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Fifteenth Meeting of the 
Australasian Association for 
the Advancement of Science 




GEORGINA SWEET, D.Sc. (Melb.), and 
A. C. D. RIVETT, M.A., B.Sc. (Oxon.), D.Sc. (Melb.) 



$p ;^uthoVJtB : 

Albert J. Mullett. Government Printer. Melbourne 

192 1. 



Fifteenth Meeting of the 
Australasian Association for 
the Advancement of Science 


HELD IN MELBOURNE, fe^^^*^**- ^<*^ c^\ 

Lj'L I • « .* i* Y "-I 



GEORGINA SWEET, D.Sc. (Melb.), and 
A. C. D. RIVETT, M.A.. B.Sc. (Oxon.). D.Sc. (Melb.) 


JSy ^uthoritn : 

Albert J. Mullett, Government Printer, Melbourne. 

1084. ^' 


Officers of the Hobart Meeting (held in Melbourne), 1&2 

Officers and Committees of Sections . . 

Local Councils — 


List of Delegates . . « . . 

General Programme . . . . 

Proceedings of the General Council — 
First Meeting 
Second Meeting 
Third Meeting 

Summary of Resolutions affecting Committees of the Variol 
Sections ... 


Objects and Rules of the Association 

Office-bearers of the Association from the Commencement 






Inaugural Address by the President, Sir W. Baldwin Spencer. 

K.C.M.G., M.A., LiTT.D., D.Sc, F.R.S. . . . . . . liii 

Addresses by^ Presidents of Sections — 

A — Professor H. J. Priestley, M.A. . . . . . . . . 1 

B— Professor N. T. M. Wilsmore, D.Sc, F.I.C. . . . . . . i!> 

B— Sub-section Pharmacy— Mr. C. E. Towl . . . . . . 43 

C— Professor W. N. Benson, B.A., D.Sc, F.G.S. . . . . 45 

D— Professor A. J. Ewart, D.Sc, Ph.D. . . . . . . 134 

E — Professor Sir Douglas Mawson, K.B., B.E., D.Sc. . . . . 145 

F — His Honour Mr. Justice Murray, C.M.G. . . . . . . 161 

G— Mr. G. H. Knibbs, C.M.G., Hon. F.S.S., &c. . . . . 181 

H— Mr. Maurice Kernot, M.Inst.C.E., M.Am.SocC.E., &c. . . 205 

I— Dr. J. H. L. Cumpston, M.D., D.P.H., F.San.L . . . . 219 

J — Professor Alexander Mackie, M.A. . . . . . . . . 227 

K^Professor A. J. Perkins . . . . . . . . - 244 

L— Professor H. A. Woodruff, M.R.C.V.S., M.R.C.S., L.R-C.P. . . 258 

Report on the Progress of the Publication of the Scientific 

Results of the Australasian A^jtarctic Expedition . . 286 



Reports of Committees — 

Section A. — 

1. Macquarie Island . . . . .... 

2. Determination of Gravity in certain Critical Localiti3S 

3 Tidal Survey 

4 Seismological 

Section C— 

1. Glacial Phenomena 

2. Alkaline Rocks 

3. Physiography of Australasia 

4. Cainozoic 

Section D. — Biological and Hydrographical Study of New Zealand 
Coast . . 

Section I. — Anthropometric Research . . 

Titles of Papers read before Sections 

The Mueller Memorial Medal (Two plates) 

The Mueller Medallist. 1913 

List of Members 






JANUARY, 1921. 


His Excellency the Right Honorable The Lord Forster, G.C.M.G., 

Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia. 

His Excellency the Honorable Sir William Irvine, K.C.M.G., 

Lieutenant-Governor of the State of Victoria. 

His Excellency Sir William Lamond Allardyce, K.C.M.G., 

Governor of the State of Tasmania. 

39rfsitJ£nt : 

Sir W. Baldwin Spencer, K.C.M.G., Litt.D., M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

1Bice-^9vesil)ents : 

Professor A. Liversidge, LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S.E., Emeritus Professor of 
Chemistry in the University of Sydney (President, Sydney Meeting, 1898.) 

Professor Sir T. W. Edgeworth David, K.B.E., C.M.G., D.S.O., B.A., D.Sc, 
F.R.S., Professor of Geology in the University of Sydney (President, 
Dunedin Meeting, 1904, and Melbourne Meeting, 1913). 

Professor Sir William E. Bragg, K.B.E., M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., Professor of 
Physics in University College, London (President, Brisbane Meeting, 1909). 

Professor Orme Masson, C.B.E., M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., F.R.S.E., Professor of 
Chemistry in the University of Melbourne (President, Sydney Meeting, 1911). 

G. H. Knibbs, C.M.G., F.R.S.S., Commonwealth Statistician, Melbourne. 

Richard Teece, F.I.A., F.F.A. 

Don. General 'treasurer : 

David Garment, F.I.A., F.F.A*., c/o A.M.P. Society, Sydney. 

JJcrmaucut 3i)oii. (Sfnfral ^crrctaru ; 

J. H. Maiden, I.S.O., F.R.S., F.L.S., Government Botanist and Director of the 
Botanic Gardens, Sydney. 

|;)ou. treasurer for ^obart-Jttclbouvuc ^^tcctiug : 

J. Moore-Robinson, F.R.G.S., " Invermead," Lambert-avenue, Hobart. 

G. H. Knibbs, C.M.G., F.R.S. S., Commonwealth Statistician s Office, Melbourne. 

|!)Ott. ^ccretancs foe 3i)obart-ittclbouruc ^^Ueting : 

Professor T. Thomson Fly'nn, D.Sc, The University of Tasmania, Hobart. 
Roy S. Burdon, B.Sc, Lecturer in Physics in the University of Tasmania. 
Georgina Sweet, D.Sc, Associate-Professor of Zoology in the University of 

^ocal Secretaries : 

New SorTH Wales — J. H. Maiden, I.S.O., F.R.S., Botanic Gardens, Sydney. 
Victoria:— Georgina Sweet, D.Sc, Associate -Professor of Zoology in the 

University of Melbourne. 
South Australia — Professor W. Howchin, F.G.S., Professor of Geology and 

Palaeontology in the University of Adelaide. 
Western Australia — A. Gibb Maitland, F.G.S., Government Geologist, Perth. 
Queensland — John Shirley, D.Sc, " Coo-tha," Abbotsford-road, Bowen Hills, 

Tasmania — Professor T. Thomson Fly'nn, D.Sc, Professor of Biology in the 

University of Tasmania. 
New Zealand — Pr. jfepsor C. Coleridge Fahr, D.Sc, Professor of Physics in 

the Canterbury College, Christcburch. 



Section A— Astponomy, Mathematies. and Physics. 

President — Professor H. J. Priestley, M.A., University of Queensland. 

Vice-Presidents — Professor T. H. Laby, M.A., University of Melbourne ; J. M. 
Baldwin, M.A., D.Sc., Observatory, Melbourne ; Professor A. McAulay, 
M.A., University of Tasmania. 

Secretaries — Frank Ellis, M.A., M.E., Education Dei^artment, Hobart ; Dr. 
Bernard Thomas, M.B., Ch.M., Glenorchy, Tasmania; W. M. Holmes, 
M.A., B.Sc, .54 Sackville-street, Kew, Victoria. 

Members of Committee — P. Baracchi, F.R.A.S. ; Professor R. W. Chapman, 
M.A. ; Professor W. S. Cooke, M.A., F.R.S. ; Professor Kerr Grant, 
M.Sc. ; E. O. Hercus, M.Sc. ; G. H. Knibbs, C.M.G., F.R.S.S. ; Pro- 
fessor T. R. Lyle, M.A., Sc.D., F.R.S. ; E. F. J. Love, M.A., D.Sc. ; 
Professor E. J. Nanson, M.A. ; Professor T. Parnell, M.A. ; D. K. 
Picken, M.A. ; Professor J. A. Pollock, D.Sc. ; 0. V. VoNViaLLER, B.Sc. 

Section B— Chemistry. 

President — Professor N. T. M. Wilsmore, D.Sc, F.I.C, University of Westenv 

Vice-Presidents — A. E. Leighton, F.I.C. ; Professor D. Orme Masson, C.B.E., 

M.A., D.Sc, F.I.C, F.R.S., University of Melbourne ; Profe.ssor J. A. 

ScHOFiELD, A.R.S.M., F.I.C, University of Sydney ; W. E. Whitecotton, 

Secretaries — L. F. Stutterd, B.Sc, Electrolytic Zinc Co. Ltd., Risdon, Tasmania ; 

E. Ward, B.M.E., Government Laboratory, Bathurst-street, Hobart ; 

F. J. Watson, B.A., M.Sc, LTniversity of Melbourne. 

Members of Committee~W. E. Appleby^ ; D. Avery% M.Sc, ; Marcus Bell, 
F.I.C. ; W. H. Gepp ; Leila A. Green, M.Sc. ; W. H. Green, D.Sc. ; 

G. Haetar, D.Sc. ; G. Harker, D.Sc ; E. J. Hartung, D.Sc. ; R. J. 
Lews ; A. D. Olle, F.CS. ; J. R. Pound, M.Sc. ; E. S. Richards, 
M.Sc. ; A. C. D. Rivett, M.A., D.Sc. 

Sub-section : Phapmacy. 

President — C E. Towl. 

Vice-Presidents — C L. Butchers, General Secretary, Australasian Pharmaceutical 

Conference ; H. T. Gould, President, Pharmacy Board of Tasmania ; 

W. G. Burton, President, Pharmaceutical Society of Tasmania. 
Secretaries — J. Smithies, Collins-street, Hobart ; C C Wallis, Toorak-road, 


Section C— Geolog-y and Minepalog-y. 

President— PROFESson W. Noel Benson, B.A., D.Sc, University of Otago, N.Z. 

Vice-Presidents — Professor H. C Richards, D.Sc, University of Queensland ; 
E. C Andrews, Geological Section, Mines Department, Sydney ; Loftus 
Hills, M.Sc, M.B.E., Government Geologist, Tasmania. 

Secretaries — W. H. Clemes, B.A., B.Sc, Leslie House School, Hobart ; A. N. 
Lewis, M.C, c/o Lewis, Hudspeth. Perkins, and Dear, Collins-street, 
Hobart ; H. S. Summers, D.Sc, Acting-Professor of Geology, University, 

Members of CommiWee— Professor Sir T. W. E. DA\aD, K.B.E., D.S.O., B.A., 
D.Sc, F.R.S. : W. R. Browne, B.Sc. ; C A. Cotton, D.Sc. ; F. Chapman, 
A.L.S. ; F. L. Stillwell, D Sc. ; L. K. Ward, B A., B.E. 


Section D— Biology. 

President — Professor A. J. Ewart, D.Sc, Ph.D., F.L.S., The University of 

Vice-Presidents — Professor W. E. Agar, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S.. The University 

of Melbourne ; L. Rodway, C.M.G., Government Botanist of Tasmania ; 

Captain S. A. White, C.M.B.O.U., Fulham, South Australia ; Professor F. 

Wood-Jones, M.B., B.S., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., D.Sc. (London), The 

University of Adelaide. 
Secretaries — Clive Lord, Curator, Tasmanian Museum, Hobart ; Gwynneth 

Buchanan, D.Sc, University of Melbourne. 
Members of Committee — J. H. Maiden, I.S.O., F.R.S. ; Georgina Sweet, D.Sc. ; 

J. A. Kershaw, F.E.S. ; C. S. Sutton, M.B., B.S. ; Ethel I. McLennan, 


Section E— Geography and History. 

President — Sir Douglas Mawson, B^.E., D.Sc, University of Adelaide. 
Vice-Presidents — Professor Griffith Taylor, D.Sc, F.R.G.S., University of 

Sydney ; Professor Ernest Scott ; Captain John K. Davis. 
Secretaries — J. Moore-Robinson, F.R.G.S., Lambert-avenue, Sandy Bay. Hobart ; 

C. S. King, M.A., University of Tasmania ; C. Daley, B.A., Clarinda- 

street, Caulfield. 

Section P -Ethnology and Anthropology. 

President — His Honor Mr. Justice Murray, C.M.G., Lieutenant-Governor. 

Vice-Presidents — Dr. Horne, M.A., M.D., B.S., Lister House, 03 Collins-street, 

Melbourne ; Chas. Hedley, F.L.S., Australian Museum, Sydney ; Dr. 

A. H. Clarke, M.R.C.S., Collins-street, Hobart. 
Secretaries — Dr. W. Lodewyk CrowtBer, D.S.O., M.B., B.8., Macquarie-street, 

Hobart ; A. S. Kenyon, Plenty -road, Heidelberg. 
Members of Committee — S. F. Mann ; D. J. Mahony, M.Sc 

Section G -Social and Statistical Science. 

President — G. H. Knibbs, C.M.G., F.R.S.S., Commonwealth Statistician, Mel- 

Vice-Presidents — G. Lightfoot, M.A., Institute of Science and Industry, Mel- 
bourne; H. Heaton, M.A., University of Adelaide; L. F. Giblin, B.A., 
D.S.O., Government Statistician, Hobart. 

Secretaries — Professor D. B. Copland, M.A., L'^niversity of Tasmania ; G. 
Lightfoot, M.A. 

Members of Committee — A. M. Laughton, F.I.A. ; C. H. Wickens, A.I.A., F.S.S. 

Section H— Engineering and Architeetupe. 

President — Maurice E. Kernot, M.Inst.C.E., M.Am.SocC.E., Chief Engineer, 

Construction Branch, Victorian Railways, Melbourne. 
Vice-Presidents — John Sulman, F.R.I. B. A., Sydney ; Ross Reynolds, 

M.Inst.C.E., Public Works Department, Hobart ; T. Walker Fowler, 

M.Inst.C.E., Queensland. 
Secretaries — Bernard Walker, c/ o Hutchison and Walker, Hobart ; G. A. 

Baker, B.C.E., State Rivers and Water Supply Commission, Melbourne. 
Members of Committee— TA. Deane, M.Inst.C.E. ; G. Higgins, M.C.E., M.Inst.C.E. ; 

W. Kernot, M.Mech.E., M.Inst.C.E.; F. Stapley, F.R.V.I.A.: 

A. S. Kenyon ; E. C. Rigby. 


Section I Sanitary Science and Hygiene. 

President — Dr. J. H. L. Cumpston, M.D., D.P.H., Federal Quarantine Depart- 
ment, Melbourne. 
Secretaries — E. J. Tudor, Public Health Department. Hobart ; H. E. Bellamy, 

M.Am.Soc.C.E., Town Hall, Hobart; T. Dimelow, Public Health De- 

liartment, Melbourne. 

Section J— Mental Science and Kducation. 

President — Professor A. Mackie, M.A., University of Sydney. 

Vice-Presidents — Professor C. F. Salmond, M.A., Canterbury College, Christ- 
church ; C. R. Long, M.A., Education Department, Melbourne ; S. Clemes, 
Leslie House School, Hobart. 

Secretaries — J. A. Johnson, M.A., Training College, Hobart; E. Morris Miller, 
M.A., Litt.D., University of Tasmania : Frank Shann, M.A., Trinity 
Grammar School, Kew. 

Section K Agricultupe. 

President — Professor A. J. Perkins, Director of Agriculture, South Australia. 

Vice-Presidents — Dr. S. S. Cameron, Director of Agriculture, Victoria ; Andrew 
E. Mansell, Mount Vernon. Melton, Tasmania. 

Secretaries — R. A. Black, Agricultural Department, Hobart ; S. H. Grueber, 
Agricultural Department, Hobart; F. J. Rae, B.Sc, B.Agr.Sc, Horti- 
cultural Gardens, Burnley. 

Members of Committee — Professor Watt, M.A., B.Sc. ; A. E. V. Richardson, 
M.A., B.Sc. ; T. Cherry, M.D., M.S. ; E. Breakwell, B.A., B.Sc. ' 

Section L— Veterinary Science. 

P/esirfenf— Professor H. A. Woodruff, M.R.C.V.S., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., 
University of Melbourne. 

Vice-Presidents — Professor Douglas Stewart, F.R.C.V.S., University of Syd- 
ney ; J. A. Gilruth, D.V.Sc, Melbourne ; Max. Henry, B.V.Sc, Sydney ; 
R. C. Field, Westbury, Tasmania. 

Secretaries — T. Philp, B.V.Sc, Public Buildings, Launceston ; C. G. Dickenson, 
B.V.Sc, Agricultural Department, Hobart ; H. R. Seddon, B.V.Sc, 
Veterinary Institute, Melbourne. 

Members of Committee — W. T. Kendall, D.V.Sc. ; W. A. N. Robertson. B.V.Sc; 
C. N. Meyers, B.V.Sc. 





Ansell, M. M., M.A. 

Beattie. .J. W. 

Bellamy, H. E., M. Inst.C.E. 

Black, R. A. 

BuRDON", R. a., B.Sc. 


Butler, W. F. D.. B.A., M.Sc, LL.B. 

Clarke, A. H., M.R.C.S.E. 

Glemes, S. 

Clemes, W. H.. B.A., B.Sc. 


Ceowther, W. L., D.S.O., M.R.C.S.E. 

Dickenson, C. G. 

DuNBABiN, Professor R. L., M.A. 

Eldridge, W. 

Ellis, F., M.A., B.E. 

Evans, A. L. 

Flynn, Professor T. T., D.Sc. 

GiBLiN. L. F., B.A. 

Gould. H. T. 

Grueber, S. H. 

Hall, R., C.M.Z.S. 

Hills, L., M.Sc, M.B.E. 
Johnson, J. A., M.A. 
King, C. S., M.A. 
Lewis, A. N., M.C. 
Lines, D. H. E., M.B., Ch.B. 
Lord, C. E. 
Mansell, a. E. 
McAuLAY, Professor A., M.A. 
Miller, E. M., M.A., Litt.D. 
Moore-Robinson, J. 
Philip, C. G., B.V.Sc. 
Philp, T., B.V.Sc. 
Rod\vay, L., C.M.G. 
Smithies, J. 
Sprent, J., D.Sc. 
Thomas, M. B., Ch.M. 
Walker, B. 
•Ward, E., B.M.E. 
Weymouth, W. A. 
Young, F. J., B.A. 
Young, F. M., B.A. 


Adamson, L. a., M.A. 

Baldwin, J. M., M.A., D.Sc. 

Cherry, T., M.D., M.S. 

Collins, .J. T. 

Cumpston, J. H. L.,- M.D., B.S. 

Deane, H., M.A., M.Inst.C.E. 

Ewart, Prof. A. J., D.Sc, Ph.D. 

Fenton, .J. J. 

Green, W. H., D.Sc. 

Kernot, M. E., M.Inst.C.E. 

Knibbs, G. H., C.M.G., F.R.S.S. 

Laby, Prof. T. H.. M.A. 

Lightfoot. G., M.A. 

Love, E. F. J., M.A., D.Sc. 

Lyle, Emer. Prof. T.R., M.A., D.Sc, 

Mahony, D. J., M.Sc 
Masson. Prof. O., C.B.E.. M.A., D.Sc 

F.R.S. • 

RivETT, Assoc -Prof. A. C. D., M.A.. 

Robertson, W. A. N., B.V.Sc. 
Skeats, Prof. E. W., D.Sc. 
Smith, B. A. 
Spencer, Sir Baldwin, K.C.M.G., M.A., 

D.Sc, Litt.D., F.R.S. 
Speingthorpe, J. W., M.A., M.D., B.S. 
Summers, Act. -Prof. H. S., D.Sc. 
Sutton, C. S., M.B., B.S. 
Sweet, Assoc. -Prof. Georgina, D.Sc. 
Syme, G. a., M.B., B.S. 
Topp, C. A., M.A. 
TowL, C. E. 
Weatherburn, C. E., M.A., D.Sc 


Woodruff, Prof. H. A., M.R.C.V.S., 
M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 



Actuarial Society of Australasia (Sydney Section) — Prof. E. M. Moors, M.A., 

Australian Chemical Institute (N.S.W. Branch) — Dr. George Harker ; R. W. 

Chalijnor, F.I.C. 
Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. — C. A. Sussmilch, F.G.S. 
British Astronomical Association (N.S.W. Branch). — W. F. Gale, F.R.A.S. 
British Medical Association (N.S.W. Branch). — Dr. Leonard Watkins Bickle ; 

Dr. John Smith Purdy. 
Institute of Architects of N.S.W.— G. Sydney Jones, F.R.I.B.A. 
Institute of Engineers of Australia (Newcastle Division). — E. F. Henning. 
Linnean Society of N.S.W.— H. J. Carter, B.A., F.E.S. ; Dr. A. B. Walkom. 
Naturalists' Society of N.S.W. — A. G. Hamilton ; E. Cheel. 
Pharmaceutical Society of N.S.W.— F. P. J. Gray, M.P.S. ; J. F. McKimm, M.P.S.; 

A. Wadsworth, M.P.S. 
Royal Australian Historical Society. — J. H. Watson, F.R.A.H.S. ; William 

Welch, F.R.G.S. 
Royal Society of N.S.W.— James Nangle, F.R.A.S. ; H. G. Smith, F.C.S. ; 

R. H. Cambage, F.L.S. 
Royal Zoological Society of N.S.W. — G. A. Waterhouse, B.Sc, B.E. 
Society of Chemical Industry. — R. W. Challinor, F.LC. 
Sydney Technical College Chemical Society. — A. D. Olle. 
Sydney Uniyersity Science Society. — E. H. Booth, B.Sc, M.C. 
Wild Life Preservation Society of Australia. — David G. Stead. 


Cawthron Institute. — Dr. C. A. Cotton. 

New Zealand Institute. — Prof. Kirk. 

New Zealand Institute of Surveyors. — A. D. Dobson. 

Otago Institute.— W. G. Howes, F.L.S. 

Philosophical Institute of Canterbury. — A. D. Dobson ; Prof. C. Coleridge Farr. 

Polynesian Society. — C. Hedley, F.L.S. 



Australian Chemical Institute (Queensland Branch). — W. E. Appleby. 

Field Naturalists' Club of Queensland. — C. T. White, F.L.S. 

Institute of Engineers of Australia (Queensland Division). — A. J. Goldsmith, 

Odontological Society. — I. W. Ward. 

Pharmaceutical Society of Queensland. — Alexander Forbes ; R. Cowley. 
Queensland University. — Prof. H. J. Priestley, M.A. ; Prof. T. Parnell, 

M.A. ; Prof. H. C. Richards, D.Sc. 
Royal Society of Queensland. — Prof. H. C. Richards, D.Sc. ; W. Lloyd, M.L.A. 


Australian Chemical Insittute (South Australian Branch). — J. D. O'Connor, B.Sc. 
Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (South Australian Branch). — 

Prof. R. W. Chapjian, M^A. 
British Medical Association (South Australian Branch). — Dr. R. H. Pulleine. 
Field Naturalists' Section of Royal Society of South Australia.^ — C. Fenner, D.Sc. 
Royal Australasian Ornithologists' Union (South Australian Branch). — Captain 

S. A. White. 
Royal Geographical Society of Australasia (South Australian Branch). — Hon. 

John Lewis, M.L.C. 
Royal Society of South Australia. — Dr. R. H. Pulleine. 
University of Adelaide. — Prof. J. R. Wilton, M.A., D.Sc. ; Prof. J. B. Cleland, 



Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (Tasmanian Branch). — H. W. 

Gepp (Victorian Member). 
British Medical Society (Tasmanian Branch). — Dr. J. Sprent. 
Field Naturalists' Club of Tasmania. — L. Rodway, C.M.G. 
Royal Society of Tasmania. — Dr. W. L. Growth er ; Dr. A. H. Clarke. 
Tasmanian Fisheries Commissioners. — H. J. Gould. 
Tasmanian Institute of Architects. — Herm.a.n Hutchison. 
University of Tasmania. — Hon. Tetley Gant, C.M.G. , M.A. 


Actuarial Society of Australasia — C. H. Wickens, A.I.A. 

Association of Secondary Teachers — Miss K. A. Gilman-Jones, M.A. ; F. Shann, 

M.A. ; J. P. Wilson, M.A., LL.D. 
AustraUan Chemical Institute (Victorian Branch) — V. G. Anderson, F. H. 

Campbell, D.Sc. 
Australian Forest League— C. S. Sutton, M.B., B.S.; H. Deane, M.A., M.Inst. C.E. 


Victoria — continued. 

Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy — A. S. Kenyon. 

British Medical Association (Victorian Branch) — G. A. Syme, M.B., M.S. ; 

J. H. L. CuMPSTON, M.D., B.8. 
Field NaturaUsts' Club of Victoria— C. S. Sutton, M.B., B.S. ; C. Daley, B.A., 

Geelong Field Naturalists' Club — C. A. Tai'lor. 

Historical Society of Victoria — C. R. Long, M.A. ; C. Daley, B.A., F.L.S. 
Institution of Engineers, Aus. (Melbourne Division) — M. E. Kernot, M.Inst.C.E. ; 


Institute of Engineers (Victoria) — W. Reid Bell, M.Inst.C.E. 

Melbourne University — Prof. Harrison Moore, C.M.G., LL.B. ; Prof. R. J. A. 

Berry, M.B., Ch.M. 
Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria — H. B. Taylor ; A. R. Bailey ; D. A. 

Royal Australasian Ornithologists' Union — W. H. 1). Le Souef ; Capt. S. A. 

White ; Dr. G. Horne, M.A., M.D., B.S. 
Royal Geographical Society of Australia (Victorian Branch) — J. W. Israel. 
Royal Horticultural Society of Victoria — J. P. McLennan. 
Roval Society of Victoria — Prof. W. A. Osborne, M.B., Ch.B., D.Sc. : Prof. 

" W. E. Agar, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. ; J. Shephard. 
Royal Victorian Institute of Architects — F. Stapley'. 

Royal Geological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria — W. H. D. Le Souef. 
Society of Chemical Industry — W. H. Green, D.Sc. ; E. S. Richards, M.Sc. 
University Chemical Society — F. J. Watson, B.Sc 
University Engineering Society — G. B. Robertson. 

University Science Club — Miss G. Buchanan, D.Sc. ; Miss E. McLennan, D.Sc. 
Veterinary Association of Victoria — W. A. N. Robertson, B.V.Sc. 



MONDAY, 10th JANUARY, 1921. 
10.30 a.m. — -Members assembled at Reception Room in University Union. 
2 p.m. — Sectional Committees met. 

3.30 p.m. — First Meeting of General Council (in Biological Lecture Theatre). 
^ p.m. — President's Address (in Melba Hall, University). 


10 a.m. — Sectional Committees met. 

10.30 a.m. — Sections met. 

Presidential Addresses in Sections A, C. H, I, and K. Papers and Dis- 
cussion on " Relativity " in Section A. Paper and Discussion on " The 
Necessity for an immediate and co-ordinated Investigation into the Land 

and Fresh Water Fauna of Australia and Tasmania " in Section D. 


11.30 a.m. — Presidential Address in Section J. Paper and Discussion on " Repres- 
sion of Animal Tuberculosis," between Sections I, K, and L (in Section I). 

1.45 p.m. — Visit to Royal Park Cutting (Geology). 

2 p.m. — Presidential Address in Section F. Papers and Discussion on '" Towot 

Planning," between Sections G, H, and I (in Section H). 

3 p.m. — Sections met. 

3.30 p.m. — Visit to Commonwealth Serum Institute, Royal Park. 

Presidential Address in Section B (in Melba Hall) ; followed by 

4.30 p.m. — Discussion on " The Apphcation of Physical and Chemical Science in 
the Great War," between Sections A and B (in Melba Hall). 

5 p.m. — Visit to Fire Brigade Head Station. 


10 a.m. — Sectional Committees met. 

Paper and Discussion on " The Organization of Science," in Section A. 

10.30 a.m. — Sections met. 

Presidential Address in Section B, sub-Section Pharmacy (at the Pharmacy 
Hall). Papers and Discussion on " Methods of Attacking the Prickly 
Pear Problem," between Sections B and D (in Section D). Papers and 
Discussion on " Industrial Fatigue," between Sections G and I (in 
Section I). 


Wednesday, 12th January — continued. 

11.30 a.m. — Discussion on "The Theory and Application of the Thermionic 
Valve," in Section A. Paper and Discussion on " Macquarie Island and 
its Future," between Sections D and E (in Section D). 

11.4.1 a.m. — Discussion on ''Food Preservation," between Sections B and 1 (in 
Section B). 

2 p.m. — Second Meeting of General Council (in Biological Lecture Theatre). 

Visit to Museum of Economic Botany and Botanical Gardens. 

3 p.m. — President's Reception in Botanical Gardens. 

5 p.m. — Visit to National Herbarium in the Domain. 

8 p.m. — Inaugural Meeting of the Australian Veterinary Association, Veterinary 
Research Institute. 

10 a.m. — Sectional Committees met. 

10.3U a.m. — Sections met. 

Presidential Addresses in Sections D and E. Discussion on " Town 
Planning " (continued). Papers and Discussion on " Milk Production 
and Meat Inspection," between Sections I and L (in Section I). 

12 noon — Presidential Address in Section L. 

2 p.m. — Presidential Address in Section G (in room of Section A). 

Paper on " Factors controlling Settlement in our arid and tropical 
Regions " to Sections C, E, H, I, and K (in Section E). 

2.15 p.m. — Demonstration on '' Bilharziosis " to Sections D and I (in Biological 

3.15 p.m. — Visit to Public Library and National Museum (including Children's 
Museum, Stone Implements, Australian Ethnography, Entomological 
Collection, Australian Zoology, and H. Y. L. White Collection of Aus- 
tralian Birds, Australian C4eology, and Paleontology Sections). 

8 p.m. — Address by Sir Edgeworth David on " The Romance of Ice," in Melba 


10 a.m. — Sectional Committees met. 

10.30 a.m. — Sections met. 

Discussion on '' The Electrolytic Winning of Metals," between Sections 
B and H (in Section B). Paper and Discussion on " The Present Position 
of Theories of Heredity," between Sections D, G, K, and L (in Section D). 
Paper and Discussion on " The Cultural Period of the Australian 
Aboriginal," in Section F. 
Visit to Hume Pipe Works (Engineering). 

11.45 a.m. — Discussion on " The Prevalence of Contagious Disease in Australia 
and the Danger of Introduction from Abroad," in Section L. 


Friday, 14th January — continued. 

12 noon — Discussion on " Standardization of Analytical Methods," in Section B. 
Paper and Discussion on " Forests, especially in Relation to Engineering 
and Architecture," between Sections D and H (in Section D). 
First General Meeting, Australian Public Health Association. 

1.45 p.m. — Visit to Studley Park (Geology). 

2 p.m. — Lecture on " Race Origins and Distributions," to Sections E and F (in 

Section E). Visit to Museum of Economic Entomology and Ornithology 
(Economic Zoology), and afterwards to the Plant Pathology Museum 
(Economic Botany). Visit to Newport Power House (Engineering). 

3 i).m. — Papers and Discussion on " The Structure of the Atom," between Sections 

A and B (in Melba Hall). 

4 p.m. — Visit to Royal Zoological and Acclimatisation Society's Gardens, Royal 

Park (Zoology). 

8 p.m. — Visit to the City Council Electric Supply Power House (Engineering). 
Visit to the Observatory (Astronomy). 
Council Meeting of Australian Forest League. 


10 a.m. — Sectional Committees met (final meeting). 

10.30 a.m. — Recommendations Committee met (final meeting, in Biological 

11.30 a.m. — Third and Final Meeting of the General Council (in Biological 
Theatre), Visit to Newport Workshops (Engineering). Excursion to 
State Research Farm, Werribecj— Leaders : Dr. S. S. Cameron, Director of 
Agriculture, and Mr. A. E. V. Richardson, Superintendent of Agriculture 
(Agriculture and Agricultural Botany). Excursion to Williamstown, 
Point Cook, and Altona Bay (Marine Biology). 


Non-oificial Day Excursions were held as follows : — 

Bacchus Marsh and Werribee Gorge (Glacial Geology). — Leader : Acting- 
Professor Summers. 

Aviation School, Point Cook (Aboriginal Camping Ground). — Leader : Dr. 


Whole-day excursions took place to : — 

Olinda and Sherbrooke Gully, by char-a-banc (Zoology and Botany). 

Geelong and Torquay (Geology), by train and motor. — Leader : Acting- 
Professor H. S. Summers. 

Morwell Brown Coal Deposit (Geology), by train and motor. — Leader : Mr. 
W. Baragwanath, Director of the Geological Survey. 


Visit to " Manyung," Mornington, by invitation of Mr. and Mrs. T. Baker, by 

Commencement of two-day excursion to Melbourne and Metropolitan Board 
of Works' O'Shannessy Water Supply Scheme (Engineering). — Leader : Mr. 
E. J. Ritchie, Chief Engineer of Water Supply. 

Commencement of four-day excursion to National Park, Wilson's Promontory 
(Biology and Geology). — Leader : Mr. Jas. A. Kershaw, Secretary to the National 
Park Committee. 

The evening meetings had to be greatly curtailed because of reductions in the 
railway service, and the absence of cable and electric trams after 7 p.m., neces- 
sitated by prevailing strike conditions. A char-a-banc service was arranged to 
convey members to and from the University and city on Monday and Thursday 

Luncheon was provided in the University Union Rooms daily from Monday, 
10th, to Friday, 14th January (inclusive) ; morning tea daily from 10.30 to 
11.30 a.m. ; and afternoon tea daily (except Wednesday and Saturday) from 
3 to 5 p.m. ; and " High Tea " on Monday and Thursday evenings from 5.45 to 
6.15 p.m. 




3.30 P.M., Monday, 10th January, 1921. 

Professor Sir Edge worth David, the retiring President, in the 
Chair. (This and subsequent meetings were held in the Biological 
Theatre of the University.) 

Mueller Memorial Medal Committee. 

The Committee reported that, owing to the long time (eight years) 
which has elapsed since the last award, which is usually made 
biennially, it had decided : — 

(a) To award two Medals instead of one at the present 

{b) That the recipients be (1) Mr. Eichard Thomas Baker, 
• Curator of the Jechnological Museum, Sydney, in 
acknowledgment of his eminent services to Botany, 
jDarticularly in regard to Eucalyptus, and (2) Pro- 
fessor C. Chilton, D.Sc, Professor of Biology, 
Christchurch, New Zealand, in acknowledgment of 
his eminent services to Zoology, particularly in 
regard to the Crustacea. 

Recommendation Committee. 

The Permanent Honorary Secretary moved : That a Recommen- 
dation Committee be appointed as follows : — 

The usual ex officio members. 

The Presidents of Sections. {See Association Report, Vol. XIII., 
p. xxxii ; also Rules 36 and 37, p. lxxii.) 

Publication Committee. 

The Permanent Honorary Secretary moved : That a Publication 
Committee be appointed, to consist of the Secretaries of Sections, the 
Local Treasurer, and the General Secretaries of the States of Tasmania 
and Victoria. {See Association Report, Vol. XIV., p. xvii.) 


Next (Sixteenth) Meeting, Wellington, New Zealand, 
January, 1923. 

The Permanent Honorary Secretary read the following letter : — 

New Zealand Institute, 

Wellington, 4th October, 1920. 
On behalf of the New Zealand Institute, I beg to tender to the Australasian 
Association for the Advancement of Science a very hearty invitation to hold its 
meeting, which I understand is to be in January, 1923, in Wellington. 

I can assure the members that they will receive a very cordial reception, and 
every endeavour will be made to make the meeting a complete success. 

(Signed) Thomas H. Easterfield, 
I President. 

On the motion of Professor Cotton, seconded by Professor Benson, 
both of the New Zealand University, who extended a cordial invitation, 
the following resolution was carried unanimously : — 

That the next meeting take place at Wellington, New Zealand, in 
January, 1923. 

It was reported that no reply had been received from Perth, Western 

See also Resolution concerning ^Jlaces of future meetings at p. xix. 

Changes in the Secretariat. 

The following report re Changes in the Secretariat was made by the 
General Secretary. 

1. Local Secretary for Tasmania and General Secretary for the Hohart 


Early in October, 1920, Professor T. Thomson Flynn found it 
necessary to leave Hobart until mid-December. With the consent of 
the Local Council, he had j^reviously instructed Mr. R. S. Burdon, 
B.Sc, of the Tasmanian University, in the duties of his office, with 
the view to the latter co-operating in undertaking the duties of Local 
Secretary for Tasmania and General Secretary for the Hobart Meeting. 
It is very fortunate that Tasmania was able to secure, at short notice, 
the services of a gentleman so eminently suitable for the duties of 
the position. 

2. Local Secretary for Victoria. 

[a) Our great loss through the death of Dr. T. S. Hall, Local 
Secretary for Victoria, was reported in the Provisional Report of 30th 
September, 1918. 

(&) On the 2.5th August, 1919, it was notified, on the nomination 

' of the President elect, and with the approA^al of the Great Officers of 

the Association, to Dr. A. C. D. Rivett, of the University of Melbourne, 


that he had been appointed Local Secretary for Victoria. Dr. Rivett 
entered into the duties of his office with great zeal, and all went well 
until June, 1920, when the state of his health necessitated his resig- 
nation. His resignation was accepted, with a cordial expression of 
sympathy in regard to the cause which brought it about. 

(c) On the nomination of the President-elect, and following the 
u.sual procedure, in June, 1920, Dr. Georgtna Sweet, Associate- 
Professor of Zoology in the University of Melbourne, was appointed 
Local Secretary for Victoria. She is the first woman Local Secretary 
of the Association, and has been energetic and successful in the carrying 
out of her duties to an extent that, while it pleases, in no way surprises 
her colleagues. 

3. Local Secretary for South Australia. 

Professor Walter Howchin, Professor of Geology in the University 
of Adelaide, who was elected Local Secretary prior to the Adelaide 
meeting of January, 1907, is retiring from his post at the University, 
and desires to vacate his office of Local Secretary. His colleagues 
nominated Professor J. R. Wilton, M.A., D.Sc, who occupies the 
chair of Mathematics, to the vacant office, and this has been confirmed 
in the usual way as from the close of the Hobart meeting. 

The Chairman voiced the gratitude of the Association for the 
valuable services rendered by the retiring officers, and drew especial 
attention to the unselfish labours of our late friend, Dr. T. S. Hall, 
whose face was es]jecially missed from the meeting. 

British Association Committee on Zoological Bibliography. 

A letter has been received from Dr. F. A.. Bather, F.R.S., Secretary 
of the above Committee, who writes from London, for co-operation in 
regard to recommendations by the Conmiittee of Section D (Zoology). 
These are under the headings of («) Method of making references to 
previous literature, and (6) The introduction of new genera and species. 
He encloses a circular, which is too long to copy at this place. 

The matter is of the highest importance in the interests of a settled 
nomenclature, and applies to Botany also. It was resolved that the 
recommendations have the sympathy of this Association. 

AcADEMiE Royale de Belgique. — Prizes for Competition. 

The Academic Royale de Belgique has forwarded, for the informa- 
tion of members, a programme of a number of prizes to be awarded 
in the departments of Mathematics and Physics and of Natural Science 
during 1921. The papers are to be submitted by 1st August next. 
The programme was rendered available to any member who might 
desire to peruse it. 


Pan-Pacific Congress. 

The Pan-Pacific Scientific Congress was held at Honolulu from the 
4th to the 20th August, 1920. The following statement was read : — 

The Congress was attended by five of our most active members, 
viz. : — Charles Hedley, E. C. Andrews, and Dr. L. A. Cotton, all 
of Sydney, and C. A. Sussmilch (of Newcastle), and Professor H. C. 
Richards, of Brisbane, also Professor Wood-Jones, of Adelaide, the 
first-named being requested by yourself to officially represent this 
Association at the Congress. Following is his report, and an interesting 
report by Mr. E. C. Andrews will be found in The Scientific Australian 
for September, 1920, p. 13 :— 

23rd October, 1920. 

When leaving for Honolulu to attend the first meeting of the Pan -Pacific 
Scientific Conference, I was honoured by our President, Professor Sir T. W. E. 
David, F.R.S., &c., with a commission to represent our Association there. 

Accordingly I presented myself, was registered, and accepted as your delegate. 
I had the support also of four others of our members — Mr. E. C. Andrews, 
Professor H. C. Richards, Professor L. A. Cotton, and Mr. C. A. Sussmilch. 
Together we attended all the meetings of the Conference from the 4th to the 
20th August, 1920. 

Besides Australia the following countries were represented : — The Hawaiian 
Islands with 44 delegates, United States 43, Phihppine Islands 5, Japan 4, New 
Zealand 3, Canada 2, and China 1. Both Fiji and Tahiti had been invited to 
send representatives, but had not been able to do so. 

Mr. E. C. Andrews was appointed Australian representative of the Conference. 

The work of the Conference was summarized in a series of resolutions, copies 
of which will be available for circulation shortly. From this it will be seen that 
the principal concern was the organization of research in the Pacific. It was 
agreed that the large problems involved required co-ordination of scientific effort, 
and that a necessary preliminary for successful action was the training of workers 
for their tasks. 

Because the native races are so quickly vanishing, anthropological work is 
placed in the forefront of the programme. 

The Conference desired to see a comprehensive, systematic, biological survey 
of the Pacific Islands instituted. 

It recommended more minute records and prompter publication of volcanic 
information. Also, it stressed the importance of accurate topographic maps. 

■ A suggestion was made that a future meeting of the Pan-Pacific Conference 
might advantageously be held in one of the cities of Australia or New Zealand. 
Further, it was suggested that such a meeting might unite a joint sitting of the 
Pan-Pacific Conference with the Australasian Association for the Advancement 
of Science. 

(Signed) Charles Hedley. 

Professor C. H. Richards has given an admirable account of the 
proceedings under the title '' First Pan-Pacific Scientific Conference " 
{Science and Industry, October, 1920, p. 61.")). 

On the motion of Mr. Cambage, seconded by Professor Richards, 
it was resolved to send hearty greetings to the Congress. 

It was resolved to send a cablegram of congratulation to Professor 
Liversidge, the founder of the Association, now in England. 



2 P.M., Wednesday, 12tj? January. 
Professor Sir Baldwin Spencer, President, in the Chair. 

Greater Uniformity in the Eeports of Meetings. 

It was resolved that the arrangement of the matter in each Report 
of the Association should more closely apjiroximate to uniformity 
than is the case at present. With that object in view it was resolved — 

That a Committee consisting of the Local Secretaries and 
General Treasurer, be appointed to consider the matter, and 
report to the General Council at Wellington in 1923 ; the 
Permanent Honorary Secretary (who is also Local Secretary for 
New South Wales) to be convener. 

Lawrence Hargrave's Work on Aviation. 

The Permanent Honorary Secretary (on behalf of Mr. Henry 

Deane, who was temporarily absent) moved, and Mr. Cambage 

seconded, with the support of Professor Pollock, and it was carried : — 

That this Council puts on record its deep sense of the great 

value of the experimental work in aeronautics of the late Lawrence 

Hargrave, which has led to such remarkable results in the 

evolution of aviation, a branch of Science which proved of such 

immense importance during the recent great war. 

Places of Future Meetings. 

The following resolution was agreed to : — That meetings in New 
South Wales, Victoria, or Tasmania shall alternate generally with 
those in more remote States. 

Australian National Research Council. 

Professor Laby gave notice of the following motion, which was 
read : — 

A. That with a view to the more effective organization of Science in AustraUa. 
the A.A.A.S. appoint a committee to make inquiries and to rejjort on the following 
matters : — 

(1) Whether it is desirable to form, by the federation of existing State 

sci^tific societies or otherwise, a societj' of Australian scientific 
workers for the purposes of advancing scientific education, promoting 
research, discussing and publishing the results of scientific investiga- 
tion, recognising and encouraging distinguished scientific work. 

(2) Assuming that the formation of such scientific society is desirable, what 

should its constitution and functions be, and how should it be related 
to societies such as the Institution of Engineers of Australia ? 

(3) What modification in the rules and methods of the A.A.A.S. is desirable 

in the light of the experience of the Association and of the British 
A.A.S. ? 


(4) What steps are recommended to advance the apphcation of science — 

(a) in industry ? 

(6) in Federal and State Administration ? 

(c) in the defence of Australia ? 

(5) What organization of the relation of scientific societies to the Federal 

and State Governments is desirable in order that scientific opinion 
may have more influence in its proper domain on government and 
administration in AustraUa ? 

(6) Scientific relation with other countries. 

B. That the Committee consist of Sir Baldwin Spencer, Sir Edgeworth 
David, Professor Masson, Mr. Knibbs, Mr. Maiden, Professor Chavman, Mr. 
Leighton, Sir Douglas Mawsoist, Professor Pollock, Professor Priestley, 
Professor Brailsford Robertson, Professor Steele, Professor Wilsmore, 
and the mover. 

C. That the leading State Scientific Societies, if they desire further repre- 
sentation on the Committee, be asked to add one member each. 

D. That the rules of the A.A.A.S. be so altered as to allow of the Council of 
the A.A.A.S. holding a meeting to take action on the Committee's rejjort when 
it is ready. 


11.30 A.M., Saturday, Ljth January. 

Professor Sir Baldwin Spencer in the Chair. 

The General Treasurer (Mr. David Garment) submitted the following 
audited balance-sheets, made some remarks as to the financial position 
of the Association, and answered some questions. Mr. G. H. Knibbs 
moved the adoption of the balance-sheets, and a vote of thanks to the 
Treasurer, which were carried unaminously. 

Mr. Knibbs also moved a vote of thanks to Mr. R. A. Dallen for 
his honorary services as Auditor, and that he be requested to continue ; 
and this also was carried unanimously. 

Australian National Research Council. 

After a most hearty and instructive debate, the following resolu- 
tions were agreed to : — 

1. The Resolutions of the Conference held in Sydney on the 21st August, 1919, 
shall cease to be operative from this day, 15th January, 1921. 

2 The National Research Council shall consist of not more than 100 members, 
and shall contain two or more representatives of each of the following branches 
of Science and of such others as may be determined from time to time by the 
General Council of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science : — 
Agriculture, Anthropology. Astronomy. Botany. Chemistry, Economics and 
Statistics, Engineering, Geography, Geology, Mathematics. Mental Science and 
Education, Meteorology. Mining and Metallurgy. Pathology, Physics. Physiology, 
Veterinary Science, Zoology. 


3. The members of the Provisional Council* are hereby elected members of the 
Research Council, together with Mr. G. H. Knibbs and Mr. G. Lightfoot (repre- 
senting Economics and Statistics), Professor Laby (representing Physics) and 
Messrs. R. Sticht and G. C. Klug (representing Mining and Metallurgy). 

4. The members (as defined in Clause 3) shall co-opt additional members 
within the numerical limit prescribed in Clause 2, and shall select such additional 
members in consultation with the Presidents of the more important scientific, 
technical, and learned Associations and Societies of the Commonwealth. 

5. The Council may appoint as associate members scientific workers resident 
in Australia who are deemed likely to confer benefit by their researches. 

6. The Council may appoint such Standing Committees and Special Com- 
mittees as it deems requisite for national or international purposes. 

7. The Council may appoint such office-bearers as it may determine. These 
shall hold office for a term of two years and be re -eligible. 

8. A meeting of the members (as defined in Clauses 3 and 4) shall be held at Sydney 
not later than May, 1921, for the purposes indicated in Clause 4, and a meeting 
of the whole Council so constituted shall meet as soon as possible thereafter 
for the purposes indicated in Rules 5, 6, and 7, and for the formulation of by-laws 
and any other necessary business. 

9. Members unable to attend any such meeting may communicate their views 
beforehand in writing to the Hon. Secretary, and all such communications shall 
receive full consideration at the meeting. 

10. Every member and associate member shall retain his membership for life 
unless it be terminated (1) by his resignation, (2) by his ceasing to reside in 
Australia, or (3) by vote of at least two-thirds of the members. 

11. The Council shall submit a full report of its work and proceedings to the 
Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science on the occasion of each 
meeting of the Association. 

12. Until other arrangements are made for the financial support of the Council, 
each member thereof shall be liable tp contribute the sum of £2 2s. per annum, 
and each associate member £1 Is. per annum. 

Permanent Honorary Secretary of the Association and Local 
Secretary for New South Wales. 

Mr. J. H. Maiden, who was appointed to his present offices on 
28th December, 1907, begged leave to resign them on the ground of 
other duties. As he considered that it was not in the best interests of 
the Association that he should leave office immediately after the 
Melbourne meeting, while so many details required attention, he pro- 
posed that he be relieved of office at the end of the year 1921. This 

* The Austialasian Research Council, acthig as the Australian Branch of the International 
Research Council, was inaugurated at the suggestion of the Royal Society of London at a 
meeting of delegates representing the various Australian Scientific Societies held in Sydney, 
in August, 1919. At this meeting a Provisional Council was appointed, and it was resolved 
that the selection of members of the Pennauent Council be left in the hands of that of the 
A.A.A.S. at its next meeting in January, 1921. 

The following were elected members of the Provisional Council: — Sir Harry Allen, Dr. J. 
M. Baldwin, Mr. R. H. Cambage (Hon. Secretary), Prof. H. S. Carslaw, Prof. H. (i. Chapman 
(Hon. Treasurer), Prof. W. E. Cooke. Sir Edgeworth David (Chairman), ^Ir. A. .1. Gibson. 
Prof. W. A. Haswell, Mr. C. Hedley, Mr. L. Hills, Mr. H. A. Hunt, Piof. T. R. Lyle, Mi. ,1. 
'H. Maiden, Prof. Orme Masson, Sir D. Mawson, Prof. W. A. Osborne. Prof. .1. A. Pollock. 
Prof. H. J. Priestley, Mr. A. E. V. Richardson, Prof. E. W. Skeats, Sir Baldwin Spencer, 
Prof. J. D. Stewart, Dr. T. G. Taylor. Prof. R. D. Watt. Prof. D. A. Welsh, Prof. N. T. M. 
Wilsmore, Prof. H. A. Woodruff. 


would not only enable work connected with the meeting to be cleared 
up, but would give his successor a clear year for preparation for the 
Wellington meeting in 1923. 

Mr. Ernest Clayton Andrews, B.A., CTOvernment Geologist of 
New South Wales, a zealous member of the Association, had 
been nominated as his coadjutor, with right of succession to the tw:> 
offices enumerated on 1st January, 1922. 

The President moved the following Resolutions, which were carried 
unanimously " — 

While accepting with much regret the resignation by Mr. J. H. Maiden of the 
offices of Permanent Honorary Secretary and Local Secretary for New South 
Wales, the Council desires to jjlace on record its deep appreciation of the valuable 
services that he has rendered to science and to the Association during the fourteen 
years that he has occupied these offices, and of the conspicuous ability with which, 
as central executive officer, he has directed the affairs of the Association. 

That in recognition of the services rendered by him to the Association, Mr. 
J. H. Maiden be elected an Honorary Life Member 

Election of President for the Wellington Mfrting. 

On the motion of Professor Farr, and seconded by Mr. DoRSON. 
New Zealand representatives then moved that Mr. Maiden be the 
next President, and they were followed by representatives of the 
various States, who spoke most kindly in supporting the motion. 

Mr. Maiden expressed the deepest gratitude for the great kindness 
that had been shown him that day, and, indeed, during his whole 
term of office, and stated that the state of his health precluded his 
acceptance of the office which had been offered to him. 

Thereupon Professor Benson and Dr. Cotton, both of the New 
Zealand University, respectively proposed and seconded that Mr. 
G. H. Knibbs be the next President. Before the motion was put 
Mr. Maiden craved permission of the President to support the nomina- 
tion He stated that not only was Mr. Knibbs a brilhant scientific 
man, and a warm supporter of the Association, but as a close friend 
and coadjutor of many years, he knew that he possessed, in a special 
degree, those qualifications which would render him a most successful . 

The motion was then put and carried unanimously. 

Mr Knibbs thanked the Council for the honour that had been 
conferred upon him. 

Professors Masson and 1'riestley then moved that Mr. Andrews 
be the new Permanent Honorary Secretary and Local Secretary for 
New South Wales, at the time already stated. This nlso was carried 
unanimouslv, and Mr. Andrews thanked the Council for the honour. 


Work or the Tasmanian and Melbourxe Executive. 

It was reported that this meeting had been fixed for Hobart 
(oth-llth January, 1921) when, on the preceding 18th December, a 
strike of marine stewards practically cut off passenger communication 
with Tasmania. After an anxious time it was decided to hold the 
meeting at Melbourne instead of Hobart. By this unavoidable decision 
a grave disappointment was inflicted on the Tasmanian executive 
which had worked for months in the organization of the meeting, and 
on Australians who desired to combine a holiday with participation in 
this science congress. 

Further, it meant that a great strain was placed upon our Melbourne 
colleagues to arrange local details after a particularly strenuous time 
during midsummer and with very little time to do it in. But the 
result proved that the meeting was one of the most successful ever 
held, and members had especial reason to be grateful to the President 
of the Association (Professor Sir Baldwin Spencer, K.C.M.G., F.R.S.) 
and the Local Secretaries (Associate-Professor Georgina Sweet, D.Sc, 
and Mr. Roy S. Burdon, B.Sc.) who, at the head of a band of devoted 
assistants, worked early and late and thus secured the fine results 

A feature of the meeting was the number and importance of the 
sectional and intersectional discussions, many of the jjapers being 
taken as read, in order to afford an opportunity for the interchange 
of ideas on subjects which are of special importance to the Common- 

Votes of Thanks. 

Votes of thanks to the following were carried with acclamation : — 

(1) The Governor-General, His Excellency Lord Forster.K.C.M.G.; 

the Lieutenant-Governor of Victoria, His Excellency the 
Hon. Sir William Irvine, K.C.M.G.; and the Governor of 
Tasmania, His Excellency Sir William Lamond Allardyce, 
K.C.M.G., for acting as Patrons of the Association, and for 
their help and sympathy with its work. 

(2) The Premier of Victoria, the Hon. H. S. W. Lawson, for his 

interest and co-operation. 

(3) The Council of the University of Melbourne for its help and 

for the loan of its buildings and grounds. Also to the 
Committee of the University Union for the loan of its 

(4) Associate-Professor Georgina Sweet, D.Sc, and Mr. Roy 

Burdon, B.Sc-., for their organization of the meeting. 

(5) The President, Sir Baldwin Spencer, and Lady Spencer for 

their hospitality, and to Mr. and Mrs. Baker for hospitality. 


(6) The ex-President, Sir Edgeworth David, for his evening 


(7) H. B. Lee, Esq., Chief Officer of the MetropoKtan Fire 

Brigade ; J. M. Baldwin, M.A., D.Sc, Government 
Astronomer, the Observatory, Domain, South Yarra ; A. E. 
Smith, Esq., Chief Mechanical Engineer, Victorian Rail- 
ways ; the City Electrical Engineer, City Hall, Melbourne ; 
H. P. CoLWELL, Esq., Chief Electrical Engineer, Victorian 
Railways ; J. Cronin, Esq., F.R.H.S., Department of 
Lands and Botanical Gardens, Melbourne ; Professor A. J. 
EwART^ Botany Department, University ; the Trustees 
of the Public Library and the Chief Librarian, Mr. E. 
La Touche Armstrong, Public Library, Melbourne-; J. A. 
Kershaw, Esq., F.E.S., National Museum, Melbourne ; 
J. Spry, Esq., National Museum, Melbourne ; F. Chapman, 
Esq., A.L.S., National Museum, Melbourne ; Agricultural 
Department (Dr. S. S. Cameron and A. E. V. Richardson, 
Esq.), Melbourne ; C. French, Esq., junr., Department 
of Agriculture. Flinders-street, Melbourne ; C. C. Brittle- , 
BANK, Esq., Department of Agriculture, Flinders-street, 
Melbourne ; D. Le Souef, C.M.Z.S., and the Council of 
the Royal Zoological and Acclimatisation Society, Zoological 
Gardens, Royal Park ; E. G. Ritchie, Esq., and the Mel- 
bourne and Metropolitan Board of Works ; Commissioner^ 
of Railways, Victoria ; J. Shephard, Esq. (c/o Davies, 
Shephard, and Co.), Clarke -street. South Melbourne ; Dr. 
H. S. Summers, Geology Department, University ; Mr. 
Baragwanath, Director of Geological Survey, Melbourne ; 
Mr. Gabriel, Walmer-street, Kew, for assistance in arrang- 
ing Excursions, and in one or two cases for hospitality; 
Messrs. Cuming, Smith, and Co., for offer of Excursion. 

(8) Mr. LiGHTFOOT, for his valuable work as Publicity Officer. 

(9) Miss E. I. McLennan, D.Sc, Miss Peterson, M.Sc, Miss 

G. V. Buchanan, D.Sc, Miss Mollison, B.Sc, Miss 
CooKSON, M.Sc, Miss Green, M.Sc, Miss Brewster, 
B.Sc, Miss Raff, M.Sc, Miss Stillman, M.Sc, Miss 
Eddy, B.A., B.Sc, Miss Derrick, Mrs. Haney, D.Sc, 
Miss Archer, M.Sc, Miss Gordon, B.Sc, Miss Hutchinson, 
Miss St. John Clarke, M.A., Miss Jones, Miss 0. Brit- 
TiNGHAM, Mr. E. J. Hartung, D.Sc, Mr. H. R. Seddon, 
D.V.Sc, Mr. A. O'Brien, Mr. Crawford, Mr. L. T. Ride, 
and each of the Victorian Secretaries of Sections, for their 
work in assisting the organization of the meeting. 

(10) The Press. • 



Following are the Resolutions of the General Council so far as they 
affect the various Sections : — 

Section A. 

1. That as regards the following Committees : — Solar Physics, 

Seismological, Terrestrial Magnetism, Tidal Survey, Physical 
and Chemical Constants, Longitude, since their methods 
of working involve international co-operation, these Coni- 
mittees should be allowed to lapse, and that the responsi- 
bility for carrying on these researches be transferred to 
the Australian National Research Council. 

2. That the sum of £50 referred to in the Report of the Secretary 

of the Physical and Chemical Constants Committee be 
approved, and forwarded to Dr. Marie. 

3. Macquarie Island Committee (Secretary, Professor Sir T. W. 

Edgeworth David, K.B.E., D.S.O.', D.Sc, F.R.S., &c.). 

The Report was adopted, and the names of Professor Sir Baldwin 
Spencer, K.C.M.G., D.Sc, F.R.S., Sir Douglas Mawson, D.Sc, and 
Captain J. K. Davis were added to it. The question of re-opening 
the Wireless Station at Macquarie Island, established there originally 
by the Australasian Antarctic Expedition under Sir Douglas Mawson, 
with the co-02)eration of the Commonwealth Meteorological Office, has 
given rise to some difference of opinion, and the Meteorologists now 
give precedence to the establishment of stations at Kerguelen or the 
Island of St. Paul. 

In view of the opinions of the Meteorologists, it is considered that 
the question of re-establishing the Wireless Station on Macquarie 
Island should for the present be postponed. 

The question of creating a zoological and botanical preserve at 
Macquarie Island is considered to be worthy of favorable consideration. 

4. Committee for the study of Earth Movements by Horizontal 

Pendulums, formerly the Committee for Determination of 
Gravity in Certain Critical Localities. 


An account of this Committee will be found in the First Progress 
Report of the Permanent Honorary Secretary, dated September, 1918. 
A preliminary account of this installation and working of the pendulums 
at Burrinjuck was read before the Royal Society of New South Wales 
(see Journal for 1915). The observations have been systematically 
carried out by Mr. A. Goodwin since the pendulums were first 

Assistant Professor Leo. A. Cotton, D.Sc, of the University of 
Sydney, furnished a report, and Mr. Campbell, the engineer in charge 
of Burrinjuck Dam has taken the greatest interest in the work, which 
has been prolonged, partly because on account of the war, the con- 
struction of the Dam was delayed. The examination of the records 
since the preliminary account already referred to have served to 
explain in large measure the movement which was then regarded as 
being secular in character. It now appears that the movement is 
chiefly, if not wholly, seasonal in character, and that it is a function 
of the underground temperature. 

It is, of course, essential for this work, as well as for the main 
investigation, to have a detailed geological and topographical survey 
of the area. This work was taken up about two years ago, and though 
far from completion, has yielded important information with regard 
to the lithographical characters and rock structures of the area under 
investigation. This work is now being carried forward hand in hand 
with the pendulum observations. The General Council voted the 
sum of £105, already expended in anticipation, together with £50 for 
future work. 

5. The Samoan Observatory at Apia, originally founded by the 
German Government in 1902, is described in the Neiv 
Zealand Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. III., p. 157 
(1920), by Dr. C. E. Adams and Professor E. Marsden, 
D.Sc. It is considered in the highest degree desirable that 
it should be maintained at pre-war efficiency, and that 
the cost of it be contributed to by Great Britain, New 
Zealand, and Australia. 

The matter was brought before the Council of the Association, 
which passed the following resolution : — 

That this Association urge upon the Federal and State Govern- 
ments the importance of the work of the Observatory in Samoa, 
and the desirability of contributing One thousand pounds (£1,000) 
per annum as the Australian share of the cost of upkeep of this 
institution as an Imperial Observatory. 


Following is the reply of the Commonwealth Government to a letter 
communicating the above resolution : — 

Commonwealth of Australia, 

Prime Minister's Department. 

Melbourne, 3rd March, 1921. 
Dear Sir, 

With reference to your letter of the 24th February, embodying a resolution 
urging that the Commonwealth Government contribute £1,000 per annum towards 
the maintenance of the Samoan Observatory, I desire to inform you that this 
matter has received careful consideration, but that it is regretted that the Com- 
monwealth cannot agree to share in the cost of maintenance of the Observatory. 

Yours faithfully. 

(Sgd.) ' P. E. DEANE, 


Section B. 
This Section recommended — 

1. That this Association urge upon the Federal Government the 
necessity of taking steps to see that so far as possible all 
new chemical works and plant should be erected with a 
view to ready adaptability to war work in case of need. 

Section C. 

1 . Carboniferous and Permian Rocks of Australia Committee. — It was 
decided to form a Committee for <;he classification and correlation of 
the Carboniferous and Permian rocks of Australia in lieu of a Com- 
mittee bearing the name Permocarboniferous of Australia. 

The following to be the names of the Committee : — Professor Sir 
Edgeworth David, Professor Skeats, Professor Sir Douglas Mawson, 
Professor Richards, Professor Benson, Dr. Walkom, Dr. Woolnough, 
Mr. GiBB Maitland, Mr. Dunstan, Mr. W. R. Browne, Mr. Chapman, 
Mr. Loftus Hills, Mr. P. G. Morgan, with Mr. W. S. Dun and Mr. 
C. A. SussMiLCH as Secretaries. 

2. Investigation of the Structural Features and Landforms in Aus- 
tralasia Committee. — It was decided to form a Committee with the 
name " For investigation of the structural features and landforms in 
Australasia " in lieu of two Committees named '" Structural features 
in Australia " and " Physiographic features of Australasia." 

The following to be members of the Committee : — Professor Sir 
Edgeworth David, Professor Skeats, Professor Benson, Professor 
HowcHiN, Professor Taylor, Professor Sir Douglas Mawson, Mr. 
Sussmilch, Dr. Fenner, Dr. Woolnough, Dr. Jensen, Mr. L. K. 
Ward, Mr. Andrews, Mr. A. G. Maitland, Mr. Dunstan. Mr. 
Speight, Mr. Stanley, Mr. Keble, Mr. Chapman, with Professor 
L. A. Cotton and Dr. C. A. Cotton as Secretaries. 


3. Occurrence of Artesian Water in Australia Committee. — It was 
decided to constitute a committee to collect information in regard to 
the occurrence of Artesian Water in Australia. 

The following to be members: — Professor Sir Edgeworth David, 
Professor Skeats, Professor Richards, Mr. A. Gibb Maitland, Mr. 
DuNSTAN, Mr. Speight, Mr. Kenyon, Mr. Chapman, Mr. Pittman, 
Mr. L. K Ward (Secretary). 

It was decided to continue the following Committees, with the 
members as stated : — 

(fl) The Glacial Phenomena Committee. — Professor Skeats, Pro- 
fessor HowcHiN, Dr. Marshall, Dr. Woolnough, Dr. 
C. A. Cotton, and Professor Sir Edgeworth David 

{b) The Kainozoic and Quaternary Climate of Australasia Coni- 
mitfee. — Sir Jas. Verco, Professor Howchin, Professor 
Richards, Professor Taylor, Dr. Jensen, Dr. Cockayne, 
Mr. Cambage, Mr. Andrews, and Mr. R. Speight 

(c) The Alkaline Rocks of Australasia Committee. — Professor Sir 
Edgeworth David, Professor Sir Douglas Mawson, 
Professor Benson, Acting-Professor Summers, Dr. Jensen, 
Dr. Marshall, Dr. Woolnough, Mr. D. J. Mahony, Mr. 
C. A. Sussmilch, Mr. R. A. Wearne, and Professor 
Richards and Professor Skeats (Secretaries). 

A Report was submitted by Professor Skeats, which embodies 
references to the work of Professor H. C. Ricfiards in South-eastern 
Queensland, and recorded by him in the Journal of the Royal Society 
of that State, Vols. 27 and 30. As regards Tasmania, we have a note 
by Professor Skeats on the age of the alkaline rocks of Port Cygnet, 
&c., in Jour. Roy. Soc. Vic, Vol. 29. The same author read a note 
on the tertiary alkaline rocks of Victoria before the British Association 
at its Melbourne meeting in 1914. Since then he has made a number 
of additional observations which are detailed. 

It was also decided to re-vote the sum of £50 set aside for the 
investigation of alkaline rocks and at present unexpended. 

The Glacial Phenomena Committee was re-appointed, with Professor 
Sir Edgeworth David, K.B.E., D.Sc, F.R.S., as Secretary. The 
Report of the Committee was adopted. It consisted chiefly of 
observations by Mr. Loftus Hills, M.Sc, Government Geologist of 
Tasmania, on Glacial cirques and Moraines in Tasmania, together 
with " Glacial notes from New Zealand," by Mr. R. Speight, M.A., 
and brief remarks concerning South Australia by Professor W. Howchin. 

The Kainozoic and Quaternary Climate of Australasia Committee 
was re-appointed, with Mr. R. Speight as Secretary. 


Section D. 

1. Committee for the Biological and Hydrographical Study of the N en- 
Zealand Coast. — It was decided to continue the Committee for the 
Biological and Hydrographical >Study of the New Zealand Coast, and 
to add the names of Mr. G. E. Archey and Mr. W. R. B. Oliver to 
the Committee ; Professor Charles Chiltox, Scretary. 

2. Conservation of Water Committee. — The Conservation of Water 
Committee (see Vol. XIV., p. 337), of which the late Colonel W. V. 
Legge was Secretary, was discharged. The Association joins with 
Tasmania in deploring the loss, by death, of our colleague, who was 
one of our most zealous members. 

3. Ecology Committee. — (See Vol. XIV.. p. 342.) It was decided to 
continue the Ecology Committee, with the addition of Mr. A. A. 
Hamilton as a member ; Dr. C. S. Sutton, Secretary. 

It was further resolved that a Committee be appointed to collect 
data and initiate a reasonably-detailed ecological map of Australia 
marking out the distribution of the salt-bush and other types of 

It was decided that the following resolution be sent to the Premier 
of South Australia : — 

This Association, meeting .in Melbourne in January, 1921, 
representative of Australasian scientific opinion, being seized 
with the great national and scientific importance of the pre- 
servation of native fauna and flora, heartily congratulates the 
Government on the recently-passed legislation constituting 
FUnder's Chase, on Kangaroo Island, a national reserve for fauna 
and flora, and urges that immediate steps be taken to give full 
effect to that legislation. 

The Government is further urged to give full consideration to 
the quite unique importance which attaches to the constitution 
of the whole of Kangaroo Island as a national fauna and flora 
reserve, as well as to the protection of the land, fresh water and 
sub-aquatic fauna and flora of all the islands in South Australian 
waters, other than Kangaroo Island, and such as are actively 
used for farming pursuits. 

It was further resolved, on the motion of Professor Sir Baldwin 
Spencer, K.C.M.G., F.R.S.— 

1. That in order to carry out immediately a co-ordinated Investi- 
gation into the Land and Fresh Water Fauna and the 
Flora of Australia and Tasmania, the Societies and Institu- 
tions in the various States, as named below, be requested 


to co-operate in the work and to take such steps as they 
may deem most advisable for the carrying out of this 
work, more especially in securing in each State the active 
assistance of specialists in different branches of Botany 
and Zoology — 

New South, Wales. — The Royal Society, the Linnean 
Society, the Australian Naturalists' Society, the Wild 
Life Preservation Society, the Australian Museum. 
Queensland. — The Microscopial Society, the Royal Society, 
the Queensland Museum, the Field Naturalists' 
South Australia. — The Royal Society, the South Aus- 
tralian Museum, the Society for the Prevention of 
Cruelty to Animals, the Australian Forest League 
(South Australian Branch). 
Tasumnia. — The Royal Society of Tasmania, the Tas- 

manian Museum. 
Victoria. — The Royal Society, the Field Naturalists' 
Club, the Ornithological Union, the National Museum, 
the Microscopical Society. 
Western Australia. — The Royal Society of Western Aus- 
tralia, the Western Australian Museum. 

2. That in order to co-ordinate this work a Committee consisting 
of Sir Baldwin Spencer (convener). Professor Ewart, 
Mr. Hamilton, Mr. J. J. Fletcher, Dr. Shirley, Mr. A. 
R. Riddle, Mr. Kershaw, Mr. Searle, Mr. Shephard, 
Mr. Maiden, Captain S. A. White, Mr. Rodway, Mr. 
Alexander, Mr. Herbert, Mr. Clive Lord, and Miss 
Collins be appointed, with power to communicate with 
the Societies and Institutions named. 

It was resolved to prepare a bibliography of the botany of the 
Pacific Islands of special interest to Australia, under the auspices of a 
Committee consisting of the Government Botanists of Queensland, New 
South Wales, and Victoria, Mr. J. H. Maiden, F.R.S., to be the 
convener. The sum of £50 was voted in aid of the work. 

Section E. 
It was resolved — 

That a Committee be appointed to initiate a suitable distinctive 
nomenclature for the natural regions of Australia, e.g., Gippsland. 

It was resolved to urge on the Federal Government that, in the 
interests of historical and geograjihical research, it is desirable that 
steps be taken to continue the work of obtaining translations of all 
available journals of the early French navigators in Australian waters. 

It was also resolved to subsidize (to the extent of £50 at present) 
the work of the investigation of the ocean currents and tides and the 
sand movements on the Australian coasts, which has been undertaken 
at his private expense by Mr. Gerald H. Halligan, M.Inst.C.E., 
late Hydrographic and Supervising Engineer for New South Wales. 

Following on a combined recommendation of Sections D and E, it 
was resolved : — 

That the Government of Tasmania be urged to give the utmost 
consideration to the question of protecting the native fauna of 
Macquarie Island. 

Section F. 

The following resolutions were approved by the Council : — 

1. That there be urged on the Federal Government the need for 

the formation of a Federal Museum for Australia and its 
Territories, and the immediate necessity for securing 
specimens, historical and ethnological, while they are yet 

2. That there be urged upon the Federal Government the need 

for endowment of a chair of Anthropology, especially in 
view of its value in the government of subject races. 

3. That there be brought under the notice of the Federal Govern- 

ment the desirability of at once investigating and recording 
the Ethnology of the noHhern part of Western Australia. 

Section H. 
The following resolutions were carried : — 

We welcome the general recognition being gradually extended 
towards the movement for the better planning and development of 
cities and suburbs, and affirm — 

(a) That great economic waste exists, and is increasing, conse- 

quent upon the ill-planning and absence of regulation for 
the proper development of our cities and suburbs. 

(b) That such ill-planning and absence of regulation being con- 

tinued will lead to many and very costly resumptions to 
make necessary improvements. 

We also express the hope that State Governments, following the 
lead of South Australia, may initiate suitable legislation on the subject, 
including provisions for ensuring full inquiry by means of civic 
surveys into the needs of existing urban areas, and directs that this 
resolution be courteously submitted to the heads of Governments in 
Austraha and the Mayors of the Capital Cities. 

1084.— 2 


Section I. 

The Anthropometric Committee was re-appointed, to consist of the 
following members : — Mr. Adamson, Major Alderson, Professor 
Berry, Dr. Cumpston, Professor Sir Edgeworth David, Dr. Greig, 
Dr. Halle Y, Sir Neville Howse, Mr. Knibbs, General J. G. Legge, 
Professor Mackie, Dr. Purdy, Dr. Harvey Sutton, Dr. Mary Booth 

In connexion with Dr. Jean Greig's paper, " The Problems of the 
Special Child and the Special School," it was resolved : — 

That in view of the presence of feeble-minded in our midst, 
and the economic cost to the community, it is desirable that the 
Government be asked to establish farm colonies and. residential 
homes for the accommodation of these cases, and that in the case 
of New South Wales the proceeds of the Randwick Orphanage, 
specially reserved for the care of the mentally deficient children, 
be forthwith applied for the pur^iose. 

It was further resolved : — 

That medical inspection be extended so as to include all schools. 

On the joint recommendation of Sections I and G, a Committee 
was appointed to investigate and report on Industrial Fatigue in 

The following were appointed members of the Committee : — Mrs. 
Osborne, Miss Hinder, Dr. Page, Dr. Cumpston, Dr. Purdy, 
Professor Copeland, and Mr. H. Heaton as Secretary. 

Section K. 

The following resolutions were adopted :— 

1. That the Commonwealth Government be urged to provide 

funds for the encouragement of the cultivation of cotton 
in such parts of the Commonwealth as are climatically 
suitable for its production. 

2. That in response to the request of the President of the Agri- 

cultural Section of the International Congress of Meteorology, 
a Committee be appointed to report on the climatic control 
of Wheat production in Australia. 

The following were appointed members of the Committee : — Pi'ofessor 
Griffith Taylor, Professor Perkins, Professor Watt, Mr. A. E. V. 
Richardson, Mr. Sutton, and Mr. E. T. Quayle. 


Section L. 

The following resolutions were passed on the recommendations of 
Sections I, K, and L : — 

1. That a Conference of Medical and Veterinary authorities be 

held under the aegis of the Council of Science and Industry 
to discuss and report on uniform measures for the control 
of Animal Tuberculosis ; and that in the meantime it be 
a recommendation to the Council of Science and Industry 
that the reports from the special Committees on Animal 
Tuberculosis be published. 

2. That in view of the proved inefhcacy of some brands of 

Tuberculin, the Federal Government be asked to test all 
samples of Tuberculin before they are placed on the market 
in Australia. 

Scientific Periodical Literature Committee. 

(See Vol. XIV., p. 726.) Mr. W. S. Dun, Secretary. 
This Committee was permitted to lapse. 



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Embodying alterations to Rules proposed at the Sydney 1911 
meeting and confirmed at the Melbourne meeting, 1913. 


The objects of the Association are to give a stronger impulse and 
a more systematic direction to scientific inquiry ; to promote the 
intercourse of those who cultivate science in different parts of the 
Commonwealth of Australia, the Dominion of New Zealand, and in 
other countries ; to obtain more general attention to the objects of 
science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind which 
may impede its progress. 


Members and Associates. 

1. Members shall be elected by the Council. 

2. The subscription shall be £1 for each Session, to be paid in 

3. A member may at any time become a Life Member by one pay- 
ment of £10, in lieu of future annual subscriptions. 

4. Ladies' (Associates') tickets (admitting the holders to the General 
and Sectional Meetings, as well as the Evening Entertainments) may 
be obtained by full members on payment of 10s. for each ticket. Ladies 
may also become members on the same terms as gentlemen. 

Students attending lectures at any Australasian University may 
become Associates on payment of 10s. 


5. The Association shall meet in Session periodically for one week 
or longer. The place of meeting shall be appointed by the Council 
two years in advance, and the arrangements for it shall be intrusted 
to the Local Committee. 



6. There shall be a Council consisting of the following : — (1) Present 
and former Presidents, Vice-Presidents, Treasurers, and Secretaries of 
the Association, and present and former Presidents and Secretaries of 


the Sections and Local Secretaries. (2) Members of the Association 
delegated to the Council by Scientific Societies.* (3) Secretaries of 
Research Committees appointed by the Council. 

Delegates. — Scientific Societies shall be invited by the Local Com- 
mittees of the State in which the ensuing meeting is to be held to 
delegate members to the General Council. The number of such 
delegates is not to exceed one for every hundred members of the 
delegating societies. Such delegates shall be members of the General 
Council only for the Session to which they are delegated. 

7. The Council shall meet only during the Session of the Associa- 
tion, and during that period shall be called together at least twice. 

Local Committees. 

8. In the intervals between the Sessions of the Association, its 
affairs shall be managed in the various States by Local Committees. 
The Local Committee of each State shall consist of the Members of 
Council resident in that State. 


9. The Officers shall include a President, five Vice-Presidents, a 
General Treasurer, and Local Secretaries and Treasurers, who shall be 
appointed by the General Council at each meeting of the Association, 
and shall take office at the next following meeting. There shall also be 
a Permanent Honorary Secretary, who shall hold office until his 
appointment be terminated by death or resignation, or by resolution of 
the General Council. The mover of such resolution shall give not less 
than three months' notice in writing. 

Reception Committee. 

10. The Local Committee of the State in which the Session is to 
be held shall (recommended that the word " may " be substituted for 
" shall ") form a Reception Committee to assist in making arrange- 
ments for the reception and entertainment of the visitors. This Com- 
mittee shall have power to add to its number. 


11. The permanent Office of the Association shall be in Sydney. 

* By resolution of General Council, Melbourne, 1913, the following is a definition of a 
Scientific Society with power to send a delegate to the General Council of the Association : — 

Any Society is eligible which undertakes local scientific investigations and publishes 
notices of the results : Provided that the Council shall have the power to vary this 
rule in exceptional cases. 
Applications for the appointment of delegates must be in the hands of the Permanent 
Honorary Secretary not later than three months before the date of any meeting of 
the Association. 


Money Affairs of the Association. 

12. The financial year shall end on the 30th June. 

13. All sums received for life subscriptions and from the sales of 
back numbers of Reports shall be invested in the names of three 
Trustees appointed by the Council, and the interest arising from such 
investment shall be reserved for grants in aid of scientific research. 

14. The subscriptions shall be collected by the Local Secretary in 
each State, and forwarded by him to the General Treasurer. 

15. The Local Committees shall not have power to expend money 
without the authority of the Council, with the exception of the Local 
Committee of the State in which the next ensuing Session is to be held, 
which shall have power to expend money collected, or otherwise ob- 
tained in that State. Such disbursements shall be audited, and the 
Balance-sheet and the surplus funds forwarded to the General Treasurer. 

16. All cheques shall be signed either by the General Treasurer 
and the General Secretary or by the Local Treasurer and the Secretary 
of the State in which the ensuing Session is to be held. 

17. Whenever the balance in the hands of the Banker shall exceed 
the sum requisite for the probable or current expenses of the Associa- 
tion, the Council shall invest the excess in the names of the Trustees. 

18. The whole of the accounts of the Association — i.e., the local 
as well as the general accounts — shall be audited before each meeting 
of the Association by two Auditors appointed by the Council, and 
the Balance-sheet shall be submitted to the Council at its first meeting 

Money Grants. 

19. Grants of money for the furtherance of specific objects of scientific 
research may be made by the General Council on the recommendation 
of the Recommendation Committee. 

Committees and individuals to whom grants of money have been 
intrusted are required to present to the following meeting a report 
of the progress which has been made, together with a statement of the 
sums which have been expended. Any balance shall be returned to 
the General Treasurer. 

20. In each Committee the Secretary is the only person entitled 
to call on the Treasurer for such jDortions of the sums granted as may 
from time to time be required. 

21. In grants of moneys to Committees, or to individuals, the 
Association does not contemplate the payment of personal expenses 
to the members or to the individual. 


Sections op the Association. 

22. The following Sections shall be constituted : — 

A. — Astronomy, Mathematics, and Physics. 

B. — Chemistry, with Pharmacy as a sub-Section. 

C. — Geology and Mineralogy. 

D. — Biology. 

E. — Geography and History. 

F. — Ethnology and Anthropology. 

G. — Social and Statistical Science. 

H. — Engineering and Architecture. 

/. — Sanitary Science and Hygiene. 

J. — Mental Science and Education. 

K. — Agriculture. 

L. — Veterinary Science. 

Sectional Committees. 

23. The President of each Section shall take the Chair and proceed 
with the business of the Section not later than 11 a.m. In the middle 
of the day an adjournment for luncheon shall be made, and at 4 p.m. 
the Sections shall close. 

24. On the second and following days the Sectional Committees 
shall meet at 10 a.m. 

25. The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the several 
Sections shall be nominated by the Local Conmiittee of the State in 
which the next ensuing Session of the Association is to be held, and 
shall have power to act until their election is confirmed by the Council. 
From the time of their nomination — which shall take place as soon 
as possible after the Session of the Association — they shall be regarded 
as an Organizing Committee, for the purpose of obtaining information 
upon papers likely to be submitted to the Sections, and for the general 
furtherance of the work of the Sectional Committees. The Sectional 
Presidents of former years shall be ex officio members of the Organizing 

26. The Sectional Committees shall have power to add to their 

27. The Committees for the several Sections shall determine the 
acceptance of papers before the beginning of the Session. It is there- 
fore desirable, in order to give an opportunity to the Committee of 
doing justice to the several communications, that each author should 
prepare an abstract of his paper, of a length suitable for insertion in 
the published Transactions, Reports, or Proceedings of the Association, 
and that he should send it, together with the original paper, to the 
Secretary of the Section before which it is to be read, so that it may 
reach him at least a fortnight before the Session. 


There shall be a time limit set for authors of papers read before the 
Association, which shall not be exceeded except by special arrangement 
made beforehand with the Sectional Committee. 

28. Members may communicate to the Sections the papers of non- 

29. The author of any paper is a liberty to reserve his right of 
l^roperty therein 

30. No report, paper, or abstract shall be inserted in the volume 
of Transactions, Reports, or Proceedings unless it be handed to the 
Secretary before the conclusion of the Session. 

31. The Sectional Committee shall report to the Publication Com- 
mittee what papers it is thought advisable to print. 

32. They shall also take into consideration any suggestions which 
may be oftered for the advancement of Science. 

Research Committees. 

33. It shall be in the power of the Council to appoint Research Com- 
mittees on the recommendation of the Recommendation Committee. 

In recommending the apj)ointment of Research Committees, all 
members of such Committees shall be named, and one of them, who 
has notified his willingness to accept the office, shall be appointed to 
act as Secretary. The numbers of members aj)pointed to serve on a 
Research Committee should be as small as is consistent with its efficient 
working. Individuals may be recommended to make reports. 

34. All recommendations adopted by Sectional Committees shall 
be forwarded without delay to the Recommendation Committee ; 
unless this is done, the recommendation cannot be considered by the 

Official Journal. 

35. At the close of each meeting of the Sections the Sectional Secre- 
taries shall correct, on a copy of the Official Journal, the list of papers 
which have been read, and add to them those appointed to be read 
on the next day, and send the same to the General Secretary for 

Recommendation Committee. 

36. The Council at its first meeting in each Session shall ajjpoint 
a Committee of Recommendations to receive and consider the rejDorts 
of the Research Committees appointed at the last Session, and the 
recommendations from Sectional Committees. The Recommendation 
Committee shall also report to the Council, at a subsequent meeting, 
the measures which it would advise to be adopted for the advance- 
ment of Science. 


Publication Committee. 

37. The Committee shall each Session elect a PubUcation Com- 
mittee, which shall receive the recommendation of the Sectional Com- 
mittees with regard to publication of papers, and decide finally upon 
the matter to be printed in the volume of Transactions, Reports, or 

Alteration op Rules. 

38. No alterations of the Rules shall be made unless due 
notice of all such additions or alterations shall have been given at 
one meeting and carried at another meeting of the Council, held during 
a subsequent Session of the Council. 










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Hon. Sir Frederick Darley, 

tit. (N.S.W.). 

V. De Vis, M.A. (Queens- 







James Hector, K.C.M.G., 
,D., F.R.S. (New Zealand). 
Hon. James Inglis, M.P.. 

rofessor W. C. Kernot, M.A., 

C.E. (Victoria), 
he Hon. Sir W. M. Manning, 

LL.D., M.L.C. (Sydney), 
he Hon. H. N. MacLaurin, 

M.A., M.D., LL.D. (Sydney) 
rofessor E. H. Rennie, M.A., 

D.Sc. (South Australia), 
ir Alfred Roberts, M.R.C.S. 










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Sir Baldwin Spencer, K.C.M.G., F.R.S., M.A., 
D.Litt., D.Sc. 

We are meeting to-day undei' very special conditions, and, as 
President, my first duty is to express to our Tasmanian members, 
and more especially to the officials upon whom has fallen the 
duty of organizing the Hohart meeting and who are now unable 
to he with us, our profound regret that it has been deemed neces- 
sary, at the last moment, to transfer the place of meeting from 
Hobart to Melbourne. It was only with great reluctance, and 
after a very careful attempt to forecast the probability, under 
existing conditions, of members being able, witli certainty, not 
only to reach, but to return from, Tasmania, that the decision 
was arrived at. Many of the' older memibers have the most 
pleasant recollections of past meetings in Tasmania, and it is a 
matter of great disappointment to all of us that we are unable 
to hold this meeting under the shadow of Mt. Wellington, amidst 
the lovely surroundings of Hobart, with its great harbour, second 
in dignity and beauty to none other in Australasia. 

It must be understood that this is not a Melbourne meeting; it 
is a Hobart meeting held in Melbourne by force of circumstances, 
and with the courteous and generous consent of our Tasmanian 
colleagues. The local preparations have of necessity been made 
under great pressure and at very short notice during the holiday 
season — -during, indeed, only two working weeks — and, though it 
is not usual to mention such matters in a Presidential address, I 
feel sure that the members of the Association will approve of this 
public and official recognition of the work of our local secretary — 
Dr. Sweet — and the little band of voluntary assistants associated 
with her, who have by their able and self-sacrificing work made 
possible the holding of this meeting. The war has taught us what 
women are capable of in regard to organization, and in the 
arrangements now made we have once more to recognise their 
efficiency, and to realize that they are a tower of strength and an 
ever-present help in time of trouble. ' 


It is 33 years since tiie first meeting of this Association was 
opened in Sydney. Fourteen meetings have been held — the last 
in Melbourne, in 1913. At that time we had no suspicion of the 
years that were to intervene between the Melbourne and this our 
present meeting. We were looking forward with great expectation 
to the visit of the parent society — the British Association — but 
coincident with the arrival of our overseas guests came xhe declara- 
tion of war. It is true that the meeting was held, and that, 
despite the depressing conditions, the programme as arranged 
was carried through, thanks largely to the generous co-operation 
of our guests. !N"aturally, the thoughts of many were turned away 
from science, and would have been even still more so had we then 
been able to I'ealize what the future years held in store. It was 
inevitable under the existing conditions that it should have been 
otherwise, but the general results, or, perhaps to sj)eak more 
correctly, the .after-results were naturally not what they would 
have been had the meeting been held under normal conditions, and 
had our guests been free from feelings of deep and constant 

However, the visit was evidently full of great intei'est to thenr, 
as it was to us, and every possible effort was made by the Federal 
and State Governments, the Universities, various public bodies, 
and private individuals to enable them to gain as much insight as 
possible into the scientific work of Australia, the life of the people, 
the economic conditions, and the nature and capacity of the 

Before leaving Australia, the chief officials addressed a most 
generous and appreciative letter to the press. After stating that 
a much greater number of memJbers had been enrolled for this 
Australian meeting than for any previous one, they say — " We 
may conclude by assuring the people of Australia that the 
announcement of a grand total for all centres of more than 4,700 
members forms, in our view, a fitting climax to a meeting of 
unparalleled interest to the visitors, and, we venture to hope, of 
value to the country in which it has been held." 

Now that the war is over, we trust it may be possible to con- 
tinue one aspect of the Avork that we hoped this meeting in 
Australia would strongly emphasize, and that is the closer associa- 
tion of science workers throughout the Empire. This can only be 
brought about efficiently by periodical personal contact of investi- 
gators, and such becomes extremely difficult in the case of a 
scientific worker who enjoys what is commonly known as a 
" fixed income," the purchasing power of which is continually 
decreasing, and is now, in very many cases, much less than that 
paid to a mechanic, who thoroughly deserves his wage, but per- 
haps scarcely realizes that he owes this- entirely to the work of a 
scientist, who is often paid much less than himself. 


The vital question of the org'anization of science in Austi'alia 
will form, later, the subject-matter of an important discussion, 
but meanwhile it may be pointed out fhat, apart from Govern- 
ment Departments, various State societies, and museums, all pub- 
lishing papers, we have three general organizations — 

(1) Our Australasian Association, meeting under normal 
conditions once every second year. As its members are drawn 
from an area equal in extent to that of Europe, it seems 
to be impossible to arrange for more frequent meetings of 
the whole body. At the same time it might be possible to 
form, from amongst its officers, a central standing committee 
or council that could meet wholly, or in sections, more often. 
The carrying out of investigations wonld require funds, 
which, unfortunately, are not at present at the disposal of 
the Association. 

(2) The Australian I^ational Research Council, acting as 
the Australian Branch of the International Research Council 
inaugurated by the Royal Society of London. A provisional 
council was appointed at a meeting of . delegates from the 
various Australian scientific societies held in Sydney, in 
iVugust, 1919, on the understanding that the appointment of 
the new council be intrusted to that of our Association at this 
meeting. In view of economizing, in regard both to time, 
energy, aiid. expense, it may be worth considering whether 
the National Research Council could not be constituted as a 
standing committee of this Association, which represents all 
scientific bodies in Australasia, with independent powers of 
initiating research, supervising generally the interests of 
science in Australasia, and dealing with such funds as may be 
placed at its disposal, reporting progress at the biennial 
meetings of the Association. 

(3) The Commonwealth Institute of Science and Industry, 
founded by Act of Parliament in 1920. The constitution of 
this is by no means satisfactory, but at least it shows that 
the Grovernment recognises the profoimd importance of scien- 
tific investigation, and, unfortunately, it is the only one 
of the three bodies that, under present conditions, will havc- 
at its disposal the funds necessary for carrying on work. It 
is deeply to be regretted that the wise policy adopted in 
regard to the constitution of the National Research Council 
in the United States was not adopted in Australia. There is 
only one other point to which I would draw attention in 
regard to this matter, and that is that, with our limited 
endowments, what we require is the organization of scientific 
investigation largely from the purely Australian point of 
view. There has met recently, at Honolulu, a Pan-Pacific 


Conference. Very highly desirable, as it undoubtedly is, for 
all possible investigations to be carried out in the Pacific 
Islands, we in Australasia have biological, agricultural, and 
ethnological problems peculiarly our own calling aloud for 
investigation. We cannot attempt to do things on the 
{generous scale of America, and Avith our very limited means 
perhaps our work would yield best results, not only for iVus- 
tralia, but for the world at large, if directed more especially 
to the elucidation of problems presented to us by Australasia 
and its dependencies. 

There are one or two matters of personal interest to our Asso- 
ciation to which I wish to refer briefly. This is our third Hobart 
meeting; the first Avas held in 1892, and the second in 1902. 
Of the Presidents, Vice-Presidents, General Secretaries, and Trea- 
surers of these meetings, only one is still left with us — Professor 
Liversidge, the founder of our Association, to whom the Council 
has to-day sent a message of greeting. 

We have to record the great loss which the Association has 
suffered in Tasmania by the deatli, since our last meeting there, of 
Mr. R. M, Johnston and Mr. A. Morton, both of whom have been 
closely identified with the work of the Association in that State. 

Mr. Johnston was Government Statistician and Registrar- 
General of Tasmania from 1881 until his death in 1917. His 
pioneer work, more especially in regard to the geology of Tas- 
mania, entitles him to the high regard of all who have had experi- 
ence of this class of work in a young country where literature is 
scarce, intercourse with other workers practically impossible, and 
the opportunity of research much limited by 'arduous and multi- 
farious official duties. Those of us who had the privilege of his 
personal friendship know well that he Avas not only a scientist, but 
a man of simple character and high ideals. 

As local secretary of the Association for many years, during 
which on two occasions, in 1892 and 1902, he organized and 
carried out with conspicuous success the local business and 
arrangements of the Hobart meetings, Mr. Morton's name will 
always be honorably associated with the early history of our 
Association, and also with that of the Royal Society and Museum 
of Tasmania. 

It is impossible to mention individually the names of those 
members who have taken part in one way or another in special 
work during the war. I may, however, refer to one by name, as 
he will serve as the highest type of what various Australian 
scientists have done, and that is our twice President, Sir Edge- 
worth David. At an age when most men would be unable to 
undertake the hard work and face the dangers of the battlefield. 


the rigours of European winters, and the hardships of trench life, 
he gallantly offered his services to his country. The discoverer of 
the location of the South Magnetic Pole did equally great work 
on the Western Front as he did in the Antarctic, and we are proud 
and thankful to have him safely iback amongst us, and we greet 
him as the doyen and leader of scientific work and workers in 

In a Presidential address for an Association such as this, which 
represents all the various branches of science, one has the choice 
of two methods — either to attempt a general survey of science 
and scientific develoj^ments since the last meeting, or to confine 
one's self to some special branch with which the writer may be 
more especially acquainted. In the early days of the parent Asso- 
ciation in Great Britain, when science as we know it now was 
more or less in its infancy, it Avas practically possible for men 
like Huxley, Tyndall, Faraday, and Hooker to have a. general all- 
round grasp of the various branches, both of physical and natural 
science. The rapid advancement of scientific investigation soon 
put an end to such universality of scientific knowledge, and now it 
is not possible for any worker to have a thorough and intimate 
acquaintance with mere than one branch of science, or even one 
part of this. 

In the Presidential addresses delivered before the various sections 
you will hear from those who are competent to tell us something 
of what has been done during recent years in the different sciences 
that they represent. 

I therefore propose to take as the subject of my address a 
very restricted one, though of peculiar interest from an Australian 
point of view, that may be said to lie almost on the border line 
of science and the historical side of literature. 

Some 200 years ago the well-known line was written, " The 
proper study of mankind is man," but it was only at a very much 
later date that mankind hegan to study the more or less 
primitive man, as revealed by various savage, harbaric, and semi- 
civilized peoples. In fact, it is not very long ago since most people 
held the self-gratifying opinion that the so-called lower races 
were a different species of human beings to themselves, and 
objected strongly to being told that their far-away ancestors were 
on much the same physical and cultural level as the savages of 
to-day, and that to understand the evolution of man and the 
history of mankind as culminating in themselves it was necessary 
to study the structure, beliefs, and customs of their savage 
ancestors. Not only this, but they were told that it was equally 
necessary, though naturally it upset the equanimity of the anthro- 
pocentri" grandparents, and even parents of ourselves, to study 
the relationshi]> of the same far-away ancestors to still lower and 
less human-like types of animals. 


In fact, it liad, at last, to be realized tliat animal life was one 
long process of gradual development, some forms halting on tlie 
way or branching off, as it were, sideways; others, incapable of 
carrying on the struggle, turning back and degenerating; others, 
with endless travail, ever straining upwards. 

In Australia we have yet remaining with us, though in rapidly 
diminishing numbers, representatives of what is probably the most 
backward human race now extant. It reveals to us in many 
aspects stages that have been passed through during the early 
develoi:>ment of mankind. 

The science of anthropology is divided into two distinct 
branches — (1) that of physical anthropology concerned with the 
structure of the human body; and (2) social or cultural anthro- 
pology. In regard to the first, a considerable amount of work has 
already been done, so far as Australia is concerned. So long as 
any aborigines or their skeletons remain, they may be studied 
from a somatological point of view; but, in regard to the second, 
the matter is entirely different. 

To study scientifically the beliefs and customs of a savage tribe 
—I do not mean to write casual papers, of which we have far too 
many — is a very different, and even a more difficult, task. It 
requires a peculiar faculty quite distinct from that of making 
physical measurements, a faculty which very few of those who 
have written on the beliefs and customs of Australian natives 
possess, of freeing themselves from their own inherited beliefs 
and endeavouring to see things from the point of view of a savage. 

I shall deal first with certain aspects of the social or cultural 
anthropology of Australian aborigines, and more especially with 
their social organization, as illustrating an early stage in the 
development of mankind and affording us an insight into certain 
beliefs held and customs practised by our far-away ancestors; and, 
second, with the difficult question of the origin of their complex 

The Australian aboriginal, though probably the most backward, 
is, however, very far removed from anything like primitive man — 
a much greater gap probably separates him from, say, JSTeanderthal 
man than from ourselves, and, again, an even greater one separartes 
Neanderthal man from the earliest beings to whom the term 
human could be applied. 

There have been many writers on various branches of social 
anthropology in Australia, but only a few of them have been 
trained in scientific work; and, after the perusal of very many 
publications, it has been brought home to me that what we need 
most of all in regard to Australian anthropology, from the cultural 
side, is an " index expurgatorius." More especially it is essential 
to recognise that -in matters concerned with their customs, beliefs. 


and organization, investigations carried on amongst tlie remains 
of tribes that have been long in contact with white men are liable 
to be very misleading. It is only those who have worked in the 
field, both amongst natives in their natural state and amongst 
others who have been in more or less close contact with settle- 
ments, who can realize how rapidly, under the latter conditions, 
their genuine and primitive customs become modified or even 
lost. The greater the difference between the cultural levels of two 
associated races, the more rajiidly does the lower one succumb ; 
there is no such thing as grafting the higher upon the lower. 

The marriage rules, for example, owing to the rapid diminution 
in numbers that inevitably occurs, soon break down, and the 
younger men, under the protection of the white man, only too 
readily shake off their old customs and beliefs, and, unfortunately, 
unless specially protected, as they have been only too little in 
Australia, are incapable of receiving anything better in return. 

The history of the study of cultural anthropology in Australia, 
so far as the more important work is concerned, is comparatively 
simple. One of the earliest writers to give us any intelligent 
account of the customs of the natives was Collins (1789-1802), 
whose quaint illustrations, published in his Account of the English 
Colony of New South Wales, are of peculiar value, because they 
serve to show that the youths during initiation were shown cere- 
monies evidently connected with totems — that is, animals or plants 
with which they were supj^osed* to be associated. Collins, of 
course, had no idea of this, nor was there any further record of 
such until Mr. Gillen and myself discovered the remarkable 
development of this feature in Central Australia just 100 years 
later. Since then, other workers have recorded them, more 
especially in ]N"ew South Wales. 

In 1820 it had been shown in the pages of Archcpologica 
Americana that amongst certain of the American tribes there was 
a definite social organization regulating marriage, and that there 
were groups of individuals the members of each of which were 
closely associated with some animal or plant, which is now spoken 
of as the totem of that particular individual or group; and, 
further that the totem group or clan was an exogamous group, 
that is, a man of one group must take his wife from some other. 
Not only this, but these totem clans were grouped into phratries, 
which again were exogamous. For example, amongst the Creek 
Indians there are said to be some twenty clans. A panther might 
not marry a panther nor a wild cat ; these two together forming 
aphratry.CM The number of phratries apparently varied in 
different tribes fr om two to ten, and both odd and even numbers 

Tn/i.L!'^""' *?''^" *^'''"' ^"""Ir 7°"^ *''*' summary given by Sir James Frazer in his great work on 
loteraism and Exogamy. — Vol. 1, pp. 56, &c 


are met with, indicating a fundamental difference between these 
groups and those in Australia, to which, unfortunately, the same 
name has been applied by some writers. 

When first Australia was visited by Europeans they had no 
opportunity of investigating the natives; in fact^ from the time 
when Dampier first touched the western coast line, and for long 
years afterwards, the general conclusion in regard to them was 
expressed in the well-known phrase, '' Manners none ; customs 

The most important introduction to anything like a serious 
study of the aborigines was first made in Western Australia hy 
Scott Lind, Medical Ofiicer at King George's Sound from 
1828-1829 ; at a later period by Grey, in 1841 ; and, somewhat later 
again, by Eyre, in South Australia, in 1845. Though Grey was 
indeed the first to detect the existence of intermarrying classes, his 
information was, however, too vague to suggest more than that 
the Australian tribes had some organization akin to that idescrilbed 
amongst the American Indians. We get further hints of this 
again in Moore (1841), Schurmann (1844), and others, but 
nothing of any definite nature. The first who seriously attempted 
to deal with the social organization and marriage customs was the 
Rev. Wm. Ridley, who, hetween the years 1853-1875, published 
much valuable pioneer work. 

The real foundation of Australian anthropology, from the cul- 
tural side, was, however, laid when the late Dr. Howitt and Rev. 
Lorimer Fison began to collaborate, with the result that, in 1880, 
they published Kamilroi and Kiirnai, in which, for the first time, 
there was given a clear outline of the social organization of a 
typical Australian tribe. During more recent years, Dr. Howitt, 
in The Native Tribes of South-east Australia,, summarized the 
whole of his own work, carried on also with the aid of numerous 
correspondents, from 1873-1900. In 1878, Brough Smyth pub- 
lished his compilation entitled The Aborigines of Victoria; and, 
in 1886, E. M. Curr issued another called The Australian Race. 
In most cases it is difficult to estimate the amount of reliance to 
be placed upon the statements of the contributors, who, save for 
a very few, such as Howitt and Ridley, were superficial and 
untrained observers. Other investigators, such as Etheridge, were 
studying the technologic work of the aboriginals, and in more 
recent years Messrs. Kenyon and Mahony have devoted themselves 
to a most comprehensive study of their stone implements. The 
exhibition of some 15,000 of these, shown by them to a distin- 
guished gathering of European anthropologists, in the Melbourne 
Museum, in 1914, aroused the keenest interest. In Queensland, 
Roth was doing Valuable work, more especially from the point 


of view of technology and social organization. His results, pivb- 
lished by the Queensland Government under the title of Ethno- 
logical Studies among the North-West-Central Queerisland Abori- 
gines, and later in the Records of the Australian Museum, are of 
great value. The Cambridge expedition to the Torres Strait 
Islands, in 1898, under the leadership of Dr. Haddon, resulted 
in the publication of what is probably the most complete account 
that it is now possible to secure of the culture of these mixed 
peoples. From Queensland, also, Mrs. Langloh Parker published 
two volumes of Legendary Tales, and, later on, The Euahlayi 
Tribe; and the E,ev. J. Mathew, Eaglehaivk and Crow and Two 
Representative Tribes of Queensland. The report of the Horn 
Expedition contains a short account of certain features of the 
Arunta Tribe, partly gained during a hurried visit by the late 
Sir Edward Stirling, and partly drawn up from notes supplied 
to him by Mr. Gillen. At a later date it was my good fortune to 
be lahle to collaiborate with Mr. Gillen in the investigation of prac- 
tically uncontaminated tribes in Central and North-central Aus- 
tralia working in the field, living with the natives and watching 
their ordinary and ceremonial life under the most favorable con- 
ditions. By the death of Mr. Gillen, who presided over the section 
of Anthropology at our Melbourne meeting, in .1900, we have- 
lost a most able and enthusiastic field worker amongst the natives, 
whom he knew well and understood, and to whom every student 
of Australian anthropology and mjself, most of all, owes a deep 
debt of gratitude. At a later period, the Rev. C. Strehlow pub- 
lished further work dealing with the Arunta and Luritja tribes 
in Central Australia, and I was able a few years ago to study the 
natives of the far iN'orthern Territory and of Bathurst and 
Melville Islands, amongst whom, as also in Central Australia, Dr. 
H. Basedow has done valuable work. 

Until recently, though some of our earliest knowledge came from 
Western Australia, we have gained thence no further information. 
The work, however, published during the past few years by Mrs. 
Bates and Mr. A. li. Brown, though unfortunately conducted 
amongst tribes Avho, as the authors say, have long since abandoned 
the performance of old customs, is of considerable value, more 
especially because it reveals the presence of tribes in Western Aus- 
tralia closely akin in their organization and beliefs to those of 
Central Australia. 

I have only in this brief account mentioned what I think are 
the main records in regard to Australian aboriginals from vhe 
cultural point of view. Apart from compilations, such as those 
of Brough Smyth and Curr, numberless other smaller contrihu- 
tions have been made, most of them of trivial value, and often 


oi doubtful reliability, and the time lias now come for us to 
attempt some sorting out of the accumulation of material gathered 
together during the past century. 

