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EEPOET 



SECOND MEETING 



AUSTRALASIAN ASSOCIATION 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE 



■.}^'^''o/-i/ 




MELBOURNE, VICTOEIA, 



JANUARY, 1890. 



EDITED BY 



W. BALDWIN SPENCER, M.A. 



Ptiblistied. by the Association. 



IL 1 • S 4 <^ 



PERMANENT OFFICE OF THE ASSOCIATION : 

THE EOYAL SOCIETY'S HOUSE, 5 ELIZABETH STREET, 

SYDNEY. 



CARLTON, MELBOURNE : 

PRINTED BY FORD AND SON, DRUMMOND STREET. 

1890. 




CONTENTS. 



Objects and Eules of the Association ... ... ... x. 

Officers and Council and Members of Committees ... ... xii. 

Presidents and Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of tbe Sections 

of the Association .. . ... ... ... ... xv. 

General Programme for the Meeting ... ... ... xvi. 

Extracts from the Minutes of the Meeting of the Genei-al Com- 
mittee, 7th January ... ... ... ... xviii. 

Extracts from the Minutes of the Meeting of the General Com- 
mittee, 14th January ... ... ... ... xviii. 

Committees of Investigation appointed at the General Meeting, 

14th January, 1890 ... ... ... ... xx. 

Special Committees ... ... ... ... ... xxii. 

General Statement of sums which have been paid on account of 

grants for Scientific Purposes ... ... ... xxii. 

Table showing Attendance and Receipts ... ... ... xxiii. 

Treasurer's Account ... ... ... ... ... xxiv. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESSES. 

PAGE 

Address by Baron von Mueller, K.C.M.G., F.E.S., M. and Ph.D., 

President of the Association ... ... ... ... 1 

Address by Professor E. Threlfall, M.A., President of Section A 27 

Address by Professor E. H. Eennie, M.A., D.Sc, President of 

Section B ... ... ... ... ... ... 55 

Address by Professor F. W. Hutton, M.A., F.G.S., C.M.Z.S., Presi- 
dent of Section C ... ... ... ... ... 67 

Address by Professor A. P. Thomas, M.A., F.L.S., President of 

Section D ... ... ... ... ... 100 

Address by W. H. Miskin, Esq., F.E.S., President of Section E ... 110 

Address by E. M. Johnston, Esq., F.L.S., President of Section F 120 

Address by Hon. John Forrest, C.M.G., M.L.C., President of 

Section G ... ... ... ... ... ... 160 

Address by J. Ashburton Thompson, Esq., M.U., D.P.H., Presi- 
dent of Section H ... ... ... ... ... 163 

Address by J. W. Agnew, Esq., M.D., M.E.C., President of 

Section I ... ... ... ... ... ... 185 

Address by Professor W. H. Warren, M.Inst.C.E., President of 

Section J ... ... ... ... ... ... 197 

28507 



REPORTS OF COMMITTEES. 

PAGE 

Keport of Committee No. 7. Census of Australasian Minerals ... 203 

Eeport of Committee No. 14. The State and Progress of Chemical 

Science in Australasia ... ... ... ... 283 

Report of Committee No. 11. The Bibliography of the Austi-al- 

asian, Papuan and Polynesian Eaces ... ... ... 293 

Eeport of Committee No. 3. Australasian Biological Station ... 354 

Eeport of Committee No. 6. The Construction and Hygienic 

Eeqvxirements of Places of Amusement in Sydney ... 356 

Eeport of Committee No. 13. Australasian Geological Eecord ... 357 

Eeport of Committee No. 9. Town Sanitation ... ... ... 693 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECTIONS. 

Section A. 

1. The Elastic Properties of Quartz Threads. By Professor 

E. Threlfall, M.A., Professor of Physics, University of 
Sydney ... ... ... ... ... ... 363 

2. Cloud Observations. By W. W. Culcheth, M.I.C.E. ... ... 365 

3. Some Eemarks on the Teaching of Elementary Mathematics 

and Physics. By Eev. W. L. Bowditch, M.A. ... ... 365 

4. Note on the Eulerian Equations of Hydrodynamics. By 

Alexander McAulay. M.A. ... ... ... ... 365 

o. On the Designing of Transit Instruments. By Professor Kernot, 

M.A., C.E. ... ... ... ... ... ... 366 

6. Further Investigations on the Laws of Molecular Force. By 

W. Sutherland, M.A., B.Sc. ... ... ... ... 368 

7. Eemarks on the Arrangement of a Galvanometer. By E. F. J. 

Love, M.A. ... ... ... ... ... ... 371 

8. Aids to Calculation. By J. J. Fenton ... ... ... 371 



Section B. 

1. On an Application of Chemical Control to a Manufactui-ing 

Business. By Ed. W. Enox ... ... ... ... 372 

2. On the Gum of the Leopard-Tree. By J. H. Maiden, F.L.S., 

F.C.S. ... ... ... ... ... ... 379 

3. Observations on the Gums yielded" by two Species of Cerat- 

opetaliini ... ... ... ... ... ... 381 

4. On the Composition of Lucerne. By Wm. H. Doherty ... 383 

5. Note on the Estimation of A.lkalies in Igneous Eocks. By 

John Dennant, F.G.S., F.C.S. ... ... ... ... 385 

6. Australian Meteorites. By Professor A. Liversidge, M.A., F.E.S. 387 

7. Notes on some Hot Spring Waters. By Professor A. Liversidge, 

M.A., F.E.S. ... ... ... ... ... ... 388 








8. On the Purification of Certain Substances. By Professor R. 

Tlirelfall, M.A. s.,j..- ... ... ... ... 395 

9. Notes on the Spectra of Zinc and Cadmium. By J. B. 

Kirkland, F.C.S. ... ... ... ... ... 395 

10. Note on the Precipitation of Zinc Sulphide. By J. B. Kirkland, 

F.G.S. 397 

11. On the Colouring Matter of Drosera ■whittakeri. By Professor 

E. H. Rennie, M.A., D.Sc. ... ... ... ... 39S 

12. On the Occurrence of -iEsculin in Bursaria spinosa. By 

Professor E. H. Eennie, M.A., D.Sc, and E. F. Turner ... 399 

13. On the Removal of Gold from Suspension and Solution by 

Fungoid Growths. By Professor A. Liversidge, M.A., F.R.S 399 

14. Notes on an Examination of some Sand from Western 

Australia. By A. H. Jackson, B.Sc, F.C.S. ... ... 407 

15. Notes on the New Silver Fields at Mount Zeehan, Tasmania. 

By A. J. Taylor ... ... ... ... ... 407 

Section C. 

1. Notes on the Metamorphic Rocks of Omeo. By A. W. Howitt, 

F.G.S. ... ... ... ... 40S 

2. Chalk and Flints from the Solomon Islands. By Professor A. 

Liversidge, M.A., F.R.S. ... ... ... ... 417 

3. The Plutonic and Metamorphic Rocks of Bathurst, N.S.W. 

By W. J. Clunies Ross, B.Sc. ... ... ... ... 420 

4. Notes on the Development of Quartzite, Maldon. By Jno. 

Hornsby ... ... ... ... ... ... 425 

5. Notes on the Crystalline Rocks of Bethanga, Victoria. By F. 

Dan vers Power, F.G.S. ... ... ... 426 

6. On the Application of Photography to Geological Work. By 

J. H. Harvey ... ... ... ... ... 429 

7. On the Geological Structure and Future Prospects of the 

Thames Goldfield, New Zealand. By James Park, F.G.S. 429 

8. Coal : Its Origin and Process of Formation. By James Melvin 439 

9. Notes on an Annelid Formation in Queensland. By James 

Smith ... ... ... ... ... ... 440 

10. Observations on the Tertiary and Post-Tertiary Geology of 

South-Western Victoria. By John Dennant, F.G.S., 
F.C.S. ... ... ... ... ... ... 441 

11. The Glacial Conglomerates of Victoria. By E. J. Dunn, F.G.S. 452 

12. Unification of the Geological Charts of Australia, Tasmania 

and New Zealand. By Arthur Everett ... ... 456 

13. On the Thermal Springs of the Einasleigh River, Queensland. 

By Robt. L. Jack, F.G.S., F.R.G.S. ... ... ... 45S 

14. Lencite and Nepheline Rocks of New South Wales. By J. 

Milne Curran ... ... ... ... 459 

15. Notes on the Cambrian Rocks of South Australia. By Professor 

Tate, F.G.S. ... ... ... ... ... 459 

16. A Correlation of the Coalfields of New South Wales. By T. 

W. S. David, B.A., F.G.S. ... ... ... ... 459 



VI. 

PAGE 

17- Notes on Australian Caves. By James Stirling, F.G.S. ... 466 

18. Notes on the Carboniferoi^s Eocks of the Cape Otway District. 

By J. H. Bignell ... ... ... ... ... 466 

19. On the Desert Sandstone of Central Australia. By Professor 

Tate, F.G.S. ... ... ... ... ... ... 467 

20. The Physical Conditions under which the Chief Coal-Measures 

of Tasmanian and Victoria were Formed. By S. H. Wintle, 
F.L.S. ... ... ... ... ... ... 467 

21. The Silver Ores of the Barrier. By G. H. Blakemore ... 469 

22. Granite : Its Place Among, and its Connection with the 

Sedimentai-y and Igneous Eocks. By J. S. O. Tepper, F.L.S. 469 



Section D. 

1. On some points in the Morphology of Astacopsis bicarinatus. 

By J. S. Hart, M.A., B.Sc. ..-. ... ... ... 470 

2. Notes on the Fertilisation of Knightia. By T. F. Cheeseman, 

F.L.S. ... ... ... ... ... 473 

3. Acclimatisation in Victoria. By W. H. D. Le Souef ... 476 

4. On the Development of Chilobranchns rufus. By Professor 

W. A. Haswell, M.A., D.Sc. ... ... ... ... 482 

5. Notes on the Mviscular Fibres of Peripatus. By Professor 

W. A. Haswell, M.A., D.Sc. ... ... ... ... 487 

6. Descriptions of New Victorian Algae. By J. Bracebridge 

Wilson, M. A. ... ... ... ... ... ... 488 

7. Notes on the Zoology of Houtman's Abrolhos. By A. J. 

Campbell, F.L.S. ... ... ... ... ... 492 

8. A Complete Census of the Flora of the Grampians and 

Pyrenees. By D. Sullivan, F.L.S. ... ... ... 497 

9. Notes on the Known Dipterous Fauna of Australia. By 

F. A. Skuse ... ... ... ... ... ... 526 

10. On the Experimental Cultivation of the Mother-of-Pearl Shell. 

By W. Saville-Kent, F.L.S., F.Z.S. ... ... ... 541 

11. On an Apparently New Type of Cestode Scolex. By Professor 

W. A. Haswell, M.A., D.Sc. ... ... ... ... 549 

12. The Claims of Arboriculture as a Science in Australia. By 

W. Brown .. ... ... ... ... ... 549 

13. Australian Lichenology. By Eev. F. E. M. Wilson... ... 549 

14. Diseases of Plants. By Mrs. Wm. Martin ... ... ... 553 

15. Demonstration of Light-Producing Bacteria. By Oscar Katz, 

Ph.D. ... ... ... ... ... ... 554 

16. 'Note on Daviesia /aiifolia. By J. Bosisto, C.M.G. ... ... 554 

17. Notes on New and Eare Species on Victorian Fungi. By 

H. T. Tisdall, F.L.S. ... ... ... ... ... 554 

18. Some Notes upon the Earer Species of Tasmanian Eucalypts. 

By G. S. Perrin ... ... ... ... 555 

19. On the Publication of a Critical List of the Axistralian Flora 

and Fauna. By C. T. Musson ... ... ... ... 558 



20. Some Vegetable Food Stviffs of the Avistralian Aborigines. 

By J. H. Maiden, F.L.S. ... ... ... ... 55S 

21. Some Remarkable Agreements between Science and Agricul- 

tural Practice. By W. Brown ... ... ... ... SSg 

22. The Geographical Distribution of Land and Fresh-Water 

Vertebrates in Victoria. By A. H. S. Lucas, M.A., B.Sc. 558 

Section E. 

1. Some Physical Phenomena of the South Pacific Island. By 

Eev. Samiiel Ella ... ... ... ... ... 559 

2. Early Discovery, Exploration, and Physical Geography of 

Australia. By A. C. Macdonald, F.R.G.S. ... ... 573 

3. Australian Exploration. By P. G. Mueller ... ... ... 573 

4. Antarctic Exploration. By Commander Crawford Pasco, E.N., 

F.E.G.S. ... ... ... ... ... ... 573 

5. On the Distribution of Land and "Water on the Terrestrial 

Globe. By J. J. Wild, Ph.D., F.R.G.S. ... ... ... 574 

6. Antarctic Whaling in the Old Days. By J. J. Shillinglaw, 

V.P.E.G.S. Australasia ... ... ... ... 574 



Section F. 

1. Our Meat Supply. By H. H. Hayter, C.M.G. ... ... 575 

2. The Coming Census. By H. H. Hayter, C.M.G. ... ... 579 

3. Forestry: Its Scope and Application. By M. H. Clifford ... 585 

4. A Eeserve Industry as a Eemedy for Enforced Idleness. By 

W. J. Curry ... ... ... ... ... ... 585 

5. Settlement of an Industrial Population as the Land by means 

of Small Holdings. By Hon. G. W. Cotton, M.L.C. ... 585 

6. Fodder Plants and Grasses of Australia. By Fred. Turner, 

F.E.H.S. London ... ... ... ... ... 586 

7. An Industrial Federal Debt. By J. J. Fenton, F.G.S. ... 596 

8. Eegtdation of the Liquor Trade as a Means of Promoting 

Temperance. By J. B. Gregory ... ... ... 596 

9. Co-operation : Distributive and Productive. By W. Nutall 596 
10. Southern Whaling. By S. W. Viney ... ... ... 596 



Section G. 

1. Aborigines of Tasmania. By James Barnard 

2. Totems in Melanesia. By Eev. E." H. Codrington, D.S. 

3. The Ainus of North Japan. By Professor Odium ... 

4. The Fountain of "The Mist" — a Earotongan Myth. 

Eev. W. W. Gill, LL.D. ... ... ,,.... 

5. Observations on the Hill Tribes of Naviti LeVu, Fiji. 
Eev. A. J. Webb ... /.. . .,.* ... , ... 620 

■/ •:**' ■* ■;■■. .' 





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6. Some Beliefs and Customs of the New Britain People. By 

Eev. B. Danks ... ... ... ... ... 626 

7. The Aborigines of Victoria. By Eev. J. Mathew, M.A. ... 626 

8. The Genealogy of the Kings of Earotonga and Mangaia, as 

Illustrating the Colonisation of that Island and the Hervey 

Group. By Eev. W. W. Gill, LL.D. ... ... ... 627 

9. Note on the Use of the Gesture Language in Australian 

Tribes. By A. W. Howitt ... ... ... ... 637 

10. On Certain Mutilations Practised by Natives of the Viti 

Islands. By Bolton S. Corney ... ... ... ... 646 

11. The Marriage Laws of tbe Aborigines of North-Western 

Australia. By Hon. John Forrest, C.M.G. ... ... 653 

12. The Genealogy of the Kings and Princes of Samoa. By Eev. 

George Pratt ... ... ... ... ... ... 655 

13. New Britain Customs. By Eev. J. H. Eickard ... ... 664 

14. The Papuan Eace. By P. Wolff ... ... ... ... 664 

15. The Physiological Basis of Morals. By A. Sutherland, M.A. 664 

Section H. 

1. Sanitation in Schools. By F. A. Nyulasy, M.B., Ch.B. ... 665 

2. The etiology of Typhoid Fever. By J. Jamieson, M.D. ... 665 

3. Cool Houses. By J. W. Barrett, M.D. ... ... ... 678 

4. Purification of Sewage. By J. M. Smail, M.Inst.C.E., and 

W. L. de Eoberts, C.E. ... ... ... ... 679 

5. Health Legislation in Victoria. By A. P. Akehurst ... 687 

6. Duties of Sanitary Inspectors. By C. J. Eassie ... ... 6S7 

7. Household Sanitation. By G. Gordon, C.E. ... ... 688 

8. School Hygiene. By E. G. Leger Erson, L.E.C.P. ... ... 690 

9. Household Drainage : Its Principles. By A. M. Henderson, C.E. 690 

10. Facts and Figures relating to Vaccination. By A. J. Taylor 691 

11. Preventive Inoculation against Animal Plagues. By O. Katz 692 
12 Micro-Organisms and Hygiene. By A. Shields, M.D. ... G92 
13. Cremation a Sanitary Necessity. By H. K. Eusden ... 692 
Eeport of Committee No. 9. Town Sanitation .. . ... ... 693 

Section I. 

1. Art in Daily Life. By T. A. Sisley ... ... ... 709 

2. The Middle Verb in Latin. By Henry Belcher, M.A., LL.D. 715 

Section J. 

1. Gas-Lighting and its Fittings. By A. U. Lewis, B.A. ... 716 

2. Notes on Tests and Specifications of Cast and Wrought Iron. 

By Professor Kernot, M. A., C.E. ... ... ... 716 



3. Notes on the Subject of Town Drainage. By William Parker, 

Assoc. M.lnst.C.E. ... ... ... ... ... 726 

4. Gauging of Eivers. By George Gordon, M.lnst.C.E. ... 727 

5. Irrigation Works in Australia . How they may be made 

Remimerative. By W. W. Culcheth, M.lnst.C.E. ... 728 

6. The Laying out of Towns. By John Sulman, F.R.I.B.A. ... 730 

7. Illuminating Public Clocks. By Sydney Gibbons, F.C.S. ... 736 

8. Safety Appliances on Steam Boilei-s. By A. O. Sachse, C.E. 

M.E., M.S.E., London, F.E.G.S. ... ... ... 737 

9. Compressed Air as a Mechanical Medium in the Evaporation 

of Liquids. By A. O. Sachse, C.E., M.E., M.S.E., London, 
F.R.G.S., etc.... ... ... ... ... ... 738 

10. Construction and Maintenance of Metalled Eoads. By William 

Bage, M.C.E. ... ... ... ... ... ... 739 

11. Utilisation of Tidal Energy as a Continuous Motive Power. 

By I. Diamant, C.E. ... ... ... ... ... 741 

12. Development of Architecture and Engineering. By F. C. 

Jarrett. ... ... ... ... ... ... 742 




OBJECTS AND RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association has been founded upon the same lines as the 
British Association, and its I'ules are practically the same. It 
should be particulai'ly noticed that this Association also " contem- 
plates no interference with the ground occupied by other insti- 
tutions. Its objects are : — To give a stronger impulse and a 
more systematic direction to scientific enquiry ; to promote the 
intercourse of those who cultivate Science in different parts of 
the British Empire, with one another and with foi'eign philoso- 
phers; to obtain a more general attention to the objects of 
Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which may impede its progess." 



RULES. 

1. All persons who signify their intention of attending the 
fii'st Meeting shall be entitled to become original Members of the 
Association, upon agreeing to conform to the Rules. 

2. The Officers, Members of the Council, Fellows, and Members 
of the Literary and Philosophical Societies publishing Transac- 
tions or Journals in the British Empire, shall be entitled in like 
manner to become Members of the Association. Persons not 
belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the General 
Committee, or Council, to become Life Members of the Associa- 
tions, Annual Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to 
the payment of the prescribed Subscription, and the approval of 
a General Committee. 

3. All members who have paid their Subscriptions (£1 per 
annum) shall be entitled to receive the Publications of the 
Associations gratis. 

4. The Association shall meet for one week or longer. The 
place of meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee 
two years in advance. 

5. There shall be a General Council, having the supreme 
control, to be composed of Delegates from the difierent Colonies 
or Colonial Scientific Societies. The number of Delegates from 
each Society or Colony shall be proportionate to the number of 



Members from the particular Colony or Society — Subscribing or 
otherwise — taking part in the proceedings {i.e. after the pi'elira- 
inary Meetings). Each Colony or Society shall be allowed to 
nominate a Delegate for each one hundred of its Members. 

6. There shall be a General Committee consisting of Members 
of the Council, Presidents, Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of 
Sections, Contributors of Papers to the Association, and such 
others as may be elected. 

7. A Local Committee shall be appointed at the place of 
meeting to make arrangements for the reception and entertain- 
ment of the visitors, and to make preparations for the Business 
of the General Meetings. 

8. Sectional Committees shall be appointed for the following 
Subjects : — 

Section A — Astronoray, Mathematics, Physics and Mechanics. 

Section B — Chemistry and Mineralogy. 

Section C — Geology and Palaeontology. 

Section D — Biology. 

Section E — Geography. 

Section F — Economic and Social Science and Statistics. 

Section G — Anthropology. 

Section H — Sanitary Science and Hygiene. 

Section I — Literature and Fine Arts. 

Section J — Architecture and Engineering. 

9. Ladies are eligible for Membership. 

10. The rights and privileges of Membership shall be in the 
main similar to those afforded by the British Association, sub- 
ject to revision and alteration after the first Meeting of the 
Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1890. 

Baron von Mueller, K.C.M.G., F.R.S., M. & Ph. D. • 

His Excellency Sib Egbert G. C. Hamilton, K.C.B., President of 
the Eoyal Society of Tasmania. 

Professor Liversidge, M.A., F.E.S., President of the Royal Society of 
New South Wales. 

Sir James Hector, K.C.M.G., M.D., F.E.S., Director of the New Zealand 
Institute. 

E.G. Stirling, M.A., M.D., President of the Royal Society of South 
Australia 

W. Saville Kent, F.L.S., P.Z.S., President of the Royal Society of 
Queensland. 

Professor Kernot, M.A., C.E., President of the Royal Society of Vic- 
toria. 

Sir James Hector, K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 
H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 

IfUtt. ^ofal ©vca.suver : 

R. L. J. Ellert, C.M.G., P.R.S., F.R.A.S. 

lion. (Sfttwal ^fcyetari^^is : 

Professor Liversidge, M.A., F.R.S. , Permanent Hon. Secretary. 
Professor W. Baldwin Spencer, M.A., Hon. Secretary for Victoria. 

'^m. ^oal ^^'ecvctavics: Uv oilntv ffiJoIotticsi : 

Professor Bragg, M.A., Adelaide. 

Alexander Morton, F.L.S., Hobart. 

Professor Parker, B.Sc, F.R.S., C.M.Z.S., Otago, New Zealand. 

John Shirley, B.Sc, Brisbane. 

Professor A. P. Thomas, M.A., F.L.S., Auckland, New Zealand. 

^,$jsiiStattt <^W¥ctatij Ux WittoxvA : 

J. Steele Robertson, B.A. 



©wTiitary ^XtmJjm of (Cuunril 

J. W. Barrett, M.D., P.E.C.S., Medical Society of Victoria. 
Professor W. H. Bragg, M.A., Eoyal Society of South Australia. 
Captain E. E. Brett, Eoyal Geographical Society of Australasia, New 

South. Wales Branch. 
Hon. Dr. A. Campbell, Eoyal Geographical Society of Australasia, 

South Australian Branch. 
W. J. CoNDER, Victorian Institute of Surveyors. 

E. L. J. Ellery, C.M.G., F.E.S., Eoyal Society of Victoria (Chairman). 
G. Fischer, Engineering Association of New South Wales. 
G. Gordon, C.E., Victorian Engineers' Association. 

G. S. Griffiths, F.G.S., Eoyal Geographical Society of Australasia, 

Victorian Branch. 
H. W. Hammond, Eoyal Geographical Society of Australasia, New South 

Wales Branch. 
Professor F. W. Hutton, Philosophical Institute, Canterbury, New 

Zealand, and Otago In.stitute, New Zealand. 
Wm. N. Jaggard, Natural History Society, Eockhampton. 
James Jamieson, M.D., Medical Students' Society, Melbourne University. 
Professor Kernot, M.A., C.E., President Eoyal Society of Victoria. 
E. T. Litton, F.G.S., F.E.G.S., Historical Society of Australasia. 
A. H. S. Lucas, M.A., B.Sc, Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. 
Professor Masson, M.A., D.Sc, University Science Club, Melbourne. 
C. Moore, F.L.S., Eoyal Society of New South Wales. 
K. L. Murray, Victorian Engineers' Association. 
A. D. Nelson, Engineering Association of New South Wales. 
Albert Purchas, C.E., Victorian Institute of Architects. 
J. P. Eyan, L.K.Q.C.P.I., Medical Society of Victoria. 
H. C. EussELL, B.A., F.E.S., Eoyal Society of New South Wales. 

A. O. Sachse, C.E., Eoyal Geographical Society of Australasia, Victorian. 

Branch. 
J. Shirley, B.Sc, Eoyal Society of Queensland. 
Dudley Le Souep, Zool. and Acclim. Society, Victoria. 

Professor W. Baldwin Spencer, M.A., Eoyal Society of Victoria, 

(Secretary). 
J. W. Springthorpe, M.D., Victorian Branch British Medical Society. 
James Stirling, F.G.S., Geological Society of Australasia. 

Professor Anderson Stuart. M.D., CM., Eoyal Society of New South 

Wales. 
J. SuLMAN, F.E.I.B.A., Eoyal Society of New South Wales. 
E. O. Thompson, Victorian Engineers' Society. 
C. A. Topp, M.A., LL.B., F.L.S., Field Naturalist's Club, Victoria. 
C. W. Db Vis, M.A., Eoyal Society of Queensland. 

Hon. W. A. E. West-Erskine, M.L.C, Zool. and Acclim. Society of 
South Australia. 

C. S. Wilkinson, F.G.S., F.L.S., Eoyal Society of New South Wales. 



F. T. J. Dickson. 

E. L. J. Ellekt, C.M.G., F.E.S. 
Professor Masson, M.A., D.Sc. 
G. S. Griffiths, F.E.G.S. 
Professsor W. Baldwin Spencer, M.A. 
W. Sutherland, M.A. 

Professor Orme Masson, M.A., D.Sc. 
K. L. Murray. 

J. B. KiRKLAND, F.C.S. 

Professor "W. Baldwin Spencer, M.A. (Secretary). 

A. W. HowiTT, F.G.S. 

Alexander Sutherland, M.A. 

C. A. Topp, M.A., LL.B., F.L.S. 

James Stirling, F.G.S. 

Professor W. Baldwin Spencer, M.A. (Secretary). 

(»:.xHihitjsi (EommiiUt : 

G. S. Griffiths, F.E.G.S. 

A. O. Sachse, C.E. 

E. F. J. Love, M.A. 

A. Dendy, M.Sc. 

J. Stirling, F.G.S. (Secretary). 



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GENERAL PROGRAMME FOR THE MEETING. 

Tuesday, 7th January. 

11 a.m. — General Committee Meeting, in Meeting Eoom of Section F. 
3 p.m. — Garden Party given by Baron von Mueller at the University. 
8 p.m. — Presidential Address in Town Hall. 

Wednesday, 8th January. 

10 a.m. — Sectional Committees meet in Section Eooms. 

10.30 a.m. to 1 p.m. — Sections meet for Reading and Discussion of Papers. 

10.30 a.m. — The following Presidential Addresses will be delivered : — 

Section A. — Astronomy, Mathematics, Physics, and Mechanics, by 

Professor Theelfall, M.A. 
Section C. — Geology and Palseontology, by Professor Hutton, 

F.G.S. 
Section F. — Economic and Social Science and Statistics, by E. M. 
Johnston, F.L.S. 

Luncheon. — 1 p.m. to 2 p.m. 
2 p.m. to 4 p.m. — Sections meet for Reading and Discussion of Papers. 

2 p.m. — The following Presidential Addresses will be delivered : — 

Section B. — Chemistry and Mineralogy, by Professor Eennie, 

M.A., D.Sc. 
Section D. — Biology, by Professor Thomas, M.A. 

3 p.m. — Visit to Newport Railway Works and to Botanical Gardens. 

8 p.m. — Conversazione in the Town Hall, given by the Right Worshipful 
the Mayor of Melbourne, Matthevt Lang, Esq. 

Thursday, 9th January. 

10 a.m. — Sectional Committees meet. 

10.30 a.m. to 1 p.m. — Sections meet for Reading and Discussion of Papers. 
10.30 a.m. — The following Presidential Addresses will be delivered : — 
Section E. — Geography, by W. H. Miskin, F.E.S. 
Section G.— Anthropology, by Hon. John Forrest, C.M.G. 
Section J. — Architecture and Engineering, by Professor Warren, 
M.Inst.C.E. 

Luncheon. — 1 p.m. to 2 p.m. 
2 p.m. to 4 p.m. — Sections meet for Reading and Discussion of Papers. 
2 p.m. — The following Presidential Addresses will be delivered : — 

Section H. — Sanitary Science and Hygiene, by Ashburton 

Thompson, M.D. 
Section I. — Literature and Fine Arts, by Hon. J. W. Agnew, M.D., 
M.E.C. 
2.20 p.m. — Visit to Eoyal Mint and Picture Gallery. 
3.30 p.m. — Visit to Public Library and Picture Gallery.. 
4.30. p.m. — Visit to Works of Hydraulic Power Company. 
8 p.m. — Invitation Concert, given by the Victorian Orchestz'a. 

Friday, 10th January. 

9.30 a.m. — Sectional Committees meet. 

10 a.m. to 12 noon. — Sections meet for Eeading and Discussion of Papers. 
I p.m. — SjDecial train leaves Spencer Street, taking Members to the 

Garden Party given by Sir William and Lady Clarke, at 

Eupertswood, Sunbury. 
5.45 p.m. — Train leaves Sunbury. 



xvu. 

Saturday, 11th January. 

10 a.m. — Sectional Committees meet. 

10.30 a.m. to 1 p.m. — Sections meet for Reading and Discussion of 
Papers. 

Lnncheon. — 1 p.m. to 2 p.m. 

2 p.m. to 3.30 p.m. — Sections meet for Reading and Discussion of Papers. 

3 p.m. — Visit to Picture GaUery of Robert H. Kinnkar, Esq. 

4 p.m. — Visit to Tram Sheds. 

8 p.m. — Special Concert in the Town Hall. 

Monday, 13th January. 

Excursion to Ballarat starts. 

10 a.m. — Sectional Committees meet. 

10.30 a.m. to 1 p.m. — Sections meet for Reading and Discussion of Papers. 
Luncheon. — 1 p.m. to 2 p m. 
2 p.m. to 3.30 p.m.— Sections meet for Reading and Discussion of 

Papers, and Sectional work is brovight to a close. 
3.30 p.m. — Visit to Zoological Society's Gardens, and to the Foundry of 

Messrs. Langlands. 
8 p.m. — Conversazione in University Grounds. 

Tuesday, 14th January. 

Excursion to Sandhurst starts. 

11 a.m. — Meeting of General Committee to appoint Officers and make 

arrangements for the next meeting to be held in New Zealand, 
and to settle the place of the next following meeting. 

Wednesday, 15th January. 

Excursions start for Gippsland Lakes, Australian Alps, and the Black 
Spur, as detailed in the trip-slips. Each of these will occupy four 
days, the parties returning to Melbourne on Saturday, 18th January. 
Leaders — Messrs. J. Stirling, A. Sutherland, and A. W. Howitt. 

Thursday, 16th January. 

Excursion to Fern Tree Gully, returning to Melbourne the same day. 
Leader — Mr. C. A. Topp. 



MEETING OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. TUESDAY, 
7th JANUARY, 1890. 

Extracts from the Minutes. 

Mr. Elleet, C.M.G., F.E.S., in the chair. About twenty-five 
members present. 

The Miniites of the last meeting held in Sydney, on 3rd September, 
1888, were taken as read. 

Professor Liversidqe jiresented the Balance-Sheet, showing the 
receipts and expenditure in Sydney, diu-ing the year 1889, which was 
received and adopted. 

The arrangements made for the Melbourne Meeting were ratified, and 
the thanks of the General Committee were unanimously accorded to 
Professor W. Baldwin Spencer for having by his untiring exertions 
brought matters to such a successful issue. 

Invitations were received from Auckland and Christchurch for the 
Meeting of 1891. It was resolved on the motion of Professor Hutton 
to hold the Meeting in Christchurch. 

Professor Kernot proposed that the the Fourth Meeting should be 
held in Adelaide, seconded by Professor Rennie. 

Mr. Barnard proposed and Captain Pascoe seconded a motion to hold 
the Fourth Meeting in Tasmania. After some discussion it was resolved 
to postpone the discussion until Saturday, the 11th. 

Mr. W. Sutherland moved — " That the asociation add to its sections 
a special one for the science of education, to be entitled ' Educational,' 
and denoted by the letter K." He thought educational enthusiam here 
was more general than in the mother country, and it would be a wise 
thing to have an educational section. 

Professor Tate moved, as an amendment — "That a representive from 
each section be a committee to determine whether any, and what increase 
or decrease, there shall be in the number of sections, and to report to 
the General Meeting of Committee, to be held on Tuesday next." 

Mr. Tate's amendment for the appointment of a committee to consider 
the desirableness of extending or curtailing the number of sections was 
put as a substantive motion, and was carried. 

After some discussion the meeting adjourned until Saturday, 11th 
January, at 9.30 a.m. 



MEETING OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE, WEDNESDAY, 
14th JANUARY, 1890. 

Extracts from the Minutes. 

Mr. Ellery in the chair. About thirty-five members present. 

The Minutes were taken as read and signed by the Chairman. 

The following Reports of Committees of Investigation were presented, 
received, and ordered to be published as far as funds would permit : — 

No. J. — Australasian Biological Station Committee. 



No. 7. — Australasian Mineral Census Committee. 

No. g. — Tozvn Sanitation Committee. 

No. II. — Australasian and Polynesian Races Bibliography 
Cofnmittee. 

No. ij. — Australasian Geological Record Committee. 

No. 14. — Progress of Chemical Science Committee. 

Resolved, — On the motion of Eev. Lokimer Fison, M.A., that the 
services of Dr. J. Fraser of Sydney in connection with the Report of 
Committee 11 be placed on recoi'd. 

Payment of Accounts. — Moved by Mr. Griffiths, seconded by Mr. 
Topp, that authority be given to the Council to pay accotmts. 

Appointment of President for New Zealand Meeting. — Proposed by 
Mr. F. Wright, seconded by H. H. Hatter, that Sir James Hector be 
appointed President for the New Zealand Meeting. Carried unanimously. 

Appointment of Secretary for Neiv Zealand Meeting. — Proposed by Mr. 
A. Morton, seconded by Dr. Allan Campbell that Professor Hutton be 
appointed Secretary for New Zealand. Carried unanimously. 

General Treasurer. — Proposed by Dr. Allan Campbell seconded by 
Professor Anderson Stuart, that Mr. H. C. Eussell be appointed 
General Treasurer. Carried unanimously. 

Local Secretaries. — The following were elected : 

Mr. A. Morton ... ... Tasmania. 

Mr. J. Shirley ... ... Queensland. 

Mr. F. Wright ... ... South Australia. 

Professor Parker ... ... Dunedin. 

Professor Thomas ... ... Auckland. 

Secretaries for Wellington, Napier and Nelson to be appointed by New 
Zealand Council, Secretary for West Australia to be appointed on the 
recommendation of Hon. John Forrest. 

Professor Laurie gave notice of the following motion : — " That a New 
Section be added under the head of Mental and Moral Science." 

It was decided on the motion of Mr. A. Morton to hold the Fourth 
Meeting of the Association in Hobart, Tasmania. 

Vote of Tiianks were unanimously passed to the following : — (1) Sir 
William Clarke, (2) Mayor of Melbourne, (3) Mayor of Ballarat, (4) 
Mayor of Sandhurst, (5) Council of School of Mines, Ballarat, (6) Council 
of University of Mellaourne, (7) Managing Committee of the Victorian 
Orchestra, (8) Eoyal Society, (9) Musical Bodies, &c., who assisted at the 
Concert, (10) Others who have extended hospitality to its members. 

A Special Vote of Thanks was accorded to Messrs. G. B. Pritchard, 
T. S. Hall, T. S. Hart, J. S. Hart, A. W. Craig, and W. Macqillivrat, 
in acknowledgment of the services rendered by them in connection with 
the meeting. 

A Vote of Thanks was passed in acknowledgment of the services of the 
ex-President, Mr. H. C. Eussell. 

b2 



A Vote of Thanks was passed to Professor Spencer in acknowledgment 
of liis services in connection with the Meeting. 

A Vote of Thanks was passed to Mr. Ellert for his service in presiding 
at the Meeting and acting as Chairman of the Local Council. 



The following Committees were re-appointed : — 

JVo. I — Condiiions of Labour Conunittee. 

Committee "To inquire into the Question of the Condition of Labour, 
with special reference to strikes, and to make suggestions for their 
remedy": — Mr. W. Garlick, Major Goldstein, Mr. H. H. Hatter, 
Professor Kernot, Mr. H. K. Eusden, Mr. H. C. Etjssell, Mr. A. C. 
Wylie. 

•Secretary — Professor Elkington. 

No. 2 — Australasian Meteorology Committee. 

Committee " To inquire into the present state of Meteorology in the 
Australasian Colonies": — Mr. R. L. J. Ellery, Mr. W.Sutherland, 
Professor Threlfall. 

Secretary — Mr. H. C. Russell. 

No. 3 — Australasian Biological Station Committee. 

Committee " To consider the Establishment and Endowment of a 
Biological Station for Axxstralasia " :— Mr. A. Dendy, Mr. J. J. Fletcher, 
Mr. A. A. S. Lucas, Mr. MacGillivray, Professor W. Baldwin Spencer, 
Professor R. Tate. 

Secretary — Professor W. A. Haswell. 

No. 4 — Australasian Biological Bibliographical Comm.ittee. 

Messrs. A. Dendy, Mr. J. J. Fletcher, Professor F. J. Parker, 
Professor W. A. Haswell, Professor W. B. Spencer, Professor A. P. 
Thomas, Professor E. Tate, Mr. C. A. Topp, Mr. H. Tryon, Mr. T. 
Whitelegge, Dr. J. T. Wilson, Dr. MacGillivray, Mr. J. Bracebridge 
Wilson. 

Secretary — Mr. A. H. S. Lucas. 

No. 5 — Protection of Native Birds and Mammals Conunittee. 

Committee "To consider and investigate the Protection of Native 
Birds and Mammals": — Mr. A. J. Campbell, Pi-ofessor W. A. Haswell, 
Mr. R. M. Johnston, Professor W. B. Spencer, Dr. Ramsay, Professor 
R. Tatk, Mr. H. Tryon, Colonel Legge, Professor Thomas, Mr. S. Dixon, 
Rev. J. J. Halley. 

Secretary — Mr. A. Morton. 

No. 6. — Hygienic Committee. 

Committee " To consider certain points in the Construction and 
Hygienic Requirements of Places of Amusement in Sydney": — Mr. W. E. 
Roth, Dr. J. Ashburton Thompson, Professor Warren, Dr. Wilson. 

Secretary — Mr. J. Sulman, Sydney. 



No. 8 — Australasian Glacial Evidence Committee. 

Committee " To investigate and report on Glacial Evidence in Aus- 
tralasia ":— Mr. H. Y. L. Brown, Mr. S. H. Cox, Sir James Hector, 
Mr. E. L. Jack, Mr. W. H. Rands, Mr. J. Stirling, Professor Tate, 
Mr. C. S. Wilkinson. 

Secretary — Professor R. Tate. 

No. lo — Australasian Seismological Committee. 

Committee " To investigate and report upon the Seismological Pheno- 
mena of Australasia ":— Mr. A. Biggs, Mr. E. L. J. Ellery, Sir James 
Hector, Mr. H. C. Eussell, Professor Threlfall, Mr. C. Todd. 

Secretary — Sir James Hector. 

No. 12 — Antarctic Exploration Committee. 

Committee " To consider the question of Antarctic Exi:loration " : — 
Mr. J. Barnard, Mr. E. L. J. Ellery, Hon. John Forrest, Mr. G. S. 
Griffiths, Baron von Mueller, Professor Spencek, Professor Stephens. 

Secretary — Mr. Ellery. 

No. ij — Australasian Geological Record Committee. 

Committee " For Geological Eecord during the year " : — Mr. E. 
Etheridge. Professor F. W. Hutton, Mr. E. L. Jack, Mr. E. M. John- 
ston, Professor E. Tate. 

Secretary — Mr. J. Stirling-. 

The following new Committees were appointed : — 

jVo. /j — Rust in JVheat Committee. 

Committee " To investigate the question of Eust in Wheat " : — Mr. J. 
H. Maiden, Mr. D. McAlpine, Mr. C. A. Topp, Mr. F. Wright, with 
power to add to their number. 

Secretary — Mr. A. N. Pearson. 

No. i6 — Location and Laying-out of Toivns Committee. 

Committee to consider and report upon the Location and Laying-out 
of Towns " : — Mr. J. M. Coane, Mr. A. W. Craven, Mr. A. M. Henderson, 
Professor Kernot, Professor Warren. 

Secretary — Mr. f. Suhnau. 

No. 1/ — Improvement of Museums as a Means of Popular 
Education Committee. 

Committee " To consider and report upon the Improvement of Museums 
as a Means of Popular Education": — Mr. C. W. De Vis, Professor 
Hutton, Professor McCoy, Mr. A. Morton, Dr. Eamsay, Dr. Stirling, 
Professor Thomas. 

Secretary — Professor Parker. 



No. i8 — Fertilisation of Fig in Australasian Colonies Committee. 

Committee " To investigate the Fertilisation of the Fig in the Aus- 
tralasian Colonies " : — Mr. F. M. Bailey, Mr. C. French, Baron von 
Mueller, Mr. A. S. Oliff, Professor Thomas. 

Secretary — Mr. C. French. 

No. ig — Unification of Colours and Signs of Geological Maps 

Committee. 

Committee on " The Unification of Colours and Signs of Geological 
Maps " : — Mr. H. Y. L. Brown, Sir James Hector, Mr. E. L. Jack, 
Mr. E. A. Murray, Mr. C. S. Wilkinson, Mr. Woodward. 

Secretary — Professor Hutton. 

No. 20 — Present State of Knoivledge of Australasian 
Palceontology Committee. 

Committee " To investigate and report upon the Present State of 
Knowledge of Australasian Palieontology " : — Sir James Hector, Mr. R. 
M. Johnston, Professor McCoy, Professor Tate. 

Secretary — Mr. R. Etheridge. 

No. 21 — Tides of Australia Com??iittee. 

Committee " To investigate and report upon the Tides of Australia " : 
— Professor Bragg, Professor Lyle. 
Secretary — Mr. R. W. Chapman. 

The following Special Committees were appointed : — 

Moved by Professor Anderson Stuart and seconded by Mr. C. S. 
Wilkinson — " That the following form the Publication Committee : — 
Messrs. Ellery, Griffiths, W. Sutherland, and Professors Spencer 
and Masson." 

Professor Masson moved and Professor Tate seconded — " That a 
Committee be appointed to draft a revised Code of Laws for the Associa- 
tion, and report at the meeting in Christchurch, the Committee to 
consist of the following : — The General Secretaries, Mr. Ellery, Professor 
Rennie, Mr. A. Morton, and the Mover ; Professor Spencer to act as 
convener." 

On the recommendation of Section B., it was resolved "That a Special 
Committee consisting of the Presidents and Secretaries of Sections 
B., C. and D. be appointed to formulate a scheme, whereby the assistance 
of the Governments of the various colonies may be enlisted in procuring 
material for Special Investigation. Professor Eennie to be reporter." 



SYNOPSIS OF GRANTS OF MONEY APPEOPEIATED TO SCIEN- 
TIFIC PUEPOSES BY THE GENEEAL COMMITTEE AT 
THE MEETING IN 189 . 

The names of the members who are entitled to call on the Treasurer 
for the respective grants are prefixed. 

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-73 ;i( 




INAUGURAL ADDRESS "^ 

By the president, 

BARON FERDINAND VON MUELLER, 

K.C.M.G., F.R.S., M. &PH.D., &c. 



The tirst duty, devolving on me at this auspicious gathering, is 
to ofter on behalf of the present Council of the Australasian 
Association, and not less from the depth of my own feelings to 
all, assembled now, the very best of welcome. Patronised by the 
noble representative of her Majesty, graced from exalted station 
also by the first lady of the land, generously countenanced by 
the Premier and the other members of the Ministi-y, extensively 
sustained by Melbourne citizenship, and prominently supported 
by the University, we enter on this second meeting of the 
Association with every bright prospect. Indeed, our hopes are 
raised still moi'e by the success, achieved already in the eldest 
metropolis, since, through the genius and circumspect assiduity 
of the Sydney University Professor of Chemistry, the great 
home movement became extended to these southern colonies. 
Called unexpectedly for this year to the position, which mag- 
nanimous impulses and unbounded generosity have assigned to 
me, I must so far speak of myself, as to assure you, that this mark 
of consideration will ever be valued by me beyond all expression ; 
that I am conscious of having no claims to this high favour, 
unless it be by scientific seniority in these colonies, and that I 
will endeavour to fulfil those expectations, which are justly set on 
leaderships in a grand festive concourse, such as we are now to 
celebrate. Before proceeding, it is incumbent on me to express 
my rejoicing at so large and so splendid an attendance at this 
meeting, which is even encoui'aged by the genial smiles of so 
many ladies ; and further, to oSer my homage to the distinguished 
office-bearers, to the kindful hosts and notably also to the 
accomplished Secretary, through whose united perseverance, 
graciousness and energy the hopeful aspect of the Melbourne 
gathering is mainly due. My eminent predecessor, the Govern- 
ment Astronomer of New South Wales, has in a powerful and 
learned address sketched the origin and objects of the British 



2 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

Association for the Advancement of Science, the fifty-eighth 
meeting of which was held in Newcastle during September 
of last year. Thvis the bearings and aspirations of these 
science-musterings came anew before us here also from 
the great British home, whose lead and aims we are anxious 
to follow and to imitate even in these respects. Whoever 
shared actively or even only passively in the engagements, 
for which this extensive vmion has been established, whether 
in Britain or on the continent of Europe or in America, must 
have realised how much vitality is infused into science- 
work by these Associations through whole communities, how 
immensely inspiring the personal contact with leaders in pro- 
gressive thought is to individual woi'kers of all ranks and in all 
directions ; how plans are foi'med and problems submitted, other- 
wise likely unattended to or left indefinitely postponed, and how 
powei'ful and trusty an influence by this widely spreading and 
annually refreshed organisation can be exercised on the jDublic 
mind, to speed progress, particularly of utilitarian tendency, in a 
telling and in an impressive manner. Indeed, with the inaugura- 
tion of this Association commenced a new era for science in these 
dominions of the British Crown. It is to us a movement of 
historic significance of its own. It falls to the share of the 
greater gatherings, from which ours is an offspring, to review the 
advance of science throughout its various branches in the older 
seats of learning ; I will therefore not attempt at the youthful 
stage of the Association here, to lay before you any methodical 
and connected accounts of more recent events on the walk of 
knowledge, even should I thereby not anticipate, what my 
honoured colleagues may wish to explain or record in the respec- 
tive sections, over which they preside. Indeed, in these distant 
locations it seems at present more important, to clear away some 
scruples, which pi'event recognition of our purposes, or to render 
more fully known the wide accessibility, afforded for joining in 
these peri(jdic gatherings. The destination of this institution is a 
far wider one, than may be supposed generally by our fellow 
colonists. The word "science" seems in British communities 
often to be understood, to apply to researches in the domain of 
nature exclusively. The acceptance of the word in this sense 
would exclude from our scope much of the best eclat of what we 
desire to accomplish, whereas really we here would wish to 
embrace in our range of discussions and operations, whatever was 
meant by the ancient word "scire" and hence " scientia." We 
would extend this meaning as far as ever the rays of knowledge 
can illuminate, as far as ever the power of thought can penetrate. 
Social science, for which at the Exhibition of 1880 a congress 
was held here, over which our erudite honorary Treasurer 
presided, can merge readily now into sections of this Association. 
Though we cannot expect every member, perhaps according to 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 6 

some European standard, to be engaged actively in pursuits of 
discovery with a strict scientific bearing, I feel sure to express 
the feelings of all, whom professional positions or amateur-incli- 
nation bring together on the path of knowledge, when I affirm, 
that the Association joyously and gratefully welcomes all who 
will cheer us in our aspirations, will listen to our discussions, 
and will support us by that moral influence, which every educated 
and thoughtful layman can bring to bear. Ours is a kind of 
scientific federation full of soul. Every one can help. The 
wide scope of the Association thus being rendered patent, 
as well as the ease of access, it might next be asked by 
the uninitiated, what are the more direct objects, what the 
more immediate tendencies, what the final destinations of this 
organisation, spread now also to a distant corner oi the globe 
like ours? As you might foretell, we accept on Australian soil 
this movement — started by an illustrious sage of Edinburgh — in 
all its bearings, hopes and responsibilities, with perhaps this one 
preference, that, while we endeavour to follow the cosmopolitan 
course, as adopted in the northern world, we would cherish some 
predilection for maintaining a command over the fields of 
indigenous work in these far southern regions, without any wish 
however of monopoly, but with that patriotic sense, becoming to 
us as residents in this particular portion of the British Empire. 
Irrespective of carrying on original research, worthy of a country 
of juvenile freshness, it is our duty more especially, to instil the 
flow of information from so manifold sources near us in such 
a manner, that new growth for further developments may 
arise through that limpid course in all possible directions. 
We should and could arouse anew also all those, who may 
slacken, by example and by new inspirations. You can carry 
a spirit of research into the family-homes ; you will leave 
in many an hospitable house, which opens its doors in a 
year of choice to illustrious participators of these meetings, 
many reminiscences not less pleasurable than profitable through 
life. I shall not speak here of the living among leaders in 
progressive knowledge, of those who yet are shining forth at the 
British Association also ; but I would wish to pay a word of 
homage to the dead — to those, whom many of you have still met, 
and on whose busts at solemn moments we would wish, if even in 
thought only and passive pensiveness, to place also here a laurel 
wreath. Thus, among Britons, such names come before our 
memoiy as those of J. Herschel, James Ross, Faraday, McClure, 
Sabine, W. Hooker, Lindley, Brewster, Wheatstone, Murchison, 
Darwin, Speke, Carpenter, Lyell, Brodie, Gould, Livingstone, 
Sedgwick, Berkeley, G, Bentham, Simpson, Proctor and a host 
of other luminaries, reminding us likewise of an early Melbourne 
University professor, who at a meeting of the British Associa- 
tion about the middle of the century, was one of its principal 

a2 



4: INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

secretaries. To one meeting the greatest lustre was given by the 
presidency of H.R.H. the Prince Consort. As there is a 
brotherhood of all nationalities in science, it may be pardonable 
when from my own bit of career I allude to some experiences of 
forty-four years ago, while attending as an active member what 
might be called the German Association for the Advancement of 
Science. A flight of thought brings vividly before me again 
such illustrious personages as Schleiden, one of the earliest 
investigators of the living cellule ; D'Alton, one of the founders 
of embryology ; Langenbeck, the great and conservative surgical 
opei'ator and his long-renowned disciple, Esmarch. There were 
also the Scandinavians Oersted, Forchanmier and Steenstrup, 
the one the main discoverer of electro-magnetism, the other 
eminent in northern geology, the third an early expounder of 
alternative generation. It is as if I hear once more the voice 
also of Kunze, the pteridologist ; of Rammelsberg, a leading- 
expert in analytic chemistry ; of Waitz, the horticultural mono- 
grapher of the Ericese ; of Volger, one of the great authorities on 
volcanoes ; of Krauss, the zoologic Caffrarian explorer ; of 
Sonder, one of the authors of the Cape-flora, and of Schacht, 
Roeper and Muenter, the eminent morphologists and physio- 
logists ; some of gay communicativeness, others of calmer 
reservedness — all spreading knowledge in their own way, all 
happy and elated among their scientific compeers, but also well 
aware, that their coming together then might be an only one in 
life ! It is, as if I were brought once more face to face with 
many a hero in science, nearly all now numbering with the dead ; 
some of whom having attended the earliest meetino;s of the 
British Association, and thus by their appearance, then grey, 
among a multitude of junior investigators, linked together in a 
most fascinating and exalting manner one generation with another 
in science. A felicitation could then still be sent to Oken, the 
founder. You can all enter into the feelings of Virchow, who at 
the Bei'lin meeting of the German Association in 1886, while 
unfolding to the 3000 members once more the roll-book of 1828. 
There were the names of Humboldt, as President, of Berzelius, 
Ehrenberg, Woehler, Rudolphi, Gauss, Weber, Johannes Mueller, 
Mitscherlich, Rose, Magnus, of Oersted also, and of many 
another scientific immortality, each either a founder of a branch 
of science or a rearer of it into extensive vigour. Well may 
Virchow have exclaimed, that it was as if life became infused 
once more into the dead signatures ! No doubt many assembled 
now in this hall experienced similar emotions, when attending 
meetings of the British Association, where they first of all, and 
perhaps never again, saw individually some of the coryphseans, of 
whom they had ever so often heard and read, for whom they 
cherished an unlimited veneration, and whose memory became 
thus dearer still. Some of the younger members, now here 



INAUSURAL ADDRESS. O 

present, may yet be spared to participate as veterans in the 
centenary celebrations of Sir David Brewster's founding the 
parent Association. To some extent and in a vivid manner we 
shall be able, to measure the onward course of science here by the 
periodicity of these gatherings from year to year, from decade to 
decade. Much human faculty is always going to waste ; let this 
Association in its popularity collect all stray forces, especially as 
here, on new grounds, the very novelty of research must stimulate 
to more aixlent action and keener emulation. Crude empiricism 
gives way in all directions to scientific ruling ; the multitude is 
awakening more and moi'e to the importance of exact research ; a 
tide has set in to carry knowledge with all accumulating 
discoveries into every possible application ; hence the rapid 
strides of technic art and rural industries, particularly in young, 
bustling communities. Yet commerce, as well as handicraft, 
often still undervalues science-work, while daily benefiting from 
it, though unseen, unrecognised and unregarded. But this 
Union can make its influence felt through deliberations and 
direct recommendations, and perhaps most powerfully so, because 
its tendencies are so eminently practical and so unselfish. Much 
in that direction are indeed our efforts, our aspii*ations, our 
hopes ! We can at measured intervals in this Association con- 
nect researches with an extensiveness and universality such as 
no other organisation can effect ; yet we do not enter into rivalry 
with localised societies or institutions of leai'ning ; contrarily, on 
them we lean mainly for our mental sustenance. 

The field of research is ever widening, but the horizon gets 
clearer ; the objects of research become more multitudinous, but 
the appliances for investigation are constantly enriched ; volumes 
still more instructive supersede one another ; methods more 
facilitous are substituted for those of the past ; incontestable 
observations are daily increasing, the elaboi'ation of systems and 
records gets more completed, and thus endless difficulties become 
removed, which beset the path of former workers ; by such means 
an ever-accumulating science-fortune is rendered available without 
individual freedom being impaired. Yet, while the network of 
knowledge expands and the width of the meshes decreases, the 
empty interstices between the threads are proportionately aug- 
mented, though the fabric as a whole gains more firmness. The 
greatest triumph of sciences consists in bringing them into the 
fullest contact, somewhat in an Aristotelean and Plinian — or 
speaking of our own epoch — in an Humboldtian spirit. 

Discovery has its own rewards, and they ai*e of the sublimest 
kind. When, as far back as 1817, the founder of the British 
Association perceived the endless displays of his kaleidoscope, and 
beheld other before unthought-of marvels, he lifted in pious 
admiration his eyes to heaven, well recognising that each playful 
change in the picture or every other result from his optic apparatus 



6 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

was ruled .as much by laws, universal and eternal, as the move- 
ments in the planetary world. In recent days the great anatomic 
Professor Hyrtl, after he saw his main work pass through eighteen 
editions and through many translations, discourses still, though 
blind, with youthful enthusiasm in classic Latin on the bearings of 
medicine. Sir Richard Owen, at the venerable age of an octo- 
genarian, evinces still with freshness of mind a keen and joyful 
interest in comparative zoography, of which he is one of the main 
originators. A coetanean of his through the century, George 
Bentham, continued like Sir William Hooker after four scores of 
years still brisk in descriptive taxonomy for the plants of the 
world — engagements of severity, from which many a young 
worker even would shrink ; the watching of discoveries in their 
speciality were to them a never-ceasing fountain of delight, a 
necessity for their intellectual existence. When Haydn, the 
predecessor of Mozart and Beethoven in composing symphonies, 
heard with great splendour the performance of his oratorio, the 
" Creation," one of his last works, he bui'st into tears at the 
passage, " It became light," and uttered in deepest emotion the 
words, " It is not from me, it is Divine inspiration." The 
vibrations of the Eiffel-tower, the new structure, doubly as high 
as the Strassburg-spire, were attentively studied by Chevreul at 
an age of his more than that of a centenarian. 

Grand and true discoveries, such as may more and more also 
here be effected, are not, like meteors, flashing brilliantly but 
ephemerously across the sky ; they are like the discerning of new 
stars of lasting radiancy ; and there is one mighty incitation, 
inasmuch as eveiy achievement through progressive thought stamps 
on it the name of the discoverer for all times, and as any single 
new achie\"ement may have numbers of others in its seqvience. 

Let it be instanced, what since Galvani's time has been 
ln'ought about, until with lightning's speed electric messages are 
now dashing in all directions through the world. It would be 
invidious to single out anyone connected with this glorious 
progress for special praise, unless the Nestor of electrology, who 
in co-operation with Gauss fully fifty years ago issued the atlas 
of terrestrial magnetism, and still some years earlier made one of 
the tii'st efforts to sjmn electric wires over wide distances. 

What long ago was surmised by Faraday, and later on through 
calculations by Maxwell, has in the course of 1889 been proved 
by Professor H. Hertz, of Karlsruhe, from real experiments, that 
the action of the electric current on the medium, through which 
it is carried, is the same as that produced by light ; further, that 
the generation of both depends on the same laws, and that the 
propulsion is effected at the same velocity. The objectional)le 
liypothesis of "action into distance," which Weber already 
wished to avoid with regard to gravitation, is overthrown by 
these new demonstrations. 



IKAUGUPiAL ADDRESS. 7 

In recent days many surprising and momentous discoveries 
were witnessed, but few can be alluded to here. Among those, 
which have a practical and extensive bearing on daily require- 
ments, some originated or wei'e evolved through the genius of 
Edison, from whom, as one yet in the prime of life, still other 
inventions may be expected. Here I will refer only to that mode 
of luminosity, which may be regarded as much cosmic as telluric, 
and which now is biought within wide technical operation 
through particularly disintegrated coal glowing in absolute 
vacuum — not without some previous .suggestions and exj)eriments 
by 8idot and Swan. 

So also is it startling, to hear the human voice now witli 
telephonic celerity across a whole country, and hardly impaired in 
intensity. Through the combination of Gray's or Bell's telephone, 
with Edison's phonograph, messages can be fixed — as you may 
be aware — in writing ; while, by Hughes's microphone, the sound 
can be heard with extraordinary distinctness. 

Nations are now rivalling to possess the largest feele.scope, 
Melbourne still carrying the palm for the .southern hemisphere. 
Indeed, the great equatorial instrument here, with its four feet 
mirror, is surpassed only by that of Lord Rosse, and equalled 
only by that of Paris. Astrxmomy became lately in wondrous 
details connected with astrophysics and astrophotography. The 
astronomic department here, under our distinguished treasurer, 
Colonel Ellery's able administi^ation, will extensively share also 
in the now commencing international photographic charting of 
the sidereal heavens. A gigantic ref racttir-telescope has Ijeen i^laced 
in the cleai-est of air at one of the culminations, 4600 feet high, of 
the Californian coast-range by a generous American mining 
opei'ator and amateur-astronomer, on whom fortune had smiled ; 
and thus within the last year or two were revealed some empyrean 
marvels, nevei- beheld ]:)y mortal eye befoi-e ; the nebular ring in 
Lyra presented quite new and complicated features, and additional 
stars at or near the cyclic aggregations were discovered by the 
astronomers of Mount Hamilton, Professors Holden and 
Schaeberle. Here may be alluded to only one other result of 
these observers, attained under so exceptionally favoui'able cir- 
cumstances within their celestial area, namely the elliptic nebula 
of Draco, with its fulgent hydrogen and nitrogen, is now shown 
to consist of coiled rings. New planetoids may thus also from 
thence come within the range of vision, eight having been 
observed from elsewhere on the northern heaven during 1888 and 
at the lieginning of 1889, thus bringing recorded numbers up to 
283. The power, which would be exercised by very large tele- 
scopes placed within the tropics at alpine elevations above the 
frequent course of clijuds in air so much rarilied, may be beyond 
all present imagination. More " about the comets, as supposed 
meteor-swarms, which have entered the solar .system," might 



8 IXAUGUBAIi ADDRESS. 

perhaps be learnt from such positions. Spectroscopic observa- 
tions by Huirgins, Secchi, Vogel, D'Arrest, Finlay, Wiedemann, 
Schiparelli, Hasselberg and other philosophers lead to additional 
explanations in this respect. 

What photography, an art discovered within the lifetime of 
many assembled here, in progressive scope may effect in future, is 
as yet mere conjecture. The producing already, but not the 
fixing as yet, of three of the principal colours within the present 
processes of this glorious art holds out some hope, that its faithful 
pictorial representations may become embellished yet by vividity 
of colouration emanating directly and thus unerringly from 
(Operative pi'ocesses. 

In a very different way other questions come before us. 
Whether in the organic world a supposed involuntary tendency 
of striving for higher development and further melioration, 
whenever circumstances are favourable, arises from uncontrolled 
impulses, so that nothing is left in a stationary distinctiveness ! 
Whether specific values for clear diagnosis and systematic fixity 
have in the generality of cases been allotted with adequate scope? 
Whether fertile hybridity is far more extensive, than we have 
hitherto been led to suppose 1 Whether diversity in the physical 
conditions of nature can explain the vaster development of 
gigantic mammals and birds in the zoologic ages prior to the 
present ? Whether forced accommodation or spontaneous adapta- 
bility to altered circumstances of existence can change gradually 
and even infinitely structural organisations and specific functions? 
Whether crowding out, hoAvever overwhelming, can extend to 
absolute annihilation in the f I'ee fields of nature, when undisturbed 
by human action, or whether this combat for space and search 
for nourishment is limited to mere repression ? Whether among 
specific organisations the most powerful always dominate to 
the extensive suppression of others more numerous 1 Whether 
organisms, which in the present ci'eation-epoch became extinct by 
the hand of man, could possibly ever be restored, by progressive 
growth, even after many lengthened periods and with e^ery 
conduciveness for resuscitation ? Whether our present means 
for research are advanced enough, to distinguish all innate 
peculiarities, with which distinct types in the organic world are 
endowed ? Whether, if all this covxld be answered in the affirma- 
tive, it would be sufficient to account for the marvels of designs 
in organic individuality connected with vital processes, as revealed 
to us from the simplest and minutest to the most complex and 
huge of living beings, all displaying perfection for their own 
distinct purposes ? Whether all our search for what is knowable 
can ever lead to a worldly insight into the commencement of all 
origination ? Can we contribute from this Association, by 
original unbiassed research hej"e in new countries, towards the 
answering these momentous questions ? 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 9 

The wider the climatic range, the greater the variability, so 
that for studying specific limitations of organic beings we here are 
placed in a more advantageous position, than those on whom the 
iirst elaboration of Faunas and Floras devolved in the home- 
countries. When a phyto-palfeontologist of hrst rank and life-long 
expei'ience, such as Goeppert, doubted whether from that branch 
of knowledge much support could as yet be obtained for the 
ascendance-doctrine, we are cautioned also so far, not to be over- 
hasty in construing ideas and evolving theories with a view of 
universal applications. The opposite views on organic develop- 
ment, defended respectively by two such eminent among earlier 
naturalists, as Cuvier and St. Hilaire, deserve profound considera- 
tion even now-a-days. We are anywhere and anyhow only at the 
threshold of the temple of ti'uth, and might thus remain conscious 
of some of the last humBle words of even a Newton ! 

The dictum, supposed to be reliable, " natura nofi facit saitus" 
is not universally applicable, not even in palaeontology, as demon- 
strated by the three well-marked stages of the American horse. 
One of the sublimest of poets, not foreign to natui-al science, must 
have been persuaded of a Godly operation in nature, when he 
wrote — 

" Wohl erkvmdbar is das Wirken, 
Unerforschlich bleibt die Kraft !" 

The world would lose many of its charms to intellectual beholders, 
if observers sink too much into materialistic explanations and 
speculative reasonings. We all admire the sagacity, displayed by 
great leaders in biology, to trace the building up of organic frames, 
and to follow up observingly what is manifest in respective cycles 
of vitality ; but can we adopt with the evidence attained all the 
conclusions drawn therefrom 1 Let us deprecate extending theories 
beyond what is warranted by trustworthy observations ; let us 
avoid hazarding opinions unsupported by facts ; and above all let 
us distinguish between what is within human grasp and what 
must ever be concealed to the eyes of mortal beings ! 

The question has sometimes been raised, what is a billion 1 but 
an answer of calculative correctness has but seldom been given, 
though in some thoughtlessness that enormity of numeric value 
may be often enough rashly applied. Thus we hear spoken of 
more than a billion tons of coal deposits in the Chinese province 
of Shansi ; and as the search through carboniferous areas has in 
this colony also just passed into a momentous stage, it would be 
well to remember, that in 1884 the actual output of coal came to a 
total of 409 million tons, two-fifths of this from Britain. From a 
naturalist's point of view, some fractional approach to the solution of 
such questions might be arrived at perhaps, when the prodigiosity 
of nature's displays is considered in estimating, on the basis of some 
calculation, the total number of spore-caselets on the fronds of 
our hill-ferntree {Ahophila australis) at 400 millions and that of 



10 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

the spores at 4000 millions ; when further it fairly can be assumed, 
that a large tree of our silver-wattle may produce as a total from 
its copious naasses of flower-headlets 25 millions of tiny flowers, 
800 millions of stamens, and 8000 millions of the compound 
pollen-grains ; when a red-gum eucylaptus or a manna eucalyptus 
may exhibit the twenty-fifth part of a billion of stomata in the 
whole of its foliage. 

Let us turn to another subject. Choice areas, not necessarily 
very extensive, should be reserved in every great country for some 
maintenance of the original vegetation, and therewith for the 
preser\ation of animal life concomitant to peculiar plants. Where 
the endemic riches are greatest, there also the danger is more 
imminent of these being swept out of existence, unless timely 
measures are adopted for the reser\'ation of some sequestered spot, 
to which rural occupations should never be allowed to have any 
access with theii- disturbing influence on primeval harmonies. 
8uch spots should be proclaimed for all times the people's inalien- 
able property, and every inhabitant or \-isitor of the locality 
should consider himself the co-preserver of such areas, so as to aid 
in preventing accidental invasion or casual ignition or intentional 
spoliation. Furthermore, to such places of secm-ity should Ije 
transfen-ed plants and animals of exceptional rarity occurring 
near these seclusions. " Floral commons," thus established, would 
soon be among the most attractive features, not only for pleasure 
excursionists, but also for travellers from abroad, and would afford 
future generations in various territories some idea of the wondrous 
natural beauty of vegetable and animal life in its once unique 
loveliness, pristine grace and unimpaired freedom. Measures 
like these once initiated would earn enduring gratitude, and would 
find imitation in all countries, and particularly in those, where 
nature has scattered its floral gifts most prodigiously over the 
territorial expanse. Under intelligent supervision such places, 
through restricted concessions, might be made to yield a greater 
income, than accruable through ordinary rural occupation. Who 
would not plead in this cause 1 as our Field Naturalists' Club has 
indeed so fer^■ently done already. More and more of rarities are 
commencing to succumb and to be made unrestorable, and scarcely 
a spot seems safe on the face of the globe against the defacing hand 
of man ! To the Great Auk no longer any existence was allowed 
on the rem(jtest hiding-place of Iceland, where the last poor pair 
succumbed, while courageously defending their nest ! W'ill any 
)-emnant of the tril)e of the gigantic l)irds, lingering yet in the 
recesses of far southern latitudes, perhaps share the same fate ? 
At this instance may be called into memory the touching verses 
by the greatest of German poets, relating how the chamois is 
driven by the relentless hunter to the utmost pinnacle of its 
highland-home, and then the Alp-spirit of the legend sallies forth 
with wrathful voice, " Pause! why do you hurt my herd?" Space 
is left for all on earth! 



INAUGURAL ADDKESS. 11 

May also the forests be pleaded for here in this assembly ? 

