the packing house and spread them on some cloths, and on getting this 
word I repacked them, thinking to myself " These plums will never go to Winnipeg, they 
are too ripe." Well they went, and went all right, and that's all about it. Those plums, 
by right, should have^gone ten days before they did ; and I say that the Lombard will 
ship, and no difficulty about it at all. It has been said that in Winnipeg they prefer the 
Lombard to Glass' Seedling. Now, down about Newmarket, where we have shipped 
Glass' Seedling, they have enquired for it ever since. I had two letters from there last 
week asking for them. So tastes differ in different places. I have two or three hundred 
of Glass' Seedling myself, and wish I had two or three hundred more. I put in a number 
of German Prunes last fall, and shall go into them more extensively. 

Mr. Lewis (of Coiling wood.) — One thing I want to correct here is as to German Prunes. 
The German Prune we speak of in this locality was originated here by a man named 
Baker, down on the 6th line of Nottawasaga. We have another plum called the Fellen- 
burg ; it is a clingstone, and some call it the German Prune. It is an excellent 
shipper, good in quality, and I don't know but what it is equal to the Baker German 
Prune in flesh, but in other respects it is not equal. I believe the German Prune is the 
coming plum in this country, and the one most desirable for planting on a large scale, 
with a view to shipping. Most of our varieties you have to pick and market the whole 
business in a few days, or you will have them rotting on your hands ; but the German 
Prune, when fit to market, can be allowed to hang on the tree and await the market 
for three or four weeks without injury to the plum itself. Another thing ; when you are 
overloaded, and have a large quantity of plums that you cannot market anywhere else, 
it is a freestone, and can be easily pitted, and when evaporated, or dried in any other 
way, is a good salable article, and desirable for that reason. Another point in their 
favour, in my experience, is, that they bear every year. With me, they have borne every 
year for six years, and the present is the first year in which there has been a partial 
failure, and that I attribute to the heavy crop of last year. There is a lady at Nottawa- 
saga, named Mrs. Rose, who has marketed from a few trees a large quantity of German 
Prunes yearly in this place, and who, I venture to say, has v netted more money from her 
orchard of German Prunes than any other person in this country. My experience of the 
Lombard is, that it is a short lived variety, and unless the greatest care is exercised it 
will bear itself to death. The orchard on the side of the mountain belonging to 
Dr. Aylesworth is, I believe, an exception, and I account for that by its being a very 
strong soil. The Imperial Gage is an excellent long lived plum ; but not desirable as a 
shipper, as it becomes ripe at once and too soft for shipment. There is one other variety 
to which I would call attention, the Dawson. There is no plum to-day that stands equal 
to the Dawson, or what we know as the Dawson— 7a small plum with a very small pit — 
as a bearer or producer ; and as a plum for cooking purposes it has no rival in the whole 
list. There are two new varieties of plums in this place. This (showing specimen) is a 
Seedling of a new variety, also originated by Mr. Baker, I think, the man who originated 
the German Prune. From what I have seen of it, it is a very large and desirable plum, 
handsome, and a very vigorous grower ; and destined, I believe, to be one of the most 



118 



desirable among new varieties. The tree from which I took this specimen is only four or 
five years old from the grafting, and it bore large quantities of plums last year, and this 
year it is equally well loaded, and gives great promise. There is also a little Seedling 
Plum, as yet without a name, which I originated or grew from a pit myself. For orchard 
purposes it is worthless, being altogether too soft and tender ; but, for individuals requir- 
ing only a few trees for their own use, it has very few superiors ; it partakes a good deal 
of the nature of the Gage. I have heard very little said about Duane's Purple. They 
grow larger than a hen's egg j the tree is hardy, they are uniform bearers, very handsome, 
and fair shippers. 

The President. — This (referring to Seedling) has been ripened here, has it 1 

Mr. Lewis. — Yes ; last year, perfectly. 

The PRESiDeNT. — How will it compare with the Washington 1 ? » 

Mr. Lewis. — It will be equal in size, with a pit no larger, if as large. . For an orchard 
I should put the German Prune down as the very first variety, Al, taking everything 
into consideration ; that is the local German Prune, originated by Mr. Baker. It de- 
serves more notoriety and cultivation, for I believe it is very valuable. 

Mr. A. M. Smith. — How is it pitted ? 

Mr. Lewis. — Smallish in size, and perfectly free ; drops right out. 

Mr. A. M. Smith. — The German Prune, commonly cultivated, -has a large pit ? 

Mr. Lewis. — A large pit and a clingstone ; this I speak of is a perfect freestone. 
The plum you refer to is generally called the Pellenburg, I think. The Dawson will 
stand as well as any plum as a shipper. Large quantities of them are shipped from this 
town to Chicago by a man who ships all varieties, and he reports that he realized more 
for the Dawson than any other plum shipped. For family use the Washington has never 
been surpassed, and I think it will be some time before it will. For a dark plum, Duane's 
Purple stands side by side with the Washington for the home market. 

Mr. Brillinger. — I can trace back the German Prune further than Mr. Lewis has 
done. I was born about a mile from the township where a man named Doner, a Penn- 
sylvania Dutchman, brought the first from Pennsylvania. He brought them in the shape 
of slips, or suckers from the roots, and planted them in Markham, and from there a man 
named Levi brought up some suckers from the trees and planted on his farm. Baker 
bought the farm from Levi, and that is the history of these German Prunes. 

Mr. A. M. Smith. — Then it is not a seedling 1 

Mr. Brillinger. — No ; this old man Doner brought the suckers from Pennsylvania. 
There is another matter in this connection that may be of interest, and which Mr. Lewis 
did not mention. Some of you may remember a very early frost that came some few 
years ago, and caused a great deal of injury among plums. Well, that frost did not hurt 
the German Prunes the slightest. 

Col. McGill. — Do I understand you to say that it was propagated from the roots ? 

Mr. Brillinger. — Yes ; I understand it never was grafted. 

Dr. Aylesworth. — Have they any experience in propagating the plum from the seed 
— whether it will reproduce 1 

Mr. Brillinger. — Mr. Baker told me this summer that he could never get a seed to 
grow. I intend trying it myself this summer, when I get a ripe German Prune. Some 
people say that the pit should be cracked and placed in the ground, and I am going to try 
both ways ; but all those now grown have been propagated from the roots. 

Mr. Beadle. — The reason, possibly, is that this farmer keeps the pit over till spring. 
If it were planted in the autumn, not let get dry, but planted immediately in the ground, 
I think it will grow, if there is any meat in it. If planted before they get dry, I think 
you will find they will grow all right. That is a mistake made by many people, put- 
ting away seeds in a box till they get dry. When in that condition they may perhaps 
grow if cracked, but the better way is to put them in the ground at once in the autumn, 
just as soon as the fruit is ripe. 

Mr. Brillinger. — We have not been very anxious in this neighborhood to get pits 
to grow, for fear we might not get the same varic ty, whereas by growing them from the 
sucker we are sure of getting the same plum. 

Mr. Beadle. — Yes, you will probably get more or less' variation from the seed. 



119 



CARE OF A PLUM ORCHARD. 

Mr. Doyle, of Owen Sound, who was expected to lead in the discussion on this phase 
of plum culture, not being present, Mr. Lewis, of Oollingwood, was invited to take up the 
subject. 

Mr. Lewis. — I am happy to give you the benefit of whatever information I possess 
on this subject, but on one condition, — that none of you shall visit my orchard before you 
go away ; because if there is anything I hate worse than a man who preaches without 
practising, it is to have any one catch me in that kind of thing myself, a contingency to 
which, in the present instance, I am afraid I am to some extent liable. I am somewhat 
of a fault-finder, too ; I don't like the way people prune their plum trees ; and one of the 
first great mistakes they make is that when they get a little tree from the nursery, and 
it begins to grow, they feel so proud that they want to grow a top when it is only about 
two feet and a half high. They grow that way and make a handsome little tree, but about 
the time the tree begins to bear they have to commence pruning, very much to the injury 
of the tree, instead of allowing it to run the height they require, and then commencing 
at the top. A tree should always be pruned. Of course there is always a condition to 
be taken into consideration, — the locality in which the tree is growing ; whether it is 
intended to grow anything else besides the plums on the same ground. If it is intended 
to cultivate in the garden anything else besides the plums, it becomes necessary to start 
the pruning of the top much higher, in order to facilitate working under and around 
the trees. Another great mistake is allowing two buds start out close together, and almost 
opposite each other. This renders the tree very liable to split when loaded or when 
blown by the wind. Limbs should never be allowed to come out directly opposite to each 
other, but a little above or below, which makes a strong tree, not likely to be injured by 
splitting down. There is nothing that requires greater care or nursing and cultivation 
than fruit trees in order to bring about favorable results, such as we have a right to look 
for ; and in the pruning of these trees it should be done when they are young, and the 
tops perfectly formed. Then in balancing — what I call balancing is to always make sure 
of having your tree top heavy on the north and north-west side in this country, because 
that is the direction of the prevailing winds — you can aid the tree materially. The opera- 
tion of pruning is a very simple one, but it must be done in time. I heard summer pruning 
spoken of yesterday, but my experience is that there is only one proper time for pruning, and 
that is early in the spring of the year, just when the trees are coming out in leaf and bud 
and blossom ; for at that time the wound which is made heals more quickly, and without 
running the risk of having a knot left behind, ready to start decay in the tree. Not only 
that, but it is necessary to prune very short, and not leave long limbs sticking out, 
because it takes some years for the growth of the tree to overcome this ; but if pruned short, 
smooth and close to the tree, the wound will heal easily and quickly. 

The President. — Do you cultivate as a rule ? 

Mr. Lewis. — Yes. I presume Mr. Cox or Dr. Ayles worth could give us particulars 
about that ; because I think there is a most marked difference in that particular in their 
orchard ; more so than in any other I ever saw. I think there is 100 per cent, difference 
between an acre of orchard that is cultivated and an acre that is allowed to run in grass. 
Indeed, a good strong sod of itself, I believe, will destroy a plum orchard, when left 
without ^mulching, or something of that sort, to destroy the sod that forms under 
the tree. 

Mr. Cox. — I don't know that any explanation is necessary in regard to cultivating 
a plum orchard. There is no comparison whatever. The very worst trees that we had are 
now the best owing to cultivation. It is an operation that requires a great deal of care, 
to see that the horses employed do not bite the trees and that they are not scratched in 
the process. The more you cultivate in the right way the better the result will be. I 
ploughed Dr. Aylesworth's orchard three different ways so as not to get too near to the 
trees. The first year I put in grain, the next potatoes, and the next year again with 
some kind of roots, and where that has been done we get the largest and finest fruit ; 
the trees will each bear as much again, and the fruit is much superior in quality. In 
cultivating I merely skim around the tree as nearly as 1 can. I would not let one of 



120 



my boys plough around a tree. I just skim it, and when I get very near the tree I use 
a hoe. I have thought a good deal about these spring tooth harrows for the orchard, 
about putting them through now and then, and sowing clover or something of that kind ; 
because when the soil gets hard, and the sod heavy, it is very hard on a tree. 

The President. — Have you ever tried allowing animals to run in the orchard ? 

Mr. Cox. — No. The doctor has pigs there ; I prefer sheep to pigs ; I don't like the 
looks of many trees that pigs have been around, they get in the water and make mud 
and then go and rub the trees. We have to stake and wire our trees to keep them froin 
coming out by the roots. I think if tar paper were put around the trees sheep might 
be let in the orchard, but I don't like pigs. A brother of mine in the United States 
tells me they have abandoned the practice of letting pigs run in orchards there, as they 
do more harm than good. 



PACKING PLUMS FOR MARKET. 

Mr. White. — We ship a large quantity of plums from Thornbury every year, and so 
far I have shipped in crates. Last year I see they went in baskets very much. These 
are the only two methods of which I know anything at present. 

Mr. Cox. — We adopted the crate plan at first, but last year we got 800 baskets, 
and I think I prefer the baskets, which are more convenient to handle, though I don't 
know that they ship any better on the boat. We had our crates planed, — we were the 
only ones who did that-— and we shipped a great many to Toronto, I am very particular 
in picking ; there are some pickers I would not employ if they would work for nothing 
or pay me to be allowed to pick for me, and there are others 1 would pay double price. 
Some will pick anything as long as they can make up a bushel. If I was going into 
plum culture I would adopt some method by which I would know by whom every 
basket was picked. 

The President. — I suppose the trees are planted some distance apart in most 
orchards 1 

Mr. Cox. — No, they have adopted the plan of planting them closer together than 
formerly before the Lombard came into use, and then, if desired, they can cut out every 
other tree. I think we can sell our plums better in baskets than in crates, on the 
market ; for there are many who will buy a basket where they would not a crate. For 
yellow plums we put on yellow leno, and for red plums red leno. 



THE BLACK KNOT. 



The following paper, contributed by Professor Panton, of Guelph Agricultural 
College, was then read by the Secretary : — 

One of the most troublesome diseases of vegetable origin affecting the fruit trees of 
Ontario at the present time is the well known so-called black knot. Though it has 
been the subject of much study, and much has been learned regarding its life* history, 
still fruit-growers, to a great extent, are helpless to withstand its attacks. 

The duty devolving upon me in reading this paper before you, is to open up a discussion 
on this troublesome pest. Its attacks seem to be confined largely to the plum and cherry 
trees, few of which seem to escape its destructive influence. 

An examination of the " knot " at an early stage of its development shows innumer- 
able small transparent threads only seen by the aid of the microscope. These branch 
among the cells which compose the tissue of the inner bark of the tree and form the so-called 
Mycelium, or vegetable part of the fungus. (6) The threads become very intricately twisted 
together in bundles as development proceeds, beginning in the cambium layer of the 
bark and radiating outwards. As spring advances, the threads increase in size, reach a 



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more matured condition, and the knot presents a somewhat velvety appearance later in the 
season. This is the result of the threadlike structures sending up innumerable short- 
jointed filaments (Conidia) on the ends of which are borne egg-shaped spores known as 
Conidiospores (see fig. 1). These are very small, requiring the aid of a microscope to 
see them. When ripe they are readily disturbed and may be blown long distances by 
the wind and thus reach new places become the origin of knots similar to those from 
which they came. This mode of reproduction in the knot continuing till the summer is 
well advanced, when another class of spores begins to develop and reach maturity about 
February. The surface of the knot during winter shows pores which can be seen by 
the naked eye ; these open into cavities, on the walls of which are two kinds of structures, 
one consisting of slender filaments (paraphyses) the use of which are not known, the 
other club-shaped (asci) ; in the latter are developed, toward the close of winter, the 
ascopores, (see fig. 3), usually eight in each ascus, at the end of which is an opening 
through which the spores pass and become new starting points for the fungus when 
they reach proper conditions for development. 

Other cavities also are found among those with the asci ; these contain very 
minute oval spores divided by cross partitions into three parts, and borne on slender 
stalks (see fig. 2). These are the so-called Stylospores, the use of which is not known, 
but generally believed to be concerned in the perpetuation of the species. Still, other 
oavities exist containing exceedingly slender filaments (spermatid), (see fig. 4,) also con- 
cerned in reproduction. They are seen in the knot during winter and spring, and are 
much less common than the conidiospores or stylospores. 

Interspersed amongst the cavities already referred to, One finds from time to time 
spaces more flattened than these, and often instead of appearing oval, seem almost 
triangular. They are lined with short, delicate filaments, which end in a minute oval 
body. These bodies are produced in great numbers and are discharged in masses, being 
held together by a sort of jelly. This form is known as the pycnidiospores, and also 
seem to be connected with the process of reproduction (see fig. 5). 

Thus, you perceive, we have no less than five different kinds of reproductive organs 
■connected with the fungus which causes black knot, viz. : conidiospores, ascospores, 
■stylospores, spermatia, and pycnidiospores, all more or less concerned in the perpetuation 
of this destructive disease. 

For some time before the true nature of this disease was known it was generally 
believed that the cause of the l< knot " was the presence of insects, but since the life 
history of this fungus has become a subject of study, and its various stages of growth 
made out as already described, the insect theory has been abandoned. The following 
reasons for believing that the knot is not caused by insects might be remembered : 

1. The knots do not resemble the galls made by an insect. 

2. Although insects or remains of insects are generally found in old knots, in 
most cases no insects at all are found in them when young. 

3. The insects found are of several species, which are also found on trees which are 
never affected by the knot. 

4. We never find black knot without the fungus sphairia morbosa, and the mycelial 
threads of that fungus is found in slightly swollen stem long before anything like a knot 
has made its appearance, nor is this fungus known to occur anywhere except with the 
knots. 

The morello cherry seems most susceptible, and it is supposed that the disease has 
originated from some of the wild cherries rather than the wild plum. 

Notwithstanding the subject of black knot has received so much attention, little 
advance has been made in its extirpation, other than the cutting the knot off as soon as 
observed. 

When the knot makes its appearance the branch should be cut off a short distance 
below the slight swelling of the stem, which is seen just below the knot. When cut away, 
burn the branches to prevent the spores from spreading the disease. These spores, it 
will be remembered, are microscopic and in great numbers ; besides, if the branches are 



122 



not destroyed the ascospores will ripen during the winter and perpetuate the trouble. 
The most favorable time to cut off the knots is late in autumn, before the ascospores are 
ripe, but as the conidiospores ripen in early summer, if knots are seen in spring they 
should be cut away at once. 

Not only should diseased branches of cultivated cherries and plums be removed, but 
also the choke cherry, bird cherry, and wild plum in the vicinity of orchards be destroyed. 

Some recommend the application of turpentine to the knot ; this requires to be 
done c refully, or the neighbouring parts of the branch will be injured, and it is question- 
able if the results would be favourable. If the knot is large enough to be treated in this 
way it is likely nothing short of removal would check the spread of the fungus. 

Unfortunately little regard is paid to the law which requires affected trees to be 
destroyed ; they are thus scattering millions of spores yearly which are spreading the 
disease to all parts of the Province until the black knot has become almost universal, 
and in every locality these blighted trees stand as silent monuments of the indiffer- 
ence and ignorance of those who should co-operate in fighting against a common foe. 



The Secretary. — It is highly desirable that we should enlighten ourselves in regard 
to this matter, otherwise there is a danger of our applying as remedies something that 
can be of no possible use. For instance, there are a couple of remedies now going the 
rounds of the press of this country, which, if we did not know anything of the true 
nature of the disease, we might suppose would be the very thing for it. The following 
article has recently been going the round of a good many Canadian papers : u . Dig down 
to the root of the affected tree four or five inches, bore an auger hole in the trunk, and 
fill the hole with flour of sulphur. The sulphur will find its way through the tree and 
effectually kill the bug which is responsible for the black knot." 

The President. — The sulphur would remain there forever, it could not be taken up 
in any shape. 

Mr. Beadle. — And there is no insect to be killed ; you might just as well put on 
sugar. 

The Secretary. — Here is another one, from Stratford this time. " A gentleman 
of that town says that now is the time to protect trees from the inroads of black knot 
insects. He advises to take a band of tar paper, an inch or so in width, and wrap it 
around the trunk of the tree under the lowest branch, spreading on tar once or twice a 
week. The last week in May or early in June is the best time to apply it. He has 
proved this to be an effectual remedy." 

Mr. Johnson. — That puts me in mind of a story I have heard of a gentleman 
visiting Nova Scotia, and being in a very flourishing orchard there. He asked the owner 
how it came to be so much better than the surrounding ones. " Well," said the owner, 
" it is a secret, and you must not tell it until you get back to Ontario. I bore a hole 
in the apple tree and put in a lump, of brimstone and cork it up again." Well, the 
gentleman tried the plan, thinking if it was so effective in Nova Scotia it should be 
equally good here, but found no improvement. On seeing his Nova Scotia friend again 
he told him of the failure of the experiment, when the wife of the Nova Scotian, who 
was listening, said, " Oh ! you forgot to tell him he ought to mix calomel with the 
brimstone." The gentleman has not made a second trial of the alleged remedy. 

Mr. Cox. — You can see any amount of black knot within seven miles of here, or 
perhaps even within one mile. 

Mr. Kendall, of Nottawasaga. — My father has black knot on a cherry tree in his 
orchard, and in travelling through the country I find it is destroying all the trees. 

Mr. Beadle. — Is it worse on the cherry than the plum trees ? 

Mr. Kendall. — Yes. 

Mr. Beadle. — Have you noticed black knot on the cherry known as the choke 
cherry 1 

Mr. Kendall. — I have never seen it on the wild cherry. I saw twenty -five cherry 
trees that were killed with black knot being cut down yesterday, not five miles from here. 



123 



Mr. Beadle. — Were they sour cherries 1 

Mr. Kendall. — May Duke, I think. 

Mr. Beadle. — I wonder if it has ever been seen on the sweet cherry 1 

The President. — I never heard of it attacking the sweet cherry. 

Mr. Hickling. — What we want to arrive at is the cause of it ; whether it comes 
through the sap of the tree or what way it is. 

Mr. Beadle. — It is a plant, like any other plant. 

Mr. Hickling. — I want to know its origin — from whence it comes. 

The Secretary. — These little diagrams here (drawings accompanying paper) that 
were not referred to, show you the winter spores that are developed inside this sac. In 
these are developed little spores which ripen in the winter time, and are easily carried 
from one tree to another ; and where they light, they very soon germinate under favor- 
able circumstances. 

Mr. Johnson. — A man half a mile from this had his orchard entirely destroyed 
about ten years ago by black knot ; a man named Shannon • and I had a few limbs 
affected in my place, but I cut it off, and have not been troubled with it since. 

Mr. Hickling. — Wherever I have seen black knot I have always cut it out at once, 
which I think is the best plan. 

The President. — I think everyone here may rest assured that cutting out is the only 
remedy. It is the experience of all fruit growers that there is nothing for black knot 
but the knife. I would advise fruit growers in this district to see to it that the law 
which we have on the statute book, is enforced to the very letter, for if it is enforced you 
will find it of great benefit. It may put you to a little trouble once in a while ; but it 
can be enforced through the medium of the Horticultural Society very easily, if you 
co-operate with that Society. The law itself is a good one, and if not neglected would 
be of great value to the fruit-growing community. 

Mr. Beadle. — I would add one word. Sulphate of iron is a fungicide which 
destroys these spores, and it is a good plan, after cutting out black knot to wash the wound 
with a solution of sulphate of iron, or copperas, as it is called in commerce, which will 
kill the spores left behind within its reach. 

Mr. Hickling. — I can say that I have tried that, and since applying that solution 
to my trees I have not found one-quarter as much black knot. 

A Member. — I have had a little experience with black knot, and I found that lime 
sprinkled among the branches was a good thing. The lime I used was a little too 
strong, and the leaves died off, but fresh ones came in their place again. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FRUIT. 

The Committee on fruit presented their report as follows : 
To the President and Gentlemen of the Fruit Grower's Association of Ontario : 

Your Committee appointed to examine the exhibits presented at this meeting, beg to report that they 
found as follows : — 

From Smith and Kerman, St. Catharines, Fay s currant, branch well loaded with fruit, nearly as large 
as Cherry currant ; early Richmond cherry, fair size, quite ripe ; six varieties of strawberries, including 
among others, Mrs. Garfield and Parry — all well grown samples ; one of Salem grape, kept in sawdust, 
in excellent state of preservation. 

From Linus Woolverton, of Grimsby : Six varieties of cherries, well known standard sorts, as 
Governor Wood, Biggareau, Yellow Spanish, Elton, Black Tartarian and Knight's Early Black. 

Alexander Johnson, of Collingwood : Three boxes of strawberries, the Sharpless being very large, one 
specimen measuring 1\ inches in circumference. 

From Frederick Mitchell, of Innerkip : A fine display of some two dozen varieties of roses ; also a 
fine display of double dahlias, comprising ten varieties. 

We found berry crates containing sixteen boxes, manufactured by George H. Williams, Thorold. 

A. C. Rice & Co., Sarnia, show a collection of stave baskets and berry crates and boxes. 

R. M. Wanzer & Co., of Hamilton, show a collection of berry crates and boxes, and grape baskets 
and crates. 

W. B. Chisholm, Oakville, shows a variety of strawberry, plum and grape baskets. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

D. W. BEADLE. 
A. A. WRIGHT. 
F. MITCHELL. 



124 



THE QUESTION DRAWER. 

The Question Drawer opened up the following discussion on small fruits : 
RASPBERRY CULTIVATION. 

Q. — What is the best method of cultivating raspberry bushes 1 

Mr. A. M. Smith. — It depends upon whether you are cultivating large quantities 
for market or for your own use in the garden. For the first purpose you want to just 
plant them in rows about six feet apart, and three feet apart in the rows, so as to have 
plenty of room to cultivate them. Do your cultivating with a horse cultivator, the 
same as you would corn, and keep all the suckers down with the exception of four or 
five new canes. Pinch back these new canes when they get up about two and a half 
feet ; pinch off the tops, and it will make them stalky and branch out. Give them good 
cultivation the same as you would corn or anything else. 

Mr. Morton (of Wingham). — While Mr. Smith is a better authority than I am on 
growing Raspberries for market purposes, I may, perhaps, tell you how I cultivate them 
in the garden. For our climate I have planted them in rows, and in hills in the rows ; 
because I find that it pays me to tie them up to stakes in winter time, on account of 
the snow, which is very apt to break them down. The ordinary reds I plant about six 
feet apart ; Shaffer's Colossal — which, by the way, is my preference for home use — I 
plant about seven feet apart, as it is a great deal taller growing sort, and for that reason 
requires more space. I keep them in hills, regarding as weeds all shoots which do not 
grow within a radius of say six inches from the centre of the hill \ leaving about five or 
six shoots in the centre of every hill. I keep the ground perfectly clean and friable to 
within a distance of about two inches, using a wheel hoe for that purpose. For manure 
I have been using ashes and salt. I do not know whether it is the result of the ashes 
I put on this spring, but I have got a very poor show of raspberries this year, and I 
would like to find out from somebody the cause of it. My own impression is that it is 
owing to a very heavy dressing of ashes. On some of the rows I have tried superphosphate, 
but I do not know that it is of any great utility. I do not think that it is necessary 
on good soil to give much manure after you have planted your raspberries — that is, if the 
soil is as good as it should be to begin with. I suppose the manner of pruning may be 
regarded as incidental to the cultivation, as it increases the growth and product of the 
vines. When about two feet high I pinch the tops, which makes them branch out. I 
don't pinch back the branch ; I tried that for a couple of years, and am convinced that 
I injured the plants ; because late in the fall they threw out fruit blossoms on the 
secondary laterals ; so late in the season that they did not come to perfection. The next 
year those laterals did not extend out any ; so I think the better plan is to pinch at two 
feet high and let the laterals grow as long as they please, and in the spring trim back 
these laterals to about eighteen inches. With good soil and a good selection there should 
be no difficulty — with faithful work— -to produce a good crop. 



THE STRAWBERRY IK GREY AND SIMCOE. 

The following remarks on the %l Condition and Prospects of Strawberry Culture in 
the Counties of Grey and Simcoe " were delivered by Mr. B. F. Lewis, of Collingwood, 
to whom this subject had been assigned. 

I did not happen to be present at the preliminary meeting held in this town at 
which the programme for the present meeting was formulated. I suppose they did what 
they thought was best under the circumstances in appointing individuals to introduce 
the various subjects, and among others I was appointed to introduce the subject of Straw- 
berry Culture. I am afraid the choice was not altogether a wise one, for, although I 
have been cultivating strawberries here for some years, my general knowledge on the 
subject of the strawberry is not very large. I daresay, however, that my observation 
has been sufficiently accurate, and my knowledge extended enough to enable me to 
answer any questions that may be put to me concerning strawberry culture in the 
counties of Grey and Simcoe. My acquaintance with varieties is not very wide, as I 



125 



have made no attempt at cultivating anything but the Wilson — Wilson's Albany and 
the Sharpless. I may dispose of the latter by saying that it is a berry that can never 
be cultivated with profit as a general crop ; it can only be cultivated by people who 
have small gardens, as a fancy crop — that is my impression. Of several oth< r varieties 
which have been grown to some extent in this part of the country, I may say that I am 
not satisfied that they possess any advantage over the Wilson in any respect, with the- 
exception, perhaps, of being more pleasing to the eye. In regard to the prospects of 
strawberry culture in these counties, I think the only possible thing which from the 
present time one can limit it, is the want of a market. I believe there is no part of 
the continent of America where, with proper care and attention, strawberries can b@ 
produced in greater abundance or of better quality than in the counties of Simcoe and 
Grey. There is a gentleman in Barrie, in the county of Simcoe, named McVittie, who 
is cultivating from five to ten acres of strawberries, heir main crop being the Wilson. 
They do grow some fancy varieties, but not largely for market, I believe. They are 
successful growers, and have taken up strawberry culture with ample means and good 
practical knowledge, and the results they have attained are to say the least very satis- 
factory. There is also a gentleman down in Mnlmur, Mr. Honsberger, who is here, I 
believe, who grows strawberries. I have never had the pleasure of visiting his grounds, 
but have inspected his berries for a number of years, and I may say that for quality, 
appearance, and everything else there is no place in the county where Mr. Honsberger 
need fear to place his berries in competition, and I have often felt somewhat ashamed 
in putting my own on the market in competition with them ; but of course I must be 
content with the position which properly belongs to me. My great difficulty has been 
that I have not been able to give either my plum or strawberry patch the benefit of 
my personal attention, and for days and weeks at times I have not even seen it 
entrusting the entire charge of it to hired help. The consequence is that I am very 
frequently disappointed, and I have often thought that any man who wants anything 
done well must invariably give it his personal attention. There is another gentleman 
here, Mr. Leonard, who has lately gone into strawberry culture, and who has enjoyed 
marvellously good success, placing upon the market here berries which would do credit 
to any grower. I have seen some of the largest markets both in the United States 
and Canada, and 1 may say that our growers here can compete in specimens of fine 
strawberries with any growers in the world. Therefore, I say that there is nothing in 
the soil or climate calculated to limit the culture of strawberries in these counties 
but we find a great deal of difficulty here, and will continue to do so, I am afraid 
in extending strawberry culture to its full scope by reason of the limited facilities we 
enjoy of shipping to the great central markets of Toronto and Hamilton, for we are 
tied down and hampered by a set of cast-iron rules. At present we find it is neces- 
sary to ship two kinds of baskets, that is a basket of strawberries for the market 
and another basket of money for the poor railway company. That is the case with 
our plums and everything else we have to ship, and even then we have to wait their 
pleasure and ship here at our own risk with the freight prepaid. Our fruit arrives 
in Toronto just when they please — if it ever arrives at all — and if they are lost or 
damaged on the way the loss is ours, not theirs. 

A Member. — Haven't you an express company % 

Mr. Lewis. — Yes ; but that does not help us any, for if we ship by express we 
have to send two baskets of money to one basket of fruit, one basket for the poor 
railway company, and another for the equally poor express company. We hope, 
however, that these things will be remedied by and by. As I have said before, there 
is nothing lacking in the soil or climate of the conditions necessary for growing straw- 
berries ; I do not think any gentleman present will contradict me in that. There is 
however, one precaution which needs to be taken ; that of choosing our ground well 
in a position where the snow cannot drift off the vines in winter and subject the vines 
to heavy winter killing ; the snow is probably as good a protection as they can have. 
Another requisite for successful strawberry culture is good underdraining, so that the 
plants cannot be operated upon by frost. These, however, are matters applicable to 
any other county equally with these, and berries can be raised in this part of the 



126 



country with no other exertion or trouble than is incidental to their production in 
any other part of the world. We have one grower here in the town, Mr. Johnson, 
who exhibits the fine specimens on the table, who has only a small patch of ground, 
and the result of his labour has been that last year he sold $350 off that small piece 
of ground. That has been the result of his cultivation, and I think no one need hesitate 
in going into the business here, for I have yet to hear of the first failure. Mr. John- 
son's place, including buildings and everything else, only covers three quarters of an 
acre. I cannot name his favourite berry, but I am sure he would have been equally 
successful, if not more successful, had it been Wilson's Albany. 



THE STRAWBERRY. 



The following paper on " The Strawberry," contributed by Mr. T. C. Eobinson, of 
Owen Sound, was next read : — 

We have now so many varieties of this fruit, and these varieties are so diverse in 
their qualities, that we must place different values upon each variety, according to 
the purpose for which strawberries are wanted. Thus, a variety admirable for market 
purposes may not taste good enough to please the man who only wishes to supply his 
family, while another kind that pleases every one in the house will prove too soft to 
carry to market. 

In other words, before we can answer the question, " Which is the best straw- 
berry?" — we must ask another, — " For what purpose do you wish to grow strawberries'? " 

and another, — " Do you want an early, a medium, or a late variety 1 " Indeed, we 

mi^ht reasonably follow further this Hibernian method of answering by inquiring 
whether if to be grown for market, the market be so distant as to require the highest 
degree of firmness, at the expense of other desirable qualities ; or, if for home use, 
whether quantity were the main point, or whether the careful cultivation could be 
applied which alone will develop varieties of finest appearance and richest quality. 

But what's the use of hair-splitting in a strawberry patch ! Briefly let me give 
my convictions as to the best varieties, both early and late, both for home use and 
market. 

In the Crescent we have the sort which will, perhaps, produce the utmost 
unanimity of opinion for a variety of appearances. The poor man's berry — the lazy man's 

berry call it what you will : it is the early berry of all small fruits. Not so firm 

for market as some others nor so firm as is desirable for long shipment, it is yet 
firmer than any other variety of equal earliness that I know of except, perhaps, Early 
Canada. Not so sweet as we want a family berry to be it tastes very good when it 
first comes in, and is very satisfactory to the housewife over the cook-stove. G-ipsy is 
about as early but does not bear well enough with me. Crystal City is a wretched, 
wild- berry-looking nonentity ! The only respectable rival of Crescent as an early 
berry for either home use or market, so far as I know, is Early Canada. But Early 
Canada is no firmer with me, but very slightly earlier, tastes no better, is rougher, 
darker, and uglier generally, decidedly less productive when healthy, and finally been 
chased over the fence for any ugly greyish mildew on the fruit. 

In setting out a field for early pickings for any purpose I would have five out of 
every six Crescents, the sixth should be a Crescent too, if it would bear alone ; but 
as the Crescent blossom is imperfectly furnished with pollen I like to set every sixth 
row with Wilson's Albany. Wilson is next of valuable market varieties to follow the 
Orescent on my grounds, and where the distance to market is over one hundred miles, 
the Crescent may prove too soft, in which case the Wilson is the only early variety 
to fall back upon. I do not find it so productive as Crescent. 

For main crop there must be great difference of opinion. But before dividing the 
house let us observe that the aforesaid Crescent not only begins business nearly a week 
ahead of most other varieties, but it keeps at it till most of the others are done also. 
Indeed many of the so-called late varieties are just late to arrive, not at all to remain. 
So that for a not too distant market, we have our main crop variety in our early one. 






127 



In productiveness the Orescent is startling. Kept free from runners I have had it 
average nearly a quart to the plant by the half acre. But for home use we want some- 
thing better as soon as something better will ripen, for the Crescent with all its beauty 
and productiveness is not much of a strawberry to eat when others can be had. 
Probably if it were an ugly fruit we would often spit it out when the first edge of our 
craving for strawberries is a little flattened. But it looks so good that even the 
experienced strawberry man will get it fairly down his throat before he gets over admir- 
ing it, and then a few more must be swallowed to keep the first one down ! It is truly 
a great strawberry. O ! for a hybridist, or somebody, that will give us a Orescent with 
a little more sugar in it. 




Bidwell and Seneca Queen are the two main-crop varieties for home use which I 
find pre-eminently valuable. Both are rather soft — too soft to ship well over fifty 
miles by rail, — both are of good, not high quality, sweet and good, both are quite large 
and handsome, Seneca Queen being the larger ; both are exceedingly productive, Bidwell 
bearing the most ; and both are remarkably vigorous healthy growers, especially Bidwell. 
On my ground, both loamy soil and sandy loam, I find Bidwell the best, because it 
bears the most ; but I have heard from my friends of Seneca Queen excelling Bidwell in 
some districts. Both have their faults : they are often irregular in outline, and some 
people would like them sweeter. But for main crop for home use I have tested nothing 
which is superior. Bidwell, with runners cut, yields with me about equal to Wilson. 



128 



It is now giving me the third crop on the same old plants with only one dressing of 
manure, and the berries are large and abundant. Seneca Queen closely approaches 
Sharpless in size, and Bid well hardly half a size behind. 

For a not too distant market — say within a hundred miles, the Lacon is proving 
decidedly valuable. This year I have about a quarter acre of this variety which my 
pickers and foreman consider about equal to our best Crescents in productiveness and 
firmness, while the size is decidedly larger. To day's picking was one ot the finest 
sights that I have seen of strawberries in the crate. The quality might be better, it 
tastes rich, like Wilson, — which I consider one of the richest of strawberries, — but it 
is not much sweeter. 'But I consider the quality better than Crescent j and with its 
equal firmness and handsome colour, it must be rather better for main crop on account 
of its superior size if it only matures the remainder of its immense crop of fruit as 
well as Crescent. That is about as far as I have gone with Lacon, and conclude I had 
better go no further in my account of it, except to say that it can never be very 
popular with nurserymen, because it makes but a moderate number of plants, while the 
plant at all stages is the largest I know of, so that two or three dozen would cost as 
much for postage, or take as much room in a packing box as a hundred plants of 
ordinary sorts. Sharpless is a little larger than Seneca Queen with^me but does^not 
bear much more than half the crop. 




Manchester. 

Manchester, is a very fine, rather late berry, of beautiful appearance and excellent 
quality. 

For a market too distant to ship Crescent I specified Wilson as the only early 
variety I could recommend. As the Wilson covers the season of main crop, all that we 
need for this purpose along with Wilson is a late variety, and to meet this need I 
know of nothing so good as the James Vick. This is a variety that many people turn 
up their noses at, it is true, but I think it can stand it. Certainly if put on light 
land and allowed to choke itself with its own runners it will be unable to mature the 
immense loads of fruit which it insists on setting everywhere under any treatment. But 



129 



give it a fair chance according to its nature ; grow it on loamy land or clayey loam, 
well mulched, with runners cut off, and the James Vick will prove a thing of beauty 
and a joy till rasberry time. Thus treated, I believe, from tests in a smalf way— that 
it will equal or excel in productiveness the best Crescents, that the fruit will average 
as large as Wilson, and keep ripening a week or more after Wilsons are done. The 
berry seems firmer than Wilson, it is decidedly handsomer, and tastes better. 

For table use I know of no variety of red strawberry equal in combined 
sweetness and richness, to Prince of Berries. But it is a poor bearer. With such 
ordinary cultivation in hills, as I give all my varieties, one Bidwell plant will yield 
more than ten of the Prince of Berries. As the Bidwell is larger and fully as hand- 
some, and really tastes very good there is no room for the Prince on my table. He is a 
dude to be admired on my neighbour's premises, but I cannot pay his bills. His mother, 
Jersey Queen, tastes nearly as good, and is larger and more" productive. She shall 
have a little room on my grounds, but I am rather shy of the breed. A pinkish 
berry — the Fairy, tastes nearly or quite as good as the Prince of Berries, and is very 
much more productive. It is called a white berry, and indeed the fruit is often white 
when quite ripe, if a friendly leaf has kept the sun from staring, so as to bring a blush 
to her cheek. A very good name is Fairy, I want to get my word fairly in for its 
excellencies, as though not a novelty it seems but little known. The berries are of good 
size, smooth and attractive. 



CULTIVATION AND FERTILIZING. 



Mr. A. M. Smith, of St. Catharines, was called upon for a paper on Strawberry 
Culture, and responded in the following manner : 

I Avas not aware that my name had been set down for a paper of this kind, and I 
have not one prepared. I will, however, say a few words upon the subject announced 
It seems to me that it is rather a case of putting the cart before the horse to speak of 
cultivation before fertilizing. I remember once hearing a story of an old darkey who 
gave his son some good advice. " Sambo," said he, " ef yo's got a job of work to do 
fore yo gets yo breakfast, mind yo gets yo breakfast fust." Following out that line of 
thought, if I had some fertilizing to do after cultivation I would be sure to do the fer- 
tilizing first. For strawberries, in the first place, I should thoroughly prepare the ground 
and see that it was thoroughly underdrained ; and for fertilizers I don't know that you 
could have anything better than barnyard manure and plenty of unleached ashes, which 
in this country, I think, you should have no difficulty in obtaining. Make your ground 
thoroughly rich before you plant your berries ; that fertilization is very necessary 
because strawberries are unlike any other fruit ■ you don't continue them on the same 
ground more than two or three years at the outside ; indeed a great many cultivators in 
our district renew them every year— just get one crop, and then plough the ground up 
Some varieties though, will pay for two years. In regard to the cultivation, I suppose 
most of you know that when you have thoroughly fertilized the ground and planted the 
berries, there is nothing out of the ordinary run in their cultivation, except, perhaps 
clipping off the runners. In some varieties, if you are going to grow on the hill system' 
you leave most of your runners on. As to varieties, you will need a long pocket if you 
desire new varieties, for nurserymen have every year some new variety or other, war- 
ranted to be fifteen minutes earlier or a shade better than any of the known kinds. Many 
of these new kinds we find on testing are not up to the standard of the older varieties 
though of course we do occasionally get something that comes to stay, as we did when 
we got the Crescent Seedling and the Sharpless. The latter has been mentioned here as 
not fit to cultivate for market, but in our section we think it can be cultivated with more 
profit than the Wilson. In localities where you have not to ship long distances, and can 
ship by water, as, for instance, across from Niagara to Toronto, it can be cultivated 
for market very profitably. During the present season when the Crescent, Wilson, and 
other commoner varieties were down as low as three or four cents, we could always get 
six or seven cents for the Sharpless and these larger varieties, and there is a savin* of 

9 (F.G.) 



130 



one cent a quart on the picking and boxes, even if you do not get any more for them. 
There are a few new promising varieties, but I do not think it is always well to take the 
recommendation of a nurseryman or dealer in regard to these things, for, you know, he 
may have a lot of plants he is anxious to dispose of. There is one, however, that I will 
mention, which we cultivate for the home market, the Dominion, which for the home 
market is profitable. It comes in late, when the Wilson is nearly done. Among the 
newer ones which are promising, I think probably for the home market there is nothing 
that promises better than the Parry. It is very firm, and a good bearer, and the quality 
by some persons is thought superior to the Wilson, though of course people's tastes vary 
a good deal in regard to strawberries. The Jewel is a variety which was puffed a good 
deal. I secured plants last year, and planted about a hundred, thinking to have a good 
stock of them this year, but that hundred plants did not average me a runner apiece ; 
they are evidently going to run to berries. They are not a perfect blossom, and the fruit 
this year is all imperfect. I had one planted in my garden near some other varieties, 
which bore a few very fine ones indeed. 

Mr. Honsberger, (of Mulmur). — I have been a grower in this section for nine years, 
and I quite agree with what Mr. Smith has said about new varieties ; I stick to the old 
ones as long as they stick to me. My experience is that the Wilson fills the bill better 
than anything else we can get. 

A Member. — I have grown the James Vick for several years, using hen manure 
mixed with four parts of sand on a heavy soil. My hennery is floored with dry sand, and 
the manure is mixed with this dry sand and shovelled out and used as a fertilizer. I think 
last year it must have averaged me a quart from a single plant. This year the crop is 
enormous, and of uniform size ; the berries are very fine. I had the Crescent Seedling 
also, but it has not done nearly so well with me. The Manchester has produced a very 
fine crop, but the berries are rather soft for market purposes. I live ten miles south of 
Barrie, and in that part of the country such fruit as plums, cherries and that sort of thing 
are fruits of the past, and at the present time scarcely any fruit of any kind is to be 
obtained there. I find it impossible to supply the demand of the neighbors and farmers 
around me, who formerly never thought of such a thing as buying fruit. I ought to say, 
perhaps, that the James Vick is the only berry that I can grow with the hen manure 

Dr. Stevens. — The Ground Cherry, which I grow very largely, is a very nice fruit 
for preserving. It yields a very abundant crop, and requires very little cultivation. It 
is little known generally throughout Canada, but in this part of the country, and particu- 
larly at Penetanguishene, it grows wild. I am sure if people knew more about it, it would 
be more extensively cultivated. Some years ago a gentleman in this place sent home 
some of the preserve to the great English confectioners, Portland and Mason, of London, 
who reported that they gave it to a few people to try, and it was much approved of by 
them ; and, though the English are very slow in taking up anything new, they did not 
know but what good prices might be realized for it. I think a person who has once tasted 
it would take it in preference to anything else. If any of the gentlemen of the Asso- 
ciation would like some of the seed, and will let me know in the fall, I would not mind 
letting them have some of it to grow. 

Mr. A. M. Smith. — It is sometimes called the Strawberry Tomato 1 

Dr. Stevens. — Yes. We have two kinds here, one of which is no good, though 
very large ; it has no flavour ; it is the small yellow one which has the good flavour. 

Mr. Brokovski. — I do not think they would grow well under cultivation. 



! 



LAWNS AND LAWN DECORATIONS. 

The following remarks were brought out by the subject announced as " Lawns and 
Lawn decorations— Groups of Shrubbery suitable for this latitude." 

Mr. F. Mitchell. — The subject before us is one of considerable scope. It would 
hardly be expected that any person should get up and in a few minutes give a complete 
course of instruction in a system of farming, and I think almost as much might be said on 



131 



the subject of lawns and lawn decorations as on farming generally. Another reason why 
I feel diffident in addressing you on this subject is that 1 am very imperfectly posted on 
it. But although this is the case, I consider myself pretty well posted on certain shrubs 
suitable for lawns, particularly roses, which are my especial hobby. Since 1 have been 
here I have been looking around your town a good deal, and I must say that I have seen 
a great deal of good taste displayed ; more, I am sorry to say, than can be observed in 
the village of Innerkip, from whence I come. Our own Arbor Vitse I find a very useful 
shrub for lawn decoration, either for hedges or isolated trees where it is found desirable 
to trim them to any particular form. Spruce, also, can be utilized in the same way, and 
the Out Leaved Birch, while small, makes a very pretty single specimen on the lawn. 1 am 
not in favour of a great many of the trees which I often see planted on lawns ; and I 
believe many lawns would present a better appearance if less trees were planted on them 
than there are. There should be at least one large place on every lawn almost entirely 
without trees. Many of the shrubs planted on lawns are devoid of beauty except when 
in blossom ; and if it is only the blossom which is considered in an ornamental shrub, I 
think it would be better in many cases to plant something of a herbaceous nature. The 
Syringa, though at some seasons very pretty, is hardly a thing of beauty at others, in the 
shape it gets into. The Flowering Almond is a tree considerably grown on lawns, but 
one which I would not advise to be planted, at all events in a prominent place. It is a 
straggling bush, with no beauty once the bloom is gone. Azaleas, Rhododendrons, and 
many others, in nine cases out of ten, either on account of their situation or some other 
cause, are a failure, and instead of being objects of beauty are quite the reverse. Some 
of our climbing shrubs, however, when properly trained, are very pretty; the Honeysuckle, 
for instance. There is a variegated, golden-leaved Honeysuckle, called the Lonicera 
Aurea reticula, which makes a very pretty ornament if it is trained on a proper 
shaped wire trellis; for a small object on a lawn I have seen them looking very 
pretty indeed. The Trumpet vine I have seen in some places trained up with a straight 
stem, and the stem, if it finds support during the earlier period of its existence, becomes 
a hard stem, the same as any other tree, and you get a beautiful weeping shrub ; it is a 
beautiful vine without the blossom, and still more so when in bloom. Where the Begonia 
Eadicans, or Trumpet vine, is hardy it makes a very pretty weeping shrub or tree for the 
lawn. Another class of plants which I sometimes find useful for lawn decoration is 
plants grown in pots. Chinese Habiscus, which has a large double blossom, in some 
cases measuring six inches in diameter, forms a very striking object, flowering 
through the whole summer. It should be planted in large pots and sunk in the 
ground during the summer, and, of course, removed inside in the winter for pro- 
tection from the weather. I have seen our own ordinary Oleander used, and when in 
blossom it is very pretty as a lawn shrub. Another class of these tender lawn plants 
which I find very useful is the Cordyline Indivisa, sometimes called the Dracaena 
Indivisa, which will bear, perhaps, more neglect and abuse than anything else but the 
Canada Thistle. It bears no blossom, or if it does it is not conspicuous, but it is a very 
striking object on a lawn, lending it a kind of tropical appearance, and can be grown of 
a very large size in a flower pot. A plant which I notice is very commonly grown on 
lawns or the sides of lawns is the Pyrus Japonica, which has been misnamed, however • 
being really a Cydonia, or Quince. The variety generally known is a bright, flamino- 
red, and very conspicuous in the spring, though I must say it is not very handsome 
through the rest of the year. It is so beautiful in the spring, however, that we have to 
forget its rather barren appearance for the rest of the season. As to roses, it is such an 
mdless subject that I hardly like to enter upon it at all. I would not, however, advo- 
3ate the planting of summer roses on the lawn in any conspicnous place, for the rose 
Dush, particularly the summer rose bush, is not a pretty object, especially if you let slugs 
levour the leaves. I believe in planting summer roses in some not very conspicuous 
position. I think, however, that some of our hybrid perpetual roses should find a place 
>n every lawn, or at the side of it. As a rule, roses do best when planted in some place 
There they receive a certain amount of shelter from sweeping winds ; where such a 
>osition can be chosen it is the best. If planted on the west side, near the fence, the 
lants seem to bear our winters better than if they are exposed in an open position. 



132 



Some of our hybrid perpetual roses, particularly the bright coloured ones — and of course 
I would choose for the lawn those which are really perpetual bloomers — are very pretty. 

The Secretary. — Would you plant singly, or in a bed 1 

Mr. Mitchell. — I would plant them if I could, in a bed; they do not do so well 
when planted isolated ; the grass generally dries up the soil too much. 

The Secretary. — If you make a circle around them of about two feet each way,, 
would not that answer 1 

Mr. Mitchell. — Of course that would help a great deal, but I would much prefer 
having them in rows somewhere around the edge of the lawn, where they could get a 
little protection in winter. I would not put roses in the centre of a lawn if I could 
help it. 

Dr. Stevens. — What soil would you recommend 1 

Mr. Mitchell. — It is worth while in this case, as we have been told again and 
again, to do it well — to make preparation before planting. Where I have had the 
best success I have had the sub-soil, if it was anywhere near the surface, dug up and 
carced away, and filled up with green sod, as long as it is not too near the top. I don't 
know any better soil for roses than sod. It is well to work in a little manure, but the 
mistake, is often made of planting in too rich a soil. It is harmful to an old plant to- 
have it too rich, but some times young plants need it. 

Dr. Stevens. — Will clay do as well 1 

Mr. Mitchell. — Well, if you do not go to extremes ; you have to use discretion. 

Dr. Stevens. — Our soil here is sandy ; is it necessary to bring in a little clay ? 

Mr. Mitchell. — Where I am it is a little heavy, and I try if I can to have it a 
little sandy, but I have not found that it made much difference. A great many people 
imagine that roses are difficult to grow, or rather difficult to protect from insects. Now, 
I grow I great many roses, and I don't think they have cost me an hour's labour this 
summer to keep them free from insects, and the leaves in an equally good state as 
those from the plum trees from the mountain here. As soon as the leaves are out I 
give them a good syringing wiJh a solution of tobacco stems soaked in water. For this 
purpose a heavy syringe with a round rose is needed ; a fine rose that will throw the 
mixture you use in every direction. This solution is the best you can use perhaps for 
thrip. Soap suds will also destroy them, but if they are made very strong they are- 
liable to destroy some of the young shoots also, and the tobacco solution is the safest 
thing to use. In applying it you should put the syringe as much as possible into the 
centre of the bush, and try to get the liquid applied to the under side of the leaves i 
because that is where it does most good. It is also best to apply it in the morning, 
before the bush gets dry, for where the rose leaf is dry the water runs off it like it would 
off a duck's back. This year I only went over my bushes once. A little later the rose-] 
slug will make its appearance, and then it is well to go over the bushes again in the£ 
same way. It is not particular, in this case, whether it is applied under the leaves ofl 
above. Generally the slug is on the under side in the day time, and comes above at 
night. Take hellebore about the same proportion, I suppose, as is generally used for 
currant bushes. I use hellebore and water, and I find it destroys them very effectually. 
Of course, in either of these cases if rain should come immediately after the appli- 
cation, it is washed off, and it becomes necessary to repeat the operation. We have 
never been troubled with the rose beetle, which in some parts of the country has- 
proved such a serious pest, and I really don't know anything about it. 

Dr. Stevens. — We have another little insect here. 

Mr. Mitchell. — That is the rose leaf cutter. Of course it disfigures the bush some- 
what, but it does not weaken the stem ; I don't know of anything for that ; the stem 
of the leaf is not injured, and the other harm we have to put up with. 

Dr. Stevens. — In using hellebore I add a little soft soap. 

Mr. Mitchell. — Yes, that is good if you don't make it too strong. 

Dr. Stevens. — I have been using pyrethrum powder, and I think it has been 
doing good, although my experience of it has not been extended enough for me to give 
a decided opinion. 

A Member. — Would it bo proper to make the application after the rose has come out ? 



133 



Mr. Mitchell. — It is better to do it before. Do everything in advance ; don't wait 
till you see some damage done. In regard to varieties of roses, I think — although of 
course, my taste in that respect may not be correct — I think those of pretty colors are 
best adapted for the lawn. If I were only planting half a dozen roses, I would not be 
without the very popular and rather common General Jacqueminot ; it is a thoroughly 
good rose. I have noticed it here in town among other roses, and though some of the 
others were not very beautiful, I never see a General Jacqueminot which is not beautiful 
to a degree. Of course it is not a perfect rose, not fully double, but at a little distance 
it is a very striking object. Another valuable rose for the lawn, though devoid of per- 
fume, is the General Washington, bee use it is a perpetual bloomer. The flowers are 
often malformed, which somewhat detracts from its value, but I get General Washing- 
ton's the whole season through, and if I do have quite a number of malformed flowers, I 
still get a large number of first-class ones, and for a small collection I would not leave it 
out. It is hardy, and will stand a certain amount of abuse, though it is not my wish to 
encourage you in abusing your roses. Another first-class rose in every particular is the 
Alfred Colomb ; it is fine in form and colour, and highly perfumed, and a good, free, 
perpetual bloomer, as these hybrid perpetuals go. It is what we call red ; it is hardly 
so pretty as the General Jacqueminot. The Marshal P. Wilder is almost identical with 
it ; however you have the advantage over the Marshal P. Wilder of having a new rose 
instead of an old one, but in foliage and every other respect it is similar. You will 
probably also have to pay a little more for it, but unless you keep them labelled you will 
hardly be able to tell which is Colomb and which Wilder. Another good perpetual 
bloomer is the Annie Wood, somewhat of the same colour. Fisher Holmes is another 
first-class red rose, a little darker than either of these. Of the darker roses I have tried 
a good number, and I don't find any much more valuable than the Prince Camille De 
Rohan, which is a first-class dark rose. It and the Piere Not ting are the only two 
strictly dark roses I have yet found that can be relied upon for autumn bloom. There are 
others, very brilliant, which make a fine display. Among these latter is the Baron de 
Bonstetten, a very fine rose. Jean Eivard is another very fine one. I would not, on 
lawns, advise planting late roses so much, they are very useful for cutting, but for that 
purpose I would prefer planting them in some rather more backward, out-of-the-way place, 
where I could cut without disfiguring the beds. I have not had success with perpetual 
mosses ; some we have bloom in the fall, but none have handsome, mossy buds. Most 
of them are merely a sort of rough, hairy stem, and don't look like moss at all. I can't 
say I have much faith in perpetual mosses. 