There is, however, one special matter in comiexion with anthro- 
pological research in Australia to which I wish to draw attention. 
Nearly all such researches have been carried on by men ; in fact, 
save in decadent tribes, the members of which have lost their 
respect for, and to a large extent their knowledge of, old customs 
and beliefs, it would be useless for a woman to attempt to pry 
into sacred matters so far as the men are concerned. Any attempt 
to do so would be keenly resented in uncontaminated tribes, and in 
others the information thus derived would be of doubtful value. 
How strong this sentiment is may be gauged from the fact that 
I have seen a woman with her eye destroyed by a firestick simply 
because she had quite innocently picked up a sacred bull-roarer 
that had been accidentally dropped in the bush. It is quite true 
that very old women are allowed to know a little, but, as far as 
one can judge, only a very little, and they are quite as reticent 
as the men. On the other hand, it is quite possible that the 
women have their own secrets, or, at all events, a different outlook 
from that of the men in regard to those of the latter. You have 
as a man investigator, Avhen studying a native tribe in anything 
like its normal state, to impress the men with the idea that you 
are fully seized of the fact that v/omen and children must know 
nothing. They must realize that you understand the importance 
of silence. If they suspect you, or, indeed, any one of themselves, 
of being what the Arunta man calls " Irkun oknirra," or as a 
native once, very ungallantly, described it to me as " All same 
woman, always talking," they shut' up like an oyster. It is most 
desirable that, before it is too late, an investigation of beliefs and 
customs from a woman's point of vieAv should be made by a woman 
trained in anthropological methods. A few years ago I was 
fortunate enough to arrange for such an investigation under excep- 
tionally favorable conditions in the Northern Territory, but the 
war intervened and prevented the carrying out of the plan. I 
feel sure that amongst Australian tribes a woman who would 
simply investigate matters from the outlook of a native woman, 
and Avould not attempt to gain any information of, or to investi- 
gate beliefs and customs especially associated with, the men, would 
d'j most valuable work. 

After these preliminary remarks I pass on to d^al with the 
organization of Australian tribes as revealing to us an early, but 
iby no means a really primitive, state of human society, but at 
the same time giving us some little idea of the nature of this. 
The subject is one of great extent, and all that I propose to do is 
to summarize in broad outline our knowledge of it, which is 
probably now fairly complete. 


Investigations during recent years, though adding details, have 
not, with one exception, revealed anything new of importance in 
regard to it. Two main systems can be recognised; the first may 
be described as the Tribal, the second as the Social. In regard 
to the Tribal organization, there is clearly a threefold di\dsion 
into tribe, local group, and family, with also a somewhat indefinite 
grouping of tribes possessing common interests of special nature 
to form wider communities. 

It might be thought a simple matter to define a tribe, but 
in reality it is difficult to do so except in somewhat general terms, 
and great confusion has arisen owing to the fact that, not seldom, 
writers have regarded as a tribe what is really only a local group. 
It may be conveniently described as follows : — A tribe is composed 
of a number of individuals speaking a common language and 
regarded as owning a definite tract of country the boundaries of 
which are kno-\\m to them and recognised iby the members of other 

Of these two points, the first is perhaps the more important, 
because in many cases there is, so far as ownership of land is 
concerned, a further recognition of local ownership, though at the 
same time this does not override the wider tribal rights. In some 
rare cases statements have been made indicating individual 
ownership, and even of a father parcelling out land amongst his 
sons, but I think that these can be dismissed as the casual and 
mistaken observations of untrained writers who judged the abori- 
ginal from the white man's point of view, and, moreover, they 
were statements made by natives well acquainted with the fact 
that the white man had private property in land. It is essential 
that the greatest caution should be exercised in aecepting evidence 
of this nature. The natives are wonderfully quick in perceiving 
that there are difl:'erent grades of rank and importance amongst 
white men, and that, for example, the private possession of land 
i^ evidently a sign of superiority. They are most apt mimics, 
and when a native, such as the head man of a local group, tells 
a white man that he owns certain land, the statement, as likely 
as not, is made with the idea of impressing the former with a 
sense of his, the native's, importance, rather than with strict 
regard to its literal truth; and, further still, the expression 
" owning the land," does not mean to him what it does to us. 

Amongst all the central and northern tribes there is no such 
thing as private ownership, but at the same time there are distinct 
loeal groups, each Avith its head man, and the latter, speaking to 
a white man, would probably describe a given tract of country as 
belonging to him, but in doing so he Avould only be speaking as 
the representative of a group, and closer investigation would reveal 
the fact that the whole tribal country was divided into sections, 


each regarded as ibelonging more especially to a particular group, 
but the whole recognised as the common property of the tribe. For 
example, in the Arunta and allied tribes in Central Australia 
each local group has a sacred spot called " E'rtnatulunga " — ^often 
a little chasm or cave amongst the rocks, or merely a hole in the 
bank of a creek^in which are stored the sacred churinga or bull- 
roarers. It is in charge of the head man . of the local group. 
Speaking of this to a white man, he would certainly describe it 
as belonging to him, and yet he has no power whatever to part 
with its contents — -no more right, indeed, than the youngest mem- 
ber of the tribe. The ground suirounding it is sacred, nothing on 
it- may be touched ; even an offender against tribal law is safe so 
long as he remains there, giving us the earliest foreshadowing of 
a " city of refuge." So far as the question of dealing with the 
contents of the .Ertnatulunga during the performance of cere- 
monies is concerned, the decision of the head man is final, hut 
the property is strictly entailed, and the overlordship passes from 
the father to the eldest son, or, where there is no 'actual son, then 
to the eldest tribal son. 

Amongst Australian tribes we can recognise the germ of the 
idea of restricted rights in landed property, but no such thing as 
individual rights. A man belonging to one local group will not 
enter the country of another in his own tribe without asking per- 
mission to do so, which is never withheld. On the other hand, 
members of one tribe would never venture, as friends, on the land 
of another except after having received a definite invitation to 
attend some ceremony conveyed in recognised form by a messenger 
carrying 'a sacred em'blem, which acts as a passport and secures 
his safety when traversing the country of another tribe, or after 
waiting on the borderland until they were formally received as 
friends, when they would be greeted by the home tribe in some 
special way indicative of friendly feeling. Should they enter 
uninvited — that is, as enemies — they would do so at their own 

In the country of each local group again there are certain 
camping grounds common to the members of the group and occu- 
pied by a varying number of families, each comprising a man- and 
his wife or wives and their children. There is no such thing as 
any one man having a pre-emptive right to any particular piece of 

In addition to the tribe, local group, and family, there is a 
further, though only somewhat vaguely defined, organization of 
the tribes into what Dr. Howitt called " nations." The term is a 
little unfortunate, because it implies the existence of a more 
strongly marked cohesion, amalgamation, and also community of 
language than actually exists amongst the tribes forming these 


so-called " nations." It is,, however, of importance to note that 
groups of cQntiguoiis tribes are more or less loosely allied to one 
another. Thus, for example, in Central Australia we have, in the 
region of Lake Eyre, what Dr. Howitt called the Dieri nation, 
consisting of tribes counting descent in the maternal line. To the 
north of this we have the Arunta nation, including the Arunta 
and others, counting descent in the male line. North of this 
there is the Warramunga, including this important tribe and 
others, such as the Tjingilli, Worgaia, Umbaia, Bingongina, 
Walpari, Wulmala, and Gnangi. Inland, to the west of the Gulf 
of Carpentaria, there is the Binbinga, including the latter and the 
Allaua and others, whilst on the shores of the gulf there is the 
Mara, including the Anula, Nullakun, and others. Certainly the 
best, perhaps the only real, proof existing at the present day of 
any alliance amongst these groups of tribes forming the nations 
is that their members foregather iby mutual invitation for the per- 
formance of certain ceremonies, more especially those of initia- 
tion, or when a special food supply is available, as, for example, 
the Bunya-bunya fruit in Queensland or the Bogong moth in Vic- 
toria. These invitations are strictly limited to the members 
respectively of well-defined groups of tribes. 

Two theories may be suggested to account for this association. 
According to one, it may be regarded as a recent development, 
certain tribes, as it were, drawing together and aggregating in 
groups. According to another, we, may regard it as indicating a 
splitting up of former larger communities, of which the tribes at 
present existing are the surviving components. In view of 
evidence to be referred to later, I am inclined to think that this 
present temporary gathering together points, not to a modern 
aggregation, but to a gradual breaking up of once larger into 
smaller communities. 

The extraordinary number of tribes each with its own distinct 
dialect, and occupying its own country, is one of the most difficult 
things to explain in regard to Australian ethnology. It is not as 
if the tribes were usually separated from one another by physical 
barriers. In a few cases when, as in the i^orth, they occupy 
islands, such as Melville and Bathurst, this is so; in the South- 
west, the rugged ranges of the Great Divide shut off a few coastal 
tribes in Victoria and New South Wales from those of the interior, 
but otherwise there are no obvious geographical barriers ; in fact, 
over the whole central area the reverse is true. Between Lake 
Eyre, in the south, and Darwin, in the north, there is only one 
possible barrier in the form of the Macdonnell Ranges, that run 
east and west for 300 miles, but they lie right across the centre 
of the country occupied by the Arunta Tribe. It is apparently 
only climatic conditions that have caused the segregation of 
groups of tribes. The remnants in Central Australia of great 
1084.— 3 


river systems, no less than tliose of giant marsupials and other 
animals, such as Ceratodus and crocodiles, indicate in late Pleis- 
tocene times a. climate quite different from that of to-day. 
Gradually, with the desiccation of the central area, the tribes 
occupying this became not only shut off from those inhabiting 
the limited area of coastal land, but, as the climate became still 
more unfavorable, there took place a further segregation of 
originally larger groups into smaller groups, farming the so-called 
nations. This, which really consisted in a drawing in towards 
centres, where, in time of drought, physical conditions were more 
favorable than elsewhere, led on to the disintegration of the groups 
into smaller communities that form the existing tribes, and thus 
in course of time, because amongst a savage people with no written 
language words easily become changed, the various dialects arose. 
This fourfold organization of nation, tribe, local group, and family 
is probably of fundamental significance, and has ibeen developed 
in the sequence indicated, leading from the general to the special. 

"We may now pass on to deal with the second form of organiza- 
tion, commonly known as the Social. In studying that of a typical 
Australian tribe, the existence of two institutions stands out 
markedly. One is Exogamy, the other Totemism. How, when, 
and where these first arose it seems impossible to say, but both 
of them had their origin far back in the early days of humanity. 
The two, though they have become closely associated in many 
parts of the world, and pre-eminently so in Australia, are evidently 
in their origin quite independent of one another; in fact, we may 
have pure totemism and pure exogamy existing side by side; 
totemism without exogamy or exogamy without totemism. 

Exogamy means marrying out, whether it be of a tribe, a class, 
a local group, or a totem group. A totem, to adopt Sir James 
Frazer's definition, " is a class of material objects which a savage 
regards with superstitious respect, believing that there exists 
between him and every member of the class an intimate and alto- 
gether special relation." 

Totemism " is an intimate relation which is supposed to exist 
between a group of kindred people on the one side and a species 
of natural or artificial objects on the other, which objects are 
called the totems of the human group." 

Totemism is undoubtedly older than exogamy, and in Australia 
we have probably the relics of the earliest belief in regard to it. 
It is, in fact, perhaps the crudest form of any evolutionary theory 
with which we are acquainted. Every Central and JNTorthem 
Australian native believes that he or she is the .direct descendant 
of some ancestrjil animal or plant, or even, because the animistic 
feeling has been "carried over to them, of some natural or artificial 


object. I do not propose to deal with the totemic side of organi- 
zation further than to say that in some tribes there is no restric- 
tion in regard to the marriage of a man of one totem with a 
woman of the same, and that it is quite possible, judging by 
tradition, that in the early far-back days such was the normal 
state, but that now, in the great majority, the marriage of indivi- 
duals of the same totem is strictly forbidden. 

In some tribes the children inherit the totem of their father, 
in others that of their mother; in others, the totems are so 
arranged amongst the classes or sub-classes that they cannot 
inherit either their father's or their mother's, whilst in others, 
such as the Arunta, every individual is supposed to be the rein- 
carnation of a particular ancestor whose totem he or she therefore 

It must be remembered that Australia is of great extent. The 
I^orthern Territory alone is four and a half times the size of 
Great Britain. We may therefore expect to find considerable 
differences amongst tribes spread over such a vast area in regard 
to their customs and beliefs. Though this is so, yet we find, on 
the other hand, a wonderful agreement in regard to the funda- 
mental features of totemism and exogamy, and of the classificatory 
system associated with the latter. 

I propose to deal only with the classificatory system, which can 
be studied quite apart from totemism, though the latter has become 
tacked on to it in various ways. 

With the rare exception of a few highly modified coastal tribes, 
every one has a definite class organization. In the first place, 
there is always a primary bisection of the tribe into two main 
exogamous divisions; these may each again divide into two, and 
each of these once more. This dichotomous division is the 
characteristic and dominant feature of the organization of Aus- 
tralian tribes. Various writers have applied different names to 
the two primary divisions, such as phratry, class, and moiety. In 
view of the fact that amongst American tribes the term phratry 
has been applied to divisions, which may vary in number from 
two to ten, and need not be even numbers, it is advisable to use, in 
regard to Australian tribes, a term indicative of the fact that 
there are two, and only two, primary divisions. For these, the 
most suitable term is moiety, which emphasizes the dichotomy 
without implying that each division is precisely equal in regard 
to the number of its component members. The two divisions of 
each moiety may conveniently be called classes and the divisions 
o± these sub-classes. These three terms— moietv, class, and sub- 
class—are simple, and cannot possibly be misleadino- 



A man of one moiety marries a woman of another, and their 
children, in a female descent tribe, pass into the mother's moiety, 
and in a male descent tribe into that of the father. 

,So far as the main features of organization are concerned, the 
tribes over the whole Continent may be divided into three groups 
■ — (1) those with female descent and moieties, which may or may 
not be* divided into classes; (2) those with male descent and 
moieties, which are always divided into classes, which again may 
be divided into sub-classes; and (3) a few highly modified ones 
occupying a mere fringe of the Continent, mainly in the extreme 
north and south-east. 


♦ Thursday,!. 

DisTriburion of Tribes accordln. 
lb MaU and Temale Descent. 

Norni^l Tribes wil^h Female De 
Na^r^at Tribes w>'h Male Oesc 
Abnorn^.al Tr.bes w.rh Male 0. 
Ab-.orm.l coasral T.,bes, 





* tttt t i Direcr Male DescenT- 4 classes, 
Direcf Female DescenP of MoIeFy Ittrf. Indirect Male Desoenr-4< 

• olassea. 

Indirecf Male DescenT— 8 subcia 

Indirect- Female Descenl"- 4 cUssea. 

Abnormal Tribe 

Leaving out of account the last, wliose numbers are insig- 
nificant, ir is an extraordinary tiling that the organization of all 
other Australian tribes, some hundreds in number, and occupying 
an area only slightly less in extent than Europe, can be repre- 
sented by that of four tribes; two counting descent in the female, 
and two in the male line; and, further still, that in each of these 
two main divisions we have tribes some of which count descent in 
what is known as the direct, and others in the indirect female or 
male line, as the ease may be. (Maps A and B.) 

We will take the Urabunna, of Central Australia, and the 
Kamilaroi, of New South Wales, as representative of female 
descent, and the Warramunga, of the Northern Territory, and 
the Mara, on the Gulf of Carpentaria, as representative of the 



male 'descent tribes. The organization can be shown in tabular 
form for each tribe, as follows : — 

Female Descent Tribes. 

(A) Urahunna. 


Matthuri (m.) . . 
Kirarawa (m.) . . 

Kirarawa (f.) 
Matthuri (f.) 

Children — 
Kirarawa (m. and f.) 

Matthuri (m. and f.) 

There are two moieties — Matthuri and Kirarawa. A Matthuri 
man marries a Kirarawa woman, and the children are Kirarawa, 
and vice versa. 

(B) Kamilaroi. 







Classes . . < 





There are two moieties — Kupathin and Dilbi — each divided into 
two classes. (^) An Ipai man marries a Kuibbi woman, and their 
children are Murri; a Kubbi man marries an Ipai woman, and 
their children are Kumbo, that is, the children pass into the 
mother's moiety, but into the class to which she does not belong, 
giving us an example of what is known as indirect female descent. 

Male Descent Tkibes. 
(C) Mara. 






Classes . . -I 

Murungun . . 


Murungun . . 


In this tribe, which is typical of a group on the western shores 
of the Gulf of Carpentaria, we have descent counted in the direct 
male line, as far as the class is concerned, but in reality each class 
ifi divided into two unnamed groups. If, for example, in 
Murungun we call these Murungun A and Murungun B, then the 
childre n of Murungun A are Murungun B, and vice versa.. 

(M In each table a man of column 1 marries a woman on the same level in column 2 and the 
children are^shown on the same level in column 3. A man of column 2 marries a woman of column 1 
and their children are shown on column 4. 


(D) Warramunga Tribe. 









Sub-classes < 

Tjapeltjeri . . 

Thungalla . . 

Tjapeltjeri . . 


The moieties are each divided into four sub-classes, and, in addi- 
tion, though in order to simplify matters not shown here, the 
women of each sub-class have a name distinct from that of the men. 
Thus, for example, Thapanunga women are called N^apanunga, 
Tjupila women are Naralu, and so on. The children of a Thapa- 
nunga man are Thapungarti, of a Tjupila man Thakomara, &c. ; 
so that here, once more, we have indirect male descent. 

These tables show us that in each of the two main groups of 
tribes, one counting descent in the female and the other in the 
male line, we find that, so soon as the moieties become divided, 
first into classes, and then into sub-classes, descent, so far as the 
class or sub-class is concerned, is always in the indirect line, even 
if, as in the Mara on the one side and the Urabunna on the other, 
it is hidden from view until one digs below the surface. 

It is remarkable that, on the one hand, in the female descent 
Urabunna Tribe, in which there are only names for the two 
moieties, there are really, so far as marriage is concerned, four 
classes; that in the male descent Mara Tril)e, with its moieties 
and four classes, there really exist eight sub-classes, the equivalents 
of those in the Warramunga Tribe. 

These successive dichotomous divisions are intimately associated 
with the organization of the various communities and with 
marriage regvilations, and reveal the institution of at least three 
grades of gradually narrowing restrictions. In regard to tliese 
relationships it must be uiiderstood that, though we use the terras 
of consanguinity in current Ui;ie amongst ourselves, these connote 
to the native a much wider kinship than we recognise. Thus to 
a native the terms that we translate as father and mother imply 
respectively any one who might lawfully have been his father or 
mother, and the term children, in the same way, applies to the 
offspring of any woman whom he might, as shown in the pre- 
ceding tables, have lawfully married : — 

(1) The first division divided the community into two 
moieties. This prohibited the marriage of brothers and 
sisters, but not that with women belonging to the group of 
a man's wife, nor of what we call first cousins. 



(2) The second division resulted in the four-class system, 
and prohibited the marriage of brothers and sisters, parents 
and children, but not that of first cousins. 

(3) The third division, resulting in. the formation of eight 
sub-classes, prohibited the marriage of brothers and sisters, 
parents and children, and of first cousins. 

Two things stand out clearly. First, that these dichotomous 
divisions are the result of deliberate thought and action on the 
part of the far-back ancestors of the present day aboriginals. 
Secondly, that, from whatever motives they sprang, they 
resulted in a gradual restriction of the numbers of mutually 
marriageable individuals, and it looks very much as if in some 
oases they were definitely designed to protect the interests of the 
older men, hacked up, as they take very good care that it always 
shall be, by the idread of evil magic, in which every native has the 
most implicit faith, and by which he believes that every breach of 
tribal rule will, sooner or later, inevitably be punished. 

This deliberate action is seen still more clearly in the arrange- 
ments made when male and female descent tribes come in contact 
with one another in order to determine that the marriage arrange- 
ments of the parents and the descent of the children shall fit into 
the system of each tribe. 

This can be illustrated by the following table, which shows 
the actual method by which the counting of descent in the female 
line in the Urabunna Tribe, with its two moieties, is majde to fit 
in with the counting of descent in the male line in the adjacent 
Arunta, with its four classes:— 

(1) Urabunna Tribe. 

Moiety A. — Matthuri male marries Kirarawa female, 
children are Kirarawa. 

Moiety B. — Kirarawa male marries Matthuri female, 
children are Matthuri. 

(2) Arunta^ Tribe. 

Moiety A.— 

Panunga male marries Purula female, children *are 
. Bulthara male marries Kumara female, children are 

Moiety B.— 

Kumara male marries Bulthara female, children are 

Purula male marries Panunga female, children are 


On tile borders of tlie two tribes, where tbey come in contact 
with one another, and where every now and then intertribal 
marriages take place, there is a deliberate change in the grouping 
of the classes to fit in with the maternal or paternal line of descent, 
as the case may be. This is shown in the following table :— 


Urabunna Arrangement of the Arunta Classes. 

Bulthara 1 ti/t ^ a 
1^ Moietv A. 
ranunga J 

Kumara 1 at .t r> 
„ , Moietv B. 
r inula J 

Ku^S } ^^°^^*y ^- (Kirarawa) 

If, for example, a Matthuri man goes into the Arunta Tribe, 
then he is told by the old men of the local group into which he 
has gone that he is, say, a Bulthara. Accordingly, he marries a 
Kumara woman, or, if he already has a wife, she is regarded as 
Kuinara, and their children are Panunga, or, in other words, they 
pass into the father's moiety, as the classes are arranged in the 
Ai'unta, and into that of the mother in the Urabunna- Tribe. 

Nothing could be more deliberate than these arrangements, but 
by some recent writers the suggestion of deliberate action to regu- 
late marriage in Australian tribes, as put forward by Dr. Howitt, 
Mr. Gillen, and myself after long personal experience in the field, 
is entirely rejected. It has been styled the reformation theory, 
and as(^) making " the conscious attainment of a better state of 
society the object of the institution of a dichotomous organiza- 

This shows a serious misunderstanding of the question at issue, 
and also a lack of appreciation of the capacity and mental outlook 
of the Australian savage. By the use of the w^ord "better " it 
rather begs the question, anti also conveys a wrong impression. 
The Australian savage, as far as I am aware, has no word which 
connotes to him the moral significance that the word " better " 
does to us. For him, if he had an equivalent term to use in 
regard to this dichotomous division and its consequent restrictions 
and results, it would imply either more convenient for the general 
management of tribal affairs or more likely to serve his own per- 
sonal interests, but it would in no way refer to physiological or 
what we call moral matters. As Sir James Frazer says,(^) "men 
have very often done right from the most absurd motives," and, 
in the case of savages, I would add, from the most self-considering 

(') N. W. Thomas. " Kinship, Organization, and Group Marriage in Australia," page 
(«) Sir J.. E. Frazer, " Totemism and Exogamy," vol. 4, page 160. 


The authority of Sir James Frazer in regard to all matters 
concerned with cultural anthropology is so pre-eminent that, in 
connexion with this question of deliberate action, I venture to 
quote two more short passages from his monumental work on 
Totemism and Exogamy. In the first he says,(^) "It is hardly 
too much to affirm that no other human institution ibears the 
impress of deliberate design stamped on it more clearly than the 
exogamous classes of the Australian"; and, in the second, (^) 
" The truth is that all attempts to trace the origin and growth of 
human institutions without the intervention of human intelligence 
and will are radically vicious and foredoomed to failure." 

When our knowledge of the organization of the tribes from 
the fundamental point of view of counting descent is plotted down 
in map form (Map A), the striking feature is that Australia is 
very clearly divided into East and West. On the East there is 
female and, on the West, male descent, with the exception in each 
case of what may be called abnormal tribes inhabiting coastal 
land. Such information as we yet have of the organization of the 
tribes of the York Peninsula, and of the southern part of Western 
Australia,- and of the south-western part of South Australia, is 
both too insufficient and too unsatisfactory to base any safe con- 
clusions upon, but the main division into East and West stands 
out clearly. 

In association with the system of exogamy and class organiza- 
tion there has been developed a most complicated and yet homo- 
geneous system of counting relationship, including in this both 
consanguinity as known to us and the far wider relation of kinship 
as understood by the Australian aboriginal. 

There are in regard to this two features of special interest. 
The first is that, as a result of it, every individual member of a 
tribe stands in a definite relationship to every member, not only 
of his or her own tribe, but to those of every other tribe with 
whom he or she may come in contact. The second is, perhaps, of 
still greater interest in view of the fact that we may expect to 
find amongst Australian savages relics of customs associated with 
early stages of the development of human society. This second 
feature is that all terras of relationship, save a very few, are 
group, and not individual, tenns. Even the very few special indi- 
vidual terms that exist retain in part the form of group terms. 
These terms of kinship and relationship are widely different from, 
though they include, those of consanguinity as kno-vsoi amongst 
ourselves. Kinship is a matter of law, or,' amongst savages, of 
custom. Consa nguinity is physiological, and the two are only 

/•) Sir J. E. Frazer, op. cit., vol. 4, page 106. 
(") Sir J. E. Frazer, op. cit., vol. 1, page 281. 


faintly differentiated amongst Australian tribes, or, rather, we 
find only the earliest rudiment of a recognition of terms of con- 
sanguinity as known to us. 

With our present knowledge of the classificatory system and 
terms of kinship, and of sundry customs connected with special 
ceremonies as at present existing, it is possible to form some idea 
of the earlier and more primitive haibits and customs of their 
ancestors. Just as amongst higher animals vestigial structures 
point hack to ancestral conditions, and amongst various peoples 
vestigial customs indicate the habits of earlier times, so does our 
knowledge of the organization of the present tribes indicate a time 
when there was no such thing as individual relationship recog- 
nised. The whole organization is based on the clear recognition 
of group relationship, with here and there foreshadowings of the 
recognition of individual relationship, and the former, which 
included in those far-back times group marriage, with its corollary 
of group responsibility and unity of action, both for offence and 
defence, probably played an important part in the social develop- 
ment of early mankind. The family, as we know it now, is a 
development of a time tater than that at which the ancestors 
of the present aboriginals made their home in Australia. The 
comparatively narrow terms of consanguinity, also based upon 
physiological data as known to us, have replaced a wider recogni- 
tion of kinship, such as we meet with in Australian tribes, that 
had no relation to physiological factors. 

I now pass on to deal with the problem of the development of 
the customs, beliefs, and arts, which, taken all together, form 
the culture of the aboriginals. It is a difficult one to solve. There 
are many aspects that must be taken into account, and the 
evidence afforded by a study of the geological, biological, and 
climatological conditions, as they exist now and did in the imme- 
diate past, must be carefully considered. 

Put very briefly, the following may ibe regarded as the main 
points of importance in regard to these, so far as the Australian 
culture problem is concerned. 

From the geological point of view it seems most prohahle that 
in late tertiary times there was a large land mass, including the 
present Australia, ISTew Guinea, and Tasmania. The historic 
'•' Wallace's line," between Bali and Lombok, may not be as abso- 
lutely defined as once it was supposed to be, but on the whole it 
still holds good, and indicates a decisive line of cleavage between 
Asia and Australia. It definitelv isolated the latter from the land 
masses on the north, and must have been established long before 
the earliest ancestors of mankind had been developed, during 
Pliocene or perhaps even earlier times. 


At a subsequent period the large Austral Continent became 
divided into two parts — (1) a northern, consisting of the present 
Papua and adijacent islands; and (2) a southern, including the 
present Australia and Tasmania. During early Pleistocene times 
there was probably a considerable extension eastwards of the 
coast line of Australia, as compared with what obtains 'at present, 
affording a more or less easy transit along this side of the Con- 
tinent to its most southern part, which later became separated off 
by the formation of Bass Strait. 

So far as Australia is concerned, it appears that during at 
least a considerable part of early Pleistocene times, when the 
ancestors of the present aborigines were spreading over the Con- 
tinent, conditions were much more favorable than at present. At 
that time, great rivers represented now by the Barcoo, Warburton, 
and Finke, flowed down from the highlands of Queensland, New 
South Wales and Central Australia, anid emptied their waters 
into the Southern Ocean by way of what are now the drowned 
valleys of Spencer and Vincent gulfs. These river courses, 
together with that of the Murray, determined the line of migra- 
tion of the early aborigines on the eastern and central areas of the 
Continent. Later on there was developed the sag that resulted 
in the formation of the present depression centering in Lake Eyre, 
and the consequent shutting off of the communication of the great 
central rivers from the Southern Sea. The rivers, save the 
Murray, now flowed inland and with increasing desiccation, the 
central area of the Continent, to a large extent, separated, 
climatically, West from East Australia. So far as Tasmania is 
concerned, it appears to have been separated from, and re-united 
with, the main land more than once, the last union probably being 
in early Pleistocene times, a subsequent sinking of the land trans- 
forming the south-western corner of the old Continent into the 
Island of Tasmania. 

From the biological point of view, the evidence is quite con- 
clusive in regard to the early separation of Australia from 
Eurasia. Apart from bats or insects that can fly or be oarried 
by winds across stretches of water, mice and rats, that can be 
carried in boats and drifting logs, Australia has received no immi- 
grants by land from Eurasia since the Cretaceous period. She 
received the ancestors of her very distinctive marsupial fauna 
from the ancient American continent, most probably by way of 
Antarctica, Avhen what is now Tasmania was still a part of the 
Continent. The^ lung fish, Ceratodus, and the Monotremes, 
Echidna and Platyj)us, and such lower forms as Peripatus, are 
relics of a luore ancient fauna once widely distributed, but her 
characteristic marsupials came at a later date, and the most 
specialized of them, the Diprotodonts — kangaroos, native bears, 


wombats, and phalangers — have been evolved within the limits 
of Australia itself, indicating the complete isolation of the Con- 
tinent for long ages, so far as influence by direct contact from 
outside ifi concerned in the case of the fauna. 

From the point of view of climatology, the distribution of the 
rain belts in Pliocene and Pleistocene times, as plotted down by 
Dr. Griffith Taylor, is of considerable interest in regard to the 
possible migration of peoples to Australia from the north. The 
charts show that, during the Pliocene, the hot moist belt came 
much farther south than in the later Pleistocene, with the result 
that the centre of aridity came farther and farther south, affect- 
ing seriously the parts of Australia lying within the temperate 
zone, but at the same time favorably affecting the northern part 
of the Continent. It would seem to be very probable that, later 
on, the reverse moivement northward of the centre of aridity 
during Pleistocene times may have exercised a profound influence 
on the migration of peoples coming down from xVsia into Malaysia, 
and spreading thence southwards into Australia. 

Turning now to the consideration of the culture of the present 
Australian aboriginals and its origin, there are, in regard to it, 
three features of outstanding importance and interest. First, the 
broad division of the Continent into an eastern half with female, 
and a western with male descent tribes. Second, the extra- 
ordinary homogeneity of the tribes scattered over the whole Con- 
tinent in regard to the fundamental features of their class organi- 
zation, and, to a large extent,* of their totemic systems. It is 
true that the latter vary, but the different forms merge into one 
another. Third, in strong contrast to the second, is the wide 
divergence of tribes with identical or closely similar organization 
and totemic systems in regard to customs such as those concerned 
with initiation, burial ceremonies, the making of fire, and such 
other features as the nature of their weapons and their schemes 
of ornamentation and design. 

The question arises whether the Australian aborigina's owe 
fheir present culture to the result of interactions between different 
immigrant peoples, or whether their immediate ancestors brought 
with them certain customs, beliefs, and arts, representing those 
held and practised by early mankind, and, isolated in Australia, 
have developed along various lines without influence from outside. 
Several theories have been put forward to explain the present 

It is evident that there have been, at all events, two main immi- 
grations, an earlier one of a primitive ulotrichous people, and a 
later one of a more highly developed race. It seems probable that 
important dispersions of early representatives of various races, 
those of Australia amongst them, took place trom the Eurasian 


land mass, probably in association with the alteration of severe 
glacial and mild inter-glacial conditions during the Pleistocene 
period. The first to reach Australia were the ulotrichous people, 
of whom traces persist in Africa, Papua, Melanesia, and did, till 
lately, in Tasmania. The ancestors of the present Australians 
were possibly associated with a second dispersion, the members of 
which reached America, Africa, Malaysia, and Australia, but not 

These early races have been pushed out, as it were, into the 
corners of the world; and, so far as Australia is concerned, it is 
important to note that the people who arrived' here as the result of 
the second migration have been isolated, and also protected from 
further dispersions in a way quite different from those of Asia, 
Africa, and America. Whilst the native tribes of the latter asso- 
ciated with this migration retain, doubtless, many more or less 
primitive customs and beliefs, they have been, of necessity, 
influenced by later migrations that have not reached or affected 
the Australian aboriginals, whose isolation by land has been 

It seems most likely that the original migrants entered Australia 
at the north-east in Pliocene or very early Pleistocene times. ' 
Whether they came from Asia or from America, as Sergi suggests, 
whether they migrated southwards along the Eastern coast line, 
which was then more extensive than it is now, it is impossible to 
say idefinitely. They have left no traces of their movements or 
occupation of the land behind them. The Talgai skull — the 
earliest trace of man in Australia — has, according to Dr. Smith, 
no special relation to the Tasmanian.(^) Finally their surviving 
remnants found shelter and safety from the second immigration 
in Tasmania until such time as, most unfortunately for them- 
selves, they came in contact with the third —that of the white 
man. ("^ 

Sir Wiriam Flower originally suggested a mixture of a frizzly- 
haired Melanesian, the Homo tasmania^ivs of Sergi, with a dark- 
coloured Caucasmn; Mathew, a mixture of the same with a 
lighter coloured Dravidian; Sergi has more recently suggested a 
Polynesian immigration fusing with the Tasmanian stock; and 
more recently Berry again suggests that the Australians have 
arisen as a cross between the Tasmanians and seme other sto'ck. 
I would suggest that tiie points in common between what Sergi 
calls the lophocephalic Tasmanian-Austra'ian skulls may be due 
to a community of origin in the far past, before the immediate 
ancestors of the present Australian had appeared; and it may be 

(') Dr. S. A. Smith. — The Foss.l Human Skull found at Talgai, Queensland. Phil 
Trans. R.S., 1918. p. .383. 

(5) Since the above was written an article has appeared in Na'vre (Jan. 6, 1921), in 
which Professor Keith says : " On a consideration of all his feitures we jijust place the Talgai 
boy in the ancestral stock of the Tasmanian type of Australoids." 


poissible to account for the great variations in skull form without 
calling in the assistance of any such mixture, or regarding the 
Australian as a hybrid. The remarkable variations described by 
investigators on both the physical and cultural side may, perhaps, 
when a 1 factors are taken into account, be regarded as indicating 
the present Australian race to be, not a specialized one, but a very 
generalized one with nascent possibilities of development along 
many varied lines. 

Though I am dealing primarily with the origin of the culture 
of the aborigines, it is of importance to note this fact, that in 
their skull form and measurements they vary to a most remark- 
able degree, indeed, amongst five Central Australian tribes I found 
the cephalic index of the men varied from 80.5 to 66.6 ; and, in 
connexion with the extraordinary variations that we meet with 
in regard to structure, customs, beliefs, anid arts, the words of 
Professor Keith are of deep significance. He says, " So far, no 
fossil remains of man have been discovered in Australasia ; but 
there is no need to seek there for fossil forms. Ancient and 
primitive man still survives — more primitive than any fossil form 
of modern man yet found in Europe. Sir William Turner 
measured the brain capacity of 24 skulls of native Australian 
women. Tht mean capacity was 1116 c.c, one was as low as 
930 c.c. With brains of a smaller size than 930 c.c. we can scarcely 
expect a human intelligence. Of all the races of mankind now 
alive, the aboriginal race of Australia is the only one which, in my 
opinion, could serve as a common ancestor for all modern races. 
. . . . The Australian native has those intermediate and 
generalized characters needed for such an ancestral form." 

This statement, coming from such a high authority, is at least 
very suggestive, but geological and other evidence would appear 
*;o be against the possibility of the Australian aboriginal being 
actually the common ancestor of all modern races. On the other 
hand, it may Avell be that he is the survivor of such a common 
ancestor, and that this fact gives us the clue to the significance of 
his remarkable variation from both a physical and cultural point 
of view. 

There is one point of importance to which attention must be 
drawn. In the very interesting and suggestive papers published 
by Professor Berry and his students, Drs. Buchner, Robertson, 
and Cross, tables are given to show the great variation in measure- 
ments of Australian skulls and others to illustrate the place in 
nature of the Australian aboriginals, and the comparison of both 
with prehistoric and recent forms of man. In one of these, the 
Tasmanian is shown as standing decidedly higher than the 
Australian; in fact, quite close to the Cromagnon. Professor 
Berry says, " The modern-day Australian alboriginal stands rather 


nearer to the anthropoid ape, or the common ancestor, than did the 
Tasmanian." Fortunately, we know quite enough of the culture 
of the Tasmanians to prove, without the shadow of a doubt, that 
their culture stage was not only at a decidedly, but at a vastly 
lower, level than that of the Australians, their successors on the 
mainland. To take their stone implements only, there is precisely 
the same difference between these and those of the Australians as 
there is between those of the lowest Mousterian and of the Cro- 
magnon — the highest of prehistoric men. These tables show how 
dangerous and entirely misleading it would be to rely, except 
in a very general way, on skull measurements only as a guide to 
cultural level or mental capacity amongst either living or extinct 

No theoi'y yet proposed of a cross 'between two peoples — one 
resident in Australia, the other an immigrant — takes into account 
the undoubted fact that, if two races are at a decidedly different 
level of culture, as most certainly were the primitive indigenes and 
those who next reached Australia, it is extremely improbable that 
there would be any amalgamation on equal terms. The weaker 
and less cultured Avould certainly be exterminated by the stronger 
and more highly cultured. On the theory, as advocated by Mr. 
Mathew,(^) of the amalgamation of a lighter with a darker 
people, based on the supposition that in certain tribes the 
" phratry " names m'ay be interpreted respectively as eaglehawk 
and crow, or black cockatoo and white cockatoo, the dark ibird 
indicating the original ulotrichous strain, it is somewhat difficult to 
understand the fact that the present Australians are uniformly 
of the same dolour, and that they never possess true woolly hair, 
one of the moet striking features of the Tasmanian. 

It looks, indeed, as if there had been a repetition of what 
occurred in Europe when the Neanderthals were either forced out 
or exterminated by the Cromagnons of Aurignacean times. Pro- 
fessor H. F. Osborn says, " no evidence has thus far been found 
that even the Neanderthal women were spared or allowed to 
remain in the country, because in none of the burials of Aurig- 
nacian times is there any evidence of the crossing or admixture 
of the Cro-Magnons and the Neanderthals."^^) Exactly the same 
may be said of the primitive inhabitants of Australia and of tlie 
later immigrants, who may quite probably have been associated in 
their origin with the Cromagnon race that was probably developed 
in Asia, and thence swept westward into Europe, and possibly 
eastward, and finally southward into Australia. 

It is a very difficult problem to decide as to whether there was 
or was not any immigration subsequent to this second one. It is, 

(') Rev. ,T. Mathew, " Eaglehawk and Crow." 

(*) Osborn. " Men of the Old Stone Age," page 272. 


at all events, very difficult to believe that there have been any 
such definite migrations as those of the Kava and Betel nut people, 
as suggested by Dr. Rivers, to account for certain aspects of 
Melanesian culture. 

Dr. Rivers(^) has suggested that ^' The history of Australian 
culture and its present nature )become far easier to understand if 
there has been a gradual infiltration of seafaring peoples, starting 
from many points on the coast; if immigrants, few in number, 
first formed small settlements on the coast, and passed on their 
culture to the interior of the continent by gradual secondary 

In connexion with the suggestion of small immigrant parties 
landing at many points on the coast, there are two or three matters 
that must be taken into consideration. In the first place, Australia 
is a continent, and not a comparatively small island like those 
forming the Melanesian or Polynesian groups. There can be little 
doubt but that the second and main immigration was on, at least, 
a very considerable scale, large enough to allow the immigrants to 
populate, as they certainly did, the whole Continent, as is proved 
by the fact that the fundamental features of the complicated social 
organization are practically identical everywhere; once developed, 
no subsequent immigration, if such has taken place, has apparently 
affected them. 

It seems probable that the entrance into Australia of the second 
migration took place in early Pleistocene times, and it is im- 
portant to note that in succeeding years the hot arid zone gradually 
crept further and further northwards. This hot arid zone included 
the northern parts of Australia, and extended across into Papua. 
The northern littoral of Australia would then have a climate more 
or less similar to that of Central Australia at the present day. 
Nothing strikes the traveller in the Northern Territory, right up 
from the Tropic of Capricorn to Darwin, more than the absence 
of tropical vegetation. On the eastern coast of Queensland, in 
parts, there are rich scrubs where the remnants of a flora, and, to 
a small extent, of a fauna reminiscent of Papua exist. In the 
very centre of the Continent there is, in the Macdonnell Eanges, 
entirely isolated and surrounded by tracts of dry arid country 
spreading over endless distances, just one gorge, 2 miles at most 
in length, where a small colony of palm trees gives a hint of a 
past climate very different from that of the present. For the 
most part, the one striking feature of jSTorthern Australia is the 
almost entire absence of anything like a luxuriant tropic vegeta- 
tion or any abundance of animal life. 

(') Dr. W. H. R. Rivers, B.A.A.S. Report, 1914, page 530. 


Northern Australia has evidently not yet recovered from the 
arid conditions which prevailed when, at all events, the later immi- 
grations from Malaysia to the Pacific Islands were in progress. 
Supposing that some of these coming from the far more fertile 
islands of Malaysia had landed on Northern Australia, they would 
have encountered nothing but dense mangrove swamps or barren 
forbidding sandhills, with scanty or no water supply, scarcely an 
animal and no fruits to provide them with food — conditions far 
different from those to which they had ibeen accustomed. If they 
attempted to travel south, either along the west coast of the Con- 
tinent or the eastern or western shores of the Gulf of Carpentaria, 
or down Cape York Peninsula, they would have found just the 
same depressing conditions, and one can only think that they 
would, so to speak, have gladly taken the first boat home and 
thankfully left Australia and its aboriginals alone. 

Dr. Rivers points out that his suggestion " can only stand if 
there has taken place in this region that degeneration and even 
loss of so useful an object as the canoe, of which we have definite 
evidence in Melanesia and Polynesia." To this it may be replied, 
in the first place, that the Northern Territory aboriginal has his 
own bark canoe, which is by no means inefiicient so far as crossing 
even open stretches of ocean waters is concerned. He has also 
a dug-out canoe, which may have been received from the Malays 
in exchange for trepang and tortoiseshell, and on the north- 
eastern coast of Queensland he has adopted an outrigger canoe, 
received by way of the Torres Strait Islands. So far as can be 
said at present,- these are the only things that he has adopted 
from outside. 

To any one who has had experience of the wild native tribes on 
the northern, north-western, and north-eastern coasts of Australia, 
there is very considerable difficulty in accepting the suggestion of 
Dr. Rivers thai small seafaring parties landing at various points 
would be able, even if they could find sufficient food to live upon, 
to influence the aboriginals. Personally, at that early date I should 
have been very sorry to have formed a memher of any such small 
party. When white men, fully armed, landed on Melville Island 
in 1823, and entrenched themselves, the. natives not only declined 
to have anything to do with them, but the very able way in which 
thej made things uncomfortable for the intruders was, at least, 
an important factor in the decision to abandon the military settle- 
ment. There was one little group of castaways who landed in 
years long gone iby on the northern coast of Australia, and on 
the walls of rocks and caves of what is now known as the Kim- 
berly district did apparently attempt to introduce a new and 
foreign element into the art of Australia. What else they tried 
to introduce, we do not know. This we do know, that neither their 


art nor anytliing else associated with tliem had the slightest 
influence on the tribes amongst whom, most unfortunately for 
themselves, they were stranded, and hy whom most probably they 
were literally absorbed. For many years past the Malays have 
been visiting the northern coast, and yet, except for the fact that 
the native has probably learnt from them the use of the dug-out 
canoe, they have had no cultural influence on the aboriginals. I 
have only once amongst the wild tribes seen a half-caste between 
a Malay and an aboriginal. Speaking generally, it may 'be said 
that there is no admixture of the two people, either in blood or 
customs, and, further «till, Mr. Sidney Ray tells us that there is 
no trace of Malay influence in the 'native language. It must, of 
course, be rememlbered that the Malays do not come down with 
the intention of settling in a country that could not provide them 
or any other immigrant from the north with what they can easily 
secure in their own home, but this strict and mutual aloofness of 
the immigrant and aboriginal is, at least, very suggestive in con- 
nexion with the theory that small parties of seafaring people have 
landed at various places in Australia and influenced the culture 
of the native tribes. 

We may finally consider the question of the origin of certain 
features of the latter from another j^oint of view. Dr. Rivers, as 
already said, and the same is true of other recent authorities, 
regards the origin of complex cultures, such as those of Melanesian 
and Polynesian islanders, as due to the interaction of different 
peoples each with its own beliefs and customs, Tt is, however, 
worth considering whether some other explanation is not more 
feasible in regard to the undoubtedly complex Australian culture. 

As pointed out already, the latter includes an extraordinarily 
homogeneous, but at the same time complicated, social organiza- 
tion, a slightly less, but still remarkably homogeneous, totemic 
system, together with numerous customs and very many forms of 
arts that are characteristic of various savage races and of pre- 
historic peoples at different levels of culture in other parts of the 

I have, in the first place, endeavoured to show that, owing to 
adverse climatic conditions, it is most improbable that any per- 
manent lodgnient of immigrants on the northern coast line has 
taken place since the immediate ancestors of the present abori- 
ginals entered Australia. There can, further, be no doubt but 
that when the latter spread over the Continent the conditions of 
inter-communication were much more favorable than at present. 
Before and during the breaking-up of the original immigrants 
into first larger groups, possibly indicated iby the present 
" nations," and, later still, into tribes, there must have been some 
form of organization. It is probable *hsit at first the totemic 


relationship was of primaiy importance, but, later on, with the 
dichotomous divisions of the original communal body, of the 
existence of which the present group organization and other 
features in regard to customs, show indisputable proof, the present 
social organization with its moieties, classes, and sub-classes came 
into existence. 

This system of group relationship and kinship was of funda- 
mental importance in regard to intertribal relations, and has per- 
sisted unchanged in regard to all essentials. On the other hand, 
the various tribes or local groups of allied tribes developed various 
customs, beliefs, and arts that were of interest to themselves and 
did not fundamentally affect their relations with other tribes. 

After this clear-cut social organization had been developed, the 
tribes on the East, due probably to climatological and physio- 
graphic causes, became separated off from those on the West. The 
Eastern side retained what may have been a more primitive 
method of counting descent in the maternal line, on the West they 
developed father descent. 

In view of the fact that the moieties, classes, and sub-classes can 
be homologized right through the whole of Australian tribes, and 
that even Avhen a matri-lineal tribe comes into contact with a 
patri-lineal one there is not the slightest difficulty in any indivi- 
dual being told in what particular relationship^ he stands to every 
member of the tribe that he may be visiting, I think we may feel 
sure that this system, which is at once so complete in itself and 
characteristic of Australia, has been developed within Australia, 
and that the division into matri-lineal and patri-lineal tribes arose, 
not only after the original dichotomous division, but after the still 
further division into classes or sub-classes. There is no reason 
why, starting with group marriage, descent should not be counted 
in the male just as easily as in the female line; but, in view of 
the fact that in patri-lineal tribes we find clear recognition on 
certain occasions of the importance of the mother's group, and, 
as far as I am aware, no corresponding evidence of the reverse 
in matri-lineal tribes, I am now inclined to think that, in Aus- 
tralia, descent was originally counted in the female line. How 
the change was inaugurated it is impossible to say, but, had it 
been due to contact Avith later immigrants, it is impossible to 
conceive that the complicated' organization governing both of these 
systems should have been, not only conserved, but retained in 
detail in each group. 

Any immigrants introducing male descent must have brought 
with them their own organization that must also inevitably have 
influenced that of the tribes adopting their system. On the other 
hand, if the change was an internal one, there would be no need 


for any fundamental changes in the method of counting relation- 
ship. The only difference would be that the children would auto- 
matically pass into a class or sub-class on the father's instead of 
the mother's side of the tribe, and thereby, ipso facto, staad in 
certain definite relationships to every other member of the tribe. 
In any case, the change from matri-lineal to patri-lineal descent is 
a sharply marked one, and may very probably have taken place 
quite independently in various parts of the world — Australia 
amongst others. 

If now we turn to the consideration of the customs and beliefs 
of the various tribes we meet with the most bewildering confusion 
and complications. To take only four examples, which are, how- 
ever, of great significance, we find, apart from abnormal ones, four 
methoids of counting descent — matri-lineal, direct and indirect, 
and patri-lineal, direct and indirect — at least six entirely different 
methods of treating the dead, each of which is found in other 
parts of the world ; five or six distinct initiation ceremonies ; and 
three distinct methods of fire-making, each of which again is met 
with elsewhere. 

The problem of multiple or single origin of similar inventions, 
beliefs, and customs is a difficult one to solve, and during recent 
years it has been strongly urged by many anthropologists that 
multiple origin is impossible, even unthinkable. 

Professor Elliot Sanith,(^) who may be regarded as representa- 
tive of this school, says, " As to the possibility of any invention 
originating independently in more than one centre, the facts of 
history, no less than the common experience of mankind, are fatal 
to any such hypothesis." This is a wide-reaching conclusion, but 
with all due deference to the opinion of such a distinguished 
authority, I venture to think that, though it may be impossible 
to j^i'ove it absolutely, yet there is, at least, certain evidence of 
a very suggestive nature in regard, not only to Australian culture, 
but to Australian animals, that points in the direction of the 
probability, or at least the possibility, of the polygenesis of 
similar customs, beliefs, inventions of various kinds, and also even 
of details of bodily structure. With regard to that of identical 
ideas and theories, we have the historic case of Darwin and 
Wallace, and the existence of this alone may well give us pause 
before denying absolutely the possibility of the independent origin 
of any two things, be they beliefs, custcms, or inventions, de- 
pendent for their origin on the brain and thought of man. 

First of all, we may consider certain features revealed by a 
study of the mammalian fauna of Australia, which I think are 
not without significance in regard to the problem of the Australian 
native. The earliest mammals, now represented by platypus 

(») Professor Elliot Smith, " Man," 1915, No. 92, page 162. 


and echidna, are only,, as it were, just emerging from reptility — 
they still lay eggs, but they also suckle their young, though by 
means of modified sudorific, and not sebaceous, glands, as in all 
other mammals. In them, the pouch is only nascent. Next come 
the marsupials, amongst whom the lacteal gestation, associated 
with the pouch, is markedly emphasized, almost to the exclusion 
of the placental, though, as shown by Hill in his brilliant investi- 
gations, there are in certain marsupials indications of this, which 
is the most characteristic feature of the Eutheria, in some of 
which, again, we find traces of the pouch. 

The early ancestors of mammals must evidently have possessed 
in their germ cells factors capable of determining, amongst other 
things, the manner of feeding and carrying the young — not one 
set of factors in one group and different ones in another, but, as 
it were, a mixture of factors in all, some of which in different 
groups have become dominant, while others have become over- 
ridden, or inhibited. Otherwise, it seems difficult to understand 
why in marsupials we have one fonn of gestation strongly and the 
other only partly developed, and yet both present, and why in 
Eutheria we have the strong development of the second 
(placental), and yet traces of a pouch, indicating the possibility 
of a prolonged lacteal gestation. Further still, in regard to the 
possession of common factors such as these, which may well lead 
to polygeneeis, we have the striking fact that within the limits 
of the Marsupialia there are, while still retaining their marsupial 
character, families each of which, so far, for example, as its 
dentition is concerned, is closely similar to one or other of the 
Eutherian orders, and adapted to the same method of life. We 
find carnivorous forms, such as the Thylacine, whose skull and 
dentition is built up on the same lines as the dog; Dasyurus and 
Sarcophilus closely similar to the cat tribe; bandicoots and 
Myrmecobius with distinct insectivorous dentition; kangaroos and 
others with herbivorous dentition. To mention only one other, but 
a most suggestive example, we have in the gnawing wombat the 
incisors built on fundamentally the same plan as those of the 
Rodent! a, with a coating of hard enamel almost, or entirely, con- 
fined to the front surface. In fact, with the exception of the true 
flying bats and sundry sea forms, we can parallel in the Mar- 
supialia each distinctive group of the Eutheria, and yet it is 
certain that the former have been isolated for long ages in A,us- 
tralia, and, springing from common ancestors, have developed 
along lines similar to those of the Eutheria. This suggests once 
more that the early, but little, dift"erentiated, ancestors of mammals 
must have possessed in their germ cells certain factors capable of 
determining the development of their descendants along various 
lines. To put it crudely, in some cases carnivorous, in others the 


herbivorous, the gnawing or the insectivorous factor has been 
dominant; but at the same time the group of early mammals now 
represented by the marsupials possessed also some dominant factor 
in their germ cells that determined the strong development of the 
lacteal gestation, and prevented them from passing beyond the 
marsupial stage. 

I have laid stress upon this, because, whilst only affording 
indirect evidence in regard to the possible polygenesis of similar 
customs and inventions amongst human beings, it indicates that 
what are morphologically similar features of primary importance 
can be independently developed in groups of animals that have 
for long ages been completely isolated from one another. 

In regard to the culture of Australian aboriginals, we may regard 
their ancestors as in the same relative position to them as were 
the early ancestors of the mammalia to the Australian mar- 
supials. The present aboriginals are the descendants of a rela- 
tively early stock of human beings, and we may presume that in 
their germ cells they possessed factors bearing the same relation to 
the future idevelopment of the human race as did those in the 
germ cells of primitive mammalians to the varied descendants of 
the latter. If we are to accept the theory that there is no such 
thing as the independent development of similar beliefs, customs, 
and inventions, that if we find two similar customs in different 
and widely separated parts of the world, we must assume a 
common origin for them ; or if, on the other hand, we find, for 
example, two different modes of treating the dead side by side, 
this can only be explained by interaction between an indigenous 
and an immigrant people, each with its own special customs, 
then we meet with grave difficulties in regard to the Australian 

We must postulate at least five separate immigrations to account 
for the very different forms of initiation, at least five others to 
account for the hurial customs, and at least three to account for 
the methods of firemaking. jSTot only this, but, as in Australia 
we have in use at the present day a practically complete series of 
stone implements, representing all the various stages of culture 
known in prehistoric Europe, from the oldest and most crude 
eoliths of the earliest Mousterian period, through various forms of 
flaked implements to the polished neolithic axes and the delicately 
chipped leaf-shaped spearheads common to the natives of North- 
west Australia and early Solutrean man in Europe, we must, 
according to the proposed theory, postulate several immigrations 
to account for them, because surely a flaked-stone implement made 
out of quartzite and a polished made out of diorite must be 
regarded as distinct inventions, indeed, in prehistoric Europe they 


are regarded as typifying distinct periods. Further still, tlie 
remarkably distinct art and craft work and scheme of design 
characteristic of various parts of Australia, as represented in the 
beautifully carved shield of Victorian and Murray River natives; 
the characteristic design on the shields of certain tribes in Queens- 
land; the bark drawings, purely Australian in their motive, of 
the Alligator River and other tribes in the far North; the 
characteristic zigzag pattern and square designs of Western Aus- 
tralia; the concentric circles and spirals of Central Australia; 
the varieties in the form of boomerangs and other weapons show 
an endless capacitj^ for variation and invention. 

If, for example, in various groups of tribes we found, say, the 
knocking out of a tooth at initiation associated always with count- 
ing descent in the female line, and with ground burial and other 
customs, it w^ould be possible to realize the existence in past times 
of a series of migrations of peoples bringing with them such 
customs as these; but this is exactly what w^e do not find. We 
meet with a hopeless mixture and combination of customs, so that 
if the existence of a large number of these be due to the influence 
of contact with various groups of immigrant peoples, we muSt 
allow for a most extraordinary number of such, and must recog- 
nise also the most remarkable way in which one tribe, or group 
of tribes, picked out and adopted one special feature from one 
immigrant people, and others from other groups. 

Instead of the history of Australian culture and its nature 
being rendered fa,r easier to understand on the theory of successive 
migrations, the reverse, taking all things into consideration, would 
seem to be pre-eminently true. 

It is much simpler to account for all this complexity, which 
really becomes simplicity when we investigate the beliefs and 
customs of the tribes, or groups of tribes, one by one, on the same 
theory that we have already applied to the explanation of the 
remarkable diversity of structure amongst the marsupial fauna, 
which has most certainly not been influenced from outside since 
its little differentiated ancestors first reached Australia. Bateson 
has said,(^) "I feel no reasonable doubt that, though we may 
have to forgo a claim to variations by addition of factors, yet 
variation, both by loss of factors and by fractionation of factors, 
is a genuine phenomenon of contemporary nature. If, then, we 
have to dispense, as seems likely, with any addition from without, 
we must begin seriously to consider whether the course of evolu- 
tion can at all reasonably be represented as an unpacking of an 
original complex which contained within itself the whole range 
of diversity which living things present." 

(») Presidential Address. Report, B.A.A.S., Australia, 1914, page 17. 


I think we may say that it looks very much as if in Australia, 
both in regard to its characteristic mammalian fauna and its 
alboriginals, we have a remarkable example of such an unfolding 
or unpacking of an original complex. This has led, without any 
outside influence, to the development, on the one 'hand, of mam- 
malian forms, along lines parallel to those pursued in regard to 
fundamental features by higher forms in other parts of the world, 
but controlled, at the same time, by some factor or combination 
of factors that has determined the retention of their marsupiality. 
On the other, it has led to the independent development of a race 
of human beings along lines parallel to those pursued by other 
early races of humanity elsewhere, but always again controlled 
by some factor or combination of factors that has prevented them 
from developing into anything higher than men of the stone age. 

For us in Australia, so far as the aboriginals are concerned, we 
have two duties clearly marked out. The first is to study as care- 
fully and intensively as possible, their customs and beliefs, and 
all that is included under the term of their culture, hecause they 
stan»d further back in time record amongst human races than any 
other people still existing; they represent the last surviving relic 
of really primitive stone-age people; and it can only be a matter 
of comparatively a few years before they are extinct, or the sur- 
^dving remnants of the tribes have lost all knowledge of their 
original habits and customs. The second is to protect them, as 
far as possible," not only from u^, but from themselves, in the 
new environment that Ave have created for them, and with which, 
left to themselves, they are totally incompetent to cope. 



Professor H. J. Priestley, M.A., 

Professor of Mathematics in the University of Queensland. 


In opening a discussion at the Royal Society of London, Mr. J. H. 
Jeans said, " During the last century two great dominating principles 
of physics emerged, the Conservation of Energy and the Second Law 
of Thermodynamics. The present cfentury has already added a third 
member to this list, the Principle of Relativity." 

Whether we are prepared to give the Principle of Relativity such 
importance or not, the development of that principle is imdoubtedly 
the most striking advance in Mathematical Physics since the last 
meeting of this Association. For this reason I propose to devote my 
address to a survey of the growth of the Theory of Relativity, with 
special reference to the assurnptions on which it is founded and the 
experimental evidence from which it draws support. 

The earlier Restricted Theory of Relativity is based on two principles 
enunciated by Einstein in 1905, namely : — 

I. The Principle of Relativity. 

The laws according to which the states of physical systems 
are changing are the same, whether they are referred to a 
co-ordinate system S or to any similar system S' moving 
uniformly with respect to S. 

II. The Principle of Constant Light Velocity. 

Every light disturbance is propagated, in vacuo, relatively 
to a system S with a determinate velocity c, no matter whether 
it is emitted from a source stationary in or moving with respect 


The first of tliese two principles asserts the impossibility of detecting 
absolute velocity by means of physical experiments ; and finds its 
justification in the failure of the Michelson-Morley experiment and 
subsequent experiments undertaken with that object in view. 

The second was enunciated by Fresnel for a system fixed in the aether, 
and has been generally accepted by physicists since his time. Einstein's 
generalization is an immediate inference from the application of his 
first principle to that of Fresnel. 

The principle has recently received strong support from the results 
of Majorana's experiments on reflection from moving mirrors, and 
Jeans goes so far as to say that it is now a proved experimental fact. 

To investigate the implications of the two assmiiptions of Einstein,, 
consider two observers 0, 0' , moving with uniform velocity relatively 
to one another. Suppose that they coincide at time f = 0, and suppose 
further that at that instant a light; pulse starts from their common 
position. At a subsequent time t each observer will imagine that the 
wave front is the sphere x^ -\- y'^ -\- z^ — cH^ = 0, referred to axes 
with his own position as origin. It is evident then that the observers' 
co-ordinate systems are different. 

If follows from Einstein's first principle that the beams of light 
which appear straight to will also appear straight to 0' . Consequently 
the relations connecting the co-ordinate system (x', y' , z' , t') adopted 
by 0' with the system {x, y, z, t) adopted by must be linear in the 

Under this restriction and the condition that x^ -\- y^ -\- z^ — cH^ = 
when x'^ + tj'^ + ^'^ — c^t'^ = 0, it is clear that 

k{x^ + ?/^^+ 2- - c'e) = x" + y" + z" - cH'^ 

where ^ is a quantity depending on the transformation, independent 
of the co-ordinates but not necessarily independent of v. 

If both observers take their x axes in the direction of motion of 0' 
relative to 0, and if further the y and z axes of one are parallel respec- 
tively to the y and z axes of the other, it is easy to show that the equations 
of transformation are 

x' = B^lx — vt) 

y' = ^^y 

z' — k^z 



where jS = (1 -v^/c')-^ 

The quantity k indicates the scale of the measurements of 0' in terms 
of those of 0. It is customary to take this quantity as unity, but it 
appears that this involves a further assumption. As some presentations 
of the subject conceal this assumption, it is advisable to discuss it in 


Professor Eddiugton, in his Report on Eelativity to the Physical 
Society of London, suggests that the correlation between the two scales 
should he obtained by making and 0' agree in their measures of some 
natural physical length. Eddington uses the dimensions of the 
hydrogen atom, but we might take some simpler length, say the wave 
length of the light from some definite source. I am of opinion that 
there is a fallacy in this line of argument, due to a failure to dis- 
discriminate between a relationship and the measure of that relation- 
ship. Suppose observes the light from a source S in his own system 
and 0' observes that from a similar source *S' in his. Each will measure 
a certain relationship between the light and himself, which he calls 
the wave length of the light. It follows from Einstein's first assumption 
that each will obtain the same numerical value for the wave length. 
This conclusion is based on the assumption that each observer has 
developed his system of physics in the same way and so has a similar 
system of fundamental units ; but it tells us nothing about the relative 
scales of the two systems. To complete Eddington's correlation it is 
necessary to assume that the relationship between the light and 
observer, as distinct from its measure, is also independent of the motion 
of the system. 

Another attempt to obtain the correlation is based on the considera- 
tion of the motion of relative to 0'. If equations A are solved for 
X, y, z, t, it is found that 

X^: Jc-i^ix' -\-Vt') 


z = k~h' 


From these it is clear that the velocity of relative to 0' is — v. 

The second and third equations of A and B show that a length 
perpendicular to the direction of motion appears to be changed in the 
ratio k^- : 1 or k~^ : 1 according. as the observer is moving away with 
velocity -\-v or ~v. To infer from this that k is equal to unity we must 
assume that k is independent of v. Otherwise it is possible for k to 
equal e'" where iv is any odd function of v. 

It appears, then, that the passage from the equations A to the well- 
known Lorentz transformations involves the assumption k = 1 ot some 
equivalent assumption. Any one of these assumptions is reasonable 
and obvious, and can be justified on the ground of making the simplest 
assumption that will cover the known facts. 

If such an assumption is made the transformation A takes the 

x' = /3(x — vt) "i 

•", = " l-c 

" ' J 

t' ^ I3{t — vx/c^ 


This is the transformation obtained by Larmor and Lorentz in 
their correlations of moving and stationary electrodynamic systems. 
It is more general than theirs in this respect : from their standpoint 
one system was stationary in a stagnant aether ; from the standpoint 
of the Theory of Relativity no account is taken of absolute motion, 
and the transformation connects any system with any other moving 
relatively to it with uniform velocity. 

The transformation C is derived, as we have seen, by purely logical 
deduction from reasonable assumptions. This fact is a strong justi- 
fication for adopting it as giving the true correlation between the two 
systems. Subsequent developments of the older Restricted Theory 
of Relativity which are based on this transformation strengthen 
its claim to be so regarded. On the electrodynamic side it is found 
to include various ad hoc hypotheses, such as the Fitzgerald-Lorentz 
contraction and the Fresnel convection co-efficient, which have been 
put forward to explain experimental results in terms of the older 
electrodynamic theory. On the dynamical side it foretells a variation 
of mass with velocity, which has been experimentally verified in the 
Kaufmann experiments. There is thus every reason to accept the 
Principle of Relativity in its earlier restricted form. Three of the most 
important implications of the principle are the following :■ — 

(1) Length is not an absolute property of an object but a relation 

between object and observer. 

(2) Measurements of time and space are not independent, but are 

interwoven in a manner depending on the motion of the 
observer relative to the system observed. 

(3) Mass (inertia) is not an absolute dynamical constant, but 

depends on velocity and cannot be sharply differentiated 
• from energy. 

The transition from the Restricted Theory to the General Theory 
of Relativity is effected by means of the work of Minkowski, who showed 
that the substitutions ti =: tct, jS = cos 6, tv^/c = sin 6 reduced the 
Einstein transformation to the form : — 

x' = X cos d -{- usin 6 

y' = y 

z' ^ z 

u' = — x&ind -\-u cos 6 J 
and that consequently the transformation was equivalent to the rotation 
of the system through an angle 6 in the {x, u) plane of a four-dimensional 
continuum specified by the rectangular Cartesian co-ordinates 
{x, y, z, u). 

Minkowski calls this four-dimensional continuum a world, and the 
point {x, y, z, ?<) a world point. He records the history of any physical 
entity by plotting its world points corresponding to different instants. 
The resulting one-dimensional continuum he calls its world line. 


Under the Minkowski scheme the familiar three-dimensional dyna- 
mical picture of the physical universe is replaced by a statical four- 
dimensional representation. Ideas of propagation are dispensed with 
and the universal constant c becomes a mere dimensional multiplier 
to bring the time co-ordinate into agreement with the spacial co- 
ordinates. The restricted Principle of Relativity can be summed up 
in the statement that the behaviour of a physical system is independent 
of its orientation in the Minkowski world. 

In a communication to the Royal Society of London, Larmor main- 
tains that the Relativity scheme, complete as it is as a description 
of electrodynamic relationships, breaks down when applied to the 
underlying entities, electrons, between which these relationships exist. 
He contends that inasmuch as a permanent entity exists in space and 
independently of time the essential distinction between space and time 
must be maintained. To what extent can this contention be upheld ? 
In the sense that the properties of the electron are independent of the 
position in space and the instant of time at which they are considered 
it can be said that the electron exists independently of both space 
and time and the distinction between the two breaks down. There is, 
however, a distinction in this sense : at any instant of time there is a 
point in space at which a permanent electron can be found, but, given 
a definite point in space, there is not necessarily an instant of time at 
which the electron will be found at that point. It seems, however, 
that this distinction does not constitute an essential difference between 
space and time, but is introduced from our older ideas with the notion 
of permanence. What we call a pefmanent entity in our ordinary 
statements is an entity of which the world line in the space-time four- 
fold goes off to infinity in both directions along the time axis. It rnay 
be urged that the fact that such entities exist while we have no know- 
ledge of world lines going to infinity along the space axes constitutes 
a distinction between space and time. To this contention I would 
reply that the observer's world line is approximately a straight line 
in the fourfold, and he instinctively takes the direction of his own world 
line as the direction of the time axis. It is difficult to see how he could 
have any knowledge of entities whose world lines did not lie close to 
his own. Hence the absence of knowledge of entities, except those with 
world lines along the time axis leads to no essential discrimination between 
time and space. It merely emphasizes the fact, realized long before 
the days of relativity, that an observer chooses his co-ordinates so that 
one is differentiated from the other three. The conception ot the 
electron as a point singularity in a three-dimensional continuum seems 
to be no more fundamental than its conception as a line singularity 
in the Minkowski fourfold, and there appears to be no valid reason for 
excluding the electron from the Relativity scheme. 

The passage from the Restricted Theory of Relativity to the General 
Theory depends on the fact that all exact physical measurements are 
made by the observations of coincidences. Thus all our physical 

6 president's address — SECTION A. 

knowledge can be summed up in the statement that certain world lines 
intersect. The lines will still intersect if the Minkowski continuum is 
deformed without tearing. Hence if one observer uses co-ordinates 
(Xj, X2, x^, a; 4) and a second uses co-ordinates (a;/, x^' , x^' , x^') which are 
functions of the former, they will observe the same intersections of 
world lines, but they .will interpret the results of their observations 
differently. For example, suppose X4, x^' are the co-ordinates depend- 
ing on the time in the usual sense and [x^, x^, x^, (x/, x^ , x^') are 
space co-ordinates. Suppose further that x-^ = Xi , x^ := x^ , X3 ^ x^' , 
(Xi/ic)^ = (x^'/lc). 

Now let the first observer note the motion of a particle oscillating 
between the origin and the point {a.0.0) reaching the origin when 

(xj/ic) = 0, ?>, 26, 36, The second observer will observe it 

oscillating over the same spacial range and reaching the origin when 

To the first the oscillation will have a constant amplitude and con- 
stant period ; to the second it will have a constant amplitude and a 
decreasing period. .This difference arises from the fact that in the case 
of the second observer the Minkowski continuum has been distorted 
by a strain along the time axis, but the observer, in ignorance of this, 
ignores the consequent variable time scale in the interpretation of his 
observations. Neither observer is in a position to assert that his 
interpretation is more correct than that of the other. The amplitude 
and period are in each case relationships between the oscillating particle 
and the observer ; and the observer's estimate of the relationship 
depends on his concept of the continuum. One looks on the continuum 
as a fourfold characterized by the rectangular Cartesian co-ordinates 
{Xi, X2, Xs, Xi), the other imagines it to be given by the co-ordinates 
{Xi, X2', X3', Xi), and he also considers his co-ordinates to be a rect- 
angular Cartesian system. From the different concepts of the 
continuum arise the different interpretations of the observations. 

The above illustration will make clear the main idea involved in 
Einstein's Principle of Equivalence. Our ordinary concept of the 
Minko'wski world is a fourfold determined by rectangular co-ordinates 
{x, y, z, ict) where x, y, z are the usual three-dimensional space co- 
ordinates and t is the time in the ordinary sense. In terms of this 
idea we interpret our observations of moving material bodies as indicat- 
ing an acceleration of the bodies in the presence of other masses. We 
accept this interpretation and attribute the acceleration to gravitational 
forces. Einstein suggests that we should adopt the alternative course 
of attributing the acceleration to our concept of the Minkowski world ; 
that is, to our choice of co-ordinates. This suggestion is put forward 
in the Principle of Equivalence, which asserts that " a gravitational 
field of force is exactly eqmvalent to a field of force introduced by a 
transformation of the co-ordinates of reference, so that by no possible 
experiment can we distinguish between them." 


As a first step towards the problem of modifying the Minkowski four- 
fold in such a way as to explain gravitation as an illusion due to choice 
of co-ordinates, Einstein notes that along the path of a particle moving 

freely in the absence of a gravitational field, -^, -f-, and — are 
•^ * (h fit (It 

constant. Hence the world line of the particle is straight. Its equation is 

therefore given by 

8fds = 0, 

where ds is the element of length in the Minkowski world, and con- 

ds' = dx' + dy' + dz^ - c'dt\ 

He takes this property as characteristic of a freely moving particle 
and investigates the form to be given to the length element ds in the 
neighbourhood of attracting matter under which the world line of a 
moving particle will be given by 

S/ds = 0. 

If the element is given bv 

ds" = I^g^,Xf,x^, 

where the x denote the co-ordinates, the </ factors have two inter- 

From one j)oint of view they specif y,the form of the four-dimensional 
manifold ; from the other they determine the curvature in the manifold 
given by rectangular co-ordinates (.Xj, Xn, Xa, x^) of the world line 
Sfds = ; that is, they determine the gravitational field to which 
an observer using these co-ordinates will attribvite the acceleration 
of the moving particle. 

Now, from an abstract mathematical standpoint we can give the g 

any form that we please. We believe, however, that in the gravi- 
tational fields occurring in nature the g' are connected by certain 

relationships. The statement of these relationships is the Law of 

In seeking for this Law of Gravitation Einstein notes that a change 
of co-ordinates will change the (f ; that is, will change the 
gravitational field. 

By the Principle of Equivalence this geometrical change is in no way 
distinguishable from a gravitational change in the ordinary sense. 
Hence the Law of Gravitation expressed in terms of the new g^^^, and 

the new co-ordinates is the same as that exjjressed in terms of the 
old g and the old co-ordinates. It follows that the Law of 

Gravitation must be expressed by a set of co-variant equations, 
lost.— 4 


Now, if we assume that at an infinite distance from gravitating 
masses a free particle moves with uniform velocity, and consequently 
has a straight world line, it follows that at an infinite distance from 
gravitating masses the general expression iov ds^ can be reduced to 
dxi^ + dx-i^ -\- dx^^ -|- dxi^ by a suitable choice of co-ordinates. 

The Absolute Differential Calculus of Levi-Civita and Ricci gives 
in the form of co- variant equations the conditions under which the 
general quadratic differential form can be reduced to the sum of squares 
of differentials. These conditions are given by the vanishing of the 
Riemann-ChristofEel tensor. 

Einstein takes this as his Law of Gravitation at an infinite distance 
from the attracting masses and, noticing that the. vanishing of the 
contracted tensor gives a less stringent set of equations among the g 

which are satisfied when the equations given by the vanishing of the 
uncontracted tensor are satisfied, he ado])ts the vanishing of the 
contracted tensor G , as his statement of the Law of Gravitation. 

The equations 6^ = give six independent relations among 

the g in the form of second order partial differential equations. 

It should be noticed that the Einstein law is not a necessary con- 
sequence of his original assumption. His analysis of the implications 
of his assumption indicates certain general characteristics of the law, 
and he finally adopts the simplest law of this type that he can find. 
Its final justification must come from the experimental evidence. 

Before considering this evidence I would direct your attention to 
the geometrical interpretation of Einstein's work. 

Riemann has shown that the metric })roperties of an n-dimen- 
sional continuum de))end on the expression for the differential 
element of length in terms of the differentials of the n co-ordinates. 
Further, he has pointed out that in a continuum specified by 
ds^ = Eq„ dx,dx , the q„ , hnin -I- 1) in number, can be made to satisfy 

n given conditions by suitable choice of co-ordinates. There remain 
then |w{« — 1) functions of the g which express intrinsic properties 

of the continuum. These properties, he shows, are connected with 
the curvature and can be ex]:)ressed in terms of the curvature. In the 
case in which the length element can be expressed as the sum of squares, 
he calls the continuum flat. 

Einstein's assum])tion that the g^^^, in his four-dimensional space 

time manifold satisfy six specified conditions is thus equivalent to the 
assumption that the manifold is warped in a specified way. The further 
assumption that at an infinite distance from gravitating matter the 
square of the linear element takes the form Edx'^ amounts to the 
assumption that this warping is characteristic of the presence of material 
bodies and that at an infinite distance from then\ the continuum is 

president's address — SECTION A. 9 

It is interesting to notice that on 21st February, 1870, W. K. Clifford 
read before the Cambridge Philosophical Society a paper on The Space- 
theory of Matter. This paper is obviously inspired by Rieniann's 
geonretrical work, and in it Clifford attributes all physical phenomena 
to curvature, not of a four-dimensional continuum, but of the ordinary 
three-dimensional space. He states : ■" I hold, in fact — 

(1) that small portions of space are in fact of a nature analogous 

to little hills on a surface which is on the average flat ; 

(2) that this property of being curved or distorted is continually 

being passed on from one portion of space to another after 
the manner of a wave ; 

(3) that this variation of the curvature of space is what really 

happens in that phenomenon which we call the motion of 
matter ; 

(4) that in the physical world nothing else takes place but this 


These \'iews are not exact anticipations of those of Einstein, but they 
are sufficiently like them to be worthy of notice. It is possible that 
had Clifford applied them to the study of gravitation, instead of double 
refraction, the recent development of Gravitation Theory might have 
come from the University in which the Theory originated. 

To return to the main subject, Einstein first applies his Law of 
Gravitation to the determination of the field of an isolated particle. 
He uses polar space co-ordinates and chooses his units so that c = 1 . 
He assumes that there will be s])ace symmetry about the particle and 
time symmetry as regards past and future time. The expression for 
ds^ is, under these conditions, of the form 

ds"" = - edr'' - e'{rdd'' + r sin^ Sd^^) + e'df 

where X, fx, v are functions of r, and t contains the unit-dimensional 
constant c and is therefore to be measured in length units, one kilometre 
corresponding to J- 10~^ seconds. 

A transformation of the radial co-ordinate leads to 

ds^ = - e\h' - (rMd^ + r' sin^ ddcf>') + e''dt\ 

Hence ^^ = ~e , g^^ = — >•^ .r/33 = — r^ sin' 6, g,^ = e', and g^^^ = 
when a and ^ are unequal. 

The substitution of these values in the equations G^^ = leads to 

a determination of A, v, and ds is finally given by 

ds' = - y-^ dr' - rdff' - r' sin 'edcj)' + ydi\ 

where y = 1 — 2rn/r and ni is a constant of integration arising in the 
solution of the differential equations. 

The differential equations of the path of a particle moving in the 
gravitational field are found by applying the ordinary methods of the 
Calculus of Variations to the equation S/ds = 0. 

10 PRESIDKNt's address — SECTION A. 

It is found that the ])ath is a plane curve given by the differential 

"fs-" ■. H" 

where h and k are constants of integration. 

A comparison with the ordinary Newtonian Equations 

'ty ^r'l'^Y = _!!! + !!!!, 

dtl \dt a r ^ 

dt ''' 
shows that the paths approximately correspond if ^-^ _ j _ ^^y^ 
and if m is the gravitational mass of the attracting particle and h the 
angular momentum. ' 

The only outstanding discrepancy arises from the term 2mh''/r^ 
in equation A (1), and it is found that in this term lies the explanation 
Df the motion of the perihelion of Mercury. 

The ratios ni/a, ni/r are very small in practical applications. For 
example, if we take the kilometre as our unit of length, for the earth's 
orbit a = 1 ■ 49 . 10* and co = 6-64.10-1'. Hence the mass of the 
sun, expressed in kilometres by absorbing the imit dimensional 
gravitation constant, is 1 • 47. 

Thus in the solar system ni/r, h'^/r'^ and/ 1 — — jare all of order 10 *, 

By eliminating s from equations A we find that the differential 
equation of the orbit is 

(V'u , m 

^:?'^+^ = ^ + '■'"""' 

where u = r~^. 

Forsyth has given an exact solution of this equation, and an approxi- 
mate solution is contained in Eddington's Report to the Physical 

This solution is 

II = 

n = Yz [^ +ecos(0 — a — ha)} 

where a is the longitude of perihelion and ha = —jr 4*- 

Hence in a complete revolution of the planet, perihelion advances 

through a fraction of a revolution equal to —p. 

Measurable perturbations depend on the ])roduct eha- 

president's address — SECTION A. 11 

It is found from the above result that, the value of eSa for the planet 
Mercury is + 8" • 82 per century. It appears probable that the absence 
of the term 2nih-/r^ from the Newtonian equations B accounts for the 
discrepancy 8" •24 per century between the observed motion of the 
planet and the motion predicted by Newtonian Theory. The intro- 
duction of this term by the Einstein Theory does not appreciably 
disturb the results for the other planets, and the reason is not far to seek. 
The term leads to an additional term 3mu^ in the differential equation 
of the path, and this term decreases in importance as the dimensions 
of the orbits increase. In the case of Venus and the Earth, the next 
two planets in which the effect might be expected, the orbits are nearly 
circular, and thus the predicted effect is too small for verification by 

The small value of m/r makes possible a useful transformation of 
the expression for c/s''. If r is replaced by r + m and second and higher 
powers of m/r are neglected, we have 

rfs'' = - y-i \dr' + rdd^ + r' sin^ 0(14'] + ydt\ 
= — y-' [dx^ + dy- + dz^] + ydf. 

It should be noticed that it is impossible to say that one /• co-ordinate 
rather than the other represents the polar co-ordinate of our ordinary 
measure. The transformation represents a radial shrinking of the 
deformed Minkowski fourfold, which is concealed in the same way . 
as the Fitzgerald-Lorentz contraction in the earlier work. 

A second verification of the Einstein Theory is found in the action 
of gravitation upon light. 

In the absence of a gravitational field, ds^ = along the world line 

of a light pulse. By the Principle of Equivalence this equation remains 

true in a gravitational field. Hence, in terms of the co-ordinates just 

introduced, the velocity of the radiation is given by v^ = y^. The 

path of the radiation in the three-dimensional Euclidian space specified 

by the Cartesian co-ordinates x, y, z is therefore the same as that of a 

ray through a refracting medium in which ^ = y "^ = 1 H This 

path is a hyperbola with eccentricity approximately equal to 
R/2m where R is the distance of perihelion. The deflection of the ray, 
measured by the angle between the asymptotes of the hyperbola, is 

This deflection which amounts to l"-74 for a ray grazing the limb 
of the sun is double that which would be obtained by applying the 
Newtonian theory to a particle moving through the field with the 
velocity of light. 

The observations of the Solar Eclipse Expeditions of 1919 appear 
to be generally accepted by astronomers as verifying the Einstein 
prediction. The values of the deflections were estimated as 1"-61 
with a probable error of 0"-3 at Principe, and l"-98 at Sobral. The 


observed displacements of the individual stars show an effect varying 
inversely as the distance of perihelion, in accordance with theory. 
This last fact supports the view that light is subject to gravitation, 
but does not discriminate between the Einstein and Newton Theories. 
It should be noticed that if we revert to our original co-ordinates the 
theoretical deflection is still im/R ; for the substitution of r — in 
for /• does not change the form of the curve at infinity, and consequently 
leaves the direction of the asymptotes unchanged. 

It appears then that the Einstein Theory is adequate to explain 
the motion of Mercury and the deflection of light by a gravitational 
field. The op])onents of the theory have put forward alternative 
explanations, the most plausible of which is that the intra-Mercurial 
gaseous matter apparent in the zodiacal light and the solar corona 
causes the two effects, the first by gravitation, the second by refraction. 
Dr. Jeffreys has discussed this suggestion at some length in the Monthly 
Notices of the Eoyal Astronomical Society. He comes to the con- 
clusion that the amount of such matter present is wholly inadequate 
to produce the effects. In the same paper he discusses the Einstein 
Theory, starting from the experimental evidence and the assumption 
that the path of a particle or light pulse is given by hKfds = where 
K is some function of x, y, z, t, and els'- some quadratic function of their 
differentials. He shows that K is irrelevant and the equation of the 
path is given by hfds = 0, and establishes the fact that the equations 
are necessarily co-variant. Then, assuming symmetry in the case 
of the iso/lated attracting centre, he uses the experimental results to 
find the co-efficients in ds'^ and arrives at the result that the form 
deduced by Einstein from the Principle of Equivalence is the only one 

Einstein has suggested a third experimental test of his Theory. 
He predicts that the spectral lines of light from a solar source will 
show, when compared with lines from a similar terrestrial source, a 
displacement towards the red of an amount equivalent to the Doppler 
effect corresponding to a velocity of '634 kilometres per second. On 
the experimental evidence available it would, jDcrhaps, be rash either 
to affirm or deny the existence of this displacement. It is certain that, 
whether the Einstein effect exists or not, it is masked by various other 
effects due to solar physical conditions. It has been claimed that 
the observations show a general tendency towards a shift in the Einstein 
direction, but the magnitudes of the effects vary so greatly that this 
cannot be taken as evidence in support of the Einstein Theory. Solar 
physicists ajjpear reluctant to commit themselves to a definite opinion, 
but they seem to agree in asserting that the existence of the Einstein 
effect is not by any means definitely established. The only positive 
statement in favour of the shift that I have been able to find is contained 
in a letter from K. W. Lawson to Nature of 29th January, 1920. He 
says that Einstein has written to him to the effect that two young 

president's address — SECTION A. 13 

physicists in Bonn have discovered the shift. In view of the great 
diversity of opinion, however, judgment must be suspended until 
further evidence is forthcoming. 

The prediction of the shift is based on the assumption that the 
atom is a natural clock giving the same value of ds for each vibration. 
If this assumption is correct, and it appears to be justified by the 
Principle of Equivalence, y-dt is constant. Therefore the period of 

vibration is proportional to y^^ or 1 -| 

At the surface of the sun, r = 697,000 kilometres and w = 1'47. 
It follows that the ratio of the period of an atom at the sun's surface 
to that of a similar atom on the earth is 1 '00000212. 

The radiation, however, is seen from the earth and not from the 
surface of the sun, and the prediction of the Einstein efEect involves 
the further assumption that the time period of the source is transmitted 
by the radiation to the terrestrial observer. If this is so, the displace- 
ment should be observed. 

An alternative hypothesis is that the interval Ss is transmitted 
by the radiation. In this c^se the observed local time period of the 
light will be the same whatever the situation of the radiating source. 

The latter hypothesis seems to be more in accordance with the ideas 
of the Relativity than the former. 

Suppose a disturbance to leave A at time i^ and arrive at B at time 
ts, and a second to follow at time ^^ + S<a, arriving at time /„ + S^u, 
F'or each disturbance 8s = along tTie world line, and therefore s 
is constant. Hence the interval y>}8t_^ which elapses between the 
two departures from A is equal to the interval yB'S'u between the 
two arrivals at B. 

The alternative view, that S/! is transmitted by the radiation, appears 
to arise from a too hasty deduction from the three-dimensional optical 
work by which the apparent deviation was established. You will 
remember that the argument was based on the application of the 
Principle of Least Time to the investigation of the path of a ray with 
given velocity. A tempting line of argument is the following : — 
" We know that the period of light traversing a region of varying 
refractive index is constant along the path. Therefore the period 
seen by an observer at B is the same as that seen by an observer at C" 

The fallacy appears to lie in this fact : the observer at B takes the 
elements Sr, rS6, 8t as elements of a Euclidean system of co-ordinates, 
the observer at C does the same with the corresponding elements at C. 
Each builds up his space-time system on this basis, and the resulting 
space systems are similar as are also the time systems ; but it is not 
true to say that the scales of the two systems are the same. The corre- 
lation between the two is found in the fundamental underlying quantity, 
the interval. By comparing equal intervals at B and C it is seen that 
Yf^Stfj = yji'^tji. That is, the time scale varies as y"^. 

14 president's address— section a. 

On the other hand, the use of the Principle of Least Time appears to 
rest on the assumption of an underlying uniform period in t in the 
four-dimensional continuum. The question can be discussed from 
another point of view by looking on the light path as the limit of an 

The equations arising from hfds = are ; — 

ids) ^ ids) ^ r ^ r' 



y -r = ^• 

From these equations we derive 

By the Principle of E(|uivalence, for a light path 


I' + r 




e the constant 

A- is 





'^'dt^^'-y <^^ 

where a = h/k. 

The differentia] equation of the path is found from equations (1) 
and (2). 

On elimination of t by means of (2), (1) becomes 

(1)' + ""•-■/.■ 


where u = 1/V. 
This leads to 

For a ray grazing the sun m is always less than [697,000] "^ and 
m = 1 47. Therefore the ratio of 3nin^ to u is of order 10 "I 

Conseciuently we can use approximate methods of solution. If 
u = A cos cf) is the first approximation, the second is 

u = ^cos.^ 4-|w^^'[3-cos2</,] (3) 


The directions of the asymptotes are given bv m = 0, or 
mA cos^ (f) — cos (f) — 2m, A = 0. 

, 1 -ri +8m-.4-l- 

cos = : — 

^ 2mA 

= -— 2mA. 

It follows that the angle between the asymptotes is approximately 
imA . 

From (3), A = R'^ approximately, where R is the distance of 

Hence the deflection is 4 !n/R. 

The above line of argument makes no a])peal to the principle of 
Least Time nor to any other principle of pre-Relativity Physics. 
Consequently in adopting it we avoid any assumptions which may 
conflict with the general Relativity ideas. There is no a priori reason 
for assuming that a definite period in t is transmitted by the radiation. 
For my own part I incline to the view, suggested by the fact that s is 
constant along the w^orld line of each pulse, that the interval 8s rather 
than the time interval 8t is transmitted unchanged ; and, consequentlv, 
that the Einstein effect is not to be expected. 

If the above contention is sound the transference of the observer 
to a region in which the gravitational field was different from that 
existing in his original position should lead to the observation of the 
Einstein displacement, but it is hard to see how the necessary variation 
of the gravitational field could be realized in practice. 

A full discussion of the applications of the Theory of Relativity to 
General Dynamics would take too much time and involve more detailed 
mathematical work than is suitable for a Presidential Address. I will 
confine myself, therefore, to the merest outlines of results. 

It is found that gravitational effects are propagated with the velocity 
of light, and that the constant m, introduced first as a constant of 
integration and afterwards identified with the gravitational mass 
satisfies, in the absence of a gravitational field, conservation laws 
justifying its identification with the inertial mass. 

The distinction between mass and energy disappears and flux of 
negative momentum, flux of energy, negative momentum and energy 
appear as the sixteen components of a tensor. This tensor does not 
obey a Conservation Law in a gravitational field, but the disappearing 
portion reappears as a quantity belonging to the field. Thus the Laws 
of Conservation of Energy and Momentum break down when applied 
to a material system in a gravitational field, but they remain valid when 
applied to the system and the field together. Thus we have an inter- 
change of energy and momentum between the system and the field 
similar to that with which we are familiar in the Maxwell Electro- 
magnetic Theory. 

16 president's address — SECTION A. 

The Maxwell equations fit readily into the relativity scheme, and it 
is found that there exists an Electro-magnetic Energy Tensor which 
must be added to the Material Energy Tensor when electric systems 
are present. The final statement of the Conservation Law then shows 
that the total momentum and total energy remain constant when 
reckoned for the complete system consisting of Material System, Electro- 
dynamic System, and fields. . 

Electro-magnetic Energy, like Material Energy, exerts and is subject 
to gravitational effects. 

Up to this point the Principle of Eelativity fulfils all the requirements 
of a general scientific principle. It is founded on reasonable assump- 
tions, its predictions are confirmed by experiment, and it co-ordinates 
under one general scheme a large number of facts and hypotheses. 
Furthermore, it satisfies what Freundlich calls the two fundamental 
postulates of mathematical physics, namely : — 

(1) The statement of physical laws must exclude action at a dis- 

tance, and must tlierefore be made by means of differential 

(2) Causal relationship can be assumed only between entities 

capable of being perceived. 

There is one difficulty, however, which exists in the Principle of 
Relativity, as it existed under Newton's ideas of an absolute space and 
time. We can form no conception of the linear v-locity of a body, 
apart from observations of the bodies determining the frame of reference, 
but the phenomena associated with rotation do provide us with a 
measure of angular velocity independently of any outside frame. 
In Eddington's words, "It is clear that the equivalence of axes in 
relative rotation is in some way less complete than the equivalence 
of axes having different translations." From the analytical standpoint 
it is possible to classify the various systems of axes, distinguishing 
those for which complete relativity holds from those for which it fails. 
If rectangular co-ordinates are used to specify the Minkowski continuum, 
three of the axes being ordinary space axes of the observer, the 
nterval is given by 

where the g ^^, satisfy the Einstein Gravitation Equations with the 
conditions, at an infinite distance from the gravitating matter, 
gii = (J22 = .933 = - 1 ; 5'44 = 1 ; g^n' = ^^^n /^ and V are unequal. 

If the axes are transformed to any other rectangular set the differential 
quations are co-variant, but the conditions at infinity may be changed. 


For example, if space axes are taken rotating with the earth, the con- 
ditions certainly do not hold. The Principle of Relativaty can be 
summarized roughly as follows :— 

The statement of any physical relationship remains unchanged by 
any transformation of co-ordinates which leaves the values of g , 

unaltered at infinity. 

Various attempts have been made to remove the limitation on the 
Principle, arising from the necessity of the invariance of g at infinity. 
The most important are those of Einstein and de Sitter. Both get rid 
of the difficulty of the conditions at the boundary by removing the 
boundary itself and postulating a si^ace-time fourfold which is un- 
bounded as a sphere or an anchor ring in three-dimensional space is 

In Einstein's scheme the space-time fourfold, apart from local 
modifications due to the presence of matter, is specified by 

ds^ = - R\dx' + sin^ x('^^^' + •^"^' ^'^W)^ + ^^'• 
The spacial region is thus the surface of a hypersphere of radius R 
and the time is rectilinear. 

The Law of Gravitation is modified, but the modification is insufficient 
to cause observable changes in verifiable predictions. 

The general curvature of space-time is attribiited to unperceived 
world matter 

One great difficulty in accepting the theory lies in the re -introduction 
of the distinction between time and space. De Bitter's hypothesis 

ds^ = - R\dx- + sin' xl^/^' + «i"' ^#'j + cos^ x(^/^ 
which transforms into 

-K' [doj' + sin= cj [dC' + sin^ ^{^6' + sin^ ddcf>'')}] 
under the substitutions 

sin x =' sin ^ sin to 
tan {it/R) = cos ^ tan oj. 

This is free from the objection that it re-introduces an absolute 
time, but, on the other hand, it would fail to satisfy the followers 
of Mach in that it derives the inertial frame, that is the frame of reference 
determined by the earth's rotation, from a curvature of space-time which 
is postulated to fit the facts and is derived from nothing material. It 
does not, in short, satisfy Freundhch's second postulate. C. D. Broad, 
writing in the Hihhert Journal of April, 1920, points out that too much 
stress must not be placed on this postulate. Einstein attributes his 
rotational effects to unperceived world matter, de Sitter simply uses a 
curved space time. In theory the world matter is capable of being 
perceived, but in actual fact it is not perceived. Broad concludes a 

18 president's address — SECTION A. 

criticism of Einstein's position with the following remark : — " The 
fact is that anything that could exist could in theory be perceived 
if we had the right kind of senses, and the question whether our senses 
would need much or little modification in order to perceive a suggested 
entity has not the least bearing on the question whether that entity 
exists and can be taken as a vera causa." He concludes that no weight 
can be laid on Einstein's argument to prove that the explanation of 
rotational effects must be found in a relationship to other parts of the 
material world. 

Broad himself suggests that rotational effects might be due to rotation 
relatively to the aether. It should be remembered that it is not correct 
to say that the Principle of Relativity excludes the possibility of an aether. 
The old conception is certainly excluded, but Cunningham has worked 
out a conception of the aether which fits into the scheme of the older 
Special Theory of Relativity, while Larmor and Eddington both 
contemplate the possibility of an aether under the General Principle. 
Broad's suggestion is therefore worthy of attention, but it is doubtful 
whether the difference between his aether and Einstein's unperceived 
world matter is much more than a question of words. 

All of these attempts to evolve a theory of the inertial frame are in- 
teresting, and, to a certain extent, successful, but none of them are 
wholly satisfactory. They must, for the present, be considered as 
speculations as to possible solutions of the problem. 

In my opinion the Theory of Relativity is based on sound foundations, 
is well supported by the results of observation, and constitutes a very 
real and important advance in theoretical physics. On the other hand, 
it is far from complete and leaves many problems unsolved, the question 
of the inertial frame being one, and an important one, of these. 

The Newtonian scheme is such a close approximation to the more 
accurate Dynamics of Einstein, and it is so much easier to work with, 
that it is likely to maintain its old position as the basis of work in 
which we are not concerned with velocities comparable with the velocity 
of light. The older Mathematical Physics founded on the Geometry 
of Euclid and the Dynamics of Newton has still much important work 
to do, and I should like, in conclusion, to ask you, and especially the 
younger men among you, not to allow the fascination of a new idea 
to induce you to neglect work which badly needs doing. 

president's address— section ,b. 19 



Professor N. T. M. Wilsmore, D.Sc, F.I.C 

Professor of Chemistry in the University of Western Australia. 


The treinendous events through which we have passed siuce th© 
last iiie.etmg of the Australasian Association for the Advancement 
of Science have brought about changes in our social and economic 
conditions of so far-reaching a nature, that little apclogy is 
needed for attempting briefly to' take stock of the resultant effect 
on the position of chemistry and chemists. 

Many of the changes caused by the war are still in progress, 
whilst others are too recent to be viewed in their right perspec- 
tive, so that with regard tO' most of them it is hardly possible 
as yet to decide which ai'e for the better and which for the worse. 
Neivertheless, I think w& have some ground for concluding that, on 
the whole, the effect of the war on the position of chemistry and 
chemists has been favorable. In any case, it has provided an 
object lesson of the national importance of chemistry which the 
man in the street cannot afford to' neglect. But much remains 
to be done before chemistry is generally recognized, as it should 
be, not only as an indispensable branch of exact knowledge, but 
also as one of the learned professions, not inferior in status, for 
example, to law, medicine or engineering. 

Prior to the war the status of science and scientists in the esti- 
mation of the Government and people of Britain, and of Australia, 
compared most unfavorably with that accorded to' them on the 
continent of Europe or in the United States of America; and, in 
spite of the drastic lessons of the war, it is still far from satisfac- 
tory. It has been well said that the work of men of science like 

30 president's address SECTION B. 

James Watt, or Daltoii, or Faraday has done more to shape our 
modern social and economic life than that of any statesman or 
so-called "social reformer" — dare one in this free country, even 
with bated breath, add " or labour leader " — who ever lived. Yet 
there is too much reason to doubt whether so much as five per cent, 
of the elected representatives of the people in Britain or Aus- 
tralia could give an intelligent answer, if they were asked who 
Dalton and Faraday were, or ^hat they did. 

As Mr. H. G. Wells, in his Oaf line History of the. World, so 
forcibly and clearly points out, the present cultural ascendancy of 
the European peoples does not necessarily prove their racial superi- 
ority over the ]:)eoples of Asia. This ascendancy dates back only 
some four hundred years, and is due primarily to the command 
over the forces of nature achieved by a relatively small numbei of 
devoted men of science. There is good reason to believe that 
amoingst the Asiatic peoples men not inferior in ability may be 
found who, given suitable environment, might produce similar 
results. Already the Asiatic peoples are beginning to realize this 
possibility; and, when their awakening is complete, the ascendancy 
of the European peoples may disappear as quickly as it arose. 
The progress made by Japan alone in one generation shows that 
our comfortable belief in the fundamental superiority of the 
Euroipean may be a dangerous delusion, and that any weakening 
in the pursuit of scientific knowledge means risk of losing our 
present lead, possibly for ever. 

However, in Australia we may congratulate ourselves that some 
progress is being made. The Institute of Science and Industry 
has at last been" put upon an apparently permanent basis and 
has been voted an income of £15,000 per annum. Carping critics 
may say that for the task of co-ordinating and organizing the ap- 
plication of exact knowledge to the industries of Australia this 
sum, in view of the depreciated value of our currency, is ludic- 
rously inadequate. But, on the other hand, it amounts to nearly 
one-third as much as the involuntary contribution which our 
grateful country is making to increases in Commonwealth Par- 
liamentary salaries ; so obviously science has no reasonable ground 
to complain. 

The unsatisfactory status in British ccnimunities of science 
in general is, unfortunately, shared by chemistry and chemisls. 
This does not mean that British chemists have to admit inferiority 
to those of other countries. Far from it. On the contrary, they 
may justly claim that in the quality, and in proportion to their 
numbers in the quantity also, of their contributions to know- 
ledge, especially those of a pioneering nature, they need not fear 
comparison with the chemists of any other nation. Yet up to. and 
even after, the outbreak of war, their efforts to secure adequate 
recognition of their science from manufacturers. Government and 
people were met^ for the most part with contemptuous indifference. 

president's address — SECTION B. 21 

Since chemistry includes the study of changes in matter and of the 
accompanying transformations of energy, there is scarcely any 
branch of productive activity which does not require some know- 
ledge of chemical phenomena, and in which, therefore, the progres- 
sive developments of modern chemistry can safely be ignored. This 
truth, which is stated at the beginning of most elementary text- 
books on chemistry, is so familiar to chemists as to' be ccmnion- 
place. Yet the oft recurring failure of ethers to appreciate it. and 
to make effective use oi the chemical knowledge and skill available, 
had, as its inevitable consequence, that many of the British manu- 
facturing industries, especiall}^ the more particularly chemical in- 
dustries, were falling behind in the race for world supremacy ; 
with the further consequence that we nearly lost the war, and with 
it our existence as a Great Power, possibly even as an independent 

^Fortunately for us, there were notable exceptions to the general 
rule. For example, in one of the most important branches of 
applied chemistry in Britain, namely the steel industry, intensive 
research and scientifie control had been for years the general prac- 
tice in many of the works, with the result that, when the crisis 
came, the industry was able tO' respond to the enormous and varied 
demands which were made upon it. Another instance of the value 
of chemical research and control is given by the history of Brun- 
ner, Mond and Co., who, in the words of Professor Donnan, 
levolutionized the British alkali industry by introducing the 
delicate' equilibria and reactions of Solvay in place of the rough 
and tumble heroics of the older* Le Blanc process. The same 
policy enabled this firm td give invaluable help to the British 
Grovernment in connexion with the manufacture of high explosives. 
After many months of war the British War (Office decided to fel- 
low the German and Austrian lead, by adopting in place of picric 
acid or pure T.N.T. for the bursting charge of high explosive shells 
the much cheaper but equally effective mixture known as " ama- 
tol ", consisting of 80 per cent, by weight cf ammcnium nitrate 
with only 20 per cent, of T.N.T. The manufacture o-f ammonium 
nitrate had, therefore, tO' be developed on a very large scale; but, 
owing to' the great amcnnt oi data and experience on. the applica- 
tion of the Phase Rule to the phenomena of solubility and crystal- 
lization in connexion with solutions of mixed salts, which they 
had been accumulating for many years, the research staff of 
Brunner. Mond and Co. were able rapidly to work out on a tech- 
nical scale three extremely neat and efficient methods for this 
manufacture, starting in the one case fi*om synthetic calcium 
nitrate, and in the other two from Chili nitre. 

As examples of the estimation in which chemists have been 
held by Government officials, the following incidents are worth re- 
calling. Early in 1915, when the demand for a vastly increased 
output of munitions of all kinds was becoming urgent, the Chieif 

22 president's address — section b. 

Inspector at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, advertised for a number 
of " Temporary Assistant Chemists " for his Department in the fol- 
lowing terms : — "Applicants must have had a thorough training in 
Inorganic and Organic Chemistry, and must be accurate Analysts. 
University Graduates or Members of the Institute of . Chemistry 
will have preference. Wages, £2 Os. 6d. per week." At the close of 
the same year the British House of Commons Recruiting Commit- 
tee, in attempting to classify vocations according to utility for 
munition and other work at home, issued the statement that the 
classes of workers which could most readily be spared for service in 
the Army were " navvies, tuinwllcrs and chemists." On which the 
late Sir William Ramsay commented in a letter to the Press that, 
although this estimate of the value of chemists was doubtless due to 
ignorance, the men responsible for it had thereby shown them- 
selves unfit to be trusted with the destinies of the Empire. But 
in this connexion Australian officialdom was not to bei Oiutdone, 
for about the same time the Victorian Department of Mines ad- 
vertised for a chemist with a B.Sc. degree and a sound knowledge 
of chemical analysis to take part in research work on the distilla- 
tion of brown coal and similar important problems, at the princely 
salary of £72 per annum. Perhaps it was en the strength of 
this that the then Victorian Minister for Mines, in the course of a 
lecture whic'h he gave a little later before the Royal So'ciety of 
Arts in London, claimed for his Departmeiit great credit for its 
zeal in stimulating chemical research ! 

■ Official indiffereince to science in general, and chemistry in par- 
ticular, has cost us dearly both in blood and treasure. We know 
for instance that- early in 1915 Germany was running short, not 
only of propellant explosives, but alsoi of the raw materials — cotton 
and glycerine^ — for making them. Yet, in sjDite of the repeated 
warnings of Sir William Ramsay and other eminent cheanists, 
our blockade was so negligently enforced that for the first fifteeu 
months of the war the importation into enemy countries of cotton 
and ol fats and oils was allowed to go on. almost unchecked. As 
an example of the kind of ignorant obstruction which chemists 
had to face, it will suffice to mention that a. well-known technical 
chemist of niy acquaintance, in the course of an interview on this 
inatter with a high official of the War Office, was met by the 
reply that if we stopped the importation of cotton wool into 
Germany the Germans would simply make their explosives from 
sheep's wool instead, so that there was really nothing to justify 
the risk which we should run of offending the United States. 
However, at last things began to move, for a little later we find 
the present Lord Chancellor, then Sir F. E. Smith, stating in 
the course of an argument in a. contraband case before the Prize 
Court, that it had " just been discovered that glycerine could be 
made from lard." Although he was thus unconsciously celebrating 

president's address — SECTION B. 23 

the centenary of Chevreul's great discovery, it is, jierhaps, better 
that the menibers of our governing classes should acquire scientific 
knowledge a little late than not at all. Unfortunately, by the 
time sufficient understanding of the elementary chemistry of ex- 
plosives had penetrated the minds of the powers that be tO' induce 
them to make the blockade really effective, the chance for seriously 
hindering the German manufacture of propellant explosives was 
lost. During the respite so generously allowed them by the British 
Government, the German chemists had been a,ble to develop a pro- 
cess for making, from wood pulp, a cellulose' sufficiently pure and 
uniform to give a, satisfactory propellant explosive, thus making 
the German manufacture of explosives as independent of the im- 
portation of cotton as it had already been made of that of nitrates. 