It should be a fixed plan in national economy anywhere, to 
maintain masses of forest-vegetation near sources of rivers, 
and to establish some broad arboreous bordering on streams, 
where it does not extensively exist, as much calculated to reduce 
sweeping water-volumes by soakage and mechanical retention. 
For this pui^pose, nut-trees, cork-oaks, basket-willows and 
other trees, prominently utilitarian, could be chosen. To what 
reflections are you led, when a recent flood of the Mississippi 
not only devastated the adjoining land in its course, but destroyed 
als(i, thr<iugh protracted submersion, much of the existing riparian 
woods ; when property counting by millions of dollars is lost to a 
Californian railway company through one single flood directly 
traceable to destructicjn of forests ; when two-thirds of the 
inhabitants of the populous Connemaugh Valley perished by the 
dam-disaster ; when so recently and so terrifically quite a million 
of people were flrowned in the floods of the Yellow River, and 
another millit)n of inhabitants died from starvation, epidemics 
and other miseries as the sequence of su.ch vast calamity. 
Merely a small fraction of the monetary losses involved would 
have sutticed to avert all this, if spent in well-regulated forestry. 
The cooling of temperature in forests under (^»rdinary circum- 
stances means the reduction of nmcli aqueous vapour to liquid 
humidity, and further the local re-precipitation of gaseous moisture 
in aqueous density, with proportionate lessening of evaporation. 
Each of "our friends, the trees," is a factor, however small, in 
this calculaticm. 

If really it could be demonstrated, that forests exercise no 
influence whatever on atmospheric precipitation, not even 
through electricity, — an opinion lately advanced, but about 
the correctness of which many do yet entei'tain the gravest 
doubt — then still remains to be considered whether through 
forests any country can obtain the fullest benefit from such 
aerial downpours as do occur. In North-western America 
the expression seems proverbial, " Rain follows the plough." 
The principle in Ixjth cases would be the same. Though moistux'e 
promotes spontaneous forest-growth, we are fortunately not by 
its absence prevented, even in almost rainless zones, to clothe 
bare tracts of country with an arborescent mantle of verdure. 
Should some one in opulence desire to build up for himself one 
of the most lasting of monuments, it would be by the bequest of 
an isolated primeval forest, ever untouchaljle, for the free enjoy- 
ment of the orderly portion of the public. The annual " arbor- 
day," let us trust, will become universal as a legitimate holiday, 
which will be looked forward to with delight, particularly by the 
juveniles, who, with a life of hope before them, can await i-esults 
from pleasurable action and intelligent forethought. Celebrations 
like these are not without a lesson to the whole connnunity. 



12 IXAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

The increment to the wood-estate of Victoria would be now 
ah'eady 200,000 trees annually, if some slight tending followed 
the impulse of planting ; even where trees naturally abound, 
additions can be made by choices from abroad, as anyhow forest 
culture should nowhere any longer be limited to maintenance 
and increase of species possessed by the region, but should in 
amplification be extended to whatever is best and perhaps avail- 
able as supei'ior from other lands. 

Here, whei-e, so to say, we live under eucalyptus-trees, we are 
apt to undervalue their hygienic importance, or to discard them 
altogether. Unfortunately also the multitude, notwithstanding 
many efforts made, is not yet sufficiently informed on sanitary 
measures ; thus a large proportion of the general public does not 
•even yet seem to recognise, that for plantations, such as were 
with special forethought raised since the last thirty years around 
this metropolis, pines were purposely chosen on account of the 
salubrious effect of terebinthine antiseptic exhalations from these 
particular trees — a momentous consideration, where hundreds of 
thousands of inhabitants have already crowded closely together, 
and where zymotic diseases are so fi'equent and often so severely 
raging, not to speak of the {esthetic aspect in a zone of evergreen 
vegetation, where main-masses of trees with deciduous foliage are 
out of harmony, while a six months' spring prevails against as 
much winter-time of colder regions ; yet, for all that, what 
thoughtful people have regarded as the vegetative pride of the 
environs of Melbourne may be in danger of being sacrificed to 
•capricious tastes and transient fashions. Interplantations of 
palms, bamboos, and other contrasting plants were long since 
contemplated under the shelter of the pines, to relieve any 
imaginary or real monotony produced by large masses of coni- 
ferous trees, even where they were miscellaneously grouped. Now 
to another topic. 

If merely to a slight extent the treasures of nature have 
been studied anywhere, with what enthusiasm ai'e visited then 
new regions in appreciative knowledge or detail conversedness. 
The child even on its school-walks, the recreation-seeking pedes- 
trian, the travelling toui'ist, — after some previous glimpses into 
nature's arcana — involunta^'ily sees more for rational and eleva- 
ting enjoyment than the rest of the people, and that uncostly 
too, and pei'haps even with substantial profit. 

In whatever direction our glances are cast on organic nature, 
we perceive marvels of design from the mouse-sized monkey to 
elephantine giants, living or extinct ; from the smallest hum- 
ming bird, half-a-dozen of them hardly weighing as much as an 
ordinary letter, to the now byegone Moa of giraffe-tallness ; from 
the towering huge Athrotaxis (or Sequoia) cypress-pine of 
California to inosses of almost invisible minuteness, — all perfect 
in organisation for their own special purposes. But endless other 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 13- 

considerations pi*ess on the trained obsemer, only one to be 
touched on here. Can the time approxunately be determined 
when the Diptrodon stamped in gigantic paces our plains, and 
when the Thylacoleon roared in pursuit of other marsupials, noNv 
exterminated ? 

One of the most remarkable of objects within the whole range 
of biology is that of Symbiosis, the unexpectedly wide extent of 
which through the empire of plants having lately been demon- 
strated by Professor Beccari — the hospes not proving detrimental 
or often not even injurious to the host. Professor Frank very 
recently discovered that fungus-growth of quite peculiar kind at 
the extreme ends of the root fibres in oaks, beeches and trees 
allied to them, mediates the nutrition of them as a necessity. 
Could all this be merely casual 1 The Azolla, nourishing a micro- 
scopic alge, is an example near to us, just as in other but similai- 
respects the native evergreen beech. 

At the very time, when I left Europe, forty-two years ago. Count. 
Suminski discovered, to the surprise of many of us, the antherid- 
ous and archegonous organs on the minute prothallus of ferns ; 
but whether and how genetic relation exists between the primordial 
and the subsequently-developed sporangious organs on fern-fronds 
has never yet been traced or explained ; and this is all the more 
mysterious as regards fern-trees, such as abound here, when years 
intervene between the production of the prothallus and that of 
the spore-bearing caselets. See further the vast significance of 
what, at first thought, may appear a mere trifling matter. 

A small fly {^Lestophones iceryae) was not long ago noticed as 
antagonistic to the coccid-insect Icerya purchasi, by the very 
observant Mr. Fraser Crawford, of Adelaide, though a closely 
allied fly, Lastophofius tnonophkbi, infests mainly, if not exclusively, 
another coccid, the Mo7iophlebus crawfordi, as shown by Mr. F. 
A. A. Skuse, so that even in introducing the particular Diptere 
needed for subduing the Icerya very discruninative entomo- 
logy must be brought to bear for coping with an evil of quite 
dreadful dimensions in Californian orchards, not to speak of what 
with the less powerful Coccinellides can be done. Thus the 
Agricultural Department of Washington found it necessary to 
send a professional entomologist purposely to Australia, in order 
that the Lestophones be established also on the other side of the 
Pacific Ocean, to restore thus far "the balance of nature;" just as 
in another remarkable instance the vines of the United States are 
largely reared in Europe and elsewhere now for their immunity 
to the Phylloxera vastatrix, which from America invaded other 
countries. Perhaps this parasite could likewise be subdued by 
other insects, such as would not attack the vines. If so, a question 
would be solved involving almost the whole interest of rural 
prosperity in many wide regions. So then a new special field is 
opened anywhere for entomologic observations, with a prospect 
held out of high substantial reward. 



14 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

The described species of living animals, according to a very- 
recent calculation by Drs. Krauss and Lamprecht, largely from 
the woi'ks of Ijeunis and Bronn, reach in number one quarter of a 
million! Of these are Mammals 2,300, Birds 11,200, Fishes 
9,000, Mollusces 2,300, Insects 167,000 (with 80,000 Beetles). 
But even in latest days these numbers became considerably aug- 
mented, thus that of the Micro-Lepidoptera from this part of the 
world by the strenuous researches of Meyrick. 

The admissible species of described living plants number not 
less than 200,000 now, as about 120,000 vasculares, taken in a 
conservative sense, have been fairly well defined, and as Prof. 
Saccardo has given in his large recent work alone 27,000 diagnoses 
of fungaceous plants, so that the total number of supposed species 
^dready to be dealt with in descriptive Biology cannot fall very 
much short of half a million species. Mitten enumei'ated and 
diagnosticised, twenty years ago, already 1750 sorts of genuine 
mosses for South- America ; the zealous and accomplished two 
Vice-Presidents of the Biologic Section have, in spare hours, 
after their professional engagements, recorded respectively 400 
species of seaweeds from the littoral regions off and near Port 
Phillip, and 600 species of Polyzoa from the extratropic shores 
of Australia, the polyzoic fauna merely of our great Bay here 
being richer than either that of the British shores or that of the 
Mediterranean Sea. Over 1000 species of Australian fishes are 
contained in the Census, which we owe to the Hon. Sir William 
!McLeay, whom, to our regret, illness obliged to relinquish in the 
jMelbourne meeting the jDosition, assigned to him as a veteran of 
scientific prominence. Mr. Masters's Catalogue of Australian 
Beetles, largely from collections of the distinguished naturalist 
just named, and commenced by his renowned uncle, comprises 
7200 species ; but since that was published considerable aug- 
mentations have taken place. Indeed, thousands and thousands 
of kinds of insects, particulai'ly others than coleoptera, are 
fluttering and buzzing as yet unrecognised, unclassified and 
undescribed in Australian air, entomologists throughout Europe 
and many elsewhere envying those here for the yet easy chances 
of obtaining novelties. 

Let as an instance of rarity of species be adduced the re-dis- 
covery of Aman^ia tnammillaris through some action of my own 
within the last few months on the very isolated Abrolhos-rocks, 
opposite Champion Bay, pei-haps the only place of its existence, 
from whence a solitary specimen of this oceanic alge, as one most 
exquisite for delicate beauty, structural tenderness and lovely 
coloration, was brought by Peron during Baudin's expedition of 
1802, and described in 1809 by the Caen Professor Lamoruoux, 
thus tantalising phycologists all the while. 

Irrespective of the seven descriptive volumes, mainly by the 
incomparable Bentham, on the universal vegetation of Australia, 



INAUGUKAL ADDRESS. 15 

special works on the flora of most of the Australian Colonies 
are now provided, one for Queensland having been published by 
Mr. Bailey some time ago, and one for South Australia having 
lieen just issued by Professor Tate, who also brought geologic 
and zoologic considerations to bear on the vegetation there. 
Mr. C Moore has furnished the manuscript for the Flora of New 
South "Wales, with a prospect of early promulgation in a special 
volume. Sir Jas. Hooker's Floras of New Zealand and of 
Tasmania, quite gems, emanated already many years ago as 
one of the results of Sir James Ross's antarctic expedition. 

Though limiting these remarks to achievements of later times, 
T do not wish to pass the name of Robert Brown, because not 
only did he lay most extensively and firmly the basis for the 
system of Australian vegetation, but it was he also, who took up 
again morphology for plants, after the long interval since the 
origination of that branch-science by Wolff, just when it was 
resumed for animals by Dijellinger.* 

Through gradually increasing facilities for multiplication in 
iconography now, so far as plants are concerned, about one-tifth 
of the known species have become depictured. Of illustrated 
monographies in vegetable natural history the most urgently 
required is one on Characeae, an opus, which would be of local 
interest in every part of the world, and particularly here, where 
this group of waterweeds abounds. 

In one particular respect splendid chances for facilitation or 
acceleration of science-work are not rarely lost at opportune 
moments, namely, to acquire extensive authentic collections, the 
accumulation of which may have involved the sacritices of recre- 
ative ordinary pleasures through a whole life, the disbursement of 
a private fortune and the main-absorption of a brilliant mind in 
fixed research, Avhereby treasures may have been got together for 
material valuation simply unpriceable. Nowhere applies this 
more than in young colonies, where no opportunity should be 
missed, whenever such may suddenly arise at long intervals, to 
complete the working material from abroad by what may be 
otherwise utterly unobtainable. The securing of the Linnean 
collections, by the forethought of a British servant to his country, 
is an instance in point. 

The gifted Secretary of the subsection for Music in our gather- 

* A passage from the Address is here omitted, iu which the names were given of 
scientists, prominent in Australia during recent periods and mostly yet active iu research ; 
but it proved impossible within the precincts of a general discourse, however propitious 
the moment, to allude to every one, who had attained celebrity iu Australian scientific 
life. A hope is entertained, that at future meetings of the Association full justice will be 
done within the special sections to the merits of vai"ious and respective individual 
discoverers, who constitute now already quite a multitude of scientific worthies also in 
this part of the world. Two deviations from this course will be countenanced by all with 
due homage — to note especially the superb Decades, largely also palasoutologic, issued 
during the last 30 years by the veteran Professor of tlie Melbourne University — and to 
bestow adequate recognition on the brilliant manner in which the first President of the 
Aiisfralinn Association maintains the fame of our eldest Observatory. 



IG INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

ing is auioiig those who endeavored to rouse a spirit for beautifying 
our landscapes as well as our immediate surroundings. Biologists, 
particularly, could add to the charms of vernal vegetation anywhere 
by transferring for naturalisation from land to land, at all events, 
the minutest of flowers, always innocent, such as here the neatest 
Candolleas ; the snatching up and forwarding of a few grains of 
seeds, and their being merely scattered on adequate soil in similar 
climatic regions, would suffice. Peculiarity in the constitution of 
the fruit enabled the Cocos-palm to transmigrate on its own accord 
from its home in the Western Hemisphere to the shores of the 
Eastern ; it requires other means for the French-bean and the 
gourds to reach the East ; for the last 300 years they were 
consumed as a frequent table-food of supposed eastern origin ; 
but now only has it been shown, by archaeologic researches into 
the Incas-times, that they belong as indigenous to the western 
world exclusively. This exemplities how objects of almost daily 
concerns can still afford means for original inquiry for almost 
indefinite periods. The munificence of the learned President of 
the section for Literature and Fine Arts has fostered also this 
system of translocation, as shown last year by additional very 
copious disti'ibution of salmon-ova through Tasmanian streams. 

Cassino for 1888 recorded 13,500 scientists as holding recog- 
nised positions in various countries ; but the respective numbers 
given seem adequate only for North America — thus far, nearly 
5,000 names being given. This, however, shows the extra- 
ordinary vividity displayed there for original inventive work, 
and that very much of a practical kind. 

Young Australia has placed hitherto already through its 
science-societies about 130 volumes into the libraries of the 
world, and that mostly during the latter half of the century ; 
a fi'eshness pervades these literary efforts, commensurate with the 
ampler originality of sources in new countries. An enlightened 
journalistic press accords here no less than elsewhere its generous 
support to science. For the world as a whole mental faculty is 
displayed, never without a scientific touch, in hundreds of 
thousands of journals, in uncountable periodicals, and in an 
endless number of spacious volumes. How is a view to be 
maintained over this ever-increasing flood of literature, if even 
for each of us in one or few directions only ? At all events, in 
greater works a resume of their salient contents should never be 
wanting, some summing up of the main-substance, some abridged 
reference to novel elucidations. The idea of constructing an 
universal linguistic medium of communication, at first promul- 
gated by Leibnitz in 1666, has occupied the minds of many of the 
learned ever since. Like numerical figures, chemical formulas 
and musical notes, such a language is to be readable by each 
nation in its own words, and the name Pasigraphy has been 
chosen for it. Volapiik affords steps towards accomplishing this, 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 17 

but does not sohe the problem. Can the principle of stenography 
be drawn into use for this purpose ? Classic languages, grandly 
developed more than 2,000 years ago, continue to give an 
antique lirmness to international writing ; but, after all, England 
has given its language to already one-fonrth of the world, ;t 
language of powerful conciseness and flexible expressibility, 
doubtless destined to become still more and more predominating 
in the course of time. 

There is one publication which concerns Austi'alia much, but 
is in its value here too scantily recognised — that of the Royal 
Colonial Institute, a union much brought about by the thoughtful 
activity of H.E.H. the Prince of Wales, and largely tending, 
through essays and discussions of leading colonists, to unite the 
interests of the British Colonies with those of the great home- 
country for more solidifying the Empire. 

Chronologic writings exist for political but not for scientific 
events ; a volume of the History of the British Association 
would almost be equivalent to a connected record of discoveries 
eftected since its founding, as foreign achievements were never 
lost sight of. A history of all universities from original local 
archives would carry authentic and comprehensive recoids of all 
sciences also into medieval remoteness, and yet could be held within 
trenchant briefness — local extra-academic working not likely 
being passed at the respective seats of univei'sal knowledge. By 
the co-operation of specialists the prominent points of still earlier 
discoveries might be readily adduced quite into the dawn of 
civilisation. 

A new pi-inciple for facilitating scientific pursuits deserves to 
be alluded to at this occasion on account of its wide applicability, 
namely : to afl:brd special convenience for original research in 
distant countries, as thereby additional inducements are ofiered 
for particular studies far abroad. A commencement thus far was 
made by the establishment of the biologic station at Naples. 
But to the Dutch belongs the credit of adopting ampler measures 
in this direction, so far as to tit up local working rooms, and as to 
lessen the expenditure for a lengthened stay of naturalists in 
Java, one of the most attractive places, as you ai'e aware, for 
whoever wishes to study nature in its tropical grandeur. Several 
leading scientists have availed themselves already of this induce- 
ment ; and Ceylon — still nearer to Europe — so as to be with 
sufficient advantage within reach during the long annual profes- 
sional vacations, is now also resorted to. If Australia could 
follow this example, we would see of tener on our shores illustrious 
strangers, who might wish to spend a scientific furlough rather 
among widely different scenes in nature, and to roam among 
a vast number of new objects, than to travel within much traversed 
and scientifically more exhausted areas ; and they might perhaps 
come accredited also as delea^ates to the Australian Association — 



18 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

should we not prefer to invite purposely year after year repre- 
sentatives irom the older seats of learning to gatherings here, 
as suggested at the last Medical Congress. What a rich store of 
recent professional experiences would be shed out befoi-e us, and 
liow would we, while offering Australian hospitalities, endeavour 
to i-eciprocate from what could be obtainefl from here as scientifi- 
cally novel. But this principle has still another liearing. In 
Java, for instance, pulmonary consumpti(jn seems never to become 
developed. More than that, a fortnight's steamer-voyage can 
bj-ing, at a moderate cost, the phthisic invalid from England to 
Central America, for reaching, not t(io far inland, any chosen 
elevations with light and pure air of easy respiration. The 
mountain-regions of extra and intra-tropical Australia, as well as 
some f)f the elevated inland downs, come likewise within this 
hygienic scope, especially for sufferers from a home sufficiently near. 

Turning to geography, let here the question be asked, as con- 
cerning us most, how can Australian exploration 1)e advanced 1 
Talent, enthusiasm and experience are available at any moment 
for the purpose. Our fii-st historic century has j^assed ; will the 
chronologic seculum also close, ere the blanks on the maps are 
tilled uj) 1 If so, it would be almost a reproach ; and may I be 
allowed to repeat what, in a geogi'aphic address, was said some 
few months ago : " The main work of Australian land-exploration 
devolved on nine travellers only ; now space seems only left for 
< )ne more great explorer, to rank with the nine. Who will be the 
tenth to carry off this last of honors, or will it be divided among 
several less ambitious competitors f Well may the eagerness he 
understood, to set the life on winning such a prize ! 

What a contrast, when we reflect that Pytheas reached the 
Shetland Islands, his "Thule," at the time of Alexander the 
Great ; and yet, that it should require more than two thousand 
years before Socotra became carefully explored, and thereby also 
its unique floral treasures and other natural riches disclosed, this 
having only been accomplished through action of the British 
Association by Professor Bailey Balfour within the last few 
years, though courses of navigation were close to that island 
since grey antiquity, its endemic aloe-plant having been famed 
ali-eady to the trading Phrenicians, but remaining through all 
that time for science purposes utterly unknown. 

Manifold attempts have been made, to map out the leading- 
features of the vegetation of various countries on series of charts, 
and to treat the stationary fauna similarly ; if this was done 
from adequate material for every great region by united efforts 
of those, locally best initiated, then might be constructed com- 
paratively complete zoo- and phyto-geographic atlases for the 
whole globe, and these would unfold at a glance the pi'ominent 
types in a more impressive and instructive manner than any 
other. Co-operation is needed, to accomplish this, and more 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 19 

pai-ticulai-ly so in Australia. Oui* biologists might devise some 
feasible plan, to advance this subject from year to year at the 
Association's meeting. 

Capt. Engelhardt Jorgensen's singular enterprise, now under 
progress, to sail in a lifeboat around the world, arose from ideas 
encouraged and matured in this metropolis. The boat is decked, 
divided into water-tight compartments, unsinkable, readily port- 
able, never permanently upset, easily set going in accident, and 
carries drinking water as ballast ; it has stood a furious sea near 
the Bay of Biscay. We may thus expect the venturesome 
mariner with his companion, to arrive in due time, whereby a 
<leed will be accomplished as daring and unique, as that of his 
famous countryman, who lately crossed the south of Greenland. 

Dr. Nansen is seemingly to receive munificent support from a 
compatriot for an eft'ort to approach by land the North-Pole 
from Greenland ; this will likely prove the safest route, notwith- 
standing immense hindrances, because on that line will at all 
events be mostly a firm footing, and perhaps some game. If the 
best is made of a full arctic summer wdth sailing sleighs, it 
would be shown, to some extent at least, whether Greenland 
extends in terrestrial continuity still much fui'ther than 83° N., 
while chances likely would accrue of wide views onward from 
any high elevation. As one likely result, the northern limits 
of Greenland would at least be determined. At all events, it 
has now been shown, that arctic altitudes up to 10,000 feet ai-e 
traversable. 

Instances are too rare, considering the enormous private 
wealth accumulated in innumerable cases, of calling explorers 
into the field, such as in our days brought Agassiz to the 
Amazon-river, Stanley, " the bravest of the brave " among 
geographers, to Central Africa, Nordenskiold along the whole 
coast of North Asia. 

But Australia is not without its Maecenates ! Of this you will 
])e reminded in the Wilson-Hall, in the Clarke and Wyselaskie 
Institutions, connected with the Melbourne University, while in 
the eldest city of Australia the main seat of science was endowed 
by Challis's princely munificence, and the Linnean Society is 
sustained largely in a permanent home by the foremost (jf 
Australian zoologists. In the metropolis, Avest of us, the 
University owes some of its principal ramifications to the 
Hughes and Elder bestowals. Ormond College and that of the 
Artisans here tell their own tale, whereas a statue at the largest 
library in the Southern Hemisphere commemorates what well 
directed energy and untiring perseverance can individually bring 
about- But let us think also of the liberal support, accorded by 
successive enlightened Ministi'ies and Parliaments, to early and 
continued studies, without which high-mindedness many researches 
hei'e could not have reached their present extent. 

b2 



20 INAUGUHAL ADDRESS. 

Turning to antarctics so far as mere temperature is concerned, 
that to be encountered on the southernmost tableland of ice, would 
probably not be lower than that endured )jy Nansen at elevations 
very lofty in Greenland, and the ascent of the ice-clifts near Mount 
Erebus, from convenient points of sloping shores, would likely also 
not be more perilous, than the scaling of some ice-crests of the Cau- 
casus by members of the Alpine Club last year. The project of 
renewed south-polar exploitation has been discussed in all its 
bearings by the Antarctic Committee of the British AssociatioJi, 
as well as here. We are not even yet aware, to what circum- 
stances the existence of the only deep gulf towaixls the South 
Pole is traceable, whether to volcanic influences, or to terrestrial 
configuration, or to what other causes. Can the increasing 
pressui'e, exei'cised by the constantly enlarging height of the 
contiguous immense southern ice-masses, induce perhaps volcanic 
disturbances through the enormous weight? The breaking 
away of the crust or melting away from beneath, where not on 
firm land, seems quite out of proportion to the ever augmenting 
ponderousness, resulting from all aqueous precipitations ever 
there at once freezing, even at svimmer-time. What the eftect of 
mere gravitation may finally be on this land of ice without any 
relieving open inteijacent water-channels, concerns us even at 
such distance here as physicists and also as mere inhabitants 
very much indeed ; and it is worthy of full discussions in our 
meetings for years to come, particularly if data could be obtained 
as to the ratio of increase of the ice. The extensive and so 
patriotic Australian Natives' Association likewise advocates re- 
newed Antarctic disquisition; and surely these eftbrts will tend, 
to maintain also the glorious maritime supremacy of the British 
Nation, displayed foi'mei'ly in the most distant of southern waters- 
as much as elsewhere. 

Now as to our own Alps. The circumspectness and energy of 
the Council, aided by public and private lil^erality, has provided 
enjoyments, some with us not previously realised. Among these 
is a tour to our highlands. To most Australians and many of 
the Europeans here a visit to our Alps, through the steam- 
locomotive more and more coming within ready and easy reach, 
will have the charms of novelty. Particularly in early or in late 
hours you will likely behold a kind of airy ocean, surrounding 
with gigantic waves, phantastic isles, formed by highland pinnacles 
visible above the sea of vapours, the sun's rays illuminating the 
calm or drifting clouds, I'esplendent in colorations of ever-changing 
and indescribable magnificence. You will there be in the purest 
of air of lightly respirable buoyancy. Whilst summer-heat 
jDarched already the lowlands, you will have vernal flower-fields 
of unique ever refreshed beauty, to wander over; close to this 
may lie never-melting snow. In this, what I would call tlie 
Australian Switzerland, pasture- and orchard-plots will soon be 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 21 

the homes of many new liighlanders. You will be impressed 
with the solemnity anrl almost awe of stillness away from the 
haunts of man, feelings of human insignificance arising within 
scenes of nature so incomparably grand ; there man is drawing 
nearer in his thoughts to the Divine Power ruling all. 

Science nowhere can stand still ! Linguistic science is not 
foreign to this Association. Thus, then, time-hallowed expressions, 
though some of them may have come as a glossarian inheritage 
even from Pythagorean antiquity, and may have continued of 
daily frequency, will have to give way to wordings in consonance 
with progressive discoveries. Organography, even in instances of 
words, to which has been clung with tenacity since the Plinian 
age, will have yet to undergo some changes for the sake of greater 
accui-acy in detiniteness and more clearness in etymology. Com- 
inatation in more than one of current languages could be In'ought 
])etter into accord with oscillations of thought. The hyphen 
might for fuller perspicuity be more drawn into use, and particu- 
larly so in organic chemistry, which furnishes, even at the latest of 
dates, words so unwieldy in reading, and so unpronounceable in 
length, for its complex-compositions, that one single word may be 
composed in unbrciken array of as many as forty-five lette^^s, not 
luilike the extensivenessof construction in some Oriental languages ; 
while contrarily, abbreviations to such an extent as " 8alol " for 
the new thei'apeutic chemical, " Salicylate of Phenol," appear 
e((ually deprecable. Speaking of ancient languages, it might 
passingly here be noted, from researches of Professor Sayce, of 
< )xford, in most recent days, that a brisk literary intercourse 
existed in cuneate lettering between all the countries from the 
Nile to the Euphrates during the fifteenth century before the 
Christian era. This was sIkjwu by unearthing the ruins oi the 
residence-town of Amenophis the Fourth. Contrast with this the 
still existing stone-age of the Australian Nomades ! We here 
caiuiot hope, to add much to what has heen gathered already of 
the languages of the Australian aborigines for some further 
insight into the onward-march of the human races and the 
history of their progress ; but such chances, as may still exist, 
should not be lost for constructing further vocaljularies, ere the 
remnants of the last tribes are passing away, ov al^andon their 
pristine languages, or forget their lore; what can still be secured 
will be all the more valuable, because it will — at best — be so scanty. 
Studies of this kind will l:)ecome more significant, since a Vic- 
torian divine, as a missionaiy in the New Hebrides, traces 
the language there partly to Semitic origin. Indeed, linguistic 
i-esearch assumes also here now such magnitude, that it might he 
recommendable to constitute hereafter a division for " science of 
languages " in the section for literature within this Association. 
The moment seems an apt one, to pay some homage at this spot 
■also to the bearers of the gospel, who, in their inostentatious yet 



22 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

severe and perilous task, have to a -vast extent gathered, fixed 
and systematised the languages of savage tribes, doubtless 
primarily in duties of holy call, but thereby collaterally aftbrding 
means for comparative linguistic studies and the philologic 
subjects connected therewith. Indeed, the Bible is now trans- 
lated into more than 300 languages or their diversitied dialects. 
What an incalculable treasure is stored up by these biblic 
translations also in wordly aspects ! Could the Association 
possibly do some further good in insisting, that by the force 
of logic, should be suppressed any defectiveness of thought in 
much of commonplace conversational and perhaps also literary 
phi-aseology, ever without reflection reiterated. Some appella- 
tions, vernacular or otherwise, are also here and there open to 
improvement yet ; thus, to quote only one familiar instance, 
" Gumtrees," professionally speaking, would apply here to the 
Wattle-Acacias, not to the Eucalypts. For the advantage of 
conversing in sevei'al languages, and simultaneously to haAe 
disclosed the treasures of literature in originality, to learn 
two, three or even four, is at early childhood hardly more 
difficult than one, if facilities in family-life can be oftered to the 
youthful retentive mind. Even to orphan-children, provided for 
by the State, this benefit could be extended, inasmuch as some 
juvenile inmates of orphanages might be readily transferred from 
the institution of one country to that of a neighbouring one 
without any additional expenditure for support, and with this 
philanthropic view, that nations, who unhappily nourish mutual 
sentiments of asperity, would through the rising generation by 
closer social contract draw nearer to each other also as great 
communities, would learn more to respect national cha)'acter, 
would recognise moi'e individual worth of their adversaries, 
would gradually be disabused of hostile prejudices, and would 
abandon supposed ov exaggei'ated notions of their neighbour's 
faultfulness or enmity. This principle might perhaps be extended 
to all classes, with domesticities sure to arise out of it with all 
their haj:»py influences. 

It is most pleasing, to see assigned to the highly scientific art 
of music so distinct a position at this gathering, the division, 
constituted for it, being moreover enhanced in importance through 
a renowned composer being identified with it. At all peiiods 
of human existence the soul found its sublimest expression 
in harmonious tones. Emblematically the sacred Scriptui-e 
seizes on this mode of expression, as conveying to the utmost 
the ideas of mental loftiness ! By nearly a thousand symbols 
vocal and instrumental sounds were fixed fi-om almost mythologic 
remoteness down to the olymjnan festivals ; and well might 
it be wished, that some records of those melodies were left, 
enchanting as they were even at the dawn of mental culture, 
to be deciphered or restored at this age. To jvulge from 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 23 

the poetry of ancient periods, the music must then ah-eady 
have been pervaded by great depth and richness of feeling. 
A magniticent piece of music surpasses even so far the 
most splendid of poems, as its sounds are the eloquence of one 
universal language. Among great operatic composers is one only, 
with whom word and st>und emanated from the same mind and 
soul, and it is he also whtt never spent the sublimest of music on 
inadecjuate themes ; it is he who, with Meyerbeer, in utmost impres- 
siveness gave to his musical effusions historic vividity, it is he who 
thus far knew to protit from the incomparable Avon-bard. Ho 
long as human suceptibilities exist for what is ele%'ating, S(j long 
will master-pieces of music, of poetry and indeed also of pictorial 
and plastic art be imperishable treasures, may they even ha\e 
come to us from the time even of the Iliad. If we think of the 
names of the great masters, should then not also with some 
thankfulness be a remembrance for those, who drew men of high 
genius into their path or sustained them thereon? What would have 
been the fate of Beethoven in 1808, had it not been for the aid of the 
then Arch-Duke Rudolph, of Prince Lobkowitz and Count Kinski 
at that turbulent time ? What would have become of Schiller at 
his protracted illness without the annuity spontaneously, in the 
most delicate of terms, bestowed by the Danish Crown-Prince and 
Count tSchinnnelpfenning, and that at a period when national and 
pri\"ate resources were alike absorbed to a vast extent, because all 
Europe was in arms, not to speak of numerous other instances, 
when genius was in danger to be extinguished by worldly nai-row- 
ness. The suiuiy sky of Austi'alia seems to kindle a general love 
f<jr music, and has called forth many a talent already, some 
celebrating triumphs in the centres of European art, while a 
youth of this city carried off there among numerous competitoi's 
the Mozart-fellowship. But distinctions for this our great land 
have not only been earned in the glorious cause of music. 

Phot< (lithogi-aphy, if not altogether it did arise in Victoria, 
became universally adopted in the particular process, elaborated 
here, and tirst explained befoi'e our Royal Society by one of 
Liebigs disciples, who too early became alienated from this colony. 
There also were tirst enunciated, however briefly, the views of the 
author of the Unseen Universe on the effects of rays, emanating 
from various substances ; and these early studies wei'e followed 
up by a long series of appei'taining reseai"ches at the great Home 
Observatoiy of Kew. Brennan's toi'pedo is a Victorian achieve- 
ment, recognised as highly important by the British Government, 
and has proved lucrative to the constructor. 

It is about a hundred years ago when Gahani led the know- 
ledge of electricity into new coursesforunf(jreboded vast influences 
through the technic vrorld ; when Goethe conceived the tirst and 
far-reaching ideas of organic metamorphosis ; when Sir James 
Smith established the flrst society of just pretensiveness for a 



24 IXAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

special science ; wlieii the second Jussieu constructed his natural 
system of plants, perfect for all points but one, unless in details ; 
when the elder Herschel erected his great telescope at Slough, 
the disct)very of the sixth and seventh satellites of Saturn being 
among the earliest results oljtained ; when the elder Gaertner 
founded cai*pology ; when the Danish Professor Otto IMueller 
established in taxonomy the genus Bacillaria, he, even as a 
physician, Ijut little foreseeing, what solid basis he was gaining in 
one direction for the future extension of pathology ; Avhen 
Roxburgh settled in India, as the first to elucidate in a modern 
sense the tiora of an extensive region by independent extra- 
European i-esearches ; when Lavoisier published his Traitc de 
Chimie as the eai-liest main-pillar of the present system of 
chemistry, not long before he met his cruel fate ; when, amidst 
other coiitemporaneous exploits, it fell to the share of Vancouver 
to cast the first anchor in St. George's Sound for vast extension 
of the British dominions in this continent. 

Australia, although one of the latest of original abodes of man, 
may yet also be destined perhaps to be the field of some of man- 
kind's gi-eatest achievements. The Biblic words, Matthaeus : 
" It is good foi- us to be hei-e ; let us build edifices," is signifi- 
cantly applical)le to advancing civilized settlement through these 
fortunate dominions. 

We are to enter soon on the last decennium of this century, 
that secular ejaoch, which to all human foresight will remain the 
most expansive for discoveries in the world's history, l^ecause it 
would seem, that in most directions not equal opportunities can 
i-e-arise for inventive foundation-research \\'ithin the same space 
iif time. Shall we be in the proud position, that other ages will 
say, " The nineteenth centuiy has done its work for science 
well ?" And what can yet be accomplished towards its verge 
here and elsewhere % There will be some summing-up then of the 
gain of human thoughts so far. Can the geographic chai't of our 
])lanet l)e finished by that time '< Can the telegraph-wires be 
connected thj'oughout all countries ? Can the outlines of the geo- 
logic map of our globe be completed ? Can the systematic records 
of the faunas and floras Ije mainly brought everyAvhere to a close? 
Can an universfd meteorology be evolved 'I Can chemistry ex- 
haust then already the display of elementally suVjstances and of 
rheir principal coalescences % And can all this Ije helped on 
locally by this Ass(jciation, if even only to a small extent? 

When probably a decade hence this Union will inaugurally 
reassemble in our metropolis, perhaps to witness then also again 
another industi'ial fail* of nations in commemoration of the linking 
together of two centuries, many whom we are gladdened to see 
yet among us will have passed away, resting under the sods ; but 
though then you will see them no more, they — like earlier con- 
temporai'ies of some of us — like Sturt, Mitchell, M. Stuax't, 



IXAUGUKAL ADDRESS. 25 

Leichhardt, Gould, W. Sharpe, M'Leay, Gunn, Milligan, Sprent, 
Davy, Jukes, Haast, McKinlay, Clarke, Castleman, Tenison- 
Woods, Scortechini will have left for future inspiration and due 
gratitude many science-bequests of enduring value, gained largely 
on Australian soil ; yet some loneliness of its own may perhaps 
be felt through missing them, for which the contact with a 
younger generation can perhaps not always fully compensate. 

Individual life at best is but short ; through " the advance- 
ment of science " it can be prolonged, can be rendered capable of 
much augmented achievement, can be made susceptible to multi- 
plied enjoyments and much increased usefulness. We advance 
t< (Wards a greater future ; what would we wish man's destiny in 
life to be ? Can unprosperity be banished through amplest in- 
dustrial productiveness ? Can contentions be abolished Ijy a 
universal recognition of rights 1 Can savagedom early be made 
to cease ? Can finally each human Ijeing be educated to higher 
and worthier ideals ? Can atheism be made to vanish ? Can 
knowledge with its Baconian password bring its power to 
bear, to accomplish these most transcendental of oljjects ? Can 
as interpreters of answers to such cosmopolitan questions all 
bearers of science thi'imghout the world unite in a mental 
brotherhood ? 

And now some few closing words. Though while coming 
tf>gether in this Association we do not engage in political 
discussions, yet in one aspect we might venture, to diverge from 
the strict path, markerl out for science-votaries — it is in this, to 
foster also through w/r bonds the "union of the empire," under 
permanent British supremacy. This must be the ardent wish of 
every true subject of our gracious Sovereign. Thereto point the 
grandest traditions, prominence in history, world-wide national 
influence, immeasurable strength of the realm, irresistiljle pati-iotic 
sentiments ; thereto also leads us veneration for the great home- 
land, with its keen sense of justice, philanthropic clemency, 
practical tendencies and indomitable energy. ^lay the reflex rays 
of that national greatness fall ever unobscured on us also here! 
What are we, whether in science or in any other consideration, 
without Britain in all its prototypic bearings and glory ? Take 
this away, sever us from this, then the best of impulses, the greater 
confidence in our purposes, as well as our main guidance and 
security, would be lost ! And where would be our gratitude 1 
Britain bestowed on us a whole continent, with oceanic 
b<mndaries, within salubrious zones, exempt from autochthonic 
complications, with resources uncountable — all as a free gift, 
as an unencumbered patrimony. The solidity of a great empire 
will also Vje a guarantee for the best-connected and most luminous 
<if science-progress in all dominions, over which its sceptre sways ; 
it will ever signalise a power, by w-hich knowledge and enlighten- 
raent and indeed re]i<ri<^»us reverence also, will be carried 



26 INAUGUHAIi ADDRESP. 

with the widest permuuency through the woi-ld not only for the 
welfare of the greatest of nations, but also for the tranquillity 
and happiness of all mankind ! 

" What guides man in his high piirsiiit, 

Opens, ilhunes and cheers his way r" 
Discerns immortals from the brute, 

God's image from the moulds of clay 'i 
'Tis knowledge I and that to the soul 

Is power, is liberty and peace ; 
And, while celestial ages roll. 

The light of knaivledi^e shall increase !" 



'^^■jt" ^'"^ "^N(3^ 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS IN SECTIOJT'-t^'' 

{^Astronomy, Mathematics. Physics and Mechanics). 

THE PRESENT STATE OF ELECTRICAL KNOWLEDGE 

By EICHAED THEELFALL, M.A., 

Professor of Physics, University of Sydney. 



A DISCUSSION of the present state of electrical knowledge natu- 
rally involves an apology. It is not without a certain amount of 
trepidation that I venture to address you on the most pruf(»und 
of physical subjects, nor should I have done so unless it had been 
suggested to me by the .Secretary of the Association. Anyone 
with any knowledge of the matter will, I think, bear me out 
when I say that the difficulty of turning the results of mathe- 
matical I'easoning into a form in any way suitaljle for an adtlress 
is exceedingly grave, and sh(juld really be only attempted by 
those who have a special knowledge, to which I in no way 
pretend. I hope, however, that any account, however feeble, 
will not be altogether useless, since the mathematical thicket 
jnust have appeared impenetrable to many who would otherwise 
have taken an interest in the subject. A knowledge of the 
elementary facts of the subject will be assumed. Coming to 
the point with all convenient speed, I will give a sketch <if 
Maxwell's theory, because it has recently received what must })e 
regarded as a great deal of striking contirmation. I will then go 
on to develop some of the arguments in favour of the theory, and 
will finally try to bring it up to date with respect to several 
points that have been more or less passed over in the general 
discussion. 

It is to Faraday that we owe the experimental foundation of 
the theory, as well as the fundamental step of the theory 
itself, the direction of attention to the properties of the sj^ace 
surrounding charged or conducting bodies, leather than t(j the 
bodies themselves. The ideas of Faraday were first put in a 
precise manner by Maxwell, and then extended so as to give rise 
to a theory of optics known as the electro-magnetic theory — ^ojie 
of the most biilliant concepts of physical science. An immense 
amount of detail was also added by INIaxwell, both with respect to 
phenomena falling clearly within the limits of the theory, and also 
with respect to certain outstanding phenomena which were not so 
clearly accounted for. The exact descripti(jn of the theory of many 



28 president's address — section a. 

ui the instruments, and processes of electrical research was also first 
given by Clerk Maxwell. The oldest and most familiar facts of 
electral science are those of the atti-action of electrified bodies and 
<»f magnets. Faraday pointed out that the action between such 
bo(]ies depends on the kind of substance surrounding them, and 
gave precision to his ideas by his re-discovery of specific inductive 
capacity, and of specific inductive magnetic capacity, or perme- 
ability as we now call it. The ([uestion how does a magnet or 
electrically charged Ijody at a point A manage to act or prodvice 
a force on another magnet or charged body situated somewhere 
away, say at a point B ? A similar qviestion was asked by Newton 
long ago with i-espect to gravitation, and in his letter to Bentley 
he gives an answer which I think worth quoting at length in spite 
of its being so well known : " You sometimes speak of gravity as 
essential and inherent to matter. Pray do not ascribe that notion 
to me ; for the cause of gravity is what I do not pretend to know, 
and theref<:)re w(juld take more time to consider of it." " It is 
inconceival)le that inanimate brute matter should, without the 
mediation ( )f something else which is not matei'ial, operate on and 
aftect other )natter without mutual contact, as it must do if 
gravitation in the sense of Epicurus be essential and inherent in 
it." " That gravity should be innate, inherent, and essential tf) 
matter, so that one b<idy may act upon another at a distance 
through a ^•acuum, without the mediation of anything else, liy 
and through which their action may be conveyed from one to 
another, is to me so great an absui'dity that I believe no man whc» 
has in philosophical matters a competent faculty of thinking can 
ever fall into it. Gravity must be caused by an agent acting 
constantly according to certain laws ; l)ut whether this agent be 
material (jr immaterial, I have left' to the consideration of my 
readers." 

Since Newton's time evidence lias accumulated. We have first 
of all the phenomenon of the energy of light and heat which reaches 
us from the sun. This energy is a real thing, in fact it can be 
bought and sold, and so I presume mvist be admitted to exist, 
though similar considerations applied to gold or silver mines might 
not necessarily have supreme weight. The question is, what Ije- 
comes of this energy between the instant when it leaves the sun and 
the instiint when it arrives at the surface of the earth. I premise 
that it is admitted that Newton's idea of the emanation of particles 
is pi'oved to be in non-accordance with the facts as far as we know 
them, and that light really does take a fixed time — some eight 
minutes to get from the sun to the earth. We must admit, also, 
that the velocity of light is practically the same between the sun 
and the earth as it is at the earth's surface, and moreover, 
that it is the same at least as far as Jupiter. .Since no 
other differences have been detected in the light coming 
ivtnn the other heavenly Ijodies, except those which we know 



president's ADDEESS — SECTION A. 29 

do not influence the velocity in any experiments we have 
been able to make, we consider it likely that the velocity 
of light is the same throughout the whole universe — which, 
be it noted, is only known to us from the light which comes 
to us from the stars. As a consequence, it seems fair to assume 
that whatever the agent which — if we may use such a term — carries 
the energy from Jupiter to the earth, it is the same as the agent 
which carries it throughout space as we know it. That this 
carriage is not due to the actual motion of some substance we 
may be certain, since we can assure ourselves that the stars are 
visible in all directions at once, and it is unlikely that there 
should be a convergence of anything fi-om all points of space 
towards oui- very insignificant earth. We will also note that the 
velocity of light through transparent substances at the earth's 
surface is not the same as a rule as it is through air — while in 
oui' so-called ^"acua, the velocity is very neai'ly the same as it is 
through air. Turning to electric and magnetic action, we note 
that the attractions and repulsions we observe are not the same 
in degi-ee through all substances, but depend on the nature oi 
the substances, and Anally in the induction of currents on one 
another, where we have energy transferred from one circuit to 
another — the circuits not being in any conducting connection — 
we have evidence both as to the storing of energy in the space 
surrounding the circuits, and the transferring of it from one 
circuit to another depending on changes taking place in the cur- 
rents themselves, and being independent of the nature of the 
conductors in which the currents exist. And these facts lead us 
to imagine that space is tilled with something or other by and 
through which the aforesaid actions take place. There may be 
moi'e than one kind of substance for all we know to the contraiy, 
l)ut one at least there certainly must be. We ax-e led to this 
conclusion by reasoning based on the interpretation of our sen- 
sations, and thus come to know of the existence of the ether — or 
medium — as we shall call it, in a manner completely analogous to 
the manner in which we know of the existence of matter. The 
evidence in the latter case is rather more complete — as we haAe 
an additional contii'ming sense, that of touch — to appeal to. The 
point which I wish to make however, is that the evidence in both 
cases is of the same kind, and open to exactly the same philoso- 
phical criticism in one case as in the other. In what follows I 
shall assume the action of a medium in order to account foi" 
electrical and magnetical effects. This is the tirst great point in 
Maxwell's theory. We can reach the point at which we aim 
most quickly by considering the case of a Leyden jar, or of any 
condenser, whose plates we will suppose are sepai'ated by a layer 
of dielectric which we will not further particularise. If we 
electrify the plates of the condenser, a ptjint will be reached 
beyond which we cannot go, for a spark will take place l^etween 



30 president's address — SECTION A. 

the plates, and the condenser will return more or less nearly to 
its uncharged condition. Faraday found that when different 
dielectrics are placed between the metallic plates of the con- 
denser, the sparks occurring on discharge differ in intensity 
according to the nature of the dielectric. A simple experiment 
will also show that the energy appearing at discharge is stored in 
the dielectric itself. Consequently we must admit that different 
dielectrics will, under corresponding electrical circu.mstances, 
store different amounts of energy. A ^'acuum seems to l)e a 
dielectric and so the power of storing energy is equally possessed 
by it, and that, by the way, to a degree hardly inferior to that 
possessed by air and other gases. If the dielectric is a fluid like 
l)enzene or turpentine, and one of the condenser-plates is fixed 
while the other is hung from the arm of a balance, the plates 
Joeing charged to a given potential, Ave shall find that A'ery 
different sets of weights are necessary to overcome the corres- 
ponding attraction in different dielectrics. Since the power of 
preventing the passage of sparks is very different in different 
media, we will suppose that our plates have an attachment 
whereby the sparks are made always to occur in air. The 
distances at which sparks will occur between surfaces of a given 
form in air are practically proportional to a quantity perfectly 
defined in the mathematical theory and c;dled the electromotive 
force. 

Now, let us charge our condenser-plates and then connect 
them by a wire ; we shall find that the plates are discharged and 
that the phenomena of a current, as it is called, are exhibited in 
the Avire during the discharge. If the ware encircles a magnetic 
needle, for instance, the needle will be deflected ; or, if a volta- 
meter be included, decomposition, say of Avater, Avill take place 
in it. Before the dischai-ge the dielectric is said to suffer 
'•polarisation," oi-, as Maxwell called it, "electric displacement." 
The former term is the better, because all that Avas meant by 
MaxAvell, at all events in his later Avork, Avas that the dielectric 
suffered a vector or directed change of some sort; Avhile the term 
he used is apt to connote the actual transference of something — 
an idea totally at variance Avith the theory. Since, as I said, a 
vacuum acts as Avell, or nearly so, as anything else, Ave must 
assume that the ether is the vehicle in Avhich the polai'isation 
occurs, and that in dielectrics other than A'acua the pniperties of 
this ether are so modified as to account for the cijmparatively 
slight differences of effect oljserved. The second point of 
JNIaxAvell's theoi-y is that the dielectric polarisation is precisely 
prf)portional to the electromotive force. This is not all, however, 
MaxAvell made a further assumption, immensely facilitating 
mathematical computation, and justified as we shall see by 
the consistency of the results to Avhich it leads, and by their 
concordance Avith experiment. He supposed that the polarisation 



president's address— section a. 31 

between the plates is not only proportional to tlie electric 
intensity, but is numerically ecjual to the product of the electric 

intensity by the factor — — ^here K is the specitic inductive 

capacity of the medium. In order to examine the nature of this 
supposition, we will for a moment take up another point of view 
and c<jnsider, as was formerly done, that there is a substance 
called electricity, and that plates are electrilied when this 
substance is distributed over them. Maxwell's assumption 
amounts — in the language of this theory — to making the charge 
on the plates exactly equal to the loss of electricity by the 
<lielectric, or, in other words, makes electricity incompressible. 
This point is important, because it distinguishes Maxwell's theory 
from the theory of Helmh<jltz, and from (jther theories in which 
the action of the medium is taken into account. Reverting to 
the theory proper, let us see what Maxwell's views are as to 
<lischarge. The dielectric returns to its normal condition, and 
we huxe a cui'rent in the wire, and, moreover, says Maxwell, 
there is a falling back of the polarisation to its neutral state. If 
we differentiate the polarisation with respect to time, we have a 
([uantity which may he expressed in wortls as the time rate of 
change of the polarisation, and this, according to Maxwell, forms 
a polarisation current, and produces just exactly similar magnetic 
effects to the magnetic effects produced by the conduction current 
in the wire. I say similai-, for in any condenser dischai-ge these 
effects ai"e on a much smaller scale. Thus during a discharge the 
energy available to produce magnetic effects due to the rate of 
change of polarisation in the dielectric will be about a thousand 
million million million times les.s than the corresponding magnetic 
energy of the current in the wire. Such small effects have 
hitherto escaped dii'ect detection, and the proof of their existence 
nuist therefore, for the time l^eing, remain indirect. There is such 
a proof, however, and that of a most satisfactory character, as we 
shall see when we consider the meaning of some recent experi- 
ments, of first-rate importance, due to Hertz. I may mention 
that I, as well as others, have calculated the possibility of obtaining 
evidence of these polarisation currents — or rather, and this is the 
essential point of the theory — of their magnetic action, and find 
that, thanks to the properties of quartz threads, there is just a 
possibility of their detection. The difficulty lies not so much in 
( )btaining evidence of the existence of the miaiute couple we should 
have to observe, but in seperating the action we are in search of 
from others due to real conduction in the dielectric or, most of 
all, to small magnetic effects. 

The real current, then, in Maxwell's theory is made uj) of the 
conduction current in the wire and the small current due to change 
of polarisation in the dielectric. It will be observed that this 
small current is to be taken into account in order to avoid dis- 



32 president's addeess — section a. 

contiuuity iti the circuit — to close the circuit, as mathematicians 
say — which is the very essence of Maxwell's theory. Poynting 
has recently shown that this theory requires us to imagine that 
the energy stowed between the condenser-plates moves out into the 
wire sideways, not through the armature-plates, as one would be 
apt to fancy. The formal proof of this is obtained on mathe- 
matical grounds based on certain consequences and further prin- 
ciples adopted in the theory ; Ijut we can see in a kind of way 
that it must be so. Imagine the conducting wii'es to be thick and 
long, but interrupted at their middle point by a short wire of 
high resistance. If the condenser is big enough the short wire 
will get appreciably heated by the passage of the current through 
it. Energy therefore has left the dielectric neai- the j^lates, and 
has converged on the short wire — at least for the most part. That 
veiy instructive experiment of the skeleton Leyden jar shows that 
the energy there, at all events, is in the dielectric. Moreover, we 
know that if we have a current in a wire energy is dissipated — while, 
from experiments on the induction of electric currents, we know 
that energy of curretit is stored to some extent in the dielectric. 
And further, currents flow in wires either as if they had no inertia 
— or are caused by " side " pull, not end thrust — and nobody has 
yet detected anything like inertia in the phenomena of currents. 
Moreover, we can show that energy stored in a dielectric which is 
undergoing rapid variation is propogated outward without any 
conductors at all, and consequently we are at least entitled to 
admit that there is no inherent improbability in Poynting's 
deduction. It is verified of course, along with other results of 
the theory, in many ways, and more particularly has formed the 
subject of an experimental investigation hy Hertz, the results of 
which are confirmatory in a very definite and striking manner. 
To render our ideas more precise it will be well to consider 
here the meaning of the phrase " quantity of electricity " in the 
light of the theory we are considering. To do this it is most 
convenient to commence with the conception of lines and tubes 
of foi'ce — an idea we owe in the first place to Faraday. The idea 
is simplicity itself. A line of force is any line drawn in the 
electric field in such a direction that a particle carrying a charge 
of electricity will move along the line if free to do so. Since the 
electric force at different points in the field will in general have 
different values, the further stipulation is made that in mapping 
a field we must draw lines in such a way that the number 
crossing unit area at any point will be proportional to the 
electrical force at that point. The lines are to be drawn close 
together whei-e the field is strong, and far apart where the field 
is weak, and any small elementary space bounded as to its sides 
by lines of force we shall call a tube of force. Now it follows 
from the experiments of Faraday (and indeed these experiments 
gave rise to the theory we are discussing) that every tube of 



president's address — SECTION A. 33 

force must start at a positively chai-ged surface and end at a 
negatively charged surface. A property- of such tubes is that the 
product of electric force by area of section is constant throughout 
the tube. Now we may define unit quantity of electricity as the. 
electrification which causes the sum of the above prf>ducts for all 
the tubes drawn in connection with it to have the value 
4 77. Looking at it in a dift'ei-ent way, we may say that a tube 
for which the above product is 4 tt is a unit tube and corresponds 
to a unit amount of electrification. From what has been said, 
however, it is clear that since a dielectric, such as sulphur say, 
has rather more pronounced electrical properties than air, we 
shall have rather to extend our definition if it is to fit the case of 
a condense!', between whose plates there is a layer of sulphur as 
Avell as a layer of air. The electric force must abruptly change 
at the boundary of the media, and consequently what was a unit 
tube in air will no longer remain a unit tube in sulphur. All 
the tubes, however, will sutler alike, and since the forces, other- 
things being equal, depend on the specific inductive capacity of 
the dielectric, we will amend our definition to the extent of 
introducing the factor K, so that our unit tube must be one in 
which the product area of section by electric force by specific 
inductive capacity is equal to 4 tt. Now the value of K for air 
is taken nearly as 1, and consequently the amount of energy of 
electrification required to set up a unit tube will really be a soi-t 
uf absolute measure of that electrical property, which, reckoned 
with respect to a vacuum, is denoted by a value nearly unity. 
Looking at it in another way, as it is important we should see 
the matter clearly, let us suppose that two insulated particles 
are immersed in a medium at unit distance apart, and electrified 
till they exert unit force on one another. If we imagine the 
particles held in position by elastic .springs, and then displace the 
air in which the particles have been immersed by benzene or any 
other dielectric, the springs will be observed to relax, shewing 
that the force is not so great as it was. If we wish to get the 
springs Ijack to their original state of strain we shall have to 
work our electrical machine again to increase the electrification. 
Heiice it is clear that the amount of electi'ification indicated 
by one unit depends on the specific inductive capacity of the 
medium in which the experiment is supposed to be made. 
Returniiig to Poynting's statement of the mode in which the 
energy of a charged condenser gets into a wire, we see that it is 
equivalent to the statement that the tubes of force move out 
fr<5m the dielectric near the plates and converge on the wire 
where they give off their energy. This, of course, involves what 
may be called an assumption, namely, that energy is transferred 
continuously, and is not destroyed at one point and re-created at 
another. That this is really the case will be shown later on. 
The next gi'eat principle of Maxwell's theory refers to the 

c 



M president's address — SECTION A. 

induction of cui'rents, and is i-eally an extension of Faraday's 
law. It is that the line integi'al (.»f the electric intensity round 
any closed curve is equal to the rate of decrease of the total 
magnetic inducti<jn through the curve. The line integral of 
electric intensity taken round a conducting circuit is what we 
are generally accustomed t(j call the electromotive force acting in 
the circuit. The above principle has been established in many 
ways, in so far as it refei's to conductors— but Maxwell supposes 
that it is generally true, whether there be conductors in the 
tield or not. This amounts to saying that change of magnetic 
induction can produce electric pcdarisation with<jut the presence 
of chai'ged bodies at all, and moreover, states the amount of 
polarisation which will be produced in any case. As a matter 
of fact, the principle just enunciated is in a sense the convei'se of 
the principle of the magnetic action of polarisation cui'rents, and 
may be deduced from that principle by the method of Lagrange, 
and so is not really an independent principle at all. Before we 
go any further it will peihaps he as well to give some idea of 
Maxwell's views as to magnetism ; this is a subject which as far 
as I know has not been much treated by reviewers. The hrst 
fact which Maxwell always seems to have had before him — at all 
events from the time he considered he discovered that the energy 
of a magnetic tield is kinetic — is that the energy in a magnetic 
tield is due to a rotational motion of some kind around the lines 
v»f magnetic force. This idea he obtained from a considei-ation of 
the action of magnetic forces on a beam of polarised light. The 
next point was to explain the action between magnets, and this 
was accomplished by imagining a stress in the medium analogous 
to the electric stress in a medium of unit specitic inductive 
capacity. In the case of a hom(.)geneous isotropic solid or of a 
liquid wliich is non-magnetisable in the ordinary sense, the stress 

is to amount to a hydrostatic pressure of ^ H- across the 

lines of f(jrce combined with a longitudinal tension of the same 
amount along these lines, H being the magnetic force. If the 
substance which is pei-meated by the medium is magnetic, a 
<listinction arises between the magnetic force in the medium and 
the force in the substance, and we have to take the magnetic 
induction instead of the magnetic force. The expressions, too, 
are complicated, but exact for any medium, magnetisable or not. 
In some speculations as to the cause of the energy and stress in 
the medium. Maxwell considei's that the rotatory motion referred 
to is due to the action of ether vortices and the stresses to their 
centrifugal action. Electric currents produce magnetic action as 
well as magnets, consequently we must imagine that current 
action is probably the expi-ession of ether vortex motion, if it l^e 
admitted that magnetic action is so. Though it would be 
improper to ignore the action of conductors to the extent that I 



president's address — SECTION A. 35 

have (lone, it wuukl be still niove improper to ignore the action 
of the matei'ial of magnets. Hopkinson has found that the 
magnetisation of iron is so nearly destroyed by a trace of 
manganese, that no hypothesis that we can fi-ame of the distri- 
bution of the manganese as such through the iron, will 
acc(junt for the effect observed. Chemists will admit that in 
manganese iron there is probably some combination between the 
iron and manganese, and I think Hopkinson's experiments jDrove 
not only that such must be the case, but that an amount of 
chemical combination, which may be described as very moderate, 
will entirely alter the magnetic behaviour of the iron. Conse- 
quently I think we may say that whatever be the cause of 
magnetisation, assuming it to be an ether phencjmenon— that 
phenomenon is immensely influenced by small chemical change — - 
a change for which the ether usually gets little credit. Hopkin- 
son's experiments seem to force on us the conviction that if 
magnetic phenomena depend (jii the ether, then at least in iron 
the relation of the ether to the matter of the iron must be 
extremely close. We are almost driven to think that magnetism 
may be pi'oduced by some peculiar mode of motion of iron 
molecules Avhich is shared to only a slight extent l)y the 
molecules of other materials. If we take this view, it seems 
t(t follow that the particular mode of molecular motion which 
■ enables the ether to give rise to magnetic effects must l)e very 
nicely balanced since it takes so little to upset it. 

We are now in a position to return to the flnal principle of 
Maxwell's theory, which may be stated in a theorem analogous 
to that relating to the electromotive force produced by change 
of magnetic induction. It is that " the line integral of the 
magnetic intensity round any closed curve is equal to 4 tt times 
the current through the curve." It need hardly be pointed (jut 
that this is experimentally true when the current is in a wire, 
and indeed it is the pi'inciple «jn which dynamos are designed. 
Maxwell's extension amounts to assuming that it is also true, 
when the current is due to change of electric induction. It is 
•jbvious that there is a close reciprocal relation between this 
principle and that last discussed, and this is exceedingly well 
brought out by Poynting in his so-called modification of the 
principle. As has been said, it follows from the theory in 
general that the energy keeping a current going moves in 
sideways. Part of this energy may be considered to be carried 
liy the tubes of electiic induction, and an equal part by the 
motion of the tubes of magnetic induction, which by the principle 
just stated must accompany them. If we look on the tubes of 
electric induction as being in motion, then the principle may be 
stated as follows : Giving the name " magnetomotive force " to 
the line integral of magnetic intensity in accordance with a 
suggestion made by Bosanquet and adopted by Poynting, then 

c2 



36 president's addep;ss — section a. 

" Whenever mag'nett)motive force is produced by change in the 
electric field, or by motion of matter through the tield, the 
magnetomotive force per unit length is equal to 4 tt x the 
number of tubes of electric induction cutting or cut by unit 
length per second, the magnetomotive force tending to produce 
indviction in the direction in which a right-handed screw would 
move if turned round from the direction of the electric inducti<ju 
towards the direction of motion of the unit length relatively to 
the tubes of indviction." This in most cases may be simplified to 
the less general statement that " The magnetomotive force round 
any curve is equal to 4 tt x number of tubes of electric induction 
passing in or out through the curve per second." A certain 
amount of experimental verification has been given to this 
pi'inciple ])y the well-known experiment of Rowland. The 
experiment consisted in I'otating a charged disc, and observing 
that this produced the same effect as wovild have been produced 
by an equivalent current. 

From these principles Maxwell developes certain consequences, 
which we will now discuss briefly. The first and most important 
consequence is that an electromagnetic disturbance will be propa- 
gated with a certain velocity through dielectrics, but will only be 
propagated in a secondary manner, so to speak, through conductors. 
This comes about because (1) as has been shown the energy travels 
through the dielectric, and (2) because, according to the views of 
Faraday, a conductor is a body in which permanent electric 
induction or polarisation is impossible. When an electromotive 
force acts on a conductor we conceive it as first causing electric 
induction ; the nature of a conductor, however, mvist be such 
that it cannot support such a state permanently, and consequently 
there is something equivalent to a yielding, the field becomes 
discharged, and we have the phenomena of a current. Now the 
magnetic effect of a current is, I think, generally imagined as 
being in some way due to the process of yielding by the con- 
ductor, at least it is so in a model suggested hj Maxwell, and 
elaborated l^y Oliver Lodge. It seems, however, that this view 
is at least unnecessary. The essence of the theory is that in 
dielectrics change of polarisation produces magnetic effects and 
consequently by analogy it is to the alternate setting up and 
breaking down of the field, or rather to the change of polarisation 
accompanying it, that we ought to look for an explanation of the 
magnetic action of the current. This involves, however, the 
assumption that it is only during either the setting up or the 
breaking down of the field that magnetic action is produced, so 
that the breaking down can not l)e a mere reversal of the setting 
up. It may be noted that to account for all the current magnetic 
effects in this way involves making the specific inductive capacity 
of conductor's very high. A very instructive view of the pheno- 
mena of conduction has been explained l)y J. J. Thomson. We 



president's address — SECTION A, 37 

may regard an apparently continuous phenomenon such as a 
steady current as being really discontinuous if the discontinuous 
changes take place so rapidly that we are unable to follow them 
in detail. For instance, imagine a charged sphere supported by 
a fused ti[uartz stand — fused quartz is by all odds the best insu- 
lator in practice known to us. Let the sphere be placed close to 
a plate connected to earth and let it be tested from time to time 
by an infinitesimal proof plane. We know chiefly from German 
researches that the dust pai'ticles in the air will under such 
circumstances become the chief agents in discharging the sphere ; 
they are first attracted to its surface, then charged, then repelled 
to the earth plate, again attracted, and so on. 

However fast in practice we could work our proof plane, the fall 
oi potential of the sphere would appear regular — if it were possible, 
howevei', to work the plane in a pei'iod less than the time elapsing 
between the arrival of successive dust particles, we should find 
that the phenomenon of discharge was really discontinuous. In a 
similar way our continuous steady current may, if it is convenient 
to us and sanctioned by our genei'al knowledge of what is likely 
to happen, be regarded as the tune average efiect of the alternate 
establishment and breaking down of the electric field. On this 
view our tubes conveying the electric and magnetic energy would 
also move by jumps, and if we had fine enough instruments we 
could detect this intermittence. Let us imagine a Leyden jar 
charged, and having tei'minals attached to its armatures. Let 
the terminals be immersed in some substance whose electric 
strength is infinite, so that we get no spark on joining the said 
terminals. Then, possibly, an instrumental eye afiected by inter- 
mittency of electric state placed Ijetween the jar and the wire 
might see a flash of light during the discharge of the jar, though 
there Avould be no spark. Our eyes, however, do not lend them- 
selves to such experiments, because they are affected by states 
differing as to sign, we must have electric and magnetic forces 
following each other alternately in opposite directions to produce 
any effect. I do not know of any fundamental physiological 
reason for this, though it is doubtless an advantage, so that we 
might possibly find some animal whose sense organs would respond. 
The experiment is not possible, however, because we are in practice 
sure to get a spark discharge, and then we may have changes of 
electric state differing as to sign. If we did not, it would 
probably place the conductivity too low, the most pi'omising sort 
of conductivity would l^e that of a cubic centimeter of mercury. 
I have however been assuming more information than has yet 
l)een given, so that I will now return at once to the electro- 
magnetic theory of light. I intend to adopt Poynting's method 
of calculating the velocity of electromagnetic disturbances. This 
method is analogous to Rankin's solution in the case of sound, and 
proceeds from another ccjnsequence of the theory — that the energy 



38 president's address — section a. 

per unit volume of a field traversed by electromagnetic distur- 

K E2 „ H- 
bances is + — if the intensities may be taken as uni- 

8 77 8 TT 

form through the small volume considered. Now, if the waves 
pass on unchanged in form with uniform velocity, then the energy 
in any part of the system may also be considered to pass on 
unchanged with the same velocity. Let the velocity be V, then 
the energy contained in a unit volume of cubical form with a face 
in the wave front will all pass through that face in one Y"' of a 
second. Now the directions of the electric and magnetic intensi- 
ties are by the principles of the theory at right angles to one 
anothei' in a homogeneous non-magnetisable medium, and the 
direction of both must be normal to the direction of propagation, 
both from what has been said as to the sideway motion of the 
energy, and from a direct calculation by Maxwell (Vol. II., p. 400). 
Let us suppose that the direction of propogation is parallel to the 
axes of z ; the electric polarisation will be, say, up and down, 
while the magnetic intensity is right and left. The rate at which 
enero-v may move in a magnetic field has been shown from 

Maxwell's ecjuations to be - — per second. This statement is a 

4 TT 

precis of Poynting's dedviction, aiid is a possible solution whether 
we are considering the energy of a wave motion or the passage of 
the energy of a strained dielectric into a wire. The proof is to be 
found in Poynting's paper, Phil. Trails. 1884 ; it is too long to 
reproduce here, and, though sufficient for our purpose, has met 
with criticism. The quantity of energy, therefore, which passes 

E H 
out throu2:h the side of the cube in 1/V seconds must be -; _,^ 

^ 4 TT V 

and this must be the whole energy of the cube : so we have 

EH K E- w H- 

_ + — Taking a face of the cube per- 

4 TT V 8 TT 8 TT 

pendicular to the direction of the polarisation, and hence containing 
the magnetic intensity, we know by one of the principles of the 
theory that the magnetomotive force round the face must lie 
equal to 4 tt x current through the face. 