Rev. L. H. Kikkby. — I have been asked to say something on the subject of lawns. 
I can only say that of those present here, only those who have been in Collingwood 
many years can form any idea of what was formerly the condition of the piece of ground 
where All Saints' Church and Rectory now stands. It was a bare sandbank, particularly 
the south end of it. It would scarcely grow thistles, and those that did grow there 
were very miserable and dilapidated looking specimens. That is the kind of place 
upon which the task fell to my lot of getting a good lawn; and one gentleman said to 
me to-day that it was a matter of wonder to him how I managed to get such a good 
lawn, especially where there was no water. The course I had to take was this. In 
the front of the rectory there was a hollow piece of ground, and I filled that up with 
soil ; not heavy soil, but good soil — most of it was sod. I then got grass seed — timothy 
and white clover, and sowed it, and I found in that case it was most successful. I 
should also say that that ground was dug over, and I put on a very heavy coat of 
manure ; so heavy that the gardener, an Englishman, too, said he had never 
put on such a heavy coat before ; it quite rejoiced his heart and made him think of the 
Old Country. That piece of ground has been a most decided success ; and in the hottest 
summer weather the grass there is just as green as can be. Another part of the lawn, 
where the ground was higher, I cultivated two or thrt e years, putting in potatoes 
mostly, to clean the ground of weeds. I then manured it, endeavouring as far as possi- 
ble, to get clean manure, and I put bone mould also upon it, but I put no heavy soil 
whatever, as the expense of putting it all over would have been very great ; but L sowed 
timothy and clover upon this sand. I find now that whenever dry weather comes it is 



134 



a failure, and from that I draw the inference that timothy and white clover will succeed 
in ground that is rich, but not in sandy land, particularly the timothy. I have been 
trying ever since to get this lawn into good condition by top dressing it, but it is a 
failure, and for my part — perhaps I am a heretic — I don't believe in top dressing for 
lawns. I think it keeps the roots from going deep down into the ground to seek 
moisture; the top of the soil is richer than that below ; and when dry weather comes it 
seems as if the surface scorched right out Unless there is some means of top dressing 
in such a way that the ground to a considerable depth is permeated by it, I do not 
balieve in it. I say this with much diffidence, because so much is said and written 
on the subject of top dressing ; but as far as my personal experience goes top dressing 
is of no value whatever, and I shall certainly never again resort to it. So far as I 
have practised it I used good, well rotted manure, but it was not a success. I may 
also say that it is my opinion that sowing a lawn is infinitely to be preferred to sodding, 
unless you can procure very choice turf. J have one piece of garden which I was 
compelled to sod because the ground was so much trampled upon that grass would never 
have grown ; but it is the poorest piece of grass that I have. Of course, we know that 
in many instances turfing is successful, but the bulk of the turf to be had in this part 
of the country seems to be so full of weeds, and the grass so poor, that it seems never 
to thicken. It is full of twitch grass and rubbish, and I have had serious thoughts of 
digging it up and sowing grass seed. It seems to me that there is only one way of 
sowing grass seed, and that is to put it on thick ; the plan I adopted was like this. I 
took a line and stretched along where I was going to sow, and I took a little duster 
that they have for dusting Paris green and flour, and I dusted along this line with the 
seed until I got the ground thickly covered with it. Many people said that I was 
wasting the seed, but I was quite willing to do that if I could only get a good lawn, 
and in that way I got the grass to grow very evenly, and it seemed as if almost every 
grass seed came up. Some of my neighbours here have spoken about the quan- 
tity of seed they have sown, and they expected good lawns, but they won't get such a 
lawn ; because the seed is not right. It is the poorest kind of policy if you want to 
have a lawn to be stingy with the seed. I am not in favour of timothy and clover alone, 
although a great uiany are. It was from the Bishop of Algoma I got that idea, and I 
believe the reputation of that lawn at Bishopshurst, Sault Ste. Marie, has reached far 
east in Canada ; but I think for the average lawn there are collections of grass now sown 
which would be much better. I think this matter of making our homes attractive is 
one of great importance, and if it were generally attended to there would be less likeli- 
hood of young people wandering abroad in search of attractions. If they make their 
own little garden or lawn, however small it may be, an attractive and beautiful one, I 
am satisfied the young people will never forget that spot as long as they live ; but as it 
is now, too many of our young people look back to nothing but weeds and rubbish 
growing all around their homes ; and those are the memories connected with them. This 
may not seem a very serious matter, but young people now-a-days know more than their 
parents, and unless we can make home an attractive and inviting spot to them they 
seem inclined to get just' as far away from it as they can. 

J. A. Morton, (Wingham). — I want to speak, first, on the preparation of the lawn. 
This is of paramount importance, since, from its permanency, no errors made at the 
beginning can be well remedied after the trees and shrubs have attained any considera- 
ble growth. The first thing is proper and thorough drainage, either natural or artificial. 
There are few soils but would be benefited by draining. Too commonly, the error is, 
in supposing that one's soil does not require it. I shall not now discuss the proper mode 
of draining as that has already been touched on. We have been told of its importance 
in the orchard, garden and tilled field, it is not less essential that the lawn should have 
good depth of friable soil, and this can be obtained either by subsoiling with the plough 
(where the extent of the lawn admits of the use of this implement) or by trenching with 
the spade. In trenching, the top soil is removed from a strip say two feet wide across 
one end of the plot and one spade deep, and placed at the other end of the plot. The 
ground in the bottom oi: the trench thus made, is turned over as in ordinary digging, 
then the top soil from a strip two feet long alongside of this, is thrown on top of ths 



135 



soil that has just been dug over, and the bottom soil again dug over, continuing this 
operation until the other end of the plot is reached, when the soil that was placed there 
at first will be found needed to fill the vacancy in the last trench. This may be 
expensive, but it pays. I know of no operation in the lawn where the expenditure of a 
little extra pains and money will yield such returns as in the preparation of soil. By sub- 
soiling or trenching, a greater depth of friable soil is attainable for the development and 
growth of the roots. A good deep soil will hold more moisture than a shallower one, 
and by these means the evil effects of drouth will be nearly, if not entirely, prevented. 
The casual observer can easily detect during the hot, dry days of July and August those 
lawns, or spots in a lawn, where the impenetrable subsoil lies close to the surface, by 
the parched appearance of the sward. This deepening of the soil will be of lasting 
benefit, not only to the grass bnt also to those trees or shrubs that many be grown upon 
it. All stones or stumps found within a foot of the surface should be removed. The 
top five or six inches should get a good dressing of well rotted manure, turned under 
and well worked through it, thus affording immediately available nutriment for the 
young grass. If you want to make a really good job of your lawn, and who does not f 
I am a firm believer in the maxim " what is worth doing is worth doing well." Your 
ground should be prepared in the manner I have just mentioned, in the fall, and left in 
that state until the following spring, when the effects of the frosts will have much 
improved the friability of the soil, and the weight of the snows of winter with the early 
rains of spring, will have settled the ground, so that any un6venness will become 
apparent ; by this previous preparation, the liability of having unsightly hollows or 
depressions in your grounds will be reduced to a minimum. 

In the spring the ground should be well levelled and rolled, or trodden, so that the 
surface is quite smooth. The lawn, whether sloping or level, should be smooth, without 
any bumps, hollows or depressions to give opportunity for water to lie in pools upon its 
surface in summer or during the winter. The work in spring should be done as early 
as possible in order that the grass may become well established before it is put to the 
crucial test of the hot, dry summer. Your lawn is now ready for sodding or seeding. 
For small lawns, or where expense is not so much to be considered, sodding is preferable 
on accaunt of its more ready availability. The best turf for sodding is obtained from 
old cattle or sheep pastures — what are known as bottom lands ; and should be cut two 
inches thick, and of a convenient size for handling. The soil, before placing the sod 
thereon, should be well raked with a rake or light harrow ; and after being laid, the 
sod should be thoroughly watered and well rolled or pounded, to effect as perfect a 
junction between it and the earth as may be. In seeding, a very common mistake is 
sowing too sparingly. Rather give what you consider a little too much than a little too- 
little. Economy is best conserved in this, by the unstinting hand ; and the foliage of a 
dense growth is more delicate and velvety. The ''Central Park" mixture is a good one, 
and the proportions here recommended for an' acre are : Kentucky Blue Grass, 15 lbs.; 
Red Top, 15 lbs.; Rhode Island Bent, 6 lbs.; Sweet Vernal Grass, 5 J lbs.; White clover, 
5J lbs. If the lawn is much shaded by trees, reduce the quantity of Kentucky blue 
grass and Red Top, each five pounds, and add instead ten pounds of Wood Meadow 
grass. There are other good mixtures made up and offered for sale by the seedsmen ; 
four bushels to the acre is the right quantity. Sweet Vernal grass emits a most delight- 
ful fragrance after being cut. Some recommend timothy in the mixture, but it is not 
to be commended, being too rank in growth and not so delicate in its foliage as a good 
lawn grass should be. It is apt, also, in spots where there has not been a good catch, to 
grow in tufts. 

Seeding should be done as early in spring as possible, and if sown in April or 
beginning of May, you should have a good lawn by August. So soon as the growth will 
admit of it, the lawn mower should be put in operation ; cut it just as soon as there is 
anything to cut ; a great many rank growing weeds will start with the grass, but come 
to a timely death with the first mowing. Cutting frequently will help to develop the 
root growth, besides assisting the growth of the foliage, and frequent mowing is of essen- 
tial value in making and preserving a good, green, velvety sward. If the grass is 
allowed to grow too long before cutting, you will find on cutting that a great proportion. 



13C 



of the weaker plants have perished in the struggle for existence, and those that have 
survived are ranker and coarser in texture than is desired ; also, the cut grass being 
long, remains on the top instead of settling to the bottom next the roots, as it would do 
had it been short, and thus a few more plants are crowded out of existence. If you 
allow your grass to become long before cutting, do not be surprised if the turf has more 
the appearance of stubble in a hayfield after the crop has been removed, than that of a well 
regulated and respectable lawn. Cutting twice a week is better than twice a month, 
and in good growing weather it is not too of ten. Some recommend raking off the grass 
after each mowing ; — I do not, but think such advice a great mistake — the short grass 
falling down between the foliage makes an excellent mulch for the roots, gives a velvety, 
carpety feel to the sod, and in time becomes a fertilizer. Of course, if you let your grass 
grow long and make a meadow of your lawn, by all means remove your hay. 

Top dressing with barnyard manure is not to be recommended on account of the 
difficulty in distributing it evenly, and the many noxious seeds it often contains. Wood 
ashes, applied in early spring before the snow is off, are of benefit in nearly every 
instance ; nitrate of soda has an astonishing effect, and mixed with superphosphate, 
makes an excellent application ; saltpetre, sparingly used, is also good ; sulphate of 
ammonia is likewise a valuable fertilizer. 

The plants you place in your lawn should correspond with your lawn. Do not 
plant elms, maples or other large growing trees on a two by four lawn, nor fill a twenty 
acre one with only small shrubs; but as this idea opens up a very broad subject which 
could not be done justice in what is left for a ten minutes' speech, I shall simply say that 
large growing trees should not be planted close to or near the house, unless required 
for shade, and pass on to the enumeration of some desirable trees and shrubs. 

Flowering Trees. — (1) Purple Fringe, (Rhics Cotinus) grows ten or twelve feet high, 
when in bloom has the appearance of a cloud of smoke in the distance. (2) Judas, or 
Re { Bud, (Cercis) the Japan variety is to be preferred to the American, has larger pink 
flowers and makes a more shapely dwarf tree ; it grows from eight to ten feet high, 
while the American grows twelve to twenty feet high. (3) Catalpa Speciosa is very 
pretty, although all the specimens I have seen have not been perfectly hardy. It does 
not kill back very badly, however. (4) Catalpa Bungei, makes a very beautiful orna- 
ment for the lawn, with large panicles of white bloom ; branches near the ground and is 
more of a shrub than a tree. (5) Kolreuteria Paniculata, grows twenty feet high, with 
large panicles, a foot long, of bright yellow flowers. (6) European Bird Cherry, (Prunus 
paclas) a compact, symmetrical tree, blooms in early summer; white pendant spikes. (7) 
Cut Leaf Birch makes a beautiful isolated specimen for the lawn. (8) American Linden, 
(9) Oaks, in variety ; (10) Red maple; (11) Black walnut ; (12) Cut-leaved alder, and 
(13) Honey Locust. These give you variety without exhausting all the desirable trees, 
and not making mention of the evergreens, which, for want of time, I am forced to 
omit, leaving the merits of this splendid section to be heralded by some more competent 
arborist. 

It is not a matter of such importance what shrubs you select or plant, or where 
you place them, as they are more easily removed, no matter how long they may have 
grown ; and I will but add to the list that our friend Mitchell has given. (1) Viburn- 
um plicatum, or Japan Snowball, which is rather prettier than V. opulus, although the 
latter is by no means to be despised. (2) Hydrangea Paniculata Grandiflora blooms 
profusely in August. (3) With Cydonia Japonica an objection is sometimes found that 
the bloom is borne too much in the interior of the bush. (4) Spireas in variety are 
also very suitable. 

A very happy conceit is placing pot plants in the lawn. A six to twelve inch tile 
let into the lawn and filled with rich earth makes an excellent spot to plant a Geranium, 
Salvia splendens, Gladiolus, an Ever-blooming rose, or under the shelter of a clump of 
evergreens, Caladium Esculentum. The tile keeps the thievish, inquisitive roots of trees, 
shrubs and grasses, from invading the domain assigned for the plants, as they would do, 
were the plants placed in an open bed. 



137 



COMPLIMENTARY RESOLUTIONS. 

The President then vacated the chair, which was taken by Mr. George Moberly* 
when Mr. B. F. Lewis said : — 

I believe no object could be more praiseworthy than that in which the gentlemen of 
this Association are engaged. I wish to move a most cordial vote of thanks to the Fruit 
Growers' Association of Ontario for their visit to Colling wood. 

Mr. John Hogg, who seconded the motion, said it gave him great pleasure to do so, 
and he trusted the day was not far distant when the Association would again favour 
Collingwood with a visit. 

A special vote of thanks was also tendered to the President of the Fruit Growers' 
Association of Ontario for his able conduct of the meetings, and for his address of last 
evening ; to which Mr. A. McD. Allan responded in suitable terms. 

The thanks of the Association were then, on motion of Mr. D. W. Beadle, tendered to 
the ladies and gentlemen who contributed the musical portion of the programme at the 
evening session, and the Secretary was requested to forward a copy of this resolution 
to the person under whose direction that pirt of the entertainment was planned and 
carried out. 

Mr. A. A Wright, seconded by Mr. L. Woolverton, then moved that the thanks of 
the Association be tendered to His Worship the Mayor and the public of Collingwood for 
the kind interest manifested in the visit of the Association to Collingwood. The motion 
was carried unanimously. 



The meeting then adjourned sine, die. 



THE ANNUAL MEETING. 



The annual meeting of the Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario was held in the 
Town Hall, Grimsby, Ont., on Wednesday and Thursday, the 28th and 29th of Sep- 
tember, 1887, in compliance with the invitation of the Fruit Growers' Association of 
Grimsby. 

The President, Mr. A. McD. Allan, of Goderich, occupied the chair. 

The Secretary read the minutes of the last annual meeting, which were approved. 

Letters, expressing kind wishes for the prosperity of the Association, and regret at 
not being able to attend the annual meeting, were read by the Secretary, from Rev. Dr. 
Burnet, Burlington, Ont. ; Mr. J. S. Woodward, Lockport, N. Y., Secretary New York 
State Agricultural Society j C. W. Garfield, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Secretary of the 
American Pomological Society ; Prof. Wm. Saunders, Ottawa, Director of the Experi- 
mental Farm ; and others. 

A Nominating Committee was appointed, as follows : three members by the chair, 
viz., P. C. Dempsey, Thos. Beall, and F. Mitchell; and five by the Association, viz., 
D. Vanduzer, A. H. Pettit, John Little, E. Morden, and W. W. Hilborn. 

A Fruit Committee was appointed by the chair, consisting of Messrs. A. H. Pettit, 
D. Kerman, and P. C. Dempsey. 

The Nominating Committee submitted their report, and the names were voted upon 
seriatim. The report was adopted as submitted, except that in the case of the Director 
for the Agricultural Division No. 3, the Rev. George Bell, LL. D., of Queen's College, 
Kingston, was elected in place of Mr. R. J. Dunlop. 



138 



The report, as amended and adopted, was as follows : 

President. — A. McD. Allan. 

Vice-President. — A. M. Smith. 

Directors. — Messrs. John Croil, A. A. Wright, Rev. George Bell, LL. D., P. C. 
Dempsey, Thos. Beall, W. E. Wellington, M. Pettit, A. H. Pettit, Fred Mitchell, J. A. 
Morton, J. M. Denton, Albert Hill, and G. Caston. 

Auditors. — Charles Drury, M. P. P., and James Goldie. 

The Treasurer's report, duly audited by Mr. Charles Drury, in the absence of Mr- 
James Goldie, the other auditor, who was in England, was read by the Secretary- 
Treasurer. 

This report was received and adopted.' 

The fruit table was arranged by a committee of the F. G. A. of Grimsby with com- 
mendable taste, and the magnificent samples of apples, pears and grapes shown, attracted 
an unusual amount of attention. 

At a meeting of the Board of Directors, held subsequent to the election, L. Wool- 
verton, Grimsby, was appointed Secretary-Treasurer of the Association. 



EXCURSION AMONG THE FRUIT FARMS. 

The fruit growers of Grimsby having arranged an excursion into the country in the after- 
noon of the first day, a procession of about seventeen double-seated carriages was formed at 
the Mansion House, Grimsby, at about 2 o'clock. The party first drove west, under the 
mountain as far as Winona, visiting the fruit farms of Messrs. L. Woolverton, E. J. 
Wool ver ton, and Murray Pettit. Thence, its course was up the mountain and back along 
the mountain brow, from whence the most picturesque views of this favored section, and 
of the beautiful lake Ontario, are obtainable. Unfortunately, a dull smoky atmosphere 
obscured the view, to the great disappointment 6f all concerned. 

Mr. A. G. Muir's vineyard of Niagara grapes was visited upon the way back to 
Grimsby village ; and thence the trip to the Grimsby Park was made, passing the well 
known fruit farms of Messrs. Dennis Vanduzer, W. D. Kitchen, J. G. W. Nelles, W. H. 
Nelles, P. Griffith, John Bowslaugh, and others. 

The party returned in time for supper, unanimous in their expressions of pleasure 
derived from the excursion. 



THE PUBLIC MEETING. 

At eight o'clock p. m. Wednesday, the hall was crowded with ladies and gentlemen 
interested in fruits and flowers. 

The President of the F. G. A. of Grimsby in a few appropriate words expressed the 
pleasure with which the people of Grimsby welcomed their guests, the officers and mem- 
bers of the Association of Ontario. 

The President's Annual Address, which by request had been reserved until evening, 
was listened to with close attention. A copy of it will be found on page 3 of this volume. 
So important, and so opportune was it for the interests of fruit shippers, that the Secretary 
was requested by the meeting to furnish it for immediate publication in the leading news- 
papers of Toronto. 

The address of Prof. Brown, of Guelph Agricultural College was upon " Trees and 
our every day life." 

In the absence of the stenographer it is impossible to give a verbatim report. He 
said that the question of reclothing our country with forest trees is a large subject. We 
do not fully understand it. It was a question if any one present had fully considered 



139 



it. We do not know the harm we are doing in the matter of forest destruction. We 
cannot blame those who were compelled to do it in order to establish homes for them- 
selves; but we are treating a national subject, which must engage public attention very 
soon. The question must soon be considered as to what proportion of the country 
should remain in forest, whether it should be one-half, or one-quarter, or what. Your 
fruit would be better, if we had more extensive forests. In the old country, where 
a few men hold the land, it is an easy matter to arrange the care of the forests, but how 
shall we arrange the conflicting interests of the many in this country, in order that we 
may produce uniform results 1 A tree may be compared to a sponge, or rather to an 
electric machine, for it does more than absorb and give off moisture. There would have 
been no flood in Montreal had we not destroyed our forests so largely. As for Manitoba, 
you will never succeed in growing fruit there without a forest. Indeed no country was 
ever thickly populated without trees. Neither is there any country now eminent in agri- 
culture, that does not complain of the need of more forest trees. There is no nation that 
is strong in every sense of the word, that has not had a fair proportion of forest trees. 
No nation was ever renowned in either science or art, that has been a treeless country. 
Even the inhabitants of a country degenerate where trees are largely wanting ; and so 
does the nation itself. There is, however, a possibility of having too large a proportion 
of trees, compared with the amount in cultivation ; and this extreme is to be avoided 
equally with that of the other. 

The evening's programme was enlivened by the introduction of several selections of 
music, both vocal and instrumental, which were very kindly contributed by local talent. 



The Convention resumed at ten o'clock, on Thursday, in the Town Mall. 



SPECIMENS OF WALNUT AND LARCH; NON-INDIGENOUS 850 FEET 
ABOVE, AND NORTH OF LAKE ONTARIO. 

Prof. Wm. Brown, of the Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph, read the following 
paper on this subject : 

By instructions from this Association I planted one acre each of black walnut and 
European larch, in 1882, as field clumps, for three objects — live stock shelter, ornament 
and remunerative crops. I should also say, for a lesson. The walnut were seedlings 
from Mr. Beadle ; the larch per post from Douglass, of Waukeegan. Planting was done 
in spring, seven feet apart all over, and every year the ground has been well cultivated. 
The walnut clump is upon a high lying exposed field of clay loam . the larch lower down, 
one-half almost pure gravel, the other half upon a light clay loam, and without any 
neighbouring shelter. It is almost unnecessary to say that the black walnut is not native 
to Guelph district. The walnuts average 15 feet in height, and 12 inches circumference 
at the base ; the larch 12 feet in height and 10 inches circumference. To-day, therefore, 
six years only after putting in the ground what were merely little bits of sticks the 
thickness of a pencil and nine inches long, we have actually a body of trees able to shelter 
a hundred head of cattle from cold winds, and to some extent also for immediate shade. 
If this is not extraordinary under the circumstances, I do not know what is meant by 
extraordinary. Instead of dwelling on the significance of these examples, I beg your 
attention to the financial aspect of an acre of (Jack walnut, as indicated through the 
Experimental Farm testing, and building also upon several well known facts in the United 
States, and a lew in Ontario. Necessarily a good deal of what I have to submit is an 
estimate, because we have not any lengthy Canadian experience to back up figures ; but 
careful estimates are good enough, and in any event you can have a fling at me if 
necessary. 



140 



Estimates op an Acre of Walnut Established at the Ontario Experimental 

Earm. 







Tbees. 


Value. 






1882 
1885 


Planted 

Failures to date 


900 
45 


$ 




Average 15 feet long and 12 inches circumference at base 

To remove 100 ; 20 feet, and 20 inches at base 

To remove 100 ; 30 feet, and 40 inches at base, 4 cubic feet, $3 per tree 

To remove 200 ; 40 feet, and 60 inches at base, 15 cubic feet, at $10 each. . . 

To remove 200 ; 50 feet and 70 inches at base, 30 cubic feet, at $30 each 

To remove 200 ; 55 feet, and 85 inches at base, 55 cubic feet, at $50 each 

Failures during period 




1887 
1892 


855 
100 


50 


1902 
1912 


755 
100 

055 
200 


300 
2,000 


1922 


455 
200 


0,000 


1932 


255 
2C0 


10,000 




55 
25 












30 














$18,350 




Note.— It may be better to thin out every five years. 

Debit. 


$100 

200 

50 

100 

800 












Cost of planting and maintenance 






Cost of fencing and maintenance 






Cost of thinning and marketing 






Net revenue 


1,250 
$17,100 













So that by a reasonable calculation of growth and value of timber, one acre of 
good land under black walnut will, at the end of 50 years, be in possession of an 
uniform lot of standard trees, designed to subserve the many good ends that trees are 
credited with, and after having returned a mean annual net revenue of $322. In these 
rou^h notes I make no allowance for debiting or crediting either side of the question with 
what would still farther add to net revenue. Am I fifty per cent., or say if you choose, 
one hundred per cent, wrong 1 The average agricultural crop wonlcl likely give a net 
revenue of $750 for the same period. 

Prof. Brown added : We are looking to this matter as an actual product. It is not 
alone a matter of getting trees to do for us what we think they should in regard to 
climate and other things ; it is a matter of crop per acre ; and unless we are able to con- 
vince our farmers that this can be done I do not think we will have that extension of arbori- 
culture that the nation desires, and that we have so many good examples of in Europe, for 
instance. I am talking to men who live among trees. You are extraordinary livers as I 
have seen in the Province. I hnd many oaks used for fence posts. A man would have no 
difficulty in clearing off a very large mortgage with a few acres by the hillside at Grimsby 
at the present moment. Earmers are running into mortgages, but they have at their own 
doors more than would clear up ohree or four mortgages. In consulting Mr. Hay, of Hay 



141 



& Pattern, furniture dealers, Toronto, Mr. Hay would have given me a good deal for these 
walnut sticks that are only the size of one's arm, four to six inches in diameter at the best ; 
they would be worth a good deal for veneering — for furniture-making, at any rate, if not 
for veneering. I have checked these figures very carefully with examples from the States, 
and reduced them very considerably ; and I just ask you, do you suppose that I am fifty 
per cent, wrong? Am I a hundred per cent, wrong ? I do not care although you divide 
it by two ; and even then you have an extraordinary position for an acre of walnut. 

Mr. A. M. Smith. — I would like to ask what cultivation these trees are to receive 
during the period. In our fruit trees we expect to cultivate the ground for the first five 
or six years. 

Prof. Brown. — You will have to cultivate the acre all the time, till the ground is 
covered with their own foliage each season. On a large scale I do not suppose it would 
pay to put manual labor in. We have cultivated all along. 

Mr. Beall. — Haven't you realized enough from that land to pay for the cultivation ? 
— realized enough of crop of some kind to pay for the cultivation ? 

Prof. Brown. — We could not do that by having the trees seven feet apart. We 
could have done so, perhaps, the first two years, but we did not ; still you see the near- 
ness of the trees together would almost preclude that. For a year or two I think it 
could have been done. 

Mr. E. Morden. — In dealing with walnut that could not be done. 

Prof. Brown. — Owing to the roots and overshadowing. 

Mr. Morden. — I am of the opinion that the time will come when people will culti- 
vate not only walnuts but other trees, — not only grow them on waste places, where we 
could grow them cheaply and perhaps not cultivate, but I believe the time will come 
when we can put good ground into trees. I have noticed in the nursery rows the growth 
of ash ; they grow remarkably easy ; they could grow many to the acre ; they require no 
pruning or trimming ; and I think there would shortly be a demand for ash timber, and 
a demand for various kinds of timber trees ; and you could get a great product from an 
acre, and you could afford to grow them on good land and give them cjood cultivation ; 
and in the case of some trees you might get some crop, but not much. 

Mr Orr. — Do you use any fertilizer on those trees ? 

Prof. Brown. — None whatever. 

Mr. Orr. — What is the soil? 

Prof, Brown. — Pretty stiff clay loam, — not that you could make brick with. 

Mr. Macdonald. — Do you go according to the prices of walnut timber ? 

Prof. Brown. — Partly, and allowing a little increase of 75c. per thousand board. 

The Chairman. — We would like to hear from Mr. Beall ; he has had a good deal 
of experience down at Lindsay in growing black walnut. 

Mr. Beall. — I would like to have had time to prepare something to say in this meeting 
respecting the matter, but I don't really feel just now that there is anything further needs 
to be said, except that I feel perfectly convinced that every word the Professor said is true, 
with this exception, that he has cut down the money value too much — a great deal too 
much. He is very much under what should be fairly estimated. There is no doubt the 
trees will grow remarkably in any place ; they will grow in any part of the Province of 
Ontario ; they will grow as rapidly as any tree that is grown ; and they are the most 
profitable timber we have. I made an estimate at one time of what a man could grow, 
or might grow, on an ordinary 100-acre farm by planting walnut trees in each fence 
corner, — what he would realize after fifty years. There is no land wasted ; it costs him 
nothing in land, provided the farm is cut up in the ordinary way into ten acre fields-; he 
has a walnut tree in each fence corner, that is, under a rod apart. I found I was quite safe 
— and some of my friends said that I had under-estimated the thing very much — when I said 
a man could get $100 an acre every year for ever after fifty years off his farm by simpler 
planting enough to make up for as many trees as he cuts out every year ; and there is no- 
doubt that can be done. After fifty years he could get $100 a year off his farm without 
any expense whatever ; it will cost him nothing. I am surprised and very much pleased 
to find that the trees have grown so rapidly under good cultivation. I dare say they have- 



142 



been well cultivated. The trees have very much exceeded in size those I have grown. 
I have trees, perhaps seventeen years old, that are about fourteen or fifteen inches in 
diameter ; the largest ones perhaps forty feet high. There is one thing that has been 
remarked by several persons here respecting growing anything but the walnut tree. I 
think these statements must be taken rather cautiously. I have no doubt if you have a 
very large tree spreading, say fifty feet every way, you will not grow very much under- 
neath it ; but I find up to the present time, with my trees sixteen or seventeen years old, 
I have had no difficulty in growing anything under my trees, say within six or eight 
feet of the trunk. For instance, I have had along by my trees, within six feet of the trees, 
black raspberries — the Mammoth Cluster — and they have done remarkably well ever 
since. Of course I kept them cultivated. I have my orchard trees twenty feet from 
them, and the trees — both pears and apple trees — do just as well within twenty feet, that 
is as near as you could have the rows together at any rate, twenty feet from the trunk ; 
they do as well there as any other part of the orchard. 

Prof. Brown. — Those trees are still young ? 

Mr. Be all. — The walnut trees are seventeen or eighteen years old, and the orchard 
planted about the same time, and they are all going on together, doing very nicely. I 
don't think they have been the least injury to me ; on the other hand, they have been 
an enormous benefit in shelter. I find that the walnut tree is a first-class tree for shelter. 
It breaks the wind much more than people who have not studied the matter carefully 
would ever suppose. It screens the wind. It allows the wind to come through, but it is 
so broken that it has no force. We have a circulation of air through the trees, but the 
force of the hurricane is broken very materially. 

A Delegate. — Are your trees bearing nuts 1 

Mr. Beall. — They commenced to bear perhaps about six or seven years ago, and 
they are bearing ever since. They do not produce such a large number of nuts as people 
would very often suppose. Occasionally a tree will give me a good crop, but of forty 
trees I don't think I have more than three or four bushels per annum. 

Prof. Brown. — I think it is well you haven't. 

Mr. Beall.— Why 1 

Prof. Brown. — I don't think it is one of the best signs of a tree to bear, even up to 
.seventeen years of age. 

Mr. Beall. — Prof. Saunders has written to me to obtain nuts from my trees this 
year. I suppose his idea is to get the nuts as far north as possible. I have an impres- 
sion that he is somewhat wrong in this. I wrote him on the subject a year ago. I 
believe that the best nuts, that is, the nuts that would produce the best tree, should be 
obtained from the south, where they are more matured. (Hear, hear.) If I were going 
to plant myself, I would go further south for my nuts. I have found for some years that 
the nuts that fell from the trees have not produced young trees — a great many failures ; 
other times I have had every nut go ; and I attribute it to what I suppose to be the fact, 
that the nuts have not matured. No doubt this year the nuts will mature, or have 
matured. 

Mr. Macdonald.— How much do you realize from your nuts ? 

Mr. Beall. — Of late years I got $3 a bushel. Formerly I got more. Mr. Saunders 
says that is too mnch, but he wants them all the same. 

Mr. Morden. — The trees in our section have the faculty of reaching away out with 
their roots, and destroying most of the things ; and I think if the fence-corner experi- 
ment were to be made the farm would be rendered unproductive. With us a walnut tree 
planted on one side of a wide road will sometimes get clear across the road and destroy 
the evergreen hedge upon the other side. The grade of morality around the Falls may 
be very low ; perhaps they have not received the proper moral training. (Laughter.) 

Prof. Brown. — They are very large old trees'? 

Mr. Morden. — Some of them not very large. Some guilty trees that I have in mind 
now are not very large nor very old, but they are very bad morally, and I would doubt 
the propriety of planting walnuts any place where you have anything that is liable to be 
injured. In the Ontario Tree Planting Act the walnut is mentioned as one of the desira- 



143 



ble trees ; and that Act allows them to be planted along the line fences. Well, it is 
possible for a man to inflict a great deal of damage under that Act upon his neighbor by- 
planting along the line fence. With us we strike the walnut out in our by-law, in adopt- 
ing it in the township, so that we give no bonus for planting. I think if planted at all 
they should be put in a plantation where they would do no harm. 

Mr. Orr. — It is pooi- soil, and they are going out in search of food. 

Mr. Morden. — That would not occur in Winona. 

Mr. Hunsberger (Jordan). — This walnut question is the one that brought me here. 
The walnut is a native of my native place, and a few years ago the last one disappeared ; 
and being determined the place was not to be devoid of walnut trees I began putting nuts 
in the ground, and I grew some trees. I planted a small grove of nearly four hundred 
trees with the intention of making a shelter and a shade for cattle ; but there is one 
question that arose in my mind about that : will they endure the tramping of the 
cattle during summer 1 I would like Prof. Brown to say if he knows anything in that 
direction. 

Prof. Brown. — No, sir; I have no experience in trees of that age. 

Mr. Hunsberger. — I have nearly an acre of ground that I have surrounded with 
fruit trees, that I can't plant in fruit trees with success, and I have about determined 
to plant walnuts, because on that very ground walnuts are natives. 

The President. — How old do you say your trees are ? 

Mr. Hunsberger. — I set them out in the Spring of 1886. They were then two 
years' growth. I set them six feet apart each way ; have been cultivating them since. 
Of course last season was the first, and they made very little growth, but this season 
some of them have made as much as four feet growth. 

Mr. Pattison. — How close does Prof. Brown plant his nuts ? 

Prof. Brown. — We have not been planting nuts. We got the young trees from St. 
Catharines. They cost $4 a hundred. 

Mr. Pattison. — Do you mulch them 1 

Prof. Brown. — No, no mulching necessary. 

Mr. Beall. — Respecting the root growth it strikes me very forcibly that the nature 
of the land on which the tree is grown may have very considerable influence in that 
direction. (Hear, hear.) I think the land that Mr. Morden refers to may be very different 
from ours. Of course ours is a heavy, deep, rich, loamy clay soil. I spoke just now of 
a row of black raspberries. Last fall I ploughed these up. We ploughed within four 
feet of these trees and never touched a root — never saw a root. If I had gone within 
eight feet of my apple trees I would have cut hundreds of roots. In our soil we find 
the roots go down, and they go deep into the soil. I had occasion three or four years 
ago to take up one, and I told the old man to dig out the roots, leave no timber behind. 
Well, he got down about three feet and then cut the tap-root, and the tap-root was half 
as large as the trunk on the tree. I am satisfied that if walnuts are grown in the soil 
best suited to their peculiarities that the roots will run deep into the ground. 

Mr. Morden. — And run abont a hundred feet wide. 

Dr. Burgess. — This Spring at London I saw a walnut tree about ten years old dug 
up, and there was no spread of root at all, no trouble in getting the tree out. It was 
planted in very rich loam. 

Prof. Brown. — That is our experience also. 

The President. — I have no doubt the same experience would be found with the 
black walnut the same as any other tree. We find many of the trees, whether fruit or 
forest trees, vary very much according to the soil, and when you plant a tree upon the 
soil that suits that particular variety or kind of timber, you find that the roots grow after 
the natural manner of such trees in their native heath. There is no doubt there is a 
very great variation according to soil and the natural position of such trees. 

Mr. Cyrus Nelles (Grimsby). — I would like to know if they could be transplanted. 

The President. — They should be transplanted very young — the smaller the better. 
People make great mistakes in that respect — in trying to get large trees from nursuries. 

Mr. Beall. — I would never recommend any one to transplant the root ; plant the 
nuts. 



144 



The President. — If trees were planted at such an age that they could be sent 
through the mail instead of by express or freight — if they were that size that they could 
be sent if necessary by mail, they are large enough and old enough then to transplant. 
Every tree should be transplanted when very young. A couple of years is old enough for 
any tree. We have often experimented on fruit trees, and we find that we will get fruit 
much earlier by transplanting a two-year-old tree than we will a four-year-old. A two- 
year-old will come into fruit bearing, it will make better growth, it has better root-power 
according to the head that it has at that time, and we get fruit much earlier than we 
do on an older tree ; and so with all other trees. 

Rev. Mr. Murray. — I would like to have the experience of others with the walnut 
as a wind-break. I had a few planted on the west side of my orchard, and not a great 
distance from them a row of apple trees. I found the apple trees did not thrive. I spoke 
to Mr. A. M. Smith, and he thought the walnut was a very injurious tree when near 
the orchard trees ; so while walnut may be excellent as a shade, is it safe to plant the 
walnut near the orchard trees 1 I think not. I have had to cut them down. 

Mr. Smith. — I have had no experience in this matter, though my observation has 
been that nothing would grow very near the black walnut trees. We have the testimony 
of Mr. Beall here that he has used them successfully as a shelter belt, and ^rown fruit 
near to them. I have no doubt the soil has a great deal to do with them. In loamy or 
sandy soil the roots are liable to spread longer distances than they are in other kinds 
of soil. 

Prof. Brown. — It may be worth while to mention that some grapes which I will 
show you this afternoon were grown within seven feet of the walnut clump 1 have spoken 
of, and are doing remarkably well. 

Mr. Pattison. — Have you had any experience with walnuts on fairly heavy clay 1 
Prof. Brown. — That is all heavy clay — not clay that will make brick. 
Mr. Pattison. — Will they grow in a stiff clay ? 
Prof. Brown. — I think so. 

Mr. Wilder (Cooksville). — We have walnut trees at Cooksville, employed as shade 
trees, and some for ornament. The walnut tree is a noble tree. If it grows alone it has 
a most beautiful symmetery, equally balanced on either side, and makes a very fine tree 
to look at. So far as breaking the wind is concerned, we have some that are planted 
across a small ravine on purpose to break the wind, and they are most effectual. I sup- 
pose it is on account of their boughs being composed of such strong fibres that they are 
able to resist the current of wind, but we find that side of the house quite sheltered and 
calm, owing to these walnut trees spreading themselves across. They are very high, per- 
haps sixty feet high. 

The President. — How old are the trees ? 

Mr. Wilder. — I should say about fifty or sixty years, and about nineteen inches in 
diameter. With regard to other plants growing beneath them, that depends, I think, a 
wood deal on whether you keep the lower boughs trimmed up. We have some of these that 
break the wind we have let the boughs sweep right on to the ground. Of course nothing 
would grow beneath them. We have others trimmed up ; everything grows beneath 
them • I believe we could plough right up to the roots of them. Our soil may not con- 
duce to the spread of roots much, being a deep gravelly soil. The soil in which our 
handsomest tree grows is perhaps sixteen or seventeen feet deep, and the tap root may 
cro directly down ; it does not meet with any obstacle scarcely. The tree is a very robust, 
fine one indeed. 

Mr. Croil. — In the matter of thinning these trees in the first stage, it would not be 
a matter of much difficulty ; but in your third or fourth thinnings the trees would be very 
lar»e and it would be a matter of considerable expense to remove them, and damage the 
other trees, it seems to me, a great deal. (Hear, hear.) I mention that because in 
making these calculations I have been very much deceived myself with figures. In the 
matter of my orchard, of late years it has not done well. Off these trees I once took in 
the neighborhood of ten barrels of apples a tree. I figured up, that ten barrels a tree off 
my 500 trees, at $2 a barrel would be $10,000 a year; that was clear, straight figuring. 
(Laughter.) 



145 



Prof. Brown. — You are speaking about fruit. 

Mr. Croil. — I am speaking about fruit, but I am merely showing how in the matter 
of calculations in tigures we may be out. However, when I came to the summing up of 
the thing, I never made near to that amount off the apple trees at all ; so that I think 
in some way there may *be drawbacks— there may be diseases, perhaps, in these trees as 
well as in our apple trees, that would make the figures come short. But in the matter of 
thinning, don't you think there would be considerable difficulty 1 

Prof. Brown.— No ; 1 car take, as a forester of some experience, $35 a year ; I think 
I am safe in putting cost of management at $30 an acre, thinning out. 



APPLES AND THEIR BEST MARKETS. 
The next subject as set forth on the programme was — 

1.— Discussion upon best markets for the various kinds,— King, Baldwin Spy 
Fameuse, Russet, Greening. ' ^' 

2.— The present prospect of the export trade in apples, and the various markets 
compared, — Canadian, American, European. 

3- — The prospect of a market opening up for Canadian apples in India. 

The Secretary. — I don't know any one who could give us so much light on these 
questions as the President, and I would suggest that persons put questions to the 
President. 

The President.— I will only be too glad to answer any questions I can. At the 
same time I would like to hear from those in this section who have had experience in 
aspect to the shipping of apples or the growing of the best varieties, or anything in con- 
nection with the apple. If there is anything new arising in any section, we would like 
X) hear of it. 

Mr. A. H. Pettit.— I would like to ask the President, as he visited the old 
30untry last year, and was no doubt there during the apple season, what he thinks of 
}he system there adopted of auction sales by commission houses. Is that the most 
iesirable way of disposing of our Canadian fruits ; or has he any suggestions to offer ? 

The President. — I looked into that question pretty thoroughly over there • and as 
[ stated in my annual address, they have many different kinds of brokers over there 
The actual auctioneer brokers, that dispose of the fruit in no other way but by auction 
[ don't approve of at all, because their system is this :— Without the slightest considera' 
,ion of what the market is, or how the market is,— the market may be glutted with 
ruit, but no matter how the market is, the moment they receive fruit that fruit goes on 
;he market, and that fruit is sold, without regard to prices or anything else The 
lighest bidder gets it, I don't care what the price may be. I have very often seen fruit 
-here sacrificed most cruelly, just in such cases as that • but they have no room for 
itorage, as a rule, and the fruit must be sold. It is brought right from the docks or 
rom the railway station, as the case may be, to the auction mart, and there it is sold at 
>nce. The class of broker that I thought the most of— and they are certainly not all 
pliable in any class, but you will find in all the markets an abundance of good reliable 
irms there to deal with, men who will do the right thing with anyone and everyone — 
.he class that I thought most of are the class of old business men ; they do a broking 
msiness, but they are not so particular about the auction department. They use that 
lepartment in this way. When a cargo comes in, that cargo is removed, not to the 
auction mart, but to their large storehouses ; they have immense storehouses there 
phey have men there employed for the purpose of opening every barrel They o- 
hrough the entire cargo. They cull out those parcels that are a little decayed or for 
ome reason that have slackened and gone wrong, and are not in a position to keen 
Lnose they remove to the auction mart and sell for whatever they can realize for them 
10 (F.G.) 



L4(i 



The balance they keep, and they sell by private sale mostly. The retailers come here 
and look over lots ; they come from distances at those distributing po;nts ; they come 
from outside towns and cities to London, for instance, to buy their fruit. Those are the 
men they go to ; and an old reliable house of that description every day gets orders of 
this kind. A retailer that is in the habit of dealing with that firm will send in an order 
for so many thousand barrels, to be delivered a hundred at a time, or two hundred at a 
time, as the case may be, within so many days. They will rely on that firm to give 
them the brand that they want, and hence that firm has this large storehouse to go to 
for the purpose of culling out and making up the brand from the dillerent shippers 
required by these individual retailers. I think firms of that description do the most 
important business, and they do a fair business. They realize much better prices, and 
they deal fairly with the shipper. I think we are sate in their ha'ids. 

Mr. Fletcher, (Ottawa Experimental Farm.) — What is the method adopted by the 
Nova Scotia fruit growers to dispose of their apples in Loudon ? — their method seems 
so satisfactory to all the producers. 

The President. — The Nova Scotia men last year tried different ways. There were 
several firms handled the fruits of Nova Scotia last year, and I have known their fruits 
to be sold at one auction mart and another auctioneer to buy them and re-sell them a^ain. 
I have known them to be sold at Pudding Lane by the brokers there, and purchased by 
the brokers in Covent Garden, and even then re-Sold, at a very small price too. I know 
of one firm there that sold a large quaniity of the Nova Scotia apples, and I considered 
them sacrificed, because they sold a great many that were very tine ind» ed, that were 
afterwards sold to retailers at very high prices. Their Gravensteins generally were soI{| 
by two or three firms who handled the most of them there in that way — firms of th$ 
description I speak of ; they realized very good prices ; they had storehouses, and sold 
them to retailers mostly ; there were very, very few that sold by au tion. But a sjieHt 
many of those found their way into auction rooms — auctioneers securing them for special 
orders, even ; but as a rule, while you may get a fair price through the auction mart, I 
don't patronize them ; they are very unreliable. You don't know, unless you happen to 
be on the spot and provide other arrangements where you can store the fruit yourself 
and see there is a large demand ; then you can put the fruit on the mart and realize a 
very handsome price ; but the chances are, to my mind, against the shipper by doing a 
general business of that sort. 

Mr. Dempsey. — This is a very important question to us as Canadians ; and of sc 
much importance that we should look upon ourselves as a joint stock company — the 
fruit growers of Ontario. If there is a dishonest shipper from Ontario sending his fruits 
there, it is disgraceful to every fruit grower in our Province ; and if we find a man 
engaged in fruit culture that is dishonest in packing bad fruit, or packing his fruit badly, 
it is our duty, I think, to discountenance him as quickly as possible, and try to dis- 
courage that man. The way the fruits are sold there, it is by opening one barrel of fruit, 
and they turn it out. They don't just look at the top of it and see if it is nicely fac 
on top ; but it is tumbled right out, and every purchaser has a memorandum book, ar 
if they turn out bad they want to know the brand at once, and they make a note of 
and that man's brand will ever remain at a discount in England ; he may depend upor 



uit. 

and 
I it 



it that he has destroyed his brand, with just that one barrel; all the rest of his apple? 
may be very fine, but they will be sacrificed on account of that one barrel having a fe* 
bad specimens in it. Now, what few apples I have shipped generally I have been very 
successful with. I never shipped any that I suffered a loss from yet, but always 6 
very nice profit ; and we have been in the habit of selecting very carefully. It is bettei 
to ship one barrel of first quality apples than three barrels of inferior quality. Tin 
expense is the same upon the good barrel of apples as it is upon the poor. I have founc 
considerable satisfaction in sending assorted varieties in a barrel. There are very feM 
people that have ever done this ; I don't know but I am the only man that ever did 
put in from four to six varieties in a barrel, starting at the bottom of the barrel with tin 
longest-keeping apples, and finishing up the top with those that will be probably readj 
for use when tney arrive. Those apples are retailed on the markets and sold to partie! 
to consume them direct; and invariably we realize fine prices. We sometimes pad 



147 



those in tissue paper. That pays very well. They don't carry any better ; the apples 
are no better when they arrive in England rolled in tissue, than when they are not ; but 
I usually get five, six and even seven shillings more per barrel for that trouble, and it 
pays very well ; in fact, I have an order in my pocket that I got since I left home, for 
apples to be delivered in Ireland done up in tissue paper, that will pay me in the orchard 
$6 a barrel, and it pays very nicely, ind ed. I hope that we will all just remember this 
that if I pack bad apples and ship to Europe, I am a disgrace to the fruit growers of 
Ontario, not worthy to be countenanced by any man, — either by making bad selections 
or bad packing. Now, concerning the way the apples are handleu on the road, — our 
President in his address hinted at this subject ; a barrel of apples very frequently is 
rolled a long distance — the length of this room ; they are hoisted careh ssly, and allowed 
to run off on a slope, and very often they strike on the side of the hoist, and the result 
is that the apple is crushed in the centre of that ban el, the staves being thin, and that 
loosens them at once ; and there are a great many barrels that will arrive in a loose 
shape and all bruised ; there will be no colour to the skin that you would recognize the 
apple from the color. This very often occurs, and I don't know how to account for it 
any other way only that it arises from the rough handling. This will occur with the 
best packer. I never happened to get any of these short barrels, but we have a very 
careful packer in our neighbourhood that has several times had his apples to arrive that 
way — a few barrels in bad order. 

The Secretarv. — Did y >u find any difference, Mr. President, in regard to the 
different markets for different varieties of apples'? I have found very great demand in 
Glasgow for the King apple; it seems to be in very great demand th re ; I don't know 
whether the demand for it is as great or greater in other, pi ices. I notice in this letter 
just received from Thomas Leeming & Co., who are forw irders for Mr. Julius Siesel, of 
Glasgow, who was at our meeting at (Jollingwood, that he quotas Kings far above any 
other variety in Glasgow. The Greenings he qu >tes, Septemb t 16th, from ten to twelve 
shillings; Ribston Pippins, ten to twelve shillings; while the King-? he puts fifteen to 
eighteen shillings, and adds : "Kings, if real y good, are in great demand, and Graven- 
steins, which are being sold for about fifteen shillings per barrel." Is Glasgow an 
exceptionally good market for such varieties, or would they do as well in others 1 

The President. — The King is an apple that will sell well in any of the marts. 
Beginning with Gravenstein, Ribston Pippin and Blenheim, I think probably the London 
market is the best for those ; the highest average prices are got in London. For King 
also, you will get as high a price in London as in any market : and I don't know that 
there is much, if any, difference between Liverpool ami Glasgow on the King ; it is an 
apple that is highly thought of all over Britain ; it is in demand in all the markets. 
The London market has certain peculiarities at certain seasons. About the first of 
December is a splendid time to ship any large or fine looking apple, no maoter whether 
it has quality or not, for that particular season. If you could -grow an apple as large 
as a pumpkin and ship it to Covent Garden on the first of December, you would get an 
enormous price for it. They will pay fancy prices about the 15th December at the 
market at which they sell for the Christmas use. They will pay fancy prices for having 
samples of large varieties. Th^y don't care what price they pay. They g^t particularly wild. 
I had an opportunity for testing them on their wildness last year, and I purposely went 
to work and culled out a large quantity T had — about six thoustnd barrels — right on the 
market in the morning of the 15th December, just to try their wildness ; and they did 
get wild. I concluded they were paying ridiculous prices for a ijrrat many varieties I 
had there. I got enormous prices for Gloria Mundi — a variety that I think very little 
of ; it is only a cooking variety at best ; it is a lar.re, coarse apple ; but they paid 
encrmous prices for Gloria Mundi, just simply beciuse it was a large apple; audi 
observed they pay prices there for pears — B lie Angevines, from the Channel Islands, — 
that were enormous in size, but about as worthless a pear, I suppose, as we grow any- 
where ; and yet they would pay from five to ten shillings apiece for each pear, according 
to size and colouring. Get one that was extra large, with a fine coloured cheek on it, 
they have gone as high as ten shillings for each pear. They don't care what they pay 
at that time. That was the reason I mentioned as one point, — if you have anything 



148 



large or fine looking, that is the time to sell it. And whether it is quality or not, they 
want it at that time, They want those fruits for the purpose of decorating dinner tables. 
They are not used in eating. They don't eat them at all. You will find there in 
Covent Garden fruit dealers who keep those large specimens for the purpose of lending 
them out to dinner parties — they charge so much rental for them. (Laughter.) That 
is quite a common thing for them. 

Mr. Fletcher. — They charge a guinea a night for a dozen pears. 

The President. — Yes, they will charge as high as they can get. It is really wonder- 
ful. There is a very large business done in London about Christmas eve in that way. 

Mr. Dempsey. — I brought two of those large pears home with me, that the President 
has been speaki g of for curiosity, and to satisfy our friends at home that the flavour of 
English-grown fruit was very much superior to our own. We divided one up and passed 
it around. Well, the result was it went to the pigs ; none of them took a second bite of 
it. The other we laid carelessly in the room where it froze ; it would freeze and thaw 
frequently ; every few days it would be thawed out ; and every time it would thaw out 
it would be less in size ; though it started about two pounds' weight, the last time I saw 
it it was about the size of an ordinary Bartlett pear. So that you see they are even 
frost-proof. (Laughter). 

The Secretary. — I will ask a question further, in regard to this other item, about 
the prospects of the different markets, — whether you think that at anytime an American 
market would be a desirable one, or as desirable as the English % I received from a 
Philadelphia firm the following account of the prospect in the United States, which 
might be interesting: — "Apples. — In many fruit-growing sections the apple crop will 
be almost a failure, and nowhere is there a fair prospect of an average crop. In new 
England, where earlier reports were most promising, we now hear of market declines 
in the prospects ; and though present indications are more favourable there than any- 
where else, the crop can only average a medium. A few localities in New York and 
in the New England States promise good quality fruit, but the general tenor is to the 
contrary. The present approximate averages of the principal States are : — New York, 
Rhode Island, Connecticut, Massachusetts, 86 ; Maine, Vermont, Michigan, 64 ; Pennsy- 
lvania, New Jersey, Virginia, Kansas, Wisconsin, Missouri, 53 ; Ohio, Illinois, 30. 
Taken as a whole, the prospect is for a crop below medium quality, and one of the 
shortest on record." This was a cable from England received from London, from Pitt 
Brothers there: — "No Canadian apples arrived sound. Americans from 17 to 22 
shillings. We recommend shipments from best sound apples, free from spots. Market 
high. Sound fruit enquired for." That is dated the 17th. 

The President. — I had a cablegram on Monday : — "Twenty-ounce Pippins brought 
18s. 3d. to 18s. 6d. ; Kings likely to go over 20 shillings all around ; Gravenstein 23 to 25 
shillings in London. I think those were the latest quotations we had. St. Lawrence 
varied a good deal this season; it ran all the way from 12 shillings up to 16. There 
were some fine lots went as high as 16, but generally they went about 14 shillings, and 
the Colvert ran about 14 and 15 shillings. 

The Secretary. — Do you think Philadelphia or Chicago are ever likely to do well 
for us % 

The President. — Chicago enquires a good deal for fruit this year, more than for 
many years, simply because the crop in the west has been only a fair crop, and their 
quality for storing is not as good as ours. Their apples cannot be stored and kept as 
long as our varieties. Speaking of American markets, in years past I have made a good 
deal of money one way or other in Boston in Talman Sweets, — which was the only 
market I could find that would take the Talman Sweet, and I could always sell Talman 
Sweets in Boston market. I could sell all my Swayze Pomme Grises in Boston and New 
York, and those markets paid for them at very high prices. I can say the same thing 
for the Seckel pear ; New York wants all the Seckel pears she can get ; that has been 
my experience. Then for Esopus Spitzenberg, I never found any market equal to 
Philadelphia, — I am now speaking of the American markets, — and Chicago, for the Cayuga 
Red Streak and Twenty-ounce, and all those large varieti s. I always found Chicago 
the best market for a large apple. They said the retailers would buy nothing but large 



149 



apples ; that any one that wanted to buy an apple it was not so much the quality as the 
amount of apple for the penny that would catch the buyer. 

The SeCRETARY. — What about the Snow apple? 