The exceptionally unsatisfactory status of chemistry in the Bri- 
tish Empire may be asc'ribed to various causes. One of these, 
and one which still operates to our detriment, has been the Br:tish 
Pharmaci/ Act of 1867, which has been adopted in principle 
throaighout the Empire. For the most part, this Act was admirable, 
as it not only gave legal reccgnition to the ancient and honorable 
profession of pharmacy, but also provided the public' with a much 
needed safeguard against the unchecked sale and incompetent dis- 
pensing of drugs possessing poisonous properties. But, unfortu- 
nately, it contained one provision which has led to a most serious 
misunderstanding in the mind of the public concerning the proper 
meaning of the name " chemist," and the rightful status of the 
chemical professioiii, a misunderstanding which is not found in any 
civilised country outside the British* Empire. This provision for- 
bids anyone but a chemist, as defined in the Act, to describe him- 
self as such, unless he has been duly registered as a " Chemist and 
Druggist," or a " Phannac'eutical Chemist." Thus, to quote the 
historian of the Institute of Chemistry of Great Britain and Ire- 
land, " the President of the Chemical Society of Londoii cannot 
in strict law call himself by the name by which he is known 
throughout the civilised world without breaking the laws of his 
country." It is difficult to believe that such a provision could 
have been passed by any Legislature which was not pitiably ignor- 
ant of modeim science. I understand that it has been adopted, in 
a peculiarly obnoxious form, in the State of Victoria. This 
deplorable, but legalised annexation, of the generic name of 
" chemist " by the followers of a specialised branch of applied 
chemistry, is an example of a kind of legislation which is for- 
tunately rare. In fact, the only case at all parallel, which I can 
recall, was when, somewhere about 1880, the Parliament of New 
South Wales, at the instance of the late Sir Henry Parkes, sought 
to have the name of that Colony changed to " Australia." 

It is pleasing to note that, in other respects, the relations be- 
tween pharmacists and non-pharmaceutical chemists have been 
generally friendly. In fact, the British Pharmaceutical Society 

24 president's address — section b. valuable help to the Institute of Chemistry of Great Britain 
and Ireland^ when in 1884 and '85 the latter was applying for 
its Royal Charter of Incorporation. Also, in the meantime, many 
pharmacists seem to be coming to the conclusion that the name of 
" chemist " is of questionable advantage to them, now that the 
public has been forced to realize that there are other important 
species of chemists, who have nothing to do with the dispensing of 
drugs or the sale of poisons. The signs of the times are, therefore, 
looking favorable for some reciprocal arrangement between phar- 
macists and chemists, whereby the former might consent to re- 
nounce the terms '■' chemist and druggist" and " pharmacfeurical 
chemist," in favour of "pharmacist " or "apothecary," provided 
that the chemists assist them to secure a stiffening up of the Phar- 
macy Acts, to prohibit the dispensing of any kind of medical pre- 
scription, whether containing a poison or not, by any one but a 
properly qualified and registered pharmacist. Such an arrange- 
ment could, however, only be carried through gradually and 
cautiously, or unjustifiable hardship to the present holders of the 
vested interest in the titles "chemist and druggist" and "phar- 
maceutical chemist" w^ould be caused. For example, any sudden 
demand to alter shop signs and labels would entail very serious 
cost. Put the very fact that any such change must be slow requires 
that this matter should be' taken up vigorously by responsible 
bodies of chemists without delay. In this connexion it is worth 
noting that friendly negotiations with the above end in view have 
been going on for some time in England between the Institute of 
Chemistry and the Pharmaceutical Society, with some promise of 

Much of the indifference to science shown by the average layman 
must, I fear, be ascribed to his school training. Although science 
teaching of a sort is becoming general in our secondary, and even to 
some extent in our primary schools, it is too often so unintelligent 
and perfunctory that one is tempted to fear that to many pupils 
it may do more harm than good. In British secondary schools the 
practice is extending of employing for the teaching of science 
subjects teachers who have gained a university science degree, 
preferably with honours, in those subjects. In Australian schools, 
however, with some notable exceptions, the salaries offered are too 
low toi attract science teachers of first-rate ability and adequate 
training. In other words, the teaching of science is frequently 
left to the type of teacher who is content to keep one page ahead 
of the pupil, and who is, therefore, unfitted to present the subject 
to the latter as a living thing, of fundamental importance in his 
daily life. Under such conditions school science degenerates into a 
mere cramming of text-books, which, in accordance with the 
good old schoicl precedent, seem to have been selected chiefly for 
their exc'eeding dryness ; and the inevitable result follows, that 
the mention cf science calls up in the pupil's mind a positive re- 

president's address — SECTION B. 25 

pugnaaice, instead of the interest which should stimulate him to 
pursue the subject further for himself. Sir Robert Hadfield has 
recently ascribed his early interest in science largely to that 
fascinating- work, J^tppcr's J'lai/Uook of Science; and, in a 
humbler capacity, I must make the same confession. In this and 
the companion volume, the Vlaijhook uf Metals, which were not, 
and, perhaps, never could have been school text-bocks, Pepper 
developed the art of conveying exact information and sound 
scientific principles and, at the same time, calling up a spirit 
of scientific romance, which is peculiarly attractive to the aver- 
age boy. Sir Robert. Hadfield states that not long ago he pre- 
sented several hundred copies of a modernized edition of the 
Pla^jhuok of Science to the elementary schools of Shefiield, with 
satisfactory results. It would be well if a little of the spirit 
of that book could be infused into' school science text-boicks gener- 
ally. But it may be doubted whether any spirit of romance could 
survive the deadening influence of the examination system. 

Scientific men as a body have suffered in the past from too much 
reluctance to push their claims to recognition. I do not mean 
that we ought to rush into a campaign of self-assertion ; but there 
should be a hap]>y medium, if we oould only find it. In the first 
place, the frequent practice by scientific men of doing valuable 
work gratuitously for governments and other public bodies, 
although it may be clear evidence of moral superiority, is bad busi- 
ness, and should be discontinued. In the estimation of governments 
and the public thfe value of scientific, as of other work, is a f auc- 
tion of the price which they have to pay for it. The function is 
too complex for complete analysis; but this much is clear, that, as 
the pric'e paid for scientific work approaches zero, the value set 
upon that work by those who benefit from it also becomes zero, 
or even negative. Further, no other class of professional man is 
expected to work gratuitously for public bodies ; and. when scien- 
tific men do so. they have only themselves to blame if their modesty 
is regarded as a confession of professional inferiority. If scientific 
men do' not stand together to uphold their just claims to adequate 
reward for their labours, they may be quite certain that neither 
Govern'ment nor ]}ublic is going to lose any sleep oai their acc'ount. 
That the matter is urgent is shown by the fact that quitei a. number 
of prominent chemists, whom I had hoped to see at this meeting, 
have written to say that they cannot afford the journey. If the 
effect of the high cost of living and travelling on men with fixed 
salaries is going toi convert the Australian States into^ water-tight 
coinpartments, so far as men of science are ccnoerned, the prospects 
of science in Australia are not encoiuraging. 

On the technical and industrial side chemists have fared un 
favorably in professional status as compared with engineers. The 
reasons for this are not far to seek. The products of the engineer's 
labour are usaalh' of a permanent nature, and appeal to the eye as 

26 president's address — section b. 

definite and concrete achievements. The business or financial man 
believes that hei understands them, and to some extent appreciates 
the difficulties which have been surmounted in their erection. 
Naturally, therefore, he respects the man who created them. Also 
the engineer during his training has usually seen something of the 
handling of labour, and has acquired sufficient knowledge of busi- 
neiss to enable him to meet the purely business man en more or less 
equal tei'ms. On the other hand, our hard-headed business man 
is apt to regard the chemist as either of doubtful utility or as a 
suspicious character. So far as he can see, the chemist seems to 
be spending his time in juggling with invisible molecules and 
atoims and electrons, which, as a business man has put it, "are so 
small and insignificant that they haven't got any size toi them" ; 
and it is difficult to' convince him that these insignificant things 
make up in numbers for what they lack in size, and that he who 
can control them will rule the world. It must be admitted that 
the training oi the chemist has been largely to blame. More 
often than not he has had no chance during his training to get 
any insight into the handling of labour or into business methods, 
or the working of technical plant, so^ that he starts his works 
experience with a heavy handicap as compared with the engineer. 
Hence we so often find thei management of a manufacturing con- 
cern, even when the prccesses involved are largely of a chemical 
nature, in the hands of purely business men, or at the most of 
engineers. In such cases the chemistSj if employed at all, are 
reduced toi the position of mere testers, and are discouraged from 
acquiring tcoi much knowledge of the working of the business, let 
alonei offering suggestions or criticisms. The idea of a chemical 
research department is scouted as a costly fad ; and the so-called 
"practical man," who in reality is usually the worst kind of hap- 
hazard theorist, reigns supreme. It is not surprising that chemical 
manufactures under such conditions tend towards stagnation. In 
fact, a business involving chemical processes cannot be run in- 
definitely on such lines with safety ; sooner or later it must 
succumb to the competition of more progressive rivals. Experi- 
ence has shown the great advantages to be derived from allowing 
the chemists to acquire a working knowledge of every detail of the 
business, and even toi share in the management. Above all, facili- 
ties for research are essential if progress combined with economy 
is to be insured. It hardly ever happens that the working out of 
new processes or of improvements in existing processes is achieved 
without making mistakes. And it should be obvious, even to the 
purely business or financial man, that it is cheaper to make these 
unavoidable mistakes on a small scale in a research laboratory 
than on a large scale in the works. It is often contended, how- 
ever, that the expense of a research department may be dispensed 
with on the ground that a purely business and non-technical 
management can always call in expert knowledge when it needs 
it; but this is apt to be a sort of fool's paradise. In the first 

president's address — SECTION B. 27 

place, there is a danger that ihs purely business inanageraent 
may not know v/hen expert advice is needed. In the second place, 
as I once ventured to point out to a gathering of business men, 
the wise choici of experts itself requires a certain amount of 
expert knowledge. In the estimation of the average layman the 
claims of the real expert are liable toi compare unfavorably with 
those of the quack, because the expert, having a reputation to 
lose, is unable to promise so^ much. Hence thet quack will probably 
get the job. Instances where something like this has happened 
in connexion, fcr example, with State enterprises, will probably 
be familiar tO' most of us. 

The claim is still too' often made, and received with approval, 
either explicitly or by implication, that the man whoi is ignorant 
of scientific or technical matters is for that reason specially fitted 
to take what is called a " broad view " of them, and therefore to 
control them. The view he takes will be "broad" enough; but, at 
the same time, it will be found to be shallow and inaccurate; and 
the control which he exercises is usually perniciovis. It may be 
admitted that the ultimate aim of every manufacturing business 
is to- make money, and that the crucial test- of every process used 
in that busines.s is whether or not it will pay. Nevertheless the 
experience of the past generation has shown repeatedly and can 
clusively that, when the control of a manufacturing business be- 
comes vested solely in the hands of financial men, the prosperity 
of that business is in danger. The successful chemical manufac- 
tures have been those in which chemists and engineers have had a 
share in the management, whilst those in which the exclusive 
control has been captured by finance have for the most part gone 
to the wall. The ontstanding example is, of course, the manu- 
facture of synthetic dyes in Gennany and Britain respectively. 

The chemist must, however, beware of appearing to' claim that 
in industrial matters he can supersede the business man. The 
successful conduct of a manufacturing business demands an inti- 
mate knowledge of buying and selling and of finance, which the 
chemist has seldom had the opportunity or the aptitude to acquire. 
The combination in the same individual of high scientific and 
technical attaijiment with acute business and financial capacity, 
although occasionally met with, is too rare to be counted as a 
normal factor in every-day practice. On the other hand, the 
dividing line between chemists and engineers is becoming less 
strongly marked. That growing and already important class of 
experts, the engineer chemists or chemical engineers, having a 
working knowledge of both chemistry and engineering, have shown 
themselves eminently qualifi.ed for such tasks as the planning of 
works and for positions of control. But. in the nature of things, 
it is not possible for any engineer chemist to have a complete 
mastery of both branches, so that in the working out of details, 
and especially for research, he will frequently require the help 


both of chemists and engineers. Hence for the sound develop- 
ment of a manufacturing business involving chemical proioesse-s 
we must look to collaboration, on more or less equal terms, be- 
tween the chemist, the engineer, and the business man. Each of 
these classes should be represented on the Board of Directors or its 

With the outbreak of war cajiie the great opportunity for 
British chemists to show what they could do, and to prove beyond 
question their indispensable value to' the nation. The way in 
which they ro?;f to this opportunity, and the feats which they 
accomplished, if foretold in the previous times of ])eace, would 
have been regarded by chemists themselves as a wild impossi- 
bility. In the manufacture of explosives, and still mere in the 
development of counter measures, both defensive and offensive, 
against the newer methods of warfare introduced by the enemy, 
the chemist held the key to; the position. Chemists were required 
for work, which only they could do, in every section of the war 
organization ; with the special chemists corps in the front line, to 
direct anti-gas measures and gas attacks, and, incidentall}^, tO' 
identify the various poisonous compounds which thei enemy sent 
over; with the R.A.M.C, to supervise water supply, &c. ; in the 
Navy, to direct the manufacture and use of artificial fog; in the 
various munition factories ; in the Government and other research 
laboratories; and in other activities too numerous to mentiou. It 
woiuld be untrue, as well as grcssl}^ unfair to other workers, and, 
above all, to our fighting forces, to^ claim that chemists won the 
war. But we have every right to claim that, had it not been for 
the work of the British chemists, we should inevitably have 
lost it. 

There is every indication that, unless the League of Nations 
becoanes an effective restraining force, chemistry will play an even 
greater part in future wars than it has in the one we have just 
come through. This has already been recognised in the United 
States, where the Chemical Warfare Service has been organized 
as an independent branch of the Army. It -would seem, there- 
fore, that, except in wars against savage or semi-savage tribes, the 
days of the "drshing cavalry general" are over, and that he will 
have to be succeeded by one who-e training has consisted largely 
of chemistry and engineering. If both sides are prepared for it, 
chemical warfare probably dees not add so much to the horrors 
of war as the use of high explosive shell. In 1918, although the 
number of casualties in the British Army from poison, sufficiently 
severe to incapacitate a man for some weeks, was unfortunately 
very large, the number of deaths therefrom was estimated not 
to have exceeded four per cent., whilst the percentage of deaths 
from gunshot wounds was between twenty and thirty. The special 
infamy committed by the Germans lay in their taking deliberate 

president's address — SECTION B. 29 

advantage of a solemn covenant not to use poisons to spring a 
ghastly surprise on their opponents. The effect of that iii-st 
chlorine attack in Flanders in May, 1915, was devastating; and, 
had it been followed up, might well have been decisive. 
Apparently nothing prevented the Grermans from marching 
through to the Channel Forts, except that the German profes- 
sional officer showed the samei kind of mental inertia and suspicion 
of new inventions said to be characteristic of his British col- 

When they began the war the German High Command believed 
that the stocks of explosives and other munitions, which they had 
been accumulating, would be sufficient to enable them to o^verride 
all oppositiom. Hence in Germany, as with us, the manufacture 
of explosives was at first organized sufficiently to meet only peace- 
time requirements. But as soon as it was found that the Allies 
had developed an annoying capacity to hinder the war from pro- 
ceeding according to plan, both sides were faced with the necessity 
to extend the manufacture of explosives on an unheard of scale. 
In this, however, the Germans started with the advantage greatly 
on their side. The enormous factories for the manufacture of 
dyes and other fine chemicals, which had grown up in Germany, 
were an invalnable asset, since the chemical plant which they 
contained cculd be converted rapidly to the purposes of explosives 
manufacture, and, what is of some import at the present time, 
could as readily be re-converted to serve the industries of peace. 
In Britain, on the other hand, the corresponding chemical re- 
sources were relatively small, hO that we had to face the probletm 
of erecting and equipping huge and entirely new factories, speci- 
ally to meet the enormous demands for explosives suddenly made 
upon the nation. In response to this demand, there gradually 
arose that wonderful organization known as the Department of 
Explosives Supply of the Ministry of Mvmitions, with Lord Moiul- 
tcn as its Director-General. Lord Mculton's services to the nation 
have been frequently extolled, but probably the greatest of them 
all was the selection, as his Chief of Staff, of Mr. K. B. Quinan, 
of the Cape Explosives Works. Mr. Quinan came from South 
Africa with an established reputation as an explosives expeirt and 
chemical engiiieer. When he returned thither at the close of the 
war, he had proved himself tO' be one of the greatest organizers 
and men of genius who had fought for the Allied cause. Whilst 
he never spared himself, he possessed in a high degree the gift of 
winning the confidence and getting the veiy best out of those 
around him. It has happened to few men to receive such whole- 
hearted loyalty from colleagues and subordinates, and few have 
so well deserved it. 

It was under Mr. Quinan in the Factories Branch of the 
Department of Explosives Supply that the British chemist found 
his greatest chance to ccme into his own. Startingr from small 

30 president's address — SECTION B. 

beginnings in 1915, the Factories Branch gradually extended, u-n- 
til at the close of the war it controlled more than twenty factories, 
producing not only explosives but also a great variety of other 
materials, including many cf the so-called "pcison gases." Many 
of these factories were designed by Mr. Quinan, and erected under 
his supei"vision, and the management of all ot them was subject 
to his control. Amongst the most noteworthy achievements were 
the great factory at Queen's Ferry, near Chester, capable of turn- 
ing out over 800 tons per week of T.N.T. and over 200 tons per 
week of nitrocellulose, and the still larger factory a.t Gretna with 
a capacity of over 800 tons per week of finished cordite. Excerpt 
that it Oibtained about half the necessary amo'U-nt of nitrocellulose 
from. Queen's Ferry, Gretna was self-contained, producing besides, 
the balance of the nitrocellulose all the acids, ether, and nitro- 
glycerine it required. There was also a very large distilling plant 
for the refining of the crude glycerine. 

Hand in hand with the erection of these factories had to go 
the training of the staffs to run them; and in this Mr. Quinan de- 
veloped a two-fold purpose. The first consideration was of course 
to turn out the materials necessary for winning the wa.r. (The 
possibility of losing it apparently did not trouble him.) The 
second, however, was to make of the Department a great educa- 
tional institution, and to give to the chemists and engineers who 
came under his influence such a thorough training in the erection 
and running of chemical plant and in all the details cf factory 
management, that they would be qualified to play their part in the 
great task of building up and extending the British chemical in- 
dustries after the war was won. The methods by which these aims 
were accomplished can best be given in Mr. Quinan 's own words 
taken from the Preface to the Second Repot't on Costs and 
Efficiencies for H .M . Factories ControJled hy the Factories Branch, 
dated September, 1918: — 

"The need of a broad and comprehensive programme of ex- 
plosives production was realised by the Committee on the 
Supply of High Explosives, of which Lord Moulton was 
chairman, very early in the war, and at the beginning of 1915 
the Committee (which meanwhile was reconstituted as De- 
partment A6 of the War Office) inaugurated the policy of 
expecting national factories. By the following year the scope 
of these H.M. Factories had increased to such an extent that 
a separate Branch of the Department (which meanwhile was 
transferred to the new Ministry of Munitions) was organised 
to administer them. This Factories Branch, which was directed 
originally by myself, and later by Mr. H. T. Dickinson, ex- 
panded rapidly, not only by the erection of new factories, 
but also by taking over the administration of existing fac- 
tories, some of which had been erected during the war, whilst 
others had been converted by the Department to its own use. 


"During the earliest stages of the war, the anticipated de- 
mand for explosives jjrcducts was met by expanding and add- 
ing to existing factories, a policy which had the advantage 
that it made possible a rapid increase in the production of 
explosives without the need to recruit and train new technical 
staffs. But the limits cf this policy were soon reached, and 
only when it was decided to erect new and national factories, 
and an attempt was made to collect from existing factories 
the necessary technical data and assistance, did it become 
evident that, due to the extraordinary demands of war, there 
was — practically throughout the entire country— a regret- 
table lack of available accurate technical data, and an even 
greater lack of trained technical men — more particularly 
chemical engineers 

"The great explosives and chemical companies of the country- 
were all loyally doing their utmost to meet the call for ex- 
plosives, and although, at the commencement of things, that 
natural commercial competitive spirit, which disinclined manu- 
facturers to allow their trade and plant secrets to become 
common property, was very much alive, this quickly disap- 
peared completely, a.nd manufacturers have loyally and eagerly 
assisted with every means at their disposal. But their technical 
staffs were already sorely over-taxed, and moreover the scale 
upon which manufacture had to be faced in the new national 
factories was so enomious as to be unique, and it was fre- 
quently necessary to devise entirelv new methods and plant 
suitable for bulk jjrodu'cticn. 

"FoT the staffing of these vast new jjrojects we had, there- 
fore, to rely almost entirely upon the young and usually in- 
experienced chemists of the ccuntry. These young men were 
full cf Icyalty and enthusiasm, but, in so far as the vast 
majority were concerned, were entirelv without works experi- 
ence, whilst they had yet to learn the A. B.C. of administra- 
tive practice. 

"Therefore, in so far as those of the national factories of 
which the constructicn and operation were entrusted to me 
were concerned, it was endeavored from the outset, in order 
to help cur staffs, so to design and arrange the various items 
of plant as to make possible accurate daily stocktakes of 
materials produced and in process, and hj the time these fac- 
tories were ready to ccmmence operations, a fairly complete 
set of daily, weekly and monthly report forms was in readi- 
ness, also a more or less complete system cf accounting. 

"Immediately these factories commenced operations, the 
lack of trained and experienced staff and operatives made itself 
felt, and, to ameliorate this condition and develop that 
exprit tie to)])A without which successful manufacture is an 

32 president's address — section b. 

impossibility, I inaugurated a system of monthly meetings or 
technical conferences, to be attended by the various superir- 
tendents of H.M. Factories, and representatives of their 
chemical, engineering, accounting, and operative staffs, etc 
The primary object of these meetings was to afford ine an op- 
portunity to instruct the various staffs as to the technologv ot 
the various processes and plants and to discuss and dispose 
of the manifold problems which arose, particularly during 
the earlier stages of manufactu're. 

"A graphical system of costs representation was brought 
into being, in order to compare the work of the various fac- 
tories, and acquaint the several staffs with the relation be- 
tween the cost of manufacture and efficiency of working. The 
costs so dealt with included practically all those coming into 
the Department. Various methods of manufacture were con- 
trasted, in order to emphasize the fundameiital fact that most 
manufacturing projects are either made or marred at their 
very inception ; if in the first instance a wrong process or 
plant be selected, no amount of technical knowledge or skill 
can avoid competitive failure. 

■'The bearing of the laws of thermo-chemistry and thermo- 
dynamics upon the manufacture of explosives, acids, etc., wa^ 
emphasized and explained, and eventually our various factories 
were required toi demand from each of their section managers, 
chemists-in-charge, engineers, etc:., a, carefully prepared and 
accurate chemical-technical precis of all of the operations 
coming under them. These precis, or technical reports, were 
then circulated amongst our various factories, and finally to 
an increasing extent amongst the chemical manufacturers of 
the cGimtry at large, as were also the comparative costs 

"At a very early stage, and when our factories were com- 
mencing to come into operation, a Statistics Branch was 
formed to collect -and tabulate the information for these 
technical meetings. With the loyal coi-operation and assist- 
ance of the accounting staffs cf the several factories and of 
the Finance Dei>axtment, an enormous mass of very valuable 
costs data was rapidly collected and tabulated and made 
available for circiTlaticn. 

" The system of instructive administration outlined in the 
foregoing paragraphs has been almost a lifelong ideal, and it 
has been a great privilege to bring it into operation and see 
it bear fruit ; it has been the means enormously to reduce 
the cost of manufacture at national, and, I hope, also in- 
directly at private trade factories, and at the same time it has 
greatly reduced the consumption of raw materials, thus assist- 
ing the shiyjping position. 

president" S ADIiRES.S- SECTION B. 33 

" The present war — the most destructive and costly the 
world has ever known — has involved an enormoiis expenditure 
of national wealth, effort and brain power, and has brought 
about amongst other things — I hcpe partly through the m- 
strumentalitv of this dissemination of technical information — 
the commencement of the renaissance of chemical industry in 

"Practically all the nations cf the world will emerge from 
this war impoverished to a greater or less extent, and there- 
fore competition will be exceedingly keen in all of the world's 
great markets. Germany, the arch-enemy, both military and 
industrial, already has her great industries well organized 
both commercially and chemically, and will probably be in 
a positicn immediately war ceases tc flood the world with her 
produ'cts — particularly chemical products. Practically all of 
her major industries are xmder i;nified control, or at least 
enjoy some measure of co-operation in respect cf technical 
knowledge and practice. 

"The Allied countries can certainly ])ut themselves into a 
position to ccmpete with Germany on equal tenns, if only they 
will utilize the opportunity which the war has given them to 
come together and apply the effort and wealth now being ex- 
pended to the re-creation or modernization of their industries, 
where this may be necessary. As factories are extended and 
new factories are built to meet the demands of war, let them 
be extended and built upon the most modern competitive lines. 
Let the several Governments collect from manufacturers, and 
make available, data on various processes and new industrial 
methods, so that manufacturers can intelligently extend their 
works or replace obsolete methods or plant. 

"Certainly, if the Allies will mutually and loyally ex- 
change information and help one another on these lines, we 
shall win, not only the present war cf swords, but also, and 
with equal certainty, the war of industrial competition which 
must inevitablv follow." 
As was to be expected, the chemists showed themselves to b;e 
receptive pupils, and Mr. Quinan's educational policy met with 
complete success. The cii'culaticn of ccmparative costs data, com- 
bined with the frequent conferences, developed a spirit of emulation 
between the technical staffs of the several factories quite equal to 
that called up by severe trade ccrapetition. This, and the fact 
that they were provided with the very best plant obtainablci, re- 
sulted in a smoothness and efficiency of working which, all things 
considered, was little short of mai'vellous. 

But the activities of the Department of Explosives Suj^ply did 
not stop at explosives. Towards the end of 1917 orders were re- 
ceived to get out designs for a factcn- to jn'oduce about 30,000 


tons per annum of synthetic ammonia for the immediate purpose 
of producing about 60,000 tons per annum of ammonium nitrate, 
but with the ultimate post-war object of making other ammonium 
compounds. After some two years' work, a team of ardent re- 
search chemists in the Munitions Inventions Department, including 
the late Dr. H. C. Greenwood, whose death about a year ago is so 
much to be deplored, had succeeded in reproducing the Haber pro- 
cess for the synthesis of ammonia on a large laboratory scale. The 
results which they had obtained were so promising that Mr. 
Quinaii decided to adopt the Haber process for the new factory. 
For war purposes, about half the ammonia so produced was to be 
oxidized by means of the Kiihlmann catalytic process to nitric acid, 
and the latter was then to be neutralized with the balance of th© 
ammonia. Although the designs were partly completed, various 
causes, notably the necessity to concentrate on the manufacture of 
poisOTis, prevented rapid progress from being made with the fac- 
tciry itself; and, when the Armistice was signed, all work on it was 
suspended. The project has, however, since been taken over by 
a syndicat-e formed by Bruuner. Mond, and Co., and it is to be 
hoped that, as a measure of national safety, it will be carried to 

The history of the Haber process affords one of the most strik- 
ing illustrations of the truth, that the most far-reaching dis- 
coveries in the domain of applied science are often the result 
of research, carried out not with a definite technical aim, but 
solely from a deeire to advance knowledge. The conditions of 
equilibrium between nitrogen, hydrogen, and ammoniai possess very 
considerable physico-chemical interest; but in the early stages of 
Haber's researches thereon, commencing in 1905, it would have 
been difficult to find any chemical reaction which looked less likely 
to become of technical importance than the direct synthesis of 
ammonia from its elements. Even under high pressure and with 
the most active catalysts so far discovered, tbe temperature has 
to be pushed so high to obtain a sufficient rate of reaction that 
equilibrium is reached when only comparatively small fractions 
of che hydrogen and nitrogen have combined. The suggestion that 
this unpromising reaction might be utilized for tue manufacture of 
ammonia on a large scale was first made by Le Rossignol, a native 
of Jersey, who had been trained in Sir William Ramsay's labTira- 
tory in London, and had subsequently gone to work with Haber. 
Le Rossignol's proposal was to circulate the gases continuously 
under pressure through the catalyst furnace, a heat exchanger, 
an ammonia absorber, and again through the lieat exchanger to 
the furnace. To test this suggestion, a small laboratory plant 
was constructed by Haber and Le Rossignol, the working of which 
was so satisfactory that in 1909 the invention was taken over by 
the Badische Anilin-und Sodafabrik. The difficulties in the way 
of constructing and running a large scale plant to work at about 

president's ADDRE-^S — SECTION B. 35 

6OQ0 C. and under a pressure of 150 to 200 atmospheres were coii- 
siderable, but were successfully overccme. In 1917 the factory 
erected by the Badische Company at Oppau produced 93,000 tons 
oi pure NH3 by this process, whilst a second factory at Merse- 
burg, near Halle, has twice that capacity. Besides the Haber 
process, the Germans were also using the cyananiide process and the 
Pauling arc process for producing synthetic nitrogen ccmpounds, 
but of the three the Haber process has proved itself to be the 
most economical and impoi'tant. Had it not been for these pro- 
cesses, the Germans would have rapidly run short of nitrogen 
compounds both for agriculture and for the manufacture of muni- 
tions, and could hardly have survived one year of war. Perhaps 
this lesson is not entirelv without interest for Australia. 

In view of their peculiar notioins of honour and humanity, it 
is not surprising that early in the war the Germans yielded to 
the temptation to make use of the great superiority in chemical 
resources, which they then possessed, in an attempt to overwhelm 
the resistance of the Allies by launching surprise attacks with 
poison gas. As already mentioned, the end, from their point of 
view, veiy nearly justified the means; but it may be doubted 
whether towards the close of the war, when the Allies' reply in 
kind was becoming effective, they were quite so pleased with their 

Owing to the ease with which free chlorine can be absorbed 
and rendered harmless, it was soon sujierseded for offensive pur- 
poses by various poisonous compounds, most of which, however, 
contained chlorine as a constituent. Of these ccmpounds perhaps 
the most important were phosgene and jS^dichlordiethyl sulphide, 
the so-called " mustard gas," the latter being first used by the 
Germans in July of 1917. Apparently owing to faulty organiza- 
tion on the part of the Department originally concerned, the 
production of podscns in Britain failed for some considerable time 
to meet requirements; but in April of 1918 the whole of the manu- 
facture and supi>ly was transferred to the Explosives Department. 
As this manufacture was given the highest priority, the whole of 
the comprehensive scientific and technical resources of the latter 
Department were at once applied to it, and a vigorous programme 
was taken up. In the meantime a simplified method for making 
mustard gas by the action of ethylene on sulphur mcnochlcride 
had been discovered in the Chemical Department of the University 
of Cambridge; and, although the working out of this method on 
a technical scale was still far from complete, its advantages over 
the cumbrous method used by the Gennans were so obvious that 
it was decided to adopt it. An existing factory which had been 
shut down was rapidly reconstructed for the new manufacture, 
first en an experimental and later on a large scale; and, owing 
to the strenuous and self-sacrificing labours of the technical staff, 

36 president's address — section b. 

the process made such headway that by the following September 
50 tens of this fearsome compound had been delivered to the shell- 
filling factories. This amoiuit, however, was only a preliminary 
sample of what the factory was planned to make, but before it 
could get into its stride the war had ended.. 

It is of interest to note that the first consignment of shells 
filled with British mustard gas was delivered to the Australian 
Army Corps and used by it in the operation of finally piercing the 
Hindenburg Line at Belliccurt. To quote General Monash, Avs- 
t/d/ia/i Victories in France, page 255: — 

" The programme began on the night of September 26th. 
The first phase of the bombardment was of a novel 
character. For over two years the enemy had been using a 
shell containing an irritant and poisonous ' gas ' known as 
' mustard gas.' . . . For a long time we had been pro- 
mised that the British Artillery Service would shortly be sup- 
plied with a gas shell of similar character. It was, moreover, 
anticipated that the German gas mask would prove no ade- 
quate protection against this kind of gas. 

" At last the new shell was forthcoming, and the first 
shipment from England, amounting to' some 50,000 ro'Unds, 
was placed at the disposal of the Australian Corps. My 
artillery action, therefore, opened with a ccncentrated gas 
bonibardment of twelve hours, attacking probable living 
quarters, occupied defences, and all known or suspected ap- 
proaches to- them." 

Later information from prisoners and other sources disclosed 
that the effect of this bombardment on the (jermans had been 
most demoralizing. For mouths previously the German troops 
had been assured that mustard gas would wan the war for them, 
that no troops could stand against it, and that the British could 
not hope to make it. The subsequent disillusionment was, there- 
fore, one more proof that the game was up. 

As the multifarious activities of the Explosives Department 
and of the other Departments under the Ministry cf Munition 
developed, the amount of research work which became necessary 
was very great. The Explosives Department itself had a labora- 
tory specially set apart for research, and researches were also 
constantly in progress on the plant and m the labcratories in all 
the factories controlled by it. These resources, however, even when 
supplemented by those of the Research Department at Woolwich, 
])roved inadequate toi supply the mass of information which was 
constantly required ; so a special Section of the Explosives De- 
partment was formed and entrusted with the duty of arranging 
for and cio-ordinating research work in the laboratories of the 
universities and technical schools throughout the country. Al- 
though greatly hampered by want of assistance, the teaching 

president's address — SECTION B. 37 

staffs of these various institutions responded enthusiastically to the 
call, so that innumerable problems involving chemistry, physics, 
engineering, and in fact every branch of science, were rapidly 
solved as they arose, and thus the smooth working of this gigantic 
war machine was made possible. 

In this way the Department of Explosives Supply accumulated 
an. immense and varied amount of most valuable inTormation ; and 
it was Mr. Quinan's earnest wish that, when the war was won, this 
information should be made available for the benefit of the in- 
dustries, and especially the chemical industries, of Britain and her 
Allies. Fortunately this is now being done, the necessary editing 
having been placed in the able hands of Mr. William Macnab, 
who was himself one of Mr. Quinan's foremost colleagues on the 
Head-Quarters Staff of the Department. The first instalment 
of these reports, entitled Prelim inari/ Studies for H .M . Factory 
Gretna^ and Study for <in Installation of Phosgene Manufacture, 
has already been published. The latter poirticn of this report 
contains a detailed discussion of the layout of a plant to produce 
about 250 tons of phcsgene per week, and affords an excellent ex- 
ample of Mr. Quinan's creative methods for attacking a new 
problem. The plant in question was in course of erection at the 
close of the war, and would have proved a valuable asset had 
there been any further campaign. These reports will be of the 
greatest value both to designers of chemical pxant and to students 
or chemistry and chemical engineering, and should be added to 

the library of every university and technical school. 


It should be mentioned that the Department of Explosives 
Supply also derived most useful help from the disclosure by private 
firms of information on various matters, which before the war had 
been jealously guarded as "trade secrets." This pooling of in- 
formation already in existence in itself enabled great advances to 
be made. British chemical industry has been heavily handicapped 
in the past by the exclusiveness and secrecy of mdividual firms, 
whilst, on the other hand, its rivals in Germany and in the 
United States have derived great benefit from the exchange of 
knowledge amongst themselves. The commanding position of the 
British engineering trades has no dombt been largely due to the 
fact that in their case this policy of secrecy has for the most part 
been impossible, so' that a discovery or invention made by one 
firm is at once of advantage to all. 

My reason for dwelliirg so long on the work ot ±5ritish chemists 
in the war is twofold. In the first place, the record of that work 
affords what should be convincing proof tliat chemistry and 
chemists are indispensable factors in the constructive work of 
peace. In the second place, the term " Briliish " in this con- 
nexion includes " Australian," for Australian chemists fonned 

38 president's address — section b. 

no inconsiderable proportion of the technical staff of the Depart- 
ment of Explosives Supply. One cause of this was the supineness 
of the British Government, early in the war, in allowing the 
chemists of the United Kingdom, who were all too few in any case 
for the chemical work ahead, freely to enlist in the fighting forces; 
so. that, when the great factories were apjoroachmg completion, an 
urgent caJl for cheinists had toi be sent cut to all parts of the 
Empire. It is sometimes invidious to^ single out individuals; but 
in this connexion an exception must be made m favour of Mr. A. 
E. Leighton and Professor B. D. Steele. Mr. Leighton was from 
the start one of the foremost men in the Explosives Department, 
and was reeponsible for much of the design and of the running of 
the plant in the factories, notably those at Queen's Ferry and 
Gretna. Australia owes a debt of gratitude to Mr. Leighton for 
having recruited so many Australian chemists tor work in the 
Explosives Department, and for seguring for them posts of re- 
sponsibility in the factories, where they had unique opportunities 
to acquire a comprehensive knowledge of the design and running 
of plant and of the details of factory management, which should 
make them of inestimable value to Australian industry, if our 
manufacturers and labour unions will only allow them the oppor- 
tunity to show it. In fact, one could hardly go into any factory 
under the Explosives Department without finding one or more 
Australian chemists in positions of trust, which, with few excep- 
tions, they fully justified. It is worth noting that, whether on the 
plant ca- in the laboratory, the chemists whoi had had a thorough 
university training as a rule stood head and shoulders above all 
others. As migfit be expected, this was most strikingly the case 
whenever work on new processes or methods was involved. Pro- 
fessor Steele had the experience, probably unique for a man fresh 
from an academic career, of first working out a new process in the 
laboiratcry, and then trying it out on a semi-technical scale tO' the 
satisfaction of the Heads of the Explosives Department, design- 
ing and erecting a factory to run it with an output of several tons 
per day, and finally as its Superintendent bringing tliat factory 
into successful opei-ation. Incidentally, although far fro'in being 
the largest, this factory was by no means the least efficient of 
those producing the same material, in respect of either quality of 
product or working costs. 

The future status of chemistry and chemists is intimately bound 
up with the quantity and quality of the training which chemists 
undergo-. Hitherto many chemists have been using their generic 
name in an inexcusably loose fashion to include, not only 
thoroughly trained and competent all-round men, but also mere 
testers or works foremen, who have served a sort of apprenticeship 
in a chemical laboratory or works, but who, although they may 
sometimes be highly skilled in some one restricted branch of 
chemistry, have only the merest smattering of chemistry as a whole. 


The advancement of chemiitiy as a profession is seiiously endan- 
gered by svich a practice as this. We must begin by taking omr- 
selves and our profession seriously, if we wish to be taken seiiously 
by the members of other professions, and admitted by them to 
equal professional status. 

On the whole the general university curriculum for a science 
degree in chemistry has come out well from the test of the past 
few years. A broad and thorough training in pure inorganic, 
organic and physical chemistry and chemical thermodynamics, 
together with a good working knowledge of mathematics, physics 
and modern languages (including English), has shown itself to be 
the only satisfactory basis for any chemical career worth, having. 
For teaching and for research in pure chemistry a training ou these 
lines would appear to- sufl&ce. But the number of chemists who 
are disposed to, or are fitted for, these fields of work will always 
be limited ; and the majority will have tO' seek their living as 
analysts or consultants or in the industrial field. For industrial 
chemists in general some knowledge of engineering is a. great 
advantage, as, even when they do not themselves undertake the 
design and erection of plant, it enables them to discuss with en- 
gineers problems which are common to both, m language which 
the engineer understands. For those who intend to specialise as 
engineer chemists or chemical engineers a training in engineering 
as well as in chemistry is of course essential. In this connexion a 
perusal of the report of the Discussion on The Training and Work 
of the ditmical Knfjinecr, held by the Faraday Society in London 
nearly four years ago, may be recommended. 

The consensus of competent opinion in Britain at the present 
time is that a chemist, tO' be worthy of the name, should have had 
a systematic day training in all important branches of chemistry, 
extending over at least four years and leading tO' a B.Sc. degree 
with first or second class hoiicurs in chemistry at the end of it. 
This qualification is now accepted as a minimum for admission 
to the Associateship of the Institute of Chemistry of Great Britain 
and Ireland. That Institute will, however, admit candidates for 
the Associateshipi who have obtained their training in evening 
classes, provided that this training has extended over at lea-'t five 
years, and that during that period they have been engaged in 
chemical work in the daytime. In the United States a high stan- 
dard of training for chemists is also required. A Committee of 
the American Chemical Society recently reported that the train- 
ing of a professional chemist should extend over not less than five 
years, the final year being devoted chiefly to training in research. 
This last is a very important provision, because success in indus- 
trial, as in academic chemistry, depends on ability to attack 
new problems and to strike out into new lines of thought. There 
has been too great a tendency on the part ol British trained 
1084.— 5 

40 president's address— section b. 

chemists in the past to go straight into works or into an analytical 
laboratory on the completion of their routine course, without 
waiting to acquire any experience in research work at all. It is 
perhaps not unccnnected with the high standard of training re- 
quired that chemists in America are now commanding higher 
salaries than engineers of equivalent status. 

In contrast with the foregoing, the Australian Chemical In- 
stitute, which has been founded to improve the status of chemists 
in Australia, has now definitely decided to accept as a sufficient 
qualification for admission to its membership, a pass in chemistry 
only at the second year examination of the pass B.Sc. course, no 
knowledge oi subsidiary subjects being specified beyond the stan- 
dard prescribed for the School Leaving Certificate. . True, the 
further stipulation is made that the candidate must have had at 
least two years' experience m a chemical laDoratory, but there 
is nothing in the present Regulations to imply that such experi- 
ence may not be concurrent with his class work. Beyond remind- 
ing you that during the first and second year of a University B.Sc. 
course the student's time has to be shared between chemistry 
and other subjects, that he may do no, or very little, organic 
chemistry, and that in any case he does not as a rule begin to get 
an all-round grip of his major subject until his third year, com- 
ment in this address on the policy adopted by the A.C.I. would 
be out of place. For the present, therefore, I must leavei the facts 
to speak for themselves. 

It is to be hoped that the Australian Institute of Science and 
Industry, for which, as for so many advances m Australian 
Science, we are indebted largely to the initiative and energy of 
Professor Orme Masson, may fulfil the purpose for which it was 
originally }>lanned ; for in that case it would open up wide fields 
of employment for Australian scientists in general and chemists in 
particular. Just now, however, there seems to be grave danger of 
the usefulness of the Institute being seriously hampered by a 
mixture of j^oditical interference and political inertia. In other 
words, it will probably ere long be dragged down into the dull 
and spiritless routine of a Sub-Sub-Department of the Common- 
wealth Public Service. The free spirit of scientific inquiry^ does 
not thrive in the atmosphere which surrounds the vote-catching 
machine. In any case, at the present intellectual level of our 
Australian Democracy, science could hope to catch but few votes. 
The prospects of the Institute maintaining the high level of 
achievement, which it has hitherto shown, and becoming of peniia- 
nent service to the country, like the British National Physical 
Laboratory or the United States Bureau of Standards, are there- 
fore growing dim. Already the country is the poorer through 
failure of the powers that be to take seriously, and to give effect 
to, recommendations which the Institute, or rather the Advisory 

president's address — SECTION B. 41 

Council, has made. To cite one example, the question of supplies 
of liquid fuel in Australia is becoming desperate. Yet, instead of 
following up the valuable suggestion of the 'Advisory Council to 
utilize for the manufacture of industrial alcohol the immense 
amount of fermentable material now going to waste, it is proposed 
to spend untold sums in the less constructive but more showy and 
speculative enterprise of scratching the country for oil, which, 
in the opinion of many geologists, is probably not there. Unless 
the Institute of Science and Industry is given an autonomous 
position under scientific and technical control and free from the 
strangle-hold of oifficial red tape, any money spent on it might 
as (well be thrown away.* 

I must claim your indulgence for having dwelt so long on 
matters connected with applied chemistry to the exclusion of pure 
chemistry. My only excuse is that the achievements of applied 
chemistry, especially those relating to the war, seemed likely to 
appeal mere strongly to a general audience, in reality, however, 
as every chemist knows, the achievements of applied chemistry are 
merely the outcome of the more fundamental discoveries of pure 
chemistry, the ultimate source of all real advance in applied, as in 
purei chemistry, being the pursuit of chemical discovery for its own 
sake. That a realisation of this is growing m some technical 
circles is evident from the valuable papers on pure science, 
eoianating from time to time from research laboratories belong- 
mg to manufacturing firms, of whicn the General Electric Com- 
pany of America is a notable exam))>e. 

A first essential for real advance in technical chemistry in 
Australia^ is therefore adequate endowment and equipment for re- 
search, as well as for teaching, of our various university chemical 
departments. Much in this direction has already been done, and 
the splendid record of the technical schools of the older Austra- 
lian universities and of many of tne men whom they have trained 
shows that it has been money well spent. But much more mut-t be 
done if we are to hold our own in the strenuous times ahead of us 
and contribute cur proper share to the progress of our science. 
Hence it is sincerely to be hoped that the appeals for increased 
help to meet their ever growing needs, which are being made by 
the various Australian universities, will meet with a sufficiently 
generous response to justify Australia's claim toi be a progres- 
sive and intelligent nation. 

The progress in pure chemistry during the past few years has 
probably been as epoch making as that of any previous period. 
We seem to be getting appreciably nearer to the heart of things. 

•Since the delivery of this address, Mr. G. H. Knibbs, C'.M.G., has been appointed 
Director of the Institute of Science and Industry. If Mr. Knibbs receives adequate support, 
his appointment should go far to restore confidence in the Institute. 

42 president's address — section b. 

rAs. has so often been the case, the most striking results have fol- 
■i lowed from the co-operation of chemistry with other branches of 
science, and above all with physics. To attempt to give even the 
most cursory summary of recent discoveries in the time now avail- 
able would obviously be fruitless. Art is long, and your patience 
must be growing short. Fortunately, as regards one of the mo'?t 
•Jmportant and fundamental problems of chemistry or physics, 
' n9,mely the structure of an atom, the present position is to be 
laid before you by abler exponents. 

I am afraid that the foregoing remarks have been somewhat 
discursive and fiagmentary. Many of them have been made 
before by others, some of them many times. But if I have 
managed to supply my fellow chemists with a few reasons in a 
handv form for the faith which is in them, I shall be content. 

president's address— (sub)-section b 

Section B. 


Sub-section Pharmacy. 

address by the president : 

C. E. Totrl, Mc/hounte. 

It is lay pleasiug duty and pleasure to welcome you* to par- 
ticipate in the labours of this modest sub-section of Section B of 
this Congress of the Australasian Association for the Advancement 
of Science. It has been found necessary, as you are already 
aware, to hold the meetings in Melbourne instead of Hobart, and 
to emphasize this fact the Council have determined that this meet- 
ing shall be known as the Hobart meeting held in Melbourne. 

Our interest in the scientific development of Pharmacy and 
Pharmaceutical Chemistry must necessarily be a quite practical 

The improvement in method, the development of new formulae 
and the working of less empiric and more scientific practice must 
occupy our attention. 

To have papers read and discussed is our present business, and 
it is hoped it will be shown that some intelligent research work 
has been conducted, calculated to fester and stimulate a spirit of 
emulatio'n and enthusiasm for the scientific side of our work. 

In glancing ove^r the subjects for discussion in Seotion B, I 
notice that one of them is entitled "The Training of the Profes- 
sional Chemist." It has occurred to me, therefore, that we may 
devote a few minutes very profitably to the discussion of the cog- 
nate subject "The Training of the Professional Pharmacist." 

In order to divest the discussion of any ambiguity in the mean 
ing of a Professional Pharmacist, I think we should make a clear 
demarcation between his scientific training and that of a business 
man or salesman — two aspects of his preparation both necessary to 
fulfil his responsibilities to the public — the latter demanding as 
much care as the former. The duties which a scientifically 

trained Pharmacist is required to perform may be summed up in 
his having: — 

(a) A thorough knowledge of the appearance and quality of 

all organic and inorganic substances used in pharmaceu- 
tical preparations and their preparation. 

(b) A knowledge of practical chemistry sufficient to enable 

him to apply it to the manufacture and testing of in- 
organic salts. 

(c) A sufficient acquaintance with therapeutics to make him 

an efficient and safe dispenser of prescriptions. 

44 president's address — (sub)-section b. 

1 am aware that these three headings do not entirely or logically 
define what a Pharmacist is or omght to be, but it is sufficiently 
broad and quite sufficient for my purpose. 

The question now arises, Is this to' be the dompass of usefulness 
of the Pharmacist to the community 1 Is his work to be entirely 
confined to the infinite details of preparing pharmaceuticals and 
of dispensing them ? The preparing of pharmaceuticals is, by the 
way, with ever-increasing rapidity slipping out of his hands. There 
seems to me, then, no scope for any reasonably ambitious man who 
embraces pharmacy as a profession, unless he can find some 
way to extend his knowledge and his usefulness to the community 
in which he finds himself. Along the line of his early training 
in what direction can he expand? May he not make himself in- 
creasingly useful to the medical profession by acquiring a working 
knowledge of the microscope, the preparation of microscopic stains, 
solutions for various clinical examinations 1 Are not such sub- 
jects as urine examination, dairy chemistry, food analysis, muni- 
cipal chemistry, agricultural and industrial chemistry and 
toxicology, all subjects peculiarly within the scope of the trained 
Professional Pharmacist. These are some of the activities to 
which the ambitious Pharmaicist may direct his attention and make 
his life fuller and more useful. I would commend to your 
thought, and if possible tO' your activities in the various States 
of this great Commonwealth, the potential value of Pharmacists 
developed along some such lines. 

None of the various subjects I have indicated offer any great 
difficulty to' enable students to acquire the necessary knowledge. 
Some outside stimulus and encouragement, the establishment of 
classes, popular and technical lectures, and demonstrations, and 
above all. a supreme enthusiasm in his work in imparting his 
knowledge to the pupils on the part of the teachers, may do 

president's address — SECTION c. 45 



Professor W. N. Benson, B.A., D.Sc, F.G.S., F.R.G.S., 

Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in the University, Otago, N.Z. 


Eight years have passed sincei this Association last met, and in 
that time our civilization has been shaken to its centre, and a new 
world is slowly evolving. We must express our thankfulness for 
the return of our Australasian geologists after their manifold ser- 
vices. It is not invidious to mention one to whom our welcome 
should especially be expressed, the honoured leader of our science 
in the Commonwealth, Professor Sir Edgeworth David. He has 
presided in turn over the proceedings of this section, and twice 
over those of the whole Association, and to-day for the first 
time two of the Presidential Chairs are occupied by men who 
owe their inspiration to this great teacher. It gives me deep 
gratification on this occasion, and in your name, to offer to my 
revered master the tribute of affection and esteem. We rejoice 
in the royal recognition of the place he holds in our regard, 
and hope that Lady David and he will long remain among us. 

Since our last meeting several geologists have passed away who 
had' advanced our science greatly, and it is fitting that we should 
recall their services. Robert Mackenzie Johnston, the son of a 
Scotch crofter, rose to the position of Government Statistician and 
Registrar-General for Tasmania, and was twice President of the 
Social Science section of this Association. In his busy life he 

46 president's address^section c. 

found time to study many branches of knowledge, and was the 
mainstay of science in that State. For nearly thirty years his 
writings were mostly geological, of which the chief was his great 
work on the "Geology of Tasmania" (published in . 1888), and 
still the chief source of information on its palaeontology. I am 
glad to bear personal tribute tci his helpfulness to those interested 
in our science. 

William Harper Twelvetrees, a former President of this section, 
after a mining career in the Urals and Asia Minor, during which 
he made important studies in Permian vertebrates and in petro- 
logy, commenced in 1891. in co-operation with the late W. F. 
Petterd, a series of papers which laid the foundation of Tasmanian 
petrology. He became Government Geologist of Tasmania in 1899, 
and with the assistance of an able staff, raised the work of the Sur- 
vey to a very high standard, fittingly acknowledged by the award 
to him of the Clarke Memorial Medal "for meritorious contribu- 
tion to the Geology, Mineralogy, and Natural History of Aus- 
tralia." His wide knowledge of geological literatuTe in several 
languages, and his generous and kindly nature, will long be re- 
membered by those who, like the writer, had the privilege of "his 

Robert Etheridge, junr., the son of a distinguished palaeon- 
tologist, was the chief contributor to' that science in Australia for 
nearly fifty years. He joined Selwyn's staff of brilliant young 
men in the Geological Siirvey of Victoria in the " sixties", became 
later a palaeontologist on the Geological Survey of Great Britain, 
and in 1888 on that of New South Wales, and in 1893 he under- 
took the Curatorship of the Australian Museum, Sydney. Here 
he was, in fact, if not in title, the honorary Consulting Palgeon- 
tclogist of nearly every Geological Survey in Australia. In ad- 
dition, he performed much important bibliographical and ethno- 
logical research work. The award to him of the Clarke Memorial 
Medal, and of the Mueller Medal of this Association, record the 
high esteem in which he was held by Australian scientists. 

Dr. Thomas Sargent Hall, Lectvirer on Biology in the Melbourne 
University, was the chief contributor to our knowledge of the 
graptolites in Australasia. His work attracted world-wide at- 
tention because of its importance in regard to the problem of cor- 
relaticn of ancient formations in distant areas. He also contri- 
buted extensively to the study of the Tertiary fossils of Victoria. 

To Alexander McKay, we owe a. very great part of the early 
geological exploration of New Zealand. He was educated in a 
part-time village school in Scotland, and during the "sixties" 
was a prospector in Australia and New Zealand. He was em- 
ployed by Dr. von Haast in 1870 as fossil-collector, and later acted 
in similar cap-acity in the Geological Survey organized by Dr. 

president's address — SECTION c. 47 

Hector. He scon iiiidertcok more intricate work, and the de- 
tailed reports cf his explorations describe most cf the leading 
features in New Zealand geology. The bulk of the 120,000 speci- 
mens possessed by the Geological Svirvey were collected by him. 
Hei became Mining Geologist in 1893, and later Gcvernment Geo- 
logist. Any one traversing ground reading McKay's reports 
thereoin, cannot fail toi be impressed with the arduoiusness of his 
work, and the extent, rapidity, and accuracy of his observations. 
He was the first in New Zealand to recognise the great importance 
of the late Tertiary crust-movemeTits, and to formulate inde- 
pendently a theory of blcck-faulting. 

Sir Herbert Cox. late Professor of Mining in the Royal School 
of Mines, was engaged on the Geological Survey of New Zealand 
from 1874 to 1895. Of his fifty reports, the most remarkable 
was his elaborate study of the Mesozoic rocks of the Hokonui Hills, 
to which we shall later refer. He later removed to Sydney, where 
he wrote important papers on the coal and tin fields of Aus- 
tralia . , 

Dr. E. A. Newell Arber, cf Cambridge, though not an Austi-a- 
lasian geologist, has contributed very usefully to our science, in 
his study cf the Glossopteris flora, and the Mesozoic floras of New 
Zealand and Western Australia. As formerly one cf his students, 
I shou'ld like to bear tribute to the keenness of his interest in 
Australasian geological problems, and the lucidity of his teacli- 

We have also to deplore the loss tf George Hogben, to whom 
is due the greater part of our knowledge of the seismology of New 
Zealand, and of Henry Suter, whose last great work was the re- 
vision of the Tertiary mollusca of New Zealand. 

We owe to m.en like these, the solid foundation of our knowledge 
of the geology of Australasia, upon which a younger generation 
is rapidly building. In every part great progress has been made 
since the last meeting of this Association. The investigation of 
the ancient complex of Western Australia is gradually revealing the 
record of an ordered sequence of events, and valuable physiographic 
studies have been made of the Caiiiozoic history of the State. In 
South Australia, the reorganized Survey has made notable studies 
of the great cupriferous deposits, and the problems cf underground 
water, while our last president, Professor Howchin, has published 
a most useful summary of the geology of the State. In the 

Northern Terr-tory, the wide extent of moderately folded Cam- 
brian rocks is becoming known, while contrasted with this we have 
the proof of the immensity of the late Tertiary orogeny in New 
Guinea and New Caledonia. In Queensland, the stratigraphical 
record is being revised, with notable changes in our conceptions 
of the Mesozoic period, in which Dr. Walkom's palajo-botanical re- 
searches have proved of great value, while Professor Richards has 

48 president's address — section c. 

made extensive additions to the knowledge of the Cainozoic vol- 
canic activity. In New South Wales, the long-delayed examination 
of the Broken Hill field has been vigorously prcsec'uted, and other 
important studies made of metal- and coal-fields. The recognition 
by Professor David, Mr. Siissmilch, and their associates, of the 
great extent of glacial beds beneath the supposed base of the 
" Permo-Carboniferous system " has led to a new oonceptioii 
of the relation of Carboniferous and Permian rocks in 
Australasia, and the volcanic rocks of the former have been studied 
by Mr. AV. R. Browne. Dr. Tillyard's investigations of the Per- 
mian and Mesozoic insect-life has opened up an entirely new field 
in palaeo-entomology. In Victoria, Dr. Stillwell's investigations 
of the Bendigo goldfields has usefully supplemented the remarkable 
work of the Official Survey in this and ether mining fields, in 
which the elaboration of the graptolite-zoning instituted by Dr. 
Hall, has proved to be of great economic importance. Dr. Teale's 
investigations have extended cur knowledge of the earliest chapter 
of geological history in the State. Mr. Chapman's study of the 
Tertiary faunas in t}ie Mallee district is but one only of his im- 
portant contributions to Australasian pal.Teontology. Extensive 
additions have also' been made by several workers to^ the knowledge 
of the latest stages in the deivelopment of the geological and physio- 
graphical features. The history of the earlier Palgeozcio period 
in Tasmania has been made more clear by notable investigations 
of the Geological Survey in the mineral fields of the West Coast 
districts. Piroutet's great work in New Caledonia permits us to 
form a. clear conception of the relations in Permian and Mesozoic 
times of the lands around the Tasman and Coral Seas. Nor has 
the advance of geological science been less marked in the Dominion 
of New Zealand. Except, perhaps, in the period from 1870-1880, 
in no decade, since the publication of Hochstetter's marvellous 
work, has there been siich an advance in the fundamental know- 
ledge of Neiw Zealand geology as in that which has just closed. 
It is to this new-won knowledgei that attention is directed in the 
remainder of this address. 

The geology of New Zealand is not generally familiar to Austra- 
lian scientists, partly because of the dissimilarity between the 
two Dominions, partly because of the inherent obscurity and diver- 
sity of interpretation of the record in New Zealand. It has been 
summarized at intervals. Hochstetter's work (1863-7) was fol- 
lowed by Hector's geological maps (187.3-1884), Hutton's study of 
Otago (1875), Von Haast's of Canterbury (1879), and the general 
summaries of the geology of New Zealand by Hutton (1885), 
Hector (1886), Hutton (1900), Park (1910), Marshall (1912). 
Thomson (1913) and Morgan (1914). Yet fundamentally im- 
portant additions to our knowledge have since been made, which 
can be fully appreciated only when set in their due place in the 





HuiiiMi, lH7r.. 

i:,nl„.i,;,l St:r- 

1(1/— Hector. 

Hutton. IWO. 

Cto'ogirn' S,i:- 

ny— Bell. 
Morean. Park. 

Pa-U. 191(\ 


(:,.,,ili,.,l S.,r- 
rcj/— 1920. 

Folding and 




Carbon iJerOHS. 

Maitai System 



intrusion of 

STaitai Series. 


Plutonic rocks. 

Te .Anati • sys- 


Maitai and Te 

Slatv older 



and intrusion 

tem, includ- 


Anau Series. 

r.x-ks in 


of granites, 

/.«.e Prh'ozo-r. 

in? Maitai. 


Xcrth Kland 




beds con- 


(lli.w (■..:■ 

Kaikoiira or 

.' iiper 

diorites, fie.. 

ferous ? 

Plutonic in- 

sidered to be 


'idfiL-d to be 

Maitai sys- 


and forma- 

' Kanien-' = 

trusions of 



• Jlaitai") 

tem inelud 

Tf A, m; Series. 

tion of uiela- 



Hau)) ri Series 

inn Te Anau 





(Te Anau 





orosenv and 

Series ?) 

Beds at head 




Acid Plutonic 


Plutonic in- 

of Rari'iitata 


with intru- 


11 anaayehi 

tnisions in 


(iio'.v eon- 

sion of 


Basic Plutonic 


later iiart of 

Granite.-; &c . 


granites and 


Rock pro- 

Baton River 


possibly in 



diorites. &c., 

Maitai and 

bably co-eval 



part post- 

and much 

Te Anau with 





iuneous in- 





Takaka Hii-len. 




Semi meta- 



( Baton 

Upper Silurian. 

erates and 


Baton River 

Reefton Beds. 


Baton River 



basic rock — 


System with 

Baton River 

and Hcefton 



(Te Anau ?) 


Reefton beds 



beds and 

Re?fton Beds. 

Takaka .Sys- 

and Haupiri 








eranites. and 



Reefton Series 

and earliir. 

Maniototoan : 



Byenitcs of 



Baton River. 

Arahura Series 

Gneiss and 

.Aorere System 


Baton River. 


(n) grev- 






of Westland, 

Aorere System. 

slates and 

Aorere Series. 



(ft) mica- 



Mount Arthur 




anil Central 




Aorere Series. 


(f) sneissand 



Ac." with 




marble), in- 


.i(je itnrertain. 



cluding the 

" Foliated 




•• Kanieri " 



Ccntril Otago 

Reefton Beds. 

and mica 

and Greenland 

" Lanrentian " 

(Silurian to 










Baton River. 



diorites. and 




schists of 


Aorere Series. 




(Also referred 
to Carbs.) 

Cambrian .^ 

Mica schist-. 


diorites, \-c. 
schists invaded 
by ilioritrs. 

president's address — SECTION c. 51 

general history. The following is an attempt to do this as far 
as possible within the limits of an address. It is not, like its 
predecessors, based on long personal investigation, but is rather a 
revaluation of the recorded facts, made in the light of the investi- 
gations of the last decade, by an Australian geologist whose lot 
lias now fallen in the pleasant places of New Zealand. Grateful 
acknowledgment must be made of the help afforded by those who 
have placed at the writer's disposal information published and 
unpublished, and the original material of certain investigations. 
Among these are Mr. Morgan, Director of the Geological Survey, 
to whose geuerasity I am indebted for the accompanying map 
correlation tables, Dr. Marshall, my predecessor in the Otago 
University, and in this Presidential Chair, Dr. Thomson of the 
Dominion Museum, Dr. Henderson, of the Geological Survey, and 
my University colleagues. Professor Park, Mr. Speight, Mr. Bar- 
trum, and especially Dr. C. A. Cotton, to whose guidance I owe 
much of my field knowledge of New Zealand Geology.* 

The geological histoiy of New Zealand falls into three major 
periods, the oldest of which may be considered to have closed about 
Carboniferoius times, and the second in Lower Cretaceous times, 
and the third at the end of the Pliocene period. The record of 
the first is very fragmentary and by no means free from doubt, 
nor is it always sharply separable from that of the second period. 
The detailed history of the second major period has been greatly 
elucidated during, the last decade. In regard to thei sequence of 
events in the third and chiefly Cainozoic major period, there has 
not been much doubt as to the sequence of formations in any one 
area, but there have been frequent changes in the interpretation 
and correlation cf these formations in different areas, upon which a 
flood of light has been thrown by the new rapidly accumulating 
observations and newer conceptions. We may perhaps recognise a 
fourth period, the cycle of events just initiated by the recent move- 
ments oif differential elevation, which have been the subject of de- 
tailed physiographic study, particularly by Dr. Cotton. In all 
countries in the earlier stages of geological investigation, often car- 
ried on under great disadvantages, many interpretations have been 
given. This is especially true of New Zealand, and in the diver- 
sity of these statements, and the frequent changes of nomenclature, 
lies the greatest difficulty to be faced by those attempting to find 
a clear path through the older records. Tabular statements of 
the principal interpretations of the three major periods are given 
herew;ith, and may serve to elucidate some of the complexities in 
the older literature. Differences of opinion still exist, but must 
steadily decrease as the accumulation of facts limits the range of 
permissible speculation. 

* The manuscript of this aridress was kindly read by Mr. Morgan. Dr. Cottoij, and 
Dr. Henderson. 

52 president's address — section c. 

TJie Crystalline Coinplexes. 

In the more recent statements of the history of New Zealand, it 
has been customary to consider as of Cambrian or pre-Cambrian age 
the complex of gniesses and associated rocks in the south-western 
extremity of New Zealand, "Fiordland." but the evidence offered 
for this has not been conclusive. Hector (1886) was inclined to 
divide this complex into two portions, recognising an ancient group 
of gneisses, with a younger series of granites, syenite, diorite, &c. , 
which invaded and metamorphosed a group of possibly Devonian 
sediments and basic igneous rocks, ccnverting them intoi micaceous 
and hcrnblendic schists.* Hutton (1900) suggested the dioritic 
mtrusicns were contemporaneous with the outpouring of the Te 
Anau basic breccias, supposed to be Carboniferous, and Speight 
(1910) thought they might be as young as the latter part of the 
Meso'Zoic period. In the north-west of the South Island (Colling- 
wood), gneiss and schists occur which have been variously con- 
sidered as portion of a single Silurian series, or cif a conformable 
Cambrian-Silurian series, or as pre-Cambrian lying nnconformably 
beneath Ordovician sediments, the last being the interpretation 
favoured by the Geological Survey as a, result of the investigatipns 
now in progress, f This explanation has been applied also' to the 
interpreitation of the Buller and Reef ton districts by Morgan 
(1912), and Henderson (1917) respectively. 

While this possibility must not be overlcoked, namely that frag- 
ments of a pre-Ordcvician gneissic platform may be present, there 
must also be recalled a conception familiar to modern Scottish 
geologists, and- advanced specially by Barrow (1893-1912) and 
Harker (1917), namely, the presence of a central zone of most 
deeply-seated metamorphism, which had been buried toi the greatest 
depth in the orogeny, and had been invaded by plutonic rocks, 
some gneissic, injected before the maximum of orogeny, some after 
it showing little or no gneissic structure. J The regional meta- 
morphism decreases away from a zone of greatest change, and here, 
to, as also within the central zone of such a deeply altered rocks 
series, there may be massive intrusions of a date much newer than 
the gneissic rocks, and evirronnded by a metamorphic zone of 
contact-rocks which are most marked where the regional meta- 
morphism is least. § 

Commencing in the south-west of New Zealand : — Near the 
coast of Preservation Inlet a band of graptolitic slates {aee later) 
passing into phyllites, runs to the north-west. Tliey are invaded 
to the north-east by pegmatitic granite, which also invades a mass 

* Professor Park adopts a similar view in a bulletin now in the press. (Private 

t Private communication from Mr. Morgan. 

t Henderson's suggested explanation (1017, p 10:5) of the formation of the gneissic and 
massive plutonic rocks in the same eruptive epoch is rather different from this. 

, § We need not, in suggesting this explanation, accept Barrow's contention that such 
conditions presuppose a pre-Cambrian age for the sediments and gneisses. 

president's address — SECTION c. 53 

ol' quartzose mica-paragneiss containing sillimanite, as appears 
trcm exaniinaticn of mateiial from areas described by McKay 
(1896). Sillimanite-gneisses also occur in Stewart Island, as well 
as missive pegmatitic granite. North-west of Preservation Inlet, 
at Dusky Sound, Park (1888) describes a series^ of arenaceous 
mica -schists, quartzites and magnesian schists with some lime- 
stone, lying on the continuation of the strike of the graptolitic 
rocks mentioned above. Eastwards these Dusky Sound rocks pass 
into "granitic gneiss," and " felsitic schist" containing mica- 
schist and crystalline limestone. Apparently the zone of maxi- 
mum metamorphism here lies to the east of the coastline. The 
same seems to be the case at Milford Sound. On the other hand, 
the eastern boundary of the compleix of Fiordland seems to be 
probably an immense fault (Hutton 1875, 1900; McKay 1892). 
The easternmost portions of the complex are not noticeably gneissic 
or schistose, but this structure appears and increases towards the 
west, reaches a maximum and diminishes as described above. 
Among the plutonic rocks, the characteristic metamorphic pheno- 
mena are those of the upper and middle zone as defined by Gruben- 
mann. This was first indicated by Speight (1910), whose account 
we may supplement by the following remarks based en material 
collected and described by Marshall (1905, 1908), and further 
material obtained by Cotton and the writer. The granites of 
Preservation Inlet, of Pigeon Island in Dusky Sound, and of 
Stewart Island, show little or no sign of strain. These may belong 
to a " newer granite " series, or to the latest portions of the single 
jjeriod O'f orogeny and plutonic intrusions to be described. The 
diorite of the Hollyford Valley, on the north-east of the crystalline 
complex, has also no sign of strain, and differs somewhat from 
the diorites about the head of Lake Te Anau ana the Clinton 
Valley, which are more or less crushed, increasingly so as we pass 
westwards until on the watershed. P'alloon Peak consists of a 
strongly cataclastic rock, in which epidcte has replaced horn- 
blende. In the same region also, and on the divide west of the 
Hollyford River, thf mica-ncrite is strained, may be. morei or less 
hornblendic or uralitised, and contains zoisite. (Cf. Bartrum 
1920). West of the watershed, however, the features of the middle 
zone of metamorphism may be seen. Garnets appear, and poikilo- 
blastic structure is marked in the hornblende and sometimes m 
the garnets. This is well seen in a rock from the Bowen Falls at 
tht liead of Milford Sound, which rock also contains large prisms 
of clinozoisite. Near the entrance to Milford Sound, the features 
of the upper zone are approached once more in the characters of 
the amphibolite and quartz-mica-schist of Anita Bay, in which 
there are intrusive masses of peculiar cataclastic peridotites con- 
taining magnesite (Marshall 1905, Speight 19lD). The sillimanite- 
gneisses of Resolution and Stewart Islands, which show evidence 
of high temperature, may be the contact-metamorphic effects of the 

54 . president's address — section c. 

deep-seated intrusion of dioritic magmas during regioaial pressure. 
The similarity between seme of tlie gabbroid rocks in tlie eastern 
portion of the crystalline complex, and those ot Orepuki, (Far- 
quhareon 1911) and the Bluff (Wild 1912), suggest these outlying 
igneous masses are coeval with the more basic intrusive rocks of 
Fiordland. The norite of the Bluff is intrusive into a series of 
homblendic rocks, the highly altered product of ancient basic 
igneous rocks which have been referred to the Te Anau series, or 
the lower portion of the Maitai series, and probably of later Palaeo- 
zoic age. This correlation is strengthened though not proved by the 
occurrence of gabbroid masses intrusive into the Permian ( ?) 
Maitai rocks of the neighbouring Longwood and Takatimu Ranges 
and in north- west Southland. Wei thus conclude that while so>me 
of the crystalline complex may be^ prei-Ordovician, the bulk of it is 
probably p'Ost-Ordovician, and some may even be Mesozcic* 

Perhaps we may class with the same series of igneous intrusions 
the gneisses of the north-west coast of the South Island, especially 
ill the Hokitika, Mikonui and perhaps the Reefton District studied 
by Bell (1906), Morgan (1908, 1915) and Henderson (1917). The 
rocks collected by these writers, which the present author -has 
seen, consist of granites of various types and syenites, all showing 
markedly the effects of strain, especially in the most basic hom- 
blendic types. Bartrnm (1917) has found jDiimary epidote in a 
granodicrite of this series. Crumpled mica-gneisses aleo' occur. 
These apparently invade the ancient (pre-Ordovician ?) sediments 
and basic lavas, producing amphibole and mica-schist, grading out- 
ward into less metamorphosed types of rock. 

Bartrum (1920) has described a number of pebbles of plutonic 
rocks in a Tertiary conglomerate near Auckland. They comprise 
banded diorite-gneisses, cataclastic granodiorites, and dio^'ites in 
which the amphibole is often uralitic, and also an anorthosite. 
After examining the slides kindly sent him by Mr. Bartrum, the 
writer was struck by the similarity between these rocks and those 
described above from the South Island, and would tentatively class 
the two into the same series of Palceozoic intrusions. Bartrum 
recalls the reported occurrence of dioritic pebbles in Tertiary rocks 
at Whangaroa, North Auckland, in the region immediately east 
of Kawhia and again in the Gisborne district. Marshall (1918) 
repoTts finding a diorite pebble in similar circumstances near 
Kaipara. Pebbles of plutonic rocks have been found in the 
" Maitai " (Permian ? or Triassic) rocks of the Wellington Pro- 
vince, and in these sediments, also, in Great Barrier Island, Bar- 
trum has found granites, pegmatites, gamet-granulites, etc., in 

* Since this was writ-ten, Mr. Moir, a former student of tlie author, has observed 
that the diorite in the Hollyford Valley invade; the (Triassic ?) annelid -bearing areywacke, 
and Professor P.ark has confirmed this observation in many exposures in the Dairan 
Mountains, further to the south. (Private communication.) 

t Private communication. 

PEESIDENT's address — SECTION c. 55 

which the zircons in the biotites are sunounded by very dark 
pleochroic haloes.* There are, too, numerous xenolithsi of horn 
blende-schist in dykes invaiding the " Maitai " rocks near Whan- 
arei. Bartrum cites these and other considerations to show that 
there " are vestiges of a land-area which probably antedated the 
period of depcsiticn of Mesozoic sediments," a conclusion fore- 
shadoivA^ed by Park in 1893. Perhaps, as Marshall suggested 
(1909), the olivine-uorite of Ahipara (North Auckland) may be 
one of these pre-Mesozoic intrusions, but the evidence for this is 
inconclusive, and he lat'ET (1912) classed it as intrusive into Meso- 
zoic rocks. It appears toi the writer: remarkably like what must 
have been the parent rock of a more altered rock occurring in the 
Greenstoinei Saddle, west of Lake Wakatipu. 

The Onlovicmn Ii'ocks. 

The oldest rocke of which the age is definftely known are Ordo- 
vician, and are now generally tenned the Aorere series. Their age 
is defined in two fossilifercus localities respectively in the so'uth- 
west of the South Inland, Preservation Inlet, and in the north-west 
of the South Island, West Wanganui Inlet, Collingwood. Be- 
tween these there stretches a narrow western zone of more or less 
metamorphosed rocks now referred in great part tO' this series. 
In Preservation Inlet, the slates adjacent to thei granite contain 
Clonof/rapttis, Bri/oijraptus, and Tet.ra(jraptii$, and are referred 
by Hall (1915) to the base of the Arenig (Lancefieldian of Vic-, 
torian Geology). In Collingwood the slates contain Bryograptus, 
iJichograptus, Didymograptus, Goniograptus, Loganograptus, and 
Tetragroptus, and aro of Middle Arenig (Castlemanian) age, 
(Shakespear 1908, Hall 1915). Kecent work of the Geological 
Survey in the latter region is tending to confirm Dr. Shakespear's 
suggestion that two fossilifercus zones are recognisable. Some tri- 
lobites, at present undetermined, are eaid toi have been dis- 
covered.* The slates of this group are associated with grey- 
wackes and quartzites, and pass gradually into mica-schist in which 
are great masses of marble, the "complex carbonates" of Bell 
(1907), and the Mt. Arthur or Pikikiruna series of earlier classi- 

Southwards from this region in the western footliills and slopes 
of the Southern Alps, there are wide areas of metamorphic rocks 
now considered by the Geological Survey to be of early Paljeozoic 
age, though fcrmerlv assigned to the later Palaeozoic or even 
Mesozoic age, and classed under various names, Arahura, Kanieri,! 
Greenland, We?tland, or Maitai series, &c. There form a large 
part of West Nekon and Westland Provinces, and have been 
traced south-westwards to beyond Mt. Cock (Bell 1905). They 

* Private commimication. 

t TIi's name was employed by Bell (1906) through oversight. It had been previously given 
to a portion of the Tertiary series. ^ ^ 

56 president's address — section c. 

are geneirally most strongly metaiiiorphic in the' western portions, 
and consist of morei cr less schistose rocks, sometimes giieissic, 
associated with the dioritic rocks described above, and passing 
eastwards into' amphibolite, epidote-schist, mica-schist, phyllites, 
argillites, arkoses and greywacke. The metamorphism has 
been studied mostly by Morgan, who recognises that it 
is for the most part reigional in character, but is especially 
marked about the bosses of massive granite. As before stated, 
seme geologists, especially Morgan and Henderscn, consider that 
there are twO' groups of intrusions, the older gneisses which are 
considered to antedate the Aorere rocks, and the younger granites 
and associated dykes which luay be later Palaeozoic or even 
Mesozoic. It is evident that the detailed study of this region by 
the methods of modern metamorphic ])etrology will be essential 
tO' its elucidation. 

T],c Silnrian For/,s. 

The Silurian rocks of the Eaton River in Nelrtn Province have 
net been investigated during the past decade. Their mode of 
occurrence is .obscure, and little weight can be placed at present 
oil the suggested conformity of these rocks with the Ordovician 
series, though they are both steeply dipping rocks with a north- 
westerly strike. Hector provisionally determined over fift}^ species 
of fossils, which Thomson (1913) enumerates. They are largely 
brachiopods suggesting a comparison with We-nlock faunas. The 
rocks are argillaceous limestones and clay-ahales. The fossiliferous 
recks of Reefton cover less than four square miles, and consist of 
quartzite with some ca.rbo.naceous streaks, greywacke, argillite, 
and limestone in rapid alteration, and a small amount of tuffa- 
ceous material. The limestone is coralline or crinoidal, and these 
with the clastic sediments contain an eixtensive molluscan fauna 
in which Hector tentatively determined thirteen forms, and as- 
signed a Lower Devonian age to tlie rocks. Henderson (1917) 
accepted this, urging in support Wanner' s recognition of 
riciirodictyum in these rocks, a genus characteristic of the Lower 
Devonian of the Rhine. This genus, however, is represented in 
the Silurian rocks of Victoria, and New South Wales, and in the 
preliminai-y examination of a collection of thirty-four species of 
fossils from Reef ten, Mr. W. S. Dun, Government Palaeontolo- 
gist of New South Wales, determined a group of forms comparable 
with those of the Silui-ian recks of the Yass series of New South 
Walee, and the Yeringian of Victoria, both considered to be of 
Wenlock age. He was of the opinion that the Reefton beds are 
probably coeval with those of the Eaton River, though with such 
differences as may be explained by the more littoral character 
of the Reefton rocks. J This determination accords with the 
views of Hutton, Park, and Marshall, and is now accepte^l by the 

X Private communication ; cited by permission of the Di.'ector of Geological Survey. 

president's address — SECTION c. 57 

Geological Survey. Henderson has shown that the Silurian I'ocks 
are everywhere bounded by great faults, and in some instances 
have been dragged down into fault-breccias which traverse the 
Aorere (Ordovician ?) rocks. There is here, also, no means of 
ascertaining the conformity or otherwise of Silunan upon older 
rocks, or the relation of the Silurian to th© plutonic rocks. 

A great series oif epidotised basic lavas and agglomerates asso- 
ciated with a conglomei-ate lying unconfoonably upon the Aorere 
rocks, and containing pebbles of the same, form the Haupiri series 
of north-west Nelson. Marshall suggests it is of Silurian age, but 
the correlation with the later Te Anau series is here tentatively 

Jjatt Paheozoic ( ?) and Mcsozoic ( 1) Plutonic Iiifriisions. 
There is much uncertainty concerning the age to be assigned 
to the granites and associated dyke rocks occurring abundantly 
in Neleon and Westland. The presence of numerous pebbles of 
porphyry in the Triassic conglomerates near Nelson has been urged 
by Marshall (1912) in support of a late Palseozcic age for these 
intrusive rocks. Hutton (1899), holding them to be contem- 
poraneous with the "syenite" of Mackay's Bluff near Nelson, 
which he believed to invade the "Maitai" rocks, considered them 
to be approximately Permian in age. Henderson (1917) and 
Speight (1910) are inclined to refer some at least of these intrusive 
masses to the period of late Mesozoic orogeny. These rocks have 
produced marked contact-metamorphism described by Marshall 
(1909) and Morgan (1908). 

The Permian ( ?) " Maitai " and Tiias.-Jtira. " Holonui " Si/atem. 

The determination of the rocks that should be comprised within 
this system, and their relationship to one another^ has long been 
a debated point in New Zealand geology. Hochstetter (1864) ap- 
plied the name "red and green Maitai slates," to a series of rocks 
in which no fossils had been seen, occurring between Nelson and 
the peridctite of Dun Mountain and consisting of steeply dipping 
and shattered argillites and greywacke in which doubtful traces 
of fucoid markings were noted. These were associated with lime- 
stone, basic volcanic rocks, and the fossiliferous Triassic Richmond 
sandstones. Hochstetter grouped all these together as of Mesozoic 
age. The name Maitai slates soon received a greatly extended 
application, and comprised the unfossiliferous argillites, jaspil- 
lites. and greywackes, which formed the main ranges throughout 
New Zealand. Hector separated out from these a great group 
of basic agglomerates, &c., which he termed the Te Anau Series, 
and recognised at many places, and considered to be of Upper De- 
vonian age, and to underlie conformably the "Maitai" rocks. 
Mackay discovered in the latter* a few brachiopods considered by 

* At the Wairoa Gorgfe, near Nelson. 

58 president's address — section c. 

Hector to be Carboniferous in age, together with an undetermined 
form differing in somi© respects from Inoccramus, and held that 
these beds were thrust over the fossiliferous Triassic rocks. He 
also indicated that the Maitai beds might be united with a higher 
series cf argillites, which were unfossiliferous sa-vei for the presence 
of an annelid Torh^ssia Mach(vyi. He believed an unconfo'rmity 
existed between the Maitai and Triassic rocks but that their rela- 
tions were somewhat obscure. Hutton (1873) at first believed the 
Maitai and Triassic were continuous, indeed included the latter 
in the Maitai system, but later urged that a very important 
orogenic movement separated them. Park (1904) for a brief 
period considered the Maitai recks as Jurassic, accepting as correct 
the detennination of the shell mentioned as Inoccramus. Later 
(1910) he withdrew this, and suggested the form was inorganic, 
though as thei result of an eixamination of the Maitai braohiopods, 
he confirmed McKay's view concerning these. The Geological 
Survey (Marshall and Bell 1911) extended the temn Maitai series 
toi cover all the older sediments of the Nelson district, and threw 
doubt on thei occurrence of supposodly Carboniferous fossils, and 
the determination of the form mentioned as true Inoceramus. 
Marshall (1912) went further, and used the term Maitai series to 
cover the whole cf the Triassic and Jur^assic rooks in New Zealand, 
and correlated with this series some of the greywackes and argillites 
cif the West Coast, together with the more or less m-etamoirphic 
mica-schists of Central Otago. He thus made it by far thei most 
extensive formation in New Zealand. He excluded from it, how- 
ever, the Haupiri series of conglomerates and basic breccias Tying 
unconformably on the Aorere rocks in north-western Nelson. They 
had usually been classed (as here) with the Te Anau rocks, but 
Marshall suggested that it would be preferable tentatively to 
class them with the Silurian rocks. Thus at the close of the 
last decade, two attitudes were adopted m the general statements 
issued. The one attempted to rearrange the late Palaeozoic and 
Early and Middle Mesozoic rocks into various subdivisions, on the 
old lines, accepting as suflticient the tentativei determinations O'f 
thei fossils therein. The other view noted the confusion that 
existeid in the stratigraphical and palaeontological data, as they 
then stood, assumed that v^s a result of isolation, premature and 
belated forms could be expected here, and concluded that it was 
not possible to divide the sediments of this period into sub-series, 
comparable with those in the contemporaneous formations of the 
northern hemispherei, but rather stressed the unity and apparent 
conformity of the whole sedimenta,ry system to which the name 
Maitai was extended. 

With this introduction the importance of the work of the last 
decade may be more clearly realized, and the results of this are 
shown on Tables II. and III. Thomson (1913) drew attention to 
the policy of the Indian Geological Survey in sending carefully 



ANI> .UKA.sSir i;ni K.-^ 

Arbci-, 1917. 


Hector, 1881). 


Hutton. 1885. 

Park, 1904. 

I'ark, 1910. 

Marshall, 1912. 





Lower Jurassic. 


Vpper Jurassic. 








Mat lura 

Maitai system. 









Hiqhrr .lum-KU. 

Fla'; Hill. 


= KlaKHill 

throughout ; 


Tithonian and 

Kawhia Har- 

Z Catiins River 





older mem- 



>. Bastion. 

( 'lavitjera 


forms believed 


bers of the 

t'atlins River 



. Putataka 

to be absent. 

Upper and 




" Trigoniet ■*+ 

i (including 

The scries in- 


Middle .Juras- 

Plant- Berts. 

J Tria.i.-'ir. 


S Fla« Hill, 

cludes the 




Malvern Hills. 

c Otapiri 


■■^ Catiins 

more or less 

.Mutaiwa Falls 



* Wairoa" 


— River and 


(Klaj; Hill 

Lower Jnramir. 




.t; Bastion). 

phosed rocks 


(Liassic and 

Wairoa with 




= hiocerainus 

of Otago 

I'ark, 1887.) 

Ijrobably Ba- 

*' diabasic 


^ Beds. 

classed by 

Malvern Hills. 


ash " 




fide McCoy) 

Ureal I'lirou- 


f Triassic. 

in part Lower 




in Southern 

formili/aml phi- 

Te Anau. 

i (llupiri 

Silurian to 

Catling River. 

Kliaitic and 


Alps also 

tmtic iHtru«ioit«. 

J floriyera 


Upper Noric, 


■■'Jurassic " in 

o Myiilus 
== Wairoa 

bv Hutton 


Lower Noric. 

the Hokonui 


(l'899). as I're- 

Mount l><)tl> 

Upper Carnic. 


Hills :— both 


•• Trigonia "t 

Cambrian, bv 

(■lent Hills 

Lower Carnic. 

now con- 

Te Anau. 


Park (1910), as 

(Exact rela- 



sidered UpiJer 

In 1875 

Cambrian and 

tion tu 

Great thick- 



Hutton classed 



faunal zones 

ness of un- 

these together 



iH uncertain. ) 



Lou-erf 7'r,«.«,V. 

as the Maitai 



Middle and 

Te Anau 

Maitai unfo-s- 




1-ower Trias- 

siliforous beds. 

phic rocks in 

aie, probably 


Nelson and 


Aorangi ; 

Westland now 

on Permo- 

Relation lo 

considered to 



be Ordovician. 


(Maitai*) beds. 

beds iDdc- 

'J'e Anau sys- 
tem including 
9 Maitai. 

M>ji}(ih;rH(, fule Trccliiiiituii. 

president's address — SECTION c. 61 

selected collections of fossils to si>ecialists for their investigations. 
The Mesozoic plants were submitted to the late Dr. Arber, and in 
company with Dr. Thomson, Dr. Trechmann, a visiting British 
palaeontologist, obtained fossils once more from McKay's collecting 
grounds in the Maitai rocks of Nelson, and later visited and care- 
fully collected from the localities for Mesoizoic marine fossils in 
several districts, and undertook the examination of those obtained 
by McKay in the collection of the Geological Survey. The very 
valuable results of the study of the Maitai and Triassic fauna i^ 
now available, and that of the Jurassic is shortly to appear. 
E'roadly speaking, the old subdivisions erected by the careful field- 
wo'rk of Cox and McKay over forty years ago, and their palseon- 
tc'logical correlation of strata in various parts of New Zealand, 
hold good, thoiugh comparison with faunas in other parts of the 
world shows that the precise ages assigned to the subdivisions 
thus recognised may now be corrected. The fauna is typically of 
a Tethyan circumpacific character, and there is no reason why any 
of the New Zealand forms should be regarded as local isolated 
survivals from Palaeozoic times, nor is there any premature ap- 
pearance of truly Jurassic forms (Trechmann 1918).* This very 
satisfactory conclusion is much strengthened by the comparison 
of the succession of faunal zones in New Zealand with that in New 
Caledonia, as given by Piroutetf (1917). (See Table III.) We 
may anticipate further interesting information from Dr. Trech- 
mann's study of the Jurassic fossils, of the results of which he has 
already given a preliminary statement. 

Several geologists have divided the sequence of rocks we have 
been discussing into two series, the Maitai (with which the Te Anau 
rocks are included), forming the lower portion, and the Ilokonui 
Series forming the Mesozoic portion. This course is also followed 
in the sequel, except that the Annelid beds of the upper portion 
of the Maitai series are placed in the Lower Triassic. 

The base of the Maitai series is not seeai clearly, unless it should 
prove that the Haupiri volcanic rocks are really (as is here as- 
sumed tentatively) a portion of the same group of rocks as those 
known as the Te Anau breccias, and are correctly considereid to 
underlie conformably the Maitai rocks. The Haupiri rocks consist 
of a series of greywackes, argillites, and ccngloanerates, associated 
with more or less epidotised basic volcanic rocks. Pebbles of Aorere 
rocks occur in the conglomerate (Bell 1907). Near Nelson, there 
is a group of altered basalts and tuffs apparently intercalated in 

* A further investigation has been made by Professor Otto Wilckens of Professor 
Park's collection of Triassic fossils, and the manuscript has now been received by the 
Geological Survey, by whom it will be published as a palseontological ViuUctin. I under- 
stand that the results of this work are. in general, confirmatory of those obtained by 
r)T. Trechmann, and that some inteiesting new fonns have been recognised. Wilckens 
holds (1920, p. sot)) the Triassic fauna of New Zealand is closely allied to that of New 
Caledonia only, with which it has in common several peculiar features, " so that one 
may correctly speak of a Maorian province in the Triassic sea." 

t The similarity between the Triassic fossils of New Zealand and New Caledonia 
was pointed out by Marshall in 1911. 

62 pkesident's address — section c. 

the Maitai rocks, the " Brook Street Igneous rocks." They 
have been thrust on tc' overturned Tertiary rocks, but though 
sometimes gromped with Te Anau rocks they may be Triassic. 
(Seei Fig. 1). Other more or less metamorphosed volcanic rocks 
occur sometimes associated with unfossiliferous " Maitai " slates, 
as, for example, the variolitic "diabase tuff" near Wellington 
(Broadgate 1916) and the diabase tuffs of the Rimutaka ranges 
further to the north, though possibly these should be grouped 
'li'ith the Upper Triassic volcanic rocks. These are assocaated 
with ferruginous jaspilites and argillites, and recall the features 
of palseo'zoic submarine flows (though nolt pillow-lavas) 

Fig. 1. Suggested Section from Dun Mountain to Nelson, alternative to that given by 
the Geological Survey 13ull. 12. 

1. Permian (Maitai) greywacke and limestone. 2. Upper Triassic (Noric) or 
Permian basic volcanicrocks. 3. Upper Triassic sediments. 4. Peridotite. 
5. Miocene marine beds overlying coal-measures. 

observed by the writer in Europe* and Australia, in which 
there has been much change due to hydrothermal action pro- 
ducing layers of red rock. Examples of these are rather widely 
disturbed. With them we may also class the epidotised variolite 
of Mt. St. Mary in south-west Canterbui-y, the basic pyroclastic 
rocks west of Lake Wakatipu, &c. There is, however, a possi- 
bility that so>me of these southern rocks also may belong to' the 
Upper Triassic series of flows, which we shall consider later. 

In the Wellington district the red rocks are interbedded with 
normal steeply dipping greywackes and argillites in which are 
found fragments of annelid-tubes. In a rather calcareous 
layer Thomson has found cbscure foraminifera*. Gotten and the 
writer found also near Wellington an amphicoelous vertebra. 

In the Nelson district, the original locality for the Maitai rocks, 
Treehmann has obtained the following forms: — " Aphanaia " .s^.f 
(the form erroneously compared with Inoceramus), Platyschisma, 
Mmirloirui^ Sfrnph(ilo»i(i, Mfirfin/op.n.'i, Spirife?-a hisiilcata, a form 

* Private communioation. 

t N.B. — Since the above was written Mr. W. S. Dun, Government Palaeontoloffist for New 
South Wales, has stated to the writer that this form for several reasonn (notably the possession 
of a large posterior ear, and marked ligamental structures) cannot be referred to De Koninck's 
genus Aphntinia. 

president's address — SECTION c. 63 

doubtfully referred to Rhynchonella jileurodon, and Zaphrentis. 
He confirms Hutton's (1899) connparison of these with the "Peirmo- 
Carboniferous " fauna of Eastern Australia, and indeed they 
may be referred to the upper portion of that series except B. 
pleiirodoti, which is not known above the lower carboniferous. Sp. 
hisificafa is more commonly in those beds alsoi than in the Permian. 
Professor David (1919) has shown that this formation is most 
suitably considered to be Permian. Pircutet (1917) has grouped 
into the same series in New Caledonia, beds containing Aphanaia, 
and those in which are found the typically Permian cephalopods, 
Staeheoceras, Pojmnoceras and Waagcnoceras, and there therefore 
appears no reason to regard the Maitai series as other than Per- 

In regard to theii' distribution, Morgan (1919) and Trechmann 
(1917) have drawn attention to the reported occurrence of the 
" Dun Mountain T uoccramus " in the north-east of the South 
Island, and at various localities in the Southern Alps of Canter- 
bury extending down to the Waitaki River. The relation cf these 
'''Aphanaia," bearing rocks to those in which the annelid Tot- 
Icssia McKaifi has been found is not clear, but McKay's view 
has generally been followed, namely, that the?3: form the upjwr 
portion cf the Maitai series. Jaworsky (1915) holds that this 
annelid should be referred tc' the genus TcreheUina, and. 
is of Triassic age. They are widely distributed in the 
above regions, ' occurring here and there in the western 
and eastern slopes of the Southern Alps in Westland and Canter^ 
bury, extending thence across the Waitaki River into North 
Otago, where the calcareous slates containing the " Dun Mountain 
Inocf^ramn!^" include micaceous sandstones v/ith plant remains. 
(McKay. 1881, p. 78). They also appear to form much of the 
country between the Waitaki and Shag River consisting of breccia 
beds, green and purple slates and limestone. (Cox 1882, Park 
1918). Professor Park (1919) has recognised them again south 
of the Taieri River, and Hcnie limestone has been noted at Akatore 
in this neighbourhood. Remains of "Inoceramus" have also been 
noted at Coal Hill, near Mossburn, in the west of Southland 
(Hutton 1875, p. 36)., and the Maitai and Te Anau rocks are 
well developed in the Takitimu and Longwood ranges forming 
the western margin cf this Province. They may also be repre- 
sented in the Bluff as before mentioned, hut this must be left in 

The Tlokovul Sytdn. 

The relaticn between the Hokonui and the underlying Maitai 
system has long been uncertain. Hutton consistently held that 
there was a great unconformity marking vigorous erogenic move- 

64 president's address — section c. 

ment and plutoiiic intrusion.* McKay (1879, p. Iu5) was also 
of the opinion, that an unconformity existed in North Canterbury, 
and showed Triassic volcanic rocks lying unconformably on Maitai 
rocks in one region, and unconformably underlain by a great 
thickness of fossiliferous and luif ossilif erous Triassic rocks in an 
adjacent region (suggesting faulting rather than unconformity). 
The lower Triassic unfossiliferous greywackes are almost indis- 
tinguishable from Maitai rocks, and are apparently the same as 
those Park (1910) has termed the Aoraugi series, recognising them 
as the lowest member of the Hokonui system. McKay has shown 
that much in the Wellington Province formerly relegated to the 
Maitai system must be placed in the lower portion of the Hokonui 
system, and indicated that the Maitai and Hokonui rocks are in- 
timately associated in the neighborhood of Wellington itself, but 
described no unconformity here. Park in 1910 stated that the 
relations between the two series were indefinite, but has recently 
reverted to his former (1904) acceptance of Hutton's view.f 
Marshall (1912) insisted on the complete conformity of the 
two series, a view to which Trechmann inclines. Speightf believes 
that there is an unconformity between the two systems, and notices 
the inclusions of pebbles of greywacke, probably derived from the 
Maitai rocks in the Triassic conglomerates. The writer has not 
yet seen sufficient grounds other than the absence of the Lower 
and Middle Triassic fauna, to support the contention that any 
break which may be present is a very great one, though crust- 
warping may well have occurred between Permian and Upper 
Triassic times. That such happened during Upper Triassic times, 
is obvious from the occurrence of a. marked zone of conglomerate, 
and the local absence of one of the fossiliferous zones of this por- 
tion of the succession. In the cast of New Caledonia. Piroutet 
(1917) has grouped the Permian and Triassic rocks as a single and 
very thick sedimentary series, without any nctewcrthy angular 
vmconformity, but has shown that in the Middle Triassic there 
was a regressive movement of the strand, followed by the trans- 
gression in Upper Middle and Upper Triassic times, which is also 
represented by a faunal transgression in New Zealand. Upper 
Triassic strata generally lie directly upon fossilifei'ous lower Triassic 
beds in New Caledonia. It may eventually appear that somewhat 
similar conditions obtain in New Zealand, though the supposedly 
Lower Triassic rocks seiem unfortunately to be all iinfos!?iliferous 
unless the Annelid beds be cousidered Triassic, as Jaworsky urges. 

The zonal subdivision of the Lower Mesozoic rocks of the Hoko- 
nui ranges was made by Co'X in 1877, and was extended immediate- 
ly afterwards by McKay, and applied to the interpretation of 
the complex Nelson district on the grounds of Hector's palseontolo- 

? It must not be overlooked that Hutton considered as in tlie Maitai Series, many 
formations now relegated 1 1 the Aoren svstem. 

t Private communication. 



Comparison of 1*ermian and Mesozoic Stratigraphy and vSuccession of 
Faunal Zones in New Zealand and New Caledonia. 

hieflv after Woods and Trechmann. 

Danian ? 

Foramiferal limestone with teeth 
of Carcharod^n and Isurus 


Kossinaliceras, BacuUtes 
ceras ? Anisoceras ? 

GaudryceraSj Trigonia, C 
' Area" Cardium, Alaria 

Cimoliasaurus, Lelodon. 

Regression and minor unconformity 
or conformity claimed here 

Ibian. (Local development only.) 

tlinidrii' >r(is sayca 
T in illiii.s circumtoeniatus 
1 H'" ' I'l III us concenticus 
Liintt, Aucelliiia, Trigonia. 

Great Poat-Hokonui Orogeny and 
intrusion of ultrabaaic, basic and 
perhaps acid Plutonic rocks. 


Plant Beds — Awanui and F^ast 
Coast Inoceramus beds pro- 
bably extending down into 
Jurassic rocks 

Berriasella novo-zealandica, Streb- 
lites, &c., with Inoceramus 
concluding a conformable .series 
of J urassic marine and fresh 
water beds ranging down into 
Bajoccian and Liassic strata. 
(Details not yet available.) 

Arcestes cf. rheticus 

Meiitzelia, Clavigera lumida 

Spirijtrina diomeda 

H'foinonotis ochotica 
(zcme locally missing) 

udumonotis rickmondiana (very 

(zone locally mi.ssing) 

.^pirifirina spp. 

tlalabia ziUeti far 
horhgMleri. H. c 

ihjnph.iH, >,|,. ( 
Si.„,frru,„ »,,. .V,, 
ll„h,r,IUi^y. JI.I-, 
Dixrojilli/lliUa^l). A 

. (iu^lricu-a u-n,j 

Mylilii.s prdiU maticuii (abuiul 


Uahbia .pp. 

Mifoiihoi-id Hugtjeien 

llulnnUn sp. Spirif,nna>]K 

Spiriferina cf. fragilis 
Daonr.lla indica 

Middle and Lower t Triamic. 
(Jreai thiikncss of unfossiliferou; 
bed of whiclt the relation tc 
the underlying formation is not 
clear. Various authorities sug 
gest that there is perfect con- 
formity, or a minor or majoi 
unconformity, the last involv 
ing plutonic int 

Arinrlid beds. 

S,nnfna, I'hitu'o-hismu 

After Piroutet. 


and folduiii 


Ko88inaticerafi, liaculiles, Lyto 

ceras. Anisoceras. 
Gaudryceras, Trigonia. 

Arcfiy C'ardiunh Alaria. 

Regression of the strand and i 

Eocretaceou/i C»>al Measuros and 
Marine Beds with E-ragyra. 


Berriasella cf. novo-zealandica. 
Trifjonia, Alaria, Gasterojods. 

The majority of Upper Jurassic, 
the Middle and Lower Jurassic, 
and RhE'tic arc absent. 

Some orogenic movement o<'curred 
and Tithonian rests with marked 
unconformity on the None. 


J.'iscoj hyllitPM ef. debili'! 
Pseudoinonotis sp. 
Cepha'opods lihynchonrl'ii spp. 


Spirigera, Spirijerina, &e. 

Fseudomowitis sp. and liatobiu ef. 
rare, striate (zone locally missing). 

Hnlnbia hocftstetleri. H. aitstrinra 
Further zonal subdivision proposed. 

(Nine sub-zones in all.) 
Spirigera wreyi, Diftcophyllites 
Arcestes^ various typcj*. 

Ilalobia ef. austriara 
lialobia hochsletteri 
Myophoria, OaMeropvds 
Helzia, Halorflla, lihymhimrlht, 

My i H.- prMematiri's (abund- 
ant ) 

Ilaloina zittcli, lialobia spp 

Myophoria. Halobia sp. 

Spiriferina cf. fragilii 
Hhynrkonella sp. Tcnhnitnh sp. 

Middle Tria 
Daonclla t 

'seudoinonttlis alT. pninkhnndana 
Ophiceras, FlvmnnngHr.% Mcako- 
ceras, Aspidites, Koninckites, 
Danubites, Dorycraniics. 



PRESIDEKt'S address — SECTION c. 67 

gieal examination of McKay's collections. This work, so rapidly and 
accurately accomplished, must remain one of the triumphs of those 
pioneer geologists. It has since been somewhat modified by Park 
(1886), and applied (1904) to the succession of Triassio beds at 
Nugget Point in south-eastern Otago. Apart from these regions 
where a long succession of fcssilifercus zones are present, McKay 
has recognised portions of the sequence in many parts of the two 
main islands. Trechmann's investigations in the field and his 
palaeontological work confinn the succession of beds in these areas, 
and serve to define their eixact age and fauna! relationships. The 
various ages that have been assigned to them are shown sufficiently 
in Table II. We must consider their character and geographic 
distribution, and note first that from lowest fossiliferous horizon 
(top O'f the Middle Triassic) to the close of the Rhaetic, the thick- 
ness of the series of sediment is nearly 10,000 feet. In 
Southern Otago, the more or less schistose rocks north of the 
Clutha River, merge southwards into a mass of greywackes and 
conglomerates over 6,000 feet thick, containing in its upper 
portion a small fauna, the fossiliferous zone being traceable south- 
eastward to Nugget Point. Similarly in Northern OtagO' beyond 
th« intervening mica-schists the semi-metamorphic Maitai or 
Aorangi rocks ("Kurow schists"), are followed by a fossiliferous 
zone of argillites and conglomerate with an analogous fauna which 
also is found in Mt. Potts in the heart of the ranges of West 
C'ant(>rbury. and again in the Nelson district, where tht/r strati-' 
graphical relationship to adjacent formations is obscured. These 
occurrences belong to the Kaihiku series of the early geologists. 
Trechmann (191 7a) shows that they, are characterised by Daonella 
indica and Spiriferina frarfilis, with forms of Halorella, Mentze- 
liopsis, Entrochiis, and Isocrinus, indicating a horizon equivalent 
to the top of Alpine Middle Triassic formation, i.e., they are 
Ladino-Carnic in age. 