Now this may be written in terms of the distance from some 
fixed plane along the direction of propagation, as a function of z 
in fact, so the magneto-motive foi-ce round the face may be put 

d W " .K^E , ^H^a^E 

_ while the current is ;— so that _ -i^ -77- 

d z, Aiir d t d z dt 

But since the displacement is propagated on^\'ard with velocity 

Y : after a time dt the displacement at any point will Ijecome 

replaced by one which was at a distance dz or \ dt Ijehind, so 

that = - V substitutniii- tor -;— above we get — — 

dt d z - dt d z 



president's address — SECTION A. 39 

K V or H = KVe the function of the time beini( zero. 

d z 

Repeating the process for the line integral of electromotive force 
round the perpendicular face of the cube by the corresponding 
theorem, that this is equal to the decrease of magnetic induction 
through the face, we obtain E = ju. V H. Multiplying these 
values for E and H together, and dividing out by E H, we get 
1 = /x K V- or Y = 1/ V /u. K. The energy cannot be propa- 
gated faster than at this rate, which is its maximum velocity. 
When the intensities are perpendicular to each other, as they 
must be in a homogeneovis isotropic non-magnetisable medium, if 
light is an electro-magnetic disturbance this then must be its 
velocity. Consequently, if we know the A'alues of /x. and K, and 
not their nominal values only, we can calculate the velocity of 
light. The mattei' is perhaps best approached indirectly. Sup- 
pose we adopt the electr(jstatic system of measurement, then if 
the medium is air we have K = 1 and /a = 1/v^, where v is the 
ratio of the units, so that the velocity of light will, if the 
hypothesis be correct, be equal to the number of electrostatic 
units of electricity in one electro-magnetic unit. Without ex- 
plaining in detail why /x should = 1/v- one may get an idea very 
simj^ly. We have already seen that on the electrostatic system 
the quantity of electrification chosen as unity depends on the 
value of K. Again, in a precisely analagous manner we can 
show that the same quantity on the electro-magnetic system will 
depend on the quantity yu.. We should require merely to start 
with lines of magnetic instead of lines of electric force. Since 
the electro-magnetic unity of quantity is derived from the unit of 
cui'rent, and this again defined from its action on a unit magnetic 
pole, it is clear that the magnitude of the unit will depend on /;, 
since the force does S(j. But the force will be greater the greatei- 
the value of /x, and hence the magnitude of the quantity of 
electricity making up the unit will be inversely as /x. If we 
measure the same quantity of electricity electrostatically and 
electro-magnetically, it is clear that the ratio of the two numbers 
expi'essing the i-esult of the measui-ement in terms of the respec- 
tive units will involve /a and K as product. Moreover, if the 
dimensions of K and /x are ignored, as is done by Maxwell, the 
resulting ratio will not be merely numerical, but will have the 
dimensions of length '' x Time v^ or, in other words, of some 
power of a velocity or slowness according to the nature of the 
quantity we select for comparison. In any case, if we measure 
any electrical quantity, be it really cpiantity, capacity, current, 
electromotive force or resistance, both electrostatically and mag- 
netically, and compare the numerical values, we shall have a 
numbei' from which which we can calculate the latio of the units. 
This has been done by many observers, and it is found that the 
number is really the same as it ovight to be if the electro-magnetic 



40 president's address SECTION A. 

theory is true. In other words, the number expressing the ratio 
of the units and involving length and time as dimensions is the 
same as the velocity of light within the limits of experimental 
ei-ror. It is, in fact, almost a question as to whether the velocity 
of light can be got most accuiately from direct measurement or 
from a compai'ison of the units. 

Tm-ning now to the velocity of light in media, other than air, 
we ca}i obtain an expression for the velocity in tei'ms of jx and K. 
By the principles of the undulatory theory, and in certain cases 
as the direct result of experiment, we consider that the velocity 
of light in any medium is inversely as the refi'active index of the 
medium. But the velocity on the electromagnetic theory is 
inveisely as the square root of the product of the specific induc- 
tive capacity and the permeability. Consequently, if the theory 
is true, the refractive index of any transparent substance should 
be equal to \ /a K. Now, for most transparent substances, 
/A is nearly the same as it is for air, and consequently the chief 
part of the efl'ect will depend on K. To a first approxi)nation 
we will write : Retractive index = root of specific inductive 
capacity, a)id see how far this is borne out by experiment. It 
turns out that f(jr some substances, hydrocarbons for instance, 
the equation is true, especially if we take the index by refraction 
for very great wave lengths, but for others the agreement is not 
so gtK»d. Again, it is clear that transmission can only take 
place to a sensible extent through insulators — conductors must 
be (tpaque. What are the facts ? The facts are that while it is 
generally true that conductors are opaque and insulators trans- 
parent, it is not always so. Ebonite is an apparently good 
example of an opaque insulator, and most electrolytes are ex- 
amples of transparent corifluctors. These facts seein at fii'st as if 
they dealt the theory a severe blow, but 1 think we shall see that 
this is not necessarily the case. T;iking J. J. Thomson's view of 
the way in which conduction goes on, we may suppose that in a 
conductor a certain time has to elaj^se after the field is estab- 
lished before it is weakened to a certain fraction of its ma.ximum 
value. Now, the waves of light which chiefly affect the eye have 
a period of about 10"^'^ seconds, consequently if with a given 
electric force it takes lonafer* than this to establish a field and 
bi'eak it down, the conductor in which this occurs will behave as 
an insulatoi* for forces of a frequency greater than this. An 
estimate of the fretjueiicy which the electric forces can have may 
l)e made fi'oni the knowii specific conductivities, and such a 
calculation has actually been made by J. J. Thomson. The 
result seems to me entirely satisfactory, and the apparent dis- 
crepancy as to the opacity of some insulators and transj^ax'ency of 
some electrolytes need no longer trouble us. We are still, h(.)w- 
ever, left partly in the dark as to the ti'ansparency of gold leaf, 
which is possibly greater than it ought to be, even A\'hen we 



president's address — SECTIOX A. il 

estimate the rate of breaking doAvn of the field that can occur in 
it. With respect to the deviation of the calculated index of 
refi'action from the true index, as in vegetable (jils, it is fair to 
observe that the value of K is measured by steady electric force, 
or at all events for electric forces of periods much greater than 
10""^^ seconds. If we had means of estimating the value of K 
for these rapid reversals, it is just possible that all might turn 
out right. Again, on the other hand, our knowledge of refrac- 
tive index for so-called infinite wave length depends on some 
assumption as to the relation between wave length and index of 
refraction. Now the researches of Langley have lately given 
what may be called an unexpected i-elation, for these qualities in 
the case of rock-salt, and they at least warn us that any deduc- 
tions based on formulpe derived fr(jm observations in the visible 
or ultra-violet spectrum only must he received with great caution. 
Again, the de\'iations fnim the law connecting i-efractive index 
and specific inductive capacity all seem to be pretty much on 
one side. K is greater than the sijuare root of the refractive 
index. In other words, the velocity calculated on the electro- 
magnetic theory is too small for these exceptional cases. We must 
remembei", however, that the velocity given by V -= 1 \, /x K. 
is a maximum velocity and only occurs when the medium is 
practically unm;ignetisable, and the polarisation in the directi(jn 
oi the electric force. If by any j^eculiar action of matter on 
ethei', either of these conditions is nut fulfilled, which uitiy well 
be the case, we ought not to be surprised t(;» find such instances 
of less velocity as are afi'orded apparently by the vegetable oils. 
<)f course such excuse-making as this wcmid be absurd unless we 
had very real evidence in support <jf our theory — to use Maxwell's 
phrase, we may only have the first terms of the theory — and we 
must admit that we are in fact brought I'ound again to our old 
(juestion of the relation between matter and ether. 

Since Maxwell's time, however, a great deal of work has been 
done, and the result of it all must be regarded as confirming the 
theoiy in a veiy remarkable manner. The most important work 
in this direction has been accomplished by Hertz, and we will 
<leal in the first instance with it. We shall then he in a better 
position to discuss a variety of facts which allow us to discriminate 
l)etween ^MaxAvell's and more general theories. The first sugges- 
ti(jn as to Leyden jar discharge Ijeing oscillatory under some 
circumstances appears to have been made by Henry, in 1842, with 
the object of explaining certain anomalies in the observed magne- 
tisation of needles by the jar discharge. Faraday, also, in 
discussing what happens in an open circuit under induction, 
magines that on the removal of the electromotive foi'ce there is a 
surging back of electricity in the wire. In 1847 Helmholtz 
predicted, on theoretical grounds, that a Leyden jar dischai'ge 
through a circuit of small dissipation might be oscillatory in 



42 president's address — sectiox a. 

character. In 185S this suggestion was Avorked out in all its- 
details by Sir William Thomson, and Feddersen Schiller and 
others verified Sir William Thomson's formula? in cases where the 
oscillations were not unmanageably rapid. From the point of 
view which we have adopted, it does not require much imagination 
to enable us to see that since the charge of a condenser corresponds 
to a distribution of stress in the dielectric, that stress maybe reversed 
if discharge is very rapid, at all events if we regard the stress as 
produced by a mechanism of any sort. This sort of guessing, 
however, clearly is out of place unless we are prepared to grant 
the mechanism something like inertia. I do not know that we 
ought to go so far, and consequently the above considei-ations are 
only justified because they lead us to a known experimental result. 
As a matter of fact. Sir William Thomson's calculation was exceed- 
ingly genera], and only involved the princi])le of the consei'vation of 
energy and kn<»wn experimental electrical relations. The result 
of the theory is simplicity itself. If the resistance in the discharge 
circuit is greater than a cei'tain quantity depending on the 
capacity and self-induction of the jar and circuit, the discharge 
will not be oscillatory at all, but the plates will fall back to zeiY> 
potential by jumps ; in other words, the discharge will he 
intermittent. It is not diflicult to see the reason of this by 
considering the induction tubes. When a discharge once begins, 
the resistance of the spark-gap enormously diminishes, the sl<jpe 
of electric and magnetic intensities in the neighbourhood gets very 
big, and the corresponding flow of energy which is proportional to 
them enormf)Usly inci'eases, consequently, that part of the field 
gets discharged ; and if the resistance in the othei- part of the- 
circuit is sufliciently great, the discharge may have disappeared 
and the dielectiic healed up before sufficient energy has again 
accumulated to l:)reak down the dielectric. If, on the other hand, 
the I'esistfince is l)elow a cei'tain critical value, the discharge will 

1 -11 , rri ■^.■ ^ • ^ • / -1 X self-induction 
be osciliatory. ihe critical resistance is a/ 



caj^acity, 

and when the circuit has exactly this resistance, the discharge will 
be dead beat, as it is ordinarly assumed to be in the elementary 
theory. We must I'ecollect that as soon as the oscillations are 
set up, both the self-induction and resistance of the circuit are 
vastly difi'erent from what they are for steady curi-ents. Lord 
Rayleigh has sht)wn that as the frequency increases the resistance 
will, as a rule, inci'ease, and the self-induction diminish. Returning 
to our concept of tubes of electric induction, we must imagine that 
at first the tubes coverge on the wire fastei- than they can be 
broken up, and consequently produce a state of induction which 
reverses the dii-ection of the intensities ; and conse(i[uently of the 
current, when a short time afterwards the tubes do actually move 
in. This process may be repeated several times, or we may have 
an oscillatory dischai-ge of several oscillations before e(iuilil)riuni 



PHKSIDKXTS ADDHE.S8 — ShX'TIOX A. 4.^- 

is attained. The jDeriod of oscillation is tixed by the electi'D- 
niayiietic properties of the system, and is approximately — when 

the resistance is very small — T= 2 tt ^ \/f seconds, when L 

is self-induction and C is capacity. This is the time that elapses- 
between consecutive similar electric states. The full expression 

is T = 2 TV -^ a/ -^ which is homogeneous. Consequently 

the frequency of a Leyden jar discharge comes to be/= a/ - 

when the dissipation is small. 

Now L and C as a rule are very small quantities, so that the 
frequency is -s-ery high. At each oscillation, as has been said, we 
have tubes of indviction moving once backward and once forward 
across the field. Now, there is nothing to prevent these tubes from 
radiating into space — if we ai'e dealing with a medium we shall 
have an electro-magnetic disturbance which will continually pro- 
pagate itself outward if there is no dissipation, and its velocity 
will be comparable probably with the velocity of light. The wave 
length will Ije the distance moved by the tubes during one 
oscillation, and consequently will be given by dividing the velocity 

27r V 

by the frequency, in fact A= Now the velocity is very high, 

so that though the frequency is very great the waves may still Ije. 
extremely long. If we use Maxwell's theory, then the velocity is- 
actually given by 1/ \ ^L K as has already been pointed out, and 

VlTC 
/A K 

Clearly, then, a good way of testing Maxwell's theory will be to 
get oscillations, and then measure the wave length by the dis- 
turbance propagated outward from them. The usual plan of esti- 
mating wave lengths is to produce a state of stationary vibration, 
and then measure the distance between nodes or planes of null 
effect. The distance from t)ne node tf) another is always half a wave 
length, so that the measurement of the distance from node to node 
gives us a wave length on multiplication by two. The usual way 
of setting up a state of stationary vibration is to take advantage of 
the principles by interference. Every musical instrument is an 
illustration of this. The simplest way, of course, to set up a reflector 
and get interference between direct and reflected waves. It 
must always be borne in mind that no interference phenomena 
are possible at all unless waves take some time, however 
short it may be, to travel a finite distance, and consecjuently no 
instantaneous propagation theory covild lead us to expect to 
oljsei've this phenomenon. If, however, waves can l^e shown to 
interfere, we know that they must lie propagated with a finite 



44 president's address — section a. 

velocity ; and this means they must occupy space for a finite 
time. But waves involve the motion of energy, so that we must 
admit that energy can be located in space, and as a consequence 
of this we are, I think, just as certainly led to imagine a 
" plenum " of some kind as if we could touch it with our hands, 
or smell it with our noses, or taste it with our tongues. The 
first deduction to be made from our interference experiment then 
is that space is filled with a medium of some kind — unless we 
are prepai-ed to admit that energy may exist per se- — which 
amomits to filling space with an idea merely. Experiments of 
the kind suggested have been actually performed by Hertz. In 
order to get waves of a manageable length, Sir William Thomson's 
calculation shows that we must have the capacity and self- 
induction of the circuit small. Hertz's first discovery was the 
means of getting this. Conductors were constructed either of 
plates or cylinders and were made symmetrical about a certain 
point. This point is the gap where the dischai-ge (jccurs. To 
take a real case. Tn a repetition of Hertz's eai'lier expeidments 
by Trouton, a "vibrator" was used consisting of two Ijrass 
})lates about 40 cm. square. These plates were suspended by 
silk threads, so that their plates were vertical and identical, and 
their edges 60 cm. apart. From each plate there ran a stout 
brass wire toward the other. Each wire carried a brass knob — 
presumably four or five centimetres in diameter — and the distance 
between the knobs was about three millimetres, the terminals of 
an induction coil were brought respectively to each plate and the 
coil was set in action. At each Ijreak of the primary circuit of 
the coil, one of the plates l^ecomes positively the other negatively 
charged. As soon as the charging has progressed to a certain 
point the dielectric breaks down between the knobs and a spark 
occurs. If the resistance of the spark-path is not too great, we 
have the condition necessary for the setting up of oscillations. 
The frequency then depends on the self-induction and capacity of 
the plates, as has been said sevei-al times, and is in general so 
high that the connection of the plates through the coil becomes 
of no moment, the immense " impedance " of the coil making it 
practically non-conducting for currents of this frequency. Some 
attention has to be paid to the condition of the surfaces between 
which the spark occurs. If the l)alls are not finely polished, oi- if 
the negative one is illuminated by ultra-violet rays, the spark 
will not be sudden enough, compared with the period of an 
oscillation, to enable the oscillatory motion to Ijecome esta))lished. 
Lenard and AVolf have lately shown that ultra-violet light causes 
the knobs (especially when negatively charged) to give oft' dust 
which is torn from their surfaces — thus causing glow discharge. 
When everything is well arranged there is a series of straight, 
liright, white sparks between the knobs at every discharge — very 
recognisable after they have once been attended to. The next 



PRKSIDEN'T's address SECTION A. 45 

step is to find some means of detecting the electn (magnetic waves, 
which, accoixling to our theory, are propagated outwai'ds from 
the vibrator. This Hertz accomplished by taking advantage of 
a property borrowed from acoustics. It is well known that if 
any vibrating system is subject to accelerating forces of the same 
period as its own period of vibration, when vibrating freely, the 
effect will be cumulative, and the system will be caused to 
viljrate strongly, though any individual impulse might be quite 
incapable of producing an observable effect. The same principle 
may be extended to the action of electric oscillations on con- 
ductors. We must have a " resonatoi' " oi' conductoi* where 
natui'al period of electrical oscillation calculated from Sir William 
Thomson's fomuula? coincides with that of the vibrator. In 
practice, the length of wire most appropiiate to the resonator is 
found by experiment. The wire is bent into a circle and the 
ends brought close together by a fine screw attachment. If 
electric forces act on such a resonator in such a way as to 
produce a cumulative effect the electrical disturbance will 
become sufficient to cause sparks to pass between the ends of 
the wire. We have therefoi'e both a means of setting up 
disturbances of the required character and of detecting them 
at a considerable distance away. A vibrator of the dimensions 
given above completes an oscillation in one-thirty-millionth of 
a second, and if the disturbance is propagated with the velocity 
of light will consequently yield waves of about ten meters wave 
length. The resonator iov such waves as these was found tt) 
require two hundred and ten centimetres of No. 17 wire when 
bent into a circle. Without going into many very interesting 
questions as to the best relative positions of the planes of vibrator 
and resonator it will be sufficient to state that in one position 
of the I'esonator the most effective component is the electric, 
and in the perpendicular position the most effective component 
is the magnetic intensity. Perhaps the most important experi- 
ment one may make with this apparatus is the demonstration of 
nodes and loops between the vibrator and a large sheet-zinc 
reflector. The length of the waves roughly contii-ms the theory 
that the velocity of propagation is the velocity of light, while 
the existence of loops and nodes demonstrates the truth of the 
more important preliminaiy assumption as to the existence of a 
medium. The apparatus itself may be modified and for some 
purposes improved by using two cylinders tipped with balls for 
the vibrator and placing them in the focus of a large paraljolic 
cylindrical mirror so as to render the electric rays parallel. The 
receiver in this arrangement consists of a lengthy wire placed on 
the focal line of another mirror and interrupted by a spark gap 
in the usual manner. With this apparatus Hertz has imitated 
most optical effects. He has shown that the ordinary laws of 
reflexion of light are obeyed by these electric or "etheric" waves,. 



46 pkesidext's address — section a. 

and ^)y constructing a large piism of pitch has found the index 
of refraction of that substance for long waves to which it is of 
course transparent. These measurements are all in as close 
accoi'dance with Maxwell's theory as could be expected, seeing 
the <lifficulty there is in making exact measurements of the 
position of so lai'ge a body as a lesonator. It may be questioned 
whether greater accuracy might not be obtained Ijy the use of 
Geissler tubes, coupled with some system of photography. These 
tubes have already been successfully applied in Dr. Lodges 
laboratory, and if it be pei-missible to prophesy wildly, we may 
see in this observation the gei-m of a great future development. 
Signalling, for instance, might be accomplished secretly by means 
of a sort of electric ray ilasher, the signals Ijeing invisible to 
anyone not provided with a properly turned tube. An important 
point in optical theory has been settled lately by the use of 
Hertz's apparatus in the hands of Fitzgerald and Trouton. 
Assuming the truth of the electro-magnetic theory for a moment, 
we have to answer the old (juestion as to the relation of the planes 
of the intensities to the plane of polarisation. The answer is 
•detinite and decisive, and is to the effect that the magnetic inten- 
sity is in the plane of po];irisation, and the electric intensity as a 
•consequence in the perpendicular plane. Hertz, again, has himself 
constructed a very interesting model of a tourmaline crystal by 
means of wires stretched side by side on a frame. This may be 
considered to form a system in two dimensions, with conductivity 
along one axis, and much less conductivity in the perpendicular 
direction. The behaviour of such a frame to Hertz's polarised 
rays is exactly equivalent to the action of a plate of tcjurmaline, 
such as is generally sold for the purpose, on a beam of polarised 
light. This suggests the apparently inevitable conclusion that 
unless energy can be dissipated in some other way than Ijy 
conduction the crystals of tourmaline must have a one-sided con- 
><luctivity. This action mvist take place in a manner depending on 
the minute structure of the crystal, the vaiiation of conductivities 
along and perpendicular to the axes of crystals as a whole being 
a well-known and corresponding phenomenon. We turn now to 
some veiy interesting expei'iments made by Hei-tz on the way in 
which the velocity of propagation is influenced by the placing of 
a wire in the field and applying the peiiodic electiic foi'ces to one 
of its ends. For this purpose the flat plate apparatus pi'eviously 
(lesci'ibed is furnished with an additional plate placed immediately 
behind, and parallel to one of the flat plates in the original 
appai-atus. A wire is led out in front from this plate, and the 
experiment consists in obtaining interference between the radia- 
tion fi't>m the wii-e and the direct radiation fi'om the plates ; as a 
result of these experiments Hertz was led to believe that the 
velocity of propagation is diflerent in a wire from what it is in 
space. Another, and perhaps a better way, is to measure directly 



PKESIUEXT.S ADDRKSS — SECTIOX A. 47 

the wave length in a wire, as has been done Ijy J. J. Thomson, 
and compare this with the wave length in air. By this method 
Thomson concludes that the velocity of propagation is the same 
in both cases in direct contradiction to the results obtained by 
Hertz. This is a point of considerable importance, as Maxwell's 
theox-y clearly indicates that the vehjcity should be the same in both 
cases. Before we pursue the matter further, it will be convenient 
hereto give some slight comparative account of the different theories 
which are at our disposal if we abandon the theory of ^Maxwell. 
We shall then be in a better position to estimate the value of the 
evidence which is before us. Assuming that Hertz's experiments 
have placed the existence of a medium beyond douljt, we need not 
devote any attention to those theories which depend on the 
assumption of action at a distance, and take no notice of inter- 
mediate effects. A good account will be found of them in a report 
of the British Association, 1885, by Professor Thomson. There 
are at least two theories liesides Maxwell's M'hich claim our 
attention ; both of them take the action of a medium into account. 
' )ne of them is due to Helmholtz, and the other — which is really 
the most general theory that can be framed from the experimental 
<lata — is due to J. J. Thomscin. Tcj come to the point at once, 
Helmholtz's theory differs from Maxwell's in making a rather 
more general assumption as to the relation between electric force 
and dielectric polarisation than is made by Maxwell. This leads 
io the polarisation currents being regarded as "incomjjressible," 
while in Maxwell's theory it is the " total " current made up of 
the conduction, and polarisation current which is mathematically 
no. Among other results to which the theory leads is that in 
some of the resonators used by Hertz, slight changes oi capacity 
— as by adding or cutting off tinfoil — should not make much 
difference to the period, while the facts are that Hertz found that 
considerable difference was thereby produced ; on }io theory but 
Maxwell's is this accounted for. It may be mentioned that, as a 
working theory, Helmholtz's is far more complicated than INIax- 
well's, so that unless it proved to possess any gi-eat superiority it 
could not be so sei^viceable. The general theory due to J. J. 
Thomson proceeds from the assumption that the dielectric polari- 
sation currents are proportional to the rate of charge of electro- 
motive force — we may say are equal to rj times the electro- 
motive force. Now, if 7^ = K/4 it we have Maxwell's theory, and 
if 77 = k K we have Helmholtz's. The differences between this 
theory and Maxwell's are summed up by Thomson as follows : — 

1. The existence of a normal wave in the general theory, but 

not in Maxwell's. 

2. A difference in the velocity of propagation (»f the trans- 

verse wave. 
.3. A difference in the relation between electric currents and 
magnetic force. 



48 PRESIDENTS ADDRESS —SECTIOX A. 

4. Forces arising from discontinuity in the currents (in the 
general theory, but not in Maxwell's). 

We next turn to the means that have l>een discovered of dis- 
criminating, experimentally, Ijetween the theories. 

Let us take in order the points of difference that have Ijeen 
enumerated above. 

With respect to (1), all we can .say is that in Hertz's experi- 
ments no trace of a normal wave has been discovered. 

As to (2), I have already stated that as far as the limited 
accuracy of the experiments can prove it, the velocity of propa- 
gation is that which is or may be given by Maxwell's theory. 

With respect to (3), there is, I think, no direct evidence, and 
forces indicated in (4) have not been observed, either through 
dearth of experiment, imperfection of appai'atus, or because they 
do not exist. Several indirect means have been discovered by 
Thomson of testing the theoi'ies. The first is that in the case of 
a wire connected to the third plate of a vibrator system, the rate 
of decay of the energy of the waves in the wire should, by 
Maxwell's theory, be nearly proportional to the specific resistance 
of the wires when the frequency is high enough. An experiment 
has been made by Thomson by which this is shown to be really 
the case. On Helmholtz's or the general theory, and with the 
frequencies of vibration used, the conductivity should not have 
made much difference. All the evidence therefore points in one 
direction. There remains but the outstanding difference dis- 
coA'ered by Hei'tz in the wave length of the fiscillations in wire 
and in air. With respect to this Thcjmson has suggested what 
may very likely turn out to be the cause of the discrepancy 
between his observations and Hertz's. It is that if the third 
plate is accidentally displaced in any way during the coui'se of 
the experiments then there will probably result a change of 
capacity, due to the presence of other conductors (say a wall) 
which would account for the difference observed. To sum up, it 
is perhaps not too much to say that the evidence in favour of 
Maxwell's theory is overwhelming, and that for the future it 
must be our guide in all electrical investigation. I ought not to 
leave this part of the subject without referring to the mathe- 
matical work of Heaviside, who restates Maxwell's theory, and 
whose mathematical discoveries of the detailed behaviour of 
electro-magnetic waves has far outrun any knowledge of them 
deduced from experiment. The sideway motion of energy insisted 
on by Poynting was also indicated on rather different grounds by 
Heaviside. It i-emains for me to make some remarks concerning 
the ultimate nature of the mechanism by which Maxwell's 
stresses are produced. The thing which, perhaps, strikes one 
most strongly about the theory is that it offers no suggestion as 
to the way in which electrification is brought about. Why 
should the ether in the neighbourhood of a l)it of sealing-wax 



president's address — SECTION A. 49 

that has been rubbed be brought into this curious polarised state? 
Ought we to imagine that gravity is caused by ether stresses 1 
The answer to this last question was given long ago, and is to 
the effect that of course we can i"epresent the actual state of 
gravitation on the earth's surface by a distribution of stresses, 
but they would require to be very great, no less than a pressure 
of 37,000 tons weight per square inch in a vertical direction, 
combined with an equal tension in all horizontal directions — this 
is about 3,000 times the breaking strength of steel. (Tait's 
"Properties of Matter.") 

Before we push our enquiry as to the mechanism of electriti- 
cation any further, it is necessary for us to glance rapidly at the 
more prominent featui*es of the relations generally summed up 
under the title of electro-chemistry. IModern researches have 
only served to strengthen Faraday's position, that when a current 
passes through an electrolyte the amount of decomposition 
brought about is strictly and exactly proportional to the time 
integral of the current. This quantity will for the future be 
referred to as a " quantity of electricity," and must not be 
imagined in any way to connote that electricity is a substance — 
or even that it is a state of motion of ether — ^though much might 
be said for both of these views. If we extend the definition so 
as to discriminate between those substances, which, under certain 
circumstances, travel in the nominal direction of the current, and 
those which travel in the reverse direction, we may say that 
during electrolysis one ion carries a certain positive quantity of 
electricity, while the other carries an equal negative quantity. 
Adopting the ordinary atomic theory of chemistry, the results of 
experiment may be summed up in the statement that all mono- 
valent atoms require the same quantity of electricity to free 
them on the electrodes, and the quantity of electricity required 
to pass a divalent atom is twice the quantity required for a 
monovalent atom ; for a trivalent atom, three times, and so on. 
Fui'ther, I think it may be considered as established that the 
apparent decomposition of an electrolyte into its ions by a current 
is really merely a process of direction, and is not a real process 
of decomposition. Taking the case of a solution of copper- 
sulphate, for instance, it is probably not true to say that the ions 
are forced apart by the current, or rather by the electric force, 
but that continuous dissociation is a normal state of such a 
solution, and that all the electric force does is to cause a con- 
gregation of ions at the two electrodes. This conclusion is 
deduced from the fact that electrolytes appear to obey Ohms' 
law very exactly, which would be a very unlikely or even impos- 
sible thing to happen if work were required to produce dissocia- 
tion as well as to make the ions give up their charges. Some 
philosophers have regarded the facts of electrolysis as showing 
that there must be a real difference between a positive quantity 

D 



50 president's address — SECTION A. 

(»f electricity and a negative quantity of electricity beyond the 
difference of sign which is included in our definition. This idea 
is familiar to everyone from the very terms " positive electricity " 
and "negative electricity." The phrase, "Positive Quantity of 
Electricity " thus connotes much less than the by-no-means 
equivalent phrase, " Quantity of Positive Electricity." If the 
latter phrase is legitimate, we must admit that we think we know 
more about electricity than is actually the case. For instance, in 
hydrogen chloride (possibly only in the presence of water), we 
hnd that the direction of motion (jf the hydrogen coincides with 
the nominal direction of the current, or in our notation each 
hydrogen atom carries a positive quantity of electricity. In 
hydrogen sulphate the case is the same, and in silver chloride 
and silver sulphate it is the silver which can-ies the positive 
<juantity. Thus, so far, all is well, and if we like to suppose that 
silver carries positive electricity nothing can be said against it. 
If we take the cases of Iodide of Potassium and Iodide of 
Bromine however, we notice that in one case the iodine goes one 
way, and that in the other it goes in the opposite way — conse- 
quently if we talk of iodine carrying a positive charge in one 
case, we must admit it carries a negative charge in the other. 
The chemical theory of Berzelius was destroyed by this and 
similar facts (not very many, by the way), but it need not 
influence us with respect to the question in hand. The only 
point we have to note is that the hypothesis of positive and 
negative electricity at once forces us to make the additional 
hypothesis that a given atom may sometimes carry one and 
sometimes the other. 

Now, from the extraordinary quantitative fixity of the charges, 
it is very difficult to escape the impression that electrification, 
i-egarded as a state of the ether, is a consequence of the same 
cause, whatever it may be that conditions the distinction between 
element and element. If there be anything in this view, it 
becomes difficult to understand how iodine can sometimes carry 
positive and sometimes negative electricity and be still iodine. 
The view that free atoms (at least when they are ions) are asso- 
ciated with an ether state which we call electrification has, I 
consider, been somewhat sti'engthened recently by the researches 
of Ostwald. According to the Clausius- Williamson hypothesis 
(which we have tacitly assumed above in order to account for 
electrolytes obeying Ohm's Law), every liquid is in a steady state of 
dissociation. The influence which any such liquid — say a solution 
of hydrochloric acid — has in bringing about such chemical change 
as the inversion of sugar is supposed by Ostwald, on very strong 
gro\inds, to depend on the amount of this dissociation. But on our 
view of electrolytic conduction, the number of free ions must be 
proportional to the conductivity, since it is only by them that 
conduction takes place. Ostwald has shown experimentally that 



presihent's address — section a. 51 

when different acids are compared together the velocities of 
reaction which they induce in the inversion of cane sugar are 
proportional to their conductivities. Assuming that the Clausius- 
Williamson hypothesis is established on grounds other than 
electrolytic — and Ostwald gives strong reasons for this view — 
then we are, I think, compelled by the resistance law to believe 
that each atom is necessarily accompanied by that ether state 
which we call electrification. Further, Helmholtz has shown that 
it is only when these states or charges are given up at the elec- 
trodes that any considerable proportion of the energy required for 
electrolysis is required. Should we be justified, then, in giving 
each atom its corresponding equivalent of tubes of induction ? I 
hold not. I conceive that it is only where the work has been 
done — the work i^equired to transfer (and pi^obably modify) 
the ether state from the atoms to the electrodes that we get 
electrification as we know it. I prefer to think that a free atom 
may possibly have properties much more analogous to those of 
free ether than to those of matter as we know it. In other words, 
a free atom does not carry a " chai'ge" at all, but something which 
becomes a charge when it is transferred to an electrode. As a 
wild speculation, is it the " free atoms " in a dielectric that are 
"polarised" by electro-motive force, and is the "vector change" 
which we have called polarisation related simply to the average 
position vector of the system ? In order to illustrate some 
consequences of this view, let us look a little more closely at such 
a reaction as occurs when chloride of silver is electrolysed. This 
is about the simplest case that can be found. According to my 
view, we have atoms of chlorine and atoms of silver existing in 
the fused salt. These atoms are not " fi'ee," i.e, befoi'e they can 
be so free as to combine into molecules at the electrodes work has 
to be done on them, resulting in the electrodes becoming charged. 
The electral state of the wandering atoms is not at all the same as 
the electral state of the anodes when they become charged. Neither 
is it neutral, but it is such that by the application of work electri- 
fication results. As to the manner of this I suppose nothing 
can be said till we know the exact relation of free atoms to ether. 
Whether to imagine that the energy is required to cause com- 
bination of atoms — from the reactions of whose associated ether, 
charge results — or whether the combination is merely an expres- 
sion of the transference of the state to the electrodes by the 
floing of work, I leave to the curious to discover. Suppose now 
we start with silver or chlorine molecules, and force them to part 
into atoms by methods other than electrical, the question arises 
as to what the state of these atoms will be. Will it be the same 
as when they are wandering in a fused mass of silver chloride ? 
To bring them to that state there would be required (by the 
transference of energy) to be exhibited somewhei'e the pheno- 
mena of charge. If they finally reach that state, as I imagine 

d2 



52 president's address — section a. 

they must, then the phenomena of charge must appear. Let us 
take two plates of platinum and place the silver or chlorine, or 
even the chloride of silver, between the plates, and by some 
means persuade the chloride to decompose into atoms of chlorine 
and silvei', or the molecules of silver into atoms of silver, or the 
molecules of chlorine into atoms of chlorine. Then I consider 
that if the layer of substance is thin, the platinum plates will be 
found to be charged — if work has had to be done in forcing the 
decomposition. In fact, just as in electrolysis, or by the appli- 
cation of electric force atoms in the " third " state — if I may so 
express it— cannot be got into molecules without producing the 
phenomena of charge, so if once in molecules they cannot be 
brought to " third " state atoms without suftering a defect of 
something — which becomes sensible by the charging of the plates. 
Let some silver chloride placed between platinum plates be elec- 
trolysed into silver and chloi'ine, then small layers of these 
substances (really free) will appear on the plates. Then remove 
the undecomposed silver chloride entirely and bring the plates 
together with pressure. Suppose that recombination into silver 
chloride results from this pressure, Then between the time 
when there were molecules of silver and molecules of chlorine, 
and the time when there were molecules of silver chloride, there 
will have been by all chemical experience atoms of silver and 
atoms of chlorine. During this separation they will have (by the 
application of external work) to undo from the electrodes what 
was done during electrolysis — if one of the plates retained the 
charge (say positive) which it got during electrolysis, that chai'ge 
will disappear. If the charge has been lost beforehand, then the 
plate will appear negatively charged. A corresponding charge 
will appear at the other elecrode. Both electrodes will thus be 
charged. I was led to these speculations by attempting to find 
an explanation of the ultimate course of the effects produced by 
rubbing bodies together, or, in other words, the ultimate course 
of action of a frictional electric machine. I was struck in the 
first place by the fact that most substances, which we know from 
hereditary experience, to lend themselves best to the construction 
of electric machines ai"e very complex molecularly. Probably 
much more so than the general run of so-called chemical com- 
pounds. Some, like sulphur, are capable of allotropic modifi- 
cations ; some, like sealing wax, defy precise chemical description ; 
some, like metals, ai^e in a transition state of combination with 
gases condensed on their surfaces ; others, like silica, are in 
unknown combination with water, as in quartz crystals — our old 
friend " electrical amalgam " is as indefinite as most amalgams. 
Fused quartz, I find, is not particularly easily electrified, but 
even it must have its gas layer. 

Now, there are many cases in chemistry of actual and undoubted 
chemical change being brought about, directly or indirectly, by the 



PEESIDENT's address — SECTION A. 53 

application of pressure. Professor Liversidge, to whom I men- 
tioned this matter, has informed me that dry alum and dry lead 
acetate become liquid on rubbing together in a mortar ; hydrate of 
chloral and camphor- do the same. It is a question as to the 
combination produced by strongly pressing together powdered 
metals, or corresponding salts. I have made some experiments 
on solid paraffine, and believe, though I desire to repeat the 
experiments before being absolutely sure, that paraffine melting 
normally at about 53° C, may be caused to begin to melt some 
two degrees lower by having undergone intense pressure. The 
melting point also seems to be less definite. Again, the electric 
charges produced by compressing crystals are well known, and 
since on this theory such charges are the sign of forced chemical 
change, since the amount of charging occurring in any crystal is 
associated with the relation of the compression to the crystallo- 
graphic axes, it is suggested that the state of chemical combination 
(of the higher order — generally called physical) is different along 
♦lifferent axes. Again, Strouhal and Barus have given good 
reason for thinking that the molecular gi'ouping of steel alters 
under stress ; and, in fact, explain viscosity — after Maxwell — in 
this manner. Taking these and other facts into account, my 
position is that if chemical change (including the reconstruction of 
so-called " physical compounds ") is accompanied by the freeing of 
atoms, even if they be afterwards combined in another way, only 
this freeing, if requiring the expenditure of energy, will be accom- 
panied by the phenomena of charge. Applying this reasoning, in 
connection with Helmholtz's important views as to " boundary 
layers " to the case of an ordinary f rictional machine, I regard the 
first electrification as due to actual chemical change occurring in 
the boundary layers between the rubber and the glass plates. 
This change need not be large. Thus I have calculated roughly 
that if a large Holtz machine, which charged about ten jars to 
such a potential in about a hundred seconds as would allow them 
to give a spark two or three inches long, had been replaced by an 
equivalent plate machine, with a layer of water vapour on the 
plate surface, then an amount of decomposition corresponding to 
about a millionth of a gramme per second would account for the 
effects observed. I had no reason for taking a layer of water on 
the glass surface, except to enable me to make a rough calcvilation. 
Nothing can be better than a colloid like glass itself. A very 
small surface change would account for all the results, especially 
as it might undo itself while the machine was not working, and 
particulai'ly if it got reversed ; and would, I think, be so small as 
to escape detection by a balance, or rather discrimination from 
the effects of abrasion. That the glass surface gets more or less 
changed is well known to everyone. I have ventured to put 
forward these views — not because they are free from objections, 
but because I think that the time has come for a beginning to be 



54 president's address — section a. 

made in an enquiry as to this portion of the subject. I ought not 
to close this address without drawing attention to the very 
fruitful Held for speculation as to the relation between ether and 
matter indicated by Rowland's experiment. Briefly, it seems to 
me to indicate that the magnetic effects produced by a current in 
an electrolyte have this analogy with the magnetic effects produced 
by Rowland's disc — that in both cases we must imagine some 
" slip " to occur. It matters not whether the slip is produced 
between the polarised ether-enwi-apped atoms of the disc, or 
whether it occurs at the boundary of atoms in the third state in 
an electrolyte, where they are directed by other means into an 
average path. This, however, is too big a subject to be dealt with 
in such a sketchy manner ; and, as I have already taken up too 
much time, I will close this address with the customary thanks 
and apologies to the members of the section. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS IN SECTION B. 
CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 

By professor E. H. RENNIE, M.A., D.Sc. 
University of Adelaide. 



In assuming the presidency of Section B of the Australasian 
Association for the Advancement of Science, it is my first duty 
to thank those who have done me the honour to elect me to the 
office, and to say that it will be my earnest desire to deserve the 
distinction by doing all in my power to forward the interests of 
the sciences which this section represents. While thoroughly 
appreciating the honour confei-red upon me, I feel also a grave 
sense of responsibility — a responsibility to say something which 
may help to further the interests not only of this section, but 
also of the Association, and, therefore, of Australasia. 

The Ijenefits to be derived from a meeting of this kind are 
doubtless, in a large measure, those which arise from conversation 
and social intercourse between men of like pursuits, and, in fact, 
we are often twitted with the preponderance of the social 
element. It will, however, be a great pity if those portions 
of the proceedings devoted to pleasure and relaxation are allowed 
to entirely eclipse the scientific objects of the gathering — if, in 
fact, by means of papers and discussions, we do not get some 
stimulus to more earnest work in the future. 

In common with many others occupying somewhat similar 
positions, I have felt considerable difficulty in choosing a subject 
on wliich to address you. It has been customary in past years 
in the British Association for sectional presidents to give a 
general resume of the moi-e important researches and discoveries 
of the year immediately preceding ; but, latterly, men in such 
positions have found themselves obliged by the ever-increasing 
rapidity of scientific discovery, and the consequent massing 
together of material, either to choose some educational theme, or 
to discourse on those asj^ects of the science to which they have 
themselves devoted special attention. 

It will, I thiiik, be granted that to the members of our Asso- 
ciation any aspects or results of our science which have special 
reference to Australasia should be of peculiar interest, and I 
propose therefore to-day, in the course of a very brief addi-ess, 
first to inquire into some of the more important results which 



56 president's address— section b, 

have been obtained by examination of Australasian products, and 
then shortly to touch upon some of those great chemical questions 
which are being more and more forced upon our notice by the 
far-reaching generalisations to which they point. 

There are, of course, two lines on which an inquiry as 
regards Australasian products might proceed, viz., the purely 
utilitarian and the purely scientific. If, in this address, 
preference is given to the latter, it is not from any desire 
to undervalue the former, but partly because I have elsewhere 
given prominence to the importance of the application of 
science to practice, and because, as I believe, the greatest 
<liscoveries in chemical science in recent years, which have also 
been of great practical impoi'tance, have not been the result 
of accident, but the outcome of long and patient investigation 
in realms of work at one time most unpromising as regards useful 
issues, and, moreover, because one object of this Association, 
as I understand it, is the prosecution of scientific knowledge for 
its own sake, quite irrespective of the question whether it will 
immediately yield payable results or not. The perpetual cry, 
" Cui bono .?" which would never be uttered if those who make 
use of it had any real idea of the history (jf the discoveries of the 
past, is most discouraging to those of us who are endeavouring to 
prosecute scientific work in these colonies, where it is exceedingly 
difficult to rouse interest in anything which does not immediately 
lead to material piYjfit in one shape or another. May I not, in this 
connection, take the opportttnity of urging upon all scientific 
teachers to use every endeavour to impress upon their students 
the historical developments of such discoveries as I have 
referred to ? 

Entering now upon the consideration of the chemistry of plant 
products, I am sure you will, in the first place, join with me in 
paying a hearty tribute of praise to the very valuable preliminary 
work which has been accomplished in the region of plant 
chemistry by our President and his collaborateurs, and to that 
more recent and most valuable bibliography of the sul^ject 
contained in the " Useful Native Plants of Australia," lately 
compiled by Mr. Maiden, curator of the Technological Museum 
of New South Wales. 

Among the more important pi'oducts, those o)>tained from the 
"everlasting gum-tree " first claim our attention. In a remarkable 
series of researches carried out in the laboi'atory of the University 
of Bonn, Wallach has succeeded in reducing to something like 
order and system the confusion which has hitherto existed in our 
knowledge of that class of hydrocarbons known as the tei^penes, 
and has revealed some most interesting facts about the relation- 
ships of these substances to one another, especially with reference 
to their optical properties. He has shown that some of these 
substances exist in what may be termed pairs, one of each pair 



president's address — SECTIOX B. 57 

dextro-rotatory, the other Isevo-rotatory, in its eifect <jn polarised 
light. Thus he has found two pinenes, two phellandrenes, and 
two limonenes, the only difference between vhe two members 
of each pair being the effect on polarised light just referred to ; 
but each set of two is characterised by the formation of 
derivatives distinct from those of any other two, and also from 
those of other hydrocarbons belonging to the terpene group. In 
the case of the two limonenes, however, there is a special 
and most peculiar characteristic. When simply mixed in equal 
proportions these two hydrocarbons unite directly to form another 
hydrocarbon, called dipentene, which is veiy different from either 
of the originals. This reminds one, of course, of the relation- 
ships between dextro and hvvo tartaric and i-acemic acids. There 
is, however, this distinction, that dipentene differs much more 
widely from the limonenes than does racemic acid from the tartaric 
acids, and moreover, there seems to be at present no known means 
of regenerating the original hydrocarbons from the prcjduct. My 
object in referring to these researches, however, is to point out 
that the oil of Encalyptus amyg^dalina has svipplied one of the 
missing links in the chain of discovery, Wallach having found 
that it contains kevo-rotatory phellandrene (this is at present 
the only source of this hydrocarbon), the dextro-rotatory variety 
occurring in the oil of PheUandrium aquaticum, and also in the 
oil of the bitter fennel in the south of France. The oil of 
Eucalyptus globulus, on the other hand, contains no phellandrene, 
but dextro-rotatory pinene, the two varieties of which are found in 
turpentines from different sources. The common constituent of 
both these oils is an oxygen containing liquid called cineol of 
formula doHigO, and boiling point about 176° C, which is the 
chief constituent of oil of wormseed, oil of cajeput, and is also 
f(5und in oil of rosemary and other essential oils. This substance 
is identical with the so-called " Eucalyptol," about the presence 
or absence of which in oils produced by different firms there has, 
I understand, l^een a good deal of dispute. Wallach himself had 
at first some difficulty in isolating this substance from the oil of 
one of these (Eucalyptus a??iygdalina), apparently owing to the 
presence of some disturbing impurity. The fact that it appears 
to be more easily isolated from tlie oil of one variety than from 
that of the other may probably have caused the dispute referred 
to ; at any rate there can be no doubt whatever of its presence 
in considerable quantities in the oils from both the varieties 
of eucalyptus I have named, and probably it exists in the 
oils from other species also. It is a very interesting fact, 
however, that there should be a considerable difference 
between the constituents (jf the oils from these two trees, and 
there are indications of still wider differences between the 
oils from other species. The oil from Eucalyptus Staigeriana, 
for example, according to a report by Messrs. Schinnnel and Co., 



58 president's address — section b. 

of Dresden, contains an oxygenated substance (a ketone 
CioHieO?) which imparts to it its pleasant lemon-like odour, 
and several other species of eucalyptus yield oils of a similar 
odour, probably due to the presence of similar substances. 
References to these will be found in Mr. Maiden's book, to which 
I have already referred. It is obvious that there is still abundant 
room for investigati<jn in the direction indicated, an investigation 
too which has the additional merit of possibly leading to 
important practical results, some of the substances obtained 
having been highly spoken of as perfumes, while some, we know, 
possess considerable disinfecting power. 

There are many other Australasian plants, besides the 
eucalyptus, the leaves of which yield essential oils, but scarcely 
any of these have received more than an imperfect examination, 
and here again is a wide field for work. 

I may mention also here that some years ago I succeeded in 
getting a hydrocarbon, apparently a terpene of boiling point 
156° C, from New Zealand kauri gum by passing steam over the 
roughly-powdered gum heated in a copper vessel. It would be 
interesting, perhaps, to re-examine this in the light of Wallach's 
researches, but up to the present time I have had no opportunity. 

Leaving the essential oils, and passing to other classes of pro- 
ducts, we find that Eiicalyptus viminalis yields the well-known 
" manna." This has been lately shown by Tollens to contain over 
50 per cent, of raffifiose, or melitose, one of the more recently 
investigated, and from a scientific point of view, more interesting 
sugars, containing as it does at least eighteen atoms of carbon, 
and yielding a mixture of laivulose and galactose on treatment 
with dilute acids. I believe, though on this point I am not quite 
certain, that " manna " has also been found on other species of 
eucalyptus ; if so, it would be well worth examining. 

The alkaloids afford us a field almost untouched, so far as exact 
chemical investigation is concerned. So far as I know the only 
substances belonging to this class, which have been at all care- 
fully examined, are those to be found in the bark of Alstotiia 
constricta and the '•'■ piturir Of the former several have been 
isolated and partially described by different observers, but 
especially by Hesse, who desci-ibes at least four ; but all of them 
need further examination, especially as some, at any rate, possess 
very marked physiological activity. The alkaloid to which the 
peculiar effects of '■^ pihiri " are due has been isolated by Professor 
Liversidge, who describes it as a volatile litjuid possessing 
characteristics closely allied to l)ut distinct from those of nicotine, 
and having the formula CoHsN. This also needs further 
examination, but suiiicient quantities of material are veiy difficult 
to obtain, and I understand Professor Liversidge has not had an 
opportunity to continue the investigation. There are numbers of 
plants which seem to contain principles of more or less poisonous 



president's address — SECTION B. 59 

nature, notably two natives of New Zealand, the Coriaria 
ruscifolia and Coryjiocarpus levigata. The former is said to be 
excessively poisonous to sheep feeding upon it, and extraordinary 
stories are told of the powerful physiological effects produced by 
eating the nuts of the latter unless they are first pounded and 
washed with water, a practice always observed by the natives. 
Mr. Skey, who examined these nuts, states that he succeeded 
in isolating a ci*ystalline poisonous substance which, however, 
appeared to him to be more closely related to the glucosides than 
to the alkaloids. 

It is scarcely necessary to say that the complete isolation and 
thorough chemical investigation of physiologically active principles, 
whether of the natui*e of alkaloids or not, is of the greatest im- 
portance, if such pi'inciples are to be usefully applied to medicinal 
purposes. The scientific world owes a debt of gratitude to Dr. 
Bancroft, of Brisbane, for the valuable results he has obtained by 
physiological experiments with a variety of Australian plants, 
but the statement will bear repetition that from a chemical j)oint 
of view a great deal still remains to be done. 

As an instance of a glucoside, we have the active principle of 
Smilax glycyphylla, which is asserted by some to have considerable 
medicinal value, but which has not yet, so far as I am aware, been 
tried medicinally in the pui-e state and in larger doses than can 
be conveniently administered in the state of infusion. It is a 
crystalline substance closely allied to phlorizin. By the action of 
dilute acids it yields phloretin and isodulcite, the latter, I need 
scarcely tell you, a substance of considerable interest and import- 
ance in connection with the question of the constitution of the 
sugai's, and hitherto obtainable with ditficulty from a few rare 
sources. 

Colouring matters are not wanting as products of the Aus- 
tralasian flora, and many of these would, without doubt, yield 
results of great interest, if not always of great practical import- 
ance, wei'e they subjected to close examination. You may be 
interested in examining these specimens of colouring matters from 
Drosera whittakeri, a South Australian species. These materials 
are capable of being used as dyes, and appear to bear much the 
same relationship to one of the methyl-naphthalenes as alizarin 
and its congeners do to anthracene. 

]My attention has been recently drawn to the fluorescent 
infusion yielded by the leaves of Biirsaria spinosa : the fluor- 
escence proves, on examination, to be due to the presence of 
considerable quantities of cesculifi, which, you will remember, is 
found in the horse-chesnut and, as is stated, in the root of one 
other plant, the wild jasmine. This may prove to be an important 
source of this substance, should it ever prove to be of practical 
value. 



60 PRESIDEXT's address — SECTION B. 

Many of our gums and resins would doubtless I'epay close 
examination, and Mr. Maiden has done a great deal in collecting, 
classifying, and partially examining a large number of them, 
especially with reference to the quantities of tannin which they 
contain. One of the most closely examined of the resins is that 
obtained from the various species of Xanthorrhcea, which was at 
one time largely used as a source of picric acid. Its products of 
distillation, under different conditions, have not been thoroughly 
investigated, and might yield results of importance ; and besides, 
the resin, originally examined by Stenhouse, appears to have been 
the product of one species only. 

A great deal more might be said on this part of my subject, 
but I think I have said enough to show that thei*e is still a wide 
field open if we can only tind workers, but herein lies the 
difficulty. It has often occurred to me that outsiders may 
wonder why, in this land of great advantages, and with such an 
extensive field, there is not more original investigation. Why is 
there not an abundance of scientific papers, on all sorts of 
subjects, to be found in the proceedings of our scientific societies? 
It is true there are plenty of papers dealing with matters of 
Natural History, Geology, and kindred subjects, but yqvj few 
involving long, accurate, and painstaking investigation in other 
branches of science. The reason is plain enough, viz., that those 
who have the will have either not the time or the means. Those 
of lis who ai-e most favourably situated as regards appliances have 
our hands full with the teaching, organising, and all sorts of outside 
work which is inevitable in colonies in a state of growth, and we 
have not, as yet, numbers of advanced students, such as we tind 
in older countries, who are only too glad to be entrusted with 
new lines of research. May we not hope that one effect of this 
Association will be to so interest young and old alike in the 
cause of scientific investigation, that such of the younger members 
as have time and means will come to our aid, and svich of the 
older members as have sons, and can afford it, will endeavour to 
give us a chance of showing what Australians can do in this 
direction by sending us their sons to be trained in some branch 
of scientific work. 

Besides this difficult}^ of obtaining hands to work, there is 
often difficulty in obtaining material to work with; and here I 
have a suggestion to make, which may, perhaps, commend itself 
to you, and which, in case it is approved, will, I hope, be j taken 
up by this section at a later stage in our proceedings. It is the 
custom in these colonies to apply to a paternal Government for 
assistance in almost everything, and this meeting owes its hearty 
thanks to the Government of Victoria for very valuable assistance 
rendered. Now, there are in most of the colonies government 
organisations which specially deal with matters bordering upon 
purely scientific territory — geological, mineralogical, entomological, 



president's address SECTION B. 61 

agricultural, and sanitary departments — not to mention others ; 
and these departments have at their command men who could in 
many cases, at very slight expense, collect from time to time 
valuable material. Could it not be so managed that an indivi- 
dual, or individuals, thoroughly capable of dealing with some 
special investigation, and desirous of following it up, should 
apply to this Association, or to a specially-appointed committee, 
for assistance ; and might not such assistance take the form of 
accrediting such individual or indiviciuals to the government of 
that colony from which he wishes to obtain material in such a 
way that the authorities would be induced to take steps for 
obtaining a supply of such matei'ial ? In most cases the cost 
involved would be very small. The plan seems to me to be 
feasible, and it might, to some extent, prevent duplication of 
work, for it would become generally known that certain persons 
wei'e carrying out such and such investigations. Of course, 
such ajDplications would need to be governed by regulations ; 
but should the suggestion meet with your approval, it will be 
easy to discuss the details at a later period. 

If we enquire now what has been done in the region of 
mineral chemistry (I am speaking, remember, chiefly from a 
purely scientific point of view), we shall find, I think, that in 
this department even less has been accomplished. It is true we 
have a large number of analyses in official reports of one kind 
and another, but these have, for the most part, been undertaken 
and published jDurely from a commercial point of view, and there 
has been very little careful and systematic analysis of the less 
common and less useful minerals, of which many varieties are to 
be found. So far as I have been able to ascertain there is 
scarcely any record of the discovery of the rarer elements. The 
only instance I have came across is the analysis of a sample of 
monazite, which was examined by Mr. Dixon, of the Technical 
College, N.S.W., and which he found to contain Cerium, 
Lanthanum, Thorium, and Didymium. In one or two instances 
some of the less rare elements have been discovered ; for example, 
Mr. Mingaye, at the first meeting of this Association, proved the 
presence of considerable quantities of tellurium in some bismuth 
ores from Captain's Flat, N.S.W., and some years ago I 
showed that the appearance of brilliant yellow, reddish, and green 
colourations on white bricks made in the neighbourhood of Sydney 
were due to the presence of vanadium. I have found small 
quantities of vanadium widely distributed in many clays in the 
neighbourhood of Sydney. But is it not, to say the least of it, 
highly probable that in the large areas of mineral country which 
exist in so many parts of Australasia there are waiting to be 
found many minerals, possibly many new ones, containing either 
considerable quantities of rare but already known substances, or 
perhaps even new elements. That they have not l^een found I 



62 president's address— section b. 

attribute to the fact that the search for minerals has been ahnost 
entirely directed to the finding of gold or other payable metals. 
We have heard a good deal of Broken Hill, perhaps there are 
some listening to me who are fortunate or ixnfortunate enough to 
know more about it than by mere hearsay, but it is scarcely to 
be doubted that a careful scientific search for and examination 
of minerals from the great silver field would yield results of great 
interest. Professor Masson and Mr. Kirkland have, I under- 
stand, examined a considerable number of zinc ores from that 
district for gallium, but so far without success. I have roughly 
examined the flue dust from the Dry Ci'eek Smelting Works for 
germanium, but so far without finding any, but these negative 
results need not discourage us. You may be reminded in this 
connection that the Government assayer of N.S.W. i-eports 
the discovery of platinum, and probably therefore some of the 
associated metals in some minerals from somewhere in the Broken 
Hill region. 

This department of chemical science — I mean the search for 
new or imperfectly known elements — has acquired great interest 
and importance in view of the great impulse recently given to the 
study of the periodic law of Newlands and Mendeleeft' by various 
chemists in Europe and the brilliant researches of Crookes on the 
nature of several of these so-called elements. It may not be out 
of place before bringing this address to a conclusion to review 
very briefly the more important results obtained in this direction 
during the past few years, the questions involved being of all- 
absorbing interest to both chemists and physicists. It is evident 
that, whether justified by facts or not, there is a growing disbelief 
in the elementary character of the so-called elements, and this 
disbelief has arisen from results obtained in two diflerent lines of 
research, namely, a more thorough study of the periodic law, and 
the spectroscopic investigations of Crookes and others. 

One of the most important papers on the periodic law was that 
read before the British Association at Aberdeen, in 1886, by 
Carnelley. He brought out very clearly the analogies between 
the elements so called when arranged according to the pei'iodic 
law and series of hydrocarbon radicles and tlieir derivatives, and 
showed that it is possible to build up a series of compounds of 
two primary elements corresponding in many respects to the known 
series of elements, and he advances the speculation that all of the 
latter, except hydrogen, may be compounds of two substances, 
one with atomic weight 20, and the other with atomic weight - 2, 
the latter being identical with the ether which exists all through 
space and matter as the medium of transmission of heat and light. 
Dr. Carnelley puts this forward merely as a speculation, and though 
the idea of a substance with negative atomic weight may be to 
others, as to myself, very difficult to grasp, there can be no doubt 



president's address — SECTION B. 63 

that his paper is a very valuable conti"ibution to the study of the 
causes underlying the periodic law. 

By the adoption of a form of zigzag curve Emerson Reynolds 
succeeded in indicating much more clearly than by the ordinary 
tabular system, the relations and contrasts between the various 
members of the different periods, bringing into prominence 
especially the following noteworthy points : — (1) The possibility 
that hydrogen is not the Jirst member of Mendeleeff's first period, 
Ijut the /ast — in other words, that there is still room for elements 
of lighter atomic weight than hydrogen. (2) The possible non- 
existence of Mendeleeff's ninth period, which includes at present 
only the metal Erbium ; and (3) the interpei'iodic character of the 
triplet groups Fe. Ni. Co., Rh. Ru. Pd., and Ir. Os. Pt. 

Crookes, in his lecture on the " Genesis of the Elements," 
adopted a slightly modified form of the curve proposed by 
Pteynolds, and of it he says, " The more I ponder over the 
arrangement of this zigzag curve the more I become convinced 
that he who fully grasps its meaning holds the key to unlock 
some of the deepest mysteries of creation." Using it as an illus- 
tration, he sketches out a possible evolution of the substances known 
to us as elements from an original or primordial matter, which he 
calls protyie, and in this sketch he explains the possible formation 
of such groups as the three triplets already referred to, and that 
of the Cerium metals, the characteristics of which he has done so 
much to elucidate. While on this subject of the graphic repre- 
sentation of the periodic law, attention should be drawn to a 
curious paper by the Rev. Dr. Haughton, read before the Royal 
Irish Academy in 1888, in which, by a geometrical representation 
of the law, he brings out some interesting and hitherto unnoticed 
points, and indicates in a very graphic manner the isolation of 
hydrogen and the points at which, in his opinion, there are still 
to be found missing elements. 

The other line of investigation, which has led to serious doubt 
as to the accuracy of the hitherto generally accepted notions of 
the nature of the so-called elements, is the purely experimental, 
as developed by Crookes and others in researches on the rare- 
earth metals. By long and tedious experiments Ci'ookes has 
succeeded in splitting up yttrium, for example, into several sub- 
stances, which are, at any rate, spectroscopically distinct, but 
which are so closely isolated chemically that they are indistinguish- 
able by ordinary methods. He believes it will be possible to 
obtain similar results with other substances, if only the right 
methods can be found ; in fact, he has actually found indications 
of the commencement of a like separation in other cases than that 
oi yttrium. Reasoning on these facts he has modified his views 
as to the character of the elements, and is now inclined to regard 
them, not as made up of a number of atoms of rigorously the same 
weight, but as consisting of groups of atoms of which the mean 



64 president's address — section b. 

atomic weight is practically constant, but which differ in weight 
among themselves to a small but finite extent. This, in his view, 
would be the natural consequence of the generation of the elements 
from a primordial matter, and if I understand him aright, he 
believes that in such groups as that of the cerium metals, and 
others of which the members closely resemble one another, we 
have traces remaining of an imperfect differentiation into the 
distinct substances we have been accustomed to call elements. 

In his Faraday lecture, delivered last year before tne Chemical 
Society of London, Mendeleeff criticises somewhat severely these 
views as to the character and origin of the elements. He objects 
to the representation of the periodic law in the form of curves as 
used by Reynolds, Crookes and Haughton, on the ground that a 
curve as ordinarily used indicates a continuous and unbroken 
series of points, and that, therefore, at any and eveiy point of such 
a curve, there should be a corresponding element — in other words, 
this method of representation implies an infinite number of 
elements — so at least I undei'stand his objection. It would 
appear, however, that this criticism is based upon a misconcep- 
tion of the real object of these so-called curves, which, I take it, 
are not intended to be understood in a purely mathematical sense, 
but simply as grajDhic representations of the periodic law, which 
enable us to see more clearly its pr-ominent features. He points 
out further that the analogy between the series of elements and 
hydrocarbon radicles, woi'ked out by Carnelley (though previously 
indicated by Pelopidas) is weak in this respect, that whereas the 
series of natural elements involves an increase of mass as we pass 
from one member to another the series of hydrocarbon radicles 
involves a decrease, and that therefore there is no true identity 
of periodicity in the two cases. This statement, is of course, 
involved in Carnelley's assumption of a negative atomic weight. 
As regards the existence of helium^ an element supposed by 
Lockyer to exist in the sun, he points out that no attention 
is paid to the fact that the helium line is seen only in the 
spectrum of the solar protuberances, nor to the fact that the same 
line is wanting among the Fraunhof er lines of the solar spectrum, 
and therefore does not answer to the fundamental conception of 
spectrum analysis, and he further criticises other statements 
regarding the alleged spectroscopic indications of the decompo- 
sition of the elements. He does not, however, attempt to 
controvert Crookes' results, but says : — " From the foregoing 
as well as from the failures of so many attempts at finding 
in experiment and speculation a proof of the compound character 
of the elements and of the existence of primordial matter, it is 
evident, in my opinion, that this theory must be classed among 
mere Utopias." 

The supposition of Carnelley that the ether may be one of the 
forms of the primordial matter has been already alluded to. 



president's address — SECTIOX B. 65 

Recent physical investigations have thrown wonderful light on 
the nature and functions of the ether, for a simple account of 
which I refer you to that fascinating book by Professor Lodge, 
entitled " Modern Views of Electricity." In his preface to the 
work he says "the evidence for (the existence of) ether is as 
strong and direct as the evidence for (the existence of) air," and 
he regards it as "a perfectly continuous, subtle, incompressible 
substance pervading all space, and penetrating between the 
molecules of all ordinary matter, which are embedded in it and 
connected with one another by its means." If there be such an 
all-permeating form of matter, does it not seem improbable that 
this substance should exist separate, distinct and different from 
all other forms of matter, and having no share in their compo- 
sition % Is it not more likely that it forms an essential part of 
all forms of matter known to us, and is it not possible that the 
known effects of heat, light and electricity, for all of which this 
ether is undoubtedly the means of transmission, are either due to, 
or at least would be greatly aided by, its presence as a con- 
stituent part of the matter upon which the effects are pi'oduced ? 
You are doubtless well aware that Sir W. Thompson has 
elaborated what is known as the vortex theory of matter, which 
repi'esents the atoms as vortex rings formed of the substance of 
the ethei', he having demonstrated that vortex motion is capable 
of conferring vipon a fluid such as the ether the necessary rigidity. 
In speaking of this, Professor Lodge says : — " The atoms of 
matter are not so much foreign particles imbedded in the all- 
pervading ether, as portions of it differentiated off from the rest 
by reason of their vortex motion, thus becoming virtually solid 
particles, yet with no transition of substance : atoms indestruc- 
tible and not able to be manufactured, not mere hard rigid 
specks, but each composed of whirling ether — elastic, capable of 
definite vibration, of free movement, of collision." 

Whatever opinions we may hold on these subjects, there is not 
one of us but must feel, I think, that the scientific atmosphere 
is pregnant with coming discoveries, though the boldest prophet 
may well hesitate to predict what they will be. In a few years 
chemistry, perhaps, will be reduced to a mere branch of the all- 
embracing science of physics, to be studied by differential 
equations and other mathematical processes yet to be invented. 
Already it is becoming more and more necessary for scientific 
chemists to be, not mere chemists, but also physicists and mathe- 
maticians. Let those of us who are not able to plunge into the 
more abstruse reasonings upon which some of the recently 
obtained results depend, content ourselves with doing our utmost 
to discover such new facts as lie within our reach, to aim at 
generalising these facts as far as possible, and so add to that 
stoi'ehouse of knowledge, by means of which those possessed of 
greater powers of analytical investigation than ourselves may be 

E 



66 president's address — section b. 

able to elucidate the greatei* problems of nature : and let all of 
us who are members of this Association strive to make it such an 
influence in these colonies that Australasia may not be behind 
the rest of the world in its eagerness for scientilic investigation 
and ambition to produce men who may rank among the great 
<liscoverers of future years. 




PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS IN SECTION 

{Geology and Paleontology). 

OSCILLATIONS OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE. 

By F. W. HUTTON, M.A., F.G.S., C.M.Z.S., 

Professor of Geology., Canterbury College, University of New Zealand. 



That the surface of the earth has moved is, at the present day, 
a part of common knowledge. Every one knows that high 
mountains are built up of rocks which were once beneath the 
sea, and that coal-beds, now so deeply buried, were formed on 
the surface of the land. It is nearly, perhaps not quite, as well 
known that these movements are still going on, some parts of 
the world undergoing slow upheaval, others slow depression. It 
has, however, only lately been discovered that, in addition to 
these slow movements, comparatively rapid wave-like pulsations 
of the land take place in Europe, in Japan, and probably in other 
places. 

It appears probable that the earth's crust is in a constant state 
of movement, some parts sinking, others rising. There may be 
portions which are in equilibrium and stationary, but probably 
these areas are small in comparison with those undergoing move- 
ment. Oscillation is the normal condition of the surface, 
immobility is the exception. Oscillations like these have doubt- 
less been going on through all geological time, although with 
varying intensity ; and the movements have sometimes continued 
so long in one direction that we find places which have been 
elevated five or six miles above the sea level, and we can also 
pi'ove that in places depression went on to the extent of six — 
perhaps even eight or ten — miles below the sea. 

Professor G. H. Darwin has calculated that, if the earth be 
as elastic as steel, a rise of one inch in the barometer over the 
whole of Australia would indicate an increase of pressure 
sutficient to depress the surface two or three inches, while the 
tides of the Atlantic might cause a rise and fall in the neigh- 
bouring land of five inches. To these changes may be due some 
of the quicker pulsations ; others are annual, and appear to be 
due to changes in temperature, while others are independent of 
all meteorological causes. 

The origin of these latter pulsations, as also of the slower 
oscillations in level, has not yet been satisfactorily explained, and 

e2 



68 president's address — section c. 

as the object of this address is to place before you the present 
state of our knowledge on this fundamental problem of geology, 
it will be as well for me to commence by describing shortly the 
principal facts connected with the movements — that is, the 
principal phenomena which have to be explained. 

Phenomena Connected avith the Movements. 

When we examine those portions of land which have been 
most elevated, we easily recognise two types of structure. One 
is the Plateau type, in which the sedimentary rocks are nearly 
horizontal, and the only igneous rocks are overflows of basalt. 
The other is the Mountain -Range or Alpine type, in which we 
find a gi'anitic or gneissic core, surrounded by sedimentary rocks 
which have been plicated, and sometimes pushed horizontally 
over one another ; and here basalts are not commonly found in 
the mountains, but often occur at a little distance from them. 
The first of these types is evidently due to vei'tical uplift alone, 
the second to vertical uplift accompanied by lateral pressure. 
But the two types are connected by the Uinta and Park Ranges, 
the former being only a flattened dome, the second a dome into 
which granite and gneiss have been pushed, and the surrounding 
sedimentary rocks plicated or placed nearly vertical. The Andes 
forms another type of mountains, differing from the ordinary 
Alpine type by the addition of volcanoes along the centre of the 
range. The Caucasus is intermediate between the Alpine and 
Andean types, the central peaks of Elburz and Kazbec being 
extinct Andesitic volcanoes, surrounded by mountains of granite. 
Wliat is known as the Jura type appears to be found only 
in mountains forming the outworks of a range on the Alpine 
type, and is not an independent structure. The Park Range also 
shows folds like the Jura. 