The President. — I never did much with it in the American markets, but the 
Snow apple is an apple there is money in provided you can grow it clean and a good 
colour. The Snow apple in the old country markets will command high prices if you 
get it there in good condition ; and I am quite satisfied that the Snow apple or any other 
apple worthy of export can be shipped in good condition if we could only get over those 
points I mentioned in the address, — that is, the better handling of our packages by the 
employees of railways and steamship companies ; and if steamship companies would 
introduce a cold draft — cold blast I call it — through the apartment where the apples are 
stored, and it could be easily done. The expense would be a mere trifle, and it would 
encourage shippers very largely. It would be a splendid thing for all concerned, — I 
know it would, — and by the introduction of such we could ship such varieties as we 
don't ship now— earlier varieties ; and I found a great many of them arrived there last 
year in very bad order, but that was more on account of the fungus spotting than 
anything else ; I think this year they are so clean that they will ship well. As to Snows, 
I got quite a large lot from Montreal, and they arrived in really very fine order — beautiful 
order ; I realised an average of 23 shillings a barrel for Snows ; they never varied 
very much. 

Mr. Pattison. — Taking one year with another, what is about the average freight on 
a barrel of apples sent from here to one of those great markets — Liverpool, London or 
Glasgow 1 

The President. —About a dollar a barrel. 

Mr. Pattison. — Is it possible to ship a single barrel from, say, Hamilton to one of 
those markets at the same rate that you can ship a number of barrels 1 

The President. — No. 

Mr. Pattison. — -What is the lowest number of barrels that can be shipped at the 
rate you mention 1 

The President. — They are supposed to go in car-loads ; about 150 barrels would be 
an average car-load. They will take as high as 200 or 210 barrels, but about 150 barrels 
is a car-load ; and you can make your shipping arrangements, in lots that way, at about 
a dollar a barrel. It is less this year. We are getting freights to Liverpool and London 
for 90 and 95 cents ; and some of the steamship lines where they work very hard for a 
freight, I have known to work it down and give a rebate at the end of the season, 
on the general freights. 

Mr. Croil. — Does that 90 cents a barrel mean from Hamilton or from Montreal 1 

The President. — Tnat means from Goderich to Liverpool or London. It should 
be a little less from Hamilton, I should say, though it does not make much difference 
in distances by rail. 

Mr. Dempsey. — It is the same from Belleville as from Goderich. 

The President. — 1 suppose we get about as low a freight as any one gets. 

The Secretary. — Do you think we will ever be able to ship overland to India by 
the Canadian Pacific. 

The President. — I think so ; that is a matter that will be under test. I have 
tried to make arrangements this year. I have written to Mr. Van Home, and he has the 
matter under consideration just now as to freights. Whether that will ome to any- 
thing or not I cannot yet say ; but if arrangements can be made I am going to send 
some two or three shipments this fall to India by the Canadian Pacific Railway to 
Vancouver, and then across the Pacific Ocean direct ; but I look upon that as one of the 
possibilities of the future. (Hear, hear). I don't think it is safe for us to look upon 
anything now-a-days of that description as impossible. We overcome a great many 
difficulties in fruit culture, and in the way of finding markets for our fruits — difficulties 
that we looked upon a few years ago as such that we could never surmount ; but 
I look upon a market in India as a certainty now ; I think we can get that market and 
reach that market, and I don't think we will have much difficulty. I think our best 
carrying varieties will carry just as well to India as they will to Liverpool ; I don't see 



150 



that there should be any difficulty about it. At all events, if we hud that cold blast 
introduced into the chamber where the fruit is stored, there should be no difficulty what- 
ever in it. 

Mr. Pattison. — Supposing a man wished to ship a small quantity of barrels to the 
old country — twenty or thirty — what course would you recommend him to adopt? 

The President.— You better send them along with some shipper. In shipping large 
lots J have taken small lots that, way, that people desired to send to their friends in the 
old country, and had them specially marked in with the other lot, and then transhipped 
there from a paiticular station to the address desired ; I have often done that, and they 
did not seem to object to it as a rule. They will not object to it with a large shipper ; 
they may with a small shipper. 

Mr. DEMP3BY. — We have never* had any difficulty in sending one barrel, two barrels 
or five barrels, just as the case may be. 1 have generally shipped them to the Allan 
Company of Montreal. Invariably they forward them right on, and the steamship rate 
is charged the same as if I had three or four or five hundrrd barrels. I did not find any 
diffeience on one barrel or on five hundred — so much per barrel. The difference is only 
a matter of freight from here to Montreal, and we get them through for twenty cents to 
Montreal ; so that the diff rence in shipping one barrel to Londonderry or Glasgow, or 
shipping a hundred, per barrel, is simply the freight from here to Montreal — that is, 
from our place to Montreal. And they did the same last year in my absence, in filling 
retail orders in England, they shipped them to our commission man at Montreal with 
instructions to forward and prepay. Well, they cost us the same. He forwarded the 
bill to us and it was paid. 80 that I don't see any difficulty in shipping one barrel or 
ten, or whatever there may lie. We don't mind the little difference in the freight from 
here to Montreal. The Grand Trunk simply throws in their freight — that is all the gain 
there is in shipping a large quantity. 

A Member. — What would be the expense per barrel besides freight — for shipping 
and storage 1 

The President. — It depends altogether on the firm you are dealing with. As a 
rule, amongst firms that do a straight, fair business, they would probably hold the freight 
and sell it some time within thirty days, and they would charge five per cent to cover 
even thing. There are some markets where there are fees; for instance, in Covent 
Garden the Duke of Bedford has to receive a certain fee from every fruit-grower in 
Canada. He has got to receive for rental for every barrel of freight that is sold in 
Covent Garden, a penny half-penny a barrel ; that is the market fee in Covent Garden ; 
but I found that the way a good many brokers work there for the shipper is to take as 
few barrels into Covent Garden as possible ; they will go and sell at the docks or sell at 
their own store-houses ; they will only take into Covent Garden what they can't sell 
otherwise, and run them off for the best they can get; but usually you can calculate 
about five per cent commission. 



QUALITY IN VEGETABLE LIFE. 

Prof. Brown read a paper on this subject as follows : 

I introduce this subject not because it is unknown, but because it is used every day 
without any special notice of it, either among experts or others, as a recognized art, or 
part of one, or of a natural law, or part of one. 

How often we hear the expressions — " that grain is coarse in quality " — " that is 
timber of fine quality" — "these apples are of fine quality " — and so on. What is really 
meant by these statements most people have a good idea ; that is, they have got the fact 
that certain vegetable products are so differently constructed, even among varieties of the 
same kind, that they deserve the term thus applied, because in the experience of the 
judgment they are either coarse or fine in texture, or some other feature indicating the 
same thing. 



151 



This is no place to talk farm live stock, otherwise \ would ask your attention to a 
similar use of the term quality, where also considerable uncertainty exists as to its very 
definite meaning and application to particular specimens, but where I think its practical 
value and the absolute necessity of teaching it are more obvious than in the vegetable 
kingdom. In the one case the things are not so easily recognized by the eye or hand, 
and many have to be tested or cut up to enable one to pass an opinion. 

I have, therefore, to ask this old and valuable Association of Ontario to place on a 
more definite footing these points in vegetable life that the experienced are so familiar 
with and that the novice thinks so dark and difficult. 

Many of our best judges have trouble in explaining what they know so well — not 
being in the habit of teaching or analyzing for the advantage of others. 

I desire, meantime, to draw the attention of the Association to several great facts 
in this connection which seem to govern all vegetable life, with some exceptions probably, 
ind my only trouble will be to condense sufficiently, the field being so large. 

Take trees first, and I apprehend three things will be found very prominent as a 
juide to quality namely, colour, specific gravity, hardiness. Note the fact that all our 
white grained timbers are the lightest in weight, and at the same time the most hardy — 
graining by hardy the ability to withstand extremes of climate, or perhaps cold rather 
;han heat. Beginning at Hudson's Bay and coming south, are not the following varieties 
;rue to the three things I have named ? Spruce, poplar, birch, balsam fir, pine, cedar 
ind alder ; all white, or largely white in colour of timber, all light in weight and all very 
lardy. In contradistinction to these varieties, and still coming south, there are ash, elm, 
naple, hemlock, beech, oak, butternut and walnut, —the marked exception being basswood, 
>ut all others comparatively dark-grained, heavy, and much less hardy. 

These positions being true, nature tells us that if we want uniform quality of colour, 
>r colorless wood we must go north, if quality by soft, open texture, then go north also, 
,nd if quality of character or ability to do well under poor conditions of soil and climate, 
ve must also look to the north. 

But besides these governing lines there are sub-divisions as distinct with reference to 
varieties of species ; for example, the white spruce is somewhat farther north than the 
lack spruce, and the wood of which differ considerably in colour if not in hardiness ; the 
alsam poplar is the most northern and whitest of the kind, being the light wood of 
ommerce as against other varieties of poplar, even the aspen, which comes next in the 
torthern limit ; the white or common birch of the far nor h and the black birch of the 
outh ; the white cedar of the north, the red cedar of the south ; the balsam fir with its 
oft white v/ood, as far north as Hudson's Bav, and the several varieties farther south — 
ut not differing so strikingly in colour ; the white pine (Strobus), and red pine (Resinosa), 
hough said to have about equal geographical range are so distinct in manner of diste- 
ntion, and the white being so much more common everywhere, that I ask you to place 
his class in the list. 

Then, taking what may be called our hardwood, we find the white elm of the north 
nd other varieties of darker shade in the south ; the white and black ash intermixed as 
egards latitude, and most distinctly also the white ash of the north, and the red and black 
nes of the south. 

It is unnecessary to add to these examples, for it can be seen that, while acknowledg- 
lg several exceptions, there is a most clear order of quality by the points named through- 
ut our Canadian forests. 

But one note more while in the forest. I have, at home, about 130 species and 
arieties of timber of trees from most parts of the world, and I have no doubt any one 
ould pick out any distinctly coloured specimen with which he would be able to say yes 
r no to two at least of the three positions I have submitted as to quality. 

I have also a set of 33 sections of wood of Russian apple trees, got from A. C. 
uttle, of Baraboo, Wisconsin. He says that almost exactly in the order of color from 
ghtest to darkest we have in these specimens — all having been grown under similar 
Dnditions in the same orchard — the order of what is called their hardiness, so that it is 
ot alone the difference of conditions — say soil and temperature largely — that give us the 
iree things under discussion, but they seem to hold good as a characteristic of varieties 



152 



wherever they are, though possibly not so distinct nor so lasting. I invite the attention 
of the meeting to this characteristic of Russian apple tree wood grown in what is about 
equal to Ontario conditions. Then, taking advantage of what apple trees we have at the 
Experimental Farm and a selection of half a dozen specimens from them, I notice the 
very uniformly white wood of that universally acknowledged general purpose variety 
called Duchess of Oldenburg ; all over, from stem to smallest twig, the wood is an even 
grained white in comparison with most others, and is probably the most hardy of our 
apple trees. I think all the crabs are also white wooded, and, of course, are nearly all 
hardy. The " Twenty-Ounce " apple has not done well with us — has, in fact, nearly all 
died out — and the specimen of wood is one of the darkest I could find, and is*from an 
apparently healthy tree. In the " Snow " variety, which is generally hardy enough, the 
wood has a shade of dark, but nothing to some others. The Rhode Island Greening is 
distinctly much darker than the Snow, and is to some extent less hardy. 

We find, therefore, some very marked examples, and some equally marked exceptions 
to the rule we have laid down in this enquiry. 

To conclude- upon trees, is it not obvious that more practical value might be realized, 
fewer mistakes made in selections from different countries and different sections of the 
same country, each from and to the other, experiments simplified and money saved by a 
better knowledge of quality among timber and fruit trees 1 Leaves and bark, and fruit, 
and age, are not enough to guide us ; we have to dissect and study the whole constitu- 
tion, and no doubt it will be found that physiologists can indicate the like things we 
have thus briefly indicated, through cells and all the other physical construction of many 
kinds of plants. 

My next enquiry is with reference to cereals, and in this I shall ask you to look at 
quality through another aspect — one that is probably equally applicable to trees, but is 
more easily recognized among grains. You will observe I have not even touched upon 
fruit of any kind in these notes — forest tree fruit, garden or orchard — and so now also I 
do not propose handling grain, except maybe indirectly, because I think I have material 
enough for my purpose with the straw, as I had with the timber in the two examples 
given. 

The straw of all grain, and of wheat particularly, is one of the best indexes to the 
character of the plant and of its fruit. Were the naked eye able to examine every piece 
of the construction of this simple stem, from the outer to the inner coating, it would not 
be necessary to see the grain itself in order to tell what that grain was — whether coarse 
or fine, or any other of the many points used in judging. But while this is true, as 
between those varieties having very little distinction, it does not require a very clever eye 
to recognize between distinct kinds. 

I have with me a number of varieties and sub-varieties of wheats, all grown under 
equal conditions, with which I shall briefly illustrate. 

Introductorily, we need not trouble ourselves necessarily now as to whether any 
variety of wheat is called a winter or a spring one, for that distinction, is simply a matter 
of education, so to spe*k, and has nothing to do with quality in the abstract. 

Let me introduce to you some of Canada's oldest friends — the Treadwell, a bearded 
variety of well known hardiness and productiveness. The straw of this, as you can see, 
is thin and strong — that is, it has a compact cellular tissue, a little space from the out- 
side to the inside ; the inside is clean, with no soft pith, the hollow space being larger in 
proportion to the walls ; in comparison with it examine the kind called Diehl, the tissue 
of which is clearly more open, indicating less strength ; but the shell is thin and clean ; a 
variety named Diehl Fife — p >ssibly a hybrid — has straw very similar to the Diehl 
proper. I notice a model of straw in the case of Arnold's Victor — firm, close and com- 
pact in texture, well rolled together, as it were, free of any looseness inside, and clean as 
a whistle. Another by the name of Clawson, or Seneca, shows straw with a decidedly 
open cellular arrangement, but otherwise good ; another under the title of Arnold's 
Hybrid is characterized by a somewhat open texture and general delicate appearance that, 
with a transparency equal to the Diehl, indicates some special heredity perhaps. 

Everybody used to know the Fife wheat, a spring variety that has been of immense 
value to Canada. Could we get such another in all its value of adaptability to our con- 



153 



ditions, its good milling proportion, and a grand cropper, the present trouble about 
renewal of wheat would be set at rest for many years to come. Examine the straw of 
this old friend, and, even in its degeneracy, you can see the most perfect we have yet 
examined ; close ribbed, compactly built texture, clean out and in, thin in shell, trans- 
parent and with large tubing. 

As a jump from this take the Arnautka, or Goose Wheat, of which you have heard 
so much of late years — a fine looking plant with its bold, square, full head. The diameter 
of the straw is almost two-thirds full of loose open pith, while the skin or bark is never- 
theless of good texture. 

And, finally, on this branch of this subject you will find an almost exact copy of the 
Arnautka straw in the sample of Egyptian or Eldorado I have submitted. 

Gentlemen, I draw from all these facts that what we call the quality of the straw of 
eereals is a most certain indication of the same thing in their fruit, called grain ; that 
full, plnmp, good coloured, and uniform as the sample of grain may be, there is, I shall 
venture to say, in every case a coarse character in its structure whenever the straw wants 
quality. In the specimens we have gone over it is very evident that this position is well 
sustained ; and, as nothing equals a practical lesson, allow me to ask you, not me, to 
judge from four or five samples of straw and grain by the plan we have examined. These 
samples, I may say, are unknown to myself, so that I cannot help you by any hints when 
speaking as you examine. 

In going over these somewhat simple though interesting points as to " Quality in 
Vegetable Life," my desire has been to impress upon this Society the importance of more 
attention being paid to what is within the reach of everybody, whereby fewer mistakes 
would be made in much of our rural economy. 



After the reading of this paper, at the request of Prof. Brown, the President appointed 
a committee to examine the specimen of grain straw and check off the points made by the 
Professor; the committee to make an investigation and report. The following were 
appointed as such committee : Adolphus Pettit, Mr. McDonald (of the Farmers' Advocate), 
and Mr. Honsberger. 

The Convention adjourned for dinner. 



THE TEADE IN ERUIT AND FRUIT TREES BETWEEN CANADA AND 

THE UNITED STATES. 

On re-assembling in the afternoon, Mr. Archibald Blue, Deputy Minister of Agricul- 
ture, read the following paper on the trade in fruit and fruit trees : 

The chief object of this Association I understand to be the advancement of the science 
and art of fruit culture. Its meetings are held for the discussion of all questions bearing 
on fruit and fruit growing, and it aims to collect and publish useful information on these 
subjects for the common benefit of all who are either producers or consumers of fruit. It 
is not a close corporation, as in a sense law and medicine are, for I find by its constitution 
that " any person may become a member by an annual payment of one dollar;" and, 
whether a person is a member or not, he has the fullest liberty to practice the art of fruit 
growing wherever he pleases, and to any extent he pleases. It does not hide its light 
under a bushel lest any one outside its circle might see and know a better way to plant 
and prune his vine or his apple tree, for the ubiquitous reporter is made welcome at all 
its meetings, and an official report of the proceedings is printed at the cost of the province 
for distribution as a public document. To enquire, to investigate, to prove, to know, and 
to make the country a present of what is so found out are the object, aim and end for 
which it has been established and for w dch it continues to exist ; and I think I may be 
permitted to add that, in the judgment of the whole country, the existence of the Associa- 
tion has been amply justified by its works. No other of the kindred societies in the 
province has sustained its special interest with a livelier sense of the possibilities of use- 



154 



fulness, and I do not know of any society of its own class on the continent that has made 
a better record in either the science or the art of fruit culture. 

I do not propose, however, to deal with practice or theory as related to the pro- 
duction of fiuit or vegetables; for whatever I might be able to say from a knowledge 
of the literature of the subject, L could not hope to say anything which might not be 
better and more fittingly spoken, with the clear perception which practice and obser- 
vation in the field afford, by ninety-nine out of a hundred of the fruit growers 
themselves. A knowledge of tie best means of producing fruit is of the first import- 
ance — no one will question that j but next to the producing is the consuming, where 
one grows more than one can eat ; and to owners of the fine orchards and gardens of 
this Niagara peninsula access to markets is one of the first essentials for a successful 
career in the business. It would be interesting, no doubt, to discuss the whole subject 
of the fruit trade of the country, domestic and foreign ; but I purpose to limit this 
paper to one section of it, \iz., our trade with the United States. For the six years of 
the present decade (1881-6) our exports of fruit to all countries, as shown by the trade 
returns of the Dominion, reached an aggregate of $2,995,193, being a yearly average 
of nearly half a million. Of these exports, the United States took for consumption, 
according to the trade returns of that country, the value of $914,868, or an average of 
$152,478 for each year. This is equal to 30 per cent, of our fruit exports ; but in two 
years of the six the United States took 62 per cent, of the whole. As showing how large 
a share the south-western counties of Ontario had in this trade, it may be stated that the 
imports at American ports on the St. Clair, Detroit and Niagara rivers for the six years 
make a total of $377,885, or 41 per cent, of all the fruit imports of the United States from 
Canada ; but, besides, it is certain that a large part of the fruit sent from those counties 
goes direct to New York and Chicago. Our total exports of roots and vegetables in the 
same period of six years are valued in the trade tables at $5,693,586, whereof the por- 
tion shipped to the United States is valued at $4,825,189, or 85 per cent, of the whole. 
Our exports of garden and other seeds to all countries in the six years are valued at 
$1,661,499, of which the United States took for consumption a quantity valued at 
$781,587, or 47 per cent, of the whole. About $550,000, or 70 per cent., of those 
imports are reported from the customs districts of the St. Clair, Detroit and Niagara 
rivers, showing that they were the produce of our grand south-western peninsula. It thus 
appears that of our total exports of fruit, vegetables and seeds in the six years 1881-6, 
amounting in value to $10,350,278, the United States furnished a market for produce of 
the value of $6,521,644, or 63 per cent, of the whole. During the same period of six 
years, our imports of green fruits from the United States, exclusive of oranges and lemons, 
are valued at $1,572, 100 ; of fruit trees, plants, shrubs, etc., $425,686 ; of vegetables, not 
canned or preserved, $636,358 ; and of seeds, $1,048,206— making a total of $3,682,350, 
or $613,572 a year. The following table shows the aggregates of quantities and values of 
the principal articles for the period of six years imported from the States, together with 
the duties paid thereon : — 



Articles 



Apples, bbl 

Black-, goose-, rasp-, and strawberries, qt. 

Cherries and currants, qt 

Cranberries, plums, and quinces, bush 

Grapes, lb 

Peaches, bush 

Other green fruit 

Fruit trees, plants, etc 

Potatoes, bush 

Tomatoes, bush 

Other vegetables 

Seeds 4 



Quantity. 



182,584 
1,148,562 

177,500 

05,380 

1,748,144 

122,887 



349,811 
46,048 



Value. 



Duty. 



400,449 
122,082 

17,278 
147,154 
141,176 
300,662 
443,299 
425,686 
180,022 

85,442 
370,894 
,048,206 



73,045 
22,971 
1,774 
16,623 
36,939 
49,135 
88,(570 
84,603 
34,979 
13.818 
74,178 
157,487 



155 



In the trade tables, the numbers of fruit trees of the principal kinds imported are 
ven since 24th February, 1882, and from that date until the end of the fiscal year 1886 
3 imported from the United States 859,029 apple trees, 154,739 pear trees, 88,860 plum 
ees, 36,646 cherry trees, and 13,576 quince trees, being an aggregate for the rive ye.irs 

1,152,850 trees, or enough for an orchard area of 20,500 acres. The declared value of 
is importation is $156,503, in addition to which there is a value for other trees of 
:1,919, and the total charge of customs duty is $39,099. The duty paid on all imports 

fruit and fruit trees, vegetables and seeds imported from the United States in the six 
;ars was $654,222, or an average of about 18 per cent. 

On this subject of the customs tariff on fruits and other articles, I may be allowed 

refer to a section of the Tariff Act of 1879, which enumerates certain natural pro- 
icts of Canada and the United States, including green fruit, seeds of all kinds, plants, 
3es and shruLs, and provides that they may be imported into Canada free of duty, or 

a less rate of duty than is provided in the Act, upon proclamation by the Governor 

Council, which mty be issued whenever it appears to his satisfaction that similar 
ticks from Canada may be imported into the United States free of duty, or at a 
te of duty not exceeding that payable on the same under such proclamation when 
iported into Canada. Now by the United States Tir:rf Act ot 1883, which came into 
eration on the first of July of that year, the following articles were placed on the 
te list : — 

1. Fruits, green, ripe, or dried, not specially provided for, such as oranges, grapes, preserved fruits, etc. 

2. Plants, trees, shrubs and vines of all kinds nob otherwise provided for. 

3. Seeds of all kinds not specially enumerated, except medicinal seeds. 

Those articles have been admitted into the United States from Canada and all other 
untries free of duty since the first of July, 1883, and notwithstanding the provision of 
3 Canadian Tariff Act of 1879 the duty on similar articles imp rted into Canada from 
e United States has been neither removed nor lowered. Our producers have the boon 
a continental free market ; while our consumers, who vastly outnumber the producing 
iss, are " cabin'd, cribb'd, contin'd, bound in," not '; to saucy doubts and fears," as was 
e thane of Cawdor, but to the tardy market of their own long- wintered country with a 
rdon of customs posts to keep out the earlier fruits of a sunnier land. 

Looked at from the point of view of a consumer, and not without consideration for 

b large interests of the producer, it seems to me that our Government has made a 

stake in failing to meet the legislation of the United States in the spirit of the t^rms 

its own Act. It is possible, I am bound to consider it probable, that the failure to 

Mprocate has not been intentional, but rather that it has been owing to an oversight of 

3 changes made in the United States tariff whereby the articles referred to were placed 

the free list four years ago. Is it for our interest that this attitude towards the 

ited States should continue — that while placing on the statute book a standing offer 

the free exchange of specified products we should ignore the acceptance of our offer 

the United States? Suppose our neighbors should retaliate, as they threaten to do — 

Congress has authorized the President to do — and not only re-impose the old duties on 

icles which are now free, but, following the recent example of our Government in the 

$e of potatoes and other vegetables, make the rate 25 to 50 per cent, higher than before, 

make the duty prohibitory at once, how would it affect the fruit, seed and vegetable 

Dwers of Canada? Where could they hope to find a market for the 60 per cent, and 

er of their export products which during the pa*t six years was taken by the United 

ites? And bear in mind that I am not putting a purely hypothetic case, for numerous 

tances are on record — notably in connection with the fisheries question — in which the 

lited States Congress prohibited the importation of products of these British provinces 

retaliation for the conduct or the policy of the British Government ; and I say it is 

t wise, without excellent cause, to provoke retaliation, or even to seem to provoke it. 

The two chief objects of our tariff are : (1) To provide a revenue for the Govern- 

nt, and (2) to give to the home producer a meahure of protection against foreign 

npetition. The first of these is served to the extent to which duties are paid on 

ports less the cost of collection, and the second to the extent to which the home market 

secured to the home producer by the exclusion of foreign pioduce. 



156 



Well, has the tariff served the growers of fruit and fruit trees and of seeds and 
vegetables in Canada by shutting out or even reducing in volume the imports of these 
articles from the United States ? To answer this question I might compare the years oi 
the last decade with the corresponding years of the present one, and show that under the 
lighter tariff the competition was apparently less keen then than now. Our imports from 
the United States were less for the six years, 1871-6, than for 1881-6, and our exports tc 
all countries were hardly one-third as much in the former period as in the latter. i>ul 
let us compare the three years 1881-3 with the three years 1884 6 and see what the 
imports show. The following table gives the value and duty paid on our imports froncl 
the United States of green fruits (exclusive of oranges and lemons), of fruit trees, shrubsl 
and plants, of field and garden seeds and of vegetables for the two periods : — 



Classes of Articles. 



Green fruits 

Fruit trees, plants, etc. . 
Field and garden seeds. 
Potatoes and vegetables 

Total 



1881-82-83. 



Value. 



642,967 00 
198,340 00 
333,357 00 
220,578 00 



1,395,242 00 



Duty. 



123,321 00 
41,006 00 
50,017 00 
40,645 00 



254,989 00 



1884-85-86. 



Value. 



$ c. 

929,133 00 
227,346 00 
714,849 00 
415,780 00 



2,287,108 00 



Duty. 



$ 



165,836 00 
43,597 00 

107,470 00 
82,330 00 1 



399,233 0C 



From this statement it appears that the imports of the last three years from th 
United States exceed those of the previous three by $891,866 — the excess in the valua 
tion of green fruits being $286,166 j of fruit trees, plants, etc., $29,006 ; of field ant 
garden seeds, $381,492 ; and of vegetables, $195,202. These figures, it appears to me 
demonstrate that the present duties do not serve the interests of the Canadian producer 
by shutting out United States imports or even reducing their volume. A philosophi 
historian has said that extirpation is the only persecution which can be successful, o 
even not destructive of its own object. Well, I am disposed to believe that prohibition] 
the only protection which can protect in the case of the trade we are considering. Th 
fact is that only in a very small degree do American products come into competition wit] 
the Canadian at all. The fruits and vegetables which we import from the United State 
are chiefly those which ripen earlier than ours, and which oir dealers import and on 
people consume because they can be got nowhere else. The best information I can obtai 
from men in the trade is that while imported strawberries supply our city markets 
month earlier than the home grown fruit, they cease to compete when the latter come 
in. Being brought a longer distance they have lost freshness and flavor, and besides, th 
duty of four cents per pound becomes prohibitory in its effect. The same observation 
generally true of apples, plums, pears, peaches and vegetables ; they are importe 1 fror 
the Southern and Middle States for a few weeks before our own mature, and with th 
craving appetite for new fruits and vegetables which the diet of a long winter begeti 
they are bought up eagerly at any price in reason. They compete for a brief season onl 
with the native products, not merely because the trade is made unprofitable by the dutj 
but because they are by comparison of a poorer quality. If any proof of the correctne* 
of this statement were needed, I have no doubt that it would be speedily forthcomin 
from the members of this Association ; but let me quote an impartial authority— th 
report of McKittrick, Hamilton & Co., of England — on American apples for the seaso 
1886-7. Here is what they say : — 

" Canada, as usual, has been to the fore, and we have had really perfect parcels landed here, for whi< 
high prices have heen obtained. The early supplies from the Dominion ma> le about same prices as tho 
from the United States, but once their fall fruit was in a condition for shipment they immediately took tl 
lead, and while Boston, Maine and New York Baldwins made 10/3 to 15/3, Canadians sold for 10/ to 18/ 
This lead was maintained through the season, the general average of prices being very high. " 






157 



And because it possesses this fine quality, a degree of perfection hardly equalled 
.nywhere else on the continent, Canadian fruit needs no tariff wall for its protection. 
Ne are able to compete with the American fruit growers at home or abroad, and I am 
lersuaded that in the products of the orchard and garden, if in no other, it is the common 
nterest of consumers and producers to favor a policy of unrestricted reciprocity with our 
leighbors. New York, Ohio and Michigan have not suffered by competition with each 
ther, or by competition with sister States eastward, southward and westward, and the 
;reat centres of population in those States, growing greater every year, will maintain for 
11 time the best of markets at our doors. 

There is one other aspect of the question of trade with the United States to which I 
aust refer, viz. : the relation of fruit and vegetables as articles of diet to the health 
f our people ; and in looking up the best authorities on this subject I ought to say 
hat I have been aided by my friend Dr. Bryce, the Secretary of the Provincial 
>oard of Health. A high English authority, Dr. Wynter Blyth, of London, stated in 
recent address that — 

The importance of cabbages, carrots, turnips, of apples, pears, raspberries and strawberries, is far 
lore than their nutritive value ; for without the addition of these substances, even while eating fresh meat, 
r e are liable to decline in health and suffer from eruptions, while if we eat salt meat for any time and 
Dusume neither potatoes nor vegetables, nor fruits, then that terrible disease, scurvy, is imminent. 

Another authority whom I shall quote is Prof, de Chaumont, who in a lecture on 
Practical Dietetics (issued by the Council of the International Association of 1884) 
xpiessed practically the same opinions as Dr. Blyth. If the blood is in a proper healthy 
ondition, he stated, it is alkaline ; but if it gets into an unhealthy condition, chiefly 
hrough being deprived of vegetable food, then it becomes less alkaline, gets into a fluid 
ondition, and the result is the disease we know in its extreme form as scurvy. And he 
oes on to say : — 

This disease in former years was the scourge of our navy, and it is on record that the channel fleet in 
he middle of the last century had sometimes come into Spithead with no less than 10,000 men disabled by 
3urvy alone ; and one of the reasons why the enormous hospital at Haslar was built to hold 2,000 patients 
r as on account of the tremendous stress put upon all hospital accommodation by the enormous number of 
3urvy patients. This condition of things was remonstrated against by the medical officers of the navy, 
'ho pointed out the remedy at hand by the use of vegetable acids a long time before it was adopted, but as 
Don as it was adopted the result was magical. Scurvy disappeared from the navy altogether, and that 
nmense hospital at Haslar was left with only a few cases compared with what it was intended to accommo- 
ate. But I should mention that scurvy has by no means disappeared entirely, and so far is it from 
isappearing that if cases are carefully investigated in ord'nary life, even among the better classes, we 
hall find symptoms of scurvy from time to time. A great many people dislike vegetables, and even dislike 
ruits, and neglect the use of them. Others from sheer ignorance do not use them, and the result is that 
gain and again diseases that are apparently caused by quite other means are aggravated and complicated 
y a certain amount of this scorbutic taint. 

It hardly seems necessary to point the lesson which these statements of eminent 
aen so unmistakably teach. The use of fruits and vegetables in the diet of our people 
3 so essential that the policy which makes these articles scarce and dear can only be 
egarded as inhuman and stupid in an eminent degree. 

We are proud of our north-land, with its bracing climate, its great lakes, its rich 
leritage of farm land and forest, and proudest of all of the men who have made and are 
oaking it. But let us never close our minds to the fact that it is and ever must be a 
lorth-land, where winter reigns half the year, and that we can ill afford to make that 
winter longer still by a barrier raised to shut out the bounties of nature. And in our 
elations with our neighbor may we learn the wisdom of the philosophic maxim, " that of 
11 the agencies of civilization and progress of the human race commerce is the most 
fficient." 



Mr. E. Morden (Drummondville). — I live on the frontier, and my market for fruit 
3 in the United States very largely. I am able to compete with the United States, and 
o compete with the United States' fruit growers in their own markets. I sell most of 
hy fruit there, and get my money from there, and I hope the day will come when the 
•uit growers of Canada will at least treat our neighbors to the south of us with the 
kme liberality that we receive from them. 



158 



The President. — There is no doubt the question raised by the paper read is a very 
important one, and one that is receiving a good deal of attention from public men at the 
present time. We see it every day, and we read something about it every day, and as 
far as my experience goes it extends pretty much to the export of apples. In the other 
fruits I have exported some to the United States. There is no doubt about it, as far as 
apples are concerned we are not only not afraid of the American competition, but we are 
not afraid of any country in the world. (Applause.) We have met them all ; we have 
met them successfully ; and the prices current in the houses in Britain will show that 
we command the highest prices known for apples. No matter how they pack them, hovr 
they cull them, how they select them, we find that our apples lead all in prices. (Applause.) 
The Americans no doubt come nearer to us in competition than any other country that 
we have met with as yet, and any country that we know of. The New York State apples 
g<nerally we find the very best ; also the Maine Baldwins, and Nodheads from the State 
of Maine, are very fine, and they cull and pa<k them very well indeed. They come pretty 
closely in competition with us in the markets of Britain ; but, taking all the markets 
combined, and taking good, lad and indifferent as cargoes go, I would be on the safe side 
in saying there is a usual diffeienee of from two to three shillings a barrel in our favcj 

Mr A. G. MuiR, — I would like to ask the President whether, when he estimated the 
difference in the selling prices of the Canadian and the American barrel, the difference in 
the size of the barrel was considered in the quotations. 

The President — That is considered. The American barrels vary very much. They 
have mostly two sizes — two bushels and three pecks and three-bushel barrels. Our barrels 
now under the Act are three-bushel barrels. The two-bushel-and-three-peck barrel of the 
American trade rules very low in the market ; it is sold at a very great disadvantage. 
They make a much better proportion out of their three-bushel barrel ; but I am speaking 
of the proportion between that barrel and ours — between their three-bushel barrel and 
ours. The difference between the other and ours is very much larger indeed, but then 
they are selling the other at a very great disadvantage to themselves as compared with 
their three-bushel barrel. 



GRAPE GROWING IN ONTARIO. 






Papers on discussions on various aspects of grape growing then occupied the attention 
of the meeting, the subject being introduced by Prof. Brown with the following paper on 

GRAPES FROM HIGH ALTITUDES IN ONTARIO. 

It is now six years since a committee of this association planted some ninety-six 
varieties of grape vines at the Ontario Experimental Farm. 

The object was a severe testing of those considered to be of value to the Province— 
because a situation 850 feet above Lake Ontario, and therefore about 1200 feet above 
sea level, is likely to be very trying to fruit of any kind. 

Recently, Professor Panton, our Botanist, gave a short bulletin on this subject, 
which necessarily, by its briefness, could not bring out some points that I trust may 
now be gathered. 

The ground selected has a southern aspect, without any shelter whatever ; the soil a 
clay loam, somewhat stiff and decidedly spongy with hillsirle water. 

The management has been to grow two canes from each vine, tying up carefully 
every season so that the young and bearing wood is trained in every direction upon four 
lines of fence wire five f»et in height. This method seemed best adapted where it is 
necessary, as with us, to lay down and cover for winter protection. We have manured 
and cultivated well. Pruning is undertaken end of October and beginning of 
November, as well as shoot pinching in summer, and nothing allowed to get higher th-m 
the trellis. 






159 



Four hundred and forty vines were planted in 1881 and 210 in 1882, so that we 
had a total of 650 — representing ninety-six varieties. 

The first thing to place on record is life and death, and the character of that life. 

Grape Vines Planted 1881-2. 



STRONG, VIGOROUS PLANTS. 



Agawam. 




Martha. 


Brighton. 




Missouri. 


Brant. 




Massasoit. 


Black Hawk 




Menimac. 


Clinton. 




Nortons (Var). 


Champion. 




Noah. 


Cornucopia. 




Othello. 


Concord. 




. Pocklington. 


Cynthiana. 




Rogers' 28. 


Duchess. 




Rogers' 33. 


Delaware. 




Rogers' 41. 


Dracut Amber. 




Una. 


Elvira. 




Uhland. 


Eva. 




Venango. 


Gaertner. 




Wilder. 


Hartford Prolific. 




(Not represented at Meeting). 


Herbert. 




Naomi. 


Ives' Seedling. 




Barry. 


Jefferson. 




Pearl. 


Janesville. 




Maxatawney. 


Lindley. 




C ottage. 


Lady Washington. 




Vergennes. 


Mary Ann. 




Early Dawn. 


Moore's Early. 




Eumelan. 




MEDIUM, 


[N VIGOR. 


Advance. 




Transparent. 


Amber. 




W alter. 


Alvey. 




(Not represented fit Meeting.) 


A-i'ber Queen. 




Canada. 


Faith. 




Dempsey 4. 


Jessica. 




Cayahoga. 


Lady. 




Isabella. 


New Haven. 




Creveling. 


Eogers' No. 30. 




Echland. 


Rogers' No. 39. 




Worden, of excellent quality 


Rogers' No. 2. 




Autonello. 


Salem. 








WEAK I 


'LANTS. 


Autucheon. 




(Xot represented at Meeting.) 


Black Eagle. 




Telegraph. 


Eldorado. 




Monroe, 


Iona. 




Beauty. 


Rochester. 




Senasqua. 




• 


Grimes' Golden. 
Prentiss. 



160 



FAILURES. 



Centennial. 
Croton 
Chasselas. 
Dempsey's 18. 
Dempsey's 25. 



Herbernont. 
Rogers' 5. 
Purity. 
Triumphant. 
Waverly. 



The second consideration is as to fruiting and ripening. 

Up to the end of 1886, and therefore with an experience of four years fruiting, it 
may surprise you to know that not more than a dozen of the eighty-six varieties that 
lived — ten having failed — ripened ^so that they could be eaten. In October, 1886, the 
list stood thus : 



Lindley. 

Delaware. 

Moore's Early. 

Salem. 

Massasoit. 

Wilder. 

Merrimac. 



Eumelan. 

Herbert. 

Concord. 

Clinton. 

Brighton. 

Agawam. 

Martha. 



Hence it is perfectly clear that the average season in such a position is not a safe 
grape growing one. Of the above, every one — Salem excepted, which is medium — is on 
our hardy and vigorous list, so that the fact of their doing well at the Experimental 
Farm is evidence pretty certain that they would likely do well anywhere else in the 
Province. Looking to this, therefore, we are prepared to advise the following for 
hardiness, yield and flavour : 



Black. 

Wilder. 

Worden. 

Moore. 

Concord. 

Barry. 
Red. 

Delaware. 



Brighton. 
Lindley. 
Agawam. 
White. 
Niagara, 
Lady. 
Martha. 



And thirdly, I have to submit evidence of the remarkable character of the season 
of 1887, as affecting these grapes, for in place of the dozen that it seems, we will be 
limited to on an average, no fewer than 70 varieties ripened well. Of these I could con- 
veniently bring to the meeting only 54, which you can now examine and prove practically. 

The earliest gathering was on 3rd September, the latest the 22nd, so that being all 
inside this month I have simply put the day of harvesting on the card along with the 
name, and whether it is a vigorous, medium, or weak plant. 

I shall say nothing about the character of the fruit which you are now to taste 
but shall close with tho order of ripening : — 



Ripening — one week interval. 
Most early in ripening : — 



Janesville. 
May Red. 
Moore's Early. 
Mary Ann. 
Black Hawk. 
Alvey. 



Ives' Seedling. 

Champion. 

Brant. 

(Not in collection exhibited.) 
Early Dawn. 



161 



• 


Second most early : — 


Othello. 




Rogers' 39. 


Concord. 




New Haven. 


Cornucopia. 




Rogers' 33. 


Delaware. 




Rogers' 2. 


Eldorado. 




Norton. (Var.) 


Massasoit. 




Merrimac. 


Lady. 




Lindley. 


Jessica. 




Venango. 


Hartford Prolific, 




Autuchon. 


Faith. 




Brighton. 


Rochester. 






, 


Third most early : — 


Amber Queen. 


I Wilder. 


Dracut's Amber. 




Herbert. 


Eva. 




Lady Washington. 


Jefferson. 




Iona. 


Rogers' 28. 




Martha. 


Rogers' 30. 




(Not in exhibit.) 


Rogers' 41. 




Telegraph. 


Uhland. 




Cottage. 


Cynthiana. 




Isabella 


Duchess. 




Eumelan. 


Gaertner. 




Barry. 


Una. 




Creveling. 


Noah. 






' 


Latest in ripening : — 


Missouri. 




Transparent. 


Salem.' 




Amber. 


Lugawana. 




Elvira. 


. Pocklington. 




Clinton. 


Agawam. 






I beg specially 


to draw your attention to the quality of 


Moore's Early. 




Lindley. 


Massasoit. 




Rogers' 41. 


Lady. 




Salem. 


Jessica 




Pocklington. 



Jhe President. — We have seen something from the Agricultural Farm this year 
that is of importance. It is a fine thing to bring the varieties all together in a section 
such as that — a very difficult section, indeed, to grow grapes to perfection. You cannot 
expect to find grapes coming from that section as fine in bunch or berry as you will find 
them in this section. It is a much more difficult thing to bring them there to a state of 
perfection. I visited the farm this year, and I was very much pleased indeed to see that 
their grapes were likely to ripen. It is a very difficult thing in many of the western 
inland sections to ripen their grapes. In some they cannot ripen at all. This was an 
exceptional year. We would only expect that the earlier varieties would ripen at Guelph. 
They have ripened all varieties this year at the Model Farm ; they can't expect them to 
ripen every year. They can only ripen some varieties in a season such as we have just 
had ; it is quite an exception ; and as we have seen from the paper, a large bulk of the 
varieties spoken of have been comparatively worthless in years past. There is no doubt 

11 (F.G.) 



162 



that they have accomplished, I think, all that could possibly be expected from that section 
or from any inland section within reach having the same advantages, or disadvantages 
rather, as far as grape culture is concerned. I think the audience would probably like 
to hear the paper of Mr. Beall before going into further discussion on the grape question. 
Then we will take the grape question up generally and hear from the authorities. 



GRAPE CULTURE AND TEMPERATURE. 

Mr. Beall. — I fully agree with you as to this being an exceptional year, and it is 
for that reason I desire to place some figures before you. Mine is hardly a paper ; it is 
" Notes on Grape Culture and Temperature for the year 1887." 

The past unusually dry and hot summer has afforded a good opportunity .to ascertain 
with much certainty, the length of time and the quantity of heat required to ripen the 
varieties of grapes usually cultivated in this province. 

Careful notes have been taken in my grounds of the time of ripening of a few varie- 
ties ; and I am also enabled to give the number of days and the quantity of heat required 
for the maturity of each of the varieties named below. 

The time is computed from the loth of May, that being about the time when the 
grape vine buds begin to expand ; the time for uncovering the vines being about one 
week previous to that date. 

The fruit of the varieties named was fully ripe at the dates given. 



Name of Variety. 



Early Victor . 

Worden 

Moore's Early 

Lady 

Jessica 

Brighton 

Niagara 

F. B. Hayes.. 

Prentiss 

Vergennes . . . 

Biirnet 

Agawam 



Date of Ripening. 



August 31. 
Sept. 3. 
6. 
6. 

10 

13. 

15. 

15. 

15. 

17. 

20. 

24. 



No. of 


Mean 


Days 


Max. 


Required. 


Temp'ture 


108 


80.19 


111 


80.04 


114 


80.05 


114 


80.05 


118 


79.57 


121 


79.36 


123 


79.21 


123 


79.21 


123 


79.21 


125 


79 05 


128 


78.75 


132 


78.17 



Total Heat 
Required. 



8660.73 
8884.93 
9125.43 
9125.43 
9389.13 
9603.03 
9742.33 
9742.33 
9742.33 
9871.93 
10080.43 
10317.23 



The foregoing goes far to show that the estimate of the mean maximum daily tem- 
perature for the full period, which may generally be expected without serious frost, as 
given in the Canadian Horticulturist for 1885, page 81, may be taken as being very nearly 
correct, i. e., that from the 15th of May to the 1st of October — 138 days — the mean 
maximum daily temperature for the full period must be at least 70° to ripen the earliest 
varieties, such as Early Victor, Worden and Moore's Early ; and that for the later varie- 
ties, viz., those ripening a little before but not later than the Concord, 72.5°, or a total of 
say, 10,000° will be necessary. 

Heat seems to be the most important factor in determining the time of ripening the 
grape, for we find from the foregoing figures that the excessive heat during the past sum- 
mer has shortened the period of growth fully two weeks, which gives another proof of 
the truthfulness of the proposition advanced by Boussingault, that " the duration of the 
vegetation appears to be in the inverse ratio of the mean temperature ; so that if we mul- 
tiply the number of days during which a given plant grows in different climates, by the 
mean temperature of each, we obtain numbers that are very nearly equal." 






163 



It appears to rue, however, that the mean maximum temperature of a given locality 
is a better guide in the cultivation of grapes than the mean temperature. The mean tem- 
perature along the north shore of Lake Ontario and that of the high lands, varying from 
20 to perhaps 60 miles north of the lake, are very nearly equal during the summer • but 
the mean maximum temperature during the same period is many degrees higher inland 
f.han along the lake shore j hence the reason why grape culture is so much more success- 
1 inland than along the north shore of Lake Ontario from Toronto eastward. 

The President.— We would like to hear now from Mr. Pettit, who has grown a large 
.imber of varieties here. 



th 



EXPERIENCE AT WINONA. 



Mr. M. Pettit then gave his experience at Winona with sixty or seventy varieties 
Pretty nearly all of you know, he said, what grapes grow in this section; and we who o- r0 w 
in large quantities for market discuss grapes in a different way from what we have hea°rd it 
done to-day. We consider them from their financial standpoint— from their real value 
as grapes to make money from. 

The President.— That is what we want to hear. 

Mr. Pettit.— I have these varieties here, and my idea was to take up one after 
another and comment a little on fe ome of its peculiarities, or something about it, and if 
thought advisable, pass them about to any person who would like to see or taste them 
Perhaps I had better start on white grapes first. Niagara— you have all seen that. I 
think it has combined more good points as a market grape than any other grape we culti- 
vate in fact, it scarcely has a failure. It is very, very hardy and productive, and quality 
good, so that a person in growing grapes for market could sell the Niagara at two cents 
a pound and make as much money, I fancy, as any other variety at three, unless it might 
be the Concord. The next is the Noah, very hardy and productive, not quite^as pro- 
ductive as the Niagara ; I think more hardy, very poor flavor. The next is the Lady 
U ashington. It is very productive, somewhat liable to mildew, and poor in flavor. The 
Duchess, a very nice grape to eat, but does not succeed very well. It will make a very 
high growth and winter-kill ; very hardy at the root, fine grape to eat. The Prentiss is 
too weak m the vine. It will have a very heavy load one year, and perhaps take two 
years to recover ; I would not recommend it. The Rebecca is a very nice grape but 
not a practical grape for vineyard cultivation. ' 

The President. — There is money in it, I suppose. 

Mr. Pettit.— I don't think so. Elvira, I think, is a wine grape. It is productive 
but very poor in quality. ' 

Mr. Beadle. — It wants more heat than we can give it. 

Mr. Pettit.— The Jessica is a very sweet grape, but I would not recommend it for 
very extensive cultivation as a market grape. It has a very fine flavor. 

The President. — It is more an amateur's grape. 

Mr Pettit.— Yes. Allan's Hybrid is a very good grape, but I would not recommend 
that Martha, a nice sweet little grape, good in quality, but not productive enough. 
Ine Lady, a fine grape for dessert ; early, and I think, when the vines become established, 
productive. Its earliness and quality are very much in its favor. 

Prof. Brown. — Do you mean as the vine become established 1 

Mr. Pettit.— Yes, as the vine becomes established it seems to be stronger and more 
productive. Pocklington in some places succeeds admirably. In Mr. Woolverton's 
grounds, as most of you saw yesterday, it is equal to the Niagara, but in many places it 
is not much better than many of the other whites that we have referred to; it is too 
slow m growth. It is almost impossible to get wood enough to bear profitable 
crop. The Taylor is poor in quality, very rank grower, much like the Clinton. Pearl 
is very much liable to mildew, and poor in quality. Among the reds is Eoger 9, one of 
the finest red grapes we grow, hardy and productive, very fine in quality, keeps well and 
ships well. Wyoming Red, a very handsome little red grape, early but not good enough 



164 



in flavor, quite productive. You will see a branch on the other side of the room cut 
from a four-year old vine ; they have passed their time now and become dark, but it 
a very pretty grape. Roger's 1 3 is not as good as many of the other red Rogers. Salem 
you all know ; for vineyard cultivation its greatest fault is being more subject to mildew 
than some other red Rogers, and in showery weather liable to burst. The Amber I 
would not recommend. Roger's 1 rather late in ripening ; in favored localities it 
it does very well, and is very fine in flavor, and with me is quite free from mildew. 
Agawam No. 15 is another of the best red Rogers. The Jefferson is rather late in ripen- 
ing ; a nice grape, but I would not recommend it for vineyard purposes. 

Mr. Pettit. — Tona, a small sample. Many of these samples are small. It ripens 
late. 

Dr. Beadle. — What do you say of the quality of the Iona when it does ripen 1 

Mr. Pettit. — Good, but like the Oatawba there are only a few favored localities 
where it will succeed, that is, every year. Roger's 30, not as good as most red Rogers. 
Catawba, there are only a few favored localities where it will succeed every year, but 
where it will it is a profitable crop. Yields well and sells well. 

Prof. Brown. — A good table grape as well as wine 1 

Mr. Pettit. — Oh, yes, very fine dessert grape. This you all know is a fine little 
grape — Delaware ; it requires closer pruning and finer cultivation than any other. If 
properly handled I think it is as profitable as. any other grape. The early Victor, good 
in flavor, not quite early enough, and rather small. Among the blacks is the Oreveling ; 
its great fault is straggling bunches ; hardy. Here is a grape that originated here in 
Hamilton, supposed to be a very early grape, and a seedling, but judging from the leaf I 
am strongly inclined to think it is one of the black Rogers that has got astray, and it 
is too late in ripening. Roger's 32, much like many of the black Rogers, their character- 
istics are much the same. A very small sample of Roger's 43 ; it is not as profitable a 
crop as 4 or 44. Miriam is a sort of wine grape, very sour, a great deal of coloring 
matter in it. Any person who wants to cover any fence or building with a vine can 
plant nothing nicer ; the foliage is a very fine, golden hue the early part of the season, 
and it will grow any distance, and is very hardy. The old Isabella ; you all know that 
its great fault is overloading and taking one year to rest. 

Dr. Beadle. — Do you find it a profitable market grape 1 

Mr. Pettit. — I have, yes, although without it is carefully watched it will over- 
load, and takes a year to recover. Munro I would not recommend. Roger's 4, one of 
the best black Rogers for vineyard cultivation. Worden, a very fine flavored grape, 
productive and hardy ; should take the place the Concord does in everything but ship- 
ping ; it is a little too tender. 

The Secretary. — How much before the Concord with you in ripening'? 

Mr. Pettit. — Five or six days. 

A Member. — How does it ripen with you compared with Moore's Early 1 

Mr. Pettit. — It does not color and bloom quite as early ; at the same date it will 
be as sweet. 

Mr. Morden. — I noticed Mr. Beall placed it before Moore's Early in ripening. 

Mr. Beall. — The coloring of Moore's Early commenced much earlier. 

Mr. Pettit. — Roger's 34 is much the same as many of the black Rogers ; they are 
all very high growers, and somewhat liable to mildew. Here is August Giant ; it does 
not ripen in August. It is a very jlarge^grape, pretty good in quality ; I think would 
be a poor shipper ; tender. 

A Member. — Is that the old Ontario that was shown years ago? 

Mr. Pettit. — I could not tell you ; I don't think it is. Eumelan, pretty early, good 
quality. The old Concord, you all know it. Dracut Amber is in reds what the Champion 
is in olacks — the first and the poorest. Here is the Champion. Brighton is a fine red 
grape if taken just when it is ripe ; if allowed to hang too long it loses its sprightliness. 

Dr. Beadle. — What about its value for market? 

Mr. Pettit. — I think Roger's No. 9 and 55 fill the place better. Diana, an old 
grape that you all know, and for packing away for winter use retains its sprightly flavor 
better than any other grape ; keeps well. 



i 



165 



Mr. Morden. — What about the Vergennes ? 

Mr. Pettit. — I have not had much experience of that, but I think it would keep 
ill winter : it is very tough in the skin. Senasqua I would not recommend. Roger's 19 
s a good black grape. I think I have now mentioned most of those that are worthy of 
nention, and trust you will excuse my very poor way of introducing this matter ; and 
my of you who would like to see, or taste or take any samples, do so. 

The President. — Do you think there is any danger of overstocking the market 1 
What market do you get now for the grape crop 1 

Mr. Pettit. — Well, the markets of the world now have been pretty well overstocked. 
Montreal is our great outlet, and Toronto ; and there is no question that they have had 
;oo many grapes this year rushed in ; with a good peach and plum crop the market has 
)een glutted. 

The President. — Have you tried any other markets 1 

Mr. Pettit. — There have been some shipped to the North-west ; but express rates 
ire so high that it injures the business in that way, and it will take too long to get 
)hem through by freight. 

A Member. — Did you ever ship any to Buffalo or New York 1 

Mr. Pettit. — They are lower there than here. Chicago has been much lower than 
lere. 

A Member. — Do you think grapes are below a paying profit 1 

Mr. Pettit. — No, I don't think that grape-growing is overdone any more than any 
>ther line of farming. I think perhaps at present prices, this season's prices even, there 
s as much money in growing grapes as in any other line of farming. 

A Member. — Have you any idea how many grapes are out in Canada 1 

Mr. Pettit. — I have not. 

Rev. Mr. Murray. — Could Mr, Pettit suggest half a dozen varieties for good winter 
ceeping ? 

Mr. Pettit. — Diana, Isabella, Salem, Roger's 9, I think Yergennes, but then that is 
lot generally cultivated ; the 15 will keep equally well, although you are getting 
»hree red Rogers — not much of a variety. The Niagara, if carefully handled, will keep 
>n through January. The great trouble in keeping the Niagara for market is in shipping 
t; if not carefully handled it is liable to tear loose. Then it discolors, and after it 
(tands a little longer becomes mildewed, and that affects the grape next to it ; but if 
ihey could be handled carefully and not knocked loose in this way, it will keep a long 
ime. 

Dr. Beadle. — What are the keeping qualities of the Clinton 1 

Mr. Pettit. — I never tried it. I think, though, it would keep well. I have seen 
ihem hanging on the branches nearly all winter. 



PRESERVING GRAPES FOR WINTER. 

Mr. Morden. — This last question suggests a very important one that it is not too 
ate to discuss for the benefit of the grape interest this year, — How to preserve grapes 
'or the winter. I think there are one or two gentlemen that could give this information. 
There are a great many grapes in the country, and fruit will be scarce in a few weeks, 
f these can be preserved for a few weeks it will be to our advantage. It is to be 
•egretted that not much has appeared in print of late on the point. 

The President. — We would like very much to hear from one that has had some 
jxperience on this point. Mr. Pettit, I think probably you can give us information on 
that point. 

Mr. Pettit. — I may just say that Mr. Cline and myself, and I think some other 
;rowers, last year, owing to the prices being dull late in the season, stored away quite 
. quantity of Niagaras — just put them away in the baskets. I put away ten ton.. 