These are followed by Carnic beds with a prolific fauna of over 
fifty species, which may be grouped into several sub-zones. They 
have been recognised along the south-western side of the Hokonui 
Hills, and its continuation in the Moonlight Ranges, and probably 
are indicated by the fossiliferous rocks which were noted by 
Hector (1891, p. LXL), between the head of Lake Wakatipu and 
the plutonic rocks of the Sounds region. These pass eastward into 
Te Anau rocks, and thence into the metamorphic rocks of Queens- 
town and Central Otago. The same fauna is found in various 
localities along the western mountainous portions of the Canter- 
bury province. Halohia and Mytilvs are abundant, with Adon- 
tophoria and Mynplmria (formerly classed as Triqonia, and thought 
to be a Jurassic forerunner), five species of Spiriferina, Retzia, and 
S'lnriffera, together with a group of cephalopods, including Pro- 
dvdonantihis and Discnphyilites. This was termed the Oreti 

68 president's address — section c. 

series by the old Geological Survey. A conglomerate, with re- 
markably large pebbles or boulders, and volcanic ash, occurs in 
this series, or in the lower portion of the overlying Noric beds. 

The Noric beds which follow have a special interest. They form 
the Wairoa series of Hector, and the Richmond sandstone of Hoch- 
stetter. They are characterized by an encrmou'.s abundance of 
Pseudoviontis, with sub-zones marked by the form I', richmon- 
diana which also occurs in New Caledonia, and F. ochotica, a 
circum-Pacific type, known also in Timor, the Himalayas, Japan, 
Arctic Siberia, &c. Locally the zone is completely absent, as near 
Nugget Point, though present ten miles inland from here. This 
series is noteworthy both for its wide extent, and for the igneous 
rocks in the lower portion. They extend along the Hokonui Hills 
and into the Moonlight Range. They extend throughout the 
length of the Southern Alps in Canterbury, being recognized, 
generally in river gravels, but are also known in situ near Lake 
Tekapo and Arthur's Pass (Speight 1920). McKay (1879) has also 
traced them fi'om the Malvern and Clent Hills, where they had 
been ohserved by Von Haast, up to the Ashley county, in north- 
west of Canterbury, and shown that caey are associated there with 
crystalline limestones, cherts, and diabasic ash. In the Nelson 
district the Noric rocks correspond generally with part of Hcch- 
stetter's Richmond sandstones, which contains an extraordinary 
abundance of Fseudornonofis. The igneous rocks are not here 
developed, unless, as is not improbable, the Brock-street series 
should be included here ratlier than in the Te Anau series. 
McKay (1878) has also shown the occurrence of diabasic ash, 
limestones and argillites, with traces of " Monotis " in the eastern 
side of thei Rimutaka-Ruahine ranges, and Noric beds also are 
abundant in the -Mokau district of North Taranaki, and extend 
theaice to Kawhia, in which region the lower J', or/iofirn sub-zone 
is missing, but is found further north, near Huntly. (Fidc' Dr. 

The Rhaetic fauna which follows on this has so far been re- 
corded fi'om the southern side of the Hokonui hills, in the South 
Island, and from the regions about Kawhia, in the North Island, 
where the series is 3,000 feet thick. Arccfifcs rhctica, a very alate 
Spiriferinn (S. d'iomeda), Mentzelia and f'hirir/eia (the " Hec- 
to'ria " of Trechmann), are the chief fossils. An extensive series 
of fossil if erous Mesozoic rocks occurs in the latter region, and -is 
now being investigated by Dr. Henderson and his associates, who 
have verbally indicated that Dr. Trechmann 's zonal succession is 
well represented in this region. 

The Jurassic beds follow conformably on the Triassic, but are not 
so notably fels]>athic. Thev consist of alternating sandstones and 
mudstones, in which interbedded plant-remains are increasingly 
abundant, and give rise to small seams of coal. Marine and 


teirestial deposits ai*e, therefcre, interstratified, the latter predomi- 
nating in the upper portion of the series. Over fifty species of 
marine molluscs have been provisionally det€irniiiied in these rocks 
by Hector. These are now under examination by Dr. Trechmann 
(1917), who has already indicated the presence of a Liassic, and 
possibly Bajcccian, fauna in the beds which immediately overlie 
the Rhaetic rocks of the Hokonui hills. Elsewhere the Middle 
Jurassic beds are followed by zones which may range as high as the 
Tithonian, a stage which is transitional into the Ci'etaceous. 
Henderson has found a great thickness of Jurassic strata overlying 
the Rhaetic beds in the Huutly and M( kau districts, extending up 
to the Tithonian rocks of Kawhia.*. According to a private 
communication Dr. Trechmann is of the opinion that most of the 
forms are related to Malayan or Himalayan types. The older 
detenninations of Hector indicate the presence of various fo'rms of 
ammonites and belemnites, AuceUa, Triffonia, Inoctramus, Lima, 
l'h()lod)/)iu, Floiromi/a, FateUa, S/jiriferina, and Clavir/era. In 
the only region in which the determination of the fossils has been 
yet carried out on modern lines, namely, in the uppermost 
(Tithonian) marine beds at Kawhia, Boehm (1911) has found, in 
addition to the previously recognised oircumpacific types of 
AuceUa, Litna, I/tovcrannrs, and FhijJhjccra.^ (allied to a Malayan 
type) a Strehlites and Feri.^phiiwfes, and has concluded that 
Amvionites novozealandicus, of Hauer, is a species of HopUtes 
{Berrittsella), a genus very characteristic of the top of the 
Jurassic. On the other side of the island. Upper Jurassic beds, 
with Inoceramvm, occur in the Corcmandel Peninsula (Thomas, 

The Jurassic beds belonging to the Lower and Middle division 
are widely deveLjped in the regions south of the Hckonui Range, 
and there lie in gently undulating folds and appear to have been 
transgre-sive across the ccntinental block of Southland. They 
are much more steeply folded in the foothifls of the Southern 
Alps throughcait the Province ol Canterbury, and again in the 
regions of South Auckland and Korth Taranaki, where the Upper 
Jiirassic beds are also stee})ly folded, as also in Ccromandel. Here, 
too, and down the eastern side of the North Island are beds which 
are transitional into the lowest Cretaceous series. With these 
we may perhaps group the fossiliferous beds of Kawhia, men- 
tioned above; those of Waikato Heads desci-ibed by Ccx (1877), 
which may, however, be slightly higher (file Mr. Morgan); the 
Inoceraniu.'^ Iceds. of the Te Kuiti district (Henderson, 1918); and 
those of the Awaiiui district, north of Gisborne (McKay, 1874). 
Similar beds again occur in large developments along the east 
coast, south from Cape Kidnappers. Mr. Morgan (1915) has 
classed theee as the "East Coast Series,'^ and remarks that they 
consist of conglomerates, sandstones, and dark shale?, which in 

• Verbal communication. 

70 president's address — SECIION c. 

some places contain Cretaceous fossils {Inoreramus being particu- 
larly abundant), but may pass down into Jurassic beds. In most 
cases they are strongly folded, and more or less faulted. Much 
work will be required, however, before the relationships of the 
higher members of the Hokonui series is satisfactorily deter- 

The results of Dr. Arber's palseobotanical studies give a 
general support of these stratigraphical conclusions, though on ac- 
count of the poverty of the flora, and somewhat unfavorable con- 
ditions for its preservation, exact coincidence could not be ex- 
pected. Moreover, according to Dr. Arber, it is not yet pos- 
sible to distinguish with certainty between late Triassic and early 
Jurassic floras. The greater part of New Zealand in the Triassic 
and Jurassic periods was probably a wide continental shelf con- 
stantly built out on a subsiding area. When such movement was 
temporarily checked and lagoons or dry land replaced the shalloiw 
sea, a scanty flora migrated on to this from the adjacent con- 
tinental land mass which perhaps lay to- the west and south-west. 
So far as is yet known there are only a quarter of the number 
of species noted in the Australian terrestrial Mesozoic rocks 
(Benson, 1919). The oldest Mesozoic plants are those of Mount 
Potts, in Canterbury, which Arber considers to be probably 
Rhaetic. According to Park (1904), they underlie the Kaihiku 
(Ladino-Carnic) beds, though McKay is uncertain of this (1878, 
pp. 92 and 95). They contain Thinnfeldia odontopteroides, T. 
lancifolia, and Clndnphlehu anfitrnlis, together with LingiiifoUuni 
lillieanvm, the form long thought to be Gloxsopferis. A rather 
similar flora occurs in the Clent Hills. Small floras dubiously re- 
ferred to the Rhaetic or early Jurassic, and otners placed with 
more confidence in the Lower Jurassic, have oeen described from 
strata in the southern flanks of the Hokonui Hills, formerly 
grouped within the Catlins and Flag Hill series. A similar as- 
semblage occurs in the Malvern Hills, west of Christchurch. 
Taeniopteris (daintreei) spatvia, Cladophlehis, Coniopteris, and 
cycads occur in these. The well-known fossil foTest at Waikawa, 
east of Invercargill, in which petrified coniferous trunks are fre- 
quent, has long been classed in the Mataura Series; at the flora 
of these Arber has considered as Middle Jurassic. With these 
also occurred, in all probability, the steins ox Osmundites, de- 
scribed biv Kidstcn and Gwynne Vaughan (1907), and also' by 
Sinnott (1914). Of special interest is Arber's recognition that 
the plant beds of the Waikato Heads near Auckland, the highest 
portion of the Hokonui system, is of Neocomian Age, and contains 
two angiosperms, one allied to the modern figs. " This flora is 
particularly interesting as being probably one of the oldest of the 
known Neophytic floras." * — (Arber, 1917.) 

• Angiosperms have since been found in rooks of about the same age in Queensland (Walkom, 

president's address — SECTION c, 71 

The Problem of the Otago Schists. 

So far we have left untoixclied the difficult problem of the age 
and origin of the Otago Schists, of which the structure-planes lie 
inclined at remarkably low angles. These consist of quartz-mica- 
schist, with the structures characteristic of rocks in the uppermost 
of Grubenmann's metamorphic zones, and are intercalated with 
bands of chlorites or hornblende, schists, which were originally 
doleritic rocks (cf. Finlayson, 1907). From the first it has been 
stated that these pass by decreasing metamorphism into unmeta- 
morphosed rocks. Hutton (1875) placed them into his Wanaka 
Series passing insensibly to north-east and south-west through the 
semi-metamorphic Kakanui formation into the Kaikoura forma- 
tion, the last being considered equivalent to the Te Anau-Maitai 
Series. Later (1900) he ccnsidered them all of pre-Cambrian 
Age. Hector (1886) suggested that they might range in age from 
Silurian to Carboniferous. Park (1906) classed the most meta- 
morphic schists as Cambrian, followed by semi-metamorphic Or- 
dovician to Carboniferous rocks. That the Central Otagoi schists 
are older than the less metamcrphcsed flanking formations, is still 
the view of the Geological Survey (Morgan, 1914), as is illus- 
trated by the map herewith. Marshall (1912) has urged that 
the schists are but the altered forms oif the Permian and Mesozoic 
sediments, and mentioned several districts where field evidence 
seems to indicate that a gradual passage exists between the two. 
More recently (1918), he has described the observations made in 
the microscopical study of a series cf two dozen rock-slices from 
specimens, taken along a 12-mile line of section from the unmeta- 
morphosed rocks near Balclutha, northwards into the heart of the 
schists beyond Lawrence. This collection he has permitted the 
writer to study. The evidence therein of gradual mechanical 
change by the crushing of the greywacke into' an exceedingly fine- 
grained rock, and its regularly varying degree of recrystalliza- 
tion into a schist, seems to' he very strong. The writer has not yet 
had other opportunity for personal investigation of this problem, 
but accepting Marshall's statement cf the field -occnrrence of these 
rocks, the explanation which be oilers, though at first sight op- 
posed toi onr general experience, seems to be well worthy of 
consideration. It has been urged, by the Geological Survey, for 
**xample, that the greywackes, which are the unaltered or initial 
stage of the schists, are quite as like the Ordcvician ( ?) Aorere 
greywackes, or the presumably older sediments invaded by the 
gneissic diorites, as they are to the greywackes of the Maitai or 
Hokonui Series, and that, therefore, an Ordovician or older age is 
more probable for the Otago schists than a Mesozoic one. On the 
other hand, the earlier descriptions of unconformities between the 
schistose and unaltered rocks remain unconfirmed. It is true that 
the two types of rock have been brought intoi juxtaposition in the 

72' president's address — section c. 

Shag Valley (McKay, 1884), and especially in the central por- 
tion of Northeim Otagc. Cotton (1917) has shown that there are 
here broad areas 'made up of a complex cf schist and greywacjse, 
so distinct in lithological characters as to determine distinctive 
types of physiographic forms. If, however, we may assume as a 
working hypothesis the existence of a great series of recumbent 
folds* broken by subsequent block-faulting, this lithological dis- 
tinction does not necessarily imply any difEerence in age between 
the schists (belonging to the lower portion of the series of folded 
sheets) and the far less altered greywackes derived from the upper 
portion of the series. This, also, would afford an explanation of 
the absence of pebbles of the schist, of quartz-]>ebbles derived 
from the schists, and of micaceous sands, froan thei Mesozoic semi- 
glomerates and greywackes adjacent to the areas oi schist, for 
were the schists much older than the unaltered Mesozoic sedi- 
ments, they might reasonably be expected to have yielded detritus, 
that would be recognisable in the Mesozoic rocks as unmistakably 
as it is in the Tertiary rocks that rest on the schist. Thus 
Marshall's view that tha schists are altered Mesozoic, and, we may 
add, late Palseozoic rocks seems to involve fewer difficulties than 
any other hyi^cthesis that has been put forward. 

The explanations offered for these schists lead to interesting 
considerations. Hutton (1900) drew attention to the gene- 
rally low angle of dip of these rocks (thongh locally steeply 
dipping or crumpled), and held that their metamorphism cannot 
bo explained by lateral pressure, nor is there any evidence of 
contact metamorphism, for plutcnic rocks are absent. He, thei'efore, 
concluded that the change was due to regional thermal meta- 
morphism, when the interior heat C'f the earth was greater than 
at present. This is in marked agreement with Daly's (1917) 
recent discussion of the efficiency of " load metamorphism," in 
terranes " where the bedding is perfectly preserved in the sedi- 
mentary members of the crystalline series of rocks, the dip is 
characteristically low, even nearly horizontal over wide areas, and 
the structure is that of a somewhat broken plateau." Even 
where the inetamorphic rocks have been considerably dislocated, 
as in the Erzgebirge, where there is a gradual passage from 
gneisses through crystalline schists and thick phyllites into fossili- 
ferous Cambrian beds, Daly holds (in opposition to certain other 
geologists, especially Lepsius), that such metamorphism may have 
occurred at an early period, long prior to the folding, and under 
a comparatively small load, but with a thermal gradient much 
steeper than existed in Palseozoic and Mesozoic sediments, even 
though they were buried to greater depth in the crust. This last 
point prevents the application of Daly's hypothesis to the problem 

* Since this was written, the author learns that the existence of overthrust or 
overfolded sheets in Central Otago has been suggested bj^ Wilckens (1917). 





oi the Otago schists, since they pass upward (without any distinct 
break, not into early Palaeoizoic fossiliferous beds, but into upper 
Triassic sediments. Moreover, the miscrosccpic evidence shows 
that great shearing and crushing has taken place in these rocks, 
more soi than seems consistent with the idea of static meta- 
morphism. It is very difficult, in the absence of recognisable 
horizons, to' determine the true structure of this regio'n. The 
overfclding of the Maitai rocks of the Nelson Province, and near 
Mount Cook (figured by Park, 1910), and occasional over thrust- 
faulting, (fide Morgan), suggest that recumbent folds may be •ex 
pected in the more strongly compressed regions. While not over- 
looking Daly's objection to the hypothesis of recumbent folding, 
wo may indicate as worthy of testing, the concept of the Otago 

Fig. 3. Section through Mounts Haast and Haidinger, near Mt. Cook. (After Park 1910). 

schists as a series of sheet-folds, occasionally upturned and crushed, 
and composed for the most part of the metamorphic equivalents 
of Middle aiid Lower Triassic and Pei-miaii formations, the 
chloritic and amphibole schists representing the Te Anau igneous 
rocks, and the few lenses of limestone those of the Maitai series. 
There are undeniably many difficulties in the way of accepting this 
hypothesis, notable perhaps being the paucity of evidence of 
asymmetry in the folding of Otago, but the difficulties in the way 
of other interpretations seem to be at least as great. Here, also, 
very extensive field and petrological investigation is essential to 
progress in the study of these rocks. 

Mention should also be made here of the small area of schist 
near the Pelorus River in the north-east of the South Island. 
The Geological Survey considers these to. be probably of late 
Palaeozoic agei, grouping them with the Te Anau series, and the 
rocks of the Kakanui range in North Otago. This grouping is 
also followed by Marshall, who, however, referred all these forma- 
tions to his comprehensive Trias- Jura " Maitai System." Very 
little is known of the Pelorus rocks. 

president's address — SECTION c. 75 

The Post-tHokonm and Earlier Epochs of Orogeny and Plutonic 


In the course of the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic periods, the New 
Zealand region may have suffered several epochs of earth-folding, 
which we are not yet able fully to disentangle, for folding in 
diverse directions appear to have been superposed upon one 
another. The various directions of folding have been stated by 
Suess (1904), Park (1910), and Marshall (1912). The following 
summary embodies the newer observations, and offers an inter- 
pretation of the facts rather different from those which have been 
given. It must, however, be recognised that this is merely a 
suggestion ; the writer is not in a position to state an opinion on 
the subject. In the extreme south-west, the strike of the schistose 
rocks and Ordovician slates is to the ncrth-west, running from 
Stewart Island to the Bluff and Preservatioii Inlet. It swings 
round to the north-north-west or north in Dusky Sound, while 
further north and on the eastern side of the gneissic mass, namely, 


Fig. 4. Section from West (left hand) to East through Aorere Distiict in the North-west 
of the South Island. (After Bell 1907.) 

1. Ordovician' argillites, greywackes, and quartzite. 2. Ordovician? crystal- 
line schist and quaitzite. 3. Ordovicifln ? limestone. 4. Acid igneous 
rotks. 5. Basic igneous rocks. 6. The Haupirl series. 

on the shores of Lake Te Anau, the strike is to the north-east. 
The information available to the writer suggests either that the 
gneissic rocks have a dominantly north-easterly strike, and are 
unconformable with the north-westerly striking schists, (an inter- 
pretation now favoured by Park*), or that there is an arcuate 
folding roughly parallel with that further to the north in Western 
Otago, a hypothesis which is here advanced. Along the west 
coast northwards from the Sounds, the strike of the Aorere or 
gneissic rocks is generally to the west of north, though varying 
from north-west to north-north-east, and the folds are often over- 
turned towards the west. (Fig. 4.) Bell (1905) has noted this 
near Mt. Cook, Morgan (1908, 1915), Webb (1910), and Bell 
(1906), in North Wootland, and the west of the Nelson 
Province. Hence the strike of these Aorere rocks and .gneisses, 
though varying, is generally oblique to the direction of the 
West Coast, and of the Southern Alps. The distinction between 
the strike of the Southern Alps and that of the north-westerly 

• Private communication. 

76 president's address — section c. 

folds was first sharply drawn by Morgan (1908), who has since 
supported it by further observations (1915). Henderson (1917) 
has carried the study a stage' further, and remarks as follows . 
" Apparently the PalaecEcdc recks of the West Coast have been 
subjected to twoi series of foldings, the -cue producing north- 
north-east strikes over a well-marked belt cf country from Reefton 
to Separation Point if the other, less definite, affecting the rocks 
westward of this zone, and producing noxth-westerly strikes. 
Neither of these directions correspcnds with the- trend of the 
plications of the Alpine chain, which are of late Mesozoic date, 
and presumably quite distinct froui and younger than the folding 
of the rocks west of the great series of overthrusts." This over- 
thrusting is also ascribed to the Mesozoic mcvement. Neverthe- 
less, as will be pointed out, a considerable crust-movement 
occurred in Tertiary times also, in which a north-easterly strike 

In the north-east of the South Island also, i.e., the Kaikoura 
Ranges, though McKay (1892) declared the general direction of 
the strike was to the north-east, Thcmscn (1918) considers this 
opinion may have been based in large part en the appearance of 
jointing rather than bedding planes, and shows that in a dozen 
places at least the average direction of strike was to the north 
north-w^est, and independent of the north-easterly strike of the 
range as determined by late Tertiarj' faulting. This conclusion 
was forethadowed by Cotton (1913), who has, moreover, shown 
that the obliquity of the post-Tertiary fault-lines to the "grain'' 
of the country is a rather general feature throughout New Zea- 
land. It may be suggested that tangential thrusts, transmitted 
obliquely to' the structural axes or "grain" of the basement rocks, 
might well be expected to produce irregularities in the direction 
of folding of the overlying strata. If this be the case in the 
northern portion of the South Island, we may perhaps recognise 
Otago and Southland as a region in which the direction of the 
Mesozoic folding has been more nearly parallel with that of the 
older north-we.^terly axis. According to Marshall (1912) the evi- 
dence, tho'Ugh yet incomplete, appears to indicate that the south- 
westerly trend lines of the Southern Alps diverge in the north- 
west of Otagoi, and swing round intoi a south-east line of strike 
Park shows that Queenstown forms the median area cf this virga- 
tion, and the strike is here appropriately nearly meridional, but 
further east changes to south -south-east near Cromwell, and it is 
south-east at Lawrence, Marshall (1918) nearer the east coast. 
Suess (1904) considered that two independent unilateral chains 
meet in syntaxis at Queenstown; and Marshall (1912), while re- 
cognising much more detailed work is required to prove this, be- 
lieves the view a very probable one. 

t Spei<;ht (191(i) also calls attention to this feature in North-west Canterbury. 

president's ADDREiS — SECTION C. 77 

Attention must be drawn, however, to' the diversity in the 
character of these two unilateral ranges. We have supported 
Marshall's view that the Otago schists are the dynamically meta- 
morphosed portions of the (Permian and) Mesozoic sedime^nts, sug- 
gesting that they form recumbent folds along the margin of which 
runs the sharp but approximately symmetrical anticline of the 
Hokonui Hills, beyond which are the gently undulating Mesozoic 
rocks of eastern Southland, protected from plication by an under- 
lying basement-complex of ancient folded rocks, fragments of 
which appear in the Bluff and Stewart Island, unless we may re- 
gard these as forming with the Fiordland arc, a range folded 
simultaneously with the folding in Central Otago, while eastern 
Southland remained as a resistant unfolded block between the two 
arcuate ranges. In either case, the Hokonui Hills appear as a 
forefold in front of the main folds of Central Otago resembling 
in some d agree the Parma range of forefolding, lying between the 
highly folded and metamorphosed Palaeozoic rocks of the Ural 
Mountains, and their undisturbed equivalents on the Russian 
platform (Suess, Vol. I., 504). No plutonic intrusions, except 
one cr two narrow sills of serpentine, are associated with the 
schists of Otago, however, and the absence of any marginal fault- 
ing, or evidence of such faulting, may be explained in part by 
the paralMism. of the Mesozoic folding with the grain of the 
basement rock. 

West of lake Wakatipu the conditions are altered. The outer 
portion of the great arcuate folds is pressed against the northern 
portion of the crystalline comp'^ex of. Fiordland. This region, though 
very difficult of access, seems to be one of the most interesting in 
the Dominion, our knowledge of it having been gained under great . 
difficulties by Hector (1866, 1891), Cox (1878), McKay (1879), 
and Park (1886). The region is very rugged and c:mplex, b'^t, 
generalizing, it would seem as if the outer marg:n of the folds 
showed a westward decrease in metamorphism frorn the schistose 
rocks east of Lake Wakatipu, to the noimal, rarely fossiliferous 
greywackes and sandstone near the Hcllyf ord River, by I ake 
Harris, in which Hector found fossils termed Permian by him, 
but which hci compared with the fossils of Nugget Point, which 
we now know to be Uppeir Triassic. Adiacent to these is the 
Maitai limestone noted bv McKay, in which Park ha-, recently 
observed some fossils, Sjiirijcra, &c., which he compares with 
those of th-^ Maitai limestone near Nelson, considered Permian 
herein. With thess, and extending" south into the Gre'^nstone 
River, arei the basic Te Anau breccias. West again of these are 
the annelid -bearing greywackes of the Enjlinton and Hollyford 
Valbvs, which according to the observations of Prof<=ssor Park 
and Mcir, are invad'-d by the diorites which form the nortliem 
extremitv cf the plutoric complex of Fiordland. In a fault- 
line in the Maitai and Te Anau rocks, or between these and the 

1084.— 9 

78 president's address — section c. 

moire crystalline schists tO' the east, seprrmtines make their appear- 
ance, and arei continuous apparently for over fifty miles. The 
band of serpentine is generally less than a quarter of a mile wide, 
and frequently not more than 300 or 400 feet. 

Further north in the regions of t-ie Wect Coist that have been 
mapped, Morgan suggests that the Lower Palaeozoic rocks were 
folded along approximately north-westerly axes in later Palaeozoic 
times, and were then invaded by plutonic rocks. Further move- 
ment occurred during Cretaceous times. Henderson (1917) would 
think that the plutonic masses were intruded in two series, the 
older gneissic series being pre-Ordovician, the younger granitic 
rocks being of late Mesozoic age formed during the principal era 
of Mesozoic intrusion, when where was developed a great series of 
ma or fractures parallel with the trend of the Alps, and adds: 

There is no doubt but that the force that crumpled that range 
produced lines of weakness in the foreland, against which the 
folding took place." Here, however, tne axis of the Mesozoic 
folding was oblique to the grain of the basement rocks, and 
faulting of the latter, especially if in long strips, becomes very 
obvious. Further orogenic crust-movement occurring here in 
Tertiary times is, however, noted below. 

In most of the North Island less complexity is seen in the strike 
of the older rocks, though the slight obliquity of the roughly north- 
north-easterly strike of the fold to the north-east faults has been 
noted by Cotton in several districts. In the North Auckland 
Peninsula, however, great difficulties occur, and little new infor- 
mation has b 'len recorded since Marshall (1912) summarised the 
local variation of strike, and indorsed Suess' comment that the 
north-western coast in no way represents the actual trend of the 
mountains. As will appear, this folding was practically com- 
pleted by Middle Ctetaceous times, whon sedimentation occurred 
locally. It is generally known as the post-Hokoaaui orogeny. 

The igneous rocks erupted during thfs period of folding include 
ultrabasic and basic types, and probably also granites. Com- 
mencing at the North Cape, there are gabbrcs, norites, and harz- 
ber2[ites, the age of which is not definitely known (Bell, 1910). The 
noritei, and especially the diorite of Ahipara and Monganui are 
perhaps of pre-Maitai age, though Marshall's latest statement 
therron (1912) classes them as post Matai. They have a strong 
likene-s to certain Fiordland rocks. Sills ( ?) ol serpentine 
occur near Auckland, and on the Mokau Eiver in North 
Taranaki, and these invade the Mesozoic sediments. So also do 
the long complex sills of Dun Mountain, and the narrow sills in 
the Alps stretching south-westwards through the Nelson Province 
into Westland. In the neighbourhood of the last, there occur 
intrusions of granite, &c. , and the usual porphyritic and lampro- 
phyric dyke-rocks. Some of these are of an alkaline facies 

president's address — SECTION c. 79 

(Smith, 1908). The so-called syenite of Mackay's Bluff, near 
Kelson, is sometimes placed among this general group of intrusions. 
Further south, there are the ultrabasic rocks west of Lake Waka- 
tipu, that have been already mentioned, and some sill-like serpen- 
tine masses, and dykes of monchiquite in the Otago schists. Some 
authorities class in this general group of post-Hokonui in'ru i ns, 
the whole series of gneissic dicrites, noritei, and peridctites of the 
Fiord region, the Longwood Range, Orepuki, and the Bluff, to- 
gether with the more massive granites of Preservation Inlet and 
Stswart Island. Gabbroid rocks, prcbably invading Mesozoic 
sedimemts, occur in North Cant-rbury, and, perhaps, the plutonic 
and dyke-rocks of Mount Tapuasnuka in the Kaikoura Mountains 
may belong to this group, though Thomson (1918) is inclined to 
connect them with the Middle Cretaceous volcanic rocks. 

The " Notocene" Rocks. 

The series of formations deposited after the Hokonui (Lower 
Cretac90^s) orogeny commences with Middle Cretaceous (Alb'an) 
beds, and extends up into the Upper Fliccane deposits. They have 
always attracted much attention from New Zealand geologists, and 
considerable diversity of opinion here has existed concerning them. 
During the past decade nv;merous papers have appeared, and 
though diversity of opinion still exists, a great advance has been 
made in our knowledge. Of especial value has been thei detailed 
palaeontological work of Bartrum, Chapman, Marshall, Suter, 
Thomson, woods, and others. In general, there has been no doubt 
as to the relative ages of the beds iij any one region, or the recog- 
nitiom of differencei in age in the basal beds in different regions, but 
the correlition of the succe ding formations in adjacent regions, 
and the interpretation of the structural relationships of the several 
beds to one another, arei matters that are still discussed. There 
have been several hypotheses as to' the sequence of events forming 
this great series of d'^oosits. The s mnlest among current v'ews 
is that advocated by Marshall (1910, 1915). This considers that 
the whole series of Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks is conformable 
throughoiut. Overlap on to an evenly subsiding but irregular sur- 
face accounts for the difference of age of the basal beds in different 
regions. The period of greatest submergence was the period 
when the limestone was deposited, so that the limestones in all 
regions are coeval. They are succeeded by beds of a more elastic 
character, indicating: the return of shallow-water conditions. To 
this supposedly continuous system, Marshall has extended the use 
of the term Oamaru System. This name had formerly been used 
by Hutton to denote a portion only of the rocks thus designated 
by Marshall. Hutton (1885, 1900) held that there was an 
Upper Cretaceous Waipara System, followed unconformably by 
the Oligocene Oamaru System, and this by the Miocene Pareora 
System, which again is followed by the Pliooene Wanganui series 

80 president's address — SECTION c. 

without a definite unconformity. Hector (1886) placed a series 
of rocks representing the lower half of Hutton's Waipara series 
into' his Lower Greensand group, considered these to te uncon- 
formably followed by the Cretaceo-Tertiary beds, comprising the 
Upper Waipara and basal Oamaru beds, and this again was un- 
conformably followed by the Upper Eocene and Lower Miocene 
beds, a group of rocks comprising the formations placed by Hutton 
in his Upper Oamaru and Pareora systems. Unfortunately, these 
two names were used by Hector toi designate minor stages in his 
larger group. The uppermost of Hector's major groups included 
beds assumed to be of Miocene age. Since Professor Park's 
abandonment (1905) of his acceptance (1888) of the completely 
conformable character of the se:[uence cf pcst-Hokonuian fcrma- 
tion, he has held that there exists a major unconformity separating 
the Cretaceous from the Miocene rocks in the eastern side of the 
South Island, which represented an uplift here during the Eocene 
period, while in the West^'cast coa^.-nieasures were torming. The 
precise classification of beds on this hypothesis has varied from 
time to time (1910, 1912, 1917), according as the balance of the 
evidence appeared to favour one horizon or another as the position 
of the assumed regional unconformity. • At the commencement of 
the last decade, it was possible to state that the existence of eVe-ry 
unconformity that had bsen recognised by one field -geologist, had 
some time been denied either by some other geologist or by himself. 
Such is still the case, in so far that the hypothesis of Marshall 
denies the existence of any unconformity. 

Two' new conceptions, however, have since appeared. Thomson 
(1917) has suggested the existence of " diastrophic provinces," or 
regions, throughout each of which the tectonic history has been the 
same, though differing from that of adjacent regions, and he has 
outlined the characteristics of several of these provinces (1920). 
On this hypothesis, the differences of age of the basal beds of the 
post-Hokonui rocks depends, not only on the overlap of formations 
on a subsiding uneven surface, but also on the independent move- 
ment of the crust in different regions. The limestones of 
adjacent provinces are not necessarily coeval, but represent merely 
the period of maximum submergence for that particular province. 
In sorre districts more than one horizon of limestone is present. 
So, too, the regression of the sea has taken place at different limes 
in different provinces. There is, however, no need to consider that 
any unconformities of a general nature are present, such as 
some earlier observeirs had supposed, though they may extend 
over a single diastrophic province. Thomson also' has suggested 
the name " Notocene " ([New (rocks) of Southern (regions)] to 
indicate the whole group of formations of the Cainozoic deposited 
before the latest (Kaikoura) orogenic movement, to- which must 
be added the Upper Middle and the Upper Cretaceous (Albian) 



beds. Though objections hav« been raised toi this convenient 
term, we may follow here the example of the Director of the 
Geological Survey in adopting it. 

The work of the officers of the survey has brought to' light a 
further conception. Block-faulting and tilting of the crust, so 
marked a feature of Pleistocene times, was not confined thereto, 
but occurred at intervals from Cretaceous to' recent times. This 
was suggested to Morgan and Eartrum (1915), and by Henderso'n 
(1917), as a result of studies in the West Coast Coalfields (South 
Island), and is confirmed by the study of the Gisborne region by 
Henderson and Ongley (1920). The movements of the blocks 
wera chiefly vertical or accompanied by tilting, but along the fault- 
planes the strata may be much crushed or upturned. Erosion pro- 
ceeded puri pasxu with eleivation, and the beds laid down after 
faulting may rest with apparently perfect conformity on the 
undisturbed areas, but with small or great unconformity where 
near to the fault-plane, or whem lyincr on a tilted block, or they 
may cross without disturbance a zone of fault-breccia in the under- 
lying rock. This view accords well with the hypothesis of pro- 
vincial diastrcphism. Until more extensive work has been done 

Fig. 5. Diagram to illustrate the occurrence of a general but deceptive uncomtormity 
obscuring an erosion-interval in the deposition of the " Notocene " roclcs. 

it would be premature to discuss the stratigraphic or palseontolo- 
gical value of such breaks, or whether any of them may be con- 
sidered to be universal throughout the Notoceiie System. 

Schemes of subdivision of the Notocene rocks into stages have 
been advanced by Thomson (1916) and Marshall (1916, 1919). 
Thanks to the enthusiastic collecting of several workers, the rapid 
extension of the faunal lists is rendering the use of the Lyellian 
percentagD-method of increasing value in the determination of 
relative ages. A new method of calculation suggested by 
Thomson (1920) promises tO' be very helpful in this respect, in 
that each collection madei is compared, not with the re.cent fauna 
only, but also with the fauna which eixisted (so far as is known) 
in each of the periods represented by the well-ascertained stages, 
and the affinities of the new collection become thus well established. 
The present rapid extension of knowledge of these rocks may be 
expected to continue for some time, and what follows is merely a 
pr ogress -repo rt . 

82 president's address — section c. 

Before summarizing the present knowledge, two points must be 
stressed. The hypothesis which held that all the limestones were 
of the same age, and that no' unconformities or disconformities 
existed, had to recognise that sometimes a fauna of a Cretaceous 
aspect, and sometimes one of an Oligocene aspect lay immediately 
below the l:me:tcne. This necessitated an explanation oi: the 
absence of a characteristic Eocene fauna, and the rapid change of 
lif:i-forms ; as such was suggested the isolation cf New Zealand, 
the lingering here of archaic forms, and the alleged abnormally 
slow rate of deposition of some of the sediments. The recognition 
of the clo'se relation of the Cretaceous faunas of New Zealand to 
those of other lands, which we owe to Woods, Trechmann, and 
Wiljkens; the recent proof of the existence of an extensive Eocene 
fauna in certain regions, which is due to Marshall; and the 
evidence of variation in age between the limestones, urged 
by Thomson and others, reimoves these difficulties in a great 
measure. Moreover, the local absence from between Cretaceous 
rocks and those oi (say) Oligocene aspect, of an Eocene 
fauna such as occurs in adjacent regions, without the 
intervention of a great thickness of unfossiliferous beds, should 
be at least suggestive of the existence here of a discon- 
formit-y. Again, though the adoption of the modified Lyellian 
m°ithod of determining the relative age of Nctccene beds will pro- 
bably be of great service in New Zealand, it must be recognised 
that the diastrophic histories of New Zea'and and Europe have 
been so different, that it would be unlikely that the rate of evolu- 
tion of new species, and the elimination of old would be exactly 
the same here as in Europe, and that, therefore, if the familiar 
terms. Eocene, Miocene, &c., are ured at all here, it is toi indicate 
the relative ages of groups of beds, but not specifically their age in 
comparison with the European time-scale, f Indead, it might be 
most correct to abandon for the present the employment of these 
ol;! terms, though they are so useful in making clear the record to 
those unfamiliar with local terminology that they have been re- 
tained in this address in the above generalized sense, but the 
convention is adopted of placing tlie terms so used between inverted 
commas. For minor stage-names a nomenclature based on local 
namos has been suggested, and is given in Table IV. 

The character of the land surface upon which the Notocene beds 
were deposited has also been considered more carefully" than 
formerly. Early observers, especially Hutton (1900), thought the 
embayed outlines of the present areas cf Notocene rocks indioted 
the outlires of the regions of deposition of these in narrow tro'^-ghs 
among the mountains, and this view was accepted by Suess 
(1906^11. p. 148). Modern workers (e.g., Cotton, 1913, 1916, and 
Speisht. 1915, p. 153), confirm MoKav's view (1892) that these 

t R'fe-en'e should he made to Ortmann's (1902. pp. 288-300) criticism of the use of the 
Lyellian method, and the alternative adoijted by him. 

Hochstetter, 1S64. 

Hutton, 188.5. 

Hector, 188B. 

Hutton, 1900. 

Park, 1905. 

Park, 1910. 

Marshall. 1912. 

Morgan, 1911!. 

Thomson. 191H. 

Marshall, 1919. 

Geological Survey. — 
M,.r2an, 191.«. § 

Younger Tertiary. 

Wanganui System. 



Newer Pliocene. 

Wanganui System. 

Pliocene — 



Oamaru System. 

Pliocene — Wanganui 

Marine beds at — 

70— 90'?'oRecent 

Gravels, Napier 

Wanganui 75—93% 

Wanganui Series. 

Newer Pliocene. 

Wanaanvi System. 


Rodney Point 


Lignite, Kereru. 

Recent Species. 

Petane Series. 

Napier and Wanganui 

Ormond, Petane, Upper 


Considered conformable 


Hawke's Bay 

Petane, Ormond and 

Older Pliocene. 


Wanffanui be'ls. 

Waitotaran (other 




Putiki Series. 

Upper Miocene. 

Older Pliocene. 


stages possible). 

Waitotaran (includes Awa. 


Te Ante, Taueru 


Te Ante or Waito- 


Oamaru System. 

Local Un.:onformi>ies. 

Casilecliff Serie-i. 

tere in part) 


Pareora System. 


Karamea System. 

Extending from Awatere 

Oamarr ian. 

80—90% Recent Species. 

Miocene and (?) Oligoceue 


25—45% Recent 

Lower Miocene. 

Motunau and 


— Motunau beds down- 

Upper Miocene. 


— Oamaru System. 

(The last three 


Awakere, Pareora, 



Oamaru Series. 

wards, including the 



Nukumaru Series. 

Awamoa — Pareoran (in- 

Oamaru beds in later 

Awatere, Awamoa. 


Pareora, 20—65% 


Upper and Lower Mio- 

Pareora system of Hut- 


70—80% Recent Species. 

cludes Awatera and 


Recent Species. 

Awamora, Pareora 

cene, Eocene, Cretaeeo- 

ton, Eocene and Mio- 



Upper Eocene. 

Awatere, Awamoa 



Tertiary and Lower 

cene of Hector. 

Ngaparan coal-mea- 

Waipipi Series. 

Hutchinsonian (includes 

(Hampden, or 

Mount Blown, 

and Mount Brown 

Oamaru stone 

Greensand of Hector, 


60—70% Recent Species. 

Mount Brown beds) 


Oamaru, Waitald. 

(including Waite- 

Marewhenua green- 

and considered to be 

Probable Local Uncon- 

Ototaran (includes Leda 

Kaitangata beds 

mata. ) 



perfectly conformable 


(Other stages).? 

Tawhiti Seriei.* 


in later classifica- 

Mount Brown 


throughout. The Amuri 

50% Recent .Species. 



Oamaru System. 


Waihao clay and 

and Otatara limestones 

Middle and Lower Miocene. 

Paparoan coal measure 

Ngaparan coal-measures. 

Older Pliocene. 

9— ICo Recent 


are considered co'val. 

Papakura, Oamaru sys- 

Target Gully Series. 

Marine Beds — 



Kaikorai coal mea- 

tem ( Hutton), Cretaceo 

(Other groups)? 

30—40% Recent Species. 


Overlying coal mea- 

Waitemata, &c. 


Waitemata — Grey 


-Tertiary (Hector) in 

Eocene — Marewheran ui 

sures in Auckland 

Otatara, &c. 

Waitemata, Otatara 




Ototara Series. 

Kaitangatan — Wangaloa 

and Hampden beds. 
Also Weka Pass stone. 

Province. Mokau, 

Weka Pass stone. 

Mawhere, Chalk 

Otatara, Mawhere, 




25 — 30% Recent Species. 

and Wanganui, 

Waiareka, Coal 

Weka Pass stone. 


garoa System. 

Unconformity {not proved 

Nelson Province, 


Upper Cretaceous. 

Brunner and Pap- 

in all districts). 

(Other groups or 

Wharekuri Series.. 



Black Grit Series. 

Weka Pass stone 

aroa coal mea- 


20—25% Recent Species. 

Kaitangata and West 



Amuri limestone 



Coast coal-measures, in 



Cretaceo- Tertiary in 


Wangaloa Series. 
— 20% Recent Species. 

which are several sub- 

Marine Beds. — 

Waipara System. 

Black oyster-bed 



Waikato South Head 



Waipara System. 



Bituminous coal of West 

(Other groups or 

and Kawhia. 

Amur! limestone 

Upper Cretaceous 




Waipara Series. 


Coal Measures — 

Lower greensand 

Amuri limestone 


Late Cretaceow. 
Danian Amuri limestone 

Piripauan— Waipara sys- 
tem of Hutton. 
Middle Cretaceous. 

Waikato, Golden 


Lower Greensand. 

Waiareka green- 


U nconformi'-y. 


Bay, BuUer — Grey 


BuUer, Arauri lime- 


Amm-i system. 

Preservation Inlet. 
(Now considered 

stone, and iVeka 
Pass stone. 

Black grit 

Weka Pass stone 
Waipara system of 

Waipara system 

Tertiary. Sep 

Brunner coal mea- 


(Hutton) " Cretaceo-Ter- 

Table I. in 


tiary in part. 



Ormond Series, cf. Henderson and Ongley, 1920.) 



of t 





of 1 


































narrow intermontane strips of younger rocks are but disclocated 
remnants of more extensive sheets which, at one time, covered 
nearly all of the area that is now New Zealand. " There can be 
no doubt that the mountain ranges which resulted from the 
Meso:oic orogenic movements, had been subjected to erosion 
throughout a long period, and reduced to at least a moderate re- 
lief before the deposition of the oldest beds of the covering series 
. There is certainly overlap in the lower beds, indicating 
that the eroded surface of the older mass was soniewhat hilly 
when submergence began " (Cotton). " Elevated land appeared 
to have existed longest in the north-west, where immense thick- 
ness3s of heavy conglomerate formed in early Tertiary times, while 
planation was practically complete on the eastern side of the 
island " (Speight). In general, the covering strata, with the 
exception of the basal beds, are anaiine, and of such nature as to 
indicate that they were accumulated in the open sea, where the 
supply of sediment was small. Hence, during their deposition, 
a great part of the site of the present islands of New Zealand was 
usually submerged, though low islands existed both within 
and outside the present limits of New Zealand, from whioh detritus 
was derived. (Cf. Speight, 1915, p. 351.) ihe mo:.t persistent 
land area was that of Central Otago, the region where the folding 
had been piled so high as to lead to the production of micaceous 
schists. Since we cannot discuss the Notocene record by its prob- 
able time divisions, without assuming premature correlations of 
strata, we shall instead describe typical districts, wltli but small 
attempt at correlating the various stages in different areas. We 
must note, however, that a very useful provisional correlation- 
table was prepared by Morgan in 1918, and this is brought by him 
up to date in a valuable note that will be laid before tnis section. 
Thanks to his courtesy, I am permitted to add this, and other 
tables as an appendix to this address. 

Fig. 6. Diagram illustrating the type of structure and sculptme in the Middle Clarence 
Vallry. (After Cotton, 1914.) 

Mudstone — Clarentian (Albian Beds). limestone — (Panian ?) Amuri Limestone. 
Marl — " The Grey Marl." Conglomerate — "The Great Marlborough Conglomerate." 

86 president's address — section c. 

The region wheTe the Notocene deposition was most continuous 
is that of the Kaikoura Mountains of Marlborough. The structure 
of this first indicated by the excellent work of McKay (1886-90-92), 
which has been revised and extended by Cotton (1913, 1914), and 
by Thomson (1913, 1916, 1918), who has cionsidered especially the 
stratigraphy. The structure is simple, as shown by Cotton's 
diagram. Here occur the oldest of the Notocene rocks, which rest 
on an uneven surface of the " Maitai " rocks. There is a thick- 
ness of from three thousand to nine thousand fees of sandstone, 
and mudstone, with locally basal conglomerates or coal measures. 
They resemble the topset beds of a continental shelf undergoing 
rapid depression, and near the mouth of a large river. Several layers 
of basalt occur in these sediments. They are mos^ f oesiaf erous in the 
upper portion, and Woods (1917) has recognised from here sixteen 
marine mollusca, including Inoceramus concentricus, Turrdites cir- 
cumtaeniai iii^ and GaiidrT/ceras sayca. Those, and the other fossils 
present, indicate that the beds are equivalent in age to the Utatur 
or Albian beds in India and Europe respectively, and show that the 
first effects of the Cenomanian transgression extended to New Zea- 
land. The beds in this stage are termed Clarentian by Thomson 
(1916). The mudstones are followed by a thick mass of hard, 
chalky limestone, the Amuri limestone, which has here a thick- 
ness of twenty-five hundred feet, though it becomes thinner when 
traced to the northwards, and seems tO' extend tO' Cape Campbell, 
and is, perhaps, represented in the south-eastern portion of the 
North Island. The greater part of the investigation of this lime- 
stone has b^>en, however, in the region of its south-western exten- 
sion into North Canterbury^ where it continues, but with 
diminishing thickness, for over fifty miles. 

This last area, the Waipara-Weka Pass district has been 
long held toi be of the greatest importance, and the long 
series of studies in this region have recently been sum- 
marized and extended by Thomson (1920). Before, there- 
fore, discussing the Amuri limestone of the Kaikoura ranges 
and elsewhere, it is desirable to describ'S the beds which lie 
beneath it in Canterbury and the coast of Marlborough. These 
give evidence of a Senonian transgression, which is much the more 
exte'nsive of the Cretaceous transgressions flooding also parts of the 
North Island, and of North Otago. The diastrophic province under 
consideration commences to the east of the Kaikoura Mourrtains 
and, passing Amuri Bluff, it extends south-westward into Canter- 
bury for about a hundred and fifty miles in all. The surface, which 
was submerged in Senonian times, was still fairly diversified, as 
shown by the overlap of various beds in the Waipara district 
(Thomson 1920). The thickness of these deposits varies, being a 
thousand feet at Amuri Bluff (McKay. 1877) ; two thousand feet 
in the Trelissick Basin (Speight, 1917), but only from eight 
hundred down to one hundred and fifty feet in the Waipara district 
The basal coal measures are generally succeeded by a 



pebbly bed containing more or less fragmental spec'mens of a 
dark-coloured Osfrta, followed by a great thickness of sands, mud- 
stones, marl and greensands, which in the Trelissick basin are 
interstratified with basaltic volcanic ash, while doleritic sills appear 
in the ccal meaures below (Speight, 1917, 1920). Dr. Marie Stopes 


Pirlpauan. "Amupi limestone and' '"Grey marls" and" Greta beds.' 

Weka Pass stone. M'^unt Brown beds. Kowhai beds* 

^•^ Fig. 7. A diagrammatic section from North-west to Soutli-east across the Middle 
Waipara Distrrict. (After Thomson, 1920.) 

(1914) has described as a new species of Araucarioxylon a petrified 
stem in the basal beds at Amuri Bluff. In the calc'areous layers, 
especially in the lower parts of this succession of sediments, there 
have been found over fifty species of molluscs, the affinities of which 
are clearly with these of the Indo-Pacific, Upper Senonian trans- 
gression, the fauna being comparable with that of New Caledonia 
(Piroutet, 1917), South Africa, Madagascar and Pondicherry 
(Woods, 1917), but most markedly with that of Chili, Patagonia 
and Seymour Island (Wilckens, 1920). Characteristic forms are 
belemnites such as B. superstcs, amnfonites such as Kossmaticcr/is, 
Ga>(dr?/ce7ns. Baciilites, and Hamites, Anisoceras ( ?), and lamelli- 
branchs such as Tric/onia (especially T. hnnetiona), Pecten, Cal- 
li>^ta, Ciicullftea, and Asfarte. 'irechmann's (1917b) study of the 
gasteropods is in accord with this, the chief among the recognised 
forms are Conchothyra, Pugnelliis, A po?-rhais, and a single Aus- 
tralian form Natica var'ahilis. Further valuable information may 
Be expected from Dr. Otto Wilcken's studies of the gasteropods, 
which are now in the press. Among the greensands, there is a 
zone containing many large coiicretions, often about bon^s of 
saurians, of which PTector (1874) recognised a dozen species, chiefly 
of the genera Lcindon and Chnoliosaurus. Dr. C. W. Andrews 
{fide Woods, 1917) compares these with the reptilian fauna of the 
Senonian Niobrara chalk of Nebraska, U.S.A. Chapman's (1918) 
determinations of the fish teeth accord v?ith this correlation. Out of 
the do'^en forms that he recognised, two only ascend into Tertiary 
beds. This gro'up of formations of Senonian age, lying immediately 
beneath tbe Amuri limestone, was referred to the Piripauan stage 
bv Thomson (1916), followed by the Geological Survey (see Morgan, 
1919): Marshall (1919). foll^-wpd by Soeight (1920), retains for it 
Hutton's old name of the Waipara System, though as onginally 
defined the latter contained also the Danian (?) Amur: limestone 
above, and, perhaps, the Clarentian (Albian) beds alpo. 


We now return to' the Amuri limestone, which tollcws directly 
upon the Senonian beds in north-east Canterbury, and the coastal 
part of South Marlborough. It is not found in the Malvern Hills, 
and districts to the south ; its occurrence in the Trelissick Basin 
is open to doubt, but in the Waipara district it is about a hundred 
feet thick. At the Amuri Bluff in Marlbcrcugh it is nearly seven 
hundred feet thick. In the Clarence Valley, however, 
where it lies on Albian beds, it is twenty-five hundred 
feet thick. The limestone is O'f a. peculiar character. It 
is soft and chalky only at its extreme soiuthem limit, viz., Ox- 
ford, in North Canterbury. Further north the lower beds of the 
limestone are the softer and more argillaceous and pass down into 
the Piripauan mudstone. In East Marlborough, there are alter- 
nations of hard, chalky limestone with more argillaceous bands. 
The thin-bedded, much-jointed and indurated natunD of the lime- 
stone gives it a very characteristic appearance. It consists prin- 
cipally of an exceedingly fine-grained calcareous mud, with tests 
of foraminfera and very little terriginous matter, though there is 
revealed chemically a donsiderable amount of silica (Thomson, 
1916). The contrast between the microscopic features ol this and 
other Notoeene limestones will appear from Marshall's careful 
description (1916). The lower portions of the limestone are Very 
flinty. Thomson urges that the limestone is in large degree a 
chemical precipitate, and that the flints are concretions therein. 
He holds that, except for a few local instances, there is no angular 
unconformity between the limestone and the underlying Albian 
rocks, and believes that its great tuickness in the Clarence River 
Valley and north thereof ^ is the result of deposition continuing un- 
brokenly beyond the region of terrigenous sedimentation, during 
the Cennornanian and Turonian times (though no other sediments 
of this age have yet been proved), as well as during the Senonian 
times, while littoral eedimentation occurred in the surrounding 
regions bordering lands of whidh " the surface at this time was 
still fairly diversified." As this littoral region was deepened, the 
Amuri limestone spread over most of the area of Senonian sedimen- 
tion but did not extend b&yond it, except at one point, where it 
appears to transgress on to the older greywackes (Thcmscn, 1920, 
p. 411). Chapman's (1918) determinations of the foraminifera 
(as yet unpublished), together with the istratigraphical position, 
suggest a Danian age for this limestone. We may note, a^se. that 
it contains the shark's teeth Carcharodon and Isurtis (Chapman, 
1918). It may perhaps be doubted whether the long duration of 
very peculiar and localized conditions demanded by Thoms:in's view 
is as probable as the simpler explanation (regression of the sea) 
offered by Woods, of the hiatus between the probably Danian 
fauna of the Upner Amuri limestone, and that of the Albian beds 
beneath the limestone in the Middle Clarence Valley. Moreover, 
as Thomson points out, we know as yet nothing of the beds upon 
which the limestone rests between the area in which it lies on 
Senonian beds, and that in which it lies on Albian beds. 

president's address — SECTION 0. 89 

In the middle part of this extent of limestone, namely, from the 
Weka Pass to the Kaikoura Peninsula, the upper portion of the 
calcareous formation is a marly rock known as the Weka Pass 
stone. The contact between it and the Amuri limestone is peculiar, 
and was considered by Hutton to be a very significant uncon- 
formity, separating the Oligccene Oamaru system from the under- 
lying Cretaceous Waipara, system. Morgan (1916) concurs in 
accepting this as an important unconformity. Marshall, and also 
Speight and Wild (1918) do not it to be such; nor till 
recently (1912) did Park, who, moreover, has since (1917) with- 
drawn his acceptance of this contact as an unconformity. The obser- 
vatioms ol Speight and Wild have been very extensive. They believe 
the peculiar features of the supposed erosion surface of Amuri lime- 
stone are the result of extensive boring by some annelid during the 
interval between the deposition of the typical Amuri limestone and 
the upper more glauconitic Weka Pass stone. " The character of 
the junction requires a uniformity of conditions over wide areas, 
which would be obtained if the bored surface were a sea-bottom, 
and not a shore line. The increased phosphatization of the frag- 
ments of Amuri limstone, and, perhaps, of the true phosphatic 
nodules (found here) might be accounted for by the decay of 
the bodies of the boring organisms," in addition to the usual 
chemical concentration. Thomson (1920), however, agrees with 
Morgan that the penetration of limestone by greensand has taken 
place along joint planes, enlarged by solution, and extends the 
list of recorded occurrences of small pebbles of quartz-schist or 
greywacke in this horizon. He concludes that the contact between 
the Weka Pass stone and the Amun* limestone represents a period 
during which deposition practically ceased, perhaps, by a shallow- 
ing due to regressions, and boring and solution of the upper sur- 
face of the Amuri limestone took place. Though it has not the 
significance of uplift and great erosion attached to it by Hutton 
and at one time by Park, it is nevertheless a correct place to draw 
the dividing line and small time interval betweien the Cretaceous 
and Tertiary beds By this time the surrounding land has been 
reduced to a very low relief, and the attainment of such would 
demand a period of still-stand, which agrees with the explanation 
oflFered for the nature of the uoper surface of the Amuri lime- 
stone, according to Thomson (1920, p. 411), whose discussion of 
the problem is here summarized. 

The Lower Tertiary sea flooded widely over the peneplain -sur- 
face, and this may be termed the Oamaruian transgression. In 
the Clarence Valley, homson (1919) obsei"ved that argillaceous, or 
arenaceous limestones, comparable with the Weka Pass stone, were 
about 150 feet thick, and some volcanic tuff occurs locally in con- 
nexion therewith. Impressions of dicotyledonous leaves and a few 
molluscs occur of the tyne found in the Oamaru district, described 
subsequently. In the Waipara- Weka Pass district, the Weka Pass 


stone is from 60 to 100 feet thick, and from it have been obtained 
about a score of molluscs and three brachiopods. Chapman (1918) 
has recognized among the, sharks' teeth Isurus, Lamna, Odont- 
aspis, Carchnrodon, and the fish Scomhrodupea, together with 
Foraminifera, and these incline him to consider the beds as of 
Eocene Age. Of the same age also may be the limestone in the 
Trelissick basin, though it has long been considered as the equi- 
valent of the Amuri limestone. It is lithologically sometimes in- 
distinguishable from the Amuri limestone, though usually more 
marly. It rests upon sands and greensand about 2,000 feet thick, 
with some volcanic ash, near the base of which is the Senonian fauna. 
Marshall (1916) showed that the limestone was in part foramini- 
feral, and in other portions contained fragments of echinoderms, 
polyzoa, and Lifhothamniuvi. Speight (1917) considers that both 
types of limestone belong to the one band. Thomson (1917) 
showed that there was a bed of calcareous tuff in the upper part 
of the limestone, containing Oamaruian mollusca, with a small 
percentage of recent forms. Speight (1917) extended the list con- 
siderably, while concurring that they indicated an early Tertiary 
age. Chapman's studies of the foraminifera have led to the 
tentative conclusion fiat the rock is " probably Eocene." (Fide 
Thomson 1920, p. 386.) Following upon these beds are the more 
normal Tertiary deposits. In the Kaikoura district the Weka 
Pass stone is overlain, with apparent conformity, with a forma- 
tion known as " the grey marls,"* a series of sparsely fossiliferous 
mudstones, about 300 feet thick, passing up into pebbly bands. 
" The presence of thick beds of mudstone following limestone is 
evidence of a gradual sea retreat, causing renewed denudation of 
the thick soil mantles accumulated on the coast of the Middle 
Notocene sea." In the Waipara district the corresponding beds are 
much thicker. The contact between the Weka Pass stone arid "the 
grey marls" has here been claimed, at one time by Park (1905), 
to' be an unconformity, Morgan (1916) concurring in so- far as re- 
gards the Kaikoura district only. Speight and AVild (1917) believe 
the conformity to be absolute. Thomson (1919) holds that there 
was a shallowing of the sea, with oscillations, during which " the 
grey marls," and several bands of the Mount Brown limestones, 
were deposited with intraformational unconformities. He has dis- 
cussed the faunal characteristics elaborately with reference to the 
sequence in the Oamaru district (shown on Table IV.), and.con- 
cbides that " the grey marls " and Weka Pass stone are coeval 
with the lowest marine beds at Oamaru, and that the three lime- 
stones which follow are resDCctively to be correlated with the 
limestone of Oamaru, and the twO' sncceedins: stages in that 
district. The evidence against the correlation of the jAmuri lime- 
stone and that of Oamaru seems now to be strong. The highest 

* An <infortiinatp tprm for a formational name, since grey maj-ls of various ages occur 
in the younger rocks of New Zealand. 


beds of this sequence in the Waipara district contain about 40 per 
cent, of Recent forms, and since the beds immediately succeeding 
contain 70 per cent, of Recent species, it is likely that a re- 
treat of the sea intervened between the deposition of the Mount 
Broiwn "Upper Miocene", and the succeeding " Pliocene" beds. 
The retreat of the sea from the Trelissick basin was apparently 
somewhat later than that from the Waipara, since the highest 
member of the conformable sequence is a bed containing Ostrea 
ingens, such as characterizes formations that are considered as 
transitional between "Miocene" and "Pliocene." (Park 1905,, 
Speight 1919, Thomson 1920.) 

The succeeding "Pliocene" transgression, as a result of differen- 
tial crust-movement, occupied quit^e a different area from that 
affected by Oamaruian transgression. AH of the South Island re- 
mained emergent, except the extreme north of Canterbury and 
the coast of Marlborough, but there it extended beyond the limits^ 
of the older transgression and rested on the pre-Notocene rocks. 
Its northern extension is apparently observable at the Palliser Bay 
in the south of the North Island. The deposits of this trans- 
gression are gravels, oyster-beds, and sands in the Waipara Dis- 
trict (Greta beds), but north of the Kaikoura ranges, in the 
Awatere Valley, they are largely clays with abundant Struthio- 
laria, as well as sandy and gravelly beds. In the intervening 
area of the Kaikoura ranges, there is a most remarkable formation 
which has been termed the " Great Marlborough Conglomerate." 
According to McKay (1877) "it is a conglomerate, composed in 
chief part of well-rounded bonlders, but having a large percentage 
of angular blocks of great size sO' that on the surface they often 
present the appearance of old morainic accumulations." They 
are rudely stratified; in the lower parts are enormous blocks of 
Amuri limestone and masses of soft marly strata, and boulders 
containing (according to McKay) Awatere fossils, are present. 
Cotton (1914), supported by Thomson (1920), believes that they 
lie conformably on "the grey marls/' and are followed, also con- 
formably, by the Awatere beds, from which the fossiliferous 
boulders were derived. The Marlborough Conglomerate, on this 
view, consists of material that was stripped off the block of the 
Seaward Kaikouras as it rose along a line of faulting, and formed 
a continuous (confluent) strip of fanglomerate at the foot of the 
growing fault-scarp. After the lapse of a considerable period, it 
was cut off, and tilted bv the further development of the faulting 
and warping in the Landward Kaikouras. Other views, how- 
ever, have taeen put forward. Park (1910) considers the Great 
Marlborough Conglomerate to be glacial, but his view demands the 
acceptance of great-faulting and warping since the glacial period. 
W'0 may also inquire as to its relations with the Kowhai gravels 
described by Speight (1919) as formed during the earlier portion 


of the last great series of crust moivements. This latest move- 
ment has been termed the Kaikoura orogeny by Cotton (1915), 
and closes the Notocene period. 

The coastal regions of South Canterbury and Otago have been 
very extensively studid during the last decade. The 
oldest beds are those of Shag Point. McKay (1887) showed that 
over a basal series of conglomerates about fifteen hundred feet 
thick and followed by coal-seams, there rested a series of mud- 
stones containing Gonchothyra jyarasitica and some belemnites, 
which we may consider as being of Senonian age. It is overlain 
by a thick series of mudstones with septaria, and these are followed 
by glauconitio mudstones, termed by Marshall the Hampden 
Beds, which we must consider presently. 

Sixty miles southward from Shag Point, at the north side of 
the mouth ot the Clutha, is the Kaitangata coal-field. Upon a 
great thickness of sandstones containing the coal measures. Hector 
(1891, p. Ixiii.) discovered a thin band of extremely fossiliferous 
Bandy limestone, the fauna which he considered as older than that 
at Oamaru, and compared it with that of the beds of Hampden 
and Waihao. This Marshall has ttudied with great care (1916-17), 
terming it the Wangaloa fauna. He has recognised over fifty 
forms, of which only eight per cent, are Recent. The presence 
of Cretaceous types such as I'ugneUus {Struthiolaria ?) and 
Perissolax; and the Paleeecene genera Heteroterma and Gilbertia, 
together with genera well represented in higher Tertiary beds, 
shows the interesting transitional character of the fauna. Thom- 
son considers that it may be approximately coeval with the Amuri 
limestone, and clae^ses both formations under the stage-name of 
"Kaitangatan," originally suggested by Park (1910). At Brigh- 
ton, between Kaitangata and Oanaaru, the coal measures are very 
much less thick, and overlying them is a fragmental limestone 
with indefinite belemnites and fragments of Pecten, Ostrca, and 
Venericardia* Marshall (1917) correlated this with the Wangaloa 
beds; Morgan (1916), followed by Grange (1921), thinks that it 
must be older, probably Senonian, and considers that the came 
beds extend up to the western suburbs of Dunedin, and are 
separated by an erosion-interval, but not an angular unconformity 
from unctuous mudstones, sandstones and marl, the last contain- 
ing four species of sharks' teeth, and thirteen Foraminifera, which 
Mr. Chapman considers to be " low in the (Tertiary) Serines." 
Tentatively, Grf:nge has grouped these with the lowest marine beds 
of Oamaru. The Hampden beds, above mentioned, Marshall 
(1917-19-20) correlates with the Wangaloa beds. By assiduous 
collecting ninety-three species have been found, of which eight 

* No furthpr work has Veen done in the intervening Tokomairiro Valley since Hec'^or (1891) 
dpscrlb"d th" iirrs"nce ot a fossilifer-us black limestone of an azc comparable wi'h that assig -ed to 
Kai'anaatan and Briahton limestone, but Morgan believes they are really considerably younger. 
(Private communication). 


are recent. Th© presence of Gilhertia, Volutoderma, Trigonia, 
and Dxiroloma, are indicative of considerable age. Two forms 
only are common to Hampden and Wangaloa, and Marshall is of 
the opinion that the faunal difference is in all probability due to 
difference of station, rather than difference of age. Of the same 
age again may be the fossiliferous greensands, that overlie the 
basal coal-bearing beds in Waihao district in South Canterbury, 
50 miles north of Hampden (Hector 1891, Park 1905), but further 
work here is desirable. In the Oamaru district, however, th© coal- 
measures are directly overlain by marine tuffs termed the 
Waiarekan series, from which 221 species of moll sea are 
known, of which twenty-five per cent, are recent. Park (1918i 
and Mar=;hall (1919) recognised a Icwer and upper stage in this 
seri-^, but as the fossils ol the former ar:i all casts, it seems wisest 
to disregard them for the present, though it may be possible to 
confirm th© subdivision at a later date. This series contains ^ 
band of diatom a ceous earth in which 283 species and varieties of 
diatoms (Grove and Sturt, 1S86-7), and 110 species of siliceous 
sponges (Hinde and Holmes, 1890) have been found. According 
to Park (^1918) there is an extensive development of ellipsoidal 
basaltic flow within this series, though Uttley (1920) believes that 
these should be placed in the succeeding formation. 

This formation is the Oamaru polj'zoan limestone which is 
divided into two portions in the coastal districts by a large inter- 
posed wedgre of coarse breccia-tuff, and, according toi Uttley, by 
the ellipsoidal or pillow lavas. It contains, besides the pclyzoa, a 
dozen species of Foraminfera, four ostracods, a large echinoid 
(Pericosmns coni/jjressus), and locally an immense abundance of a 
few sub-genera of Terebratulidae. Other mollusca, which are of 
the same type as those in the sediments above and below the lime- 
stone, are present in the interstratified tuffs. This is the Ototaran 
stag© of Thomson. Following this is a very continuous band of 
greensand characterized by a great abundance of the brachiopod 
l^achi/migas jmrln, together with other organizms, nearly a hun- 
dred species of which have been found. This forms the Hutchin- 
sonian otage. It is fcllowed by the most richly fossiliferous as 
well as the highest subdivision, the Awamoan stage, of sands and 
clayS; in which 336 species of molluscs have been recorded, of 
which thirty-four per cent, are Recent. "It would be prema- 
ture," says Tbomson (1920), "to assume that there had been a 
sudden introduction of new forms in this Awamoan stage, although 
that is the actual suggestion of the lists." This clores the Tertiary 
sequence in the Oamaru district, and Pleistocene gravels lie un- 
conformably on the formation mentioned The material upon which 
the faunal lists are based has been greatly extended in th© past 
decade by th© collecting of Marshal], Park, Thomson, and Uttley, 

94 president's address — section c. 

and many new forms have been described by Marshall and Suter 
(1914-15), the latter having also revised much of older palseon- 
tological work. 

This sequence of beds is the type for many developments of the 
Notocene series of Otago and South Canterbury. Uttley (1920) has 
traced it up the Waitaki River, and Gudex (l9l8) has shown that 
it occurs also in the Pareora district, west of Timaru. Except 
where volcanic action has been great, local unconformities are not 
reco2;nisable. Dieconfcrmities may, however, be present. Thus, 
in the Dunedin district, the highest beds are the Caversham sand- 
stone, a porous, soft calcareo'us sandstcme, at the base of which is 
a narrow glauconite band resting directly upon the top of a marl 
formation, eupposedly " Oligocene," and perhaps tO' be classed 
ill the Waiarekan stage. Grange (1921) considers that there is 
some slight disconfcrmity between the marls and the overlying 
sandstones. This last is not very fosjiliferous, only a score of 
species having been recorded, but these indicate an age approxi- 
mate'y that of thie "Miocene" Hutchinsonian stage, and all 
forms present in the Caversham sandstone occur also' in the 
Awamoan stage (cf. Thomson 1918). Southwards from here are 
the Tertiary rocks stretching down into Upper Cretaceous or Eocene 
coal -measure, as at Kaitangata and perhajis the margin of the 
Waimea Plains, thus forming the coastal deposits abort Central 
Otago. In the south-west there was evidently an extensive sheet 
of Oamaruian beds, but of these little is yet knov;^n. Hector 
(1891, p. xlv.) described some steeply dipping coal measuree in 
Martin's Bay, north of Milford Sound. McKay (1896) described 
the coal measures and over'ying marine beds in the is ands and 
mainland at Puysegur Point. Park has recently traced them 
up the Waiau Valley to Lake Te Anau, about which they were 
originally described by Cox (1878). The recent work is not yet avail- 
able, but Park confirms the observations of Cotton and the writer 
that the dislocation observable in these Notocene beds, which lie 
upon the ancient crystalline rocks, afford important information 
in regard to the tectonic origin of that lake basin. As shown by 
McKay (1879), the Tertiary Marine rocks extend further to the 
ncvrth-east and are faulted into the crystalline rocks of Lake 
Wakatipu. Park has extended his former list of lossils from these 
beds (1918) and indicated that they are comparable with those of 
Oamaru (see Fig. 9). 

On the north-west coast of the South Island very different con- 
ditions occur. Here Morgan (1908, 1915) has recognised as lying 
on the ancient greywackes, a basal coglomerate or breccia, con- 
sidered to be a pluvial or talus-deposit, and overlain by produc- 
tive coal measures, the chief source of that fuel m New Zealand. 
These beds are followed by mudstone or claystone, which may 
overlap on to the ancient greywackes. Out of twenty-three 

president's address — SECTION c. 95 

mollusis found here, only one is a modem type. Morgan (1918) 
considers theoe beda to be ooeval with the Wanga.oa, Hampden, 
or Weka Pass beds. This formation is unconformab'y overlain 
by a second basal conglomerate with extensive seams of brown 
coal transgressing on to the older rocks. Tuese are followed by 
sandstones, limestone, and marls with 23 per cent, of recent 
species out of a total of about fifty icrms, which are similar to 
these in the Oamaru beds. The succecsion foims a comp.ete cycle 
of sodimentation, sandstone, claystone, limestone, and deltaic sand- 
stone (Morgan, 1915, pp. 71-93). A rather marked faunal dif- 
ference is noticeable between the beds above and below the lime- 
stone, though with but little variations in the percentage of recent 
forms (Henderson, 1917, pp. 79-99); a point of interest is tha 
occurrence in the limestone of a boine recognised by Huxley (1859) 
as belonging to a giant penguin. The series continues into 
North Westland and south-west Nelson, where it is marked by 
great irregularity in thickners and frequent overlaps. In the 
Giouland Downs, e.g.. Cotton (1916) found the limestone resting 
direct y on the granite. The marine Tertiary series of the Col- 
lingwood, (Bell 1907) and Nelson (Marchall 1911) districts, 
which also have a basal series of coal measures are comparable 
with the upper portion of the Oamaru Series. 

It will be convenient, in describing the Notccene rocks of the 
North Island, to coimmence with those of the Auckland Province, 
in the neighbourhood of Kaipara and Whangarei. Here the suc- 
cesLiicn IS uoscured by much dislocation and discontinuity of out- 
crop. The oldest Notccene beds are probably Senouian Inoceramus^ 
and obscure ammonites were fcuud at Whangaroa (Eell and 
Clarke, 1909), and in his preliminary announcement (1918) 
Marshall notes the occurrence at Kaipara of two species of Koss- 
ni'Jticeras, one of Lytoceras, Inoceramus, and other f^rms. He 
has since obtained a number of forms showing marked resemblance 
to members of the Senonian fauna of Seymour is.and (Grahams- 
land)* described by Wilckens (1904). Saurian remains also occur 
in a greenish mud^tone. Apparently the e beas are folL'wed by a 
hydraulic Globiyerina limestone, like that of Amuri E'luff, and 
correlated therewith, and this again is succeeded by tuffaceous 
sands with foraminifera and an abundant moliuscan fauna, of 
which 20 per cent, of the species are recent. (Marshal', 1918.) 
Authorities differ as to the conformity or unconformity of these 
rocks upon the Cretaceous beds, and little decisive field-evidence 
is yet available. According to Thomson C19'?0, p. 385), t^ese 
tuffaceous sands are followed by a polyzoan limestone of O^maruian 
character, which, being faulted down among the Cretaceous roks 
of Kaipara, has increased the difficulty of the iriteroretatirn of 
the faunal and stratigraphical succession in that district. Ferrar 

* Private communication. 


has lately reported that this succession holds good m the Whangarei 
district, and that two unconformities intervene between the hy- 
draulic limestone and the polyzoan limestone.* 

South C'i this region we enter a new diastrophic province, that 
oif the Auckland district. The basal beds rest unconformably on 
the Meso'zoic greywacke or sandstones, and are varied in character. 
They are sometimes coal-bearing cong-omerates, caVareous sand- 
stones or even algal limestone, the last resting on the Neoccmian 
plant-bearing sandstone of Waikato Heads. They are followed 
by tuffaceous sandstones with some interbedded volcanic material, 
the Waitemata beds, passing southwards into marls, blae sand- 
stones, and impure limestones. The scanty fauna of foraminifera, 
polyzoans, and mollusca is of Oamaruian character. These beds 
were slightly flexed, faulted, and partially planed, and upon them 
were deposited fossiliferous marine strata, m which Bartrum 

(1919) has found an extensive fauna containing 62 per cent, of 
recent species. Columnar basalts and agglomerate rest on these, 
and are succeeded by " Pleistocene " fluviatilei silts and dune- 
sand. This important "Miocene-Pliocene" unconformity m<ay 
bo traced southwards into the Taranaki province. Here the 
Mesozoic greywackes are discordantly overlain by grit and car- 
bonaceo'Us shale covered by limestone, passing upwards, into clay- 
stone, succeeded by massive sandstones and the coal-measures of 
the Mokau River, remarkable as being one of the few instances 
of Teritary coal-measures overlying marine beds that have been 
recorded in New Zeialand. These limestones are of Oamaniian 
age. Massive sandstones, probably to be correlated with the 
" Pliocene " fossiliferous rocks mentioned above, and alsO' with the 
Mokau coal-measures, rest disordantly upon thisi Oamaruian 
series in North Taranaki (Henderson 1918), but, near New Ply- 
mouth, the latter are covered by agglomerates, &c. , and the later 
volcanic rocks around the eruptive centre of Mt. Egmont (Clarke 
1912). Very widespread, also, are the rhyolitic tuffs in northern 
Taranaki and tho neighbouring region, which appear, however, 
to have been derived from thei eruptions in the centre of the 
island. They form a thick covering lying unconformably on the 
Tertiary marine rocks and coal-measures, but have been deeply 

A more extensive series of unconformities m the Notocene suc- 
cession has recently been described by Henaerson and Qngley 

(1920) in the Gisbome district. The basement rocks of greywacke 
are beyond the regions mapped by the above authors, and the 
oldest rocks visible in the Gisborne area are a series of shales 
greensinds, limestones, and clavstones, containing Innceramiis and 
belemnites. to which may be pssiened tentatively a Senonian age. 
They are decidedly more dislocated than the overlying Tertiary 

* Private communication. 

president's address — SECTION c. 97 

rocks, of whicli the oldest series is possibly " Eocene," and consists 
of unfossiliferous shales, sandtones, and locaLy conglomerates with 
fragments of the underlying Senonian beds ; but m the absence of 
visible contacts with these, there is no other evidence of their un- 
conformity thereon. The sucoDeding group of beds (the Te Arai 
Series), referred to the " Lower Miocene," does, however, rest 
with unccnfoi'mity upon the "Eocene" bods. It is composed of 
grits and cwiglomerates passing up into claystone and standstone, 
and may be as much as 8,000 feet thick. The foraminifer Amnhi- 
stegina and ten molluscs, two of which belong to recent species, 
are the only fossils known in these beds. The overlying (Tawhiti) 
formation is much more fossiliferous, and the 'C/vidence of its un- 
conformity on the "Lower Miocene" beds is seen in sections where 
gently dipping "Upper Miocene" sandstones rest on strongly 
crushed "Lower Mioooine" rocks, though beyond those regioins of 
shattering of "Lower Mioceme" rocks, the "Upper" and "Lower 
Miocene" beds appear to be quite conformable. (Compare Fig. 5.) 
Out of a collection of sixty-nine molluscs from this series 25 per 
cent, proved to belong to' recent species. The brachiopod Pachyma- 
ga^ {Waiparid) ahnorvris (Thomson) occurs among these. A very 
similar series of sandstones and calcareous or pumiceous beds, 
which are probably a conformable and shallow-water transgressive 
(Ormond) Series on the Tawhiti series, occupies a portion of the 
area in which the typical Tawhiti beds are not developed. They 
show a marked unconformity on the Te Arai "Lower Miocene" 
series when resting on their denuded surfaces. Out of ever 
100 molluscs therein 50 per cent, belong to recent species. 
Marshall's (1920) collection of ^fty-two forms from the 
"Tawhiti" series of Tokomaru, north of the Gisborne 
district, yielded tha same percentage of recent forms. 
This striking divergence in percentage of recent forms 
from those of the Tawhiti series of the Gisborne district, sup- 
ports the conclusion of Henderson and Ongley that the beds of 
Tokomaru, placed by McKay (1874), in the Tawhiti series, should 
rather be grouped with the " Lower Pliocene " Ormond beds. The 
Ormond beds were apparently elevated, eroded, and depressed before 
the deposition on them of the "Upper Pliocene" plant-bearing 
pumiceous silts, &c. Evidence of volcanic activity throughout the 
Tertiary sequence is to be seen in the tuff beds in the " Lower 
Miocene," to a less extent in the " Upper Miocene," and in 
the abundant pumice of both divisions of the " Pliocene" beds. 
As has been indicated before, Henderson and Ongley hold that 
this region is divided up into a number of blocks separated by 
zones of crushing in, which movement occurred at different periods. 
Some of the faults traversing Cretaceous strata have not affected 
later beds, and others which made great crush zones in "Lower 
Miocene" rocks have not effected the "Upper Miocene" beds. 

98 president's address— section c. 

This conclusion extends Dr. Henderson's (1917) deductions from 
the features of the Reefton district, and is a most important addi- 
tion to the discussion of the Tertiary history of New Zealand. 

The Hawkes Bay district has been a type-district for the study 
of the Upper Tertiary sediments sincei the explorations of McKay 
(1879-1887), but as no detailed investigation has been published 
concerning this area during the last decade, no account of it will 
be given here. Morgan (1914) and Thomson (1914, 1918) have 
made rapid investigations of the extension of the formations of the 
Hawkes Bay district southwards between the Ruahine and East 
Coast Ranges towards the Wairarapa district and Palliser Bay, 
and further work by Thomson is in progress in the latter region. 
He is of opinion that it dees not belong to the same diastrophic 
province as that containing Hawkes Bay, but is rather to be 
assigned to the same diastrophic province as the Awatere beds of 
East Marlborough, characterized by a marine transgression com- 
mencing near the close of the Oamaruian, and extending through 
the succeeding epoch, and affecting areas not submerged during the 
lower Noto'cene transgressions. Nevertheless, the region of 
Oamaruian depo'sition was not far distant from here, and evidence 
of a mid-Tertiary unconformity appears to be afforded by the oc- 
currence of derived Oamaruian fossils in an upper Tertiary mud- 
stone-conglomerate (Thomson, 1919).* 

On the other side of the island we have to record much in- 
teresting work Park (1887) showed that there existed here a 
great series of Upper Tertiary beds extending into' the centre of the 
island. Speight's (1908) observations indicate that they rest upon 
a planed surface of greywacke, &c., which extends beyond the 
margin of the marine rocks. Apparently the transgression was 
towards the south-east. As we have pointed out, the lower 
Tertiary sediments in North Taranaki are unconformably over- 
lain by sandstone (including coal-measures). Traced to the south- 
east these give place toi " Upper Miocene " and " Lower Pliocene "■ 
calcareous sands, clays, and coralline beds, with pebbly shell beds, 
and these again are followed further toi the south-east by " Upper 
Pliocene " sandy shell beds, clays, &c. Marshall and Murdoch 
(1920) rei-examined the fauna of these two last formations, as 
exposed in the coastal section extending for 20 miles north-west of 
Wanganui, and originally described by Park (op. cit. pp. 47-57). 
There are still lower beds which have not yet been re-examined. 
The dip is constant throughout, being about 4^ deg. towards the 
S.S.E. As no dislocations of any note appear in the very con- 
tin nous sections, they are most probablv absent from the inter- 
vening dune-covered stretches. The lithology is fairly constant 

♦ Thom'»on a!si re'oM'i th"? prpsence of conebment" houliers of Orf ta'-eous rocks in this 
that h'VB lippn derivod f'-om adjacent firrmt'ons which, however, may belong to the Pre-Noto- 
cene Lower Cretaceous (?) " East Coast Series." 

president's address — SECTION c. 99 

also. The dominant rock is blue marly clay, becoming more 
or less sandy in places. In the lower portion of the series they 
are more varied, coarse-grained sands and even pebbly beds are 
present; false-bedding due to tidal scour may be observed, and a 
concretionary, shoal-water, arenaceous limestone occurs. Note- 
worthy is the evidence of two land-surfaces indicated by "a, 
stratum of beach-worn pebbles, a carbonaceous stratum with roots 
penetrating the clay beneath, and a numb:r of molluscan bores 
penetrating it." Tlie thickness of rocks studied is approximately 
3,560 feet, and they are more or less fossiliferous throughout. 
Collections, each typical of a thickness of about 500 feet, were 
made at intervals of approximately 1,000 feet thickness of strata. 
The lowest beds contained 72 forms (Gl per cent, of Recent 
forms), the neixt group of beds contain 84 forms (76 per cent. 
Recent). In these were found bones of two* species of moa. Above 
these a series of 82 forms was obtained containing 90 per cent, of 
Recent species whilei the highest fauna of the whole formation 
occurring at the mouth of the Wanganui River yielded 93 per 
cant of Recent forms out of a total of 181 species, " Pleistocene" 
beds lie unconformably upon these. With this wonderful succes- 
sion is concluded the record of the marine deposits of the Notocene 

Terrestrial Notocene Deposits. 

While the early geologists supported the view that the marine . 
rocks described above were deposited in embajrments roughly 
corresponding in form to the present areas of Tertiary rocks, 
modern research is tending to con'firm McKay's view that the 
scattered areas are mostly inf aulted residuals of a sheet of almost 
continuo'Us marine rocks preserved from erosion by being faulted 
down into the harder under-mass. Only in Central Otago, is 
there evidence of a persistent land surface, and here the meta- 
morphism of the older rocks appears to^ indicate that a gieat 
mountain range was reared in late Mesozoic times, which, however, 
was reduced to a peneplain in thei succeeding epoch, when a very 
widespread series of terrestrial deposits were laid down. These 
were studied in detail by Hutton (1875), McKay (1883, 1884), and 
Park (1906-8-9). They consist in part of possibly lacustrine de- 
posits (Morgan 1920), and of fluviatile brds (Cotton 1919), which 
may h^ grouped into twoi unconformable series, indicating that 
here also crust-warping occurred during the Tertiary period. The 
basement beds of auriferous cements in this scries in Eastern 
Otago have been considered to be of " Eocene" age by Marshall 
(1918') who' classed with them a series of conglomeratic rocks near 
Dunedin ("the Taieri Moraine"), the supposed glacial origin of 
which had been a long-rtanding difficulty in the interpretati n of 
tlie geological history of Otago. In relegating these to a fluviatile 
origin, Marshall is supported by Trechmann (1918) and Professor 

100 president's address — SECTION c. 

H. E. Gregory (verbal citation). The relationship of thesei to the 
adjacent marine Tertiary rocks has not yet been fully considered. 
At Kyeburn, however, in the northern part cf Central Otago, 
fossiliferO'Us greensands, deposited in a temporary extension of, the 
Oamaruian sea, have been noted by McKay (1883, 1894), and 
these occur intercalated in the lower part of the terrestrial fonna- 
t-ions. The latter have yielded fresh-water mussels, and fish- 
remains, together with numerous dicotyledons. At Lawrence, 
Marshall determined certain plant remains as belonging to Aralia 
and Podocarpivm. 

The Affinities of the Fossil Fauna and Flora of New Zealand. 

It is not possible in this place to discuss in any detail the 
affinities of the ancient life in New Zealand to that in other 
parts of the world, but in view of the urgent problems of th© origin 
of the modern fauna and flora, some mention must ba made of the 
facts that have been brought to light during the past decade. Of 
the Ordovician and Silurian life we know but little, but, so far 
as our information goes, there is a general similarity betweein 
the New Zealand forms and those of South-Eastem Australia. The 
record becomes more legible at the close of the Palaeozoic period. The 
hypothesis of the former existence of an Antarctic continent with 
land-connexions to Australasia and South America, first suggested 
by Hooker (1847), has received support, from many lines of evi- 
dence adduced by a large group of naturalists, including four 
former presidents in this Association — Benham, Hedley, Hutton 
and Spencer — until, in the words of Osbom (1910), " the hypo- 
thetical reconstruction of a great Southern Continent is one of the 
greatest triumphs of recent biological research." The evidencie 
has baen as yet. for the most part, based upon the characters and 
distribution of the modern forms only. The particular form of the 
hypothesis most generallv supported appears to be that suggested 
by Hedley (1895, 1899!! 1912). Generalizing from the several 
statements, we may say that the hypothesis involves ccmmunica- 
tion between New Zealand, Australia and Malaysia in Mesozoic 
times, with a separation of New Zealand from Australia in the 
latter part of the Cretaceous period, when the former was in close 
association with Antarctica, permitting migration to New Zealand 
of South American forms. This was probably the period of 
greatest extension of the Antarctic lands, as was urged by Hutton 
(1873), though the geographic significance we now put on that 
stateanent when following Hedley, is different from that assigned 
to it by Hutton. Hedley (1895) stated that " during the Mesozoic 
or Older Tertiary, a strip of land with a mild climate extended 
across the South Pole from Tasmania to Tierra del Fuego, and 
Tertiary New Zealand then reached sufficiently near to this An- 
tarctic connexion without joining it, to receive by flight or drift 
many plaaits and animals ". Antarctica was " not necessarily a 

president's address — SECTION C. 101 

singla completely continuous mass at one and tlie same time" (Hut- 
ton, 1873); it was more probably " an unstable area, at one time 
dissolving into an archipelago, at another resolving itself into a 
continent " (Hedley, 1899). Thus the direct conneLxioii of An- 
tarctica may have been at one time with Australia, at another with 
New Zealand. 

The occurrence of Glossopteris in each of the southern continents 
leads to the conception of Gondwana Land, a congerie of continental 
masses lying south of the Tethys at the close of Palaeozoic times. 
Thi;j grouping of landmasses was linked more closely together by 
the discovery of the same plant by Dr. Wilson and Captain Scott 
very near to the South Pole itself. The long uncertainty as to 
whether Glossopteris occurs in New Zealand, on the western 
Pacific margin of that mass of lands, has been answered in the 
negative by Arber (1917), though Seward (1914) has indicated 
that, in his view, the matter is not yet completely closed. No in- 
dubitable example of the plant has, however, been found yet in 
New Zealand, and, therefore, Arber held that there is no evidence 
that New Zealand was connected with Australia or Antarctica in 
late Palaeozoic times. Since he wrote, it has been shown that 
marine beds, without any known plant-bearinc estuarine intercala- 
tions, were deposited in New Zealand at the time when Glos- 
sopteris flourished in the Australian region. The Permian marine 
fauna of New Zealand, so far as it is known, is entirely of the Aus- 
tralian littoral typ&, which probably developed in an epicontinental 
extension from the Permian Tethys, flooding over Eastern Aus- 
tralasia (compare David, 1919), aijd it does not include even the 
Tethyan cephalopods that occurred in the coeval recks in New 
Caledonia, though the Australian form Aphanaia is known there 

In the Upper Triassic and Jurassic periods, tha marine fauna 
of New Zealand is Tethyan and circumpacific m character, as 
Trehmann (1918) has proved the relationship of the Upper Triassic 
fauna with that of New Caladcnia being particularly close. 
The investigations of the earlier Mesozoic floras show that, 
though much less rich than those of Australia, they are, 
nevertheless, akin thereto, and we may, perhaps, hold 
that in " Rhaetic and probably also in Jurassic times, New 
Zealand and Tasmania were united with Australia as one large 
connected land-area. The floras of these now separated regions 
are nearly allied, but not identical, but the similarity between 
them is probably sufficient to allow of this hypothes^'s " (Arber 
1917). The same is the conclusion drawn by Walkom (1918), from 
his exce^edingly important studies of the Australian Mesozoic 
floras. It has been suggested above that the New Zealand forms 
represent the hardy elements in the Australasian flora, the migra- 
tion of which, back and forth, followed the fluctuation of the 
shore-line on the broad continental shelf, which cccupied the New 

102 president's address — SECTION c. 

Zealand area from Peiinian to Jurassic times. " As regards An- 
tarctica, we have no evidence as yet of any Rhaetic land there, but 
in Jurassic times, Grahamsland may have been connected with 
New Zealand, and also with Australia" (Arber 1917), Special 
interest attaches toi the form Linynifolium, which was that sup- 
posed to be Gloxsopteris prior to Arber's investigations. It occurs 
in the Rhaetic and Lower Jurassic beds in New Zealand, and Arber 
believes that the genus is also represented in the Rhaetic beds of 
South America, and the Jurassic of South Australia, Victoria and 
Tasmania, tho'Ugh W,alkcm does not concur as regards ,the Aus- 
tralian forma It is perhaps also represented by the small leaves 
" like Glossopteris," that have been recorded by Piroutet (1917) 
in the Noric beds of New Caledonia. 

The great orogenic movement in early Cretaceons times now fol- 
lowed, but in the fauna of the succeeding Middle Cretaceous (Al- 
bian) transgression, Woods (1917) found that of the sixteen forms 
present in New Zralaiid, nine were of Indo-Pacific affinities, so 
that the forms arriving in New Zealand must have come by the 
circumpacific channel, and from the broadened Tethyan Sea, out 
of which the East African channel now opened. In the much 
more extensive Upper Cretaceous (Senonian) transgression, the im- 
portance of the "short-circuit" migration from Graham land 
become mo^e clear. Trechmann (1917) recognised out of fifteen 
New Zealand molluscs, nine with affinities to those Chili, Pata- 
gonia or Grahamsland, and Woods (1917) out of a collection of 
fiftv two lamellibranchs and cephalopods, identified two or three 
with South American types, and four with close affinities thereto. 
Comparisons were also made between other species and forms 
occurring in Southern India, South Africa and Europe. Reviewing 
this very important work, Wilckens (1920) points out that the 
South American affinities are even greater than Woods ind'cated. 
He recognises two additional forms as identical with South 
American species, and four othei*s as closely allied thereto. His 
own study ol the Senoiiian gasteiropods of New Zealand, which 
IS now in the press, supports this, and will, therefore, be awaited 
with all the more interest. We may note his remark thTt New 
Zealand. Grahamsland and Patagonia formed part of the coast- 
line of the Southern Pacific Ocean of Senonian times. The fossils 
coinsi^ered by these writers came from the north-eastern part of 
the South Island only, but their conclusions are confirmed by Dr. 
Marshall's studies of the Senonian beds of the Kaip^ra d'strirt*. 
North Auckland, of which a preliminary account will be placed 
before this section. We may here mention the fact that the 
Senonian fauna of Nerw Caledonia, of which Piroutet (1917) has 
given a preliminary statement, shows also the same groups of 
genera as are represented in the circumr)acif:c fauna, and th^re 
are a number of genera common toi New Zealand and New 

* Private commuQication. 

president's address — SECTION c. 103 

The separatiooa of Australia from New Zealand was so complete 
in Upper Cretaceous time that there is only one species of mollusc 
(Natica variabilis) yet known to be common to the two areas. 
(Trechmann 1917). 

As regards the reptilian life of New Zealand in this period, we 
may note that Dr. C. W. Andrews (fide Woods 1917) has com- 
pared it with that of the Senonian Niobrara chalk of the United 

Thomson's (1918) important studies of the distribution of 
Recent and Tertiary Brachiopods in the Southern Hemisphere 
carry us a stage further forward. He concludes that the two 
gronps that are represented originated, p.erhaps in Early Cteta- 
ceous times, on the coast of the residue of Gondwana. Land that 
then existed, and that they have remained almost entirely re- 
stricted to this region. They s-pread along the coast line, and 
apparently developed into diverse colonies in the different portions 
of the littoral zone, which had been restrictd by the early Creta- 
ceo'Us orogeny. On each district where the " Miocene " and 
Recent forms occur, the latter are almost always the diminished 
remnants of the " Miocene " fauna of that locality, and do not 
call for — indeed preclude — the occurrence of Pliocene land con- 
nexions to' explain their distribution. The communication between 
Antarctica and New Zealand, with migration of the brachiopods, 
may have occurred as early as in the Cretaceous. The character 
and distribution of certain Middle Tertiary forms suggest, how- 
ever, a further intermic ration of forms — various widespread 
species — at the epoch of maximum lextensicn of the sea over the 
planed land surfaces, which occurred during the warm climatic 
period of " Oligccene-Miocene " times in Australia, Antarctica, 
and South America. At this time also the affinities of the mol- 
lusca of New Zealand to those of South Ameri'^a-Patasjonia, 
were marked, as has been shown by Ortmann (1902), Button 
(1904), and Von Thering (1907), and about this time there may 
have been an introduction of new forms into the New Zealand 
area. Thus Thomson (1920) remarks: — " It would be premature 
to assume that there had been a sudden introduction of new forms 
into the Awamoan (' Miocene '), although that is the actual sug- 
gestion of the lists." If this should eventually be confirmed, it 
may, perhaps, be pointed out that the objection that has been 
raised to a Tertiary land connexion of New Zealand and the An- 
tarctic with South America, namely, the absence from New Zea- 
land of the vertebrates, especially mammals, such as occurred 
in Australia may perhaps be explained by the fact (realize:! fully 
only during the last few years) that at the time of the supposed 
introduction of littoral mollusca. New Zealand had become merely 
a few small islands, separated by an epicontinental sea, by which 
the entry of t&rrestial vertebrates might be debarred. The study 

104 president's address — SECTION c. 

of the ancestry and migrations of other organisms in New Zea- 
land — the moa, the reptilia, and amphibians — must also be con- 
sidered in this connexion before conclusions are reached. There 
is certainly no palasontological evidence yet for the connexion of 
New Zealand at this time with New Caledonia, for the Tertiary 
beds there are represented only by estuarine deposits containing 
a few foraminifera, and even these are not of the types that are 
represented in ccntemporaneo' s marine beds in New Zealand. 

There is, however, no divergence of opinion in regard to the 
isolation of New Zealand since the middle of Tertiary times. 
Thus Thomson (1908) states:— "The Recent New Zealand 
(brachiopod) fauna is merely a diminished remnant of the rich 
Oamaruian (' Miocene ') fauna, and needs no land connexions, 
since the Miocene, to explain its character. The specific and 
generic distinctness of the Recent New Zealand and Australian 
forms precludes a land connexion between the areas in the Plio- 
cene or post-Pliocene." Marshall and Murdoch (1920) concur, 
stating that the present molluscan fauna of New Zealand seems 
to be a remnant of a fauna of early, or middle, Tertiary age. 
There is certainly a striking poverty of mollusca in the Wanganui 
(" Pliocene ") beds when they are compared with the very small 
exposure of fossiliferous strata at Target Gully, near Oamaru 
(Awamoan) and elsewhere in the middle Tertiary strata. There 
are no additional genera of any importance in the Castlecliff 
("Upper Pliocene") strata, and thee is no sudden inrueh of 
new species, so far as their investigations go, at any horizon of 
the "complete succession of 'Pliocene' beds near Wanganui." 
This seems to preclude the possibility of the formation of a tempo- 
rary association of lands during the late Tertiary and Pleistocene 
erogenic and epirogenic movements in New Caledonia, New Zea- 
land, and Eastern Australia, to which Cockayne (1919) seems to 
be inclined to ascribe the entry of a presumably post-Mesozoic 
floral element into New Zealand. 

In view of the uncertainty attaching to the present records of 
the Tertiary flora, which are due to Ettingshausen (1891). we 
cannot profitably base on them any discussion of the relationships 
of the recent and fossil flora. Hutton's (1904) comments thereon 
may be noted, and we may endorse Cockayne's (1919) remark 
that "it is to be sincerely hoped that some one well versed in the 
flora of New Zealand will thoroughly study these fossils. No 
purely scientific work is more wanted." Fortunately, however, we 
are not without evidence of the affinities of the present flora. 
Dusen (1908) has recorded the presence O'f fo'Ur w^ell-known genera 
among the Recent flora of New Zealand in the Tertiary plant beds 
of Seymour Island, Grahamsland. Skottsberg (1915) has com- 
pared the Recent floras of New Zealand and sub-Antarctic 
America, and finds that there are 47 families, 68 genera, and a 
score of species common to the two regions, while a score more of 

president's address — SECTION c, 105 

the species of plants in New Zealand find very close allies in 
Southern America. These co-exist in New Zealand, with a true 
Malayan element, which must have been here during the close of 
Mesozoic times, and with a large Australian and Malayan element, 
which comprises forms of more recent origin which have perhaps 
entered New Zealand by drift from over seas. (Compare Coc- 
kayne (1919).* 

Notocene and Recent Volcanic Action. 

We» have already mentioned the outpouring of basic rocks in 
the Albian series of the Clarence Valley. Thomson (1913, 1919) 
has suggested that the great series of dykes which traverse the 
Inland Kaikoura Eange may have been coeval with this out- 
pouring. To this period also, or perhaps to the Senonian, Mr. 
Speight would refer the rhyolites of Mt. Somers, the Rakaia Gorge, 
Malvern, and the Rangitata Valley, pebbles of which occur in the 
Upper Cretaceous coal-measures of the Malveirn Hills. The rhyo- 
litic rocks near Lyttleton Harbor are probably coeval. Rather 
older than these, probably Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous, 
(and if not so strictly a part of the Early Notocene volcanicity), 
are the andesites of the Clent Hills, the Rakaia Gorge and the 
adjacent Rockwood Range. TTiese were assigned by Marshall 
(1912) to the Trias- Jura, period, but the investigation now in 
progress under the direction of Mr. Speight confirms Cox's opinion 
(1883) that they lie unconformably across the edges of the older 
Mesozoic rocks. (Speight 1917 and private communications). 

In Middle Tprtiary times, igneous action was still more 
widespread. The tuffs and pillow-lavas oi the Oamarn dis- 
trict formed at this time (Park 1918, Uttley 1918, 19^0) 
and perhaps also the basic rocks of the Moeraki Peninsula, which 
have not yet been described in detail. In the Coromandel Penin- 
sula, the Geological Survey of which has been completed during 
the last decade, there occurred three phases of vulcanicity in this 
period ; and it is to the propylitisation of the rocks of the first of 
these that we owe the rich auriferous deposits of that region. The 
latest bulletin on this area gives a very valuable summary by 
Henderscn and Bartrum (1913) of the previous investigations of 
the whole district. (See also Eell and Eraser 1912.) Later 
Tertiary igneous activity is indicated by the extent of volcanic 
rocks in the North Auckland Peninsula, where the invf-stigations 
of Bell and Clarke ('1909) are new being extended by Eerrar and 
Bartrum. It is also shown by the tuffaceous character of the 
Upper Tertiary beds of the Gisborne, Napier, and Taranaki dis- 
tricts, which is especially marked in the later "Pliocene" beds, 

* For fuller consideration of the problem of the Antarctic connexions reference 
should be made to the summaries of the biological evidence by Ortmann (l'>02^, Benham 
(1904). Hutton (1904), Chilton (HO"), Oshorn (1910), and Hedley (1912K and for 
opposing views Cheeseman (1S09), and Matthew (1914). The geological evidence has been 
Summarized by David (1914). 

106 president's address — SECTION c. 

and indicates that th© present igneous activity in the North Island 
commenced in the Tertiary period. Th:'s was emphasized in Mar- 
shall's (iy08) useful summary of the volcanic geology of the centre 
of the North Island, to which refeTenc© should be made. Mentiorn 
should also be made of Clarke's (1912) d'Cscription of the 
agglomerates, &c., near New Plymouth. . In the South Island, 
Speight (1917) has shown that succeeding the C'retaceous 
rhyolitic eruptions of Lyttleton, there was in pTobably Late 
Trtrtiary times an outpouring of basalt flows, building up huge 
cones at Lyttleton and Akaroa, associated with radiating trachytic 
dykes of an alkaline character. Between these, a third volcanic 
centre was formed at a somewhat later period, and without a 
radiating series of dykes. Thus was produced a great volcanic 
island some di..tance off shore, which being subsequently encroached 
upon by the prograding shore, has become Bank's Peninsula. In 
oppooition to Haast's view that the harbours of Lyttleton and. 
Akaroa were explosion craters, Speight shows that they more prob- 
ably result from the drowning of valleys which had cut back into 
th© centres of the great volcanoes. 

The volcanic rocks of the Dunedin district rest upon an irregular 
surface of Middle Tertiary beds, and overstep thence until they 
rest upon the basement schists. They consist of basalts, tracliy- 
doleriles, and a variety of more alkaline trachytes and phonolites. 
Marshall's (1914) account of the wonderful succession of flows at 
North OtagO' Head is a notable addition to his earlier generali-'ed 
description of the whole area (1906), and leads to th© interesting 
conclusion that the series of flows are derived from an essexitic 
(trachydolerite) magma, which was injected at several epcchs into 
subordinate magma-reservoirs, from which, after differentiation, 
the basalts and m.ore alkaline lavas were ejected. Detailed studies 
of other portion?, of the district have been mad© by Cotton (1909) 
and Bartrum (1913). These investigations ar© being extended by 
the writer and his students, and indicate the great complexity cf 
the sequence of events in this region. 

Other small areas of Cainozoic volcanic rocks exist, but have 
not been investigated during the past decade. 

Nor has there been carried out in this period any work of note 
on the Recent volcanic action in New Zealand, except Moore's 
interesting account of an ascent of Ruapehu and Ngauruhoe 
(1917), and the detailed survey of Mt. Egmont by Morgan and 
Gibson, which awaits publication. The older work, which 
was summarized by Marshall (1908, 1912), Speight (1908), 
and Park (1910), leads to the interesting conclusiom 
that the main centres of volcanic activity in the North 
Island lie on a line passing in a north -easte.rly direction from 
Ruapehu, through Nga'iruhoe, Tongariro, Pihanga, Tauhara, 
Mt. Edgecumbe, and White Island, which is nearly straight, and 

president's address — SECTION c. 107 

presumably indicates the presence of an important line of crust- 
weakness, parallel to the direction of the major features which 
have guided the po:t-Tertiary orogeny, and along which seismic 
disturbances still occur, though only occasionally within the area 
of New. Zealand, as e.g., the Cheviot earthquake O'f 1901 (McKay 
1902). The great rift of the Tarawera eruption and its extension 
in Lake Rotoniahana, lies also in the same direction, and parallel 
to it is perhaps a subsidiary line cf volcanic activitj?- running to the 
north-east from Mt. Egmont. The main line, however, indicated 
above is approximately collinear with the westeirn margin of the 
Tonga Trench, which extends towards Samoa, past the Kermadec 
Islands and Tonga, the volcanic rocks of which resemble the ande- 
sites of the North Island of New Zealand, as was pointed out by 
Speight (1911) and Marshall ('1912). This relationship derives new 
interest from the recsnt nd highly important seismclogical investi- 
gation of the crust-movements in the Tonga Trench, carried out 
by the observai cries at Samoa and Sydney, a statement of which 
is to be placed before this meeting. We may here welco^me the 
suggestion urged by Dr. Jagger, of Hawaii, that a vulcanological 
observatory shcvild be installed in the active regions of New Zea- 
land, and express the hope that the detailed geological investiga- 
tion of the past and present volcanic activity will alsO' be taken 
in hand. 

The Post-Tertiary {Kaikourd) Orogeny. 

The general recognition of the importance of post-Tertiary 
diastrophism has been a marked feature of the study of the 
geology in New Zealand during the* past decade. It was clearly 
recognised by McKay in his later writings {e.g., on the Kaikcuras, 
1892, and on Central Otago, 1894-7), and was brought to the front 
again by Park's re-survev of the latter region (1906. 1908, 1909), 
by Henderson (1911), and by the physiographic studies of Cotton 
{e.g., 1913, 1916, 1917). The vertical element of the movement is 
obvious, but a lateral ccmponent is indicated in several regions as 
mentioned below. This orogeny, however, appears net to have 
been confined to post-Tertiary time> merelv. but. according to the 
studios, especially of Henderson (1917, 1920), seems to have been 
the culmination of a series of much smaller movements whir'h con- 
tinued soasmodically throughout the Notocene period. To this 
great orogeny and the consequent denudation is due almost all of 
the present rebef of New Zealand excepting that of the volcanic 
mountains. The Kaikoura movements of New Zealand may thus 
be compared with the Ozarkian movements of America and the 
Kosciusco movements of Eastern Australia. We must now con- 
sid-r New Zealand as " a concourse of earth-blocks," which were 
moved differentially, tilted, war'-ed, or even faulted at this time. 
The boundaries of the blocks are marked by fault-ccarps in homo- 
geneous structures, or faulted contacts of older and younger strata, 



Fig. 8.- 

Barewopd jPlateau 
-(After Cotton, 1917). 