Depression of rock masses has occurred on an enormous scale, 
but we cannot examine the structure of the depressed rocks until 
they have been re-elevated. They all appear, however, to belong- 
to one type, which corresponds to that of the plateau or regional 
uplift. I am not aware of any reason for supposing that folding 
of rocks ever took place with depression, or that any subsidences 
were accompanied by lateral pressure. There are, however, many 
reasons for thinking that neither elevation nor depression are 
continuous movements, but that both are irregular, sometimes being 
even reversed for short intervals, and thus giving rise to oscillations. 

Plications are always connected with great thickness of the 
plicated beds — that is, they never take place except after heavy 
sedimentation : a fact first pointed out by Professor James Hall 
of New York, and since confirmed in many parts of the world. 
For example, the older Palseozoic rocks are very thick in Britain, 
and thin out easterly through southern Scandinavia, the Gulf of 



president's address — SECTION c. 69 

Finland, and northern Russia. Before the Devonian period they 
Avere much folded in Britain, but in Russia they remain horizontal 
to the present day. In the Ural Mountains, however, they were 
covered by heavy carboniferous deposits, and here they were 
disturbed immediately after the Carboniferous period. In the 
peninsula of India the Bijdwan series is horizontal where thin, 
and much folded where thick. The Star formation in Queensland 
is only some 1200 feet thick in the Star gold-field, and is here 
but little disturbed ; while in the Hodgkinson and Palmer 
gold-fields, where it is more than 21,000 feet thick, it is highly 
inclined. In North America, the Palpeozoic sediments of Virginia 
and Pennsylvania in the east, and of Nevada in the west, are each 
about 40,000 feet thick and much disturbed ; but between them, 
in Colorado and the Mississippi valley, they get thin, and here 
they are horizontal. So with the Mesozoic rocks in the same 
region ; they also are only folded where they are thick. All the 
contorted beds of mountain ranges are parts of thick deposits. 
The elevation of the north-west Himalaya was preceded by the 
deposition of 30,000 feet of strata, that of the SavIss Alps by 
more than 30,000 feet, that of the Australian Alps by more 
than 35,000 feet, and that of the Appalachians by 4:0,000 feet. 

These examples are sufficient to show that only thick deposits 
are folded, but it does not appear that the plications are propor- 
tional to the thickness of the deposits. The folded Cretaceous 
rocks on the east base of the Rocky Mountains ai-e not more 
than 12,000 feet thick, while the folded marine tertiaries of 
California are said to be only 4000 to 5000 feet thick. On 
the other hand the carbonaceous formations of New South 
Wales are more than 11,000 feet thick and not folded. The 
Gondwana system in the Raniganj coal-fields of India is 11,200 
feet, and in the Satpura basin it is even 22,500 feet thick and 
yet not folded. So also in North America, the tertiary beds 
of the Wahsatch and Uinta districts are 12,400 feet, and the 
conformable strata of the Colorado plateau are 10,000 to 15,000 
feet and yet not plicated. Evidently plication does not necessarily 
follow heavy sedimentation. 

Another important point is that plication is not universal. 
Some large regions of the eai'th's surface have never been plicated 
since Archa-an times. I have already mentioned the Gulf of 
Finland. In Canada, Cambi'ian rocks, 2000 feet thick, lie hori- 
zontally on contorted Archseans. The Arvali Range in Rajputana 
is formed of plicated Archaean schists which have not since been 
disturbed, for the Vindhyan system, -which is of lower Palaeozoic 
age, is found in the neighbourhood in a nearly horizontal position ; 
indeed the Vindhyan system is horizontal over the greater part 
of the peninsula of India. 

The action which has caused plication has constantly shifted 
its position. As pointed out by J. D. Dana in 1846, a continent 



70 PEESIDENT's address SECTION c. 

shows a series of successive plicated bands with more or less 
parallel trends. In eastern North America the Pre-Ordovician 
folding of the Adironacks in New York was followed at the close 
of the Ordovician by that of the Green Mountains in Vermont ; 
and the Blue Mountains are older than the Alleghanies. In 
western North America the Wahsatch Mountains, which are 
contemporaneous with the Alleghanies, preceded the Sierra 
Nevada, and these preceded the Calif oniian coast ranges and 
the Eocky Mountains. In Asia the Kuenlun Range, on the 
northern side of the Thibetan plateau, preceded the Himalaya, 
and these the sub-Himalaya. In South America, the mountains 
of Brazil and Bolivia preceded the Andes. Even in Europe, 
complicated though its structure be, the folded bands get younger 
towards the south. Thus the region from central Britain in a 
south-easterly direction to central Gei'many was folded between 
the Silui;ian and Devonian ; that from south Britain east 
through northern France and Westphalia to south Russia, 
between the Carboniferous and the Trias ; central France and 
central Germany between the Triassic and the Jurassic ; south 
Germany between Jurassic and Ci'etaceous ; and Switzerland in 
the Tertiary. 

Since the commencement of the Palaeozoic era few regions 
are known to have been plicated more than once ; but centra] 
Germany has been folded at least twice, although along different 
lines ; and according to Professor Green, there were in South 
Africa two periods of plication between the Devonian and Trias, 
and each took the line of the Zwartebergen ; but since the Trias 
this region has been undisturbed. Even in those regions, like 
the Alps and Himalaya, which were plicated in the Tertiary era, 
there appears to have been no previous plication of the district. 
This opinion is opposed to statements usually found in text-books ; 
but the difference is due to distinguishing simple regional uplifts 
from those which were accompanied by plication. Regional 
uplifts and subsequent depression have often preceded the 
formation of a mountain range ; but the true mountain uplift, 
which is accompanied by the irruption of granite and the 
contortion of the rocks, is seldom, if ever, repeated. The moun- 
tain uplift, however, may not be simple ; it may consist of two 
or more periods of folding following closely after one another. 
A few examples showing the differences as well as the resem- 
blances between these kinds of uplifts are necessary to establish 
my position. 

In the Pyrenean Region disturbances, of which I cannot find 
a sufficiently full account, took place between the Devonian and 
Carboniferous periods, and were followed by subsidence and 
sedimentation up to the middle of the Cretaceous, when a gentle 
uplift took place without contortion. This was followed by a 
second sulisidence and sedimentation to the close of the Eocene. 



president's address — SECTION c. 71 

Then came the main uplift, with folding of the rocks, and the 
Pyrenees were formed. Slight depression occurred in the Miocene, 
with upheaval at its close, the miocene beds being contorted in 
the Lower Pyrenean Range at Corbieres, but not elsewhere. 
These are overlain uncomformably by horizontal pliocene beds. 

Our first knowledge of Switzerland is that during Permian 
and early Triassic times volcanic outbursts took place, followed 
by subsidence and deposition during the whole of the Mesozoic 
and early Eocene periods. This subsidence was not continuous, 
for, during the Mesozoic era, there were several oscillations in 
level, but without contortion. The deposits have a thickness of 
more than 30,000 feet, and include several masses of limestone 
over a thousand feet thick, which are thought to be old coral 
reefs. Upheaval, with plication, commenced towards the close 
of the Eocene. In the INIiocene a great mountain range existed, 
with shallow seas both north and south of it. Subsidence again 
took place, and deposits of sandstone and conglomerate accumu- 
lated on the north side to a thickness of about 9000 feet. Then 
came a second elevation of more than 5000 feet, with folding 
during the Pliocene period, and sub-alpine Switzerland was 
formed. This latter folding was not equal all round, but greatest 
in the noi'thern and central parts, the southern side being but 
little aifected. At the same time the Jura mountains were 
liaised. The rocks here are not contorted, but thrown into 
great folds, steep on the Swiss side and decreasing towards the 
French side, indicating that the thrust came from Switzerland. 
For the most part the synclinal folds form valleys and the anti- 
clinal s form hills which must have risen up as surface swellings 
from the ground ; and these swellings are supposed to have risen 
so rapidly that they diverted the course of the Rhine and turned 
it northwai'd. Volcanic action, both north and south of Switzer- 
land, commenced in the Miocene and declined in the Pliocene, 
but there are no volcanoes in the mountain range itself. 

The structure of the Himalaya Mountains is not so well known 
as that of the Alps, but they contain a conformable sei'ies from 
the Pakeozoic to the Cretaceous inclusive, indicating slow subsi- 
dence and sedimentation. At the close of the Cretaceous period 
elevation without contortion took place, accompanied by denu- 
dation so extensive as to lay bare in places the palaeozoic rocks. 
At the same time the Deccan was flooded by enormous outflows 
of basalt, which cover more than 200,000 square miles, and reach 
occasionally a thickness of 6000 feet. Subsidence of the Hima- 
layan region again took place, with the deposition of eocene beds 
3000 to 5000 feet thick. Elevation with contortion followed, 
and the central range of the Himalaya was formed. The rise, 
howevei", was sufiiciently slow to allow the Indus to retain its old 
channel and cut a path through the new mountains. Extensive 
denudation then occurred ; valleys were carved out, and the 



72 president's address — section c. 

pliocene Siwalik beds deposited to a thickness of from 5000 to 
10,000 feet. Then, in the Pleistocene, came another upheaval, 
contorting the pliocene beds and forming the sub-Himalaya ; a 
range which runs along the south-west flank of the central 
Himalaya from the Punjab to Assam, the crests of the two 
ranges being about 125 miles apart. But these plications Avere 
local, for the pliocene beds on the north-east side, in Thibet, are 
not folded, but have been gently elevated. It is not supposed 
that the thickness of the Siwaliks shows the true vertical measure 
at any one time, for deposition, disturbance, and erosion went on 
together, so that in no place did they reach anything like 10,000 
feet, from which it follows that rocks at the surface must have 
been greatly disturbed. Notwithstanding the comparative 
rapidity with which the sub-Himalaya were formed, the elevation 
was so slow that it never exceeded the rate at which the rivers 
flowing from the Central Himalaya cut down their beds ; for 
they all — the Sutlej, Ganges, Ghogra and others — still run in 
their old valleys right across the crest of the sub-Himalaya. 

In the western United States thick sediments were formed in 
Utah and Nevada from the Cambrian to the Carboniferous 
inclusive, reaching 30,000 feet in the Wahsatch district. At the 
close of the Carboniferous, or during the Permian period, these 
sediments were greatly plicated and elevated in the Basin Region, 
the Wahsatch and Humboldt Ranges being formed. The Colo- 
rado district to the east, in which not more than a thousand feet 
of strata had been deposited, still continued to subside. During 
the Triassic and Jurassic periods general depression took place, 
with especially heavy sedimentation in Nevada, west of the 
Humboldt Range. At the end of the Jurassic these beds were 
contorted and elevated, the Sierra Nevada being formed. At 
the same time the Basin Region was elevated without folding, 
while Colorado and Utah, east of the Wahsatch, where the 
sediments were still less than 3000 feet, although they had been 
accumulating from the Carboniferous period, still continued to 
sink. In the Cretaceous a general subsidence of the whole 
western continent took place, but the Basin Region was not 
depressed beneath the sea. At the close of the Cretaceous, 
general elevation began. In western Coloi^ado and eastern Utah, 
where subsidence had been continuous since the Carboniferous, 
but only about 4000 feet of sti^ata on an average had been 
deposited, the surface was elevated without plication, except 
locally on the east flanks of the Wahsatch, where the Cretaceous 
alone was 11,000 to 13,000 feet thick. The Uinta Mountains 
also rose some 4000 ieet above the rest of the plateau, but their 
rise was so slow that the Green River, which crossed a portion of 
the uplifted area, kept its old channel, and cut down a gorge as 
quickly as the land rose. In central Colorado, where the deposits 
were between 8000 and 9000 feet thick, the Rocky Mountains 



president's address — SECTION c. 73 

were formed ; extrusions of granite and gneiss took place, the 
sedimentary rocks on the eastern side were placed vertically or 
thrust into folds on the Jura type, while on the western side the 
disturbance was small. In California, to the west of the Sierra 
Nevada, where the sediments had been heavier, numerous foldings 
took place, and the coast range was formed. The plateau region 
of Colorado between the Wahsatch and Rocky Mountains, became 
a vast fresh-water lake, the bottom of which appears to have 
subsided while 5000 feet of fresh- water sediments were placed 
upon it ; then the lake shrank and disappeared at the close of the 
Eocene. General elevation re-commenced in the Miocene, the 
floor of the old lake was thrown into long swellings, and volcanic 
eruptions of a basic character took place on the margins of the 
plateau, and on a still larger scale in California. This upward 
movement ceased in the middle of the Pliocene, but commenced 
again in the Pleistocene, and appears to be still going on. The 
total elevation of the plateau region from the close of tlie Eocene 
was no less than 20,000 feet, most of which occurred in the 
Miocene. It was accompanied by a number of north and south 
monoclinal folds and faults, which continued into the Pleistocene. 
The erosion that accompanied this elevation is as much as 10,000 
feet in places, and averages 5500 to 6000 feet. In the Uinta 
Mountains, which were raised 4000 feet above the rest of the 
plateau at the close of the Cretaceous, the erosion has been in 
places over 18,000 feet. 

The geological history of the western United States shows 
clearly that the forces which contorted the Sierra Nevada and 
coast ranges were not distinct from those which produced the 
regional uplift, and it is in this very region that we find in the 
Uinta and Rocky Mountains those intermediate types which I 
have already mentioned. Fifty years ago C. Darwin came to a 
similar conclusion from a study of the geology of South America, 
and stated his belief that mountain chains were only subsidiary 
and attendant operations on continental elevation; a view which 
has since been lost sight of, but is now re-established by the 
labours of American geologists. 

The conclusions which can, I think, be fairly drawn from the 
facts I have just narrated are : — 

1. The plicated bands of the earth's crust have been formed 
along areas of previous heavy sedimentation, that is in geosyn- 
clinals. 

2. The formation of a geosynclinal is a very slow process, 
extending through at least two geological periods. 

3. The subsidence that accompanies the sedimentation is not 
continuous, but is often broken by periods of elevation without 
contortion, followed by depression. 

4. The subsequent elevation with plication, and the formation 
of what Dana calls a synclinorium, is compai'atively rapid, com- 



74 president's address — section c. 

prising less than a geological period ; nevertheless, the elevation is 
often less rapid than the rate of river erosion. 

5. Folding does not go on pat-i passu with sedimentation, but 
the rocks in the geosynclinal remain uncontorted until the for- 
mation of the synclinorium has commenced. 

6. The formation of the synclinorium is usually followed by 
subsidence of short duration, which is again followed by a regional 
uplift with local plications of the newly deposited beds, generally 
along one side only of the synclinorium. 

7. Superficial rocks have been folded as well as deep-seated 
ones, while flexures like those of the Jura and Uinta Mountains 
are also local uprisings of the surface. Consequently, mountain 
ranges of the Alpine type are not the cores of broad plateaux 
exposed by denudation, as taught by Montlosier, but are uprisings 
from the surface, as taught by Von Buch, and may or may not 
be accompanied by regional uplifts. 

8. Folding only takes place where the sediments are thick ; 
nevertheless, very thick deposits are not in every case folded, 
showing that great sedimentation does not cause plication 
directly. 

9. The forces which produce mountain ranges are only a modi- 
fication of those which produce regional uplifts. 

State of the Interior of the Earth. 

It now becomes necessary to ascertain what is known about 
the condition of the interior of the earth, on the surface of 
which these movements take place ; for it is evident that, before 
we can approach with confidence the question of causes, we must 
know not only the facts connected with the oscillations of the 
surface, but also what assumptions are allowable about the state 
of the interior. Fortunately, this problem has been much simpli- 
fied by the mathematical investigations of Sir W. Thomson, 
Professor G. H. Darwin, and the Rev. O. Fisher, so that a short 
history of opinion on the subject will place any one in a position 
to judge for himself. 

Leibnitz, in 1 683, started the theory of an incandescent globe, 
the interior of which was fluid, and re-acted on the cooled surface ; 
and he was followed by Descartes, Bufton, Hutton, and Dolomieu. 
But, in 1681, Bishop Burnet had maintained the opposite opinion, 
viz., that the earth is a solid, cold, inert mass, the surface of 
which was at first dissolved in a watery menstruum, and had 
gradually dried, the surplus water having been drawn oft' into 
caverns in the interior, — a doctrine which was supported by 
Woodward, Werner, De Luc, Pallas, De Saussure, and others. 
The discussion was long and even personal, but the bishop's side 
so completely gained the day that, in 1811, Pinkerton said that 
" the doctrine of a central heat seems to be universally aban- 



PRESIDENTS ADDRESS — SECTIOX C. 75 

doned." The theory was, however, revived by Laplace and by 
Cordier, who, in his " Essay on the Temperature of the Interior 
of the Earth," 1827, brought forward numerous reasons for 
thinking that sufficient heat to melt rock must exist at no great 
depth from the surface, and, consequently, that the earth consisted 
of a solid crust surrounding a still melted interior. The reasoning 
was supported by Fourier, and, although opposed by Poisson, 
was rapidly accepted by geologists as the only explanation of 
volcanoes, lateral movements of the crust, and subsidence of the 
surface, all of which seemed to necessitate a yielding interior. 

But this theory received a severe blow in 1839, when Mr. 
W. Hopkins published the first of his " Researches in Physical 
Geology," in which he maintained that the amount of precession 
and nutation of the earth's axis proved the earth to be either 
solid or to have a solid crust not less than 800 miles thick. He 
was supported in this by Archdeacon Pratt, and afterwards by 
Sir W. Thomson ; but their conclusions were opposed by Professor 
Hennessy in 1851, by M. Delaunay in 1868, and subsequently by 
General Barnard and Professor Newcomb. In 1876 Sir W. 
Thomson abandoned this argument altogethei', and stated his 
opinion that a perfectly fluid spheroid would have a precession 
practically the same as that of a perfectly rigid one, and Professor 
Darwin has shown that this is so. 

A far more important objection to the theoiy that the interior 
is fluid is the supposed absence of bodily tides. This subject was 
discussed in the days of Laplace and Cordier, was again taken up 
by Sir W. Thomson in 1863, and has since been supported by 
Professor G. H. Dai'win. Sir W. Thomson said that, if the 
interior were fluid, the sun and moon would j)roduce bodily tides, 
which would raise and lower the solid crust, and thus reduce the 
amount of the ocean tides. He calculated that if the earth was 
as rigid as steel, it would yield about two-fifths, and if as rigid as 
glass, more than three-fourths as much to the tide-producing 
influences as if it was fluid ; and as the latter amount could, he 
thought, be easily observed if it occurred, he arrived at the con- 
clusion that the earth must be more rigid than glass. Professor 
Hennessy objected to this conclusion, and pointed out that the 
conditions on which Sir W. Thomson's calculations were based are 
very different from the real ones. He said that if the fluid 
interior passes gradually into the solid crust, as it probably does, 
deformation of the shell may be very small, for the tidal energies 
would be expended in pushing aside the half-liquid matter. He 
also pointed out that, as the observed amount of precession is 
about six seconds less than that calculated for a rigid globe, some 
slight tidal deformation actually takes place. The Rev. O. 
Fisher, also, in the second edition of his " Physics of the Earth's. 
Crust," 1889, has suggested that if the liquid interior contains 
gas in solution, the elasticity of the gas might compensate for 



76 president's address — section c. 

varying pressure caused by tidal action, and the resulting surface 
movements might be small, or even nothing : there would 
be a density tide only, which might be unable to move the 
superjacent crust. 

Sir W. Thomson had assumed in his investigations that the 
interior of the earth is perfectly elastic, which is no doubt incor- 
rect. Professor Darwin undertook the calculations on the sup- 
position that it is viscous or elastico-viscous, and found that in 
these cases the semi-diurnal bodily tides would lag so much 
behind the ocean tides that the two could not be compared, 
especially as the ocean tides are much affected by the distribution 
of the land-masses, which would not be the case with bodily tides. 
If an earth tide followed an ocean tide at a distance of less than 
half an oscillation, the time of apparent high ocean tide would 
be accelerated ; and if an earth tide followed at a greater distance 
than half an oscillation, the time of apparent high water would 
be retarded. But owing to the friction on the sea bottom and 
the varying depth of the sea, neither the height nor the time of 
actual high water at any place can be calculated from theory ; 
and observations give only the time and height of apparent high 
water, consequently, acceleration or retardation cannot be proved. 

Sir W. Thomson always recognised the difficulties connected 
with the semi-diurnal tides, but thought that the longer period 
lunar fortnightly tide might be used for the purposes of obser- 
vation, as with it the irregularities must be much less. He 
calculated that at Iceland and at Teneriffe the fortnightly ocean 
tides ought to be five inches if the earth be perfectly rigid, three 
inches if as rigid as steel, and one inch if the rigidity be that of 
glass. Subsequently, Professor Darwin found that the observed 
fortnightly and monthly tides at various Indian and European 
ports are about two-thirds of the calculated height, and, conse- 
quently, he thought that this proves the efiecbive rigidity of the 
earth to be as great as that of steel. These results were obtained 
by employing the Newtonian or equilibrium or tidal theory, which 
supposes that each particle of the earth takes up the position of 
equilibrium. But owing to their inertia they never have time 
to do this completely, for the directions of the external attractions 
are always changing, and Professor Darwin has lately found 
that even the fortnightly oceanic tide could not be more than 
one half the equilibrium height, so that the observed tides seem 
to be actually greater than theory will account for. But, 
according to Mr. Love, " the Tidal Committee of the British 
Association appears to be still doubtful whether there really 
is an appreciable fortnightly (oceanic) tide,"* and both Professor 
Darwin and Sir W. Thomson have come to the conclusion 
that the equilibrium theory cannot be used for the purposes of 
calculation. 

* Quoted by the Kev. 0. Fisher. 



PRESIDENT S ADDRESS —SECTION C. 77 

Still later, Professor Darwin says tliat the lunar 19-yearly tide 
is the only one by which we can hope to test the rigidity of the 
earth. He calculates that this tide would give an oscillation of 
If inches at the poles, and about half that amount at the equator. 
He endeavoured to ascertain whether this tide could be detected 
in the observations made at Kurachi, but found that, if it existed 
at all, it was completely masked by tides due to meteorological 
causes. He concludes that " we must regard it as extremely 
improbable that the 19-yearly tide will ever be detected," and, 
consequently, that " the evaluation of the earth's rigidity appears, 
with present data, to be unattainable." 

In the second of Mr. Hopkins' papei-s, already mentioned, he 
arrived at the conclusion that the earth must at one time have 
consisted of a solid crust, resting on an imperfectly fluid and 
highly incandescent interior ; but, in 1876, Sir W. Thomson 
denied this, and said that if the interior were fluid the solid crust 
must break up by its own weight and sink into it. This opinion 
was based on the supposition that solid rock is more dense 
than when melted ; but experiments have since shown that this 
is not always the case ; and, in 1878, Sir W. Thomson, with 
remarkable candour, abandoned this argument also. Professor 
Hennessy has also pointed out that if the interior increases in 
density downwards an outer crust could not sink into a lower 
stratum, especially as in all probability it would be more or less 
vesicular. 

That the crust of the earth floats on a liquid substratum, and 
is therefore in a state of hydrostatic equilibrium, was the opinion 
of Cordier in 1827, and of Professor G. Belli, of Pavia, in 1850, 
as it was also of both Sir J. Herschel and Sir G. Airy. The 
latter, in 1855, showed that a continental plateau one hundred 
miles broad and two miles high could not be supported by a solid 
globe of the materials we know at the surface, and that, conse- 
quently, it must float by what he called a root. The equilibrium 
need not be exact, although it must be within the limits of 
breakage of the rocks forming the plateau. Again, in 1878, he 
said that the form of the earth was not such as would be taken 
by a solid structure, but such as would be taken by a fluid mass 
with solids floating on it. There is, however, an objection to the 
idea that continents and mountains float by solid roots, which is 
that, if the interior gets hotter the further we leave the surface 
these solid roots would be pushed downward into hotter layers 
and w^ould melt. It may be that in mountain ranges this melting 
below would be compensated by erosion above ; but this would 
not apply to ancient plateaux like Canada and Scandinavia. 

The question was again investigated by Professor Darwin in 
1879. He says that if the earth had a figure of equilibrium 
appropriate to rotation there would be no dry land, for the 
surface of the solid would correspond with that of the ocean. 



78 president's address — section c. 

As there is dry land on the surface, the interior must be in a 
state of stress, and the materials composing it must be strong 
enough to bear this stress. If in any particular place there is a 
stress-difference, and no movement takes place, the materials 
must be at least as strong as matter which would break with 
that stress-difference, and he takes resistance to crushing as 
indicating the strength of the material. The results of his calcu- 
lations show that if the earth is solid it must be at least as strong 
as strong granite ; if there is a crust a thousand miles thick, with 
a gaseous inside, the crust nmst be stronger than granite ; while, 
if the crust is only two or three hundred miles thick, then it 
must be much stronger than granite. In these calculations the 
earth is supposed to be a homogeneous incompressible elastic 
sphere. If the elastic sphere be very compressible, the stress- 
differences would not be so great. From this Professor Darwin 
infers that the interior of the earth is composed of solid 
substances stronger than granite, for he will not allow the only 
alternative, viz., that it is fluid. 

It seems, therefore, that the only valid argument for a solid 
earth is that derived from the tides. But the forces concei"ned 
with the production of the oceanic semi-diurnal fortnightly and 
monthly tides are so complicated that the time of high water at 
any place cannot be calculated with precision, and it is not 
certain that any fortnightly and monthly tides exist. Neither 
can the time of high earth-tide be predicted, and consequently 
these tides cannot be used for estimating the rigidity of the 
earth. With the semi-annual tides, and with those of still 
longer period, it is thought that both oceanic and bodily tides 
can be calculated ; but, unfortunately, these tides are so small 
that they cannot be observed, so that here also the means of 
ascertaining whether bodily tides exist are absent. It is how- 
ever thought, rather vaguely, that if the interior were not very 
rigid, the oceanic semi-diurnal tides would be much less than 
they are. But this has not been demonstrated, and as the land 
and the ocean would perform independent oscillations, it seems 
probable that, even if the interior be fluid, the movements of 
the land might be altogether hidden among the great irregularities 
of the ocean tides. On the other hand, it is difiicult to believe 
that the highly-heated interior is more rigid than the cooled 
crust, and if it is not more rigid than the crust it must be fluid, 
for in no other way can the continents be sustained. It is also 
impossible to believe that oscillations of several miles in 
amplitude can take place on the surface of a rigid sphere; and 
we shall see presently that these movements of the surface are 
not caused by superficial stress-differences, but by plutonic action 
going on in the interior, which seems to be quite incompatible 
with a solid globe. 

Another vague idea entertained by some geologists is that, if 



PRESIDENTS ADDRESS — SECTION C. I\) 

the earth consisted of an immense mass of incandescent liquid, 
covered by a shell only a few miles thick, this shell would have 
no stability, and catastrophes of some sort would be common. 
We are told that if there were a surging mass of molten lava 
everywhere, not far beneath our feet, earthquakes and volcanic 
eruptions would be far more frequent than they are. But why 
should molten lava surge beneath a crust of rock twenty or 
thirty miles thick ? The difficulty is rather to discover causes 
sufficiently powerful to explain the observed movements ; for the 
largest bodily tide would Vje under two feet, and could not influence 
much the position even of molten lava in a volcano like Stromboli, 
for the friction on the sides of the pipe w^ould reduce the move- 
ment almost to nothing. So far as I can judge from published 
opinion, the tendency of geological thought during the last twelve 
years has been in the direction of the idea that the interior of 
the earth is fluid. Deductive reasonings against that idea have 
fallen one by one, while extended observation has more and more 
confirmed the geological argument in favour of a motile interior. 

It must be remembered that the one argument for solidity — 
that of the tides — is an exceedingly complicated one, while the 
arguments for fluidity are simple. If it should ultimately turn 
out that the bodily tides are quite insignificant, or even absent, 
it would not necessarily follow that the earth is solid. It would 
be far more likely that the whole of the conditions of the tidal 
problem had not been taken into consideration, than that 
depressions of five or six miles in depth could take place on the 
surface of a rigid solid body. It seems to be certain that the 
present inequalities of the surface are far greater than can be 
accounted for by the contraction through cooling of a solid globe ; 
and if the interior was not solid when the first crust was formed, 
it cannot be solid now. 

Notwithstanding the opinions held by astronomers like Laplace, 
Sir J. Herschel, Sir G. Airy, M. Delaunay, and Professor 
Newcomb, some geologists have been so much impressed with 
the arguments advanced in favour of a solid earth that they 
have thought it necessary to frame some hypothesis which would 
reconcile physical arguments with geological facts. Mr. Hopkins' 
hypothesis of the existence of subterranean lakes of molten rock 
is one of these, which was at one time held to be probable by 
many geologists, but is now universally abandoned. Another is 
Sir W. Thomson's suggestion that the earth may be a cold sphere, 
around which a stratum of meteoric matter has accumulated, 
heated to the temperature of fusion by collision with the earth. 
Another hypothesis of the same character is the existence of a 
thin fluid substratum between a solid nucleus and a solid crust. 
This idea was originated by Mr. Poulett Scrope, and has been 
advocated by Professor Shaler, Professor Le Conte, M. Roche, 
and the Rev. O. Fisher. There are no special physical or 



80 president's address — SECTION c. 

geological reasons for thinking that a thin fluid substratum exists, 
although, if pressure be a very important agent in solidification, 
the earth may have solidified both from the centre and from the 
surface. Still, as we have to descend into the earth for nearly 
half its radius 1)efore we arrive at the density which iron has at 
the surface, we can with difticulty believe that the outer half is 
solid, unless it be formed of materials less dense than iron, which 
is very improbable. The hypothesis was originated to meet the 
argument founded on the amount of the precession of the 
equinoxes, and, as this objection to a fluid interior has been 
withdrawn, the hypothesis of a ///?>/ fluid substratum will probably 
be abandoned, for it aftbrds but little help towards explaining the 
supposed absence of bodily tides. 

Causes of the Oscillations. 

We are now prepared to examine the principal theories that 
have been proposed to explain the movements of the surface. It 
■would not be necessary, even if it were possible, for me to 
discuss them all. So long ago as 1834 Mr. Grenough, in his 
presidential address to the Geological Society of London, said, 
" the assigned causes of elevation are exceedingly various. One 
author raises the bottom of the sea by earthquakes ; another by 
subterraneous fire ; another by aqueous vapour ; another by the 
contact of water with the metallic bases of the earths and alkalis. 
Heim ascribes it to gas, Playfair to expansive forces acting 
from beneath, Necker de Saussure connects it with magnetism, 
Wrede with a slow continuous change in the position of the 
earth's axis. Leslie figured to himself a stratum of concentrated 
atmospheric air under the ocean, to be applied, I suppose, to 
the same purpose " ; and since then others have been added to 
the list, such as extravasation of water-substance and changes 
in the velocity of the earth's rotation. 

Contractio7i Theory. — The theory that has gained the greatest 
celebrity is the one which attributes the movements of the 
surface to the tangential pressures set up by a cooling and 
contracting globe : a theory which, originating with Descartes 
and Sir I. Newton, was revived in 1816 and 1827 by Cordier, 
followed up by Elie de Beaumont and Constant Prevost in 1829, 
and has since been advocated by Sedgwick, De la Beche, and 
numerous other distinguished geologists. It supposes that the 
earth consists of a shrinking nucleus surrounded by a solid 
crust which, no longer contracting, is gradually left unsupported, 
and periodically adjusts itself to the shrinking nucleus by folding 
along bands which form mountain ranges. 

This theory, so simple and so dramatic, was widely adopted 
both in Europe and in America, but several objections were 
brought forward in 1874 by Captain Dutton in the American 



president's ADDKESS — SECTION c. 81 

Journal of Science, and, independently, by myself in the Geological 
Magazi?ie. It was pointed out that horizontal thrusts through 
more than a hundred miles of rock were impossible ; that the 
theory gave no explanation of tension in rocks, everything 
being done by compression, while normal faults proved that 
rocks nearly everywhere liad undergone tension ; tliat long 
mountain chains with parallel foldings, such as actually exist, 
could not be the result of a collapsing spherical shell, for that 
would give rise to a network of small hills. It was also pointed 
out that the theory failed altogether to explain continental 
elevations, as well as the numerous oscillations in level that had 
occurred in many parts of the world ; and, finally, that as the 
cooling could not have penetrated more than two or three 
hundred miles below the surface, the main body of the earth 
was as hot as ever, so that there was no shrinking nucleus for 
the ci-ust to adjust itself to. Then, in 1881, the Rev. O. Fisher 
calculated that, supposing the earth's crust to have solidified 
at a temperature of 7000° F., the elevations caused by subsequent 
contraction would average eight or nine hundred feet ; while 
if the temperature of solidification was 4000 ' F., then the average 
height of the elevations would be less than two hundred feet. 
But the average height of the actual inequalities of the earth is 
certainly not less than 9500 feet, so that they cannot be explained 
as the result of contraction. Prevost, however, recognised that 
the oceanic depressions could not be due to tangential thrust, 
although he gave no clear explanation of them. Professor 
J. D. Dana, in 1847, first put forward the idea that they were 
due to unequal radial contraction during cooling, and in this he 
was supported by Archdeacon Pratt and Mr. Robert Mallet. 
There are, no doubt, geological reasons for thinking that the land 
area has been increasing, and that the ocean bed has been 
getting deeper since Palieozoic times; but in 1881 Mr. Fisher 
calculated that the mean radial contraction could not have been 
more than two miles, so that a differential contraction of three 
miles, which is the average depth of the ocean, was not probable. 

It was, however, reserved for Mr. Mellard Reade to yive the 
contraction theory its death blow. In his " Origin of Mountain 
Ranges" published in 1886, he pointed out that only a very 
small depth of the crust was subject to compression, and that in 
this thin layer the compression must be greatest at the surface 
and diminish downwards until a level of no strain was reached, 
below which the crust must be in a state of tension. 

The reason for this is easy to see. If we suppose the earth 
to commence cooling by radiation from a melted condition, it is 
evident that the cooling will be most rapid at the surface, for 
the greatest differences in temperature are there. This will 
continue until the surface approaches the temperature due to 
the radiation of heat from the sun, when the shell of greatest 

F 



82 president's address — section c. 

cooling will sink slowly down below the surface. The shell of 
greatest cooling will be the shell of greatest circumferential 
ijontraction, and the amount of circumferential contraction will 
diminish inwards and vanish at tlie level wliere no cooling is 
taking place. The circumferential contraction will also diminish 
outwards towards the surface, where also there will be no 
circumferential contraction, owing to the mean surface tempera- 
ture being kept constant by radiation from the sun. But radial 
contraction would also be going on, and this would vary along 
any one radius, being nothing at the level of no cooling and 
greatest at the surface, where it is the sum of the vvhole radial 
contraction. Now, as the radius is less than the circumference, 
the mean rate of radial contraction is less than the mean rate of 
circumferential contraction ; consequently, the shell of greatest 
cooling, where circumferential contraction is at its maximum, 
must be in a state of tension, while the surface, where radial 
contraction is at its maximum, must be in a state of compression. 
The crust will be formed by an outer shell of compression resting 
on an inner shell of tension, the one passing gradually into the 
other. The level where the one passes into the other will be 
that level where the radial and circumferential contractions are 
^qual. This is the level of no strain, outside of wliich the 
compression gradually increases until it reaches its maximum at 
the surface. 

The subject has been taken up by Mr. C. Davison, Professor G. 
Darwin, and the Rev. O. Fisher. On the supposition that the 
rate of cooling varies as the square root of the time that has 
elapsed since the consolidation of the globe, Mr. Davison 
calculates that if the crust solidified at a temperature of about 
7000° F., about 174,240 millions of years ago, the cooling would 
have penetrated 400 miles into the interior, the level of greatest 
cooling would be 72 miles, and the level of no strain five miles 
below the surface. The supposed data are, however, far too 
great, and Professor Darwin, taking the more reasonable assump- 
tion that solidification took place 100 millions of years ago, 
calculates the level of no strain at two miles deep. He also finds 
that, in ten millions of years, 28^ miles of rock on a great circle 
would be crushed up — that is, rather more than one mile in a 
thousand. Also, that 228,000 square miles would be piled up 
on the top of the subjacent rocks — that is, a cone with a base 
of 228,000 square miles and a height of two or, possibly, three 
miles would be crushed. This would make, in ten njillions of 
years, a mountain chain about a half or a third the size of the 
Himalaya. Evidently the I'esults are much too small to account 
for mountain building during the Cainozoic era. 

Mr. Fisher, on the supposition that the pi"esent internal tem- 
perature gradient is 1° F. in 51 feet, finds that, if the temperature 
of solidification was 7000° F., the level of no strain would be 



president's address — SECTION c. 83 

two miles, and the level of greatest cooling 54 miles below the 
surface. The radial contraction would have been six miles, and 
the mean height of the surface elevations formed by compression 
would be 6^ feet. But if the temperature of consolidation was 
400Q° F., the level of no strain would be three-quarters of a mile, 
and the level of greatest cooling 31 miles below the surface. 
The radial contraction would have been two miles, and the mean 
height of the surface elevations only eight inches. 

These calculations assume that the surface maintains a con- 
stant temperature ; but as this temperature depends upon the 
sun, and as astronomers assure us that the sun is cooling, the 
surface of the earth must be cooling also ; so that the level of no 
strain must be less than the calculated distance — that is less 
than two miles, probably less than one mile below the surface. 

Four other objections can now be brought against the con- 
traction theory. (1) It cannot explain the fact that rocks have 
been depressed far below the level of no strain, and brought up 
again. (2) It cannot explain the contortion of a series of beds far 
thicker than the whole shell of compression. (3) The contortions 
do not resemble those produced by a lateral thrust, which is 
greatest on the surface and diminishes downwards. (-4) The granitic 
and gneissic cores of mountain ranges could not have been forced 
up by so superficial a cause. Professor Claypole notices these 
objections, and, curiously enough, supposes that the depth of the 
level of no strain has been miscalculated. But this is not 
possible. Two distinct lines of reasoning lead to the same result; 
and, indeed, the contraction theory had been virtually slain by 
Captain Button and Mr. Fisher before the existence of the level 
of no strain was discovered. Professor Claypole argues that as 
the centra of earthquakes are sometimes twelve miles or more 
deep, therefore the level of no strain must be more than twelve 
miles deep. This would be true, provided these earthquakes were 
necessarily due to compression caused by contraction. But 
tensile strains, which are relieved suddenly, are much more likely 
to produce earthquakes than compressive strains, and consequently 
the level of no strain lies probably above the earthquake region. 

Mr. Davison has suggested a test by which the contraction 
theory may be tried, although it is one difficult to apply. He 
says that the depth of the level of no strain varies as the square 
root of the time since consolidation, while compression varies 
nearly inversely as the square root of the time, so that folding by 
compression ought to have been much more rapid during the 
early stages of the earth's history than during the latter, and 
the amount of rock folded in any given time ought to decrease 
nearly in proportion as the square I'oot of the time increases. 
Satisfactory evidence to test this deduction is not, pex'haps, 
available at present, but the fact that there are extensive regions 
of the earth's surface which have never been folded since the 



84 president's address — section c. 

commencement of the Palteozoic era seems hardly consistent with 
it, and I think that most geologists would allow that since the 
close of the Jurassic period rock-folding has been quite as active 
as during any former period of equal length. But however this 
may be, the contraction theory is evidently inadequate to 
explain the foi'mation of geosynclinals and synclinoria, and it 
cannot therefore be the true explanation of mountain ranges, 
while it has always been thought incapable of explaining con- 
tinental elevations. Indeed, its effects must be so insignificant 
that they may be dismissed from our consideration ; for, except 
in the deep ocean beds, they must be quite obliterated by 
denudation and deposition. 

Gradation Theory. — Another way in which the equilibrium of 
the earth's crust is disturbed is the removal of rock by wind or 
running water, and its deposition in another place. The theory 
which finds in this the explanation of surface movements may 
be called, if we adopt Mr. W. M'Gee's terminology, the Gradation 
Theory. The transference of matter acts in two ways ; first, by 
altering the load on two portions of the earth's crust, and 
secondly, by changing the positions of the isogeothermal surfaces 
in the earth, or, in other words, by altering the temperature of 
portions of the interior. Although the Gradation Theory includes 
the combined effects of both these reactions, it will be better to con- 
sider each separately, and I will take first the alteration in load. 

This idea was first broached by Sir J. Herschel in a letter to 
Sir C. Lyell, written in 1836, but he did not support it by any 
geological evidence. He says, supposing the earth's crust to float 
on a sea of lava the efiect of transference of pressure brought 
about in this way would be an extremely minute flexure of the 
strata ; but, supposing the layer next below the crust to be partly 
solid and partly fluid, composed of a mixture of solid rock, liquid 
lava, and other masses in various degrees of viscidity and 
mobility, great inequalities might subsist in the distribution of 
pressure, and the consequence might be local disruptions of the 
crust where weakest, and escape to the surface of lava. At 
a later date, in his Physical Geography (1861), he speaks more 
strongly in favour of the theory, and says that any amount of 
pressure and relief which the geologist can possibly require to 
work out his problems are available. The theory was supported 
by Professor James Hall in 1859, and has been widely accepted 
in America, as well as by several French geologists. In England 
it was advocated by Dr. C. Ricketts in 1871, and lately the Rev. 
0. Fisher and several others have written in its favour. In 1845 
Sir C. Lyell added the idea that the depression of a convex 
surface, like that of the earth, would produce foldings and 
crumblings. 

The principal evidence in favour of subsidence being caused by 
deposition is the fact that, at the mouths of large rivers, the 



president's address — SECTION c. 85 

fluviatile deposits extend far below the sea level. Undoubtedly, 
depression and sedimentation go on together here. The depres- 
sion, however, is not always uniform, for, according to Sir C. 
Lyell, there are unceasing fluctuations in the levels of those areas 
into which running water is transporting sediment. It is also an 
undoubted fact that many series of rocks, sometimes 10,000 or 
even 26,000 feet thick, are made up entirely of shallow water 
deposits ; but here also subsidence has not been continuous. 

Captain Dutton says of the Colorado plateau, " the surface of 
the plateau during Mesozoic times coincided very nearly with the 
sea level, but was constantly oscillating from a little above to a 
little below that level, and vice versa. On the whole, the region 
appears to have subsided about as fast as the sediment accumu- 
lated — thus preserving the surface nearly at a constant level." 
The same writer says that the tertiary fresh-water deposits round 
the Uinta Mountains are 10,000 feet thick, and "that these beds 
subsided by their gross weight as rapidly as they grew admits of 
no shadow of doubt." It is also very remarkable that depression 
often takes place along the base of mountain chains just where 
sedimentation has been most rapid. 

On the other hand, the common occurrence of what is known 
as the normal series of deposits shows that subsidence is often 
more rapid than sedimentation, and is not, therefore, caixsed by 
it. Also extensive subsidence has often occurred without any 
great sedimentation. The mammalian fauna of Madagascar 
proves that that island has been united to Africa since the 
Cretaceous period, but the Mozambique Channel is now more 
than 6000 feet deep. The isolation of many other continental 
islands has, no doubt, been caused by subsidence without sedimen- 
tation, and Mr, Mellard Reade points to the Mediterranean and 
to the Gulf of Mexico as other examples. 

Subsidence and sedimentation, no doxxbt, often proceed pan 
passxi ; but, as subsidence can take place without sedimentation, 
it seems probable that in some cases the sinking areas may have 
determined the position of sedimentation ; and if the rate of 
sedimentation exceeded that of subsidence shallow water would 
be constantly maintained. Also, depression has not always 
followed loading. For example, the 4000 to 5000 feet of lava 
in the Deccan did not depress the land below the sea. It may be 
said that this outpouring of lava without subsidence was due to 
the sinking of some neighbouring area in consequence of a loading 
of still greater weight ; but there is no evidence to favour this 
idea, and it cannot apply to the Sandwich Islands, which are more 
than a thousand miles from any area of sedimentation. Neither 
can it explain the rising of the bed of the Arctic Ocean, notwith- 
standing the detritus brought into it by the great rivers of Siberia. 

In 1865 Mr. T. F. Jamieson proposed to explain the con- 
nection between glaciation and subsidence by the weight of the 



8G president's address — sectiox c. 

ice having caused depression, and its removal the subsequent 
elevation of the land, and in this he was followed by Professor 
Shaler, in 1874. M. Adheniar and Dr. Croll had previously 
supposed that the mass of ice had attracted the water by gravi- 
tation, but it has been clearly shown that the phenomena are far 
too complicated to be explained by so simple a supposition, and, 
indeed, do not accord with it. But neither is Mr. Jamieson's 
explanation in accord with the phenomena, for the subsidence did 
not begin until the maximum development of the ice had passed 
away, and the subsequent elevation was continued in spite of the 
second phase of the glaciation, so that the supposed effect followed 
long behind the supposed cause. In 1872 T suggested that these 
movements might have been due to the slow sinking and subse- 
quent rise of the isogeotherms, caused by the formation and 
removal of the ice. Perhaps all three causes may have acted 
together, l)ut certainly the weight of the ice was not the sole 
cause of submersion. 

Thei'e is not much evidence in favour of elevation by unloading. 
Captain Dutton says that those regions which have suffered the 
greatest amount of denudation have been elevated most ; but this 
might equally well be put the opposite way, viz., that those 
regions which have been elevated the most have suffei'ed the 
greatest amount of denudation. Certainly, we cannot suppose 
that mountains ever attained the height wliich they would now 
have if the denuded portions were restoi'ed, so that no doul)t 
elevation has gone on with denudation; but the elevation must 
have been more rapid than the denudation, or else there would be 
no mountains at all ; and elevation must have commenced before 
any denudation took place; consequently, denudation cannot be 
the only cause of elevation. The best case yet made out for 
elevation by unloading is Mr. Gilbert's account of Lake Bonne- 
A'ille. This old Pleistocene lake was 200 by 150 miles in extent, 
but has since dried vip to the comparatively small dimensions of 
the iSalt Lake of Utah. The old lake margins are not level now, 
l)ut arch up over the middle of the old lake, the crown of the 
dome being some 200 feet higher than the base. Mr. Gilbert 
says that the uprising of the old lake bottom was probably caused by 
the drying up of the lake, and the unloading of a thousand feet of 
water. If this is not the cause, the dome must be part of otlier 
undulations which have not yet been noticed, although looked for. 

On the other hand, elcA'ation without unloading has taken 
place during the Cainozoic era in many parts of the Atlantic 
and Pacific Oceans, as well as along the nortliern coast of Siberia. 
Indeed, if elevation was caused only by unloading no land would 
be elevated more than a few feet above the sea — probably there 
would never have Ijeen land at all. Depressioii also often 
accompanies denudation. If it were not so, no land could sink 
under the sea, and yet, undoubtedly, this has occurred many times. 



PRKSIDENT's address SECTION c. 87 

If depression by loading be true, it is evident that the crust 
must rest on a fluid which moves laterally, so that depression in 
one place is compensated by elevation in another ; and this was 
clearly recognised by Sir J. Herschel, the originator of tim 
theory. That areas of elevation and of depression lie alongside 
of each other was the opinion of C. Darwin, although he did not 
suppose that the depression was caused by loading. Messrs. 
Medlicott and Blandford have also pointed out that the great 
plain or depression of the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra 
is probably contemporaneous with the elevation of the sub- 
Himalaya, but they also state that it is not nearly sufficient to 
cause that elevation. 

If the crust of the earth be floating in hydrostatic equilibrium 
on a fluid interior, as seems probable, then alterations in vertical 
pressure, if sufhcient, must produce movements ; and we should 
remember that as these alterations act continuously in one 
direction for long periods of time, on plastic materials, smaller 
changes than we imagine may possibly bring about movements. 
At the same time, it is certain that there are other and more 
powerful hypogene agents at work causing oscillations of the 
surface, and perhaps the formation of geosynclinals is the only 
important movement that can be attributed to denudation and 
deposition. 

, We have next to consider the eflfect produced by changes in 
temperature. Mr. Poulett Scrope has claimed to be the tirst to 
originate, in 1825, the idea that sedimentation would give rise to 
local increase in temperature ; but a perusal of his book, called 
" Considerations on Volcanoes," shows this to be a mistake. He 
says that, as sedimentary rocks ai-e worse conductors than crystal- 
line rocks, the heat of the interior Avould accumulate in " a 
subterranean mass of lava more rapidly than it can pass off" to the 
outside of the globe through the solid crust of over-lying rocks, in 
consequence of their inferior density and conducting powers. It 
is obvious," he says, "that the caloric will be concentrated in the 
lava and continually augment its temperature, particularly that 
of the lower strata, which ai^e the nearest to the source of 
caloric." He further thought that this increase of heat might 
melt a poi'tion of the crust, and in the later editions of his work 
he says that the expansion of the surrounding unmelted rocks 
would force up an axial wedge of molten granite, which, in its 
turn, would give rise to horizontal compression and crushing. 
But his concentration of caloric is by no means obvious, and he 
does not make it clear how rocks, which are strongly compressed, 
can add to their own compression by pushing up matter from 
below. Indeed, the whole hypothesis appears to be impossible. 

The second pai^t of Mr. Babbage's often-quoted letter to Dr. 
Fitton, in 1834, explains his views on the elevation of continents 
and mountain ranges by the expansion of rocks when heated. 



88 president's address— section c. 

He says, " surfaces of equal temperature within the crust must 
be continually changing their form and exposing thick beds near 
tlie exterior to alternations of temperature. The expansion and 
contraction of these strata will probably form rents, raise moun- 
tain chains, and elevate even continents." The letter is very 
vague, but he evidently saw the impossibility of land being 
t^levated above the sea by this cause, unless the rise of the 
isogeotherms was less rapid than sedimentation ; for he says, 
" The whole expansion, however, may not take place until long 
after the filling up of the sea," but he gives no reasons for this 
opinion. 

Sir J. Herschel, who thought of this theory independently of 
Babbage, and enunciated it at the same time as his theory of 
alteration in pressure, applies it to the elevation of continents 
and to the formation of volcanoes, but says nothing about moun- 
tain ranges. However, he states the theory very clearly. He 
says : " With equilibrium of temperature and pressure within the 
earth, the interior isothermal strata will be spherical, but as they 
approach the surface they will conform themselves to the configu- 
ration of the solid portion. But when the concave bottom of 
an ocean is filled by deposition it may become horizontal, or even 
convex, and the isotherms will rise upwards. But if the deeper 
strata be already at the melting point, its level will be raised, 
and the new strata, water included^ will be melted." Lyell misin- 
terpreted Babbage's meaning, which is not very clear, and took 
the expansion to be upwards only, in which case it appears to be 
miserably inadequate to perform the work assigned to it ; but in 
the anniversary address to the Geological Society of London, in 
1859, Professor Phillips, speaking about the theory, said : " If 
we suppose a change of temperature of 100" F. to cause expansion 
in a solid mass 500 miles across, this would occasion a change of 
linear dimensions of above a quarter of a mile in limestone and 
sandstone. If the pressure occasioned by this were relieved by 
one vertical fault it must be 16 miles in height, if by one general 
curve upwards it would have an elevation in the middle of about 
8 miles. Though, in fact, neither of these assumptions as to the 
form of the surface of relief can be adopted, they show how great 
is the power of changing form and relative height generated by 
changing temperature in rock masses." In the same year 
Professor James Hall pointed out that, as a matter of fact, 
mountains had been formed only in areas of great sedimentation, 
but although this evidence added immensely to the probability 
of the theory, it nearly died out, until it was independently 
supported in 1886 by M. Faye and Mr. Mellard Reade. 

I will ask you to allow me to explain a little more precisely 
what is supposed to take place in these thick sediments. If we 
suppose the bottom of the sea to be at a temperature of zero, and 
to be gradually covered up by deposits which attain a thickness 



president's address — SECTION c. 89 

of 50,000 feet, then the base of the new deposits will be gradually 
warmed, by conduction of heat from below, to about 1000° F. 
The temperatui'e of the deposits would gradually diminish 
upwards until it was zero at the new surface. Below the new 
deposits the increase of temperature of the old surface would also 
be 1000° F., and the increase for each layer downwards would 
^a-adually diminish to nothing. Consequently, the level of fusion 
would rise in the old crust nearly .50,000 feet, and the solid crust 
would maintain, approximately, its old thickness. The expansion 
caused by the heat, and, consequently, the internal stresses, would 
be greatest in the old crust, while in the new deposits it would 
diminish upwards to nothing. It is usually supposed that the heat 
would expand all rocks except clay, which at first contracts as part 
of the water is driven off; but it does not seem certain that such 
would actually be the case with deeply buried rocks. It seems 
quite possible that the expansion, which is not much more than 
one inch in two and a half chains for every 100° F., may be well 
within the limits of elasticity of the rocks, in which case 
extension need not necessarily occur. If, however, the heat be 
sufficiently great to produce crystallisation, then the previously 
non-crystalline rocks would probably become denser and contract, 
and thus cause the surface to sink. This is the opinion of Dr. 
Sterry Hunt, Professor Le Conte, Professor Lloyd Morgan, and 
others ; consequently, it is far from certain that the rise of the 
isogeotherms would produce elevation at all. Professor Le Conte 
has suggested that the increasing heat in the newly laid down 
rocks may give rise to chemical action, which would still more 
increase the temperature ; but Dr. Sterry Hunt thinks that any 
chemical processes which might be set up in the buried sediments 
would absorb rather than generate heat. 

Mr. Mellard Reade, who is the ablest exponent of this 
theory, claims that an expansion would certainly take place quite 
sufficient to account for mountain ranges. In his " Origin of 
Mountaiii Ranges," 1886, he says that if an area of 500 miles 
long by 500 broad has its temperature raised by a mean of 1000° 
F., the result would be an expansion of 52,135 cubic miles. 
Now, this heating implies the deposition of more than 50,000 
feet of sediment over the whole area, and does not take into 
consideration any thinning out of the deposits towards the margin. 
Either we must double the area of deposition or halve the effects 
of expansion. Taking the latter as the more probable, we tind 
that the expansion would be sufficient to form a mountain range 
500 miles long, 15,000 feet high, and about 28 miles broad at the 
base, which is not a high nor a. broad range for such exceptionally 
heavy sedimentation ; and even this allows nothing for condensa- 
tion produced by a temperature certainly sufficient to induce 
crystallisation, nor for condensation produced by pressure, nor 
for denudation during elevation, which would reduce the height 



90 president's address — SECTION c. 

by a third at least. Evidently expansion, in the form supposed 
by Mr. Reade, is not capable of producing a large mountain 
range. Indeed it is only by supposing the beds to arch up in a 
dome, as suggested by Professor Phillips, and independently by 
myself in 1872, that sufficient elevation can be attained. But this 
implies that mountain ranges are the remnants of plateaux, which 
I thought to be correct in 1872, but which has been amply disproved. 

There are also many other phenomena connected with the 
formation of mountain ranges which this theory fails to explain. 
In the first place, we have seen that no folding took place in the 
Alps and in the Himalaya, until the linal upheaval began, whicli 
shows, either that the heat does not expand the rocks in the way 
supposed, or that the temperatxire does not rise until just befoi'e 
the final uplift takes place. To me the former seems to be l)y 
far the more probable, but Mr. Mellard Reade takes the latter 
view. He says : " It is extremely probable that while the area 
is subsiding, the isogeotherms are sinking also, and that the after 
raising of temperature, or I'ising of the isogeotherms is an 
extremely slow process." In a later paper, " On Slickensides and 
Normal Faults," published in the P7-o. Liverpool Geol. Soc, 
i888-g^ whicli he kindly sent to me, Mr. Reade says : "So slowly 
does internal heat escape by conduction through the present crust 
of the globe, that the blanketing of sediments, such as we assume, 
will not affect the temperature of the lower layers of the under 
crust till long after the compression induced by expansion in the 
upper layers of rock and in the sediments themselves, has com- 
menced the work of mountain upheaval." I must confess that I 
do not understand either of these I'emarks, and both seem to me 
to be opposed to the laws of thermotics. Certainly they demand 
an explanation before they can be received as probable ; for, as 
we now know, geosynclinals take two or more geological periods 
to form, and it seems certain that the isogeotherms would rise 
nearly as rapidly as the sediments. 

The objection here noticed was urged by Mr. Hopkins in a 
Report to the British Association in 1847, and, in my opinion, it 
has never been fully met. He there says that Babbage's theory 
is inadmissible, because, if it were correct, elevation and not 
depression ought to go with sedimentation ; and that deposition 
is so slow that whenever it ceases, the isogeotherms would very 
nearly have their proper position, so that expansion and deposi- 
tion would cease together. In 1873, I attempted to show that 
sedimentation was, on the average, three times as rapid as the 
rise of the isogeotherms ; but, although this might occasionally 
be the case, I now think that it has been very unusual, and 
cannot have occurred in large geosynclinals, especially during the 
earlier geological periods. 

Another difficulty is, that gentle oscillations, without folding, 
have sometimes preceded the final uplift. If these elevations are 



president's address— section c. 91 

due to the expansion of heated rock, it is difficult to see how, \>y 
the theory, they could have subsided again, for this subsidence 
could only take place by a retreat of the isogeotherms, for which 
no cause is assigned. 

Another and last objection is that the existence in the Sat- 
pura Basin in India, of sediments 22,500 feet thick, which have 
never been plicated, proves that a rise in the isogeotherms is not 
the direct cause of contortion, for if it were so, there would be 
some proportion between thickness and amount of contortion. 
This objection is, I think, fatal to the theory. 

Eighteen years ago, having convinced myself that the con- 
traction theory was quite incapable of performing the duties 
ascribed to it, I advocated the gradation (or as I named it, the 
Herschel-Babbage) theory, which I thouglit would aftbrd a com- 
plete explanation of the phenomena. But since then the survey 
of JS^orth America has opened out to us a new geology quite 
unlike that of Europe, and the surveys of Australasia and India 
have supplied us with many important facts. Moreover, during 
the la.st fifteen years the various theories have been discussed in 
all their bearings by many able geologists, and I now see that 
I was wrong in thinking that the gradation theory offei*ed a 
sufficient explanation. It is evident to me now that this theory, 
although containing some truth, explains minor details only, and 
does not touch the fundamental causes. As has been so well 
stated by Mr. W. J. McGee, in the Geological Magazine for 
November, 1888, it accounts for many of the consequent pro- 
cesses, but not for any of the antecedent processes. It accounts 
neither for regional elevation nor for subsidence ; it gives no 
sufficient explanation of contortions, over-thrusts, and granitic 
cores ; and it supplies no adequate machinery for causing alter- 
nating oscillations of the surface. 

Intertial Changes i?i Temperatin-e. — The contraction and grada- 
tion theories, either separately or together, are evidently incapable 
of explaining the facts. As Professor J. D. Dana has lately 
shown, the deep sea troughs are not the result of superficial 
causes, but of work going on in the interior of the globe, and 
we are driven to look to changes in volume in masses of the 
earth's interior to explain the movements of the surface. Now, 
changes in volume must be due either to changes in density 
caused by changes in temperature, or to changes in the quantity 
of matter at any particular place, caused by internal movements, 
or, possibly, to a combination of both. 

Hydrothermal metamorphism is sometimes cited as a cause 
of increase of volume as well as of decrease of density in rocks ; 
but there seems to be a fallacy here. A combination of water 
with the minerals forming a rock will no doubt decrease the 
density of that rock, but there will be no great increase of 
volume. The metamorphosed rock will not occupy more space 



V2 PRESIDKNT S ADDRESS — SECTION C. 

than the unmetamorphosecl rock and the water did before. If 
"the water can penetrate to the minerals there is room for the 
minerals to expand, and there will be no important increase 
in bulk of the rock. Hydrothermal metamorphism has often 
occurred in large masses of rock which show no signs of having 
Ijeen under great stress, and, consequently, could not have exerted 
great pressure on the surrounding rocks during the process. 
Changes in density giving rise to changes in total bulk must be 
due to changes in temperature, which may be brought about 
■either by mechanical or by chemical means. 

The hypothesis of the mechanical origin of the heat has been 
advocated by G. L. Vose, Professor Wurtz, and R. Mallet. The 
idea is founded on the supposition that the contraction of the 
earth by radiation furnishes the necessary energy, and it falls 
with the contraction theory. No other mechanical theory 
attempts to explain the origin of the movements, and there is 
only one chemical theory, viz., the oxidation of a metallic nucleus 
by the infiltration downwards of surface water. 

This theory was originated by Sir Humphrey Davy in 1808, to 
account for volcanoes, and, although he abandoned it in 1828, it 
was ably supported by Dr. 0. Daubeny. Sir H. De la Beche, in 
1834, was also inclined to think that it might account for 
oscillations of the surface, the subsequent radiation of the heat 
causing depression. " For while," he says, " intense heat was 
developed by the combination of the oxygen of one charge of 
water with the metallic base, no more water covild approach the 
lower body from above until the heat was sufficiently radiated 
or conducted away, and therefore there would be no gradual and 
continued expansion unchecked by contraction." At the present 
day this theory is almost universally abandoned, although it still 
seems to be looked upon with a favourable eye by Px'ofessor 
Judd. But we have no reason to suppose that unoxiclised sodium 
or potassium ever formed a portion of the eai*th since it had a 
solid ci'ust, and iron, which probably exists in the interior, would 
not furnish the necessary heat by the decomposition of water. 
Also, the whole of the present ocean would not oxidise a layer 
more than two miles deep ; so that if oxidation has been the cause 
of the movements, an enormous amount of water must have been 
decomposed. But, as dry land was probably in existence in the 
Archpean era, and has certainly existed continuously since the 
Silurian period, we cannot admit the disappearance of such a large 
body of water. 

Mr. Mellard Reade says : " It is not improbable that large 
masses of the heated globe, far below our thirty-mile zone, 
undergo slow changes which produce fluctuations of temperature 
even in this super-heated zone." Also, that " Chemical re-action 
can hardly yet have ceased, considering the multifarious materials 
of which the globe is composed, and chemical reaction may mean 



president's address — SECTION c. 93> 

increase or diminution of bulk." But, if these things are 
probable, it must be possible to frame a hypothesis explaining 
what the changes are and how they are bi'ought about, which is 
not done. 

When we remember that as the earth cooled slowly from a 
gaseous state, the materials composing it must have arranged 
themselves according to their density, it would seem that, after 
a liquid condition had been attained, convection currents would 
not be possible except on the surface from the poles to the 
equator, and even these would cease as soon as a solid crust was 
formed. Under these circumstances, the deeper parts of the 
earth must be in a state of profound repose with all chemical 
affinities, satisfied for the temperature and pressure, and disturbed 
only by tl.\e attraction of the other heavenly bodies. It is then 
difficult to believe that any chemical reactions on a large scale are 
taking place in the interior masses of the earth, and much more 
difficult is it to suppose that such changes are alternating so as 
sometimes to raise, sometimes to lower, the temperature in the 
same place. At any rate, no one as yet has suggested any 
reasonable explanation of such re-actions, and Dr. Sterry Hunt, 
perhaps our highest authority on this point, says : " The notion 
of a subterranean combustion or fermentation as a source of heat 
is to be rejected as irrational." 

Internal Afoveme7its.—^e have still to consider the hypothesis 
that oscillations of the surface are due to changes in the quantity 
of matter at any particular place brought about by movements of 
a fluid interior. Mr. C. Darwin, in 1838, said that the irruption 
of melted rock into the mountains, which he thought to be a part 
of continental elevation, was caused by some slow but great 
change in the interior of the earth, which, however, he made no 
attempt to explain. Humboldt thought that alterations in the 
molten interior might cause displacements of mass which would 
modify the shape of the earth. Professor J. Phillips, in 1855, also 
thought that the interior of the earth was arranged in con- 
centric layers of difl:erent densities, and that intestine movements 
might cause displacements, the less dense portions accumulating 
on some radii, the more dense on others. Those radii with a 
surplus of less dense material would elongate, while those with 
a surplus of more dense would shrink. Very small internal 
changes, he remarks, M'ould alter the length of a terrestrial radius 
by 2000 or 3000 feet. In this way he explained the formation 
of continental and oceanic areas. He thought that an acidic 
magma, being the first to solidify, would segregate under what 
are the continental areas, leaving the more basic lava in still 
liquid lakes, the solid parts having a tendency to rise, the liquid 
to sink. Professor Prestwich said, in 1888, that great continental 
elevations and depressions are "due, possibly, to the slow trans- 
ference from one area to another of a partially resisting plastic 



^94 president's address — section c. 

medium within contined limits." And Mr. Fisher, who has quite 
lately supported this theory, thinks that a thin liquid substratum 
-exists, which is hotter and therefore less dense under the oceanic 
areas than under the continents, and as the substratum cannot 
be in equilibrium when it is not of equal density at equal depths, 
convection currents take place, the more heated material under 
the oceans flowing towards the continental areas and descending 
there, while new upwaixl currents are started under the oceans. 
The surface currents, he also thinks, tend to carry the crust 
nvith them and thus compress it. The immediate cause of these 
■movements, he says, is the heat of the interior, but he makes no 
attempt to explain why the liquid substratum under the oceans 
should be constantly more highly heated than that under the 
continents, and the hypothesis requires an unequal distribution 
of temperature in the interior which does not appear to be 
possible. 

There is some independent evidence, although it is slight, to 
show that internal movements do actually take place in the earth. 
Professor Newcomb, from some observed irregularities in the 
moon's motion, infers that the i"otational velocity of the earth 
is not constant, but irregular, and he suggests as an explanation 
the flow of a large mass of internal fluid from equatorial to polar 
i-egions, and vice versa. Also, Captain F. G. Evans, in 1878, 
stated his opinion that certain changes known to have taken 
])lace in terrestrial magnetism are caused, not by any external 
.agency, but by movements going on in the interior. Mr. Fisher 
flnds another reason in the thinness of the earth's crust, which, 
he says, pi'obably does not much exceed 25 miles. He calculates 
that if the fluid interior was quiescent the crust would have 
attained a thickness of 25 miles in eleven millions of years, and 
as a much longer time than that, he thinks, has elapsed since 
solidification of the exterior took place, there must be some agent 
at work preventing the crust from thickening. This agent he 
holds to be convection currents, which, coming up from below, 
luelt off" the inner layers. 

But assuming that internal currents take place, we have at 
present no adequate explanation of the cause. Professor Phillips' 
hypothesis gives no explanation of alternating movements, and 
therefore does not recommend itself as a sufficient cause of oscil- 
lations. The only possible efficient motor seems to me to be 
bodily tides. Humboldt, in his "Cosmos," quotes Ampere as 
Ijeing of opinion that bodily tides must exercise considerable 
force, and that it was difficult to conceive how the crust resisted 
them. He also says that Poisson allowed the existence of bodily 
tides, but regarded them as inconsiderable, " as in the open sea 
the effect hardly amounts to fifteen inches." That some tidal 
deformation must exist is also allowed by Professor Darwin, and 
this tidal deformation will be greatest in the outer layers and 



president's address — SECTION c. 95 

diminish towards the centre, whei"e it will vanish. It is hardly 
possible that the crust is sufficiently strong or sufficiently elastic 
to resist all outward movement ; far more likely it yields to the 
pressure, and in that case it seems probable that, owing to 
unequal yielding of the crust, slow currents might be set up in 
the fluid layers immediately underlying it. The daily oscillations 
of the pendulum observed by Professor Milne in Japan, and by 
M. Plantamour on Lake Geneva, may, in fact, be due to tidal 
pulsations.* 

The short period semi-diurnal tides must cause confused 
movements, if any, but the longer period lunar fortnightly and 
19-y early tides, as well as the solar semi-annual and annual 
tides, would tend to produce steadier currents. However, the 
effects of these bodily tides must be very small. 

If internal currents really exist it seems pi'obable that eleva- 
tion and subsidence of the surface would follow on the principle 
stated by Professor Phillips. If movements take place in an 
internal fluid which increases in density downwards, the mean 
density along any one radius would be variable, and, as the mass 
along each radius would remain nearly constant, the length of 
the radii would vary or would try to vary. Now, as the tempe- 
ratui'e of fusion, as well as the conductivity, is ditterent in 
different rocks the solid crust cannot have a uniform thickness ; 
and as the strength or coherence of a rock is independent of both 
those properties, the surface of the fluid interior must be opposed 
Ijy unequal resistances. This being so, suppose a slow current of 
less dense and more superficial material to set from A to B, and 
a deeper return current of denser matter, but of smaller volume, 
to set from B to A, then there will be a tendency to elevate the 
crust in the neighbourhood of B and to depress it in the neigh- 
bourhood of A. If we further suppose that at some place in the 
neighbourhood of B the crust was weaker than elsewhere, then 
that part would be more elevated, and the current of superficial 
molten matter would set to it. The position of this Aveak place 
might have been determined by previous sedimentation having 
raised the melting point in the old crust, while the newer 
sediments were not so consolidated as the old ones, as suggested 
by Dr. Sterry Hunt and Professor Dana. Or, as suggested by 
Mr. Fisher, contraction of the lower sedimentary rocks by 
metamorphism might have foi'med fissures into which the sub- 
jacent molten rock could force its way. If the crust was 
sufficiently strong to bear the strain, regional elevation would 
take place, or a mountain range of the Uinta type might be 
formed. But if the crust gave way the molten matter would be 
forced into the fracture, would crush and contort the rocks on 
each side, and a mountain range on the alpine type would be 

* Since this address was delivered I have learnt that Mr. H. C. Russell has observed earth 
pulsations in Sj dney. ( Vide Roy. Soc. iV.S. W., vol. XJX., 1885, p. 51). 