166 



Those grapes kept in the baskets until along in December, and we found at that tim( 
that the market for grapes was over, the demand was so light that you could not i 
any quantity. One consignment that I sent to Toronto was in the commission hous* 
several weeks, and I wrote to know if they had sold them ; they said they were still 01 
hand, and I asked them to express them back to me ; I thought they would be worth th( 
charges back to use at home, but they had been handled pretty rough and were not 
worth much. Mr. Cline's experience was far worse than mine in setting them by for a 
later market ; but if carefully packed and set in a cool place in baskets, the Niagara 
will keep on until the holidays in very good shape. The year before last they kept h 
prime condition. Last year, from some cause — I don't know what — they did not keej 
as well. 

Mr. John Osborn, (Beamsville). — Quite a number of years ago — in the early dayg 
of the Fruit Growers' Society, I thought I would try an experiment with some Isabellas, 
and I took a couple of cheese boxes — that was all the extent of my experiment, — aj 
couple of those round cheese boxes, — I put them layer after layer, merely putting some 
leaves between the layers, and then I dug deep holes in the earth in a dry knoll, and I 
buried them in the earth. I kept them there until the Fruit Growers' meeting, which 
was held in February, in Hamilton, and I took some bunches of them to the Fruit 
Growers' Society, and showed them, and they were really in a remarkable state of 
preservation ; they were pronounced to have been very well kept ; they were firm and 
solid and in a very good state in the month of February ; and that was the way I kept 
them. I have done nothing in the way of experimenting since. 

Mr. A. M. Smith. — Some of you who were in Collingwood last June will remember 
that I exhibited some specimens of Salem grapes in a very good state of preservation. 
They were kept by Mr. Kerman. Perhaps he can tell you how he preserved them. 

Mr. Booker. — Our system of packing grapes and sending to market is not a very 
good one. In the United States, where the grapes are handled by the hundreds of 
thousands of pounds, they are gathered in boxes or trays in the fields ; those trays are 
then removed to the packing house ; they are then thrown on broad tables and allowed 
to remain there three or four days until the wood is ripened ; then the grapes are packed 
in baskets and sent to market. In this way they will keep much longer and carry in' 
better condition. At the same time all unripe grapes, musty grapes, etc., are picked out, 
and the kinds assorted. Thus they go to market in good condition and make a line' 
appearance. Now, we in Canada gather them right off the vines and pack them up and 
send them to market and expect them to keep. It is utterly wrong. Some ten or* 
twelve years ago a gentleman, who had a friend in Scotland, wanted us to try the 
experiment of sending some grapes there. I took some baskets — twenty -pound baskets 
— of Isabella and kept them in a dry place for about five days, then packed them up 
and sent them to Glasgow, and they went in very good condition, and the returns were 
very satisfactory indeed. We never repeated the experiment ; but no doubt Isabella 
and some other varieties could be shipped — if properly handled ; but picking them right 
from the field and sending them away, as we do, to Montreal and other places, no 
wonder we hear of their arriving in bad condition. We must change our system of 
handling grapes. 

Mr. Kerman. — Mine is a very old system — one that was practiced before I came to 
Canada. I take the grapes on a sunny day when they are perfectly dry, and seal the 
stems, and I have hitherto put them down in a candy box, but if I was to put them in a large 
quantity I would put them in ten-gallon kegs Dip the ends in sealing wax ; get some 
dry sawdust ; put some of the sawdust at the bottom ; put a layer of grapes on ; cover 
them with sawdust ; then take the box and shake them till the sawdust has settled in 
between the grapes, and put a little more on, and then another layer of grapes, and so 
build it up. Then I take some glue, and glue some strong brown paper right around the 
box so as to make it perfectlv air-tight ; and I hang it up in the cellar and let it remain 
till I want them. I have tried that for four years. There are some gentlemen here 
who have seen my grapes in July, and they were equally as good as they were the day 
1 took them off the vines. But I have only tried the Salem grape in that way. [ have 



167 



tried the Vergennes, and I put them in very small boxes, but they were not well pre- 
served. I believe if the Vergennes had been put in the same as the others they would 
have kept equally long. When you take your grapes out of the sawdust you can take a 
little woollen wisp, or anything that you have to clean your piano with, and just dust 
them off. You cannot do that with the Dianas, although they are a good grape to keep, 
because when you take them out they will be full of sawdust, and you can't get it out ; 
for if you attempt to get the sawdust out you will knock all your grapes off. I have 
tried the Amber Queen, the Delaware, the Catawba, the Vergennes and the Salem ; 
but I find there is no grape that is equal to the Vergennes for keeping. They are very 
fast on the stem ; you can take and shake them in July and scarcely shake them off. 
But as for the Pocklington or the Niagara, I don't think that they would do on my plan. 
As Mr. Pettit said, many people put them in baskets and hang them up ; but the reason 
they don't keep well is, they don't hide the cellar key. If they would only lock them 
up and hold the cellar key they would keep them a good deal longer. 

Mr. Morden. — You can hang them in my cellar as much as you wish. 

Dr. Beadle. — Do you use pine sawdust 1 ? 

Mr. Kerman. — No sir, I use all hardwood sawdust, if I can get it. The pine sawdust 
is apt to give them a taste of the pine, and you can't get the pine sawdust to dry. The 
finer you can get your sawdust the better. 

A Member. — It is more like wood dust that you use — filings ; it is finer than 
ordinary sawdust % 

Mr. Kerman. — Yes. 

Mr. Orr. — I think our past experience shows that it is no use to try to pack grapes 
for market purposes, for every family can put down a few baskets for themselves. We 
think this so important that the Stony Creek Grape Growers' Club issued 50,000 circu- 
lars last year, — sent them to all parts of the Province with the baskets of the fruit ; and 
we have done the same thing this year, and in that circular are recipes for putting down 
grapes and packing them away for family use. We have sent 50,000 this year, adver- 
tising at considerable expense for ourselves and the rest of the growers over Ontario. 

A Member. — Is the Niagara grape sufficiently hardy north of Hamilton to stand 
the winter 1 

The President. — Oh yes ; we have found the Niagara grape hardy all through the 
west. We grow it at Goderich, and up to the north of that. Along the lake there, any 
of these varieties are sufficiently hardy. The Niagara is there a high grower and a heavy 
bearer, as it is here. We never lay them down, although I believe in these colder regions 
it pays to lay them down. I have made several tests on that from time to time, and my 
experience is this : You take several vines, lay one vine down, and just opposite it lead 
the other one up on the trellis, and you will find the one that is laid down, covered over 
with soil, the best every time. I believe the one that is laid down in winter will bud 
very much earlier in spring when raised up, and as a result will blossom earlier and ripen 
its fruit earlier. I think it makes a decided difference. It may not make the same differ- 
ence in all sections, but T think in the colder sections you will find it makes a most decided 
difference. 



SHIPPING FACILITIES FOR THE TRADE. 

The President. — While speaking of the grape, I agree with one gentleman that made 
the remark that he had tried a shipment to Scotland. Now from my experience last year 
I have made up my mind that there is a splendid opening for our grapes in Scotland. If 
I were introducing the trade in the old country, in Britain, I would begin at Glasgow ; I 
would work them in through Scotland first. You must educate the people up to eating 
our grapes. Those British people require education in eating fruit of all kinds. (Hear, 
hear.) They don't know how to eat apples yet ; they have only commenced. (Laughter.) 
It is a very few years ago that they knew what an apple was almost ; they did not know 
what a good eating apple was ; their idea was only for cooking. They are only beginning 



168 



to eat apples, and they are beginning in downright earnest now. I consider that our 
,»™ ! Wlt \ that count y is merel y in «■ infancy j the trade is going to be something enor- 
mous in a tew years, because they are very fond of good things in that old country. They 
are some time making up their minds to go into anything; but when they go in they do 
it m British downright earnest. I believe there is destined to be a good market for our 
grapes, ihe question is to be looked into as to the method of shipping ; to see if there is 
any way at all— through the Government or in any other way— of tying down those 
omciaJs on the railways and steamship companies, compelling them to handle our pack- 
ages in better shape, and not to fling and toss them about the way they do. I observed 
they always seemed to handle any article that has a handle to it— anything in the shape 
ot a basket— much better than they will anything like a square box or a round parcel 
tnat has no particular hold to take up with the hand ; but those packages of that descrip- 
tion, they certainly fling them about in any and every shape ; and our grapes that we 
snipped to the Colonial Exhibition certainly sustained more damage just by the bad 
Handling than any other way. T am satisfied they can all be shipped, or the most of our 
varieties can be shipped, thoroughly well to the old country ; they can be shipped in 
splendid order there if they handle them in a half christian-like way. Another point I was 
satisfied ot over there was this, that only for the wisdom— if it can be called wisdom— of 
our legislators m framing the Scott Act and practically shutting off the manufacture of 
wine trom the grape, as well as cider from the apple, that a number of manufacturers 
irom that country would be perfectly willing to come to this country and go into the 
manufacture of wine from our grapes on a large scale. They enquired there regarding 
our laws particularly. At the Colonial Exhibition we had a number of enquiries on that 
very question from parties there— manufacturers who got some of our grapes— in fact 
they were refuse grapes that were unfit for the table that were handed over to them ; and 
they made some tests with them, and at the same time made some tests with some refuse 
apples we had. I did not hear at the time we came away— although they promised to 
give us the test on the grapes— I did not hear what the result of the test on the grapes 
was. 1 saw some gentlemen at the time, and they said they had great hopes of the test ; 
they thought they would be able to make a very fine quality of wine. The result from 
the apples they did give me, and the statement was this, that taking the juice of our 
apples and adding twenty per cent, of water, they had a better article to make cider out 
or than the pure juice of their own home-grown apples. So much for the cider and the 
juice ot our apples. I believe the grape-growers ought to pursue this question of a market 
tor our grapes, and it is time to pursue it now. I believe it would pay to follow up that 
British market, and begin at Glasgow. There was a gentleman at the meeting at Col- 
Imgwood that spoke there about our grapes, and he is a broker in Glasgow, a very res- 
ponsible man, I think, from all I have seen or known of him for the last two years, and 
K r° U ir a t0 handle our S ra P es t0 a sma11 extent. Of course it is a trade that must 
be handled carefully, because people must acquire that taste for our grapes first. Those 
who do eat grapes there are accustomed only to hot-house grapes or the poor white Spanish 
grape, which is a very poor affair compared with many of our varieties ; and I think 
there will be no difiiculty in introducing our grapes if gone about in the right way and 
gone about carefully. I think it is going to be one of the most important markets that 
we can ship to. 

Mr. Orr.— What can the Spanish grape be laid down there for"? 

The President.— They sell them for about tenpence a pound — sixpence to tenpence 
a pound. They come there sometimes damaged greatly. Well, you know, we could lay 
our grapes m there much lower than that. 

A. H. Pettit.— I think you will find no one in this room who will undertake the 
shipment of Niagara grapes to the old country j but I think the suggestion you threw out 
last night could be acted upon, in reference to transportation. It is very difficult for 
shippers to deal with those large transportation companies, and if the case were properly 
handled there would be any quantity of grapes sent forward this year j and it is not too 
late to do it yet. Now I would suggest that the only body in this country who can 
successfully do it should do it— the representatives of the fruit-growers of Ontario ; and 



169 



'. would move that the President, Vice-President, Mr. Dempsey and the Secretary be a 
lommittee to correspond and confer with the steamship companies, or take such steps as 
nay be necessary, in referrence to getting facilities for the shipment of our grapes to the 
d country. Shipments that have baen tried by our shippers are very discouraging, and 
; long as they turn out discouragingly the shippers of this country must be content to 
ike a large discount on their apples. It is simply that they are cooked on board ship — 
laced in hot storage, or something of that kind. I think the matter of the fruit trade 
: this country has got now to be of such importance that if ever we are to get accom- 
jodaton from the steamship companies it ought to be now. 

Mr. Morden seconded the motion, authorizing the committee to speak for the whole 
t the fruit-growers of Ontario, which was put and carried unanimously. 

The President. — For my own part I will have no objection at all. In fact for 
bme years 'past I have had a good deal of such business with these companies, and I 
ow take what some people might call a fiendish delight in pitching into them. 
Laughter.) They require it ; they certainly do. They speak well to us; they receive 
s very nicely indeed, and they promise everything that can be promised from any one ; 
•ut my experience has been that there has been very little good done by it so far. 
lowever, we can make another trial, and the only thing is to keep continually at them ; 
nd I have found a good way of working, it is this, — to go to one steamship company 
,nd say, " Now, we are going to try you, but we are going to try these other companies, 
oo ' ; and when we go to a Canadian company and say, " We are going to try you, but we 
lon't like the way you handle goods ; we are compelled now to ship by New York, and 
ve are going to try that and let you loose altogether." This gets them down on their 
cnees, I find, and they want to hold the trade, and they promise then ; and I believe 
hey handle a good deal better when we pit the one against the other. There is becoming 
ow a very strong competition for our freight trade ; the American lines are bidding very 
trongly against the Canadian lines ; and I think there is more chance of getting some- 
hing from them in that way than we have had for years past. 

Dr. Beadle. — I was going to ask in what order those Spanish grapes usually arrive ; 
hey are packed in cork saw-dust % 

The President. — Yes ; you would open up a little cask, and the grapes would be 
uite decayed and broken up. There was a good deal of loss one way or the other in 
very package opened. 

Mr. Osborn. — How were the goods packed that were sent to the Exhibition 1 

The President. — In several ways ; two or three bunches in a berry box, and those 
>oxes contained in a case with some. paper in them. I don't think we had any in saw- 
.ust ; had we, Mr. Dempsey 1 

Mr. Dempsey. — No. 

Mr. Osborn. — How would you recommend packing for shipment ? 

The President. — That is something that has to be experimented upon. I would 
lardly give an opinion on it yet. We should try the saw-dust ; but I believe in trying 
he saw-dust our grapes would have to be cut and kept for some time until the wood and 
.he stems thoroughly ripened and dried up, and then we should see that nothing was 
jacked there but perfect berries. 

Mr. Osborn. — Something has been said about educating the British taste to the 
mating of grapes. It is quite correct that their taste is not educated yet as to the eating 
>f apples. I have letters from dealers, and the only thing they ask for is red apples. 
They say, "nice showy red apples," — that is all the length of their education ; they don't 
.sk for our fine varieties. 

Mr. Kerman. — You should take into consideration not only packing but unpacking 
'.gain. You will find there will be more grapes broken in the unpacking than in the 
ransport, unless they are packed in such form that you could take them out without 
taving to break them off the stem. 

Mr. Orr. — Last year Mr. Smith, emigration agent in Hamilton, got three baskets 
f Niagaras from me. They were packed in ten-pound packages, with tissue paper. One 
each was sent to emigration agents in England, Ireland and Scotland, and he got reports 
from them that they all arrived there in first-rate condition. 



170 



^Mr. Dempsey. — I had in my charge a few baskets of grapes when I went across 
that were packed in baskets, probably fifteen pounds to the basket. Every one of those 
baskets arrived in perfect order. They arrived just as nice as some of your grapes I saw 
when I arrived in Toronto. With respect to your Spanish grapes, I saw in Glasgow sold 
some hundreds of barrels of them, and they were sold for less than our apples were 
bringing ; they were sold at auction. I fancy that those Spanish grapes can be laid down 
in England for less money than our grapes ; but our grapes, to my taste, are much 
superior to those. Then there seems to be no difficulty in shipping them any distance, 
that is, the Spanish grapes ; you are all aware what they are and how they will stand 
shipment. I think some of them, as I saw them there, could be almost counted as safe 
to walk over and not crush them. (Laughter.) They were very fim and solid — almost unfit 
to eat. I bought them in London one day ; I bought a bunch, particularly I remember, 
for threepence, that weighed a pound and a half ; so that they are sold from some fruit 
stands in London very cheap indeed. They were not these white grapes such as we see 
generally of the Spanish grapes, but they were a pink color, much superior to the white. 
I have seen there some of those grapes peddled or hawked — they call it there — around 
the streets by boys, in baskets. I have seen .them sold for threepence a bunch, fourpence 
a bunch, and so on. Those bunches all go over a pound, or fully a pound. I am a little 
suspicious about our grape shipments ever being satisfactory, to England ; notwithstand- 
ing, I am satisfied that we can lay them down in Glasgow nearly as perfect, if we can 
obtain cold storage, as we convey them here ; but we must have a basket with a handle 
to it. They will always pick them up with a handle ; but if they are in a box, I don't 
care what you mark on the box, or if you stand right by and say, "There is precious fruit 
there I don't want destroyed," they are just as sure to drop it upside down when they 
set it down after carrying it on board ship, or off ship, or anywhere else — just as sure to 
drop it upside down as they have it in their hand. That seems to be their nature. 
(Laughter.) I don't know where they get it from. 

Mr. Morden. — The question I wished to start was this, is there not some method of 
keeping grapes till Christmas without the sawdust. It seems to me it can be done after 
weather-curing for some days, that they might be packed, perhaps, in leaves — in dry, 
autumn leaves, surrounded with paper — or in a paper bag, and perhaps that paper bag 
within a basket, and the basket hung in a cool, airy place, and when cold in the fruit 
house a little stove could be used ; and those grapes, put upon our own Christmas market, 
would prove profitable. It seems to me that this is a little problem that could be solved, 
and that the grapes could be preserved from now until Christmas, cheaply, without the 
use of sawdust. I have seen a neighbour of mine shipping grapes at Christmas. I am 
not aware of his methods, but I think he did not adopt the sawdust plan. I predict wei 
will see a good deal of fruit shipping at Christmas within a few years. I think it can be 
done, but I have no experience. 

A Member. — Can you find a market ? 

Mr. Morden. — I should say so. 

The President. — As we have only a few minutes to spare we must close the discus- 
sion. The Secretary has a couple of questions here and will read them. 



THE PEACH-BORER. 



Q. — When is the best time to hunt the peach-borer, and how many times a year ? 
How old is the tree before the borer ceases to molest it 1 Also, is it injurious to a peach 
orchard to plough it the latter part of this month (September) or the first of next 1 

The President. — I think the Secretary can answer that. 

The Secretary. — I can give my own practice with regard to this peach-borer. The 
worm develops into a moth during the summer months, in June, July, and August ; and, 
in order to prevent his escape and his doing mischief to other trees, it is necessary that 
he should be destroyed early in the season ; and, therefore, I usually go over my peach 
trees in May or early in June to take them out and destroy them, and then I have them 



171 



banked up — a bank of earth up a little above the collar of the tree, because the moth 
deposits its eggs just at the neck there, as it were, between the trunk and the root, and 
the borer works down into the root ; and, by a little mound of fine earth around the 
tree, I find the work of this enemy is quite avoided, and the tree is protected against this 
borer. I never found a tree old enough yet to withstand his attacks. As to the culti- 
vation of the peach orchard, I think it is not best to cultivate too late in the season, 
because it is best to get maturity of growth before the winter season ; but, perhaps, 
after the growth of the season is completed, and the leaves have fallen, it would be 
safe enough. 



WINTER INJURY TO RED RASPBERRIES. 

Q. — Can any gentleman explain the injury to red and hybrid raspberries last winter, 
although peaches, quinces, grapes, and blackberries came through safely ? 

Mr. Hilborn. — I don't think I can answer that question. I think that was asked 
by Mr. Morden. He was talking to me yesterday about it, and it is a mystery to me ; I 
don't understand it. I would like to hear some one speak on the question who does 
understand it. In my experience, I found that where they were killed as he spoke of 
that they are killed by winter-killing, and I have never found the Shaffers to be injured 
where the Cuthbert would stand. 

Mr. Morden. — This injury to the red raspberries extended through the United States 
to some extent, and extended through this country to some extent. It probably 
was more special where there was a mistake in the pruning, that is, where they 
were clipped off at this season and there was a later growth ; but, even admitting 
that, it is rather strange, it was exceptional. I never lost points before, nor have I 
known it ; but during the past winter the Cuthberts were badly injured. I think 
it very remarkable that the blackberry should go through unharmed to the very tip — a 
thing they very seldom do, even with us — and that the red raspberry should perish 
almost by wholesale. Mine perished altogether almost, so that I ploughed them up. 
Where such was the case the old wood was trimmed out, and they were fall pruned. I 
think we can avoid that by not being over eager. Leave the pruning over till the spring ; 
that is what I shall do this year. 

A Member. — -Were the plants scarred down to the ground, or was it the tips 1 

Mr. Morden. — All the way down ; everything ; some with the tips, however, and 
some clear to the ground — a thing unknown, almost, even where the roots were entirely 
destroyed.- and they suffered the most where the snow banks failed to lodge. I found 
that on the west side of the patch where there were snow banks, they came through 
safely. 

A Member. — I would sometimes find that raspberry canes were 'injured in a mild 
winter by the sudden changes in the weather from hot to cold, and would generally notice 
that on the side of the branch towards the sun they would be injured the most. The 
north side of a raspberry cane might be quite green, while the side exposed to the sun 
would be killed entirely. 

Mr. Morden. — I suspect that this was done in April. 



REPORT OF THE FRUIT COMMITTEE 

The President. — There is a report from the Fruit Committee ; and I think, as there 
would be no time to hear it, — it is a description of the fruits on the table, — will the meet- 
ing consider the report as read 1 

The report of the committee is as follows : 

Mr. Allen Moyer, Jordan, exhibits a seedling grape of good quality, although past 
ics time of ripening ; also a seedling peach of fine appearance and quality, good. 

Mr. Dennis Vanduzer exhibits the Centennial peach, Orange quince, and Beurre 
Clairgeau pear, all fine specimens. 



172 



Mr. J. H. Biggar, of Winona, some fine specimens of Niagara grapes. 

B. R. Nelles exhibits six varieties of grapes ; very fine. 

A. H. Pettit, several varieties of apples, pears and grapes. 

Mr. J. Armstrong, some fine samples of Northern Spy, Holland Pippin, Roxbury 
Russet, and E. I. Greening. 

Mr. E. J. Woolverton, Goodale, Keiffer, Pres't Druard, Belle De Beaufort, Vicar 
Beurre Clairgeau, and Duchesse D'Angouleme pears, all very good specimens ; also Diana 
Rogers 44, 15 and 4, Ann Arbor, Delaware, Moore's Early, Worden, Perkins, Pock- 
lirigton and Brighton. 

Mr. P. E. Bucke, of Ottawa, exhibits three bunches of a new grape, the Northern 
Light, originating in the Ottawa Valley, of fair quality. 

Mr. Linus Woolverton exhibits quite a number of seedling apples, No, 1 to No. 9, of 
beautiful appearance, and some of good quality ; also some fine samples of his seedling, 
the Princess Louise or Woolverton apple. 

Mr. P. C. Dempsey, of Albury, shows some fine pears, grown by him from imported 
stock ; one variety to all appearance resembling the Bartlett, yet later in ripening and of 
excellent quality, will no doubt create some excitement among fruit growers in the near 
future. 

Dr. Millward exhibits Winter Nelis and another pear without name. 

Mr. I. F. Calder shows Flemish Beauty, Duchesse D'Angouleme, Sheldon, Kingsessing 
and Bartlett Pears ; also JEsopus Spitzenberg, R. I. Greening, Seek, Talman Sweet, 
Snow, and Gloria Mundi apples, all fine specimens. 

Mr. W. D. Kitchen exhibits one branch of a Niagara vine, with one hundred fine 
bunches, an immense crop. 

Mr. S. A. Nelles exhibits a small branch, upon which were twenty-eight nice speci- 
mens of Lady apple. 

Mr. D. Kerman, some canned plums, very beautiful in appearance ; also some good 
specimens of Catawba, Woodruff Red, and Delaware grapes and Sheldon pears. 

Messrs. Smith and Kerman exhibit Smith's extra late and Centennial peach ; also 
the Princess Louise or Woolverton apple, very fine specimens. 

Mr. F. G. H. Pattison exhibits four varieties of apples, fine samples. 

Mr. Thomas Beall, of Lindsay, three varieties of grapes, Niagara, Burnet, and 
Agawam, very fine, and also Catawba grapes and Grimes Golden apple, grown by D. Lack, 
of Lindsay. 

Mr. M. Pettit, of Winona, exhibits sixty-six varieties of grapes, some of superior 
excellence, all grown on his experimental grounds, a full report of which may be found 
in the proceedings. 

Mr. J. R. Pettit exhibits Concord and Rogers 15, very good samples. 

Mr. A. G. Muir shows Brighton and Niagara, fine specimens. 

Mr. C. S. Nelles, some beautiful bunches of Niagara grapes. 

Professor Brown, of the Agricultural College, Guelph, shows some forty odd varieties 
of grapes grown upon the experimental grounds, which attracted much attention, and 
many varieties were of excellent quality. 

Mr. John D. Roberts, of Cobourg, shows a fine collection of foreign varieties of apples, 
grown at Cobourg from imported stock. Among them are fine samples of the following 
varieties, viz., Lord Sufneld, Cellini, Cox's Pomona, Cox's Orange Pippin, Margil, Lady 
Henniker, Small's Admirable, Reinette Superfine, Tower of Glammis, Hawthorden New, 
Bedfordshire Foundling, Worcester Pearmain, Peter Smith and Nonnetil. 

To sum up, your committee can only repeat again that the specimens placed upon the 
tables were very numerous indeed, and of very fine qnality throughout ; and to attempt 
to give a fuller report upon the various exhibits, would require very much more time than 
your committee were allowed. 

A. H. Pettit, ) 
P. C. Dempsey, > Fruit Committee. 
D. Kerman, ) 
Grimsby, 28th Sept., 1887. 



173 



A Member. — What about the next meeting ? 

The President. — That is left with the Executive Committee, and will be decided on 
shortly. We can't tell where the next meeting will be. It will hardly be held in Grimsby 
so soon after this meeting ; but you may rest assured a meeting will be held in Grimsby 
before long. We have taken a fancy to the Grimsby Park, and we want to have a mass 
meeting of the fruit-growers. I think it would be a fine thing to get a mass mesting of 
>the fruit-growers to assemble together at the Park. I think it would be a grand place 
to discuss all the matters connected with our Association. Again we bid you farewell. 
We shall long remember you and your attendance here. I am of the opinion that 
this has been one of the best meetings we have had in the history of our Association. 
(Applause.) 



174 



TREASURER'S REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1886-7. 



RECEIPTS. 



Balance on hand at last audit 

Members' fees 

Advertisements 

Government grant 

Sale of fruits shown at Colonial Exhi- 
bition 

Back numbers and bound volumes Hor- 
ticulturist 

Trial trip 

Surplus lithographs 



Total receipts 



9 c. 

740 00 

1,880 75 

82 88 

1,800 00 

67 16 

20 90 

13 50 

7 00 



4,612 19 



EXPENDITURE. 



Estate of D. W. Beadle 

per Copp, Clark 
& Co 

Canadian Horticulturist 

Audit 1886 

Stenographer 

Officers' expenses 

Freight, express and duty 

Postage and telegrams 

Plant distribution 

Printing and stationery 

Chromo lithographs 

Wrappers, etc 

Illustrations 

Commissions 

Caretaker, Winter Meeting 

Discounts and collections 

Small items 

Salary Secretary-Treasurer and Editor 

Clerical assistance 

Balance on hand 



$ c. 


729 47 


394 03 


1,114 07 


20 00 


137 50 


301 81 


125 08 


76 57 


268 18 


60 75 


202 63 


8 25 


12 75 


123 90 


2 00 


20 13 


5 63 


500 00 


10 00 


499 44 



4,612 16 



1, the undersigned Auditor, have duly examined the accounts of the Treasurer of 
the Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario, and certify them to be correct, showing a 
balance of $499.44 in the bank to the credit of the Association. 



CHARLES DRURY, 

Auditor. 



Toronto, September 25th, 1887. 



175 



APPENDIX. 



I.— REPORT ON CANADIAN FRUITS EXHIBITED AT THE COLONIAL AND INDIAN 

EXHIBITION, OCTOBER 20th, 1886. 

A special meeting of members of the Fruit Committee of the Royal Horticultural Society was held this 
day in the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, F. F. Rivers, Esq., in the chair, to inspect the collection of 
hardy fruits exhibited by the Canadian Commission. 

These comprised extensive collections of apples, pears, grapes, etc. , from the Provinces of Ontario, 
Columbia, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, etc. 

Apples constituted the most prominent and important feature, and proved of much interest to the 
committee, many of the examples shown being of large size and extremely handsome in appearance — the 
high coloration of many being specially remarkable and noteworthy— greatly excelling in this respect the 
same varieties grown in this country. 

The following varieties of apples were specially noted as possessing fine appearance, viz : — Beauty of 
Kent, Blenheim Orange, Ben Davis, Boston Russet, Blue Pearmain, (good) Bourassa Russet, (Scarlet Rus- 
set), Baldwin, large, good, Cayuga Red Streak, Colvert, Canada Red, Clyde Beauty, large, Emperor 
Alexander, extremely handsome, Fillbasket, Falla water, Flushing Spitzenburg, Foundling, excellent quality, 
handsome, Guile Noire, dark, Gravenstein, good, Gloria Mundi, very large, Hamilton's Beauty, Hawker 
Pippin, Hyslop Crabs, very beautiful, Jonathan, small, bright, good late, Johnston Red, small, King of 
Tomkins County, very large and beautiful, King of the Pippins, Mann, late green, Maiden's Blush, very 
handsome, Mammoth Pippin, Northern Spy, Ribston Pippin, Republican, Snow or Fameuse, excellent, St. 
Lawrence, Seek no Further, Swazie Pomme Grise, Trenton, very handsome and good, Twenty Ounce, 
Vandevere, peculiarly spotted, Wealthy, fine quality, good color, Wagener, Wellington, Yellow Bellefleur, 
fine quality. 

Cox's Orange Pippin was remarked as being greatly inferior to those of English growth, both in appear- 
ance and quality. 

The collection of pears did not present such an attractive appearance, some very fine samples were, 
however, shown of the following varieties : Beurre Clairgeau, Bem-re" Hardy, Beurre d'Anjou, Duchesse 
d'Angouleme, Flemish Beauty, Louise Bonne of Jersey, Marie Louise, Mount Vernon, Onondaga, Vicar of 
Winkfield, White Doyenne (extremely rich. ) 

Grapes made a conspicuous display, but of these, as dessert fruit, no opinion could be expressed — the 
peculiar foxy taste and gelatinous flesh belonging to the grapes of America requiring some experience to 
discriminate. Some of Rogers' new seedlings were remarked as both large and handsome. 

The following new seedling fruits, submitted to the committee, were considered worthy : 

(1) Apple — Trenton Seedling from Golden Russet,' raised by Mr. P. C. Dempsey, Ontario. Fruit 
medium size, sound, bright red ; flesh tender, sweet, and extremely pleasant, somewhat resembles the Snow 
Apple. 

(2) Apple Seedling from Mr. C. G. Fitzgerald, London, Ontario. Fruit medium size, highly colored ; 
fine, tender flesh. 

(3) Apple Seedling from Mr. W. Scott, Lambeth, Ontario, greatly resemble " Duchess of Oldenburg." 

(4) Seedling Pear (Dempsey) raised by Mr. Dempsey, Trenton, Ontario, from William Bon Chretien 
and Duchess d'Angouleme. Fruit large, resembling Duchess d'Angouleme ; flesh melting, sweet and plea- 
sant. 

(5) Seedling Grape Emerald, from Prof. Wm. Saunders, London, Ontario, was considered the best of the 
Canadian sorts exhibited. 

The following resolution was unanimously passed by the committee : 

" Having inspected the extensive and attractive exhibition of hardy fruits comprising apples, pears, 
grapes, etc., from the several fruit growing provinces of the Dominion of Canada, the committee desire to 
express the great gratification they derived from the opportunity of seeing the fine growth and high color 
of the majority of the specimens. Many varieties were tasted and found excellent, more especially the 
tender fleshed apples. 

" In comparing some well known varieties that have long been in cultivation in Great Britain, the 
Canadian apples are found to differ in that rich flavour which is peculiar to some of the British apples. 

" The committee are aware that some samples of fruit were gathered before maturity in order to be 
presented at this Exhibition. " 

(Signed) A. T. BARROW, 

Secretary to the Fruit Committee of the Royal Horticultural Society. 



176 



II.— STATUTORY PROVISIONS. 

It is provided by the Agriculture and Arts Act, 49 Victoria, chap. 11 (1886), that the Fruit Growers' 
Association shall be a body corporate, comprising not less than fifty members, each paying an annual 
subscription fee of not less than $1 ; that it shall hold an annual meeting at such time and place as may be 
determined upon ; that the retiring officers shall at such meeting present a full report of their proceedings, 
and of the proceedings of the Association, and a detailed statement of its receipts and expenditure for the 
previous year duly audited by the Auditors ; that the Association shall at such meeting elect a President, 
a Vice-President, and one Director from each of the Agricultural Divisions of the Province (mentioned in 
Schedule A following), and the officers and directors so elected shall appoint from amongst themselves, or 
otherwise, a Secretary and a Treasurer, or a Secretary-Treasurer ; and that the Association shall also elect 
two Auditors. 

Vacancies occurring through death, resignation, orotherwise in the directorate of the Fruit Growers' 
Association, shall be filled by the Board of Directors. 

The officers shall have full power to act for and on behalf of the Association, and all grants of money 
and other funds of the Association shall be received and expended under their direction, subject nevertheless 
to the by-laws and regulations of the Association. 

A copy of the Annual Report of its proceedings, a statement of receipts and expenditure, a list of 
the officers elected, and also such general information on matters of special interest as the Association have 
been able to obtain, shall be sent to the Commissioner of Agriculture within forty days after the holding: of 
such annual meeting. 



III.— Schedule A. —Agricultural Divisions. 

1. Stormont, Dundas, Glengarry, Prescott and Cornwall. 

2. Lanark North, Lanark South, Renfrew North, Renfrew South, Carleton, Russell and the City 
of Ottawa. 

3. Frontenac, City of Kingston, Leeds and Grenville North, Leeds South, Grenville South and 
Brockville. 

4. Hastings East, Hastings North, Hastings West, Addington, Lennox and Prince Edward. 

5. Durham East, Durham West, Northumberland East, Northumberland West, Peterborough East, | 
Peterborough West, Victoria North (including Haliburton) and Victoria South. 

6. York East, York North, York West, Ontario North, Ontario South, Peel, Cardwell and City of 
Toronto. 

7. Wellington Centre, Wellington South, Wellington West, Waterloo North, Waterloo South, 
Wentworth North, Wentworth South, Dufferin, Halton and City of Hamilton. 

8. Lincoln, Niagara, Welland, Haldimand and Monck. 

9. Elgin East, Elgin West, Brant North, Brant South, Oxford North, Oxford South, Norfolk North 
and Norfolk South. 

10. Huron East, Huron South, Huron West, Bruce North, Bruce South, Grey East, Grey North and 
Grey South. 

11. Perth North, Perth South, Middlesex East, Middlesex North, Middlesex West and City of 
London. 

12. Essex North, Essex South, Kent East, Kent West, Lambton East and Lambton West. 

13. Algoma East, Algoma West, Simcoe East, Simcoe South, Simcoe West, Muskoka and Parry Sound. 



IV.-CONSTITUTION OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Art. I. — This Association shall be called " The Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario." 

Art. II. — Its objects shall be the advancement of the science and art of fruit culture by holding 
meetings for the Exhibition of fruit and for the discussion of all questions relative to fruit culture, by 
collecting, arranging and disseminating useful information, and by such other means as may from time to 
time seem advisable. 

Art. III. — The annual meeting of the Association shall be held at such time and place as shall be 
designated by the Association. 

Art. IV. — The officers of the Association shall be composed of a President, Vice-President, 
Secretary, or a Secretary-Treasurer, and thirteen Directors. 

Art. V.— Any person may become a member by an annual payment of one dollar, and a payment of 
ten dollars shall constitute a member for life. 

VI. — This Constitution may be amended by a vote of a majority of the members present at any regular 
meeting, notice of the proposed amendments having been given at the previous meeting. 



177 



Art. VII. — The said Officers and Directors shall prepare and present to the annual meeting of the 
Association a report of their proceedings during the year, in which shall be stated the names of all the 
members of the Association, the places of meeting during the year, and such information as the Association 
shall have been able to obtain on the subject of fruit culture in the Province during the year. There shall 
also be presented at the said annual meeting a detailed statement of the receipts and disbursements of 
the Association during the year, which report and statement shall be entered in the journal and signed by 
the President as being a c irrect copy ; and a true copy thereof, certified by the Secretary for the time being, 
shall be sent to the Commissioner of Agriculture within forty days after the holding of such annual meeting . 

Art. VIII. —The Association shall have power to make, alter and amend By-laws for prescribing the 
mode of admission of new members, the election of officers, and otherwise regulating the administration of 
its affairs and property. 



V.— BY-LAWS. 



1. The President, Vice-President and Secretary-Treasurer shall be ex-officio members of all committees. 

2. The directors may offer premiums to any persons originating or introducing any new fruit adapted 
to the climate of the Province which shall possess such distinctive excellence as shall, in their opinion, 
render the same of special value ; also for essays upon such subjects connected with fruit-growing as they 
may designate, under such rules and regulations as they may prescribe. 

3. The Secretary shall prepare an annual report containing the minutes of the proceedings of meetings 
during the year ; a detailed statement of receipts and expenditure ; the reports upon fruits received from 
different localities ; and all essays to which prizes have been awarded, and such other information in regard 
to fruit culture as may have been received during the year, and submit the same to the Directors or any 
Committee of Directors appointed for this purpose, and, with their sanction, after presenting the same at 
the annual meeting, cause the same to be printed by and through the Publication Committee, and send a 
copy thex-eof to each member of the Association and to the Commissioner of Agriculture. 

4. Seven Directors shall constitute a quorum, and if at any meeting of Directors there shall not be a 
quorum, the members present may adjourn the meeting from time to time until a quorum shall be obtained. 

5. The annual subscription shall be due in advance at the annual meeting. 

6. The President (or in case of his disability, the Vice-President) may convene special meetings at 
such times and places as he may deem advisable, and he shall convene such special meetings as shall be 
requested in writing by five members. 

7. The President may deliver an address on some subject relating to the objects of the Association. 

8. The Treasurer shall receive all moneys belonging to the Association, keep a correct account thereof, 
and submit the same to the Directors at any legal meeting of such Directors, five days' notice having been 
previously given for that purpose. 

9. The Directors shall audit and pass all accounts, which, when approved of by the President's 
signature, shall be submitted to and paid by the Treasurer. 

10. It shall be the duty of the Secretary to keep a correct record of the proceedings of the Association, 
conduct the correspondence, give not less than ten days' notice of all meetings to the members, and specify 
the business of special meetings. 

11. The Directors, touching the conduct of the Association, shall at all times have absolute power 
and control of the funds and property of the Association, subject however to the meaning and construction 
of the Constitution. 

12. At special meetings no business shall be transacted except that stated in the Secretary's circular. 

13. The order of business shall be : (1) Reading of the minutes ; (2) Reading of the Directors' Report ; 
(3) Reading of the Treasurer's Report ; (4) Reading of prize essays ; (5) President's Address ; (6) Election 
of officers, and (7) Miscellaneous business. 

14. These By-Laws may be amended at any general meeting by a vote of two-thirds of the members 
present. 

15. Each member of the Fruit Committee shall be charged with the duty of accumulating information 
touching the state of the fruit crop, the introduction of new varieties, the market value of fruits in his 
particular section of the country, together with such other general and useful information touching fruit 
interests as may be desirable, and report in writing to the Secretary of the Association on or before the 
fifteenth day of September in each year. 

The President, Vice-President and Secretary shall be ex-officio members of the Board of Directors 
and of all Committees. The reasonable and necessary expenses of Directors and officers in attending 
meetings of the Board of Directors and of Committees shall be provided from the funds ot the Association. 



12 (F.G.) 



EIGHTEENTH ANNUAL REPOET 



OF THE 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



OF 



ONTARIO. 

1887. 



f rinttd btj ®x&tv af tto g&ffltetetfo* jMumftly. 




PRINTED BY WARWICK & SONS, 26 AND 28 FRONT STREET WEST, 

1888. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page. 

irididse 5 

geria tipuliformis 54 

rrotis Cochranii 57 

Ypsilon 57 

etia argillacea 17, 33 

xylina 17, 33 

nblycorypha retinervis 43 

aerican Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science 29 

tabrus purpurascens 64, 70 

inual Address of President 6 

I* Meeting of Entomological So- 
ciety of Ontario 2 

nual Meeting of Montreal Branch . 4 

j* Report of Council 3 

" Statement of Secretary -Treas. 4 

•atura celtis 32 

Minus aspidiotidis 15 

iple-trees, Canker-worm affecting . . 14 

" Codling-worm " ..15,53 

" Tent caterpillars affecting 12, 14 

gynnis Lais 47 

senical poisons, Use of 15, 53 

paragus beetle 31, 32 

B 

thune,Rev. C. J. S., Articles by, 17,33,48,51 

itta orientalis 68 

ittidse 68 

ok notices 46 

wles, G. J., Death of 3, 16, 50 

tish Columbia, Appointment of 

Entomologist for 10, 51 

mble-foot in poultry 9 

tterflies and Moths, Chapter on 

Structure of 72 

tterflies of Malay Peninsula 49 

I k of North America ; Edwards 

12, 46, 48 

" Rearing from Egg 11, 47 

White Cabbage 14 

2* (EN.) 



c 

Page. 
Cabbage, Club-root in 8 

" Root-maggot of 14 

" White Butterfly of 14 

Callimorpha, Species of 30 

Caloptenus f emur-rubrum 66, 67 

" spretus 65, 67 

Calosoma scrutator 18 

Camnula pellucida 6Q^ 70 

Canada thistle, Insects destroying seeds 

of 11 

" Canadian Entomologist " 6 

Captures, Remarkable in Ontario .... 21 

Carpocapsa pomonella 15 

Carrot-fly 14 

Catocala relicta 22 

Caumeld, F. B., Article by 59 

Ceuthophilus maculatus 63, 69 

Chapman, Charles, Death of 16 

Chionobas, Canadian species of 23 

Chionobas gigas, Visit to home of . . . . 24 

Chloroform, Use of in collecting 44 

Clarkson, F., Article by 7 

Claypole, Prof., Articles by 19, 45 

Clisiocampa Americana 12 

Cockroaches 60, 68 

Codling-worm 15, 53 

Colias philodice 22, 23 

Collecting and preserving Insects 19,43,44,45 

Colorado potato beetle 31, 52 

Conocephalus dissimilis 43 

" ensiger 43, 64, 70 

" exiliscanorus 43 

" robustus 43 

Conotrachelus nenuphar 53 

Co-relationship of Natural Sciences . . 9 

Cossus Centerensis 82 

Cotton Moth in Canada 17, 33 

Crickets 61 

Crioceris asparagi 31, 32 

Croton bug 68 

Curculio of the plum 53 



IV. 



C — Continued. 

Page. 

Currant borers 54 

" Saw-fly 30, 55 

44 Span-worm 56 

44 worms 55 

Cut- worms 57 

D 

Davis. W. T., Article by 43 

Diapheromera femoratum 67, 71 

E 

Ear- wigs 68 

Ectobia Germanica 60, 68, 71 

Elaphidion Parallelum 39 

Villosum 37, 38, 41 

Election of Officers 16 

Entomological Club of A. A. A. S 29 

Entomologist for British Columbia. . . 10, 51 

Eufitchia ribearia 56 

Experimental Farms 7, 31 

P 

Fall Web-worm 58 

Fletcher, J., Annual Address of Presi- 
dent 6 

Fletcher, J. , Article by 46 

Forficulidaj 68 

G 

Gas lime for root maggots 14 

Gasoline for killing Specimens 19, 45 

Geddes, G., Article by 21 

Grasshoppers 62 

Grote, A. R. , Article by 72 

Gryllidae 61 

Gryllotalpa borealis 61, 69 

Gryllus domesticus 61. 69 

44 neglectus 61, 69 

H 

Hamilton, Dr. J., Articles by 38, 41 

Harrington, W. H., 44 25, 43 

Hawk Moths of North America ; Grote 50 

Hemaris thysbe 80 

44 uniformis 80 

Hemileuca tricolor 80 

Hessian fly 13 

Hickory, beetles from 38 



H — Continued. 

Page. 
Hymenoptera, Cresson's Synopsis of . 48 
4 4 Hints on Collecting ... 43 

4 4 Observing Early Stages 

of 31 

Hyphantria cunea 58 

44 textor 



Insect powder 



Jackson, J. A., Article by 
K 



Katydids. 



Labia Minor 69, 75 

Larch Saw-fly 31, 3S 

Locustidae, Notes on 43, 6S 

Locusts 



M 



Meromyza Americana 

Mimicry in Butterflies and Moths , 

Moffat, J. A., Article by 

Mole Crickets 

Monarthrum mali 



N 



Nematus Erichsonii 31, 3S 

4 4 ventricosus 

Nemobius fasciatus 62, 61 

vittatus 60, 62, 6J 

Noxious insects, Remedies for 5] 

Nuptials of Thalessa 



Oak-pruner 37, 

Obituary 5fl 

(Ecanthus niveus 60, 62, 69 

(Edipoda Carolina 66 

44 phcenicoptera 67 

4 4 sordida 66 

4 ' verruculata 66 

Orchelimum agile 64, 70 



V. 



O — Continued. 

Page. 
Ormerod, Miss, Elected Honorary 

Member 3 

Ormerod, Report on Injurious Insects. 48 

Orthoptera, List of Canadian 69 

Sketch of " 59 

Oyster-shell bark louse 15 

Papilio cresphontes 23 

" nitra 25 

Paris Green, Use of 15, 29, 52, 53 

Pea Oop, Failure of, in Prince Ed- 
ward County 3 

Pear blight beetle 14 

Pelicinus polycerator 21 

Phaneroptera curvicauda 63 69 

Phasmidae q* 

Phylloptera oblongifolia 63, 70 

Pieris protodice 79 

" rapse 14 

Platyphyllum concavum 63, 70 

Plum curculio 53 

1 ' leaf fungus , 9 

Popular papers on Entomology 37 

Potato beetle 31 52 

Proteoteras Moffatiana 25 

Psenocerus supernotatus 55 

Psila rosse 24 

Pyrethrum powder 14 



Remedies for Noxious Insects 51 

Report of Council 3 

Delegate to Royal Society 

of Canada 5 

Report of Montreal Branch 4 

Rhopalocera Malayana 49 

Root-maggot of Radishes 14 



S 

Page. 

Saperda concolor 42 

" Fa yi .... 41 

Saunders, Prof. W 7 2 9 

Sciapteron simulans 31 

Scopelosoma Moffatiana 25 

Solenotus Fletcheri 12 

Species, Varieties and Check-lists 27 

Spectre Insects q* 

T 

Taylor, Rev. G. W., Article by 24 

appointed Provincial Ento- 
mologist of British Columbia 10 

Telea polyphemus 77 32 

Tent Caterpillars 12 

Tinea pellionella 20 45 

Thalessa, Nuptials of 25 

Thorn borers 4^ 

Tragocephala infuscata 66 70 

Tree Crickets ' q 2 

Turnip aphis 14 

U 
Udeopsylla nigra 53 qq 

V 

Vanessa Antio a 3^ 

Variation in Butterflies and Moths . . 80 

w 

Walking-stick Insects 67 

Wheat Midge 12 

4 ' Stem Maggot 13 

Willow borers 41 

X 

Xiphidium fasciatum 64 70 

saltans 64 70 

Xyleborus dispar 14 

Pyri 14 



EIGHTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



OF 



ONTARIO. 



To the Honourable the Commissioner of Agriculture : 

Sir,— In accordance with the provisions of our Statute of Incorporation, I beg to 
submit herewith the Annual Report of the Entomological Society of Ontario for the 
year 1887. 

The Report contains a record of the proceedings of our annual meeting for the 
Jection of officers and the transaction of the general business of the Society, which was 
ield in the City of Ottawa, on the 26th and 27th of October, 1887; it includes also the 
ludited Financial Statement of the Secretary-Treasurer, the Reports of our Council and 
Montreal branch, the President's Annual Address, and the various papers read by 
nembers at the meeting. 

I have also the honour to submit herewith several illustrated papers by our members 
m injurious, beneficial and other insects, which have been specially prepared for the 
nformation of the general public, and particularly for the assistance of the farmers and 
ruit-growers in dealing with their insect friends or foes. 

Our monthly magazine, the Canadian Entomologist, has been regularly and punct- 
lally issued during the past year. Its nineteenth volume is now almost completed. It 
continues to be received with marked favour by scientific entomologists both in Europe 
.nd America, and it includes amongst its contributors and correspondents the most 
minent specialists in this department of natural science both in the United States and 
ur own country. 

It is a matter of thankfulness that during the past year our Province has enjoyed 
Teat immunity from serious damages by insects ; those that have been particularly 
roublesome are referred to by our President in his address, or described in the papers 
hat follow. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

W. E. SAUNDERS, 

Secretary-Treasurer. 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE SOCIETY. 

The annual meeting of the Society was held pursuant to notice at Ottawa, on 
Wednesday and Thursday, 26th and 27th October, 1887. The meeting was held in 
Ottawa at the request of several members, in order that an opportunity might be afforded 
to visit the Central Experimental Farm of the Dominion Government, to examine the 
valuable collections of insects in the Museum of the Geological and Natural History 
Survey of Canada, and to inspect the collections of the members resident in Ottawa. 
Through the kindness of the- civic rulers, the meetings were held in the City Hall. 

A Council meeting was held on Wednesday, at 10 a.m., on the adjournment of which 
the Museum was visited and the insect collections examined, the magnificent exhibit of 
Lepidoptera eliciting universal admiration. 

In the afternoon the Experimental Farm was visited, the Director, Prof. Saunders, 
kindly placing carriages at the disposal of the Council. A Council meeting was held 
in his office after which he escorted the visitors around the farm, and explained the work 
already accomplished, and the plans for future operations. The house and barns in course 
of construction were justly admired, and it was evident to all that a great and useful 
work was being accomplished under the oversight of the director and his skilful 
assistants. 

In the evening a general meeting of the Society was held in the council chamber of 
the City Hall, and the annual address was delivered by the President, Mr. James Fletcher. 
Anion" the laree audience present were, in addition to members of the Entomological 
Society many officers and members of the Ottawa Field Naturalists' Club, of the Ottawa 
Literary and Scientific Society, of the Geological Museum, of various educational institu- 
tions, agricultural associations, etc., as well as gardeners and farmers from the surround- 
ing country. 

The address was a very instructive and practical one, and was listened to with great 
attention and interest by all present. It gave a sketch of the growth of the Society, and 
an outline of the work being done and to be carried on at the Government Experimental 
Farms The value of Natural Sciences as a training for the mental faculties and the 
co relationship of the different branches was shown. The latter portion consisted of a 
report on the insect injuries for the year and the broad general principles regulating the 
application of remedies. On its conclusion a vote of thanks to the President was moved 
bv Rev C J S. Bethune, who described the work being accomplished in England by Miss 
Ormerod and illustrated it bv an account of her exertions to ward off the attack of the 
Hessian 'fly The vote of thanks was seconded by Prof. Saunders, who confirmed the 
statements made in the address, and gave accounts of some experiments with solutions of 
Paris green as a preventive of curculio in plums, and codling moth in apples. 

A collection of Coleoptera captured in the vicinity of Ottawa, was exhibited by Mr. 
W. Hague Harrington. It was arranged in eighteen cases and contained about 1,250 

species. 

The meeting for the election of officers, etc., was held at 11 a.m. on Thursday, in a 
committee room of the City Hall. 

The President Mr. James Fletcher, occupied the chair, and the following members 
of the Council were among those present :-Rev. C. J. S. Bethune Port Hope ; Mr J. 
Alston Moffat, Hamilton ; Mr. J. M. Denton, London ; and Mr. W. H. Harrington, 
Ottawa. 

The minutes of the previous meeting having been printed and circulated amongst the 
members, their reading was dispensed with, and they were duly confirmed. 

Mr. W. H. Harrington was requested to act as Secretary in the absence of that 

^Letters were received from Rev. T. W. Fyles, Quebec ; Mr E. Baynes Reed, London ; 
Mr. H. H. Lyman, Montreal ; Mr. W. E. Saunders, London; Mr. J. D. Evans, Trenton : 

I 



Capt. Gamble Geddes, Toronto, and others, announcing their regret at being unable to be 
present. 

The Report of the Council was read by Rev. C. J. S. Bethune, and on motion of 
Mr. Denton, seconded by Mr. Moffat, it was duly adopted. 

The statement of the Secretary-Treasurer (balance sheet) was received and adopted. 

The Reports of the Montreal branch, and of the Delegate to the Royal Society of 
Canada, were received and referred for publication. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

In presenting their Annual Report, the Council feel highly gratified in announcing the 
continued success that has attended the work of the Society during the past year. 

The Canadian Entomologist has been published with regularity, and its pages have 
been filled as usual with valuable papers, contributed by leading entomologists in Canada 
the United States and Europe. 

The Annual Report to the Legislature of Ontario was duly issued after some delay, 
and the Council feel justified in stating that it was in no way inferior to its predecessors 
in the diversity and character of its articles on practical Entomology. 

Some valuable additions have been made to the Library by purchase as well as by 
donation. Among the latter may be especially mentioned the gift of a copy of West- 
wood's Oriental Entomology, by Miss Ormerod, of St. Alban's, England. 

The Society's collection of insects, which was sent last year to the Indian and 
Colonial Exhibition in London, England, has been brought back and restored to the 
Society's rooms. The Council regret to state that two of the cases were broken in transit, 
and a number of specimens of lepidcptera were damaged. They trust, however, that the 
kindness of members will speedily replace those that are wanting. 

The audited statement of the finances of the Society is submitted herewith, and shows 
a credit balance of $83. 

The Council have very great pleasure in offering their hearty congratulations to their 
President, Mr. James Fletcher, upon his appointment to the important position of 
Dominion Entomologist and Botanist to the Central Experimental Farm at Ottawa. 
They cannot but feel that the Society has been much honoured by the selection of two of 
its presidents (Prof. Saunders and Mr. Fletcher) for high and important positions in th6 
Dominion Experimental Farms, and they regard it as a welcome recognition of the use- 
fulness and good work of the Society. 

Since the last annual meeting, the Council have unanimously elected Miss Eleanor 
A. Ormerod, Consulting Entomologist to the Royal Agricultural Society of England, an 
Honorary Member, as a slight mark of the high estimation in which her labours in the 
field ot practical entomology are held both here and elsewhere. 

They have to deplore the loss they have recently sustained by the lamented death of 
their colleague, Mr. G. J. Bowles, of Montreal, who was for many years an active and 
zealous member of the Society, an able and efficient worker, and a valued contributor to 
the magazine and annual reports. 

The annual meeting is this year summoned to be held in the City of Ottawa, at the 
request of several members, in order that an opportunity may be afforded of visiting the 
Central Experimental Farm, and inspecting the collections of insects at the Geological 
Museum and in the possession of resident members of the Society. 

Presented on behalf of the Council. 

E. BAYNES REED, 

Secretary-Treas urer. 



STATEMENT OF THE SECRETARY-TREASURER FOR THE YEAR ENDING 

OCTOBER 24th, 1887. 

Receipts. 

Balance from previous year $ 100 57 

Members' fees, sale of Entomologist, etc 144 95 

Provincial grant, 1887 1,000 00 

Collectors' material — cork, pins, etc 59 74 

Interest on Savings' Bank account 7 18 

$1,312 44 
Disbursements. 