Oeologic sketch map of the block mountains associated with Central Otago chain of 
depressions. (Boundaries after McKay, with slight modi ication.=.) The areas in which 
schist undermass rocks reach the suiface are marked by waved noith-south lines, the 
areas of greywacke (unaltered or little altered) by stiaiglit north-south lines, and those 
in which the overmass forms the surface, or is thinly coveied by alluvium, by straight 
east-west lines. Volcanic rocks of the overmass are shown in black. 

at which the latter arei generally steeply upturned. Generally th« 
faults are oblique toi the strike of the folded strata they truncate, 
and thus the dominantly north-easterly strike of the Mesozoic and 
older rocks is net evidence of the direction of late Mesozoic folding. 
Suess' conclusion cited in regard to the North Auckland Peninsula 
that the direction of the coast line is independent of the strike of 
the folding, is still apiplicable tO' regions where the strike of the old 
folds and of tha "Pleistocene " faults are more nearly coinparable 
(Cotton, 1916). Tilting of the fault-blocks is not as a rule very 
steep, a notable exception being that of the Kaikoura Mountains 
(Cotton, 1913). In some regions the evidence of lateral thrusting 
is clear. In the Kaikoura Mountains, the Great Clarencei Valley 
f'^ult mero^es northwards intO' an overturned syncline (Thomson 
1919). Park has described in more detail (1909, 1913) the wonder- 
ful infolding of an overturned and fault-ed syncline of Tertiary 
rocks recosrnised by Hutton (1875) and McKay (1894) on the shores 
of Lake Wakatipu. (See Figuret 9.) Marshall (1918) describes the 



thrusting of th© mica-schists over " Early Tertiary " conglomerat-es 
in two localities in Eastern Otago. The fault planes dip at angles 
of 25 dee. -35 deg., and one broad aroa of slicken-side®, the Blue 
Spur at Lawrence, has been swept clear of the overlying gravelly 
conglomerate for an area of about 16 acres. It had formerly 
been suggested that it was a glaciated pavement. In the Nelson 


Fig. 9. Section at Bob's Ctove, Lake Wakatlpu. (After Park, 1909.) 
(a) "Miocene" sandstone and conglomeiate. (b) "Miocene" Limestone, 
(c) " Miocene " Marly sandstone, (a) " Miocene " Marly clay, (e) " Miocene" 
Calcaieous brescia-conglomerate. m«. Mesozoic ? mica-sctiist. 

district, the Cainozcic rocks are overturned adjacent to the fault 
bounding the older rocks, and, alternatively to the older inter- 
pretation, the writer would suggest that the Brook-street volcanic 
rocks have been thrust O'ver the inverted Tertiary coal measures* 
(See Figure 1.) An interesting example of very late lateral move- 
ment is de?cribed by Morgan (1908) ,* where schists have been thrust 
over Recent rivrr-alluvium. In Westland, the evidence of lateral 
movement does not seem to be so great as in the regions described 
above. Henderson (1917) summarizes the history of deformation 
here as follows: — Four periods of faulting occurred during Caino- 
zoic times, viz., prior to the " Eocene," prior to the " Miocene." 
between " Miocene " and " Pliocene " and post-" Pliocene." The 
faults present the usual characteristics. The movement, even 
along the same dislocation, may be concentrated in a single fracture 
with walls close together, or perhaps several chains apart, the 
intervening space being filled with comminuted rock. Again the 
fault may be a shear-zone, with numerous sub-parallel and closely 
spaced polished surfaces, with the intervening rock rendered 
schistose, but always more or less deformed. One type of fault 
constantly recurs, narrow trough-faults, in which the rock between 
the main fault-walls belongs to a higher horizon than the walls 
themselves. When the Cainozoic beds, which overlie the Palaeozoic 
sediments and granites, are involved, the detection of this type of 
fault is very easy. The main fracture-planes nowhere appear to 
deviate far from the vertical. 

* Dr. Marshall, in conversation, remarked that he has already formed this opinion. 

110 president's address — SECTION C, 

Evolution of the Modern Topocp-aphy."^ 

This description forms a fitting introduction to the next stage 
in the evolution of the present topography. This we must discuss 
briefly in regard to several aspects as follows: — (I.) Sediments 
deposited during the erogenic movement; (II.) The initial form of 
the upliftc^d land mass; (HI.) The effects of subaerial denudation ; 
(IV.) Sediments deposited subsequent to the main Kiakoura 
orogeny; (V.) The effects of more recent crust-movement on the 
features of the coasts and valleys. 

(I.) Spsight (1919) has described under the term Kowhai 
Series, a group of fold'd or tilted gravels in North Canterbury, 
wh'ch he has since traced into South Marlborough, f They lie un- 
conformably on the uppermost Notocene beds, and frequently 
contain fragments from them as well as from thei lower Notocene 
and basement rocks. They may be considered as forming a type 
of molasse in front of the rising range of the Southern Alps, 
though they have not been overthrust like their Swiss prototypes. 
A point needing further elucidation is the relationship between 
the Kowhai gravels and the Great Marlborough conglomerate, 
which also has been derived from the Nocotene and underlying 
rocks of the Kaikoura Ranges during a portion of their elevation, 
though, according to Cotton and Thcmscn, it was a movemefit lO'Ug 
prior to the main Kiakoura orogeny. If McKay's observation 
is supported that the conglomerate contains fragments ot 
" Plio'Cene " beds and transgress from these on to the Amuri lime- 
stone, their apparent unconforrnitv^ on the* Notocene rocks mieht 
lead us to place them with the Kowhai gravels. Thomson (1919), 
hov^ever, questions the^ accuracy of the above record cf observa- 
tions, and accepts Cotton's (1914) conclusion that the Marlborough 
conglomerate is conformable on the underlying rocks, and are 
" fanglomerates " re.^lly interstratified with their uppermost sub- 
division, being overlain in some parts by fossiliferous "Pliocene" 
beds. The acceptance of this view would lead us to infer the 
occurrence of very localised faulting to the extent of, perhaps, 
3,000 to 6,000 feet in the " Plioceuo " times. Park's view (1910) 
that the beds are glacial would necessitate nearly as great move- 
ment in post-glacial times. 

We inay also class with the Kowhai gravels the slightly folded 
Moutere gravels of the Nelson district (Marshall, 1911). In the 
North Island, Thomson (1917) has recogrnised an extensive series of 
marine sands, &c., lying unconformably on the " Pliocene " (and 
earlier?) rocks of Southern Taranaki. This he terms the Hawera 

(II.) From what has been stated, it is cle^r that the surface of 
New Zealand at the commencement of " Pleistocene" time was 
that of a group of differentiallv elevated earth-blocks composed of 

* Dr. Cotton's ceneral discussion of this topic is being published in book-form by 
the New Zealand Government Printer, 
t Private communication. 



a ba&emieiit of hard greywaeke or schist, upon the more or less 
planed surface of which rested less resistant Notccene sediments, 
which had not infrequently subsided among the older rocks, either 
in broad " intermontane basins ", enclosed between roughly paral- 
lel faults, or between a warp and a fault (a " fault-angle depres- 
sion"), or in narrow rectilinear rift-valleys, sometimes crossed 
obliquely by other fault-lines or faulted strips, and sometimes re- 
duced to a narrow wedge-shaped mass of sediment dragged down 
along a single fault line or even to a mere- zo^ne of fault-breccia ^ 
such zones sometimes forming a more or less reticulated arrange- 
ment . 

(III.) The effects resulting frcm the denudation of such a di- 
versified area have been studied in detail by Cotton, Henderson 
and Speight. A consequent drainage must ultimately have be- 
come established, and commenced to remove the covering strata 
from the tilted or elevated blocks. Where this process is still in- 
complete, the topography is contrclled in a large measure by the 
variation of the resistance offered to erosion by the different beds of 
the covering strata, a,nd dip-slo'pes and scarps are characteristic 
features of the scenery. Such cuesta-country is especially well-deve- 
loped in the eastern slopes oif the Ruahine Range, leading down to 
Hawkes Bay, but it is widespread throughout the Hawkes Bay 
Province, and the eastern ]Joii:ion of the Wellington Pro'vinoe. 
Where, however, the erosion of the covering strata is more 
advanced in the higher eleivatecl blocks there are exposed areas 
of the planed surface of the under-mass, which now appear 
as portions of a " stripped peneplain," of which the further 
reduction is very slow compared Vith that of the covering 
strata. (See Fig. 10.) "An enormous amount of waste 
results from the stripping of back-slopes, and dissection of 
faulted and folded fronts. Exceptionally such waste may be 
all removed as it is supplied, but in most places, deep 
aggradation of troughs will take place progressively with the de- 
formation, and with the degradation and dissection of the higher 

Fig. 10. Diagram to illustrate the origin of the present topography of New Zealand. 

A. Block-faulting resulting from the Karkouri orogeny. (For even clearness sake 
this has been drawn as if no erosion occurred during the period of crust- 

B. Jlodern topogiaphy resulting from removal by erosion of the softer covering-strata 
from the resistant under-mass of the crust-blocks. 

1084.— 11 

112 president's address — SECTION c. 

blocks " (Cotton, 1917). During degradation the filling from 
some troughs may be removed, and the underlying rock exposed. 
The local base-level of erosion from the covering strata within a 
trough must depend on the level at which the streams escape from 
the basin across the barriers of the more elevated blocks of the 
under-mass. The streams escaping across these barriers must be 
superimposed in a certain sense. Commencing as streams on the 
blocks as they were originally dislocated, they have cut down 
into the covering strata until they were forced to notch the under- 
mass, but Cotton has pointed out that they so frequently cross the 
barriers of under-mass, in gorges cut where the general surface of 
the planed surface of the under-mass shows a down-warped depres- 
sion, as to indicate that the streams must have existed formerly at 
these warped depressions as consequent streams on the overlying 
covering mass, and have since become established by deep erosion. 
Thus they are " superimposed " ccnsequeiit streams, rather than 
" antecedent " streams, for they are not necessarily older than 
the main dislocation of the crust in their drainage area. But if a 
stream escape from a tectonic basin by a gorge cut in a depression 
in the rim of the basin that is not the deepest deipressioii, it must 
follow that, when the original consequent stream escaped from the 
gap, it was the deepest depression, and that subsquent movem'ent 
has taken place by which another portion of the rim has become 
more deeply depressed, while the river has remained incised in the 
gap from which it first escaped. Such a type of river Dr. Cotton 
terms " anteconsequent." and he has indicated some examples of 
this (1917), and pointed out that somewhat similar conditions have 
been noted by Davis in Herzegovina. (See also Speight, 1918.) 
These useful conceptions Cotton (1917) has shown to have a very 
wide application throughout New Zealand. In particular, in Cen 
tral Otago, there is a wide area composed of a chain of broad 
tectonic depressions interspersed with elevated masses of older rock, 
schist or greywacke (which themselves appear to be made up of a 
mo«aic of fault-blocks separated by a system or systems of rela- 
tively ancient faults to which the present relief is largely or wholly 
indifferent, except in so far as faulting on the old lines of move- 
ment may have been revived. The relief due to movements on 
these ancient fault -lines, together with that resulting from earlier 
folding, had been almost or wholly destroyed prior to the deposition 
of the over-mass or cover. Though the later faulting:, to which 
the existing relief is due, appears to have followed the lines of 
the older faults in some places, the displacement has generally 
been reversed (Cotton. 1917), Many details of the crust -move- 
ment — warping, faulting or splintering — are indicated by the 
form of these salient blocks of the under-mass, especially where 
they bear isolated residuals of the covering strata. fSee Fig. 8.) 

Where depressed blocks were long, narrow strips of country, they 
now are represented by trough-like valleys such as are seen in parts 
of North Cant.eTbury (Speight, 1918, p. 97), and. perhaps, at 

president's address- -section c. 113 

Cromwell, in Wiestern Otago, and there can be little doubt that, 
as suggested by Dobson (1865), McKay (1892), and Andrews 
(1911), tectonic depression must have contributed very largely to 
the foTuiation of the lakes of the South Island of New Zealand. 
Indeed; as observed previously, the disposition of the covering 
rocks about Te Anau gives proof of the fcectonio origin of that 
depression. So, also, in the region of the Marlborough Sounds, 
though the softer schists have permitted a much greater rounding 
of the eurface than in the harder gneisses of Fiordland, the in- 
faulting of Nctccene coal-measures at Picton at the head of Queen 
Charlotte Sound (McKay 1882) confirms the impression drawn 
from the reticulate character of the drainage of north-eastern Marl- 
borough, that the drainage-system is essentially de^pendent upon 
the crustal structure, being either guided by tectonic depressions, 
or eroded in wide zones of fault-breccia such as were described by 
Henderson and Ongley (1920), or follow joint-planes (Webb, 
1910).* In Canterbury the conditicais are somewhat similar. 
Speight (1916) has stated that here certain subordinate valleys 
show indications that their directions are dependent upon the 
deformation of the strata, though the main valleys have not fur- 
nished positive evidence of this, but may be dependent on such a 
cause, as their reticulate arrangement suggests. The chief difficulty 
in detecting fault-lines in the mountain region of Canterbury is 
the extremely monotonous character of the rocks. Where, how- 
ever, fractures are brought into evidence by the presence of in- 
faulted outliers of the covering strata, conformity with the direc- 
tion of the adjacent valleys is clear (e.r/., Speight, 1917). Near the 
heads of the valleys, where the control of slope over the stream - 
course is dominant, departures frcm the structural lines are the 
most marked. In general, the valleys of Canterbury follow a 
north-eaeterlv and a north-westerly trend, and Cotton shows that 
the same directions hold in Otago. Between these provinces is 
the Waitaki Eiver flowing to the bouth-east in its middle and 
lower course, where it is " guided by a linear tectonic depression, 
irregularly bounded by the fault-scarps and back-slopes of a com- 
plex of blocks, in the bottom of which some low-lying remnants 
of covering strata are preserved." (Cotton, 1917, citing Marshall, 
1915.) The chief tributary of the Waitaki, the Hakataramea, oc- 
cupies a fault-angle depression elongated in a north-easterly direc- 
tion almost perpendicular to that of the Waitaki. 

To add to the many features of interest in connexion with the 
evolution of the present topography, we must notice that great 
differences of features result from the wide variety of climatic 
conditions under which the denudation of fault blocks has taken 
place. The effects of normal pluvial erosion need not be particu- 
larized, but in the central parts of Otago and Southland, the 

* Tlie fundamental difference between the tectonic and eroded valleys, though sometimes 
overlooked, has been clearly indicated by D. W. .Johnson (1915). 

114: president's address — SECTION c. 

effects of aridity are in evidence, though this climatic condition 
has been of comparatively short duration. A noteworthy feature 
in the arid areas of mica-schist, is the occurrence of numerous tors, 
sometimes as much as 80 feet high, bounded by joint-surfaces, and 
resulting apparently from the removal of the surrounding 
material, which was more disintegrated by some peculiarity of 
differential weathering, and thus the tor-pattern has been etched 
out. (Cotton, 1917.) A further instance may be seen in the wide 
stretohes of sand-dunes in the rift-valley of the Clutha at Cirom- 
well, which have resulted from the destruction by rabbits and by 
fire of the protecting vegetation on the high terraces of the river, 
or by removal of the sand from the river-bed itself. (Cockayne, 

Even more striking is the effect of glaciation, concerning which 
much has been written in previous decades, though but little in 
the last one, the literature of which is immediately under review. 
The views of Hutton (1900) and Marshall (1912) that the glacia- 
tion was restricted to the highlands, and was rather of the nature 
of separate glaciers, than a continuous ice-sheet, represents the 
opinion of the majority of New Zealand geologists, though it must 
be noted that locally, as about Lake Te Anau, the valley-glacier 
appears to have deployed into a sheet of considerable area, filling 
a tectonic basin. Indeed, the effects of glaciation may be more 
restricted than even Marshall at first assumed (1912). It is at 
least doubtful whether we may properly class as of morainic 
origin certain great terraces at Clyde and Alexandria, and the so- 
called " Taieri moraine," near Dunedin, has been described as of 
fluviatile origin. (Trechmann 1918, Marshall 1918.) It is more 
clear than before' that thei great glaciated lake-basins,* river- 
valleys, and fiords had a pre-glacial origin, either tectonic or by 
erosion, in areas weakened by the presence of 'extensive shatter- 
belts ; though their form has since been profoundly modified by 
the glaciation. Interesting examples of the combined effects of 
structural and glacial influences in determining valley forms have 
been described by Kitscn and Thiele (1910) in the Waitaki Valley, 
the southern boundary of Canterbury; and by Speight (1918) in 
the Hurunui Valley, the northern boundary. In Milford Sound 
the preliminary observations of Cotton and the writer, indicated 
that it may be possible subsequently to recognise several distinct 
stages in the glaciation of that district. 

While several of the fc'atures of the North Island have be'cn 
claimed tci be of glacial origin, tliis conclusioin appears in most 
cases to' be open to doubt, but it may be we'll for the present to 
refrain from accepting the general statemeait that there is no sign 
of glaeiation in the North Island, until these and other certain 
features (e.f/., those described by Adkin, 1912) have been more 
fully investigated. It should be noted, however, that Moore 

* This has been pointed out by Park (1910, p. 230) in the case of Lalse Walvitipu. 


(1917) concurs with Marshall in regard to the absence of any 
indication of glacial eiroisioii on the great volcanoes in the centre 
of the North Island, but the possibility must be considered that 
Recent eruptions may have more or less obscured the erosional 
forms developed during Pleistocene times. 

(IV.) Concurrently with this denudation there has been much 
sedimentation du-ring Pleistocene times. The studies of two of 
these regions are of particular interest. Speight (1910) has added 
greatly to Von Haast's 1879 valuable exposition of the origin of 
the Canterbury Plains. This coaisists of a great gravel formation 
resting unconformably on the Kowhai (" Early Pleistocene ") 
gravels in North Canterbury, or upon the Notocene rocks of South 
Canterbury. They extend for 160 miles along the coast, and reach 
a maximum width of 30 miles. Their seaward slope is compara- 
tively steep, for they reach an elevation of 1,500 feet at their 
western margin. Examination of the records of artesian bores 
show that they extend to a depth of at least 600 feet, and were 
deposited as confluent alluvial fans upon a slowly subsiding pied- 
mont surface. The occurrence of fossiliferous mai*ine beds, and of 
layers of lignite, intercalated at various horizons in the gravels, 
indicates the fluctuation of the shore line. This is not necessarily 
due to inequalities in the rate of subsidence. On the Ninety Mile 
Beach the detritus brought down in vast quantities by the rivers, 
is exposed toi a strong northerly drift along the coast. Where the 
supply of shingle fails, the sea encroaches on the land. Hence 
the tendency will be for the retrograding of a shore south of a 
river mouth, and its prograding nqrth of the mouth. Since the 
courses of rivers discharging across alluvial fans is subject to 
frequent change, the areas of prograding and retrograding of the 
coast-line must accordingly have varied from time to time, and the 
intercalations mentioned might thus be produced. A notable 
example of the variation in the course of a river on an alluvial 
fan is that of the Waimakariri, which, though now entering the 
sea north of Banks Peninsula, threatens to return to its former 
outlet south of the peninsula, and embankments have been placed 
to protect the town of Christchurch , which lies between the two 

We may here note as an additional feature of interest the 
occurrence of Icess along the coast line frona Banks Peninsula to 
Oamaru. A discussion arose as to^ whether it is truly wind-borne 
loess or a marine silt, but the former view, heTH by Heim (1905) 
is that now generally supported, the source of the material being 
found in the dried rock flour in the valle3'^-trains below the glaciers 
of the Canterbury Alps, which was conveyed to the coast by the 
foehn-like north-west wind. Recently, however. Wild (1919) has 
pointed out that the grain-size in a sample of the deposit which 
he examined, is greater than that of the typical loss of Iowa and 
Nebraska, or than that which, according to Udden (18'94), is 


normal for wind-blown particles. Accordingly he urges a recon- 
sideration of the evidence for a marine origin of the^ material. It 
must be noted, however, that the rock-flour on the aeolian hypo- 
thesis i:!eed not bei considered toi have all been carried far. It 
naay be seen nov; rising from the dried patches in the wide beds 
of the braided rivers, at all points between the mountains and 
the coast. 

Somewhat different problems arise in the study of the Horo- 
whenua coastal lowland in West Wellington. (Cotton 1918 
Adkin 1911-1919.) This has been laid down partly as a gronp 
of confluent alluvial fans in front of the fault coast of the Tararua 
langes, and partly as material brought down by the Manawatu 
f^nd other rivers, distributed along the prograded coast by a south- 
ward moving current. Cotton infers a, complex alteraticn of pro- 
gradation and retrogradation, which he ascribed toi th© secular 
alternation of conditions of oiverloading and underloading of the 
long-shore curierits by detritus brought down by the rivers further 
north. While he does not indicate a cause for such variation, 
several possibilities may here be suggested. The first, due to 
Morgan,* is the spasmodic eruption of vast amounts of volcanic 
ash from the great volcanoes in the watersheds of these rivers. 
Thei other, less direct, involves Penck's hypothesis that pluvial 
conditions in e^tra-glacial areas are intensified during the epochs 
of ice-advance, and diminished during the period of ice-retreat 
in an adjacent glaciated region. If this were so, we might 
correlatei the fluctuations in discharge of detritus by these rivers 
with the' fluctuations in levels of the ice that appear to- have 
occurred in the South Island. A further consideration is the 
possible eft'ect of fluctuation of sea-level during the Ice Age, which 
is advocated by Daly (1915), and there is also to be considered 
the effect of very late epirogenic movements. This brings us to 
our last topic. 

(V.) Cotton (1916) has pointed out that since- the Kaikoura 
epoch of the differential displacement of relatively small crust- 
blocks, there hc^ve been a series of broad epirogenic movements 
involving equally provinces composed of many such minor blocks, 
which movement has been, in different regions, one of elevation 
or of depression (with the production of the rias coasts of the 
Auckland Peninsula, Marlborough Sounds, &c.), or even of tilt- 
ing. Exceptionally there has been considerable local movement, 
resulting in fault-coasts, especially near Wellington (1913, 1917). 
There has, however, been no general renewal in later times of 
movement on the fault-lines of Kaikoura age, and the origins of 
earthquakes felt in New Zealand are, with a few exceptions,! 

* Private communication. 

t Such as the Cheviot earthquake described by McKay (1902), or the Wellington 
earthquake of 1855, made famous bv Lyell's account (Principles of Geology, 10th Edition, 
1867, pp. 82-89). 

president's address — SECTION c." 117 

situated, not within the land area, but some distance east of the 
present coastline (Cotton 1916, cf. Hogben 1914, 1918). Between 
these movements, however, there occurred long periods of rest, 
during which the cycle of erosion reach an advanced stage. Hence 
along the coastline in different districts there are more or less 
marked wave-cut terraces or raised beaches, while extending far 
up the valleys are benches, or rock- cut terraces, indicating that 
the valleys are not monocyclic, bat have been rejuvenated from 
time to time. In the Reef ton district, Henderson (1917) has 
correlated the raised beaches with the river-terraces extending to 
a height of 500 feet above the sea-level.* In regions where 
the crust was tilted towards the coast, the heights of the terraces 
steadily increase as we pass up the valleys, a particularly clear 
example being the meandering Rangitikei, which becomes deeply 
entrenched in its old flood plain. An alternative explanation of 
the entrenchment of the rivers in Canterbury below their alluvial 
terraces, has been offered by Speight (1908), who suggests that 
the river valleys became deeply alluviated during a pluvial period 
following the glacial epoch, and that succeeding this was a period 
of greatly diniinished rainfall, during which the now underladen 
streams cut deeply into their former deposits. The further in- 
vestigation of crust-movements will be greatly advanced by the 
wise policy that has been adopted of placing bench-marks at various 
stations along the coast. 

Such, then, is a summary of the present knowledge of the 
geology of New Zealand, illustrated for the most part by the work 
of the past decade. It is by no means a complete summary, for 
considerations of space have caused the omission of much 
interesting matter, notably all account ol the modern vol- 
canic activity. Nor was it possible to consider the advances in 
our knowledge of features of economic interest, or to enter into 
much detail in regard to the problems of the faunal relations of 
New Zealand during various periods. These will long remain 
fruitful fields for discussion. One thing appears clear: — The out- 
lines of New Zealand geology were drawn with broad generaliza- 
tions. TcO' often, perhaps, clear statements of conclusions were 
based upon incomplete evidence. The present is the time for 
detailed investigations in all branches of our science; and as this 
advances, we have the more often toi admire the arduous toil and 
brilliant insight of those pioneers, Hochstetter, Hector, Haast. 
Hutton, and that great field-geologist, McKay, by whom, from 
sixty to thirty years ago, the foundations for onr work were -SrO;, 
■well and truly laid. nT" V 

* See also Bartnim, 1914. .. >■ ■■^ 'i^ " ^^, 




In the fcllov'ing list the titles cited are reduced to' one or two 
words, and cor-traction:, are employed as under: — 


Jour. Sci. Tech. 
Pal. B.G.S. 
Q.J.G.S. ... 
T.N. Z.I 

Bulletin cf the Geological Survey of 

New Zealand Journal of Science and 

Palaeonto'logical Bulletin of the Geolo- 
gical Survey of N.Z. 

Quarterly Journal of th© Geological 

Report of Geological Explorations 

Transactions of the New Zealand Insti- 

Adkin, G. L. 




J 5 


Andrews, E. C. 


Arber, E. A. 


Barrow, G. 




Bartrum, J. A. 


5 J 




J J 


> > 




Bather, F.A, 


Bell, J. M. 


, , 




Ohau River and Horowhenua Coastal 

Plain, &c.. ^.N.Z.I., XLIII., 496- 

Glaciation of Tararua Ranges, 

T.N.Z.I., XLIV., 308-316. 
Horowhenua, &c , T.N.Z.I., LI., 110- 

Erosion and its significance, Proc Rev. 

Soc, N.S.W., XLV., 116. 
Mesozoic Floras, Pal. B.G.S. No. 6. 
Highlands, Scotland, Q.J.G.S., XLIX., 

ibid Proc. Geol. Assoc, 1-17. 
Mt. Cargill, T.N.Z.I., XLV. 
In Henderson (1913). 
WestpoTt -Charleston Terraces, T. N.- 
Z.I., XLVI., 255-262. 
Distribution Igneous Rooks, No. 1, 

T.N.Z.I., XLIX. 
No. 2, T.N.ZI., LIL, 416-422. 
Albanv Conglomerate, ibid., 422-430. 
Triassic Crinoids, Q.J.G.S.. LXXIII., 

Sonthern Alps, Ann. Rep., G.S., 4. 
(with Eraser) Hokitika, B.G.S., No. 1. 
(with Webb and Clarke) Parapara, 

B.G.S., No. 3. 
(with Clarke) Whangaroa, B.G.S., 

No. 8. 



Bell, J. M. 




Benham, \V. B. 1902 

Benson, W. N. 1919 
Boehm, G. 1911 

Chilton, C. 



K. 1916 


Cotton, C. 










> } 




' » 


Cox, S. H 


(with Clarke) Geol. Reconnaissance. 

Norther nmoBt N.Z.,T.N.Z.I., XITI., 

(with Marshall and Clarke), Dun Mtn., 

E.G.S., No. 12. 
(with Fraser, C.) Waihi-Tairua, 

B.G.S., No. 15. 
Earthworms and Palseogeography, 

Trans. Aust. Assoc. Acvt. Science, 

IX., 319-343. 
Mesozoic Floras, N.Z. Journ. Sci. Tech., 

Jura-Cretaceous Fauna, Neu. Jahrb. 

fiir Min., 1-24. 
Red Rocks, T.N.Z.I., XLVIII., 76-86. 
Fish Remains, Pal., B.G.S., No. 17. 
Sub- Antarctic Islands, II., 467. 
Report on the Dune Areas of New Zea- 
land, N.Z. Pari. Papers, C.13, 1911. 
" New Zealand Plants and their Story." 

(2nd Ed.) 
Signal Hill, Dunedin, T.N.Z.I., XLI., 

Wellington Physiography, T.N.Z.I., 

XLIV., 245-265. 
Physiography, Clarence Valley, Geog. 

Joiiru. XLIII., 225-46. 
Great Marlborough Conglomerate, 

Joiirn. Geol., XXII.. 346-363. 
Block Mountains, Nelson, T.N.Z.I., 

XLVIII., 59-75. 
Structure and Later Greol. History, 

N.Z., Geol. Mag., Dec, VI., 243-9, 

Fault Coasts, Geol. Review, I., 20-47. 
Fossil Plains, N. Otago, T.N.Z.I., 

XLIX., 429-432. 
Block Mountains, N.Z., Amer. Journ. 

Sci., XLIV., 250-293. 
Geomorpholo'gy, West Wellington, 

T.N.Z.I., I., 212-222. 
River Terraces, N.Z. Journ. Sci. & 

Tech., I., 145-152. 
Noctccene, Central Otago, Journ. Sci. 

Tech. II., 69-72. 
Waikato, R.G.E., 1876-7, 11-26. 
Hokonui Ranges, R.G.E., 1877-8, 

Te Ana,u, ibid, 110-8. 



Cox, S. H. 


9 J 




Daly, R. A. 




David, T. W. E. 1914 


Dusen. P. 


EttingsiTiaiUsen, 1891 

Farquharsoii, R. 1910 
Finlayson, A. M. 1907 

Grange, L. I. 


Gregory, J. W. 1913 

Grove E., and Sturt, 

G. 1886-7 

Gndex, M. C. 1918 

Haast, J. von 1879 
Hall, T. S. 1915 

Harker, A. 


Hector, J. 


? > 





Hedley, C. 


Waikatipn and Greenstone, R.G.E., 

1878-9. 53-55. 
Shag Valley, R.G.E., 1882-3, 55-57. 
Mt. Soniej's and Malvern Hills, 

R.G.E., 1883-4, 22-43. 
Glacial Control Theory of Coral Reefs, 

Amer. Acad. Arts, Science, 158-251. 
Metamcrphism and its Phases, Bull., 

Geol. Soc. Amer., XXVIII., 375- 

(and Priestley, R. E.) Report Scien- 
tific Investigation British Antarctic 

Expedition, 1907-9, Geology, Vol. I., 

esp., 296-319. 
(and others) Sequence, Glaciaticn, and 

Correlation of Carboniferous Rocks, 

Proc. Roy. Soc, N.S.W., LIII., 

Ubeir die tertiare Plora der Seymour, 

Insel Wiss. Ergebn. der Scliwe<l. 

Sudpolar Expeditie, III., 3. 
Fossil Flora, N.Z., T.N.Z.I., XXIII., 

Orepuki, T.N.Z.I., XLIII., 448-482. 
Schists of Central Otago, T.N.Z.I., 

XXXIX., 72-77. 
Greeai Island, Dunedin (In mss.). To 

appear in T.N.Z.I., 1921. 
" The Nature and Origin of Fiords." 
Oamaru Diatoms, Jorun ; Queskett 

Microscope Club, 1886-7. 
Tertiary, Pareora, T.N.Z.I., L., 

Geology of Canterbury and Westland. 
Graptolites, N.W., Nelson, T.N.Z.I., 

XLVIL, 410-411. 
Graptolites, Preservation Inlet, ioc. 

Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, Pres. Add., 

LXXI., 412-413. 
West Coast, R.G.E., 42. 
Geol. Sketch Map, N.Z. 
Geol. Sketch Map, N.Z. 
"Outline N.Z. Geology." 
Ann. Rep. G.E.N.Z., Fiordland, Kai- 

tangata, xli-xlviii., Ivii-lix. 
Surviving Antarctic Refugees, Proc. 

Roy. Soc, N.S.W., XXIII., 278-286. 



Heim, A. 
Henderson, J. 

Hedlev, C. 1899 Zoogeographic Scheme, Mid. Pacific 

Proc, Linn. Soc, N.S.W., XXIX., 

Palaeogeograpliic Relations of An- 
tarctica, Proc. Linn. Soc. London, 
CXXIV., 80-90. (Reprinted in 
Ann. Rep., Smithsonian Institute, 
1912, 443, 453.) 

Neuseeland, Neujahrb., Naturf, Ges., 
Zurich, 1-42. 

Surface forms and Drainage Systems, 

West Nelson, T.N.Z.I., XLIII., 

(and Bartrnm, J. A.) Aroha B.G.S., 

No. 16. 
Beeftou, B.G.S., No. 18. 
Te Kuiti, l^.Z., Journ. Sci. Tech., I., 

Mokau, ibid., II., 393. 
(and Ongley, M.) Gisborne and 

Whatatutu, B.G.S., No. 21. 

Hinde, G. J. 1890 (and Holmes, W. M.) Fossil Sponges, 

Oamaru, Proc. Rov. Soc., Edin., 

XVI., 449-692. 
Hochstetter, F. von Lecture on Nelson, Govt. Gazette, 

Nelson, 1859, VII. 
Geologief von Neuseeland, Bd., I. (and 

Palseontological papers by Hauer, 

Hoernes, Jaeger, Karrer, Stache, 

Stoliczka, Suess, Unger, Zittel, in 

Bd. II.). 
Recent Earthquakes, T.N.Z.I., XL VI., 

East Coast Earthquakes (1914-17). 

T.N.Z.I., L., 280-1. 
" Flora Tasmanieiusis." 
N.E. of South Island, R.G.E., 27. 
Geographical Relations of the New 

Zealand Fauna, T.N.Z.I., III., 227- 

(with Ulrich, G. F.) " Otago and 

Southland . ' ' 
Sketch Geol., N.Z., Quart. Journ. 

Geol. Soc, XLI., 191-220. 
Geol. Hist., N.Z., T.N.Z.I., XXXII., 

" Index Faunae Novae Zealandiae." 







Hogben , 



> J 











' 1885 




Huxley, T. H. 1859 

Ihexing, H. V. 1907 

Jaworsky, E. 1915 

Kid stow, R. 

Kitson, A. E. 
McKay, A. 










Fossil Bird and Cetacean, Quart. 

Jourii. Geol. Sec, XV., 671-677. 
Les Mollusqvies fossiles du tertiare et 

du cretace superier de I'Argentine. 
Annales del Musco^ Nacional de Buenos 

Die gystematische und strati^aphische 

Stellung von Torlessia, McEayi, 

Bather TcrehelVuia, von Neuseeland. 
Centralblatt fiir Min. Geol. Pal. 504- 

512. (Cited by Wilckens 1917.) 
(and Gwynne Vaughan, P.F.), Fossil 

Osmundaceae, Trans. Roy. Soc, 

Edin., XLV., Pt. 3. 
(and Thiele, E. O.) Upper Waitaki 

Geog. Jour., XXXVI., 537-553. 
Reptilian Beds, T.N.Z.I., IX., 581- 

East Cape District, R.G.E. (1873-4), 

Weka Pass and Buller, R.G.E. 

(1874-6), 36-42. 
Kaikoura and Amuri Bluff, R.G.E. 

(1874-6), 172-184. 
Cape Campbell, ibid, 185-191. 
Hokonui Ranges, R.G.E. (1877-8), 

Mt. Potts, ibid, 91-109. 
Wairoa & Dun Mt., ibid, 119-159. 
Qiieen Charlotte Sound, R.G.E., 

1878-9, 86-97. 
Napier, ibid., 69-75. 
Baton River, ibid., 121-131. 
Wellington, ibid., 131-135. 
Ashley and Amuii, R.G.E., 1879-80, 

N.W. of Wakatipu, ibid., 118-147. 
Waitaki Valley &c., R.G.E., 1881, 

Coal at Pieton, ibid., 106-115. 
N.E. Otago, R.G.E., 1883-4, 45-66. 
Kawhia District, ibid, 140-148. 
East Marlborough, R.G.E., 1885, 27- 

Eastern Otago, R.G.E., 1886-7, 1-23. 
N. Hawkes Bay, R.G.E., 1886-7, 182- 

Tauherenikau, R.G.E., 1887-8, 58-67. 

president"^ address — SECTION C. 


McKay, A. 1890 Stewart Island, R.G.E., 1889-90, 74-85. 

Marlborough and Amuri Coxinties, 
ibid., 85-185. 
1892 Marlborough and S.E. Nelson, R.G.E., 
1890-91, 1-28. 

1896 Preseivation Inlet, Rep. Mines & 

Mining, C. II., 31-43. 

1897 Auriferous Drifts, Central Otago, 2nd 

Ed. (First Ed. 1894.) 
1902 The Cheviot Earthqrxake, Special Re- 
port . 
Marshall P 1905 Milford Sound, T.N.ZI., XXXVII., 

1906 Dunedin, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 
LXII., 381-424. 

1908 Centre and North of North Island, 

T.N.Z.I., XXXIX., 78-98. S.W. 
Otago, ibid., 496-503. 

1909 Contact Metaniorphism, T.N.Z.I., 

XLI., 101-2. 
, 1911 (with Speight and Cotton) The Younger 

Rock Series of N.Z., T.N.Z.I., 
XLIII., 378-407. 
(with Bell and Clarke) Dun Mt., 
B.G.S., No-. 12. 
1912 New Zealand; in Handbuch der 
Regionalen Geologie. 
- 1914 Cape Runaway, T.N.Z.I., XLVL, 
283-5. * 

1914 Nth. Otago Head, Quart. Journ., G.S., 

LXX., 382-406. 

1915 Younger Limestones, T.N.Z.I., 

XLVIIL, 87-99. 
Cretaceous & Tertiary Rocks, ibid., 100- 

1917 Kaipara, T.N.Z.I., XLIX., 433-450. 
Wa'ngaloa, ibid., 450-460. 
Hampden, ibid., 463-466. 

1918 Kaipara, T.N.Z.I., L., 263-278. 
Tuapeka, B.G.S., No. 19. 

1919 Hampden, T.N.Z.I., LI., 226-50. 
Moa Bones in Wanganui Series, ibid. 

1920 Tawhiti Series, T.N.Z.I., LIL, 109- 

Hampden and N.Z. Tertiary limestone, 

ibid., 111-114. 
Tawhiti Series, ibid, 109-110. 
(with Murdoch), Wanganui, ibid., 115- 




Matthew, W. D. 1914 

Moore, E. S. 1917 

Morgan, P. G. 1908 



Ortmann, 1902 

Osborn, H. F. 1910 
Park, J. 1887 








Climate and Evolution, Annals, N.Y., 

Acad. Sci., XXIV., 171-318. 
Active Volcanoes of N.Z., Journ. 

Geol., XXV., 693-714. 
Mikonui, B.G.S., No. 6. 
Structure Southeirn Alps, T.N.Z.I., 

XLIII., 275-8. 
Geol. of N.Z., Official Year-Book. 
Sth. Hawkes Bay, &c., Ann. Rep., 

G.S., 131-5. 
(with Bartrum) Buller-Mokihinui, 

B.G.S., No. 17. 
Unconformities Cretaceous-Miocene, 

T.N.Z.I., XLVIII., 1-18. 
Tabular Statement Classification of 

Notocene Rocks in Pal., B.G.S., 

No. 7. 
Distribution of " Maitai " Series, 

Jouni. Sci. Tech., 11., 33-35. 
Tertiary Beds, Central Otago, Journ. 

Sci. Tech., III., 29-33. 
Tertiary Invertebrata, Princetown, 

Patagonian Expedition, Palaeonto- 
logy,^ 48-333 (esp. 310-324). 
" The Age of Mammals." 
N.W. of L. Wakatipu, R.G.E., 1886-7, 

Jurassic, Southland, ibid., 141-153. 
Dusky Sound, R.G.E., 1887-8, 9-15. 
Waipara & Weka Pass, ibid, 25-35. 
Wangapeka, ibid, 74-88. 
Granite-Gneiss in King Co., T.N.Z.I., 

XXV., 353-362. 
Lower Mesozoic, T.N.Z.I., XXXVI., 

Marine Tertiaries, Otago & Canterbury, 

T.N.Z.I., XXXVII, 489-551. 
Alexaudra, B.G.S., No. 2. 
Cromwell, B.G.S., No. 5. 
Queenstown, B.G.S., No. 7. 
Marlborough Moraines , T . N . Z-. I . , 

XLII., 520-4. 
" Geology of New Zealand." 
Weka Pass Stone, Geol. Mag., 438-40. 
Relations, Cretaceous and Cainozic, 

T.N.Z.I., XLIX., 392-4. 
Age of Southern Alps, T.N.Z.I., L., 

Oamaru, B.G.S., No. 20. 



Park, J. 

Piroiitet, M. 
Shakes^pear, E. 

Siiinott, E. W. 

Skottsberg, C. 

Smith, J. P. 
Seward, A. C. 

Speight, R. 



M. R. 






J J 




Slopes, M, 



Hampden Limestone, T.N.Z.I., LI., 

Boulders in Paljeozoic Breccia, 

T.N.Z.I., LII., 107-8. 

" Etude Stratigraphique de la Nou- 

velle Caledonia. " 
Graptolites, N.W. Nelson, Geol. Mag., 


Fcssil Osmundacae, Waikawa, Annals, 
Bot., XXVIII., 47. 

Relatioais between the Floras of Sub- 
Antarctic America and New Zealand, 
The Plant World, XVIII., 129-142. 

Alkaline Rocks from Westland 

T.N.Z.I., XL., 122-137. 
Antarctic Fossil Plants, British An- 
tarctic Expedition, 1910, Nat. Hist. 

Reports, Geology, Vol. I. (i). 
Geological History. Tongariroi National 

Park in Cockayne's Report of a 

Botanical Survey (of same) Pari. 

Papers, C.II. 
Ten-ace Development, Canterbury, 

T.N. Z.I, XL., 16-43. 
West Coast Sounds, T.N.Z.I., XLII., 

Artesian 'Area Christchurch, T.N.Z.I., 

XLIII., 420-436. 
Intermontane Basins, Canterbury, 

T.N.Z.I., XL. VII., 336-353. 
Orientation of River Valleys, T.N.Z.I., 

Trelissick Basin, T.N.Z.I., XLIX., 

Unrecorded Tertiary Outlier, XLIX., 

Banks Peninsula, ibid., 365-392. 
Hurunui Valley, T.N.Z.I., L., 93-105. 
(and Wild, L.' S.) Weka Pass Stone 

and Amuri Limestonei, ibid., 65-93. 
Treslissick Basin {Oxtrea Bed), 

T.N.Z.I., LI., 157-160. 
Older Gravels, Canterburv, ibid., 269- 

Broken River, Coal Area, Journ. Sci. 

Tech., III., 93-104, 148-156. 
Cretaceous Arauc(inoxi/]<.'\ii , Amuri 

Bluff, Annals Bot., XXVIII. 


Suter H. 1914 Kevisioii Tertiary MoUuscaj, Pt. 1, 

Pal., B.G.S., No. 2. 

1915 Revision Tertiary Mollusca, Pt. 1, 

Pal., B.G.S., No. 3. 
, 1917 Descriptiou Tertiary Mollusca, Pal., 

B.G.S., No. 5. 
Thomas, A. P. 1907 Note on Inoceramus in B.G.S., No. 4. 

Thomson J A. 1913 Igneous Intrusions^ Mt. Tapuaenuka, 

T.N.Z.I., XLV., 308-315. 
Materials for Palaeontology of N.Z., 
Pal., B.G.S., No. 1. 

1916 Flint beds, Amuri Limestone, T.N.Z.I., 

XLVIIL, 48-58. 
Stage names for Tertiary Strata, ibid, 

1917 Diastrophic and other considerations in 

Classification and Correlation, and 
the existence of Minor Diastrophic: 
Districts in the Notocene, T.N.Z.I., 
XLIX, 397-413. 
Hawera Series, ibid, 414-7. 

1918 Waikouaiti Sandstone, T.N.Z.I., L.\ 

Brachiopoda Scientific Reports, Austra- 
lasian Antarctic Expedition, 1911-14. 
Series C, Vol. IV., Pt. iii., especially, 
,, 1919 Clarencei and Ure Valleys, T.N.Z.I., 

II., 289-349. 
Palliser Bay District, Jo urn., Sci., 
Tech. II, 281-2. 
1920 Waipara and Weka Pass, T.N.Z.I., 
LII., 322-415. 
Trechmann, C. T. Trias, of N.Z., Q.J.G.S., LXII., 

1917 165-246. 

Age of the Maitai Series, Geol. Mag., 

Glacial Controversy, ibid., 241-245 
Cretaceous Mollusca, ibid, 294-305, 
Udden, J. A. 1894 Erosion, Transportation, Sedimenta- 
tion (Aeolian), Journ. of Geol. II., 
Uttley, G 1918 Volcanic Rocks, Oamaru, T.N.Z.I., L., 

1920 Kurow and Duntroon, T.N.Z.I., LII., 
Wharekuri and Otiake, ibid, 154-168. 
Remarks on B.G.S., No. 20, 169-182. 

president's address — SECTION C. 


Walkom A. B. 1918 Geology, Lower Mesozoic Kocks, Queeais- 

land, &c., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 
XLIII., 37-115. 

1919 Mesozoic Floras, Queensland, iii. and 

iv.. Publication 263, Queensland 
Geol. Survey. 
Webb, E. H. J. 1910 Mt. Radiant, B.G.S., No. 11. 
Wilckens O 191" Die Geologie vom Neuseeland. 

Geol. Rundschau, VIII., 143-161. 

1920 Die Geologie von Neuseeland. 
Die Naturwisseuschaften, 809. 

1920 Die Bivalvenfauna des Obersencns von 
Neuseeland, Centralblatt fur. Min., 
See also the following : — 
1904 Revision der Fauna der Quiriquinaschi- 
chteu. Neu Jahrb., fur. Min., 
Die Lamellibranchiaten, Gastropoden. 
&c., der Oberkreide Sudpatagonian 
Ber. der Naturf. Ges. Friedburg i.B., 
XV., 97-161. 
Die Anneliden, Bivalven, und Gastro- 
poden der antrarktischen Kreidefor- 
mation. Wiss. Ergeb. der Schwed. 
Sudpolar Expeditie, 1901-1906. 
Wild L. J. 1911 The Bluff, Invercargill, T.N.Z.I., 

XLIV., 317-339. 
1919 The so-caned Loess at Timaru, T.N.Z.I., 
LI., 286-8. 
Woods, H. 1917 The Cretaceous Faunas, N.E., South 

Island, N.Z., Pal. B.G.S., No. 4. 



Plate. — Geological Map of New Zealand prepared under the 
direction of Mr. P. G. Morgan, M.A., F.G.S., Director of the 
Geological Survey of New Zealand, and added hereto- by his kind 

Note. — Concerning the maps Mr. Morgan writes — " The geo- 
logical boundaries shown have been copied from numerous old 
maps, and, as a rule, have not been modified, except where it was 
necessary to adjust them to more modern work Although it 

was known that in many cases the original maps were decidedly 
inaccurate, it was felt that to sketch new boundaries would be 
simply to introduce new errors. In the map of the South Island, 
the Pelorus Series (of probably Palaeoizoic age) lying west of the 
Pelorus River, has been inadvertently included in the Trias-Jura 
System. This according to Dr. Marshall is its true position. In 

128 president's address — section c. 

south-western Otago (Fiordland) too great an area has been as- 
signed to the Manapouri Series, which is meant to include only 
rocks of a prcbably pre-Ordovician age." It should bei mentioned 
that the Triassic rocks west of Lake Wakitipu appear to extend 
further north than the map indicates, but they here are merging 
into toi region assigned in the map to the Maniototo Series, of 
undifferentiated and doubtfully Palaeozoic rocks. These include 
the schists of Central Otago, which the writer, following Marshall, 
has considered to- consist of altered Permian and Triassic rocks, 
though an earlier age is jjreferred by the Geological Survey. 



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By P. G. Morgan, M.A., F.G.S., Director, JN'ew Zealand 
Geological Survey. 

Tahle II. — Classification of Cretaceous and Tertiary Strata. 

(Since ccusiderations of expense have prevemted the publishing 
of contributions to the proceedings of the Session of the Aus- 
tralasian Association, other than the Presidential Addresses and 
special Reports of Research Committees, etc., the " Notes on New 
Zealand Geology" by Mr. P. G. Morgan, Director of the Geo- 
logical Survey, which accompanied the maps herewith, and ex- 
pressed the official views thereon, cannot unfortunately be printed 
in full in this volume. Mr. Morgan has, however, generously 
permitted the reproduction with this address of his maps and 
provisional correlation-tables of the strata in various parts of 
New Zealand, and of the Coal Measures, which tables formed 
part of his paper. These are a most valuable addition to our 
summary of the present position of the knowledge of New Zealand 
Geology. ) 

Table I. Classification of the Post-Jurassic Coal-Measures — 

(1) Upper Cretaceous (Senonian) ; Waipara (Boby's Creek), 

Malvern Hills, Shag Point, Green Island, and prob- 
ably Kaitangata. 


(2) Early Eocene or possibly very late Cretaceous; Paparoa 

beds, Greymouth. (At present included by me (P.G.M.) 
in the Marewhranuian). 

(3) Eocene (Marewhranuian) ; Greymouth, Westport (bitumin- 

ous coal). Central Nelson, Collingwood in part ( ?), 
Paring River (probably). 

(4) Early Oamaruiau (Ngaparan) ; Whangarei, Middle Wai- 

kato (Huntly). Collingwood in part, Charleston, 
Brighton (Westport), Inangahua in part, South Can- 
terbury, Oamaru. Waikaka, Waikaia, Nightcaps or 
Wairio ( ?), Central Otago (?). 

(5) Pareoraii or Awamoan ; Mokau River, Tangarakau Gorge, 

Retaruke River. Inangahua in part. Just possibly the 
Central Otago lignites belong about here. 

(6) In various places there are lignites of Pliocene age as 

always admitted. 

TSTn s/!^Tf^Q®8^'m^*^f\?f°'J^°'* remarks On the classification of the sedimentary rocks in 
ino, ^P^- ^.^"lO'*) of the Palaeontological Bulletins of the New Zealand Geological Survey 

Scfpncr.r.H T^T"?'"'^ "f lu'' ^^^''"^^ "^ ^""^ ^'^^'^'^'l '° the New Zealand Journal of 
science and Technology of the same year. 

134 president's address — section d. 



Professor Alfred J. Ev/art, D.Sc, Ph.D., 

Professor of Botany in the University of Melbourne. 


It is perhaps hardly necessary for me to remind you that this 
is the first meeting of the Australasian Association for a period 
of 8 years, and that, during that period, momentous changes have 
taken place all over the world. As an aftermath of the waste 
entailed by war we are now passing through a time of economic 
stringency, and are suffering from a phase of general unrest in 
our social system. In spite, however, of the immediate evils and 
the prospective troubles which a great war causes or leaves in 
its train, its after-effects are not wholly and solely evil ones. The 
very unrest of which we complain is a sign of awakening, and in 
so far as this awakening results in an increased ajopreciation of 
the value of science and of scientific M'ork, in so far as it indicartes 
a desire for education and general betterment, and in so far 
as it produces national striving and individual energy, its results 
must be good, and these results will remain when the unrest has 
passed away. 

T propose in this address to take a brief review of the work 
that has been done in Zoology and Botany in Australia during 
the last seven years, and then to say a few words about future 
possibilities, particularly in regard to the relations of Government 

president's address — SECTION D. 135 

Institutions to scientific activity. It cannot be said that either 
zoological or botanical science has made any great or notable 
strides during recent years or at least during the war period. 
War IS a period of destructive activity, and, during war, sciences 
which. lend themselves more readily to utilization for destructive 
purposes, such as chemistry and physics, are more stimulated to 
progress than those which are connected with productive activity, 
su'ch as agriculture, forestry, entomology, zoology and botany. 
As the result of the waste and destruction due to war, the scarcity 
of all ccmmo'dities necessitates the s^cientific use of all possible 
means of encouraging production, and restores to the botanical 
and zoological sciences their natural importance as factors in pro- 
ductive activity. One would think that the mere fact that all 
the food materials, and all the energy which keeps the organic 
world going, are directly or indirectly derived from green plants 
would be sufficient to indicate the importance of a science which 
deals with plants, and that the intimate way in which animals and 
animal products enter into our daily life would sufficiently em- 
phazise the importance of the basic science on which all studies 
en animals rest — zoology. It might be retorted that we need 
not be a botanist in order to grow vegetables, or crops, or timber, 
cr rubber, or any other plant product, and that one need net 
be a zoologist to^ keep cows or sheep. It is also true that one 
need not be an engineer in order to walk over a bridge or to 
travel by railway or steam boat, but that does not make the en- 
gineer unnecessary. There is always a tendency on the part of 
the unreflecting section of the public, when any branch of a 
science acquires obvious and immediate technical importance, to 
concentrate attention upon that particular branch, and to' forget 
the basic science upon which the practical application is based, and 
from which it arose. A sick horse, if it thinks at all, would 
consider the stable boy who administers the dose that cures it 
the only person that coimts. but reflecting animals, in which class 
a fair proportion of mankind are included, know that the chemist 
who makes up the dcse is also important, that the veterinary 
surgeon who pi escribes it is even more essential, and that most 
important of all are those who give the veterinary surgeon his 
knowledge, and carry on and add to this knowledge from genera- 
tion to generation. It is here that all Universities can confidently 
base their claim for public recognition and support, in so far 
as they maintain the basic sciences without regard to their imme- 
diate and economic value, and although this claim is perhaps 
more easily rendered obvious where scientific departments are con- 
cerned, the same claim holds good for all lines of University work 
which are' connected with human thought or human activities, and 
which form the firm foundations without which no bixilding is 
secure. Coming more especially to botanical science, the scien- 
tific feeding and manuring of farm crops is based upon the 


principles established by the plant physiologist. The only hope of 
diminishing the losses of millions a year which are caused by 
various plant d it eases such as rusts, smuts, blights, mildews etc., 
lies in encouraging the> investigaticais of the plant pathologist, and 
in training those who can put his results to practical applica- 
tion. The identification of M'eeds and a knowledge of their pro- 
perties is rendered possible by the facts accumulated and by the 
labour expended by the* syj^^tematic botanist. Without such know- 
ledge the introduction of new plants is a very hazardous proceed- 
ing. If a botanist had been consulted before prickly pear was 
introduced into Australia an egregious piece of folly would have 
been avoided. When a plant was required to check sand drifts 
in coastal districts a botanist was consulted. The result was the 
introduction of Marram grass, which has amply justified itself 
and its sponsor, the late Baron Von Mueller. The classification of 
economic plants, a knowledge of their structure, properties and 
classification, we owe entirely to botanical workers, and it is in- 
teresting to note that in some cases, notably with fibre plants, 
structural investigations which at first appeared to be of purely 
academic interest have proved to be of great practical import- 
ance. The same applies to certain investigations upon the struc- 
ture of timber. 

The scientific plant and animal breeder bases his work upon 
principles established by the botanist and zoologist, and no experi- 
ments on cross breeding in plants were possible until botanists 
had established what was the function of the pollen, a discovery 
which only dates back two centuries or so. 

The relations of botany to forestry are so close and so manifold 
that it is almost permissible to regard forestry as a practical ap- 
plication of botanical science in regard to timber trees. At least 
without the knowledge which the botanist has collected and handed 
to him, the forester would find it difficult to meet even some of 
the simpler of the difficult problems which continually confront 
him. The relations of botany to medicine can not be wholly 
neglected, although the days when the medical man was also of 
necessity a herbalist and collected his own remedies has long since 
gone by. Nevertheless very many of the drugs used in medicine 
are derived from plants, and much of our knowledge of their 
distributioai, use and properties dates back to the early herbalistic 
days. In addition some of the practical applications of physio- 
logy to medicine are based ixpon the discoveries of botanists. 
Osmotic pressure was first accurately measured by a botanist, and 
only a man sure of his science and its methods would have ven- 
tured to publish measurements which at the time must have 
seemed ridiculous, namely, the existence in plant cells whose walls 
are thinner than the finest tissue paper, of pressures of as much 
as 50-150 pounds per square inch. 

president's address — SECTION D. 137 

It must not be forgotten that bacteria are plants, and that yeast 
is merely a degenerate fnngus, and that both therefore come within 
the scope of the botanist. Although the technical applica- 
tions of bacteriology are mainly due toi the medical bacteriologist, 
and of late years also to the agricultural bacteriologist, practically 
the whole of our knowledge of the structure, reproduction and 
nutrition of bacteria is due to the labours of botanists, and with- 
out this knowledge medical and agricultural bacteriology woulr* 
have been severely handicapped. In addition the recent dis- 
covery of the previously unsuspected existence of many bacterial 
diseases of plants is whollv due to botanists. 

It would b© just as easy to indicate the importance of zoology 
as a basic science in productive industry, but angels fear to tread 
where fools rush in, and hence I leave that task to my zoological 
friends. I do not wish to suggest by that either that botanists 
are v.dnged animals or that my zoological friends are otherwise, 
but merely that they are better fitted to carry out the task than 
I am. 

In the following short review therefore of recent Australian 
work in botany and zoolog3^, I would ask you to remember that 
the most academic researches are just as important as, and often 
more important than, those which appeal to the general public 
as being of immediate economic utility. 

Taking zoological work first, a very large amount of work has 
been carried out in Australia of which the greater proportion 
consists of systematic work and eintomology. In entomology, we 
may notice more particularly papers on Cbleoptera by A. M. Lea, 
E. Ferguson, H. J. Carter, T. G. Sloane, A. H. Olston ; on 
Diptera, Hemiptera and Neuroptera bv Bergroth, F. H. Taylor, 
E. W. Ferguson, R. J. Tillyard, E. Petersen, A. White, G. F. 
Hill; on Lepidoptera and Microlepidoptera by A. J. Turner, R. J. 
Tillyard, O. B. Lower; on Hymen optera by R. C Turner; on ants 
by W. M. Wheeler, N. Banks, and A. M. Lea; on Hymenoptera 
by A. P. Dodd ; and on Cicadas by H. Ashtoii. We have also 
a series of papers by F. H. Taylor on Culicideae, and by R. J. Till- 
yard and H. M. Giles on Dragon Flies. In addition Dr. Tillyard 
has made valuable contributions to our knowledge of zoogeography 
and to- our knowledge of the mesozoic insects of Queensland and 
of the Permian and Triassic fossil insects of New South Wales. 
In economic entomology we have numerous contributions by W. 
W. Froggatt and G. F. Hill, as well as papers by the late Dr. 
Rutherford on the scale of the sugar cane, and by T. Steel on the 
parasites cf the dingo. 

In regard to the lower forms of life we have a series of papers 
in plant and animal plankton by I. G. Playfair, and on Hydroids 
and Hydrozoa by E. A. Briggs and W^. M. Bale. 

138 president's address.^section d. 

Apart from C. F. Hallmaun's investigations on Sponges, this 
group of animals appears to have been left severely alone, where- 
as on Mollusca we have numerous valuable contributions by C. 
Hedley, Gatliff, Prit chard and Gabriel, Dr. J. C. Verco, O. B. 
Davies, G. H. Hardy and W. L. May. On other groups of 
invertebrata comparatively little work has been done apart from 
papers by E. Henry on Cladocera, by Dr. Buchanan and by O. 
B. Davies on earth-worms, on Choetoc/aster by E. C. Joshua, and 
E. Creed on Holcthuroidea, by Prof. Chilton on Amphipoda and 
Isopoda, by E. Ashby on Polyplacophora, and by F. Blochmann 
on Bi'achiopods. 

The economic side of zoology as represented by animal parasites 
is covered by Dr. G. Sweet's work on Worm Nodules in Cattle, by 
Harvey- Johnston and Bancroft's work on Sporozoa, by Dr. J. B. 
Cleland's papers on Haematozoa and C'occidiosis, and by Prof. 
S. J. Johnston's work on the Trematodes of Australian birds and 
of platypus. 

On vertebrata we have A. E. McCulloch's and E. R. Waite's 
work on Australian fishes; but on anatomy, apart from T. Har- 
vey-Johnston's paj^er on the Muellerian ducts of Hyla, papers o<n 
the abnormal anatomy of the frog by E. Archer and A. Osborne", 
and on the syrinx of the fowl by A. O. Tymms, and on a new 
Batrachian by D. B. Fty, there seems to be little to record. 

Mention may, however, be made of the valuable publications 
by Berry, Buchner and Robertson on the skulls of Tasmanian and 
Australian aborigines, and upon the relation between brain- 
capacity and intelligence, while Dr. Bivchanan's contribution on 
the blood of Australian animals has added much to our know- 

On Zoogeography we have T. G. Sloane's work on the faunal 
sub-regioais of Australia, and a paper on the seasonal distribution 
of Rhizopoda by C. D. Gillies. 

Wlork on Palseozoology is very strongly represented by numer- 
ous papers by F. Chapman, and also by R. Etheridge on fossil 
Reptilia. and silurian Trilobites, by C F. Laseron on permocar- 
boniferous Fossils, by J. Mitchell on carboniferous Trilobites, and 
by Mr. Maplestone on tertiary Polyzoa. 

Special mention may also be made of th© fact that during this 
period the late Dr. T. S. Hall published his last paper on Vic- 
torian Graptodites. 

In reviewing this formidable list of papers one is struck by the 
preponderance of work of a systematic or econoinic character, and 
by the absence, or almost complete absence, of certain lines of 
research. There are, for instance, no papers on either heredity or 
cytology, most important and progressive lines oi work. We may 
trust that with Prof. Agar, at Melbourne, to represent animal 


cytology and heredity, and with Prof. Lawson, at Sydney, to repre- 
sent plant cytology, this department of investigation will receive 
the attention its importance merits. The present preponderance of 
systematic work has so-metiines led toi botany and zoology being 
termed the descriptive sciences, whereas they are just as much, 
and should be jast as much, experimental sciences as chemistry 
and physics. Even if they were descriptive only, they would still 
be of value, and we should not be entitled to' term chemistry and 
physics, by comparison, the ncn-descriptive sciences. 

Coming now to a review of the more important botanical research 
done during the period, we may note equally serioius gape in the 
work doiie. 

In regard to systematic work oai cryptogams we have papers on 
Algae, by A. S. Lucas and G. I. Playfair ; but a great field for inves- 
tigation probably lies open in regard to the modes of reproduction 
of Australian algae, in view of recent Japanese researches into the 
life histories of certain red and brown algae. 

We have again large contributions to our systematic knowledge 
of mosses, hepatics, and ferns from the late Rev. W. W. Watts, 
both singly and in collaboration with Brotherus and Stephanni, 
and also by L. Rcdway ; but one might suggest that a study of 
parthenogeny in Australian mosses, and of apogamy and apospory 
in Australian ferns would probably bring to light facts of great in- 
terest, just as in A. H. S. Lucas's investigations into parthe- 
nogenesis in aquatic phanerogams. In regard tO' the higher vas- 
cular cryptogams, apart from the investigation of the prothalli of 
Psilotum and Tmesipteris, by WhiVelegge, and more fully by Prof. 
Lawson, and apart from Prof. Osborn's work on Lycopods, singu- 
larly little reset rch work has been done. 

More work has been carried out on fungi and bacteria, parti- 
cularly from an economic stand -point, as, for instance', in Greig- 
Smith's investiefations of soil and other bacteria, in Darnell- 
Smith's investigations of bacterial diseases, in some work by 
Mr. Thomson and myself on root-tubercle bacteria, and in the 
systematic work of -Cleland and Cheel on Australian Fungi. 

Peirhaps the most important piece of work in this direction is 
that of Dr. McLennan on the Fungus of Lolium. In showing that 
the fungus penetrates the cvum prior to fertilization, and plays an 
important part in the nutrition of the developing seed, Dr. 
McLennan brings to light a new case of hereditary symbiosis, and 
shows that rye and darnel grass are dual organisms comparable 
to lichens, but with the chlorophyllous component forming the 
dominant partner. This research should give a new impetus to 
investigatio.ns into the nature and life history of smut fungi, and 
it seems possible that we have here a case of an originally parasitic 
fungus which has been completely mastered by its host and put 
permanently to riseful work. 

140 president's address. — section d. 

A series of papers by Mc Alpine, the late Dr. Rothera, and my- 
self, on Bitter Pit, have led to a divergence of views rather than ix> 
hanncmy, and we owe notes on Teratology to A. D. Hardy and E. 

In regard to flowering plants we have, in addition to Maiden's 
extended investigations of eucalyptus and acacia, much economic 
work from R. T. Baker and H. G. Smith, Prof. Osborn, Dawkins 
and Earl, Challinor, Cheei and Penfold, Dr. Heber Green, P. R. 
H. St. John, E. Breakwell. and Dr. F. Steward, and an investi- 
gation by Dr. Petrie into poisonous Solanaceaee, and the occur- 
rence of hydrocyanic acid in plants. 

Economic work on timber and timber trees has been carried out 
by R. T. Patten, and also by J. Nangle. 

More purely systematic work is represented by Williamson's 
revision of the genus Pultenaea, and by various papers by R. H. 
Cambage, A. G. Hamilton, W. F. Blakeley, I. Cookeon, C. Hall, 
R. A. Black, E. C. Andrews, E. Cheel, C. T. White, J. M. Black, 
by Dr. Rogers on Orchids, and by the late Dr. A. Morrison on the 
Flora of Western Australia and of the Northern Territory, by 
L. Rod way on the Tasmanian flora, and by several of the authoi^s 
already mentioned, including the chief source of origin, J. H. 

Work on ecology has been carried oai by A. G. Hamilton, F. E. 
Haviland, A. A. Hamilton, Prof. Osborn, R. H. Cambage, J. 
Shirley, C. A. Lambert, and O. H. Sargent; on anatomy bv 
M. I. Collins, R. T. Baker, J. Shirley, and C. A. Lambert, and 
on morbid anatomy (tumours of eucalyts) by J. J. Fletcher and 
C. T. Musson. The fact established by J. H. Herbert that the tree 
Nuytsia, belonging to the Mistletoe family, is a root parasite, gives 
us an insight into' the probable origin of this group of parasitic 
flowering plants. 

Although interesting accounts of hybrids in eucalypts have been 
published by Mr. Maiden, and of hybridism in Grevilhd by J. J. 
Fletcher, there is little tO' record in regard to scientific plant breed- 
ing, for although a great deal of such work is done at different 
agricultural stations, scientific accounts of it are rarely published, 
and the economic aspect of the work done is only too often allowed 
to suppress completely the scientific side of the work, to the die- 
advantage of both. 

Work on Palaeobotany is i-epresented by A. B. Walkom on the 
Jurassic Plants of Lismore, and by several of Mr. Chapman's 
numerous papers 

In regard to plant physiology, there are comparatively few papers 
to note. Dr. McLennan published soine work on the influence of 
increased gas pressure cii growth and curvature, and there are two 
papers by myself which might be mentioned. The first is a com- 
parative study of exidatioii by katalysts of organic and inorganic 

PKESIDENT's address. — SECTION D. 141 

origin, the second is one of a series dealing with the assimilation 
of carbon dioxide, and the production of sugar by plants. The 
latter paper leads tO' the conclusion that not formaldehyde but a 
simple biose sugar is the first product in photo-synthesis, and that 
the traces of formaldehyde which have been detected in greexi 
plants are the result of the destructive photo'-oxidation of chlo- 
rophyll, and are formed equally well in the entire absence of carbon 
dioxide when extracted chlorophyll is exposed to light. In the 
paper in question it is shown that in the polymerization of solid 
formaldehyde by alkalies, although heat is required to start the 
reaction, it is an exothermic and not an endothermic one, that the 
sugars formed are mainly pentoses and not hexoses, or sucroses, 
that magnesium, the only metallic constituent of chlorophyll, is 
less eifective in polymerizing fonnaldehyde than any other alkali 
metal, and that the action is not an enzymatic but a direct chemi- 
cal one involving a large production of methyl alcohol and metallic 
formates. In other words, there is no' analogy between the pro- 
duction of sugar from formaldehyde outside the plant and the 
conditions under which sugar is formed within the plant. 

In concluding this brief summary of the botanical work carried 
out in Australia during the past seven years, attention may be 
directed to the preponderance of systematic and ecooiomic work, 
and toi the deficiency of scientific work on somei ot" the deeper 
aspects of the subject, many of wihch have also' great economic 
importance, as, for instance, in thei application of the facts of . 
cytology to plant-breeding. Apart from the fungi and bacteria, 
which have received much attention, the rest of the Thallophyta 
have been greatly neglected except lor purely systematic work. 

In the anatomy and reproduction of Vascular Cryptogams there 
is little work to record, although a detailed investigation of many 
Australian forms would certainly reveal points of great interest 
and scientific value. 

In the ©cologfy of the Australian flora little has been done in 
comparison with the vast field which awaits thei trained investi- 

Coming now to a different matter, it is possible that some of you 
may already know that after having held the office of Government 
Botanist of Victoria for fifteen years, I am. giving up that office 
in order to devote mvseif wliollv to University duties. So far the 
Victorian Government has not shown any intention of appointing 
a successor to that position, but I can hardly conceive it as credible 
that an office of this importance would be left unfilled, or that an 
institution of the scientific importance and economic utility of the 
National Herbarium could be left without proper guidance and 
control. However, that is a matter in which the future will afford 
guidance.* In the meantime, as it rarely happens that one has 

* Mr. Laidlaw, B.Sc, has since been appointed Government. Botanist. 

142 president's address. — section d. 

the opportunity of singing one's own swan song, I should like to 
signalize my relinquishment of systematic work by a short review 
of the work done at the Herbarium during the last fifteen years. 

During the period of ten years that followed the late Baron voai 
Mueller's death, the Herbarium drifted intoi a serious conditioin. 
Great damage was done by insects, many of the types became miss- 
ing, much valuable material disappeared or could not be found, the 
Library contained so- few complete sets of serial publications as to 
be almost useless, and it was uncatalogued. The Australian por- 
tion of the Herbariiun was catalogued and indexed fairly satis- 
factorily, but very large accumulations of material in the rest of 
the Herbarium being unarranged were inaccessible. One ol the 
first official acts necessary was toi obtain permission toi take legal 
proceedings against the trustees of the late Baron von Mueller for 
the recovery of missing Government property. As a result, many 
of the gaps in the Library and Herbarium were filled. The cata- 
loguing of both was completed with the exception of the non-flower- 
ing non- Australian plants, which have still tO' be done. The 
Herbarium now contains abomt a million and a quarter sheets of 
specimens in good preisei"^'aticn, including not only most of the type 
specimens of the Australian flora, but also^ a large number from 
South Africa, and general collectiorns from all parts of the world. 

The library has increased from 2,500 volumes to crver 8,000, and 
most of the serials are complete or nearly so, and are bound. 
Works published during the period include The Weeds of Victoria, 
Plants Indlj/eiioiis to Victoria, and in conjunction with O. B. 
Davieis, the Flora of the Xorthern Territory. Lists of vernacular 
names of Victorian plants have been compiled in conjunction with 
a representative botanical committee. Systematic investigations 
have added 7 genera, 51 species, and 30 varieties to the known 
Australian Flora. 

I submit this record as an indication of what still remains for a 
Government Botanist to' do, and with a recollection of the assurance 
received on my arrival in Victoria that I would not have any diffi- 
culty with the work of the Herbarium because the flora was 
thoroughly known, and there were only a few introduced weeds 
which were all common, and would be familiar to' me. It' was a 
curious ccmmentary on this assurance that among one of the first 
lots of plants identified was a new genus and species and four new 
weeds. I would, however, emphasize this point, namely, that 
systematic botany forms the base on which economic botany rests, 
and that noi good architect attempts to' raise the superstructure of 
an important and valuable building on unsound, or incomplete 

One beneficial result brought aboait by the great war was a 
general scientific awakening and a public realization of the impor- 
tant, and indeed essential, part which science and scientific activity 
play in national security. Although this becomes more immediately 

president's address. — SECTION D. 143 

obvious and urgent during war, it is no- less important during 
peace, which a cynic has described as a period of exhaustion and 
recuperation, necessary to recover from the last war and to prepare 
for the next. Evidence of the awakened interest in science, a 
realization of its importance was afforded by the establishment of 
the Bureau of Science and Industry. The Bureau still remiain-s 
in a condition of little more than suspended animation, and 
cannot possibly do the great things that were expected from it, 
so long as the funds required are not available. No public protest 
has been made against the non-fulfilment of the promise to raise 
Australian science through the Bureau to a high standard of 
activity and excellence. Ovei"worked University teachers are still 
expected toi bear the main burden of scientific research and to 
keep the torch of science burning, often at their own cost. The 
general public usually considers that it is the duty of a scientific 
man to cari-y on research for the general benefit in his spare time, 
whether he has any or not, and often has the impertinence to 
criticise him if he turns his endeavcurs to' problems which interest 
him, instead of to those which are of obvious and immediate 
practical utility, but which do- not happen to interest him. A.s a 
matter of fact, by attacking problems which are of scientific 
interest, he is usually doing what will ultimately be of the greatest 
benefit, for it is well known that the difficult abstract scientific 
problems of one generation often become the commonplace utili- 
tarian realizaticjis of the next. • If scientific work were confined to 
those problems which were of immediate practical unity it would 
soon reach a series of dead ends from which no further progress was 

This is, in fact, one of the dangers of allocating scientific work 
wholly to government departments, which must, of necessity, largely 
or wholly confine themselves to econcinic and directly utilitarian 
scientific work. The organization of a government department is 
not well adapted for the discovery of new scientific truths, and owe 
can quite easily conceive the possibilitv of a zealous young officer 
discovering some new fact which came within the scope of another 
sub- department, being reproved for interference, while if he 
discovered a new principle the adoption of which would involve 
the re-organization of a department, he would probably be 
prom.ptly suppressed. 

Science cannot be worked in rigidly water-tight compartments, 
and scientific research is always essentially individualistic. 
Bureaus and committees, as such, never have done, and never 
will do, any scientific research. What they can do is to encourage, 
to correlate, to subsidize, to guide and control, to make public 
new work, and toi bring new principles into practical use. If 
government bureaus and scientific departments turn their energies 
in this direction they can do- great and useful work for science, 
but if they are expected to take over all scientific work, academic 

144 president's address. — section d. 

and utilitarian, they will fail woefully, for therei must always 
t© in all the sciences a large body of free and unharnessed workers 
if they are to progress. It^ is of course always possible that a 
brilliant researcher may appear in a government scientific denart- 
ment, just as a black sheep sometimes appears in a blameless pure 
white flock, but unless he can be given a free hand such as the 
mechanism of a government department rarely permits, he will 
almost inevitably be suppressed and be unable to find full scope 
for his talent, or will be forced to transfer his zeal and genius 
elsewhere', as has often happened in the past. Can any one 
conceive of Charles Darwin being allowed, as a government oflficer, 
to spend years of his time working out the Descent of Man and 
the Origin of .Species while the red tape remained untied, the 
official forms unfilled, the correspondence unanswered, and the 
stamps unlicked ? The Admiralty refused Huxley permission to 
do scientific work now recognised to be of the utmost scientific 
importancei, and in order to carry it onti he was oibliged to resign 
and to submit to a long period of partial starvation. 

This criticism is not a criticism of government departments, 
but is a w^arning against expecting them to carry' out work for 
which they are not suited. The function of a government depart-" 
ment is rathei' to look after the every-day affairs of the present 
than to provide for the future, whereas scientific research has 
mainly for its object to provide for future progress and advance- 
ment. Neither the public nor the politicians whoi represent it 
can easily be persuaded to place on the Estimates for 1921 
provision for' work which may not bei completed or useful until 
1951, provided that is, it is net a vote for the establishment of 
the Federal Capital, which can hardly be classed as research 

If the activities of the Federal Bureau and of Government 
scientific departments arei planned on the lines indicated, if they 
are liberally encouraged, and if encouragement is also given to 
unofficial scientific work, then we shall be better able to maintain 
our position as a civilized nation, and will be better equipped to' 
hold our own in the world's ccck-pit^ should wei ever be left 
wdthout the Mother Country's hand to help us. At present our 
welfare mainly depends, and will depend for a long time to 
come on our primary industries. The problems which confront 
these industries, and which are of the weightiest economic import- 
ance, are mainly problems which can only be solved by the 
application of botanical and zoological science, using these terms 
in the broadest sense, and the encouragement of thesei sciences 
may repay itself an hundred-fold, and may contribute in the 
highest degree to the advancement of Australia. 

president's address.— section e. 145 



Professor Sir Douglas Mawson. Kt.B., D.Sc, B.E., O.B.E. 

Professor of Geology in the University of Adelaide- 


Eight loug years have passed since the last meeting of this 
Association. So far has the Great* War dislocated the even tenor 
of our scientific world here in Australasia. But during this period 
science has not been neglected, rather has it flourished as never 
before. It has been a struggle in which every branch of science 
has contributed to the utmost. Geography has done her share. 

Mr. Freshfield. as President of the Royal Geographical Society, 
has stated* that " nO' branch of science enters more closely intr 
the art of war than G^oigraphy." 

Where this is true of every war it has special point in tftis 
world-conflict conducted in far-flung fields. Operations have been 
carried out in every sort of clime; from the Arctic shores of the 
White Sea to the fever-stricken jungles of East Africa; from the 
desert plains of Arabia to^ the mountain tops of the Carnic Alps ; 
ploughing the blue waters of the sunny Mediterranean in search 
of submarines, or groping along the foggy shores of Jvitland in 
search of bigger game. The white, the brown, the yellow, and 
the black have all been enrolled in one great army. The proper 
conduct of such a war surely calls for the fullest possible knowledge 
of geography. 

♦ Pres. Add., 1915, Roy. Geog. Soc. ; Geog. Jonr., July, 1915. 


Cartography, Climatologv, and Geomorphology — planks in the 
geographical platform — need to be studied in every military 
academy. Map knowledge is absolutely essential to military 

'Not only is geography helpful to the higher command, but it 
enters directly into the routine o<f all army operations. 

As illustrating the value of geographical knowledge to military 
operations, Sir Thomas Holditch, in a Presidential address* to the 
Royal Geographical Society, has said: "Before the war ended, 
what was originally a small detachment of special surveyors who 
were placed in the field for the purpose of rectifying existing maps 
of the gradually extending theatre of military operations on the 
Western Front, and of furnishing the military staff, especially the 
artillery, with the precise and accurate data which we're all-im- 
portant in regulating the combined movements of troops and of 
fulfilling the difficult design of range -finding for the guns, had 
expanded into a highly-organized department niimbering some 
4,200 employees. . . . "Our brilliant artillery service which 
carried us through the worst phases of the war was very largely 
indebted to the geographical section of the War Department for 
its magnificent success. . . . Never probably again will an 
important campaign be conducted without a properly-constituted 
geographical section . " 

It is not too much to say that many of the failures during the 
war would not have happened had our commands been more hiWy 
furnished with geographical knowledge. 

Then again, in making settlements at the Peace Conference, 
how very essential is an intimate knowledge of the peoples, and of 
the physical features of the countries in question for a sure basis 
of boundary settlements. A peaceful and lasting settlement can 
be arrived at, only in proportion as the fundamental principles of 
human geography are understood and acted upon without bias. 

The war period temporarily put a brake upon geographical ex- 
ploration and curtailed the study ol geography at the Universi- 
ties. Nevertheless, in another way, it gave the science a stimulus 
which must lead to far-reaching advantage. It has been a period 
for the application of geography. Maps were in everybody's 
hands, from the general's in the field to the civilian's at home." 

War gives an impetus to map-making, and one great permanent 
result that we now have out of this period is the map of Europe 
and south-west Asia on a uniform scale of 1 : 1,000,000. 

The scheine to compile' a map of the world uniformly collated 
on a scale of 1/M was fin-t definitely decided upon in the vear 
1909 at the London meeting of the International Map Committee, 
but only half a dozen sheets had been prepared in the three and a 

* Jour. Geog. Soc, 1919. 

president's address "SECTIOX e. 147 

half years prior to the outbreak of war. The urgent demand for 
complete and adequate maps of the theatres of war secured lor 
this great work the official interest and support necessary for the 
s]>ee'dv progress of the undertaking. As a result there were avail- 
able for the armies at the closing scenes of the war some 90 sheets 
of the great map, covering the whole of Europe, also Asia Minor 
as far as Persia and some part of Northern Arabia. 

The treniendoius advance in aviation as a direct outcome of the 
world-struggle has made' us more familiar with the geography of 
the upper atmosphere, has presented a new aspect to the study of 
morphological geography, and has opened up vistas of usefulness 
in the prosecution of geographical discovery. 

Whilst all this has been going on, we have correspondingly less 
to report in the department of geographical exploration, for the 
world's energies have been otherwise directed. Nevertheless, in 
the long period since the last meeting of this Association, import- 
ant undertakings of this nature have been successfully concluded. 

The polar regions have been most in prominence, beginning with 
the return of the Australasian Antarctic Expedition in 1914, after 
a^ campaign of twO' yeai's duration along the Antarctic shores due 
south from Australia. Voluminous collections of data and trophies 
were obtained, the most spectacular feature of the^ operations being 
the addition to the map of upwards of 1,000 miles of new coast 

The Stefansson Expedition, operating in the Beaufort Sea 
northward ol Alaska, has, after many vicissitudes and some 
tragedy, returned safely, bringing the news of the extension of the 
Arctic Archipelago' still further to the west. 

Professor Macmillan's Expedition to investigate the appearance 
of land noted by Peary, to the west of his route across the Arctic 
sea to the pole', ended by erasing such a possibilit}'^ from thc' map. 
The circumstance that relief was delayed for three years owing to 
unusual ice conditions, gave them the opportunity of greatly add- 
ing to the knowledge of Elleemere Land. 

Sir Ernest Shackletoin's Imperial Trans- Antarctic Expedition, 
which sailed south under the shadow of war, ended in 1916, giving 
to the world an heroic story of endurance and fortitude. Un- 
fortunately for them, the good fortunei necessary to make such 
hazardous plans a success did not attend their endeavour in the 
measure: that was hoped, and so the great privations and loss of 
life produced no- commensurate scientific gain. The sacrifice of the 
life of Aeneas Mackinii^osh, to whom is clue the successful accom- 
plishment of the thankless task allotted to the Ross Sea Party of 
that expedition, is a matter of the greatest regret to his wide circle 
of appreciative friends in Australia. 
1084.— 14 

148 president's abdress — sectiox e. 

The Spitzbergen Group of islands, some 600 miles off the noTth 
coast of Norway, has recently come prominently into public notice, 
chiefly on account of extensive coal resources. Some additions to 
its geography have been published lately by Scandinavian and 
British investigators, but the most notable contribution has been 
the publication, under the auspices of the Dutch Government, of 
a volume of historical cartography of the Group. Some 80 old 
Dutch maps are reproduced, which illustrate the definite establish- 
ment of Dutch supremacy for a long period after its discovery by 
Barentz. Whilst making reference to Spitzbergen it is interesting 
to note that the sovereignty of the Group, formerly a terra iiiiUim, 
has been handed over to Norway by the Supreme Comncil. 

In South America, considerable advances have been made, 
especially in the region of the Upper Amazon. The work of 
Colonel Fawcett, and others, in connexion with Boundary Com- 
mission on the frontiers of Bolivia, Peru, and Brazil, should be 
specially mentioned. Mr. Roosevelt, whose subsequent death we 
greatly regret, has added to our knowledge of the Duvida tributary 
of the Madiera. 

The Yale University Expedition, under Professor Hiram Brig- 
ham, to Peru has been most fruitful of results. The indications 
are that our American friends will, in the future, take a still 
greater interest in investigating the South American continent. 

During the period under review exploration in Africa has not 
attracted public attention. 

Two notable pieces of work have been accomplished in Asia, 
namely, archaeological and topographical investigations by Sir 
Aurel Stein in the region lying between the Tian Shan and the 
Chinese' border, and a thoroaigh investigation of the Kara Koram 
by an Italian expedition under Dr. de Filippi. Much detail has 
been added to' our knowledge of Arabia, and of the frontier regions 
of India. 

Coming to the Australasian Region, the past eight years has 
seen much accomplished in New Guinea. The results of a German 
Expedition up the Sepik (Kaiserin Augusta) River, and of two 
Dutch Expeditions into the interior of the western extremity of 
the island have been made available. These undertakings- have 
added immensely to our knowledge oi the formerly little-known 
Dutch and late German territories. In Papua, numerous recon- 
naissances have been nrade into new and little-known country by 
Mr. E. R. Stanley and other Government officials, and the results 
placed on a recently-compiled map. We have read with regret the 
sad news which has recently come through of the annihilation by 
the head-hunters of an exploring party on the Fly River. The 
exploration of New Guinea is now well advanced, but it is still 
one of the most fascinating fields for discovery remaining to the 

president's address — SECTION E. 149 

In Australia itself our knowkdge of the little-known interior 
and north-west is continually being added to^ and, in this con- 
nexion, must be partieularly mentioned the South Australian 
Government party into the Everard and Musgrave Ranges during 
1915. The Western Australian Government has likewise partici- 
pated in developing the geography of its territory by equipping 
and despatching parties into the interior, both in the north-west 
and in the centre zone as far as the South Australian boundary. 
A continuation of the survey of the north-west coast of Australia 
is being proceeded with by the Royal Australian Navy. 

It is with satisfaction that we have reviewed the work of these 
last few years, but we greatly regret to' record the deaths during 
the same period of some of the great men in the geographical 

Lord Forrest, the veteran Australian explorer, whose pioneer 
journeys through the arid and desert wastes of Western and 
Central Australia won for him the gold medal of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society and the admiration of his countrymen, has 
passed away. Peary, whose great life-work in the Arctic regions 
culminated in his attainment of the North Geographical Pole, is 
with us no more. Selous, the great African geographer and 
hunter, of whom it is said that during his life he had faced and 
conquered more lions than any other individual on earth, though 
in ripe years when war broke out, girded his loins once more for 
the fray, and was eventually killed by a German . bullet whilst 
leading a storming party against g.n eneiny stronghold in German 
East Africa. 

General Rawlings, whose good work in Tibet and New Guinea 
had so earned for him the confidence of the Council of the Royal 
Geographical Society, that they had marked him down as the 
probable leader of an expedition proposed to make an assault upon 
the summit of the world. Mount Everest, was killed by a shell in 

Professor Edouard Suess, of Vienna, whose great work Das. 
Anihfz (lev Erde earned him the lasting admiration of both 
geologists and geographers, has died at a ripe old age. 

Professor Herbertson, of Oxford, who has done so much during 
the last twenty years to make geography a truly scientific subject, 
has passed away, and so also has Sir Clements Markham^, wlaos© 
enthusiasm for the history of geographical exploration remained 
with him until his tragic death. 

Though years have now passed, we are still mindful of the loss 
that Australian oceanography sustained in the catastrophe to the 
fisheries steamer Endeavour, wherein Mr. Dannevig and all mem- 
bers of the ship's complement perished in December, 1914. With 
them was the biologist to the Fisheries Department, C. T. Harris- 
son, formerly a member of the Australasian Antarctic Expedition. 

150 president's addre-;s--sectiox e 

Two other proininent members of the Antarctic expedition paid the 
supreme sacrifice in the war, namely, Robert Bage and Leslie 

These and otliers have passed away, buf a new generation has 
stepped intO' the breach with plans for fresh expeditions either ]n-o- 
jected or afoot. 

The Alpine Club, of London, in association with the Geo- 
graphical Society, has in hand the organization of an expedition to 
scale Mt. Everest. 

The compreliensive expedition proposed by Mr. Stackhouse, who 
continued with its organization during 1914-15, was brought toi a 
sudden conclusion by the death of the leader, who perished as a 
victim of the Lusitania disaster. 

Dr. J. Cope, formerly the medical officer of the Ross Sea party 
of Sir Ernest Shackleton's last expedition, formulated plans for an 
extemsive Antarctic Expedition, but finding difficulties in obtaining 
the necessary support has reduced his programme tO' the naturei of a 
limited reconnaissance in Graham's Land. On 20th December last, 
in company with four companions he bearded a whaling craft at 
Port Stanley in the Falkland Islands, bound for Hope Bay, at the 
northern extremity of Graham's Land, where it is intended the 
whalers will land them, returning to pick them up the following 

Captain Rdnald Amundsen is launched on another great enter- 
prise. Fully equipped with an adequate scientific staff, he is lead- 
ing an expedition on board the old Frani across the North Polar 
Sea. The scheme is practically to repeat Nansen's drift, but 
planned to enter the pack further to. the east at a point calculated, 
in the light of Nansen's experience, to carry the vessel over the pole 
itself. Continuous s.cientific observations will be conducted 
throughout the drift. He departed from Norway in 1918, and 
expects the drift will occupy five or six years. 

Yale University is continuing with its researches in South 
America, and a further expedition is proposed from the United 
States of America to the interior of China. 

At the Pan-Pacific Conference held at Honolulu in August last, 
extensive schemes for geographical work amongst the Pacific Isfands 
were promulgated, and a brisk period of enterprise in that fasci- 
nating field can be expected. 

In connexion with the whaling and sealing industry in the 
Dependencies of the Falkland Islands, an inter-departmental com- 
mittee* of the Colonial Office has recommended a scheme to employ 
two research vessels for the investigation of the numerous problems 

* Report of the Inter-Departmental Committee on Research and Development in 
the Dependencies of the Falkland Ids., with appendices, maps, Szq. London : pnb. bv 
H.M. Stationery Offi^e. 1020. 

president's address. — SECTION E. 151 

involved. It is proposed that these be provided with motor-boats, 
and in addition to the crew a scientific staff and equipment neces- 
sary for carrying on the proposed researches as completely as 
possible. They contemplate an investigation which should last for 
a period of years, and the regular publication of scientific results 
of the expedition. The committee think that the first cost of the 
two vessels, as pi'oposed, would not be less than £85,000, and the 
maintenance and expenses would be not less than £28,000 to 
£33,000 a year. It is assumed that the vessels and sui-vey equip- 
ment would be proivided by the Admiralty, and that the cost of 
maintenance and the pay of the naval staffs and crews would be 
borne by naval funds. The executive control of the expedition is 
to be left in the hands of the Admiralty and the Colonial Office, 
the Departments through which the investigation will be financed. 

The latest development in the field of geographical discovery is 
a proposal backed by the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science. At the recent meeting of the association, at Cardiff, 
the Council appointed a Committee representing all branches of 
science to work out a scheme suggested by Dr. Herdman, the pre- 
sident, for an oceanographical expedition on the lines of the famo-us 
Challenger Expedition. The committee is also to approach the 
Government on the subject. 

Turning from, the sphere of geographical exploration, we can- 
not pass on without taking some note of the iinmense changes which 
the war has wrought in the political geography of the world, an 
upheaval which is without precedent in history. Europe, the focus 
of the struggle., has been rent from end to end ; the old order of 
things has gone, and a new system is taking its place. Empires 
have broken up, and new political divisions have been created. In 
this re-arrangement the fundamental lessons which the study of 
human geography teaches have been taken into consideration, and 
it is hoped that thereby a greater degree of international confidence 
has been secured. But the upheaval is not yet finished, and no 
one can say what will ultimately be the position in the territory of 
the former great Russian Empire. In its present phase it is a 
dictatorship of the uneducated replacing a dictatorship of those 
educated and trained toi govern ; a change which has cost millions 
of lives, and an order of things which, to say the least, must be 

To outline in detail all the changes in boundaries and political 
co'utrols which have thus been effected in Europe and Asia and 
Africa would be tooi lengthy a matter fox the scope of this address ; 
but the occasion cannot be passed by without some reference to 
such changes as affect territories in the Australasian sphere. 

152 president's address — -section e. 

The division of the late German colonial possessions in the 
Pacific, arranged by thei Peace Treaty, has placed sections, under 
mandates, with Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and Britain re- 

It is gathered that the terms of the said mandates will be to 
give full powers of control to the countries respectively holding 
authority, thus allowing them to pass such laws for the control of 
the territories as they may deem necessary, just as if such territories 
were definitely made dependencies. It goes without saying that 
the interests of Allied nations will be secured by commercial 

Tn thei aggregate, these former German colonial possessions totial 
an area of over 97,000 square miles with a native population of 
between 350,000 and 450,000 inhabitants. 

To the Japanese have been apportioned the following: — 

Marshall Islands 

Pelew and Caroline Islands 

Ladrones (Mariana) Islands 

(Exclusive of the American 

Island of Guam.) 

There is etill no final settlement reached between Japan and 
the United States of America in regard to Yap, the principal of 
the Pelew Islands, but, on account of its importance, in the line of 
cable and other communications between the United States of 
America and the East, an effort is being made by America to gain 

New Zealand has a mandate over former German Samoa, a 
valuable territory of about 1,300 square miles in area, and a popu- 
lation of some 30,000 native inhabitants. 

In the case of Nauru (Pleasant Island), an upraised coral atoll 
situated a few miles south of the equator, a British mandate has 
been granted, and the administration by the Home Government 
is to be in joint agreement with New Zealand and the Common- 
wealth, at least so far as concerns the profits to be derived from 
the exploitation of the rich deposits of phosphates which cover an 
area of upwards of 4,600 acres. The native population amounts to 
only about 1,300. 

Approx. Area. 

Approx. Xative 
Population. ^ 

150 sq. miles. 
400 „ 

... 10,000 
... 30,000 

225 ,, 

... 10,000 



president's address — SECTION E. l53 

The Australian mandate covers all the former German pro- 
tectorate of New Guinea south of the equator, including the 
following : — 

Apiirox. Area Approx. Native 

in Sq. Miles. Population. 

The late Kaiser Wilhelm Island 72,000 ... 150,000 

The late Bismarck Archipelago ... 20,000 ... 100,000 
The late German Solomon Islands 3,500 ... 16,000 
(Bougainville and Buka) 

95,500 .. 266,000 

Detailed proposals* for the administration of this territory have 
been prepared by a Royal Conrmission apix)inted by the Common- 
wealth Government. The recommendation of this inquiry takes 
the form of three alternative proposals for administration: — 

1. A policy of amalgamation; providing for the administration 

of the late German territory as a part of Papua. 
21. A policy of separate administration ; maintaining the 

adm.inistration of these as two quite apart and separate 

3. Internal administration and executive and legislative 

councils to be quite separate, but under oiie head 

administrative officer. 

The main difficulty that presents itself is that " immediate 
union would involve the adoption of all the Papuan laws and the 
cancellation of the whole legal system under which the mandated 
territory has grown up." Such a course would create confusion. 

In these extra-Australian tropical territories the people of the 
Commonwealth have a great trust, for their potential resources and 
productivity are enoi'mous if developed on fruitful lines. 

The Commonwealth now controls half of New Guinea which, 
with the exception of Greenland, is the largest island in the world. 
It possesses every variety of climate, is rich in minerals, with good 
prospects of petroleum oil-fields, has important resources of soft 
wood timbers, and is capable of supplying all tropical products. A 
great range O'f mountains traverses it from end to end, a distance 
of about 1,200 miles, rising in lofty peaks perpetually snow- 
capped though situated almost under the equator. This great 
barrier to atmospheric circulation leads to- the phenomenal precipi- 
tation of several hundred inches of rain a year on some of the 
highlands, and indirectly results in developing an important system 

* Commouwealth Parliamentary Pajier 29, 1920. 

154 president's address — section e. 

of rivers. The Fly and the Sepik are famous. If they be iude;ed 
by the quantity of water delivered to the sea they must be iium- 
be-red amongst the world's large rivers. Here is indeed latent 
productivity in the highest degree requiring only an abundant in- 
dustrious poipulaticn to reap the harvest. Unfortunately, it is not 
a country for white labourers, and the natives are not industrious, 
nor are' they numerous. 

At the other extreme of our Australasian region liee the Great 
Antarctic Continent pregnant with jiossibilities in the future. 
Until this region is taken definitely under the control of some 
Power, no regulations can be enforced to control whaling and seal- 
ing, the chief natural industries. Without such regulationis the 
days of these animals will be numbered, and the industries gone. 
The Australian quadrant at least is by every right British, if the 
claims of exploration are to be recognised. Too much emphasis 
cannot be laid upon the advisability of taking the opportunity of 
this general world settlement to realize British claims over 
Antarctic territory. 

There yet remain for comment three recent events each of which 
marks a s)tage in the geographical development of Australia. 

The first is the completion of a transcontinental railway. It is nbw 
possible to travel by train from Geraldton, in Western Australia, 
to Loiigreach, in Queensland ; but I venture to suggest that such 
an undertaking would not recommend itself to any one as a plea- 
sure trip. The diverse gauges of our railway systems is a glaring 
example of the want of geographical outlook in the past. 

The second achievement is the realization of the first aerial link 
with Europe. This splendid record will ever redound to the credit 
of Sir Ross Smith and his companions. By their success, however, 
we must not conclude that flights of sO' extended a character are 
yet even approxiinately within the sphere of commercial aviation. 
Nevertheless, history teaches that undertakings of this kind, which 
are accoanplished to-day at great risk of life and expense, niay be 
the routine of another generation. The onward march of human 
achievement in the field of invention gradually alters the effective 
relations in space of the^ peoples of the earth, and thereby is a 
factor constantly changing the political and economic outlook. 

The third event of great importance to geography in Australia 
is the founding of an Associate-Professorship in Geography at 
Sydney University. In Professor T. G. Taylor, who has just been 
appointed, the science in Australia is assured of an indefatigable 
worker, from whom great advances in the subject will certainly 
emanate. His publications have already earned for him a world- 
wide reputation. That university recognition of geography is at 
last an accomplished fact in Australia is a matter of great satis- 
faction. The tardiness of the recognition is no doubt largely due 
to the financial limitations of our institutions, but it certainly in 
some measure arises from a general want of appreciation of the 
scope and value .of the modern science of geography. 

president's address — SECTION E. 155 

This is such an important occasion for geographers in Australia 
that I am dis]>osed to dwell at some length upon the subject O'f 
geography and its teaching, in order to emphasize and spread more 
widely the gospel of geographic science. 

The first recognition of geography at any British University 
was the appointment to a lectureship at Oxford University in 1888. 
Cambridge followed the next year, and thereafter during the next 
twenty years practically every university in the United Kingdom 
did likewise. Many of the former lectureships have since been 
replaceJd by the foundation of Chairs of Geography, in which, 
again, Oxford led the way. During this period the statixs of 
geography has gradually risen until, in 1916, it was made an 
honours subject in certain British universities. At this same time 
the Civil Servicei examiners decided to assign to geography a much 
larger proportion of marks than hitherto. 

Despite these advances geography in British countries has 
always lagged far behind the standard in France and Gennany. 
For example, Professor Herbertson, of Oxford, speaking in 1910, 
tells us that whereas Oxford University could afford only an old 
private residence slightly modified for the Geography School, the 
Geography Department of Berlin University was endowed with 
^6,000 per annum, and housing accommodation which cost 
£150,000, inclusive of land values. 

The good work of the universities gradually made itself felt 
throughout Great Britain in disseminating a greater degree of 
geographical intelligence in the rising generation of teachers. This 
had the efi^ect in 1905 of ushering in a new epoch in the teaching 
of geography, when the Board of Education issued its regulations 
for the teaching of geography in secondary schools. Sir John 
Keltie in describing this change says:* '.'Consequence had to be 
connected with cause, and reasons had to^ be stated with facts, 
instead of presenting lists of names as catalogues to' be learned. 
Geography thus now became a reasoning subject requiring indivi- 
dual work by the student and sound knowledge by the teacher, as 
much as any other subject taught on scientific principles. The sub- 
ject is being treated more and more on a regional basis, and the 
work is consequently gaining in intelligence." 

In these regulations it is pointed out that there should be 
lessons in reading books of travel and adventure, as Keltie says, 
" intended to- inspire interest in the earth and its inhabitants, and 
cultivate appreciation in what may be termed the intangible in- 
fluences and factors of geographical character. When taught in 
this way geography may ]ye made one of the most valuable subjects 
in a school curriculum ; for it provides not only the intellectual 
discipline of a science rightly studied but also the human interest 
and sympathy of the most inspiring literature" 

* Pres. Address, Geog. Association; see Geoff. Jour., XLIIL. p. 410. 


Referring to school geography Professor Mackinder, the great 
British authority, states* that " when teaching geography in 
schools we seek to train pupils to' imagine accurately the inter- 
action of human activities and their topographical conditioins. As 
these conditions have been established partly by natural forces and 
partly by human effort, any discussion of the correlation of various 
conditions must be both scientific and humanistic. The mind of 
the citizen must have a topographical background if he is to keep 
order in the mass of information which he accumulates in the 
course of his life, and in these days that background must extend 
over the whole world. Besides giving this necessary mental equip- 
ment, we believe that the collection, estimation, and correlation of 
geographical facts afford a most valuable training in practical 
judgment as applied to' ordinary affairs." 

I am afraid we have not progressed so far in the teaching of 
geography in Australia. Put the new aspect ol geography has 
been realized in part in school curricula, particularly in the States 
of New South Wales and Victoria. 

The old-fashioned text-books of geography have been likened to 
a Baedeker of the earth, or, as Dr. Rudmose Brown has put it,+ 
" Catalogues of uncorrelated facts." Even the best text-books, 
before the year 1890, were a mere succession O'f disjointed chapters 
dealing with isolated subjects. 

Since then a new science of geography has grown up. From 
being purely descriptive and a bald statement of fact in its earlier 
stages, it has now developed into an analytical science supplying 
data for synthetic conclusions of far-reaching in;iportance to the 
human race. 

There is still some difference of opinion as to' the exact range 
in scientific inquiry that properly is included under the texm 
geography. Of the two extreme schools,! one leans heavily on the 
side of geomcrphologv including cartography ; the other is rather 
too fully imbued with belief that man is all that counts in a 
description of the earth. This latter has been pressed sO' far by 
some enthusiasts that thei original application of the term 
geography has been lost sight of, and we are told that the study of 
physical relief and map making are not geography but mere tools 
of the geographer. Rather are they, together with climatology and 
oceanography, tO' be regarded as the' elements of geography. " The 
distribution of vegetable and animal life on the earth, including 
man, is consequential, and being of supreme interest to man and 
involved in the operation of diverse controls, it naturally consti- 
tutes the advanced phase of geographical study. 

* Oeoffraphieal Teacher. 1917. 

t " The Province of the Geographer." Scot. Geoq. Mag., Vol. 30 (1914), p. 467. 

I G. G. Chisholm says, in Scot. Qeog. Mag. XXIV., p. 565: — "The chief difference 
between the rival schools of geographers arises from this, that some have insisted on 
taking man as determining the supreme aim of geographic studies .... whilst 

others have sought to bring into independent prominence the study of the forms and 
physical conditions -of the earth's surface." 

president's address — SECTION E. 157 

This has been expressed by Sir John Keltie* when he remarked, 
" man ie thei ultimate' factor of the geographical problem, the final 
object of which is to investigate the correlations which exist be- 
tween humanity and its geographical environment." 

Mr. Freshfieldf does not underestimate the importance of mor- 
phological geography when he states: "The physical facts of 
geography must be treated not only in themselves, but as elements 
in human history, politics, and commerce." 

Professor Roor bach, I of the University of Pennsylvania found, 
on personal inquiry amongst a widei circle of the leading 
geographers, that there was a general consensus of opinion as to 
the scope of modern geography, namely, " Geography concerns 
itself with the study of relationships between earth and life, par- 
ticularly human life." 

Sir John Scott Keltie,§ in referring to the business of the 
scientific geographer says it "is to sti;dy the great features of the 
earth's surface in adequate detail, and to investigate the influence 
of these factors, including climate and hydrographical conditions, 
on the distribution of other factors on the earth's surface, and 
es}>ecially of humanity .... this is a department of geo- 
graphical work which might be carried on indefinitely, and which 
has important practical bearings on the activities O'f the human 

As regards the position of geography in university studies. Dr. 
Rudmose Brown says:!j " Treated by scientific methods and based 
on the more fundamental sciences, geography is yet in the nature 
of a link between subjects in the^ faculties of arts and of pure 
science, and it might be more so were it not for the exigencies of 
specialisation and of regulations for degrees, which limit the pos- 
sible combination of subjects permitted to the student." 

Mr. Freshfieldf says "Geography, the knowledge of the world, 
we live in, must be taught as a link between the natural sciences 
and the humanities." 