96 president's address— section c. 

formed. Or, if the flow of material still continued towards the 
same place, a mountain range on the Andean type would be the 
result. It is possible that with an elastico-viscous crust capable 
of taking a permanent set and a viscid interior, bodily tides 
might produce forced oscillations of the surface very different in 
character to the tides of a fluid body, and that slow movements 
might continue long after the exciting cause had ceased. In 
this way the irregularities in earth pulsations may possibly be 
accounted for. 

This is to some extent a return to the views of Dr. James 
Hutton, but he and his followers conceived tlie breaking of the 
crust to be followed by an impetuous rush of molten granite, 
carrying everything before it, and forming a mountain chain at a 
single stroke. But. in 183tS, 0. Darwin taught that mountain 
chains were formed, not by one enormous overflow, but by a long- 
succession of small movements, each being due to the injection of 
molten rock, which became solid during the intervals ; and 
this view of the injection of granite harmonises well with the 
hypothesis that the injection is due, indirectly perhaps, to bodily 
tides a few inches in height. 

Mountain ranges are said to be of all ages, and this is true in a 
sense, but not in the same sense that sediments are said to be of 
all ages. Sedimentation is always going on in some part of the 
globe : it is a continuous phenomenon, as also is oscillation of the 
surface. But mountain building shows a kind of periodicity. 
Mountains are produced at certain periods which alternate with 
longer intervals of comparative repose, these intervals being of 
unequal length. This has always been recognised by geologists, 
and in the early days gave I'ise to the hypothesis of catastrophes. 
When advancing knowledge showed the incorrectness of general 
catastrophes, the uniformitarian doctrine came to be believed, 
and the periodic movements of the crust were put down to the 
shrinking of a cooling nucleus ; they were no longer catastrophes, 
but paroxysms. This explanation disappears with the contraction 
theory, but the fact of periodicity in certain earth movements 
still remains, although the paroxysms are now regarded as relative 
and not absolute or sudden. These periods of relative paroxysmic 
movement by the theory now under discussion are due chiefly to 
periodic weakenings of the crust in difierent places caused by the 
accumulation of sediments, which thus allow the outflow of 
currents of a fluid interior. 

Sir H. De la Beche, in 1834, pointed out how the association 
of granite with contorted rocks is so common that there must be 
something connected with the former which has had an influence 
on the latter. The injection of a large mass of molten matter 
would, he said, produce a state of things favourable to contortion, 
but if the intruding mass was more solid the conditions would be 
still more favourable, and, he continued, we can readily conceive 



president's address— sectiox c. 97 

thcit the sedimentary rocks of the Alps have been squeezed 
laterally by the pressure on theui of the gneiss and other rocks of 
the central chain. The addition of C. Darwin's hypothesis of a 
series of small injections each, as a rule, hardening before the 
next took place, makes this explanation still more probable, and 
it also agrees with the fact that the thrust has always come from 
the central and most disturbed districts, and not from the flanks. 
Also, as we now know that granite is transformed into gneiss by 
pressure, the occurrence of a gneissic zone surrounding the 
granite and unconformable to the overlying sedimentary rocks is 
accounted for without supposing the presence of Archtean rocks 
wherever mountain uplifts have taken place. 

Again, the common occurrence of granite in tne central axis of 
a mountain chain, and of h>asic volcanic rocks on one or l)oth 
flanks, cannot be accidental, and is partly explained by this 
hypothesis, which supposes the withdrawal of the upper acidic 
magma to the axis of the mountains, leaving the crust on the 
flanks to rest upon more basic material. In the same way it 
explains why the rocks brought up by oceanic volcanoes are 
almost exclusively basic. 

If the hypothesis be correct, it would follow that mountain 
ranges need not have solid roots to support them, as supposed by 
Sir G. Airy and Mr. Fisher. These roots may be liquid, and 
held in their position by the curvature of the crust, although 
constantly changing a little in volume and producing oscillations 
of the surface. Fluid roots would account for all the phenomena 
of the plumb-line and of the pendulum equally as well as solid 
roots, but Mr. Fisher objects that if the molten magma rose up 
into the base of the range the increase of underground tempera- 
ture would be greater in mountainous regions instead of being, 
as it is, less. But the form and position of the isogeotherms near 
the surface is a very comj^licated matter, and certainly does not 
rest upon this one point alone. Probably the less rapid increase 
of underground temperature in mountains than in plains is due 
to the far greater facilities for the downward percolation of 
surface water in the former than in the latter regions ; and this 
seems to accord better with the fact that hot springs are com- 
monly found in mountains. 

Conclusion. — Professor J. D. Dana has lately shown that there 
is a system in the feature-lines of the earth's surface which is 
world-wide in its scope ; and, since these feature-lines have been 
developed with the progress of geological history, the system 
must have had its foundation at the earth's genesis, and has been 
developed to full completion with its growth. Consequently, this 
system cannot be due to superficial causes, but must come 
primarily from systematic work within. Prof essor G. H. Darwin 
has attributed this systematic work to the moon, which, as the 
crust of the earth solidified, raised wrinkles on its surface ; and it 

G 



98 president's address — section c. 

seems almost certain that it must in some way be due to the 
attractions of the sun and moon, for no other reasonable hypo- 
thesis can be suggested. No doubt the theory that oscillations of 
the surface are due to internal moAements set up by bodily tides 
rests at present on no observational basis. But there are reasons 
for thinking that such internal inovements are possible, or even 
piobable ; and, if such movements do actually take place, the 
theory gives a simple and fairly complete explanation of the 
surface movements. 

In both regional and mountain upheaval we find a very slow 
subsidence followed by a comparatively rapid elevation, the 
principal difi'erence between them being that in a mountain 
range granite has broken through the crust and the sedimentary 
rocks have been metamoi-phosed and plicated, while in regional 
upheaval there is no visible granite and the sedimentary rocks 
liave been stretched. These two types, it must be remembered, 
are not isolated but connected by others, which thus afford 
additional evidence of the unity of the elevatory force. If the 
lateral pressure, the effects of which are plainly visible in 
mountain ranges, is caused by expansion of the sedimentary 
i-ocks, as the gradation theory supposes, then it must be quite 
a different thing from the vertical pressure which causes regional 
uplifts, and there is no reason why the two should so often 
occur together. But if the lateral pressure be due to the irrup- 
tion of granite, then the force which causes uplifts causes lateral 
pressure as well. In other words, the only difference between 
the two kinds of uplift is that in one the molten interior has 
broken through the crust and contorted it, while in the other 
case it has not done so. 

The cause of the difference between the two kinds of uplift 
seems to be the amount of previous sedimentation on the area. 
If sedimentation has been very heavy the crust is, in some way, 
so weakened that the granite breaks through. But if previous 
sedimentation is not heavy the crust remains sufficiently strong 
to resist breakage, and a series of oscillations may follow, until 
at last the sediments attain the necessary thickness, the crust 
is broken through and pei'nianent elevation takes place. This 
explains why regional uplifts followed by subsidence have often 
preceded the mountain uplift which terminates for a time the 
series of oscillations. If it should be proved that areas of 
elevation and depression always lie alongside one another, and if 
this holds for ocean beds as well as for continents, it will go far 
to prove the theory, for there is no other explanation but that 
of internal movement. 

I have thus tried to give you as complete an account as I can 
of the present position of theory on this fundamental problem of 
dynamical geology. You will notice that during the last fifty 
years investigation has been more destructive than constructive, 



president's address — SECTION c. 99 

but progress has been made. Formidable obstacles have been 
removed, and much new information has been gained. No doubt 
the outlook is still foggy, but the horizon is clearing, and we may 
hope that when we have fuller knowledge of the movements of 
the crust we shall find a clear explanation of their cause. And 
now, as I bring my address to a close, the thought will come that 
you may say all this is mere speculation which can never be 
verified, and not true science. I readily acknowledge the truth 
of the criticism, but in my defence I will quote a passage from 
Dr. Whewell's " Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences." He says, 
" Who can attend to the appearances which come under the 
notice of the geologist,— strata regularly bedded, full of the 
remains of animals such as now live in the depth of the ocean, 
raised to the tops of mountains, broken, contorted, mixed with 
rocks such as now flow from the mouths of volcanos, — who can 
see phenomena like these and imagine that he best promotes the 
progress of our knowledge of our earth's history by noting down 
the facts and abstaining from all inquiry whether these are really 
proofs of past states of the earth and of subterraneous forces, or 
merely an accidental imitation of the eSects of such causes ? In 
this and similar cases, to proscribe the inquiry into causes would 
Ije to annihilate the science." 




oi2 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS IN SECTION D. 

BIOLOGY. 

By PKOFESSOE A. P. W. THOMAS, M.A., F.L.S., F.G.S. 



In the choice of the subject for a presidential address, much 
latitude is allowed by precedent, and the arrangement is, no 
doubt, an advantageous one from the point of view of the pei'son 
called upon to occupy a position which has its responsibilities as 
well as its honours. An address from the president of one of our 
sections may, it apj^ears to me, take one of three directions : it 
may deal with general topics, or review recent advances in that 
science to which the section is devoted, or it may give a general 
account of work to which the speaker has given special attention. 

The growth of the biological sciences has been so great that 
even the barest review is impracticable in the compass of an 
hour's address, whilst the increase of specialisation is so great 
that it can seldom happen that a worker's own particular line of 
study can be of much interest to all his hearers, whose labours 
probably lie in very dift'erent directions. I have refrained, there- 
fore, fi'om choosing a subject suggested by my own research and 
propose to speak to you on more general topics, and more particu- 
larly on that part of the work of this Association which falls to 
the share of those who attend in the section of Biology. 

In the main object of the Association- — the advancement of 
science — all sections are interested alike, and in one of the chief 
advantages of our meeting all share alike. Every scientific 
worker needs to meet his fellows ; he is strengthened and stimu- 
lated by talking to sympathetic minds on those subjects wdiich 
engross so large a portion of his intellectual life. If this need is 
felt in England, how much more must it be felt in this new 
Southern world, where the population is scattered, and where a 
man may find himself many days' travel from the possibility of 
intercourse with those who follow the same branch of study. I 
need not insist on this, for who has not felt the mental stimulus 
of conversation, and been surprised at times with the clearness 
and vigour with which ideas present themselves to the mind 
whilst speaking to one who can give both sympathy and just 
criticism ? 

Further, there is presented in the meetings of this Association 
an opportunity for workers in every department of knowledge to 
discuss and arrive at conclusions on the important topics of the 



president's address — SECTION D. 101 

day — conclusions which, as the united opinion of the Association, 
may have their full weight in questions of public moment. As 
Emerson has well said, it is agreed that in the sections of the 
British Association moi'e information is mutually and effectually 
communicated in a few hours than in many months of ordinary 
correspondence and the printing and transmission of ponderous 
reports. 

The general aim of our Association is declared to be the 
advancement of science. For this advancement many workers 
are needed, and for this, as well as for other reasons, it will be 
the duty of the Association to consider the place taken by science 
in colonial education. Royal Commissions and leading men in 
every department of human thought have recognised the necessity 
of the introduction of a liberal measure <jf scientific knowledge 
and training into ovir systems of education. Nevertheless, the 
day when science will take its proper position as a means of 
education appears to be far off. It is still a common thing for a 
boy or girl to pass through their schooldays without any scientific 
ti'aining ; it is still the usual thing for university degrees to be 
granted to students who have no knowledge of the scientific 
methods which have revolutionised modern thought and action. 

Many causes combine to pi't)duce this state <jf matters — not only 
vested interests and stubborn traditions, but also a lack of 
teachers competent to give instruction in science, and some 
uncertainty as to what subjects are to be taught, and Ikjw they 
are to be taught. 

It is alleged, further, that no time can be found in the school 
curriculum for science. I remember only too well that in my 
schooldays I spent some six months in tinkering at Latin verses 
— a cruel and barbarous waste of time. Fortunately, in many 
schools this particular abuse has been removed, but subjects are 
still retained whose only claims to their prominence are those of 
fashion and tradition. 

It is not my intention to enter into the question of the relative 
merits of difterent branches (jf study, and still less to depreciate 
the value of any subject in particular, but it is necessary to point 
out constantly that in matters of education the choice must be 
given to that which is most valuable : hence prominence must he 
given to those studies which teach us how to conform our actions 
to the laws of the world of nature in which we are placed. The 
study of natural law is science, and it appears a remarkable 
circumstance that the learning of these laws should occupy 
so insignificant a portion of education. 

It is clear that, if science-teaching is to be extended, the study 
of science must foi'm an integral part of the training of the 
teacher. Let me give you an instance of this, which has come 
under my own observation. The mainstay of New Zealand, as 
well as of the other Austrtilian colonies, is unquestionably agri- 



102 president's address — SECTION D. 

culture. Being desirous of helping in the introduction of more 
scientific and, therefore, of truer and more economical methods of 
cultivation than the primitive ones still so largely employed in 
the colonies, it appeared to me that one measure which would 
harmonise with the local conditions would be to ofier pi-izes for 
agricultural science, to be competed for in the public schools. I 
found, however, that such a course would be useless. It was true 
that teachers were allowed to take the subject as one of the class 
subjects for the standard examinatiDns, but the regulation was a 
dead letter. I was informed that the subject could not possibly 
be taught, because teachers could not be found who had any 
acquaintance with it. The cause of this neglect of so important 
a subject — one, too, which the Education Department had some 
desire to encourage — was easily discovered. The regulation for 
teacher's cei'tificates in New Zealand recognised a great, variety of 
subjects, many of them of a highly ornamental character, including 
Greek and Italian, but nowhere was the subject of agriculture, or 
science applied to agriculture, recognised. And yet the subject 
is one of fundamental importance, for a larger proportion of the 
population has need of a knowledge of the principles of agricul- 
tural science than of any other subject bearing upon human 
industries. 

So long as science is practically excluded from the examinations 
for teachers' certificates and degrees, so long will it be impossible 
to introduce any real teaching of science into the schools. And 
I would remark here that it is necessary that the habits of obser- 
vation and inference from observation should be acquired whilst 
the mind is young and still in a plastic condition. It is said that 
one who desires to attain a complete mastery of the violin must 
begin to practise whilst still little more than an infant, or other- 
wise the joints and tendons of the hand stiffen so as to impede 
the necessary freedom of action. So it is with the sciences which 
deal with the observation of nntural objects : the cultivation of the 
power of observation must conunence before the mind stiffens into 
indifference from lack of use. The training of the future workers 
of this Association should then begin whilst they are at school. 

But the question is very far from being merely that of the 
acquisition of workers b;y this Association. The advancement of 
science is synonymous with human progress, and if the develop- 
ment of scientific training will add a few recruits to those who 
endeaAour, by patient and labori( )us research, to penetrate further 
into the secrets of nature, it will add far more to the army of 
industrial woi'kers M'ho apply the knowledge already gained by 
scientific workers to the advancement of the social and material 
welfare of man. 

Thei-e is one impediment to the progress of scientific education 
in its early stages which this Association may do something to 
overcome. If any time is given to science in schools, the subject 



president's address— SECTIOX I). 103 

chosen is usually chemistry, and it is taught as if each boy were 
to be trained as an analytical chemist, whilst little attempt is 
made to render the subject a real instrument of mental training. 
It has always appeared to me that the science-teaching in schools 
should be far less specialised, that it should cover a much wider 
field, that it should, for instance, invariably include some know- 
ledge of the physical properties of matter, and both of plant-life 
and animal life. But T attach far more importance to the train- 
ing to be derived from these subjects than to the actual know- 
ledge of facts which may be gained. The British Association has 
a committee appointed to consider the improvement of science- 
teaching, and certain recommendations have recently been 
published through the colunnis of A'fl'///?'^ which, to a large extent, 
follow the lines I have indicated, and these I would earnestly 
recommend to your attention. 

There is another educational subject about which I wish to 
say a few words, namely, the development of Natural History 
museums as educational institutions. It is a subject on which I 
have had occasion to think and write for some years, and it is 
one with which biologists are especially concerned, for a very 
large proportion of the natural objects which are accumulated in 
such museums are either plants or animals. It has always 
appeared to me that a museum can be, and should be, made a 
most powerful means of j)opular education ; but in going through 
museums in many parts of the world, the feeling has again and 
again been forced upon me that in this respect they are failures. 
Walking around the well-stored courts and galleries which teem 
with treasures from all quarters of the world, I have observed 
the visitors. Perhaps they are standing before a case of tropical 
birds, and you may think that to their imagination is presented 
the tangled luxuriance of a ti'opical forest, the warm air filled 
with the ciies of the birds as they flit from tree to tree, or climl) 
along the branches in search of insects or fruit ; whilst in the 
svmshine, amongst the flowers, the humming birds dart with flash 
of ci-hnson, sap2:)hire and gold, now poised for a moment in front 
of a flower, with the long bill inserted into its calyx in search of 
honey, now with a gleam of brilliant colour away to seek food 
elsewhere. The naturalist may see all this and much more, but the 
ordinary visitor only sees rows of dead stuffed birds of various 
colours and sizes, which appeal to his mind no moi"e than the 
stufted birds you may see in a milliner's shop. He does not even 
know the names of the birds, for although there are labels with 
the Latin names set ovit at full length, the Latin repels the 
unaccustomed eye, and is therefore disregarded. It may be said, 
perhaps, that museums are not for such people. My sympathies, 
however, are altogether with these visitors. I believe that our 
mviseums ought to provide for them in the first place, that they 
ought to attract and instruct them. 



104 president's address — SECTION D. 

There are two reasons why museums achieve so little of the 
good which may reasonably be expected from them. The first 
reason is that it is assumed that the visitors have a considerable 
knowledge of the objects exhibited. No mistake could be more 
fatal. It is true that most visitors are acquainted with sundry 
facts in natural history, but this knowledge goes a very little way 
in collections arranged for the benefit of the specialist. The 
ordinary visitor is not a trained zoologist, he is not familiar with 
the objects exhibited, his powers of observation have probably 
never been cultivated, and he is ignorant of the way in which 
every point of structure in an animal corresponds with the use of 
the part. Thus, he does not observe the differences between the 
stout legs of the ostrich, used for running, the comparatively 
slender legs of the stork, used for wading, and the short legs 
with webbed toes of the swimming birds, for he does not know 
that from the structure of an animal its habits of life may be 
inferred. The birds stand in the museum on pieces of wood in 
solemn rows, away from their natural surroundings, and there is 
no descriptive label to give any indication ; all that the visitor can 
learn is that the ostrich is called Stri/thio, and the stork Cico?iia. 
How much profit has he derived from his visit to the museum 1 

The second reason why museums fail to eftect their purpose is 
that they do not present a true picture of nature or of the 
working of natural laws. It has been abundantly shown by 
modern research that there is the closest connection Ijetween any 
organic being and its surroundings. The animal is a living being, 
influenced at every moment by other living beings around it ; by 
its food supply ; by climatic and all other external conditions. 
So the stuffed animal of the museum, remo^'ed from its natural 
environment, does not ti'uly represent the animal in life. What 
is the real interest attached to an animal 1 Is it so many square 
inches of brown fur 1 Is it not rather its life ? And what 
instruction is to be gathered from it ? Is it not instructive as an 
exemplification of the laws to which organic beings are subject 1 

It is over 30 years since Darwin pointed out how important 
and intimate were the relations of living beings to their environ- 
ment. His teaching infused new life into the study of Biology 
but the enthusiasm does not seem to have extended to museums. 
One would think that the " Origin of Species " had never entered 
the doors of a museum. Most museums seem to be arranged 
chiefly, though most inadequately, with regard to the wants of 
the specialist, and the general public are scarcely thought of. But 
they fail in providing for both classes, for a specialist's museum 
is about as much use to the general public as a Greek author is to 
one who does not know the Greek alphabet. The specialist, too, 
is badly provided for. He cannot study the objects as they stand 
in the museum, locked up in glass cases, imperfectly visible and 
inaccessible. 



president's address — SECTION D. 105 

I believe, therefore, that museums, open to the general public, 
should be arranged solely with reference to their wants. Such 
museums will, howevei', be available to all, for the specialist will 
be at home in the museum, howeA'er it be arranged. Two rules, 
at least, it seems to me, should guide us in preparing the part of 
tlie museum intended for the general public. (1) It must not be 
assumed that the visitor possesses any knowledge of the objects 
exhibited. The information should be conveyed by the arrange- 
ment or grouping of the objects, and, wliere this is not possible, by 
an ample system of descriptions written in plain English. (2) We 
must represent an animal as a living being, and in such a way as 
to illustrate the working of the laws of nature. To do this we 
must endeavour to place it in surroundings I'esembling those in 
which it naturally lives. 

This subject of museum i*eform is no new-fangled oiie. Nearly 
twenty-six years ago Gray drew the attention of the British 
Association to the need of improvement in museums, and expressed 
^iews which do not greatly differ from those expressed by Pro- 
fessor Flower, as the president of the British Association, at the 
meeting held last September at Newcastle. There is one point in 
Professor Flower's addi'ess which is especially noteworthy. He 
says that " what a museum depends upon most for its success and 
usefulness is not its buildings, not its cases, not even its speci- 
iliens, but its curator. He and his staff are the life and soul of 
the institution, upon whom its whole value depends ; and yet in 
many — I may say in most — of our institutions they are the last 
to be thought of. " 

If the public museum is to he a means of popular education, it 
follows that its curators must be teachers of the people — that 
they must possess the gift of popular exposition. The functions 
of the curator of a museum are held by some to be those of a 
caretaker, just sufficiently skilled to name and catalogue the objects 
under his charge. But in the larger museums it is expected that 
the cui'ator will use the materials accumulated there for the 
purjDOse of advancing knowledge. Now, it is genei-ally believed 
by those who have had opportunities for observation that the 
combination of teaching with research in the professorial chairs 
has led to the most successful results in European universities ; 
and I venture to think that the endeavour to set forth and 
illustrate the fundamental laws of nature Ijy the arrangement and 
tlescription of a popular museum would be an actual assistance to 
the curators in their work of reseai-ch. Some progress is l^eing 
made in a few English museums, as at South Kensington, towards 
improving their condition, but though the principle on which the 
much-needed reform is to be carried out may be clear enough, 
there is much to be done in working out the details of the sclieme. 
Though this work naturally falls to the curators, it is yet a work 
of such magnitude, and one so obviously calculated to advance 



106 president's address — SECTION D. 

biological science, that I have not hesitated to bring the subject 
forward for the consideration of this section. 

Amongst the work in which this section is especially interested, 
the study of the remarkal)le fauna and floi'a of Australasia must 
take a prominent place. With the view of facilitating this work, 
a committee has already been appointed to prepai'e a catalogue of 
all scientific papers dealing with Australasian biology. A neces- 
sary part of the work will consist in the collection and exami- 
nation of all the living forms found within the Australasian area. 
This task of cataloguing an enormous series of plants and animals 
is, in many respects, an ungrateful one ; it is one which is little 
appreciated by the public, and at which even scientific workers 
are sometimes inclined to scoff. Nevertheless, it is absolutely 
necessary that it should be done, for we know not how soon the 
knowledge of even the obscurest form may attain impoitance for 
scientific or economic reasons. We owe, then, our truest thanks 
to air those indefatigable workers who are content to de^^ote their 
lives or leisure to some special group of living beings, be they 
beetles (jr diatoms. 

Having thus acknowledged our indebtedness, we may, perhaps, 
be allowed to point out some of the failings of specialisation. It 
may be freely granted that the vast acquisitions of modern 
science render the evil of specialisation unavoidable — all who 
desire to extend knowledge must take up this cross. In biology, 
the rule, " Know a little of everything and all of something," is as 
safe a guide as in other pursuits ; but the specialist is apt, in his 
enthusiasm, to lose touch with the workers in other fields, and to 
disregard the advances made in his subject as a whole. It is 
well to remind oui'selves that the end of biological study is not 
merely to name and describe new species. In the light of modern 
science the species is but the expression of a passing stage oi 
development of a long line of descent — the real objects of interest 
are the individuals ; and the worker who takes the trouble to join 
together species by the demonstration of the intermediate links is 
more entitled to the gratitude of the world than the one 
who founds a fi'esh species for every local variety. We have, 
unfortunately, seen too much of the foundation of new species 
on imperfect data, or even on single mutilated specimens. The 
description of those superficial characters of the dead organism 
by which it may be identified is but the beginning of the 
biologist's work, and one who rests content with tliis is like the 
traveller who, setting forth on a long journey, stays at the first 
inn on his rf»ad. The way may he long and difficult, but the end 
of the journey is not here — the journey lies not fo this but 
through this, to the promised land of a more complete knowledge 
of the ]aws of life. 

To reHch our end we require to study the orijanism as a living 
entity, to study it in relation to its surroundings, to follow the 



president's address — SECTION D. 107 

long history of its race. Tlie study of the life-history of the 
organism is, thei'efore, one of great importance ; and though it is^ 
not work which can be hurried, but demands long and patient 
observation, it is a task which is a satisfaction in itself, and is 
fruitful in valuable results. 

In addition to our special work, dealing with the extensive 
fauna and flora of Australasia, we have the same fundamental 
problems before us as our fellow-workers in the Northern Hemi- 
sphere. We have introduced many of the familiar plants and 
animals of Europe — too many, indeed, as witness the rabbits. 
We have introduced, too, into our midst a large proportion of the^ 
parasitic diseases of Europe. Is not Victoria known to scientitic 
students all over the world as the sjDot scourged beyond all other 
spots in the world, save one, by the insidious Echinococcus, 
productive of hydatid disease ? So, too, with reference to stock. 
I once had occasion, in New Zealand, to examine the internal 
parasitic diseases of sheep and in a single sheep found no fewer 
than ten different kinds of parasites, all of them forms which 
must have been introduced from Europe, for there are no 
indigenous parasites to attack sheep. 

Again, we have allowed many of the worst microbic diseases of 
the old world to acclimatise themselves with us. We have- 
typhoid, scarlatina, diphtheria, consumption, and many another 
disease. Of the ravages of the typhoid parasite I need hardly 
speak, for wall non this fell disease to-day claim and be allowed to 
take its score of victims from this colony alone ? 

There is still much work to be done with reference to these 
injurious forms of life, but when we attain a fuller knowledge of 
them we may hope at least to control their ravages, if not 
actually to exterminate them. 

During the last few years there has been a marked tendency 
for the most able workers in biology to concentrate their atten- 
tion upon questions of a fundamental character. The question 
of the nature of life and the elementary properties of living 
bodies have attracted the greatest interest, and though we are 
still far from being able to answer the question. What is life ? 
important advances \\&\e been made, sufficient to hold out ample 
encouragement to renewed efforts. When the microscope was 
applied to the study of animal and plant structure, it was found 
that all, except the simplest elementary organisms, were composed 
of vast numbers of units of structure to which the name of cells 
was given. It was recognised that the essential part of the cell 
was of a viscid material, neither solid nor fluid, colourless, 
and having the general appearance of a dusty jelly, though 
far from having the composition and properties of mere jelly. 
To this living matter the term protoplasm was applied, and 
for a long series of yeai's it was deemed sufficient to i-efer all the 
characters of living bodies to the properties of the protoplasm. 



10<S president's address — SECTION D. 

Such reference to protoplasm was, however, no explanation, though 
it was the first step towards an understanding of the problems of 
living matter. For many years Max Schultze's definition of 
protoplasm was generally accepted. He regarded the protoplasm, 
or cell-substance, as a liomogeneous, glassy, and transparent sub- 
stance, viscid, or of firmer consistence. The cell-substance 
contained a nearly homogeneous nucleus of rounded form, which, 
in turn, contained the nucleoli. The cell-substance was regarded 
as sepax'able only into the homogeneous groundmass or protoplasm 
and the numerous imbedded granules. 

Further research, however, aided partly by later improvements 
in the microscope, has shown that the protoplasm is far from 
being homogeneous ; that it usually, if not always, possesses a 
definite and complicated structure, being composed of two different 
substances, not granules and a homogeneous groundmass, but 
threads or a network of fibres and intermediate substance. The 
extraordinary clianges which tlie network in the nucleus of the 
cell undergoes during the process of multiplication have formed 
the subject of a vast number of papers during the last decade. It 
seems improbable that with this microscopic analysis we liave 
arrived at all the intricacies of the structure of living matter. 
The advance of physiological study has shown the intimate 
correspondence of structure with function, it has shown that 
with every variation in the structure of an organ there is asso- 
ciated a variation in the function or duty of that organ. Physio- 
logical analysis has indeed gone further, and in many cases has 
demonstrated a complexity of function which is greater than that 
of visible structure. This structure of living matter is of no 
ordinary interest to the biologist. We have in the microscopic 
speck of protoplasm all the fundamental properties of the living 
organism presented to us. Such a speck of protoplasm may 
contain within itself all the potentialities of development of the 
highest or lowest organism. It may develop in one direction into 
a man, or in another into a worm, and we must assume that the 
potentialities of development in the different cases are represented 
materially by the structure and chemical composition of the 
network and intermediate substance. 

It is obvious enough that we are still but at the beginning of 
our knowledge of life. Thei-e is a boundless field for generations 
of workers, and we may look forward with confidence to many a 
discovery to delight the human mind and to add to human health 
and happiness, as well as to more material welfare. It is not 
possible for all to be workers in the domain of the biological 
sciences, but all alike will, as living beings, share in the benefits 
of discoveries in the laws governing the world of life. It is on 
these grounds that we can, as students of biology, most surely 
claim the sympathy of the general public, and will it not be well 
for us to value and foster all friendliness towards our pursuits 
which we receive from their hands 1 



president's address — SECTIOX D. lOD 

And here, in concluding, I may be allowed to urge the impor- 
tance of a wider diffusion of the knowledge of biological laws. 
It is not enough that the laws of life and therefore of health and 
harmony with nature should be known to a few biologists. The 
whole population should live in conformity with those laws. 
A wider diffusion of the knowledge resulting fi*om biological 
enquiries will be required to form the basis of an intelligent 
public opinion. I do not refer here simply to questions of 
sanitation, but to that wider range of problems taking cognisance 
of all the relations of man as a living being to his environment and 
including the rearing of a vigorous race, a system of mental 
training which shall regard the physiological requirements of 
mind, and the social relations of communities of men. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS IN SECTION E. 
GEOGRAPHY. 

By W. H. MISKIN, F.E.S. 



It was not without a certain degree of reluctance that I accepted 
tlie honor and responsibility of the post of presiding over the 
deliberations of Section E of this, the second Congress of the 
Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science ; but 
the desire to promote the views, as I undei'stand them, of the 
authorities to whom has been entrusted the direction of these 
proceedings, i.e., to secure the representation of each of the 
various colonies in the presidential chairs of the several sections, 
tempted me to overcome the scruple that otherwise prompted me, 
from the consciousness of my own unfitness, to presume to take 
the lead in the pi"esence of so many gentlemen of far greater 
experience and capacity. Having, however, committed myself to 
the task, it behoves me to proceed to fuliil to the best of my 
power the duties that devolve upon me as your President 
upon this auspicious occasion, the tirst of which^a most pleasui'- 
able one — I take to be the offer of a hearty welcome to the 
numerous assemblage here present, and my congratulations upon 
the happy meeting of so many colleagues gathered together from 
all parts of our great southei'n land — a felicitous augury, I 
venture to express the hope, of future federation upon other and 
more extended subjects — to deal with the particular branch of 
science that has been deputed as our shai-e of the proceedings of 
the present Association meeting. 

The pleasure which, howevei', we may derive from these 
considerations is shadowed by the reflecticjn of the cause that has 
led to the occupancy of the chair by the present holder. You 
will, of covirse, anticipate that I refer to the loss to the science of 
Geography and to our deliberations to-day — the lamented decease 
of one who has done so much in Australasia in the furtherance 
of the cause we have at heart, and who would have so mu.ch 
moi'e worthily and efficiently under happier circumstances have 
addressed you upon this occasion — the late Sir Edward Strick- 
land. Reqtdescat hi pace. It is also my mournful duty to refer to 
another heavy loss to the, alas, but too meagre ranks in this part 
of the world of men who are able and willing to devote their 
energies and talents to the pui'suit of science — the late Rev. J. 
E. Tenison-Woods, a fellow of the R. G. Society, and an hon. 



president's address— section e. Ill 

membei' oi more than one of the bi-anches of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society of Australasia, whose valuable life is a sacrifice 
to disease contracted in the ardour of exploratory investigation 
in the Malayan Peninsula and Northern Austi'alia, too soon 
following the fate of his friend and coadjutor in the same expe- 
dition, the Rev. B. Scortechini, F.L.S., an ardent and accomp- 
lished student in the field of botany, swelling the roll of immortal 
names, martyrs to the cause of science and exploratory research, 
typified by memories of such names as Leichardt, Burke, Wills, 
and many others — names to be handed down to the future 
posterity of our country as household words, luminous as examples 
of self-sacrifice in the cause of duty for future generations to 
revere and emidate. 

As the text of my inaugural address I have adopted, and I 
think I could not have followed a more profitable course, the 
form of a review of the pi'ogress of geographical research and 
iitei'ature during the pei-iod that has elapsed since the last 
assemblage of this Association, having regard primarily to our 
own part of the world, and then more genei'ally to that of the 
world at large, viewing first the purely exploratory aspect as to 
what has been accomplished, what is presently in progress, and 
what may be anticipated in the future ; glancing cursorily at the 
results that may reasonably be expected to follow scientifically, 
educationally and commercially, and including the doings of other 
kindred associations. 

And here I may pause to remark that in dealing with the 
matter that I addi-ess myself to, it is difficult, nay, almost impos- 
sible, to dilate at length upon such a subject without to some 
extent traversing ground already exhaustively discussed in the 
numerous addresses recently delivered to various cognate assem- 
blies upon similar occasions to the present, and indeed, I fear, 
without leaving some opening for a charge of plagiarism. It 
would be superfluous on my part to attempt to enter into an 
exposition of the meaning or object of the science of geography 
or of its necessity or advantages. The first has been too 
frequently expounded by abler hands, and the latter is surely 
obvious to the meanest understanding. To repeat would be 
wearisome and profitless. 

Exploratory. 

The greatest achievement in the way of exploration and dis- 
covery in our part of the world is unquestionably the triumphant 
success of Sir Wm. McGregor's expedition for the ascent of the 
highest peak of the Owen Stanley range of mountains in S.E. 
New Guinea, named by him Mount Victoria — a point hitherto 
considered almost inaccessible — and the identifying and naming 
other mountains in the immediate neighbourhood, with their 



112 president's address — SECTION E. 

correct positions and the altitudes of their various peaks, and the 
precise mapping of the country explored and observed by him. 
An excellent paper descriptive of this expedition, compiled from 
Sir Wm. McGregor's own notes and remarks, is communicated to 
the Queensland Branch of the Royal Greographical Society of 
Australasia by the indefatigable hon. secretary of that branch, 
Mr. J. P. Thomson, and appears in its transactions, accompanied 
by a well-executed map prepared in the Survey Department of 
that colony from Sir William's drawings. 

The altitude of Mount Victoria is determined by Sir Wm. 
McGregor to be 13,122 feet, and discloses at its summit an almost 
Alpine character in its flora, representative specimens of which, 
of great interest to science, have been submitted to the investiga- 
tion of the learned Baron von Mueller, whose obser\-ations thereon 
have been made public. Further discoveries of great interest and 
importance in this almost unknown region may be looked for in 
the future, through the indomitable energy and courage of his 
Honour the Administrator of the Government of this the latest 
acquisition to the empire. 

Our German cousins, with their usual indefatigable zeal and 
perseverance, have also not been idle in their part of this great 
island, but ha^-e pushed exploration in all directions, advancing 
toward a thorough knowledge of the physical character and 
capabilities of their possession ; not, I regret to say, without the 
consequent sacrifice of valuable health and life that exploration 
in such latitudes demands of the pioneers of civilisation. 

From South Australia exploration, assisted, I believe, financially 
by Victorian contributions, has been pushed towards the centre 
of the continent under the leadership of Mr. W. Tietkins, from 
whose report, when available, much interesting and valuable 
information may be expected. From New South Wales also an 
expedition, under Mr. Arthur Vogan, has been sent westward, 
no results of which, however, are yet to hand. 

In Queensland a small party, led by Mr. A. Meston, subsidised 
by the Government of that colony, gained the summit of Mount 
Bellenden Kerr, alleged to have been hitherto untrodden by the 
foot of the white man ; but beyond some zoological and botanical 
discoveries, no great scientific interest attaches to this expedition, 
if it can be so called. 

The South Pacific Archipelago we must look to, surely in the 
not very distant future, as a field for closer exploration, parti- 
cularly from Australian sources ; for is it not obvious that the 
whole of these fertile islands, great with the possibilities of 
commerce, and even possibly of settlement, known at present 
only by the most superficial intercourse with their barbarous and 
savage inhabitants through the merest trade skirmishing, if I 
may use the term, and ephemeral missionary settlement, must 
come within the jurisdiction and influence of the future great 



president's address — SECTION E. 113 

Australasian federation 1 Geographically, I say they naturally 
connect with our continent, and I predict they must fall under 
the sway of the power that is best able, by every natural and 
material advantage, to bring them within the pale of and make 
them amenable to the march of civilisation. Before turning 
from our own immediate region, there is another, not very remote, 
in which we are deeply concerned, and which must not be over- 
looked. I refer to the Antarctic, a subject upon which a great 
deal has been heard of lately, unfortunately with no practical 
results at present, beyond the formulation of a scheme for 
exploration and investigation — one in which our Victorian 
friends have evinced especial interest. Apart from the utilitarian 
aspect of Antarctic research, as applying to commercial geo- 
graphy, questions will arise as to whether or not our climate is 
influenced by the ice-bound regions of the south. It would be 
illogical, while admitting the modifying influences of the warm 
currents of the Gulf Stream upon the climate of Southern Europe 
and other parts, to at the same time regard with indifference the 
possible influence of the cold Antarctic polar drift currents upon 
the climate of New Zealand, Tasmania, and the southern parts 
of the Australian continent. 

It is not a difficult matter, in terrestrial physics, to give an 
estimate of the results brought about by the contact, or what 
may be termed overlapping, of hot and cold currents ; and that 
the necessary conditions of condensation are thus brought about 
by the contact of cold Antarctic curi^ents with the super-heated 
equatoi'ial currents of our continent, there can, I submit, be no 
doubt. It therefore behoves us, as Australasians, apart from 
the commercial considerations of the subject, which must, how- 
ever, be considerable, to investigate these agencies, bearing as 
they do so materially upon our climate, the conditions of which 
so seriously influence our existence, and thus enable us to apply 
the knowledge so gained to an endeavour, if possible, to ameliorate 
to some extent the effects of recurring droughts which operate so 
disastrously upon the welfare of our country. 

Turning to the other regions of the globe, we find the greatest 
energy and enterprise everywhere actively displayed, evidencing 
the extent to which the value and importance of the closest and 
most detailed investigation of the unknown or unsettled portions 
are feverishly regarded, whether as presenting fields for scientific 
discovery and possible colonisation for the ever-increasing surplus 
population of the densely-peopled countries of Europe, or for 
the expansion of commerce, daily increasing in keenness of 
competition. 

Upon the great continent of Africa, for so long the chief field, 
as, alas ! also the grave of so many illustrious heroes, of explora- 
tion, the tide of exploratory investigation has, as usual, set 
strongly. Foremost here are the wonderful exploits of that most 

H 



114 president's address — SECTION E. 

intrepid explorei*, Stanley, in the heart of Equatorial Africa, 
especially in his i-ecent expedition for the relief of Emin Pasha, 
a histoi'y of which has to a certain point been ali'eady communi- 
cated tf) the world ; and now that we have happily the knowledge 
<»f his safe arrival within the bounds of civilisation, after sur- 
mounting the difficulties, hardships, and perils of his adventurous 
and protracted travel, we may, our minds being eased of the 
anxiety and suspense of his long watched for appearance, patiently 
await the further history of thrilling episodes and marvellous 
discoveries that undoubtedly the great traveller will have to 
<lisclose, varied and extensive enough, probably, to satisfy the 
curiosity of the lovers of the new and wonderful as the cravings 
of the seekers after scientific facts and data, equally with the 
would-be pioneers of commercial enterprise. 

Other recent expeditions, north and south of the equator, have 
been successfully pursued respectively by Teleki and Arnot, and 
very considerable and impoi'tant additional knowledge of the 
geography of those regions made known. Central South Africa 
has been the scene of the exertions of Mr. F. C Selous, while in 
the north Mr. De Foucauld in the Atlas Mountains and Messrs. 
Thorn and Harris in Morocco publish the resvilt of their respec- 
tive laboui's in the countries named. 

In Upper Burmah considerable advance has been made in 
topographical and cartographical investigation of the country, 
principally in conjunction with military expeditions, all conducing 
to a more thorough knowledge of this, one of the latest additions 
to British dominions. 

In Central Asia we find the Russians ever pushing their 
advance towaixls the walls of China and the gates of India, first 
by explorations, followed by military occupation, with the 
unweai'ying, restless, but ever-progressing steps characteristic of 
that mighty empire, a menace alike to our commercial prestige in 
those regions as to the very bulwarks of defence of our Indian 
possessions. An admii'able essay, illustratiiig this subject, was 
<lelivered at the recent meeting of the British Association of 
Science on "Our Trade in Central Asia," by the Hon. G. Curzon, 
M.P. Pi'oceeding north, we see the same Power exploring and 
extending their knowledge of the unknown parts of Siberia, their 
eiforts in this direction considerably assisted by the enterprise of 
a British subject, Captain Wiggins, who has successfully demon- 
strated the feasibility of opeiiing a trade-route into the heart of 
that hitherto supposed inhospitable region, by the navigation of 
the Obi and Yenisei rivers, disemboguing into the Arctic Ocean, 
by availing of the proper but brief season during which those 
generally frozen seas are temporarily open to the passage of 
vessels, thus presenting a new field for commercial enterprise, of 
vast importance to the maritime countries of Western Europe. 
A very interesting resume of nautical exploratory research in this 



president's address—section e. 115 

particular direction, and general summary of results, is contained 
in a communication by Prince Krapotkin to the Manchester 
Guardian^ appearing in the Home Nezvs of the 22nd November 
last. 

Di'. Nansen's adventurous journey upon snow-shoes across the 
ice-bound peninsula of Greenland is possibly familiar to most of 
us, a truly perilous and heroic exploit, not, perhaps, affording 
any great results beyond proving that this part of- Greenland is 
an immense barren waste of snow and ice, although many 
scientific facts and observations affecting glacial phenomena are 
communicated by that gentleman from his experiences upon the 
occasion. But as demonstrating what is capable of being 
accomplished by a band of hardy and coui'ageous men in con- 
quering the obstacles of nature presented in its most grim and 
forbidding aspect, this certainly ranks as one of the first achieve- 
ments of the age. 

I have thus briefly referred to a few of what appear to me the 
most important recent events in the way of exploratory geography. 
To attempt to give anything like a complete history of every 
investigation of interest would occupy more time than I dare try 
your patience with. Enough has, I think, been mentioned to 
show how our fellow-workers in all parts of the world appreciate 
the importance of the subject, and to stimulate us in this 
southern world of ours to increased efibrt, and to prove ourselves 
worthy of the race fi'om which we have sprung — one that has 
always been in the van of exploration and discovery — and 
worthy inheritors of a land wliere so much still remains to be 
accomplished in this direction. 

Commercial. 

Whether regarded as the resulting effect of exploration and 
discovery, or as the means of further and closer investigation, to 
be followed by settlement and commerce, we cannot overlook the 
close relationship that railways bear to the subject of geography, 
at least to the interiors of countries, and the effect they must 
necessarily have in the entire change of the aspect of the 
countries they traverse. In these days of gigantic engineering 
undertakings we are accustomed to be surprised at nothing. 
Such reflections come to our minds when we contemplate the 
projected scheme for the construction of a line of railway in the 
Congo Free State in Central Africa by a company already incor- 
porated, with a registered capital of £1,000,000 sterling, from a 
point on the Congo River to Stanley Falls, a distance of 250 
miles, beginning, passing through, and ending in a region 
revelling in the very wildest state of nature, peopled by a race 
of the most barbarous and untutored savages, and at present 
lacking the merest approach to a step in civilisation — a wonderful 

h2 



116 president's address — SECTION E. 

enterprise truly. What extraordinary developments will be the 
result of this astounding temerity remains to be seen. 

Another proposed undertaking of magnitude is the projected 
line of railway across the continent of Asia by the Russians, to 
bring them into direct connection with their possessions upon the 
Pacilic coast — also a mighty enterprise, but differing essentially 
from that previously considered in having at least an objective 
base and terminus. This is however, I think, but in its 
inceptive stage, not having proceeded beyond the initiation of 
preliminary survey. The effects of the construction by the 
Russian Government of the Trans-Caspian line into the heart of 
Central Asia has already produced most astounding results in the 
knowledge of and development of those regions. 

Amongst the South American States we find the extension of 
railway construction being pressed with unprecedented activity, 
there being estimated to be now no less than 17,000 miles in 
existence, with a corresponding opening up and settlement of the 
interior of the continent. While upon the subject of what comes 
fittingly under the head of the commercial feature of my subject, 
I may mention a very practical paper upon the immediate rela- 
tion of commerce with geography, entitled " The Physical Basis 
of Commercial Geography," contributed by Dr. Hugh Robert 
Mill to the late British Association meeting. 

Educational. 

The importance of the study of geography in educational estab- 
lishments has been gradually, but surely, forcing its way upon 
our countrymen, who have been hitherto behind other nations in 
recognising its utility, nay, necessity. Lectureships in the Univer- 
sities of Oxford and Cambridge have been for some little time 
now established, and very satisfactory and encouraging results 
have followed. The Royal Geographical Society, to further 
encourage the prosecution of this important branch of learning, 
offer their medals, scholarships, and prizes to the universities and 
various training colleges, and these have been, during the past 
yeai*, extensively and keenly competed for. 

For a thoroughly exhaustive treatment of this subject we have 
but to refer to the able lecture upon " The Method Applied to 
the Teaching of Geography in the School," by Professor Laurie, 
contained in the Scottish Geographical Magazine, 1886 ; and more 
recently a valuable paper under a somewhat similar title 
appeared in the Proceedings of the Queensland Branch of the 
Royal Geographical Society of Australasia, 1888, by Mr. J. P. 
Thomson, hon. secretary of that branch. I may appropriately 
here, perhaps, with reference to an earlier remark as to the 
advance made by other nations over our own in the matter of 
educational geography, show how far we are in the rear generally 



PRESIDENT S ADDRESS — SECTION E, 



117 



in the study of Geography as a science. I cannot illustrate better 
than by quoting some statistics I have couie across. They are 
extracted from Professor Wagner's Geographisches Jahrbuch as 
follows : — 





Societies. 


Members. 


Rkvekue. 


Serials. 


France and her colonies 

Germany 

Great Britain and Possessions 


29 

22 

9 


19,800 
9,200 
5,650 


.£12,200 

^4,600 

^12,000 


45 
41 
10 



Nomenclature, 

A matter of considerable importance to geographical science 
lias been referred to in several quarters recently. It is with 
respect to the application of names to newly-discovered natural 
features and localities, and it is satisfactory to observe that a 
unanimous consensus of opinion seems to prevail in all authorita- 
tive sources that in every case the native name should, if possible 
of being ascertained, be retained in preference to the much-to-be 
deprecated practice, unfortunately but too common, of servilely 
attaching complimentaiy and but too frequently utterly mean- 
ingless ones, to the exclusion of already well-established and 
generally appropriate native designations. As we are well aware, 
there are few landmarks or waterways in our colonies but have 
an appellation in the euphonious and poetic language of the unfor- 
tunate race that are so speedily becoming extinct. Let us hope 
that the strongly-expressed opinion upon this point will be regarded 
by explorers in the future, and that, in this part of tlie globe at 
any rate, the history of a human race, who must in the course of 
a very short period be but a memoiy of the past, may be per- 
petuated in a small degree by the scant justice of at least paying 
respect to tlieir right of nomenclature to possessions of which 
they were forcibly deprived. 

The past year has been, as before observed, exceptionally 
remarkable for the universal interest shown in the wide field of 
geographical observation, and the unanimous and spontaneous 
desire to promulgate the higher and broader order of knowledge 
occupied by the more liberally interpreted problems of scientific 
geography. This common centre of organised eftbrt, constituting 
the event of the year, has been, of course, the great meeting in 
Paris. Here, in the centre of activity of geographical science, 
the ancient Geographical Society of Paris befittingly concentrated 
all its co-workers from every part of the world, representing 
nearly every kindred institution in existence, for the discussion of 
the various important questions having relation to the science 
of geography. This, the fourth International Congress of 
Goegraphical Sciences, was opened by the veteran president, 



118 president's address — SECTION E. 

M. Ferdinand de Lesseps, who, in the course of a brilliant address, 
referring to the various questions for discussion, aptly remarked : 
" Geography, as we understand it in the present age, is not only 
the abstract knowledge of our globe ; it comprehends also the 
complete relations of the earth and man, relations which we 
endeavour to ameliorate. This is the scope of geography, and 
we say with pride there is none grander." 

The deliberations of this Congress were occupied with numerous 
scientific problems, and prominent amongst the divisions was the 
subject of geography grouped in seven sections, embracing 
amongst them the following subjects : — Geodesy, Hydrography, 
Topography, Cartography, Meteorology and Climatology, Geology, 
Medical Geography, Commercial and Statistical Geography, 
History of Geography and Cartography, Teaching and Diffusion 
of Geography, Voyages and Exploration, Ethnography, and 
Anthropology. Special attention was also given to geographical 
education, and details were formulated as to materials necessary 
in teaching geography, such as the choice of books, cartographic 
exercises, atlases, wall-maps, panoramas and reliefs ; while in 
group 6 (Voyages and Explorations) the rules for adoption by 
exploiters in naming their discoveries were fully discussed, and 
resulted in the unanimous adoption of a resolution that "the 
right of the explorer only begins when the country he is exploring 
has no native inhabitants." 

The results of this Congress, which cannot fail to be of great 
A alue in opening fresh channels to " scientific discussion which 
may inspire but not divide," and in throwing I'enewed light upon 
obscure problems in which we are involved, will be looked forward 
to with great interest by our organisations in Australasia. 

In September last, the annual British Association of Science 
meeting was held at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, at which no less than 
2437 persons attended. The Geographical Section was strongly 
represented, and numerous able and interesting papers were 
contributed. 

Finally, we may, I think, be pardoned for referring with a 
sense of self-congratulation to the records Of our own Society, 
which has some time since, as an evidence of the interest in and 
importance in which such organisations are held, been dis- 
tinguished by the gracious permission of the Sovereign to add 
the term " Royal " as a prefix to its title of the " Geographical 
Society of Australasia," the vocation of which is being steadily, 
and T think I may add creditably, fulfilled through the efforts of 
the several branches, all of which have successfully produced 
volumes of proceedings that will, I think, bear favourable com- 
parison with those of the older societies, in whose steps they seek 
to worthily follow, displaying an amount of vitality under many 
difficulties, having i-egard to the limited extent of the leisured 
class of people in these busy working communities, that is highly 
encouracinff. 



president's address — SECTION E. 119 

And now, in bringing my, I fear, rather rambling discourse to 
a conclusion, I would desire, while reiterating the importance of 
the study generally of geography as a science, bearing in mind 
that science as a brotherhood and as a subject for study recognises 
no distinction of race or country, and no restriction of regions, to 
impress upon you the plain duty that is incumbent upon all of us 
who are possessed of the means and oppoi'tunity, as Australasians, 
to do what is in the power of each of us, be it ever so small, to 
contribute our mite to the record of geographical knowledge of 
this our adopted land, either of facts observed, or the result of 
reasoning on already ascertained data,remembei*ing that geography 
is a science happily defined as the "Science of Distributions," and 
as has been already before remarked, sufiiciently comprehensive 
to embrace the study of geology, zoology, botany, climatic and 
meteorological conditions and phenomena, the commercial and 
industrial possibilities of a country, and in fact everything affect- 
ing the physical condition of the surface of our globe, and thus 
assist in building up the destiny of what must in the future 
assume the position of a mighty power, that will prove to be not 
only a subject of pride to the grand old country from which it has 
sprung, but which, retaining its veneration and affection for the 
dear land in whose glorious history and traditions we still claim 
a birthright, will have the privilege of being to it a source of 
strength and possible support. 




PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS IN SECTION F. 

(Economic and Social Science and Statistics.J 

OBSERVATIONS ON CURRENT SOCIAL AND 
ECONOMIC PROBLEMS. 

By ROBERT M. JOHNSTON, F.L.S. 



Causes of Existing Poverty and Misery. 

It cannot be denied, in spite of the great accumulation of wealth 
and the increased command over the forces of nature during the 
present century, that there is still to be found much poverty and 
distress, especially in large centres of population, and that much 
of it is due to the unequal distribution of wealth ; and whether 
we may or may not be able to point out a remedy, it is utterly 
i-epugnant to the best feelings of human nature to sink into the 
despair or apathy of many who say, " Let alone ; whatever is is 
best or worst, and cannot be helped." Whatever errors the 
Socialists and Communists are chargeable with, they must 
be credited with warm aspirations for the amelioration and 
improvement of suffering humanity, and are free from the chai^ge 
of indifference. The latter, however, are too emotional to 
perceive the great difficulties of the problems which have always 
engaged the deepest attention of earnest Social Economists, and 
are too ready to advocate the introduction of their own pet 
schemes, without having taken sufficient trouble either to test 
their adequacy, or to fathom the true nature of fundamental 
difficulties, which would in most cases be made vastly more 
formidable by the various plans propounded by them for their 
removal. Thus some, having been misled by the assumption that 
all our evils ai'e due to individual property right and unequal 
distribution of wealth, employ all their ingenuity to show that all 
existing evils are attributable to these, and to these alone. 

Yet there are many other inffuences far more potent for evil, 
which no scheme yet propounded by Political Economists, 
Socialists, or Communists may wisely undervalue or ignore. Of 
such are the following : — 

(1.) The superabundant proportions of human beings in 
existence who, free from restraint, are naturally 
disposed to be idle, sensuous, and wicked; or who are 
ignorant, foolish, and improvident. 



president's -■\DDRESS SECTION F. 121 

(2.) The ditBculties of supplying other motives more adequate 
than self-interest in effecting conformity to the 
necessai'y social laws and ^•irtues, and as a spur to 
industry and useful application of powers. 
(3.) The inequalities of different habitable portions of the 
earth as regards productiveness, climate, disease, 
density of population, and the difference of civilisation 
and racial characteristics. 

(4.) The periodic failure of food supply (famine), whether 
due to seasonal influence, exhaustion of soil, violence, 
wilful waste, or improvidence. 

(5.) Effectual means for elimination from society of the more 
pronounced forms of hereditary vice and madness, 
which, if allowed to persist, would endanger society. 

(6.) Absence of facilities for relieving the pressure of 
population in over-peopled lands by migration. 

(7.) Difficulties connected with free exchange of products 
between different nations whose artisans and labourers 
are living under different material and social con- 
ditions, e.g., slave labour and free labour. 

(8.) Difficulties in effecting adequate exchange of products 
with other nations where, as in England, local foods, 
products, and the raw materials for manufacture are 
locally far below the level of requirement of an ever- 
increasing population. 

(9.) The want and misery brought upon the handicapped 
and practically immobile breadwinnei', whose special 
skill, acquired by slow training during many years, is 
no longer in demand, either from the sudden or gradual 
transfer of an industry to a foreign centre, or from the 
sudden or gradual adoption of a new mode of 
production rendering his special skill obsolete. 

(10.) Misery and want caused to particular divisions of 
labour by the arbitrary disturbance of the proper 
relative proportions of the community necessary to 
fulfil with satisfaction the mutual exchange of service 
and the necessary supply of the whole round of 
wants. 

(11.) Difficulties and dangers aiising from local increase of 
population, especially when foreign, thinly-populated 
lands are forcibly closed to emigrants, as in the 
experience of the Chinese. 

(12.) The misery caused by war, strife, murder, accident, 
painful disease, and preventible forms of death. 

(13.) The terrible root difficulty connected with either (1) 
decrease, (2) stationariness, or (3) rapid increase of 
population. 

(14.) The absolute limits of space requisite for the reception 
and sustenance of man. 



122 president's address — section f. 

The last two form the population difficulty : in itself the chief 
cause of human trouble. 

Is THE Poverty op the Masses a Necessary Concomitant of 
Increased Accumulation of Wealth in the Aggregate % 

All observers ai'e nearly agreed that the accumulation of 
wealth and wealth-producing power have prodigiously increased 
within the present century. Of this there can be little doulit. 
Modern discoveries — as regards the properties of matter, the 
discovery and development of new lands, the uses of steam, 
electricity, and labour-saving inventions in every department <^)f 
social and industrial life — have enormously inci'eased man's 
power over the forces of nature. With this immense gain of 
power, vast continents of virgin forest and barren swamp 
have become gardens of plenty. Rivex's, mountains, and other 
formidable obstacles to communication or distribution of products 
have iDeen bridged or piercefl by railways, roads, and other 
superior means of distribution ; and the wide ocean, connecting 
far distant lands, now forms the easy and open highway ui 
magnificent steamers, which vie in regularity and speed with the 
railway train in bringing to local markets daily supplies of the 
fresh meat, fish, fruit, and cereals of lands many thousand miles 
away. As a natural consequence, famines such as are known 
to have been so common and so terrible in England in the 
immediately pi'eceding centuries are rendered an impossibility. 

How is it, then, that we are again brought face to face with 
the old terrible problems : " The Misery of the Masses," " The 
Labourer's Struggle for Existence," "The Growth of Poverty," 
" The Increase of Pauperism and Crime T If we can judge by 
the popular literature of the day, the state of the masses in 
Europe seems to be verging into as hopeless a condition as that 
which existed prior to the introduction of our vaunted discoveries. 

Indeed, one writer, who recently has been heard above all 
other claimants for reform, confidently affirms that " it is true 
wealth has been greatly increased, and that the average of 
comfort, leisure, and refinement has been raised — but these gains 
are not genei'al. In them the loivest class do not share.'' He 
broadly insists that increase in poverty is the constant con- 
comitant of increase in aggregate wealth, and that this ct)nstant 
" association of poverty with progress is the great enigma of our 
times." Is it ti'ue, as this writer confidently affirms, that with 
all the advantages which man has gained in his increased and 
increasing command over the forces of nature, our present 
civilisation has by its customs and provisions barred the effectual 
distribution of accumulated wealth, and the only effect produced 
is that of making the rich richer and the poor poorer? 



president's address— section f. 123 

This cannot be answered effectively without some enquiry into 
that form of wealth which constitutes man's chief satisfactions. 

Ai'e these sufficient in the aggi'egate to suffice for all, if proper 
means for eftectiug distribution were employed, supposing such 
means were possible ? Or is the aggregate supply of primary 
wants insufficient to provide for ail needs, even were the most 
thorough means devised for its distribution ? 

Wants of Man. 

The satisfaction of the wants of man is the mainspring of all 
his activities. Wants are interminable. Some affect his very 
existence, while others only concern his greater degree of comfort 
or happiness. In all enquii'ies into matters deeply concerning 
the existence and welfare of man it is well, therefore, to keep 
these fundamental distinctions clearly in view ; for not a few 
of our misconceptions arise from a failure on the part of social 
and political economists to establish a satisfactory classification 
of wants according to their varying importance. 

Broadly speaking, these may be divided into three great 
groups : — 

(1.) Wants Essential to Life Itself. 
(2.) Wants Essential to Comfort. 
(3.) Luxurious Wants. 

Whatever eccentricities may be exhibited by isolated 
individuals at times, it is unmistakable that the intensity 
of the struggle for wants among commmiities is determined by 
the nature of the wants ; and, invariably, so long as the reason 
of man is preserved, the greater intensity of the struggle — 
beginning with the most important — is in the order before given,, 
viz. : — 

Wants essential to — 

(1.) Life. 
(2.) Comfort. 
(3.) Luxury. 

Man can, and, unfoi'tunately, the masses of men are often 
obliged to, exist without the enjoyment of luxurious wants. 
He may even be deprived of all wants beyond the first group, 
and still maintain a more or less extended life-struggle with 
misery of some kind ; but if the wants of the first group be ever 
so little curtailed below a certain minimum, he will speedily 
perish miserably. 

Preserve to man his life, and, if needs be, he will eagerly 
exchange for its preservation all his comforts and luxuries. 
Deny him life, and all other forms of the Economist's wealth of 
exchange becomes to him as dross — absolutely valueless. It is 
for many reasons necessary at this stage to confine attention to 
those primary wants essential to life itself ; and for greater 



124 pkesidext's address — section f. 

clearness these may be restricted to that minimum of each great 
want necessary to maintain the life of each person. The exact 
minimum of these, whatever their form may be, depends upon 
the energy destroyed by work, and upon the physical condition 
i>f the labourer s environment, and may be stated thus : — 
The minimum to maintain existence of — 

Food. 

Shelter. 

Rest. 
Without a certain uiinimum (jf these, man, like all living 
organisms, must perish inevitably. 

Division of Labour — Advantages and Defects. 

Division oi labour necessary to priiduce necessary satisfactions, 
and to distribute them in large civilised communities, undoubtedly 
ensures greater skill, and prevents unnecessary waste of the 
aggi'egate time and energy of the individuals. Were it not for 
this provision, no country could sustain the life of large numbers. 
This division of labour, however, rests upon the tacit under- 
standing that energies in other directions than that of actually 
producing food may constantly be exchanged for food and other 
primary satisfactions. Individual societies, communities, and 
nations are alike in this respect ; for no matter the skill, time, 
and labour proffered or applied for or in the production of other 
than primary satisfactions, it is necessary that they be constantly 
exchangeable in sufficient amount to obtain at least that minimum 
of primary needs from other persons or communities, who, under 
this system, are supposed to produce a sufficient surplus for the 
satisfaction of all other members of society not immediately 
engaged in the production of primary wants. Were it not for 
this understood assurance, the present civilisation — with special 
centres of manufactures for the world at large, its defined local 
division of labour and individual rights in large areas of land — 
would be altogether impossible. 

Among the conflicting opinions of Political Economists, 
Socialists, and Communists, there is at any rate this one 
fundamental point of agreement, viz., that by a proper division of 
labour or services the sum total of human satisfactions are greatly 
superioi*, and are enjoyed by vastly greater numbers than would 
be possible to men were each to work in a state of isolation, and 
■each one obliged to attempt to create the whole round of his own 
requirements. Let vis take it for granted, then, that division of 
services is a necessity ; but while so doing, let us bear in mind 
that the greater satisfaction of wants in the aggregate may be 
attained, and yet, owing to an imperfect scheme of distribution, 
a sufficiency, nay, even the minimum of primary satisfaction 
necessary to maintain life, may fail to reach many ; and hence it 



president's address— section f. 125 

may appear that much of the idleness, paupei'ism, crime, misery, 
and death experienced in crowded centres is due to the defects 
of distribution. 

Let us therefore examine this root difficulty, free from the 
clouds of irrelevant or less urgent considerations. Division of 
labour without facilities for exchange may render a unit more 
helpless in such a scheme than he would be in a savage state. 
Much ingenuity and ability has been exercised by many writers 
in showing to us, as Bastiat does, the glorious provisions of one 
of the so-called social harmonies (Liberty alias Competition) in 
preventing monopoly, and in effecting the distribution of wealth. 
And it may be at once conceded that human society does reap 
all the advantages claimed on behalf of competition. 

The question, howevex', is not — Does competition effect much 
good % That may be readily conceded. But confining attention 
to the minimum of primary wants alone — Do the combined 
effects of division of services, competition, and modes of exchange 
now existing provide for the preservation of due proportions 
between the different classes of services, so as to ensure the production 
of primary needs in sufficiency for the wants of all ; and are the 
means of exchange sufficiently perfect to secure with more or 
less certainty a due modicum of primary needs to all. In a word, 
is the " all for each " as effectively complete as the " each for all ?" 

If this latter provision be defective — and this unfortunately 
seems too true — can the defects be removed ? And if this be 
impossible, can the evils be minimised to any extent % All 
possessors of services must be enabled to secure primaiy wants, 
or they perish. References to the wide distribution of wealth in 
exchange or commercial value, or to standard prices or wages- — • 
low or high — are utterly misleading. Without the power to 
acquire, or the actual possession of a due provision of that portion 
of exchange wealth — not necessarily possessing a high exchange 
value — the whole aggregate of the remaining part of the world's 
wealth in exchange would be worthless ; for it would fail to 
preserve the life of the man destitute of primary satisfactions. 
This is the root difficulty ; and it is forcibly exemplified in the 
first notalile exchange recorded in sacred history between the 
typical representative of the hunter of wild animals and the 
more skilled and peaceful agriculturists : — 

. . . And Esau was a cunning hunter, a man of the field ; and 
Jacob was a plain man dwelling- in tents. . . . And Jacob sold 
pottage : and Esau came from the field and he was faint : And Esau 
said to Jacob, Feed me, I pray thee, with that same red pottage, for I 
am faint. . . . And Jacob said. Sell me this day thy birthright. 
And Esau said, Behold I am at the point to die, and what profit shall 
this birthright do to me ? And Jacob said. Swear to me this day ; 
and he sware unto him : and he sold his birthright unto Jacob. Then 
Jacob gave Esau bread and pottage of lentiles ; and he did eat and 
di'ink, and rose up and went his way ; thus Esaii despised his birth- 
right. — {Genesis xxv. 27-34.) 



126 president's address — section f. 

It is foitunate for Esau that he had the power of effecting an 
exchange, and that, notwithstanding the exorbitancy of the 
seller's terms, he had no hesitancy in exchanging (or despising, 
as it is stated) the less needful satisfactions for the more pressing 
or primary ; for in the trial of Job's integrity and fortitude it is 
affirmed, with truth, that skin for skin, all that a man hath will 
he give for his life. 

Unfortunately for the working-class breadwinner, his only 
birthright is physical power and manual skill, and although 
these are all he can ofler for his life needs, he cannot always as a 
competitor eft'ect the necessary exchange ; and too often he, and 
those depending upon him, travel the swift road to beggary and 
<leath. 

Thus there are still defects, whether remediable or othei-wise, 
in the present civilisation, so long as these fundamental neces- 
sities of a power to exchange with primary satisfactions are 
imperfect, e.g., certain divisions of human kind are not dii-ectly 
engaged in producing primary needs for themselves. They are 
mostly engaged merely in rendering more or less skilled services, 
in return for tokens (money or other medium) understood to 
have at least the power of effecting corresponding definite supplies 
of primary wants. But this division has another difficulty. 

The actual owner of the power (rich capitalist) to effect the 
production of things which may be exchanged for a corresponding 
((uantity of primary needs, may in all likelihood be able to effect 
such exchanges ; but the poor capitalist, the possessor of the 
power of mere services, such as the navvy, the house servant, the 
blacksmith, may often be unable to exchange his services towards 
the production of these very things ; and under such conditions, 
as the needful exchange cannot be effected, the unemployed 
wage-earner in the division of human labour must lie supported 
by drawing upon a more or less limited surplus previously 
earned ; failing that, he must either borrow, take the risk of 
violent means to secure primary waiats, be fed by private or 
public charity, or die of starve) tic)n. 

This, then, is the problem of problems of the present day. 
References to current high rates of wages, the low prices of 
provisions, or the increasing aggregate value of wealth in 
exchange, do not always disclose this skeleton in the social 
cupboard. When the ship of society is barred into many more 
or less water-tight compartments, the ship itself may not founder, 
although one or two minf)r chambers he damaged and water- 
logged, and their contents destroyed. If the larger and more 
important chambers, however, be destroyed, the whole ship may 
founder, and those who may effect escape may be small indeed. 
This allegorical picture must not be pressed too hard. It may be 
sufficient, however, to draw attention to a dangerous side of the 
division of labour composition of modern society. 



president's address — SECTION F. 127 

But, says the the theorist : True, his services were shut out by 
over-competition in that particular place or in that particvilar 
occupation ; but if he only knew at that moment that by 
transferring his services to other employments, or to the same 
ftccupation in another place, the balance of service for service 
would be adjusted, and the life of himself and his dependants 
would be saved. Ah, if he only knew ! But the possession of 
knoAvledge is in itself practically a form of wealth, and that he 
did not possess any more than he did the necessary capital to 
acquire the necessary skill in the new occupation calling for 
services, or in the necessary capital to transfer himself and his 
household to a great distance where his own special skill was 
then in demand. We may therefore summarise the difficulties 
lying at the root of all social problems as follows : — 

(1.) All breadwinnei-s and their families, to maintain 
existence, must possess primary satisfactions, whether 
they can effect exchange of services or not. 
(2.) Many breadwinners, whether due to lack of knowledge 
or inability to change their occupations or locality, 
cannot obtain employment, and therefore cannot 
effect exchange. 
(3) 8uch of the latter as by former misfortunes have been 
deprived of every foi-m of wealth in exchange, must 
beg or steal from public or private resources, or die 
of starvation. 
Thus it is shown that one of the great economic harmonies in 
competition, while it effects much good in distributing wealth and 
breaking down monopolies and privileges, and in enlarging the 
♦lomain of community in the enjoyment of the gratuitous 
products of nature and invention, also, as one of the mills of 
God, directs its force terribly on the mere monopolists of bone 
and muscle ; competition grinding them smaller and smaller as 
ite force is augmented by increasing numbers. 