Canadian Entomologist, printing, paper, stationery, etc $ 591 77 

Library account 110 23 

Expenses of Report for 1886 133 10 

Engraving 166 22 

Annual grant to Editor 100 00 

Rent 80 00 

Insurance , 25 00 

Sundries — postage, telegraph, etc 22 39 

Balance in hand 83 73 

$1,312 44 

We certify that we have examined the above account, with books and vouchers, and 
found the same to be correct. Balance in hand and in bank, eighty-three dollars and 
seventv-three cents. 

H. P. BOCK, ) . ... 

W. E. SAUNDERS, f Auaitors - 
London, Ont., October 24th, 1887. 



MEETING OF THE MONTREAL BRANCH. 

The fourteenth annual meeting of the Montreal Branch of the Entomological Society 
•of Ontario, was held on May 31st, 1887, when the following officers were elected for the 
ensuing year : — President, G. J. Bowles ; Vice-President, H. H. Lyman ; Secretary- 
Treasurer, F. B. Caulfield ; Council, W. H. Smith, J. G. Jack, J. F. Hausen and R. C. 
Holden. 

The reports of the Council and Secretary-Treasurer were read, and on motion, 
adopted. 

Mr. Bowles showed a box of Lepidoptera collected at Sudbury, by Mr. J. D. Evans, 
several of which were new to the members. 

Mr. Lyman read a list of Hymenoptera and Diptera, taken at Hudson's Bay, by Dr. 
Robert Bell. 

Mr. Caulfield read the following report of the Council for the past year : — 

In presenting their fourteenth annual report, your Council regrets that owing to 
unfortunate circumstances, it is not so satisfactory as in former years. 

The Society has sustained, since our last annual meeting, a great loss in the lamented 
death of Mr. Wm, Shaw, a member who enjoyed the highest esteem of his fellow entomo- 
logists as a man, and whose talents and energy warranted the expectation of a brilliant 
career as a naturalist. 

During the past year, the absence of several of our most active members from the 
•city, has resulted in but little collecting being done. Mr. Caulfield, however, has success- 



fully worked out the life history of Physonota unipuncta, and his papers on this subject, 
in the Entomologist are both interesting and important. 

Only three meetings have been held during the winter, owing to the business engage- 
ments of some members and the serious illness of the President, who has been confined 
to the house for nearly a year. The following papers were read at these meetings : — 

1. List of Noctuidse, not previously recorded, from Montreal. — G. J. Bowles. 

2. Notes on some species of Ips. — F. B. Caulfield. 

3. Additions to list of Montreal lepidoptera. — G. J. Bowles. 

4. Some further notes on Physonota. — F. B. Caulfield. 

Your Council would suggest that efforts be made to increase the roll of membership^ 
and urge upon all the need of increased zeal in the pursuit of our favourite science. 

The whole is respectfully submitted. 

GEO. JNO. BOWLES, F. B. CAULFIELD, 

President. Secretary.. 

Montreal, 31st May, 1887. 



REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF ONTARIO TO THE 
ROYAL SOCIETY OF CANADA. 

The progress of the Entomological Society has been so uniform and constant during^ 
recent years, that it affords material sufficient for only a very brief report. 

A great loss has been sustained by the Society in the removal of Prof. Saunders 
from London to Ottawa, and his consequent inability to longer undertake the onerous 
duties of President and Editor, which for many years he performed so faithfully and suc- 
cessfully. In his position of Director of the Experimental Farm he will, however, still 
be able to pursue his researches, and, with the necessary assistance of a competent ento- 
mologist, will be able to greatly advance the knowledge of the very important science of 
Entomology. 

The publication of the Canadian Entomologist is successfully continued ; volume 1 8 
contains papers from forty-nine contributors, all well-known workers, and many of the 
articles are of much scientific value. Volume 19 is now being issued under the editor- 
ship of Rev. C. J. S. Bethune, who edited the first five volumes, and who has been con- 
tinuously a member of the editing committee, so that he is eminently qualified to take up 
the work laid down by Prof. Saunders. 

The Sixteenth Annual Report contained as usual much matter of economic import- 
ance, and No. 17 is now ready for distribution. 

The Annual Meeting of the Society was held in the Society's rooms, London, Ontario, 
on Wednesday, 20th October, 1886, when there was a very satisfactory atendance of 
members. The retiring President, Prof. Saunders, delivered a very interesting and 
instructive address, and several reports and valuable papers were presented. 

The following resolution was carried unanimously by the meeting : — 

" That the Society learns with regret that their esteemed friend, Prof. Saunders, has 
found it necessary to withdraw from the presidency of their body, and also from the 
editorship of their organ, The Canadian Entomologist, but recognizing the importance 
of the work Prof. Saunders has been called to superintend, and the wisdom of the choice 
made in him by the Government, it congratulates the Professor upon this recognition 



<of his abilities and zeal in the public service, and respectfully tenders to him a life 
membership in the Society." 

Officers for the current year were elected as follows : — 

President James Fletcher, Ottawa, Ont. 

Vice-President Rev. C. J. S. Bethune, Port Hope, Ont. 

Secretary -Treasurer . .E. Baynes Reed, London, Ont. 

C W. H. Harrington, Ottawa, Ont. 
| Rev. T. W. Fyles, Quebec, Que. 

Council \Z. Alston Moffatt, Hamilton, Ont. 

| G. J. Bowles, Montreal, Que. 
[ J. M. Denton, London, Ont. 

W. HAGUE HARRINGTON, 

May, 1887. Delegate. 



THE PRESIDENT'S INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, — Through the courtesy of the mayor and corporation of 
the city we are enabled this evening to make use of this commodious chamber.* The 
committee room put at our disposal for the other meetings would have been entirely 
inadequate to accommodate the large audience which I have the great gratification of now 
seeing before me. This pleasure, too, is considerably heightened, as I notice amongst you 
many of the class which our Society particularly strives to reach — to wit, farmers and 
gardeners — men who are daily brought face to face with the foes or friends, of which our 
members make it their special study to investigate the habits. 

As there are many here this evening who are not members of the Entomological 
Society of Ontario, it is fitting that I should state briefly the nature and objects of that 
Society. Previous to 1863 there was no such society in Canada ; but in that year a few 
naturalists, living in different parts of the Provinces, met together in Toronto and 
organized under the name of the Entomological Society of Canada. The membership at 
first was only sixteen, and this number included all those then known to be interested in 
insect life in Canada. From this small beginning the Society has steadily increased until 
its membership now reaches upwards of 500, and includes all the active workers in North 
America. The work done in the early years of the Society, notwithstanding the fact that 
the members were widely separated, was such that it soon became manifest that they 
must have some means of publishing the results of their observations for the benefit of 
each other and the scientific world in general. Accordingly in August. 1868, appeared 
the first number of the Canadian Entomologist, a monthly periodical, which from that 
time forward has been regularly published, and was for some years the only publication 
on the continent of America devoted solely to this important branch of natural history. 
It has now nearly completed its nineteenth volume. From the outset a noticeable 
characteristic of this magazine has been, that its pages have been entirely filled with the 
records of original work, and during its existence it has been the means of disseminating 
a vast amount of scientific knowledge, which has been of benefit not only to Canada but to 
the world at large. This organ of the Society is more particularly the scientific record of 
work done by the members, although it also contains many illustrated elementary and 
popular papers for the benefit of beginners. In addition to this, however, and what is an 
important part of our work, a popular report of some 75 or 100 pages is prepared annually 
upon injurious and beneficial insects, and the best measures for farmers and gardeners to 
adopt with regard to them. This is published every year as part of the report of the 
Minister of Agriculture and Arts for the Province of Ontario. Seventeen of these have 
already been issued, and have given to the farming community a large amount of useful 
information. Our Provincial Government recognizing the good work which was being 

*The President's address was delivered in the council chamber of the Ottawa City Hall, on the evening 
-of October 26th. 



done by this Society, incorporated it in 1870, as the Entomological Society of Ontario, 
and gave at the same time material aid by allowing an annual grant from the public 
funds. By this assistance, the usefulness of the Society has been greatly widened, and 
the officers have become an advisory board to whom reference can be made whenever 
information concerning injurious insects is sought by farmers or others — an advantage 
of which the intelligent agriculturists of the Province have not been slow to avail them- 
selves. 

Qf all the important events affecting agriculture in Canada which have happened 
during the past year, none can compare for importance with the establishment of the 
system of Experimental Farms throughout the Dominion, lately organized by the Federal 
Government. To no one more than to our members can it be a source of so great 
pleasure, that the person chosen for the important and responsible position of Director, 
should have been the present incumbent, Prof. William Saunders, who has been for so 
many years identified with the prosperity and progress of our Society ; what he has been 
to us we all know ; what others consider his value to have been, is well shown by Prof. 
A. K. Grote, one of the best American entomologists and a highly esteemed and regular 
contributor to the Canadian Entomologist. 

When spsaking of that journal in the preface to one of his works, he says : — 

" The treatise of Dr. Harris which has become classical on its subject, did much 
towards creating a general interest in entomology ; but the publication of the Canadian 
Entomologist, a journal aided pecuniarily by the Ontario Government, and owing its 
success chiefly to the unselfish labours of Mr. William Saunders, has assisted the progress 
of entomology in America probably more than any one other similar undertaking.'' This 
statement is not a bit overdrawn. Prof. Saunders — and I speak of him from an intimate 
acquaintance extending over a space of many years — is an exceptional man, remarkable 
not less for the diversity than for the thoroughness of his accomplishments, but above all 
for his tact and good judgment which have made him an object of respect and have 
endeared him to all who have had intercourse with him. Now, above all things, Prof. 
Saunders is an entomologist, and to it chiefly he owes his eminence. We congraculate 
him upon his appointment and also the Honourable Minister of Agriculture upon the 
wisdom of the choice he has made. 

It may not be amiss here to say a few words with regard to the work it is 
proposed to carry out at these Government experimental stations. In the first place, the 
system will consist of a Central Experimental Farm at Ottawa and four other branch 
farms divided as follows : one for Ontario and Quebec, one for the Maritime Provinces, 
one for British Columbia, and one each for Manitoba and the North- West Territories. 
The officers at the Central Farm will be, the Director, and an Entomologist and Botanist 
combined, a Chemist, a Horticulturist and an Agriculturist. At the Central Station 
there will be a museum for the preservation of objects of interest. These, of course, will 
include all the different kinds of grain and other crops, and as well, cabinets for entomo- 
logical and botanical specimens. As most of you are aware, I have been appointed to 
fill the position of Entomologist and Botanist to the Dominion Experimental Farms. I 
trust that I may be able to show before long that this selection was not ill advised. At 
any rate, I can assure you that no efforts will be wanting on my part to render the. office 
one of general utility and a benefit to the farming community. I purpose, as quickly as 
possible after the building is finished, to place in the museum a collection showing, under 
each of the principal crops, all the insects by which it is attacked, so that the farmer or 
gardener who finds any of his crops injured by insects can come to the museum and see 
for himself, under the head of each plant the injurious insects known to infest it, and at 
the same time learn the most approved methods of treating them. 

In addition to the above, there will be a botanical garden on the farm, a plot of about 
65 acres having been appropriated for this purpose. Here native plants of economic value, 
as our forest trees, will be grown in large numbers for distribution and observation under 
varying conditions, so as to note their behaviour under different circumstances. Here, also, 
will be cultivated a large collection of plants of interest to the botanist from ail parts of the 
world, including, of course, all the native species, of which 1 can obtain roots or seeds. It is 
thus hoped that many of the difficult problems will be cleared up which at present trouble the 



scientific botanist, who has, perhaps, had to work at some of the least known or rare species 
with scanty and imperfect dried material. In this botanical garden and arboretum there is a 
remarkable diversity of habitat, from open water and an area of sphagnous bog to sandy 
upland with all the intervening varieties of soil — rock, shady ravine, heavy clay, light loam, 
sand, etc. — and I feel confident that a large proportion of our Canadian wild plants can be 
grown and examined at leisure. It will be noticed that the two posts of entomologist and 
botanist have been united. I consider this was a very wise arrangement, at any rate until 
the work in connection with these two posts increases so much as to make the appointment 
of two officers necessary. One of the most important things the entomologist will have to 
attend to will be the injuries to plants from insects. It sometimes happens, however, that 
it is difficult to tell at first the source of an injury to vegetation. The attacks of some of 
the low forms of vegetable life and of insects being, in their effects, very similar, so much 
so that instances sometimes occur when even careful observers, unless specially informed, 
may make mistakes. Again, sometimes injuries due to other causes altogether are 
attributed to either insects or fungi. During the past summer, there was great con- 
sternation in the county of Prince Edward on account of a serious failure in the pea crop, 
the complaint being that no seeds were formed. In this county peas are largely cultivated, 
on some farms to the exclusion of all other crops, and the seed produced is of such high 
quality that the best dealers in the United States and in England find it advantageous to 
procure their seed from this district. Many suggestions were made to account for this 
failure which was of such importance to a large proportion of the community, and insects 
and parasitic fungi were at once accused. It seems probable, however, that the excessive 
drought which prevailed during the whole summer was the sole cause. It is true that 
mycelium of fungus was found upon the roots in some instances, but this was always 
where the plant had been killed and was dead at the collar, the fungus only accompanying 
the decay of the roots and their tubers. These tubers on the roots of the leguminosse are 
very interesting. Through the kindness of Prof. W. G. Farlow, of Harvard University, 
I have had my attention drawn to an excellent article by A. Tschirch, entitled " A Con- 
tribution to the Knowledge of the Root Tubers of the Leguminosse." It is published in 
the Transactions of the German Botanical Society of 2nd February, 1887. This, for the 
first time, explains the use of these bodies, the nature of which had for many years been 
misunderstood. It would appear that all leguminosas bear some kind of tubers on' their 
roots. These vary in shape in the different genera ; but they all have the same use, 
namely, to act as reservoirs where, during the time of active growth, nitrogenous materials 
are stored up until required to supply the large amount necessary to fill the seeds. These 
latter then draw off from the tubers the nitrogenous materials, leaving them empty. 
Now, on the plants in Prince Edward county which I had an opportunity of examining 
on several farms, through the courtesy of J. M. Piatt, Esq., M.P., of Picton, the plants 
presented the characters of having (i.) a living stem above, (ii.) a vigorous tuber-bearing 
root, upon which, however, some of the tubers were in a state of decay, and (Hi.) a short 
piece of dead stem at the surface of the ground effectually separating these two portions. 
I feel now pretty well assured that this state of affairs was brought about much in the 
following manner : Just about the time the peas were coming into flower, a period of 
drought set in which caused the stems to fade and lie over at a time when there was not 
sufficient foliage to protect them, in this way their bases were exposed to the direct heat 
of the sun as well as that from the hot, parched earth, and they were thus injured to such 
an extent that they could no longer act as channels for the interchange of materials from 
the root to the stem and vice versa. If this be the correct view, the exceptional drought 
of last year must be assigned as the cause for this shortage, and not any attack which is 
likely to give trouble in the future. One noticeable feature about the plants examined 
was the abundance and large size of the root tubers, and this might have been anticipated 
had their nature at the time been understood. It points to the fact, however, that although 
this year the crop in Prince Edward county is small it is from an exceptional cause, and 
there is every reason to believe that with an ordinary season this district, so justly cele- 
brated, v/ill still show that it is without an equal in Ontario as a pea-producing county. 
There are other injuries the nature of which is not apt to be understood. Amongst 
these I would specially mention the "club root" in the cabbage, which is produced by a 



fungus (Plasmodiophora brassicce, Wor.) t although by many it is thought that it is caused 
by the attacks of a small beetle. Another injury caused by a fungus, but which has very 
much the appearance of an injury by insects is the Plum-leaf Fungus (Septoria cerasina, 
Pk.) which has the effect of making small holes in the leaves of plum trees as if they had 
been perforated by shots from a gun. This has been sent to me during the past summer 
for information as to the " insect " which was supposed to be the depredator. Again, the 
curious disease called " bumble-foot," to which some breeds of poultry are liable, is 
occasionally supposed to be due to the attacks of insects. It is probable, however, that 
the large swellings on the feet of chickens so named are really abscesses, due to aggra- 
vated bruises caused by high perches and a hard floor to the poultry house. 

These few instances, however, are sufficient to illustrate the advantage of any 
investigator being familiar with at any rate the first principles of other branches of study 
besides his own specialty, for he will frequently be applied to for information, and, 
indeed, will require for his own work knowledge of allied subjects. 

Perhaps one of the greatest surprises to one who begins to devote a portion of his 
time to the study of Natural History, is the discovery, which soon forces itself upon him, 
that instead of there being a large number of different sciences, these are merely several 
branches, all of which are so intimately related, nay, even dependent upon each other, 
that they are merely component parts of one great whole. Nor does any one branch 
very much surpass the others in importance, for each one is necessary to the rest. And 
the special value of any one study over the others is only in the eyes of those students 
who devote to it their particular attention. All are links in one great chain of knowledge,, 
engrossing to the highest degree to all who are happy and lucky enough to feel its 
charms, and of enormous importance to the world at large. 

In a consideration of this theme we can begin at any one of the links, and, perhaps, 
to-day it is more fitting to begin at our own special subject — Entomology. Most nearly 
related to Entomology is Botany, the branch of science which treats of the vegetable 
kingdom from which so large a proportion of the insect world derives its sustenance. 
An intimate knowledge of the different species and families of plants is of great 
importance to the Entomologist. It frequently occurs that in his studies he requires to 
breed through all its stages some insect which feeds naturally upon a plant not to be 
obtained in his neighborhood; with a knowledge of the different orders and classes of 
plants he is able to make use of a nearly related species, sometimes even of a different, 
but closely allied genus. There are many instances on record where this has been done; 
but by far a larger number where, for want of this knowledge, valuable insects have been 
starved from only having improper food offered them. The economic entomologist is 
much helped in his investigations by this knowledge. Many of the injurious insects 
which attack our cultivated crops, especially those of which there are two or three 
annual broods, subsist during one or more of these on wild plants allied to 
those cultivated. By a removal of the wild plants many of these pests are naturally 
kept very much in check, for it must never be lost sight of that the great factor which 
influences the amount of insect-presence is the amount of food-supply. Then the 
important offices performed by insects in their relations with plants render them objects 
of very great interest to the botanist; he recognizes in them nature's pruners, which 
remove or prevent a too great exuberance of growth ; and they perform such a con- 
spicuous part in the fertilization of the seeds as to have been designated "the marriage 
priests of plants," ushering the young seedling into existence ; they also remove it from 
the face of nature directly its usefulness and beauty are gone, so that its place may be 
taken by others. The fact that insects and seeds form the greater part of the food of 
so many birds, naturally connects the studies of the ornithologist with the two preceding. 
By the dissection and examination of the stomachs of birds, many useful assistants of the 
;armer and fruit grower have regained a good character of which ignorance had robbed 
them. How many thousand of woodpeckers and owls and hawks, which were nobly 
doing man's works for him, have fallen victims to this spirit of ignorance. 

These remarks will apply equally to several other branches of Zoology. 

The next step is to the laboratory of the chemist. Here the entomologist finds the 
materials for alluring and preserving the specimens for his cabinet, or is provided with 



10 



means to wage war against those which increase in such undue numbers as to require to 
be treated as enemies. The botanist, too, must come to the chetmUt to discover the 
■exact nature of soils and the different fertilizers, as well as the principles contained in 
the plants which he collects or cultivates, so as to know the comparative values of each 
species in a family of plants. Chemistry teaches us not only how, by special treatment, 
virulent poisons may be transformed into nutritious foods, as in the case of arrowroot 
and other products derived from the Aracese, but also how some species in the same 
genus may be harmless and others noxious. This we find amongst the Sumachs — where 
we have the Stag's-horn Sumach (Rhus typhina), the seed coats of which provide the 
French Canadian with wholesome vinegar and a refreshing summer beverage, and also 
its near relative the Poison Ivy (Rhus Toxicodendron). Conversely, too, the obligations 
of the chemist are just as great for the exact information as to species, growth and habits 
of plants which he receives. The close relationship existing between chemistry and 
mineralogy is manifest, as is that of the latter with geology. In the last named science 
the Paleontologist finds frequently the necessity of a thorough knowledge of the different 
branches of Zoology and Botany, so that he may correctly identify the fossil remains 
brought before him, and refer the rocks bearing them to their proper ages. 

By common consent the students in some of these branches work together with 
mutual benefit. The botanist delving in the earth in search of roots, or gathering mosses 
from the woods and swamps, finds many minute insects and shells. The conchologist, 
wading in the shallow waters or raising up the bark of dead trees when looking for shells, 
frequently discovers aquatic plants and insects of rarity. The entomologist, peering and 
prying everywhere to discover the active objects of his quest, is not less useful to the 
others, and so we find that each branch of science is an aid to the others, and must be 
developed to the highest degree, not only that as much knowledge as possible may be 
accumulated in its own domain, but also from the collateral value it may be to other 
sciences. 

But I need not remind you the value and interest in the natural sciences is not for 
its devotees alone. It is not too much to say that the almost phenomenal strides which 
have been made in the progress of the world during the past century are due entirely to 
the developments of scientific knowledge. I will, however, refer briefly to one special 
line of progress in which this kind of study has been found of great use. 

Educationalists in all parts of the world attest the value of the Natural Sciences as 
a part of the practical education of youth ; and the fact that they enter so largely into 
the curriculum of our Ontario schools does much towards showing the high state of 
excellence of the methods here adopted towards preparing our young men and women for 
fighting the battle of life. 

Th<-se studies, it must be remembered, — used educationally — are essentially not ends, 
but means; means for producing in the mind exact and careful methods of thought, 
of developing the faculties of accurate observation, and above all things are important as 
giving a power to express in a concise and definite manner what it is wished to relate. If 
these characters be not found in the Naturalist much of his work is but play, and his 
labour is lost ; his studies are useless to himself and of little value to anyone else. 

I cannot help thinking that the scientific outlook in Canada is far brighter at the 
present time than it has ever been before. The facilities of communication and travel 
which now exist put us at an enormous advantage over our predecessors. The result of 
these increased facilities has been, as a matter of course, a great spread of all kinds of 
knowledge, and entomology is perhaps one of the most benefited. 

In all directions we hear of a higher appreciation amongst farmers and others of the 
value of this study. Addresses from specialists concerning insect life are asked for to 
be delivered at Teachers' Institutes, before our Normal Schools, at meetings of Farmers' 
Institutes and similar associations. Quite recently the Legislature of British Columbia 
has seen the advisability of appointing a Provincial Entomologist, and it is with pleasure 
that we learn the appointment has been given to one of our members, the Rev. G. W. 
Taylor, an excellent Naturalist and one who cannot but do good. Lectures explaining 
and popularizing Entomology are found to be always ace ratable before Natural History 
Societies in all pirts of the country, and in The Educational Review, a monthly magazine 



11 



published in St. John, N.B., a most excellent series of illustrated popular articles is 
appearing from the pen of Principal A. H. McKay, of Pictou, N.S. These are in the 
shape of addresses to an imaginary class at " Ferndale School," and from their simplicity 
and accuracy will certainly be intelligible to all and give much instruction. 

From this it will be seen that anyone now-a-days who wishes to obtain knowledge 
concerning injurious and beneficial insects can do so with very little trouble. 

The ease with which parcels of specimens and books may now be sent by mail and 
the low rates of postage, as well as the extensive development of systems of railways in 
all the Provinces of the Dominion, by which it is now possible to communicate in a few 
days with many localities previously inaccessible, bring it within the power of all to 
obtain almost any desired information. It is my duty, however, to remind you that these 
advantages also bring with them their responsibilities, and I take the liberty, therefore, 
of suggesting certain lines of study in which I believe more work should be done by our 
members. Our monthly magazine still maintains its character as a high-class scientific 
magazine, and should be, as it doubtless is by most, carefully read by all our members. 

I should, however, be glad to see some new names amongst the contributors. There 
are also certain orders of insects which receive little attention at our hands, and the work, 
although good, is being done by too small a number of workers. Amongst the lines of 
investigation which demand our attention, I would mention, first of all, the clearing up 
of the missing links in the life-histories of our common and conspicuous injurious and 
beneficial insects. There is a great deal yet to be done with regard to the common 
injurious insects, as cut- worms and wire-worms, etc. Again the advantages of easy 
access to the North- West Territories and British Columbia by means of the Canadian 
Pacific Eailway must not be neglected. By the completion of this great highway, con- 
necting the Pacific with the Atlantic it is now possible for us to receive eggs of nearly all 
the unknown species of our diurnal lepidoptera. The ease with which these can be 
reared from the egg has been explained in the Canadian Entomologist by our highly 
esteemed contributor, Mr. W. H. Edwards. The keen pleasure to be derived from 
breeding insects and watching them through all their stages can only be appreciated by 
those who have tried it. All I can say is that I, for my part, have never derived more 
true pleasure from any occupation. The excitement of catching the female, the anxiety 
to know whether she will lay eggs and whether these will hatch, then watching the small 
larvae through their successive moults till they are full grown, and the final emergence of 
the perfect insect, all are. intensely interesting. Now the large number of Canadian 
lepidoptera of which the preparatory stages are unknown, but of which we could with 
•comparative ease obtain eggs, should surely induce some of us to make a great effort to 
clear up some of these points. Let us, at any rate, try to have a few of them disposed of 
before the next annual meeting. 

Another study of enormous importance which might well receive more attention is 
that of the dipterous and hymenopterous parasites of injurious insects. Mr. Harrington, 
of our Council, has done good work in this line. The Abbe Provancher, of Quebec, has 
also in his excellent little magazine, La Naturaliste Canadien, published lately much 
valuable information concerning both the hymenoptera and the hemiptera. 

In this connection I would mention a curious discovery made during the past 
summer. In examining the seeds of the common Canada thistle with a view to finding 
out the extent of their fertility. I was surprised to find that in nearly every head most of 
the seeds had been destroyed by a white dipterous larva, which was generally placed head 
downwards, only showing a brown disk with two pores on the upper end. It had a 
peculiar habit of enveloping itself with the pappus of the thistle, which was wrapped 
tightly round it, as though the larva had twisted itself round and round and drawn the 
silky pappus with it until a thick wad was formed. This is probably as a protection 
during the winter, for most of these larva? were mature, and some which I have in breed- 
ing jars remain quiet in these coverings. I was naturally much interested in this 
beneficial insect which had suddenly developed in such large numbers ; but my surprise 
was great when I found that from upwards of 200 specimens collected, most of them pro- 
duced a small parasitic hymenopterous fly of a kind unknown to me. We had then the 
somewhat paradoxical result of an insect parasitic upon another insect being noxious ; but 



12 



such it undoubtedly is. From all the thistle-heads mentioned, I only obtained one pair 
of the flies, the larvce of which were destroying the seed of this troublesome weed (they 
apparently belong to the Trypetaceie), all the rest produced the little black parasites. 
Later in the season, by examining a large number of plants, I secured a few specimens of 
the larva? which appear to be healthy, and these are all wrapped tightly in their coverings 
of thistle down. There were sometimes as many as three larvie in one head of seed, but 
as a rule only one. Through the kindness of my friend, Mr. Harrington, the small 
parasite has been sent to Mr. W. H. Ashmead for identification.* 

During the past year several notable collections of insects have been made in un- 
worked districts of Canada, amongst these T would make special mention of those by Prof. 
Macoun and Rev. G. W. Taylor, in Vancouver Island ; Mr. J. M. Macoun, in Hudson 
Bay ; Dr. G. M. Dawson, near the Alaskan boundary ; Mr. J. D. Evans, at Sudbury, 
Ontario ; Messrs. J. B. Tyrrell and Dowling, in Manitoba ; and Mr. N. H. Cowdry, at 
Regina and near Fort McLeod. 

Several publications worthy of a much longer notice than I have now time to give 
them, have appeared during the past season. First must be mentioned the resumption of 
publication of Mr. W. H. Edwards's " Butterflies of North America." From the Divi- 
sion of Entomology at Washington, several reports and bulletins have been issued. 
Prof. Cook, of Michigan, and Prof. Forbes, of Illinois, have both issued timely publi- 
cations of great utility, particularly bearing upon the use of arsenical poisons as the best 
remedies for the codling worm and plum curculio. Prof. F. M. Webster, of Puidue 
University, has done good work amongst the insects injurious to wheat crops, and has 
brought his practical common sense to bear upon some of the troubled questions with 
good results. From the American Entomological Society, has come Mr. Cresson's much 
wanted Classification of the Hymenoptera, a work which will be found of the greatest 
use to students. 

Prof. Grote's " Hawk Moths of North America," which, although complete in itself, 
is a part of a series of essays on North America Lepidoptera, will be found a useful work 
for collectors. It is to be hoped that this talented author will soon issue a further part 
of his work. Mr. Scudder's great work on the Butterflies of New England, is announced 
for next spring. From the well known excellence of this author's work, it is needless to 
say that it is anxiously looked for by Lepidopterists. 

1 must now pass on to a brief sketch of the most noticeable injuries by insects dur- 
ing the past season. The crops in Canada, notwithstanding the excessive drought, have 
not suffered from any very severe attack of insects. The wheat midge continues to levy 
heavy tribute from the farmers' wheat wherever this cereal is cultivated, but only amongst 
the best farmers in the Province of Nova Scotia has it become sufficiently abundant to 
induce them to burn the screenings. Throughout Canada, from the Atlantic to the Pacific t 
the tent caterpillars (Clisiocampa) have been most injuriously abundant. I received, 
during the month of June, most doleful accounts of their ravages ; whole groves were 
stripped bare, and few trees seemed to come amiss to them. Along our streets here, hardly 
a tree could be found without its nest of caterpillars. The advocates for the English 
sparrow received a rude shock in observing their neglect of this large supply of, what 
they supposed would be, such acceptable food. I must, however, in all fairness to these 
little usurpers, record that on the 26th May last, I did actually see a little cock sparrow 
worry to death and afterwards devour with apparent pride and great gusto, a full grown 
larva of Clisiocampa Americana, which was endeavouring in a great hurry to cross a path 
unobserved. 

The wheat crop of the Dominion for the past season has been enormous and of very 
fine quality. This is chiefly owing to the vast quantities of this staple grain produced in 
Manitoba and the North -West Territories. Throughout Ontario, however, the excessive 
drought has prevented the maturing of the seed to a large extent. Complaints of the 
operations of the wheat midge and Hessian fly have been reported from some localities,, 
and the former of these has made itself too apparent in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. 
The wire worm has done its share of destruction, but on the whole the injury to wheat 

* It has since been named Solenotus Flctcheri by Mr. Ashmead, and is the first representative of the- 
genus as yet discovered in America. 



13 



has been inconsiderable. Perhaps the insect of most interest is the u Wheat-stem Mag- 
got," the larva of a small fly known to science under the name of Meromyza Americana. 
This insect has been observed during the past three years, but nowhere in very large 
numbers, and only a few complaints have been received of its operations ; but, on the 
other hand, it is found upon enquiry, that it has been seen in a great many localities, and, 
moreover, it appears to be steadily increasing in numbers. In some localities in the 
Ottawa district where, however, it must be stated most enquiry has been made, it is re- 
ported to have been present for years. Dr. Ferguson, M.P. for North Leeds, states that 
it is always most prevalent in good seasons, and when there is great drought and a small 
crop the insects do not appear in such large numbers, but when the growth is yigorous and 
there is a good deal of moisture, they appear almost invariably. As this was an excep- 
tionally dry year, should this theory be correct, I fear we may, in an ordinarily 
moist season, anticipate a severe attack from this insect. There are two distinct kinds of 
injury committed by this insect. The presence of the larva of the second or summer 
brood is indicated by the top joint of the wheat turning white just about the time the 
wheat is in blossom. This character is very noticeable and has gained for it the name of 
11 Silver-top " in some localities. The other kind of attack is that by which the larva 
destroys the young central shoot of the autumn grown plants of fall wheat. 

Dr. Ferguson states that the usual course amongst farmers in his constituency, has 
been, where they are general, to put the mower in and cut the crop. This, however, is a 
severe remedy to which it has not often been necessary to have recourse. 

Mr. D. James, of Thornhill, in the County of York, states that it works particularly 
in the variety known as " Goose spring wheat," and says, " It is three or four times worse 
in my fields this year than last. At a rough estimate about every thirtieth head is 
affected, and it may prove more than this." 

This information is sufficient to show that it is an object requiring special study. 

The life history of this insect is briefly as follows : — The eggs are laid on fall wheat 
in the autumn — in September and October, these hatch and pass the winter in the larval 
state, and in the following spring produce, in June and July, the perfect insects. It is 
supposed by Prof. F. M. Webster, of Purdue University, 111., that these lay their eggs in 
volunteer wheat, and that these again produce the injurious brood which attacks the 
autumn fall wheat. Another supposition is that the perfect insects remain alive until 
the fall wheat appears above ground. This, however, seems hardly likely, and if Mr. 
Webster's theory be not correct, it is probable that the gap is bridged over by the exist- 
ence of a brood in some of the wild grasses. 

Timothy hay has for the last few years suffered severely from a similar injury, by 
which the top shoot is also destroyed, and the records of the two attacks are much 
mixed up. 

I have failed in my efforts to breed this insect to maturity. I am, however, at 
present of the opinion that it is not the Meromyza. The remedies which suggest them- 
selves for Meromyza at the present stage of the investigation are late sowing of fall wheat 
and clean cultivation, by which all volunteer wheat is destroyed. 

From the similarity of the attack by the autumn brood to that of the Hessian fly, 
I feel confident that the two are sometimes confounded by farmers. The larvae and pupa 
cases of the two are, however, very different in appearance. The Hessian fly, I am 
thankful to say, is not very injurious in Canada at the present time; but in parts of 
Illinois it has lately committed great depredations. The outbreak of this pest, which 
occurred in England last year, has drawn much attention to entomology in that conser- 
vative country, and the name of one of our honorary members, Miss Eleanor A. 
Ormerod, is now more than ever a household word amongst the grateful farmers, whom, 
by her prompt action and safe advice, she has put in a position to protect themselves 
against this scourge. I am still however of the opinion, notwithstanding the present 
state of affairs, that the Hessian fly will never become a " first-class pest " in England. 
As well as Miss Ormerod, Mr. Whitehead continues to write and publish valuable 
advice to the farmers on injurious insects. It is to be hoped that they may be awakened 
to see the value of his words and follow the instructions he so plainly gives. 

The injury to other grains has been small, and with the exception of the as yet 



14 



unexplained " silver-top " injury to hay, this crop in Ontario has not suffered. The 
clover seed midge is now by early cutting comparatively well kept in hand by growers. 

The root crops have been poor for want of rain, turnips suffered severely and late 
in the season all growth was stopped in some districts by enormous quantities of a grey 
aphis. When treated in time these were easily destroyed by spraying with kerosene 
emulsion. Few, however, could be induced to take this trouble so late in the season ; 
preferring to take their chance they did nothing, and as a consequence lost their crop 
of turnips. 

Carrots last year were badly attacked by the carrot fly (Psila rosce), but this year 
very few complaints were received. Radishes and cabbages were badly attacked by 
Anthomyian flies, so well known to gardeners as root maggots. T have, however, during 
the past summer had such success with Prof. Cook's carbolic acid treatment, that I had 
no trouble in growing radishes entirely free from attack, right through the summer. 
This remedy consists of one gallon of water in which two quarts of soft soap have been 
dissolved. Into this when boiling hot one pint of crude carbolic acid is put, and after 
being boiled and stirred for a short time, is put by in bottles. When required for use 
I put one cupful in a watering can with fifty cupfuls of soft water. This 
when stirred up a little is ready for use, and is watered by means of a rose all over the 
beds, beginning three days after the seed is sown and continuing once a week until the 
radishes are ready for the table. It can be watered all over the foliage and will have 
no effect, either on the vegetation or in giving any offensive taste to the vegetable. 
For cabbages the most successful treatment was as follows : — At the time of planting 
out gas-lime was sprinkled lightly all round each plant. About first July the earth was 
well hoed up round the stems and another light application was made. This substance 
was also found very beneficial by Mr. E. Bell, of Archville, in preventing to a large 
extent the attacks of the onion maggot. In this case it was sown very lightly broadcast 
over the whole bed — once a fortnight, — from the beginning of the season until the middle 
of August. 

Potatoes suffered in some localities from the Colorado potato beetle. This pest^ 
however, is so easily and cheaply kept down with Paris green that it is not necessary 
to speak of it at greater length. 

The imported white cabbage butterfly (Pieris Rapce), committed serious injury 
throughout the Province, notwithstanding the fact that myriads of the larvae were 
destroyed by the fungous disease known as flacherie. This disease has been noticed for 
the last seven or eight years from the virulence of its attacks upon the larvae of this 
insect ; but this year the caterpillars having appeared in undue numbers, its presence 
seemed to force itself upon everyone's notice. Great injury was done by these cater- 
pillars before the epidemic developed and it was necessary to have recourse to active 
remedies. Of these, without doubt, insect powder (Pyrethrum) is the best. This 
material can be mixed with four or five times its weight of common flour. With one of the 
many insect-guns and a very little practice, a large number of plants can be dusted in 
a short time Treatment with a tea of this poison was not so successful as the dry 
application. 

Orchards have in some districts fared worse than other crops. In the first place the leaf- 
ing out of the trees was retarded in early spring by the want of rains. The enormous numbers 
of Clisiocampa and a goodly host of other caterpillars, at one time threatened to entirely 
strip the foliage from the apple trees. In Nova Scotia the apples were from various causes 
reduced to one-quarter of the average crop. Two particular insects were most complained 
of, ''the canker worm" and the pear-blight beetle Xyleborus disj?ar, Fab., (Xyleborus pyri). 
This latter was called, locally, " the shot-borer," from the resemblance of its tunnels to 
small shot holes. It has done much injury. Many specimens have been sent to me from 
the Annapolis Valley, and by the kind assistance of Mr. T. E. Smith, of the Nova Scotia 
nursery at Cornwallis, N.S., a close and careful observer, I have been put in possession 
of much useful knowledge with regard to this insect. Mr. Smith is under the impres- 
sion that they do attack healthy trees. He writes : " One of my neighbours has lost 
about forty fine healthy apple trees, mostly Gravensteins and King of Tompkins. They 
attack the butt, and in some cases well into the limbs of young and bearing trees a foot 



15 



in diameter, mostly on the north side of the trees.' 5 ' One specimen of apple wood cut 
from a branch two inches in diameter and apparently in a living condition, produced, as 
well as the pear-blight beetle, several specimens of Monarthrum mali, another injurious- 
species somewhat resembling the above, but even smaller. A noticeable feature of 
every specimen of injured wood submitted to me was that the trees from which 
they were cut were very badly attacked by the " Oyster-shell bark louse." Opinions- 
seem to differ as to whether these beetles will attack vigorous, healthy trees. Efforts 
will be made to induce the Nova Scotia fruit growers to treat their trees for the "Oyster- 
shell bark louse," which alone, without the assistance of these borers, are sufficient to 
rob the trees of much power for bearing fruit. Last spring I was much pleased'at receiving 
from Mr. A. J. Hill, of New Westminster, B.C., some twigs of apple covered with this 
bark louse, which, when enclosed in a breeding jar, produced hundreds of the useful 
little parasite Aphelinus aspidiotidls. Every scale seemed to be destroyed. After- 
saving a few specimens for the cabinet I turned the others loose in an infested apple 
tree, and hope next year to find that they are established here. In our own Province 
by far the worst enemy the orchardist has had to contend with is the codling worm 
(Carpocapsa pomonella.) There is now no doubt that the use of arsenical poisons is the 
only practicable remedy for this pest. I refer to it now for a special reason. In the 
Canadian Horticulturist for August appeared what I cannot but consider a most injurious 
and ill-advised article. In it the writer, who, by the way, does not give his name, 
writers of such articles seldom do, makes several bare statements without giving any 
proof, warning fruit growers against using arsenic in any form, and draws a vivid pic- 
ture of the ills which may come from neglecting his advice. This article will be 
answered in full elsewhere; but I wish to draw attention to two of his statements, 
viz. : 

"That although the mineral arsenic is insoluble in water it is freely soluble in the 
. acids resulting from decomposition of vegetable matter — and is then readily 
taken up by the roots of plants, especially by those of the coarser vegetables, as the 
potato, etc." 

" Similarly also, in applying solutions of Paris Green to the apple blossom, it is not 
only that the petals are destroyed, but the poison may be absorbed by the fruit — " 

Now the injury of this article is this : In the first place the statements are inaccurate 
and secondly being published where it is, it' will be read by a large class of people who 
will not be able to detect the inaccuracy, and who sooner than run any risk will let 
their crops be destroyed so as to be on the safe side, and besides this there is no doubt 
that it is less trouble not to make this application, and we all know how easy it is to 
take a ready-made excuse for not doing a thing which we know ought to be clone ; but if 
there is the slightest doubt about the propriety of an action we seldom even need an 
excuse to be prepared for us. Now, Entomologists have been for years trying to persuade 
fruit growers to save their apples and plums by using these arsenical poisons, and Prof. 
Forbes has shown by most careful experiments, that at least 75% more of a crop can 
be preserved by their use than by leaving the trees alone. Fruit growers were just 
beginning to be awakened to the value of these remedies when "0." (of Durham, Ont.)y. 
.comes out with his injurious article. In answer to it I say — if care be taken to apply 
this remedy as directed by Entomologists no danger can result from its use. As to its 
being absorbed into the potato tubers, " 0," seems to forget that these bodies are not 
roots, nor are they filled from the roots. They are merely swellings at the ends of under- 
ground stems, such as are known to botanists as " winter-buds," and are reservoirs for 
the storing up of reserve material chiefly taken in by the foliage for the use of the 
next year's growth. Even then were it possible for any appreciable amount of the 
arsenic to get to the roots and be absorbed by them, which I very much doubt, it would 
be impossible for it to get into the tubers. Prof. Cook, of the Michigan Agricultural 
College, had some very careful analyses* made of plants specially treated with arsenic. 
Paris green was put on the foliage as strong as possible without killing the plants, and 
it was also put on the ground where it would be worked to the roots. Both vines and' 



16 






tubers were analysed by a very careful chemist, but not a trace of arsenic could be 
found. Again, with regard to the injury to apples, the poison should not be applied 
until after the petals have fallen, and when consequently the ovaries are fertilised and 
the stigmatic disk is incapable of absorbing anything, much less a caustic solution of 
arsenic. 

Here the general broad principles upon which insect remedies are applied was 
explained and listened to with interest. 

• ••••••••••• • • • •• 

Before closing the President said, — " It is with feelings of the deepest regret that 
I have to refer to a severe loss our Society has sustained since the last meeting in the 
removal by death of one of its most active and esteemed members, Mr. George J. 
Bowles, of Montreal. This gentleman was for several years a member of the Council, 
and was also, at the time of his death, the President of the Montreal Branch, in which 
he always took a keen interest, and in the foundation of which he took an active part. 
His quiet, modest manner made him a favourite with all his associates, while his ability 
as a naturalist was acknowledged by every one who had intercourse with him. He was 
a regular contributor to the publications of the Society, and also prepared many valuable 
papers for the Montreal Branch. 

He paid particular attention to the lepidoptera, of which he had extensive and 
choice collections both of Canadian and exotic species. 

Mr. Bowles was a native of Quebec, where he was born in 1837 ; he leaves a wife 
and three children, for whom, in their bereavement, our deepest sympathy is called 
forth. 

Another of our members who has passed away is Mr. Charles Chapman, of London. 
Mr. Chapman as well as taking an active interest in our Society, was also a patron of 
art, and has been styled the Father of the Western Ontario Art School. 

In closing, I wish to draw special attention to the beautiful collection of Coleoptera 
exhibited by Mr. Harrington this evening, and this collection, I think, will illustrate 
some of the points upon which I have spoken to-night. The method and care with which 
they are arranged, and the neatness with which all are named and mounted, point 
out far better than I can explain the educational value of the study of Entomology. 

JAMES FLETCHER. 



ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 

The election of officers was then proceeded with, and the following gentlemen were 
duly and unanimously elected : — 

President — James Fletcher, Ottawa. 

Vice-President — E. Baynes Reed, London. 

Secretary-Treasurer — W. E. Saunders, London. 

Librarian and Curator — E. Baynes Reed, London. 

Council — W. Hague Harrington, Ottawa ; Rev. T. W. Fyles, Quebec ; J. Alston 
Moffat, Hamilton; J. M. Denton, London; Rev. Geo. W. Taylor, Victoria, B.C. 

Editor Canadian Entomologist — Rev. C. J. S. Bethune, Port Hope. 

Editing Committee — Prof. W. Saunders, Ottawa ; J, M. Denton, London ; Dr. 
Wm. Brodie, and Capt. Gamble Geddes, Toronto. 

Auditors — J. M. Denton and E. Baynes Reed, London. 

Delegate to Royal Society — H. H. Lyman, Montreal. 



17 



THE COTTON MOTH IN CANADA. 

Rev. C. J. S. Bethune, of Port Hope, read the following paper : — 

It may seem at first sight somewhat out of place to bring before the Entomological 
Society of Ontario an insect whose name and food-plant are so essentially Southern as 
the Cotton Moth — A letia xylina, Say ; A argillacea, Hubn. It is, however, by no means 
an uncommon insect in this Province and other northern parts of America, and has this 
year occurred in large numbers at Port Hope. On the 7th and 8th of October I saw in 
the day-time many specimens of the moth in my garden, darting, when disturbed, from 
one place of concealment to another — generally the shelter of a fallen leaf. On Sunday, 
the 9th, a warm, damp evening, they were very abundant, being especially attracted by 
light ; and the next day I gathered up over 40 specimens underneath an electric street 
lamp, not far from my house, where they had been emptied out of the globe by the 
lamp-cleaner. The night before, I had noticed hundreds of moths flying about this lamp, 
pursued by the usual attendant bats, and waited for below by the expectant toads. 
Most of these must have been Cotton Moths, as I found only one specimen of any other 
insect among the more than two score that I gathered up the next day. At the same 
time, viz., on Oct. 8, 9, and 10, the shore of Lake Ontario, about a mile to the south of 
where I live, and a little east of Port Hope harbour — was covered with the same moths, 
evidently washed up by the waves. Some were alive, some nearly drowned, but the 
great majority dead. 

The question that I wish to bring before the Society is, Where did all these Cotton 
Moths come from 1 Have they flown up from the South on the wings of the wind, or 
are they natives of our own country 1 Were this the only instance of their appearance 
here, I should answer at once that they must have come to us from the cotton fields of 
the Southern States, where they are always excessively numerous and destructive. But 
many of my friends, as well as myself, have repeatedly found this moth in abundance in 
Canada. As long ago as 1865 I observed it in great numbers late in September on 
fallen fruit, and nearly every year since it has been more or less common in the autumn. 
It has been found here in Ottawa, in Quebec, in various parts of Ontario, high up in the 
Adirondack mountains in the State of New York, at Racine in Wisconsin, etc., always 
in the autumn, late in September or in the beginning of October. 

Professor Riley, Chief of the Entomological Commission of the United States, and 
the highest authority on the subject in North America, is strongly of opinion that the 
moth migrates to these northern regions from the cotton States in the South. He con- 
siders that the insect possesses ample powers of flight for traversing such a distance 
and believes that though it may breed for a season or two in Canada and the Northern 
States, it does not become a permanent inhabitant, but is really a purely Southern species. 
On the other hand, many northern Entomologists have agreed with me in thinking that 
the moth must live in the north as well as in the south, and must therefore feed 
upon some other plant besides the cotton — some indigenous member of the mallow family 
(Malvacece). Our reasons for this opinion are (1) That the moth is so common over the 
whole of the north, from Maine to Wisconsin ; (2) That the specimens we find are per- 
fectly fresh, with their wings entire, and the scales unrubbed — without, in fact, any 
indication that would lead one to suppose that they had just arrived from a flight of a 
thousand miles ; (3) That a specimen was taken by Dr. Hoy, in Wisconsin, with the fore 
and hind wings on one side in a deformed and crippled state, evidently showing that it 
had recently emerged from the chrysalis, and that it could not have flown any distance * 
(4) That a female was captured also by Dr. Hoy near his residence at Racine, about the 
middle of June. 

The fact that I mentioned at the outset that vast numbers of the moth were this 
year washed up on the shore of Lake Ontario, seems at first sight to tell against our 
view and to strengthen that of Prof. Riley. But after all, we have no evidence to show 
from which direction these moths came, whether they were flying across the lake from 
the south and fell into the water when near the northern shore, for they could not have 
been floating for any great distance, or whether they were blown at night off the land 

2 (bn.) 



18 




into the water. I am myself strongly inclined to the latter opinion, because we so often 
find at Port Hope large quantities of insects washed up on the lake-shore at different 

times in the summer, and as far as my observation 
goes, always on the days following a stiff northerly 
wind or squall during the preceding night. We have 
found, for instance, in June, hundreds of specimens of 
the large green Carab, Calosoma scrutator, (Fig. 1) — 
usually a very rare beetle indeed — and others of the 
same genus ; these are carnivorous insects, feeding 
upon caterpillars and other destructive creatures, and 
are said to especially frequent wheat fields at night. 
There has been no extraordinary occurrence of these 
beetles in the State of New York that I have ever 
heard of, and the prevalent winds, especially at night,, 
have not led me to suppose that they could have got 
into the lake from any other quarter except from our 

Fig. 1. own fields ' 

This question about the Cotton Moth has been several times discussed at meetings 
of the Entomological Club of the American Association, and so far we have not been 
able to arrive at any definite conclusion. My object in bringing it before our Society 
to-day is to try and enlist the services of Canadian entomologists and botanists in settling 
the question finally. What we want to ascertain is whether the insect breeds in this 
country, and if so, what its food-plant is. The Cotton-plant (Gossypium herbaceum) 
belongs to the Mallow family {Malvaceae), and therefore we naturally expect the cater- 
pillar of the Cotton Moth to feed upon one or more plants of this botanical family. 
There are none, however, indigenous to Canada, but several are common in gardens, such 
as the Hollyhock, and Hibiscus, and the Mallow weed. We should be very glad if all 
our botanists, as well as entomologists, would keep a look out upon plants of this family 
next season, and report at once if they find them infested with caterpillars of any kind. 
I have no doubt that our President, Mr. Fletcher, will willingly undertake to examine 
and identify any specimens that may be sent to him, and I shall be glad to do the same, 
if it is found more convenient to communicate with me. 

Before closing, it may be interesting to mention that the destructiveness of this 
insect in the cotton fields of the South is almost beyond belief. Prof. Riley shews in 
his report, from carefully obtained statistics, that during the fourteen years succeeding 
the civil war in the United States the average number of bales of cotton produced 
amounted to 3,449,200 per annum, and that 594,497 bales were lost during the years of 
worst attacks by this insect ; the value of these bales, at a low average price, was no 
less a sum than $29,711,000 ! Of late years the percentage of loss has been much 
diminished by the use of Paris green and other arsenical poisons, for which the planters 
have very largely to thank their entomological friends. The loss in 1881, for instance, 
is computed at 193,482 bales, worth a little less than $9,000,000 — a saving of about 
twenty millions of dollars per annum. Much of this improvement may undoubtedly 
be placed to the credit of entomologists, and certainly the country gets back many 
hundredfold the few thousand dollars spent upon this branch of economic science. 



Prof. Macoun suggested the basswood tree as a possible food-plant of the larvae, 
because there were not in the district sufficient malvaceous plants to furnish food for such 
numbers of insects. 

Mr. Fletcher said that careful search had been made for several years on this tree, 
as well as on all plants allied to the cotton plant, but no traces of larvae had been found. 
He had hitherto been inclined to believe that the moth bred in Canada, and that the 
theory of migration from the cotton States was not tenable, but what he had learned 
concerning the appearance of these insects this autumn had somewhat changed his. 
views. 



19 



Mr. W. Hague Harrington stated that the appearance of the moths had been very 
noticeable at Ottawa at almost the same date as they were observed at Port Hope. The 
first week of October had been comparatively wet, with calms and light winds varying 
from east through south to west. Sunday, 9th October, had been a remarkably mild day, 
and on that evening the moths had swarmed at some electric lights. On the following 
morning he had observed upon the front of the Ottawa Bank a great number of moths, 
at least 250 or 300. The building faced the north, being situated opposite the Parliament 
Square, and had in front of it an electric light. Moths were also seen at several points 
in the city, but not in any great number. From the fresh, unrubbed condition of all those 
seen he then thought that they could not have flown far, and that possibly they might 
have been bred upon some of the plants on the Government grounds. Since hearing Mr. 
Bethune's paper, however, he was more inclined to favour the migration theory. 

Mr. J. Alston Moffat reported that on Friday night, 7th October, immense swarms 
had appeared at Hamilton. He was informed by a friend that on that evening they had 
been around the electric lights literally in millions — the number being so great that he 
could not attempt to give an idea of them, other than by saying that all the insects 
previously observed by him were as nothing in comparison. Mr. Moffat visited the 
section of the city where they had been most numerous, on the following afternoon, and 
found the ground for a space of several yards around each electric light pole covered with 
these insects, every inch having at least one moth. Immense numbers had been crushed 
under foot, but the rest were lively, and darted off in their accustomed manner when 
disturbed. That night they were very abundant, but Sunday evening was wet and their 
numbers were lessened. 

Mr. J. M. Denton said that in London the moths had not been observed, although 
there was an electric light quite near his house. 

After the discussion the general opinion of the meeting was that a migration seemed 
indicated, and it was resolved that endeavours should be made to find out if the moths 
had been observed at points intermediate between Canada and the Southern States. 

Mr. Fletcher exhibited some beautiful paintings, kindly loaned by Mr. Scudder, of 
four species of Thecla, viz., strigosa, acadica,' calanus and Edwardsii, and he also showed 
specimens of several species of these butterflies, and pointed out the points of distinction 
or affinity. 

It being one o'clock, the meeting adjourned until 2.30 p.m. 

The afternoon session opened by the reading of a paper contributed by Prof. E. W. 
Clay pole, " Suggestions to Teachers on Collecting and Preserving Insects," followed by 
two by Capt. Gamble Geddes, on " Several .Remarkable Captures during the Summer of 
1887 in Ontario," and " Notes on the Genus Argynnis whilst Alive in the Imago State." 



SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS ON COLLECTING AND PRESERVING 

INSECTS. 

BY E. W. CLAYPOLE, AKRON, OHIO. 

In a short paper which appeared in the Canadian Entomologist in July last, I 
mentioned my own experience on the value of gasoline for killing insects for the cabinet. 
The hints then given were not intended to be of service to professional Entomologists, if 
there are any such persons, or to amateurs possessing abundance of time and means, but 
to students and to teachers with whom time is short. I pointed out its superiority over 
chloroform and cyanide of potassium in rapidity of action and in safety, while its use is 
attended with no injurious effect on the specimens. I now wish to add a few words with 
especial reference to the preservation of collections after they have been made. 

Here, too, I desire to make it plain at the outset that these hints are also intended 
mainly for the hard worked teacher or professor whose attention is probably distracted 



20 



by being compelled to teach not only Entomology, but also all the Natural Sciences — a 
load amply sufficient to keep several men busy. 