There can be no doubt as toi the cultural value of geography, 
and it ought, at the same time, " to awaken an interest and kindle 
an einchusiasm rivalled by few other sciences."** Professor R. D. 
Salisbury saysjt "Perhaps no science touches human life and in- 
terests more closely or in more ways. There is, I am confident, no 
science which, properly developed and utilized educationally, will 
do more for the development of good citizenship. Its substance 
perhaps touches the essence of material life, especially on the 
human side, more intimately than any other science." 

* "A Half Century of Geographical Progress"; S.G.M., Vol. 31 (1915). p. 629. 

t Pres. Add. Roy.'Geog. Soc, 1917. 

J " The Trend of Modern Geography." G. B. Roorbach, Bi'li. Amer. Geog. Hoc. 
XLVI. (1914). p. 801-816. 

§ S^e G.B. Roorbach, lor. dt. 

II "The Province of the Geographer," loc. cit. 

*\ Pres. Add., Geog. Joiirii.. July, 1917. 
** Professor McCoutt. 
tt Science, N.S. 47, pp. •325-335. 

158 presibent's address — section e. 

As regards its suitability as a school subject, Mr. B. C Wallis 
writes^* " For breadth of outlook, for intimate relation with the 
palpitating human life which surrounds the pupil, for an insight 
into the wonder-world of inanimate and animate objects, no school 
subject can compete with geography." 

For the jjrcper teaching of this modern geography in schools 
the instructors should have covered a much wider range than they 
themselves seek to teach. It has been writtenf in the- United 
States : " It OiUglit to be illegal for a teacher to conduct classes of 
students through the principles of the^ subject witho^ut having had 
advanced instruction in university or college courses." 

In Australia, though the universities have not in the past pro- 
vided a training ground in this subject for the teachers, we have 
long taught geography as a school subject. It is no' wonder that the 
modern advances in the science of geography have not been fully 
realized in the schools. 

Wallis remarks J that " geographical insight and outlook are 
so important to the cultured mind that the absolute minimum of 
geographical study should carry the pupil to a coimplete, thorough, 
systematic geographical survey of the whole world." This will, no 
doubt, be widely conceded, but the question of introducing addi- 
tional subjects into already overcrowded curricula has toi be faced. 

As Professor J. W. Gregory, § when occupying this Chair some 
eighteen years ago, said : ' ' The educational problem that is now 
pressing upon us is the selection of the subjects which are O'f the 
most educational value." 

The editor cf thei Camhriihje lldtulhool-^ for Tcnrhers\\ has said 
that " the place of each separate subject in the curriculum has to 
be justified. Attempts are being made^ to find more rational and 
more scientific reasons than mere traditio'ii for the order in which, 
and the methods by which the various paits of a subject should be 
taught, what parts should be included, and what omitted, and the 
grounds for their inclusion and omission." 

Changes are slowly progressing in our university curricula in 
the right direction, and we can confidently look forward toi the 
value of geographic knowledge becoming more fully recognised. 

Ill passing, it is interesting to^ note that Professor R. D. Salis- 
bury, in regard to improved curricula, says:1| — What would be the 
resvilt if those who are interested in education could come de novo 
to the question of the content of an ideal curriculum of study. It 
probably is safe to say that one of the results would be a shock to 

* "The Teaehins of rif-qgiaphy," Cambridge Press, 1016. 

t See I. Bowman in "The Trend of Jlodera Geography" by G. B. Roorbach, he cit. 

I The Teaching of Geography, p 126. 

§ Pres. Address, A.A.A.8., Section K., 1903. 

II See S. S. F. Fletcher, p. VI., " The Teaching of Geograpliy" bv B. C. Wallis. 
H Geology in Education. Science, N.S., 47, p. -325-3.35. 

president's address— section e. 159 

those whose cpinioiis in this matter have been shaped by the pre- 
judices which accompany our inheritance. That evolution is a slow 
]jrocess is illustrated nowhere better than in educational circles. 

" I suppose that no morei conspicuoue examples of intellectual 
waste can be pointed to in all the history of our unintelligent educa- 
tional development than the waste of time on languages that no 
longer live. The stock argument that the study of these languages is 
helpful in the use of our own is an argument of waste. If half 
the time were devoted to English which is put into Latin, for the 
sake of helping English, the average^ student probably would ad- 
vance much farther in his own tongue." 

It is gratifying to record the beginning of what we may confi- 
dently expect to he> a more geuei'al recognition of geography as a 
definite science subject in our Australasian universities. Out of 
this should spring a greater understanding and appreciation of 
geography in the community at large. 

Such a movement would be greatly advanced by the existence 
of a vigorous geographical organization in our midst. Our best 
thanks are due to the geographical enthusiasts who have unselfishly 
worked hard for many years past to keep alive local branch sections 
of the Royal Geographical Society of Australia in Adelaide, Mel- 
bourne, Sydney and Brisbane respectively. Some of the names 
that appeal to us at the moment in this counexion are Mr. Gill, of 
Adelaide, Mr. .Thompson, of Brisbane, the late Mr. Sachse, of 
Melbourne, and Mr. Crummer, o.:^ Sydney. But, in a community 
so small as that in Australia, it is not to be expected that so 
many societies working independently can be maintained satis- 
factorily. Thei Victorian section, after languishing for some time, 
has recently amalgamated with the local Historical Society. The 
position in Sydney appears to be no better. The local branches are 
still carrying on in Adelaide and Brisbane, but one cannot help 
feeling that if the geogra]>hical effort in Aiistralia were concen- 
trated in one publication it would have a greater effect in Aus- 
tralia, and carry more weight outside our own country. There is 
an unrivalled field for geographical inquiry in the Commonwealth, 
and under the stimulus of the modern movement great things are 
to be expected. 

Even the coastline of Australia is yet only partly charted. 
Captain J. K. Davis, the Director of Commonwealth Navigation, 
advises that more than one-third of the entire coast is uncharted 
in the modern sense of the term. Some parts of our north coast 
are but roughly delineated as Flinders left them 120 years ago. On 
the charts, morei than anything else, the safety of shipping de- 
pends, so that Australia is under the responsibility of seeing: that 
her coasts are not allowed to^ be inaccurately represented. 

,,l:60 president's address — section e. 

Now that the Comnionwealtli has instituted its own Navy it 
has need also of orgaiiizing an efficient hydrographic service to 
cope with this undertaking. In this a beginning has already been 
made, but to do justice to our Melanesian Dependencies as well, 
an extensive and well founded organization is needed. 
. -" Regarding an oceanographic survey of our coastal waters com- 
paratively little has been done, but the information to bei got has 
important bearings both scientific and economic. 

As fields for general exploration may still be mentioned parts 
of Central and North Western Australia, Papua, and the man- 
dated territories. A detailed ethnological study throughout 
Melanesia is an urgent matter, for every year's delay will lose 
to- the world much valuable data. In this connexion it is gratify- 
ing tO' record that the Department O'f Home and Territories has 
already appointed an officer to prosecute such investigations. No 
doubt the Commonwealth Government will be prepared to' assist 
exploration in the Melanesian Dependencies, but it is to be ex- 
pected that before official recognition and the provision of financial 
assistance, the Go'vernment should require the hall-mark of such 
an Association as our own toi be stamped upon any proposals. Sir 
John Keltie says,* " We must insist that explorers shall have- a 
training adequate to the conduct of their work on scientific lines." 

New Guinea is a land of promise in the matter of available water 
power, and exploration with the object of ascertaining the avail- 
able resources in this direction is most desirable. 

Professor MacKinder emphasizes vegetatiou provinces as funda- 
mental in dividing geographical regions ; and in this connexion 
Professor T. G. Taylor draws attention to the fact that no adequate 
m.aps of the vegetation belts in Australia have^ yet been made. 

Very good geographical research can be undertaken anywhere 
in Australia where investigators select a definite area and work 
the same out in complete geogi-aphical detail. 

Many other suggestions for investigations could be put forward, 
but sufficient has been indicated to make it evident that for geo- 
graphers in Australia the future is full of promise. 

• "Half a Century of Geog. Progress." Sent. Gei>g. Mag., Vol. 31, p. 629. 




His Honour Mr. Justice Murray, C.M.G., 

Lieutenant-Governor of Papua. 

Subject Races and "yatives." 

The subject races of whom I speak in this paper are those 
people whom, like Miss Tox in Domhei^ and Son, we are content 
to call "natives." This term is surely as absurd as it well could 
h<e, for a man who "w^as not a native of some part of the globe 
v.-culd indeed be a lusus naturce, but after all it seeins to convey 
one's meaning well enough, and. when we talk of natives, every 
on© knows that we refer to those races of men, of different 
colour from ourselves, whom we, I suppose rightly, regard as our 

Incapacity/ for Self-Govetiinnnt. 

In the opinion of the average Britisher, all foreign nations 
are obviously incapable of self-government, but the " natives " 
I refer to really do seem to^ suffer from a peculiar unfitness in 
this regard, for they appear to have little or no idea of nationality 
or patriotism, and, in spite of their tribal organization, they 
often have but a rudimentary notion o-f subordinating individual 
interests tO' those of the general body. Consequently it probably 
is desirable, even in the interests of these races themselves, that 
they should be under European domination, although, as Sir 
Sydney Olivier has pointed out, this is a consideration which, 
however true it may be, has never by itself caused any race to 
annex the territory of another or to assume its government 
(Olivier, White Capital and Coloured Labour, p. 136). It is 
a truth which looks suspiciously like hypocrisy, it is as old as 

162 president's address — section v. 

Aristotle ("Politics," Book I., ii.), and it has often assisted and 
served as a pretext; but, where there are no other inducements, 
the consideration of the duty which the civilized man feels, or 
affects to feel, for the uncivilized has, in the words of Sir Sydney, 
"been impotent as a colonizing force and has never effectuallv 
operated to induce any white Power to take up the white man's 

Tiro Waf/s in which Native Faces may he Regarded — (i) A^ 
the " LiviiHj TooU" of Other Men: (ii.) As Men in the Full Sense. 

Still, the white man's burden has been taken up pretty exten- 
sively, and there are few, if any, of these native races who are 
not under the white man's rule to-day; and the white man, 
therefore, is forced to assume! some definite attitude towards, 
them. Now, there are two ways in which these "natives" can 
be considered. They may be considered either as the "natural- 
born slaves" of Aristotle's "Politics" — ^men, indeed, but men 
whose function it is to be merely the "living tools" of other 
men ; or the.y may be regarded as men in the full sense of the 
word, as possessing rights of their own, and as entitled to be 
regarded not merely as a means to an end but as an eind in 
themselves. The former view is thousands of years old, and found 
its final and crudest expression in the decision of the Supreme 
Court of the United States in the Dred Scott case, that "the 
coloured man has no rights which a wdiite man is bound to 
respect." It is, in fact, part of the sophistry by which a nation, 
practising slav0ry and knowing \in its heart that slavery is 
wrong, endeavours to make peace with its conscience. In the 
Dred Scott decision the sophistry has practically disappeared, 
and unrelieved brutality has taken its place ; but in the older 
and more highly-civilized society of Greece one sees the struggle, 
one sees how Aristotle tries to justify slavery by an appeal to 
"phusis," and how he comforts himself with the smug reflection 
— so very unlike his usual style of thought — that it is really for 
the slave's good after all. 

I mh'nf iired f.ahniir. 

Of course, slavery is a thing of the past, but it has left 
behind it a rather near relative in the system of indentured 
labour ; and I do not think that it is an exaggeration to say 
that just as much hypocrisy has been displayed in defence of 
indentured labour as evefr was shown in support of slavery. 
Unfortunately, indentured labour is for the time being a 
necessity in some places — e.g., in New Guinea — but it is not an 
institution which any one who knows anything about it would 
care tO' perpetuate. Indentured labour goes far to keep- upi that 
feeling of arrogant and innate supeJriority which is really the 
basic idea of slavery, and which, I suppose, cannot die out so 

president's address — SECTION F. 163 

loug as colour is the badge which distinguishes master and servant, 
and so long as those economic relations continue which, it has 
been said, "obscure and distort the apprehension of more deeply 
human relations" (Olivier). 

It is probable that, as Lord Morley says, all mankind is becom- 
ing one people for economic purposes, the backward races taking 
the place of uu skilled labour, and, if so, the feeling which I have 
3iientioned is mere likely to be intensified than to disappear. 

GerriKiii View of Xative Races. 

It has been said, especially since the war, by those who have 
studied the subject, that the Germans in their colonies regarded 
the natives merely as a means of developing the resources of the 
country, and not as fellow men whose welfare should be promoted 
apart altogether from the economic advantages which are likely 
to C'Usue to the dominant race; and if you take this German 
view — which is, in fact, the^ old Aristotelian view of the natural- 
born slaves- — anthropology and ethnology can give you nO' assist- 
ance in your administration, because your administration, in 
that case, is based upon a denial of the principle on which those 
sciences are founded — -the principle, that is, of the ultimate 
unity of the human race. 

Bntish View. 

The British principle of native administration is, at any rate 
in theory, very different; and in British books dealing with 
such subjects you will find it laid down authoritatively that the 
welfare of a native race is either the first or, at any rate, one 
of the first objects of administration. This is regarded as a 
"truism" by Sir F. D. Lugard in his recent report on the 
amalgamation of Northern and Southern Nigeria, and the same 
principle has been laid down by the Commonwealth in relation 
to the Territory of Papua, and it is, I suppose, accepted and 
greeted with applause everywhere throughout the Empire, except 
in those countries where it is supposed to be carried into effect; 
for in those countries it is ]>robable that the theory will only be 
tolerated so long as no attempt is made to put it into practice. 

Now this attitude towards native races, which I may call the 
British attitude, may be quite wrong, and the true principle 
may be that which is reflected in the Dred Scott decision already 
mentioned, but it is the attitude to which the British adminis- 
tration is definitely committed, and I venture to hope that it is 
an attitude which will neven be abandoned, for it seems to me 
to be the only one that is worthy of a civilized nation. And 
further, and this is the point that is material for this paper, 
it is the only attitude that can be regarded as scientific or as 
in any way reconcilable with the principles of anthropology or 

164 president's address — section f. 

British View the Only One that can he Reconciled with 
Scientific A n thropology. 

For ethnology knows nothing of uatural-born slaves, of essen- 
tially superior races,' of Herrenvolk and Sklavenvolk. Scientific 
ethnology is unthinkable except upon the hypothesis that all man- 
kind is more or less closely related, and that what is true of one 
race at soine^ place and some time, past or present, may be equally 
true of another entirely different race at some other time or place. 
I do not intend to' embark upon a disquisition on monogenism and 
polygenism, nor upon the relation of mankind to' the lower 
animals; what I wish to assert is that the' value and even the 
possibility of anthropology in general, and ethnology in particular, 
depends upon the unity of the human race — not necessarily, I take 
it, upon unity of descent, but on unitt of spiritual and mental 
aspirations — and that every advance in these sciences affords addi- 
tioi]al evidence of this unity. 

Unity of the Human Race. 

To' the practical man, the busy man of affairs who prides 
himself upon his common sense and his freedom from humbug, 
the argument from the unity of man must appear to be the 
merest academic trifling. He is probably prepared to accept 
that hypothesis as he accepts, for instance, the dogma of the 
Incarnation, as something which he will admit to be true, but 
only on condition that it is deprived of all substance and reality ; 
and he would consider it as little less than an outrage if he 
were asked to draw from either of them an inferencei which 
could have the slightest effect upon the actions of his ordinary 
life. Ht would argue (if he condescended to argue at all) that 
whatever may have been the origin of mankind, however closely 
all men — black, white, yellow and red — may be related if you 
go far enough back, still, as a matter of present fact, they are 
obviously distinct — in colour, in appearance, in habits, in ways 
of thought, and in most other particulars that can be enumerated. 
We should reply that it was true that there were differences, 
but that they were as naught compared with the fact of our 
common humanity — in other words, we should say that what is 
common to all men is not merely more important, but is infinitely 
more important, than the accidents by which men differ. "To 
this, if he did not become speechless with rage at being compared 
with an adjective nigger, he would retort by accusing us of a 
vetitio 2>rincipii, inasmuch as it is the importance of this common 
humanity which is in dispute. 

And so the controversy would continue, but it would lead to no 
result, for both parties are in the right ; the practical man is 
absolutely right in objecting most strenuously to anything in 
the nature of a doctrinaire administration, and we are right 

president's address^section f. 165 

in insisting that administration should rest upon some solid 
basis of principle, not only in theory, but also in practice, and 
that in the^ case of British administration this principle is to be 
found in the unity of the human race. 

Now, if w€i have a real, practical belief in this unity, we shall 
look on native races in an entirely different way ; we shall no 
longer see in them a bundle of inexplicable eccentricities and 
contradictions, and we shall noi longer be prepared tO' dismiss 
them off-hand as "half devil and half child." We shall look 
upon them as men like ourselves, with similar passions, and 
probably with less self-restraint ; with the same feelings of love 
and hate, and often the same respect for justice and contempt 
for injustice. I have read that, of the many wrongs which 
the natives of South-West Africa had suffex'ed from the Germans, 
those' which they resented most arose from the fact that the 
same justice was not meted out to white and black alike, but 
that what in the white man was a mere peccadillo, became in 
the black man a most heinous crime. It must, I fear, be 
admitted that, as a matter of administration, it is practically 
impossible toi treat the' white man and the native alike even in 
a court of justice, for local public opinion, or prejudice, or 
whatever you likel to call it. will not permit such equality ; 
but an administrator who has a practical belief in the equality 
I have' mentioned — who, in a word, is a good anthropologist — 
will, at any rate, insist upon as much practical justice as he can 
get. He will not make the< German mistake of denying it 

Widesyread Idea tJiat the Native is not Really a Man. 
The idea that a black or brown man is not really a man like 
ourselves is probably more widespread than is generally believed, 
and it is probably responsible for many of the worst outrages 
which have been committed not only by white men upon black, 
but also by black upon white — and especially upon white women. 
Ir: its most harmless form it is found disguised, in the shape 
of a theory that the native is a child and must be treated as a 
child. Of course, there is an analogy between a native and a 
child, but there are many false analogies, and, though this 
particular analogy does not lead to any very dreadful conclusions 
(since one does not, for instance, starve or torture a child), 
still it appears to me to be, logically, as false as any of them. 
When I have come across this analogy it has generally been used 
ai: a justification for corporal punishment ; the native is a child, 
it is argued, and when he offends he should be punished as a 
child — which, in effect, means that the native should be punished 
by a flogging administered without trial and at the caprice of 
the man against whom the offence, real or imaginary, was com- 
mitted. On the other hand, if the native does something wrong, 
and asks to be forgiven as a child is forgiven, the analogy would 

166 president's address — section f. 

probably be forgotten ; many setntentious platitudes would be 
uttered about the necessity of setting an example and keeping 
the native in his place, but it is likely that the pardon would be 

The truth, of course, is that the native is a man, and not a 
child; he has a man's passions and a man's power tO' hate and 
love, but he is a very ignorant man, and he is a man whose 
customs and ways of thought are strange to us, even in the rare 
instances in which we try to understand them. And if we must 
use the method of analogy we should argue not from the child, 
but from the peasant, for, to quote Mr. Marett, it is the 
peasant who "is the true middle term of the anthropological 
cyllogism" (^" Psychology and FoIL-lore," p'. 19). 

" Direct" and "Indirect " Methods of Administration. 

Now, therei are twO' methods of governing these native races. One 
is toi abolish all native customs and institutions of ©very kind, and 
to introduce European customs and institutions in their place; 
and the other is to conserve such of these customs as appear to be 
useful or even harmless, and to make use of them, so far as may 
be, as an instrument of good government. These methods have 
been distinguished as the direct and the indirect method respec- 
tively; the French, I believe, have favoured the former, and the 
British, as a rule, the latter. Of course, neither method is exclu- 
sive, and, equally, of course, their comparative merits have been 
the subject of controversy. 

Instances of Direct and Indirect Methods. 

Perhaps the practical difference between these two methods can 
be best illustrated by actual instances, so I will give an instance 
of direct administration, taken from Miss Kingsley's Travels in 
West Africa, and another of the indirect method from our own 
administration of Papua. 

Miss Kingsley tells us of a black man called Joseph, in the 
French Congo, who applied for a permit, or something of the sort, 
and was cross-examined by the French officials as to the name of 
his father. It appears that nobody cm the West Coast reckons 
descent otherwise than through the mother, and Joseph did not 
know, and had never had occasion to inquire into, the identitv 

of his father if he did know who he was he would take no interest 

in him, for each would regard the other as a stranger; and the 
point ol Miss Kingsley's story is the insistence with which the 
French regulations, made for a different race with different rules 
of descent were applied to a people to whom paternal descent was 
unknown.' {Vide Hartland Primitive Paternity, vol. i., p. 263.) 

This I consider tO' be an extreme instance of the direct method ; 
and the other, which I take from Papua, is perhaps an extreme 
instance of the indirect. It occurred when the small-pox scare 
arose, some seven or eight years ago. 

president's address — SECTION F. 167 

It was necessary to have the natives vaccinated, and it was 
highly desirable, for many reasons, that it should be done with 
their consent. At the same time our natives have usually a great 
horror of the icnife or anything which suggests it, and, further, it 
was' tO' be expected that, even though the first few might submit 
willingly enough, the pain and sickness which normally ensue on 
vaccination would make the process vastly unpopular with the 
remainder. We wanted, therefore, to put some view before them 
which would give an adequate explanation of the reason for 
vaccination, and which would also recommend it to their favorable 
consideration. So we told them that there was a very dangerous 
and powerful sorcerer in the West — that was the quarter froan 
which the small-pox was expected — and that this sorcerer had 
conjured up a very bad sickness which might come along at any 
moment. But, though the sorcerer was strong, the Government 
was stronger, and would protect all who claimed its protection. 
A mark would be put on the arm of all those who trusted them- 
selves to the Government ; the sorcerer when he came would see 
the Government mark, would realizei that he was powerless, and 
would retire foiled and baffled to his home in the West. But for 
those who would not receive the mark the Government could, of 
course, do nothing. 

I have called this an extreme instance of the indirect method, 
because we worked through the natives' belief in sorcery, which, 
a? a matter of fact, we are doing our best to extirpate; but I still 
think that we were right, for we were^ really doing no more than 
translate the theory of vaccination into a language that a Stone 
Age savage could understand. Anyhow, whether we were right 
or wrong, we were successful beyond our wildest dreams — the 
" Government mark " became hugely popular, uot only medically, 
but socially, and to be without the mark was to confess oneself the 
veriest outsider. Fortunately, the sorcerer of the West did not 
come; but if he had come we were ready for him. 

I admit that I have purposely chosen instances in which the 
direct method appears rather at a disadvantage, but it is probable 
that the other — that is, the British, or indirect, method — really 
i's thei better way of dealing with natives, if only for the reason 
that it is less " cast iron " and is more capable of adjustment to 
meet the circumstances cf any individual case. 

Anihrnpology of Service onhj where the Indirect Method is 


Clearly, if you are going to abolish native customs altogether, 
i'o is of no practical value to try to understand them, since in any 
event they have to go ; consequently, anthropological study is of 
little value where the direct method has been adopted. Where the 
other, or British, policy is followed it may, in my opinion, be of 
the very greatest assistance, since, obviously, you cannot decide 

168 president's address — section f. 

which customs you should preserve, and which you should abolish, 
unless you are in a position to form some idea of what customs 
there are, what is their real nature, and how far they extend. 

This seems an obvious truism, but it is a strange thing that, 
though I have read, I suppose, without exaggeration, scores of 
criticisms, mostly very hostile, of my administration in Papua, I 
have never, I think, seen one that betrayed the slightest conscious- 
ness even of the existence oif such a problem as I have indicated. 

Interdependence of Ideas Among Scuuige Races — Result of 
Interdependence — Head -hunting — Cannihalisni. 

In dealing with native' customs it must be remembered that, 
among savage races, the different departments of thought and 
action are not clearly distinguished as with us ; even among our- 
selves the interdependence of ideas is greater than appears on the 
surface, but we do keep our ideas and our customs in more or less 
water-tight compartments, and we can change one set of opinions 
without altering others — for instance, we can change our politics 
without changing our religion, while a savage cannot do anything 
of the kind. His ideas are. as is to be expected, less highly 
specialized — they are all interwoven and jumbled up together — 
so that, in suppressing a practice which seems to you simply silly 
and useless, you are at the same time perhaps affecting a dozen 
other practices which may be in many ways desirable. Of course, 
there are some things that must be suppressed, whatever the result 
may be — as, for instance, head-hunting. This is a custom which 
the most sympathetic administrator could net be expected to pre- 
serve, however great his devotion to the science of anthropology, 
though in its suppression he will probably influence all sorts of other 
things of which he knows nothing. In such a case as this, he must 
take the risk, and perhaps the best thing he can do is to induce 
the head-hunters to substitute a pig's head for that of a human 
being, or to persuade them, as I think has been done in Borneo, 
to put up with old heads and to make believe that they are new. 
So with cannibalism. If you tell a cannibal that he must not eat 
human flesh, he will probably reply, " Why not?" — a question 
to which I myself have never been able to find an answer, except 
the rather unsatisfactory one, " Because you mustn't." You can, 
however, get them to give up the practice without so much diffi- 
culty as one might imagine. Savages are just as great snobs as we 
are; and if you appeal to their snobbery yom can get them to do 
a great deal. So. if you can get it into their heads that canni- 
balism is not good form, and is rather looked down upon by the 
" nicest " people of Papua, and that a cannibal can hardly be 
received in 'the best villages, they will give it up quickly enough. 
At least, that was our experience in the country of Namau, m the 
Purari Delta; they gave up cannibalism and, so far as we could 
see, substituted a pig for the human body. 

president's address — SECTION F. 169 

Collection of Skulls in- Namau. 

The people of Namau were alsoi head-hunters as well as canni- 
bals (the two do not always go together), and their ravi or large 
ni^n's houses, were festooned with innumerable skulls; and the 
removal of these skulls was necessary to the eventual suppression 
of head-hunting. Not all these skulls were the skulls of enemies — 
many were the skulls of friends and relations ; but all had to go, 
so that in putting down a crime we were also suppressing a quite 
unobjectionable funeral rite. Fortunately, no harm appears to 
have resulted ; and, in any case, head-hunting must stop. 

PiircJiase of Land. 

Particularly in buying land from natives it is necessary to 
have at least some rudimentary knoAvledge of native custom. The 
practical man, who will stand no nonsense, probably solves this 
difficulty, and, inore suo, creates a hundred others, by simply 
declaring all native-owned land to be Crown land ; but, if we have 
any regard for the traditions of British justice, we shall probably 
try, whatever the precise details of our land policy may be, to 
inflict as little hardship as possible upon the native owners, and 
to do this we must have some general idea of the form of land 
tenure in different parts of the Territory. Many years ago some 
person who had the interests of the Papuans at heart, and who 
had persuaded himself that they were being robbed of their lands, 
asked that a special Board should be appointed to hear any com- 
plaints which might be raised by native owners in connexion with 
land purchase; the Board was .appointed, but it has never met, 
for the reason that the few mistakes that were made were easily 
corrected, and that no injustice has been alleged. 

Best nu-f ion of Sacred Tree — Policeman Ordered to Shoot his 


It would be easy to give individual instances where ignorance 
or neglect of native customs has caiised unnecessary, and sometimes 
rather serious, trouble. A friend of mine — a humane man, and 
one who had exceptional consideration for natives — told me that 
he was once besieged for several days by a horde of cannibals 
whom he had offended because in his clearing operations he had 
unwittingly destroyed a sacred tree; he was the last man in the 
world to destroy anything that any one considered sacred, but 
there was nothing to distinguish this tree from others, and it had 
simply gone with the rest. Less serious in its results was the 
rather thoughtless action of a Government officer who told a 
police-man to shoot soane birds to make soup for a sick colleague. 
The birds (they were black cockatoos if I remember aright) were 
the totem of the policeman, and he might not take their life; so 
he was placed in a very terrible dilemma, for on one side was his 
clear duty to obey orders, and on the other was the life-long 

170 president's address — SECTION F. 

txadition that forbade him to do so. Eveutually, if I may para- 
phrase a well-known passage of Gibbon, he sighed as a member of 
the cockatoo totem, but obeyed as a policeman ; he shot the birds, 
but I am told that h© spent the night weeping in an agony of fear 
and remorse. We are inclined to laugh at him in our . superior 
way, but his grief was quite sincere. 

Idol (iu<] JJnnii in I'lirari Dcltd. 

There must be innumerable ways in which even the most care- 
ful man offends native feelings, and I am afraid that the ordinary 
white man is not particularly careful in this regard. Perhaps 
the British white man is no worse than the others, although those 
who have seen British tourists on the Continent of Europe may be 
inclined to be less hopeful. And there are really most unexpected 
]ntfalls, into^ some of which we all of us, I suppose, occasionally 
fall. I remember once in the Purari Delta noticing a thiiig in the 
men's house, or ravi, that looked like an idol; I offered to buy it, 
and the chief (there are two for each ravi, one for either side) 
said, courteously enough, " Of course, if you want it you can have 
it; but if you take it away we shall all be very ill." I asked him 
why, but he could not or would not tell. 

In the same ravi there were a number of drums, and some of 
us were idly tapping them as we went along ; but when we came 
to- one of them (it looked exactly like the others) we were politely 
lequested not to touch it. " If you do," said the chief, " we shall 
all die." 

Rni/uualc'r Ainonrj the Nuhas. 

A better instance than any of these is that given in a book • 
called Science and the Nation, edited by the Master of Downing 
College, Cambridge. The last chapter of this book is called " The 
Government of Subject Peoples"; it is written by Dr. Rivers, 
and the instance to which I have referred is given to illustrate 
what the author calls " the religious or magical aspects of chief- 
tainship." " Among the Nubas of Southern Kordofan," says Dr. 
Rivers, " the chief is also the rainmaker, and it is believed that 
his rain-making powers will come to an end if he leaves the hill 
upon which he and his people dwell. Formerly, when an official 
wished to deal with a community of the Nubas, he camped at the 
foot of their hill, and sent for the chief, thus forcing the people 
to choose between disobedience to their foreign rulers and the loss 
of supernatural powers which they believe to be essential to their 
welfare. Placed in such a dilemma, it is not surprising that they 
have preferred to offend the temporal powers, thus bringing 
immediate disaster on themselves and serious trouble and e'xpens© 
to their rulers. With knowledge of the fact that the chief is a 
rainmaker who must not leave his hill, it would have been easy 
for the official eitlier to visit the hill himself or use- some other 


Doiirahle to .1 r<uil Ddinjiruus Giuiiiid — RdK/ioii — Sames. 

Now it is obviously impossible for any one to know all the 
sacied trees, all the drums that may not be beaten, and all the 
old' men whoi must not come down from a, hill ; the most that one 
can hope for is to gain a general idea of when one is likely to be 
treading on dangerous ground. For instance, anything connected 
with religion is very dangerous indeed, and we certainly ought to' 
have known better than to have attempted to touch the drum in 
the land of Namau. So it is practically a universal rule that any- 
thing to do' with uttering a name is ticklish work. "A name," as 
Mr. Hartland says, "is an essential part of its owner It is much 
more than a mere label ; it is looked upon as having a real objective 
existence. The knowledge of the name gives power over the person 
or thing designated" (Frimitivt Paterrntij, vol. i., p. 223). Often 
the man will not give his own name, or the name of certain of his 
relations ; but sometimes, like the man who shot the black cockatoo, 
he finds himself placed in a position from -which there is no escape, 
as, for instance, when a man joins the police and has to give his 
name for entry on his record of service. In such a case he often 
adopts the subterfuge of getting another man to give his name 
for him. 

Uchif loiixh] p — L(tii(iii<t(ie . 

Relationship is also a subject which is a fertile source of error, 
for the native classification is entirely different from ours ; and 
then there is the subject of language, with the question whether 
it is better that the European officers should learn a native 
language or that the natives should learn English. The decision 
of this question depends, to my mind, entirely upon what kind of 
a language thei native language is. For instance, if the native 
language were Malay I should say, " Make the European officers 
learn Malay," but in the case of Papuan languages I should say. 
" Teach the Papuans English." I admit that it is much easier 
toi take a good and fairly sim]>le language, as, for instance, the 
Motu language of Port Moresby, and to insist that this shall be 
used as a means of communication, than it is to attempt to teach 
the natives English ; 'and in the transition stage which we are 
going through at present in Papua it is being brought home to us 
every day that things would be much easier if Motu were the' com- 
mon language. Motu is the native language of only a few villages, 
but, in a debased form, it is easily learned by others, very easily 
indeed by those whose native language is, like Motu, Melanesian 
■ — much more easily than English, even the horrible pidgin English 
which forms the lingua franca of the former German New Guinea. 

During the present period of transition all the arguments seem 
to' be on thei side of making Motu the common language, but, as a 
matter of administration, I am convinced that, looking at the 
future as well as the present, we did right in electing to keep to 

172 president's address — section f. 

English. We came to this conclusion som© time ago in Papua, 
and I was glad to see that the principle on which we acted was 
confirmed by so' distinguished an anthropologist as the Reade'r in 
Social Anthropology at Oxford, in his little book in the Home 
University series (p. 151). 

y alive I 'st/ r ]) oh) iji/ . 

Dr. Rivers, in his book I have already mentioned, expresses his 
opinion that " it is not necessary to dwell upon the value to a 
ruler of a knowledge of the psychology of the people he is called 
upon to govern " ; it certainly is not neceissary to do^ so in address- 
ing an audience like the present, and it ought not to be necessary 
to do so under any circumstances, for it should be oKvious to any 
one that, if you are to govern a people justly and efficiently, the 
more you know about them the better. Unfortunately, however, 
it is a fact that, far from being obvious, this consideration never 
occurs to the majority of those who write and talk about native 
administration, and I take it that a knowledge of native 
psychology is about the last qualification which the man in the 
street, or the average elector, would ever seek in an administrator. 

" Thinlitig lilark " /.s^ a (riff. 

And perhaps the man in the street is not altogether to blame ; 
perhaps he realizes that we know little of the psychology of native 
races, and that what knowledge we have is largely intuitive and 
confined to but a few individuals. Eventually, perhaps, we may 
learn how to acquire this knowledge in the ordinary way, and to 
impart it to one another ; and its practical value may then be made 
more obvious. But at present the art of " thinking black " is a 
gift, and a very rare one. 

Lessons from the Central Cuiirt for Papua — Apparent Insufficiency 

of Motive. 

Such opportunities as I have had of studying native psychology 
have come toi me in connexion with the trial of cases in the Central 
Court of Papua, and, as I can not pretend to possess the gift 
which I have mentioned, I must confess that I have not formed 
any conclusions which are likely to be of great value. But I have 
at least seen enough to enable me to realize how valuabe a know- 
ledge of the subject must be, and how great an assistance in 
administration. One must, of course, take certain precautions; 
one has to see that every one concerned, witnesses, prisoners, 
interpreters, and so forth, get rid of all fear and nervousness, and, 
above all, one must make them forget that horrible desire to please 
which stultifies so much of what they say. This, of course, is part 
of the ordinary duty of any magistrate or Judge who has to try 
native cases, and when one has cleared the air of all unnecessary 
complications introduced by courtesy, timidity, and other influ- 

president's address — SECTION F. 173 

ences, and has got down to the bed rock of reality, one finds 
oneself occasionally in rather strange surroundings. The most dis- 
concerting thing about it all is the appalling candour and truth- 
fulness of all concerned, and the utterly insufficient grounds on 
which they sometimes act. "It is the New Guinea custom, sir," 
said the Coui-t interpreter to me in. the first case I tried in Papua. 
He was a highly-civilized man for a Papuan ; he spoke English 
well — not pidgin English — and he could read and write. I had 
asked him why some man, who had absolutey no connexion with 
the matter in dispute, had joined in committing a murder. " It 
is the New Guinea custom, sir," he replied ; " if a man asks you to 
join him in killing another man you cannot refuse." " But," I 
objected, " if some onei asked you to come and kill a man, surely 
you would not go?" "Yes, sir," was the reply, ^'I should cer- 
tainly go if he asked me." This " New Guinea custom " is dying 
out, of course, but we could make it die out very much quicker 
if we knew the reason that lies behind it. The interpreter almost 
certainly did not know, and could only say that it was a custom 
that had been handed down from his ancestors ; but anthropology 
might be able to divine the cause and to help in its removal. 

Murders hi/ the Koid'i Trihc. 

Some murders which have been committed in thei neighbour- 
hood of Port Moresby in recent years have brought home to me 
how little we know about the Papuan, and how desirable it is that 
we should know more. There ar& some people at the' back of Port 
Moresby who are called Koiari ; they are essentially an inland 
people, though they come down, in places, to within a few miles 
of the coast. The Koiari language is Papuan, not Melanesian, and 
extends, with dialectical variations, across the main range and as 
far as Mount Scratchley. Government patrols going through the 
Koiari district have for years past met with no opposition, but 
the Koiari themseves, though they occasionally work for a white 
man, and even join the police, have been little influenced by 

The Heera. 

Murders among these people are frequent, and present certain 
peculiar characteristics. The vast majority of murders elsewhere 
are committed for the purpose of "paying back" for some pre- 
vious murder, but with the Koiari this motive, though it exists, 
seems to have less influence. Sometimes it is what I suppose may 
be called a ritual murder, but at other times it is connected with 
the right to wear what the Motu people call Heera — that is, the 
feathers and other ornaments which are the insignia ol one who 
has killed a man. This, of course, is clear enough, so far — we have 
the same thing ourselves on a less barbaric system — and it is com- 
mon enough elsewhere in Papua; but elsewhere, soi far as I am 

174 president's address — section f. 

awai"e, although a man may be anxious to win the glory and the 
ornaments of the homicide, still he will only (except in a personal 
quarrel) kill outside his village, and usually his object is to pay 
back for one of his own tribe. 

But the Koiari will kill any one and anywhere ; they do not 
kill SO' readily now, because they are invariably caught and hanged 
or sentenced to a long term of imprisonment, but, still, murders 
are not rare among them even now. It is generally assumed that 
the idea which is at the root of the Heera (as in our own system 
of decoratioais) either personal prowess or service to the tribe ; 
but I have known the Heeira to be bestowed upon a little boy who 
had killed his baby sister (appeasing the anger of their mother by 
the gift of a pig), and upon a child who had done nothing more 
than 2>lace two fingers upon another child who was dying. The 
child was dying a natural death — he had a snake inside him, I 
was told, which means that he was ill — and there was no sugges- 
tion that the other child had anything to do with it. It is possible 
that prowess or service was the original idea of the Heera, but 
that the system has degenerated, so that the original meaning has 
been obscured ; but it is also Dossible that th© original idea may 
have been something quite different, and may have extended to 
any close connexion with death, irrespective of the cause of death, 
and irrespective of whether the dead man was a friend or an 
enemy. In any case, I cannot help thinking that there is some- 
thing behind it all which we do not understand, and which patient 
and skilled research might enable us to discover. 

Importance of Discovering the Origin of A pparentit/ Meaningless 


It has been said that the study of anthropology induces a belief 
that there was a time when the whole of mankind was mad, and 
certainly many of the native customs which one finds in Papua 
are hard to reconcile with any degree of sanity. Yet the people 
who practise these customs are, in fact, quite sane. They go about 
their business in the ordinary way, they make their gardens, build 
their houses, and look after their children, just like any one else; 
and the point which I think we ought to realize more clearly than 
we generally do is that it is our duty to find out, so far as we can, 
the motive of these' mad customs, for, unless we do, we can never 
understand the inner life of the people who practise them, and 
our progress in raising these p'eople to a higher and more whole- 
some ideal will be all the slower. The customs may die out in 
time, as many native customs do, but the mode of thought, or 
mentality, or whatever you like to call it, of which the custom was 
a symptom, may remain, and we can hardly take effective steps to 
modify that mode of thought unless we know what it really is. 

president's' address — SECTION F. 175 

" Roasting Saijo." 

Sometimes one finds a phrase, a form of expression, which to 
the older men bears a meaning of which the younger men know 
nothing. 1 lememher an instance of this which I thought rather 
interesting, and which came to my notice in a case I tried at Port 
Moresby. It was, of course, a murder case- — they nearly all are 
in our country — and I suppose the murder might be called a ritual 
murder. There was a custom which allowed you, if you built a new 
house, to paint the posts red, with a mixture of cocoanut oil and 
clay, but only if you had killed a man. A prominent native had 
built a house, and wanted to kill a man, so he sent round a 
message to his acquaintances inviting them to assist — a little cour- 
tesy which, of course, they could not, by Papuan etiquette, refuse. 
The manner of his invitation was to ask them to come and " roast 
some sago," the recognised periphrasis, apparently, for killing a 
man ; and what I thought was interesting was that the old men 
who got the message knew what it meant, whereas the younger 
men did not. Thus two) men in Gaseri village received the invita- 
tion, and both went, one of them a middle-aged man, the other 
a youth. "Why have you not brought your ckib?" asked the 
older man, when the two had gone some distance. " Why should 
I?" said the other, " we are only going to roast some sago." 
" Go back and get it," was the reply, " you will find that you will 
want it." So, in an evil moment, he went back, and got his club; 
he found that he did want it, and he used it, and was arrested, 
and, though he escaped the gallows, he is, I think, still m gaol. 
For it was a white man who was*killed, and where there is but a 
handful of Europeans among a large number of natives a white 
man's life must be held very sacred. 

Now, if we had had enough knowledge to enable us to modify 
the ritual and substitute some other animal for the man who was 
killed, we could have prevented this murder, just as many murders 
have been prevented in the Gulf of Papua by the substitution of 
the pig. The practice of painting the house, so far as I know, has 
long since died cut, and the phrase about "roasting sago" is 
]n-obably forgotten. I should like to know its origin, but I never 

Ignoranrc of Natives of the Meaning of their Customs. 

Occasionally the custom seems to be merely grotesque and to 
be incapable of any serious motive or meaning. I say " seems " 
advisedly, because all these queer practices must have had some 
motive at some time or other, though the motive may not be of 
the kind which we should call rational, and may rather be con- 
nected with the processes which originate from what, it appears, 
is called by psychologists the " collective unconscious," and which, 
to quote Mr. Marett once more, " seem to set the logic of pur- 
posive life at defiance " (Marett, Psi/chologi/ and Folklore, p. 

176 president's address — section f. 

127). ■ Hence it comes that in many cases the meaning is not, and, 
perhaps, never has been, clearly undei stood ; natives tell you that 
they do these things because their grandfathers did them, and 
leave it at that It may be that in some cases they know more 
than they admit, and that the reason that they disclaim all know- 
ledge is that they do not like, any more than we do, to discuss 
the mysteries of their religion with unsympathetic strangers, of 
atrocious manners, who^ will jDTobably laugh at them; but as a rule 
I think tTiat they really do not know. And it is, perhaps, not 
merely that the tradition has been forgotten ; it is quite probable 
that in some cases the ancestors by whom the cult or custom was 
originated could not explain it either, for I suppose it could rarely, 
if ever, have originated in anything like the clear-cut expression 
of a definite idea. As Mr. James points out in his Fviviii'ive 
li'itiud and Belief (pp. 5, 224), the primitve mind is incapable 
of grasping the abstract thought to any appreciable extent ; the 
savage is a ceremonialist, not a dogmatic theologian. Religion to 
him is a matter of practice, not of theory — a thing, in other words 
to live out rather than to think out ; and it may be that in many 
cases the ritual came first and that the interpretation, where there 
is one, came afterwards. 

Arfip'riedit// of Savue/e Life — T)r. Bivers in " Seience and the 

X at ion." 

Now, it may be argued that, by this admission, I am giving 
away the whole of my case ; if the native does not know why a 
man must be killed when a house is built or a canoe is launched, 
if he does not know why the old man must not come down from 
the hill, or why the drum must not be beaten, it may be contended 
that these practices or prohibitions must remain only as isolated 
facts in his life, which can be removed without influencing in any 
way the remainder of his scheme of existence. But, in fact, one 
does not find that this is so in the case of a savage, though 
it may be true enough of civilized man. Savage life is 
intensely artificial, it is pervaded throughout by conven- 
tions of every kind ; and thoiigh none of those who are 
bound by these conventions know anything of their origin, 
any mere than we know the origin of the conventions which 
bind us, still, experience shows that they are so inextricably 
bound together that the removal of one apparently isolated custom 
may shake the v>'^hole foundation. For, to quote Dr. Rivers again 
in Science and the Nation, " We know that the disintegrating 
influence of European settlements becomes the greater the lower 
we go in the scale of culture, and it is largely through the greater 
interdependence of the different aspects of social life that this 
effect is produced." Dr. Rivers then mentions the instance uf 
head-hunting, and continues, "Similarly, one who abolishes secret 
societies because he holds them to be ' hot-beds of superstition ' 

president's address — SECTION F. 177 

will produce effects he had never anticipateed if, as is often the 
case, these societies provide the basis of the whole economic system 
of the people and embody religious practices of the utmost 
importance to their material and moral welfare." 

Custom of Caunihala of the Purari Delta. 

It m^ust, however, be admitted that some of the practices one 
finds are so utterly senseless that one can hardly imagine that they 
ever had any real meaning. For instance, in the Purari Delta 
and in many other districts it was the custom not to eat the man 
you had killed — your friends ate him. and you ate the man your 
friend had killed. However, on the Purari there were certain 
conditions under which you might break through this rule, but the 
ritual was rather strict. You had to sit on a cocoanut (in itself 
not an easy task) with a cocoanut under each heel (a still more 
difficult thing) ; and, while so seated, you might get your daughter 
to boil the man's heart, and then you might drink the water in 
which the heart was boiled, and even eat a little of the heart itself 
— but you must be seated on the cocoanut all the time. It is a 
difficult act of faith to believe that this particular custom ever had 
any meaning; but, at any rate, whatever its meaning may have 
been, it was not a custom to encourage, so it had to go, and it 
went. But perhaps, if we knew the life of the Purari people 
more intimately, we should see that a lot of other things, good, 
bad, and indifferent, went with it. 

The Xob() House. 

Then there vas the rather mysterious custom of the Nobo 
house, which came to light in connexion with the murder of a 
village constable called Papia, in the Boboi District, at the back 
of Mekeo. Papia belonged to oiie of the villages in the plain, and 
had gone to a dance in the Boboi Mountains, where he was killed 
and eaten. When the officer in charge of the police arrived at the 
village where the murder had been committed, he noticed the 
charred remains of a house ^.t some distance frcn\ the other houses, 
and asked what it was. " Oh," said the villagers, " that was a 
Noboi house." " It seems to have been burnt down," said the 
officer. " Of course," was the reply; " we always burn down the 
Nobo house." " Well, what is a Nobo bouse?" he asked, and the 
matter was then explained to him. The Nobo house, it appears, 
is always built at some little distance from the village, and is used 
as a trap for unwary strangers — in this particular instance, for 
Papia. Papia. the culprits told me afterwards, " was a fat man 
with a light skin, and we wanted to eat him too much," so, when 
the conversation had turned upon the recent dance and upon 
feathers, and plumes, and other ornaments, one of the Boboi 
casually remarked that there were some very fine feathers in the 
Nobo house, and that if Papia would walk over there he would 
show them to him. The unsuspecting village constable fell in 

178 president's address — section r. 

with the sug[ge§tion, and entered the Nobo house, and was 
promptly killed, cooked, and eaten; the Nobo house was then 
burnt down, and a fresh one built in another place. Why they 
should take the trouble of enticing the man to the Nobo house 
instead^ of killing him out of hand was the point which one could 
not understand, and it was just the point which they could not 

At the trial the witnesses repeated the account which had been 
given to the arresting officer, and added that occasionally, I pre- 
sume when there was a dearth of visitors, they succeeded in 
inducing some of their own village people to enter the fatal house. 
This seemed to me the most surprising thing of all, for, though it 
might be possible to entrajo- an unsuspicious stranger, I could not 
understand how a native^ of the village, who, of course, would 
know exactly what the house was built for, could ever be got inside 
it; but the only explanation I could get was, "Suppose we say, 
' More better you go along Nobo house,' he gO' all right." 

DifficuJty of F'itt'in<j in Xative Customs with E uropean Ideas. 

It is, of course, easy to enumerate' the strange customs that one 
has met with, but it is very rarely that one can understand these 
practices of the Stone Age and modify them in such a way as to 
make them fit in with what has been called the^ "European epoch 
of the human mind" ; though it seems clear that this line of 
investigation must in future play a very important part in the 
government of native races, however much it may have been 
neglected in the past. The difficulties, however, are very great. 
My experience in- Papua is that if a native gives you a reason for 
any custom or belief you may be pretty sure that he has just made 
it up, and that, in fact, he does not know, but does not like to 
admit his ignorance; and, consequently, you find yourself reduced 
toi conjecture, which can only be verified and checked by enormous 
patience and industry. 

Difficult)/ 0/ Gra><'inn<i the Real Meaning of What a Native Tellx 
You; C Oliver sat 1071 with a Cassovar//. 
It is SO' difficult, too, sometimes, toi know w^hat a native means. 
When a witness gives you, for instance, an account of a conversa- 
tion which hei has had with a cassowary iii the bush, and adds 
that he has always found a cassowary to tell the truth, it is really 
quite impossible to know what he means. One may say that he is 
mad, but the man I am thinking of most certainly was not mad, or 
vou may say that his concept of personality is fluid (vide Hartland's 
Ritual and BtHef, p. 30), and that he'^ thinks that a man can 
change into a cassowary and a cassowary into a man without much 
difficulty; but. as a matter of fact, he does not think anything of 
the sort, and if he saw a man turn into a cassowary he would be 
just as amazed as you or I. Probably the man in question knew 
perfectlv well that he had never had a conversation with a cassowary 

president's address. — SECTION F. 179 

wary at all, and perhaps he never imagined that I would be foolish 
enough to think that he really meant that he had — he may have 
meant something quite different, but I do not know what it was. 

Many Inquiries Abortive. 
This, I fear, has been the end of many such inquiries ; they so 
often result in nothing. I remember once taking some trouble to 
investigatei the action of a man whose wife had been murdered, 
and who summoned the neighbouring villages to " pay back " for 
her death by cutting off her hair and sending it round to them. 
The effect was magical ; avengei's simply swarmed to his assistance. 
But when I M'anted to inquire into the meaning of what he did, 
and why he did it, T came full tilt against the inevitable brick 
wall. " We don't know why he did it," said the witnesses; " we 
think it must have been because he was a fool." And probably 
they thoiught me a still greater fool for troubling to inquire. 

Anthropology has not yet been of Much Practical Assistance 
in Administration. 
On the whole, I must, I suppose, admit that anthropology, so 
far, has not played an important part in administration, and I 
am, I think, fully aware of the many difficulties that must be sur- 
mounted before this science can come into its own as a practical 
guide to the government of subject races. It has, of course, often 
happened that an officer stationed in so'me unsettled district has 
had a taste for anthropology, and in that case, if the charms of 
this particular branch of learning do not cause him to neglect his 
other duties, his services will be all the more valuable ; but there 
are dangers before him — there are lions in the path. The greatest 
danger is that he may become an unpractical doctrinaire — in other 
words, a prig; and a prig, as the governor of uncivilized races, is 
frankly impossible. Or, avoiding the Scylla of priggishness, he 
may fall into the Charybdis of inexactitude, and cease toi be scien- 
tific altogether. And the temptation to be inexact in such matters 
is almost irresistible. You see, it is so easy. Yon are probably 
one of a very small number who know anything about the country 
in which you are stationed, so that you can practically say any- 
thing you like without much fear of contradiction — and, if you 
are contradicted, is not your word as good as another's? Thus, 
you are likely to weary of thei careful collection of data, to 
generalize too quickly, and to jump at conclusions with results 
that may be quite the reverse of what you intend. 

Jjut is Likely to be of the Greatest Assistance in the Future when 
Initial Difficulties have been Overcome. 
Still, in spite of all difficulties, and in spite of the fact that 
my own attempts to find an anthropological basis for my adminis- 
tration have often had but small result, I entertain no doubt 
whatever that administrators of the future will derive more and 
more advantage from enconraging the study of anthropology, either 
1084.— 15 

180 president's address. — SECTION F. 

by the appointment of specialists whose sole duty it will be to 
investigate these questions, or by encouraging the study of anthro- 
pology generally among Government officei-s. In Papua we have 
been fortunate in securing the services of Dr. Strong, who is not 
only well-known as a general anthropologist, but has made a 
special study of the languages of Papua, and was for many years 
a magistrate in the Papuan Service. 

In conclusion, I may be allowed to quote a passage from a 
pamphlet which I wrote a few months ago, called Review of the 
Australian Administration in Papua. 

" It is clear," I said, "that the Papuan cannot remain as he 
is ; he must move along the path of civilization unless he is to die 
out altogether, and we believe that the path I have indicated is 
the safest and surest for him to follow. I do not think myself 
that argument and moral suasion have very much influence on a 
people at so low a stage of evolution ; there must always be the 
power toi compel, behind the exhortation and advice — a power 
which, perhaps, need rarely be exercised, but which must be there 
all the time. And for this reason the advance must be made under 
the sanction of Ordinances and Regulations which provide a 
penalty for disobedience. Still, progress will be more willing, and 
consequently more rapid, if the Papuan understands and concurs 
in what we are doing, and fov this reason a knowledge! of Papuan 
manners and customs and Papuan mentality generally is very 
desirable in those who undertake this task. 

' ' The capacity of ' thinking black ' or ' brown ' is possessed by 
few, for this is an art which, it is said, ' requires more sympathy 
and insight than is given to most men.' It is an art, however, 
which is very necessary in dealing with native races, for there is 
always the danger that they may imagine that some policy, which 
has been adopted for their benefit, is really a device for their 
undoing; and there is also the danger that an officer, with the very 
best intention in the world, may deeply incense native feeling 
against him by a quite unconscious offence against some tribal 
tradition. The best remedy against such mistakes as these is to 
be found in a study (even a fragmentary and unsysteTnatic study) 
of the science of anthropology, so long as the student does not 
allow the charms of that science tO' prevail over the claims of duty. 
And it is partly to encourage this study among our officers, and 
partly to assist the Government more directly, that arrangeatnents 
are being made for the appointment of an officer to b© Govern- 
ment Anthropologist. 

" Incidentally, such an officer will be ol assistance in collect- 
ing the various objects of interest which are generally passing out 
of use in the native villages, but this will not be his chief value. 
His chief value will be to help us in reconciling an intelligent, 
though very backward, race to the inevitablei march of civilization, 
and in finding "the easiest way for its advance." 

president's address. — SECTION G. 181 




G. H. Knibbs, C.M.G., Hon. F.S.S., etc., 

Commonwealth Statistician. 


1. Singular importance at presej^it tim€' of statistical and econoi- 

mic studies. 

2. Range of studies of special urgency. 

3. Difficulties which are >jnminent . 

4. International homogeneity and rate of natural increase. 

5. Rate of exploitation cf natural resources. 

6. Possibilities of food supply, and of water supply for cities. 

7. Statistics and the conflict of national interests. 

8. The British Empire Statistical Conference. 

9. Proposal to establish a British Empire Bureau of Statistics. 

10. The proposed character of the Bureau. 

11. Observations on the work of the Conference. 

12. Conclusion. 

1. Singular importance at present time of statistical and econo- 
mic studies. — The huge destruction of material wealth, and the 
world-wide dislocation of economic relations, which have char- 
acterized the greatest war of human history, have revealed more 
clearly than ever before the importance cf statecraft — using the 
word in its better sense — and have disclosed the measure of our 
need for an adequate conception of two of the larger elements of 
statecraft, viz., political economy and statistical science, each in 

182 president's address. — section g. 

its broader aspect. The questions presenting themselves oven now 
for systematic examination are only too self-evidently momentous. 
Different orders of political theory and practice need, as time re- 
veals their consequence, to be reviewed in the light of facts; and 
apparently questions will arise which must necessarily range be- 
tween national aims tending on the one hand to that individualism 
expressed in Herbert Spencer's " Man versus the State." or on 
the other hand toi an organic and well-defined national regime, 
such for example as that which constituted the economic system 
of pre-war Germany, and is again reflected in the present organiza- 
tion of the All-German Industrial Trust. Fundamentally, the 
issue is, perhaps, that between various forms of socialism and in- 
dividualism. The rapidly enlarging powers of mankind, however, 
show how inevitably the rights both of individuals- and of 
nations ultimately impinge, the one vipcn the other. The ever- 
increasing command over Nature's reeonrces, exemplified in the 
applications of science to industry, reveals unmistakabh'- what 
vast powers of destruction are at thet disposal of nations and even 
of individuals, and how relatively limited are our piowers of 
ameliorating national or social conditions. Thus it is not sur- 
prising that, in thei general consciousness of mankind, the thought 
more and more clearly emerges that there is something funda- 
mentally wrong aboiut a social system which involves readiness 
to find hundreds or thousands Oif millions sterling for the purposes 
of destruction — in order that we may be safe or be pre-eminent 
xxi wealth — and, at the same time, hesitation to find even one 
tithe of these amounts for systematic attack upon those problems 
of either national or international economy, which make for peace. 
One cannot help feeling that, quite apart from the evil de^- 
velopments incidental to war — these were found in each natiou 
engaged therein — it is an ugly portent that the means are not 
even yet available for a thorough study of the problem of living 
in international amity. The solidarity of the world in respect of 
finance, commerce, industry, social organization, and scientific re- 
search has become more apparent, and when this is borne in mind 
it. is seen that it is not a mere Utopian dream to imagine that, 
internationally, it it not impossible for mankind to be more 
mutually helpful. It is probable that national egoism alone pre- 
vents this, for unrestricted individualism probably has nO' eminent 
advocate among political or other thinkers. The advantages and 
privileges which accrue to individuals are poesessed in virtue 
of an inclusion within a society which respects law. And the war 
has at least done this — it has compelled people to realize that any 
safety for their persons oir property is dependent upon such in- 
clusion within the social organism, to' which, therefore, they have 
obligations, and which has the right to modify very greatly their 
individual rights, so as to' make the latter at least consistent with 
the well-being of the whole. 

PRE'^IDENT's address. — SECTION G. 183 

As with individuals so with nations : the advantage lies with a 
recognition of the fact that it is profitable to live in amity. To 
do so, however, requires the restriction of the rights of individual 
nations so that such rights shall be subordinated to the common 
good, viz., the good of all nations. The Treitschke-Bernhardi 
doctrine is of course a denial of this. But it has, I venture to 
say, become evident beyond all doubt, that unrestricted national 
egoism must of necessity produce appalling conflict, unless some 
one nation should happen to become so all-powerful as to coerce 
and exploit all others. A different view to Treitschke'fi is set out 
in Mr. W. L. Courtney's " Armageddon — and After," where the 
public weal is esteemed of more importance than coimmercial pros- 
perity.* And Mr. Holford Knight saysf that — 

" Peoples are eickened with war and angered at its con- 
tinuance in any field. Unsettled by stringency at home, . . . 
increased by the exactions of profiteers, they are in no mood 
to tolerate the expansion abroad of economic aggrandisement 
under deceptive forms ol foreign policy, secretly pursued in 
the interests of international capitalists." 

It is with some measure of recognition of this that — if it en- 
dures — the League of Nations will probably endeavour to build 
up an international statistic. The " Institut International de 
Statistique " is obviously anticipating to some extent, though 
in an unofficial way, international requirements; and the "In- 
stitut International d' Agriculture " of Rome is also enlarging the 
domain of the matters to which it gives att-ention. But until 
definitei principles governing questions of opposing interests are in- 
ternationally agreed upon, solutions of international difficulties 
are not^ — in the nature of things — automatically possible. Hence 
the need for thorough and impartial studies. 

2. Eanf/e of studies of special iirgenci/. — The actual facts which, 
even at the present moment, are precsine themselves upon politico- 
economical attention, illustrate the difficulties of the situation. 
Month by month evidence accumulates that the economic interests 
of great nations are often in sharp conflict ; and this clashing of 
interests may be by compulsion ; it certainly dc es not always come 
by choice. It may depend upon natural factors that lie outside 
of human control. Thus the varying rates of increase among 
different peoples, the natural resources of the territories which 
such peoples occupy, their attitude to the question of admixture 
of races, their readiness to sacrifice other nations' interests to 
their own, are inherent difficulties from which, apparently, there 
is either no escape at all, or at best only a partial one. In the 

* " We have before our eyes a vague but inspiring vision, not of tremendous and rival 
armaments, but of a United State" of Europe, each component element striving for the public 
weal, and for furth'T advances in general cultivation and welfare, rather than commercial 
prosperity." Op. cit. p. 33. 

t The FortiiigMhi Review, September, 1920, pp. 499, 503. 



lurid light, of world-trouble, one sees^ — as by a flash — how far- 
reaching and difficult are the necessai-y researches in the field of 
economics and statistics, and how necessary it will be to make 
our studies comparative. 

The fundamental questions which will require study in the im- 
mediate future are : — 

(i) The rate of growth and the distribution of populations ; 
(ii) The examination, forecasting and development of the 

world's food-supply and water-supply; 
(iii) The exploitation of the various sources of available 

energy ; 

(iv) The enhancing of the efficiency of production generally; 
(v) The relations of Capital and Labour; and 
(vi ) The distribution of. wealth. 
Incidental to these, though also important in themselves, are: — 
(vii) Public health in all its aspects; 

(viii) Public education and the means of attaining to national 
efficiency ; 

(ix) Social, political and industrial organization. 
If will not be possible to do more than mention tliese : detailed 
treatment is, of course, beyond the scope of the preseint occasion. 
Touching population, it is worthy of remark that the populations 
of the West-em world,* omitting Russia and Canada, but includ- 
ing Australia and the United States, have grown from 1790 to 
the present time, almost exactly as did those of China 85 years 
earlier;! i.e., from 1705 to 1735 Graph No. 1 shows this. 
There are, however, still great spaces yet relatively unpopulated, 
and it is inevitable that they must be filled either by natural 
increase or immigration, or by both, until they carry such popu- 
lation as the state of development of the country will admit of. 

3. Difficiiltte>i which are immineiit. — In order to illustrate how 
imminent are the difficulties arising from the growth of popula- 
tion, let us assume an initial population of 1,700 millions (that of 
the present time) and a rate oi regular increase — arising from 
the excess cA births over deaths — cf, say, not more even than 1 

* Viz., of Australia, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece 
Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Servia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, and 
United States of America combined. 

t According to the counts given in the Tung-hwa-Luh. The correspondences of the numbers 
are striking. Thus, taking the general trend of China's population (rather than the figures for 
individual years as given in the Tung-hwa-Luh) and the populations of Europe, &c., referred to 
in the last footnote, we have, in millions, the following results : — 

Year . . 

China . . 
Europe, <fcc. 























president ? address. — section g 
Graph No. 1. 








— ■ 

[ — 


" — 

































fc J 


^. J 











Population Growth. 

per cent, per annum. This rate will double the population every 
69 years; say in 70 years. Thus, were it possible for such a rate 
to continue, we should have: — 









Ratio of Increase . . 








Population (millions) 








It is evident from these figures, that the overspiU of rapidly 
increasing pojnihftions must more, to suitable regions where popu- 
lation is less dense: hence arise both the problems of food supply 
and migration in acute form. So long as there are national dis- 
tinctions based upon the conception of national or race solidarity 
rather than upon human solidarity, so long will conflict inevit- 
ably tend to arise. Other things being equal, power will lie with 
the larger population-groups, which, if thus differentiated into 
nations, necessarily constitute, in times of shortage, a. menace to 
the smaller groups. For this reason population-control, food- 
supply, and the development of national instinct (or prejudice?) 
are of the first order of importance; and these will engage the 
attention of statesmen who have foresight, and of statisticians and 

The rate at which the earth's known sources of energy and 
required material are being exploited has commanded the atten- 
tion of thougEtful men for several decades: for example, that of 
the late Sir William Ramsay, F.R.S., and quite recently Dr. E. 
G. Acheson.* In regard to the world's coal fields and its oil 
fields; it is easy to' see that the increase of population involves a 
correspondingly early arrival at the date of their exhaustion. 

* The Forum, viz., 1920, pp. 229-304, " Our Vanishing Coal and Oil." 

186 president's address. — section g. 

(Graph No. 2 shoiws how enormous is the inroad upon the world's 
coal.) So also does extravagance in the rate at which they are 
used up. Thus two factors promoting exhaustion are worse than 
useless, i.e., destructive activities — e.(j., war^ — and certain modes 
of luxurious living, viz., those which heedlessly draw upon the 
accumulation of stored energy in the form, foir example, of hydro- 
carbons. Thus the earth's probable stores of necessary materials, 
and the rate at which their exploitation is proceeding, are matters 
which will necessarily engage the world's statesmen and its 

How far the energy existing in falling water, in tidal move- 
ments, or in the solar rays, or in matter itself will be suc- 
cessfully utilized, it is not easy to say. At present we appro- 
priate, of co'urse, very little of what is available, but there are 
limits to the expense and convenience of the appropriation. The 
available quantities of necessary materials are by no means illimit- 
able, ncT are the conditions of use without difficulty. Hence 
any advance in the rate of use and in the rate of exhaustion are 
matters cf moment to those who consider the destiny of their race 
or of their nation. It is for this reason that it will be necessary 
to make future statistics embrace world-fields, and take account 
in the widest possible way oi rates of development and exhaus- 
tion. And it may be noted in this connexion that the elaboration 
of civilization involves a correspondingly liberal use of material. 
The demands for timber, for coal and iron, for copper, zinc, tin, 
and aluminium increase, and it is quite possible that substiiuticns 
will have to take place, as, for example, aluminium for iron and 
steel, Portland cements for timber, and sO' on. Already in many 
countries the question of reafforestation has become pressing, and 
further increase of population will intensify solicitude as regards 
future timber supplies. 

Any one who has followed the issue involved m the Treaty of 
Peace must realize how important, as between individual nation?, 
coal and iron statistics are, and, of course, also for the wQrld, 
since the soilidarity of its economic interests is continually ad- 
vancing. The world's peoples have become very interdependent, 
consequently if the nations are not merely to drift, but are to take 
an intelligent interest as to their place in the world -outlook, 
statistics, in an appropriate way, must take account of the fields 
referred to. In this connexion it is well to note that the elabora- 
tion of civilization involves also the raising of the efficiency of 
production to a correspondingly high value. The whole question 
of the necessity -of high productive efficiency may be envisaged in 

president's address. — SECTION G. 187 

the following way : — .Even assuming — m order to eliminate all 
consequences attributable to the clash of opposing national in- 
terests — a world-population, which has become homogeneous m 
respect to its various interests, the power oi this population to 
advance will be dei>endeut upon its skill in exploiting the very- 
large but limited possibilities upon which, it is really de-pendent. 
The wants of mankind may be divided into two classes, viz., the 
essential, such, as food, housing, clothing, &c., and the unessen- 
tial, such as all unnecesary elaboration of these items and of the 
general paraphernalia of civilized life. Elaboration is, of course, 
not always undesirable, since whenever it promotes man's power 
of meeting his essential wants, it may be regarded as belonging 
to the class of essential needs. Thus education, with its elaborate 
machinery for informing, training, and developing, not only does 
not necessarily reduce the population possibilities of the world, it 
may greatly increase them. For example, discorveries resulting 
from investigations in ordinary chemistry or in biochemistry, in 
biology, in physics, and progress and invention in agricultural 
and other branches of engineering, have made relatively arid 
tracts productive. Thus, through the accumulations of know- 
and of capital, the settlement of population has become a possi- 
bility where without these, it was quite impossible. It appears, 
moreover, from recent research that growth can be electrically 
stimulated, and it is not unlikely that our power to exploit 
Nature is only in its infancy. But whatever be the truth of this, 
and however skilful man may become in such exploitation, the 
world cannot carry a vast jjopulatioii, nor can it increase for 
many centuries at the rate now characteristic, for that rate would 
in but a few centuries not leave, us even standing room. It is 
evident, therefc>re, that a world-consensus of opinion may have 
virtually to be reached in the not very remote future as to popu- 
latioin increase and as to the appropriate mode of developing 
world-production and the proper limits of its exploitation, 

4. International Homogeneity atul Bate of Natural Increase. — 
When, however, as at the present time, the above assumption of 
a world-wide homogeneity of interest and purpose is not entitled 
to be made, the special duty of countries such as ours more vividly 
ai>pears. Thus, the unique problem in any sparsely-populated 
and valuable territory is to make its food supplies and all essen- 
tial products as abundant as possible with the best economy of 
effort; for in this way, and in this way alone, can capital accumu- 
late and population be advanced. This means, however, having 
capital and material enough, and working hard enough, to main- 
tain an increasingly large proportion of unproductive persons, 
viz., the young; in short, those who, not having reached the 



productive age, are consequently dependent upon the older popula- 
tion for their maintenance. As the point is of importance and 
popularly is by no means clearly apprehended, I shall indicate 
in more detail the nature of this proposition. 

Given a series of constant rates of mortality according to age, 
an increasing population, growing by natural increase, will change 
the relative numbers in age-groups, by heaping up the relative 
numbers of those living at the younger ages. Thus, if a popula- 
tion were constant and were characterized by the rates of mortality 
in Australia (for males) between 1901 and 1911, the grouping 
would be continually as on the first line hereunder (0 per cent.), 
while if the number of births incre-ased 3 per cent, annually, in 
105 years when all the first generation had passed away, it would 
be as shown on the second line (3 per cent.). 

Annual increase of 





42 and 


per cent. 
3 ,, 






1 • oooa 


Initially, the birth-rate and death-rat© would be each 18.12 per 
1,000; but finally the birth-rate would have reached 41.33 per 
1,000 and the general death-rate would have fallen to 11.77, 
leaving the annual rat© of natural increase — originally zeroi — 
29.56 per 1,000, or, say, about 3 per cent. 

We see, then, that if a community grows by natural increase 
at the rate of 3 per cent. , its accumulations have to bear the strain 
of supporting, say, about 42 per cent, of its population instead of 
about the 22 per cent, if it merely mad© good its deaths by its 
births. This is, of course, a considerable financial burden, and, 
other things being equal, tends to reduce the wealth per head; 
in short, the condition of increase is that the population shall be 
hard-working and thrifty. 

It is appropriate here to consider in a general way what are 
the conditions of increase of population. They may b© set out in 
the form of a conspectus, as follows : — - 

Increase is caused by : — 

I. Promotion of human fertility. 
II. Development of food and water 
III. The practice of thrift. 

Diminution is caused by : — 

I. Restriction of human fertility. 
II. Inadequacy of food and water 

III. Indifference to thrift and 
general extravagance. 



These in detail are consistent with, are the consequence of, or are 
correlated with: — 

I. 1. The simplification of the stan- 
dards of living. 

2. Other, things being equal, to 

the maintenance of health 
(good hygiene). 

3. The elimination of undue re- 

striction of fecundity (the 
proper limit being deter- 
mined by the environment), 

4. Eugenics in the larger sense. 

II. 1. Increase of food supplies : — 

(a) By the application of 
biological, chemical, 
and physical sciences 
and mechanical appli- 
ances to cultivation. 

(6) By the exploitation of 
the animal and vege- 
table worlds for appro- 
priate foods, in air, 
land or sea. 

(c) By the utilization of 
products obtainable 
from the air, earth, sea, 
&c., directly or in 
agriculture, &c. 

i Accession of knowledge as to 
best means of exploiting 
the resources of Nature — 
(a) Through science. 
(6) Through technology. 

(c) Through industrial 

III. 1. By training in thrift and ac- 
quiring a love of industry. 

2. By accumulation of capital 
sufficient for support of a 
relatively large unproduc- 
tive (juvenile) population. 

I. 1. The elaboration of the stan- 
dards of living. 

2. Other things being equal, to 

the impairment of health 
(bad hygiene). 

3. The restriction of fecundity 

beyond the due limit (de- 
pendent upon the environ- 

4. All developmental defects to 

the race. 
II. 1. Failure to dsveloji food 
supplies :— 

(a) By the neglect of the 
physical sciences, 
and mechanical aids. 
(6) The neglect of animal 
and vegetable sources 
of supply in air, land 
or sea. 
(c) Indifference to the use 
of products derivable 
from air, earth, sea, 

2. Absence of knowledge as to 
the potential resources of 
Nature, and the means of 
using them for the advan- 
tage of the race — 

(a) Through the neglect 

of science. 
(6) Through technical 

(c) Through failure to 
recognise the aid 
which good in- 
dustrial processes 
III. I. By dislike for thrift and 
habits of industry. 
2. By all extravagance which 
prevents accumulation for 
support of the unproductive 
(juvenile) part of the popu- 

The whole of the above are affected by the character of peoples 
in respect of their intelligence, earnestness, wisdom in the directing 
of life-effort, attitude to knowledge, to social purpose including 
industrial effort, to social economic organization and well-being, 
and to ethic, as influencing all human action. 


president's address. — SECTION G. 

5. Rate of Exploitation of Natural Resources. — A survey of 
the world conditions as a whole reveals the fact that all popula- 
tions, human or other, necessarily live in a relatively limited 
■' ttoiid ;" that the limits are, however, not absolutely fixed hut 
can, within a considerable range, be varied; that is, they can 
b© enlarged or diminished ; that they may be greatly extended by 
knowledge and by the conservation of natural products (e.r/.. 

Graph No. 2. 

1800 40 80 1920. 



























1800 20 40 SO 1890 1900 l9IO 

Coal and Cereals. 

water), by exploitation {e.g., nitrogen from the air, energy from 
the sun's rays, &c.), and by management (as in the development 
of artesian water, irrigation, &c.) ; that howsoever the limits be 
extended, population will soon accommcdate itself thereto, be- 
cause potential fertility always exceeds the possibilities of reali- 

Reference has already been made to the ^ rate of exploitation 
of metals, &c. Supplies are by no means unlimited and the rate 
of use is growing apace. We can show this best by some simple 
tables. The relative world production of iron, copper, tin, zinc, 

president's address. — SECTION G. 


and gold (making the production in 1880 = 1,000) has been as 
follows since 1880 (see graph No. 3) : — 


Iron and Steel* 





Population. t 




































Of course, with an increase of population one must expect an in- 
crease. If, however, we divide each of the above results by the 
population figures 1,000, 1,110, &c., we get what may be called 
the "index of production per head;" instead of writing it 1, we 
shall make it 1,000, and thus obtain the following results: — 

Index of Relative Production Per Head of Population. 


Iron and Steel. 





1880 .. 






1890 .. 






1900 .. 






1910 .. 






1916 .. 

4,640 • 





These results show that the rate of increase in the production is 
most marked in the case of copper, next in iron and steel, then 
zinc, gold, and tin in that order. The increase in the use of 
aluminium is, however, much more notable, as the following pro- 
duction figures show : — | 

Index of Production 
Index of Population 
Relative Production per head of 















* The 1,000 unit shown as 1,000 is 2.3,169,000 metric tons in the case of iron and steel ■ 156 500 
in the case of copper ; 33,300 in the case of tin ; 231,400 in the case of zinc ; and 5,160,000 fine 
ounces in the case of gold. 

+ In the case of population the 1,000 unit is 280,160,000 and is for the countries of Europe 
America, and Australia shown earlier hereon. ' 

t The 1,000 unit here is 3,195 metric tons. Population as before, viz., 317,64i,000 for year 



It is evident that the above rate of increase in the use of 
aluminium can continue only for a limited period. The average 
annual value of this rate, viz., 28.16 per cent, for the first three 
years, diminished to 9.27 per cent, for the neixt ten, then rose 
to 32.91 per cent, for the next five years, and to 36.09 per cent, 
for the last three years. This rate is, of course, enormous, and 
implies the doubling of the production every 2.2495, say, two and 
a quarter years, or multiplying it by sixteen for every nine years' 
duration, a rate which, of course, could not be long maintained.* 
None of the rates of increase can be long continued. 

It has, of course, often O'ccurred to scientific thinkers and to 
economists that the present rate of living is extravagant and that 
we are using up Nature's bounties without stint. This indict- 
ment is perhaps only too true. 

6. Fossihilities of Fond Supply and of Water Supply for Cities. 
■ — Disregarding the squandering of our resources, let us return 
to the question of the possibility of sufficient food supplies and 
ask', "Can thes© supplies be enormously increased?" 

It is not unfrequently alleged that as-yet-undreamt-of dis- 
coveries in physics and chemistry and altogether better methods 
of agriculture will admit of progress being indefinitely continued. 
This is based upon a misconception of the significance of rates 
of increasei — of the nature of increase by the law of " coinpo'und 
"interest." All advance depending upon human ingenuity is vilti- 
mately governed by the law of " diminishing returns." It may 
for ever continue, but will proceed by smaller and smaller 
amounts, that is, the curve representing it is convex upwards. 
On the other hand, the curve of compound interest is concave 
upwards, and a few simple calculations will show that we cannot 
properly found any expectation of relief upon such jjossibilities 
ot ingenious advance. 

Let us take a concrete case which has relation to the food 
supply. The " world production " of cereals in million " short 
tons'"' (2,000 lbs.) from 1895 to 1916 was as follows: — 













Million Tons 
























Million Tons 
(Relative . . 












* The rate 0-3609 implies that in about 47 years the production would be increased over 
2,000,000 fold. 

PKESIDENt's address. — SECTION G. 


The graph of these relative results — graph No. 2 — appears as 
a zig-zag line, the general trend of which is a curve convex up- 
wards, that is, the rate of increase becomes less and less,* or, in 
other words, the difficulty of increasing the quantity of produc- 
tion • augments as time goes on. 

It is, of course, true that the yield may be increased in the 
case of individual crops; that of beet sugar in Europe is a classic 
example. If quinquennial means be formed of the yield in tons 
of cane sugar per acre in Queensland, it will be seen that the 

Graph No. 3. 

graph of the general trend — graph No. 2 — is a curve concave up- 
wards with the following values approximately t : — 



1880. 1885. 








Tons per acre . . 











A wider study of agricultural yields shows, however, that on 
the whole the use of fertilizers is rather to maintain production 

• The curve is very nearly expressed by — 

N = 1 + 0-04 (Y - 1898)' - 0' 00083 (Y - 1898)S 
■where N is the annual total relative to that of 1898, and Y is the date year. 

t The results for individual years, of course, vary somewhat from these. See the dots on 
the graph No. 2. 



at au efficieint level, or toi bring laud which is not sufl&ciently 
fertile in the ordinary course, than to give an increased yield.* 

The electrical, biological, and other stimulation of plant growth, 
biological selection, improvements by hybridization, &c., may, 
of course, very materially increase the food supply, but whatever 
be achieved, there is noi escape ultimately from the law of 
diminishing returns for a given increase of eifort. For this reason 
the tendency will always be for population tO' advance faster than 
food supply, and the notion that this can be defeated is founded 
on a misapprehensicn of the nature of the whole question. 

The questiorn of futurei water supplies for cities is also one of 
moment. The systematic conservation of meteoric waters has 
already done much to facilitate the earth's carrying a larger 
population. The exploitation of artesian supplies has also 
operated in the same way. In the latter case, however, a change 
from the artesian to the sub-artesian condition has shown that the 
value of such sources is very limited indeed. Already, too, diffi- 
culties are arising in towns through the advancing needs of their 
rapidly growing populations. The provision for large cities, 
ordinaril}- dependent on catchment areas so^me distance off, is now 
becoming a .serious problem for many of them. In order to give 
an idea as toi the rapid rate in which the consumption has increased 
even here, in Sydney the average daily supply rose from 8,000,000 

* The following table shows that the quantity per acre of artificial manure used is freely constant 
while that of natural manure is decreasing. 

cosimonwealth — area under crop (>iainly cereals) : area manured, and quantity of 
Manure used, showing Quantity used per Acre of Total Area Manured. 1907 to 1918. 


Quantity of Maniu-e used. 

Area Manured. 






States Included. 







age of 

area under 










per cent. 













N.,V. S.,W. 






















N.,V .S.,W. 

























67- 1 



















]sr.,v.,s..w ,t. . . 







n.,v.,s.,w.,t. . . 











All States 








All States 











All States 











All States 











The horizontal lines indicate a break in the continuity since the State of Tasmania is for the 
first time included in 1913. and Queensland for the time in 1915. The percentage of " area 
under crop " manured, and amounts per acre under crop, may be regarded as continuous. 

president's address.— section g. 195 

gallons in 1888 to 39,000,000 gallons in 1916, while in Melbourne 
during the sajne period, it rose from 18,000,000 gallons to 
37,000,000 gallons, or, taking the year 1888 as 1,000, in Sydney 
the index number for 1916 was 4,875, and in Melbourne 2,055. 
In 1888, the consumption per head was 27.5 gallons in Sydney, 
and 43.8 gallons in Melbourne, and rose to 42.9 gallons in Sydney, 
and 51.5 gallons in Melbourne in 1916. If the population of the 
cities increase at the present rate, it is obvious that it is merely 
a question of time before further catchments will have toi be 
secured, and it need hardly be said that the limit of possibility will 
soon be reached. 

And it may also be said that, ultimately, the population of any 
area is limited by its supply of water. 

This aspect of affairs is more accentuated in an island like Great 
Britain, where the available area is much more limited, and where 
cities like Manchester and Glasgow have already to seek for their 
supplies at great distances. 

We pass now toi the consideration of the light that statistics can 
bring to bear upon the conflict of interests which must inevitably 
arise from the limitation of supplies of all kinds, either food, 
metals, or other materials. 

7. Statistics and the Conflict of KatiotiM Interests. — The pre- 
sent political organization of the world is such that, although the 
interestii of nations may, and do, often coincide, and though their 
relatioins may be, and generally are, mutually helpful, these 
interests and relations may also conflict, for example, through the 
overspill of population ; through tariff policy, when developed with 
a view to increasing national power ; thi'ough the need for raw 
materials for industrial development; and through the general 
conditions for trade and commerce with one another. It is evident 
that for these reasons national statistics must take account of the 
drift of national affairs. To understand the significance of the 
drift, it must be studied, not merely alone, but also in connexion 
with the drift in othet nations. 

The far-reaching nature of the matter adverted to is at once 
seen as soon as it is recognised what is implied by the coanmonly 
accepted principle that every nation has a right to develop, even 
though this be at the expense of its neighbours. So long as the 
standards of living are as widely divergent as they are at present^ 
and so long as national ideals are egoistic and individualistic, so 
long will the imminence and seriousness of possible conflict of 
interest demand peculiar attention. 

There are two ways out of difficulties of this nature. One is the 
way of war, which results in the interests of one nation being sub- 
ordinated to those of the other. The other way is, perhaps, very 
difficult, though not impossible, viz., the development of a comity 

196 president's address — section g. 

of natimis, which shall be something more than international 
urbanity, and which will be founded upon what may be called 
" international education." Indeed, it would aim at " inter- 
nationalism," in the better sense of the word, viz., at that stage 
of development through which the subordination of the rights 
of individuals to the well-being, not merely of the nation, but of 
thei world, is secured. 

In this coimexicn, one might well ask, in view of the great skill 
in the development of engines of destruction, and the terrible 
possibilities of bacteriological and chemical agents in unscrupulous 
war, v/hether the way of enmity or war is even a reasonable solu- 
tion of the difFculties of conflicting interests. The late war seems 
to have demonstrated clearly enough that war is the greatest of 
the economic follies of which mankind is guilty ; that however 
serious other economic disaster may or would have been, it would 
have fallen short of the frightful ruin brought about by the war. 

Ho'wever, whether ' ' the way out ' ' be the way of war, or the 
way of friendly adjustment of conflicting interests, the economic 
and general situation can be discussed effectively o^nly by the help 
of a thorough scheme of statistics, viz., one that will admit 
of the widest possible comparisons of national development. Ih 
this matter the cupidity of plutocratic interest may be a difficulty, 
but the late war, and its sequela', have shown that if such a diffi- 
culty is not met, other difficulties of a much more serious character 
may arise. As education and information become more general, 
and extensive, it will be more and more difficult toi precipitate 
masses of men against one another in war merely to serve narrow 
though powerful interests. Thus it is not unlikely in future that, 
before they wiU be really prepared toi embark on gigantic wars, 
the real leaders of nations will have to be convinced that the 
casus belli is both national and incapable of other possible solution. 

The systematic recording of affairs is alone adequate for the 
purpose of obtaining a clear conspectus of affairs, and thus it will 
be the function of the statistician of the future* to so arrange the 
facts that the situation can be apprehended in its full significance. 
It has become virtually self-evident that no great nation can 
neglect to use statistics for the purposes indicated. 

The British Empire Trade Commission, that visited Australia in 
1913, realized that British business interests necessitated an 
Imperial statistic, and recommended a conference of the statis- 
ticians of the Empire. The recognition of the value of such a 
conference was accentuated by the state of things revealed during 
the war, and the British Government invited Empire statisticians 

♦ This aspect of the matter was accentuated by me in addresses to the Royal Colonial 
Institute, the Royal Statistical Society, and on public occasions during my recent visit to 

president's address. — SECTION G. 197 

to assemble together iu conferenoe in London in the early part of 
this year, with results to which I shall now draw attention. But 
before doing so, it is appropriate to observe that a study of the 
statistics of the last century discloses the fact that population can- 
not increase for long at the rate which has characterized the century 
just closed; that we are drawing on our raw materials in a. way 
which cannot long continue; that to rapidly people countries with 
sparse populations can alone give them a measure of safety; that a 
rapid rate of growth involves the support as dependents of a very 
large fraction ot the population, and can be reached only by hard 
wcxk, thrift, abstemious living, and more than ordinarily efficient 

8. The British Empire Statistical Conftrence. — The first formal 
Conference of the Statisticians of the British Empire, and of 
various departmental officers engaged in compiling statistics in 
connexion with their branches of public activity, met in London 
on ths 20th January, and sat continuously till 26th February ; 
even then fux'ther details of business occupied somewhat more than 
another week. There were no less than 31 representatives for the 
United Kingdom, 3 for India, 1 for each of the self-governing 
Dominions, and 4 for the Crown Colonies and Protectorates, in all 
42. From these numbers, it is obvious that either from the stand- 
point of normal revenue, or from the stand-point of population, 
the United Kingdom had an overwhelming representation. There 
were 24 meetings of the Conference itself, a considerable number 
of meetings of nine special committees, and meetings also of sub- 
committees. At Sunderland Hous'e, on 17th February, the Con- 
ference, by invitation, met Sir Eric Drummond, General Secretary 
of the League of Nations, for the purpose of discussing the rela- 
tions with the League of the contemplated Imperially organized 
Bureau of Statistics. 

The Conference was held under the chairmanship of Mr. A. 
W. Flux, of the Board of Trade, who' was assigned that office by 
the British Government Outside the ceration of a Statistical 
Bureau for the British Empire, such questions as the statistics of 
foreign trade, agricultural statistics, census of manufacture, and 
the census of population, the registration of births and deaths, the 
recording of emigration and immigration, statistics of prices, 
finance, and labour, the mode of creating authority for obtaining 
statistical information, the statistics of Colonies and Protectorates' 
the question of mechanical tabulation, and the scope of work of 
a statistical bureau, were considered. 

9. Proposal to Establish a British Empire Bureau of Statistics. 
— CoiiJ^iderable interest attached to' the proposal to establish a 
British Empire Bureau, which it is thought should be in London, 
and so equipped in staff and apparatus that it might expedi- 
tiously obtain, collate, examine, and publish statistics bearing upon 

198 president's address. — section g. 

the development of the whole Empire. It indicated in what way 
the Bureau could receive OifBicial reports prepared within the 
various parts of the Empire, so that it might become the central 
repository of statistical information for the whole. It would com- 
municate to: any statistical authorities concerned suggestions for 
general consideration with a view to amplifying or otherwise 
improving the statistics, and would in every possible way keep in 
touch with the Central Statistical Offioei of every country. In 
doing this it v/culd avoid as far as possible all duplication and 
overlap. The function of the Bureau is stated to be as follows : — 
(I condense from the Official Report.) It would issuer the follow- 
ing publications: — 

(a) An annual statistical review of the Empire, in arrange- 

n-.ent following the lines of the official year-books 
already published in various Doiminions, which would 
not only bring together the statistics supplied by the 
various countries of the Empire in a correlated and 
aggregated form, but would contain interpretations 
based upon or illustrated by the statistical data in- 
cluded in the volume, and would survey the 
resources, development, and activities of the Empire. 

(b) Annual abstracts of the more important Empire statis- 

tics, and quarterly abstracts designed to provide the 
most recent data available in regard thereto. 

(c) Periodical monographs embodying statistics oi trade, 

pi eduction, transport, communication, population, 
labour, and industries, finance, or any other matters 
which may be found desirable for the purpose of 
assisting the study of social and economic conditions 
and progress in the Empire. 

iO. The Prcqjosed Character of the Bureau. — The Imperial 
Bureau was toi be incorporated by Royal Charter, the Prime Min- 
ister of the United Kingdom being President in his capacity as 
ex-ojjicio President of the Imperial Conference, and it was pro- 
posed that the constitution should be as follows: — There should 
be {a) a Council; (6) an Advisory Committee; and (c) a Directing 
Staff. The Covncil should consist of " members nominated by 
the several Governments assenting to these resolutions in the' fol- 
lowing proportions, viz.. United Kingdom, 10 members; India and 
the self-goveiming Dominions, 2 members each; Colonies and Pro- 
tectorates, 2 rtiembers ; one of the members so nominated should 
be Vice-President of the Council, and should preside in the 
absence of the President." 

The Council would be responsible for the control and general 
administration of the Bureau. It would appoint a permanent 
Advisory Committee to include, however, not less than twelve 

president's address. — SECTION G. 199 

members of the Council, and the chairman of the Imperial 
Resources Bureau. The function of the Advisory Committee 
should be : — 

(a) To' assist the Direetor by affording him the benefit of 

informed outside opinion as to the value of statistical 
work already undertaken, or recommended to be 
undertaken in the interests of the Empire; 

(b) To keep him in touch with the various official, commer- 

cial, and financial interests of all parts of the 
Empire ; 

(c) Generally to advise him in connexion with the discharge 

of his duties. 

The Directing Staff should consist of a Director (whom it was 
proposed should be both an expert statistician, and of approved 
administrative and official experience and ability) ; an adequate 
number of chief professional assistants, and such technical and 
clerical assistance as might be neceeeary; and it was thought that, 
in order to secure an actual and effective liaison with India and the 
Dominions, there should be a systematic interchange of staff 
operating as follows: — 

"The Director of the Bureau should endeavour to secure some 
meanbers of his staff for determinate period from the statistical 
staffs of India and Dominion Statistical Offices, by ai-rangement 
between himself and the chief statistician of each country, with 
the consent oi the Government concerned ; and, similarly, officers 
of the Bureau may by arrangement be seconded for work in the 
Indian or a Dominion Statistical Office, subject in all cases to 
the payment by the employing office of such suitable allowances, 
in addition to salary, as may be agreed vipcn as being equitable 
in the circumstances." 

The suggestion as to the necessary money provision was the 
following: — United Kingdom, £16,000; India, £4,000; Canada, 
£3,250; Australia, £2,000; New Zealand, £1,000; South Africa, 
£1,750; Colonies and Protectorates, £2,000. 

An important declaration regarding the function of a statistical 
office was the following : — 

"... thf functions of no statistical office can be exercised 
properly when limited to the initial work of collecting and 
co)npiling figures. . . . The prescription of so narrow a 
function has resulted in the past, on the one hand, in a 
tendency to an unintelligent massing of undigested statistical 
material, compiled at a considerable and often wasteful ex- 
penditure of labour and money, and, on the other hand, in 
a failure toi render information which is of value readily avail- 
able for public use.' 

200 president's address. — section g. 

"The Conference, therefore, accepts the view that a statis- 
tical office should include within its functions: — 

"(a) The presentation of the results of its compilations 
primarily in such a form as clearly to indicate 
their essential elements, with or without supple- 
mentary detailed information, which, though 
necessarily secured in the process of coinpilation, 
need not be published unless it serves a sufficiently 
useful purpose . ' ' 

"(t) The utilization of the special knowledge and ex- 
perience gained in the course of the work of 
tabulating the statistics, and the critical analysis 
of the results in such a way as to indicate most 
clearly their value and significance." 

"(c) Tl'ie elimination in every section of public statistics 
brought under review of those elements which 
when properly examined are found to serve no 
satisfactory purpose." 

The Conference recommended the publication of the more im- 
portant questionnaires. It regarded as seriously doubtful in- 
formation secured by means of voluntary or optional returns, 
and recommended that Governments should confer the necessary 
statutory authority to collect statistics upon its officers whoi were 
responsible for the collection of the information. 

In dealing v/ith Trade Statistics the Conference recommended 
that the statistical year should be the calendar year : that the 
valuation element of imports and exports for the purposes of 
Trade Statistics should be the value as at arrival in the importing 
countries, exclusive of landing charges : that there should be 
registiation of imports and exports by countries of oa-igin and of 
final destination. 

The suggestions in regard to Production Statislics were that 
special regard should be had to production of foodstuffs : thus also 
to areas devoted to agricultural and pastoral production, numbers 
of live-stock, and the actual production of both kinds: that 
forestry production should be noted annually, or else a quin- 
quennial census should be used; that a quinquennial agricultura:! 
census coaitemporaneous with the census of population should be 
taken. Also it was recommeilded that there should be periodical 
returns of stocks held of the principal products. 

In connexion with mining and quarrying, it was decided that 
there should be a sharp distinction between mining and after 
treatment. Values should be "at the mine itself regardless of 
any treatment that the product may undergo after leaving the 
mine." Factor production should be ascertained, if possible, 
annually, or if not, at least quinquennially. 

president's address. — SECTION G. 201 

In regard to statistics of Population, the Conference suggested 
that there should be an endeavcrur toi take a census at intervals 
of not more than five years; that all censuses within the Empire 
should be within the same year, and within two months (before 
or after) the 15th of April, and should relate to the de facto 
population, by sex. The legislatioii for this should be on a per- 
manent basis. Particulars of inquiry should, where the par- 
ticulars as to divorce are not ascertainable, return divorced 
persons as widowed: in addition to ages of husband and wife, the 
duration of marriage, the total number cf children born, and the 
number still living, should be recorded (information obtained 
through censuses in regard to' infirmities, it was held, have hitherto 
proved unsatisfactory) : special attention should be given to' the 
questic'n of aliens and persons of alien origin. Unifoinn systems 
of classificatioins of industries and occupations should be regarded 
as important and should be so defined as to' admit of grouping 
into classes according to a fixed and definite system, and so that 
it should serve as a basis of both industrial and of occupational 
classification. A suggestion was made that a complete descriptive 
glossary of oecupations should be prepared as soon as possible. 

In connexion with Vital Statistics, it was recommended that 
the death-rates applied to a standard distribution of population 
should be adopted for the purposes of coinparison. The Con- 
ference advocated a more complete recording of migration, the 
returns to' include "information as to se^x, conjugal condition, 
age, occupation, nationality (present and original), country of last 
permanent residence, and countr): of intended future permanent 
residence; the interpretation of permanent residence being lefl 
to the various Governments concerned." 

It was indicated that it was desirablei "that all birth registers 
should contain a record of the age of each parent and the number 
of children previously born to the same marriage, distinguishing 
between those living and those dead : that statistics of still-births 
should be compiled in all parts of the British Empire wherever 
feasible; that the conjugal condition cf deceased persons should 
be recorded in all death registers ; that the international classifica- 
tion of causes of death, as revised from time toi time, should be 
adopted for the purposes of tabulation of deaths ; that the present 
system of open certification tends to prevent candid statements 
of the causes of death and thus introduces a systematic error into 
deatii statistics • that the error would be eliminated by a system 
of confidential certification ; that in view of the national im- 
portance of vital statistics, these statistics, wherever practicable, 
should be further developed by recording, at birth -registrations, 
particulars as to' the occupations and nationalities of parents, and 
the sexes and ages of their previous children, both living and 
dead , and at death-registrations the occupation and nationality of 
the deceased and the sexes and ages of his (or her) children." 

202 president's address. — section g. 

In regard to prices and index-numbers, the Conference affirmed 
the necessity for the publication at monthly intervals, and that 
in each country a monthly index- number should be constructed 
for that country showijig the changes in purchasing power for the 
country itself and without regard to the regimen appropriate 
for other parts of the Empire. It was decided that in all cases 
when the index-number is first issued or is revised, it shomld be 
accompanied by a specific statement as to the methods employed 
and the date used, so as to permit of reconstruction by any 
reader. But th? commodities selected need not — as already in- 
dicated — be identical for all coimtries. In regard to the mode 
of calculating the index-numbers, it recommended that "they 
should be so constructed that their comparison for any two dates 
should express the proportion of the aggregate expenditure on 
the selected list of representative commodities, in the quantities 
selected as appropriate, at the one date, to the aggregate expendi- 
ture on the same list of commodities, in the same quantities, at 
the other date." In regard to the method of adjusting index- 
numbers to provide for changes in the character of national con- 
sumption, it recommended that "in view of the changing character 
of the national consumption in many countries, it is desirable to 
revise, from time to time, say at decennial intervals, the list of 
commodities and appropriate quantities on which index-numbers 
are based, and that when such revision takes place the index- 
numbers should be calculated on the basis of both the old and 
the new list for the year in which the change occurs, and, if 
possible, for at least two years preceding the two years following 
the diange." 

Respecting Labour Statistics, it was thought that they should 
be compiled for the Empire as a whole, and the Coiiference 
affirmed the necessity for improved presentation in view of the 
pressure of modern industrial conditions, and urged that "inquiries 
should extend not only to the conditions ol labour in industrial 
establishments, but alsoi to' those of commercial, agricultural, 
maritime, and other employment." 

In regard to statistics of Finance, it was the opinion of the 
Confeienoei that the statement showing the Budget and Debt 
Statistics of the Empire should include national, provincial, muni- 
cipal, and other budgets, and that in view of the high importance 
of statistics of income and capital as indices of national welfare, 
the taxes on income or on estates of deceased persons should be 
compiled either annually or at suitable intervals, since these 
throw light both on national wealth and on the distribution of 
property and income. The Conference recommended that the 
currency statistics should show the amount of note issues in circu- 
lation at fixed dates, as well as the stocks and movements of coin 
and bullion. In regard to capital, it was suggested that special 
attention should be devoted to the problem of identification and 

president's address.— section g. 203 

measurement of movements thereof. The Conference recom- 
meud3d a definite scheme for a monthly statement of banking 
operations, giving a form in detail. It proposed that index- 
numbers should be prepared on the prices of securities, that finan- 
cial operations and credit institutions other than banks should 
be recorded, and also' statistics of insurance companies and friendly 
societies systematically obtained. 

This cuucludes a brief outline of the range and nature of the 
recommendations oi the Conference. 

11. Observations on the Work of the Co7iference. — It is worthy 
of note that Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa 
have evolved fully constituted statistical ofhces, the duty of their 
statisticians being to' takei the census and toi collect statistical 
material and sy?tematically present it. In respect to this the 
United Kingdom is by no means on an equal footing; its statistics 
are really departmental by-products. For this reason, before the 
United Kingdom can be regarded as in a normal position, as 
compared with India and the self-governing Dominions, or with 
France, Germany, and many other countries, it would have to 
organize its local system. Otherwise the proposed Imperial Bureau 
would be burdened with labours for which contributions from the 
various other parts of the Empire could hardly be asked. For 
this reason it is evident that unless the United Kingdom as a 
whole, or England and Wales, Scotland, and Ireland indepen- 
dently, develop fully-equipped statistical offices, the work of the 
Imperial Bureau would be very iargely that of a Bureau for the 
United Kingdom itself, with the several self-governing Dominions 
associated, privileged to contribute, but essentially regarded as 
mere apanages of the Empire. That is a point of view clearly 
recognised, I think, by the representatives of Canada, South 
Africa, and Australia, and I think also by that of New Zealand. 

It was recommended by the Australian representative that the 
Australian Government should affirm its approval of the general 
terms of the Report, subject, however, to the outlining of a more 
explicit scheme, and organization, and to approval of some 
arrangenient insuring that the jiersonnel of the Bureau shall be 
drawn from all parts of the Empire, and shall be satisfactory from 
the stand-point of proved qualifications to occupy the posts sug- 
gested . 

It is not impossible that difficixlties may arise out of what is 
known as the "watertight compartment" character of British 
public departments. If the scheme is to be of any value it is 
essential that every source of data of statistical value should be 
readily accessible, and indeed that each should be willing to com- 
pile such data in suitable form, in response to suggestions from the 
Director of the Imperial Bureau. For this reason it is necessary 
to have as Director not merely a departmental statistician, but 

204 president's address. — section g. 

one who in addition possesses administrative experience, command 
of tho higher mathematical technique of statistics, and familiarity 
with all branches of statistical compilation, as well as a wide range 
of general knov/ledge. 

The value of the work of the Imperial Bureau will depend, very 
often, upon the connexion between various successions of statistical 
facts; for the great object of the Bureau will be to enable the 
drift oi tho whole Empire and of each part thereof in relation 
therewith, to be systematically studied and its future forecasted. 
It is submitted that world-issues at the present time are such that 
we must perforce analyze the drift of our past with the object 
of gauging our future. Only in this way, perhaps, can we hope 
to satisfactorily correct nationally adverse tendencies. In other 
words, the larger statistics of the future must be the great 
economic guide and helper of any nation that wishes to worthily 
fulfil its mission and to attain to a noble destiny. 

12. Co7iclus?on. — The time has surely gone by when one can 
hope for success from the policy of "Wait and See." Just as 
statistics have been found helpful in business, so in national affairs 
must fhey be able to guide political action by keeping it well 
informed, and by pointing out the path on which it is necessary 
to advance. The proposed British Empire Statistical Bureau 
shows that there is an awakening. 

There is a new eilement that must be gauged statistically, the 
conseqi^ences of the extraordinary revival of Marxism — from the 
moral standpoint the least attractive O'f all the forms of Socialism 
(according to Professor Nicholson). Already in Australia pro- 
ductive efficiency has fallen, an ominous fact for a young nation 
with a rich and large heritage, needing population. The trend 
of our own development should be watched with concern by all 
who are interested in the future of Australia. 

president's address. — SECTION H. 205 

SECTION H. ^.'''"V*^^i5y^v 



Maurice E. Kernot, M.Inst.C.E., M. Am. Soc. C.E., 
M.I.E.Aust., etc., 

Chief Engineer for Railway Construction, Victoria, Australia. 

May I express to you- a hearty welccme to this and the follow- 
ing meetings of Section H, and the hope that in the papers 
to be read and the discussions we shall find much of value to our- 
selves and others, much of interest, and much to increase our 
appreciation of each other's work. 

May I also express my high sense of the honour that has been 
shown to me by my selection for the office of President of this 
section . 

We are met together after the lapse of eight years, during 
which has occurred the greatest war in history, with momentous 
effects, which in the aftermath through which we are now passing 
it is difficult to realize and understand. With the return to 
peace we are having brought home to us the cost of war. and 
great social, economic, and political changes are forcing them- 
selves on us, and largely affecting our work and our position in 
the community. 

It is good that we should meet together and in discussion 
broaden our horizons, and gain stimulus and fresh views of the 
problems that confront ourselves and our professions. Our best 
hope is in the scientific treatment of those problems, the use of 
scientific methods, the application of the latest scientific knowledge 
to' the works we carry out, and in thei development of scientific 
principles and practice for the benefit of others as well as our- 

"The old order changeth giving place to new." and we must 
change with it, and find and adopt the new order, or be left be- 
hind in the march of the world's progress. 

206 president's address. — section h. 

In facing post-war problems the architect and engineer will 
find much in common, and much can be said in favour of their 
sitting together in the meetings of this section. 

In the scientific aspects of our work as well as in our relations 
to the community, we are on the same footing, and in our ser- 
vice to humanity we work on closely parallel lines. 

Looking back into history we find that the relative positions of 
the engineer and architect have changed with the lapse of time. 
The engineer is first heard of in connexion with war in providing 
protection from enemies. The architect started with the peace- 
ful work of providing protection from the elements, but even then 
their work seems to have overlapped, as it has done ever since, 
for when fortifications wer© Avanted, the architect as well as the 
engineer took a hand. 

The engineer seems ever to have had more of the rough side and 
the plain utilitarian side of construction work, while the architect 
working under more peaceful conditions has developed in the 
ornamental direction until some one has paid him the compliment 
of calling him ' ' an engineer whose higher activities are those' of 
an artist." 

On the other hand the engineer has always been prominent ill 
war, while under war conditions art is banished. There is no 

time for it. 

The engineer is in modern days taking a still larger part in 
the work of war. So much of it now consists oi problems of 
transportation and the preparation cf munitions, togetlier with 
works to assist in the actual fighting, that the engineer is much 
in evidence, while a large proportion of our leading Generals 
who rose to high commands during the war were engineers, as, for 
instance, Lord Kitchener and Lord Haig, General Joffre, the 
great Hindenburg, and our own General Monash. If the en- 
gineers did not win the war, they at least tcok a very large share 
in doing so. 