Further Difficulties Connected With the Division op 
Labour — Allocation. 

One of the most formidable difficulties connected with the 
division of labour is allocation ; for it is evident that if, in the 
technical tx-aining of the young, due regard be not paid to the 
chances of finding employment in the service to which the future 
breadwinner aspires, disaster or a disappointed life may be the 
result. This, being a relative matter, applies to a small 
community as well as to a large one. Few take into consideration 
that there is a natural law in operation which as surely 
determines the numbers required for each great class of employ- 
ment as do the natural laws which locally determine the times 
and relative heights of the tide. No social advancement by 



128 president's address — section f. 

means of the higher education of the people can ever alter the 
relative numbers of the various Ijranches of human service ; and 
should it be thought possible that the education of the masses 
exerts any influence in the nature of its training in disturbing 
the necessary proportions of each great group of services upon 
which our lives and our civilisation depends, it would certainly 
prove that the general spread of higher education was a curse and 
not a blessing. 

Services would never become a marketable commodity of value 
in exchange if it were not for wants. Kinds of services^ 
therefore, must be exactly proportionate to kinds of wants. The 
wants which demand the expenditure of the greater amount of 
labour must necessarily absorb the greater amount of persons 
requiring employment, without regard to their capacities, attain- 
ments, or personal desires ; and, so far as the mass of human 
beings are concerned, there is no choice. 

The great wants — ^food, clothing, and shelter — ai'e by far the 
greatest factors in the determination of the aggregate numbers 
that must be employed if the wants are to be satisfied. The 
same three great wants also determine the necessary amount aijd 
proportions of capital, machinery, and land to be employed, 
together with the necessary proportion of labourers for each 
kind of occupation which, directly or indirectly, is somehow 
utilised in the production of the said three great wants. 

It is true the strict average proportions of the various classes 
of labour machinery may not be found to be quite the same in 
each country ; but this does not affect the aggregate of all 
countries. It is not absolutely necessary that the manufactures 
and agricultural industries of any one country should preserve 
the world's strict average proportions to each other, so far as 
that one country is concerned, so long as it is free to make 
necessary exchanges with other countries for disposing or making 
good their respective local surpluses and deficiencies. Nevei-- 
theless, countries confined to the production of satisfactions for 
their own wants, or, what is the same, the world as a whole, must 
preserve the strict average proportion and quantity of labour and 
machinery in the production of satisfactions for those three great 
wants which are the mainsprings of all human activities and 
efforts. It is necessary, therefore, to make a very wide net to 
obtain approximate information with respect to the amount and 
due proportions of all kinds of services employed in the production 
of the whole round of wants of each country. It is unfortunate 
that figures relating to the occupations of all countries are not 
accessible ; Ijut reference to the ascertained occupations of 
Australasia, United States of America, British India, and seven 
principal States of Europe, embracing 433 millions of people, 
and representing all climes and all forms of industry, afford ;i 
basis wide enough to secure fairly accurate information. 



PRESIDENTS ADDRESS — SECTIOX F 



129 



The figures contained in the following table of classified 
occupation of these countries afibrd valuable information with 
regard to the definite proportions of the division of labour 
engaged in the production of supply of human wants : — 

Proportional Classification of the Occupations of all 
Peusoxs Engaged in the Supply of Human Wants :— 







Breadwiiinei's (Percentage). 

■ 


Dejjendant.s 
( Percentage). 


All. 


^ 


CouvrnY. 




1 

■i 

5 

2 
P-, 

2-4 
2-6 
3-8 

2' 7 


s 

c 
G 

6-9 
4-7 

8-2 

7-0 


3 

1 

S 

Q 

3-7 
35 
1-4 

3-3 


4 

s 

'u 

24-5 
24-4 
13-3 

23-0 


5 

3 

_s 

So 

< 

5-3 
7 
190 

7-5 


1-5 

1 

■s 

42-8 
42-2 
45-7 

43-5 


C 

B 

z 


o 


6-7 

s. 

3 

£ 

o 

o 

"3 
o 

... 


8 
u 

— i 


9 


8-9 

"3 
1 


1-9 
All. 

100 
100 
100 

100 


li 

'j,m 
5 


Englaud, Wales ... 

Scotland 

Ireland 


2G,094 
3,7.35 
5,174 

35,003 


No. 

2-29 

2-33 
3-15 


Uniteil Kingdom... 


2-25 



.S'i.r ('oloniet of 


















1 








Australasia : — 






























Victoria 


862 


1-6 


4-5 


4-1 


18-8 


14-5 


43-5 


0-2 


0-6 


0-8 


54-5 


1-2 55-7 


100 


2-24 


Queensland 


2.3 


1-4 


5-0 


5-1 


18-3 


15-7 


45-5 


0-1 


0-G 


0-7 


52-8 


1-0 53-8 

1 


100 


2-16 


South Australia ... 


280 


1-4 


4-1 


4-8 


16-5 


12-6 


39-4 


0-3 


0-7 


1-0 


58-9 


0-7 59-6 


100 


2-47 


Western Australia 


30 


1-6 


3-9 


5-1 


.12-6 


16-1 


39-3 


0-3 


1-6 


1-9| 56-2 


2-6 68-8 


100 


2-43 


Tasmania 


116 


1-5 


4-6 


3-4 


16-5 


16-9 


42-9 


0-5 


0-6 


l-l' 55-5 


0-5 56-0 


100 


2-27 


New Zealand 


490 


I'O 


4-1 


4-3 


16-8 


11-2 


37-9 


0-1 


0-6 


0-7 1 60-7 

1 


0-7 61-4 


100 


2-56 


Total of six Colonies 
of Australasia. 


1,991 


1-5 


4-4 


4-4 


17-7 13-7 


41-7 


0-2 


0-6 


0-8 5G-6 


0-9 57-5 


100 


2-35 



United States ... 


50,155 


1-8 


6-3 


3-6 


7-6 


15-3 


34-G 
















2-83 


Prussia 


27,279 


2-1 


3-2 


3-3 


13-0 


170 


38'6 
















2-54 


France 


37,321 


1-8 


6-3 


4-2 


12-0 


18-0 


42-3 
















2 32 


Austria 


22.144 


1-9 


4-0 


2-0 


100 


280 


45-9 
















2-14 


Belgium 


5,520 


3-0 


9-0 


4-4 


17-2 


14-6 


48 2 
















2-04 


India 


253.891 


1-3 


1-1 


1-4 
2-3 


14-6 
13-3 


280 
23-2 


46-2 
43-4 











... 










2-13 


Totals 


433,304 


1-6 


3-0 


2-2G 



130 PRESIDE?JT's address — SECTION F. 

From this table we learn that all people are divided into two 
important groups, viz., breadwinners, representing about 44*2 per 
cent, of all persons, and non-breadwinners or dependants, com- 
posed mainly of wives and children, I'ep resenting 55-8 per cent, 
of the total populations. Thus it appears that the wants of all 
must be provided by the service of less than half the total number 
of those who consume wants. The proportions of the bread- 
winners necessary to effect this service are as follows. That is 
to say, for every 100 persons engaged in services of exchange 
value there must be on the aggregate the following proportions 
nearly : — 

Percentage Proportion. 

Agricultural and Pastoral services 52-5 

Industrial services ,. ... ... ... ... ... 30"1 

Domestic services... .. ... ... ... 6"8 

Commercial services ... ... ... ... ... 5'2 

Professional and other undefined services 54 

Total 1000 

It will be seen that the simple services of the agriculturist and 
herdsman are by far the most important (52 "5 per cent.), and 
that the next in importance are the industrial services, embracing 
all artisans and labourers, representing 30-1 per cent. The 
higher skilled workmen of this group only represent about 11 per 
cent, of all services. As the balance of services — commercial and 
professional — only amount to 10'6 per cent., it follows that of all 
sei'vices required only 2\'Q J>er cent, doiiand skill of a higher order ; 
and that 7 8 "4 per cent, represent agricultural and other labourers 
and domestic servants, in respect of which skill of a high order is 
not absolutely requisite. 

Tt is largely due to the flooding of particular kinds of employ- 
ment beyond the strict proportions which local wants demand that 
inconvenience or distress is felt in young as well as old countries. 
The numbers which can find entry into the higher industrial, the 
commercial, and professional divisions cannot, without unhealthy 
competition, be increased beyond the relative proportions which 
these divisions must bear to the producing industries of 
the particular country ; and these dominating industries in 
Australasia are agricultui'al, pastoral, and mining. Employment 
in other divisions can only follow substantial inci-eases in the three 
industries named ; for manufacturing industries cannot alter their 
present proportions independently, as in England, until such time 
as they are able to manufacture for the markets of other countries 
than the local one. This applies much more strongly to the 
smaller division represented by unskilled labour (not agi'icultural), 
and by the commercial and professional classes. These certainly 



I 



president's address SECTION F. 131 

may only increase according to their rigid proportion ; and this 
must be determined by a previous increase in the fundamental 
producing industries of the particular place. 

The principal producing industries of the place may increase 
irrespective of other local divisions [i.e., agricultural, pastoral, and 
mining), as their products may find the necessary consumer in 
foreign markets. Whatever influence, therefore, may bar the 
progress of the dominating producing industries of the place 
znust also bar occtipations in all other divisions of services. 

It is clear from what has been stated that applicants for a 
given kind of employment may often fail, not because there is no 
room for more labour, but because the direction in which the 
applicants have been trained, or in which they desire to be 
employed, is out of harmony with the natural or local proportions 
of that particular service necessary in the production of general 
satisfactions. 

From this cause arises much difficulty and distress. It largely 
adds to the proportion of dependants, and consequently the dii'ect 
or indirect strain {I.e., support of friends, relatives, private and 
public charities) upon the actual breadwinners becomes oppressive. 
I do not here touch upon artificial aids to local production in its 
efifects upon the alteration or disturbance of the relative propor- 
tions of the division of services upon which such aid must have 
an immediate effect, further than to remark that if the aid by 
tariif duties or other means enables the local division at once to 
cover the ground formerly supplied by foreign industry, it can 
only do so either by increasing the machinery or the relative 
proportion of numbers employed locally in the division of service 
afiected. The advantage or disadvantage of adopting such a 
policy is hereafter discussed. It is sufficient for the present 
purpose to show the possible efiect it may exert upon local 
employment alone. 



Satisfaction of AVants and Theory of Obstacles 
Considered. 

Human satisfactions are enjoyed to the fullest extent with the 
smallest expenditure of time and human enei'gy in regions where 
the natural sources of human satisfactions are vast and rich, and 
under conditions where the fewest obstacles intervene between 
actual producers and actual consumei's. Extra time and laboui", 
often necessarily spent in mere distribution, are in themselves 
obstacles, and directly tend to lessen the quota of satisfactions 
which might be enjoyed by each individual. All conditions, 
therefore, which necessitate the larger expenditure of time and 
labour (such as extreme distance between the several kinds 
of producers and manufactvirers), as well as conditions which 

i2 



132 president's address — section f. 

necessitate extra provision against loss or waste of satisfactions 
produced or being produced (such as dangers from loss by storms, 
inundations, fire, waste by war, civil strife, robbery, depredations 
by wild animals, idle and useless dependants, plagues of parasites, 
disease, etc.), curtail of necessity the amount of necessary 
satisfaction which otherwise might be enjoyed by each useful 
human unit. Obstacles, therefore, greatly reduce the amount of 
human satisfactions so far as each individual is concerned, 
although in the aggregate this is not so easily comprehended. 
Lowness of nominal prices is not a correct index of conditions 
most favourable for the attainment of the greatest amount of 
satisfactions with the smallest expenditure of time and human 
energy : for it often happens that low prices may be caused by 
excessive expenditure of human energy forced upon a struggling 
producer, or by poverty due to forced idleness on the pai't of a 
lai'ge body of consumers. While it may often happen — as in 
young colonies — that a high price is no index of a lower supply 
of satisfactions, but rather of the smaller amount of obstacles 
intervening between consumer and producer, and gratuitous 
sources of nature, the smaller amount of enforced idleness on 
the part of consumer giving him a greater purchasing powei' ; 
and the greater advantage of the producer, due to similar 
causes, enabling him to obtain all the most necessary round of 
satisfactions with a smaller expenditui'e of time and labour. Mere 
cheapness of satisfactions, therefore, is not a reliable index of 
individual welfare. Purchasing power, as indicated by expendi- 
ture of time and labour, is the only true index as between 
countries difierently circumstanced, and this purchasing power of 
the consume!" — unlike the unreliable nominal cost or wage — is 
always in harmony with the amount of obstacles intervening 
between the actual producers of satisfactions and the actual 
consumers. 

This method of determining the condition of difterent com- 
munities will be better understood if we carefully investigate the 
effect of obstacles more closely. As the factors are variable and 
numerous, the only way to arrive at true conclusions is to 
approach the question by the mathematical method : thus : — 

Let N = Natural agents and products ; or the gratuitous 
forces of nature. 

P = Productive power of human agencies, including skill 
and energy, and skilled appliances. 

O = Obstacles intervening between NP, or producer and 
consumers. 

C = Producers, dependants, distributors, etc., repre- 
senting the living population ; or consumers. 

= Represents the amount of the average satisfactions 

provided for each individual. 



PRESIDENTS ADDUESS SECTION P. 133 

And NP + „ , . , . 

p — = Kepreseuts the nominal cost of satisfactions for 

each individual on the average — or it may 

fairly represent the amount of exertion or 

energy expended by human energy. 

Having stated the general effect of obstacles between direct 
producer and consumer as minimising the actual supply of neces- 
sary satisfactions to each consumer where the values of N and P 
and C are constant, it follows inevitably that the amount of satis- 
factions to each individual is in direct correspondence to the 
amount of ; increasing with its decrease, and decreasing with 
its increase. 

The effect upon price, however, is exactly the reverse of this, 
as a definite amount of satisfactions increase in price in corresp(in- 
dence with the increase in obstacles (O), and decrease 
ccjrrespondingly with its decrease. 

This law is not invalidated because in particular cases (1) price 
is comparatively low when O is absolutely great, and conversely 
(2), price is C(jmparatively low when O is absolutely small ; for 
in every such case there must be corresponding dissimilarity in 
the other elements to explain this effect, i.e. : — 

The effect (1) could only happen in cases where either N or P 
is abnormally or relatively great, or C is comparatively small ; 
and similarly the effect (2) could only happen in cases where 
either N or P is abnormally or relatively small or C is com- 
paratively great. 

The failure to grasp these fundamental considerations is the 
chief cause of the blunders in all reasonings connected with 
questions related to the policy of different nations in respect of 
artificial restrictions, hindrances, or facilities in the interchange 
of foreign products. 

To make this matter more clear, it may be advantageous in 
flemonstration to set forth a number of examples for the sake of 
illustrating the important truths involved in the effects produced 
where one or all the factors are different in value : — 

(1.) Where soil, climate, or natural utilities are particularly 
advantageous, the value of N is at its best or maxi- 
miun = N"" 
(2.) Where skill and energy exist, and are employed to the 
best advantage, the largest results are attained for 
P = P" 
(3.) Where the smallest number of obstacles occur between 
NP and C, the largest amount of satisfactions fall to 
the share of C = C" 
(4.) The most perfect conditions favourable for effecting the 
highest amount of satisfactions to each individual 
consumer coincide with N" P" - 0° 

C 



134 president's address — section f. 

Or, 

If we separate P" into labourers (L) and instruments (1), the 
fruit of former eftbrts, saved from previous consumption, and 
devoted by inventive skill and energy to more or less permanent 
aids to L, we have a more perfect statement of (4) thus : — 

(A) S"' = ^^ — Y"^^ = The ideally best conditions for 

or greatest quota the attainment of the highest 

(if satisfactions Satisfactions of human wants 

with the least expenditure of 
hviman energy. 

Understanding by m and u the indices of the maximum and 
minimum of the various conditions, then it would logically follow 
that the converse or worst possible conditions for attaining the 
necessary satisfactions of human wants, involving also the 
greatest exj^enditure of human energy, would be when the 
equation becomes 

(B) N" (L- I")-0"' 

C^^ =^ 

This being so, it also follows that this stage will be coincident 
with conditions which favour the maximum of cost for each 
satisfaction, thus : — 

N° (L- I") + O'" ^ 

c- 

Similarly, the conditions favourable to the attainment of 
minimum of lowest cost or price (P") would coincide with stage 
A, thus : — 

N- (L- I-) + O" 

C " ~ ^ 

Reasoning from these premises, it is clear that the results S and 
P, or their values, can never be satisfactorily known, unless we 
can gauge the values of their respective co-efficients. That is, 
we must know not merely what is the tendency of any one 
factor, but we must also know the tendency of all factors affect- 
ing the problem. Nay, more, if Political Economy is ever to be 
dignified by the name of " The Science of Political Economy," it 
must not merely take cognisance of the tendency of every one of 
these factors, but, like the skilled physicist, its disciples must not 
talk of the "teachings" "or conclusions" drawn from them until 
they are prepared to place approximate values against the 
tendency of each factor, and then to strike a balance showing 
the ultimate effects of the ever-varying combinations in ever- 
varying localities. 

The difficulty of the problem is no excuse for ignoring the 
necessity for the adoption of this course. Hitherto, to a great 



president's address — SECTION F. 135 

extent, the subject has been governed by the more or less 
plausible generalisations of mere literary men ; and their 
deserved fame and undoubted ability and skill as such have given 
them a prestige in political matters to which they are not entitled 
from a practical or scientific point of view. That they hase 
done good service in arousing and sustaining attention on such 
important matters is readily admitted ; but further progress is 
impossible so long as the inexact methods of the mere literary 
athlete are employed. In future the progress of Political 
Economy as a science depends upon demonstrations based upon 
quantitative analysis, and not as heretofore upon authoritati\'e 
dogmas based upon the qualitative analysis of any o?ie factor of 
the problem arbitrarily chosen from a compound or complex 
equation. 

It is obvious that we may concur with most of the writers on 
Political Economy as to the general tendency of any one 
influence ; but Avhile this is so, it may not be a safe proceeding 
to trust the eilect of this one tendency — even admitting its 
importance — as determining the ultimate conclusion ; for other 
tendencies, minus or plus, must be I'eckoned with before any 
reliable conclusion can be arrived at. Pathos and literary meiit 
are poAverful adjuncts, no doubt, but in the solution of political 
problems they are worse than useless whei'e complete and exact 
methods are eschewed. 



The Best Mode for Effecting the Hkjhest Quota of 
Satisfactions with a Minimum of Trouble Depends 
Upon the Local Value and Extent of Natural 
Sources of Supply. 

The principal material satisfactions essential to the happiness 
and cultured content of human life primarily depend upon 
natural sources of supply, and that country whose natural sources 
afibrd the gi'eatest potential of elements which may be made to 
contribute to the material satisfactions of cultured men, is also 
the country wherein the greatest number of people may best 
fulfil all those mutual services to each other which cover the 
whole round of wants of an ideally happy community. The 
essential natural conditions for the sustenance of a highly- 
cultured community, and permitting a natural, healthy expansion, 
are : — 

(1.) Large area covei'ing all zones of climate favourable for 
the production of all reasonable wants, and possessing 
richly all the elements essential to production, such 
as water, fertile soil, the varied mineral and vegetable 
products, and such flocks and herds as most contribute 
to the welfare of man. 



136 president's address — section f. 

(2.) Division of labour — each division carefully apportioned 
in relation to the probable amount of different satis- 
factions required ; and each labourer in every division 
carefully trained in that branch of work to which he 
has been apportioned. 

(3. The creation and maintenance of instruments which best 
supplement man's efforts in modifying and distributing 
the products derived from natural sources, and so 
enabling each unit to enjoy the maximum of desirable 
satisfaction witli that minimum of exertion which is 
most conducive to the health and happiness of the 
individual. 

Now, if it were possible to find such a combination of favour- 
able conditions, wherein all the wants of man could be completely 
met, it follows that interchange with other countries, so far as 
material needs are concerned, would not only be unnecessary but 
disadvantageous. 

It is true, on moral grounds, a nation enjoying the maximum 
of satisfactions with a minimum of exertion or maximum of ease 
might either reduce the amount of satisfactions or increase its 
exertions for purposes of benevolence as directed towards a 
country less favourably situated ; but there would be no such 
necessity on commercial grounds as laid down by the earlier 
economists, except upon the plea that we should buy in the 
cheapest market. But this last plea, the favourite maxim of Free 
Trade theorists, ignores many consequences of the most vital 
importance. 

First, the ideal state contemplated had already discovered and 
achieved that tinal state of content or end to which a people can 
aspire to — that is, a maximum of desiiable satisfactions combined 
with a minimum of reasonable exertion. This being so, why 
should they attempt to procure this end by another method untried 
by them, seeing that they could not improve their condition in 
tliis way, but might make it Avorse. But as this plea must be 
discussed, let us see under such circumstances what it might 
lead to. 

Buy in the Cheapest Market. 

Tn our ideally perfect state, let us for convenient reference call 
it " Euphrasia," one of the fundamental conditions regulating 
its well-being is, that all for each is considered of as great if not 
greater importance as each for all. 

Tlie favourable natural conditions were experienced to be such 
that the round of Avants of all might be satisfactorily supplied 
without demanding from any one group of its divisions of labour 
more than forty-four hours of public labour perAveek. But it was 
also carefully determined that altliougli a certain aggregate of 



PRESIDENTS ADDRESS — SECTION F. 137 

labour when properly directed would aftect this desirable end, a 
corresponding or even a much greater amount of labour could not 
produce the same result if the previously carefully arranged and 
periodical regulation of the apportionment of labourers were 
subsequently disturbed in an ai'bitrary way. Every arbitrary 
disturbance of the propoi'tion of labourers trained and originally 
apportioned to a special work or function has the effect of 
lowering the purchasing power of the section which was arbitrarily 
increased, because it introduced either curtailment of employ- 
ment, wrongful competition, over-production, or diminished 
purchasing power within that particular section of the division 
of labour ; and in the section from which they were arbitrarily 
withdrawn, it either lessened the amount of aggregate satisfactions 
retjuired for all, oi', if it have not that effect, it increases the 
hours of labour of those within the division Ijeyond the maximum 
standard, without additional recompense for increased exertion. 
Tf, however, the additional hours are rewarded by extra satis- 
factions, it must be at the expense of the general ct)nsumers, 
thus lessening their average of aggregate satisfactions. 

The wrongful over-production is a direct loss to the whole 
community so healthfully regulated by community of interests. 

Oh, but your ideal Euphrasian forgets, says the Economist, 
that the surplus of A division might by interchange with another 
nation be made to restore the balance thus arbitrarily destroyed 
by A recompensing through products needed in division B where 
a deficiency was caused. This is true, but at best this course only 
helps to restore the loss occasioned by the arbitrary distui'bance 
of the apportionment of the local Euphrasian division of services. 
Nay, more, the loss occasioned could not l)e fully restored by a7t 
equal exchange of labour and skill, for the exchange with the 
distant foreign country involved a fresh expenditure of labour in 
transfer and ageiicies of exchange — thus increasing the value of 
O or obstacles — between producer and consumer, and so inevitably 
lessening the quota of the essential material satisfactions to be 
divided among consumers. It must be borne in mijid that 
Euphrasia is assumed to possess the maximum of favourable 
natural resources — plus best art appliances— and, consequently, 
the restoration of the desti'oyed equilibrium in Euphrasia could 
only be effected by a skilled people, who of necessity were forced 
to adapt themselves to circumstances by either being satisfied 
with a lower requirement of wants than that enjoyed by the 
Euphrasians, or by a similar standaixl of material satisfactions 
gained at a much greater expenditure of labour. 

For the sake of illustration, let us further examine tliis theory 
of obstacles. It will readily be granted that \vliei*e two producing 
centres are situated at vastly differejit distances from consuming 
centres, that supply fi-om the nearer producing centre can be 
effected by a much smaller expenditure of labour than by the more 
distant centre of production. 



138 president's address — section f. 

Thus, if A be 8000 miles distant, and B 40 miles, it follows 
that the extra labour and time consumed in carrying the extra 
7960 miles is a serious disadvantage. Men do not consume 
distance. In itself it does not add a jot to the ultimate material 
wants of man otherwise produced. Distribution is certainly a 
necessity, but the smaller the need for distribution the larger the 
produce to be divided, for it is obvious that the more machines 
and human beings that ai'e abstracted fi'om direct production of 
essential satisfactions, the smaller is the quantity falling to the 
share of each consumer of wants. Thus, if 100 producers and 50 
distributors provide the ideal quota of wants of an Euphrasian at 
the maximum of eight hours per day — say 10 wants per day — 
then the 100 producers must each have produced 15 wants, for 
consumers include producers and non-producers, or producers and 
distributors, and these number 150, and 

100 X 15 _ 
150 

for each consumer, or, on the basis of exertion which lies at the 
root of price or cost, we might put it that for the aggregate hours 
of labour in producing and distributing each consumer was put in 
the possession of 10 wants. Now, if we increase obstacles, we 
cannot supply the same number of wants without individually 
increasing the hours of labour. Thus, if the additional distance 
involves the labour of 50 additional distributors, and if producer 
and consumer alike share the additional labour thrown upon 
them, we have 

200 X 8 



150 



= 10-66 



Thus, to maintain the same share of wants as formerly, the 
necessary increase of 50 non-producers or distributors involved 
fully an extra two hours labour per day, or 25 per cent, extra 
exertion on the part of all breadwinners. In like manner it may 
be shown, if the amount of exertions per individual remain undis- 
turbed, then the amount of wants formerly supplied to each 
consumer must be lessened, thus : — 

150 X 10 ^ , 

— — = I -5 wants per consumer 

Thus we have with the increased obstacles a diminution in the 
satisfaction of wants equivalent to a reduction of 25 per cent. 

In these simple illustrations the direct effects of increased 
obstacles between producer and consumer are set forth in plain 
terms, so far as interchange with a distant country affects the 
conditions of a country circumstanced like our ideal Euphrasia. 
To apply the argument involving obstacles to other countries not .so 
favourably conditioned as Euphi-asia might favour the adoption 
of interchange Vjetween two or more distant counti'ies, as effecting 



president's address — SECTION F. 139- 

impro^'ement in the condition of consumers in each country ; but 
this improvement could only reach the highest possible quota for 
such a place where the exchanges are confined to the necessary 
products, which are either naturally easily produced beyond local 
needs, or in respect of products which are naturally deficient 
within its own border. In such case, the exchange of the former 
by exports would have to be met with a similar value of imports 
of the latter. But even here the disadvantageous efiects of 
obstacles ai'e not a whit lessened. The disadvantageous effects 
of obstacles have to be endured so long as they do not outweigh 
the advantages of the desired exchanges. 

Nay, there is one form of want — Food — which no obstacle can 
outweigh so long as the energies of the laboui*er in other directions 
remain unexhausted. The unfortunate country so circumstanced 
must of necessity effect exchanges with food conntries, or perish 
as a community. Still more terrible is it for the masses of this 
country if it should happen that it lacks the natural or raw 
products upon whose manufacture the exchanges for the food of 
other countries depends. 

In such a case the friction of obstacles (distance) between (1) 
producer of raw products (2), manufacturer, and (3), consumer, 
attains its maximum, notwithstanding that science and skill may 
have done, and ai'e still doing, wonders by steam and other 
contrivances on sea and land to minimise its lowering influence 
on the amount of satisfactions proportionate to labour exerted. 

The Economist may here exclaim : How does the Euphrasian 
argument from obstacles reconcile itself with such a case as the 
United Kingdom. He will no doubt proceed to show that no 
nation on earth has carried the method of interchange with other 
countries to so high a pitch as the United Kingdom. Her vessels 
are found laden with the products of exchange in eveiy important 
harbour of every country. 

Her aggregate wealth is the envy of nations, amounting to a 
sum something approaching £1,300,000,000 as a yearly income. 
Her external interchange ti'ade amounts to 643 millions yearly, 
362 millions being impoi"ts and 281 millions being exports. Her 
annual value of real estate alone reaches £196,000,000. Surely, 
he would continue confidently, this is the most complete vindica- 
tion that could be given practically that the nation which has the 
greatest amount of foreign interchange trade and, presumably, 
the greatest amount of obstacles, is also the nation which, by hei- 
great wealth, affords the greatest amount of satisfactions to divide 
among her consumers. 

The answer to this supposed objectioia certainly involves many 
complex questions, but it may at once be affirmed that it does not 
in the slightest degree diminish the value of the argument from- 
obstacles as applied to Euphrasia. In making this affirmation, it 
is not denied that the wealth of the United Kingdom in the 



140 president's address — SECTION F. 

aggregate is unbounded, and no one can reflect upon hei- grand 
achievements in science, wealth, and progi'ess without admiration 
and pride. The skill and energy of her people are marvellous, 
and our admiration is not lessened, but increased, by the thought 
that her vast resources and enormous interchange of trade have 
been built up by her prodigious energy and industry in spite of 
obstacles of every kind. Her skill, daring, and enterprise have 
given her the command of important lands under every clime. 
This skill and enterprise, however, could not within her own 
borders increase, beyond a certain limit, the necessary supplies to 
meet her rapidly growing needs, as regards food and clothing for 
her people ajid raw products to supplement her needs for supplying 
manufactures in exchange for prime necessaries, failing which 
she could not support the lives of her people. It is necessity, 
therefore, which inevitably forced her to direct her industries in 
such a manner that her lack in food and other i-aw products at 
home should be purchased by a surplus creation of manufactures. 
Food, being one of the prime essentials to the life of each person, 
must be secured in sufficient quantity, or the lives of her workers 
cannot Ije sustained. A nation possessed of all other forms of 
the world's wealth of exchange could not preserve the lives of her 
people if this one form of wealth — Food — be lacking or insufficient. 
With such a nation — so unfavourably conditioned — her existence 
depends upon her power to command supplies of the food of other 
countries in exchange for such products as food-produciiig 
countries may think it desirable to take from her. 

The food-producing countries may carry on this exchange as a 
matter of choice or preference ; but with the food-requiring 
country the exchange must l^e eflected — on the best terms 
possible — but if necessity presses hard, /'/ must be effected upon any 
terms forced upon her. 

Foi-tunately for such a country, all lands capable of producing 
large food supplies are not in the condition of our ideal Euphrasia, 
and hence there is little danger of a stoppage of food exchanges 
for manufactures so long as the food-producing country is tempted 
by cheapness to buy those of the food-lacking country in prefer- 
ence to making them for herself, or of buying them from a rival 
manufacturing country on still move advantageous terms. 

Free Trade. 

A food-lacking country must therefore favcjur free interchange 
of trad«, for it is necessary to her existence. A country with 
ample natural sources unutilised or partly utilised would only 
suffer a temporary inconvenience by the cessation of imports of 
foreign manufactures, and it is possible that this inconvenience, 
which forced her to supply her own wants from sources and 
agencies within her own borders, might result in increasing the 



PRESIDENTS ADDRESS — -SECTIOX F. 



141 



amount of satisfactions for each consumer with an expenditure 
of a smaller amount of exertion on the part of each producer and 
distributor. 



Aggregate Wealth axd Individual Wealth. 

But let us again return to the outward indices of the prosperity 
of the United Kingdom. Admitting that she has great wealth 
in the aggregate, it does not necessarily follow that the share of 
satisfactions falling to the bulk of her people compares favourably 
with countries whose aggregate wealth is comparatively small. 
In point of fact, any aggregate respecting the wealth of a country 
is a pure abstraction. It is as such enjoyed by no one. It is the 
share falling on the average to each individual which is the true 
indication of real wealth, or of the satisfactions enjoyed by the 
unit. 

This is significantly demonstrated by contrasting two widely 
differing countries in respect of that abstract idea called nation;il 
wealth : — 

Area ... 

Ditto per head of population 

Aggregate earnings of wages class 

Working class breadwinners, esti- 
mated 

Wages ditto per head per year . . . 

Average lioiu's employed per week 

Wages per head per week ... 

Average wages per head per hour 

Average cost of one quarter of 
wheat 

Equivalent of ditto in trite pur- 
chasing power, viz., hours' labour 

Thus it will be seen that, notwithstanding the imposing effect 
of the vast aggregate wealth of labour in England, representing 
over eight hundred million pounds sterling, the purchase of one 
quarter of wheat — the staff of life — demands of her workmen 
the expenditure of 92-'-' hours' time in labour, whereas in Tas- 
mania the same amount of satisfactions can be gained by the 
expenditure of 41"'' hours of labour ; that is, the English workman 
would have to work, if work could be placed at his disposal (in 
itself a greater difficulty), 123 per cent, more hours to attain the 
same purchasing power possessed by the Tasmanian workman, 
whose aggregate tvealth only represents 0'69 per cent, of the 
corresponding aggregate in England. 

This clearly proves how misleading are the effects produced 
by allowing the mind to dwell upon mere abstractions basetl 
upon aggregates 



Tasmania. 


United Kingdom. 


16,778,000 

114-13 

5,519,340 


... 77,800,000 

... 205 

... 800,084,000 


61,326 

^90 
44 

34s. 6d. 
9-*'d. 


... 15,884,000 
... .£51 

55 
... 19s. 3d. 
... 4-^d. 


32s. 6d. 


... 32s. 6d. 


41' hours 


... 92-' hoiu-s 



142 pre;sident's address — section f. 

The Effect of Strikes or a Rise in Wages in Food- 
Producing AND Food-Lacking Countries. 

But the difference in the purchasing power of the English 
breadwinner is not the only disadvantage. Her purchasing 
power is also not merely limited by the extent of the market 
for her manufactures, but upon her success in underselling 
foreign rivals who are also by necessity compelled to exchange 
manufactui'es for the prime necessaries of raw products of food 
and clothing ; and hence her success depends either upon her 
superiority in skill and local appliances, or in cheapness or 
extending the hours of labour. It is a necessity that a manufac- 
turing country must produce cheaply, and necessity will force 
her to attain this end by extending the hours of the labourer 
without extra recompense, should other means fail her as a 
competitor for the bread and raw products of food-producing 
countries. Strikes and combinations among workmen are only 
of value to them within very narrow limits. For let us suppose 
that England's supremacy as a manufacturing country depends 
upon her present power to undersell rival countries to the extent 
of 15 per cent., it would then follow that any nominal success 
attained by the combined sti'ikes of her workmen, thereby 
improving their hours of labour or rates of wages to the extent 
of, say, 16 to 20 per cent, would be altogether disastrous, for it 
would destroy the competitive power of England as a manufacturer 
for other countries than her own. But if England was thus shut 
within herself there would probably be no employment whatever, 
and no means of subsistence for perhaps 20 millions of her present 
population of 38 millions. This would be a terrible result arising 
out of the success of combined strikes among her manufacturing 
workmem 

That an increase of the cost of her products to the extent of 
what has been indicated is not a very improbable matter 
spi'inging from strikes has Ijeen foreshadowed by the recent 
combination among English dock labourers, who succeeded in 
having their rate of wages raised 2d. per hour. As the average 
rate of workmen in England is only 4"'^"d. per hour, a general 
increase of l|d. per hour would raise the cost of wages 35'^ per 
cent. ; and as the price of labour is the chief item of cost in all 
manufactures, it is not impi'obable that the ultimate cost of her 
manufactures would be raised 20 per cent., thus cutting her off 
frcmi her previous advantage, which enabled her successfully to 
outrival all other countries in supplying the external markets of 
the world with manufactures. 

In countries whei'e food and I'aw products are or can be produced 
far in excess of local requirements, the effect of prohibitive tariffs 
in raising local prices would not have a similar effect. If the 
cost of living would be noniinally raised thereby, it would be 



president's address SECTION F. 143 

exactly or neai'ly counterbalanced by a tiommal increase hi earnings 
locally. Thus, for example, if the consumer had to pay 20 per 
cent, extra for all articles of consumption, it is probable that 
even this would not be disadvantageous ; for it is almost certain 
that the true purchasing powers of labour — relative to staff of 
life — would be very little altered, as the price of labour would 
also tend to approach an increase of 20 per cent. 

But thei^e is one effect which this would have upon a food- 
producing country, which would show a decided contrast with a 
similar rise of wages in a manufacturing country such as England, 
viz., it would draw to the former the manufacturing laboui'ers 
of manufacturing or densely-peopled centres ; for instead of 
cutting off sources of employment, as in England, it would of 
necessity require her to import labourers to produce those wants 
locally, or a great portion of them, which formerly had been 
supplied to her by the manufactures of external labour. That is, 
broadly, its main effect would be to increase the local labour 
market or widen the field for the employment of local labour. 
At first this would also have the effect of diminishing the 
aggregate extent of external commerce ; but it need hardly be 
discussed, all things being fairly equal as regards natural sources, 
that the supply of exchanges by home products, instead of by 
foreign, is all in favour of diminution of obstacles, and therefore, 
upon the whole, advantageous. . . . This problem has already 
been worked out in the United States of America, and whatever 
the ultimate effects may be when local population approaches 
too close to her limits of natural powers for producing food and 
necessary raiv materials for her own people, it is undoubted that 
60 millions would not be profitably employed and well supported 
if it were not for her policy of favouring the creation of her own 
wants as far as possible by the energies of local labourers. 

It must be granted, however, that the policy which is advan- 
tageous to a rich food and raw-producing country, such as 
Amei'ica, would be annihilation to a country such as England, 
where the population by far exceeds her natural sources of supply 
as regards food and other essential raw products. 

A countiy so circumstanced must maintain a Free Trade policy 
or perish. With countries thinly populated, possessing illimitable 
sources of natural wealth, including soil, climate, and all 
conditions favourable for the production of food and raw products 
in excess of local wants, it must inevitably follow that the 
tendencies and influences arising from the desire to extend the 
local field of employment must be in the direction of Protection, or 
restrictions upon foreign trade. It is the conditions of the various 
countries which determine means to ends. In one country the 
means is Protection, in the other Free Trade ; but the end in both 
cases is the same, viz., the best available mode of supplying the 
greatest amount of satisfactions to each individual (including local 



144 president's address — section f. 

cmploxnient to the rising generatiofi) wit/i the least expenditure of 
individual effort. 

If Mr. Henry M. Hoyt, \y\\u has so aljly defended the American 
policy of Protection, had preiuisetl that he was referring solely to 
countries rich in all natural sources- — fax- surpassing the demands of 
all possible local requirements — we might agree with his ideal as 
regards the policy to be pui'sued, viz : — "The nearer we come 
to organising and conducting our competing itidusiries, as if we 
were the only nation on the planet, the more we shall make, and 
the more we shall divide among the makers. Let us, at least, 
enter ujjon all the industries authorised by the nature of our 
things. Thus we shall reach the greatest annual product of the 
industry of the society." 

When, however, any country's population fails or is unable to 
cultivate 2*81 acres per head within her own borders, the policy 
suggested by Mr. Hoyt must of necessity be abandoned in 
favour of Free Trade. This necessity — involving the population 
difficulty — is, however, an evil, and not an ad^■antage to the 
masses. 

Natural Limits to the Numbers Engaged in various 
Occupations. 

Most writei's on social problems tacitly assume that no other 
considerations than those of Supply and Demand, or Competition 
and Remuneration, need be taken into account when questions 
relating to the numbers that may be employed in the various 
branches of human industry are concerned. Indeed, so able an 
exponent of the principles of Political Economy as Mr. Heniy 
8idgwick assumes with confidence that the adjustment of the 
apportionment of the employed in the various divisions of industry 
is sufficiently determinecl by " rates of remuneration." He states 
(p. 182, Principles of Political Economy) — "We assume that 
labour and capital are mobile, or capable of being attracted by a 
higher rate of remuneration both from district to district and 
from industry to industry, so that not merely are the wages paid 
for the same quality in any one industry approximately the same, 
but also, when the remuneration of labourers or capitalists in any 
industry is known to be higher than that of labourer or capitalist 
in some other industry entailing no more sacrifice or outlay and 
requiring no scarcer qualifications, the ditlerence tends to be 
gradually reduced by the attractions which this higher remunera- 
tion exercises on actual or prospective labourers or employers." 

There is not the faintest recognition here of natural limits to 
or absolute necessity for employment in a given direction, irre- 
spective of the aggregate intensity of energies expended or market 
rates and prices. Neither does he recognise the universal truth 
in matters animate and inanimate that mobility or movement in 



president's address — SECTION F. 145 

a new direction requires a fresh expenditui-e of force commen- 
surate with the nature of the subject, the time occupied in 
transition, and the friction to be overcome, due to inertia or 
foreign resisting media. A physicist would never dream of 
discussing the mobility of material substances in such a loose way. 
He would first consider the mass or weight of the substance, the 
distance and direction of movement, the rate of movement and 
time, and the friction due to inertia or existing diversity of 
movement, and from these he would compute the fresh demand 
upon energy or force to execute the desired movement. 

Because the Political Economist does not think, or does not 
choose to think, that the transfer of a labourer or capitalist to a 
new place or to a new kind of occupation involves a process 
analogous to the movement of inanimate bodies, it is not the less 
true. Take the case of a shoemaker reduced to a state of idle- 
ness, or partial idleness, by competition among excessive numbers, 
or some other cause locally or generally. We will suppose that 
this workman has a family of five pei'sons, including himself, to 
provide for, in addition to his quota of expenditure required for 
State purposes, such as General Government, Law, and Protection, 
including Gaols, Military and Naval Defences, Police, Education, 
Public Hospitals, Asylums, Support of Paupers, &c. It is obvious, 
therefore, that when faii'ly employed in this branch of labour — 
making boots and shoes — he is not merely rendering reciprocal 
services to his countrymen, but he helps them to provide for such 
expenditure as the requirements of the particular State demands. 
The greater the efibrt or energy expended by him during the year, 
the greater is the value of produce by him added to the common- 
wealth in all these respects, in addition to the important part of 
support of the four dependants specially related to him. 

Under ordinary circumstances (excludmg foreign interference, 
and making due allowance for special skill) all branches of services 
within a certain country are paid at rates of wages which are, 
broadly speaking, correlative to effort or time expended, and, 
consequently, so long as the rates of wages are locally proportionate 
to definite efi^brts and skill, it matters not whether the average 
rate per hour be nominally high or low, so long as expenditure is 
also determined locally by such correlative conditions. Thus take 
the following illustrations : — Suppose the price of bread is deter- 
mined by a daily effort of 10 hours, and that all other services 
are modified and constantly exchanged in prices which, whether 
high or low, are also proportioned to the nominal price of, say, 
the quarter of ivheat. Under these circumstances, it would not 
matter to the shoemaker whether the nominal or money cost of 
his wages was high or low, for it would have the same purchasing 
power over the things which he required to satisfy the wants of 
himself and family, Ijesides the proportion required from him for 
the service of the State Thus if the standard — the quarter of 



146 president's address — section f. 

wheat — boi'e always the same relation to his remuneration of 10 
hours' laboui", and to the vai'ious items of his expenditure, it 
mattered not a whit to him whether the nominal money cost of 
wheat was high or low. In Australia the average relation 
between a breadwinner's effort expended and a quarter of wheat 
usually represents 44i hours' labour, equal to 5^ days' labour 
(S hours) nearly. If, therefore, the quarter of wheat and other 
things (including expenditure) always bore a corresponding 
relation to each other, as 44^- hours' common labour bears as the 
equivalent to one quarter wheat, it follows of necessity that 
nominal prices, whether high or low, would not increase or 
decrease his receipts or expenditure, nor his average gains or 
losses. Thus, so far, the various divisions of labour within any 
one State would never be affected, in recipi"ocal interchanges with 
each other, by alteration in the nominal cost of services, so long 
as the alteration in cost was a general one within the State, and 
governed by local natural conditions. 

But a different result would follow, so far as the shoemaker is 
concerned, if manufactures of boots and shoes were largely 
introduced from a country whei'e nominal money prices were 
generally much lowei', or where the average lireadwinners of the 
population — reduced to a perilous condition — were forced to 
increase their expenditure of daily effort relative to the standard 
of cost of one quarter of wheat to 89 hours, or T-ra days' labour 
of 12 hours a day. The local shoemaker would not have the 
advantage of distance and cost of transit, as in the case of the 
local quarryman or coal-miner ; for shoes and boots can be 
transferred long distances at a relatively small cost, and hence, 
if not protected in some other way, the local shoemaker would be 
unable to compete with the foreign low-paid worker. Not only 
would he have to increase his efforts to the same extent as the 
foreign competitor, but he would (were it not impossible) have to 
exceed his efforts before he could drive the foreign competitor 
from the field, and failing this, he would be reduced, perhaps, to 
half-time employment at the foreign rate of wages, and, probably, 
soon he and his family, overwhelmed with poverty, would become 
local victims to competition ; and, instead of being a help to the 
State, would become dependants upon the rest of the bread- 
winners, thus increasing their State burdens. 

It is usual with theorists to talk lightly of the mobility of 
labour under such circumstances, and to show that the local 
shoemaker, finding himself unable to compete in his capacity as 
shoemaker, would at once transfer his services to some other 
branch of labour, where, it is supposed by theorists, that there is 
always some providential provision. But all such writers do not 
seem to be aware that, in a country where manufacturing 
industries do not dominate, there is a tendency to narrow the 
scope of operations, and to cluse more and more the doors of 



president's address — SECTION F. 147 

entrance to the remaining branches of active industries in 
proportion to the number of local industries actually driven out 
of existence by the influx of foreign manufactures. This is 
undoubted, so far as local mai'ket is concerned. No one can 
afiirm, with reason, that an industry driven out does not 
correspondingly delimit the demand upon the local market. 
Logically, therefore, the only direction in which our shoemaker 
could maintain his existence as a breadwinner would be — ( 1 ) to 
convert himself into a labourer in raw products, for which there 
is still a profitable demand in foreign markets ; (2) transport 
himself and his family to a country where his particular services 
are in demand ; or (3) starve or become dependant paupers, 
supported by the local 8tate, already too heavily burdened by 
poor rates, etc. 

In theoretical discussion this case would be disposed of by 
wordy wrangling or special pleading, indictment of the capacity 
or lack of reasoning power of opponents, references to alleged 
harmonies of competition and to dogmas and general conclusions 
of various political economists of accepted authority. The usual 
ruts of controversy may ajfFord ample opportunities for theorists 
to display literary skill, aided by the usual handy assortment of 
stock illustrations. But, instead of a literary sham-fight, let the 
theorist enter into the real difficulties by discussing the matter, 
practically, with the distressed shoemaker. For this purpose we 
will take a common incident in these colonies. 

A dejDutation from the shoemakers, driven out of employment 
by competition with cheap foreign manufactures. 

(Shoemaker) spokesman for deputation. 

(Theorist) representing the Government. 

Shoemaker : On behalf of myself and my distressed fellow- 
workmen and their families I have been asked to represent to the 
Government the terrible distress into which we have fallen by the 
influx of manufactures of boots and shoes from Europe, at such 
low prices that we have not only been knocked oflf employment 
by local manufacturers, who were unable to compete with foreign 
houses, but we find that, as individual workmen, with such high 
ruling rates in rent, clothing, and other necessaries, besides a 
high local taxation, we are unable to earn enough to maintain 
ourselves and families, even if we were able to get full employment 
at the foreign selling prices. 

Theorist : I sympathise deeply with your distress, but we 
cannot interfere with the laws of free interchange. You must, 
therefore, seek employment in some other way. 

Sho€7naker : But we cannot turn our hands to another tiude, 
and even if we tried, we would have to spend years as apprentices. 
Even in our own trade we had, as young men, to spend three or 
four years as apprentices, partly or wholly supported the while 
by our parents. Now we have no such help. On the contrary 

j2 



148 president's address — section p. 

we are each burdened with the support of a family. Even if we 
could manage for ourselves, what is to become of our families in 
the meantime ? 

Theorist : I admit this difficulty, but is there not plenty of 
work open to you in this country Avhere you could turn your 
labour to account, where no special skill is required, or, at any 
rate, where bone and muscle is all that is necessary. 

Shoemaker : True, in time some of us might obtain woi'k as 
labourers in the fields among farmers, or on public works or mines, 
but the failure in our own industry in such a thinly-populated 
country causes a depression in nearly all local occupations ; 
for it must be admitted a considerable portion of the products of 
other trades and industries have been directly affected by our 
distress and our lessened consumption, due to lack of purchasing 
power. Besides, I have been told by farmers that they have 
themselves long struggled with adverse circumstances in com- 
peting against more favoured agriculturists in America, who 
are able to sell in European markets at prices which tend to 
Ijecome lower year by year, and if a local market is not soon 
established, many of them will have to give in. If other trades 
are crushed by foreign competition as we have been, what hope 
have the farmers of holding on, let alone the outlook for their 
own children, where every branch of industry seems to be 
already overstocked, even in this rich and extensive country 
with a sparse population. In addition to what I have stated, 
I am informed by those who have given much attention to 
agriculture that there is only a limited amount of land where 
agriculture might be successfully carried on ; but this form of 
industry will not admit of the employment of more than 35 
persons to the square mile of land in cultivation, and if this be 
so, and if farmers cannot exchange products of the same kind 
with each other, how can a local market become a possibility in 
the absence of a local community of trades and manufacturers ? 

Theorist : I admit that the home trader and home workman 
may tefuporarily suffer loss from the competition of foreign traders 
and workmen in the same branch of industry, but it must be 
remembered that everything will again be adjusted, because 
capital is constantly exerting a tendency to smooth down any 
temporary inequality in the profits of different trades. Even if 
you sufffer from foreign importations, the Government is not 
bound to protect you ; for there can be no right which has a 
juster claim than that every individual of the community should 
be freely pei-mitted to obtain commodities where he can buy 
them on the cheapest terms, and to sell them where he can 
realise the highest price. 

Shoemaker : It is easy for theorists to write such things. I 
am unable to understand exactly what you mean by suffering a 
temporary loss, or what the process may be which you euphoniously 



president's address — SECTION F. 149 

term a tendency to smooth down any temporary inequality. I 
and my fellow-workmen are now unemployed ; many of us, with 
our families, are in great distress — without instant employment 
or relief from some source, many of us will die of starvation. We 
have no means, and if we had we do »ot know where to go to 
better our miserable condition. Do you mean, if many of us 
succumb and die from want and misery, thereby thinning our 
own ranks as competitors for the existing small held of employ- 
ment still remaining, that this is the smoothing down process to 
which we are referred for comfort ? Good heavens, surely not 
this ? Remember that we are human beings, not machines. The 
machine may stand idle for a time and live. Men cannot. 
Friction in inanimate machinery means dissipation of power in 
heat ; with men friction means distress, misery and death. Men 
are not machines, and loose analogies based upon the laws of 
physical processes cannot be grimly applied to men fighting for 
life and exposed to sufi'ering. You say that Government is not 
bound to protect its own workmen, and that there can be no right 
having a juster claim than that every individual should have the 
most absolute freedom in buying in the cheapest market and 
selling in the dearest, irrespective of any local claims of sympathy 
<jr rational or racial ties of common interest. Such a commercial 
Law, not Bond, cannot be consistent with the conditions which 
necessitate the maintenance, defence and independence of indi- 
vidual nationalities. To be logical, it would necessitate the 
bi*eaking down of all individual States, all individual race 
conglomerations, and the fusing of all human elements into one 
grand State of the world. Until that time arrives there must 
of necessity be localised interests, governed by the same local 
general condition, which maintain separate nationalities. All 
the social organisations of the State, such as Railways, Roads, 
Bridges, Harbours, Post and Telegraph, Schools, Defence and 
Protection, Poor Laws, ifec, can only be logically maintained 
upon the admitted necessity of some common local rational 
interest, having special concern for the general welfare of the 
particular nation ; and these special local interests are so inter- 
twined by so many bonds more precious than mere questions 
regarding absolute cost of products in money, that it seems absurd 
to say that the destruction or suftering of any of its members 
ai'e locally only of equal concern to a corresponding evil in a 
foreign State similarly constituted. The necessary gravitation 
and concentration, interests and sympathies around home and 
fatherland are as natural as perspective in optics ; the greatest 
<lensity must be near the centre of self, home and family, 
becoming weaker and weaker as the related rings of friends, 
relations, club, townsmen, nation, race are passed through, to the 
thinner sympathies lying beyond, embracing humanity generally, 
where foreign races and states are bound, and they themselves 



150 president's address — SECTION V. 

are related obversely to us in a similarly graduated series of 
interests and sympathies. It is this grand gravitation of human 
interests and sympathies which make possible ideas and forces 
which make home, friend, and fatherland ; and these, not 
nominal cost of products, are the great factors which determine 
the engergies and welfai-e of any community. Commercial laws 
tend to destroy the heart of all ideas which centre in home and 
fatherland, and if the nation is to live it must carefully guard 
against their decrepitating influence. Their shuttle seems just 
as ready to weave the shroud of a nation as to l)ind nations in 
bonds of broader sympathies. 

Dominating Wants Determine Occupations and Necessarily 
Produce Inequalities in the Form of Services. 

Hitherto, in the writings of social reformers, the greater part 
of the attention has been confined to the monopoly by the few of 
the lands, houses, railways, and other instruments connected 
with the production, security, and distribution of the necessary 
wants of human beings. It is generally assumed that there is 
abundance of primary wants for each one if the aggregate 
prodvTcts annually created were more equitably distributed. But 
if the necessary primary satisfactions were annually produced in 
sufficient quantity for the wants of all, it would go to prove the 
curious and inexplicable circumstance that the present haphazard 
training, and supply and demand, allocation of those who are 
engaged, or who are Ijeing trained to engage, in the various 
divisions of labour are in perfect harmony with conditions which 
combine to eftect that result, which might seem too formidable if 
undertaken by the most absolute regulations of intelligent 
prevision. The present supply of satisfactions is determined by 
the estimates or combined action of self-interested producers. It 
cannot be affirmed, on the basis of producers' self-interest, that 
wants ai-e produced with the sole idea of providing the highest 
quota of each satisfaction to each individual. At best they 
favour the jumijuin/i supply, as self-interest is best rewarded by 
a kee7i demand — involving high prices — a result which would not 
be attained if the maximum quota of satisfactions for each 
individual was created. Of course, the absence of a perfect 
scheme of combined prevision among producing competitors, and 
the unforeseen variable effects springing from natui-al causes year 
by year, often produce abundance or superfluity, or over- 
production, as it is tei'med ; but this is a result not premeditated, 
and, although favourable to consumers for the time being, it is a 
mere accident, causing a fall in prices, and is likely to be followed 
by purposeful under-production during the succeeding period, in 
order to produce a straitened market with a corresponding rise in 
prices, and results in a certain reduction of the ideal quantity of 



president's address —section f. 151 

satisfactions falling to the lot of each consumer of the poorei- 
classes. But this tendency of self-interested producers striving to 
produce iinde?- the necessary requii-ement is just the \'ery condition 
for involving the poor in the continual battle with poverty and 
want ; and all that can be said in favour of self-interest is, that 
hitherto there has been no better method devised which would so 
effectually serve the majority of human beings. Is it to be 
wondered, then, that the less fit (happily a minority) in the struggle 
for existence should at times cruelly feel pinching want, when 
upon them must fall the evil of the barely-sufficing aggregate 
scarcity, the ideal creation which the self-interested producers 
strive for. It has been shown that the supply of wants is 
at present alone roughly predetermined by the self-interested 
calculations of producers, and that their aim is to extend the field 
of production as far as they can in safety to themselves — and 
that means as near an approach to a full supply as will ensui'e 
good prices, involving a tight market, or scarcity. Consumers, 
who desire abundance, do not detei'mine the forthcoming supplies. 
Producers' interests, therefore, are antagonistic to any social ideal 
which would bring the highest quota of necessary satisfactions 
easily within the reach of all men. Therefore, so long as 
producers' self-interest rules supreme in the creation of necessaiy 
products, so long must we expect the periodic suffering and 
pinching of the lower stratum of the working classes. Bastiat 
even is forced to admit that " antagonistic desires cannot at one 
and the same time coincide with the general good." " As a 
purchaser he desires abundance ; as a seller he desires scarcity." 
" The wishes and desires of the consumers are those which are in 
harmony with the public interest." Food, clothing, houses, 
railways, steamboats, and the various machines of production are 
almost wholly regulated in the intei-ests of producers, compe- 
tition al(jne preventing this interest from working in too great 
antagonism to the interests of consigners. Nearly all bread- 
winners, therefore, in detail defeat, to some extent, their own 
ultimate interests as general consumers by regulating the produc- 
tion of supplies upon a principle which is inimical to their 
interests as consumers. Nor is this the only evil. All wages- 
breadwinners must produce, or serve to produce, before they can 
earn the right to share or consume the fruits of production. But 
the 7iumbers of the effiployed depend almost wholly upon the self- 
interest of the large capitalist producers. It is not the interest of 
large capitalist producers to provide the full quota of wage- 
earning employment to all breadwinners. The larger the number 
of fully employed labourers the keener is the demand for products, 
and indii'ectly this may have some influence upon certain 
producers. But this indirect consideration is too feeble to interest 
producers in any scheme for the general good which might be 
directed to ensuring full employment to all breadwinners. It is 



152 president's address — section f. 

manifest, therefore, that in the present scheme of the division of 
labour there are two ugly defects. First, there is no interest 
intelligently organised to train and determine accoi'ding to natural 
proportions the occupations of the future breadwinners. Second, 
the only existing agency which determines the extent of employ- 
ment is guided by a principle which has for its object neither the 
supply of the highest quota of satisfactions to consumers nor the 
more needful provision for securing employment for all bread- 
winners. In the latter case, competition, instead of befriending 
the wage-earner and dependants as consumers, operates all the 
more harshly upon the larger number who are handicapped in 
the race by aimless ti'aining, or no training, for the nature of 
services that might possibly be otherwise open to some of them. 

Utopian Schemes op Socialists. 

It is not a matter of surprise, therefore, that the mass of wage- 
earners should readily sympathise with eveiy vague Utopian 
scheme of the Socialists, which holds out, however faultily, some 
promise or plan for dealing more effectually with the root 
difficulties which affect them most nearly, viz., security of employ- 
ment, pi'otection from over-competition, shorter hours labour with 
more adequate remuneration, I'edistribution of wealth, ifec, &c. 
But it is needless to point out that, before the redistribution of 
the aggregate of all forms of existing wealth of exchange (so- 
called) can be dealt with, it must be clear that this wealth consists 
f»f sucli forms as might effectually satisfy all the primary wants and 
comforts of human beings. That existing wealth in exchange, even 
if ecjually distributed, would fulfil this most necessary provision 
is a pure assumption. It has already been shown that a great part 
of the existing nominal wealth of exchange largely owned Ijy the 
rich consists of the mere tools and iiistrutnents of production, and 
that the real wealth appropriated as consumable wealth, or primary 
satisfactions, is already more widely and evenly distributed than 
is generally supposed. Even under the most thorougli Socialistic 
scheme this form of wealth would be far less generally distributed 
than at present ; for, according to such a scheme, it would be 
wholly reserved in the hands of the executive Government. It 
is utterly misleading to reckon upon the existing wealth of 
capitalists as a source for raising the quota of the real consumable 
and primary satif actions. The only distribution possible in this 
respect would be the empty idea of part-ownership. It is the 
increase to necessary current productions designed for actital 
consumption (material satisfactions) which alone can raise tlie 
average standard of primary satisfactions, and so dispose of 
material want, or poverty and distress. The (juestion thei'efore 
arises — Suppose that such a scheme were practicable, would the 
producing energies of men ))e greater and more eiiective tlian 



president's address — SECTION F. 153 

luider the scheme of Competition, Liberty, Right of Inheritance, 
Property Right, or Individualism as it is called 1 To be more 
effective in one essential, it must utterly fail in the other. The 
workers must be trained and allocated to specific occupations in 
strict conformity to the amount and nature of the labovir actually 
required to produce the primary satisfactions and comforts 
desired. Trainmg for every specific occupation requires con- 
siderable time, but for the occupation of skill a large amount of 
time must be consumed in acquiring the necessary training, 
irrespective of questions with regard to the unequal distribution 
of capacity. 

Now, on the basis of equality, it may be easy to divide 
products ; that according to actual needs is simple enough, 
involving no insuperable difficulty. But what about the alloca- 
tion to different employments ? How can the easy, the refined, 
and the skilled occupations be allocated on any scheme of 
equality? The majority must, as heretofore, sweat at the hard 
and dirty forms of labour ; but what power or what plan can be 
devised which will enable any elective executive to doom once 
and for ever the majority of learners and workers to the hard 
and irksome occupations, and to fix the minority in the refined, 
the easy and skilled services ? Suppose it were for a time insti- 
tuted, how long would the unfortunate majority be content to 
submit to their lot befoi'e an irresistible cry for redLtributio7i of 
occupations arose ; and if it arose, where is the force stronger 
than the majority of freemen to preserve the break-down of the 
social organisation necessary to produce the primary supply 
wants according to individual needs ? What compensation can 
be given to the masses toiling in the more wearisome occvipations? 
Extra allowance of satisfactions cannot be thought of, for that 
would destroy the coveted ideal of equality in the distribution 
of satisfactions according to needs. Shorter hours cannot 
be allowed without trenching upon equality of leisure. The 
unequal distribution of natural capacity, and the time necessary 
to acquire knowledge of more than one technical branch of skilled 
employment make it impossible to share in turn for a time all 
possible forms of labour. In short, the practical difficulties 
standing in the way of equality in the allocation of employment 
appear to be insuperable, and would most certainly, if there were 
no other objection, destroy any social organisation on a large 
scale which had been courageous enough to attempt it. Reference 
to simple communities, as in Amei'ica, following agriculture 
pursuits mainly, and not of themselves fulfilling for themselves 
the whole round of human Avants, are utterly misleailing. Such 
small communities are composed of a peculiar, select class, who 
voluntarily bind themselves to a moi'e or less ascetic life, and all 
such petty attempts tend to perish from lack of internal vitality. 
With a large mixed body of men, embracing all occupations, and 



154 president's address — sectiox f. 

endowed with ordinary passions and desires, the results would be 
chaotic and disastrous in the extreme. One efi'ect, terrible to 
contemplate, would seem to be inevitable, viz., that the indis- 
criminate distribution of pi'oducts among all men would destroy 
the major source of savings at present so largely devoted to the 
creation and maintenance of the powerful and costly auxiliary 
aids to human labour, and the slight individual gain per head in 
material satisfactions would only be of a very temporary character, 
for it would soon be lost by the new impulse to the improvident 
to rapidly increase their numbers. 

What would be the Probable Effect upon Social Well- 
being IF the Major Source of Savings were Diiistroyed. 

In another place it has been indicated that the mere " two 
hands," or the unaided labour of man, would not only fail to 
produce the average comforts and luxviries now enjoyed by nearly 
all classes of men, but more calamitous still, they would fail to 
produce the prime necessaries of life in sufficient quantity to 
maintain the lives of the existing population. Defects in the 
existing scheme of civilisation, some of which seem to be 
ineradicable, may be truly charged yearly with the destruction 
of thousands of valuable lives ; but were the present major source 
of savings dissipated or destroyed by equality in share of earnings, 
either by lowering the powers of production or by slightly raising 
temporarily the average amount of satisfactions consumed or 
enjoyed, the new conditions (equality of earnings) would be a 
blight and a curse, for while the existing defects in distribution 
may be the cause of the misei'y and destruction of thousands of 
valuable lives, the equality scheme would certainly entail the 
misery and destruction of millions now living in a state of 
comparative comfort. Many who fail to ponder over those root 
difficulties may exclaim — How can you explain this paradox ? 
Wliy should the fairer distribution of wealth (that according to 
actual individual needs, without regard to inequalities of natural 
powers, capacities or inheritance), raising the average comfort of 
the majority and lowering the superfluous and luxurious satisfac- 
tions of the minority, be productive of such disaster % 

The answer is plain enough. The power to efiect large savings, 
or to create the more costly auxiliaries of labour, depends mainly 
upon the existence of specially favourable conditions. 

(1.) The desire to accumulate or save can only become strong 
enough to be effective when the stronger desires for primary 
satisfactions are appeased. 

(2.) Savings or accumulations, therefore, can never be 
produced by labourers or others whose earnings do not exceed 
the supply necessary to satisfy the three primary wants. The 
majority of breadwinners are always in this "hand-to-mouth" 



president's address — SECTION F. 155 

condition, and rarely, of themselves, are able to contribute to the 
maintenance and increase of machines and instruments to serve 
as auxiliaries of production to future labour. They, however, in 
their social relations, more than contribute the average share of 
the future surplus workers, whose efforts must be proportionately 
supplemented by capital and power-multiplying instruments if 
they are to enjoy the same or a further improved condition. 

Those workers whose earnings are sufficient to provide comforts 
beyond the limits of bare prime necessaries may, however, by 
self-denial in the satisfactions of comforts, lay by a small store of 
savings which, in time, may swell into such valuable auxiliaries 
to earnings, that the self-denial in comforts hitherto may be 
rewarded in the greater satisfaction in comfort in the future, and 
even in adding considerably to the store of wealth, ^^'hich may 
be converted into the more permanent capitalised auxiliary 
instruments of power, which will benefit the generation coming- 
after them. 

Those, however, who contribute most largely to the creation of 
the permanent instruments which add unknown power to the 
efforts of hand labour, are chiefly those who either have inherited 
these or similar creations from their ancestors, or who, by 
extraordinary energy, skill, or self-denial, or all together — in the 
earlier part of their lives — are now enabled, after satisfying the 
three primary wants and comforts, to indulge the prevailing- 
passion of comfortable people, i.e., the accumulation of wealth or 
power over wealth. This passion in itself is, at this stage, 
undoubtedly a personal luxury ; but, unlike the luxuries which 
are directed to greater personal consin/iptioii, it is fortunately 
directed to that form of immaterial enjoyment which springs 
from the knowledge that the owner possesses the power to direct 
the mode or secure the best conditions in which wealth may be 
further employed. Fortunately for the world at large, self- 
interest at this stage converts into a virtue what otherwise would 
be a vice ; for the passion to further secure luxury of power over 
wealth, and to augment it, restricts personal indulgence in 
further consuming the material fruits of labour a?id the fnaterial 
grattdtoiis stores of nature, and runs parallel with that course 
which favours increased production relative to numbers, involving 
the improvement of the social and economic condition of all 
labourers ; i.e., the wealthy man or industrial chief does not, or 
cannot, increase his own personal consumption of the material 
fruits of labour, skill, enterprise, and the gratuitous gifts of 
nature beyond a moderate standard. The unconsumed material 
surplus by passion, self-interest, and even the better motives, is 
necessarily devoted to multiplying and sustaining the inanimate, 
costly, and powerful permanent aids to human productive power 
which alone distinguishes civilised populous communities from 
those of the miserable and bare-handed savage races, whose 



156 president's address — section f. 

command of a continent of the richest land upon the globe is 
too feeble to support in comfort a few insignificant wandering 
tribes. 

The bi'oad conclusions to be drawn from the foregoing con- 
siderations are : — That the social condition of mankind cannot 
be improved, or even maintained, unless a considerable proportion 
of the aggregate primary satisfactions produced be specially 
devoted continuously to agencies set apart for the maintenance, 
creation, discoveiy and improvement of such machines, tools, 
instruments and skilled contrivances as promise to add most 
effectually to man's power in transforming the forces of nature 
to the service of man. That the devotion of such a large propor- 
tion of created products to such purposes, entailing such a tax 
upon the aggregate store of present satisfactions, for and u^pon 
the individual share which otherwise might fall to each consumer, 
can only be secured by society living under peculiarly favourable 
conditions, such as has already been indicated. This involves 
favourable natural conditions as regards extent and quality of 
soil and climate ; maximum of skill and energy, tempered by the 
reasonable maximum of allowance for leisure and rest ; division 
of labour — each division carefully disciplined, apportioned, and 
maintained in strict relation to the probable amount of the 
diflferent satisfactions and needs required, and each member of 
the community in the dependant and under tutelary conditions — 
carefully ti'ained in strictly corresponding proportions to that 
branch of Avork in which it has been predetermined that the 
individual must in the future devote his life's service ; the 
adoption of such regulations as will restrict the number of 
consumers and dependants within reasonable limits — that is, 
within the present limits of the producing powers of the society — 
to provide a reasonable quota of satisfactions to each individual. 
The last provision involves the great population difficulty. 