For my own part, after many years of alternate collection and loss of Entomological 
specimens, I almost abandoned the effort in despair after finding some of my cases tilled 
with webs, cocoons and moths of Tinea pellionella, etc., and most of the specimens either 
destroyed or badly damaged. The task seemed hopeless without more time and attention 
than I was able to give. I may say that I had for some years been using gasoline to kill 
specimens, but her« my use of it ended. Knowing, however, and feeling the utter impos- 
sibility of teaching Entomology without specimens, I began to consider if it was not possible 
to devise some fairly easy method of keeping my cases free from these and other pests, so 
as to bring the labour within reasonable limits. I first reduced their capacity, in order 
that they and their contents might be as compact as possible, and also that " all the eggs 
might not be in the same basket." My cases are now made about twenty inches by 
twelve, and about one inch and a quarter in depth. Their sides and ends consist of black 
walnut, well jointed and about one inch thick. The glass top is set in a rabbet with 
putty, and is consequently quite insect-proof. The back consists of soft pine or tulip 
wood about three-eighths of an inch in thickness, and is attached to the frame by twelve 
screws. This back, when covered with a coat of manilla paper, is generally soft enough to 
take and hold the pins. But in addition I often line the bottom with sheet-cork, or as the 
cost of this material soon mounts too high, when as many cases are made as even a small 
cabinet requires, I generally employ instead of it some one of the forms of packing that 
are used by druggists — either the strawboard with a backing of cork chips, or the corrugated 
paper made by Thompson & Norris, of Islington, London, and Prince Street, New York. 
Either of these is very effectual, nearly as good as sheet cork, and merely nominal 
in price. 

By setting the glass myself and doing any finishing required for effect, I can obtain 
these cases at about sixty cents each, and in this way a collection, amply sufficient for all 
the purposes of teaching, may be set up for a comparatively small outlay. 

By screwing the back tight up and avoiding opening the cases except in the cold 
weather, I largely reduce the chances of mischief. All the specimens obtained during a 
season are placed in a temporary case until the time for assorting arrives. 

It is, of course, impossible in collecting, and especially in exchanging, to totally 
exclude parasites. Indeed, it is more than likely that many insects are infested when 
they are caught. The disinfection of every specimen singly is a very tedious process, and 
in my own experience proved a very serious barrier to collecting. I therefore now 
arrange all the specimens in their desired places without regard to their condition in this 
respect, and then disinfect them wholesale in the following manner : I have a zinc tray 
of rather larger size than the cases, and about two inches deep. This I fill with gasoline 
and then set the whole case, or at least the back, with its charge of insects in it, and allow 
St to soak for a few minutes until everything is saturated with the liquid. Two or three 
minutes are usually quite sufficient. I then remove them, drain off the superfluous gaso- 
line, and in a few minutes they are dry and ready to be set back and screwed up again. 

By this simple means I secure the purity not only of the insects, but of the case also, 
from parasitic life, for nothing living can endure this ordeal. So far as opportunity has 
offered for observation I believe that the operation is equally fatal to eggs. 

I need hardly remark that there is no trouble to be apprehended with any order 
except the Lepidoptera. Even with these I do not hesitate to employ the same method, 
and find no ill effects from it. Their delicate plumage is not perceptibly injured by free 
saturation with this very volatile liquid. 

Since adopting this plan, I find it only necessary to glance over my cases occasionally 
during the summer, and if the eye detects any sign of mischief, even the minute dust that 
indicates the presence of the mite (A. divlnatoria or pulsatoria), I take out the case, 
loosen the back screws, and place the whole in the gasoline. In five minutes it is 
replaced with the certainty that all life is extinct. 

As I said at the outset, Entomologists with plenty of time will not probably feel 
much interest in the suggestions here made, but I find, in my own experience, that the 



21 



plan above recommended has so far reduced the labour of the work and the disappoint- 
ment incident to it, as to lead me to hope that I shall be able to prepare and keep a col- 
lection of insects in the future without much more outlay of time and thought than is 
required for a collection of dried plants. I think if other teachers who, like myself, are 
short of time and distracted by teaching several subjects, will adopt the same plan, their 
verdict will be equally favourable. 

The cases, too, are convenient, and can be handed round a class for inspection with- 
out risk, while they make a handsome appearance in the museum, and from their neatness 
and showiness and cheapness, they form a strong inducement to the students to undertake 
a collection on their own account — no small argument with the practical teacher. 

Note. — At the close of a few remarks made by the author on this subject before the 
Entomological Club of the American Association at its recent meeting in New York, an 
entomological friend objected that he had found gasoline ineffective to kill many insects, 
and instanced the Catocalas as an example. By a rather curious coincidence, the last 
specimen that I captured before leaving for the meeting was one of these, the Red Under- 
wing (C ultronia), and the first that I captured on my return was the same. In neither 
case was there the slightest trouble \ the insect succumbed immediately.. I may remark 
that, in my own experience, I have found the Tigers (Arctias) the most refractory, requir- 
ing, in some instances, two applications. In most other cases death is almost instan- 
taneous. So effective and so convenient do I find the gasoline that I have for years 
abandoned the use of the more cumbrous and dangerous appliances and now carry only 
an ounce phial of this liquid with me into the field. 



SOME REMARKABLE CAPTURES IN ONTARIO. 

By Gamble Geddes, Toronto. 

The following paper was read on some remarkable captures during the summer of 
1887 in Ontario, by Capt. Gamble Geddes, of Toronto : — 

Pelecinus Polycerator, Say. — I had the good fortune to take the male of the above 
species at Eastwood, Ontario, about the 11th of August. I captured one and saw a 
second a few minutes later, which, however, proved too quick for me, and I missed it 
with the net. 

I have never observed that the females of this insect fly very high, but that the 
the males do, I have no doubt, as the one I caught was very quick and started to fly 
straight up in the air over my head, whilst I barely reached it inside the hoop of a 
long-handled net. The male that I missed capturing, immediately soared aloft and out 
of sight amongst the high branches of the trees. 

I may say that I have watched by the hour for these rare males where the "females 
are in the habit of congregating in large numbers, and have never seen but the two 
specimens above referred to, alive. The only other one I have seen was captured by 
Dr. Brodie, in 1886, at Toronto. 

If any of your subscribers know anything of the life-history of these insects, the 
information would be most acceptable to many readers of the Entomologist in Ontario, as 
I have made several enquiries, as to their habits, with little or no success. There is no 
doubt that the female is slow in her flight, and that she is handicapped by the long abdo- 
men that she is obliged to carry with comparatively diminutive wings. It is no wonder 
that she is not fond of moving about when the wind is blowing, for she is knocked about 
and quite unable to preserve a straight course from one point to another, whilst the male 
with his short club-shaped abdomen, has wings equally large, and to all appearance, 
stronger than the female and can go as he pleases. 



22 



The female does not appear to be capable of long nights, ray observations going to 
prove that when flying from one tree to another at any considerable distance, she will 
drop into the grass for a rest, about half way, and then after remaining in perfect repose 
for several minutes, she will clumsily struggle free of the grass and complete the journey. 
Here, lighting on the leaf of a tree, she moves about selecting a sunny spot, where she sits 
with her abdomen curled up, enjoying the sunshine and the breeze. 

xiColias Philodice, Godt. — (Fig. 2, male; Fig. 3, female.) At Erlescourt, Davenport, 
Ontario, in the early part of September, 1887, I captured a large number of a very dimin- 





Fig. 2. 



Fig. 3. 



utive form of Col. Philodice male and only two females, one being a small albino variety, 
corresponding exactly with the commoner large albino. These two small females were 
laying their eggs upon lucerne (Medicago sativa), and I am curious to know if any of our 
collectors have made any observations with regard to the effect of this food-plant upon the 
size of the larvae of 0. Philodice. It is a curious fact that in this field of lucerne I should 
take all these small specimens, whilst about 300 yards from the same spot the common 
large Philodice was plentiful upon red clover. 

Catocala Relicta, Walk. — In sugaring for Noctuids, etc., the past season, I have been 
fortunate in obtaining excellent examples of these lovely creatures, (Fig. 4) varying in the 




black and white markings of the upper side in a remarkable manner. Whilst some are 
nearly all black and dark grey, with very little white about them, others are snowy 
white with very occasional black patches. In a single pine grove, not fifty yards in 
length, I captured as many of these Relictas as I have done in three or four years by 
trying orchards and woods. The place is very dark and the wind almost entirely 
excluded by the close growth of the pines, and it may be useful to collectors to observe 
this in future when sugaring. 



23 



Papilio Gresphontes, Cram. — There have been several occurences of this butterfly 
(Fig. 5) in the County of Oxford this year. I should be glad to hear from the members 




Fig. 5. 



whether any specimens have been taken during the past summer in other localities in the 
Dominion of Canada generally, and especially the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec. 



In the discussion which followed the paper, Mr. Moffat described his own capture of 
the male of Pelecinus polycerator, and Mr. Fletcher described the unusual abundance at 
Ottawa of Colias philodice. At an excursion of the Field Naturalist's Club to Brittania, 
a few miles from the city, the sandy shore of the Ottawa had been so thickly covered with 
them for a distance of several hundred yards, that at one stroke of the net he had cap- 
tured 47, which, strange to say, were all males. 

Prof. Saunders stated that he had made search near London for the larvae of Papilio 
cresphontes, where it had formerly been captured, but without success. 

Mr. Fletcher exhibited a fine collection of Canadian species of the genus Chionobas, 
and explained the great value of these insects on account of their rarity hitherto in collec- 
tions. G. Macounii Edw. was a new species which had been collected by Prof. Macoun, 
at Nepigon, in 1885, and the Rocky Mountains in 1886. Closely allied to it was G Gigas 
Butler, of which until the past summer only three specimens were known in collections. 
Other beautiful species exhibited and described were G. Calif ornica, G. Chryxus, C. Jutta, 
G. Varuna and G. Uhleri, of which Prof. Macoun had taken specimens in the Rocky 
Mountains. 

A pleasant and valuable paper by the Rev. George W. Taylor, of Victoria, B. C, 
was read, describing an ascent of Mount Finlayson, B. C, in search of G. Gigas, and the 
success which had attended the party. 



24 



VISIT TO THE HOME OF OHIONOBAS GIGAS, BUTLER. 

The paper which follows was contributed by Rev. G. W. Taylor, of Victoria, British 
Columbia. 

When my friend, Mr. James Fletcher, the Dominion Entomologist, was staying 
with me in May and June. 1885, we made an excursion together to Mount Finlayson 
(an isolated conical mountain, situated at the head of the Saanich Inlet, about ten 
miles from Victoria), which he thought must be the locality where the original specimens 
of Chionobas Gigas were taken by Mr. Crotch, in 1876. Our visit was on June 15th. 
Mr. Fletcher had been there previously in search of this butterfly on April 26th and 
May 22nd. On none of these occasions, however, did we capture Gigas, but we were 
well rewarded by taking many other species not previously seen by either of us on 
Vancouver Island. Amongst them my first specimen of the somewhat abundant (in 
British Columbia), Parnassius Clodius, which was mentioned by Mr. Crotch as the 
consort of C. Gigas at the time of his visit. 

We concluded we were too early for the latter. Mr. Fletcher left for Eastern 
Canada the next day, and I could not find an opportunity of again visiting the mountain 
that year. 

In 1886 I was at the same place with a couple of friends on June 29th, but though 
well repaid for our trouble in other ways, we caught not a glimpse of Gigas. 

This year we determined that he should be caught if possible, and at last success 
favoured us. 

A picnic was arranged for May 17th. Our party consisted of Prof. Macoun, of 
Ottawa, and his son ; Mr. J. W. Tolmie (an enthusiatic Entomologist), and about a dozen 
other ladies and gentlemen. Again no success : we were much too early. 

We tried again on June 30th (this is a very late season for insects in Vancouver 
Island), and this time had better luck. Prof. Macoun and Mr. Tolmie were again with 
me and a party similar to the last. 

We started from home betimes and were at Goldstream House, the nearest point 
by road, by eight a.m. There is a tiresome walk of some two miles through the forest 
to the base of the hill, and then a stiff climb of 1,300 feet to the summit. Our progress 
was slow on account of the ladies, but we had all accomplished the ascent, and enjoyed 
our luncheon by 12 o'clock. It was then that the first Gigas was sighted, and after an 
exciting chase captured by Mr. Tolmie. For several hours the hunt was kept up, and 
as a result we obtained between us six or seven specimens of our long sought-for butterfly. 
Only two of these fell into my hands, and one was forthwith sent to Mr. Fletcher that 
there should be no doubt as to its being genuine Gigas. 

Prof. Macoun and his son spent several days at Goldstream, and secured several 
additional specimens, and Mr. Tolmie and I not quite contented with our success paid 
another visit to the mountain on July 12. 

The day was much too dull for butterflies to be out in any numbers, but we managed 
to catch about six more, as well as a few other species of interest. All our specimens were 
taken on or near the top of the mountain. C. Gigas on the wing looks at first sight very 
much like a large Argynnis. and I am pretty confident that we saw one specimen of it on 
the first visit I made with Mr. Fletcher in June, 1885. That season was at least three 
weeks earlier than this, and as all our specimens this year were more or less worn I 
should say that the proper time for Gigas will be about the second week in June, and I 
think it will be found to occur commonly enough on Mount Finlayson, and possibly also 
on the many similar hills to be found in oth< r parts of Vancouver Island. 

The locality is not very easy of access, but it is a most interesting one both entomo- 
logically and botanically. Here are found no less than 15 out of our 20 native species of 
ferns, and many other rare plants, as will be seen when Prof. Macoun publishes the 
results of his season's work on the Island. 

Here too, I have met with many interesting insects. Amongst them the following 
butterflies that have not yet occurred to me in the immediate neighbourhood of Victoria : — 
Persius (1), Parnassius Clodius, Argynnis Rhodope, Lyccena Phileros, Lyccena Melissa,, 
Nisoniades and Eudamus Pylades. 



25 



The capture of Gigas brings the list of Vancouver butterflies to a total of 56 species. 
Next year if all is well, I shall make an effort to procure eggs so as to observe Gigas in 
its earlier stages. Caterpillars of all this genus are grass feeders, and should be full fed 
in ordinary seasons towards the latter end of May. 



Prof. Macoun, who had accompanied Mr. Taylor, described the manner of flight of 
this butterfly (Chionobas Gigas), which was swift and ceaseless, as was the case with the 
specimens of G. Macounii taken at Nepigon ; all the specimens taken, it may be added, 
of both these species, were males. 

Mr. Fletcher exhibited three specimens of the rare Papilio Nitra, two taken by 
Prof. Macoun in the Rocky Mountains, the other by Mr. N. H. Cowdry at Regina, 
N.W. T. ; also some interesting species and varieties of Oolias, regarding which there 
was discussion by several of the members. 

Attention was then called to the valuable paper by Mr. H. H. Lyman in the October 
number of the Entomologist, and the beautiful plate accompanying it. A series of the 
moths brought by different members of the Council was examined in connection with 
this paper. 

Mr. J. Alston Moffat exhibited and distributed among the members specimens of 
two new species of moths which had been captured by him at Hamilton, and which had 
been described by Prof. Fernald and Prof. Grote respectively as Proteoteras Moffatiana 
and Scopelosoma Moffatiana. 

Mr. Fletcher snowed specimens of an Halesidota and of its larva?, which had been 
very abundant and destructive upon the Douglas Fir in British Columbia during the 
past year. He also distributed a collection of Coleoptera sent from Vancouver Island 
for this purpose by Rev. G. W. Taylor. 

Mr. W. Hague Harrington read a paper on the "Nuptials of Thalessa," describing 
the emergence and copulation of these the largest of our Hymenoptera. 



THE NUPTIALS OF THALESSA. 

W. Plague Harrington, Ottawa, read the following paper : — 

For several years I have observed with much interest the oviposition of our large 
and handsome " long-stings," but not until this summer have I been able to witness their 
actions preparatory to this duty. Although the males are frequently numerous when 
the females are ovipositing, the sexes pay no attention to one another, and this fact led 
me frequently to wonder at what time mating occurs. Last year I had, in company 
with Mr. Fletcher, observed the males in strange positions, with the tip of the abdomen 
applied to the bark, or inserted in a crevice, and had suggested that they were awaiting 
the emergence of the female. The supposition was, however, not proven, and the actions 
observed were still a matter of conjecture, and for further observation. 

On the afternoon of the 7th June last I visited some old maples (Acer saccharinum) 
for the special purpose of making observations on Oryssus. The trees are in different 
stages of disease and decay, and are correspondingly infested by such borers as Dicerca 
divaricata, Tremex columba, Xiphydria albicornis, Oryssus Sayi, etc., while they attract 
naturally numbers of our larger Pimplidse, such as Thalessa, Xorides, Ephialtes and 
Xylonomus. Upon these trees during their season could generally be found many speci- 
mens of Thalessa, but I had never seen one emerge from its prison into the warmth and 
light of its adult existence. Upon a tree which for years had been much bored by 
Tremex, etc., I, upon the above date, saw several specimens of T. atrata and T. lunator 
ovipositing, and at some distance below them a group of males in an evident state of 
excitement. Three of these had their abdomens inserted more than half way under a 
flake of bark. Here, I congratulated myself, was an opportunity to ascertain whether 



26 



a female was about to emerge. With my knife I pried off the piece of bark, and beheld 
the head of an insect just appearing through the wood. The males had flown away when 
disturbed, and I was afraid that they might not return before the female emerged, but 
two came swiftly back and commenced to pay her attentions before much more than her 
head was visible. As soon as she was out of the burrow she was embraced by one, and 
copulation apparently followed, but did not last long, as she began to crawl up the trunk, 
and when I interfered to prevent her getting out of sight, the male flew away. How- 
ever another was ready to take his place, and the pair were almost instantly in coitu. 
A few seconds later the female attempted to fly, and fell to the ground ; the male disen- 
gaged himself and flew away, and his partner then did the same, starting with a strong 
and rapid flight. 

Visiting another tree not many paces distant, I saw a group of more than a dozen 
males of lunator in very evident anxiety and excitement, their long antennae quivering, 
and their whole demeanor evidencing some powerful emotion. I peeled off a piece of 
bark at the centre of attraction, but found no sign of any insect coming forth. An hour 
or so later, when returning from my ramble, the group was even larger, and several 
were probing a crevice within an inch of the space from which I had stripped the bark. 
Thinking that the female might be here, I cut off another piece of bark, but could find 
no signs of her, although the males were so excited as even to settle on my hands. 

Proceeding to the tree from which I had previously seen a female emerge, I saw 
several males clustered about three inches from where she had come out. Two had the 
abdomen flexed and the tip inserted in a small aperture in the bark. Stripping off the 
fragment of bark, I found that a female was there, and had gnawed her passage so nearly 
through the bark as to have pierced the surface. The males fluttered excitedly around, 
and, as in the first instance, she was embraced before she was wholly emerged, and 
copulation was effected as soon as she was out. Being in a hurry, and wishing to pre- 
serve the specimens, I boxed them, the other males flying around me in great excitement 
until this was achieved. 

Two days later I was able to visit the same locality for the purpose of making 
further observations on these insects. On tree number one I saw at some distance up 
the trunk a small cluster of expectant males. By standing on the top of a dilapidated 
and shaky fence, I was just able to reach the spot and with my knife remove the cover- 
ing of bark. As my position was too precarious for comfortable observation, I secured 
the female as she emerged and carried her to another tree upon which were some males. 
As soon as she commenced to crawl up the trunk, she was eagerly followed and embraced 
by one of the more active males. Copulation took place with four different males — the 
female falling to the ground on each occasion, and being again seized as she crawled up 
— the last union continuing 2 J minutes, after which she flew away unattended. 

On proceeding to tree number two, I found a very large and strongly excited cluster 
of the males in the immediate vicinity of the spot from which I had cut the bark on the 
former day. They were about twenty in number, and were packed so closely together 
that those in the centre could scarcely be seen. Like the inmates of a burning theatre, 
they trampled over one another in their excitement. Displacing them with some diffi- 
culty, I hewed off a slice of bark and revealed the female cutting her way to a new life, 
her head being partially visible. Her ardent admirers immediately swarmed around and 
endeavored to get their abdomens down the burrow, an undertaking in which they im- 
peded one another so greatly that the only result was wedging the female in and pre- 
venting her from emerging. The cluster was soon so dense that she was entirely hidden, | 
and as there seemed no prospect of her getting out for some time under the circnmstances, il 
I began to drive off, or rather forcibly to remove one by one, her besiegers. After nearly 
all were removed, I saw that one of the few remaining had his abdomen inserted its full I 
length in the burrow. As the female was still unable to emerge, I drove off the re- 
maining males, and as soon as the way was clear she came rapidly out. There was instantly, 
fierce rivalry for her favors, but eventually one stronger, or more agile, than his fellows, 1 ' 
succeeded in his desires, the pair remaining about 1 J minutes in coitu, after which the! 
female ceased apparently to have further attractions. 

The foregoing notes (written upon the second date of observation) show that the 



27 



males are able to determine where a female is making her way outward — some time, 
perhaps, as in the last case recorded, many hours before she appears. Whether this is 
ascertained by the sense of hearing or smell, or a combination of both, I do not attem pt 
to say, but the antennae are evidently largely used in locating her, as may be readily 
seen by the way in which the bark is examined with them. When there is a crevice or 
aperture, the male bends his abdomen — at the suture between first and second segments 
-until it is at right angles to the thorax, and endeavors to insert it in the said crevice or 
aperture. He has then the attitude of a female insect ovipositing. As has been men- 
tioned, if the hole is large enough the abdomen will be fully inserted, and it is perhaps 
possible that copulation may take place while the female is yet in the burrow. On 
emergence she is immediately seized, the legs of the male clasping the yet unfolded wings 
with the abdomen, and thus preventing her from flying. From the large number of 
males always about at this season, it is probable that the female seldom, if ever, emerges 
unattended. After the very brief honeymoon, she is no longer an attraction to the 
opposite sex, and is able to proceed unmolested with her work of depositing the germs 
of a future generation. I may add that of the pair confined by me the male died the 
same or following day, while the female was strong and vigorous until she unadvisedly 
entered a cyanide bottle. 



SPECIES, VARIETIES, AND CHECK LISTS. 

A paper on this subject was read by J. Alston Moffatt, of Hamilton, as follows : — 

That a very considerable diversity of opinion obtains amongst writers " On what con- 
stitutes a species ? " is apparent to all readers of works on biology, and the discussions 
ibout species and varieties make it manifest that the question has not yet been settled 
bo the satisfaction of all. 

Therefore, when one is going to speak on the subject, the first thing he ought to do 
X) prevent misunderstanding, is to give as clearly as possible the view he holds about 
ihe terms. 

Mine is, that fertile progeny is an unmistakeable evidence of oneness of species, 
egardless of external differences, and that within the bounds of species as thus stated, 
i limit to variations cannot be set. 

That breeding does, in some manner define species, seems to be acknowledged by 
ill. For whenever it is proved, that diverse forms that were called species have a 
common parentage, they are by general consent termed varieties. 

It is not possible in entomology to adopt, in every case, this the natural mode of 
ietermining species. 

The scientific one of determining them by external marks, is the only available 
3ne at first, in most cases, but it is necessarily uncertain, for who shall say that there 
lave not been, or may not yet be varieties of it found. 

So that as knowledge increases, species are always liable to be turned into varieties. 

Now here comes in a constant source of trouble ; it seems that some consider it 
bhe proper thing to do, when various forms are proved to have a common parentage, 
:o wipe out all the names but one. 

I protest most emphatically as a collector, and in the interest of collectors, against 
>his habit of abolishing names, simply because they cannot be called species. 

The impression is getting abroad that we have too many species in our lists ■ 
:hat may be perfectly true, and yet it does not necessarily follow that we have too 
nany names. 

Mr. Grote, in his instructive article on "Representative Species," says, — "It is a 
ittle odd to notice, in this matter of varieties, how anxious some writers are to draw 
n the species of others, — and how indifferent they are about drawing in their own 
varieties." This sentence clearly indicates the unsatisfactory condition this whole 
jubject is in. 

I see that this process of " drawing in," is going on in every department of 
aiology. 



28 



If it is not judiciously done, it is well calculated to inflict grievous injustice on 
the industrious workers that went before, and a corresponding loss and labour on those 
that come after. 

Let us look how it works in practice ; take as an illustration of the wrong done 
to the students and investigators of the past, and the loss sustained by the collectors of 
the present, an extreme but well known example, Caberodes confusaria, Hub., a moth 
that has been redescribed eight times at least, from the fact of its having a large 
number of distinct varieties. 

' A beginner takes one form, he gets it named Caberodes confusaria, Hub., he turns 
to his list, marks it off, and thinks he is done with it ; takes another which he thinks is 
different, gets the same name for that, and yet another, and so on, it may be through 
the whole series ; not a shadow of indication, it may be, in his check list to intimate to 
him that it was a variable insect he had to deal with, and his feeling about it will be- 1 
one of confusion, if not of disgust. 

Now, if the proper names of these varieties with the authority had been retained,, 
a glance at his list would have warned him what he was to expect of this insect, and if 
he had access to the writings of these authors, he could easily have got the names for 
himself, thus getting the full benefit of the labours of those that went before him, but as 
it is at present, these are as good as lost to him, and he has to go over the same ground 
again for himself ; this does not look like advancing science, but a throwing away of 
advances gained. 

Synonyms, of course, must go, but where a variety has been named, even if it be but 
the extreme of intergrades, let it stay j it is surely far better to run the risk of having 
too many variety names than attempt to consolidate them all under one by calling it 
species ; but some may say who is to decide which is the species and which the variety. 

I think Mr. W. H. Edwards has settled that question effectually, — they are all 
varieties, it takes the whole series to make up the species. 

Priority may settle precedence. Adopt this principle, and it stops at once, and for 
all time the contention amongst the authorities whether theirs is the species or the 
variety. 

We have the proof of experience, that no one form stands as the progenitor of all 
the others, but that each is quite capable of producing any one, or all of the rest. Now 
look at how this would affect the arrangement of our cabinets. 

We should have Caberodes confusaria Hub., as the name of the species, not to be 
attached to any form, but including all, then we should have confusaria var. this, that 
and the others, as far as we had obtained material. Thus avoiding the use of three 
names on a label, which we all know is exceedingly inconvenient ; giving us a clear and 
comprehensive view of a variable insect, and adding greatly to the interest, value, and 
scientific exactness of our collections. If this principle of dealing with varieties was 
adopted for all kinds, which Mr. Edwards applies only to seasonal ones, there would have 
to be a considerable addition made to the names on our lists. Take any species with 
varieties : — 

Catocala relicta, for instance, has three well defined forms, each as truly relicta, as 
the others, two only have separate names, so we want yet another name to give natural- 
ness to our view of the species relicta. 

As to how we lose by our present method, which of us has any definite conception 
of Drasteria erechtea as a species ; we are all familiar enough with bits of it. I see by 
Mr. Grote's list that it has been endowed with nine names in its time, and I doubt not 
they could be all occupied to advantage. If I could have got separate names for my 
different forms I should have collected all I could find, but varieties without names in a- 
collection are a confusion and a nuisance ; yet each one is needed to give a correct view< 
of the species as it exists in nature, but our present method offers no inducement to 
follow it out, as they occupy no permanent place in our literature, whatever they may 
do in nature ; yet it appears to me that the production of varieties, is one of the most 
intensely interesting operations that is going on in nature's vast laboratory, and well 
worthy of our closest observation and study. 



29 



Rev. C. J. S. Eethune submitted a circular letter from Prof. Alfred Wailly, of 
England, asking for specimens of any silk moths or their cocoons. 

Mr. Fletcher drew attention to an article which bad appeared in the August number 
of the Canadian Horticulturist, condemning the use of Paris green as an insecticide. He 
considered that article inaccurate and very injurious, as it might prevent the farmers from 
making use of this most valuable remedy, and in confirmation of his opinion read a letter 
from Prof. A. J. Cook describing experiments with Paris green, and proving that do ill 
effects could result from eating potatoes or fruit upon which it was used in the ordinary 
manner for the prevention of insect attacks. 

Mr. Harrington submitted a note on " Further Observations on Oryssus Sayi" in 
which attention was also drawn to a clerical error in the paper on that insect in the May 
number of the Entomologist. 

A vote of thanks was unanimously ordered to be conveyed to the Mayor and City 
Oouncil for the use of the council chamber and committee room in the City Hall for the 
meetings of the Society. 

The meeting adjourned at 6 p.m,, sine die. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE 

ADVAN.CEMENT OF SCIENCE. 

The Club met at New York on Tuesday, August 9th, 1887, at 2.30 p. m. The 
President, Professor Comstock, of Cornell University, Ithaca, took the chair, and Mr. J. 
B. Smith, of Washington, D.C., acted as Secretary, in the absence of Mr. E. Baynes Reed, 
of London, Ont. 

Meetings were held from time to time during the session of the A. A. A. S. The 
following persons were present at some or all of the meetings of the Club : — Prof. J. H. 
Comstock, Ithaca, N.Y. ; J. A. Lintner, Albany, N.Y. ; Prof. C. V. Riley, J. B. Smith, 
Washington, D.O. ; E. L. Graef, Rev. G. D. Hulst, Brooklyn, N.Y. ; W. Beutenmiiller, 
G. W. J. Angell, New York ; Mr. and Mrs. E. W. Claypole, Akron, 0. ; Mr. and Mrs. 
H. F. Bassett, Waterbury, Conn. ; Prof. A. J. Cook, Agric. College, Mich. ; G. Dimmock, 
Cambridge, Mass. ; Dr. P. A. Hoy, Racine, Wis. ; J. H. Emerton, Boston, Mass. ; Rev. 
J. G. Morris, Baltimore, Ind. ; A. S. Fuller, Ridge wood, N.J. ; Mr. and Mrs. E. D. 
Southwick, F. B. Chittenden, E. C. M. Rand, Dr. Maury and others. 

The Entomological Society of Ontario was represented by Prof. W. Saunders, of 
Ottawa. 

The President read his annual address, giving a history of the various systems of 
classification of insects since the time of Linnaeus, and especially dwelling upon the more 
recent subdivisions of some orders by Brauer and Packard. The address is to be printed 
in a new introductory work on Entomology. Prof. Riley, commenting upon the address, 
said that the paper was an important one, and he fully realized the difficulties in coming 
to a final and satisfactory conclusion. For his part he liked the old classifications, based 
on the trophi and pterostic characters ; they had the merit of being well defined and 
easily limited. He did not believe in the creation of numerous orders, but would rather 
consider them aberrant groups or sub-orders, if necessary. Classification, however, for 
some time to come must be a matter of opinion. Many classifications have been proposed 
since that of Linnaeus, have had their day, and have been forgotten. He had the highest 
respect for Dr. Brauer, but he did not entirely agree with him. He did not think too 
much stress should be given to the adolescent states, which more than anything were 
subject to independent changes by their environment. 

Mr. J. B. Smith said he was glad Prof. Comstock had chosen the subject he did, for 
he had long wished that the gist of Brauer's classification could be presented in an acces- 
sible form to American students, and Prof. Comstock's paper did that to some extent. He 
agreed thoroughly with Prof. Riley in his estimate of the value of the adolescent stages. 



30 



In th^ Lepidoptera for instance the larvae of Alypia, Psychomorpha and Eudryas are 
scarcely distinguishable, while the imagoes certainly belong to different families. He 
thought it required considerable courage often, to carry out consistently the idea of giving 
value to structure, irrespective of number of species or genera. In the Coleoptera only 
they have consistently based families on structure, whether there was one species or 
thousands. 

Under the call of papers, Mr. Smith read from printed proofs a paper on the species 
of Callimorpha, prepared for the U. S. Nat'l Mus. Proa, illustrated by blackboard 
sketches. He made nine species of the American forms instead three as heretofore recog- 
nized, and pointed out the differences between them, making the pattern of maculation 
the criterion of his species. 

Mr. Graef expressed his dissent from Mr. Smith's views, and showed how in his 
opinion the maculation could be so modified as to produce the different forms. 

Prof. Riley commenting on Mr. Smith's paper said that he did not agree with him 
at all. He thought that there was but a single white species and possibly there may be 
three rather well marked species, with three moderately well marked larval forms. He 
said that in variation not only colour changes but sometimes the pattern does also. Es- 
pecially is this true in forms that have more than a single brood annually. He instanced 
cases in the Tortricidce, where forms appear, so different in pattern that there seems no 
possible connection between them, but bred from the same hatch of eggs. 

Mr. Hulst also expressed his dissent from Mr. Smith's views. He thought that the 
variability of other species in the Arctiidce was well established by breeding, and it should 
be at least considered probable that other species in the same group varied as much. He 
had taken specimens numerously, and it seemed to him that he had taken forms from the 
lightest to the darkest under such circumstances as to make it very certain they were one 
species. 

Mr. Smith replied briefly, admitting the possibility that the white forms may be 
albino forms of dark species, but again emphasizing the differences in pattern as indicative 
of specific value.* 



On Wednesday, August 10th, the Club met at 9.20 a.m. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year : — 

President — Mr. John B. Smith, Washington, D.O. 
Vice-President— Prof. J. A. Lintner, Albany, IST.Y. 
Secretary — ; Prof. A. J. Cook, Agricultural College, Mich. 



Mr. Basset enquired whether anyone could tell him positively how many broods of 
the currant worm there are annually. 

Prof. Cook said in Michigan there are two ; Dr. Morris said two near Baltimore, Md.; 
Prof. Riley said probably three in the south, but this is uncertain, as the insect is rarely 
injurious there and attracts less attention ; he believes there are three from information 
he has received, but there are only two broods in the north where it is injurious. Prof. 
Comstock said they have two broods at Ithaca, N.Y. 

Mr. Bassett said that until recently he had believed the same, but last summer a 
friend brought him every few days eggs and larvae in all stages throughout the season ; he 
was very much surprised at this and thought it indicated more than two generations. 

Prof. Riley replied that this was true ; they did appear in that way, but that was 
caused merely by the difference in the time required for development, some running 
through their transformations much more rapidly than others. There are, however, only 
two well marked broods, which overlap each other or leave only a very short interval 
between them. 



* For further discussion of this subject vide Mr. Lyman's paper in the Can. Entomologist for October, 
1887, page 181, and Mr. Smith's paper O. E., December, 1887, page 235. 



31 



Prof. Cook confirmed this statement. He had, in laboratory experiments, carried 
over the pupae of the spring brood until the following summer, and in the same way the 
codling moth has been carried over. 

In the afternoon the Entomologists and Botanists joined in an excursion by steamer 
to Sandy Hook, which proved very interesting and agreeable. 



On Thursday, August 11th, the Club met again. 

Prof. Saunders, of Ottawa, gave a brief review of what had been done recently in 
the way of establishing Experiment Stations in Canada, at which Entomology in its rela- 
tions to Agriculture formed one of the subjects of experiment. Five stations are proposed — 
a central station at Ottawa, a 2nd in the Maritime Provinces, a 3rd in Manitoba, a 4th in 
the N. W. Territory and the 5th in British Columbia. At the Central Station an Ento- 
mologist — Mr. Fletcher — has been appointed; and a collection of insects of all the sections 
will be formed there. It is intended also that bulletins be issued several times in the 
course of the year to interest the public in the work and demonstrate its general utility. 
He had been travelling about a great deal during the past year and had done little 
Entomological work ; but he bad noticed this spring near Ottawa the larva of Vamssa 
antiopa in immense numbers, stripping willows. It is not usually common with them. 
In Nova Scotia he saw Satyrus alope and nephele in great numbers, with all sorts of in- 
tergrades between. He also found the potato beetle there, which appears in this section 
for the first time. The growers there follow the old fashioned plan of knocking them into 
a pan with a stick. 

Dr. Morris stated that Crioceris asparagi had reached them at Baltimore and proved 
very destructive. Prof. Saunders said it was not yet found in Canada. Prof. Comstock 
said he had found it as far west as Geneva, N.Y. The insect seems to have started from 
Long Island. 

Prof. Cook said that the method of knocking the potato beetles from the plants with 
a stick, is both old and new, for one of the largest growers of potatoes in his section of 
the country had returned to it after trying all kinds of poisons. He claimed it was 
cheaper for him to destroy them in that way, and while Prof. Cook did not understand 
how this could be possible, yet this farmer claims it is so and follows out his belief. 

Prof. Saunders said that in the Maritime Provinces, Nova Scotia and New Bruns- 
wick, he found the larch saw-fly (JVematus erichsonii), extremely abundant and 
destructive. 

Mr. E. C. M. Rand, of New York exhibited some specimens of Coleoptera taken 
from a mummy, and suggested they might be of interest, as perhaps old types. The 
mummy dated back at least as far as 1200 B.C ., and he explained the number of 
wrappers and method of covering, and stated that channels had been made in the 
wrappers, and in these some of the bettles were found. 

Prof. Claypole explained the use of gasoline for collecting purposes. (See his paper : 
"A Practical note on Collecting Insects.") He also exhibited an insect case used by him, 
which he claims to be superior to any equally cheap contrivance. It consists of a box 
frame into which a glass top is permanently fixed ; the bottom is corked, or not as 
desired ; it is filled with specimens and then screwed to the frame. 

Prof. Cook said that he had tried gasoline, and found it much less rapid and 
certain than cyanide properly prepared ; he did not believe in it at all. 

My. J. B. Smith objected to Prof. Claypole's case that it was too inconvenient to 
use, as to get at an insect meant unscrewing the bottom and replacing it. A collection 
so preserved was useless except for the most superficial comparisons. 

Prof. Comstock explained a contrivance for watching the early stages of Hymenop- 
tera nesting in stems of plants. He took a number of slender glass tubes, covered them 
on the outside with dark paper, and hung them on bushes frequented by such bees. 
He exhibited several of these tubes in which the bees had nested, containing larvae in 
various stages of developement. The whole life history can thus be watched with very 
little trouble. 



32 



Mr. J. B. Smith read a paper on " The Specific characters of the genus Arctia." 
(Published in full in Entom. Amer. vol 3, p. 109.) 

The date of the first meeting for next year was then discussed, experience having 
shown that the first meeting of the Club, as now held on the day preceding the general 
meeting of the Association, was generally poorly attended and the President's address 
read to almost empty benches. After some discussion it was resolved to hold the first 
meeting of the Olub in future at 9 a.m., on the first day of the meeting of the A.A.A.S. 



On Friday, August 12th, Prof. Riley gave a short account of the discovery of the 
female of Phengodes. He also spoke on Pronuba, and its connection with the pollination I 
of the Yucca ; and on a new species of Lecanium found on the Austrian pine in Wisconsin. I 
The asparagus bettle (Crioceris asparagi), he finds is extending south, having been I 
observed in Fairfax County, Virginia. During the present year there has been a most I 
remarkable swarming of the butterfly Apatura celtis in the Southern States. These I 
migrations generally take place in the autumn, but this was in the Spring. The only I 
way of accounting for it is that the conditions were unusually favourable for their 
hibernation and development. 

Dr. Lintner spoke of the alarming increase of the Larch Saw-Fly (Nematus erich- 
sonii). He gave a history of the dates and places at which it had been heretofore 
observed, and the injury it had done. 

On July 7th it was reported to him from St. Lawrence Co., N. Y. where it appeared I 
on three Tamaracks growing in a door-yard. About 10th July they appeared in count- I 
less hosts completely covering the trees so that the end of a finger could not be placed I 
on a branch of one of them without touching one or more of the worms. They also 
covered apple and maple trees and shrubbery, but ate nothing but Tamarack. 

About the same time examples of the larva were received from Otsego Co., taken I 
from the European Larch. The pupae were found after July 12th under moss some little I 
distance from the trees. It has done considerable damage also in Hamilton County in I 
the Adirondack region. Every Tamarack for miles around was entirely stripped, and I 
looked as though the fire had been through it. Dr. Packard says the attack is not fatal I 
to the trees, and near Lake Pleasant early in August he observed the Tamaracks putting I 
out new buds. The larvae were attacked by a Podisus allied to modestus, and the pupae I 
were eaten by ants. In Europe the species seemed to be kept in check pretty well by I 
its parasites, and it has never been destructive there. 

Prof. Riley said we can hardly hope with Dr. Packard that the attack will not be I 
fatal to the trees. When he went over the ground in Maine with Dr. Packard this I 
spring, many trees were already dead. 

In the evening a very pleasant party met at Mr. Graef's residence in Brooklyn where 
the evening was spent in examining Mr. Graef s collection and discussing the merits of I 
the collation provided. 



On Monday, 15th, Mr Emerton read a paper by Prof. L. M. Underwood, on 
"The Literature of the North American Spiders," reviewing the work thus far done in 
the Arachnidce. 

Mr. Smith made some remarks on the paper mentioning the work being d®ne by 
students of the group and that the U. S. National Museum was accumulating a very 
fair collection in the class. He also defended the practice of describing species as justi- 
fiable under some circumstances in stimulating or exciting interest, and claims that 
nothing is so discouraging to beginners as a lot of material which is unnamed and 
unnameable until some one monographs the whole. 

Mr. Emerton said that he intended to continue his work on the New England 
spiders, and will keep his types, at least until the work is all done. He was opposed to 
hasty descriptions, and to hasty identifications of old species where there is nothing to 



33 



identify them by. He preferred to give a new name to an insect rather than to identify 
it with an old name, unless he was quite sure of his identification. 

Dr. Hoy spoke of the peculiarities of the Lepidopterous fauna, of Eacine, Wis., 
describing the location of the place, and enumerating some of the Southern butterflies 
and moths that have been taken there,— among them Terias Mexicana, Apatura celtis, 
Argus labruscae, Dilophonota ello, and Erebus Zenobia. 



On Tuesday, 16th, Dr. Lintner spoke on the larva of Haltica Alleni, Harris, now 
known as H. bimarginata Say, which he found in great numbers near Lake Pleasant, 
skeletonizing Alder. He exhibited specimens of the larvse and pupse. The latter are 
found naked in moss. It was yellow when found, not white as described bv Dr 
Packard. J 

Mr Angell stated that he had recently, for the first time, heard Polyphylla stridu- 
late. Mr. Dimmock said that Cerixa sometimes makes quite a loud stridulating noise. - 

Some general remarks and questions concerning captures at Sandy Hook followed 
and the Club finally adjourned to meet again at 9 a.m., on the first day of next year's 
meeting of the A. A. A. S. J 

[For the above account we are much indebted to Mr. J. B. Smith's Report in En- 
tomologica Americana for September and October, 1887]. 



ADDENDUM TO THE PAPER ON THE COTTON MOTH IN CANADA. 

{Page 18.) 

BY THE REV. C. J. S. BETHUNE, PORT HOPE. 

The information brought out during the discussion of my paper on the Cotton Moth 
—read at the annual meeting of the Entomological Society at Ottawa— has led me to 
entirely change my views as expressed therein regarding the migration of this insect 
from the south to the north. I am now convinced that the moth does come to us from 
the cotton fields of the south, and is not a native of this country, for the following 
reasons . — 

it 1 ' T ^ e si multaneous appearance of the moths in vast numbers at Hamilton, Port 
Hope, and Ottawa can only be accounted for by the migration theory. 

2. There are not enough plants in the whole of Canada of the order Malvacece to 
provide sustenance for the larvae of the moths seen at the above three places alone. 

^ 3 -J h ? f !T common P lants of this order t^e not been observed by our entomologists 
to be attacked by any insect whatever. 

4. No specimens of the larvae of the cotton moth have ever been found in this 
Province upon the basswood— the only probable alternative food-plant. 

5 The prevailing winds during the week previous to the arrival of the moth were 
quite favourable to its flight from the south-west. 

6. The appearance of the moth in Canada during the many years of its occurrence 
has always been in the autumn, at the end of September or the beginning of October 
At this time of year the cotton fields are pretty well denuded of foliage, and the moth' 
nnding no suitable places for depositing its eggs, flies off to distant localities. 

Since the meeting of our Society in October, I have endeavored by correspondence 
to trace the flight of the moth, but though my friends have been very kind in replying 
to my enquiries, I have not been very successful. I wrote to one entomologist in each 
3 (EN.) 



34 



of the following places along the route by which the moth must have most probably 
come to us. but in nearly every instance the insect was not observed, and did not, at all 
events, appear in any remarkable numbers : — 

Rochester, N. Y. — No observation. 

Buffalo, N. Y.— No reply. 

Ithaca, N. Y. — No observation. 

Akron, Ohio — Professor Claypole writes, " I have not seen the cotton moth here 
this year. Since the beginning of September I have had twenty-eight students, more or 
less eagerly in pursuit of Lepidoptera, but I did not see this insect in their collections." 

Dayton, Ohio — Mr. G. R. Pilate writes, " I have not noticed Aletia argillacea this 
year ; but two years ago, late in the fall, thousands of them were seen around the electric 
lights for a number of days. I do not agree with Mr. Grote that they all come from 
the south. When I lived in the centre of this city, some five or six years ago, I took a 
specimen that had just emerged from a pupa in my garden ; the wings were still soft, 
and when placed in a glass, it emitted the red fluid that all freshly emerged Lepidop- 
tera do." 

Lafayette, Ind. — Not observed. 

Champaign, Illinois — Professor Forbes, Director of the State Laboratory of Natural 
History, writes, " The assistant who has had special charge of the electric light collections 
this season tells me that he visited the light several times on favourable nights in Sep- 
tember and October, but took no Aletias. We did not ' sugar,' however, but I think it 
unlikely that any extensive migration should have occurred here without our notice." 

Carbondale, Illinois. — Mr. G. H. French, Professor of Natural History in the Nor- 
mal University of Southern Illinois, writes that he has been too much occupied with 
other matters to make any observations during the past season, but in a collection sent 
him from Galesburg, in the northern part of the State, he found a specimen of Aletia 
argillacea, dated October. 

Coalburgh, West Virginia. — No observation. 

Allegheny, Pennsylvania. — No observation. Dr. Hamilton writes that " the locality 
would be difficult to reach by a moth coining from the cotton regions, as from three to 
five hundred miles of rugged, uncultivated, mountainous country would intervene. The 
Alleghany Mountains, commencing in New York, are north and east, and circle round 
south through Maryland, and westwardly through Virginia, West Virginia, and half 
through Tennessee, thus shutting off all communication from the south." 

In consequence of the geographical features referred to by Dr. Hamilton, I took it 
for granted that the moth must have come to us from the south-west, and accordingly 
made my enquiries from friends along its probable route. It is very remarkable 
that the swarm that visited this Province should not have been seen at any of the places 
mentioned above. 

In order to further determine the probable route of our swarm of cotton moths, I 
obtained from the Observatory at Toronto, through the kindness of Mr. Oarpmael, the 
Superintendent of the Meteorological Service, a full abstract of the direction and velocity 
of the winds for each hour during the first nine days of October— a period sufficient to- 
cover the time occupied by the flight of the insects. The observations were, of course, 
made at Toronto, but they are applicable to Port Hope and Hamilton, and all this portion 
of the Province of Ontario. 

On October 1st, the winds were south-west, and very light, averaging 3J miles 
an hour, till 6 o'clock a.m. ; south, with increasing velocity up to 16 miles an hour, till 
noon ; then south-west, and gradually dying away till midnight. Average direction for 
the day, south, 27° west; mean velocity, 6.21 \ resultant velocity, 5.84. 

October 2nd, south-east till 8 a.m., and very light \ from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. changing 
from west to north, north-west and back to south-east, rising to 9 miles an hour ;. during: 



35 



the remainder of the day south and south-east, with diminishing force a£ night. Average 
direction S. 24° east; mean velocity, 4.12 ; resultant velocity, 2.44. 

October 3rd. — Changing from south to east shortly after midnight, and blowing 
more strongly from the east, up to 12 miles an hour till 7 a.m. ; during the remainder of 
the day blowing strongly, up to 26 miles an hour, from the south-west, shifting at times 
to the west. Average direction, S. 43 W. ; mean velocity, 16.21 ; resultant velocity, 11.66. 

October 4th. — Strong south-west winds (up to 17J miles an hour) till 10 a.m. ; 
then blowing harder still, up to 25 miles an hour, from the west, shifting to north-west 
in the afternoon, and diminishing considerably in force at night (6 miles per hour at 11 
p.m.) Average direction S. 85 W. ; mean velocity, 15.58 ; resultant velocity 13.33. 

October 5th. — North- west winds all day till 7 p.m., when it changed to the west. 
Average direction X. 54 W.; mean velocity 10.38, resultant velocity 9.89. 

October 6th. — The west wind continued till 3 a.m., then changed to south-west, and 
at 9 o'clock to south ; in the afternoon south-east, changing to south and south-west at 
night, and to west before midnight. Average direction S. 19 W. ; mean velocity 6.56, 
resultant velocity 5.55. The winds were highest from 11 a.m. to 3 p.m., and very 
moderate at night. 

October 7th. — (The day on which the moths were first observed here.) Very gentle 
winds west to north-west, varying to north up to noon ; then shifting to north-east and 
east. A fine, mild day. Average direction N. 10 W. ; mean velocity 2.85 ; resultant 
velocity 1.09. 

October 8 th. — Winds very light, north-east to east up to noon, then south-east and 
south till 9 p.m., when they changed to the south-west. Average direction N. 52 E.; 
mean velocity 4.79 ; resultant velocity 3.10. On this day, and the preceding, the moths 
were found in the lake and washed up on the shore. The southerly winds of the 6 th 
may have helped the swarm in their flight across the lake, and then the change to 
northerly and cooler winds may have checked their flight and caused them to drop into 
the water. 

October 9th. — Winds gentle, south-east, south and south-west. A very mild day, 
with a little fine rain at night. Average direction of the wind, S. 18 W. ; mean velocity 
4.50 ; resultant velocity 4.14. 

Mr. Carpmael also very kindly sent me a table of the direction and velocity of the 
wind at Kingston during the same period taken at the usual hours of observation, viz., 
7. a.m., 3 p.m., 10 p.m. This will assist us as regards the appearance of the moth at 
Ottawa : — October 1st, winds south-west, mean velocity about 7 miles. Oct. 2nd, south 
in morning, south-west in afternoon and evening ; mean velocity 2 miles. Oct. 3rd, east 
in morning, south-west afternoon and evening ; mean velocity 9 miles. Oct 4th. south- 
west in forenoon, south in afternoon, north-east at night ; mean velocity 9 miles. 
Oct. 5th, north in the morning, north-west in afternoon, west at night ; mean velocity 
about 4 miles. Oct. 6, west in morning, south-west in afternoon and evening ; mean 
velocity about 5 miles. Oct. 7th, west in morning, south-west in afternoon, and north- 
east at night ; mean velocity about 4 miles. Oct. 8th, north-east at each observation • 
mean velocity 5 miles. Oct. 9th, north-east in morning, south-west in afternoon and 
evening ; mean velocity 3 miles. 

From the above we gather that the direction of the wind was very much the same 
at Kingston as at Toronto, but the velocity was considerably less at the former station. 

In addition to the foregoing, I have obtained through Dr. Hamilton a table of 
similar observations made at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, by the Signal Service Observer of 
the U. S. army. This will give us some idea of the prevailing winds to the south of 
us, and by comparison with the observations at Toronto and Kingston, will help us in 
the formation of some conclusion regarding the migration of the cotton moth. 

The Pittsburgh observations were taken at the same hours as those at Kingston, and 
are, briefly, as follows : — Oct. 1st, winds south-west throughout the day ; mean velocity 



about 6 miles. Oct. 2nd, south-west in morning, west in afternoon, south in evening ; 
mean velocity about 7 miles. Oct. 3rd, west morning and afternoon, north-west at night ; 
mean velocity 15 miles. Oct. 4th, west throughout the day ; mean velocity 10 miles. 
Oct. 5th, north-west throughout the day; mean velocity 9 miles. Oct. 6th, south-west 
morning and afternoon, south at night; mean velocity 10 miles. Oct. 7th, east in the 
morning, south in afternoon, north at night ; mean velocity 4 miles. Oct. 8th, 
north morning and afternoon, west at night ; mean velocity 2 miles. Oct. 9th, north in 
morning, west during remainder of the day ; mean velocity about 5 miles. 

From the foregoing meteorological observations we may certainly gather that there 
was nothing in either the direction or force of the prevailing winds during the first 
week of October to prevent the cotton moth from flying to Canada from the southern 
cotton fields, which lie almost entirely to the south-west of us. In the next place, we 
may conclude that the winds during the first few days of October, though light, were 
such as would help the flight of the moth in this direction. For the first four days 
they were nearly always south-west or west, and on the 3rd, when they were at their 
highest velocity in Toronto, they were south-west. On the whole the meteorological 
conditions were, I consider, distinctly favourable to the migration of the insect from the 
southern States to Ontario ; the weather was warm, free from frost at night, no heavy 
showers of rain, a moist atmosphere, and winds for the most part in a direction to aid 
the flight thitherward. 

In conclusion, I must confess myself to have changed from a strenuous supporter of 
the indigenous theory to an equally firm believer in the opinion upheld by Prof. Riley 
and Mr. Grote, that the moth may occasionally breed for a season in the north, but that 
its home is in the south, and that the specimens we observe here have flown to us over 
wide tracts of country from the cotton fields far away to the south-west. 

I trust that in future seasons, further observations may be made, and that in time 
we may be able to trace the route by which this interesting immigrant so frequently 
travels to our land. 



37 



POPULAR PAPEES ON ENTOMOLOGY. 



THE OAK-PRUNER : ELAPHIDION VILLOSUM, Fabr. 

BY FREDERICK CLARKSON, NEW YORK. 

In support of the records relating to the periods of transformation of this beetle, and 
the probable cause of their pruning the branches of the Oak, which I had the pleasure to 
contribute to the Report for 1885, I now add some further facts, resulting from a recent 
visit to Clermont, N. Y. 

On the 29th of October, I gathered from under a group of Quercus tinctoria seven 
branches that had been pruned by this longicorn. The tunnels were from ten to fifteen 
inches long, in branches from one-half to three-quarters of an inch in thickness. The 
branches I carefully divided lengthwise, so that the parts could be replaced in position. 
Six of them contained the pupa, one the larva, which pupated November 4th. One of 
the pupse I preserved as a specimen. The imagoes appeared on the following days : Nov. 
14th, 22nd, 26th, 29th, Dec. 9th and 25th, all females. 

These transformations were rather hindered than advantaged by meteorological 
conditions, for they occurred in a room having a northern exposure, in which, during the 
period of the transformations, the thermometrical record differed but little from that in 
the shade without. Had the branches remained upon the ground, the included insect 
would have received all the benefits resulting from the direct rays of our Indian summer's 
sun, as well as the moisture from the ground ; influences that ordinarily assist develop- 
ment. As the imagoes appeared they were examined and replaced in their tunnels, where 
they now remain in a passive state, and are not likely, I think, to exhibit their natural 
activity until next May or June. 

The object of the paper referred to, as well as this article, is to present facts that 
seemingly disprove certain theories relating to the habits and metamorphoses of this 
beetle, which have been formulated by distinguished sires and accepted by their credulous 
sons. What Drs. Peck, Fitch, and Harris have written upon this subject has been sub- 
stantially repeated by almost every entomologist who has undertaken a history of this 
beetle. We are very apt to fall into line when we have an abiding confidence in a leader. 
While I am unwilling to deny the conclusions of these naturalists, I yet think that the 
facts related go to show that the insect matures at a period earlier than that named by 
them, and that the benefits supposed to result from a dismemberment of the branch, in 
so far as the changed environment is concerned, are wholly unnecessary to the develop- 
ment of the included insect, and that there is a plausibility in the inference, if not a 
certainty as to fact, that the object of pruning the branch is to prevent the flow of sap. 
If the habits of this beetle as given by these doctors are to be regarded as ipso facto, then 
we must admit the possession of a faculty in these lower organisms that towers above 
instinct and presents the feature of intelligent reason. This is a subject that cannot very 
well be discussed in these pages, yet it may not be out of place to say that able writers on 
the question very generally admit that the habits of insects follow a prescribed law, by 
some regarded, in a materialistic sense, as mechanical ; and by others, spiritually con- 
sidered, as in furtherance of a divine edict. This latter view is very cleverly presented 
by St. George Mivart, in Organic Nature's Riddle : " Our experience," he writes, " is in 
favour of the existence of an intelligence which can implant in and elicit from unconscious 
bodies activities that are intelligent in appearance and result ' Uncon- 

sciously intelligent action,' improperly called ' intelligent,' is that which is called intelligent 
only as to its results and not in the innermost principle of the creatures which perform 



38 



such actions." " Instinct," Todd says in his Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, " is 
a special internal impulse urging animals to the performance of certain actions which are 
useful to them or to their kind, but the uses of which they do not themselves perceive, 
and their performance of which is a necessary consequence of their being placed in certain 
circumstances." 