The architects did their share, too, and are new to the fore in 
the work of restoration. 

To go back again to earlier days. Many of us will remember 
how we laboured at the translation of Julius Caesar's account of 
the bridge he built when defending his country from the ancestors 
of our late adversaries, the Germans. From his account we judge 
that he was a military engineer. 

Vitruvius, a Roman military engineer and arcKitect, who lived 
just after Julius Csesar^ described architecture as includino — 

1. The art of building Fortifications, Public Works, Temples, 

and Public and Private Buildings. 

2. Sundial and Clock making. 

3. Making Machinery. 

president's address .^ — SECTION H. 207 

The architect had .much choice or variety of work in those* 

The bridge over the Rbone at Avignon, in southern France., 
built in 1200 a.d., with arches up to 80-feet span, was classed as 
a work of architecture In those days the architect was what the 
derivation of the name indicates — the master-builder — and he 
turned his hand to a great variety of work. 

In the fifteenth century the distinction between architectural 
and engineering woTk was recognised, for the great artist 
Leonardo da Vinci, best known by his paintings, also gained fame 
a^ a military engineer and an engineer for hydraulic and irriga- 
tion works, and styled himself both engineer and architect. He 
was also a leader in science. 

In the same century the great Michael Angeloi was the architect 
of St. Peter's at Rome and engineer for the fortifications at Rome. 

One hundred years ago the engineers began to define two 
branches of their work, viz., military and civil engineering. Now 
we have, in addition, mechanical, electrical, hydraulic, mining, 
metallurgical, sanitary, and other branches. In America valua- 
tion engineers are recognised as a class by themselves. 

But the work of all these overlaps, and they are all engineers. 
The work of the architect, too, is tending to specialization. 
There is an interesting survival of old terminology in the pre- 
sent-day term of "naval architect," while different members of 
the profession follow up different^ branches of architectural work. 
Again, much building construction is the joint work of architects 
and engineers, such as steel-framed structures and reinforced con- 
crete buildings. 

Professions so closely allied and brought together should walk 
hand in hand, as we are doing here, without rivalry beyond what 
is healthy and helpful to both. We have a good example to 
follow if we look at the friendly relations of doctors, surgeons, 
and medical specialists, and of the different branches of the legal 

We are met here tO' promote the advancement of science. Let 
u's think of a few ways in which we may be able to bring benefit 
to our own professions in doing so. It is up to us to practise 
what we preach, and, if we believe in science and its value to 
mankind, to put it into practical application to our work. 

This is a utilitarian age. While the leaders in scientific work 
and research are going forward and making wonderful advances 
in knowledge, the full benefit of this increased knowledge will 
not be obtained unless others use and apply it to benefit man- 
kind in their work, and it is in this way that most of us are 
called upon to to do our duty. Our opportunities are great, and 

208 president's address. — section h. 

we should rieei to the cccasion. Can any reasonaDle and thought- 
ful man among us be satisfied with the present position of his 
profession in relation to the community or witli the methods and 
practices which apply generally to the work of his profession ? 

Let us consider shortly some aspects of thefe. We may take 
first the education and training of those who come intO' our pro- 
fessions. Is their knowledge of science what it should be? Has 
their preparation for their life's work been conducted on scien- 
tific lines ? 

It is at the beginning that the big mistakes are most often 
made. Should there not be some definite means for preventing 
those who have no reasonable chance of success from starting on 
a course of training ? 

At present many young men choose the profession of engineer 
or architect on the flimsiest of reasons without any knowledge as 
to whether they are fitted for either. 

Should it not be the duty of the State or some organization tO' 
prevent this promiscuous entry, and turn unsuitable candidates 
at the earliest stage in seme direction where they have a better 
chance of success ? 

In the future, more than in the past, the progress of a State or 
nation will depend upon the way it applies its raw material both 
in human and in lower forms to the best advantage. With men 
ab with materials there is too large a proportion of second and 
third grades and not enough of first grade. This is largely due 
to our system, or rather want of system. To obtain greater effi- 
ciency we must weed out those who are unsuitable and improve 
those who are suitable. 

There are three ways in which aspirants to our prolessicns are 
educated and trained. There are the battlers, who try to pick 
up what knowledge and training they can by their own effort only. 
These fill our offices with plodding assistants, who mostly learn 
one part of the work and so get into a groove and stay there as 
hacks. A few oif them by sheer native ability rise into the pro- 
fession and hold their own, but acquaintance with tliem shows how 
much better they might have done if they had received proper 
training, and of the rest, many might have been made more use- 
ful members of the community by a reasonable amount of coan- 
pulsory technical education. Instead of leaving such training to 
the inclinatiom, the whim, or the accidental surroundings of the 
individual, there oaight to be compulsory training for those who 
do not voluntarily obtain it. 

Another method of entering our profession is by articles. .With 
this system results are very irregular. Before entering into ar- 
ticles intending pupils should be tested to determine whether there 
is reasonable prospect of their attaining proper qualifications. 

president's address. — SECTION H. 209 

After entering into articles they should be properly taught, not 
left to pick up what they can, as they can, or put to routine work 
which will not give them proper experience. Cases have come 
under my notice where pupils have completed their articles and 
been sent away quite unfit to design or carry omt work. For in- 
stance, one of these came to my oifice so^me time ago and was glad 
to accept employment at the rate of pay of an ofiice boy because 
he was not worth any more. He only wanted what another man 
had been paid to teach him, and by his own exertioias, along 
with a little encouragement and the oppcrtunity of self-improve- 
ment, is now rising rapidly. 

But the most well-meaning of architects and engineers who take 
articled pupils are usually busy men without any gift for teach- 
ing, and unless their pupils are of the pushing sort, the training 
they receive leaves much to be desired. 

Recent developments, particularly since the war, are leading 
to the combination of university training along with articles, and, 
frequently, especially on the engineering side, to university train- 
ing being relied en wholly. After long experience with men 
trained in different ways, I am convinced that the best hope of 
the improvement of our professional work lies in the direction 
of university training for those who are fit to receive it. 

It is at the universities that the best opportunity of bringing 
science and scientific method intoi our every-day work is to be 
found. To make the most of the opportunity much improvement 
O'f present conditions is required. An extraordinary increase in 
the number of university students has taken place since the great 
war ceased, and now is the time to arrange for more efficient and 
effective training. The work of our universities has improved 
much of late years and the improvement is going on. Anything 
that I now say is said in the hope that it will aid that improve- 

The coinsistent aim should be the turning out of men well 
equipped to rise in their professions, and to improve in ability and 
efficiency as long as they remain at work. I am afraid this is 
sometimes lost sight of. 

It is necessary for our professions that, in addition to having 
knowledge, we should be able tO' do things. 

The other day I had occasion to send a graduate in engineering 
up country to do some simple work. He went, but when he get 
there he did not know how tO' commence it or what to do' next. 
I had to send another man much inferior to him in knowledge and 
general education to show him how to' do the job. He learnt, 
after a time, but why should not his training have taught him 
how to do work of which he was or was just about to be certified 

210 president's address. — SECTION H. 

as a " Master." This is a typical case. Ancther instance is 
that of a graduate whoi in some emergency was asked to count a 
number of railway fish-plates stacked outside the field office where 
he was employed. He failed after several attempts to count them 
correctly, though a horny-handed employee went and did it. He 
has since got on, but is the method of training which turns out 
such cases as these what it ought to be ? 

We do not want men stuffed full of knowledge, with their heads 
ia the clouds, and unable to- do things. 

Many men have come under my notice who have wasted their 
time on attempting a^ university course, rhese men were dragged 
through somehow ; just scraped through their examinations some- . 
how by memory work or luck. These would have had- a good 
chance to do better if they had entered the pro'fession by some 
other way, thoiugh in most cases they would have had better pro- 
spects of success in soime other walk of life. 

There should, in the first instance, be a proper selection of those 
who start on a university training. It is good business, and it 
woiuld be a kindness to- hold tack those who show no reasonable 
prospect of succeeding. It wonld be better for all concerned. 

What next should an engineering or architectural student be 
taught 1 This appears to' be settled by a number of professors, 
each one of whom thinks his own subject of the very greatest im- 
portance. Limitations of time and of the mental capacity of the 
average student make compromises necessary, but each pro'fessor 
wants to put in all he can, with the result that the poor student 
is overloaded and battles along trying to absorb sufficient of each 
subject toi get him a pass at the end of the year. In this endea- 
vour he often uses memory in place of understanding. 

I often test these men as to their ability to- put what they have 
learned into actual use, and in such subjects as chemistry, geology, 
and the higher mathematics am surprised what little evidence they 
show that these are really of use to them. 

The subjects I have mentioned are not to be desp-'sed, but I am 
driven to the conclusion that it is waste of time cramming them 
into men whoi, as soon as they can pass the eixaminaticn, gO' away 
and make little or no use of them and soon forget them. 

Knowledge, scientific or otherwise, that is plastered on to a 
man is useless. You must get it into him for it to be of use. 

The attempt to make a young man a, complete engineer or 
architect in four or five years must fail, and masters of engineering 
as a rule have to go and work as servants of engineers for long 
years before they are intrusted with a master's work. 

president's address SECTION H. 211 

The average student is so busy trying to pass examinations that 
he fails to respond to the broadening of outlook and the wider 
view whicli the training should give him. Are the few years given 
tu a university course used to the best advantage? It is of no 
u?e to try and squeeze in more subjects. My experience leads 
me to advocate a reduction of time spent on many of the subjects 
al present, however important those subjects may be, in order that 
the student may be taught hew to apply what he dees learn in 
an intelligent manner to definite ends, that he may attain to 
better understanding of the general principles of his work, that 
his imaginative faculty may be developed, that he nlay acquire 
scientific methods of dealing with prcblems that will face him, 
together with something of business and finance. In other words, 
that he may be fitted to applv what he has learnt to his profes- 
sional work and do so successfully. The present system too often 
turns out men who have what I may liken to the tools of their 
trade, while, for want of skill, they cannot make effective use of 
them. In the past university training has specialized largely on 
design, which, however important, is only one part of our pro- 
fessional work out of many. The other parts are equally im- 
portant and equally necessary fcr success. They should net be 

The engineer, and often the architect, toe, is in these times 
called upon — 

1. To initiate work : that is, to bring forward proposals for 

new works for the benelfit of the community. 

2. To design such works. 

3. To estimate what they will cost and the time required to 

•carry them out. 

4. To carry out the works with control of all the staff and 

workmen engaged en thean. To maintain efficient 
working and bring out results in accordance with his 

His training should prepare him for (dj these. At present, can 
it be maintained that such is the case ? The university student 
at present completes his course and goes out in the world to' make 
his way with a minimum of knowledge of business and finance ; 
in fact, his time at the university has influenced him in the direc- 
tion of unfitness for business, and if he is to succeed he has to 
acquire business knowledge as best he can, and often through costly 
experience and hard knocks. 

The wastage on engineering, and, probably, architectural work, 
too, that is due to this deficiency is very large, and I believe more 
serious than what is due to' errors in design. 

212 president's address — section h. 

Why should we concentrate our training on a few subjects while 
more vital ones are left out altogether ? 

I recently asked my assistant what class of men he would pick 
out to help him if called upon to proceed urgently with a difficult 
construction job. He replied without hesitation, " The men 
wholly trained on the works," and he was right. But this ought 
net to be so. Our university-trained men, with their equipment 
of scientific knowledge, ought to be the best men for a hard job. 
To make them so we should train them not only to pass examina- 
tions but to do things. They should be made to realize that 
the knowledge they acquire is not the end, but is to be used as a 
means to achieve results. 

They should be prepared to face the world and to overcome 
difficulties; not only to design bridges that will carry their load 
safely, but to estimate their cost and build them for that cost, 
and so protect those they work for from financial disaster. 

All this i*equires a broader training than is new given, and 2>ar- 
ticularly a training in scientific method as applied to solving all 
the problems that arise in the engineer's work, including the 
business and financial problems. The study of finance and com- 
merce to an extent that will give the student Kiiowl&dge of the 
principles and practice of ordinary business and acquaintance with 
tlieir scientific aspects should not be left out. 

The work of the universities, as it comes under my notice, has 
improved much of late years, and I look hopefully for further 
improvement so that they may develop the personality of the men 
they turn out, and fit them to lead in the world's work as men 
of action and foresight, with knowledge of affairs, and not men 
. who can only make calculations and look for billets. Billets are 
and will be waiting for well-trained men. 

But I must pass on. With all due respect to the fine body of 
professors and lecturers at our universities, I would like to ask, 
" Do we secure the best men for those positions " 1 What should 
be the first test for them 1 Is it enough that a man should have 
gained high place in examinations ? Is it enough that he is we.l 
up in his subject ? Should we not place first as a qualification 
that he is " apt to teach "? We want men with natural gift for 
teaching improved by training, and having a good knowledge of 
their subject, but I fear too often the students suffer through hav- 
ing to sit under men who, while they know their subjects well, do 
not succeed in making others know and understand them in a 
thorough manner, and the students too often through want of 
intelligent understanding scrape through their examinations and 
go away and soon forget. 

president's address — SECTION H. 213 

Erilliaiil scientists and mathematicians are an ornament to a 
university, and there are }3laces for them to fill, but brilliant 
scholars are not necessarily brilliant teachers, and we want men 
who by nature or training, or both, are competent to turn out 
pupils who, in addition to passing examinations, have been so 
instructed that they thoroughly understand wliat they have passed 
in and appreciate and understand its uses, and will use and go on 
using it. 

I have looked in vain for these conditions in so many, university 
graduates that I am driven to the conclusion that much improve- 
ment in teaching ability is a great need, and is necessary to 
avoid much wastage that is going en. at present. Let us be 
scientific' in our educational work and stop this wastage. 

Initiafioii of Workn. — And now as to cur work. Are we fully 
using toi the best advantage the discoveries of science, and are 
we applying scientific methods to our work to the full extent that 
they will improve it 1 

In the initiation of work, hew often do we see guess work and 
sententious o]nnion where exact methods applied scientifically 
would work out to clear and definite re-ults. How often does as- 
surance without investigation and reason without insight take the 
place of thorough scientific investigation ? There is no part of 
our work more impci-tant than the initiation of new schemes, the 
introduction of new processes, and the adoption of new materials. 
The road to- success with all these is the scientific one. 

Dts'ujn. — Th6' work of designing is, or should be, essentially 
scientific, but at present there is too much c'opying and too little 
originality. Too much that is empirical and too little application 
of first principles. To€' much running in a grocve. Too little 
adaptation to emergent conditions. 

Execution of Work. — There is increasing call and opportunity 
for the introduction of science in the carrying out of our works. 
The old rough and tumble hard headed rule of thumb, out to make 
money, contractor is being displaced by the practice of carrying 
out work by labour directly employed by the principal. This 
brings additional responsibility on the engineer and the architect, 
and also larger opportunity of usefidness. It makes a larger call 
on his ability, energy, and personality, but enables him 
to get better work done, and to obtain better results in proportion 
to' the e'X]>enditure. In no' part of his work is there better opening 
for the application of science. 

No dovibt there are good and able contractors, but there are — ■ 

When a contract is made for large works, it contains conditions 
which bind both parties and cannot be varied, except by mutual 
consent, without risk of heavy ciaims. When an engineer or archi- 
tect carries out his own work, he is free to take advantage of all 

214 president's address — section h. 

favorable conditions which emerge during the progress of the 
job, toi modify his plans as may be found advantageous from time 
to time, and he has full acquaintance with the difficulties and the 
costs of the work. This experience is of very great value to him 
when carrying out other jobs. In my own work I have let no' 
large contracts since I started the direct labour system in 1892, 
that is twenty-eight years ago, though I have been quite willing to 
doi so if any advantage could be gained. On different occasions con- 
tractors have been asked to tender, but their prices when compared 
with the estimated cost of direct labour work led to all tenders 
being declined and the work was then carried out within the 
estimated cost. When I wanted difficult foundation work carried 
out, and had neither the special plant required nor men experienced 
in such work, I called for tenders, and there was no response, so I 
set to work and carried out the foundations at a cost well within 
what I had been prepared to pay to contractors. 

When I had to build a railway under conditions of great 
urgency during a coal strike, there was no time to look for a 
contractor. We just went straight ahead at full speed and did the 
work in record time, adapting our plans and methods to suit the 
exigencies that arose, and putting all we could of science into 
cur work, for never did I have a better opportunity to apply 
scientific knowledge and scientific method in gaining time and 
saving money. These experiences are quoted as instances of the 
successful applicaticn of scientific methods and practice. 

There has been a change over from contract work to direct 
labour woik in manv instances in Australia during recent years, 
and sometimes a change back again, but the direct labour system 
is superseding contract work to an increasing extent. In these 
times of high cost of labour and scarcity and high cost of materials, 
the direct labour system gives freer scope for the application of 
new scientific processes, ideas, and methods to the work, and it is 
in this directioii that we should be working to adapt ourselves 
to the new conditions that have arisen. With high prices for 
labour we should encourage higher skill on the part of the work- 
men, using more mechanical and other aids to remove the drudgery 
of daily toil from the worker, and give him more to do with 
his brains and less with his muscles. Thus improving the worker 
and gaining in efficiency, the community should be better served 
and improved conditions maintained. Other nations are working 
in this direction, and we should take care not to be left behind. 

Work can be carried on by Governments as efficiently as by 
contract or any other method. Governments are in the best 
position in the matter of finance. They can secure the best experts 
if they will pay them fairly and treat them properly. Workmen 
will work as well for Governments as for private employers, if 
properly organized and controlled. It is only when Governments 

president's address — SECTION H. 215 

fail to secure proper officers and to give them proper opportunity 
that quality and cost of work done by them are less satisfactory 
than can be obtained by letting large contracts. 

The architect and the engineer of the future must rise to calls 
for a higher standard of work, increased efficiency, and improve- 
ment of the conditions of labour. 

Estimating. — To this end the rough and ready — I was going 
to say the guess work — methcd of estimating, now so common, 
ought to be superseded by systematic and thorough estimating, 
which is quite practicable if properly understood and studied. Have 
we generall}'- the confidence of the public in this matter of 
estimating ? How often do estimates prove to be unreliable, and 
yet it only requires sceintific' method to make the average of esti- 
mates very much mere reliable. Some members of our professions 
obtain high reputations for the closeness of their estimates when 
compared with actual cost. We should all aim at such a repu- 
tation. Our employers — the public- — have a right to look for it. 
We owe it to them as a duty. Our reputation depends on it. 

The engineer of the future should be able to estimate the cost 
of his work, and then prove the correctness of his estimate by 
carrying out the work without exceeding it, except, of course, 
when outside causes beyond his control, and which would not be 
foreseen, come into it to an extent beyond what would be reason- 
able provision for contingencies. 

Union. — To promote our professions and keep them in the high 
position they should occupv in the community we must unite. 

The medical, the legal, and other professions are united and 
strong. Can we say that our position is ecjually good ? 

Tradesmen have their unions, and the law of the land re- 
cognises them, and they are gaining in strength, assuming a force- 
ful position, and obtaining increased remuneration. Why should 
architects and engineers be without protection and without rights 1 
Institutional work has dene some good, but neither our professions 
nor the public are properly protected, and until they are we shall 
not occupy our proper placei in the body politic. 

Regi'^t ration. — Registration under Parliamentarv sanction and 
protection is being pressed for, but is slow in coming. We should 
work to secure this, and so overcome one difficulty that hampers us. 

The uplift of our professions is for the good of all. Other 
countries are ahead of us in this. In this way we can check the 
unscientific work of which there is soi much to be seen to-day, pre- 
vent waste, and advatice the aims of this Association. 

Forestry. — This subject may be dealt with in another Section, 
but its increasing importance makes me mention it here. 

2l6 president's address — section h. 

Thfere is nci doubt that the world's forests are under present 
conditions being rapidly worked out. There has been great 

The increasing use of steel and other materials is partly making 
up for the decreasing supplies of timber for architectural and 
engineering work, but for many purposes wood is and is likely 
tci remain the most suitable material. In railway work, for in- 
stance, steel sleepers are slowly taking the place of wooden ones, 
but en a recent trip round the world I did not find one engineer 
whoi would not give preference to wooden sleepers as long as the 
price IS not pj'obibitive. In many ether cases the position is the 

Now, with scientific handling of forest areas, such as is begin- 
ning to be applied in a few instances, the output of timber from 
existing forests can be increased in quantity and improved in 
quality. Large areas of country now denuded of timber might, 
with prcifit to the community, be used for timber-growing and 
jiroduce a more profitable harvest. 

The comparatively slow growth of timber makes investment of 
funds in timber-raising unpopular among the business portion of 
onr cornmunity. 

This is a case in which Governments are in the best position 
to act. The Foiest Departments of our States should receive 
encouragement from us, and scientifically trained men with long 
heads thculd be soiight for, and encouraged, by good remuneration, 
tO' develop this most important work. 

Testinf/. — With the advance of science in connexion with onr 
work more and more testing of materials and parts of structures 
is being done, with very good results, but development in this 
direction must proceed further if we are to get the best work 
done. At present there is a growing need for better organized 
and better equipped testing labcralcries in onr States. Whether 
such laboratories are connected with onr Universities or estab- 
lished under other control is a point of minor importance, so long 
as they are equal to the work of giving results with the accuracy 
required in reasonable time. We are behind hand in this respect. 
Money spent on providing establishments for testing would "be 
well invested. We ought not to lag behind the rest of the world 
m this matter. It cannot be said that we have the facilities which 
are highly desirable, and many complaints as to the want of 
them are heard. Some good work is being done, but not enough, 
W^e have competent men available, but until Governments are 
impressed with the importance and value of high -class testing 
and its results in prevention of waste and accident, provision 
of equipment will be slow. Private enterprise is not likely to 
supply the need. . 

president's address — SECTION H. 217 

We should take all opportunities of working for the improve- 
ment of existing conditions. 

Town Flavnuig. — There are many more matters worth review 
at this time, but I am close to my limit. May I, in closing, 
jnention one of them ? The Town Planning movement is now 
attracting much attention. At the 1890 meeting Mr. John 
Sulman read a paper on the laying out of towns (a special com- 
mitteo of this association being appointed to report thereon), and 
h© ha.s since done much valuable work in the same direction. 
The movement has suffered through many side issues being brought 
into it, but the more one looks into it from the points of view 
of the architect and engineer, the more its importance as aflecting 
the health, the comfort, the morals, and the prosperity of our 
people, becomes evident. Progress is being made ; the work 
already done is bearing fruit; but what has been achieved 
emphasizes the crjnng need for more. Science is ahead of prac- 
tice in this respect, but there is much more scientific work wanted, 
and if science leads the community will follow. 

It IS in our power to exercise a good influence in the develop- 
ment of this movement and in leading it en to good results.^ 
Science, well applied, is what is wanted. Already beneficial results 
are being achieved, but so much more is badly wanted. 

Our Parliaments are so busy with other questions and party 
strife that they are slow to help, but the need for legislation is 
crying loudly. Will you all help as you can for the honour of 
our professions and as a duty to the fine land of which we are 
proud to be citizens ? 

Science has been defined as "knowledge systematized," as 
"truth ascertained," and that is what we are working for here; 
but when we have ascertained truth it is our duty to make it 
known and to use it ourselves, and a broader definition of science., 
which I prefer, includes its practical application to our daily life 
We should seek to know and to do. 

Goethe said that " in all times it is only individuals that have 
advanced science, not the age." Remembering this, we should 
work individually for the advancement of science as it affects the 
work of our professions. An architect or an engineer who is not 
studving the problems of his woi'k is going back in efficiency, and 
not forward. 

' But while advance in science is due to individual workers it 
is quite i-ecessary that those workers should place the results of 
their work before their compeers, st» that they may benefit others 
and help the progress of science. That is what we meet for here. 


To make pi ogress we should keep alive our imagination and 
cultivate its development in right directions, so that we may 
take part in the forward march. 

In the words of Buckle, " The faculty of art is to change 
events; the faculty of science is to foresee them. The phenomena 
with which we deal are controlled by art, they are predicted by 
science." Following out this idea we should all cultivate a wide 
outlook, rising above the necessary details and routine of cur 
work, using all the aids of science to generalize and take the 
broad view which will lift us and our professions to the high 
place which thev rightlv should occupy in the community. 

Ruskin has summed up our petition well in his saying that 
the work of science is to substitute facts for appearances and 
demonstrations for impressions. " It is in so' doing that the 
best course for improvement of our work in found. Science has 
dene much for us, and will do much more if we give it the 

Our professions are great ones, of high importance in the com- 
munity, and the more we can substitute facts for appearances, 
and demonstrations for impressions, the more shall we rise towards 
a position in that community commensurate with our opportunities 
of service to it. 

We should never forget that: — as Bacon has put it — " every 
one of us is a debtor to his profession." It should be our constant 
aim to liquidate that debt — 

New times demand new measin-es and new men; 
The world advances and in time outgrows 
The laws that in our fathers' day were best, 
And doubtless after us some purer scheme 
Will be shaped out by wiser men than we — 
Made wiser by the steady growth of truth. 

president's address — SECTION I. 2L9 



J. H. L. Cumpston. M.D., D.P.H.. F.SarSt^ ^ 

Director of Federal Quarantine. 


A commouplace of topical rhetoric is the statement that all 
science consists ultimately in accurate measurement. In the end, 
this is as trne of medicine as it is of all other branches of 
knowledge. The differentiation between various species of bacteria 
or of protozca is made t<j a large extent on their transverse and 
axial measurement expressed in microns ; instruments and physical 
methods of precision are used in recording the movements and 
sounds of the heart, the electrical currents generated in the heart 
during its activity, and the pressure of the blood in the arteries 
and the veins. 

Chemical methods of analysis are used for determining the rate 
of calcium exchange in the body: the excretion of nitrogen, the 
amount of iodine m the thyroid, and the completeness of gastric 
or duodenal digestion. 

A venture has even been made in the lise of methods of accurate 
measurement in the less tangible realms of neurology and 
psychology. The amount of nerve exhaustion in now more or 
less accurately n'easured, while recently a claim has been made 
that electric currents generated in the body under the stress of 
emotion have been recorded. 

220 president's address — section i. 

While undouLtedly inuch may be claimed in these directions, 
it is also true that there are large unexplored tracts in the 
territory of m.edical science, in which, as yet, the seeker after 
medical truth wanders as blindly as a Baffin Land Eskimo, 
who, having learned no inethod of accurate geographical mea- 
surement, depends for his movements ujDon topographical know- 
ledge gained by exjDerience; for his food, upon natural cycles of 
change, upon chance, and upon empirical knowledge of the habits 
of other animals ; and for his mental and spiritual food upon 
tradition and superstition handed down from his equally ignorant 

In the practice of medicine there are certain phases in respect 
of which it is accarate to state that the profession is assisted 
by experience, dependent upon natural cycles, grateful for the 
availability of empirical knowledge, confused in forecasts by the 
vagaries of char.ce, and to a certain extent actuated by tradition. 

That superstition has ceased to be a factor, that the branches 
cf medical art, in which these uncertain quantities function ap- 
preciably, are becoming more and more restricted, is greatly to, 
the credit of those seekers after truth who' have chosen to' work 
in a mtclium which offers greater complexity than any other with 
which scientific workers have to' deal. The human body — this 
multi-cellular organism — this most infinitely complex of all bioi- 
logical entities — offers problems compared with which the theory 
of relativity is child's play. 

Practical medicifxe has tO' deal not only with the three dimen- 
sions — physiology, pathology, and pharmacology, which, in 
themselves, include the M^hole range of tlie sciences — but is con- 
stantly being led astray by that fascinating fourth dimension — 

This complexity of the problem makes medicine the least exact 
of the exact sciences. In claiming for medicine a place amoiigsfc 
the exact sciences, there is no' presumptio'n, even thoaigh it has 
perhaps grown no farther than the infant chemistlry ol the 
" philosopher's stcne " age; but in spite of all the inaccuracies, of 
all the intrinsic difficulties, there are many definitely establisheid 
truths. In bacteriology, in pathology, in the chemistry and 
physics of enviroaiment as affecting the, human organism, in 
therapeutics, and even in epidemiology, there have been de- 
termined facts and principles which stand against the most rigid 
of scientific tests. 

These facts and j^rinciples stand as monuments to those earnest 
and devoted workers whoi " follow knowledge like a sinking star " 
beyond even the love of life itself. 

president's address — SECTION I. 221 

With this gradual development cf accuracy in medical science, 
one would think that the art cf medicine would be showing an 
increasing application of exact methods for the beueiit of sick 
humanity. To a certain exte^nt this is the case, but it is not 
so nearly to the extent that it should be. There are various 
reasons for this. There is an inadequate appreciation by the 
public of the delicate balance of evidence necessary to an honest 
diagnosis, or of the complexity of modem methods necessary for 
this ; there is the difficulty of providing the necessary equipment 
accessible to all medical men ; there is the real practical difficulty 
CI insuring that all medical men are able to use the apparatus 
when it is provided, or able to keep tliemselves abreast of modern 
developments; and, finally, there is the inertia and conservatism 
of the public to be overcome in many ways. 

The jiublic estimate of the medical man is redolent of the 
middle ages. To many of the public, even to-day, the dis}>eusing 
chemist is as sl'illed a therapeutist as the best of the specialists 
while the optician is even recognised in law as almost, if not 
quite, the equal of the trained oculist. To the whole of the public, 
with the exception of a few, a very few, more enlightened people, 
one dcctcr is as good as another. The possession of a medical 
diploma of any kind is accepted bv the public, and even by many 
public authorities, as sufficient evidence that a doctor, without 
any special experience, can be in turn a specialist in surgery, in 
venereal diseases, in hospital administration, in children's 
diseases, or even in questions of public health. Maiiy men who 
recognise the distinctic-a between a carpenter and a joiner, a 
bricklayer and a mason, or who readilv agree that a builder's 
labourer is not worth the same wages as the builder himself, will 
accept anv medical diploma as evidence cf the medical man's 
ability to give an opinion in any oaie of the several branches of 
medicine, each cf which requires, not only a life-long study, but, 
to a certain extent, a special temperament. Thei mechanical 
dexterity, the capacity for rapid decision ex})ressed by appropriate 
action, combined with the sound diagnostic judgment which dis- 
tinguish the first-rank surgeon, are personal qualities quit© 
different from those which make a, doctor successful in the adminis- 
tration of a large hospital, an asylum, or a Health Department. 

Yet, the public to-day, as Mr. Syme recently said, " still regard 
the ' doctor,' as they call him, as a kind of wizard, who can tell 
intuitively what is the matter with a patient and then prescribe 
a drug which will act like a charm and drive the disease away." 
Their idea of medical practice is, as Osier said, — " a traffic be- 
tween individuals, the sale of a cui'e." 

This public estimatei of medical art as a j>iercing glance by the 
eagle eye of the inspired doctor readintr the innermost secrets of 
the patient's soul, followed by the administration of a mysterious 

222 president's address — section i. 

decoction ill a bottle, to be taken three times a day after meals, 
is one of the commonest of the vestigial remains of the period 
of snper&tition. 

How commonly one hears of a confirmed alcoholic doctor that 
"he is so clever when he is sober. ' ' It is an- interesting psycho- 
logical phenomenon that a vice, which in any other profession 
or trade would inevitably bring disgrace and shame, is glorified 
in the medical profession, where the risks at stake are e-xpressible 
in terms of human life. 

This almost universal ignorance amongst his patients is to the 
doctor both an obstacle and a temptation. It is an obtacle in 
that the patient becomes impatient when he is required to suffer 
the details of a tedious investigation by accurate methods. It is 
a temptation in that the doctor realizes that his patient will go 
to one of his rivals who- follows the easy way, and that, in any 
event, as the patient desires to be " overlooked " in the ancient 
sense, rather than toi be accurately investigated, he might as well 
give the patient what he wants and collect the fee. 

If this be not a generous representation of the average of the 
medical practice, it i^, on the other hand, necessary tO' state that" 
almost without exception the doctor reaches this attitude through 
despair and not. through design. 

The medical man, normally, commences his active professional 
career with a high level of idealism. He determines that, how- 
ever mechanical in their practice the older men have become, he, 
at least, will not permit himself to degenerate, but will keep 
himself closely informed of all new developments in medical 
science, and his patients will have the benefit of his energy and 
enterprise. There are many reasons why it is, under present con- 
ditions, inevitable that he should insensibly fall away from that 
exalted an,d altogether desirable attitude; but the twO' main 
reasons are that ignorance of the general public indicated above, 
and the impossibility of obtaining the necessary equipment. 

Before the yoi:ng doctor has been naore than a few months in 
practice, he will meet many difficulties arising from the absence 
of this equipment. A few illustrations will be sufficient. An 
accident will render an X-ray examination essential ; it will be 
necessary to givei anxious parents a definite statement whether or 
not their daughter has consumption ; it will become necessary to 
give a firm opinion as toi the preisenoe or otherwise of syphilis (this 
is not only necessary in the interests of the unborn generation, 
but the State demands it by law) ; an obstinate case of nasal 
trouble cannot be properly treated without the use of special in- 
struments for both diagnosis and treatment. Modern diagnosis 
and treatment of heart disease both require a very delicate, com- 
plicated, and expensive apparatus. A certain amount of chemical 


analysis of the urine and of the contents of the stomach is essential 
to any accurate medical work, while it is now established that 
diseases of the kidney and bladder often require special expensive 
apparatus for a reliable diagnosis. 

All of which means that the doctor must have an X-ray outfit, 
a bactericlcgical laboratory, a simple chemical laboratory, and an 
elaborate, extensive, and very expensive set of special apparatus 
and instruments, which, as Euclid is reported to have said fre- 
quently, is absurd. 

It is absurd, in that a doctor's income will not be large enough 
for him to begin to consider such expense, and in that if everv 
doctor had the whole equipment, some of it would be only inter- 
mittently used at long intervals, and a totally unnecessary duplica- 
tion or multiplication would result. 

Moreover, if every doctor had this equipment, he would not be 
able to use it, for, as has been pointed cut above, expertness in 
any one special branch of medicine requires a lifetime of devotion 
to' that branch. The X-ray specialist cannot be at the same time 
a bacteriologist, and the general practitioner could not attempt the 
whole ranges of subjects, even if he had the necessary apparatus, 
without, at a very early stage in his career, giving a splendidly 
disastrous illustration of that classical statement that " a little 
knowledge is a dangerous thing." 

The argument may, at this point, be summarized. 

Medical science is very rapidly becoming more and more a 
science of accurate observation, measurement, and record. The 
medical profession io making an increasingly vigorous demand for 
the means whereby they may make their art progressive in step 
with the march of the science, both for the satisfying of their own 
consciences and in the interests of their patients. The prevalent 
gross ignorance of the mass of the public, with the resultant 
absence of an enlightened public opinion on these' phases of medical 
practice, has not produced any general recognition of the need 
for any action. Everv medical man cannot possess the necessary 
knowledge or the necessary equipment. 

What, then, is the remedy ? 

Logically, there are two things which must be done : the educa- 
tion of the public to a proper conception of the urgent need for 
accurate methods in medical diagnosis and treatment, and the 
provision, within practicable access by all medical practitioners of 
the equipment necessary for the employment of those accurate^ 

Quite recently, on another occasion, I have endeavoured to 
express my view that the education of the public rests in the 
hands of the medical profession. If the professiou set about it 

224 president's address — section i. 

seriously, and demanded in their work the instruments of precision, 
public recognition of the value of those methods will assuredly 
follow; in fact, an imperative public demand will arise. 

As bas just been said, however, the profession, realizing, as 
they do. very fully, the need, yet have realized, equally fully, the 
impossibility of commencing the education of the public until 
the' necessary equipment for applying these accurate methods is 
available. As each medical man cannot provide all the equip- 
ment and the knowledge which are essential, it follows, obvio'Usl3^ 
that there must be provided some form of common service whereby 
each n)edical practitioner can have access to either the necessary 
instruments and apparatus, or to some specialist who has both the 
uecessary knowledge and the equipment. 

In the metropolitan areas such a service is already largely pro- 
vided by hosjiitals, by specialists, and by laboratories. It is the 
provincial towns and the countiy distiicts which are at a disad- 
vantage in this respect. 

It is clearly desirable that the facilities indicated should be 
available in all principal countrv centres, but it must be apparent 
that, practically, this desirable end cannot be reached all at once. 
If some providential i)iterpositiou should make available, all at 
a blow, the necessary equipment at points from which the whole 
population could be served, there would yet be difficulties of in- 
sufficiency of trained men, of general administration, and of the 
necessary public recognition of the value of the measures. This 
indicates the necessity for regulated development in the applica- 
tion of these modern precise methods to the whole range of clinical 

That a commencement shoiild be made in this direction is clear 
to all who have realized the j^csition as it is to-day. This com- 
inencement. should be made by providing at the hospitals and the 
larger of the e:- tra-metropolitan towns the necessary equipment 
for exact clinical diagnosis. 

While, however, the range of equi])ment is so extensive that it 
will take time to provide all that is necessary, there is one branch 
of medical science which is not only easily served with the neces- 
sary equipment, but is in itself so important that its claims should 
receive first consideration and its demands should be satisfied 
before other demands are examined. The prevention of disease 
should be the first aim of medical science, and in the process of 
the education of public opinion, the stage has been already reached 
when tlie public are demanding that all the resources of modern 
knowledge shall be applied for the prevention of disease. 

The technical apj)aratus required for the application of many 
of the laws of public health, for the control of infectious disease, 
for the prevention of water and food poisoning, and other matters 
of preventive medicine is not unduly extensive, has in the main 

PKESIDENt's address — SECTION I. 225 

been definitely classified, and can be made with proper organiza- 
tion to serve larger populations. There are already sufficient trained 
medical men to make a commencement, and there is nO' reason 
why, laboratories to serve all public health purposes should not 
forthwith be established at the principal country centres through- 
cut Australia. There is, in fact, every reason why thesei labora- 
tories should be established at once. 

There is proceeding now in Victoria an agitation for a more 
satisfactory milk supply. It is not necessary to remind members 
of this Congress that the only test of a milk supply is the labora- 
tory test, either chemical or bactericlcgical. It is mere political 
opportunism to talk of schemes for milk control when no provision 
is made lor laboratory control of the purity of the milk supplied. 
No brewery manager would dream of conducting his business 
without a lai'ge staff of expert laboratory advisers, but for the 
most important food supply of the people, there is in no State 
adeqiiate provision of means for laboratory control. There is in 
no State more than one small public health laboratory, and, in 
some State«, the State Government has not provided the Public 
Health Department with_ a laboratory at all. 

Under existing State laws, medical practitioners are required 
to certify to the fact of a cure of venereal diseases — syphilis or 
gonorrhoea. The curej in either case cannot be determined re- 
liably M'ithout careful laboratory work in experienced hands. The 
doctor at Thursday Island, at Broome, or at Queenstown, must 
send his speciniens to Brisbane, *Perth or Hobart, and, in the 
presence of a strike, he cannot send them at all. Preventive 
medicine, obviously, cannot be effectively carried on under these 

The control of typhoid fever, of diphtheria, of malaria, and of 
bilharzia are impossible without laboratory exaininations. The 
provision of one laboratory at the metropolitan centre of each State 
was an inevitable first step, rendered inevitable by pressure of 
circumstances, but this was merely a makeshift, and has for years 
now been quite inadequate. It is true that all medical men can 
send their specimens of various kinds to these laboratories for 
examination, but there are narrow limits to the value of the in- 
formation that a swab or a blocd sample is " positive" or " nega- 
tive," particularly when, as sometimes happens, this result is 
cpiite at variance with the doctor's conviction based on clinical 
evidence . 

The desirable objective, the accessibility to each doctor of the 
means for arriving at correct laboratory results, or at least of 
seeing the processes in operation and discussing the results with 
the laboratory expert, is not attained by these means, and pro- 
gress is, under these conditions, exceedingly slow. 

226 pkesident's address — section i. 

It is ueoessary that the doctor can follow his own material into 
the laboratory, can see and understand the significance of the 
processes of examination, and, as he becomes familiar with the 
technique, carry out the operations himself. 

It i? urgently necessary for the proper application of the prin- 
ciples of preventive medicine that laboratories devoted to the pur- 
poses of preventive medicine should be established without further 
delay. It is a sinister reflection on the famous phrase of Beacons- 
field that " the first duty of a statesman is the care of the public 
; health,:" that, whereas no brewer, no condensed milk maker, no 
■^./h .^rniii§:management or metal refinery works, no water supply hand, 
' iio confectionery maker would dare to be without a chemist as an 
important member of his staff, yet, in the all-important science 
of medicine, the State does not attempt to make available the 
scientific knowledge which could be used with encrmous profit to 
t . the State. The care of the public health, in which all the 

''^;_ available resources of modern science should be at once used, is 
^ir*-' that -branch of public activity in which such knowledge is 
"least used. 

It is necessarv to state definitely that, in so proposing to apply 
scientific methods to the prevention of disease, there is no in- 
tentio^n to introduce the question of research. That word " re- 
search " se«ms toi have for the young medical graduate a lure and 
a fascination out of all proportion to its real significance. The 
discovery of new facts of value is not a, prize to be grasped by 
a young graduate fresh from a university course, but requires 
years of patient experience, learning technique, methods, the 
mistakes and discoveries of others, and, above all, demands a 
special temperament. Research work is a highly specialized branch 
of scientific work, which can be successfully performed only by 
a specially trained man in a specially prepared environment. 
Pasteur stated the position when he said — " In the fields of 
observation chance favours only the mind which is prepared." 

This research work should be carried cu, and the' routine labora- 
tories should play an important part in connexion with it, but 
it is the routine laboratory for the application of ascertained facts 
which is immediately needed. 

A commencement might well be made by establishing one silch 
at Kalgoorlie, Port Pirie, Bendigo, Bathurst or Tenterfield, Too 
woomba, Rock'iarapton, Cairns, Thursday Island, Darwin, and 
Launceston. Their value would soon be demonstrated and the 
necessity for the establishraent of others recognised. 

In this way the English system of Primary Health Centres would 
be commenced, and a beginning made in the application of scien- 
tific knowledge to the practice of medicine for the prevention and 
cure of disease. 





Professor Alexander Mackie. M.A 

Professor of Education in the University of Sydn 


It was after considerable hesitation that I accepted the position 
of President of the Education Section of the Australasian Science 
Congress, partly because of my inability to be present in person, 
and partly because the work of administering a large college and 
teaching the subject of education to University classes leaves little 
leisure for original work. I am very sensible of the great honour 
which the Education Committee has done me, and much regret my 
absence from this gathering. The opportunity for discussion with 
those interested in education comes so rarely in Australia that one 
is loath to miss it. I had. however, already planned a visit to 
Great Britain which was long overdue. 

The science of education appears to be entering on a further 
stage of development. Hitherto^ measurement has played but a 
small part in the organization, of this branch of knowledge. Now, 
however, there appears the possibility of measuring educational 
facts which hitherto have been mainly matters of traditional 
opinion and individual judgment. I propose to- devote some time to 
a survey of those branches of educational science' to which measure- 
ment has been most successfully applied ; thereafter I shall con- 
sider very briefly some of the problems which confront the 
educational administrator and the practising teacher, but which 
as yet the student of education cannot solve with any precision, 
though there is every reason to believe that they, too, in time will 
be open to investigation by more precise methods. 

228 president's address — section j. 

The study of education must go beyond a merely descriptive 
accouiit of the practice of education as it now exists, and as it 
has existed in the past. The history of educational theory and of 
educational practice is of great value, but dees not by itself consti- 
tute a science cf education. Tradition and individual experience are 
inadequate foundations for the professional practice of education. 
li must rest on a basis of scientific knowledge as well. And this 
.'scientific knowledge can only be constructed as the result of the 
labours of students of education, each devoting himself to the 
careful study of specific problems. " There is," says Mr. Burt, 
■'in education a vast field for practical research. Unlike other 
professions, such as medicine or engineering, teaching still relies 
largely for guidance upon private experience, personal impression, 
and professional tradition. These resources are supplemented by 
unsparing devotion, unfailing sympathy, hard work, and common 
sense. But they are not enough. Admirable as they are. yet of 
necessity they leave the practice of education at the present day 
where the practice of medicine was a century ago. They leave it 
without any scientific foundation. The engineer is regarded as 
an expe.rt, the physician as a man of science. But those whose 
business is to care for the mind and build up characters are sub- 
ject to daily criticism by the public or in the press as though they 
were themselves amateurs. Knowledge here is in its infancy, and 
science but a few years old. The real need, therefore, is for 
research. Only through research can scientific knowledgei take' the 
place of universal opinion, and only through scientific knowledge 
can practical efficiency be attained . " ' 

It is, I take it, unnecessary to consider an objection formerly 
urged against the science of education, on the ground that such a 
science was in the nature of the case impossible. Such an objec- 
tion can only have weight with those who are unacquainted with 
the work done during the past twenty years. Education has 
become an independent science, proposing its own problems and 
investigating them by its own appropriate methods. It is no 
longer to be conceived as merely a body of deductions from other 
sciences or as a patchwork of portions of these other sciences. 

What then are the fundamental problems of education 1 There 
are but two. The practice of education concerns itself with the 
upbringing of the young. The educator seeks so to bring up-thei 
young as to promote their welfare. He needs to know the nature 
of this welfare and the means of promoting it. Hence the science 
of education falls into' two main divisions, the first concerned with 
the end and aims of upbringing, the second with the means and 
methods by which this aim may most effectively be achieved. The 
science of education is in part a science of ends or values, and in 
part a science of means. For instance, we have to consider whether 
it is good for some or all pupils to learn a foreign language, and 
when we have settled that question we have to consider the 

president's address — SECTION J. 229 

various means by which knowledge and skill in a foreign tongue 
may be acquired, and which of these various means is in the* given 
circumstances incst effective. The study of educational aims and 
ends demands a procedure different from that required for the 
study of educational means. . The procedure must here be that of 
the other sciences of value, and the conclusions w© come to respect- 
ing the aims of education will be largely determined by our general 
philosophical position. I have argued this question elsewhere, and 
do not propose to consider it further to-day. 

Any study of educational means and methods must include the 
following divisions. In the first place, school education will not be 
effectively conducted unless we know something of the disti'ibution 
of natural capacity throughout the school population, aaid of the 
variation in the attainments of pupils within each age group and 
m successive age gixups. Considerable- success has attended the 
efforts of those who in recent years have sought to measure the 
natural abilitv and the attainments of the school population. A 
complete mental survey of the school population would seem to 
be even more necessary than the complete physical survey which 
medical inspection now endeavours to secure. Educational treat- 
ment, like medical treatment, must rest on a foundation of know- 
ledge, and that knowledge can only be gained by a mental survey. 
This appears to me to be the significance of the movement towards 
the measurement of general and scholastic ability — by means of 
mental tests. The scholastic, lik© the medical, treatment will then 
have a twofold aim. It will seek to promote the best mental 
growth of those who are intellectually sound, and it will seek, so 
far as may be, to remedy mental defects, whether general or 
specific. Where cure is impossible, as in cases of innate mental 
deficiency, it will do what is possible to prevent mental deteriora- 
tion . 

How dependent effective educational treatment must be upon 
our knowledge of the distribution of general and scholastic ability 
is emphasized by Mr. Burt in his recent "Study of the Distribution 
and Relations of Educational Abilities." "There are few pro- 
blems," he says, '' in educational organization which do nob 
involve some assumption, either tacit or express, as to the way in 
which educational ability is distributed. The most efficient method 
of organizing school classes ; the subjects for which cross classifica- 
tion is needed ; the best schemes of promotion ; the proper allot- 
ment of marks; the procedure in internal examinations and in 
examinations for scholarships ; the standards of achievement, 
optimal as well as minimal, attainable under different conditions 
and at crucial stages in the school career; tests of progress or 
deterioration in the educational system as a whole and in indi- 
vidual schools and children ; the provision needed for children in 
jpecial categories — backward, defective, unstable, advanced, or 
alented ; the allocation of individuals of appropriate ability to 

230 president's address — section j. 

appropriate vocations; these and numerous other problems would 
be largely solved by a scientific census of educational abilities 
carried out and periodically repeated." 

Of the methods of conducting such a survey of the general and 
scholastic ability of a school population it is impossible here to 
say much. The distribution ol the pupils throughout the school 
classes in relation to their ages gives for large numbers a fairly 
accurate picture of the distribution of natural ability. An age 
class table will show that for each age group the members are 
distributed throughout a series of classes, the range of distribu- 
tion increasing with age up to about thirteen. Beyond this age 
the pupils in the public primary schools are hardly a fair sample, 
since many havei left, and some have been promoted to higher 
schools. Two things are, however, clear — first, that the varia- 
bility of the group increases as the age rises, and that the distri- 
bution is roughly symmetrical and in accord with the normal 
curve. For London children, Burt found the standard deviation 
to be about one-tenth of the age of the group, but for New South 
Wales the variability appears to be less. Burt believes that 
scholastic ability, if we could measure ii apart from the complica- 
tions introduced by the influence of circumstances, would be found, 
likei physical traits, toi be distributed normally. If v/e may accept 
this assumption, we may use it to criticise the actual age class 
distribution which we find in our schools. This actual distribution 
gives too large a proportion of older pupils in each class group, 
and too small a proportion of younger. It is probable, and experi- 
encei seems to confirm the suggestion, that the brighter pupils tend 
unduly to be retarded, and fail to move forward as rapidly as 
their natural capacity would justify. If this is so, it involves a 
loss, not only to the individual, iDut to the community. The 
lesser variability of New South Wales children niay, perhaps, also 
be due to faulty classification, for it is doubtful if a range of six 
classes is sufficient for pupils from six to fourteen years. If the 
range is adequate for the majority, it is certainly too small for 
the abler pupils. We have, then, in the hypothesis of the normal 
distribution of scholastic ability throvighout each age group a 
useful method of determining the probable correctness of our 
classification of a school population. It must, of course, be remem- 
bered that if the population considered is small it may not be a 
fair sample, and soi may not show the typical normal distribution. 
But any marked departure, even in a small group, such as the 
pupils of a, single school, should arouse inquiry as tO' whether it is 
justified by the special circumstances of the school. 

Our present methods of classification of children, for instance, 
that of one grouping for all school subjects, and that of yearly 
or even of half-yearly promotions, is likely to distort the natural 
distribution of scholastic ability. 

president's address — SECTION J. 231 

The age class table is one method of measuring the ability ot" 
the school population and of studying its distribution. It is a 
method easy of application, but can only yield a rather rough 
estimate, since the position of a pupil in school depends on other 
conditions than his natural ability, and since scholastic ability does 
not completely correspond with general ability. More refined 
methods of testing the general innate ability of school pupils are 
provided by th© various forms of intelligence: tests which have 
been developed in recent years. These tests may be either scholastic 
or non-scholastic in character, though the distinction is at times a 
difficult one to draw with precision. Further, they may be either 
group or individual tests. Clearly, if we are to' carry out a mental 
survey on a large scale it will be necessary to employ group tests, 
as was done, for instance, in the American army. Individual 
tests will only be possible for the testing of special cases. 

Among the non-scholastic tests of intelligence, first devised 
by Binet, and their later modifications, are probably the best known 
and the most frequently employed. The Binet scale suffers, how- 
ever, from two disadvantages in addition to that of being an 
individual method of testing intelligence. First, while very useful 
for securing the aim its inventor had in mind, viz., the diagnosis 
of subnormal mental ability, it is much less useful as a method of 
diagnosing those pupils whose mental ability is markedly above 
the average. We are only beginning to' become aware of our 
neglect of the upper 10 per cent, of our school population, though 
recently more attentioii has been given, especially in the United 
States of America, to the questioii of the training suited to the 
more gifted pupils. But if the subnormal, the backward, and 
mentally defective pupils require special treatment, it is worth 
considering whether the superncmial, the advanced and the gifted 
pupils do not at least equally require special consideration. The 
mass methods of instruction which have characterized our school 
policy for some time past will probably need considerable modifica- 
tion as a result of the evidence now becoming available as to the 
range of innate ability and its distribution. It may be better, 
where numbers are sufficiently large, not to have our class groups 
soi heterogeneous in natural ability as thev appear to be at present, 
and it may become necessar}^ to recognise that differences in teach- 
ing procedure are called for with pupils or groups of different 
mental types. 

In the second place, the Binet scale is so constructed that a 
different set of tests is prescribed for the diagnosis of each mental 
level expressed in years of age. We cannot, then, directly com- 
pare the mental ability of, say, a normal six-year-old child with 
that of a normal ten-year-old. Wei merely know that the six- 
year-old cannot pass so many tests as the ten-year-old, but quanti- 
tative comparison is impossiT^le. The Yerkes Bridges modification 
of the Binet scale, however, attempts to overcome this difficulty 


by assigning numerical values to the several tests ; and the figure 
known as the intelligence quotient alsoi allows of direct com- 
parison between the mental levels of different age groups. But 
it seems likely that eventually the Binet type of scale will be 
abandoned in favour of a single test or group of tests applicable 
to a considerable age range. This latter method of measuring 
innate intelligence was first attempted by Burt, and an account 
given in his " Experimental Tests of General Intelligenoe, " pub- 
lished in 1909. Work of similar character has since been done by 
Abelson, Wyatt, Bickersteth and others. 

Burt has given special attenticn to the selection of tests of the 
higher mental processes which he has found to be more closely 
related io general intelligence than those of the sensory and per- 
ceptual levels. T"hus his method of using a groujj of tests appli- 
cable to a series of age groups will enable comparison to be made 
of the intelligence oif the different age groups in a way difficult 
or impossible with the Binet scale. There is also the advantage 
that the tests proposed are more useful than those of the Binet 
scale for the selection of gifted children. The series of tests for 
reasoning ability recently published is likely to prove of great 
value for the selecticn of the abler members of a- school population. 
Mention may be made of the absurdities tests suggested by 
"Ballard, which, when extended by further examples, may also 
be found most useful. 

No tests, either of scholastic or of general ability, can give 
information of scientific value till it itself has been tested. A 
test in order to be useful for the measurement of general mental 
ability must fulfil at least the following conditions. It must 
measure the ability which it is supposed to measure, and hence 
should show a high degree of correspondence with trustworthy 
empirical estimates of intelligence ; its results should vary only 
with intelligence and not with age, sex, or social circumstances, 
except in soi far as these vary with intelligence; it must be reliable 
and consistent in the results which repeated applications give ; 
it should be easily administered and easily marked, and hence a 
group test is more useful than an individual test. 

So far, noi one test has proved completely satisfactory by itself 
for the measurement of general mental ability, but when the re- 
sults of a group' of tests are combined a high degree of precision 
can be reached. 

The tests which have proved useful elsewhere will probably be 
of equal value for the measurement of the mental ability of 
Australian children. But accurate measurement is impossible 
until we have re-standardized the tests in use elsewhere or have 
invented and standardized our own. This is a most pressing 
problem for the advance of our science. A beginning has been 
made in the laboratory of the Teachers' College, Sydney, but 

president's ADDRESS^SECTION J. 233 

the task is a very large one and requires the co-operation of 
many workers. During the past two years a considerable amount 
ot work has been done under the direction of Dr. Phillips. The 
following tests have been applied to a large number of children, 
and froin the data so secured the reliability has been calculated. 

The following table shows the reliabilitv of the tests studied: — 

Binet ... ... ... ... ... .89 

Opposites ... .. ... ... .71 

Part whole ... ... ... ... .73 

Coniplelicn ... . ... ... .72 

Porteus ... ... ... ... ... .29 

Healy Form Board . . ... .. .26 

Gcddard's Form Board ... ... ... .70 

Unless a reliability of about .60 is secured no test is worth 
using in its existing form. Hence the Porteus Test and the Healy 
Test are not sufficiently reliable. It is interesting to note that 
Whipple also has found the Porteius Test unreliable. The results 
cf the work done in Sydney will be published shortly in Schooling. 

From the evidence so far available the following conclusions 
may be suggested : First, the distribution of mental ability both 
general and specific, scholastic and non-scholastic, accords with 
the normal curve and thus resembles the distribution of a physical 
trait such as height or weight. Second, the rate of mental growth 
i.? largely innate. So far, however, we know very little as to the 
rate of mental growth. It is certainly not uniform, even in the 
case of one individual. Burt remarks of backward children that 
their " common characteristic is that their rate of educational 
progress is much slower than that of the mass of children in 
ordinary schools — about three-quarters of the normal rate " 
(p. 38). Third, mental growth ceases at cliiferent levels which 
may be represented in mental years. The highest mental level 
is placed by some at 16 and by others at 19 years. Only the 
very gifted reach this highest leivel ; according to American 
statistics, 4 per cent, of the population. For the others the innate 
growth cf intelligence ceases at various lower mental levels. 
Children who are mentally defective, for instance, do not seem 
able to advance beyond the mental level reached by the normal 
child at 12 years of age. 

There is need for a scientific study of the efEect of teaching on 
the different types of innate intelligence. Good teaching would 
seem to increase the variability of a group heterogeneous in innate 
ability. " The main effect," says Burt, "of teaching upon educa- 
tional ability is, as a rule, to increase the individual differences 
already present from birth" (p. 45). We already, in some 
measure, recognise the need for adapting our teaching to the 
differences in intelligence corresponding with age, and we are just 
beginning to see that teaching procedure may require to be varied 

234 president's address — section j. 

for the differences in intelligence within any given age group. 
The more gifted children, for instance, may make progress best by 
methods that are relatively ineffective with those of lesser ability. 
This conclusion is suggested by Valentine's experiment in read- 
ing, and is definitely stated by Whipple in his monograph on the 
selection and training of gifted children. 

Mental tests of a non-scholastic character will yield informatioii 
about the distribution of innate ability if the group examined 
is homogeneous in opportunity of gaining experience. Similarly 
scholastic tests will infonn us not only of the actual attainmeints 
of the group' tested, but also of the variations of innate scholastic 
ability if the group has been so selected as to Be homogeneous 
in scholastic opportunity. And it may be that some scholastic 
tests will, under this condition, prove quite as useful as the non- 
scholastic for the measurement of general intelligence. " There 
seems," says Brown, 'to be no serious reason why the ordinary 
material cf school study should not be employed to a much 
greater extent than is actually the case, as psychological material 
from which to deduce important psycho-pedagogical laws."* And 
Burt has shown that scholastic or quasi-scholastic tests can be 
administered by competent teachers with a degree of accuracy at 
least equal to that of a trained experimental psychologist. 

Much work has been done by American investigators in devis- 
ing and standardizing tests of scholastic ability and in securing 
grade norms of performance. But the system of classification 
current in our schools is not the same as the American, and hence 
we cannot compare the work of our pupils with that of American 
classes. In anv^ case the scholastic tests need to be standardized 
for ovir school population. Until this has been done, a scientific 
survey of the scholastic ability of our school population is hardly 
possible. The lecturers in education of the Teachers' College, 
Sydney, have begun an investigation of arithmetical ability in 
the four fundamental operations, and some of the results of the 
work of the past two years will be presented to this section at a 
later meeting. 

English investigators have aimed at establishing age group 
norms instead of class group norms, and these are of greater 
scientific interest than the class group norms of the American 
school populations. It is probable, too, that from these age group 
norms there can be deduced class group norms which will be of as 
great practical value as the American grade norms. If ability is 
distributed normally, and if each school class represents one year 
of mental growth, it should be possible to state the average attain- 
ment to be expected from each class group, if that class grouj) 
is a fair sample of the general school population. Age norms for 
ability in oral and silent reading have been published by Ballard 

* Brown, " Modern Educational Psychology."— .7o(/r. of Experimental Pe'l.. vol. I., p. 6. 

president's address — SECTION J. 235 

aud by Moore; and by Ballard for ability in arithmetic. Mention 
must also be made of the important work published by Burt in 
1917, on the " Distribution and Relations of Educational Ability," 
Burt does not give norms for the various forms of scholastic 
ability, but his conclusions and his discussion of methods will 
afford the greatest assistance to^ later investigators. 

From his careful study of the scholastic ability of a selected 
group he concludes that scholastic achievements are determined by 
two kinds of mental factors — first, general educational ability 
which is related to, but not identical with, general intelligence, 
and which affects in different degrees the pupils' performances in 
different school subjects; second, specific educational abilities, con- 
fined to special subjects or groups of subjects. School subjects 
appear to fall into four groups, each dependent on a specific ability 
which is largel}^ independent of the others. The four groups are 
called by Burt (1) arithmetical, (2) manual, (3) linguistic, and 
(4) literary. 

Burt's study has confirmed the findings of recent American 
studies as to the great overlapping which exists between the class 
groups of the ordinary primary school. Teachers are rarely aware 
of its extent. The amount of overlapping varies for different sub- 
jects, being least for those subjects which correlate most closely 
with general educational ability. 

" The subjects in which heterogeneity and overlap appear most. 
are the more mechanical subjects which, in the higher classes are 
but little dependent upon general ability, and, in particular, those 
subjects which are dependent mos{ upon specific capacity. For 
Iheee subjects it is often desirable to cross-classify either schools 
or classes."* 

These findings suggest the desirability of altering our present 
method of a single classification and adopting a four-fold classi- 
fication of pupils according to the grouping given by a study of 
the specific correlations of school subjects ; or if that plan is not 
practicable, of modifying our present procedure of collective class 
teaching by the adoption of some plan of sets or divisions within 
the class group. 

An experiment in four-fold classification is to be begun in 
Sydney at the Darlington Practice School, under Mr. Vout, in 
January next. 

The four-fold grouping pro}iosed by Burt will be adopted. The 
second method, that of dividing a class group into sets or divisions 
and allowing the members of the class to move forward at the 
pace suited to their rate of mental growth, has been tried with 
a special class during the past five yeais at the Blackfriars Practice 
School, and it is hoped that a description of the procedure may 
be published shortly. 

* Burt, ibid., p. 34. 

236 president's address — section j. 

School examinations are a form of scholastic test which are 
urgently in need of scientific investigation. Much criticism is 
directed in particular against external examinations. These 
criticisms may or may not be justified. We need a study of the 
methods of testing scholastic ability in current use, and must 
apply to these more familiar scholastic tests the exact methods 
now being employed in the application of non-scholastic tests. At 
present, for instance, no attempt is made to estimate the relia- 
bility of an external examination. It is currently asserted that 
the pupils are not normal when they sit for an external examina- 
tion, and that in consequence the order of merit as given by the 
examination results does not correspond with the true order of 
merit. It may be so. Speculation is unproifitable, and exact know- 
ledge could readily he secured ; first, by determining the reliability 
oc the examination test itself; and second, by calculating the 
oo-efficient of correlation between the examination results and the 
estimates of competent teachers. 

It is further contended that the marking is unreliable because 
examiners vary in their standards, and the same examiner does 
?iot maintain an even standard. Recent American investigation 
appears £o lend support to this contention, but methods could 
be adopted to counteract the effect of such variations, once they 
are known. Again, the standard and range of marking may vary 
from subject to subject. But if scholastic ability follows the 
normal distribution, such variations are probably due to methods 
and standards of marking. " The degree," says Burt, " to which 
individuals are scattered above and below the average should, 
apart from special reasons to the contrary, be about the same in 
different subjects." 

" According to the usual methods of marking, the standard 
deviation found in subjects like arithmetic appears higher, as a 
rule, than that found in subjects like composition. Yet there is 
no reason to suppose that literary ability is less varied than 
arithmetical . " * 

If the standard of marking differs for different subjects, injury 
may be done to candidates where choice is permitted and the 
same group of subjects is not taken by all. At present, public 
examinations determine very often the future career of candidates, 
and for this reason alone it is desirable to secure that the order 
of merit given by the examination is, as nearly as may be, the 
true crdeir, and to know, at all events, how far the^ actual order 
departs fromi the true order. 

There are many other problems bearing on the conduct of 
examinations that are urgently in need of investigation, but only 
a brief mention can be made of seme of them. 

» Burt, ibid., i>. 48. 

president's address — SECTION J. 237 

What mental processes do we at present test by our exammations ? 
And are these the forms of mental ability which it is desirable 
to test ? Competence in a subject is not merely, or perhaps 
mainly, a matter of memory, yet examination papers are often 
predoiuinantly tests of memory. Constructive thinking and taste, 
for instance, probably get tco' little opportunity of showing them- 
selves New, in view of the fact that at present the trend ol teach- 
ing is largely determined by the kind of examination paper set, 
it is important that in the setting of papers we should realize 
quitei clearly the forms of mental activity that will be called into 
play in working th« paper. 

In the second place, a careful study should bei made of the 
wording of the questions. It has been found in general mental 
tests that the results secured may differ very much whein different 
instructions are given. New, an examination question is an in- 
struction to the pupil, and the way in which he reacts will cer- 
tainly be affected by the way in which the instruction is given. 
For younger pupils it would seem that at present the wording 
ef questions is often too difficult. 

Is an easy paper or a hard paper the better scholastic test ? 
The answer will in part depend on the object we have in view, 
but there is need to study the response which pupils make to such 
differences in the test. It is likely, for instance, that for a qualify- 
ing examination an easy paper is preferable, while for an honour, 
or competitive examination it may be that a much harder paper 
is best; at preseiit the same test is^frequently made to serve both 
purposes, and often seems to do it badly. But en all these matters 
we need a body of facts, and that at present we do not possess. 

Again, mixch good would come from a study of the physical 
and mental effects of preparing for and undergoing examinations 
upon pupils of different ages and sexes. We have now much 
assertion of alleged injurious effects, but iio reliable evidence of 
any kind is available. Examinations now play so large a part 
ir the life of school pupils that assertion and opinion should be 
replaced by knowledge. That knowledge can only be gained by 
careful and prolonged scientific study. 

The attempt to measure school work by mean's of carefully 
standardized tests is sometimes looked at with suspicion by 
teachers who fear that such tests may be put to an improper 
use' by school administrators. But school work is already tested 
by inspectors, headmasters, and others. At present they do it 
rather badly, because of the defective instruments and methods 
which they employ. In consequoice, the ccmpetent teacher may 
easily be misjudged, and he has nc remedy; he has no standard 
to which he can appeal, no means of checking the subjective 
opinion of those who judge him. Accurate instruments and 
methods of measurement would protect the competent teacher 

238 president's address — section j. 

from unjust criticism. By means of these objective measures dif- 
ferences of opinion as between teacher, headmaster, and inspector 
would be largely avoided. Further, it would be possible to mea- 
sure more accurately the progress made by a class over a particular 
period. But class progress and class achievements are in part 
only due to the skill of the teacher, and we have to consider ail 
the factors upon which scholastic attainments depend before we 
can estimate the teacher's share in the production of the result. 
Much depends, as all teachers know^ upon the innate ability of 
the class group. This we can now measure with fair accuracy, 
and so may arrive at some estimate of the quality of the teacher's 
work. For a lower mark with a poorer class group' may be 
evidence of greater teaching skill than a higher mark with a group 
of greater scholastic ability. 

We have further, in estimating the class attainments, toi consider 
not one subject, but all subjects, for it is easy to' secure a high 
level of attainment in one subject by the relative neglect of others 
which perhaps are not so carefully tested. What is needed to 
'letermine the efficiency of a school or class group is some index 
number, which will be so constructed as to exhibit the total 
efficiency when all aspects of school life and work have been given 
due weight. To pursue this matter further would involve a study 
of the methods of school inspection and examination. Such a 
study is greatly needed, for our methods of inspection are at pre- 
sent much behind our methods of teaching. The recent surveys 
of American school systems are very suggestive as indicating more 
satisfactory methods than are at present in use in the Australian 
States. One has cnly to read the inspectors' reports as at present 
compiled to recognise that they tell little or nothing of the real 
state of the school, or how it compares with other schools, in the 
innate ability and achievements of its pupils, in character of 
teaching staff, of buildings or of equipment. 

Reliable norms of scholastic performance would enable the 
teacher to vary his time-table when he finds the level of the class 
performance in any subject either above or below a reasonable 
standard of performance for the individual or group. Thorndike, 
for instance, points out that at present we are apt to teach 
children to Avrfbe too well. School time is so short, and there are 
so many things worth doing that it seems a pity to waste time 
by demanding an unduly high standard of performance. 

Recent studies of the distribvition of scholastic ability have 
shown in a very striking manner the heterogeneity of all age 
groups, and even of the actual class groups into which a school 
population is organized. The heterogeneity of the age groups has, 
oif coiurse, been more or less recognised, since actual class groups 
are always heterogeneous in respect of age. It was supposed, 
however, that in ability a class group was fairly homogeneous, 
and it is on this assumption that much oi our present practice 

president's address — SECTION J. 239 

of collective teaching rests. Both English and American investi- 
gators have shown how very different are the facts from this 
assumption. Says Burt, " By the ordinary methods of school 
organization the variation of a class is reduced to about cne-half 
that of an age group. By an ideal classification for each subject 
separately, it could theoretically be reduced to about one-third."* 

The amount of heterogeneity will vary for different subjects, 
depending on the subject or subjects which have determined the 
class grouping. But clearly, collective teaching will be less effec- 
tive for these subjects where the heterogeneity of the group is 
greatest. There is need to supplement this method by forms of 
individual or group teaching. If we retain our present one-fold 
method of class grouping, we mvist introduce more individual and 
groupi teaching. 

Not only are age groups and class groups heterogeneous in 
scholastic ability, they also overlap, and the overlapping of both 
age groups and class groups is much greater than has been sup- 
posed. The amount of overlap j:ing of classes varies for different 
subjects, and will be least in those subjects which have determined 
the class grouping. It would seem desirable to reduce this over- 
lapping SO' far as possible, and it can be dene by the same methods 
as are indicated for the reduction of heterogeneity in the class 
group. More flexible methods cf promotion and reclassification 
for special groups of subjects appear desirable. 

For which subjects or groups of subjects, then, is reclassificati<in 
desirable? This problem has been investigated by Burt, who has, 
from a study of the specific correlations between the school sub- 
jects, grouped them into the following four groups: — ■ 

1. An arithmetical group — including mechanical and {iroblema- 
tic arithmetic. 

2. A manual group, including handwork, drawing, and writing. 

3. A linguistic group, including dictation and reading. 

4. A composition gi'oup, including history, geography, science, 
and composition. 

Says Burt, " If children are reclassified for dictation, the re- 
classification may serve also for reading : similarly, the reclassi- 
fication for arithmetic (rules) may serve verv largely for arith- 
metic (problems). But neither dictation, arithmetic, nor general 
educational ability will yield honicgeneous classes in drawing or 
handwork. The subjects, therefore, for which reclassification 
seems desirable are those which show a high specific correlation 
with one another. These, as we have seen, fall into three or four 
main groups. If then the main classification is based lai'gely upon 
work in the composition group, reclassification may be desirable 
for manual, perhaps for linguistic, but above all for the arith- 
metical subjects." t 

* Burt, ibid., p. 74. 
t Biirt, jbifl., p. 67. 

24U president's address — section J, 

The E.rperi/nenfal Stiidf/ of Tcdchhifj I'roccdurc . 

The study of the relative eifectiveness of different forms of 
teaching procedure has so far received but little attention. Yet 
it is a field of investigation in which results of great value to the 
practising teacher may be expected, for at" present the conflict of 
opinion among teachers as to the relative merits of different teach- 
ing methods is very considerable. The measurement of the rela- 
tive effectiveness of different methods of teaching presents many 
difficulties, since it is hard to isolate thei factor of teaching pro- 
cedurei. Toi do so we must either measure the influence of other 
factors such as age, sex, social status, innate ability, competence 
of the teacher, and so on, and this in general is not as yet 
possible, or we must keep these factors constant while vary- 
ing the method used. To do this latter requires much skill in 
planning the experiment; Winch's method of " equal groups " is 
perhaps the most important device so' far employed for making 
comparison possible between two different teaching methods. 

Briefly this inethod consists in selecting as homogeneous a group 
of pupils as possible to' act as subjects of the experiment. This 
group is then given a preliminary test in the subject matter to>_be 
taught. On the results of this test the group is divided into sets 
by the selection of pupils alternately from the order of merit given 
by the preliminary test. We now have two parallel sets whose 
average ability is equal within the limits of "chance error. Each 
set is now given a series of lessons where all conditions as to time 
of day, length of lesson, quantity and kind of subject matter are 
kept the same, with the exception of the method of teaching 
adopted. After the completion of the series of lessons the sets 
are again grouped, and a final test is given to- the original group. 
If now there is any difference in the achievement of the two sets 
beyond what might be expected from chance we may conclude 
that it is probably due to the method of teaching adopted. 

This method has been employed by Valentine for the comparisoai 
of a phonic with a whole word method of teaching reading ; by 
Winch in the study of a directed, as compared with a more in- 
dividual, method of learning the spelling of word lists, and again 
in comparing speed and accuracy in subtraction when taught by 
the method of decomposition and by the method of equal addition. 

Thesei experiments are of interest not merely because of the 
immediate conclusions to which they point, but because they sug- 
gest lines of inquiry of far reaching importance for the science of 
education. Valentine found that although on the whole a phonic 
method of teaching reading was more effective than a whole word 
method, yet this conclusion did not hold for the duller members 
o: the groups tested. Even where the phonic set was on the whole 
superior to the whole word set, it M'as fcund that the superioritv 
was due to the upper half of the set. The lower half was little if 

president's ADURES.S SECTION J. 241 

at all superior to the lower half of the whole word set. Ap- 
parently, then, the phonic method would seem better suited to the 
brighter pupils, while on the other hand it may be that the 
whole word method is better suited to the duller pupils. Any- 
way, the need for a further study of this suggestion is clear, 
especially as at present in New South Wales at least the various 
fc'rnis of phonic method are in fashion, and threaten to drive other 
methods out of the field. 

What Valentine's experiment suggests as holding for reading 
niay very well apply in the case of other subjects. It may be 
that the method of educational treatment, like that of medical 
treatment, must vary with the nature of the patient. No doubt 
competent teachers recognise and act on this principle more or 
less implicitly, yet it is certainly desirable that we should have 
accurate knowledge for our guidance, and this we do not have. 
Text-books on method make no mention of the circumstances 
under which different methods are appropriate, unless this is what 
they mean when they advocate a judicious mixture of teaching 
methods, but fail to inform us how the mixture is to be com- 
pounded. As Burt points out, " Similar results are reached by 
different children by very different mental processes ; consequently 
a child who fails under one method of instruction will often suc- 
ceed, if a brief study be made of his natural aptitudes and opera- 
tions, and another mode of instruction adopted accordingly." 
Those responsible for the supervision of teachers are at present 
too prone to the belief that every method can be labelled ' ' good 
or " bad," and that a teacher is to be judged by the supposed 
goodness of the methods he uses instead of being judged by the 
nature of the results he achieves. 

Winch's investigation, " Should Young Children be Taught 
Arithmetical Proportion," does not answer this question, but it 
does prove that an infant class of ordinary pupils could do quite 
satisfactory work in proportion sums, and could do it after a 
short period and without explanatory or illustrative teaching. 
This investigation raises the same question as that suggested by 
the work of Dr. Montessori, whether our teaching, in the early 
school years at all events, might not with advantage be less ex- 
planatory and dogmatic. It is possible that teaching would be 
more effective if less time were devoted to exposition and explana- 
tion, and the pupils were supplied with exercises and toys for 
occupations in which they might learn for themselves. We say 
often enough that children leat'n by doing, but it would seem that 
we do not take sufficient pains to devise and grade suitable forms 
of occupation and exercise. 

For successful teaching there is needed, then, more knowledge 
than at present we possess of the psychological nature of scholastic 
abilities, and in addition the teacher must study his i)upils as he 
has done in the past. But if teachers are to study their pupils they 

242 president's address— section j. 

must not have too many of them, and they must have them under 
their care for a sufficient length of time. Satisfactory knowledge 
of the pupils is impossible under the pernicious plan which at 
present holds in some parts of Australia, that of transferring the 
teacheir to a new class or a new school at intervals of a year or 
less. A young teacher, at all events, should be allowed tO' remain 
in the same school long enough to see some of the fruits of his 
teaching. If this is not done, the teacher is deprived of one 
strong incentive to the growth of professional interest. And these 
frequent shifts appear to do^ injury to' the pupil. But it is de- 
sirable that carefvil measurements should be made of the scholastic 
achievements of initially equal groups, but under the care of one 
teacher for varying periods. The whole question indeed of the 
distribution of teaching power would well repay careful study. 
In the primary schools at present we often have in extreme form 
one kind of specialism where the teacher devotes himself year 
after year to the same narrow range of school work ; in the high 
schools on the other hand we find a very different form of 
specialism practised, where the teacher devotes himself to the same 
subject or branch of a svibject. 

The study of school organization and administration has recently 
been receiving great attention in the United States of America. 
The stimulus has been in part public dissatisfaction with the sup- 
posed condition of the schools. The school surveys which have 
been in consequence undertaken have in some cases shown the dis- 
satisfaction to be jii stifled, in other cases to^ be groundless. The 
published material now becoming available will do much to stimu- 
late thei growth- of the science of school administration and to 
improve its practice, particularly the methods of school inspection. 

The surveys of thei school systems of Cleveland, San FranciscO', 
and Salt Lake City may be mentioned, and that of the Gary 
Schools, conducted by the General Education Board. These, and 
ethers of similar character, are doing for American education 
what was done by Dr. Sadler many years ago for English 
secondarv education. Surveys on similar lines might with ad- 
\antage be undertaken in Australia, and might help to dispel the 
common ministerial myth about the superiority of Australian 
schools to those abroad. The annual reports published by the 
State Departments of Education give part, but by no means all, 
of the information about our schools M'hich it would be desirable 
to have. Even for the information they give they are less useful 
than they might be, since the data are often incomparable because 
compiled in different ways. Perhaps I may here repeat a sug- 
gestion which I made some years ago for the establishment of a 
Federal Bureau of Education on tha lines of the American Bureau 
at Washington, and of the office of Special Inquiries in London. 

president's address — SECTION J. 243 

In the foregoing brief survey I have sought to indicate a few 
of the directions along which the science of education is develop- 
ing, and to show how measurement is being applied to educa- 
tional data in a way which has till recently not been considered 
practicable. Nothing has beteii said of the man)^ interesting efforts 
that are being made by practising teachers to develop new forms 
of teaching procedure and of school government. The work now 
being done' in this field is of the greatest interest and importance, 
and will repay careful study. Unfortunately, descriptive accounts 
are, as yet, all too scanty. 

There is. however, one other field of study to which some refer- 
ence ought to be made, and this we may call educational patho- 
logy. Some attention has recently been given to the study of the 
errors made by pupils in the simpler forms of scholastic work, 
particularly in arithmetic and spelling. From this study much 
will be gained. Teachers will be better able to select suitable 
preventive or curative measures with greater certainty of success, 
and the studv of the various forms of scholastic disability may be 
expected to help us to a better understanding of the ability of 
normal children, and of the processes on which the growth of 
knowledge and skill depend. Again, the new science of psycho- 
analysis seems likely to throw much light on cases of intellectual 
and moral defect that teachers have hitherto found peculiarly 

There is need for greatly extended research in education. 
Scientific study is possible to an extent that has hardly been 
realized, and any teacher undertaking it will be well repaid by 
the insight grained into the working of the minds of those for 
whose scholastic welfare he is responsible. Advance in educational 
practice cannot be divorced frcm scientific research. It must be 
our aim as members of this section of the Australasian Association 
for the Advancement cf Science to further in every way the pro- 
gress of the science of education. 


244 president's address — section k. 



Professor Arthur J. Perkins, 

Director of Agriculture in South Australia. 


I should deem myself wanting in proper feeling if I did not 
take the first opportunity to express my high appreciation of the 
honour done me in nominating me to the position of President of 
this section of the Australasian Association for the Advancement 
of Science. I have given a life-time to the practice of agriculture 
and tO' a study, of some of its problems, and it is gratifying to 
find t?iat my efforts have been thought worthy of this recognition. 
On my part, I must hope that the choice of my subject-matter, 
and ni}'^ way of handling it, may not lead to avoidable 

From the outset, and perhaps to my shame, I shall confess to 
insufficient acquaintance with the general prceedixre of the Asso- 
ciation, and particularly as to the limitations which may be 
supposed to compass the subject-matter of presidential addresses. 
On taking thought, however, it has seemed to me that in this 
matter the only reasonably limiting factor should be adequate 
personal knowledge of the subject brought up for discussion ;- and 
whether legitimately or not, I have endeavoixred to act on this 
view. For twenty-two years I was directly engaged in the teach- 
ing of agricultural subjects; for ten years I was Principal of 
an Agricultural College, and for the 'past six years ray daily 
avocations have kept me in close touch with all that concerns 
agricultural education and training. In the circumstances, I have 
felt that if not qualified to speak on agricultural education, then 
it would be extremely difficult to name another subject within 
closer range of ray capacity. 


It may perhaps- be objected that, given the subject, there wa? 
little call for a display of special claims to co«ipetency ; that after 
all, like the weather, education, and particularly agricultural 
education, is one of those topics concerning which everybody feels 
naturally competent to express an opinion, and if so>, why not I ? 
There is the rub; it is all so beguilingly simple. We see around 
us carpenters, doctors, blacksmiths, lawyers, chemists, farmers, 
&c. — we feel that in the world there must be a constant demand 
for them, or, at all events, for some of them. Statisticians will 
even go to the length of telling us the ideal proportion which each 
one of these callings should bear to the population as a whole. 
Hence, the apparently logical inference that all education and 
training should be so managed and directed as to satisfy these 
material wants of thei community, and the natural corollary that 
the shoemaker need not be given ideas above his last, nor the 
farmer above his plough. Again, apart from, innate gifts, we 
-know competency in any art or vocation tO' come to the individual 
as the result only of long personal application and experience ; 
and that life-time is usually tcoi brief a span for perfection, if 
such can exist, in any one of them. And, in the circumstances, 
will not competency, if not perfection, be attained soonest and with 
the least waste ol" energy, if all those foredoomed by bii'th and 
statistics to carpentry, law, or farming, be seized upon in their 
tender years, and given by early education and training, that 
special twist which leads ultimatelv tO' competence' in carpentry, 
law, or farming ? And thus by a flawless line of argument we 
are led unerringly to the avowed gfial of our cradle-specialists, and 
of those who pin their faith to the superior educational value of 
exclusive and intensive training in single utilitarian subjects. 

Does this logical conclusion satisfy our native instincts as to 
what is meet and right? Much, I suppose, depends on our mental 
attitude towards life; happiness, as such, may not form an essen- 
tial feature in life, nor with any degree of plausibility can it be' 
described as its main objective. Happiness, nevertheless, is a 
good thing, and surely not to be despised by wracked humanity. 
There may be, or probably one should say there unquestionably 
are, ample grounds for rational happiness in the contemplation of 
a task well and faithfully done, and quite as much again in the 
actual doing of it. Nevertheless, here, as well as elsewhere, 
monotony can kill happiness quite as effectively as hostile intent; 
and however great the measure of his success, no- man is soi con- 
stituted as to be able to repeat unintermittedly the same task 
without loss of zest. He must relax at regular intervals, or fail 
in his mission in life; and has it not been well said that the true 
test of the value of education is not so much to be seen in 
working hours a>^ in those of leisure? If, then, an early course 

246 pkesident's address — section k. 

cf specialized training will produce soonest technically satisfactory 
carpenters, lawyers, and farmers, will it also produce the type 
of citizens of whom we shall have most reason to be proud ? 

I find myself insisting on this question of leisure, because, if 
the lonely evening hours be taken into account, the isolated 
agriculturist of Australia has probably more of it on his hands 
than the more gregarious classes of men. Hence, in my view, 
no scheme of education for the agriculturist will be complete, 
or even morally acceptable, that does not take these empty hours 
adequately into coaisideration. I am of those who believe that 
the key to' the present is tO' be found in the past ; and that it is 
only the mentally atrophied who refuse themselves occasional use 
of it. If we wish to take an intelligent interest in the problems 
of the day, we cannot afford to overlook what time has sifted from 
the records of the past. For these reasons, then, and because 
I believe that we are called upon to be good citizens, first and 
foremost, and craftsmen afterwards, I am of the opinion that 
the son of the agriculturist should not be indelibly labelled frcin 
his earliest days ; that up to his fourteenth or fifteenth year his 
education should be general, rather than special, and that eveyy 
effort should be made towards reducing the educational disabilities 
under which hei labours relatively to his more fortunate city -bred 
cousin. Had I the time, and were it essential to my main theme, 
1 could labour this point at considerable length. I could show 
that much of the unrest which is driving the country youth 
citywards is not unconnected with inadequate educational facilities. 
My main purpose to-day, however, is to discuss technical training 
as such, and I must rest satisfied with having indicated the founda- 
tions on which I believe this training should rest. 

Is the State justified in making special provision for the technical 
training of those whose future occupation it will be to till the 
soil and tend flocks and herds, supplying thereby the rest of the 
community with the means of subsistance, and incidentally, in 
this country, with our main articles cf export? The mere posing 
of this questioii may possibly jar the sensibilities of some educa- 
tionalists; in the end, however, difficult issues are better met 
squarely rather than avoided ostrich fashion. Doubtless, it is 
sufficiently obvious that we cannot hope to-day to have competent 
physicians, chemists, engineeirs, &c., without adequate outside pro- 
vision for their training ; but is it equally obvious of the agricul- 
turist ? I think not ; but not because of fundamental differences 
in the nature and scope of his occupation, but rather because of 
special circumstances in his life which do not obtain in other 
occupations. It is thus that the professions are no longer here- 
ditary and personal as in earlier times they were more or less 
wont to be; and in the main, the practice of them is a thing 
quite apart from the ordinary routine of family life. Because 


a man is a physician or a lawyer it does not follow that his 
children will acquire even rudimemtary knowledge of medicine or 
law. With the- agriculturist, on the other hand, see how 
different are things. He belongs, in the first place, to one of 
the few callings from which modern conditions have been unable 
to eradicate the hereditary principle. Apart from personal pre- 
dilections, in the great majority of cases, a man becomes a farmer 
because be was bom and bred on a farm ; because his father 
owns a farm or farm plant and material, which, in the course of 
time, he hopes to inherit and put to good use. Again, the farm- 
bred lad, even if he wished it, cannot hope to escape the all-per- 
vading influence of the paternal occupation; from his earliest 
days it meets him on all sides, his boyish interests centre around 
it, and his usual earliest ambition is to take^ a man's share in it. 
True, with many, ere manhood is reached, farm life comes in time 
to pall, particularly when parents are injudiciously exacting cr 
over-grasping. In the main, however, the groundwork of tech- 
nical training may be said to suiTound the farm-lad at home, 
and to force itself upon his notice from his earliest days in 
favorable or unfavorable light. In the circumstances, there- 
fore, can we wonder that the great bulk of those following 
agricultural pursuits are in the main home-trained, have always 
been home-trained, and will probably always be home-trained? 
Nor is this a fact wholly peculiar to our own special conditions, 
but, rather, is it universal in its application, wherever agriculture 
happens to he practised. Moreover, under conditions such as ours, 
thei usual scantiness of available* labour, and the usual agricul- 
tural incompetence of much of it that is at times available, serve 
to tighten the father's grip on the farm-bred lad who has reached 
the age when outside technical training becomes possible; and 
liowever tempting the future advantages which this training seems 
to promise, the exigencies of the present will, in most cases, con- 
tinue to bind the lad inexorably to' the farm. 

Now, although from these incontrovertible facts certain obvious 
conclusions would appear to flow in logical sequence, we have still 
to allow for the deflecting weight of considerations of another 
order. It may, for instance, seem logical to conclude that 
because the average farm lad is unable to benefit directly from 
technical training provided by agricultural colleges and the like, 
institutions of the kind are more or less superfluous ; but can this 
honestly be said to be so ? Has such experience as we have shown 
it to be so? Again, I think not. Indeed, it would not be diffi- 
cult to show that the influence of agricultural colleges on general 
agricultural progress has been very far from negligible, and from 
the view-point of the State this is the factor that counts. If it be 
true that the average farm lad is unable to take full advantage of 
what they have to offer, exceptional ones are ablei to do so, and, 
indeed, do do so to a greater extent than is generally suspected. 



In this connexion, I shall draw special attention to the callings of 
the parents of students who have attended the Roseworthy Agricul- 
tural College, and which can be summarized as follows: — 




202— 35.2 «'' 









Agi'icultural callings — 

Vine growers 
Fruit growers 
Market gardeners 

Ncn-agricultural callings- 
Business men 
Civil servants 
Professional men 

Apart from a few earlier names, the occupations of which I have 
been unable to trace, 574 families have supplied Roseworthy 
College with students since its inception in 1883. Out of this total 
202 families, or 35.2 per cent., were earning their livelihoods in 
agricultural callings which have been indicated in detail. Hence, 
202 purely agricultural families, frequently represented at the 
college by more i:han one son, have realized the advantages of 
special technical training, and through their sons have availed 
themselves of it. That these coiintry lads have benefited per- 
sonally and individually from this training we can have little 
doubt; indeed, as one who, in the past, has had much to do with 
them, I can undertake tO' vouch for the fact. They have had their 
outlook on life broadened ; thev have been made familiar with new 
and unsuspected lines of agricultural practice'; they have been 
taught tO' look beneath the surface, and to' master the broad prin- 
ciples underlying narrower home practice; and the torch they have 
received has eventually been carried far and wide throughout the- 
scattered agricultural districts of the State. And it is this last 
point, the indirect advantages which country workers derive from 
agricultural colleges, which I wish specially to stress. 

It is only iii very ecxtraordinary circumstances, and in very 
exceptional timeK, that the State has much to gain from a com- 
2>lete revolution in agricultural practice; normally, beneficial 
changes must come slowly and progressively. For the most part 
local conditions determine what at the time is, and is not, economi- 
cally possible, and the common sense and inherited instincts of 
agricultural workers adopt that line of operations which appears to 


correspond to the requirements of the times. The progress! veness 
of any district can usually be assessed by the extent to M^hich its 
average practice approaches more or less to' that of the most success- 
ful men in the district, who may be looked upon as the local torch- 
bearers. Experience shows, too-, that those are most sensitive to 
the promptings of progress whose education outlook is broadest ; 
and whilst it must be admitted that the technically trained are no 
more exempt from failure than others, it may safely be assumed 
that, for the most part, their local influence will be in the direction 
of progress rather than of reaction. That this is so, has frequently 
come rmder my notice in various parts of South Australia. Hence, 
I submit that, whilst for the bulk of our rural workers special tech- 
nical training, as distinct from home training, is neither necessary, 
nor, indeed, possible, from the State view-point, the existence of 
institutions in which this training is imparted is amply justified 
so long as they can succeeed in attracting a sufiiciency of those 
who, by precept and example, are able in later life to influence 
their districts for gocd. For the latter the task will be very much 
viiiiplified wherever they have the assistance of local associations of 
agriculturists for mutual self-improvement, such as the agricul- 
tural bxireau system so successfully practised in South Australia 
for the past thirty-three years. 

These remarks refer mainly to the sons of agriculturists who 
are able to take advantage of special technical training, and their 
leavening and irissionary work is of sufficient national importance 
to justify the , existence of agricultural colleges. We must not, 
however, overlook the claims of those city families who contributed 
students in the proportion of 65 per cent. On consideration, it 
will perhaps be found that this contribution aloue affords ample 
independent justification for the existence of these colleges We' 
hear on all sides the emigration of country units to the cities deeply 
deplored; but little or nothing is said of the counter current from 
the cities toward-^ the country. And yet its direct and indirect 
inliuenoe on the development of the country is incalculable. It 
brings with it, as a rule, the investment of new capital in rural 
ventures; the infustion into them of the spirit and enthusiasm of 
the neophyte; the introduction of city business methods and entei-- 
prise, and the breaking down of social barriers between town and 
country. All this is clearly to the good, and much to the advan- 
tage of the country, and, incidentally, of the State. It is, there- 
fore, no exaggeration to affirm that it is not possible that 
endeavours to attract city bred lads to the country should be over- 
done. Many, it is true^ will, when they can, first seek to serve 
an apprenticeship on a well conducted private farm ; others, less 
wise in spite of maturer years, are prepared to go on the land fresh 
from the counter. The latter may, and often do, eventually make 
good ; but usually at what expense of time and money in the quest 
of personal experience! More sound and certain, however, is the 

250 president's address — section k. 

future of those who are able to- make of an agricultural college easy 
stepping-stones to their new and unfamiliar occupations; and for 
the latter purpose alone the State would be well justified in main- 
taining these colleges as half-way houses between town and 

How can technical training be imparted to best advantage at an 
agricultural college ? This is a question upon which opinions are 
ajit to differ much, and it would seem that in individual concrete 
cases, we cannot escape the influence of expediency and of local 
conditions. At all events, we have no right to imply that others 
are wrong, because in such matters they do not doi as we do. In 
Europe, and I believe this to be so in America also, the student's 
familiarity with ordinary farm work and operations is taken for 
granted, and the course of training is arranged accordingly! 
Hence, the paramount importance of theoretical instruction at the 
expense of actual practice, which, if not wholly banished, is very 
much in the background, and confined to periodical out-door class 
demonstrations of brief duration. If we are to assume that all 
those in attendance are sons of agriculturists, familiar with farm 
operaticiis from their infancy, this arrangement undoubtedly ha=i 
its advantages. It leaves free for theoretical training much 
precious time v/hich would otTierwise be devoted to manual opera- 
tions. The necessity of surrounding the' college with a large and 
expensively equipped farm does not arise, and funds are freed for 
more thorough scientific and technical equipment. Finally, the 
number of studtiits in attendance is no longer limited by the mean) 
available for adequate experience in manual operations, but merely 
by house and class-room accommodation. 

In A ustralia, this practice has not hitherto found favour ; and 
since the Australian system originated at Roseworthy, and was 
passed on subsequently toi Dookie and Hawkesbury, I may be 
pardoned for illustrating my points from that institution with 
which I am best acquainted. In the matter of a general co^urse of 
training, our Al stralian agricultural colleges have run counter to 
the European point of view. They have concluded, and rightly 
so, in my view^ that in the absence of adeqxxate acquaintance with 
general farm practice, all theoretical instrnction must continue 
more or less futile. They have found that the average student 
does not possess this acquaintance, and they have modified -the 
curriculum accordingly. The fact that over 64 per cent, of those 
in attendance at Roseworthy are town-bred, would appear toi vonch 
for the soundness of this attitude. Hence, to every college has 
been attached a large and well-equipped farm, the manual opera- 
tions of which are carried out almost entirely by students under 
competent supervision. Usually the student's work-time is divided 
into two equal parts; one-half, loreferably alternate days^ is given 
up to theoretical instruction and demonstrations, and the other to 
seasonable farm work. It follows, therefore, that familiarity with 

president's address — SECTION K. 251 

farm operations and practice is made to go hand in hand with 
theoretical instruction, of which it may be taken to represent the 
best possible form of practical demonstration. I have been privi- 
leged to watch the results of this type of training for close o« 
thirty years, and can testify that, in the main, it has not fallen 
short of the anticipation of its originators. It is certain that, 
under no other coui'se of training could the unavoidable interval 
which must always separate the successful student from the success- 
ful farm manager be bridged in a shorter space of time. Like all 
other human undertakings, however, it is not without its limita- 
tions and incon\ eniences ; and because in the past it has served us 
well, it does not fellow that future developments may not render 
imperative the adoption of drastic modifications. If the means 
of acquiring a reasonable degree cf familiarity and skill in farm 
manual operations is to be available to all students in attendance, 
then it is very 'clear that the number of those present at any one 
time must be strictly limited by the farm area which can be con- 
veniently worked from a common centre. From personal ex- 
perience, I am prepared to assert that, from this view-point, whilst 
60 to 70 students represent perhaps an optimvim, 100 cf them 
represent a clear m.aximum. If, under the j)ressure of circum- 
stances, this maximum be overstepped, one of two things is bound 
to happen ; either the college farm is too vast aud unwieldy to be 
conveniently ir. an aged from a common centre ; or else it cannot 
possibly meet the continued requirements in farm practice of all 
those in attendapce. Hence, as soon as requests for admission to 
these colleges threaten to lift numt)ers in attendance appreciably 
and conistently above the maximum, then, if our faith in technical 
training is genuine, and if we shun make-believe, either new 
colleges must be called into existence, or else the system of train- 
ing hithertoi adopted at existing ones must receive radical modifica- 
tions. With our limited population and shifting political condi- 
tions, the multiplication of agricultural colleges is, for the present, 
in my ojnnicn, neither wise ncr desirable. The efficiency of these 
colleges is mainly dependent on their equipment, and the extent to 
which they are supported by the public purse ; and if, on a wave 
of passing enthusiasm, their numbers be incautiously increased, not 
only receint creations, but old-established institutions as well, must 
suffer when its force is spent, and the inevitable ebb sets in 
Better no colleges at all than half-starved ones. We must con- 
sider, therefore, along what lines existing systems of training 
admit of modifications without sacrifice^ of their proved efficiency. 

And in this connexion it is certainly not necessary to assume 
that all those seeking college training are inadequately acquainted 
with farm practice. It may, ^.ndeed, be taken for granted that the 
35 per cent, who are farm-bred, are already adequately equipped 
in this direction. Not infrequently, indeed, I have heard farmers 
objecting to send their sons to college on the grounds that half 

252 president's address — section k. 


their time would be wasted in doing things with which they had 
been familiar from earliest childhood. Hence, without loss oi effi- 
ciency in the ccnrse of training, the maximum number of students 
could be raised, if outside farm training were limited to the inex- 
perienced, whilst the training of farm-bred lads wo'uld be restricted 
to theoretical instruction and associated demonstrations. It may 
occur tO' some that the practice frequently adopted in the training 
oif engineers, namely, the suspension of diplomas or qualifying cer- 
tificates until such time as joroof can be given of adequate post- 
graduate practical experience, might with advantage be extended 
to agricultural students without earlier farm experience, and thus 
do away altogether with any attempt to combine both theoretical 
and practical training. This would bring us back to- the European 
view-point, which, in my opinion, is open to very grave objections. 
Personally, after long experience^, I am satisfied that what value 
there is in theoretical instruction in agricultural subjects is heavily 
discoiunted in the absence of personal experience of farming prac- 
tice. It is literally impossible adequately to impress upon students 
the bearing aiid value of princijoles underlying practices of which 
they are' in complete ignorance. It is no better than attempting 
to' teach chemistry without a laboratory: the only possible atiho- 
sphere in which such instruction could bear fruit^ — the farm atmo- 
sphere — would be wanting. In the circumstances, much as one 
must deplore any break in a. boy's educatioinal years, it would be 
better that the city-bred lad should spend a couple of years on a 
farm before entering college, rather than that, fresh from school, 
hei should enter an agricultural college imparting theoretical train- 
ing only, and trust to acquiring farming practice after the com- 
pletion of his course of studies. 

In summary, then, the poilicy of exempting farm lads from farm 
work would throw open college doors to far greater numbers than 
can in present circumstances be admitted in comjilete good faith. 
Numbersi would then be limited by housing and class-room accom- 
modation only, limiting factors which present no insuperable diffi- 
culties. This division of students into twoi distinct sections, those 
taking a theoretical course only, and those combining with it ordi- 
nary farm work, will undoubtedly complicate college management 
somewhat. The attendant difficulties, however, should not be 
beyond the power of competent coiiitrol. 

In ccnnexion Avith these suggestions, I foresee a possible danger 
There may be those who, on the score of economy, or on any other 
grounds, may think that, because it is open to city-bred lads to 
acquire the requisite farming outlook by working on a farm prior to 
entering college, the college farm should gradually disappear, or be 
reduced to moderate-sized pleasure grounds. Against this view, if 
it be raised, I must enter a most emphatic protest. In this 
matter, it is not" merely the ability of the college to impart practical 



training that ii in jeopardy, but what is of even greater impor- 
tance, the efficiency of the technical staff for teaching purposes. 
However great his original coanpetency, no agricultural teacher, 
who is not ui daily contact with agricultural operations, can hope 
to' avoid gradual deterioration. He finds himself divorced from 
the realities of his subject, and his teaching is bound to' suffer pro- 
portionately. The great practical efficiency of the Australian 
agricultural colleges lias been very largely built up on their farms, 
and nothing but harm can come from meddling with them. 

I should perhaps draw attention here to the obvious fact that 
the adoption ot these suggestions would practically double the time 
available for the technical training of those exempted from farm 
duties. At Eoseworthy, the present normal course of training 
extends over three years; but, since one-half cf the students' time 
is taken up with farm work, from the point of view of theoretical 
training, it car not be said to be equivalent to more than an 
eighteen months' course. And, from long personal experience, I 
can vouch for the cramping influence of existing arrangements on 
the scope and eft'ectiveness of the training imparted. Hence, those 
v>rho are freed from the ties of farm work will be given the oppor- 
tunity of delving more deeply into their subjects than is at present 

What becomes ultimately of fcTmen agricultural college 
students ? There are sceptics who assert that the majority of them 
are to be found in the cities. With a view to settling this point, I 
have endeavor'red to analyze the position in so far as it affects 
former students of the Roseworthy Agi'icultural College, and the 
results oif my investigations may be summarized as follows: — 

Agricultural occixpation? — 


.. 380 





State agricultural service,-- 




Agricultural businesses 


Market gardeners 






Non-agricultural occupatioiis — 

In business 

... 24 

Professional men 

... 15 

Civil Servants 

... 13 


... 4 


-10. 2o^ 

254 president's address — section k. 

Th© above analysis concerns 550 students. It is not a complete 
list. There are still 92 to account for, some of whom are dead. 
There is, however, no reason to believe that these absentees wouirl 
appreciably niodify the ratio' of 9 to 1 in favour of agricultuir-al 
Gccupations. And thus may be set at rest the suspicion that agri- 
cultural colleges are not providing the country with a reasonable 
quota of settlers. 

The Universities of Sydney, Melbourne, and Perth have not hesi- 
tated to found Chairs of Agriculture, and acts of private munifi- 
cence have laid upon the University of Adelaide the obligation to 
follow in their wake. Nevertheless, even thus late in the day, it 
may still be asked whether, as a, ccnimunity, we are as yet suffi- 
cently advanced to^ niakei provision for agricultural training of a 
higher order than is usually available at typical agricultural 
colleges. In America, under a far more favorable set of condi- 
tions, the diff culty seems to have been met by incoi-jDorating agri- 
cultural colleges into local Universities. And. on coiisideration, it 
is questionable \\'hether a more logical and appropriate solution 
could have been devised. To both sections, it promises continuity 
of policy, coupled with coontrol by a competent governing body. It 
obviates " overlapping," and therefore insures economy of effort 
and resources; and, moreover, it forestalls stagnation and aloof- 
ness, which are apt at times to sterilize academic teaching. This 
raticinal arrangement has not hithertoi been adopted in the Com- 
monwealth. It is true that the University of Adelaidei recognises 
Roseworthy technical training toi the extent of accepting it as a 
definite part of the degree course in agriculture. Whether, how- 
ever, this policy will be continued in the future, when a Chair of 
Agriculture has been definitely established, is perhaps open to 
doubt. Whatever may be the case, it seems to' me that, sooner or 
later, we shall have to face squarely the question as to whether 
there is yet rocm in the Commonwealth for both agricultural 
colleges and Uriversity Chairs of Agriculture; and we shall then 
find that agricultural colleges have spread their roots too deeply 
in Oiur midst to have much to fear for their future. But will it 
be possible to say the same of the Chairs of Agriculture ? Ulti- 
mately, as in economics, it is very largely a question of supply and 
demand that is involved. If there is an adequate flow of candi- 
dates for the' higher training, then public sentiment will probably 
support the Universities. Apart, however, from an infinitesimal 
minority, the supply of candidates is bound to be limited by the 
careers open to those in possession of higher training ; and, during 
the present generation, at all events, this is not likely to go beyond 
positions offering on the technical staffs of Government Depart- 
inents. However m^uch one may recognise the great importance of 
the work in the hands of these technical departments, it is highly 
questionable whether, standing alone, it can be said to justify th-3 


existence of four separate Chairs of Agriculture in the Common- 
wealth. On the other hand, it cannot be too frequently reiteratsd 
that teaching is no morei than one-half of the functions of a 
University Chair; and that if, at times, teaching duties ai-e lighr, 
then there is the- greater leisure for research. I could say much 
under this heading, but time presses, and I shall content myself 
with the statement that, in a country such as ours, given adequate 
and competent research work into matters agricultural, were there 
net a single student in attendance, the four Chairs of Agriculture 
of the Commonwealth would have amply justified their existence. 
In this connexion, however, I feel it incumbent upon me toi remark 
that the mere creation of a Chair of Agriculture does not neces- 
sarily give rise tO' those special conditions which render sustained 
agricultural research at all possible. After all, the practice of 
agriculture is not a, science in itself, but an art. It is, nevertheless, 
obviously dependent upon most of the branches of scientific know- 
ledge for a correct interpretation of its principles, and for investi- 
gations calculated to lead to improvement and matei'ial progress. 
Hence, agricultural research may be described as hydra-headed, and 
unless to the Chair of Agriculture is attached an adequate^ scientific 
staff, the powers for good of the Professor of Agriculture will be 
very seriously limited, and they will disappear altogether if he is 
divorced from the realities of things, and denied the' active direc- 
tion of agricultural operations. It would be almost easier to 
imagine a successful chemist whoi is denied access to' laboratory and 
chemicals. Nor, if we have any regard for the fitness of things, 
will purely "titular" appointments to the Chair be tolerated 
If wei aim at opening out a trench, we choose a shovel, not a silver 
spcon. I hold, therefore, that given the absolute dependence of 
Australia upon her agricultural and pastoral resources. University 
Chairs of Agriculture are by no means superfluous, providing we 
see to it that they have the means tO' give adequate effect to one 
of the main functions of all Universities. 