Population Difficulties, or the Struggle for Existence, 

Darwin (page 52, " Origin of Species ") has observed " that 
in a state of nature almost every full-grown plant annually 
produces seed, and amongst animals there are few which do not 
annually pair. Hence we may confidently assert that all plants 
and animals are tending to increase at a geometrical ratio — that 
all would rapidly stock every station in which they could anyhow 
exist. And this geometrical tendency to increase must be checked 
by destruction at some pei'iod of life," and, as an inevitable 
consequence, he goes on to add " that each individual lives by a 
struggle at some period of its life, that heavy destruction falls 
either on the young or old during each generation, or at recurrent 
intervals. Lighten any check, mitigate the destruction ever so 
little, and tlie number of the species will almost instantaneously 
increase to any amount." 



president's address — SECTION F. 157 

These considerations, wlien fully appreciated, form the founda- 
tion of the problem of Malthus.* 

Increasing Numbers. 

Residents of new countries, with a scant population, and with 
vast natural resources in the shape of unlimited areas of 
unoccupied and unutilised virgin lands, longingly picture the 
transformation of these areas into yellow cornfields, fruitful 
gardens, verdant pasturage teeming with browsing cattle, busy 
industrial centimes crowded with the homes of industrious and 
happy people. 

Ah ! little do they know of the never-failing Nemesis which, 
like a sleuth-hound, dogs the steps of an ever-increasing popula- 
tion. Happy selectors of easily-acquired choice lands may 
luxuriously grumble at the amount of their taxation, the low price 
of mutton and corn, their bad roads, and the impossibility of 
extending their operations in the production of corn and wool, so 
long as the wages of farm and other labour are so high. 

The professional and merchant class may reasonably grumble 
at the scarcity of men and products which restricts their respec- 
tive callings, and may impatiently rail against the slow progress 
which the country is making in population and the creation of 
proditcts. The few wealthy men of leisure may hanker after the 
amusements and honours so common in thickly-crowded centres, 
where the attractive ministry of cheap labour is but too common. 

The comparative comfortable artisan or labourer, under such 
favourable conditions, may in verbal or literary debate still wage 
a lively dispute whether the irksome eight hours' labour — or 
weekly half-holiday — may not be further improved, and the rate 
of •w&gQ% further raised above the rates of over-peopled old countries , 
but he does not view with favour the fresh introduction of 
labourers in his own craft. 

The consumers of the services of local dear labour may desire 
the introduction of the surplus cheaper labour of Europe, and for 
the sake of Protection may urge upon the Government the 
necessity of extending the advantages of extei'nal Free Trade. 
On the other hand, the protector of a local monopoly of 
relatively high wages, or dearer local manufactures, may more 
strenuously advocate the necessity of increasing the tariff on all 
manufactures from other countries, especially on such as may be 
produced locally. It will be seen, therefore, that in young 
countries, as well as in the old, we have the battle of interests 
still waged, if not so keen. The competitor or seller of services 
cries for Protection ; and the user or consumer of services enlarges 
upon the harmonies and advantages of universal Free Trade. 

* An Essay on the Principle of Population. Malthus. (2 vols., London, 1826.) 



158 president's address — section f. 

Few recognise tlie truth that individual welfare depends less 
upon the greatness of the aggi*egate wealth of a country than 
upon the proportion which freedom from excessive competition 
gives each individual over the local natural sources of utility, 
including primary wants ; and that the country possessing the 
greatest aggregate of material wealth may, owing to the 
competition of excessive numbers, present the spectacle of a 
small privileged minority absorbing an unparalleled share of 
luxurious wealth, while the masses are struggling for the barest 
subsistence. 

All other things being equal, it follows that in the country 
where Nature's gratuitous stores of wealth, as regards food and 
other essential products, far exceeds the power of its inhabitants 
to utilise, yet, notwithstanding the comparative insigniticance of 
its accumulated wealth in exchange, its inhabitants on the 
average are individually happier, and enjoy a much larger share 
of material comforts than the inhabitants of countries, however 
great the aggregate wealth, but whose natural resources, as 
regards food products, are far below the local i-equirements of its 
teeming inhabitants. 

Two nations, standing in this relation to each other-, would 
correspond to the relation of two iudividuals, where one is the 
privileged capitalist or buyer, and the other the unprivileged 
seller of labour service. In other words, the latter would be in 
the position of the needy Esau in being forced to sell his whole 
birthright to preserve his life ; the former would occupy the 
favourable position of Jacob, who had merely to part with a 
portion of his surplus of primary wants (red pottage) to secure a 
large augmentation to his wealth of pleonexia. 

This, unfortunately, for many old centres of civilisation, is no 
overdrawn statement — the creation of enthusiastic declamation or 
sentimentality — for if we take one of the most vigorous countries 
of Europe (England), with its untold wealth in the aggregate, and 
compare it with the young colony of Victoria, we may readily 
demonstrate the verity of what has been alleged. 

Can a Higher Culture be Maintained in any one Country 
Without Regulating its Intercourse with Other Races 
OF Men in a Lower Plane op Civilisation 1 

There is still another difficulty to face, even if one enlightened 
country, l)y providence, had succeeded in adapting the growth of 
its population to the means of subsistence. And this difficulty 
now presses hard upon the labourei's of a higher civilisation open 
by Free Trade to the competition of the labour market of a lower 
or more degraded form of civilisation. The partial exclusion of 
cheap Chinese labour from America and these colonies, may or 
may not, have been in accord with the principle of Free Trade ; 



president's address — SECTIOX F. 159 

but it opens up a grave subject. For if a higher culture could 
be enabled by provident moral or self-control to successfully 
grapple and overcome the present enigmas of social science, how 
is it possible that such a culture could be effectually preserved 
if it were open to be disturbed by the cheap labour or the 
starvation price products of other nations, who, by improvidence 
and lack of moral control, were still sunk in the abyss of that 
wretchedness which is due to over-population ? In this aspect I 
am humbly of opinion the doctrines of Free Trade and Protection 
require further consideration ; and it is with the hope that the 
reasonable discussion of such matters may shed fresh light upon 
this and related problems that I have had the courage to 
address you upon these old, well-worn, but hitherto insoluble 
difficulties belonging to social and economic science. 

One thought impresses me not a little. It is this — All truths 
that are painful are blindly and passionately resisted by the 
majority, who also are ever prone to reward skill when it is 
employed in opposing or obscuring what is hateful. It cannot 
be hoped, therefore, that the warnings given with respect to the 
<langer that awaits us in the near future will be much heeded at 
present. The world's greatest intellects and genius are, for the 
most part, supported in defending popular views ; for it is not 
found to be a difficult matter for men of gj-eatest literary talent 
and skill to show, where complications abound, that the true is 
false and the false is true. Popular favour is a terrible task- 
master, for she refuses bread to those who fail to work her 
pleasure. I do not, therefore, undervalue the temptation which 
ensnares the majority of able minds to continue the defence of 
pleasant delusions, when these alone tind a ready market of 
exchange value. But the evil time draws too near for delusive 
teaching. It is now necessary that those who see the rocks 
ahead should speak out faithfully. 




PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS IN SECTION G. 

ANTHROPOLOGY. 

By the Hon. JOHN FOEEEST, C.M.G., M.L.C. 



It seems to me that a few words on the condition of the 
Australian aboriginal race will fittingly open our proceedings 
on this impoi'tant occasion, and if the very few words I have to 
say will lead to some greater interest being taken in their 
customs, manners and traditions, I will be greatly pleased. 

The condition of the Australian aboriginal race when the 
civilisation of the Old World was introduced to their island 
continent is one of the most interesting subjects that can occupy 
the thoughts of those who contemplate the history of the human 
family scattered throughout the world. 

There is no doubt but that Australia has been peopled for a 
considerable time, and it is also certain that its original people 
are much lower in the human order than any of their neigbours. 

These facts being admitted, it becomes interesting to speculate 
as to the causes which have acted upon these people and have led 
them to follow the nomadic life in which they were found and in 
which they now exist. 

To find a people without any idea of cultivating the soil, 
without any permanent dwellings, in many places without any 
clothing, without any means of cooking, other than by roasting 
in the ashes — and without any villages — was certainly an 
extraordinary discovery, and must have astonished and puzzled 
the early explorers of Australia. Dampier, who visited the 
north-west coast of Australia in 1688 expresses his surprise 
and disgust in these words : — " The inhabitants of this 
country are the miserablest people in the world — the 
Hottentots of the Cape of Good Hope, though a nasty people, 
yet for wealth are gentlemen to these, who have no houses and 
skin garments, sheep, poultry and fruits of the earth, ostrich 
eggs, &c., as the Hottentots have ; and, setting aside their 
human shape, they differ but little from brutes — they have no 
houses, but lie in the open air without any covering, the earth 
being their bed and the heaven their canopy." 

One might have reasonably expected that in an immense 
continent the people of the different portions might have been 
found to differ largely in their customs and manners, and in 



president's address — SECTIOX G. 161 

their state of civilization, and that an altogether different state 
of things would exist on the east coast from that existing on 
the west coast, separated by more than 2000 miles. This, I 
think, might hav^e been reasonably expected ; but, strange to say, 
the same habits, customs, and manners were found to exist 
tliroughout this great continent. Although there were no 
means of inter-communication, although the languages or dialects 
were altogether different ; although they were separated by 
immense distances ; although no sympathy, or even knowledge 
of one another existed, it is still a fact that they were found to 
be the same people, with the same laws, customs, and manners, 
and, to a very large extent, with the same ideas and traditions. 

When it is considered that probably for many thousands of 
years this continent has been peopled ; that even supposing they 
originated from a few persons cast away on this island continent, 
is it not marvellous that they should have retained their original 
character, and, being subject to like conditions of soil and climate, 
should now be found to be the same people in all important 
respects ? 

In considering this question, one is lost in amazement. Why 
has no snperior genius arisen through the ages of the past to 
instil into his people an ambition to rise from their servile and 
degraded condition 1 Why has it not occurred to some one of 
these people to build a permanent habitation to protect him from 
the rain and the sun 1 I have myself often noticed that, in north- 
west Australia, the natives have no covering by night or day, 
and although skins of animals are abundant, tliey do not trouble 
to make a rug, or even a cloak. 

As no idea appears to have entered into the mind of the 
Australian aboriginals to cultivate the soil, their whole attention 
is given to securing game by hunting, and in this they are very 
expert. All their implements are fashioned for this purpose, and 
for self-defence. There seems to be very little, if any, inventive 
genius among them ; and, seeing that nearly all their arts are 
possessed equally by those on the whole coast line and by those 
in the interior, it all points to the conclusion that the aboriginals 
of Australia have come from a common stock, and that this stock 
must have possessed the same customs, manners, and traditions 
as are now possessed by their descendants, which have been 
retained ever since, without any improvement or otherwise, 
except in small and isolated instances. 

There is probably no race of people which has done so little 
to leave behind it a record of its existence as the Australian 
aboriginal race, and no race has been so little able to cope 
with civilisation. After existing in their own savage state for an 
immense time, an intercourse of about half a century with a 
civilized race has been sufficient to almost I'emove them from the 
face of the earth. Other peoples have suffered and have gradually 

K 



162 president's address— section g. 

given way and become extinct, or almost so, before the advance 
of civilization, but in no case, I think, has the progress of 
extinction been so rapid. 

It seems, therefore, in reviewing the present position of the 
aboriginal race of Australia, to be a great duty we owe to them 
and to Australia, not only to try to preserve the race from 
extinction, but also to preserve their history, laws, habits, 
traditions, and language, as far as is possible, and there is still 
sufficient time to do this as regards the interior of the contineiit. 

I can only now, in these few words, urge upon all who have 
the means and the opportunity to use every endeavour to collect 
reliable information on this subject, for however unimportant 
particular details may appear, they may eventually prove of great 
value in dealing with the history of the aboriginal Australian 
race. 



1 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS IN SECTION H. 

(Sanitary Science and Hygiene). 

ON THE PRACTICAL BASIS OF PREVENTIVE 
MEDICINE. 

By J. ASHBUETON THOMPSON, M.D., D.P.H. 



We are met for the advancement of science ; and in this section 
for improvement in the branch of knowledge which teaches the 
causation of disease, and the conditions ancillary to disease which 
act by impairing functional efficiency. A sharp distinction is 
thus drawn between the science and the art of sanitation. The 
former regards the phenomena of life, and especially its duration, 
under observed conditions ; the latter devises the means, which 
are sometimes political, sometimes mechanical, by which the 
teachings of science may be put into practice, and the circum- 
stances favourable to life be provided or preserved. And I choose 
rather to say that our occupation is to learn the causes of disease 
than to prevent them for reasons which, if they are trite, are yet 
seldom enough mentioned to warrant me in recalling them. If it 
be assumed that the prevention of all diseases is possible, and that 
by preventing all diseases the average duration of life can be 
extended until death by decay become the common course, it 
needs no profound reflection to show that the change could be 
but temporary, that the truce could but serve to reinforce the 
destroyer. Probably the supposition is fallacious, since we are 
in thrall to our ancestors ; but, at all events, success in that 
enterprise must ever involve failure. 

If we pass from thought of disease as it atiects mankind in 
general, to consider some kinds of disease in relation to some 
sections of mankind, however, it will at once apj)ear that the 
effort to abate them is natural, and may be successful. The 
pi"eventability of some diseases has now been demonstrated. Once 
that knowledge gained, systematic effort to pi'event them follows 
of course. Self-preservation is an instinct ; what man desires 
instinctively for himself civilised man desires strongly for others : 
thus he not only avoids injury for himself, but he warns and 
protects his fellows, although nothing of them be known to him 
but their threatened existence. Now, in learning the causes of 
some diseases we have also learned that their introduction to the 
body is for the most part accidental in no unusual sense ; and, 

k2 



164 president's address — sectiox h. 

practically, it is the accidental conjunction between specific causes 
and susceptible organisms that we seek to prevent. We may, 
therefore, speak as justly of vaccinating, or of isolating a case of 
fever, to avoid accident — that is to say, to prevent communica- 
tion of the cause of disease to persons unaware either of its 
propinquity or of its quality — as we speak of fencing a revolving- 
shaft. It is thus inevitable that we should endeavour to prevent 
some diseases ; all those, namely, which have been shown or in 
the future may be shown to be preventable. 

And such endeavour may be successful. Experience in 
England is taken to show so much. By abatement of some 
diseases a large number of deaths have in that country been 
saved to persons chiefly between the ages of five and thirty-five 
years ; and the average duration of life has been extended for 
persons by as much as two years and a tenth. Thus the 
diminution in deaths has brought about a numerical increase in 
population. It may be contended that, by so many lives saved, 
or by so many years of life added, the productive power of the 
nation has been increased. For reasons that will appear imme- 
diately, it seems most likely that it has been increased, althougli 
not to the full indicated extent ; but it has been questioned 
whether such proximate increases will ultimately prove the 
substantial advantage which at first sight they seem to be. It 
has been said that disease attacks the weak, that by checking it 
many of the weak who would have died must be preserved, that 
these will survive to the reproductive ages, and will then either 
reproduce their like by intermarriage or, by union with the 
strong, will at last lower the general standard of vitality, so 
that the productive power of the nation will be diminished, and 
its tendency become towards extinction. And perhaps the 
following illustration might have been adduced in support of 
that view : — -It might perhaps have been suggested that the 
natural term of life is still set at three score years and ten, and 
four score years is still regarded as an extension too seldom 
enjoyable to be generally coveted, just because disease has been 
left unrestrained during the last four thousand years, has steadily 
weeded out the weaker, and has left the strong to reproduce 
their like. In fact, it seems that there is at bottom much of 
highest importance in the view mentioned ; but it is surely not 
the wliole truth. In the first place, the diseases whose abatement 
has led to the saving of life in England which is represented by 
an increase in the average duration of life of two years and a 
tenth, are chiefly the specific contagious and the filth-diseases ; 
and these are the diseases against which (in the main) preventive 
medicine is thus far engaged. It is not to these alone, however, 
that those who are of imperfect constitution succumb. If they 
escape these they still have other chances, of which some important 
ones are inherent to them, of extinction. But, secondly, the 



I 



PRESIDEXT's address SECTION H. 165 

kinds of disease referred to do not kill all they attack ; while 
they farther damage the constitutionally defective, and leave some 
of them to attain to reproductive ages still less fit for reproduction 
than they were born, they leave others in a damaged condition 
who were born sound. And lastly, while they are not seen to 
attack those of imperfect constitution alone, or even preferentially 
in any marked proportion, they do seize preferentially upon those 
who a.re weak merely from immaturity, and those who are 
weakened and depressed temporarily ; while, when they become 
epidemic, or when their causes are introduced to the body in 
special ways, they seem to attack the weak and the strong 
nearly indiscriminately. In short, although disease is inevitable, 
all diseases are not so, and if we may not choose our mode of death, 
yet we may exclude some modes. We are rightly fixed, therefore, 
to prevent some diseases — we obey both instinct and reason 
therein ; and if the near limit of the attainable oblige us to set 
our aim not very high, a measure of success both proximate and 
remote is thereby rendered certain. 

I began by mentioning the problems which Sanitary Science 
seeks to elucidate : namely, the causation of disease, and the 
nature of the conditions which impair function, diminish vital 
efiiciency, and so conduce to shorten the duration of life. The 
investigation is made by experiment ; the results are found by 
induction. The experiment is performed without our active 
intervention, or is unplanned, the corpus vile being any body of 
men, and the conditions of experiment those under which they 
happen to live ; the recoi'd of observation is the I'egister of the 
facts of individual lives ; and when these individual observations 
are accurate enough and numerous enough, they may be classified, 
and the work of induction may be begun. The method of 
collecting *the observations may be indicated under three heads : 
first, enumeration of the people ; secondly, record of their 
individual fertility ; thirdly, record of the individual duration of 
life among them. Under these are included many difterent 
details ; and the register must be so framed as to facilitate 
combination of the several particulars into more or less broad 
classes, and bring them into comparison with foods, with soils, 
and with climates. Few enquiries are moi^e complicated than 
this, which seeks to estimate the vitality of nations ; for trust- 
worthy conclusions can be drawn only from the total phenomena, 
all of which are inter-dependent, and influence all the rest ; and 
perhaps few are more difficult, because many conditions which 
modify the import of individual observations, and some that are 
of wider efi'ect, are but accidental, and alter from time to time. 
The general lines upon which such an investigation is planned 
should therefore be broad ; and if this arrangement render 
conclusion uncertain at first, it must be remembered that the 
facts and their classification ai-e both the moi'e likely to be 



166 president's address— section II. 

accurate, and that lapse of time is alone necessary to render 
sound induction possible. And time — or what is in this case its 
equivalent for many purposes, multiude of accurate individual 
observations — is an indispensable condition. Impatience to arrive 
speedily at some result is fatal to soundness, and is actually the 
cause of much of the doubt with which the science of vital 
statistics especially is regarded by the many. Unclue haste 
leads, on the one hand, to resort to calculation to supply the place 
of facts for direct observation of which in sufficient number time 
enough has not elapsed ; on the other to comparisons superficially 
warrantable, but really between unlike things. These errors are 
more than misleading ; they obstruct the truth. 

If the lapse of long periods of time be necessary before the 
observations alluded to can accumulate in sufficient number to 
afford trustworthy indications of the vitality of a nation — to 
furnish, by comparison with the conditions under which its people 
live, indications of those habits and surroundings which are 
inimical to prolonged life in a state of full efficiency, the record 
which is at last to yield that information may be made to serve 
an immediate purpose in the meantime, namely, detection of 
some of those grosser conditions which result in marked or in 
specific disease. If the number and ages of the people living 
within defined areas are known ; if the plan of record allow 
smaller areas within those larger ones to be examined in the 
detail of neighbourhoods, of streets, and at last of that ultimate 
unit, the house ; if, while the machinery for ascertaining the 
causes of death with reasonable accuracy is sufficient, the registra- 
tion of deaths under causes be prompt and complete ; lastly, if 
these particulars for every such district be recorded and analysed 
under supervision of a professed sanitarian (who, it seems neces- 
sary to add, must be of medical education), then the information 
becomes immediately available to direct the efforts of sanitary 
authorities, and to concentrate them upon those localities where 
they may be most profitably made. To a full measure of this 
immediate usefulness records of sickness are almost indispensable ; 
for death is but a variable incident of disease, or, in other words, 
current death-rates stand in no constant relation to sickness-rates. 
Registration of sickness, however, has as yet been done nowhere, 
I believe, on the national scale. But the register of illness from 
some diseases is now in a way to be kept universally in England, 
where it has already been kept for several years in many cities ; 
and by the enlightened action taken in this province a year ago, 
the registration of the zymotics is now universal in Victoria. 

Having thus briefly indicated the kind of observation in which 
scientific hygiene has its foundation, three points may be 
distinguished as being of especial importance to us in Australia. 
These are separate record and analysis of the general facts of life 
regarding the native-born population, accurate and speedy informa- 



president's address — SECTION H. 167 

tion as to the causes of deatli, and information from year to year 
of the number, sex, and ages of tlie people by rough enumeration. 
Without the first the modification in old races which changed 
environment will inevitably, though very slowly, produce cannot 
be watched ; without the second it is neither possible to observe 
similar changes in the chai'acter of disease which may be expected, 
nor to get early knowledge of the prevalence of such diseases as 
are preventable, nor to discriminate between such as are adven- 
titious (or easily preventable) and such as are bound up with the 
more fixed conditions of life ; while without the third it is 
impossible to make just comparison either l>etween the sanitary 
state of this country and of others which may be considered in 
general respects like it, nor between one part of this country and 
another part, nor between separate districts within any one such 
part. While the general particulars registered must be nearly 
the same in all countries, these are points which in a new country 
demand special attention ; they are vital to all the useful purposes, 
both proximate and remote, to which such records may be put. 
But if the laws under which statistical enquiry of this kind is 
carried on in Australia be examined, it will be found that they 
are either copied, or slightly altered, from the English law of 
1837, except in one province, namely, in South Australia. We 
have adopted that law which, framed as it was for another and 
an old country, was a lawyer's Act. Useful for some legal 
purposes of great impoi'tance, it was defective in several respects 
for that other purpose for which it was used — enquiry into the 
conditions under which the people lived, and the vitality of the 
nation. It contained no reference at all to the cause of death ; 
although it amply sufticed the legal olject of facilitating and 
systematising registration of births and deaths for purposes 
relating to property, it was little calculated to procure that prompt 
and complete registration wliich is essential to observation of life. 
Generally, it is under this law that we try to observe and to work 
in Australia to-day. Secondly, althougli birth-place is a particular 
required, by regulations having the force of law, to be recorded 
in connection with the fact of death, in no province is that 
separate analysis and comment accorded to native-born 
decedents which it is important they should receive. Thirdly, we- 
have in similar fashion adopted the decennial census, without 
regard for our special circumstances, and although the defects it 
is universally admitted to show in old countries are scarcely a 
tenth of the defects it has in new and growing countries. Thes*^ 
three are points in which our present method of observation 
requires speedy reform, for want of which, as it seems to me, the 
elaborate returns annually made by our statists are far from 
possessing a practical value commensurate with the labour 
bestowed upon them. 

Now, if our present methods of observation are thus defective, 
it may be enquired how it happeiied that we adopted them ; and 



168 president's address — section ii. 

it seems worth wliile to attempt to answer this question. I 
believe it happened for reasons incidental to the population of a 
new country by emigrants from an old one. Perhaps this may 
be illustrated by discussing a remark which fell recently from 
that distinguished sanitarian, Sir Douglas Galton, K.C.B., F.R.S., 
in the course of an address he delivered before tjie Sanitary 
Institute. He said : " In colonies sites abound that, with 
ordinary prudence, might have been kept in a healthy condition, 
Vtut in which ignorance and carelessness have in some cases 
produced, and in others may produce, conditions causing wide- 
sjDread disease and death." That remark has reference especially 
to the tilth-diseases, and to fever, which has its mode of spread 
in conditions which would warrant the application to it of the 
same epithet ; these are the distinctively preventable diseases, of 
distinctively local diffusion ; and we know veiy well that they 
ai'e among the most important of all the causes of death that 
swell our mortality, about one-ninth of the total deaths in ui'ban 
districts being due to them alone. There is therefore something 
in the criticism, something to warrant it ; but I venture to think 
that more appears to be at first sight than will stand analysis. 
Settlers do not enter into an inheritance. A hundred years ago 
a thousand persons sat down upon these shores, who by natural 
inc^rease and by immigration have become three and a half 
millioiJls to-day. That band when they landed began a struggle 
for the bare neSCfiSgaries of life ; and when, after long years, they 
had secured a measuii:'" of success, a similar struggle was under- 
taken again and again i,in distant parts of the continent by 
off-shoots from the original ^s society. When, at last, production 
exceeded immediate requiremuents, and some revenue became 
available, it was spent upon tehose objects which are always 
among the first needs of a connnu\nity thus established— I mean 
the maintenance of order and estai-^:>lishment of communications. 
These, and not sanitary measures, tare the prime conditions of 
corporate life. But at all events saihiitation could not early secure 
special attention in such a connnunitky, because the diseases most 
directly amenable to it do not begin bto show themselves in recog- 
nisable form until the aggregation cs>f men upon comparatively 
small areas has become considerable, i; Prevalence of that class of 
diseases is attendant upon city life, ai'.ud so constantly that, of a 
people among whom that class of disea, ses is known to prevail, city 
life may be predicated. But, it will fbe observed, by the time a 
population has beconje urban, a certa^^in organisation, or at least 
certain habits of life, have been deviated or fallen into befoi'e the 
danger referi-ed to is felt, and have be^come more or less fixed and 
difficult to alter by the time nece.slfisity for alteration becomes 
apparent. In themselves these constitiiute an obstacle to the reforms 
which are then seen to be required. J Tliat nearly, and in relation 
to that one class of diseases that pro^cisely, is where we find our- 



president's address — SECTION H. 169 

selves to-day. We have not so mucli to insist upon preventability 
as to endeavour to reform rooted habits of life. Yet it may V>e 
suggested that the danger should have been foreseen and guarded 
against by suitable organisation, either at first or from a very 
eai'ly date of settlement. Tliat, however, was impossible for still 
other and all-sufficient reasons. Immigrants to a new land do 
not often comprise many of the best-instructed in the mother 
country ; but, whatever their quality, they can but bring with 
them the knowledge which was current at the time of their 
departure. Now, it is very easy to-day to speak of " filth- 
<liseases," and to point out the certain and easy methods of 
preventing them ; but the knowledge which Avarrants the epithet 
now applied to them has not long been established, and, above all, 
has not long been current. It is but sixteen years since Sir John 
Simon, K.C.B., F.R.S., found it expedient to recapitulate the 
knowledge regarding their causation which had slowly accumulated 
under his direction during the preceding twenty-five years, and to 
present it in a formal report to tlie English Local Government 
Board, of which he was at that time the medical officer. At so 
late a date as that he found it expedient to write that remarkable 
paper, to illustrate it with notable instances, and to enforce it 
with all the arts of logic and of rhetoric of which he is an 
acknowledged master, for guidance of the chief administrative 
body of that day in England. This was necessary in that country 
which has led and leads the world both in scientific and in 
executive sanitation, in 1874. But by that date the filth-diseases 
had already become established amongst us, and were even 
attracting our attention. 

My first object in making that quotation was not to reply to 
tiie opinion expressed in it. I wished to show that we have thus 
far enjoyed all the advantages and all the disadvantages of 
inheritance, in order to point out in relation to the present subject 
(to which, however, the (juotation is cognate) that we labour 
under inherited disadvantages almost exclusively. We have 
inherited a law for the registration of births and deaths which 
was no sooner passed than it was seen to be defective in a most 
important respect.* And we have inherited a haVjit of decennial 
censuses. The decennial census has been again and again 
condemned in England— in a country where population is )iot 
only established, but to a large extent settled in districts and in 
towns so old as to have become fixed in those conditions of 
occupation which almost govern age-distribution. Even in such 
a country decennial enumerations, when not supplemented by 
annual rough enumerations under sex, age, Ac, have been found 
to lead to remarkable error when their results have been used 
together with deaths to gauge the sanitary condition of localities 

* The omission of penallies fi 0:11 tl e oiisiial Act wa^ in mo-t ca-e^ >npi)lied iij'On iti5 
ai'.optiou i'l Australia. 



170 president's address — SECTION H. 

in inter-censual years. Yet here in Australia, in a new country^ 
where the population is annually recruited by immigration, where, 
to speak of one province alone, I have during the past few years 
seen in one case about seven thousand, and in the other about 
fifteen thousand, persons accumulate within two or three years 
upon previously uninhabited areas, and where similar displace- 
ments of population are common ; where in the eleven years, 1876 
to 1886, the excess of arrivals over departui'es was more than 
528,000, or more than one-sixth of the total population in the 
latter year. Under these circumstances we adhere to the 
decennial census, and strive to supply its defects in intervening 
years by calculation. It is plain that this course must often 
lead to serious error ; and in point of fact it was found at tlie 
census of 1881 that the enumerated population fell short of 
the estimated population by more tiian 67,000 in Victoria, 
and by nearly 30,000 in New South Wales, upon enumerated 
totals of 862,346 and 751,468 respectively.* The death-rates 
published in these provinces for 1881 (and proportionately 
in former years) must have been considerably below the 
truth, since they were calculated upon these exaggerated 
estimates ; and in certain cities or localities they must have been 
still more erroneous — here by excess, there by defect. False 
impressions of the state of the public health must have been 
given for that if for no other I'easons. 

But there are other reasons, and most important ones. We 
have adopted the laws and organisation which, good or bad, were 
devised to suit an old country. They are especially unsuited to 
our circumstances. We inhabit a favoured land. If a com- 
paratively small and scarcely inhabited area be excepted, there is 
no malaria in Australia ; and it is precisely the absence or 
presence of malaria which distinguishes a healthy from an 
unhealthy climate. The carnivora which in some other partly 
occupied countries levy a heavy tax upon mankind and hin<Jer 
settlement are entirely wanting, while the reptiles, if they are 
not for the most part harmless, are at all events of but small 
practical consequence. And then the country, although conti- 
nental in size, is separated from the rest of the world by wide 
seas ; it presents great variety of climate, but extreme cold in no 
part ; and it is so fertile that, while 2"i'oduction has long been in 
excess of local needs, the natural limit to increase is clearly 
almost infinitely removed. Nor are special conditions less favour- 
able to life. Ample food, varied and nutritious, is easily within 
the reach of all ; the terms of labour are uniformly reasonable ; 
occupations and amusements are chiefly out-door ; the specific 
population is everywhere low, if some compaiatively small areas 
of the larger cities be excepted ; and the general population is 
youth! ul. 

* " Weiilth ami Progress of Now South WalC:;, 18Sf-9." Mr. T. A. Coghlnu, Government 
Statistician. 



PRESIDEXTS ADDRESS — SECTION' H. 



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Xow these are vei'y special and v 
But we who enjoy them are not nativ 
tion of about one-third, I believe, 
immigrant ; and for the remaining U\ 
actually native born, Ijut a very small 
born parents, and still fewer can be 
native-birth. So that not only the i 



ery fa\'ourable conditions, 
e to them. In the propor- 

the population is merely 
o-thirds, although they are 

proportion come of native- 
in the third generation of 
mmigrants l)ut the parents 



172 president's address — section h. 

of the greater part of the native-born population (who came, of 
course, mainly from northern European countries) entirely 
changed their conditions of life when they settled in Australia. 
That change of surroundings will at last produce changes in the 
constitution, habits, and modes of thought, which were prevalent 
in the old world among them. In the future characteristics will 
ineA'itably develope, which may be properly called Australian, or 
racial. But such changes are not made in a generation or two. 
Such as may be observed in the earlier generations of the native- 
born are not of the kind referred to — that is to say, are not 
characteristic nor permanent. They are such as may be observed 
in the individual long resident in an alien climate, and such as are 
ready to disappear after return to the land of his forefathers. It 
is most important that this slowly-approaching, this momentous 
oliange, should be watched. But how does the case stand ? Have 
any steps at all been taken to observe and to record it 1 Does any 
register exist from which its beginnings may be ascertained, and 
its direction forecast ? The only way in which this could be done 
would be by connecting the individual records of birth with the 
corresponding records of death. But in no province, nor in all 
the provinces (which together constitute but one country, and on 
any reasonable plan of vital statistics would be dealt with as a 
whole, as well as in parts distinguished by their geology and 
tlieir climate) is there the organisation which would warrant the 
statement of which our politicians are fond, that " we assist at the 
Viirth of a nation." For want of the foresight which is the 
characteristic of statesmanship, we do but stand by while a nation 
evolves itself — a nation that may some day arouse to find its mode 
of government unsuited to the altered customs, the altered habits 
of thought, the altered views of morals, into which it has been 
imperceptibly moulded by surroundings alien to the race from 
which it sprang, and from which it took its laws. 

And under the circumstances of life in Australia which I have 
described, I venture to say that the manner in which many of 
the particulars at present gathered are often dealt with is not 
only useless but misleading. As we have taken the Acts from 
the old world, so (though by no nieans necessarily) are we in the 
liabit of comparing tlie results they attbrd us with old-world 
results. It seems to be forgotten, or at all events it is practically 
overlooked, that death-rates have appreciable value only in relation 
to various coincidental conditions — to i-ace, feeding, climate, 
density, as well as to many others. We never tire of comparing 
our general death-rates with those of countries which differ from 
ours in nearly every condition of life as widely as, on the same 
globe, is well possible ; and especially we refer our results to 
English standards. If unlike things may be compared, that is 
inevitable ; for English statistics are at once fuller and, with the 
discount to whicli all such figures are liable, more accurate than 



president's address SECTION H. 173 

those of any other country. But it is only like tilings that 
sufler comparison ; and when from the contrast of unlike things 
we draw conclusions eminently flattering to our own country — 
we have the flattery for our pains. It is simply impossible, 
under the general conditions described, that our death-rates for 
provinces should approach those of older countries as a rule. 
I will try to make this clear by giving an example of the 
comparison between unlike things to which I allude, and I will 
point out the extravagant lengths to which it may lead those who 
indulge in it unreservedly ; and as I draw it from the annual 
statistical report of one province among several, I beg that it may 
be noticed that all such reports are liable to a measure of the 
same criticism, although not to the same exactly. I choose this 
instance, in fact, partly on account of the deservedly eminent 
reputation of the Government Statist of Victoria (Mr. H. H. 
Hayter, C.M.G.), who is officially responsible for it, and partly 
because it is apter, rounder, and more suitable foi* quotation 
than any other of the kind I have seen. Mr. Hayter says 
(and he repeats the statement annually in several years) that " it 
has been held by high authority that in countries in which 
the climate is healthy, hygiene properly attended to, and the 
population in a normal condition as regards age, the oi-dinary 
mortality incident to human nature would probably cause the 
death-rate to be in the proportion of about 17 per 1000 persons 
living ;" and he then goes on to point out that in the province 
with which he is dealing that rate has been exceeded only seven 
times in 27 years, and that the average death-rate over that long* 
series of years has been only 15.57 per 1000 persons living. What 
inference must be drawn from that comparison, which seems to 
show that in Victoria the " ordinary inortality incident to human 
nature " has somehow been eluded 1 What must the general 
reader, what must the legislator, whose studies may chance not 
to have included the subject of vital statistics, infer from it "i 
Must he not conclude that his province is in fact doing remarkably 
well ; that it affords no scope for the operations of preventive 
medicine, and wonder within himself what all the stir about 
legislation for health means ? But when I mention that the high 
authority alluded to is no less a person than the late Dr. Farr, 
C.B., r.R.8., it will be suspected that error has somewhere crept 
in ; and I will explain it in order to introduce some remai'ks 
touching the search for a health-standard with which to compare 
our rates, to which, indeed, the present fallacy is at bottom due. 
What Dr. Farr really said was this : — He had been examining 
the mortality in 54 healthy districts of England, and had found 
it to be 17 in the 1000 living, and he had compared it with the 
mortality for all England, which he showed to be 22 in the 1000 
living. Upon those local facts he ventured to base the following 
generalisation of local application and use. He said : " It will 



174 president's address — section h, 

not, therefore, be pitching the standard of health too high to 
assert than any excess of mortality in English districts over 17 
annual deaths per 1000 living is an excess not due to the mortality 
incident to human nature, but to foreign causes to be repelled, 
and by hygienic expedients conquei-ed." There is a wide 
difterence, it will be noted, between Dr. Farr's cautious, 
conditional statement, and the nett, positive terms of the quotation 
I tirst made. But the point to which I now direct attention with 
reference to the search for a health-standard for this countiy is 
"that Dr. Farr is cai'eful to limit the application of his generalisa- 
tion to England, to tlie observed facts of life among that particular 
population living under the particular conditions presented by 
that country. And, in fact, all health-standards must be drawn 
from the very countries within which they are to be set up, unless 
the comparisons made with them are to be delusive, misleading, 
and obstructive to true progress. 

In giving that example, I have shown that its logical conclusion 
is a reductio ad absurduin. But a defence might be set up — 
it might be said that want of correction for age explains the 
alleged phenomenon. That would be sound as far as it goes, 
although, of course, it would be destructive to the comparison 
instituted. It is, however, far from being the only correction 
needed, as may be easily shown from another part of the work, 
where it is made, or rather allowed for. Mr. Hayter there uses 
Mr. Sargent's plan for eliminating the disturbing influence which 
inequality in age-distribution has over such comparisons between 
two diiferent countries or cities. This consists in finding the 
death-rates in the two places at the usual age-groups, and in 
ascertaining the absolute number of deaths they would afford in 
each place upon the supposition that an equal number of persons 
were living in each at each age-pei'iod ; and then in striking a 
rate upon each total hypothetical population with the two 
absolute numbers of deaths. Mr. Sargent called this a method 
of ascertaining the specific mortality — Mr. Hayter jDrefers to call 
it the " adjusted death-rate." Its use appears to be in places 
where the ages of the people are hioivn, to save the trouble of 
redistributing one of the populations under ages to agree with 
the other. Mr. Hayter compares in this manner the mortality 
at age-groups (calculated mainly upon estimated numbers living 
at ages) in Victoria with that in England ; and the result is still 
vastly in favour of the former. The general reader will, then, 
get from this comparison confirmation of the opinion to which 
the first led him — that there is in reality very little for sanitation 
to do in his province. But what is the fact ? It is that the 
comparison is false. It is instituted between places which are 
quite different in genei^al respects, as I have already pointed ou.t ; 
but they are different in the following particulars especially, 
which alone are fatal to the supposed pai'allel : — Victoria is a 



president's address — SECTION II. 175 

province which carries an estimated number of 1,036,119 persons 
il887) on 88,000 square miles, of which 497,000 live in five 
cities, the largest having a population of 391,000. England is a 
•country which carries 28 millions on 58,172 square miles, of 
whom 9,244,099 live in 28 towns, of which the largest has a 
population of 4^ millions. This diflerence in density, and a 
dozen other differences involved in it, render the comparison 
misleading ; and indeed a careful reader would tind food for 
reflection if he observed that, notwithstanding these flatteries, the 
infantile death-i-ate of Melbourne and suburbs is (mean of 10 
years 1878-87) 169-7, and higher by 177 in the 1000 than that 
of London (mean of 10 years 1877-86, 152), although the latter 
city carries more than ten times as many people on less than 
half the area.* 

I need not press these particular examples farther, having 
c-hosen them, indeed, chiefly because Mr. Hayter's eminence in 
several branches of statistical enquiry goes far to render them 
conclusive. After repeating, therefore, that all our statistical 
reports are open to similar criticism, I just mention those of the 
Registrar-General for Tasmania (Mr. Robert M. Johnston, 
F.L.S.) I regard the labours of this gentleman with respect, and 
all that I wish to say of them is this : he shows not only that he 
is very well aware of all the points to which I am noAv in cursory 
fashion drawing attention, but that while writing he has them 
constantly in mind ; yet he falls, after all, into what I may call 
the familiar error of the professed statist. He strives to supply 
the y)lace of observed facts, which are wanting, by allowance and 
by calculation. Now, I do not contend that such methods are 
unjustifiable or always profitless. Among statists they may 
sometimes serve a useful purpose ; and indeed, were the facts 
unascertainable, we might all of us have to be content with 
cautious speculation, and we might derive from it that support 
which is afforded by theory when facts begin to fail. But that 
is not the present case : the facts are accessible, and their obser- 
vation is in many respects a mere matter of suitable organisation. 
That being so, I do not know but our statists are seriously in 
error to amuse us with speculations which are largely of theoretical 
Ijases, and which those unacquainted with statistics cannot 
effectually scrutinise. 

I just now called such errors the familiar errors (jf the professed 
statist ; and they are not confined to the gentlemen who comment 
on our records here. The Government Statistician of New South 
Wales (Mr. T. A. Coghlan, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E.), reproduces in 
his volume of " The Wealth and Progress of New South Wales " 
for 1888-9 the mean after life-time at ages calculated for the 
people of Queensland, New South Wales, and Victoria, taken 

* London : scilicet, Registoation Lomlon ; now tlie " Coiuity of Lomlon (for ailmiuis 
tiative purposes)." 



176 president's address — section II. 

together, by Mr. A. F. Burridge, F.I.A. I have not seen the 
original paper, but the table is apparently constructed from the 
deaths registered during the 12 years 1870 to 1881, and the census 
enumerations of 1871 and 1881 (assisted in Queensland by the 
enumeration of 1886), the age-distribution for intervening years 
being calculated. With the aid of the result Mr. Coghlan, like 
his conffcres, draws comparisons between the expectation of life 
in these provinces of Australia and in other parts of the world, 
■which are very flattering to the former. But, without going to 
the very bottom of the calculation, and there is much to be dug 
up thence and anxiously scrutinised in all countries in which 
decennial censuses are tlie rule, what is a life-table designed to 
do 1 Is it not designed to ascertain the after life-time at ages of 
a particular race living under particular conditions? The 
possibility of constructing a life-table for a population whicli 
increases by immigration as does that of Australia may well be 
questioned ; but apart from that, of what value is such a table to 
Australia, or to the world, from which the racial or national or 
Australian element is absent, or in which it is present only in 
unrecognisable form and inappreciable amount 1 Are not all 
these comparisons between unlike things, and all these methods 
which use elaborate and hazardous calculations to supply the 
place of observable but neglected facts, distinctively unscientific 1 
Direct obserxation of the fact, patient accumulation of recorded 
fact, self-restraint from speculation until the body of accumulated 
fact is sufficient to warrant iiuiuction, and, last of all, induction 
with aid of whatever mathematical formula? may then seem useful 
—these are the essential conditions of experimental enquiiy. In 
relation to vital statistics we neglect them at present, or make 
little more than a show of observing them. 

Having now indicated the quality of the results which our 
modes of enumeration and registration furnish, and the practically 
futile character of some of the calculations, comparisons, and 
inferences which are based upon them, I proceed to touch upon 
the second branch of the topic which I mentioned at first. This 
is the use of the same set of observations (or of part of them) for 
the immediate purposes of practical sanitation. And just as 
record of the duration of life is the leading feature of the data 
from which it is proposed to deduce the vitality of a nation, so 
accurate record of tlie cause of death is the leading feature of the 
register which is used to give direction to sanitary organisations. 
But upon this essential point — accurate return of causes of death — 
I need not speak ; most of us liave already fully considered it in 
relation to the organisation at present sanctioned by our Govern- 
ments, and most of us are of opinion that the returns the latter 
yields are in this respect seriously open to question. I therefore 
merely insert in a note some facts which are sufficiently suggestive. 



president's address — SECTION H. 177 

lu South Australia alone is a medical certificate of the cause of death 
required by law in cases in which a medical man has been in attendance. 
Elsewhere deputy or district registrars are instrvicted to enquire for the 
name of the medical attendant, and, if possible, to get a certificate from 
him ; in some cases the form of register prescribed in schedules to the 
Act inchides a column for this entry, in others it is reqviired by regula- 
tions made by the Eegistrar-General ; but when no medical man was in 
attendance, any person qualified or required to give information touching 
a death may assign a caiise to it, and the Registrar is nowhere foi-bidden 
to enter causes so assigned. In the second place, the official nosology of 
the Eoyal College of Physicians was in one province used for the com- 
pilation of a list to assist district registrars in their duty, and there 
were included in it directions for dealing with causes of death which 
might be assigned in popular terms. The following are a few of these, 
taken almost at random: — " Caiiliflower " is to be recorded under 
Order VI., Class 8, 2 ; " cold, a vague term ; was it bronchitis ? pneumonia ? 
influenza ? if undefined. Order I., Class 1, 8; " "collapse — what was the 
cause ? class accordingly " (in these two instances it seems that the 
District-Registrar, who has not seen the case, and who would not be 
much the wiser if he had, is to ascertain and classify the cause of death, 
after consultation with other unqualified persons) ; " constriction of the 
brain — bad; Order YI., Class 1, 13;" "yellow fever (remittent fever), 
Order I., Class 1, 15 ;" "shivering fit (ague ?) vague ; Order I., Class 3, 
2." This list was adopted in other provinces after its appearance in the 
first. It therefore seems to have supplied a want, and to have served a 
purpose. Thirdly, Registrars-General, under the older classification, 
returned deaths from unspecified causes in the proportion of about less 
than one per cent, to total deaths ; and under the newer classification in 
the proportion of from about 8 to 10 per cent, to total deaths (the 
proportions, perhaps, having been nearly the same all along, but being 
now more easily seen.) Finally, since "certified" and "uncertified" 
deaths are in no province discriminated in the abstracts (nor, I believe, 
in the registers), there are no means of judging (unless the list quoted 
be taken to supply them) whether the 8 or 10 per cent, mentioned really 
include all the deaths which should, in a reasonably accurate sense, be 
returned as due to unspecified caiises. 

In South Austi'alia a medical certificate of the cause of death is not 
only required in cases on which a medical man has been in attendance, 
but the latter is compelled by law to furnish it. That the cause of death 
should be ascertained in every case (as far as possible) by competent 
observers is, of course, essential ; but a law under which a class of the 
people is compelled to render skilled or professional service to the rest 
gratuitously, and under penalties for failure, is obviously and grossly 
unj list. The Government of Soiith Australia, on the one hand, neglects 
to oblige its paid officers (the coroners), who are especially appointed by 
it to ascei'tain the cause of death in doubtful or suspicious cases, to desist 
from returning such futile verdicts as " death from natural causes ;" 
and on the other, goes out of its way to enforce under penalties return 
of the cause of death in cases to which no sort of suspicion attaches by 
members of one class of the people governed to whom it stands in no 
special relation whatever. The violation of liberty thus described is of 
infinitely greater moment than the injury inflicted on the particular 
class that in this case happens to suffer, and should be found of very 
general interest, as it is of general, and of the highest, importance. 

Annual rough enumeration of the people living within defined 
areas of comparatively small size (which should be, of course, 
merely subdivisions of larger defined districts), with registration 

L 



178 president's address section II. 

of births, and of deaths under causes, within the sanie areas, 
together with regular proiupt return of the observations as they 
are made to the chief medico-sanitary authority of the country 
for analysis, is the life principle of practical hygiene. The more 
preventable diseases are, if not of local origin, at all events of 
local immediate causation ; the measures to prevent them must, 
therefore, be of local application. Where this information is 
wanting, whatever the administrative and executive sanitary 
organisations may be, and whatever their possible efficiency, their 
efforts must in many most important respects be without system, 
diffused, wasteful, and must therefore yield results incommensurate 
with their cost in money, in labour, and in thought. It is possible 
to express the reason on which this statement rests in a sentence : 
Deaths are never distributed equally over districts. Preventable 
deaths occur where removable causes exist ; not elsewhere. 

Now, thei^e is not in any pi'ovince — I judge from official 
reports — the organisation here referred to ; the numbers of the 
people are estimated from year to year ; and this, which is a 
hazardous process when applied to the population of a whole 
province, becomes simply deceptive when applied to cities, and 
especially to parts of cities ; the sex and age-distribution are 
brought on from the decennial census enumeration in a similar 
way, and in districts, at all events, are therefore in reality 
unknown ; and the record, imperfect as it is, is not dealt with 
for purposes of local sanitation by the medical officer of any 
authority.* I will illustrate the result of this want of practical 
organisation — again a failure to refer to the fact, and so far a 
lack of scientific method — by a concluding comparison ; it shows 
that the work of central health authorities is done under 
difficulties, or rather, not to mince the matter, for Avant of this 
kind of direction exactly, remains practically fruitless in a most 
fertile field. I choose for the test the proportion of deaths from 
filth-diseasesf and enteric (or typhoid) fever, because it is now 
notorious that if sanitation can certainly do anything at all — 
and it can do very much — at all events its first and easiest 
successes are against that class of diseases. That is now a well- 
established fact ; so that the efficiency of any sanitary organisa- 
tion may be fairly gauged by the proportion of deaths that occur 
among the people living under it from those diseases. My 
comparison is, of course, between Victoria and New South Wales ; 
not only because those provinces are similar in pojDulation and 
in many other respects, but because they differ distinctively in 
the most important point — in sanitary law and organisation. 
But the two provinces are not comparable as wholes, because 
they carry a similar population on widely different areas. I 
therefore select the metropolitan areas in each case ; and that 

* Dr. H. T. AVhittell lias for many years been Registrar-G-eiieral for the province of 
Sontli Australia, and for sonie time President of the Central Board of Health as well, 
t By filth-diseases, diarrhoea, dysentery, and cliolera are intended. 



I 



president's address — SECTION H. 179 

is the more suitable because the tilth-diseases, ifec, are diseases 
of urban life. The Melbourne metropolitan area is marked 
off by a circle of ten miles' radius described from the centre 
of Melbourne. It includes "256 square miles,* and it carried 
an estimated population of 391,546 persons in 1887. The Sydney 
metropolitan area measures 256 square miles, and is of irregular 
shape. It cari'ied a population estimated at 350,866 in 1887. 
From this statement, and on inspection, the two areas seem fairly 
on a par as regai'ds density, the people on both being chiefly 
centered at one part, and for the rest scattered irregularly over 
rural or quasi-rural districts. As to geological character, I am 
informed by the Government Geologist of New South Wales (Mr. 
W. C. Wilkinson), who has surveyed both areas, that as regards 
permeability of soil and retentiveness it may be taken that there 
is not much difference between the two ; but although Melbourne 
stands on seven hills, these are but low, and of a conformation which 
distinguishes them from that of a part of the Sydney area where 
abrupt ridges abound. As to climate, in Melbourne the hot 
season is shorter than in Sydney, and the cold season when it 
comes is much colder. The yearly mean temperature (22 years) 
is 57°"2 F. in the former, and 63° F. (29 years) in the latter; the 
- mean yearly rainfalls, 25-53 inches and 48*96 ; the mean yearly 
number of days on which rain fell, 130 and 154. Melbourne is 
near the sea on the south coast, Sydney near the sea on the fertile 
east or Pacific coast ; the latitudes, 37° 49' and 33° 5' S. lat. All 
the difference as regards influence of climate on the diarrhceal 
diseases is in Melbourne's favour, and there is also an artificial 
(lifference between the two which is of especial importance as 
regards prevalence of fever. Melbourne has been supplied with 
excellent water from a very early date, and its distribution by 
pipes has more or less kept pace with the growth of population 
and the extension of suburbs. Sydney, on the other hand, until 
the third month of 1886, had but a scanty supply, drawn from a 
source which was (during the years presently dealt with) befouled. 
This imperfectly served the city (122,000 in 1885) and some 
districts adjacent to it. As far as enteric fever goes there was, 
therefore, during the period dealt with a very great advantage on 
the side of Melboui'ne. Next as to sewerage. It may at first 
sight be supposed that the city of Sydney (population 87,000 to 
122,000, 1876-85) has in this respect an important advantage 
over Melbourne, since it has for many years been sewered. But 
these conduits are "imperfect sewers, constructed at different 
times, in various fashions, running in many instances on 
unrecorded and now forgotten lines, without ventilation, and 
discharging into the tidal waters of the hai'bour."! Many 

* The circle encloses a part of the bcay. 

t See " A Record of tlie Sanitary State of New South Wales, ou December 31st, 1887." 
Sydney, Charles Potter, Goverumeut Printer, by the present writer. 

l2 



180 president's address — SECTION H. 

of them are in fact either natural channels covered over, or 
made-drains which have been converted to the use of sewers ; 
and, as the manner in which house connections are made 
corresponds in point of defectiveness with the construction of 
the channels mentioned, each must judge for himself whether 
they are likely to be an advantage to the people using them, or 
the reverse. On the other hand, Melbourne has no system of 
sewers at all. Lastly, the age and sex distribution of the two 
populations cannot be compared (except by estimate, which iii 
the case of any small area, at all events, is in my opinion more 
properly called a guess) ; but the birth-rate and the rate of 
natural increase are considerably higher in Sydney, and that, of 
course, gives her an advantage over Melbourne. So that in this 
comparison, while the two metropolitan areas are nearly on a 
level as regards population, specific population, and geological 
characteristic, Sydney has the general advantage of a higher 
birth-rate ; Melbourne has the great advantage, as regards fever, 
of a pure and copious water supply, and as regards diarrhoea^ 
diseases, that of a colder climate. The balance between them 
may therefore be now struck. The difference as regards laws is 
as follows : — 

Victoria enjoys a very complete set of health statutes, the 
earliest of which dates from 1865 ; it has a Public Health 
Department, within which is a Board of Health not only well 
known to be composed of earnest gentlemen, but having the 
advantage of the sagacious advice of its permanent President, 
Mr. A. P. Akehurst ; and it has local medical officers of health 
and local boards of health. New South Wales also has a Health 
Department, within which is a Board of Health, which my 
position precludes me from more than mentioning ; but that 
province as yet has not any health statute at all, and of special 
laws relating to health has only a Quarantine Act, a Dairies 
Supervision Act, and an Infectious Diseases Supervision Act, 
which applies to small-pox alone. That board has statutory 
powers under other Act whatsoever. So I describe closely 
similar areas in two provinces, in one of which elaborate health 
statutes, administered by able officers, are operative, while in the 
other are (as regards the class of diseases especially referred to) 
absolutely no legal powers at all. I repeat once again that if 
executive sanitary organisation can do anything, it can reduce 
the prevalence of fever and of filth diseases, and theretore — 
unless there be something wanting — that class of diseases might 
be expected to be rife in the Sydney area, but should be nearly 
absent from the Melbourne area. I shall not be misunderstood, 
I am sure, yet I will say distinctly that the question now under 
examination is why these diseases, notoriously too prevalent 
amongst us, continue to prevail ; and although the circumstances 
detailed with regard to the two cities mentioned render their 



PRESIDENTS ADDRESS — SECTION H. 



181 



experience especially useful in finding the answer, I do not 
conclude upon a comparison between them, but upon a general 
inference which has application to every urban district in every 
province. 



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182 



PRESIDENTS ADDRESS — SECTION H. 



In 1886 the Sydney water supply was modified ; a mixture of pure 
water with the foul was distributed. In the third quarter of 1887 the 
foul service was finally discontinued. A water of great pvirity was 
turned into existing mains, and, as it was at command far in excess of 
the needs of all the population within reach of it, extension of the 
service was thenceforward cari'ied on with energy. The following table, 
which deals with the time elapsed since the close of 1885, has been 
obligingly furnished by the Government Statistician of New South 
Wales (Mr. T. A. Coghlan). The time is too short to warrant expression 
of opinion upon it in relation to water-supply ; but apart from that, the 
fall it shows seems rather greater and more pronounced (on comparison 
with similar rates for former years) in deaths from the diarrhoeal diseases 
than m those from fever. This points to some other infliience at work 
as well as a supply of pi^rer water, and the number of houses which 
during the same years have been properly connected with new, good 
sewers is not sufficient to constitute it. It is true, however, that during 
these years especial efforts have been most strenuously made in many 
municipal districts to abolish the once universal cesspit, and have been 
most successful ; and this is an alteration which woiild tell against both 
diseases. Were it possible to compare different districts of Sydney on 
the lines indicated in the text, it might easily be judged to what extent 
this abolition of cesspits has been effectual ; for there are some popidous 
districts formei-ly (or down to aboiit four years ago) riddled with tliem, 
which now have for all practical purposes none at all, while othei's have 
remained in this respect quite neglected. 



YEAP. 


SYDNEY. 


MELBOURNE. 


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9-22 


469 


14-46 


294 


7-91 


642 


17-27 


1887 


191 


5-58 


?!54 


10-33 


338 


8-63 


652 


16-65 


1888 


182 


5-07 


429 


11-96 


326 


7-77 


546 


13-00 


1889 


209 


5"58 


465 


12-43 


559 


12-78 


608 


13-90 



That is the comparison. I ask whether it shows any difference 
in preventable mortality from the diseases named, such as might 
fairly be expected under the different circumstances described ? 
What is the reason ? Is sanitation, after all, powerless 1 Far from 
that. Not in Victoria and New South Wales alone, but in all 
the pi'ovinces, the work of sanitation is being attempted in the 
dark for want of precisely the kind of direction which might be, 
but is not, got from a well-planned record of births and deaths. 



PRESIDENTS ADDRESS — SECTION H. 



183 



For this purpose of preventing diseases — and especially for 
preventing those which prevail in special localities, whose spread 
is in the main due to local faults — the facts regarding death are 
useless when they are returned only for areas of large extent. 
We sometimes see, to take an extreme instance, death-rates from 
one or other cause of disease carefully struck upon the population 
of whole provinces, and compared together. We see comparisons 
drawn between the number of deaths from typhoid or from 
phthisis, for example, in different provinces, a rate being struck 
with the total estimated populations ; and the results show that as 
regards them, Queensland heads the list. Of course such a 
comparison, if used as an indication of sanitaiy condition (and I 
do not see any other object in making it), is false for several 
reasons : as because typhoid fever is practically a disease of the first 
three lustra of adult life, and because new-comers to a neighbour- 
hood or a country are its especial victims, while Queensland has 
for long received a steady stream of youthful immigrants, whose 
deaths (in such comparisons) are not distinguished from those of 
the residents ; and similarly with phthisis.* But suppose such 



Btin'HPr.ACE (IF Dkceased. 


1884. 


1885. 


18S6. 


1887. 


. Queensland 


32 


45 


31 


! 32 


Total Australia, Tasmania or "^ 
New Zealand ... ... ) 

India and China 

Polynesia ... 

Other Countries 

Unspecified 

Total 


51 

15 

261 

236 

9 


65 

13 
271 
234 

10 


45 

10 

188 
244 

7 


42 

17 

159 

220 

3 


572 


593 


494 


441 



comparisons were fair : considering that typhoid is a disease of 
locality, of what practical use is a statement which represents it as 
prevalent among 367,000 persons, occupying 700,000 square miles 
of territory ? Does it afford any other information at all than that 
typhoid is there % Clearly not. But let another course be taken. 
Let the locality of the deaths be known, and they would be seen 
to occur in ui'ban districts chiefly ; then in particular neighbour- 
hoods of those districts ; lastly in particular streets, and even 
especially in particular houses in those streets ; and, armed with 
this local knowledge, the sanitary authority could ascertain the 
local cause, and fulfil the sole object of its creation by removing 
it. And the case is not far different when rates are returned 



* The Registi'ar-Geiieral for Queensland records tlie birthplace of all decedents from 
phthisis, and with the following instructive result?. 



184 president's addkees — section h. 

for whole cities, or even for municipal districts within them. 
Such rates teach nothing of practical importance to the prevention 
•of disease. 

Before accepting the invitation to occupy this chair with which 
the Council of the Association honoured me, I considered whether 
it were possible to indicate any particular woi-k on which this 
section might profitably labour at once for advancement of the 
Science of Hygiene, and for the immediate benefit of the people 
of this continent. After looking in several directions I thought 
1 descried one that stood forth pre-eminent. I have now striven 
to point it out ; but if I may say that, following the custom usual 
on such occasions as this, I have indicated rather than described 
it, if for that reason I have not entered into great detail, nor 
spoken with complete fulness, I am aware in addition of very 
many deficiencies, for which I ask indulgence. I have endeavoured 
to say as much as will lead you to pursue the subject farther, and 
more deeply. I have tried to suggest that, as matters stand, we 
are not watching the growth of a race, but overlooking it for want 
(among other things) of connecting our registers of birth with 
our registers of death. And I have endeavoured to show that 
our sanitary organisations in general are wasteful and fruitless 
for want of the guide which annual rough-enumeration of the 
people under sex, age, and rateable value of the houses they 
respectively live in ; return of causes of death by the medical 
profession, and registration of them under medical supervision ; 
analysis of that information by the central health authority, and 
its frequent and speedy publication would furnish. I do not 
know of any work in any department of science which is more 
important to the welfare of the people of Australia, either for the 
immediate purpose of preventing disease here and now, or for the 
ultimate purposes of good government ; and I venture to conclude 
by commending to your attention very earnestly the immediate 
necessity which exists for i-efoi'ming in many respects our present 
methods of enumeration and of registration, and for procuring 
these to be done under one universal law, and one uniform plan, 
in every province of Australia. 




PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS IN SECTICfN^'Tl ^^ 
LITERATURE AND FINE ARTS. 

Bt J. AV. A.GNEW, Esq., M.D. 



I AM conscious that many local members of this Association 
could till the Presidential chair of the Section of Literature and 
Fine Arts much better than I can pretend to do. It is therefore 
necessary to mention that those members are ineligible for 
election, as the rules of the Association provide that no resident 
of the colony in which a General Meeting takes place shall hold 
the position of President. This rule alone has induced me, as a 
representative of Tasmania, to take the chair, although it is 
scarce necessary to say I feel deeply sensible of the honour of 
having been elected to it. 

In formally opening the section, I propose to otier but few- 
general remarks on the various subjects of which it takes 
cognisance, as I desire more particularly to consider the present 
condition and probable future development of these subjects in 
Australasia. The tirst which presents itself is Literature, but 
this alone, even if we regard only that of our own country, 
presents so vast a field for comment that it is clearly impossible, 
within the scope of a brief address, to do more than touch a very 
few of its more salient points. At no period in history have 
such floods of literature been poured forth for the instruction 
and delight of a reading public as we see at present. To those 
of us of an older generation it is marvellous to note the 
amazing amount of sterling work, formerly from its high price 
the heritage only of the few, which is now, owing to improve- 
ments in the mechanical ai'ts and other causes, brought virtually 
within the reach of everyone. And it is not only in the supply 
and accessibility of books for the multitude that improvement is 
manifest ; the same advance has taken place in the general 
excellence of litei*ary work itself. History of all kinds, for 
instance, has ceased to be a mere compilation of dates, and bald 
and dry records of the more striking events of the time. Truth, 
myth, and fable have been relegated to their proper spheres. 
Evidence is more carefully weighed and sifted, and stricter 
accuracy, the result of original research in national archives and 
other collections freely thrown open to the enquiring student, 
has been more generally secured. Being written, too, in a more 
broad and philosophic spirit, and dealing with the inner life and 
habits of tlie people, history has become a far more instructive 
•study, whilst the sidelights which are being continually thrown 



186 PRESiDEN"r's addrp:ss — section I. 

upon it by the inci'ease of biographic and othei' literature add 
more and more to its value. Its boundaries also have been 
enlarged within comparatively recent times by the discovery 
of ancient records of surpassing interest, which, being deciphered 
by the acumen of Egyptian and Assyrian scholars, reveal to us 
the wonderful story of great, powerful, and civilised nations long 
buried in oblivion. And if the East has been compelled to give 
up her secrets, may we not hctpe that the western world will also 
be induced to do so, and that further reseai'ches in Central 
America among those mysterious cities of a vanished and 
forgotten race may result in the discovery of some key to their 
numerous hieroglyphic inscriptions, and thus furnish yet another 
fascinating chapter to the literature of the world. A hope may 
also perhaps be entertained that in this age of research, discoveries 
may even yet be made of a lost literature in the case of one of 
Europe's oldest civilisations. Our museums show many an 
exquisite production of Etruscan art ; it would therefore be 
doubly intei'esting should some haj)py "find" — some Rosetta 
stone — introduce us to the literature itself of old Etruria, 
especially as, like its national art, this would probably aftbrd 
evidence of ancient Greek and Egyptian influences, and possibly 
solve the mystery of their introduction. The litei'ature of the 
Press, within my own recollection, which dates back to a period 
beyond half a century, when The Times itself boasted of but two 
leaves of modest dimensions, has made an enormous advance, that 
of the leading papers — Australian, we may be proud to say, as 
well as English — being now generally so excellent in tone and 
literary finish as to leave little or nothing to be desired. To 
this double excellence is due the admitted pre-eminence of the 
English newspaper, while to the energy and ability with which it 
is conducted may also be ascribed, among other niatters, that com- 
paratively recent development known as war correspondence. 
This is undoubtedly a peculiar field for literary work, yet the 
ubiquitous correspondent, animated with a fine courage and severe 
sense of duty, never fails, under the most desperate circumstances 
and exposed to all the deadly perils of war, to furnish us virtually 
from day to day with graphic pictures, Homeric in personal 
interest, of every passing incident of the campaign and battle-field. 
Compare these brilliant j^roductions M'ith the staid oflicial reports 
of the same scenes and occurrences, and we realise how much we 
owe to the daily pi'ess for giving us a new and stirring literature 
of universal interest. The increase in periodic literature, teeming 
as this does Ijoth with lighter works of imagination and with 
weightiest matter by the foremost writers of the day, is a very 
notable fact, whilst the favourable terms on which it is supplied 
point, in a highly satisfactory manner, to an enormous demand 
on the part of a vast, I'eading, and well-to-do public. I can here 
only allude tf> the incessant issue of work of the severer type, 
scientific, philosophic, classical, theological, critical, itc, which 



president's address — SECTION I. 187 

supplies the requirements of a large and leai'iied section of the 
community, and amply vindicates the science and scholarship of 
the day ; but there is still another class of literature which, from 
its general acceptance, may warrant a brief special notice. T 
refer to the modern novel, which may truly be said to come upon 
us not in single spies but in battalions. Many novels no douljt 
are of little or no worth, yet in others, although no such trans- 
cendant genius as a Scott, a Thackeray or a Dickens writes at 
present, the amount of thoughtful and superior work which not 
only adorns the tale but points a moral, is a distinctly increasing 
quantity. Much of this work, too, has borne good fruit, as by 
its means, even since Dickens wi'ote, abuses of various kinds^ 
have been brought under the notice of an indignant public, with 
the effect of securing beneficial reforms. This advance in general 
tone and style affords a reason for the higher position nc)w 
occupied by the novel than was the case, with few exceptions, in 
my early days, when its influence on the youthful mind was 
regarded as so objectionable, that in my own instance at least, 
which I pi'esume was not exceptional, I was generally compelled 
to secure the much coveted volume by means of a somewhat 
questionable character, and snatch a fearful joy by de^■ouring its 
contents in seci'et. This improvement in a large proportion of 
novels argues a healthier taste in a corresponding proportion of 
the community, and this again is but the natui'al result of that 
moral and material progress which is so generally evident. It 
has no doubt been the complaint of centuries, and the great 
Roman lyrist, from the frequency with which he is quoted, has 
perhaps something to answer for in this question, that the world 
is retrograde rather than progressive. But facts alone surely 
confute such a contention, for had every genei'ation lived but to 
produce a successor worse than itself, it is clear that beings little^ 
better than savages should now have possession of the earth. 
Yet how diffei'ent is the reality ! Never has there been an age 
in which active and intelligent philanthropy has been so 
conspicuous, nor in which zeal, charity, self-denial, and even life 
itself, have been so freely expended on so vast a scale and on so 
many and such vai'ied objects. It must certainly be admitted it 
cannot yet be said that this is "the best of all possible worlds," 
nor that the present is superior in every respect to some past age.s. 
that can boast the possession of those shining lights in art and 
literature which still glitter through the pages of history. But 
our incalculable superiority to the past is manifest in the diffusion 
of letters, not merely among the favoured few, but broad-cast 
throughout the masses, and it is clear that the cultured intelli- 
gence which is necessarily and increasingly the result, must prove 
a most powerful factor in raising the genei-al level of humanity 
in the present, and in happily rendering a recurrence of " Dark 
Ages " impossible in the future. Yet, although the novel 



188 president's address — section I. 

participates in this general advance, many worthy people still see 
in it a snare, and regard it with but scant toleration. The 
number of these objectors, however, steadily diminishes, and 
lighter reading, even if it convey no particular lesson, when 
pvirsued within due limits and as a relief from severer studies or 
occupations, is now generally regarded as not only harmless in 
itself, but as of actual benefit in lending an additional attraction 
to the home circle. It may also be recollected that our novel 
may prove in some distant future to be of historic value, in 
affording an accurate picture of the inner life, manners and 
customs of its age. We know something of "The glory that was 
Greece, and the grandeur that was Rome," but in addition to 
Avhat we can gather from plays and other writings, what would 
we not give for such a full and accurate presentment as that 
afforded by the novel, of the social life and everyday walk and 
conversation of the people themselves ? And here, as circum- 
stances enable me to do so, I desire to couch a lance in behalf of 
one of our most brilliant delineators of modern life and character, 
George Eliot. In a public lecture delivered here not long ago, 
dealing in a very kind and appreciative spirit with George Eliot's 
writings, it was said that on reading her biography by Mr. Cross, 
the impression received was to the effect that almost all of the 
authoress was in her works, and that little or nothing was left 
for the friends of her social circle. If this be the case, I have 
good reason to say the biography, unwittingly no doubt by its 
author, conveys a very faulty impression. A few years ago I had 
the pleasure of knowing a personal friend of George Eliot, a man 
of exceptional culture and acquirements. He always spoke to 
me in most glowing terms of the social gifts and graces of the 
great authoress, of her amazing and charming power of ready 
sympathy, of her quick intuitive perception, clear judgment, 
and admirable common sense. With one expression in regard 
to her more serious conversation I was particularly struck — 
" In fact," he said, "when walking and talking with her I always 
felt as if I walked and talked with Plato." In connection with 
this supposititious failure of George Eliot as a social unit, a 
suggestion was also hazarded on the occasion already alluded 
to, that it may even be well we know so little of the social life 
of Shakespeare, as it was possible he may there have shown no 
indications of his genius, nor have risen above mediocrity. But 
when we see that George Eliot's supposed deficiencies were 
actually non-existent, this allusion to her case can have no weight. 
And when we consider the peculiar brilliancy and exuberance of 
Shakespeare's imagination, and take into account not only the 
admiration and respect, but the warm affecticm with which he is 
spoken of by such a leai-ned and caustic writer as Ben Jonson, it 
is impossible, T think, to fancy he was not endowed with the 
fullest share of all those bright and jjenial shifts that enliven and 



PRESIDENTS ADDRESS — SECTIOX I. 189' 

sweeten social intercourse. Had there been a marked deficiency 
in this respect, it would have been so phenomenal in his case, that 
Jonson would surely have referred to it rather than to a matter 
of such small comparative interest as his friend's imperfect 
knowledge of Latin and Gi*eek. But to come nearer home, it 
may be asked, What of the f utui^e of Australasian literature 1 
Obviously the time has not yet arrived for the production by 
writers of Australian birth, of work requiring long literary 
apprenticeship, original I'esearch and learned leisure, but it may 
confidently be said our literature of a lighter character, whether 
periodic or otherwise, already indicates a very great amount of 
native ability. The weekly press, though dealing more largely 
with English fiction, affords a certain amount of publicity, 
encouragement, and training to native writers, several of whom 
have in consequence been enabled to undertake work of a more 
ambitious or permanent character. We have, for instance, seen 
of late that a novel by a former well-known conti"ibutor to the 
Atistralasian has had a wide acceptance even at home, and as its 
gifted authoress, " Tasma," resided in Tasmania from childhood,, 
her book, which treats largely of local scenes and subjects, may 
truly be regarded as indigenous. The same may be said of other 
recent works by Rolf Boldrewood — a pseudonym familiar to 
readers of the local press — which from their wealth of startling 
incident, brilliant descriptive power and true local coloui'ing, have 
secured a very large amount of public favour. Other native 
writers too, I have reason to know, are coming to the front. An 
authoress of world-wide I'epute at home, Mrs. Humphry Ward, is 
a native of Tasmania, but having left that colony at an early 
age, cannot be claimed as an Australian writer, nor do I think 
that other than home influences are visible in her works. Several 
novels, thoroughly Australian in scope and chai'acter, have been 
written locally, or from local experience, though not by native 
writers. Among the best known are: "Geoff'rey Hamlyn," "His 
Natural Life," and "The Broad Arrow," all of which are likely 
to live, as they present well-drawn and interesting pictures of 
scenes peculiar to a past phase of colonial life. And as in prose 
so also in poetry, Australian influences have already inspired 
some admirable work, though for the most part the writers have 
been born and nurtured under other skies. Among these a 
foremost place will readily be accorded to Adam Lindsay 
Gordon, whose brilliant lyric and descriptive poems, many of 
them redolent of bush life, have taken a firm hold on the public 
mind, and will be long and deservedly held in appreciative 
memory. Some of them, indeed, will no doubt take permanent 
place in our national literature. A peculiar interest, at the 
same time, due to what is known of his unfortunate life 
and chequered career, attaches to much that Gordon wrote. 
Chivalrous feeling, refined taste, scholarship, and the true spirit 



190 president's address SECTION I. 

of poetry are distinctly evident, but indications are not 
wanting that deep regret for what he had lost, and for what he 
ought to have been, was a frequent experience, and that he 
accepted his existing position only in a spirit of gloomy resigna- 
tion — a condition which we know urdiajDpily developed at last 
into despair. The somewhat complex philosophy of a character 
generous and unselfish in one phase, almost reckless in another, 
yet withal capable of attracting in a remarkable degree both 
sympathy and regard, is perhaps slightly shadowed forth in his 
own lines, which, under the circumstances of the writer, are not 
without pathos — 

Question not, but live and labour 

Till yon goal be won. 
Helping every feeble neighbour. 