If such definitions are accepted, how are they to be reconciled with the marvellous 
statement as given by Dr. Fitch 1 That the larva should prune the branch to prevent . 
the flow of sap would be a necessary consequence of its being placed in certain circum- 
stances, but to do so that the branch may fall to the ground presents a course of reasoning 
that relates to a condition foreign to the then existing environment. The habits of this 
beetle from the period of egg-hatching, as given by Dr. Fitch, displaying as it did to him 
extraordinary intelligence, impress me as presenting the most natural instinctive 
qualities. The ova, he says, is deposited on a small green twig, the soft, pulpy tissues of 
which nourish the infant larva, which, when increased in size and strength, attacks the 
hard wood of the branch, transversely, in a circular direction, consuming it all, leaving 
the branch supported only by the bark. From these premises, without pursuing the 
subject further, it is evident that the infant larva requires sap-wood for its sustenance, 
which it derives from the twig, but so soon as its strength permits, it seeks for dead-wood 
by attacking the branch, which is found more and more free from sap as the work of 
severance progresses. The aim therefore from the start is to obtain the dead-wood, and 
when the branch is eaten through the larva continues its feeding in forming a tunnel 
through that portion of the branch which is cut off from the supply of sap. 

The instinct of insects is wonderful enough, and more accurate perhaps than a mental 
process, but while we justly ascribe to them all the attributes pertaining to their natural 
gift, we are not warranted in imputing to them an intelligence only to be arrived at 
through a course of reason. 



THE OAK PRUNER : ELAPHIDION VILLOSUM, Fabr. 

BY JOHN HAMILTON, M. D., ALLEGHENY, PA. 

The account of this insect given by the early fathers of (Economic Entomology is so 
charming that it seems almost profane to disturb a history accepted by most of their 
credulous offspring with unquestioning faith. Its wonderful habits and supra-rational 
instincts have been stock in trade ever since, and, like the fiction of the fly walking on 
glass by a sucker arrangement of its feet, is likely to hold its place in paste and scissor 
literature for all time to come. 

Divested of all romance and imagination, and descending to facts, the observations 
of Professor Peck, Fitch and Harris may be reduced to this. In the month of July the 
parent lays the eggs on the limbs, or in the axil of a leaf near the end of the twigs of 
that year's growth of various species of oak, and perhaps other trees. After hatching, 
the young larva (in the latter case) penetrates to the pith and devours it downwards till 
the woody base is reached, and so onward to the centre of the main Ijlmb j here it eats 
away a considerable portion of the inside of the limb, and then plugging the end of the 
burrow, which it excavates towards the distal end, eventually falls to the ground with the 
limb, which being weakened, is broken off by the high autumnal winds. They exist here 
either as larvae or pupae till spring, and emerge in June as perfect beetles. Time, one 
year, though not so stated in words. 

The account given in detail below is so different from the above, that were the 
identity of the individuals not established by actual comparison and by recognized 
authority, it might well be asserted I had given an account of some other Elaphidion. 

April, 1883, I procured a barrel of hickory limbs from a tree girdled early in 1882 ; 
the limbs were from one-half to one inch in diameter. Very few things developed from 
them that season j but the next (1884) quite a number of species came forth — Clytanthus 



39 



ruricola and albqfasciatus, Neoclytus luscus and erythrocephalus, Stenosphenus notatus, etc. 
Many larvae of some Cerambycide continued to work on under the bark ; late in the fall 
I observed that most of these had penetrated the wood, but some remained under the bark 
till April and May of the next year (1885). The most of the beetles appeared during the 
first two weeks of June, though individuals occurred occasionally till September. A few 
larvae were still found at work, but by October they, likewise, had bored into the wood 
and appeared as beetles the next June (1886). The normal period of metamorphosis is 
therefore three years, but in individuals it may be retarded to four or more years. 

At the present writing (June 5th) these beetles are issuing in great numbers from a 
barrel of hickory limbs obtained in April, 1885, from a tree deadened in January, 1884, 
thus verifying the first observation. 

How the larvae. get under the bark could not be ascertained. When first examined, 
in April, they were from 4 to 5 m.m. long; they ate the wood under the bark, following 
its grain, and packed their burrow solidly with their dust. The growth and progress were 
both slow, for by the next April they had scarcely more than doubled in length, and had 
not travelled more than from four to six inches during the year ; but after July they 
developed an enormous appetite, and consumed the wood for at least an inch in length, 
and often entirely around the limb, ejecting their castings through holes made in the bark. 
When full fed they bore obliquely an oval hole into the wood, penetrating it from four to 
ten inches. The larva then packs the opening with fine castings and enlarges a couple of 
inches of the interior of the burrow by gnawing off its sides a quantity of coarse fibre, in 
which it lies, after turning its head to the entrance. When about to become a pupa (I 
witnessed the process), the skin ruptures on the dorsum of three or four segments next the 
head ; the head of the pupa appears, and after about half an hour's wriggling the whole 
body is divested of its covering. To the observer the pupa appears to crawl out of the 
skin, but in fact the skin with the large mandibles is forced backwards by the alternate 
extension and contraction of the segments, assisted materially by the fibre that surrounds 
it. After its soft body hardens, the same movements free it from the fibre, some being 
shoved in advance of the head, and some posteriorly, the exuviae being often found at the 
distal end of the hole. 

The time spent in the pupal state is indefinite, and does not seem to concern greatly 
the time of the appearance of the beetle. Sticks split open at different periods from 
December till March contained larvae and pupae about equally, but no developed beetles. 
A larva that I observed to go into the wood in April appeared as a beetle among the first 
of such as had presumably pupated in the fall. 

The number of these beetles obtained that and the present season was great, and 
afforded a good opportunity to observe individual variations, and they do differ greatly. 
In length from 8 to 18 m.m. ; in pubescence, some being nearly naked and unicoloured, 
others having it longer and condensed into spots or almost vittate ; some being quite 
slender and elongate, while others are short and broad ; the surface of the elytra is mostly 
uniform, but in some, especially such as are narrow and elongated, one or two costae are 
more or less evident. 

Now, although this account differs so widely from that given by Mr. Fitch, still the 
beetles are the same. Unfortunately, I have never been able to find any pruned oak 
limbs from which to obtain the insect myself, but I have a good set from Mr. Blanchard, 
of Mass., presumably from the oak, which are identical. Through the kindness of Mr. F. 
•Clarkson, I have a set of those described by him in the Can. Ent., vol. 17, p. 188, from 
oak limbs, and which became imagoes in November, and there is no perceptible difference. 
Dr. Geo. H. Horn says, " They are the same." 

To identify Elaphidion parallelum had always been a puzzle to me, and I once thought 
I had a real set ; I obtained it about a dozen times by exchange, but could never be 
satisfied that the specimens received were not pauperized, or peculiar individuals of E. 
villosum. On comparing my hickory insects with all the descriptions of E. villosum and 
parallelum and their several synonyms, as far as I possess them, it was easy to pick out 
sets that would answer satisfactorily all their requirements, and I became satisfied that 
E. parallelum could not be separated. 



40 



An inquiry of Dr. Geo. H. Horn elicits the following note and kind permission to 
use it : — 

" Regarding the two species of Elapliidion (villosum and parallelum) of which you 
write, I can only say that my opinion, based on the series in my cabinet and an examina- 
tion of those in the cabinet of Dr. Leconte, is that they are inseparable. The slight 
differences, referred to by Dr. Leconte, in the last ventral segment of the males, are not 
real but dependent on the angle at which they are seen." The differences referred to are 
that in E. villosum the last ventral segment of the male is rounded, while in parallelum' 
it is emarginate. The only other structural difference mentioned by Dr. Leconte is, 

" Prothorax scarcely longer than wide — villosum. 

" Prothorax distinctly longer than wide — parallelum" 

From the insects before me from the hickory, it is easy to pick out some with the 
thorax fully one-fourth wider than long, and others with it one-fourth longer than wide, 
but they are brought together so insensibly by intermediates, that where the proper 
separation into species should begin it is impossible to decide. The same may be said of 
the differences in elongation, narrowness, and pubescence ; and I can find no basis for 
retaining parallelum as even a racial or varietal name. 

I trust the foregoing may stimulate such as have opportunity to investigate the 
habits of this interesting beetle more thoroughly. I mention some of the points that 
require clearing up. First, the length of time occupied in the metamorphosis of such as 
breed in the branches of living trees. One year is certainly an error, as it is opposed to 
the known history of any other Oerambycide having a similar habit. Second, whether 
the falling of the limb is not accidental, the majority containing larvae not being weakened 
enough to break. Third, whether the end of the Rmb remaining on the tree does not 
contain the insect equally with that which falls — points that might be determined by 
cutting down a tree in autumn from which limbs had been pruned. Fourth, to make a 
collection for comparison from each species of tree infested. 

Besides the accounts of Professors Peck, Fitch, and Harris, the following bibliography 
may be noticed : — 

Haldeman — Trans. Am. Phil. Soc, vol. 10, p. 34. 

Larva feeds on the living [?] wood of oak, hickory, and chestnut ; also, dead Abies. 

Riley — American Ent., vol. 2, p. 60 ; ib. vol. 3, p. 239. 

Larva bores in plum and apple twigs, and in dry grape cane, Missouri Rep., 3, p. 6. 
Bores into and prunes the limbs of the apple, lb. 4, p. 54. Bred abundantly from 
injured grape stems. 

Rathvon— U. S. Agricultural Rep., 1861, p. 615. 
Merely a synopsis of Fitch's account. 

Packard, jr. — Bui., No. 7, p. 30. TJ. S. Entomological Commission. 
Scissored from Fitch in full. 

Olarkson— Can. Ent., vol. 17, p. 188, and vol. 19, p. 31. 
Discovers that the insect completes its metamorphosis in the fall and early winter, in 
oak limbs, and takes issue with Peck, Fitch, and Harris on several points. 

Townsend, Can. Ent., vol. 18, p. 12. 

Thinks Mr. Clarkson's discovery the exception, and not the rule, in the time of 
metamorphosis. 






41 



THORN AND WILLOW BORERS : SAPERDA FAYI AND S. CONCOLOR. 

BY JOHN HAMILTON, M.D., ALLEGHENY, PA. 

Saperda Fayi, Bland. — This beautiful Saperda breeds in the small limbs of Crataegus, 
especially crus-galli and tomentosa, as first observed by Mr. 0. D. Zimmermann, Can. 
Unt.j 10, 220 ; and should it, like some of its allies, acquire a taste for cultivated fruit 
trees, it would be a formidable enemy, as is evidenced by the way it depredates on thorn 
bushes. The beetles appear here the last week in May or the first week in June, accord- 
ing to the season, the males preceding the females three or four days. They do not appear 
to eat, and are short lived, the whole brood (except stragglers) appearing and disappearing 
within the space of ten or twelve days, so that should the collector be negligent, or the 
weather unsuitable for collecting at the time of their appearance, he may get none till the 
next season. As soon as the females appear the males are ready to associate with them, 
the union lasting three or four hours. They are not much given to flying about, usually 
ovipositing on the same tree they inhabited as larvae. There may be several thorn trees 
not far apart, and one will be depredated on year after year till it is nearly destroyed, 
while the others, will remain untouched till colonized apparently by accident. The beetles 
are sluggish, and when approached suddenly fall to the ground and quickly endeavour to 
conceal themselves, not feigning death, as many insects under the same circumstances do ; 
and when I say feigning death, I mean it literally, in opposition to an unsupported 
dogmatic statement which I lately saw in print somewhere, " that insects can have no 
knowledge of death." 

Oviposition is effected probably during the night, and the process has not been witnessed 
nor the eggs seen. The limbs selected for this purpose vary from one-third to one and 
one-fourth inches in diameter, and according to the thickness of the limb, the female with 
her powerful mandibles makes from three to six longitudinal incisions through the bark, 
each about three-fourths of an inch long and equi-distant and parallel to one another, 
dividing the circumference into sections nearly equal ; an egg is placed in each end of 
each of these slits, and as soon as hatched the larva makes a burrow beneath the outer 
layer of wood, perhaps one-eighth inch in length at first, and uses this as a retreat whence 
it issues to feed on the diseased wood caused by the incision. These slits and the irrita- 
tion produced by so many larvse at work, cause an increased flow of sap to the part, and 
a consequent thickening of the sections between the slits, so that the injured part soon 
assumes a gall-like appearance. On the approach of winter, the larvae having now attained 
the length of .25 inch, retire back a little further and close the opening of their burrows 
with borings. One of the larvae, however, and in thick limbs two or three at each end 
bore obliquely till one of them reaches the centre of the limb, up which it proceeds, often 
two or three inches; the others parallel this, but keep a wooden partition between the burrows. 
These larvae are much larger — often twice the size — of those inhabiting the outer wood, 
and are the only ones that produce beetles. 

The whole of the interior of the limb is now dead wood enclosed by a growth of 
living but unsound woody tissue, through which some openings remain. The limbs are 
much weakened at these places, and many of them, like the oak on which Elaphidion 
villosum depredates, would be broken off by the winter storms were the fibre not very 
tough and the trees very low. And here analogy leads to the conclusion that as the 
larvae inhabit the portion of the limb next the tree, equally with that beyond the injured 
part, this is likely to be the case in the history of the Elaphidion mentioned. 

Many of the larvae in the outside wood perish during the winter, and the survivors, 
after feeding a while in the spring, likewise die, their mission seeming to have been 
merely to insure a sufficiency of dead wood to sustain the life of the favoured few destined 
for full development. 

In the spring the larvae in the deep wood return and feed on the dead wood, which 
is now abundant enough for all their wants, and by autumn they are nearly full grown 



42 



they again retire for the winter, and in the spring, after opening up communication with 
the outside world, feed for a short time, and when full grown measure in length about 
three-fourths of an inch. The larvae now return to their burrows for final transformation. 
Some of them bore for at least six inches, while others scarcely go from the entrance more 
than twice their own lengths ; the outer ends are closely packed with borings without and 
soft fibre within, which also fills the inner ends. The head of the larva may be either 
toward or away from the opening — seemingly a matter of indifference ; in the former 
case the beetle emerges from the place of entrance, in the latter from a round hole at 
right angles to the burrow, probably cut by the beetle itself, as no such hole has been 
detected in the many limbs I have examined containing pupae with their heads turned 
from the opening. Pupation occurs after the middle of April, and the perfected beetle 
will be found in the limbs about the first of May, though few of them emerge till the 
time stated at the beginning of this paper. 

The above is the result of three years' careful observation of the habits of this beetle? 
and imperfect as the history is, the amount of time and labor expended in developing it 
can only be understood by those who have attempted similar things. How widely this 
beetle is distributed is uncertain, as till recently its habitat was unknown. The typical 
insects were taken in Ohio ; it is in Mr. Reinecke's Buffalo Catalogue, and occurs at 
Hamilton, Ontario (Moffat). Any one can readily ascertain whether it occurs in his 
fauna by examining the limbs of the Crataegus for the unmistakable swellings it 
occasions. 

Saperda concolor Lee. appears about the same time as S. Fayi, and like it, is short 
lived, few individuals occurring after the middle of June. Its larvae infest the canes of 
a small willow growing along watercourses and in swampy places — Salix longifolia. The 
smaller canes are usually selected for breeding purposes, these varying from one-fourth to 
three-fourth inches in diameter. The beetle makes a longitudinal incision through the 
bark with her jaws about three-fourths of an inch in length, and in each end deposits an 
egg. Usually several incisions are made in the same cane some distance apart, which 
often cause its death the following year. The young larvae follow the same course as 
those of S. Fayi, only they burrow deeper into the wood, and there are no supernumeraries, 
as there is no need for them, the wood of the willow dying much more quickly than that 
of Crataegus, and a warty, gnarly swelling occurring around each incisure. 

The beetle, however, does not always select the smaller canes, sometimes choosing 
ones from one and one-half to two inches thick, in which case the larvae pursue a different 
course, for instead of boring up and down, they take a transverse direction and girdle the 
stem one-third to one-half its circumference, causing a rough, annular swelling and 
frequently the death of the cane. Two years is the time usually required to complete 
the transformation, but some individuals probably pass through all the stages in a single 
year. The head of the pupa is toward the opening, from which the perfect insect emerges. 
The willow named seems to be the natural food tree of the larvae of S. concolor, and, did 
it confine itself to this insignificant shrub, could scarcely be classed with injurious insects ; 
but it appears to have likewise either a natural or an acquired taste for poplar, and 
might become very destructive, a fact first brought to notice in Bui. No. 7, 1 18, U. S. 
Ent. Com., where the compiler writes: " Girdling the trunks of sapling poplars, by 
carrying a mine around the trunk, which causes a swelling often nearly twice th« 
diameter of the tree. We have found numerous saplings of the common poplar in the 
woods about Providence with the unsightly swellings around the trunk." In case this 
taste is perpetuated, this beetle will no doubt prove a formidable enemy to this species of 
shade or forest tree. But in what State this Providence is, or what kind of a tree 
" common poplar " is, we are not informed. Here the common poplar is the Liriodendron 
tulipifera, but at that Providence it may be a tree of some other genus. This beetle 
seems to have an extended distribution, occurring in Texas, Michigan, Canada, and New- 
York, as well as here. 



43 



NOTES ON THE LOCUSTIDJE. 



BY WM. T. DAVIS, STATEN ISLAND, N. Y. 



Whether they fill the listener with a train of happy thoughts, as Gilbert White says> 
or whether they produce a sadness because the days of summer are nearly gone, as Dr« 
Harris asserts, the songs of crickets and other Orthoptera have, nevertheless, the merit of 
always being interesting. An insect that can sing — that has something to say — even 
though it be the same, night after night, enjoys a sort of individuality, and this long 
discussion of the Katydids and the quiet murmur of the tree crickets, constitute one of 
the chief charms of onr summer evenings. But they do not always sing or stridulate 
quite alike, and sometimes, too, their shrilling apparatus is slightly deformed or injured, 
producing some curious sounds when in use. 

I once heard a Katydid whose singing apparatus was out of order, and the sounds 
given forth contrasted strangely with those of a rival male in an adjoining tree. Ambly- 
■corypha retinervis produces two somewhat different songs, or perhaps more correctly, varies 
the same song in time or extent of utterance, so that unless the same individual is listened 
to for some time, the notes might be attributed to different species. This insect often 
lays its eggs on the honeysuckle, and I once observed a female on the 16th of Sept., ovi- 
positing on a low tree by the roadside, gradually biting the bark into a ridge, along 
which the eggs were laid, tile fashion. 

On Staten Island, the first Conocephalus that is heard in the garden is ensiger, and 
with ik-ik-ik, as if sharpening a saw, enlivens low bushes and particularly the corn patch. 
This insect seems to especially delight in perching near the top of a corn-stalk and there 
giving forth its rather impulsive song. I have often watched one crawl, with many a 
spiral turn, up the stem, fiddling all the while. My notes on its first heard stridulation 
show considerable uniformity, and the average date may be taken as July 15th. 

Conocephalus dissimilis is more of a low grass and weed loving insect than C. ensiger, 
and also comes later in the season. I have found this insect stridulating when its head 
was gone, picked off perhaps by some vagrant chick. The brown coloured specimens are 
much more common in this species than in ensiger. 

Conocephalus robustus resides for the most part mid the grass on sandy ground near 
the sea shore, though an occasional individual finds its way inland. Along the sea beach 
they stridulate in early afternoon, especially if slightly cloudy, and when approached they 
have a curious fashion of dropping to the ground. I have often found them, on such 
occasions, actually standing on their heads in the soft sand, leaning against the grass 
3tems which grow so close together, without in any way holding on to them. Whether 
this position is intentional or not, I cannot say, but certain it is that when looked for 
from above they offer the smallest extent of their bodies to view and may thus escape 
many enemies. 

I have found another Conocephalus on Staten Island, mid the cat-tails that grow on 
the salt meadows, and a specimen sent to Mr. Samuel H. Scudder was considered by that 
gentleman to be an undescribed species. This insect keeps very close to the ground, 
aiding well in the vegetation, and is not easily discovered. The sound produced when 
stridulating is very faint, not louder than that made by Gryllus abbrinatus, and I was 
much surprised to hear such a faint song come from so large an insect. I have, in conse- 
quence of this faint song, named it the " slightly musical" Conocephalus, C. exiliscanorus. 



HINTS ON COLLECTING HYMENOPTEKA. 

BY W. HAGUE HARRINGTON, OTTAWA. 

To have the specimens in a collection look well, and at the same time be in a condi- 
tion such as to render their examination as easy as possible, it is necessary that they 
mould be properly collected. The ordinary cyanide bottles prepared either with plaster 
)f Paris, or sawdust which are used for Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, do not furnish good 



44 



specimens of Hymenoptera, and those collected in alcohol are less satisfactory. I have 
found the method advised by Dr. Williston (Psyche, vol. iv., p. 130) for collecting Diptera, 
so satisfactory that I will quote a portion of his description : — 

" I select several two-ounce, wide-mouthed bottles of the same form, and carefully 
line the bottom and sides with a good quality of blotting paper. Good firm corks are 
selected, which are interchangeable in the different bottles ; in one of these corks a small 
hole is made, in which it is better to fit a small metallic ferule ; a strip of blotting paper 
is then coiled within this cavity, and it is over this that a few drops of a solution of 
cyanide of potash is poured." 

For those who may not desire to keep on hand a solution of this poison, I would 
suggest a modification of this method which I find very satisfactory. Scrape a few 
grains of cyanide into the cavity in the cork and then insert a small wad of damp cotton 
wool or sponge. The fumes will be readily given off, and it is only necessary to occasionally* 
renew the cyanide. As Dr. Williston suggests, it is well to have several bottles, but it is 
sometimes impossible for the collector to take more than the minimum amount of 
apparatus, and he will then limit himself to two, reserving one of them for delicate or 
small insects. Bees should never be placed in a bottle with previous captures, as honey 
is often disgorged, and the specimens greatly injured by the matting of pubescence and 
soiling of the wings ; the pollen which the bees so generally carry is almost as bad in its 
effects. The safest and most desirable plan is for the collector to carry a supply of small 
pasteboard pill boxes, and transfer his specimens frequently to these, putting only one 
specimen of such insects as Bombus in a box. These boxes can be obtained of very small 
sizes, permitting a sufficient number to be packed in a small space. Their use ensures 
perfect specimens and enables the collector to keep a better record of them by numbering 
the boxes, and in his field note-book entering full particulars of the contents of each.. 
When possible, it is better to pin the insects before they stiffen, but if time or circum- 
stances do not permit of this, they will keep safely in the boxes, and may be at any time 
easily relaxed in a damp atmosphere, care being taken not to allow them to become wet. 
In pinning, it is not at all necessary to set the wings and feet symmetrically, unless one 
has plenty of time and desires pretty specimens. The wings, however, should be separated,, 
so as to admit of a full examination of the venation both of the anterior and posterior 
ones, and of the metathorax and the basal segments of the abdomen. 



USE OF CHLOROFORM IN COLLECTING. 

BY J. A. JACKSON, DES MOINES, IOWA. 



In the article of Henry S. Saunders, on Collecting at the Electric Light (Can. Ent. r 
Feb., 1887), he gives his experience in the use of cyanide of potassium and chloroform as 
follows: ''Cyanide of potasium I found the best poison; a few drops of chloroform on 
cotton would quiet them more quickly, but was more troublesome, the chloroform having 
to be frequently renewed, occasionally as often as four or five times during the same 
evening, and sometimes even then the moths would be found alive the next morning." 

I should like to explain my method of collecting with chloroform. I have found it- 
better than any other, whether at the electric light or in the field : 

Take a glass fruit jar, one in which the # lid screws down upon a rubber cushion or 
packing. Put a bunch of cotton in the bottom, retaining it in its place by pressing dowf 
upon it a circular piece of pasteboard, made to fit tightly in the jar, except that two or f; 
three notches should be left in the edge for the chloroform to run through to the cotton.^ 
Saturate the cotton with chloroform and screw the lid down tight. The bottle is now 
ready for use, and it will be found that an insect dropped into it will be suffocated almost 
instantly by the fumes of chloroform that completely fill the bottle. A feeble flutter for 
a second, a kick or two, and all is over. As soon as the insect is dropped into the bottle r 
screw the lid down again, and as it fits air tight, the chloroform will not evaporate too- 
rapidly. Less than a teaspoonful will last for a whole evening's work. If on retiring 



i 



k, 



45 



from the work the chloroform seems nearly exhausted, it would be well to pour in a few 
drops more, and then close the lid for the night. If these precautions are taken the 
insects will never revive. 

Chloroform, when used in this manner, will be found to possess many advantages 
>ver any other poison. It is quicker in its action, much more convenient, and under all 
iircum stances entirely harmless. I use this form of collecting bottle both for the electric 
ight and in the field. The bottle will contain, without injury to the specimens, the 
japtures of a whole evening, or a whole day. 

If, through carelessness, so much chloroform has been poured into the bottle as to 
saturate the pasteboard on which the specimens rest, their wings may become moistened 
ind somewhat damaged. To prevent accidents of this character, pack a bunch of 
jrumpled newspaper tightly down on the pasteboard before putting in any specimens ; the 
Daper will be dry, and will prevent the insects from coming in contact with the moist 
pasteboard. 

For Coleoptera I use a morphine bottle prepared in the same way, except that the 
liewspaper is not wanted, and it is closed with a cork. I always cairy such a bottle in 
ny pocket ready primed, and thus am always prepared for preserving any specimens 
paptured incidentally while engaged in other affairs. 



A PRACTICAL NOTE ON COLLECTING INSECTS. 

BY PROF. E. W. CLAYPOLE, AKRON, OHIO. 

In reference to the above two notes on collecting, will you allow me to make a few 
•emarks % Entomology is with me a secondary, subject, my time being for the most part 
>ccupied with another science. Perhaps this has led me to devise means for economizing 
ime and labor more than I should otherwise have done \ but the study of insects has 
jreat attraction for me, and I spend no little time upon it. 

The method which I desire to mention may be too well known to deserve any space 
n your columns — if so, I can only ask you to overlook my intrusion — but I have never 
een it mentioned in print anywhere, nor have I ever seen it used by any entomologist of 
ny acquaintance. Perhaps also there may be some objections to its adoption which I 
lave not discovered in the course of several years' use. In that case I shall be glad to 
earn them. 

Your contributors speak of chloroform and cyanide of potassium as their favourite 
usecticide materials. Both these I have abandoned for some years, the former because it 
3 expensive, and the latter because it is unpleasant and dangerous, especially the latter 
o young students, and both because they are comparatively imperfect in their effects. 
Tor example : I have often known an insect, especially one of the large bodied Bombycids, 
hat recovered after having been apparently killed by chloroform, and even after having 
teen pinned out in the case. The result usually is that it is seriously injured by flapping 
,bout. Chloroform is an anaesthetic and not a poison, and its effect soon passes off unless 
cs action is renewed or long continued so as to insure death. 

In regard to cyanide of potassium, I may state that last year I found one of my 
ases bady infested with the fur moth (T. pellionella). I put an open bottle containing 
yanide of potassium into the case and closed it. For a fortnight it remained so, when 
esiring to know the result of the poison, I opened it. It was strongly impregnated with 
he well known smell of cyanide. To my surprise, however, I could not find a dead 
10th, and the larvae were as lively, after breathing for fourteen days the so-called deadly 
tmosphere, as if they had been ail the time in the open air. As a substitute for both of 
lese I have for years used no other insecticide for the purpose of killing my specimens 
aan benzine or gasoline. The latter at fourteen cents a gallon, is merely nominal in cost 



46 



- 



and perfectly efficacious in action. I use it without hesitation on the Lepidoptera in any 
quantity. With most of them it causes instant death, and with the few that slightly 
resist its effects the resistance is very short-lived. I recollect one day seeing a large- 
Cecropia moth enter the room where I was sitting and alight on the knob of the door 
handle. I took my bottle of gasoline and poured some of the liquid on the body of the 
insect, when it dropped to the floor as if shot and never moved a wing. The result is- 
not in all cases quite so rapid, but it is never tedious. By this means I prevent the mis- 
chief that ensues when a fine specimen flutters in a bottle of cyanide or chloroform for 
several minutes, as is often the case. 

I employ the same plan with all insects, and with equal success. The moths that so- 
long resisted the cyanide vapour, as mentioned above, at once yielded to the deadly gasoline, 
and in five minutes not a living larva was left in the case. 

I need scarcely add that the use of this exceedingly volatile liquid never in the least, 
degree injures the delicate plumage of the Lepidoptera. Many of my best specimens have- 
been repeatedly drenched with gasoline. In five or ten minutes they are as dry as before it 
was applied. 

Let me add one word more. I find the most convenient way of applying the gaso- 
line is to carry it in an ounce phial, having a cork through which passes a finely pointed 
glass tube. The large outer end of this tube is capped with a small india-rubber capsule. 
The whole may be bought at a drug store for a few cents, under the name of a dropping: 
tube. In this way the tube is always full of liquid ready to be squirted out on an 
insect in the net or even at rest in the open air, and the specimen is at once fit to be 
pinned out. This I do on the spot in a cigar box, or in one lined with cork, and so< 
avoid an accumulation of material, which is a great annoyance to a man whose time- 
is otherwise occupied, or indeed to any one at the end of a hard day's work. 

The small weight of the outfit here required is an advantage not to be overlooked 
when compared with the weight of the loaded cyanide bottle usually employed. Thert 
are one or two other points which I should like to mention, but having already writtei 
more than at the outset I intended, I will forbear. 



BOOK NOTICES. 



The Butterflies of North America. By W. H. Edwards. Third Series, Part I., 4to 
Houghton, Mifflin k Co., Boston. 

It is with very great pleasure that we receive from our esteemed contributor, Mr. W. 
H. Edwards, the First Part of the Third Series of his magnificent work, " The Butterflies- 
of North America." 

The last part of Volume II. was issued in November, 1884. It is a matter of deep* 
congratulation to all Lepidopterists that the talented author now sees his way to resume- 
publication ; but we regret exceedingly to learn from a notice in Science, of 4th February, 
that to enable him to continue his unselfish labours he had to sacrifice many of the valuabl 
type specimens in his collection. 

The Part which has just come to hand contains three plates and nine pages of 
descriptive letter-press. Of the former, which have been executed under the supervision, 
of Mrs. Mary Peart, it is not too much to say that they are exquisite, and are all equ 
to the very best in Vols. I. and II. 

Plate I. which is accompanied by a complete life history, illustrates Colias Eur y dice \ 
Bd., var. Bernardino Edw., in all its stages, from egg to maturity, and also a female of 
var. Amorphoe Hy. Edw. 

On Plate II. we have a life-like representation of Argynnis JVitocris* Edw., male an 
female. 



e 



47 



On Plate III. we find figures of Argynnis Lais Edw., a pretty little species (but 
belonging to the same group as Cybele, Atlantis, and Electa), discovered in the Northwest 
Territories by Capt. Gamble G-eddes, in July, 1883. The artist has been particularly 
happy in the coloration of this plate, especially so in catching the peculiar dull ochrey- 
brown tint which is characteristic of the female. Of most interest to Canadians, however, 
is the fact that although this species is abundant in certain parts of the Northwest 
Territories, easily accessible, and comparatively well settled, nothing is known of its 
preparatory stages. The eggs of the species belonging to the same group are easily 
obtainable by tying females over growing plants of violets. Surely some of the readers 
of the Canadian Entomologist have friends living in the Calgary District, or at McLean, 
where it is very abundant, who, even if not entomologists, would, were the scientific 
importance of the results placed before them, at any rate take the trouble to confine a 
few females in gauze bags over living plants, and send Mr. Edwards the eggs. There is 
very little trouble about this matter ; living roots of violets can be sent by mail in a 
piece of oiled-paper, and will grow easily, if kept watered, in any of the tins used for 
canned vegetables (flower-pots are rare commodities in the N. W. T.) All that is neces- 
sary is to bend two pieces of wire so as to make a pent-house over the plant, and then 
placing a bag of muslin over the whole, secure it by means of an elastic band round the 
top of the can. This should be kept out of doors in a shady spot. 

The importance of Mr. Edwards's studies of the Diurnal Lepidoptera of North 
America is perhaps hardly appreciated, until we remember that, with the exception of a 
few of our commonest butterflies, almost nothing was known of their life-histories until 
he turned his attention to them in 1868. At the present time, however, it is far other- 
wise ; for by close study, diligent care, and accurate observation, he has himself worked 
out the complete life-histories of a large proportion of the recorded North American 
species. Moreover, many discoveries of great interest have rewarded his constant efforts : 
The tri-morphism of Papilio Ajax and Colias Eur y theme, the seasonal dimorphism first of 
Orapta Inter rogationis, then of others in the same genus, as well as the effects of cold 
upon larvae and the perfect insects, may especially be referred to. 

There was a marked advance in Vol. II. over Vol. I. in the amount of information 
given concerning the life-histories of the species described. This is accounted for in the 
prefatory notice of the present part as follows : — 

" When Vol. I. was undertaken, in 1868, nothing was known by myself or any one 
else, of eggs, larvae, or chrysalids, except of the more common butterflies. As an ego- or 
larva could but rarely be traced back to a particular female, it was impossible that much 
knowledge could be gained of the life-histories. Scarcely any advance in this respect had 
been made, in fact, since the time of Abbott, about 1800. . . . But in 1870 I dis- 
covered an infallible way to obtain eggs from the female of any species of butterfly" 
namely, by confining her with the growing food-plant ... and from that day to the 
present I have so obtained eggs at will ... and have reared larvae without end 
In this way, many cases of polymorphism have been established, and the position of many 
doubtful forms settled. A light has also been thrown on the limits of variation in species 
In every case I have preserved descriptions of the several stages Of a large 

proportion also, Mrs. Peart has executed colored drawings, magnified when necessary 
and my albums contain nearly one thousand figures." ' 

Mr. Edwards concludes : « And so, in this Christmas time of 1886, I commend Vol 
III. to the good will of the friends who have made my small audience for so many 
years. J 

Surely we may go further— a long way further— than this, and commend it not only 
to the few friends who have had the good fortune to listen to Mr. Edwards's teaching in 
the past, and perhaps to catch some of his enthusiasm ; but also to every entomologist or 
possessor of a library, whether in America or any other part of the world, who wishes to 
have the most complete, as far as it goes, accurate, and, for the style of the work the 
cheapest— in short, the best— work yet published upon the Butterflies of North America 



48 



The Butterflies of North America. By W. H. Edwards. Third Series, Part II. 

The second part of the new series of this superb work contains the usual three 
exquisitely finished coloured plates of butterflies. The first illustrates the Californian 
Colias Harfordii Hy. Edwards, and its variety Barbara, giving no less than nine pictures 
of the imagines, and more than a dozen of the earlier stages ; the second Argynnis Coronis 
Behr., giving both the upper and under surfaces of the male and female of this beautiful 
Californian species, which extends northward as far as our own Northwest Territory, 
where it has been taken by Capt. Gamble Geddes ; the third plate fully illustrates all the 
stages of Neonympha Gemma Hubn. and N. Henshawi Edw. There is the usual letter- 
press description of all the species figured, and also a notice of Argynnis Callippe Boisd. 
It is hardly necessary to add that no Lepidopterist's library can be considered complete 
without a copy of this admirable work. 



Report of Observations of Injurious Insects and Common Farm Pests during the year 
1886, with Methods of Prevention and Remedy. By Eleanor A. Ormerod, 8vo., 112 
pages. London : Simpkin, Marshall & Co. 

We must congratulate our esteemed friend upon the publication of her Tenth Report. 
It is full of interesting matter and well illustrated with excellent wood-cuts, chiefly the 
work of the talented authoress. The principal noxious insects treated of are " Earwigs " 
aflecting cabbage — a pest that we are happily free from in this country ; Clover Weevils, 
the Hessian Ely and other wheat insects, the Hop Aphis, Mustard Beetles, the Horse and 
Ox Warble-flies, etc. Economic Entomologists everywhere may learn much from these 
pages ; though the insects treated of are for the most part British, many of them have 
been transported to this side of the Atlantic and to other distant regions, where they have 
wrought incalculable damage to crops of various kinds. 



Synopsis of the Hymenoptera of America, North of Mexico. By E. T. Cresson. Part I. 
Families and Genera. 8vo., 154 pages. 

This valuable work, published as a supplementary volume by the American Entomo- 
logical Society in Philadelphia, is a very much needed contribution to the literature of 
this difficult order of insects. With this assistance towards classification, we trust that 
many will be encouraged to collect and study these particularly interesting creatures. 



Transactions of the American Entomological Society, and Proceedings of the Entomological 
Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences. Philadelphia. Vol. xiii., 1886. 

This volume is replete, as usual, with papers of high scientific value by such well- 
known authorities as Dr. Horn on Coleoptera, Messrs. Ash mead, Blake, and Howard on 
Hymenoptera, The Rev. Messrs. Holland and Hulst on Lepidoptera, and Prof. Williston 
on Diptera. 



The Mulberry Silk-worm ; being a Manual of Instructions in Silk Culture. By Prof. 
C. V. Riley. Bulletin No. 9. Division of Entomology, U. S. Department of 
Agriculture. 



_)ur Shade Trees and their Insect Defoliators ; being a consideration of the four most 
injurious species which affect the trees of the Capital : with means of destroying 
them. By Prof. 0. V. Riley. Bulletin No. 10. 

The species referred to are the Elm-leaf Beetle (Galerucha xanthomelcena Schrank.) ; 
the Bag Worm (Thyridopieryx ephemerceformis Haw.) j the White-marked Tussock-moth 
(Orgyia leucostigma Sm. & Abbot) ; and the Fall Web-worm (Hyphantria cunea Drury). 

Reports of Experiments with Various Insecticide Substances, chiefly upon insects affecting 
garden crops, made under the direction of the Entomologist. Bulletin No. 11. 

Miscellaneous Notes on the Work of the Division of Entomology for the season of 1885. 
Prepared by the Entomologist. Bulletin No. 12. 

These four works abundantly testify to the value of the Government Commission on 
Entomology at Washington, and to the ability and industry of its members. 



Arsenical Poisons for the Codling Moth (Carpocapsa pomonella L.) By Dr S A Forbes 
State Entomologist of Illinois. Bulletin No. 1. ' 

_ Another valuable contribution to Economic Entomology, the result of careful and 
painstaking work in the field. 



Rhopalocera Malayana : A description of the Butterflies of the Malay Peninsula 
By W. L. Distant. London, 1882-86, 486 pages, 46 plates. 

A short time ago we called attention to a work in progress on the Butterflies in 
India. Immediately thereafter there came to hand the final part of another notable 
work on the butterflies of a region still nearer our antipodes— the Malay Peninsula In 
this instance the work was undertaken by the author under peculiarly favourable ^ircum 
stances, inasmuch as all pecuniary anxiety was removed by the appearance of a Maecenas 
in the person of Mr. D. Logan, of Penang, to whom all credit is due by naturalists the 
world oyer, not only for the generous way in which he has allowed the work to be gotten 
up and illustrated, but for his excellent choice of an author. For Mr Distant on his 
side, has performed his task in a very scholarly manner, and given us a book leaving little 
to be desired, beyond that constant and bitter craving of naturalists for a knowledge of 
the earlier stages of life of the insects treated. We could indeed wish that the structural 
characteristics of the larger divisions had been more amply treated, and that the author 
had not rested satisfied with groupings in the Lycaenime and Hesperidse, newly manu- 
factured, confessedly artificial and temporary, and to which the very descriptions which 
follow do violence. But the excellence of the entire work, the consistent manner in 
which the task has been carried out, the technical skill, excellent judgment and broad 
learning everywhere displayed, as well as the very considerable addition to our knowledge 
involved, disarms adverse criticism and invites only praise. Would that such a Maecenas 
and such an author might oftener company together ! 

The work is published in quarto in sumptuous style, is unexceptionable in typography 
and profusely i lustrated. Besides 46 plates of some of the best chromo-lithographs of 
butterflies which we have ever seen, there are 129 wood cuts scattered throu-h the text 
generally illustrating special structural features, especially in neuration and leg structure' 
which are of the greatest value. The author, as would have been expected of one of our 
best lepidoptensts, familiar with the structure as well as the earJy stages, the form and 
colouring of butterflies, has followed closely in the lines of classification made prominent 
n recent years by Bates, in which the HesperidaB are immediately preceded by their 

4 (en.) 



50 



nearest allies, the Papilionidse. It remains only to say that a good deal of interesting: 
reading will be found scattered through the portly volume, and that there are points in 
the preface worthy of careful attention. About 500 species are described. 



The Ottawa Naturalist. Vol. i., Nos. 1 and 2, April and May, 1887. 

A welcome addition to our few Canadian serials on Natural Science ; we heartily 



wish it abundant success. 






A Revision of the Lepidopterous Family Saturniidse. By John B. Smith. Proceedings- 
of the United States National Museum. Washington, Dec. 1886. 

A very valuable illustrated paper on this interesting family of moths. 



North American Lepidoptera : The Hawk Moths of North America, by A. Radcliffe 
Grote, A.M. Printed by Homeyer and Meyer, Bremen, 1886. 

The above is the title of an interesting brochure by our old friend Prof. Grote, who- 
has done so much to advance our knowledge of the North American moths. The press 
work is superb. For clearness of print, nice paper, and excellent taste in the selection 
of contrasting type for the heading of the sections, this work is a model. 

After a graceful dedication to Prof. William Saunders, former editor of the Canadian 
Entomologist, our author gives directions for collecting and preserving inserts, followed 
by a chapter on the relation and habits of the Sphingidce. He then takes up their classi- 
cation, beginning with the sub-family Macroglossince. under which he includes the genera 
Hemaris, Lepisesia, Thyreus, Enyo and Deidamia. Then follow the sub-family Chcero- 
campince, including the genera Everyx, Ampelophaga, Deilonche, Deilephila and PhUr 
ampelus ; the sub-family Smerinthinai, including the genera Calasymbolus, j>aonias r 
Cressonia and Triptogon ; and the sub-family Sphingince, including Ceratomia, Daremma r 
Diludia, Dolba, Phlegethontius, Atreus, Ellema, Sphinx and Dilophonota. 

Prof Grote divides the time of the work on our lepidoptera into three periods : I he 
first including that of Abbot, Boisduval, the elder LeConte, Say, Peck, Harris Gosse, 
Kirtland, and their historian, Dr. J. G. Morris. The second period, the one which he 
calls the " Renascence, " is the period in which the American Lepidoptensts catalogue the 
different families of the lepidoptera and thus lay the foundation for present and future 
discoveries. This period, which came to an end with the appearance of Grote s Nevr 
Check List, " was a time during which a great deal of work was performed with good 
humor and at considerable self-sacrifice," and no one did his share of this work, which 
was more or less drudgery, more cheerfully than did Mr. Grote himself. 

The author says that the writings of our entomologists have a flavouring ot the 
localities from which they emanate, thus, " in some way the scent of the Maine woods has 
«rot into Prof. Fernald's writings," and we may say in return that a vein of poetry runs 
all through this charming little work which we are now reviewing. 



OBITUARY. 



Since the last Annual Report appeared, our Society has sustained a serious loss 
the death of one of its most prominent and highly esteemed members, Mr. George 
Bowles, of Montreal, for a great many years a member of the Society He was also 
the greater part of the time on the Executive Council, and did valuable work, not only 



51 



writing for our publications, but also in fostering and disseminating as widely as possible 
a love for Entomology. He began to study this branch of science when quite a young 
man, in the neighbourhood of Quebec. Since that time he has kept quietly on persistently 
collecting, working, and helping others right up to the day of his. death. After his re- 
moval to Montreal he took a very active part in the preliminary arrangements and insti- 
tution of the Montreal Branch of our Society, of which he was for several years the 
President, and before which he read some valuable papers, many of which have appeared 
in the Annual Eeports or in the Canadian Entomologist. 

His large collection contained specimens of all the different orders of insects ; but he 
made a specialty of the Lepidoptera, which were well represented by long series of Cana- 
dian and Exotic species. It is highly satisfactory to hear that this collection has been 
transferred to the museum of McGill University, where the good work of instruction by 
its means will continue to be carried on with even greater facilities than were possessed 
by the one who built it up with so much care. 

Mr. Bowles was a native of Quebec, in which city he was born in 1837. He was a 
kind and religious man, and always had a helping hand for those who knew less than 
himself. His quiet, modest manner made him a favourite with all his associates, while 
his ability as a naturalist was acknowledged by all who came into contact with him. 

He leaves a wife and three children, for whom, in their bereavement, our deepest 
sympathy is called forth. 



ENTOMOLOGIST FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

It is with much pleasure that we have just learnt of the appointment of the Rev. 
George W. Taylor, of Victoria, Vancouver Island, B. C, as Honorary Provincial Ento- 
mologist of British Columbia. Mr. Taylor has been an active member of our Society for 
some years, and has done much good work, not only in Entomology, but in general Natural 
History, by working up the little known but exceedingly interesting fauna of Vancouver 
Island. He is one of the best Conchologists in the Dominion, and has the finest collection 
of British Columbian shells extant. His knowledge of Ornithology and Botany will 
materially enhance the value of his work as Provincial Entomologist, and his appointment 
cannot but result in great benefit to the farming community of the Province. We tender 
our sincere congratulations, not only to Mr. Taylor, but also to the Minister of Agricul- 
ture and the Provincial Legislature, for the wisdom that has been displayed in the choice 
of an incumbent for this important office. There are many " first-class pests " which 
require attention in our Pacific province already, and doubtless, now the Canadian Pacific 
Railroad is completed, many others from the east may be expected to be introduced by 
that means, and it is only by having the services of a trained scientific student at their 
disposal, to identify the marauders, and give information concerning the habits and best 
means of remedying their attacks, that the farmers can hope to protect themselves against 
the injuries yearly inflicted by insects. 



REMEDIES FOR NOXIOUS INSECTS. 



BY REV. C. J. S. BETHUNE. PORT HOPE. 



In our Annual Report for last year (pages 55-64) I began an account of the remedies 
that have been found by practical experience the most useful in counteracting the ravages 
of destructive insects, and, taking them in alphabetical order, described those employed 
against our chief foes, as far down as the " codling worm." The next insect on our list is 



52 



The Colorado Potato Beetle. 



This formidable pest of the potato-grower is now far too well known to require any 
description. The accompanying wood-cut (Fig. 6) illustrates the insect in all its stages : 




Fig. 6. 



a the eggs ; b the orange coloured larva or grub at different periods of growth ; c the 
chrysalis or pupa ; d the perfect beetle ; e one wing cover enlarged ; / a leg magnified. 

Though this destructive pest is now widespread over all the eastern half of this conti- 
nent, wherever potatoes can be grown, and appears in infinite numbers everywhere, it can 
yet be kept in check without much trouble or expense. As almost everybody knows, Paris 
green is a perfect remedy for it, and by its timely use almost the whole of the crop can 
be saved. The main point is to apply the poison carefully and promptly as soon as the 
first brood of the insect appears in the spring ; by so doing the chances of a second attack 
are very much diminished, but careful watch must be kept throughout the season and 
the poison applied whenever any of the insects appear. If all the farmers throughout 
the country would unite in using this remedy, we should in a few years so nearly exter- 
minate the insect as to have little trouble from it. The most satisfactory mode of using 
the poison, if the Paris green is pure, is to mix one teaspoonful in a pailful of water and 
carefully sprinkle the affected parts with it ; an ordinary watering-can will be found 
most convenient. As, however, the poison is often adulterated, it may be found necessary 
to use two or even three spoonfuls instead of one ; by trying the smaller quantity first 
and watching its effect, the proper proportion may be readily ascertained. In the case of 
the fully developed beetles a poison of much greater strength is required than for the 
more delicate grubs. 

An objection to the use of Paris green has often been raised on the ground that it 
injures the potato tuber and renders it a dangerous article of food by the absorption of 
arsenic. Very careful and exhaustive experiments have been made in order to ascertain 
whether any of the poison gets into the tubers or the roots and stems of the plant, with 
the result that in no instance could any trace of the arsenic be found. The foliage to 
which it is applied is often damaged to some extent by the corrosive action of the poison, 
especially when too strong a mixture is used, but none of it is actually taken into the 
plant so as to be stored up in the tuber. Any of the arsenic that reaches the ground is 
speedily neutralized by the oxide of iron in the soil. Of course, in using this or any 
other virulent poison, care must be taken to keep it out of the reach of children, and to 
avoid using it in a garden where children play, or in a field to which cattle have access. 
In such exceptional cases the insect may be kept in check by the more laborious method 
of hand-picking. 



53 



The following extract from an agricultural paper will shew what pains are taken in 
Germany to prevent the spread of this noxious insect : — 

" In the December number of Agricultural Science is a translation from the Berlin 
Official Gazette of an account of how the introduction of the Colorado potato beetle into 
Germany is prevented. The beetle was first discovered on a potato field in the locality 
of Latitzch. As soon as its appearance was positively settled, an examination was first 
made of all the fields the beetle could possible have visited. Then for a distance of six 
miles about the place, placards with coloured illustrations of the insect were distributed 
among the people to put them on their guard. Eight smaller potato fields were thus 
discovered to be affected. All these grounds were then strictly quarantined. The potato 
stalks were most carefully searched for eggs, larvae and beetles. Next the soil about the 
roots and stems was examined, and afterwards the tops were cut off and collected in 
linen-lined baskets. These were placed in pits four feet deep, in layers four inches thick, 
and saturated with raw benzine oil, destroying the plants ; on top of these were placed 
other layers until a height of twenty inches was reached, then earth was placed on them. 
The infested fields were ploughed nearly a foot deep, experienced laborers followed the 
ploughs, collecting any larvae, chrysalids, or beetles turned up. Then the land was har- 
rowed once, being gone over again by laborers for insects. After the search was ended 
the fields were thoroughly saturated with raw benzine oil, 165 lbs. being used to 47 
square feet. The fields were shut up and no one allowed to go on them. Next year no 
crops will be grown here, but the fields will be again examined." 




Fig. 7. 



The Curculio of the Plum. 

The fruit-grower in this Province has no more for- 
midable enemy to contend against than the Plum Curculio 
{C onotrachelus nenuphar i Herbst.), the different stages of 
which are shewn in the accompanying wood-cut : a repre- 
sents the grub much magnified ; b the chrysalis, and c the 
beetle, both magnified ; d the young fruit, shewing the 
crescent-shaped mark made by the insect, and the curculio, 
life size, at its work. 

Until very recently the only remedies employed 
against this insect were laborious in their application and 
uncertain in their results ; such, for instance, as jarring 
the tree and catching the falling insects in sheets spread 
beneath ; trapping them under boards or other articles 
beneath the trees ; planting in poultry yards, etc. Now, happily, a remedy has been 
discovered, comparatively easy of application, inexpensive, and almost certain in its good 
results — I refer to the plan of spraying the trees with a weak mixture of Paris green at 
the time the females are laying their eggs. Three-quarters of an ounce by weight of Paris 
green mixed with two and a half gallons of water has been found very satisfactory. The 
liquid must be sprayed all over the trees with a hand force-pump and applied in a fine 
mist-like spray till the leaves begin to drip. It has been found of advantage to mix a 
certain amount of flour with the Paris green in order to render the fluid more adhesive 
to the fruit. Three quarts of flour to a barrel (40 gallons) of water was found to be a 
satisfactory quantity. The time of application is just after the blossoms fall and when 
the fruit is of the size shewn in the wood-cut above. If applied before the blossoms are 
matured, the stigma of the pistil of the flower may be injured by the poison and the fruit 
prevented from formation. Another evil result is that the honey bees affecting the 
blossoms may all be poisoned, a fatality that has actually happened when apple trees 
were sprayed in a similar manner for the prevention of the codling moth. If, on the 
other hand, the application is delayed too long, the female beetles will have laid their 
eggs and the young curculios will be out of reach inside the plum. 

Since the preparation of our last Report, Professor Forbes, State Entomologist of 
Illinois, has published an account of his experiments with arsenical poisons for the 
destruction of the codling moth of the apple. His results may be mentioned here as the 



54 






mode of application and the general treatment are the same for the plum curculio as for 
the apple worm. He states at the outset that " to this codling moth we may fairly 
attribute a loss to the farmers of Illinois of, say, four and three-quarters millions of 
dollars each year." He then proceeds to shew, as the result of his experiments, that — 
putting down the loss to one-half of the amount stated — " at least seven-tenths of that 
loss may be prevented by a single remedial measure," viz., the application of Paris green, 
as mentioned above. After giving an account of his experiments, Prof. Forbes states 
that they show " that eighty-six per cent, of the apples which would have fallen from 
codling moth injuries have been preserved from falling, and that fifty-nine per cent, of 
the picked apples, which would have become wormy, remain uninjured ; or, taking all the 
apples from these trees together and comparing with the entire crop of the check trees 
(which had not been sprayed) we shall find that, of the apples thus exposed to damage, 
almost exactly seventy per cent, have been saved by our treatment." This is certainly 
eminently satisfactory. 

Experiments were also made as to the effect of spraying the trees once, twice or three 
times, with this result : " The benefit to the picked fruit apparent from a single spraying, 
stands at forty-seven per cent., and that from twice spraying at ninety per cent., while 
that from thrice spraying falls away again to seventy-seven per cent. Or, summarizing 
still more briefly, we may say, in general, that the results of once or twice spraying with 
Paris green in early spring, before the young apples had drooped upon their stems, 
resulted in a saving of about seventy-five per cent, of the apples exposed to injury by the 
codling moth." It is most important to bear in mind that, in the case of apple trees 
especially, the spraying must be done before the apples have begun to hang downward ; if 
deferred till a later period there is positive danger that some of the poison will be retained 
on the fruit and held in the cavity where neither wind nor rain can dislodge it. Enough 
poison from careless treatment may thus be "retained in the apples to be dangerous to the 
health, if not to the life of the consumer. 

The use of this mode of prevention for the plum curculio has, we are glad to find, been 
already tried in Ontario. Prof. Saunders, in his speech at the meeting of the Entomo- 
logical Society at Ottawa in October, stated that he had in this way saved his own fruit, 
and that the remedy had been found effective at Owen Sound and Goderich also. 

There is no doubt that the method of spraying with Paris green will be found 
advantageous when applied for the destruction of the codling moth and plum curculio, 
at the same time reducing very much the ravages of insects that devour the foliage of 
these fruit trees, especially the tent caterpillars of the apple and many other destructive 
worms. 

Currant Borers. 

There are two species of insects that prove injurious to the currant by boring into 
the stems and rendering them hollow and weak, and in many cases causing their death. 
Though similar in their operations, the two insects are utterly unlike, one being a moth 
and the other a beetle. The moth is commonly called the Imported Currant-borer, 
{jEgeria tlpuliformis, Linn) as, like so many others serious insect pests, it has come to us 
from Europe. 