But, as we well know, ars loiirfa, vita brevis est, and neither 
education nor training oease with the age of irresponsibility ; 
rather do they become intensified in the storm and stress which 
await us beyond the shelter of teaching institutions. The isolation 
of country occupations tends to cut off individuals from their 
fellows, and to this extent clogs progress. Particularly is this the 
case in a sparsely settled countiy such as our own. And since the 
State is very intimately interested in the success or failure of these 
isolated individuals, the task of endeavouring to keep them abreast 
of the times has come to be recognised as a legitimate line of State 
activity. To this do we owe our Agricultural Departments, with 
their staff of expert officers, whose business it is to- keep in touch 
with those in need of advice. Among wealthier communities full 
advantage, I believe, has been taken of improved modern advertis- 
ing methods, with the avowed object of striking fire from C'ven the 

256 president's address — section k. 

dullest imaginations. We hear of special trains travelling from 
district to district, carrying with them experts and their labora- 
tories, cinema operators, models, live stock, &c. No doubt these 
methods, which are as yet foreign to us, are productive of good 
in congenial surroundings; and although they savour somewhat of 
revival meetings and travelling shows, it is to be hoped that their 
intluence will prove less evanescent. Nevertheless, for our own 
special conditions, I know of no more effective means of reaching 
the tiller of the soil than what is known as the Agricultural 
Bureau system established in South Australia since 1888.* Under 
this system, agriculturists scattered all over the State are grouped 
together into local branches. Of these there to-day 212 in exis- 
tence, aggregating 5,350 members. These branches may be said 
to exist for the mutual improvement of members, and for the 
advancement of the agricultural industries of the district. They 
hold regular monthly meetings at which questions of general and 
local mojnent are discussed. Once a year they attend combined 
district meetings, and the central Adelaide meeting. They make 
arrangements for visits, addresses, and demonstrations by officers 
of the Department of Agriculture. They control field trials; they 
carry out experimental work in co-operation with the Department ; 
and locally their social intluence is very considerable. I look upon 
the rapid ado'ption of superphospha,tes in Australian farming as 
one of the most telling revolutions in practice of recent times. To 
South Australia alone it has already been worth between 
25,000,000 and 30,000,000 sterling. It received its first impetus 
in So'Uth Australia, and had it not been for the Agricultural 
Bureau system, would probably still be struggling ineffectually 
against, prajurfico^and ignorance. And very much the same can 
be ssiid of the introduction of spraying among fruit trees, and of 
most ether minor improvements adopted within recent times. In 
brief, then, whilst his daily avocations will cC'Titinue and complete 
the agriculturist's training, such personal experience as he may 
acquire is necessarily limited by his isolated enviroaiment. It is 
essential to the State that he be kept in touch with the progress 
of the outside world, and, in my view, this can best be dowe bv 
organizing all agriculturists on the lines so successfully followed 
in South Australia. 

I have submitted for your consideration a few ideas on agricul 
tural education and training. I have made the infant my startiftg 
point, and closed with the experienced adult. It follows that, in 
the time at my disposal, I can have done no- inore than glance at a 
few aspects of the problem which circumstances had rendered 
familiar to me. I know that to-day we live in an age of revolu- 
tiouary ideas in matters educational; nevertheless, personally, I 
abide by the old tried ways, believing that a thorough education 
is the birthright of every one of us. and deprecating specialization 
and technical tiaining until such time as the mind has been 

president's address SECTION K. 257 

adequately developed in other directions. From the stand-point 
of a teacher of technical subjects of twenty-two' years' standing, I 
am prepared to assert that those students are most satisfactory 
whose prepare toay education has been most thorough, most 
general, and not those whose undeveloped minds have been set 
a-dabbling with so-called utilitarian subjects. Hence, I claim for 
country children broad educational opportunities approximating to 
those usually available to the city bred. I uphold our Australian 
agricultural colleges as institutions of infinite value for the State, 
but I believe that without loss of efficiency their sphere of useful- 
ness could be enlarged by the modifications which I havei suggested. 
I can have faith in University Chairs of Agriculture, providing 
the incumbents are not segregated from the v.^orld and the general 
practice of agriculture, and providing they are allowed adequate 
means for independent research. And, finally, as the coping-stone 
to all education and training in a community that is mainly agri- 
cultural, I believe it to be both the interest and the duty of the 
State to maintain at the disposal of the rural community adequate 
means for general self-improvement, both moral and material. 


258 president's address — section l. 




Professor Harold A. Woodruff. M.R.C.V.S., M.R.C.S., 


Professor of Veterinary Pathology in the University of Melbourne. 


I have selected this subject on which to address this section for 
several reasons : it& wide general interest, for it embraces a know- 
ledge of bacteriology, of many facts of physiology, especially of 
biochemistry and of physics ; its rapid advance as a science in 
lecent years, for it must be remembered that it is during the la?t 
half century that all our exact experimental knowledge in this 
sphere has been gained; its great fascination for myself personally. 

Immunity in its broadest sense surveys the whole field of the 
action and reaction between the active agents of disease on the one 
hand and the animal body on the other; it explains spuptonis, 
determines treatment, and conditions the issues of infection. Not 
only is it concerned with infection by bacteria, but with the reac- 
tions to the introduction into the body of animal cells, bacterial 
products, enzymes, animal and vegetable poisons, and albuminoid 
substances. It takes note of the receptivity or non -receptivity of 
the body on the one hand, and the aggression or virulence of the 
bactf;rium or parasite on the other. It is well to fix this idea of 
the duality of the problem at the outset, for immunity connotes 
not only an organized defence on the part of the animal body, but 
this in face of an organized aggression on the part of the invading 


Time forbids more than a glimpse at much of the development of 
the science of immunity, and one can only in passing pay tribute to 
Jenner's magnificent anticipation in publishing before the Royal 
Society of London, in 1796, his method of vaccination against 
small-pox in man. 

The foundation for scientific prophylaxis was really laid by 
Pasteur in 1867, when he demonstrated a " contagium vivum " 
in an epidemic disease of silkworms. 

The masterly work of Metchnikoff en phagoicytosis of bacteria, 
first observed m 1883, led to an appreciation of the importance of 
one oi thei first aad most important lines of defence. Shortly 
afterw^ards, Nuttall (1888) deincnstrated the bactericidal effect 
of normal blood serum and other body fluids. In the same year 
Richet and Hericourt made the first serious attempt to bring about 
immunization of an animal by the injection of defibrinated blood 
from a vaccinated, and, therefore, immune animal. Thus began the 
controversy between the two schooils of thought, the upholders ot 
the "cellular" theory of immunity led by Metchnikoff, and the 
supporters of the " humoural " theory, led at first by Nuttall and 
Buchner, and then dominated by the genius of Ehrlich. The last 
thirty years has witnessed the gradual rapjrrochenwnt and mutual 
acceptance with modifications of the two factors in defence. 

In our short survey of the present understanding of immunity, 
it is convenient to take certain phases, and deal with them in 
turn . 

First it will be well to glance at the fundamental facts of natural 
immunity, and then pass to consider the j3i'ocesses by which 
acquired immunity is brought about. 

Natural I mm uniti/. 

One of the most remarkable, features of disease infection in 
animals is the susceptibility oi one species and the insusceptibility 
of another to the same disease. Moreover, the species highly resis- 
tant to one disease may be extremely susceptible to another. On 
the other hand the characters of virulence and pathogenicity on 
the part of bacteria are relative only, and these ternis can only 
be used when applied to the action of a definite bacterium on cer- 
tain animals susceptible to infection by it. A familiar example of 
this selective action is provided by the various strains of the 
tubercle bacillus. Cattle, so commonly affecteid with the bovine 
strain, against which their resistance is of a. fairly low order, are 
highlv resistant to infection with the human bacillus, and are quite 
immune to the avian type. Again, the guinea pig is easily 
infected with a progressive fatal infectioai by either human or 
bovine strains, whereas it usually successfully resists infectioai with 
the avian type. The rabbit, on the other hand, whilst being very 
susceptible to the bovine type, is refractory to the human type. 

260 president's address — section l, 

No' doubt these differences in susceptibility, or, in other words, 
different degreej of natural immunity ainong diiferent species of 
animals to the same micro-crganism, are related to characteristic 
specific chemical or physical differences in the blood and cytoplasm 
of the different animals. These differences are, however, much too 
refined and subtle to be put in evidence by ordinary chemical 
means, but the specific actions t)i vitro of "precipitins." and 
'' hgemolysins " on homologous sera and cells afford a s.trLking 
denronstration. Thus therei is an intimate relation between the 
special powers of a particular organism to infect and the special 
defence measures of the particular animal species used for self- 

Apart from such subtle specific constitutional differences of sus-- 
ceptibility, there is another line of defence which appears to be 
efficient just in proportion as the particular animal is immune 
or insusceptible, namely phagocytosis. Where, in a particular 
species of animal, phagocytosis of a particular micro-organism 
is vigorous and complete, there is no infection. This can 
be readily observed after experimentally inoculating an 
animal with an organism having little virulence for that 
particular species. That the blood plasma and body fluids also 
help in the defence of the body of a normal animal is not in 
doubt, but the chief agents in keeping the body free from invaders 
are the phagocytes. By all the tests which can be applied toi deter- 
mine the strength or titre of the serum immunity in the case of 
acquired immunity (agglutinins, opsonins, bacteriolysins, comple- 
ment fixation), the immunizing effect of the serum, as distinct from 
the ceils, in natural im.munity is small. The effects of the blood 
serum are much more evident in cases of acquired immunity, and 
can be studied better in that condition. 

A cquired Im.munity . 
Acquired immunity is a relatively marked insusceptibility to 
infection with a particular species of micro-organism, produced as 
a result either of a previous attack of thei same disease, or <if 
vaccination. Under both these conditions, it appears to be the 
introduction of an antigen, or group of antigens, which has given 
rise toi antihody formation. Long before the etiology of disease 
was understood, the immunity resulting from a first attack of 
many diseases was well accredited. Experimental introduction of 
antigens brings about thei same^ insusceptibility, and careful 
analysis of the phenomena has led at least to a partial understand- 
ing of the mechanism. 

It will be suff cient for the moment to^ mention the main i-esults 
of acquired immunity in the prod action of defences additional to 
those seen in cases of natural immunity. The accumulation of " anti- 
toxins " in the body fluids of an animal inoculated secundum artevi 
Mith a "toxin"; the presence of "agglutinins" in the blood 


serum of patients infected with typhoid, glanders, contagious abor- 
tion, and many more diseases, or, as a result of the injection of 
the dead bacilli of these diseases; the presence of "precipitins" 
as a result of inoculation with foreign sera, milk, egg albiimen, and 
other proteins; the development of the power of " bacteriolysis " as 
a result of infection with living, or of inoculation with dead, bac- 
teria ; and similarly the increased power of phagocytosis because of 
the formation of "opsonins" by reason of the antigenic action of 
infecting organisms; the production of " htemolysins " and " cyto- 
lysins " following the injection of foreign red corpuscles or other 
cells ; all these can be put in evidence >u vivo or in vitro as show- 
ing the immen'^ely increased defensive power of the body against 
the antigen m question. Often, in fact generally, more than one 
antibody results from the use of a complex antigen such as living 
bacteria, for there may be agglutins, bactericlysins, and sensitiz- 
ing substances, all present in the cne immune serum. In view of 
these facts, there is now no longer any room for doubt concerning 
the important idle of the blood fluids as apart from the phago- 

An orderly arrangement of our subject now calls for some con- 
sideration of the offensive powers of the enemy. In what does the 
virulence Cif bacteria consist ? 

Factors in Virulence. 

The mere implantation of bacteria on or in the animal body. is 
not sufficient of itself to produce infection. The number of germs 
used, in other words, the dose ; the path of entrance, he it digestive 
tract, respiratory, or other mucous membranes, sound skin, or 
into a v^ound ; the condition and constitution of the animal; all 
these are factors of importance. But, with these conditions 
remaining the same, different bacteria show all grades of viru- 
lence or ability to attack with success. 

In the cac-e oi a number of organisms there is the power to 
secrete toxins : tetanus, diphtheria, and botulinus being examples. 
Grown in broth cultures and filtered, the filtrates are intensely 
toxic by injection, or, in the case of the last-named, by ingestion, 
in all three cases after an incitbatioti period, and, further, it is 
remarkable <-hat the bacteria themselves, filtered off and washed, 
contain only slight traces of the specific poison. Two points of 
interest arise in this connexion, viz., the incubation period which 
occurs before symptoms develop ; and the question as to the inclu- 
sion of these organisms in the class of parasites or of saprophytes. 
The incubation period has been explained as the interval required 
for absorption of the toxin by the particular vulnerable cells, and 
in the case of tetanus absorption appears to take place along the 
nerve trunks until cell 3 of the C.N.S. are reached. Bacillus 
botulinus is certainly a saprophyte, for it is non-pathogenic, grow- 
ing and secreting its toxin in dead organic matter, v.v.d being 
responsible for numerous cases of food poisoning. 

262 president's address — section l. 

There is some difficulty in understanding the natural evolution 
of this toxin-production in an organism unable to infect animals. 

Tetanus and diphtheria bacilli are more nearly allied to the 
saprophytes than the parasites; they live in and on dead tissue 
produced by trauma or intercurrent infections, and do not invade 
the body. Their virulenoei consists in their ability to secrete exo'- 

The class of organisms which secretei these exotoxins agreei in one 
important respect, nam.ely, their toxins are all able to set up the 
production of antitoxins m animals. Following the discovery by 
Behring and his collaborators, in 1890^ of this power of toxins to 
set up antitoxin formation, much investigation was undertaken in 
the hope that thei method might be of very general application ; 
but as we now know the exotoixin-secreting organisms are com- 
paratively fevf, and this method of immunization is proportionately 

An unfruitful search for such a toxin in the case of the choler; 
vibrio led Pfeiifer to his hypothesis of " endotoxins " as a factoi 
in the virulence of many bacteria. To quote from one of his own 
papers : — 

"The essential principle of this theory is that almost ail 
bacteria, iio matter ivhethcr ■pathogenic or saprophytic, are 
endowed with poisonous properties contained within, or per- 
haps identical with their body substances. These endotoxins 
are not, as a rule, secreted by a vital activity of the bacteria, 
but their absorption, and the consequent intoxication of the 
infect«d body, are the result of the destruction and disintegra- 
tion of the bacteria by the bactericidal inlluences of the 

An early experiment of PfeifFer's strongly supports this view. 
When a culture of cholera vibrios was injected into the peritoneal 
cavity of a guinea pig, no rise of temperature or other abnormal 
symptoms occurred for four to five hours, when fever and signs of 
intoixication began to* manifest themselves. If, however, a short 
time after the injection of the culture, a dose of anticholera serum 
were injected into the peritoneum, the symptoms of acute intoxi- 
cation would at once be shown — rapid fall of temperature and 
general prostration. This Pfeiffer interpreted as being accounted 
for by the setting up of rapid bacteriolysis with liberation of th« 
toxic constituents of the dead bacteria. 

What has toi be noted is that this endotoxic action of different 
species of bacteria by no means corresponds to their pathogenicity^ 
e.g., anthrax bacilli cannot be shown to contain any poisonous 
principles at all, whilst the nGn-pathogenic haciJlns prodigiosus is 
very toxic. 

president's address — SECTION L. 263 

It is true that different species of bacteria vary greatly in their 
power of endotoxin production. The bacillus of blackquarter, 
that of typhoid fever, Shiga's dysentery bacillus, and Bordet's 
whooping-cough bacillus all produce notable amounts of toxin. 

The tubercle bacillus and Bacillus mallei produce poisonous 
materials which, strangely enough, are only slightly toxic for 
healtJiy animals, but highly so for animals themselves the sub- 
jects of tuberculosis or glanders respectively. 

But none of these organisms, or cultures of them, are able to 
provoke the production of antitoxins when injected intO' animals. 
Further, the researches of Vaughan (1913), Friedberger and 
others tend to show that the so-called endotoxins ai*e really only 
protein-cleavage products of the bacterial protoplasm, not poisons 
specific tO' each species of bacterium, but varying in toxicity 
according to tha accumulation and distribution of the bacteria in 
the body, and the rate or rapidity of their breakdown, (lysis) by 
the serum of the animal host. 

More nearly allied tO' the class of exotoxins or true toixins are 
the ha-moto.i-inf; and leiococidins produced by certain organisms. 
Many observers have noticed the effects of stapht/locorci on leuco- 
cytes in cases of suppuration. Tubercle bacilli have a similar 
necrosing effect. In a similar fashion stre ptoroccl have a hsemo- 
lytic effect on red cells, as also have tetanus cultures, and to some 
extent anth'-ax, B. jji/ocyancii'!, and staphylococci. 

These substances lead naturally to a consideration of the so- 
called "aggressins" of Bail, and '"virulins" of Rosenow. 

Bail has }>redicated the idea of a secreticrn. on the part oi bac- 
teria of substances, "aggressins," which are negatively chemio- 
tactic, preventing phagocytosis and so' allowing the bacteria to 
multiply until there is an accumulation sufficient to overwhelm 
the defence. These* "agressins" may be looked upon as the bac- 
terial response, or counter-move, to the animal's body development 
of antibodies, and this hypothesis appears to' lend an explanation 
for the exaltation of virulence produced by growing an organism 
in a medium containing serum derived from an animal immunized 
against that organism. 

The use of natural aggressins (/.(., a bacteria-free peritoneal 
exudate from an animal just dead as the result of inoculation 
intraperitoneally with a virulent organism), was shown by Bail 
to reinforce a sublethal dose of a culture and make it lethal, and 
further, a suitable administration of the aggressin gave rise to 
immunity (by producing " anti-aggressins " in the animal body). 
This method of immunizing is now being used in certain diseases, 
notably blackquarter, though with what degree of success one can- 
not yet say. 

264 president's address — section l. 

Roseiiow's " virulins " are of a somewhat different nature, op- 
posing merely the ingestion of the bacteria by phagocytes. Work- 
ing with various strains of pneumococci he found thein all non- 
phagocytable when firet recovered from cases of pneumonia, and at 
iho same time virulent for rabbits and guinea pigs. The virulence 
was in proportion tO' their inability to absorb " opsonin " from 
serum, aiid as the virulence was lessened by cultivation so' the 
power to adsorb opsonin increased, and at. the same time the 
power to resist phagocytosis was lost. Extracts of the virulent 
organisms in saline contained a substance "virulin " which neu- 
tralized the opsonic effect of serum. 

This is in line with the old observation of Marchand that viru- 
lent streptococci were not taken up^ by phagocytes in the presence 
ui normal serum, whilst non-virulent ones were; and further that 
Ihe virulent organisms killed by heat and washed M^ere' still re- 
fractory. This appears to be due to seme antiopsonic property 
of the bacteria. 

One factor in the virulence of an organism related probably to 
those just considered is the property of capsule formation, which 
IS seen in a large number of species of bacteria. This property 
occurs in most cases in the organism as first isolated from the 
animal body, e.y., in anthrax, but is speedily lost on artificial 
media unless the medium contain blood serum. With the loss 
of a capsule theie is a loss of virulence, and it has been asserted 
by Preisz that anthrax bacilli which have lost the poAver of cap- 
sule formation are no longer capable of infecting. A similar 
parallel loss of capsule and virulence is seen in the case of pneuiuo- 
coccus, and streptococcus. On the other hand Friedlander's 
Lacillus is a capsulated organism retaining its capsule in artificial 
culture, and along with this retention there is little diminution 
in virulence. Capsule formation is a function of bacteria in acute 
cases at an early stage of the infection. The capsular material 
appears to act as an irritant to phagocytes and to be able to 
repel them {i.e., to causes a. condition of negative chemiotaxis). 

Another factor of virulence to be mentioned is that of si/ri'/val 
hy selection. This probably explains in large part the effects of 
frequent repeated passage through the animal body of any 
bacterial strain. The various defensive forces attack these in- 
vading germs and annihilate the weaker individuals, but the 
stronger ones survive. By a repetition of this process the strain 
recovered from the last of a series of animals is possessed of high 
powcTS of resistance, or in other words, it has become highly viru- 
lent. But this is one of many possible adaptations which, with 
a varying environment, bacteria undergo, therebv surviving and 
remaining virulent. 

One last adaptation is that of resistance to leucocytic digestion 
on the part of certain virulent organisms. A typical example is 
afforded by the gonococcus, which ingested by polymorphonuclear 


leucocytes of man remains viable, capable of reproduction, and of 
infection. Submitted to the leucocytes of rabbit or guinea pig 
it is quickly ingested and destroyed, and in these animals it is 
aviruleut. The tubercle bacillus and that ai leprosy are also 
highly resistant, 2>artly becaues of their acid-fast cloak and partly 
because of their power of destroying (by necrosis) the enveloping 

Tempting as is the theme and the occasion, I must pass on; but 
before leaving the subject, and bearing in mind the two-sidedness 
of tha problein of immunity, twoi factors related tO' vii'ulenoe must 
be alluded to. The first may be described as " the virulence of 
position," in that not all parts of the body are capable of 
equally strong defence. Bacteria located in certain situations are 
much more difficult tO' dislodge, and much less susceptible to the 
offensives of the defending forces of the body, whether cells or 
serum, than in other situations. As an example: may be mentioned 
typhoid bacilli in experimentally infected rabbits in which anti- 
typhoid vaccination fails to dislodge the bacilli from the bile ducts. 
Human '' carriers " of typhoid infection, following recovery from 
an attack of the disease, often have an anti-typhoid serum rich in 
antibodies, but ap>parently unable to- reach the locus of the per- 
sisting bacteria. Diphtheria shows a similar case where the bacilli 
may persist in the mucous membranes of recovered persons. 
Johne's disease, a chronic bacillary enteritis of cattle, is another 
example. Contagions abortion of bovines, infecting the udder, and 
streptococcic mastitis afford further important types of the same 
virulence of position. , 

Then, again, an old cbservation by Roux, Bordet, and others, 
showed that not all the body fluids have the same antibody con- 
tent. The aqueous humour and the cerebro -spinal fluid are both 
notably poor in antibodies, even in animals strongly immunized. 
This explains the successful production of tetanus in animals 
strongly immunized against the toxin if the dose of toxin is intro- 
duced inside the meninges. 

The other factor is the capacity for '' lying low," provoking no 
reaction, but continuing to multiply at the point of infection, 
insidiously, persistently, until in sufficient numbers toi overwhelm 
the surprised defence, often when some special circumstance 
renders it more vulnerable. It may be that offence and defence 
are practically equal. At first the infecting germs, having only 
natural resistance to overcome, multiplv and establish a nidus of 
infection, the weaker ones being killed off, but the more vigorous 
ones continuing and reproducing a more resistant type. At the 
same time antibody formation goes on, opsonins, agglutinins, 
bacteriolysins, and others, but offence and defence develop equally, 
and the issue may be for a long time in doubt. Often the infection 
is held up'. and remains for months or years circumscribed, as, for 
example, in leprosy, or in bovine tuberculosis, or, again, in 

266 president's address — section l. 

syphilis. As Theobald Smith well puts it, '^ There is another type 
o*^ parasite which may dispense largely with both offensive and 
defensive processes. We can conceive of this type as exerting a 
metabolic activity approximating so closely to that of the host that 
the latter reacts but slightly, and then only after a long period 
of stimulation." At the same time, the danger of spread to other 
organs or of generalization is always existent. 

Sometimes, on the other hand, the insidious nature of the infec- 
tion, and its avoidance of serious irritation, produces a state almost 
of commensalism. The germ is not destroyed, but is practically 
impotent, antibodies continue to be produced, and so protect the 
body generally. Something like this appears to be the case with 
the protozoan parasite of " tick fever," and the same may be said 
of Bang's aboatioii bacillus located in the cow's mammary gland. 

But we must pass on to consider some of the mechanisms of 
defence, and first phagocvtosis. 


The importance of phagocytosis as a defensive mechanism aud 
the vxnderstanding of the conditions surrounding it must always be, 
associated with the genius of Metchnikoff. A classic observation 
of his introduces us to the heart of the subject. A normal rabbit 
was inoculated subcutaneously in one ear with a fresh virulent 
culture of anthrax, in the other ear with an attenuated culture of 
the same organism. In the latter case diapedesis of leucocytes was 
rapid, and phagocytosis of the organisms was soon in full pro^- 
gress with the formation of a small purulent focus. In the former 
a gelatinous blood-stained oedema occurred with practically no 
leucocytes and no phagocytosis, whilst the organism multiplied 
rapidly, became generalized, and killed the animal. But now two 
other rabbits were taken, the one normal, the other previously 
vaccinated by Pasteur's method against anthrax, and both were 
inoculated with a virulent culture of anthrax. In the vaccinated 
animal therei was observed marked diapedesis and rapid and com- 
plete phagocytosis of the virulent organism, whilst the unprotected 
rabbit died oi acute anthrax infection. Thus was demonstrated 
the efficacy of phagocytosis, and Metchnikoff asserted that the ulti- 
mate result of the infection of an animal with bacteria depended 
essentially on the efficiency of its phagocytary powers. That this* 
is a complete statement of the position cannot now be accepted, 
but, despite numerous attempts to belittle its significance, phago- 
cytosis still stands in the forefront of protective measures . 

Two of the main methods which have been used to investigate 
the phenomena associated with phagocytosis may be mentioned. 
The first is by the injection of such substances as aleurone grains 
or dead bacteria, or, what answers quite well, a few c.c. of 
bouillon, into the peritoneal cavity of a guinea pig or rabbit. 
Such an injection causes the pouring out of an inflammatory 

president's address — SECTION L. 267 

exudate rich in leiicocytes, at fir^it chieflv cf the polynuclear 
variety, with a few lymphocytes and eosinophils, but after some 
hours there appear much larger wandering cells — macrophages of 
Metchnikcff — which equal or even exceed the number cf poly- 
nu clears. 

By this means the process of phagocytosis of bacteria in vivo 
can bei studied by withdrawing a little of the exudate at conveni- 
ent intervals after experimental infection, and also in vitro by 
withdrawing some of the exudate and making a hanging-drop 
preparation which is kept at the body temperature, inoculated with 
a bacterial culture, and observed under the microscope at frequent 
intervals. Any effect of the peritoneal exudate in which the cells 
are suspended can be eliminated by adding a little normal saline 
solution, centrifuging, removing the cells, washing, and suspending 
them in fresh saline. 

The other method, move commonly adopted by Wright, is to 
take a little blood in citrated saline solution to prevent clotting, 
centrifuge it, remove the supernatant liquid, and then carefully 
pipette off the " leucocytic cream." The leucocytes are again 
washed in saline, centrifuged, and re-suspended in saline; the 
bacterial culture is added in minute quantity, and the mixture 
incubated for a short time. A smear is then made on a slide, 
fixed, stained, and examined, and the amount of phagocytosis, if 
any, can be determined by microscopic examination. 

By these and similar methods the characteristic features of the 
phagocytic action of leucocytes ^nd other wandering cells have 
been made out. 

Time forbids a consideration of the physiological role of phago- 
cytes; suffice it to mention — 

(1) their amoeboid powers; 

(2) the phenomenon of chemiotaxis by which various foreign 

siibstances attract cr repel them; 

This can be well shown by inserting two capillary tubes under 
the skin of a rabbit, both containing nutritive broth medium, but 
in the one case the medium inoculated with living staphylococci 
whilst the other is sterile. Removed after 24 hours, the inoculated 
tubes contains a turbid fluid containing very numerous polynuclear 
leucocytes, whilst the fluid in the other tube remains clear. If, 
instea,d of staphylococci, the tube had been sown with viriden^ 
anthrax bacilli, there would have been few or no leucocytes but 
a great multiplication of the anthrax bacilli, for the virulence of 
anthrax consists in large measi.ue in its power to repel and inhibit 

(3) their power of ingesting foreign cells and particles, well- 

shown in vitro by Wright's method; 

268 president's address — section l. 

It is remarkable that leucocytes appear more resistant to the 
inhibitory effects of drugs than many other cells. Thus Besredka 
has shown that they ingest particli3S of arsenic trisulphide injected 
into the peritoneum and so protect the body. Bordet has shown 
that morphine (1-100), cocaine (1-1,000) and atrophine. (1-1,000) 
do not prevent phagocytosis of bacteria iii vitr<o. Quinine on the 
other hand is extremely toxic for leucocytes. 

(4) their abilit}^ to digest the bacteria (or other cells) they 
have engulphed, and the presence of a tryptic ferment 
resulting from the death and disintegration of leuco- 
cytes, especially jjolyniorphonuclears, which digests 
tissue elements and dead cells. 

The effects of intracellular digestion of bacteria can be observed 
directly by Wright's or Pfeiffer's methods: they swell up, stain 
less easily, and become converted into granules. Another method 
is tO' obtain an extract from the leucocytes and test its bactericidal 
or digestive effects. Several methods have been used, notably by 
Gengou (1915), who extracted the leucocytes with dilute hydro- 
chloric acid and obtained a clear liquid which caused a breakdown 
of bacterial cells in all respects similar to that seen in vivo. 
Gengou noted that an extract of mononuclear leucocytes was in- 
active, and this is in line with the inactivity of the lymphocytes 
in phagocytosis of pyogenic organisms. The products of such 
digestion of bacteria cannot easily be determined, but with the 
digestion of tissue cells the end products are easily identified and 
the nature of the ferment action is thus made clear. Muller and 
Jo'chmann have suggested a, simple demonstration by placing 
a drop of human Jeucocytic exudate on the surface of some coagu- 
lated serum. Bordet has pointed out a rather remarkable thing, 
that only leucocytic material from man, ape or dog is active in 
this way, as though in other animals there is some inhibiting sub- 
stance, or the. ferment is liberated only with difficulty. 

Now, bacteria owe their virulence in large measure to their aiiti- 
phagocytary powers, and indeed virulence is in the main inversely 
proportional to phagocytosis. An experiment by Tchistovitch 
affords an example. He took a virulent pneumococcus and found 
that in the mouse there was no phagocytosis, in the rabbit phago- 
cytosis was feeble, whilst in the dog it was active and complete. 
This agrees with the high susceptibility of the mouse, lessened 
susceptibility of ihe rabbit, and insusceptibility of the dog. 

The comparative values of phagocytes and serum in guarding 
against infection cannot be stated, for immunity is a product of 
many forces with cells and sera acting in combinatiom, but as 
showing the inability of serum alone in many cases we may note 
the following experiments. Anthrax bacilli, towards which the 
dog has a high degree of immunity, will nevertheless grow artifi- 
cially quite well in dog's serum. The same is true of the fowl; 

president's address — SECTION L. 269 

and in both dog and fowl the immunity is due to the power ol 
phagoc} tosis. Again, in the case of animals naturally susceptible 
to certain diseases and then vaccinated against them, it is remark- 
able that the bactericidal power of the blood serum of these im- 
munized animals is very small. This is true of streptococci, 
staphylococci, pneumococci, diphtheria bacillus and B. pyocyaneus. 
On the other hand the increase in phagocytosis is remarkable. 

Both active and passive immunization greatly increase the power 
of phagocytosis, and at first sight the readiest explanation appears 
to be by survival of the fittest of the phagocytes. But how can 
this be the case in passive immunization where nO' struggle has 
gone on in the immunei animal ? Here it must clearly be a 
property conferred by means of the hyperimmune serum. But 
does this stimulus act by spurring on the phagocytes to greater 
efforts or does it so- affect the bacteria as to' make them more sus- 
ceptible? An experiment of Wright and Douglas makes the 
point clear. Some leucocytes are treated with highly immune 
antistreptococcic serum, then washed, and mixed with streptococci, 
when very feeble phagocytosis occurs. On the other hand, if 
streptococci are treated with the antistreptococcic seinim, then 
washed, and mixed with leucocyte^;, phagocytosis occurs with great 

Other bacteria and immune sera show similar results, and 
Wright and Douglas gave the name of "opsonins" (feast preparers') 
to these anti-bodies develoj^ed in^ serum as a result of bacterial 
infection or vaccination. Wright and his collaborators almost 
desired to make the determination of the opsonins present in a 
particular serum a measure of immunity, but important as the ?ole 
of the opsonins in the serum is in preparing the bacteria for 
phagocytosis, it does net lessen the necessity for phagocytes able 
to withstand the microbic products, and to digest and destroy the 
bacteria they engulf. Further, it has been shown in the case of 
virulent organisms, pneumococci and streptococci, that part of 
their virulence consists in the development of substances which 
neutralize the opsonins of the serum, and which therefore may be 
called anti-opsonins. Not to multiply terms, they appear to 
belong to the same category as the "aggressins" of Bail. 

A remarkable feature of opsonic action is that the bacteria 
are acted on in a purely passive manner, quite irrespective, fox 
example, of whether they are dead or alive. Further, the serum 
opsonins are able toi prepare for ingestion by leucocytes inert par- 
ticles such as carbon, melanin, carmine or starch (Wright and 
Douglas). It is probable that these particles adsorb opsonins (on 
all the evidence, albuminoid substances) which form a surface 
having adhesive properties which greatly favours phagocytosis. 
Phagocytosis itself may be looked upon as a twofold process ; first. 

270 president's address — section l. 

the contact and adhesion of the foreign particle or cell with the 
phagocyte, and then its ingestion. In the formei- stage the phago- 
cyte is probably quite passive, the particle having been subjected 
by reason of its adsorption of opsonins to a physico-chemical change 
which facilitates adhesion, whilst the latter stage is due to the 
amoeboid mobility of the leucocyte. Ledingham (1906) has 
shown that in the presence of op.sonins bacteria have a tendency 
to adhere to leucocytes even at temperatures too low for amoeboid 
action to occur. 

One last observation on the methods of phagocytosis is that 
named by Bordet the jihagoci/tarjj crhis. If a rabbit is injected 
intraperitoneally with bouillon, and at the same time receives a 
dose of autistrepLC'Coccic serum, it can then receive on the following 
day a fairly large dose of virulent streptococcus culture with the 
following results. Thanks to the immune serum injected the 
bacteria are prevented from invading the body genei"ally ; very 
numerous polymorphs are present in the exudate ; but the strepto- 
cocci even aiter several hours are still free, have surrounded 
themselves with a kind of aureole (capsule) and the exudate is 
almost purulent. Then begin to appear large mononuclear cells 
(macrophages) and almost suddenly extensive phagocytosis of strep- 
tococci by these large cells occurs. The polymorphonuclear cells 
are in the main inactive, many are dead, but just before phago- 
cytosis occurs the streptococci may also be seen to be abnormal, 
staining feebly, smaller in size, whilst the aureole is indistinct. 
This is the moment when phagocytosis commences. Bordet's ex- 
planation is very simple. The protective measures have prevented 
the cocci from becoming septicaemic, the macrophages derived from 
endothelial cells and lymph glands have begun to mobilize, and 
the breakdown products (ferments) from the dead polymorphonu- 
clears have commenced an extracellular digestion of the bacteria. 
The joint action of opsonins and macrophages completes the scheme 
of defence, and if the dose of streptococci has not been toO' large 
the animal reccvers. 

We may conclude this view of the action of phagocytes by 
saying that the opsonic hypothesis of Wright has gone far to 
reconcile the cellular and humoral theories by bridging the gap 
and demonstrating their essential co-operation in the whole plan 
of immunity mechanism. 

But now to consider more closely the role of the serum in the 
production of immunity. 

Bole of the Sei'iim : Anfif/enx and Anfihodies. 

Any review of the development of the science of immunity 
must bring out in strong light the ever-recurring tendency of 
workers in this field to generalize from very limited observations, 
to stumble across an important discovery and at once toi enunciate 

president's address — SECTION L. 271 

a theory which could be applied to the whole field, to discover 
some more or less important factor in the whole scheme and to 
publish it promptly as the whole, comiplete and final. Again and 
again these generalizations have proved inadequate, and with a 
host of workers attacking the problems of immunity froan all 
sides, and in light of all the magnificent contributions to our 
knowledge during the past three or icixr decades, we now know 
that the factors in immunity are not few, but many; that the 
defence of the body against attack by invaders, of whose multi- 
farious devices we arei becoming increasingly aware, is not one-sided, 
simple, direct, but made up of a wealth of adaptations, of agents, 
materials and methods of which we are now becoming dimly 
cognisant. A very wise aphorism of Bordet's might with advan- 
tage be taken tO' heart by all workers in this field. He says, "In 
deciding the role of each antibody in the total power of the serum, 
leave a sufficiently generous part to the unknown." 

For the immediate study of immunity of the body against in- 
fections disease it might be thought that investigation confined 
to the actual infective agents, their j^roducts, and their effects, 
would concentrate attention on the kernel of the problem and 
hasten its solution. At the outset, however, it soons becomes 
clear that the dc-monstration of the presence of various antibodies 
in the blood of an immune animal qualitatively and quantitatively 
is not easy. The chemistry of these bodies is very obscure, their 
physical properties are complex. It is therefore a matter of 
great importahoe to) discover cl\aracteristic reactions, if possible 
obvious to the naked eye, which will serve as indicators of their 
presence and activity. From this will be understood the great 
advance which followed Bordet's discovery that red blood cor- 
puscles of an animal of one species injected on three or four 
occasions intoi an animal of another species would give rise to the 
production in this second animal of an antibody, a hapmobjsin, 
capable of liberating the haemoglobin from the red cells of the 
ammal donor, a reaction quite obvious in the test tube. Here, 
then, is an exaniple of an animal immunized against foreign cells, 
and its immunity is evidenced by the production of an antibody 
capable of combining with the cells against which it has been 
immunized. These foreign cells constitute in fact an "antigen," 
a producer of antibody, and may be taken as a type of antigens 
in general. 

In a similar way light has been thrown upon the nature of 
toxins, anti-toxins and their mode of combination by experiments 
using some of the vegetable toxins, of which ricin, the toxin from 
castor oil beans, may be taken a-s a type. Study of the actions 
of various snake venoms has also contributed to our understanding 
of the natui'e of toxins and anti-toxins. 

272 president's address — section l. 

And so in this as in other sciences investigation of matters not 
at first glance relevant has been fruitful in widening the under- 
standing of the problem. On this wider basis the types of anti- 
gens are many, in the following groups: — Bacterial cells (dead or 
alive), bacterial exotoxins (tetano-toxin), vegetable toxins (ricin, 
abrin, cretin, robin), snake venoms, enzymes (pepsin, trypsin), also 
animal cells such as blood corpuscles, and foreign proteins of animal 
or vegetable origin as casein, serum, egg albumen. These all 
agree in being colloidal in nature and albuminoid in composition. 
A characteristic property of albuminoids is that of forming 
adsorption co'mplexes with other albuminoids and with many other 
substances. The statement has been made that lipoids such as 
those extracted from blood cells, or lecithin, could act as antigens, 
but generally this is net accepted. It may well be, however, 
that a lipo-protein ccmplex can act as an antigen. 

There are one or two conditions necessary for antigen action, 
viz. : — 

(1) the antigen must penetrate into the hocit/ of the animal 

which is toi produce thei antibody, and this is the 
reason why antigens ingested by the mouth have, as a 
rule, no action ; 

(2) it must be foreign to the animal in which it is to act ; but 

(3) it need not be toxic. 

Now, with a diversity of antigens there is a corresponding 
diversity of antibodies, but the tendency toi dividei them into 
sharply limited classes widely differing from one another is not 
justified. Our knowledge of the presence of any particular anti- 
body is due solely to its combination with its proper antigen to 
form a. complex with definite properties and reactions. These 
reactions do not characterize the antibody, but the antigen-anti- 
hody comhinafion, and although thei reactions which reveal their 
presence may differ markedly, there is good ground for thinking 
ngglutinins, precijMins, hcpmolysins, hacte/iolysws, and the like 
liave a related origin and composition. 

A remarkable feature is the specific nature ol the reaction 
following the action of an antigen. The antibody developed as a 
result has a strong aflBnity for that antigen, and this affinity is 
sufficiently specific or elective as to form the basis of sero-diagnosis. 
The agglutination reaction, preicipitin test, complement fixation 
test, and even the phenomenon of anaphylaxis, all afford evidence 
of this characteristic. The 2weci'pitin test will suffice for illustra- 
tion. If a series of rabbits are injected each with a different 
serum, human, ox, pig, and dog, then after two or three injections 
it is found that the serum of each rabbit will, if mixed with the 
appropriate serum, namely, that one which has been used to 
immunize it, give a turbidity and eventually a precipitate at the 
line of union. Any other serum than the one used as antigen will 


fail to give the reaction, but, significant fact, the serum of one of 
the higher apes will react similarly to that of man, although not 
ill so high a titre. The bearing of this specific reaction on 
biological problems concerned with species relationships is pro- 

Where bacteria are used as antigens the specificity of the antigen- 
antibody reaction is often less clearly defined, for the reason that 
the specific differences between the specieis and strains of bacteria 
are less fixed. Thus typhoid, paratyphoid, and colon bacilli may 
all be agglutinated by the same sample of human serum, but, 
although showing this group relationship, if the human serum is 
progressively diluted it will be found to give a reaction in much 
higher dilution with the bacillus which is at the time infecting the 
patient, i.e., the true antigen, so that it is quantitatively specific 
even here. On thei other hand, the ability of two clift'erent micro- 
organisms to produce agglutination, precipitation, or complement 
fixation in the same serum suggests some family relationship 
between the bacteria which is often of importance. A remarkable 
instance of this, pointed out by an American worker, Miss Alice 
C. Evansi (1918), and confirmed by myself, is that bacillus meli- 
tensis and Bang's abortion bacillus will each agglutinate a bovine 
serum from a case of abortion to the same high dilution. The 
inability to differentiate between Johne's disease and tuberculosis 
of cattle by means of a tuberculin reaction is similarly significant. 

We need not delay to discuss in detail the origin of the various 
antibodies, but just as Metchnikoff's name will always be associ- 
ated with phagocytosis, so will the name of Ehrlich be associated 
with cur understanding cf the production of immune bodies in the 

Ehrlich's theory for the fcrmation of immune bodies may be 
stated in its simplest terms in relation to the production of mifi- 
fo.rin by the repeated and graduated injection cf to.rin. 

He conceived the body cells as depending for their nutrition on 
the possession of certain affinities, or I'eceptors, able to combine 
with food molecules (having similar receptors, or side-chains) pre- 
sented to them in the blood. But, further, antigens, whether 
bacteria or cells or foreign protein .molecules of any kind, were 
conceived as having similar side-chains with affinities which could 
also fit these cell receptors, and so the antigens become attached 
to their appropriate cells. A cell so burdened with an antigen is 
in danger of starvation, having insufficient free unsaturated recep- 
tors wherewith to fix food molecules. In defence the cell proceeds 
to bud off new receptors, and once this proliferation has com- 
menced nothing operates to cause its cessation, and an over- 
production of receptors takes place. Not cnly so, but these excess 
receptors are set free into the blood stream, where, meeting with 
analogous antigen (in this case, toxin) groups, they combine with 
frhem, so satisfying the affinity of the toxin, making it incapable 

274 pkesident's address — section l. 

of combining with the body cell and, for all practical purposes, 
inert. Thus, according to Ehrlich's view, antitoxin consists of 
numerous free receptors circulating in the blood and bod37 fluids 
with specific affinity for toxin molecules. This "side-chain " 
theory, with modifications, has been applied by Ehrlich to explain 
thei production of the other types of antibody, agglutinins, 'pre- 
cipitins, hemolysins, he, and it is obviously founded vipon a 
supposed analogy taken from organic chemistry. Further, Ehilich 
has suggested that the union of antigen and antibody (in the 
simplest case toxin and antitoxin) is a chemical combination fol- 
lowing the law of multiple proportions. This view has been made 
the subject of acute controversy, and, with all due deference to 
the genius of Ehrlich, it may be said that his views of this antigen- 
antibody combination can no longer be accepted. 

Many attempts have l)een made to ascertain the exact chemical 
constitution of anttljodies, but it is a matter of great difficulty 
because of tlie impossibility of obtaining them in a state of purity. 
As colloids they enter into physical, if not chemical, union with 
other protein groups, and cannot be with certainty separated. It 
is established that thev are precipitated with the globulins and, 
in tlie casei of tetanus and diphtheria antitoxins, almost entirely 
with the pseudo-globulin group. An ingenious method which has 
been used in the attempt to obtain the antibodies pure is that of 
adding toi a particular serum containing an antibody the proper 
antigen, allowing a short time to elapse for combination, then 
removing and carefully washing the antigen-antibody complex and 
attempting to separate the two by the action of dilute acids and 
alkalis. All tTiat ap^pears possible: to say at present is that the 
antibodies are protein in nature and behave like colloids, i.e., are 
not dialysable. 

What, then, is the nature of the antigen -antihody combin-ation ? 
Her©, again, we may take first the simplest case, the union of 
antitoxin and toxin. If this can be solved there is surely ©very 
a, priori reason toi expect antigen-antibody combinations generally 
to be subject to tlie one common theory. 

The first point which can be determined is that antitoxin acts 
directly on toxin to' destroy its toxic powers, and not on the vulner- 
able cells, to make them immune. One or two experiments which 
prove this may be given. Fici77 has the power of agglutinating 
red blood corpuscles, but if ricin is first mixed with antiricin (i.e., 
the serum of an animal which has been immunized against ricin) 
its agglutinating power is lost. If, however, red cells are mixed 
first with antiricin serum, then washed free of it in saline and 
submitted to the action of ricin, they are agglutinated. Again, 
an old experiment of Martin and Cherry with snake venom showed 
tha!. the toxin would pass throngh a porcelain filter impregnated 
with gelatine, whilst aiitivenin sei"um would not. If venom and 
antivenom serum were mixed together, and a sufficient interval 
allowed to elapse, neither would pass the filter, for combination 
had occurred. 


A second equally important point is that this combination is 
unstable. Calmette (1907) has shown that whilst snake venom 
withstands a temperature of 80" C, antivenin is destroyed at 
68-70", especially in presence of a dilute acid. In a similar man- 
ner the venin-antivenin complex, if submitted to the joint action 
of acid and alcohol, is broken up, the to^xin goes into solution 
m the alcohol, whilst the antitoxin is inactivated. 

. Danysz has also shown that pancreatic juice will restore the 
toxicity to an innocuous mixture of ricin and antiricin by acting, 
more quickly on the antitoxin than on the toxin. Again, it" to 
some red blood corpuscles we add an inactivated hsemolytic serum, 
they will become sensitized, and now only need the addition of a 
little fresh serum, i.e., complement, to become hsemolysed. But if 
before adding complement, we add to the sensitized cells some 
antl-hasmolysin, i.e., serum prepared by immunizing an animal 
to a haemolysin, then the addition of ccmplement has no effect, for 
the hsemolysm has been neutralized by the anti-hgemol)sin. 

Of what nature, then, is the comlTination 'I Ehrlich himself 
likened it to the union of a strong acid and a strong base accord- 
ing to the law of definite proportions. But an observation of 
Ehrlich's own — known as Ehrlich's phenomenon — pointed out 
great difficulties in the way of believing this. Suppose it is found 
that .01 c.c. of diphtheria toxin will kill a guinea pig in a given 
time, then Ic.c. of the toxin will contain 100 units of toxin, and 
if the concentration of antitoxin is so arranged that 1 c.c. of anti- 
toxin exactly neutralizes 1 c.c. of toxin, then 1 c.c. of antitoxin 
also contains 100 units of antitoxin. Then a mixture of 1.01 c.c. 
(or 101 units) of toxin and 1.00 c.c. (or 100 units) of antitoxin 
ought to be fatal for a guinea pig in the unit time. Strangei to 
relate, it is harmless, and so is any mixture until there is an excess 
of toxin over antitoxin of 25 to 35 units, when the mixture 
(1.25 c.c. toxin and 1 c.c. antitoxin) again is fatal to a guinea 
pig. To meet this surprising result Ehrlich suggested that the 
toxin was really made up of two bodies, toxin and toxoii, the 
former having a very strong affinity for antitoxin and being at 
the same time toxic, the latter having a weak affinity for anti- 
toxin and being non-toxic. Thus, if 100 units of '" toxin " con- 
tains really 75 units of true toxin and 25 units of toxon, 75 units 
of antitoxin would be able to neutralize this amount by uniting 
with the 75 units of true toxin, leaving the 25 units of toxon 
free but devoid of toxicity. Here again, however, the hypothesis 
is unsatisfactory, for if 75 units of antitoxin neutralize 100 units 
" toxin " (of which 75 are true toxin and 25 are toxon left free), 
then 50 units antitoxin added to' 100 units " toxin " should unite 
with 50 units true toxin, leaving 25 units toxon free and also 25 
units toxin fres, and this last amount should be fatal for twenty- 
five guinea pigs; hiif this is not so. As Bordet has shown, a much 
1084.— 18 

276 president's address — section l. 

more reasonable view is to imagine all the toxin molecules sur- 
rounded or clothed with a " film " of antitoxin, so that all of 
them are propoitionately attenuated, even when the amo^unt of 
antitoxin is insufficient to make them inert. 

Another .explanation of antitoxin-toxin combination, and one 
providing at the same time an explanation of Ehrlich's 
phenomenon, was that of Arrhenius and Madsen. Time forbids 
more than a brief statement. They supposed the combination was 
■similar to that between a weak acid and a weak base, or to that 
between acetic acid and alcohol . Here the reaction is complicated 
by the effect of electrclytic dissociation and of mass action, and the 
reaction is really reversible. For example: — 

Acetic acid -j- alcohol '^ ethyl acetate -j- water, 

and all four constituents are always present and in a state of 
equilibrium. Alter the proportion of any one of them by addition 
or subtraction, and you alter the proportions cl each of the others 
as well. Such a theory can explain Ehrlich's phenomenon up to a 
point, but, as Nernst has pointed out, since the equation is ejc 
liypothesi a reversible one.* there must be suiiu- toxin free all the 
time. If the mixture were injected into an animal this free toxin 
would combine with its proper susceptible cells, but, being in too 
small a dose, would fail to poison them. But the abstraction of 
this free toxin would upset the equation, and niore free toxin 
Mould be liberated, which in turn would unite with the susceptible 
cells, and so' by a cumulative action the animal would be poisoned. 
In practice this does not occur, and this disproves Arrhenius and 
Madsen's hypothesis as to the mode of union. 

We now come to' Bordet's Adsorption Theory, sometimes called 
the physical theory. Bordet had observed that agglutination of 
bacteria or corpuscles by a suitable serum containing agglutinins 
would not take place in the absence of salt. The same is true for 
the precipitation of colloidal solutions. He further discovered 
strong analogies between the fixation of hsemolysin and coinple- 
ment by red corpuscles, and the adsorption of dyes by a fabric. 
If a piece of filter paper of a certain size is introduced into' a watch 
glass containing a dilute staining solution, the paper will take up 
the dye and assume ai uniform pale tint. But if a similar piece 
of paper is cut up into a number oi small pieces, and these are 
introduced into the staining solution one by one with an interval 
between each, then the first adsorbs a considerable proportion of 
the stain, the second a little less, and so on, until the last is 
hardly stained at all, and the intermediate ones show gradatio^ns 
of colour. Now, compare this with the combination of red cor- 
puscles and the haemolysins of an immune serum. It will be found 
that a considerably larger dose of corpuscles will be haemolyzed if 
the|y aire added at once than will be the case if small repeated 
doses are added at intervals. 

prk.sidp:nt"s address — section l. 277 

Another experiment leads to a similar conclusion. It can be 
ascertained what is the minimum amount of complement necessary 
to cause complete haemolysis of a certain small quantity of sensi- 
tized red corpuscles. Now, take a much larger quantity of comple- 
ment, but, before mixing it with the corpuscles, add to it an 
amount of anti-complement not nearly sufficient to ne'utralize it 

On Ehilicb's hypothesis the mixture should contain a large 
amount of free fully-active complement, able to ha^molyze com- 
pletely several times the small unit dose of corpuscles. As a matter 
Of fact, it will be found that this will be quite unable to hsemolyze 
the same quantity of corpuscles in unit time,, for, hcinr/ iniiformi// 
attenuated, it works slowly. On the other hand, it will liberate 
a much larger quantity of haemoglobin from a large dose of cor- 
puscles than the minimum dose of fully active complement could 
do. In other words, as Bordet puts it, the one is superior by the 
factor of activity, the other by the factor of quantity. 

An observation of Buchner's with tetanus toxin and antitoxin 
is of interest. Weight for weight, a guinea pig is much more 
susceptible to poisoning with tetanus-toxin than a mouse. Thus, 
a guinea pig weighing twenty times as much as a mouse will be 
poisoned by ten times the lethal dose for a mouse. Now, if to a 
fairly large quantity of tetanus-toxin some antitoxin is added in 
just a sufficient quantity to render the mixture tolerable to a 
mouse, it will be found that the same dose of the mixture injected 
into a guinea pig will kill it. This is inexplicable if one imagines 
the antitoxin completely neutralizing a proportion of tbe toxin, 
but leaving a quantity free and active. It is easily understood if 
one imagines the whole of the toxin attenuated uniformly, for so 
attenuated it is ineffective against a mouse but effective against a 
guinea pig. 

Another observation which has to be noted is that there is a 
power of selection, of greater or less affinity, in adsorption, as in 
purely chemical combinations, and that one element may be able 
thus to displace another. Thus, Gengcu (1908) has shown that a 
precipitate of barium sulphate, whilst having a strong adsorptive 
affinity for mucin, has an even stronger one for the albuminoids 
of serum. The addition of mucin to the barium sulphate precipi- 
tate causes an aggregation or agglutination of the fine particles. 
Now, on adding a little serum the mucin is displaced, and the 
agglutinated particles again disperse. In a similar fashion, as 
Morgenroth has shown, sensitized red corpuscles retain the sensi- 
tizing substance tenaciously if suspended in saline solution ; but if 
a further quantity of red corpuscles from the same species, this 
time iin sensitized, is added, the sensitized ones give up to them 
part of the sensitizing substance. A simple experiment will illus- 
trate the point admirably. Place in a watch, glass of water a disc 
of filter paper previously stained fairly deeply with methylene blue 

278 . president's address — section l. 

solution. Then place lightly on it a smaller triangular piece of 
unstained filter paper. After a short time it will be found that the 
larger piece is of a perceptibly lighter colour just over the area 
occupied by the fresh unstained piece, which, in turn, has become 
faintly coloured. 

What may appear contradictory to some extent to- thei last state- 
ment is the observation that these adscrpticn complexes become 
more firmly consolidated with time. Just as in dyeing, the colours 
become faster with a more prolonged immersion and after a longer 
interval, so^ here. Madsen and Walbum (1904) showed that in a 
neutral mixture of diphtheria-toxin and antitoxin the toxin was 
able to dilTuse through a gelatine plate more quicklv than the anti- 
toxin. Thus, after a short interval the deeper layer of gelatine 
contained chiefly toxin, whilst the superficial layer held antitoxin; 
This result, however, only occurred with recently prepared mix- 
tures. Other workers, notably Martin and Cherry, have shown 
the same thing with other antigeai-antibody-complexes. 

If time allowed, further experiments illustrating the union of 
antigen and antibody in the precipitin reaction, and showing it 
to be capable of similar ex]ilanation, could be given, and so with 
other antigen-antibody combinations. Suftice it to quote an obser- 
vation of Biltz. Colloidal ferric hydrate is an antidote to arsenious 
acid poisoning, and the amount of the iron salt to exactly neutralize 
the arsenic can be determined. Now, make a mixture of the twoi in 
which there is an excess of arsenic of several times the toxic dose for 
a given animal, and yet when administered it will not cause death. 
Only when a gieat excess of arsenic is present does the mixture 
beoG'me lethal ; in other words, wei have here an experiment quite 
analogous with the Ehrlich phenomenon. In the case of the arsenic- 
iron compound the explanation is purely that of molecular adhesion 
or adsorption with consequent attenuation (so far as toxic pro- 
perties are concerned) of th^ poison. This, in Bordet's view, is 
the explanation of the Ehrlich 's phenomenon, and supplies an 
understanding of the antigen-antibody combinations in general. 
So the i^roduct of a reaction between antitoxin and toxin is not 
always the same, but varies with the exact quantities and concen- 
trations of each factor; in fact, there is a whole gradation of 
complexes up' to that in which the antigen is completely saturated 
by its antibody. 

Here we may consider for a monient the question Cif 

Coin ph-mcvf and its Fixation. 
Any student of immunity must be struck by the participation 
of the substance known as " complement " or " alexin "as a 
factor in many of the reactions. In clinical practice it is becoming 
increasingly important because of the reliability of tlie diagnostic 
method known as '' fixation of the complement," so that at least 
a few words inust be given to a consideration of its nature and 
mode of action. 

president's address — SECTION L.. 279 

In an animal immunized against i"ed blood corpuscles we have 
seen that the blood serum beccmes htemolytic to the particular kind 
of ccipu&cles used. Placed in a test tube, these corpuscles will be 
speedily dissolved en the addition of a small amount of the immune 
serum diluted with saline solutiori. Bvit if the immune serum be 
heated to 56" C. for half -an -hour it becomes ineffective, and yet 
once again it can be reactivated by the addition of a little fresh 
normal serum from (practically) any animal. OlDviously the 
immune serum must be made up of at least two factors, one of 
which is destroyed or inactivated by heating to 56°, whilst the 
other remains intact. Further, the thermolabile substance is evi- 
dently non-specific, for it can be supplied by any fresh serum. 

This thermolabile constituent of serum, whether normal or 
immune, is Cumplenicnt. 

But not only is it a factor in haemolysis, but in bacteriolysis and 
)nany other immunity i eactions ; in other words, the phenomenon 
of lysis is the result of a combination of three factors, the anfif/oi, 
whether red cells, bacteria, or ethers; the anfibod//, a specific sub- 
stance produced in thei animal as a result of infection or vaccina- 
tion ; and com idem cut , a normal constituent of the blood serum of 
animals. Tins constituent varies in amount in different animals, 
but is present in high concentration in the serum of the guinea pig, 
and for laboratory purposes this animal is the usual source of 

To determine whether the blood serum of a particular animal or 
man contains immune bodies against a particular disease (as would 
be the case if the animal were norvv, or had been, infected with that 
disease) it would suffice to show that the serum could unite with 
a small quantity of the bacteria, so forming the complex antigen- 
antibody-complement. If, then, the sample of serum can bedispos- 
sessed of its own unknown quota of complement, and if a known 
minimal quantity of complement can be added to the mixture of 
bacteria and suspected serum, any reaction between them will 
entail the fixation of this ]ninimal quantity of complement, for it 
is essential to the reaction. Unfortunately, the reaction gives no 
obvious indication of having taken place, but we may now deter- 
mine whether the couiplement has been fixed or is still free by 
adding to the mixture some sensitized red corpuscles. Thev have 
already been siibmitted to the action of a htemolytic serum, devoid, 
however, of complement. All that is necessary for their haemolysis 
is the addition of a minimal quantity of free complement. So, if 
our first mixture, bacteria, immune serum, and one unit of com- 
]}lement, has combined to fonn a ccmplex, the red cells subse- 
quently added will remain intact, for the complement is fixed in 
the first combination. Conversely, if the bacteria found no immune 
body in the suspected serum, no fixation of complement would 
occur, and this would remain free, and, on the addition of the 
sensitized red cells, would unite with them and produce hgemolv.'ii« 
y.t. , liberation of the hsemoglobin. 

280 president's address — section l. 

Now, what is thei nature of this combination of antigen -anti- 
body and complement ? 

Ehrlich's theory of a chemical nnion has already been discussed. 
As against this view, Bo^rdet and his co-workers have put the view 
which may now be said to prevail, namely, that complement is 
fixed not iDy antibody alone, nor by antigen alone, but only by the 
antigen-antibody combination. In other words, the' action of the 
antibody, developed as a result of the immunity, is to combine 
with the antigen, and render it able to adsnrh complement. An 
analogy is seen in the action of the agglutinins in an immune 
serum. These agglutinins combine with the bacteria against which 
they have been developed, and renaer the bacteria able to adsorb 
f-alt from the saline solution in which they are suspended. Without 
salt bacteria are not agglutinated by a serum, however rich it 
may be in agglutinins. But add salt to the mixture, and you will 
add an electrolyte^, which, adsoibed by the bacteria-serum combina- 
tion, causes the agglutination. 

So complement fixation is really an adsorption of complement 
by colloidal substances, and this theory explains many curious 
phenomena of serum reactions. Serum is itself a complex body in 
a state of very unstable colloidal equilibrium, and very slight and 
subtle alterations can upset thb molecular adhesion which is 

And now, lastly, let us consider briefly, one of the most difficult, 
but at the same tinie most intereisting, of the phases of immunity, 
namely, A )iaph//I<i.ris. 

A Hfiph 1/1 axis. 

Anaphylaxis, -the name given by Richet signifying the reverse 
of prophylaxis, refers to a condition of extreme sensitivity or sus- 
ceptibility to the injection of certain substances. If, during the 
attempt to immunize an animal, a first injection of a particular 
antigen is given, and then after an interval of ten days or more 
a second dose is given, a peculiar set of symptons is often pro- 
duced, a reaction soi severe as tO' be often fatal, and that v/ithin 
a few minutes or a few hours. Thus, the first injection, intended 
to make the animal more refractory to infection, has apparently 
made it hypersensitive. 

The first observation recorded which may fairly be thought to 
be of this nature is on© of Magendie, in 1839, describing the sud- 
den death of dogs injected repeatedly with egg albumen. Several 
isolated observations by other workers were brought to light after 
the publication of Arthus in 1903 with regard to the effects of 
repeated injections into rabbits of horse serum. Theobald Smith 
also recorded the great susceptibility of guinea pigs used for the 
standardization of diphtheria toxin to a subsequent injection of 
normal horse serum. Since that time the subject has been investi- 
gated by very numerous workers, and the facts elicited have done 
much to increase our knowledge of immunity generally. 

president's address — SECTION L. 281 

Partly because many of the earlier isolated observations were 
made on the guinea pig, and also because of its great susceptfbility 
to anaphylaxis, this animal has been chosen for most of the 
experimental investigations. The rabbit, dog, sheep, mouse, and 
other animals have all been used, but, whilst they all show 
anaphylaxis under proper conditions, they are less susceptible 
than the guinea pig,, and the effects in them are less regular. A 
]3cint of primary importance is that, whatever the material used 
for injection, whether bacteria, serum, or ceils, the symptons pro- 
duced, and the poHt-mortem appearances and lesions in a fatal 
case are the same. Eestlessness and anxiety, a subnormal tempera- 
ture, a fall in blood pressure, and dyspnoea are prominent features, 
whilst on post-mortem, examination the lungs show a condition of 
acute emphysema, with the alveoli distended, the capillaries empty, 
and the small bronchioles contracted so as to imprison the air in 
the lungs. 

Again, it may be stated that the substances giving rise to 
anaphylaxis are all of the nature of antigens, all able to provoke 
the production of antibodies when injected into an animal. 
Further, it is very remarkable how minute a dcse of the first 
injection may be sufficient to sensitize. 

The firs-t injection may be made in .various ways, subcutaneous, 
intraperitoneal, intravenous, but the most acute results are 
obtained when the seco/id injection is made directly into the blood 
stream. Material injected subcutanecusly is absorbed so slowly 
as to be accommodated usually, ®r if symptoms of shock occur 
they are delayed and subacute. Injected per rectum absorption 
again is so slow that no dangerous shock results. For this reason 
this method has been recommended to prevent any ill effects from 
repeated injections of substances likely to cause anaphylaxis 
(Besredka) . 

A time interval of at least ten to twelve days is necessary after 
the first injection before the sensitive state is reached. This is 
called the pre- anaphylactic period, but thereafter the animal re- 
mains susceptible to a second injection of the antigen for a long 
period, often many months. 

We have so far described active anaphylaxis, but, just as there 
is a passive immunity, so there is a state of passive anaphylaxis. 
This can be produced in a fresh animal by injecting into it the 
serum of an actively ftensitized animal ; also with the serum of an 
animal strongly immunized against any antigen, and, therefore, 
itself containing antibodies. In fact, the power of a serum to 
confer passive anaphylaxis is in. proportion to its content of anti- 
bodies. This sensitive state does not as a rule occur immediately 
after the injection of the immune serum, but develops in anything 
from four to twenty-four hours after injection. 

282 president's address— section l. 

Another important feature of anaphylaxis is that, just as an 
animal can be immunized against the various antibodies with the 
consequent production of '' anti-antibodieiS," so a state of (viti- 
fiiiapht/hixis may be brought about by various means. For 
example, if an animal shows signs of shock after a second injection 
of antigen, but recovers, it is then refractory, or, in other words, 
immune to a further injection of the antigen. The same result 
may be brought about by making the second injection of the 
antigen in the 'pre-a7inphi/Iacfic period. Or, again, if the second 
injection is given per rectum, the antigen will be absorbed so 
^Qcwly as to proteict. Even given by the mouth, the small amoiint 
of the antigen abscrbed may be sufficient tO' give protection. This 
" de-s'ensitization " is evidently merely a saturation of the anti- 
bodies contained in the blood or. tissues of the sensitive animal 
with the appropriate antigen in such a way as to avoid a violent 
shock. Passive anaphylaxis can be neutralized in a similar way 
by the proper dose of antigen, and may then be restored by a new 
injection of immune serum (Weil and Coca, 1913). 

Thus the occurrence of the sensitive state apparently coincides 
with the appearance of ordinary immune antibodies, such as pre- 
cipitins, and the anaphylactic shock apparently results in sqme 
way from a siuh/c/i antigen-antibody reaction. Further, it must 
be noted that the reaction is specific: it is the same antigen as was 
useid for the first injection which must be used to promote the 

Much difference of opinion has existed, and still exists, as toi the 
place where the hypothetical poison " anaphylatoxin " is produced, 
whether in the blood stream or in some of the tissue cells. The 
incubation period necessary after the injection of a sensitized 
serum before passive anaphylaxis occurs suggests a cellular partici- 
pation, and Dale's experiments strongly support this view. Dale 
(1912-1916) submitted the isolated uteri of young guinea pigs to 
the action of various sera. The uterus was first perfused with 
Ringer's solution through its vessels to remove all blood, then 
suspended in 250 c.c. of Ringer's solution at 38° C. In the case 
of a normal guinea pig, the addition of 1 c.c. of a foreign serum 
to the fluid had no effect, and provoked no muscular contractions 
of the uterus. In the case cf a guinea pig previously sensitized to 
a particular serum, the addition of a mere trace of this serum to 
the solution caused strong uterine contractions. 

Moreover, if a uterus had been stimulated to contract once by 
its specific antigenic serum it was found thereafter desensitized. 

As we shall see later, there are experimental evidences for a 
blood reaction, but it is limited as compared with the tissue 

An obvious question arises here, since anaphylaxis is an antigen- 
antibody reaction, what part, if any, does complement play in the 
reaction ? 


Two experimental methods have suggested themselves for deter- 
mining this point. First, several workers have shown that after 
anaphylactic shock the total amount of complement in an animal 
was lessened, suggesting that some complement had been used up 
in the reaction. 

Then, again, Loeffler (1910) employed a number of guinea pigs 
which had been sensitized to horse serum. He injected intraperi- 
toneally into some of them a sufficient quantity of sensitized 
sheep's red cells as to use up all the complement possessed by the 
animals, and then he injected a test dose of horse serum into all 
of them one hour later. The guinea pigs whose complement had 
been used up showed no anaphylaxis, whilst the control animals 
showed typical shock and died. Thus, we may conclude that in 
the ordinary anaphylactic reaction complement does share, being 
adsorbed by the antigen-antibody combination as in other 
immunity reactions. 

And now, what fli caries have been advanced to explain these 
phenomena, in other words, what is the nature of anaphylaxis ? 
As is to be expected in so complicated a subject of gradual 
development, the theories are many, but at the present time it will 
be sufficient to mention three or four. 

The processes of digestion of the proteins taken in as food so 
modify them as to allow of the absorption of non-toxic substances 
only, but injection of many of these substances into the blood 
stream is highly dangerous. For example, commercial peptone, 
given intravenously in the dog, j^roduces symptoms very similar 
lo those of anaphylaxis. Further, it is well known that the injec- 
tion of many substances, whether antigens proper or not, into the 
blood stream brings about thei appearance of fennents, " defensive 
ferments," as Abderhalden has called them, which break down 
these abnormal bodies, and so' preserve the integrity of the blood. 
An old observation of Delezenne's (1890) showed that the injection 
of gelatin rendered the blood serum capable of liquefying gelatine 
//( vitro. 

Acting on this knowledge, and having obtained highly toxic pro- 
ducts from egg albumen and other proteins by purely chemical 
means, Vaughan and Wheeler put forward the view that in active 
anaphylaxis the first injection causes the production of protective 
fennents in the blood, and that on the second injection of the 
antigen these ferments bring about splitting cf it with liberation 
of toxic substances which account for the symptoms. 

Against this view are the two facts that anaphylactic shock 
often occurs with extraordinary suddenness, whereas ferment 
action would take some time, and fui'ther the shock is a specific 
reaction only produced by the injection of a specific antigen, the 
same in origin and composition as the original antigen, whereas 
a ferment would have no such specific selective action. 

284 president's addkess — section l. 

It is true that Abderhalden affirms the specific nature of these 
ferments, and has applied this theory to the practical diagnosis of 
such conditions as pregnancy, and malignant growths such as 
cancer, but numerous workers have failed to confirm his results, 
and the recorded observations are very contradictory as to the 
value of the method. 

Friedberger and his followers have suggested a modification 
which accords well with many of the facts,, and is far-reaching in 
its application. According tO' this view, anaphylaxis results from 
the combination of complement with an antigen-antibody com- 
plex, and as a result the complement splits up the antigen, giving 
rise toi joroteoelastic substances which are toxic. The following 
experiments furnish strong evidence in support of this view : -.— 

(1) If well washed sensitised red corpuscles are injected into' the 
jugular vein of a normal guinea pig. the result is anaphylactic 
shock and death. 

(2^ Again, if similar sensitized red cells are submitted to the 
action of an excess of fresh guinea pig complement, then centri- 
fuged off and the supernatant fluid injected intravenously, the 
same result occurs. 

(3) If a fresh serum and its anti-serum are mixed togetlier and 
the resulting precipitate is centrifuged off, well-washed, and then 
submitted to the action of fresh complement and injected, shock 
and death are caused. 

(4) Lastly, if sensitized bacteria arei acted on by fresh com- 
plement, then centrifuged off and the supernatant fluid injected, 
the result is the same. 

Thus, any one oif a variety of antigens acted on by its appro- 
priate antibody^, and then by fiesh serum containing complement, 
is effective as a source of " anaphylatoxin " ; further, a point 
of great importance, if the fresh serum is heated to 56" C. so as 
to' destroy the complement, then no (tnaphi/Iaxts is jji-od iiccl by 
the injection. A further point is that it is of no importance what 
bacteria are used as antigen, and, as Novy and de Kruif have 
recently shown, even trypanosomes treated in the same manner 
are; effective in producing anaphylaxis. 

So Fi'iedberger, von Pirquet, Friedman and other have seen 
in infection of the animal body with bacteria, and the resulting 
symptoms and effects, only the phenomena due to anaphylaxis. 
The incubation period of a disease is, according to this view, 
simply the interval required after infection for the antibody to be 
produced, and this then reacts with the antigen, i.e., the invading 
bacteria, and complement, to produce toxins giving rise to all the 
symptoms and other effects proper to the disease. 

It must be admitted that this is a most attractive generaliza- 
tion, fascinating in its simplicity and far-reaching effects, but as 
we have seen from past experience of generalizations there is a 
grave danger in accepting so sweeping a hypothesis, the danger 
of trimming new facts and observations to make them fit the 

president's address — SECTION L. 285 

Here again, as in the case of many other cherished theories 
related to immunity, Bordet, who may almost be termed Bordet 
the iconoclast, has submitted this theory and the experimental 
work on which it stands to^ a searching scrutiny, and however 
mnch we may still cling to Friedberger's conception, it must be 
admitted that it cannot remain as a generalization covering the 
whole field. 

Fi-iedberger and, indeed, the great majority of those workers 
investigating anaphylaxis have assumed that the source of the 
po'iso'/i uYis the antigen; that from it alone, whether by a " feT- 
ment " or by complement and antibody, the poison was derived. 
An obvious difficulty occurs at once, for it is surely very re- 
markable that no matter what the antigen, whether serum, blood 
cells, bacteria of different kinds, egg albumen, &c., the symptoms 
produced and the 'post-ni.ortem appearances are always the same. 
As Bordet points ooit, some oi Friedberger's own eixperiments show 
that an antibody is not of necessity present in all cases of anaphy- 
laxis. What is essential in all cases apparently is the presence 
of fresh serum, if the' anaphylactic poison is to be produced, and 
Bordet asks with insistence, may it not be that this serum is 
indeed the source of the toxin ? So Bordet and Gengou have 
suggested that the origin of the anaphylactic toxin is not the 
antigen, but the serum ot the^ animal affected. 

By this theory the poison is preformed in the blood, and only 
prevented from acting by a physiological equilibrium which is 
upset at the time of the second injection by the adsorption of 
some substanee necessary tO' keep it stable. An experiment cf 
Bordet's (1913) lends support ^o this view, for he was able to 
show that anaphylactic shock can be produced without using any 
antigen. Ordinary agar purified so as to retain no trace of pro- 
tein, dissolved in saline, and mixed with an excess of fresh guinea 
pig serum, will, when injected intravenously into a normal guinea 
pig, cause shock and death in a few minutes. 

Further the agar solution if given in sublethal doses will pro- 
duce a condition of anti-anaphylaxis. 

These results have been confirmed by Novy and de Kruif , Zunz 
(1917) and other workers. 

And so Bordet once again suggests a physical basis for ana- 

There, for the time being, the question must be left. 

And now, aftefi; very briefly sketching in some of the more 
interesting phases of the problem of the mechanism of immunity, 
surely we can, whilst admitting our inability to accept any one 
general hypothesis, see something of a glimmering light, perhaps 
cf the dawn, and we must at least pay a tribute to the genius of 
Pasteur, Lister, Metchnikoff, Ehrlich, Bcrdet, great pioneers in 
a research fraught with incalculable benefits to mankind and the 
creatures over which man holds sway. 







scientific; results. 

By Sir Douglas Mawson, B.E., D.Sc. 

On the return of the Expedition to Australia at the beginning of 
March. 1914, the unpaid debts of the undertaking stood at about 
£5,000. Such an encumbrance was not regarded as a serious matter, 
for prospective assets from the publication of a popular book, lectures, 
and the sale of cinematograph rights were expected to return a far 
greater sum ; sufficient, indeed, to defray, as well, the cost of the 
publication of the Scientific Eesults. Unfortunately, at the very 
moment when the train was well laid for the realization of these assets, 
the Great War broke out, and all arrangements fell through. 

In the following years it was only with the greatest difficulty that 
I managed, by arduous and tiresome exertions, to obliterate this debt. 
As for producing, in addition, the necessary fund to adequately pubhsh 
the Scientific Reports, it was realized soon after the outbreak of war 
that the achievement of such was more than could be expected under 
the altered circumstances. Accordingly in October, 1914, I made an 
appeal to Mr. Andrew Fisher, then Prime Minister of the Common- 
wealth, explaining the position and requesting that the Common- 
wealth Government should agree to defray the cost of printing all 
manuscripts relating to the Expedition results such as would, in due 
course, be submitted for pubUcalion. Mr. Fisher rephed that eveTy 
penny was needed to prosecute the war, and the matter of several 
thousand pounds could not be spared. Thus it tv^as that, late in the 
year 1915, on my return from a lecturing tour in America, the matter 
was brought to the notice of the South Australian Government by a 
deputation led by Chief Justice Sir Samuel Way. As a result the 
Premier, the Hon. Crawford Vaughan, agreed to have the printing of 
the Reports carried out as odd time work, free of cost, at the 
Government Printing Office. 


Relieved of this load. I found it my duty to assist the National 
Cause in Europe. In the meantime Professor W. A. Haswell, who had 
very kindly undertaken the laborious work of editing the Botanical 
and Zoological manuscri])ts, pushed on with the printing of those 

On return to Australia in May, 1919, it was discovered that the 
new Premier, the Hon. A. H. Peake, had issued orders to the Govern- 
ment Printer, Mr. R. E. E. Rogers, to cease printing the Reports, as 
it was considered that economy demanded such a course. 

Astounded by this unprecedented action in dishonouring the agree- 
ment of a previous Premier, I hastened to the Mother State and placed 
the case before the Premier, the Hon. W. A. Holman. As a result 
an advisory committee was appointed, under the title of " Committee 
on Printing of Records of Australasian Antarctic Expedition." The 
committee includes Mr. W. A. Gullick (Government Printer), Mr. 
Charles Hedley (Rep. Aust. Museum), and Mr. Ifould (the Chief 
Librarian, Sydney, in charge of Historical Records). 

After protracted negotiations, an agreement was entered into 
between the Hon. W. A. Holman, Premier of the State of New South 
Wales, and myself, representing the Exiedition, dated 3rd March, 
1920, whereby the cost of ])rinting and distri])ution of the Records at 
the Government Printing Office, Sydney, is to be defrayed by the New 
South Wales Government, and, in return, the assets of the Expedition 
represented by natural history collections, historical relics, manuscripts, 
and photographs are to pass to the State of New South Wales. 

Since that date the printing has gone forward most satisfactorily,, 
thanks to the great personal attention bestowed by Mr. W. A. Gullick^ 
the high standard of whose work is widely recognised. 

Several sums of money have been granted towards the cost of 
working up and analyzing the scientific data in a form suitable for 
])ublication. These include a sum of £100 from the British Association, 
£2.50 from the Royal Society, and £.500 from the New Zealand Govern- 

The arrangement of the matter for publication is under the following 
three divisions : — 

Series A. — Geography, Physiographi/, Oceanography, Geology, and 


The principal contributions in this Section are being prepared by 
Dr. F. L. Stillwell, Lieutenant-Commander J. K. Davis, F. Chapman, 
and myself. These reports will incorporate, as sections of the publica- 
tion, the observations of various members of the Scientific Staff of the 
Expedition detailed to execute in the field special Geographical and 
Geological operations. 


Arrangements are being made with several other gentlemen to 
collaborate in the description of the petrologieal and mineral col- 

The reports of this Section are expected to be incorporated in four 

Only one part has yet appeared, namely, Vol. III., Part I., Section I., 
" The Metamorphic "Rocks of Adelie Land," by Dr. F. L. Stillwell. 
A report on the Deep Sea Muds, by Mr. F. Chapman, is ready for 

Series B. — Meteorologi/, Astronomy, Tides, Magnetics, Auroral 
Observations, and " Wireless " Ohservations. 

The Meteorological Records of the various land stations and the 
ship are being prepared for publication under the direction of Mr. 
H. A. Hunt. Mr. F. J. Selby, of the National Physical Laboratory, 
England, has undertaken to analyze the Tide Records. 

The Records of the Magnetic Field Observations have been dealt 
with under the direction of Dr. Bauer, of the Carnegie Institution; 
Department of Terrestrial Magnetism. The Magnetograph Records 
have been measured and reduced under the direction of Mr. E. N. 
Webb, who was in charge of the Magnetics at the Main Base Station, 
Adelie Land. Later, in Mr. Webb's absence on active service, Professor 
C. Farr and Mr. Skey, of Christchurch, New Zealand, supervised this 
arduous work. Finally, the whole of the observations are being 
tabulated and discussed by Dr. C. Chree, of the Magnetic Observatory, 
Richmond, England. 

The Auroral and '" Wireless " Observations have been prepared for 
publication and discussion by myself. 

It is not expected that Series B Reports can be adequately com- 
pressed into less than five volumes. 

Dr. Chree's main Report and the Auroral and " Wireless " logs are 
now about ready for press. 

Series C. — Zoologg, Botang, and Bacteriology . 

The Reports in this Section are naturally very extensive, as the 
following list indicates. 

Thanks to Professor W. A. Haswell, who organized the programme 
of the Biological Section of the Expedition, the publication of these 
reports is well advanced. 

antarctic expedition i'ublications. 289 

Series C. — Eeports already Issued. 

Vol. Ill, Part 1, Fishes.— By Mr. Edgar K. Waite, F.L.S., South 
Australian Museum, Adelaide. 

• Vol. III., Part 2, Pterobranchia.— By Dr. W. G. Eidewood, D.Se., 

Vol. IV., Part 1, MoUusca : Pelecypoda and Gastropoda. — By Mr. C. 
Hedley, F.L.S., Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Vol. IV., Part 2, Mollusca : Cephalopoda.— By Dr. S. Stillman 
Berry, Redlands, Cal. 

Vol. IV., Part 3, Brachiopoda.— By Dr. J. Allan Thomson, M.A., 
D.Sc, Director, Dominion Museum, Wellington, New Zealand. 

Vol. v., Part 1, Arachnida from Macquarie Island. — By Mr. W. J. 
Rainbow, F.E.S., Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Vol. v.. Part 2, Brachyura.— By Miss Mary J. Rathbun, United 
States National Museum, Washington, U.S.A. 

Vol. v., Part 3, Copepoda.— By Dr. G. Stewardson Brady, F.R.S. 

Vol. v.. Part 4, Cladocera and Halocvpridae. — By Dr. G. Stewardson 
Brady, F.R.S. 

Vol. v.. Part 5, Euphausiacea and Mysidacea. — Dr. W. M. Tattersall, 
D.Sc, Keeper, University Museum, Manchester. 

Vol. v., Part 6, Cumacea and Phyllocarida. — By Dr. W. T. Caiman, 
D.Sc, British Museum, Natural History. 

Vol. v.. Part 7, Ostracoda. — By Mr. Frederick Chapman, AX.S., 
F.R.M.S., National Museum, Melbourne. 

Vol. v.. Part 8, The Insects of.Macquarie Island.— Bv R. J. Tillyard, 
M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S., F.E.S., with Ap])endices bv Professor C. T. Brues, 
Ph.D., and A. M. Lea, F.E.S. 

Vol. VI., Part 1, Calcareous Sponges. — By Professor A. S. Dendy, 
D.Sc, F.R.S., F.Z.S., King's College, London. 

Vol. VII., Part 1, Mosses.— Bv Mr. H. N. Dixon, M.A., F.L.S., and 
Rev. W. Walter Watts. 

Vol. VII., Part 2, The Algae of Commonwealth Bay.— By Mr. 
A. H. S. Lucas, M.A., Oxon., B.Sc, London. 

Vol. VIL. Part 3, The Vascular Flora of Macquarie Island.— By T. F. 
Cheeseman, F.L.S., F.Z.S., Auckland Museum, New Zealand. 

Vol. VIL, Part 4, Bacteriological and other Researches. — By A. L. 
McLean, B.A., M.D., Ch.M. (M.C.). 

Series C. — Reports in Course of Preparation. 

Foraminifera. — Mr. F. Chapman, A.L.S., F.R.M.S., National Museum, 

Monaxonid Sponges and Tetraxonid Sponges.— ^Mr. E. F. Kallmann, 
B.Sc, University, Sydney. 


Hexactinellid Sponges. — Professor I. Ijima, College of Science, 
Tokyo, Japan. 

Hvdrozoa. — Mr. E. A. Briggs, B.Sc, Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Actinozoa. — Professor J. Arthur Thomson, F.E.S., University, 

Trematodes. — Dr. S. J. Johnston. University, Sydney. 

C'Cstodes. — Dr. T. Harvey Johnston, University, Brisbane. 

Nematodes (Free). — Dr. N. A. Cobb, Bureau of Plant Industry, 
Washington, U.S.A. 

Chsetognatha and Acanthocej)hala. — Dr. T. Harvey Johnston, 
University, Brisbane. 

Rotifera and Tardigrada. — Mr. J. Shephard, Melbourne. 

Polyzoa. — Miss L. R. Thornely, Ambleside, England. 

Echinoidea. — Professor R. Koehler, Universite, Lyon, France. 

Asteroidea and Ophiuroidea. — Professor R. Koehler, Universite, 
Lyon, France. 

Crinoidea and Holothuroidea. — Professor M. Vaney, Universite, 
Lyon, France. 

Annulata (except Leeches). — Professor W. B. Benham, M.A., D.Sc, 
F.R.S., University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. 

Leeches. — -Chas. Badham, B.Sc, M.B., University of Sydney. 

Crustacea Amphipoda and C. Lsopoda. — Professor C. Chilton, M.A , 
D.Sc, F.L.S.. Canterbury College, C hristchurch, New Zealand. 

Crustacea Macrura and C. Cirripeda. — Miss F. Bage, M.Sc, F.L.S., 
University, Brisbane. 

Mallophaga. — Dr. T. Harvey Johnston, University, Brisbane, and 
Mr. L. Harrison, B.Sc, Sydney. 

Ticks. — Mr. L. Harrison, B.Sc, Sydney. 

Pycnogonida. — Professor T. T. Flynn, .B.Sc, University of Tas- 
mania, Hobart. 

Tunicates. — Professor W. A. Herdman. F.R.S., University, Liverpool, 

Birds. — Mr. H. Hamilton, Dominion Museum, Wellington, New 
Zealand, and Mr. R. Basset Hull, Sydney. 

Mammals.— Mr. H. Hamilton, Dominion Museum, Wellington, New 


Phytoplankton and Fresh-water Algae. — Professor F. E. Fritsch,- 
University of London. 

Lichens and Fungi.— Mr. E. Cheel, Botanic Gardens, Sydney. 

Arrangements have been made to publish Biological Logs, which are 
now in course of preparation by Dr. J. G. Hunter, the chief Biologist, 
and Mr. H. Hamilton, of the Macquarie Island party. 


In addition to the specialized matter included in the three foregoing 
series, it is proposed to compile a volume of narrative covering the 
history of the Ex])edition. and a brief general summary of operations 

It, is also ])roposed to make arrangements for the production of a 
special volume of photographs, including stereogra])hic photos. The 
proposal is to reproduce these in special art style, and as such a volume 
must necessarily be expensive, the issue can be made only if sufficient 
subscribers notify their willingness to contribute thereto. In" the 
event of this proposal being further advanced an explanatory circular 
will be distributed. 

The many co-operators who are generously devoting their time 
and specialized knowledge to the elaboration of the Expedition's 
collections are due for the greatest commendation. On behalf 
of the Expedition I take this opportunity to record our best thanks 
for their service to Science. 

Mr. W. A. Gullick, Government Printer (who is also Chairman of 
the " Committee on Printing of Records of Australasian Antarctic Expe- 
dition "), has in his hands all matters relating to the distribution of 
the printed parts. Applications relating thereto should be addressed 
to the Government Printing Office, Philip-street, Sydney. 

Januarv, 1921. 




1. Macquane Island Committee. 

{By Professor Sir Edgeivorth David, Secretary to the Committee.) 

Reports havei been received from the following: — Dr. J. M. 
Baldwin, ProfessoT H. S. Carslaw, Professor Coleridge Farr, Pro- 
fessor Kerr Grant, Mr. C. Hedley, Mr. H. A. Hunt (Federal 
Meteorologist), Mr. G. H. Knibbs, Professor T. H. Laby, Dr. E. 
F. J. Love, Professor T. R. Lyle, Mr. J. H. Maiden, Professor 
Orme Masson, Professor J. Priestlev, Professor J. A. Pollock, 
Professor T. G Taylor. 

Mr. D. C. Bates, Director of the Dominion Meteorological Office, 
New Zealand, has also' kindly furnisheid a report through Pro- 
fessor Coleridge Farr. The reports of the above are attached. 

In ref erence^- to the question of re-opening the Wireless Station 
at Macquarie Island, established there originally by the Aus- 
tralasian Antarctic Expedition under the leadership of Sir Douglas 
Mawson, with thei co- operation of the Meteorological Bureau of 
the Commonwealth Government, paramount importance must ob- 
viously be attached to the reports of the meteorologists. 

Mr. H. A. Hunt, F.R.Met.S., reports as f ollows : — " The 
interest and concern of this department in the re-establishment cf 
the station is not now as urgent as previously. 

The station was valuable to the Meteorological Bureau during 
the period covered by the Mawson Antarctic Expedition in- con- 
nexion with an elucidation of the question as to air currents from 
the Antarctic to Australia. 

There are, however, more urgent matters that require financing 
immediately, and I should be diffident to approach the Govern- 
ment at this juncture for the necessary funds for the upkeep of 
the Macquarie Island station. 

A station on Kerguelen, or the Island of St. Paul, would be 
regarded even more favorably at the present time." 


Professor T. Griffith Taylor, D.Sc, at that time physiographer 
to the Federal Weather Bureau, writes: — "While admitting the 
gi'eat value of the records during Antarctic occupation, and as a 
half-way station to the Antarctic, I feel that money can be better 
speijt in ether ways in Australian meteorology. 

(1) From the three years' records we now have a very fair 
idea of average isobars in that region and their relation to 
storms and cyclones in our seas. 

(2) The longitude precluded the telegrams (radiograms) 
being of any use for forecasting in Australia. 

(3) The island is too far south to be much use to New 
Zealand either. 

(4) On the other hand I have long advocated a station of 
the same type on St. Paul or Amsterdam Islands, lat. 35 deg. 
S., long, 80 deg. E., in the middle of the Indian Ocean, not 
far from the latitude of Melbourne (and that of Perth, 
Adelaides Sydney, &c. T.W.E.D.). 

(a) This is right in the middle of a great ' centre of action ' 

(or Permanent High), from which all our anti- 
cyclones bud off. 

(b) It is about five days aM^ay, as regards the travelling 

Highs, and might give us invaluable data for fore- 
casting just where we want it. 

((■) It is close to the steamer route to Durban. 

(d) No other ' centre of ajption ' has ever been occupied, 
I beilieve. 

Personally, I shall vote for this locality." 

Mr. D. C. Bates, Director of the Dominion Meteorological Office, 
New Zealand, writes: — "I have received the following letter 
from the Secretary of Marine : — 

' With reference to your {i.e., D. C. Bates'. T.W.E.D.) 
memorandum. No. 1/7/4 of the 1st inst., on the subject of 
a grant for the re-establishment and maintenance of Mac- 
quarie Island Wireless Station, I have to inform you that the 
Minister has decided, in view of the necessity for economy, 
that he cannot see his way at present to contribute towards 
the work. The question is being referred to the Lands De- 
partment in case it wishes to take any action. — Robert 
Duncan, Secretary.' 

As I referred to other benefits, for tide survey, that would be 
derived through establishing a station in the Antarctic, the Marine 
Department has referred the letter to the Lands and Survey 


No communication has been forwarded to^ me as yet from the 
Lands and Survey Department of the Dominion. Professor T. H. 
Laby agrees substantially with the opinions already expressed by 
Mr. H. A. Hunt and Professor Griffith Taylor. The remainder 
of the committee with the exception of Dr. J. M. Baldwin and 
Professor Kerr Grant, who adopt a non-committal attitude, favour 
the re-opening of the wireless station, but do not give strong 

It may be added that Piofessor Kerr Grant and Mr. C Hedley 
both suggest that the committee take up the qviestion of creating 
a zoological and botanical preserve at Macquarie Island. This 
.'suggestion appears to me to be well worthv of serious consideration. 

Meanwhile, in view of the adverse opinion already expressed by 
the professional meteorologists, it appears to me that the question 
of re-establishing the wireless station at Macquarie Island for 
meteorological purposes must, for the present, be postponed. 

10th January, 1921. 


2. The Determination of Gravity in certain Critical 
Localities Committee. 

(By Assistant Professor Leo. A. Cotton, Secretary to the Committee.) 

A preliminary account of the installation and working of the 
pendulums at Burrinjuck was read before the Royal Society of 
New South Wales in December, 1915. As this account has since 
been published, the present statement is concerned with the sub- 
sequent work. 

It was noticed by the writer, and was subsequently pointed out 
to him by the late J. Barrell m a personal communication, that 
the direction of the main displacements recorded in the preliminary 
account referred to above were not those which one would have 
antici]>ated as the result of the water load. These movements 
were therefore, at the time, thought to be secular in character, 
and it was ho^^ed that further observations might enable the 
secular movements to be separated from those due to the water 
load. The preliminary measurements referred to and published 
indicate clearlv that as a rule rapid changes in the water load 
are accompanied by small changes in the movements of the pendu- 
lums, so that there can be no doubt that the earth's crust is 
actually moving from time to time under the influence of the 
water load. 


The observations have been systematically carried out by the 
same observer. Mr. A. Goodwiu, since the pendulums were first 
established. This has, of course, been a matter of great import- 
ance for the success of the investigation, as Mr. Goodwin has be- 
come most proficient in the care of the instruments, and has been 
able to make many useful, practical suggestions for improving the 
quality of the records. Mr Campbell, the engineer in charge at 
Burrinjuck, has personall}'- taken a great interest in the work, and 
has, with his technical experience, been able to overcome manv 
mechanical difficulties arising from the defective working of the 
registering apparatus. The writer has visited the instrument at 
intervals of from three to six months, has taken the periods of 
the penduhims, and has kept them in proper working adjustment. 

At the time when the instruments were first installed it was 
the intention of the Government to have completed the building 
of the dam in about three years. The outbreak of war, however, 
modified their plans, and the work was largely suspended. As 
the consequence of this delay the full storage capacity of the dam 
at present is only about one-half of that which will be available 
when the work is completed. The work will probably not be com- 
pleted for another two years. It is, of course, most desirable that 
the pendulums should be in operation when the full water-load 
is impounded. The Irrigation Commission has been most generous 
in its help, and. although the investigation has been much pro- 
tracted, is still rendering all the assistance necessary for making 
a success of the work. 

The records obtained during the period of the war have not 
been as complete as would have been desirable, but this was 
inevitable, as the supplies of standard photographic paper could 
not be constantly depended upon, and the records suffered in con- 
sequence. On the whole, however, the records are satisfactory, but 
the records cf the next two years should be the most valuable of all. 

The examination of the records made since the publication of 
the preliminary note in December, 1915. have served to explain 
in large measure the movement which was then regarded as being 
secular in character. It now appears that the movement is chiefly, 
if not wholly, seasonal in character, and that it is a function of 
the underground temperature. 

This was first noticed by Mr. Campbell, -who drew my attention 
to the similarity of the pendulum displacements and the tempera- 
ture variations registered by a thermometer within the concrete 
dam at a distance of about 80 feet from, the surface. The tem- 
perature curve of this thermometer lags some months behind the 
ordinary atmospheric temperature curve, and the pendulums 
exhibit the same kind of lag in their movements. 


As soo'n as this was recognised, thermometers were installed in 
each of the pendulum ohambeTs, and these are nc«w read when the 
photographic papers are changed. It is hoped by the comparison 
of the temperature records for each instrument that the move- 
ments due to seasonal changes in tem]>erature will be able to be 
discriminated, and the deflections due to the water-load be deter- 

This seasonal movement in the earth's crust opens up a new 
line of investigation, and it should be possible to obtain from the 
records important information with regard to the heat conduc- 
tivity of the rocks, and also of their co-efficient of expansion, and 
possibly, also, some information with regard to their rigidity. 

It is, of course, essential for this work, as well as for the main 
investigation, to have a detailed geological and topographical 
survey of the area. This work was taken up' about twoi years ago, 
and, though far from completion, has yielded important informa- 
tion with regard to the lithological characters and rock structures 
of the area under investig"ation. This work is now being carried 
forward hand in hand with the ]>endulum observations. 

The ineasurement of the records is not yet up to date, but is 
most advanced in the case of the Heidleburg pendulum. This 
pendulum has, on the whole, given the most satisfactory results, 
and is that which is best placed for recording changes in the water- 
load. It is, therefore, very necessary for the complete success of 
the investigation toi maintain this instrument with the others until 
the full water-load is available for measurement. 

In October last a communication M'as received from Professor 
Kruger requesting the return of the Heidelburg pendulum. 
Professor Sir Edgeworth David replied, pointing out that the pen- 
dulum was still in use, and that it was still required for the 
investigation. He asked that it be loaned for a further period. 
This request has been granted. 

As may be seen by reference to page 6 of the j^rogress report 
bv the Permanent Honorary Secretary, " Sums totalling £155 
have been paid to this Committee in order to provide apparatus 
and current expenses for the work, in anticipation of the approval 
of the General Council of the Association of the sum of £K)5, 
£50 having been voted at the Melbourne meeting." 

The Determination of Gravity in Certain Critical Localities 
Committee, therefore, fonnally requests that the additional sum 
of £105 be voted in confirniation. 

The Committee has to report that the funds above mentioned 
have now been exhausted, and begs to apply for an additional 
S^rant of £50. 




3. Tidal Survey Committee. 

, The following Keport by Professor R. W. Chapman, of Adelaide, 
on Tide Gauges and Predictions in Australia, has been forwarded by 
Mr. C. E. Adams, Government Astronomer and Seismologist, New 

Tide Gauges akd Predictions. 







of Automatic 








Situation of Gauges. 

Camp Cove, near South 
Head (Sydney Harbor); 
Fort Denison (Sydney 
Harbor) ; Cockatoo Is- 
land (Sydney Harbor) ; 
Ballina (Richmond 
River) ; Yamba (Clar- 
ence River) ; entrance 
of Macleay River ; en- 
trance to Newcastle 

Dockyard, Port Adelaide ; 
Queen's Wharf, Port 
Pirie ; Beachport Jetty ; 
Port Lincoln Town 
Jetty ; Cape Thevenard 


Pier, Wil- 

Fremantle ; Port Hedland, 

North-west Coast; 
Perth; Henderson Naval 

Castray Esplanade, Ho- 

bart ; Macquarie Heads, 

Two on the Brisbane 

River ; Two on the 


Tidal Predictions 

The Sydney Records have 
been sent to the United 
States Coast and Geo- 
detic Survey, where the 
records have been sub- 
jected to harmonic ana- 
lysis, and tidal predic- 
tions for each year are 
issued in the General 
Tide Tables published 
by that Department. 

The records for Port Ade 
laide have been analyzed 
and local jiredictions are 
published each year by 
the Harbors" Board, 
made on a special form 
of tide predicting mac- 
hine devised by Captain 
Inglis and described m 
the Trans. A.A.A.S., 
Vol. VII. Predictions 
for Port Adelaide, based 
upon the same analysis, 
are also published in the 
United States Coast and 
Geodetic Survey general 
tide tables each year. 

Tidal i:)redictions are issued 
in the general tide tables 
of the United States 
Coast and Geodetic Sur- 

Records have been analyzed 
at the Perth Observatory, 
and predictions for Port 
Hedland are issued in 
the general tide tables of 
the United States Coast 
and Geodetic Survey. 

Records have not been 
analyzed and no pre- 
dictions are made. 

Records have not been 
analyzed and no pre- 
dictions are made. 



4. Seismological Committee. 

Summary of Report on Pacific Earthquakes. 

{By G. Angenheister, Samoa : communicated by Dr. J. M. Baldwin, 
M.A., Secretary to the Committee.) 

1. Ejyicenfre of Tonga Earthqitakcs. 

The epicentres of all main Tonga earthquakes, 13 Megaseisms 
(1907-1919)', 77 larger, &c., ones (1913-1919) are situated all on 
the Tonga-plateau, on the western side of the Tonga-depth. 
According to observations the intensity of gravity at the Tonga- 
plateau shows a surplus of -I- 0.17 cm. Over the Tonga-depth the 
intensity is — 0.25 cm. too low. Therefore, the pressure of masses 
must be directed from the Tonga-plateau to the Tonga-depth, just 
wliere the epicentres of the earthquakes are h^ing. 

2. T'llt'nni of the (jioiiikI duiinci Eai-lhqual-cs. 

. Bv star observations with a meridian transit it could be proved 
that 8 mill, after the beginning of a very strong earthquake of 
degree VIII. (Mercalli), the vibrations did not contain any tilting 
of the ground of 2" or more. 

3. The Time Curve. 
The time curve of the first preliminary tremor P could be con- 
tinued to 145" distance from the enicentre (for A = 145° is 
P = 1,040 sec). For A = 100" PP is divided into two parts, the 
quicker part arrives at Zl =177" after 1.210 sec. 

4. Speed of P> eliminari/ Tremor iiiu/i r Oeean nnd Continent . 

The comparison of the first (P) and second (S) preliminary 
tremor of Tongan earthquakes recorded in Apia with P and S 
derived from contiiiental earthquakes recorded in Europe shows 
that P and S are running quicker under the Pacific than under 
the European co,ntinent. 

The differences between sub-Pacific and sub-continental seismic 
waves are the greatest for about A =6", being there 13 sec. for 
P and 25 sees, for S ; for A =18" these differences are not greater 
than 2 sec. For A = 6" the maximum depth (Scheiteltiefe) to 
which P and S submerge into the earth is about 50 klm. So the 
differences between sub-oceanic and sub-continental P and S are 
at a maximum for rays entirely running in an upper crust of 
50 klm. thickness which, therefore, may be the thickness of the 
upper solid earth crust. The mean velocity of S under the Pacific 
Ocean is about 18 per cent, greater than under the European con- 


5. Speed of Main phase {Long Waves) under Ocean and. Confuioif. 

(a) The comparison of th© records of the Aleuten earthqiiake 
l.V. 1915 and of the Kamschatka earthquake 31. VII. 1915 at two 
stations of equal epicentral distance, at Apia and at Tiflis, shows 
that longwaves are running at about 21 — 26 per cent, quicker 
under the Pacific Ocean than under the Asiatic Continent. 

(b) A detailed analysis of the Apia records shews that the main 
phase of these earthquakes begins with transverse waves ot" puiely 
horizontal displacement at right angles to the direction of propa- 
gation, which is followed by Rayleigh waves of horizontal move- 
ment in the direction of propagation, and vertical movenient. The 
ratio of velocity of both transverse and Rayleigh waves, being 0.91 
for these earthquakes, is in very good accord with the theory which 
demands 0.92. 

(c) The transverse, the Rayleigh waves, and the Coda being a 
residual phenomencn confined to the- upper solid crust of the earth, 
the transverse waves of the main phase have the) same velccit}^ of 
propagation as S in the upper crust. The diffei'ence of velocity 
under ocean and continent for S at Zl =6° where S is confined to 
the upper crust and for transverse M'aves of the main phase are 
very nearly equal. 

(r/) The results of observations of gravity over contments and 
ocean suggest that the density of the solid earth crust under 
ocean is greater than under continents, and compensates the 
smaller weight of water. Therefore, we cannot attribute the 
increase in velocity to a decrease in density, and we must assume 
that the increase in velocity is caused by a higher rigidity under 

6. Period of Transverse Waves under Ocean and ('outineni and 

Thickness of the Upper Crust. 

The comparison of records of Japan, Kamschatka, and Aleuten 
earthquakes at Samoa, and at Gottingen and Tiflis, shows that the 
periods of Coda waves are about 3 sec. longer under the Pacific 
(17.5 sec.) than under the Asiatic continent (14.5 sec). If the 
upper solid earth crust is resting on a sheet of plastic material 
(Magma), a purely transverse wave may oscillate with the period 
of the natural vibration of this crust, the thickness of this layer 
being half the wave length. The main and Coda phase of earth- 
quake records may contain such vibrations. 

Combining velocity and the period of the natural vibration, we 
get a thickness of the upper eolid earth crust under the Pacific 
Ocean of 41 klm., under the Asiatic continent of 28 kim. Accord- 
ing to H. Faye, the better conducting over-lying water makes the 
cooling of the upper earth crust under ocean progress quicker 
than under continent. Therefore, he suggests the solid earth crust 
may be thicker under ocean than under continent. 


7. The Absorption of Energy. 

The comparison of the maximum movement of the Aleuten and 
Alaska earthquake shows that the maximum horizontal displace- 
ment at both stations, Apia and at Tiflis, was nearly in the 
azimuth of the