Fig. 8 represents the moth, a pretty wasp- 
like creature, with a bluish-black body, crossed 
by three narrow golden bands ; on the thorax and 
at the base of the wings there are also streaks of 
the same colour. The wings are transparent, 
with veins and a bordering of brownish-black 
with a coppery lustre. The female lays her eggs 
in June, singly, near the buds, where, in a few days, they hatch 
into tiny caterpillars and eat their way into the centre of the 

stem. Here they burrow up and down through the pith until they have formed a 
cavity of several inches in length. When fully grown the larva changes into a chrysalis 







*Fig. 




Fig. 9. 



(Fig. 9 represents both caterpillar 
moth issues in the following June. 



and chrysalis, much magnified), from which the 



55 



This insect affects both the white and red currant, and to some extent the goose- 
berry also. Its presence may be known by the sickly appearance of the foliage and the 
poorness of the fruit. The remedy for it is simply to cut off and burn all the affected 
stems either in the autumn or early spring, before the final transformation into a 
moth. 

The other borer, the larva of a beetle, is a native insect, and is therefore commonly 
called the American Currant-borer (Psenocerus supernotatus, Say). 
Fig. 10 represents the beetle magnified to show the markings and 
in outline of the natural size. The larva or grub may be distin- 
guished from that of the preceding insects by its smaller size and 
want of feet. Its habits are much the same, as it feeds upon the 
pith and burrows up and down through the stalk, but it is more 
destructive than the larva of the moth from its gregarious life. 
Usually a number of the grubs, sometimes as many as eight or ten, Fig. 10 - 

are found in the same stem, and speedily cause its death. The only remedy seems to be, 
as in the former case, to cut off and burn all the infested stalks. 




Currant Worms. 



A number of worms feed upon the leaves of the currant and gooseberry, but only 
-two of them are so commonly destructive as to require notice here. The first and greatest 
■enemy of the gardener, in the cultivation of these fruits is the imported Currant Saw-fly 
(Nematus ventricosus, Klug). This insect has come to us from Europe, and was first 
observed in America in 1858, since which time it 
has spread over a large part of the continent. Fig. 
11 represents (a) the male, and (b) the female Saw- 
flies ; the hair-lines at the side shew the natural 
sizes. The body of the male is black above, with a 
few dull yellow spots, and beneath yellowish, with 
bright yellow legs. The female is larger and is 
especially distinguished by its honey-yellow body. It 
is well that gardeners should become familiar with 
these insects in their perfect state, as oftentimes they 
may be captured on the bushes and readily killed. 

The worms are much more familiar to every 
fruit-grower. They resemble the caterpillars of butter- 
flies and moths very much, but differ from them in 
having feet under the middle segments of the body 
and many more in number, and also in their habit of 
curling the terminal segments. When first hatched 
they are very small, of a whitish colour, with a large 
head, having a dark round spot on each side of it. 
They are then gregarious, feeding in companies of 
thirty or forty on a leaf till they have consumed all the softer parts of it and left nothing 
but the frame-work remaining. They soon increase in size, being voracious feeders, and 
gradually scatter all over the bush. Their colour changes with their growth after 
successive moults, first becoming apple-green, then green with many black dots, and 
finally plain green, tinged with yellow at each end. The chrysalis is formed within a 
tough silken cocoon, nearly oval in shape and brownish in colour, and is made among dry 
leaves or rubbish on the ground, or in the earth a little way beneath the surface. The 
fly soon emerges and thus there are several broods during the season, necessitating 
continual watchfulness on the part of the gardener. 

The most effective and simplest remedy is to be found in the application of powdered 
hellebore mixed with water, in the proportion of an ounce to a pailful, and showered 
freely over the foliage with a watering-can. If thoroughly applied, especially to the 
leaves about the bottom and in the middle of the bush, most of the worms will be found 




Fig. 11. 



56 







dead in a few hours. Constant inspection of the bushes is, however, required in order 
to apply the remedy at once whenever a new brood makes its appearance ; a few days 

neglect will often result in the complete stripping 

of the foliage of the bush. 

Another mode of counteracting the attacks 
of these worms is hand-picking. This can be 
done most effectively before the eggs are hatched, 
as they are deposited along the ribs on the under 
side of the leaves, as shewn in Fig. 12. By turn- 
ing over the lower leaves of the bush the lines of 
white eggs can readily be seen, or the presence of 
the young worms may be discovered by the little 
holes eaten through the leaf, as shown in the same 
wood-cut. If the leaves, with the eggs or young 
larvse, are gathered and destroyed at this stage, 
before the worms have grown larger and scat- 
tered over the foliage, an immense deal of damage 

may be easily averted. 
Fig. 12. J J 

The other great pest of the currant and gooseberry is the Currant Span-worm 
(Eufitchia ribearia, Fitch), a well-known and often very destructive insect. In the 

caterpillar state it can be at once distinguished 
from the worms of the Saw-fly by its paler and 
more yellow colour, and by its habit of arching 
its body into a loop when moving from place to 
place. The accompanying wood-cut (Fig. 13) 
represents the caterpillar in this and other 
attitudes, and illustrates its mode of suspend- 
ing itself by a silken thread when disturbed or 
alarmed. When full grown the caterpillar is 
about an inch long, of a whitish colour, with 
stripes of yellow running lengthwise and a 
number of black dots on each segment. It is a 
native insect and attacks the wild currant and 
gooseberry bushes in the woods as well as the 
cultivated varieties in gardens ; it is also 
especially partial to the spicy-scented Flowering 
Currant, which is so frequently grown in 
gardens for the sake of its pretty fragrant 
blossoms. It generally occurs in large num- 
bers, and if let alone will soon make sad work 
of the foliage of any bush it attacks, but 
fortunately there is only one brood in the 
year, and it is in consequence by no means so 
great a pest as the Saw-fly. 




Fig. 13. 



The moth, Fig. 14, is a pretty pale yellow creature, with 



adorned with 



several dusky bands or spots, which vary very much in diflerent 
specimens. It usually appears about the end of June, and 
may be seen in numbers flitting about the affected bushes in 
the daytime. It is a wise precaution to catch and destroy as 
many as possible before they have time to deposit their eggs 
for the next year's crop of caterpillars. 

It is unfortunate that powdered Hellebore, which is so 
simple and effective a remedy for the Saw-fly worms, is not 
sufficiently powerful for the certain destruction of these hardier 
creatures. If it is used, it must be made of twice or thrice the usual strength. 




Paris 



57 



green would, of course, be effective, but it is too dangerous a remedy to employ in a 
garden, especially as these worms do not make their appearance till the fruit is well- 
formed. The only method, apparently, that can be recommended, is hand picking ; this 
is not very difficult, as by shaking the bush the worms will let themselves down by their 
silken threads, and can then be easily seen and gathered. 

Out Worms. 

These noxious creatures, the caterpillars of various night-flying moths, are but too 
well known to gardeners everywhere, from their annoying habit of cutting off young 
cabbage and other plants when first set out in the beds. They usually attack the young 
and tender plants when they are only a few inches high, completely severing the stem 
just above or below the surface of the ground. They are by no means particular as to 
the kind of plant, but will destroy spring wheat, Indian corn, any kind of young vegetable, 
tender annual, or even weed. Some species also have the further evil propensity of 
climbing trees at night and doing great damage to the expanding foliage and fruit 
blossoms. 

The number of different species of Cut- worms is very large, but the accompanying 
illustrations will enable any one to recognize some of the commonest forms in both the 
caterpillar and winged states. Fig. 15 represents the Greasy Cut- worm, so-called from 
the appearance of the caterpillar; the moth, (Agrotis ypsilon, Rott,) into which it trans- 
forms, is shewn beneath it. This is one of the commonest of all our species, and has 
apparently several broods in the year, as the moths can be taken by "sugaring" during 
the summer and quite late in the autumn. 





Fig. 16. 



The other illustration, Fig. 16, represents the caterpillar and moth of the Dark- 
sided Cut-worm (Agrotis Cochranii, Riley). This species is notorious for its nocturnal 
habit of climbing apple and other fruit-trees and destroying the buds and young leaves. 

Many methods have been tried for the destruction of these pests, but owing to their 
nocturnal habits it is very difficult to cope with them successfully. Whenever a young 
plant is noticed to have suddenly withered and died, the culprit may, in almost every 
case, be found within a few inches of the plant and just below the surface of the ground. 
It is unnecessary to add that when found he should be ruthlessly crushed under foot. 
Sprinkling the plants with air-slaked lime, ashes, or powdered hellebore is recommended. 
When setting out young tomato or cabbage plants, they may be protected by wrapping 
round the stem of each a piece of paper, extending a few inches up the plant and a little 
way down into the ground. Where the buds and leaves of fruit-trees and vines are 
found to be destroyed without apparent cause, search should be made in the ground at 
the base of the tree, or under any rubbish lying near, and the enemy will generally be 
found. 

The following remedy is quoted by Dr. Lintner, from a correspondent, in his Second 
Annual Report, and is worth trying : — " One year ago I had a patch of beans entirely 
destroyed by cut-worms. I planted it over ; as soon as they came up the worms began' 
again. I dissolved half a pound of saltpetre in three pints of water, mixed that thoroughly 



58 



with one-half bushel of dry ashes, and sprinkled the ashes on the beans just as there was 
a shower coming on ; the rain washed the ashes all off into the ground, and I had no 
more trouble with the worms, but had a good crop of beans." 

Professor Riley (First Missouri Report) says : — " From the orchard planted upon 
light warm soils, the climbing cut-worms can be driven away entirely by claying the 
ground about the trees ; a wheelbarrow full is well-nigh enough for each tree when 
spread around its base and as far as the limbs extend. This is the most thorough and 
lasting remedy." 

The Fall Web-Worm. 

This very destructive insect (Hyphantria cunea, Drury ; textor Harris), is a familiar 
nuisance all over Canada and the northern and middle States. Last autumn Professor 
Saunders observed it defoliating trees in British Columbia; and last year (1886), it 
became so serious a plague in Washington, D.C., that the attention of the public authorities 
was drawn to it, and the Entomological Commission was called upon to devise a remedy 
for its attacks. Professor Riley states in his report (page 521) that : "the city of Wash- 
ington, as well as its vicinity, was entirely overrun by the caterpillars, with the exception 
of trees and plants the foliage of which was not agreeable to the taste of this insect ; all 
vegetation suffered greatly. The fine rows of shade trees which grace all the streets and 
avenues appeared leafless and covered with throngs of hairy worms. Excepting on the 
very tall trees, in which the highest branches shewed a few leaves, too high for the 
caterpillars to reach, not a vestige of foliage could be seen. The trees were not alone 
bare, but were still more disfigured by old and new webs made by the caterpillars, in 
which bits of leaves and leaf-stems, as well as the dried frass, had collected, producing a 
very unpleasant sight. The pavements were also covered with this unsightly frass and 
the empty skins of the various moults the caterpillars had to undergo were drifted about 
with every wind and collected in masses in corners and tree boxes. As long as the cater- 
pillars were young and still small, the different communities remained under cover of 
their webs and only offended the eye ; but as soon as they reached maturity and commenced 
to scatter, prompted by the desire to find suitable places to spin their cocoons and trans- 
form to pupse, matters became more unpleasant, and complaints were heard from all those 
who had to pass such infested trees. In many localities no one could walk without step- 
ping upon caterpillars ; they dropped upon everyone and everything ; they entered flower 
and vegetable gardens, porches and verandas and the house itself, and became, in fact, a 
general nuisance." 

The above extracts are given in order to show what a plague this insect may become, 
and to warn our readers how serious an injury it may cause to an orchard or garden if no 
effort is made to keep it in check. 

The large unsightly webs made by this insect are no doubt familiar to everyone ; 
they are especially noticeable on ash and wild-cherry trees, but may often be found on 
fruit trees as well, They may be distinguished from the webs of the tent caterpillar by 
their later appearance in the year in this country (in the south there is a spring brood as 

well), and by their enveloping two or three feet 
of the extremity of a branch, ^instead of being 
constructed in the fork of a limb. The accom- 
panying illustration, Fig. 17, represents the 
caterpillar, chrysalis and perfect insect. The 
moth is a pretty little white creature ; it flies 
only at night, and is consequently not often 
observed. It appears about the end of May, 
or early in June, and lays its eggs on the under 
side of leaves near the ends of branches ; from 
these the caterpillars come out from June to 
August, according to the locality. The winter 
is spent in the chrysalis state. 
The simplest and generally the most effective remedy is to cut off the portion of the 
bough covered by the web and to destroy by burning or treading under foot the enclosed 




Fig 17. 



59 



family of caterpillars. This should be done as soon as the webs are noticed, not only for 
the sake of preventing further damage, but also because the worms, when nearly full- 
grown desert the web and scatter over the surrounding foliage. It is well also to kill 
the caterpillars as quickly as possible after cutting down the web, for they are very lively 
creatures and will make their escape in numbers if not speedily attended to. If the web 
should be in such a position that it cannot be conveniently cut off, or should involve the 
sacrifice of a limb that cannot be spared, it may be destroyed with its contents by burning. 
This can easily be accomplished by means of rags soaked with coal oil or tar and fastened 
to the end of a long pole. As a substitute for the rags, a piece of porous brick has been 
strongly recommended. Professor Riley quotes the following mode of making a brick- 
torch : " Take a piece of soft brick (one from the outside of a kiln would probably answer 
best) trim it to an egg shape, then take two soft wires, cross them over this brick, wrap- 
ing them together around the opposite side so as to firmly secure it, now tie this end to a 
long stick such as the boys get at the planing-mills, by wrapping around it, then soak 
the brick in coal oil, light it with a match, and you are armed with the best and cheapest 
weapon known to science. Holding this brick torch under the nests of caterpillars will 
precipitate to the ground all the worms on one or two trees at least from one soaking of 
the brick, and it can be repeated as often as necessary. Then use a broom to roll them 
under it, and the work will be done, the controversy ended and the trees saved." 

Other remedies may be resorted to, such as spraying the trees with Paris green, as 
recommended for the codling moth and plum curculio, but this would not be satisfactory 
unless the damage was very serious and the caterpillars had been left too long undisturbed 
and had grown to maturity. Pruning or burning, or both, are the simplest, easiest, most 
effective and least dangerous remedies. To these may be added the further precaution 
of gathering up and burning all fallen leaves, weeds and rubbish that may be found around 
the base of a tree that has been badly infested. This should be done late in the autumn 
in order to destroy as many as possible of the chrysalids, that would otherwise remain over 
winter and produce the moths for a fresh attack the following year. 

The list of common noxious insects has by no means been exhausted, there are many 
more " first-class pests " which are only too well known to our farmers and gardeners. 
These we must now reserve for a future occasion, but we believe that the many remedies 
already given in the reports for last year and this will supply methods of treatment that 
may be employed in numbers of other cases. The main point is to know enough of the 
life-history and habits of the enemy to understand what remedy to select and especially 
when to apply it. In most cases, success entirely depends upon attacking the insect foe 
at the right moment ; a few days' delay may involve the loss of the crop, and render the 
application of the remedy a mere waste of labour. Most people have not the time or the 
inclination to study these creatures, and therefore it is that we, who are especially devoted 
to this investigation, believe that we are doing good service to the farmers and gardeners 
of our country, and therefore to the whole community, by spreading amongst them some 
knowledge of the appearance and life and habits of these most pernicious and destructive 
beings. 



A SKETCH OF CANADIAN ORTHOPTERA. 

BY F. B. CAULFIELD, MONTREAL, P. Q. 

The destructive insects commonly known as grasshoppers or locusts, with the crickets, 
cockroaches, walking sticks and earwigs, belong to the order called Orthoptera or straight 
winged insects. The insects composing this order, unlike the beetle or butterfly, pass 
through their transformations by a series of simple moultings, moving about and eating 
from the time they leave the egg until the close of their existence, the principal difference 
between the larva and adult insect being that of size, and, in the greater number 



GO 



of species, the presence of wings. Both old and young are voracious eaters, having 
the mouth parts highly developed, the mandibles being fitted for both cutting and 
grinding. 

From the beginning of summer until late in the fall our gardens and pastures swarm 
with crickets and locusts, and the amount of grass, leaves, flowers, etc., eaten by these 
ever hungry little creatures must be very considerable, and is especially noticeable during 
dry and hot seasons. The Orthoptera have long been celebrated for the musical powers 
with which many species are endowed. The poets have sung to the " love songs of the 
grasshoppers," but in reality these merry little fellows are instrumentalists, not vocalists, 
as they, like all other insects, breathe through spiracles and are of course voiceless. So 
far as I am aware the musical power is confined to the crickets, grasshoppers and locusts, 
the remaining families being silent. 

In reality the song of an orthopterous insect is a sexual call and is almost entirely 
confined to the males — entirely so in the crickets, some species of which go through quite 
an elaborate performance, as may be easily seen by watching the common striped cricket 
(Nemobius vittatus). 

When a male of this species wishes to attract the notice of the female, he advances 
towards her, and, raising the wings and wing-covers, rasps them together, thereby pro- 
ducing a shrill, creaking sound, now and again jerking himself forward with a convulsive 
movement, touching the female with his antennas, at times dancing around in a frantic 
manner. Should the female be pleased with his attentions, she turns around and, seizing 
him, draws him beneath her, when copulation takes place. Should his serenade prove 
unsuccessful, the little minstrel either stops shrilling or turns his attention to another 
female. I have not observed the courtship of our other species, but it is probably much 
the same in all. 

Mr. W. H. Harrington, speaking of (Ecanthus niveus, says : " An interesting feature 
of its concerts is one of which I have not been able to find any mention in books 
accessible. While the male is energetically shuffling together his wings, raised almost 
vertically, the female may be seen standing just behind him, and with her head applied 
to the base of the wings, evidently eager to get the full benefit of every note produced." 

The courtship of Ectobia Germanica is very similar to that of Nemobius, but is 
unaccompanied by any sound, nor are the wings shuffled together. The male follows the ' 
female until her attention is attracted, when, turning around and raising the wings until 
they form a right angle with the body, he backs up to and is seized by the female. I have 
only seen actual copulation take place in Nernobius, but have little doubt that in both 
Blattidse and Gryllidse the male never takes possession of the female by force. 

Another remarkable feature of the Orthoptera is the facility with which they elude ob- 
servation. This is largely owing to the similarity of their colours to the surroundings 
amidst which they live, and probably serves as a means of defence against their enemies. 
No doubt many observers have noticed that it is easy to see a grasshopper or locust when 
it is jumping or flying, but it is just the reverse when the creature remains quiet. A 
familiar example is the large rattling locust, whose gaily coloured under-wings make it so 
conspicuous an object when hovering in the air, but which becomes almost invisible when 
resting with closed wings on the bare dry gravel or dusty roadside ; and equally 
difficult to detect are those green species that live in damp meadows, or on shrubs and 
trees, their colour just matching the grass and leaves amongst which their lives are spent. 

Six families of Orthoptera are represented in Canada, viz. : Gryllidae, Crickets - r 
Locustidse, Grasshoppers; Acrididse, Locusts; Phasmid as, Spectres or Walking Sticks ' r 
Blattidse, Cockroaches ; and Forficulidse, Earwigs. 

Dr. Harris, in his well-known work on Injurious Insects, says : " Cockroaches are 
general feeders, and nothing comes amiss to them, whether of vegetable or animal nature,, 
but by far the greater part of the Orthopterous insects subsist on vegetable food, grass, 
flowers, fruits, the leaves and even the bark of trees ; whence it follows, in connection 
with their considerable size, their great voracity, and the immense troops or swarms in 
which they too often appear, that they are capable of doing great injury to vegetation." 



61 



Family 1. — Gryllid^e (Crickets). 

The Crickets are robust, thickset insects with a large head and thorax. The antennae 
are long and very slender. The wings are laid flat on the body, the outer edge of the 
front pair being bent down so as to slightly overlap the body. The hindmost thighs are 
thick and muscular, enabling them to jump quickly and to considerable distances, which 
perhaps gave birth to the saying, "as lively as a cricket." The ovipositor is long and 
spear-shaped, and slightly curved upwards. Packard says that "the shrilling of the 
male is a sexual call, made by raising the fore wings and rubbing them on the hind wings. 
The noise is due to the peculiar structure of the fore wings, the middle portion of which 
forms, by its transparent elastic surface, on which there are but few veinlets, a resonant 
drum, increasing the volume of sound emitted by the rubbing of the file on the upper 
surface of the hind pair of wings. This file is the modified internal vein, the surface of 
which is greatly thickened, rounded and covered closely with fine teeth. In the females 
the wings are not thus modified, and they are silent." 

The Mole-crickets (Gryllotalpce) may be recognized by their powerful fore-feet, which 
somewhat resemble those of a mole, being short, stout and flattened and armed with 
tooth-like projections. They inhabit soft and moist earth in which they drive burrows 
resembling miniature mole runs. According to Packard, their eggs, from 300 to 400 in 
number, are laid in the spring in tough sacks in galleries. Only one species, Gryllotalpa 
boreahs, Burm., is recorded from Canada, where it appears to be very rare. 

" Mole-crickets avoid the light of day, and are active chiefly during the night. They 
live on the tender roots of plants, and in Europe, where they infest moist gardens and 
meadows, they often do great injury by burrowing under the turf and cutting off the 
roots of the grass, and by undermining and destroying, in this way, sometimes whole 
beds of cabbages, beans and flowers." — (Harris.) 

Should our American species become sufficiently numerous to be injurious, they 
might perhaps be poisoned by scattering grated vegetables sprinkled with Paris green in 
the vicinity of their burrows. 

The large black cricket so common in dry fields during the summer months is the 
Gryllus neglectus, Scud. ; specimens in the larval condition may be found under stones 
as soon as the snow has melted in spring, and on warm sunny days may be observed 
running through the scanty herbage, making off with hasty jumps when alarmed. By 
the end of May most of them have attained the perfect condition, but some individuals 
are later, as I have taken a specimen in the pupa state on June 4th, 1885. 

I have not been able to determine whether these hybernated specimens live until 
the end of the season, or deposit eggs during early summer and then die, but so far as 
L have observed, their shrilling almost entirely ceases during July. In the be^inninc* of 
August a few may be heard, and by the middle of the month they are again in full chorus, 
appearing to be more numerous than in the earlier part of the season. Harris says] 
•' The old insects, for the most part, die on the approach of cold weather ; but a few 
survive the winter by sheltering themselves under stones, or in holes secure from the 
iccess of water." This may perhaps be the case in Massachusetts, where, I believe, Dr 
Harris observed them ; my own experience is that they hybernate as larvae, that is, about 
lalf grown and without wings. About the end of August, and during September, the 
leld crickets lay their eggs. At this time they leave their hiding places and may be 
een m great numbers in the fields, particularly on dry hill sides, Vhere the herbage is 
hort and scanty. When about to deposit her eggs, the female walks slowly along, 
topping at intervals and feeling tho ground with her ovipositor ; when a suitable spot 
3 found, she raises her abdomen, inclining the ovipositor downwards until its point 
ouches the earth, into which, by steady and continued pressure, it is gradually forced 
.ntil completely buried, when the eggs are deposited. 

Beside our native species of Gryllus, we have the well-known house cricket, Gryllus 
omesticus, which, like its cousins the cockroaches, has crossed the ocean. 

This species loves warm quarters, making its home in kitchens and bakehouses 
seding on crumbs and scraps, not being particular as to diet. Daring the day it hides 



62 



in chinks and crevices, coming out at night in search of food. It is of a greyish-white 
colour, marked with spots and lines of brown. 

The small black crickets, so plentiful in meadows and pastures, belong to the genus 
Nemobius. They may be distinguished from the species of Gryllus by their smaller size, 
duller colours, and by the thorax or neck, being slightly hairy. These little crickets do 
not burrow in the earth like the larger kinds, although an occasional specimen may be 
found under stones or clods of earth. They are of social habits, keeping together in 
large troops or swarms. The striped cricket, Nemobius vittatus y Harris, is our most 
abundant species ; its colour is greyish-brown, marked with lines of black. 

Another species of about the same size, but with long wings, may occasionally be 
found ; this is the little long-winged cricket, Nemobius fasciatus, DeGeer. It closely 
resembles the striped cricket, but the wings are about twice the length of the body. It 
flies well, and sometimes enters houses in the evening, attracted by the light. " Where 
crickets abound, they do great injury to vegetation, eating the most tender parts of plants, 
and even devouring roots and fruits whenever they can get them. Melons, squashes, and 
even potatoes, are often eaten by them, and the quantity of grass that they destroy must 
be great, from the immense numbers of these insects which are sometimes seen in our 
meadows and fields." — (Harris.) 

Domestic fowls and turkeys will eat crickets and locusts whenever they can get them, 
and would considerably lessen their numbers if let run in the fields after the crop has- 
been harvested. The broad-winged hawk {Buteo Pennsylvanicus) also feeds largely upon 
them in the fall, as I have on several occasions found them in their crops, one individual 
having its crop literally crammed with specimens of the common field cricket, [Gryllus 
neglectus.) 

Crickets might be easily killed by simply crushing them under foot in the fall, as at 
this time they congregate in numbers in exposed situations for the purpose of depositing 
their eggs ; they might also be caught with nets by children and destroyed. 

All the foregoing species live on the ground, but we have another kind of cricket 
which spends its life among the leaves and branches of tall weeds and shrubs. It is the 
ivory climbing cricket, (Ecanthus niveus, Serv. The male is ivory white, with very broad, 
transparent wing-covers, crossed by from three to five oblique raised lines. In the female 
the wing-covers are longer and narrower, and of a pale green colour. The antenna and 
legs are long and slender, the insect not being so stoutly built as the ground crickets. 1 
The shrilling of this species is more sustained than that of Gryllus, the notes running 
together like the roll of a drum, swelling and decreasing alternately. They commence 
shrilling about the first of August, and continue until the frosts of October put an end to- 
their existence. This is a very troublesome insect to the fruit grower, attacking the- 
peach, plum and other trees, being particularly injurious to the grape and raspberry 
When about to deposit her eggs, the female settles herself on a grape stem or raspberr^ 
cane, and pierces it with her ovipositor, laying a long, narrow, yellow egg in the opening- 
thus made, repeating the operation until from four to fifteen have been deposited. 

The cane thus attacked often withers above the punctured part, or is so much- 
weakened as to be easily broken off by the wind or by the weight of the leaves in spring,, 
the result in either case being the loss of the fruit. Late in fall or early in spring search 
should be made for the punctured canes, which should be cut away and burned. The 
insects themselves may be killed by jarring them from the plants and crushing them; 
under foot. Fences and waste-corners should be kept clean and free from wild vines and 
briars, such places being prolific breeding grounds of this and various other insect pests 

Family 2. — Locustidje, (Grasshoppers.) 

The term Grasshopper is now generally restricted to certain orthopterous insects witt 
very long, slender legs and antennas, mostly of a grass or leaf-green colour. In the 
winged species the wing-covers slope downwards at the sides of the body and overlap a 
little on the back near the thorax. The ovipositor is generally long, and curved like 



63 



cimeter. With few exceptions, grasshoppers are solitary insects, nor are they often 
sufficiently numerous to be injurious or attract attention. At the head of the family 
systematists place a group of wingless forms represented in Canada by two species — one 
restricted to the North-west, the other apparently common in Ontario and Quebec. The 
latter is the spotted, wingless grasshopper of Harris, Ceuthophilus maculatus. This curious 
insect lives in small communities under stones in damp woods and beneath the loose bark 
of dead trees. It is rather strongly built, with stout hind thighs ; its general colour is 
brown, thickly mottled with spots of a lighter colour ; the back is arched, and the crea- 
ture has a smooth, shiny appearance as if varnished. It is entirely wingless, ovipositor 
rather long and nearly straight. It appears to be somewhat carnivorous, as I have taken 
it in cans baited with meat. The western insect is Udeopsylla nigra, Scud. It resembles 
in form the preceding species, but is heavier and stouter ; the ovipositor is rather short, 
and thick at the base. Colour, shining black. 

The next group contains the typical insects of the family, the green grasshoppers or 
katydids. Most of these possess ample wings and can fly well. Some species live on trees 
and shrubs, while others inhabit meadows and pastures. They are pretty and harmless 
creatures, not being numerous enough to be injurious ; and owing to their retiring habits 
and the similarity of their colour to the leaves and grasses amidst which they live, are 
but seldom noticed even in the localities where they are most abundant. 

" The shrilling of these insects is produced by friction of the large veins situated 
nearly on the inner margin of a talc-like plate at the base of the wing-covers. When the 
insect shrills, the wing-covers are raised and the bases shuffled together." — Riley. The 
shrilling of some of the southern species is quite powerful, and where the insects are very 
abundant the noise is sometimes unpleasantly loud ; but in these northern regions the 
notes of our grasshopper are weak, nor are the insects sufficiently numerous to attract 
much attention. 

Our green grasshoppers may be divided into two groups, one containing the species 
that live on trees and shrubs, (the true Katydids) the other those species that live on the 
ground or in tufts of rank herbage (the meadow grasshoppers.) 

Our commonest arboreal species is the narrow-winged Katydid, Phaneroptera curvi- 
cauda, De Geer. It may often be observed resting on shrubs and young trees during the 
latter part of summer, occasionally taking a short flight from tree to tree. It may be 
recognized by its narrow and straight wing-covers, and by the male having a cylindrical 
style curving from below upwards, and resting in the forks of a furcate appendage which 
projects from the end of the abdomen. The ovipositor of the female is rather short and 
curved abruptly upwards, the extremity being toothed on both sides. The female deposits 
her eggs in the edges of leaves, as discovered by Miss Murtfeldt. Prof. Riley describes the 
note of this species as a soft zeep, zeep, sometimes uttered singly, but generally thrice in 
succession, 

While passing through its earlier stages this species wears a more varied dress than 
the simple green of the adult insect. In the larvae the colours are purplish-black and 
white, arranged in minute squares on the head and body, the antennae and legs being 
marked with rings of the same colours. The pupa is green, varied with purple on the 
sides, and adorned with a double row of crimson spots on the dorsal surface. The mature 
insect is wholly green. It may be found during August and September. 

The Oblong-winged Katydid, Phylloptera (Amblyconypha) oblongi/olia, De Geer, is 
green like the preceding species, but may be distinguished from it by its larger size, and 
by the oval form of its wing-covers. It appears to be rare in Canada. I have not seen 
any account of the earlier stages of this insect, but in the latter end of June, 1885, I 
found two larvae which, I think, probably belonged to this species, as they were entirely 
pale green ; and on August 1st, 1885, I found two pupae, also green (curvicauda is marked 
with purple and white when immature), and I know of no other arboreal species in 
eastern Canada. 

The Broad- winged Katydid, Platyphyllum concavum, Harr, may be distinguished 
from our other species " by the greater length and convexity of the wing-covers, which 



64 



entirely enclose the abdomen, and with their strong midrib, look exceedingly like a leaf " 
Riley. This is the true " Katy-did," the name being derived from a fancied resemblance 
of the call of the male to the words, Katydid. 

" I sit among the leaves here, when evening zephyrs sigh, 
And those that listen to my voice I love to mystify ; 
I never tell them all I know, altho' I'm often bid, 
I laugh at curiosity, and chirrup ' Katy did.' " 

Prof. Riley states that " the stridulation is quite forcible, representing more often 
* Katy-she-did ' than ■ Katy-did,' and continued at regular intervals." 

Rare in Canada, and apparently confined to south-western Ontario. 

These are the only aboreal species on our Canadian lists, and so far as known to me, 
they live altogether on trees and shrubs, never coming to the ground except by accident. 
Prof. Riley aptly remarks that " they might more appropriately be called tree-vaulters 
than grasshoppers." 

In Conocephalus the head is conical, and extends to a point between the eyes, and 
the ovipositor is long and straight. C. ensiger, Harr, is the only species recorded from 
Canada. It is of a pale green colour, the head whitish, the abdomen and legs brownish 
green. It measures from an inch and three-quarters to two inches in length. The female 
has been observed by Prof. S. I. Smith, with its ovipositor forced down between the 
root-leaves and the stalk of a species of Andropogon, where the eggs are probably 
deposited. 

During the latter part of summer, numbers of small, fragile looking green grass- 
hoppers may be found in damp fields. They belong to the genus Xiphidium, of which 
we have two species in Canada, one of which, X. fasciatum, is common and generally dis- 
tributed ; the other, X. saltans, appears to be rare, and is apparently confined to the 
North-west. The species resemble each other very closely, their general colour being 
green, with a brown stripe on top of the head, and the thorax bordered on each side with 
darker brown. The ovipositor bends abruptly down at the base, and is then straight to 
the tip. 

Prof. Riley states that X. fasciatum oviposits in the cone-like willow gall (Salicis 
strobiloides). Although X. fasciatum and its variety, brevipennis, are abundant at Mon- 
treal, I have not heard them shrilling ; according to Mr. Scudder, " Xiphidium makes a 
note very similar to Orchelimum, but so faint as to be barely perceptible even when close 
at hand." 

The species of Orchelimum are almost identical with Xiphidium in general appear- 
ance and colour, but are larger, measuring about an inch and one-tenth in length from 
head to tip of wing-covers. They also differ somewhat in habits, according to my obser- 
vations, Xiphidium being generally distributed among the grass, while Orchelimum con- 
ceals itself in the ranker tufts. Orchelimitm agile, De Geer, is common in the neighbour- 
hood of Montreal, and may be found in almost every damp field where there are tufts of 
rank grass or clumps of tall weeds. Concealed in one of these the male takes his stand 
and trills his simple love song, which is merely a weak, wheezy trill, only audible for the 
distance of a few feet. When shrilling the insect slightly raises its wing-covers, and 
shuffles them together with a shivering motion. It shrills in the bright sunshine, and it 
was by observing the play of light on the wings while in motion that I discovered the 
insect, as when sitting still it is almost impossible to detect it, so effectually does its 
green dress conceal it. 

The species of Anabrus, commonly called western crickets, are large, thick-bodied, 
clumsy looking insects, the wings being very small a'hd quite useless for the purpose of 
flight. As the popular name implies, they are found in the west, where at times they 
occur in immense numbers, often proving very injurious. A. purpurascens, Uhler, is the 
only species on our Canadian lists. It is of a dark purplish-brown colour, mottled with 
yellow. 



65 



Family 3. — AcRiDiDiE, (Locusts.) 

This family contains the most destructive insects of the order ; indeed I may say, the 
most destructive of all insects, the terrible migratory locusts. Both the old and new- 
worlds have time and again been scourged by their countless millions, well named by the 
eastern poet, " The army of the Great God." The desolation caused by their ravages 
has been the theme of poets and historians since the days of Pharoah's humiliation, 
when " they covered the face of the whole earth so that the land was darkened." 

The noise made by the beating of their wings during flight has been compared to the 
rushing of a mighty wind, the roar of distant thunder, the crackling sound of burning 
stubble, etc., and is thus described by the poet Sou they : — 

' " Onward they came, a dark continuous cloud 
Of congregated myriads numberless, 
The rushing of whose wings was as the sound 
Of a broad river headlong in its course 
Plunged from a mountain summit, or the roar 
Of a wild ocean in the autumn storm 
Shattering its billows on a shore of rocks." 



The Acrididce, or Locusts, (Fig. 18) may be distinguished from the grasshoppers by the 
antennae being short, not exceeding the body in length, and by the number of joints in the 

feet, the locusts having only three, 
the grasshoppers four. The wing- 
^HE^^ covers are generally long and 
narrow and slope downwards 
on the sides like a roof. The 
under wings are broadly tri- 
angular, and when at rest are 
folded in plaits like a fan. In- 
stead of a long exserted ovi- 
positor like the grasshoppers 
and crickets, the female locust is provided with four wedge-like pieces, placed in pairs 
above and below, and opening and shutting opposite to each other. When about to 
deposit her eggs the female forces these wedges into the earth, these being opened and 
withdrawn enlarge the opening ; the operation being repeated until a hole is formed large 
and deep enough to admit nearly the whole of the body. 

Prof. Riley thus describes the manner in which the Rocky Mountain locust 




(Fig. 



different positions.) 



(Caloptenus spretus) deposits her eggs. 
"The female, when about to lay her 
eggs, forces a hole in the ground by 
means of the two pairs of horny valves 
which open and shut at the tip of her 
abdomen, and which, from their peculiar 
structure, are admirably fitted for the 
purpose. With the valves closed she 
pushes the tips in the ground, and by a 
series of muscular efforts and the con- 
tinued opening and shutting of the 
valves, she drills a hole until, in a few 
minutes (the time varying with the 
nature of the soil) the whole abdomen 
is buried; the tips reaching an inch or 
more below the surface by means of 
great distention. Now, with hind legs 
hoisted straight above the back and 
the shanks hugging more or less closely the thighs, she commences ovipositing, the eggs 
being voided in a pale, glistening and glutinous fluid which holds them together and 
binds them into a long, cylindrical pod, covered with particles of earth which adhere 

5 (EN.) 




•:^--j: 



Fig. 19. 



66 



to it. When fresh the whole mass is soft and moist, but it soon acquires a firmer con- 
sistency. It is often as long as the abdomen, and usually lies in a curved or slanting 
position. The eggs which compose this mass are laid side by side to the number of from 
30 to 100 according to the size of the mass." 

Prof. Thomas states that he has obtained the eggs of Caloptenus femur-rubrum in 
rotten wood in which they were placed without any apparent regularity and without 
being connected by any glutinous secretion. 

The sounds made by locusts are produced in two ways, first by rasping the hmd 
thighs up and down on the wing-covers, and second by snapping together the edges of the 
w ngs and wing-covers during flight. 

Our Canadian locusts fall into two sub-families, Acridince and Tettigince. To the 
first belong all those species in which the pronotum (upper surface of thorax) extends only 
to the base of the wing-covers. This group contains the greater number of our species. 
To the second belongs a small group of species in which the wing-covers are aborted, 
appearing as small pads, while the pronotum extends as far as, or past, the extremity of 
the abdomen. 

As regards the time of appearance of our locusts, there is a succession of species from 
early spring until the fall. As soon as the snow has disappeared from the sunny slopes 
and grassy banks, several kinds of little locusts may be observed. These are the Grouse- 
locusts (Tettix and Tettigidea). They are compactly formed, the body being broadest 
between the middle pair of legs, tapering gradually to a point behind, the head is very 
small and the legs are rather short. As already stated, the wing-covers are merely little 
scales, the wings being folded beneath the extended thorax. The species are all small, 
measuring about half an inch in length. They pass through their transformations during 
the latter part of summer and fall, hybernating in the imago or perfect state. 

About the end of May and during the month of June a species of locust may often 
be observed flying with a rustling sound. This is Tragocephala infuscata, Harr. There 
are two forms or varieties. The typical infuscata being dusky brown, the wing-covers 
faintly spotted with brown, wings transparent, pale greenish-yellow next the body, with 
a large dusky cloud near the hind margin, and a black line near the front margin ; length 
about three-quarters of an inch. The variety viridi-fasciata is almost wholly green and 
is slightly larger ; it has been described as a distinct species, but as it occurs in the same 
localities and at the same season it is probably merely a variety of the same species. 
They hybernate as larvae, changing to pupa? early in spring, attaining the perfect state 
about the end of May and disappearing early in July. Dr. Harris states that they " are 
sometimes very troublesome in gardens, living upon the leaves of vegetables and flowers, 
and attacking the buds and half-expanded petals." 

As infuscata dies out, its place is filled by swarms of Camnula pellucida, a small 
locust very abundant in dry pastures during midsummer. General colour ash-brown, face 
reddish brown, a dark spot behind the eye and just touching it, and another on the side 
of thorax, wing-covers brown, marked with yellow lines and dark spots, wings colourless, 
with biack veins. The female measures about an inch in length, the male a little less. 
The flight of this species is noiseless, extending about thirty or forty feet. 

During August and September the fields fairly swarm with locusts, prominent among 
them being the large species that fly with a crackling or snapping noise. Many of these 
insects have considerable command of themselves while on the wing, being able to change 
the direction of their flight at will. The wings are generally brightly colored, reminding 
us of the lepidopterous genus Catocala. 

(Edipoda verruculata is ash-brown varied with dusky brown, wings yellow at base 
with a black band. 

(Edipoda sordida flies with a rustling noise exactly like the species of Tragocephala. 
It is dusky brown, head and thorax varied with patches of lighter and darker shades, 
wing-covers dark brown with two light bands on the middle portion. Wings pale greenish 
yellow on the inner half, remainder smoky brown. (Edipoda Carolina is our largest 
species, the female measuring from 1.5 to 1.75 inches. It is of a dull ash-brown colour,, 
sprinkled with small dusky spots, wings deep black, except the margin, which is pale 
yellow. When alarmed it flies with a muffled, rustling noise. 



67 




(Edipoda phenicoptera is light brown, spotted with dark brown on the win ^-covers, 
wings coral red with a dusky border. This is a vernal species, flying with a loud, snap- 
ping noise as soon as the snow is off the ground. 

Our most abundant and troublesome species in the 
older Provinces is the common red-legged Jocust, Calop- 
tenus femur-rubrum, (Fig. 20), which, during some years, 
multiplies to such an extent as to seriously injure the 
hay and other crops. 
b The Entomologist to the Department of Agriculture in 

Fig. 20. his report for 1885 quotes Mr." J. Scriver, M.P., as fol- 

lows : — " Grasshoppers were numerous and very destructive in certain localities. In the 
month of August our pastures were swarming with them, and they afterwards attacked 
the oats also. They did much injury by biting off the separate flowers just as they came 
out of the sheath, sometimes destroying the whole panicle. Their ravages were most 
severe in the townships of Hemmingford and Havelock, and particularly in the parish of 
Lacolle, where one farmer had to cut down his oats and use them for fodder. The species 
referred to was the common red-legged locust, Caloptenus femur-rubrum." 

During 1885 locusts were very numerous all through the country, and several milk- 
men told me that they had seriously injured their pastures. At Lachine I observed that 
in many places the shrubs and young trees growing by the fences were almost stripped of 
leaves by them, presenting a ragged appearance. The species that I found up in the 
shrubs were the red-legged locust, Caloptenus femur-rubrwn, and the yellow striped locust, 
Caloptenus femoratus. The latter is a large, clumsy-looking species, easily recognized by 
having two yellow stripes running from the head to the end of the wing-covers. It is a 
common species and very troublesome in gardens. 

The destructive Rocky Mountain locust, Caloptenus spretus, Uhler, (Fig. 21), is almost 
identical with our commonest red-legged species, but has longer wings, and in the male the 
end of the abdomen is turned up like the prow of a ship. 
For a full account of this species, the reader is referred 
to the Rev. C. J. S. Bethune's valuable paper in the 
Society's Reports for 1874-75. By the middle of 
October nearly all our locusts have disappeared^ but a 
few specimens of Caloptenus and Stenobothrus linger 
until the autumnal frosts put an end to their existence. 

The ravages of our common locusts might be greatly lessened by beating them with 
bundles of brush, and thus driving them into hollows or against fences. When thus 
congregated, they could be killed by beating them with shovels or by gathering into 
sacks and boiling down for hogs. The best time for this work would be the end of June 
and beginning of July, as at this time our most injurious kinds have not acquired wings, 
moreover, they are now mostly in the pastures and can be destroyed without injuring the 
standing crops. Dr. Harris states that in the south of France " the locusts are taken by 
means of a piece of stout cloth, carried by four persons, two of whom draw it rapidly 
along, so that the edge may sweep over the surface of the soil, and the two others hold 
up the cloth behind at an angle of forty-five degrees. This contrivance seems to operate 
somewhat like a horse-rake, in gathering the insects into windrows or heaps, from which 
they are speedily transferred to large sacks." 




Family 4. — Phasmid^e, (Walking-Sticks or Spectres). 



This family is represented in Canada by only one species, the well-known Walking- 
stick insect, Diapheromera femoratum, Say. 

This curious creature is entirely wingless, and looks very like a small twig. It lives 
almost altogether on trees, on the leaves of which it feeds, being found most frequently 
on oak and basswood. According to Packard, the egg-sac is flattened, elliptical, with a 
lid in front which can be pushed open by the embryo when about to hatch, and is 
deposited in the autumn. With us it is seldom numerous, but some few years ago it 



OS 



increased enormously in parts of New Jersey, New York and Maine, stripping acres of 
trees, leaving them as bare as in midwinter, and congregating in heaps by the fences, 
showing that what is usually a scarce and harmless insect may, under favourable condi- 
tions, increase to such an extent as to be seriously injurious. 

Family 5. — Blattid^e, (Cockroaches). 

Cockroaches are flattened, ovate insects, generally of a dull brown colour, and have 
an oily and disagreeable smell. They run swiftly, but do not jump like the crickets and 
locusts. The eggs are laid in a bean-shaped capsule, divided into two compartments, 
^each containing a row of separate chambers, each of which encloses an egg. Some days 
are required for oviposition, and the female may be seen running about with the egg-case 
partially protruding from the body. The egg-case is dropped at random, the female not 
-depositing or concealing it in any particular place or manner. 

Cockroaches are omnivorous insects, feeding on almost everything eatable, whether 
animal or vegetable, some species being great pests in houses. The kinds found in our 
dwellings have been carried here in shipping, and are now common in almost every part 
•of the world. 

The large black species so familiar to housewives, under the name of " The Black 
Beetle," is the Blatta (Stylophyga) orientalis, Linn. As the name implies, it is an eastern 
species, brought to us by commerce. During summer it sometimes takes up temporary 
quarters in the open air, as I once found a flourishing colony under some stones in a lane 
in the rear of a bakehouse. 

The other important species is the small reddish-brown cockroach, Ectobia Germanica, 
commonly known in the New England States as the " Croton Bug." It infests houses, 
and is even more troublesome than the large species, making itself at home in wooden 
partitions and cracks in furniture, soon becoming unpleasantly numerous. It is not so 
strictly nocturnal in its habits as the large species, and may often be seen on a voyage of 
discovery in broad daylight. 

Our native species live under stones and beneath the loose bark of dead trees, and 
appear to be rare insects. 

Family 6. — Forficulid^e, (Earwigs). 

Earwigs may be distinguished from all other Orthoptera, by their narrow, flattened 
foody and short wing covers, and by the extremity of the abdomen being furnished with a 
forceps, which in some species equals the body in length. 

This instrument appears to be used for several purposes. Westwood says " they are 
Weapons of offence and defence." De Geer states " that they are used during sexual inter- 
course." The Rev. J. G. Wood says " the membranous wings of the earwig are truly 
beautiful. They are thin and delicate to a degree, very large and rounded, and during 
the day-time packed in the most admirable manner under the little square elytra. The 
process of packing is very beautiful, being greatly assisted by the forceps on the tail, 
which are directed by the creature with wonderful precision, and used as deftly as if 
they were fingers and directed by eyes." 

Dr. John G. Morris's experience does not agree with the Rev. Mr. Wood's account. 
He says, " last summer I had a good opportunity of observing the habits of this insect, 
tor every night numbers of them came into my study window in the country, and lighted 
very conveniently upon the table at which I was writing. Each one of them, before he 
took flight, for they were active, would bend his body back and lift up the short elytra 
with his forceps before the wings would expand, and this they did invariably. The forceps 
Were not used to fold the semi-circular wings, but only to elevate the wing-covers before 
flying." 

These accounts may perhaps be reconciled upon the assumption that the forceps is 
not used for the same purpose by every species. The smaller species of Staphylinidce, for 
which a small earwig would be easily mistaken while on the wing, may very often be 



09 



observed tucking in their wings with the aid of the long flexible abdomen, but I do not 
remember ever seeing the larger species doing so. 

The female earwig is remarkable for the care with which she watches over her eggs 
and young, sitting upon them like a brooding hen, a fact vouched for by Kirby and other- 
eminent entomologists. 

During the day, earwigs generally hide in holes and crevices, often concealing them- 
selves among the petals of flowers, the long spur of the nasturtium being a favourite 
place of refuge. A few of the smallar species are active during the day, flying about in 
the sunshine. Earwigs feed on vegetable matter, and in Europe, where they are numer- 
ous, often do much damage by eating the blossoms of carnations, dahlias, etc. In this 
country they appear to be rare insects, only one species being recorded from Canada, the 
Labia minor of Linnseus, common to both Europe and America. 

So far as known to me, none of the Orthoptera occurring in Canada are double- 
brooded, with perhaps the exception of Gryllus^, and of course, those species which infest 
houses. Of Gryllus, some individuals at least, go through their transformations in spring, 
appearing as larvae in April, and being in full song by the end of May. The species of 
Tragocephala, which go through their transformations at the same time, are all dead by 
the end of July, and during this month the crickets if not dead are nearly, if not altogether 
silent, but in August appear again, and in much greater numbers, while Tragocephala 
is not seen until the return of spring. 

With regard to the species found in houses, winter is unknown to them, the result 
being a constant succession of broods, which accounts for the short time required for 
stocking a kitchen with cockroaches. 



PRELIMINARY LIST OF CANADIAN ORTHOPTERA. 

Gryllid^. 

Gryllotalpa borealis, Burm. — Very rare. A pair taken in Essex County, Ont. — 
Brodie. 

Gryllus luctuosus, Serv. — Rare. Two females in August; Montreal. — Caulfield. 

Gryllus neglectus, Scudder. — Province of Quebec, very common — Provancher ; Mon- 
treal, abundant — Caulfield ; Toronto, very abundant — Brodie. 

Gryllus domesticus, Oliv. — Quebec, common — Provancher ; Montreal, common — 
Caulfield ; Ottawa, rare — Fletcher ; Toronto, rare — Brodie. 

Nemobius vittatus, Harris. — Quebec, common — Provancher ; Montreal, common — . 
Caulfield ; Ottawa — Fletcher ; Toronto, common — Brodie. 

Nemobius fasciatus, De Geer. — Quebec, Provancher ; Montreal, not common — Caul- 
field ; Ottawa — Fletcher ; Toronto — Brodie. 

Nemobius (Anexipha) septentrionalis, Scudder. — Quebec, one specimen — Provancher; 
Rat Portage — Brodie. 

CEcanthus niveus, Serv. — West Farnham, P.Q. — Provancher; St. Hyacinthe, P.Q. — 
Provancher ; Montreal, abundant — Caulfield ; Ottawa — Harrington ; Toronto — Brodie J 
London — Saunders. Ent. Reports. 

LoCUSTIDiE. 

Ceuthophilus maculatus, Harris. — Anticosti — Yerrill ; Quebec, common — Provancher; 
Montreal, common — Caulfield ; Ottawa, common — Fletcher ; Ontario, generally to north 
of Lake Superior — Brodie. 

Udeopsylla nigra, Scudder. — Common in Manitoba — Scudder and Brodie. 

Phaneroptera curvicauda, De Geer. — Province of Quebec, common in August and 
September — Provancher ; Montreal, common — Caulfield ; Ottawa, common — Fletcher ; 
Toronto, common in Ontario generally, to north of Lake Superior — Brodie ; Red River 



70 



Settlements — Scudder ; a male, Rosseau River, August 30th, and a female in the vicinity 
of Souris River — G. M. Dawson. 

Phylloptera (Amblycorypha) oblongifolia, De Geer. — Montreal, rare — Oaulfield ; 
Ottawa, common — Fletcher ; Toronto, common, and Ontario generally, to north of Lake 
Superior — Brodie ; Regina, N.W.T., one specimen — Fletcher. 

Platyphyllum concavum, Harris. — London, taken at electric light — W. E. Saunders. 

Conocephahts ensiger, Harris. — Toronto, common — Brodie ; London — L. Reed. 

Xiphidium fasciatum, De Geer. — Province of Quebec, common — Provancher ; Mon- 
treal, common — Oaulfield ; Ottawa, very common — Fletcher ; Toronto, common, and 
Ontario generally, to north of Lake Superior — Brodie ; Var. brevipennis — Scudder, com- 
mon in same localities. 

Xiphidium saltans, Scudder. — Souris River — G. M. Dawson. 

Orcheli?num vulgare, Harris. — Toronto, common ; Ontario everywhere — Brodie. 

Orchelimum agile, De Geer. — Montreal, common — Oaulfield ; Ottawa, rather uncom- 
mon — Fletcher ; Toronto — common ; Ontario generally, to north of Lake Superior — 
Brodie. 

Anabrus purpurascens, Uhl. — Common on the prairies around Regina — Fletcher; 
West Butte, July 29th ; in the vicinity of Woody Mountain, between June 15 and July 
7th, and in the neighbourhood of Souris River — G. M. Dawson. 



Acridid^e. 

Chlo'ealtis conspersa, Harris. — Rat Portage, Man. — Brodie ; eastern shore of Lake 
Winnipeg, five specimens — Scudder ; Nepigon — Fletcher. 

Chlo'ealtis (Amblytropidia) subhyalina, Scudder. — Province of Quebec — Provancher. 

Stenobothrus curtipennis, Harris — Quebec — Provancher ; Montreal, common — Caul- 
field ; Ottawa — Harrington ; Ontario generally, to north of Lake Superior. — Brodie. 

Stenobothrus propinquans, Scudder. — Cap Rouge, Quebec — Provancher. 

Arcyptera lineata, Scudder. — Province of Quebec — Provancher. 

Gomphocerus brunneus, Thomas. — Regina, August 12th, 1887 — Fletcher. 

Gomphocerus clepsydra, Scudder. — Souris River — G. M. Dawson. 

Tragocephala infuscata, Harris. — Quebec, common — Provancher ; Montreal, common 
— Caulfied ; Ottawa, uncommon — Fletcher ; Ontario, generally to north of Lake Superior 
■ — Brodie. 

Tragocephala Yar. viridifasciata, Harr. — Same distribution. 

Arphia sulphurea, Fabr. — Quebec, very rare — Provancher ; Ottawa, common — 
Fletcher ; Toronto, common, and Ontario generally, on sand hills — Brodie. 

Arphia tenebrosa, Scudder. — Sudbury, Ont., Regina and Nepigon — Fletcher ; Souris 
— G. M. Dawson. 

Arphia sanguinaria ? — Regina, August — Fletcher. 

Arphia frigida, Scudder. — Taken near Wood End in June — G. M. Dawson. 

Arphia trifasciata, Say. — Wood End in June — G. M. Dawson. 

Spharagemon collaris, Scudder. — Regina, abundant, August, 1886 — Fletcher. 

Spharagemon oequalis, Say. — Red River settlements — Scudder. 

Trimerotropis verruciclata, Kirby. — Quebec, common — Provancher; Montreal, com- 
mon — Caulfield ; Ottawa — Fletcher. 

Encoptolophus sordidus, Burm. — Quebec, very common — Provancher ; Montreal, 
common — Caulfield. 

Dissosteira Carolina, Linn. — Quebec — Provancher; Montreal, common; Ontario, 
generally to Lake Superior — Brodie ; Vancouver Island — Packard. 

Hippistus phoznicoptera, Germ. — Quebec, common — Provancher ; Montreal, rare — 
Caulfield; Toronto, rare — Brodie; Nepigon, common, July 7 th, 1887 — Fletcher; Dufferin, 
June 13th and 14th — G. M. Dawson. 

Camnula pellucida, Scudder. — Province of Quebec — Provancher ; Montreal, com- 
mon — Caulfield ; Regina, Fletcher. 



71 



Camnula atrox, Scudder. — Regina, August — Fletcher ; Victoria, Vancouver Island 
— Packard. (Surely a variety of the preceding.) 

Pezotettix borealis, Scudder. — A. single pair, vicinity ot Lake o