Seeking help from none : 
Life is mostly froth and bubble. 
Two things stand like stone — 
Kindness in another's trouble. 
Courage in your own. 

It must be admitted, however, that a large portion of Gordon's 
verse is inspired by English scenes, sentiment, and associa- 
tions, and the same may be said of that of another poet, 
who is nevertheless to be considered in some degree as 
Australian, his best work having been done in the land of 
his adoption. I refer to Brunton Stephens. For sustained 
power, wealth of polished language, and felicity of diction, 
his longest poem, " Convict Once," stands, 1 think, alone in 
Australasian poetic literature. Local influences may be seen 
in such allusions as — 

Out on the gem-pointed Cross and the glittering pomp of Orion 
Flaming in measureless azure, the coronal jewels of God, 

but many of his minor pieces are far more thoroughly Australian 
in subject, while several are chai^acterised by a happy vein of 
humour not dissimilar to that of Calverley. Comparisons, I 
believe, have been made between his merits as a poet and those 
of Gordon. None of Gordon's verse, I think, equals " Convict 
Once " in flne sustained power, but English literature affords 
many proofs that the briefest emanations of genius, if they 
worthily appeal to human sentiment and feeling, frequently 
secure an enduring fame and popularity denied to apparently 
grander and more ambitious efforts. Brief and imperfect as this 
notice of our poets must necessarily be, mention must be made of 
one whom Australia can wholly claim as a son, namely, Henry 
Kendall. Imbued with a passionate love for the land of his 
birth, intensely sympathetic with the poetry of nature, especially 
perhaps in her wilder and weirder aspects, and gifted with 
uncommon power of vivid description, Kendall, on his first 
appearance as an author, was quickly recognised as a true 
Australian poet. His name indeed soon became known at home. 



president's address — SECTION I. 191 

;in<l in an English magazine, I think the Athermum a most compli- 
mentary notice was given of his poems, the reviewer even quoting 
several of them at length. It is singular that in a recent (1886) 
local edition of the poet's works, none of these pieces selected for 
favourable comment are included. In one of them I was much 
struck by the graphic rendering, in the space of a single line, of a 
moonlight effect, 

A white sail glimmers out at sea — a vessel walking in her sleep. 
The mystic and dreamy picture here so well presented is very 
characteristic of some moods of the writer. But although Kendall 
has secured for himself a permanent place on the roll of 
Australia's poets, it is a subject for regret that his life was not 
further prolonged, and under circumstances moi'e favourable for 
poetic work, for excellent as this is, the brilliant productions of 
Jiis earlier years gave promise, I think, of something even still 
more so. The amount of published poetry by other writers in 
Australasia is very considerable, as is evidenced by the large, and 
apparently exhaustive, collection on the shelves of the Public 
Library of this city. Before leaving this subject, I may observe 
it is a matter for congratulation that our future poets and 
dramatists must always have an equal and common share with 
their English brethren in that peerless exemplar already alluded 
to of all that is greatest and best in literature — Shakespeare ; of 
whom indeed many an enthusiastic student would pi'obably 
venture to go even so far as to say : — 

Quo nihil majus meliusve terris 
Fata donavere, bonique Divi, 
Nee dabunt. 

It may, in fact, be a question if English writers have not in this 
respect an exclusive privilege. Other nations certainly have our 
poet in their own vernacular, but when we know how well-nigh 
impossible it is to give in a strange tongue a perfect reflex of any 
supreme poetry, with all the subtle cadence and music of the 
words first married by the poet himself to his imaginings, it is 
clear that any attempt to render the finer issues of Shakespeare 
by a translation must pi"actically end in failure. It may be 
noted, too, that the very perfection of our great dramatist not 
only renders him virtually impossible to the translator, but has 
probably the peculiar effect of preventing him from being even 
the founder of a school, as it has been well observed by an 
English writer : "If Shakespeare founded no school, that is 
because no school of Shakespeare is possible. It is only the 
artist whose perfections are not unapproachable who can found a 
school." Here it may not be out of place to refer to an article in 
the Contemporary Review^ of October, 1889, which must go far to 
convince even the most stubborn sceptic of the real personality 
of Shakespeare. The argument that the writer whom we know 
by that name could not, owing to defective scholarship, have 



192 president's address — section I. 

painted such scenes from ancient histoiy as those given in his 
plays is proved to be utterly untenable, as it is shown that by 
available translations and other means a suificient knowledge of 
any character in whom he was interested could easily have been 
acquired by Shakespeare. The wonderful alchemy of his own 
unrivalled creative genius did all the rest in transmuting those 
pale phantoms of Greek, Roman, or Egyptian story into living, 
speaking realities of like feelings and passions as ourselves. On 
the whole, the clear and satisfactory conviction left by the article 
is that the name of Shakespeare is rightly associated with his 
plays, and that it will therefore continue to burn as brightly in 
the future as it has done in the past, unaffected by fanciful and 
mysterious theories of Baconian or any other authorship. I may 
add, one special responsibility must always rest with our future 
writers, namely, that of preserving inviolate the priceless heritage 
of their mother-tongue. History has shown that "a corrupt and 
decaying language is an infallible sign of a corrupt and decaying 
civilisation," but fortunately as yet there is no indication of such 
decay in either our language or nation. As to the latter, we 
shall, no doubt, agree with the patriotic declaration of Lord 
Beaconsfield when he says : "I refuse to accept the theory of 
British decadence ; England is capable of forming, not losing, 
empires." Neither in the former are symptoms of decay 
perceptible. In fact, when fairly used, the language has never 
hitherto exhibited a higher state of development, and has there- 
fore never been more worthy of a jealous care. But as a boon 
when common property runs the risk of not being sufficiently 
appreciated and guarded, it may not be out of place to cite the 
opinion, not of an English and possibly prejudiced, but of a great 
foreign authority on the grandeur of our language. In a treatise 
read before the Berlin Academy by the late renowned German 
scholar and philologist, Jacob Ludwig Grimm, the following 
passage (translated) occurs : — " It (the English language) 
possesses through its abundance of free medial tones, which may 
be learnt indeed, but which no rules can teach, a power of expres- 
sion such as perhaps has never been attained by any other human 
tongue. Its altogether intellectual and singularly happy founda- 
tions and developments have arisen from a surprising alliance 
between the two noblest languages of antiquity, the German and 
the Romanesque, the relations of which to each other is well 
known to be such that the former supplies the material founda- 
tion, the latter the abstract notions. Yes, truly may the English 
language with good reason call itself a universal language, and it 
seems chosen, like its people, to rule in future times to a still 
greater degree in all corners of the earth. In richness, sound 
reason and flexibility, no modern tongue can be compared to it, 
not even the German, which must strengthen many a weakness 
and shake off many encumbrances before it can take rank with 



president's address — SECTION I. 19;J 

the English." And on this subject the responsibilities of oui- 
American cousins are well expressed in the words or song of the 
poet : — ■ 

Beyond the vague Atlantic deep. 

Far as the farthest prairies sweep. 

Where mountain wastes the sense appal. 

Where burns the radiant Western fall. 

One duty lies on old and young — 

With filial piety to guard, 

As on its greenest native sward, 

The glory of the English tongue I 

Although literature other than that now referred to lies rather 
outside the present notice, I may observe that much of a most 
valuable character has been locally written, including, amongst 
other matter, narratives of early explorations, complete histories 
of several of the colonies, accounts of the aborigines, elaborate 
treatises on local geology and on various branches of natural 
history. For learned and exhaustive contributions to the 
botanical section of the last-named subject, I am sure there is no 
one whom this Association will more delight to honour than our 
learned and distinguished President, Baron Sir Ferdinand von 
Mueller, whose long and brilliant labours in connection with the 
special subject with which his name must be for ever associated, 
have secured for him both fame and honours in the old world, 
and, locally, have made not merely his own province but all 
Australasia his debtor. 

Passing from Literature to the second division of our section, 
a brief allusion may be expected to that which in its highest 
expression reaches perhaps to the very ideal of art, namely, 
Sculpture. In this, resident artists of home or foreign nationality 
have done much ; but although a practical taste for it is already 
dawning in our midst, I am not aware that our youth have 
accomplished any original work requiring special mention. Nor 
is this strange. Much expenditure of time and means, with 
access to necessary models, are required for the attainment of 
proficiency in this difficult art, whilst rewards are precarious, as 
those whose means might enaV)le them to afibrd encouragement to 
its higher eSbrts may prefer, for the present at least, to go to the 
great studios of the old world, where choice is so varied and so 
excellent, rather than limit themselves to the comparatively small 
field for selection afforded by the colonies. 

For Drawing in all its branches a marked amount of nati^^e 
talent exists. Great facilities for study of the art are afforded 
by several of the colonies. In Victoria the sum of one thousand 
pounds is given yearly to the Art School in connection with the 
National Gallery, which itself obtains the very liberal annual 
grant of about seven thousand pounds. An additional impetus 
is given to the study of painting by the establishment of a 
Travelling Scholarship (of £150 per annum), tenable for three 



194 president's address — section I. 

jears, under the condition that the holder shall send back to the 
colony in each of the tirst two years a copy of some recognised 
painting by one of the old masters, and at the close of the third 
year an original one by himself. The present holder of this 
valuable prize, Mr. Longstatf, had shown great promise before 
proceeding to Europe ; but the first picture sent, back, " The 
Entombment of Christ " (Titian) indicates a marked advance, due 
110 doubt in great measure to careful study of the works of those 
dead Soveieigns of Art "who still rule our spirits from their urns." 
Other Australian artists are making surprising progress in the 
home studios, one or more of their pictures, including one from 
the artist just named, having been honoured by admission 
to the Paris Salon. Locally, the names of the Tasmanian 
artists, Piguenit and Dowling (the latter not long deceased), 
are well known. In flower painting, the truly exquisite 
productions of Mrs. Rowan's pencil are deservedly appreciated, 
and " have found a fame " far beyond the range of the 
Australias, while the flora of Tasmania has worthy local 
exponents in Miss Hall and other native artists. The superior 
work of many home artists, either permanently or temporarily 
resident in our midst, claims public admiration at annual 
exhibitions, and tinds a place in many a choice private collection ; 
but special notice of this lies, of course, beyond the scope 
of these remarks. As Architectural Drawing, however, comes 
under this head, I should be glad to draw attention briefly to 
some instances of its ])ractical application, which I venture to 
think indicate a violation of certain elementary canons of the 
art itself. We are authoritatively told by writers on the subject 
that ornamentation, when in the form of architectural features, 
should point to some practical purpose, or give the idea of utility 
as its veiy raison d'etre. Pillars or Caryatides, for instance, 
when inti'oduced merely as ornaments, should seem to support 
something, which, of course, must bear a due proportion to its 
supports. So also in the case of a balustrade or parapet. This 
no doubt is a very eflective and imposing ornament along the 
sky-line, but as the essential and primary purpose of a balustrade 
or parapet must be to give protection to persons behind it, it is 
clear this idea should always be practically carried out by 
making the flanking walls at least to correspond with it in 
height ; otherwise the raised front, unsupported, or but partially 
so, is visibly unfit for its essential function, and thus becomes a 
palpable sham and pretentious delusion. Yet in innumerable 
instances in every direction, owing to tl>e absence of art to 
conceal art, we see this sham front rearing its painfully absurd 
elevation, and proclaiming itself to be a mere excrescence on the 
l)uilding, and not, as it should seem to be, a useful and integral 
portion of it. In some cases this inartistic front may have 
been designed with the idea that neighbouring buildings would 



president's address — SECTION I. 195 

eventually conceal the sham, but, as a rule, no such excuse or 
explanation is possible. Gable ends, again, are designed which 
would be artistic, were any apparent use assigned to them ; but 
when this is absent, the structure itself becomes a visible pretence, 
and therefore false in art. In connection with this subject 
generally, it may be remarked, it is fortunate that the study of 
drawing and design should be so congenial to Australian taste, as 
in the future it must become a matter not merely of private but 
of national importance. From absence of the artistic element, 
the mother country, to within a recent period, suffered severely 
in the markets of the world in her competition with other nations 
more advanced in art-culture. But the cause of this commercial 
failure was recognised at last, and, owing to their beauty of design 
and ornamentation, combined with perfect workmanship, the 
fabrics of England, whether textile, fictile, or otherwise, are now 
rapidly assuming that high position to which they are so well 
entitled. In glass manufacture, indeed, England already outstrips 
all competitors, even her old rivals of Venice and Bohemia. 

The remaining but not least important subject of the section is 
Music. It must be admitted that the genial environments and 
conditions of Australasian life are in some way peculiarly 
propitious to the development and cultivation of taste for the 
Eine Arts, because as in painting, so also in music, the outlook is 
all its most ardent votary could desire. We know that at home 
this delightful art has made astonishing progress within compara- 
tively recent times. Probably the enthusiastic and judicious 
encouragement given to it by the Royal Family has contributed 
much to this advance, but the widespread culture of music 
throughout all classes must be due in part to increased pecuniary 
means and material prosperity, and partly also to the general 
education of the day rendering the masses more susceptible and 
more appreciative of all finer influences. Be this as it may, it 
can safely be affirmed that these colonies, in their devotion to 
music, are in no way behind the mother country, if they do not 
in fact even surpass her. Australian artists indeed have gained 
European distinction in both instrumental and vocal music. In 
the former, we learn that Johann Kruse, of Victoria, has more 
than fulfilled the brilliant promise of his youth, having already 
achieved that high position foreshadowed for him by endowments 
of no common order, whilst his young and gifted compatriot, 
Ernest Hutchinson, is steadily following in his footsteps, with 
every prospect of eventually securing for himself an equal meed 
of fame and of reflecting equal credit on the land of his birth. 
The attainments of Florence Menk-Meyer, pianiste and composer, 
are too well recognised by the public to require any very special 
mention. In vocal music, another daughter of Victoria, Madame 
Melba, has actually taken rank with the greatest singers of the 
day, having been acclaimed by enthusiastic audiences a queen of 

m2 



196 president's address — section I. 

song on the operatic stage of the capitals both of France and 
England. And from this bright category, to which additions no 
doubt can be made by other members of the Association, the 
names of Amy Sherwin, the sweet singer of Tasmania, and of 
Alice Rees, so well known to Australian audiences, cannot be 
omitted. But although it is pleasant to contemplate these 
phenomenal cases as bright particular stars, the extraordinary 
love of the art which permeates the entire community presents a 
still more pleasing and satisfactory feature for observation, 
indicating as it does the pervading presence of that refinement 
which is so desirable an element of national character. Were 
visible proof required of this universal passion for music, we 
have only to look around, not only on private society, but on the 
great and apparently insatiable audiences which never fail 
to crowd • our numerous and brilliantly conducted oratorios, 
liedertafels, operas and similar performances. The recent 
establishment, too, in Melbourne of a National Orchestra, under 
the management of one of the foremost English professors of 
music, is a noteworthy circumstance, as the local influence of 
such foundations on the music of the future can scarcely be 
over estimated. 

In respect to Literature and Art generally, one other matter 
may be referred to. In biographies of eminent self-made men we 
meet with many cases in which, although success was eventually 
attained, the first efibrts of genius were all but blighted by 
adverse circumstances. So infinitely narrow indeed has been the 
line between success and failure, it is safe to conclude that in 
many an instance these efibrts have been altogether crushed, and 
the world consequently left so much the poorer by the loss of what 
might have been. It is pleasant, therefore, to think that in these 
favoured countries the education which is common to all cannot 
fail to discover and develop genius wherever it may lie hidden, 
and that neither " Poverty's unconquerable bar," nor other 
adverse influence, will keep in obscurity anyone gifted with 
exceptional abilities. 

In fine, in these early days of Australasia's existence we may 
perhaps, with little stretch of imagination, regard the present 
generation of standing at the fountain-head of a great and 
enlightened nation. And if, without neglect of other and possibly 
sterner duties, we can, by means of such associations as this and 
otherwise, contribute to that fountain some tincture, some element 
calculated to still further promote and strengthen in the national 
character of the future that love of Literature and Art which 
refines manners, removes vulgar asperities, and makes life better 
worth living, then I think we shall be performing a duty clearly 
required of us, and shall be casting bread upon the waters, to be 
found haply after many days, if not by ourselves, at least by our 
successors. 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS IN SECTION J. 
ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE. 

By W. H. warren, Wh.Sch., M. Inst. C.E., London, M. Soc. C.E., 

America, 

Challis Professor of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, 
University of Sydney. 



In the first place, I have to ofter you my sincere thanks for the 
honour you have done me in electing me as your President ; and, 
in accordance with a custom long established, it becomes my duty 
and my privilege to address you on one of the many subjects 
included in this important section. The material welfare and 
progress of the civilised world depends largely on the labours of 
engineers. 

If we consider the work which has been accomplished during 
the last 50 years in connection with the arts and manufactures, 
in the construction, equipment, and safe navigation of ocean 
steamers, both for the navy and mercantile marine, the vai'ious 
works and appliances for defensive and offensive operations, the 
construction of docks and harbours, and the improvement of 
tidal rivers, railways, water supply and sewerage of cities and 
towns, electricity, mining — in fact, in all those cases in which 
the great sources of power in nature have been directed and 
controlled for the wants and conveniences of mankind, it must be 
admitted that engineering holds its own in the beneficent 
influence it exerts on the well-being of humanity. 

Now, since the progress and development of engineering in the 
future will depend upon tlie character, knowledge, and ability of 
those men whose privilege it will be to carry on the work which 
has already become such an important factor in the history of the 
19th century, it is clear that the education of our future engineers 
is a matter of momentous interest to the whole civilised world, and 
I have therefore chosen this theme as the subject of my address. 

If we consider the various operations in the process of con- 
struction of large engineering works, and endeavour to ascertain 
what kinds of knowledge are necessary for the engineer to 
possess, whose special duty it is to design and carry out such 
work, we shall then be in a position to decide in what manner the 
particular knowledge referred to can be best obtained. Take, 
for example, the construction and working of railways. The 
railway civil engineer should understand the various conditions 
and circumstances in connection with the location of the railway, 



198 president's address — section J. 

so that the returns obtainable from the traffic will bear the best 
possible proportion to the interest on the capital invested, 
added to the working expenses. He should also possess a 
thorough knowledge of surveying as applied to railways, and 
be able to prepare the working plans and sections of the 
line, showing necessary works, such as grades, curves, embank- 
ments, cuttings, tunnels, culverts, viaducts, and bridges. He 
should be able to design these works in detail, as well 
as the permanent way, including the switches, crossings, 
signals, and the various appliances which are necessary in order 
to ensure that the traffic may be carried over the line in a safe 
and economical manner. He should also be able to design the 
roadside and terminal stations to meet the requirements of the 
goods and passenger traffic. The railway mechanical engineer 
should be thoroughly acquainted with the design, manufacture, 
and repairs of locomotive engines and rolling stock, including 
the special ajipliances and machinery which are necessary for 
the economical performance of this class of work. 

Tn a similar manner, we might detail the order of operations 
in connection with the construction of roads, sewerage works^ 
water supply, harbour and dock works — />., we should ha^'e, in 
the first place, the preliminary surveys, in order to decide the 
location of the works, and afterwards the design, construction, 
and maintenance of the works in question. 

In Mechanical Engineering we have a complex matter to deal 
with, and one which is daily becoming more comprehensive in 
character ; but it is clear that every mechanical engineer should 
possess a thorough know^ledge of the chief constructive processes 
which are used in the manufacture of engines and machinery, 
and of the various natural forces and agents, such as heat,, 
electricity, steam, air, and water. Do we provide efficiently for 
the acquisition of the knowledge referred to by merely articling 
a young man to an engineer, without having first educated him 
to understand the various works with which he is brought in 
contact 1 The whole civilised world has answered in the negative 
in establishing special engineering colleges all over Europe, 
America, and England, or engineering schools and departments 
in connection with existing universities. 

Hence, you may be certain that the carefully drawn up and 
complete schemes of scientific and technical education, the result 
of the thought and discussion which has been devoted to the 
subject in Europe and America, and which is becoming daily more 
recognised in England, is the best course for us to adopt here in the 
colonies. That it is to some extent recognised in the colonies is 
shown by the establishment of engineering schools in connection 
with the universities of Sydney and Melbourne, and that the 
system has already ])een successful is proved by the number of 
important positions held by engineering graduates of both 
universities. 



I 



president's address — SECTION J. 199 

It was owing to a full appreciation of these facts that Mr. 
Bruce Smith, the present Minister for Public Works (New South 
Wales), in a recent minute, has restricted the purely professional 
appointments in the department over which he presides to 
graduates in engineering of the University of Sydney, instead of 
continuing the cadet system, which is acknowledged by the chief 
public officers to be most unsatisfactory. Mr. Bi'uce Smith's 
action in this matter is worthy of imitation, and I sincerely 
recommend it to the Government of Victoria with reference to 
the engineering graduates of the Melbourne University. 

I may mention here, for the benefit of the Railway Com- 
missioners of the various colonies, and the directors of companies 
where engineering knowledge and skill are required, that the 
properly-trained colonial engineer possesses many advantages over 
his English brother in designing and carrying out civil engineering- 
works in the colonies. He understands better the nature of the 
materials of construction witli which he has to deal ; he has 
obtained his professional ti^aining in connection with works whicli 
have been constructed under conditions and circumstances which 
are essentially diff"erent from those existing in England. He is 
generally a much better surveyor, and I consider him to be equal 
in every other respect. In Mechanical Engineering, on the other 
hand, the engineer trained in England has an advantage, in 
consequence of the larger works and more complete machinery 
with with he is brought in contact. 

I will now briefly describe the course of engineering education 
provided at the University of Sydney. 

Candidates for the degree of Bachelor of Engineering must, in 
the first place, pass the Senior Public Examination, or an exami- 
nation equivalent to the Senior Public Examination, in the 
following subjects, viz., Latin and one of the three languages, 
Greek, French, German, and three of the following- subjects, viz., 
Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry, Elementary 
Surveying and Astronomy, Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 
unless they have previously passed the first year of the Arts 
course. During the first year, the candidates are required to 
attend the courses of instruction and pass the examinations in the 
following subjects ; — 

1. Chemistry, Inorganic (with two terms laboratory practice). 

2. Descriptive Geometry and Drawing. 

3. Mathematics. 

4. Mechanics. 

5. Physics. 

6. Pliysiography. 

In the second year the candidates are required to attend the 
courses of instruction and pass the examinations in the following 
subjects : — 

1. Applied Mechanics (with laboratory practice). 

2. Geology. 



UOO president's address — SECTION J. 

3. Mechanical Drawing. 

4. Mathematics. 

5. Physics (with one term laboratory practice). 

6. Surveying. 

In the third year candidates are required to attend the 
courses of instruction and pass the examinations in the following 
subjects : — 

1. Drawing and Design. 

2. Materials and Structures (with laboratory practice). 

3. Mathematics, and one of the following : — 

A. Civil Engineering and Architecture. 

B. Mechanical Engineering and Machine Design. 
Every candidate is required to prepare and submit to the 

Board of Examiners an original set of working drawings and 
specifications of machinery or works. 

In Mining Engineering, the candidates are required to attend 
{in addition to the foregoing), a more complete course in Chemistry 
and Metallurgy ; also a course in Mineralogy and Mining. It is 
proposed to add a Department of Architecture as soon as funds 
are available. The object of the entrance examination is to 
ensure that the student has received a good genei*al education, 
and that he is capable of profiting by the professional courses 
of instruction which he is subsequently to attend. The chief 
feature in the courses of instruction is the attention paid to 
practical instruction in the various laboratories. The Physical 
and Chemical Laboratoi'ies have been specially designed for their 
work, and are equipped in a most complete manner with every 
modern appliance for teaching Physics and Chemistry. The 
Mechanical Laboratory, which is under my own direction, is at 
present not all that could be desired, but it is proposed to make 
considerable alterations and additions, which, when completed, 
will place it on a level with any similar laboratory in England. 
At present we possess a testing machine similar to the one in the 
Melbourne University, which is capable of testing in tension, 
compression, torsion, cross-breaking, 6zc., up to 100,000 pounds ; 
five lathes, drilling, planing, and shaping machines, driven by a 
pair of engines with overhead shafting. The engines are fitted 
up with apparatus for making complete tests of power developed, 
including Crosby and Richards' indicators, Elliott's tachometer 
and revolution counter, and an Appold brake dynamometer. 
There is also a vertical boiler, fitted with tanks and gauges for 
making experiments on evaporative efiiciency. It is proposed 
to provide for experimental work of a complete character in 
connection with cement, friction and lost work in machinery, 
hydraulics, &c., and to add a hydraulic accumulator to the 
testing machine. 

Up to the present, a considerable number of specimens have 
been tested (for each of which an autographic stress-strain diagram 



president's address SECTION J. 201 

has been produced, in addition to the ordinary records of the 
tests), including 1,500 specimens of Australian timbers, which 
have been tested in tension, compression, cross-breaking and 
shearing, both for strength and elasticity. A variety of models, 
made to scale, of timber trusses and compound beams; 300 blocks 
of concrete of various proportioDS and ages; a series of experi- 
ments on the adhesion of cement mortar to bricks; a number 
of experiments on the crushing resistance of sewer pipes, bricks, 
.stone, and asphalt ; also a number of experiments on the tensile 
strength of iron, steel, bronzes, tfec, chiefly used in Government 
works. In all these experiments the students take part. 

A student having completed a course such as this is in a 
position to commence his practical duties — if a civil engineer, in 
the drawing office, and afterwards on the works in progress of 
construction; if a mechanical engineer, first in the workshops 
and afterwards in the drawing office — and generally he will make 
decided progress in acquiring a knowledge of all those practical 
details which will daily come under his notice. Having received 
a complete scientific training in the underlying principles of his 
profession, and having acquired the habit of thinking accurately, 
he will be able to observe, analyse, and classify the various 
operations in the process of construction of the works he is 
engaged upon. A good student will be anxious to extend his 
experience in every possible way, and will study closely the 
engineering practice on works other than those he is engaged 
upon ; and, in general, he will acquire more valuable practical 
experience in three years after the completion of his theoretical 
studies than could possibly be obtained in a lifetime without such 
preliminary training. 

The advantages of a training such as the one I have referred 
to is more conspicuous when it is attempted to design works 
where no previous examples of a similar character are available. 
Here an engineer who is deficient in scientific training may 
endanger life and property, and is almost certain to incur 
unnecessary expense. 

Again, it will be at once conceded that an engineer, if he is 
to progress with the times, must diligently study the various 
professional journals and the proceedings of our principal 
engineering societies, in order that he may be acquainted with 
the works of other engineers in the special branch in which he is 
interested; but unless he has received a training such as the one 
referred to he cannot derive one half of the real benefit obtainable. 
For example, he cannot follow completely the various papers in 
connection with the steam and gas engine without a sound 
knowledge of thermodynamics ; neither can he follow the 
development of engineering practice in bridge-building unless he 
thoroughly understands the scientific basis of that practice. 



202 president's address — section j. 

In Electrical Engineering the necessity for scientific training is 
so clear that I need not refer to it, only to point out that every 
electrical engineer, besides posessing as sound knowledge of 
physical science, should be a good mechanical engineer. I am 
aware of the fact that many of the leading members of the 
profession have not received such a complete scientific training as 
the one I have referred to. 

These may be divided into two classes. On the one hand we 
have men who have succeeded by their knowledge of processes 
and their practical knowledge of materials, tact in business- 
matters, capacity to organise and manage workmen ; and in sucli 
cases the real engineering knowledge and ability is supplied by a 
partner or assistant, who has generally acquired that knowledge 
in the manner indicated. 

On the other hand, we have had men who have been inde- 
fatigal)le students, bent above all things on self-improvement, 
whose labours were actuated by a spirit as truth-loving and with 
a zeal as keen as that of any of the purely scientific investigators. 
I refer to such men as John Smeaton, born in 1724 ; James 
Watt, born in 1736 ; Thomas Telford, born in 1757 ; John 
Rennie, Sir William Fairl)airn, George and Robert Stevenson, 
Dr. Roebuck, Muschet, Nielson, Sir Charles William Siemens, 
Sydney Thomas Gilchrist, Sir Joseph AVhitworth, and others. 
The time at my disposal for this address will not permit me to 
give even a brief account of their lives ; l)ut you will find a most 
interesting account of some of their labours in Smiles' " Lives of 
the Engineers." We still hear in the colonies the terms "theory'^ 
and " practice " grossly misapplied. For instance, Mr. A is 
designated a theorist, while Mr. B is said to be a thoroughly 
practical man. We have also heard it stated "that one ounce of 
pi-actice is worth a pound of theory." And, on the otlier hand,, 
the late Sir John Anderson, Superintendent of the Arsenal at 
Woolwich, said, with reference to this subject, " that one ounce 
of theory thoroughly understood was Avorth any amount of 
practice which was not based upon scientific principles." Now, 
it is clear to everyone that if you i-equire to do a thing which you 
have not done before, and which probably no one else lias done 
before, you must first of all think out carefully how you are to do 
it before you can commence. 

So, also, an engineer, if he wishes to design a structure of an 
original type, or which dift'ers in its dimensions, or loads which it 
has to carry, forces which may be brought to bear upon it, or in 
any other respect from existing structures, he must first carefully 
think out and design the structure, taking into account all tlie 
conditions and circumstances which govern the case, before he 
can finally build the structure. 

I have mentioned the case of a structure, but the same coui'se 
should be followed with regard to machinery— the one part is 



president's address — SECTION J. 203-' 

theory, the other practice ; either is incomplete without the other, 
and an accurate knowledge of Iwth is essential to the successful 
completion of the work. Then how can the one be antagonistic 
to the other ■? 

The late Professor Rankine, in his admirable dissertation on 
the " Harmony of Theory and Practice in Mechanics," traces the 
origin of the opposition of theory to practice to the ancient Greeks. 
He says : — "Their notions were generally pervaded by a great 
fallacy, which attained its complete and most mischievous 
development amongst the mediaeval schoolmen, the remains of 
whose influence can be traced even at the present day." It arose, 
in the first instance, from the imperfections of a theory which was 
unable to explain ordinary natural phenomena, and was not 
recognised as false until the time of Newton, when the science of 
mechanics became better understood. 

Again : " This prejudice, as I have stated, is not to be found 
at the present day in the form of a definite and avowed principle ; 
it is to be traced only in its pernicious effects in the progress 
both of speculative science and of practice, and sometimes 
in a sort of tacit influence which it exerts upon the forms 
of expressions of writers who have assuredly no intention of 
perpetuating a delusion." 

A great deal has been written during the last few years on 
Technical Education, and the subiect is an important one in the 
colonies ; but I think considei'able misconception has arisen both 
here and in England. The articles of Sir Lyon Playfair, Lord 
Armstrong, and those in the leading professional journals show 
an apparent want of unanimity, which could only have ai'isen, in 
ray opinion, from a misunderstanding. In speaking of technical 
education, as applied to engineering, it is necessary to state 
exactly what we mean. 

In carrying out engineering works, a great number of artisans 
are employed. We have pattern-makers, moulders, fittei's, turners, 
smiths, boiler-makei's, and others. I have a great respect for the 
hand-skill of the artisan, and for the intelligence which directs 
it ; but I think you will agree with me that it is neither desirable 
nor expedient for any but the most distinguished of the artisan 
class to go through a course of training as complete as that 
which I have shown to be necessary for engineei's. There is a 
wide difference between the education necessary for the engineer, 
whose function it is to work with his brain, and that of the 
artisan, who works with his hands. A knowledge of drawing, 
physics, chemistry, mathematics, and mechanics, supplemented by 
laboratory demonstrations and workshop practice, of such a 
character as to enable an artisan or an apprentice to understand 
the scientific principles which underlie their respective trades, 
will, in my opinion, completely meet their requirements so far as 
the engineering trades are concerned; and such instruction is 



204 president's address — section j. 

provided in the Sydney Technical College and in the Working 
Men's College, Melbourne. 

I submit, however, to the Governments of New South Wales 
and Victoi'ia the desirability of establishing scholarships for the 
most distinguished students of these colleges, in order that they 
may complete their education by attending the Engineering and 
Science courses at their own university. 

It is the function of the technical colleges (such as those in 
Sydney and Melbourne) to deal with the technical education of 
the artisans, and for the universities to deal with the professions. 
Both are equally important, and each should be encouraged by 
government and other endowments, in order to enable it to do its 
especial work efficiently ; and the two should be united in such a 
manner that they will woi'k harmoniously together. 

The time at my disposal will not allow me to do more than 
briefly refer to the professional training of architects. 

I submit, however, for the consideration of the architectural 
profession the following question, viz.. Is the present system of 
pupilage satisfactory, under which a young man, fresh from 
school and without any special training, enters the office of an 
architect, where he generally remains as a pupil for five years ? 
I am convinced if a young man, after leaving school, were to go 
through a similar course of training to that recommended for 
engineers, modified in order to meet the requirements of the 
architects, that not only might his period of pupilage be reduced 
to three years, but that he would be (other things being equal) a 
much better architect at the end of that time than he would be 
by spending the same time under the present system. 

I do not think the day is far distant when we shall have 
complete courses of instruction in Architecture at our universities, 
and Chairs of Architecture established. 

The progress of science has generally been responded to by that 
of invention — an engineer has frequently merely to acquire 
certain scientific facts and principles in order to perceive their 
application. The recent practical applications of electricity have 
followed closely upon the discovery of the natural laws upon 
which these applications depend. 

Improvements in metallurgical opei*ations and a greater know- 
ledge of the alloys of metals have given rise to a more extensive 
use of these metals ; and those of us who have lived long enough 
in the colonies to appreciate the magnitude of their resources and 
their future development can see in every direction unlimited 
scope and oppoitunities for the inventive faculties, skill, and 
energy of the engineer. 

Let us, therefore, realise the necessity of training our sons who 
choose to become the future engineers of Australia in such a 
manner as to enable them to perform, in a satisfactory manner, 
the important duties which will be enti'usted to them. 




REPORT OF COMMITTEE No. 7. 
Mineral Census of Australasia. 



Members of Committee : — Mr. A. W. Claeke, Sir James Hector, 

Mr. E. L. Jack, Mr. E. B. Lindon, Professor Masson, Mr. O. R. Eule, 

Mr. W. Sket, Mr. C. S. Wilkinson, Professor Liversidge {Secretary). 



The Report itidudes the following Colonies : — Ne2v South Wales, 
South Australia, Queensland, and Neiv Zealand. 



MINERALS OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 

Note. — ! After the name of a Mineral signifies that it is rare. 
! I That it is common. 
! ! ! That it is in -workable quantity. 

'I'his Census of the Minerals of New South Wales is not intended to be 
a complete one, but to supplement the list contained in the " Minerals of 
New Sovith Wales," by A. Liversidge, F.R.S., published in 188S. (L.) is 
a symbol meaning " Liversidge, Roy. Soc, N.S.W., 1888." 



Alum. — Crossing Place, Oaky Creek, 4 miles from C(jl)ljadah ! !, 
shales highly aluminous, and would answer well for 
manufacture of alum; (Stutchbury's Report, 1st July, 
1 853, p. 8). 

AxGLKSiTE. — Severn River !, with galena and mispickel ; New 
Lewis Ponds Silver Mine, near Orange ! !, with 
cerussite and silver ores; (Geo. Sur., Dept. i)f ^Jines, 
Sydney). 

Antimony (Native) — Nambucca ! ; (Geo. Sur., Dept. of Mines, 
Sydney). Native antimony occurs in calcite with gold, 
blende, mispickel, A:c., at the New Reform Gold Mine, 
Lucknow (L.). 

Bakklyite ! — The opaque more or less niagenta coloured 
variety of ruby known as barklyite, has been sent me 
for identification by Mr. D. A. Porter from New 
England. This had previously been found at Two Mile 
Flat, Cudgegong (L.). 

Barytes. — Braid wood District, massive, containing galena ; 
Pudman's Creek, Rye Park, Burrowa District ; Hume- 
wood, near Yass ! ! ! ; (Geo. Sur., Dept. of Mines, 
Sydney). 

BiSMUTHiNiTE. — Nimitybelle, in quarte ; Kingsgate, near Glen 
Inues, with native Ijismuth ; (Geo. Sur., Dept. of Mines, 
Sydney). 

PjISMUTHITE. — Molong ! !, in felspathic lodestuft"; (Geo. Sur., Dept. 
of Mines, Sydney). 

Calamine. — Broken Hill Silver Mine ! !, associated with man- 
ganite, cerussite, tfec, and silver ores ; Castleray Pro- 
prietary Silver Mine, near Deepwater ; (Geo. Sur., Dept. 
of Mines, Sydney). 



208 MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTUALASIA. 

Cassiterite. — Broken Dam, Mandamah ! !, alluvial and lode ; 
Jindabyne, Cooina District ! !, lode ; near Tuniut ! !, 
alluvial with gold ; Tarago !, alluvial ; Barrier Ranges ! ! !, 
in granite dykes travei'sing slates and schists ; Bombala 
District (Tin Fields of New South Wales). Carri Moun- 
tain, 10 miles south-west from Long Flat Station, 
and Long Flat Station, Macleay River, associated with 
gold, zircons, topaz, &c. ; (Geo. Sur., Dept. of Mines, 
Sydney). A very finely divided tin-stone occurs 
in elvan at Bellandean, Tentertield, and might 
easily be overlooked by miners who are only used 
to the ordinary appearance of tinstone as it occurs in 
New South Wales, since this form, from its grey colour 
and finely divided condition, is liable to escape recog- 
nition. Associated with it are occasional scales of 
glistening pearly white gilbertite mica (L.). 

Cerussite. — Barrier Range Silver Field ! ! !, New Lewis Ponds 
Silver Mine, Mount Costigan Silver Mine, Tuena, 
Wallah Wallah Silver Mine, Pudmann's Creek, near 
Yass, Mount Stewart Silver Mine, Denisontown ; 
common in the silver lodes of the colony ; (Geo. Sur., 
Dept. of Mines, Sydney). 

Chessylite. — New Mount Hope Copper Mine, Lachlau District, 
Giinlambone, Barrier Ranges, Nymagee ; common in 
copper lodes of the colony ; (Geo. Sur., Dept. of Mines, 
Sydney). 

Chromite. — Bingera ! ! !, near Tumut ! !, in serpentine ; (Geo. 
Sur., Dept. of Mines, Sydney). 

CiNNABAR.^ — Near Bingera !, loose water-worn pebbles on 
surface ; near Scone, reported in lodestuft" and loose 
pebble from surface; (Geo. Sur., Dept. of Mines, Sydney). 

Cobalt Sesqui-oxide. — Boro, in concretionary manganese 
oxide. 

Assay : Sesqui-oxide of cobalt ... 5 "7 9 
,, ,, nickel ... 1*37 

(Ann. Rept, Dept. of Mines, 1887, p. 46.) 

Copper, Native. — Broken Hill Mines ! !, associated with 
native silver in lead ores and quartz ; Shellharbour, in 
grains disseminated through diorite ; Bulli (an out- 
crop), Newington (diamond-drill bore), Heathcote 
(diamond-drill bore), Holt Sutherland (diamond-drill 
bore*), in tuifaceous shales at a depth of 1728ft. llin., 
and out of a total thickness of 71ft. three feet showed 
native copper more or less freely. The rock is a dark 

* See David on Cupriferou-! Tuffs. — Aus. Assoc, for Ado. of Science. . Val. I., p. 275. 



MINERALS OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 209 

purplish-black or greenish-purple tufaceous shale, and 
contains scales of native copper from one-twentieth to 
OJie-quarter of an inch in longest diameter, averaging 
one-tenth and about one-fortieth thick. Their prevailing- 
shape is circular, more or less. The following analysis 
was made by Mr. J. C. H. Mingaye, analyst and 
assay er, Dept. of Mines, Sydney : — 



• 




Combined moistui'e ... ... 5 "32 /\ 

Moisture ... ... ... 3-38 />> 

Silica ... ... ... 56-28 ■'•^\? 

Alumina ... ... ... 24-21 ^^^ 

Oxide of iron ... ... 7-34 

Metallic copper ... ... -08 \ 

Lime ... ... ... MO 

Magnesia ,. ... ... 2-36 

Two large assays were made for gold and silver, ancT~~"' 

neither of these metals found present. See also Jour. 
Roy. Soc. N.S.W., p. 215, 1880. 

CovELLiNE. — This mineral occurs with redruthite, the copper 

sub-sulphid Cu^S and other sulphur ores of copper 

at Oobar and other copper mines in New Sout-h 
Wales (L.). 

Cuprite. — Broken Hill Mines, associated \vith silver ores ; 
common in copper lodes of the colony ; (Geo. Sur., Dept. 
of Mines, Sydney). 

Embolite. — Ban-ier Ranges Silver Field ! ! !, New Lewis Ponds 
Silver Mine, near Orange ! !, Captain's Flat!, Molonglo !, 
Billagoe, Cobar District ! ; (Geo. Sur., Dept. of Mines, 
Sydney). 

Erythrite. — - Hydrated arseniate of cobalt obtained by 
Mr. J. A. McKillop, near Carcoar, where it 
occurs in association with cobaltine, molybdenite, &c. 
The erythrite is present in groups of silky radiating 
acicular crystals of a beautiful peach colour. Also in 
globular and uniform masses, and in incrustations 
which present a remarkable pearly pink lustre on the 
freshly fractured surfaces. It is clearly an oxidation 
product of the cobaltine which accompanies it. (L.). 

Fluorspar. — Allah Mine, Purnamoota, with galena ; Pheasant's 
Creek, New England ; Pye's Creek, near Boli\'ia, with 
mispickel ; Seaforth Mine, Severn River, near Emma- 
ville ; (Geo. Sur., Dept. of Mines, Sydney). 

Gahnite — Zinc spinel — A lavender coloured specimen was sent 
me for identification ten or twelve years ago, 
but without locality. Mr. D. A. Porter also sent me 
a specimen of this mineral from near Tenterlield for 

N 



210 MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 

identitication in 1885, and another from Tingha in 
1887, so that the mineral probably occurs in several 
localities (L.). 

Garnet (Rubicelle and Almandine). — Barrier Ranges, in schist 
and detritus, also in quartz obtiined by diamond drill 
bore at Broken Hill ; Monaro, with sapphires ; (Geo. 
Sur , Dept. of Mines, Sydney). 

Garnets (so-called Australian rubies). — 8ilverton. Analysis: 

Silica ... ... ... 37-41 

Alumina ... ... ... 26-81 

Protoxide of iron (FeO) ... 33-3;3 

Peroxide of iron (FcjOs ) ... nil 

Protoxide of manganese (MnO)... li-14 

Oxide of chromium ... ... nil 

Lime ... ... ... nil 

Magnesia ... ... ... nil 

99-69 
S.G. 3-887 to 4-32 (Ann. Rept., Dept. Mines, 1888, p. 53). 
Garnets occur in the New England district, on the 
boi'ders of Queensland. These are the ordinary red 
garnets (iron-alumina garnet), but like those found in 
Queensland have been mistaken lor rubies. The 
Bohemian garnet, magnesia alumina garnet, is said to 
occur in large quantities near Maryland Creek, Co. 
Buller (L). 

Glaucodot. — Three-quarters of a mile south-easterly from Carcoar 
Railway Station, with erythrite, molydenite, and thin 
hlms of an apple-green to dark -green mineral, determined 
by Mr. J. C. H. Mingaye, F.C.S., to be annabergite. The 
ore, as far as at present proved, consists of a succession 
of lens-shaped bunches. The deposit of cobalt appears 
to have been formed in a line of fissure, which, for 
some distance, followed the line of junction of the 
diorite with the slate, and was probably directly due to 
the intrusion of the diorite, being funned either by the 
thrust of its upheaval, or by the contraction consequent 
upon the cooling of the mass of igneous rock. Towards 
its north-east end this fissure was partly tilled by a 
dyke of fine-grained diorite, closely resembling the 
chlorite slate, which it has penetrated. The cobalt ore 
was then concentrated into the irregular hollows along 
this line of fissure by some process of segi-egation, for 
its intimate admixture with the dyke rock is difficult of 
explanation on any other hypothesis. Analysis made in 
the Department of Mines Laboratory by Mr. J. C. H. 
Mingaye, F.C.S. :— 



MINERALS OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 



211 





No. 1. 




iNIoisture ... 


•120 


jMetallic 


arsenic 


.. 51-810 


55 


cobalt 


.. 10-447 


5J 


nickel 


-590 


?J 


iron 


.. 11-860 


33 


manganese ... 


nil 


CaO 




>5 


MgO 




1-480 


Gold 




trace 


Silver 




)> 


Sulphur 




1-520 


(Insol. in acids) gangue 


.. 22-078 



99-905 



Specific gravity, 5-430. 



No. 2 



Moisture ... 


2-180 


Metallic arsenic 


.. 29010 


„ cobalt 


.. 1:3 -830* 


,, nickel 


-390 


„ iron 


.. 15-78 


Alumina 


trace 


Manganese ... 


nil 


CaO 


•71 


MgO 


-22 


Sulphur 


11-24 


Gangue 


.. 26-31 



99-66 

* Co, 03=19-45% 

Traces of gold, copper, and antimony. 
Authority : See T. W. E. David's Report, Ann. Rept., 
Dept. Mines, Sydney, 1888, p. 175. 

CtOLD — Gold occurs at the New Reform Gold Mine, Lucknow, 
in calcite as the vein stuff, and in association 
with native antimony, mispickel, zinc blende, pyrites, 
and silver-bearing galena. The vein apparently 
runs through diorite and serpentine. Some of the 
serpentine is of the foliated variety known as 
inarmolite, and in places a little asbestos is present, 
especially at the deeper levels. The native antimony is 
present in places in considerable quantity, and came in 
first at about 350 feet. The gold is very pale in 
colour and of a greenish tint, and occurs in the form 

n2 



212 



MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 



of very thin films and strings, which follow the ci'acks 
in the calcite and junctions of the crystals rather than 
the cleavage planes of the crystals. The calcite cleaves 
well, is white, ])ut shows iron stains in parts (L.) 

Graphite. — Underclift', between Wilson's Downfall and River- 
tree, New England ; Analyses, Dept. of Mines 
Laboratory, 1888 : — 

Moisture (at red heat 1 ... 8-77 



Silica 

Alumina 

Oxide of iron 

Lime 

Magnesia 

Carbon 



27-9G 
15 -93 

trace 
•96 
nil 

4G-28 



99-90 



Moisture 

Carbon 

Gansue 



7-35 
31-40 

58-25 

100-00 



See also " Minerals of N.S.W.," Liversidge, p. 121. The 
graphite mined at the Undercliff Station looks of very 
good quality when I'ubbed and jaolished, but on 
bi*eaking the nodules open they are seen to contain a 
good deal of earthy matter, one nodule examined for 
me by Dr. G. S. Mackenzie in the university chemical 
laboratory was found to contain only 30 per cent, of 
carbon, hence for most commercial purj)oses the graphite 
would require pui'ifying before it could be used. Asso- 
ciated with the graphite are rolled pebbles of quartz 
and rock crystal (L.). 

Dept. of 



Kaolin 


! !. — Shaking Bog, 
Mines Laboratory, 


near 

1888 


Tumut 


; Analysis, 




Moisture at 100 C 




... 6-10 




Combined moisture 




... 10-19 




Silica 






... 44-46 




Alumina 






... 37-85 




Oxide of iron 






minute trace 




Lime 






-22 




Magnesia 






trace 




Alkalies, etc. 






M8 



100-00 



(1) 


(2) 


46-43 


47-31 


15-99 


18-51 


15-04 


14-56 


9-27 


7-57 


1-74 


2-28 


6-93 


6-14 


•51 


-98 


•73 


-55 


3-20 


2-31 



MINERALS OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 213 

Leucite. — (1) Byrock, County Cowper, (T. W. E. David and 
W. Anderson) ; (2) El Capitan, County Cambelego, in 
a basaltic lava sheet, (See Records Geol. Sur. N. S. 
Wales, vol. i. part iii.) Analyses: 

Silica 
Alumina 

Oxide of iron (Fe2 O3 ) 
Lime (CaO) ... 
Magnesia (MgO) 
Potash (K. O) 
Soda (Na^O)... 
Phosphoric Anhydride 

(P. 00 ... 

Moisture 

99-84 100-21 
Specific gravity of mineral 2-890 2-910 
(Ann. Ptept. Dept. of Mines, 1887, p. 177.) 

Malachite. — New Mount Hope, Nymagee, Great Barrier Copper 
Mine, Gorilambone; common in copper lodes of the 
colony ; (Geo. Sur., Dept. Mines, Sydney). 

Manganite. — Bendemeer ! ! !, Glanmire, nearBathurst ! ! !, Bogan 
District, Molong; (Geo. Sur., Dept. of Mines, Sydney). 

Marmolite — This foliated variety of serpentine occux's with 
massive serpentine on Jones' Creek, Gundagai (L.). 

Molybdenite. — Found with cobaltine and erythrite at Carcoar 
in faii"ly well deve loped platy crystals (L.). 

Montanite.* — Molongo, near Captain's Flat. (1) Pale greenish 
yellow variety. This mineral encrusts the tetradymite, 
and does not show any crystalline structure. Green 
tints are observable wherever the particles of half- 
decomposed tetradymite become abundant, the green 
being due to the steel-grey tetradymite showing through 
the yellow coating of montanite. (2) Ferruginous dark- 
brownish red variety. This variety occurs in cubical 
pseud omorphs, single or aggregated, and about ^-inch 
in diameter. The colour is dark brownish red, excepting 
on thin edges, where the mineral is semi-translucent and 
of a deep claret colour. Analysis of a few broken 
pieces of the cubes (b) about 2 grammes in weight, 
though they wei^e not thoroughly free from tetrady- 
mite : — 



* See Mingaye and Daviil on Tellurium in X.S.W. ore^. — A ust. Assoc, for Advancement of 
Science, Vol. I., p. IIG. 



214 MINERAL CENSUS OP AUSTRALASIA. 



Bismuth oxide (BU O3 ) 


... 50-68 


Tellurium oxide (TeO. ) 


... 27-65 


Iron oxide (Fe^ 0^, ... 


... U-38 


Water ... 


... 6-16 


Gangue (silica,) 


1-OU 



99-87 

Olivine. — Uralla, Bulli ; eommonin basaltic rocks of the colony ; 
(Geo. Sur., Dept. of Mines, Sydney). 

Opal. — Precious- — Albert District ! ! !, in cretaceous sandstone 
opal silica filling cavities from which fossils have been 
removed, very suitable for inlaying work, matrix takes 
a good polish ; (Geo. Sur., Dept., of Mines, Sydney). 

Opal. — Common — The Battery, Lachlan River, green ; Moulder's 
Paddock, Orange, greenish ; Gundagai, green and white ; 
(Geo. Sur., Dept. of Mines, Sydney). 

Platinum. — Beach sands between Clarence and Tweed Rivers—! !, 
in basaltic detritus, and associated with gold ; one- 
and-a-half miles south of Evan's Creek, Richmond River 
Heads, from beach sand ; Broken Hill, in ochreous 
felspathic loclestufi" — yielding 1 oz. 9 clwts. 9 grs. per 
ton ; Bogan district, in alluvial wash with gold ; about 
60 miles IsT.AV. of Parkes ; Mittagong District, from gold 
and diamond workings eight miles from Mittagong : 
(Geo. Sur., Dept. of Mines, Sydney). 

Platinum, Osmium, and Iridium — Associated with gold, are 
found on the head waters of the Bogan and Lachlan 
rivers, north-east of Condt)bolin. I am informed Ijy 
Mr. Harding, of Grafton, that gold, platinum, aiid 
osmi-iridium occur in the sea sands at Jamba, Clarence 
Heads, and generally in the north ends of the bays and 
reaches along the New South Wales coast. The 
"platinum" consists principally of osmium and iridium, 
and contains only about 30per cent, of platinum ; hence 
it is only worth a few shillings an ounce (L.). 

Plumbago Clay. — Mudgee ; (Dept. of Mines Laboratory, 1888). 

Prehnite. — This zeolite has been found in the basalt at the 
Prospect reservoir. Some imperfect and small crystals 
were also sent to me by Mr. I). A. Porter for identitica- 
tion, who had obtained them fi'om serpentine in New 
England in 1887. The sp. grs. of two specimens from 
New England were 2-89 and 2-90 (L.) ; Wollongong 
(Geo. Sur., Dept. of Mines, Sydney). 

Pyromorpiiite. — Broken Hill Silver Mines ! !, with carbonate of 
lead and zinc ; Burrowa, near Braidwood ; (Geo. Sur., 
Dept. of Mines, Sydney). 



MINERALS OF NEW SOUTH WALKS. 215 

Pyrrhotine — The Revd. J. Milne Curran reports the presence 
of this mineral at Cobar in the massive condition (L.). 

Redruthite. — Cobar, Bingera. 

Salt — Ellalong !, Scone !, Mittagong District !, as an efflorescence 
in sheltered caves ; (Geo. Sur. Dept. of Mines, Sydney). 

Soheelite — Cordillera Hill Silver Mine, near Tuena ! !, 
associated with stolzite, cerussite, and silver ores ; (Geo. 
Sur., Dept. of Mines, Sydney). 

SiDERiTE — Some fairly good crystals of this mineral have 
been found at the Cobar Copper Mines (L.). 

Silver (Native) — Broken Hill Silver Lodes, Barrier Range ! !, 
New Lewis Ponds Silver Mine, near Orange !, Sunny 
Corner Mitchell !, White Rock Silver Mine, Fairfield, 
New England ! ; (Geo. Sur., Dept. of Mines, Sydney). 

Leaf silver occurs on schist at Sunny Corner. 

Crystallised silver on silver chloride is found at Lewis Ponds. 
The Revd. J. INIilne Curran states that he has found 
silver in scales on redruthite at the Cobar Copper 
Mine (L.). 

Silver Chloride — Occurs at Silverton in fairly well-formed 
branching groups of crystals. All the New South 
Wales silver chloride specimens which I have examined 
so far contain iodine, some only traces, but others a 
fair percentage (L.). 

Stannite — Mr. Theodore Ranft states that he found this mineral 
in the Ottery Lode, Tent Hill, New England (L.). 

Stephanite — Sunny Corner, Mitchell. 

Strontium — 30 miles north of Cobar, small nodules of magnesian 
limestone ; strong traces (under 1 p.c.) of strontium 
detected ; (Geo. Sur. Dept. of Mines, Sydney.) (See 
also Liversidge, "Minerals of N.S.W.," p. 160, analysis 
of strontium bearing limestone, Minumurra Creek, 
N.S.W). 

Sulphur (Native) — From a reef on the range which divides the 
head waters of the Catler and Coodraddigbee Rivers, in 
small cavities in quartz, associated with iron pyrites ; 
(Geo. Sur., Dept. of Mines, Sydney). 

Tetradymite* — Molongo near Captain's Flat, in granular 
crystalline masses of a steel-grey colour and bright 
metallic lustre. Under the microscope the crystals are 
seen to have a very perfect basal cleavage, over one 

'■' See Mingaye ami Cavul on Telliiriuiii in N. ^.W. ores. Aus. A!.s(c.for Ad>:. cf Science, 
Vol. I., p. 116. 



216 



MIXEKAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 



hundred laminiie being visible in one crystal within the 
space of l-20th inch. Most of the crystals appear to be 
tabular. 

Metallic bismuth ... ... 59-66 



Tellurium 

Selenium 

Sulphur 

Iron 

Silica 



33-16 
nil 
4-52 

•42 i 
-40) 



98-18 



Topaz — Water-worn crystals and fragments occur in Scrubby 
dully, iSTew England District, some are of fair size, 
clear, free from flaws, and would cut very well (L.). 

Wavellite. — Near Gundagai ; (Geo. Sur., Dept. of Mines 

Sydney). 
WiLLEMiTE. — Temora District ; (Geo. Sur., Dept. of Mines, 

Sydney). 

WuLFENiTE. — Broken Hill Silver Mines, with cerussite and 
calamine ; (Geo. Sur., Dept. of Mines, Sydney). 



*Tliese two elements are no doubt iinpiuities, it being found difficult to detach the 
mineral from tlie matrix. 



INEBALS OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

By T. C. cloud, F.I.O., F.C.S. 

Associate af the Royal Schcol nf Mines, London. 



Authorities Quoted : 

Fhos. Bukr, Deputy Surveyor-General 

in the year 1816 ... .. ... written Burr. 

H. Y. L. Brown ... ... ... written Brown. 

T.C.Cloud written Cloud, or T. C. C. 

G. GoTDER, Jun., Government Assayer written Goyder. 

A. R. C. Selwyn ... written Selwyn. 

Prof. R. Tate, University, Adelaide written Tiit--. 

Geo. H. F. Ulrich .. . ... written Ulrich. 

The marks placed after the name of the minerals have the following 
significance : — .', that the mineral is rare : I I, that it is common ; ! ! .', that 
it occicrs in workable quantity. Varieties are indicated by italics. 

AL15ITK ! — Oolabidnie Ci'eek, near Franklin Harbour, in veins 
in the metamoi'phic rocks there exposed (T, C. C.) ; 
forms the chief constituent of the gi^anites of the 
above-named district (T. C. C). 

Allophane ! — In the form of a blue deposit in the miocene 
rocks of the south-east (J. E. T. AVoods.). 

A.MPiiiBOLE ! ! (Hornblende) — Vaiious localities on Yorke's 
Peninsula, also at Tanunda Creek, Angaston, and in 
district round about Franklin Harbour, Mount Craw- 
ford (T. C. C.) ; Tungkillo (Tate). 
Asbestos- — New Mecklenburg, Tungkillo, Angaston (T. C. C); 
Lobethal Mine (Tate) ; near Mengo Town (Selwyn) ; 
Alount Barker, Belvidei'e Range (Burr). 

Actinolite — Wallaroo Bay (T. C. C); Yudanamutana Mine 
(Ulrich) ; Lyndoch Valley, Flaxman Valley, near 
Strathalbyn (Burr). 

An(;lesite ! — Wilpena Pound, lioth massive and in the form 
of small crystals (T. C. C). 

Ankekite ! Gill's Blutf, near j\lount Lyndhurst (Brown) ; 
Wallaroo Mine (T. C. C). Analysis by T. C. Cloud 
of specimen from Wallaroo Mine : — 



218 MINERAL CKNSIS OF AUSTRALASIA. 

FeCO, ... ... ... 20-G8 

MnCO:, ... ... ... 2-08 

CaCO:. ... ... ... 52-57 

MgCO... .... ... ... 24-76 

100-09 

Annabergite ! (Nickel Ochre) — Gill's Bluff, Mount Lyndhurst 
(Tate) ; Mount Ogilvie (Goyder). 

Apatite ! — Wallaroo and Kurilla Mines, as isolated crystals 
embedded in yellow copper ore (T. C. C). 

Aragonite — Wallaroo Mine, associated with native copper and 
chalcocite (T. CO.); Armagh, near Clare, in form 
of long, prismatic crystals (T. C. C.) ; Blinman Mine, 
Oratunga Mine (Ulrich). 

Arsenopyrite ! (Mispickel) — Glen Bar Mine, near Strathalbyn, 
Talisker Mine, between Victor Harbour and Encounter 
Bay (T. C. C.) '; two miles east of Woodside Gold Mine 
(Brown). 

Atacamite ! — This mineral is found in every copper mine on 
Yorke's Peninsula, and splendid crystals, several inches 
in length, have been obtained from the New Cornwall 
Mine (T. C. C.) ; Yudanamutana, Daly Mine (T. C. C.) ; 
Rhondda Mine, in the form of pseudomorphs after 
cuprite (T. C. C.) ; Kapunda Mine (Burr); Nuccaleena 
Mine, Mount Lyndhurst (Ulrich) ; Mount Norwest, 
Kingston Copper Mines (Brown). Analysis by Cloud 
of specimen from Wallaroo INIine : — 



Copper ... 


13-73 


Chlorine 


15-38 


Cupric oxide 


55-91 


Water ... 


13-51 (by diff.) 


Insoluble silicious residue ... 


1-47 



100-00 

Azurite ! ! ! (Blue carbonate of copper) — Occurs very 
generally in the copper lodes of the colony, with the 
exception of those on Yorke's Peninsula, where it is only 
rarely met with (T. C. C.) ; Moonta Mine, Wallaroo 
Mine, Burra Burra Mine, Kapunda Mine, Blinman 
Mine, Yudanamutana Mine, &c., &c., near Franklin 
Harbour, and various localities on the west coast of 
Spencer's Gulf (T. C C); Daly Mine, Stanley Mine, 
Mount Bold Mine, Cherry Gardens, near Adelaide 
(Browi;). 



MINERALS OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 219 

Barite ! ! — Wheal Coglin Mine, Eapid Bay, at Apoinga, also at 
the Burra Burra, Great Gladstone, and Rhondda 
Mines (T. C. C.) ; Emu Flat Copper Mine (A. R. C. 
Selvvyn) ; Blinman Mine (G. H. F. Ulricli) : of frequent 
occurrence, associated with luppei- ores, in the nortlieni 
antl central portions of South Australia (Cloud). 

Beryl ! — Mount Crawford, various colours (T. C. C). 

Aquamarine — Mount Crawford (T. C. C). 

^^rj'^— Barossa Range (Burr). 

BiOTiTK (Mica) ! — Of frequent occurrence in the mines on 
Yorke's Peninsula (T. C. C.) ; Williamstown (Selwyn). 
Analysis of specimen from Yelta Mine by T. C. C. 

Silica ... ... ... 40-28 

Magnesia .. ... 17 '38 

Alumina ... ... 11*30 

Ferric oxide ... ... 5 "24 

Ferrous oxide ... ... 11-65 

Manganous oxide ... 0-30 

Lime ... ... ... 0-82 

Potash ... ... 8-5G 

Soda ... ... ... 1-64 

Water'... ... ... 1-95 

Fluorine ... ... trace 



99 12 
Specific gravity, 2-9 ; colour, dark greenish black. 

Bismuth ! (Native) — Balhannah Mine, Murnhmie Mine, about 
20 miles north of Franklin Harbour (T. 0. C). 

Bismuthite ! — Balhannah Mine, associated with native gold 
and chalcopyrite (T. C. C); Stanley Mine (Ulrich) ; 
New Era Mine, with gold ( Brown) ; Teetulpa Gold- 
field, at the "Ironclad" Mine (Brown); Murninnie 
Mine, Mount McDonnell, N. T. (T. C. C). 

Bismuthinite ! — Balhannah Mine, Mount McDonnell, N. T. 
(T. C. C); New Era Gold Mine, Forest Range Gold Mine 
(Goyder) ; near Blinman (Goyder). 

Bornite ! ! ! (Purple Copper Ore) — Massive at several of the 
copper mines of the colony, generally associated with 
chalcopyrite. The most notable locality is the Moonta 
Mine (T.C.C.); Lady Alice Mine, Barossa Mine, Burra 
Burra Mine, Try Again Mine (T. C. C); Kapunda Mine 
(Burr); Mount Searle (Brown); near the Peake, Central 
Australia, in the quartz veins in the metamorphic rocks 
(Tate). Analysis of a specimen of massive bornite from 



220 MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 

the Moonta Mine, by Cloud, yielded the following- 
result : — 





I. 


II. 


III. 


Copper 


59-84 


62 00 


61-87 


Iron 


11-73 


12-15 


12-13 


Sulphur 


24-95 


25-85 


26-00 


Insoluble silicious 








residue 


4-03 







100-55 100-00 100-00 
Column II. shows the composition of the specimen after 
deducting the insoluble residue, and column III. is the percentage 
composition calculated from the formula 9Cu2 S, 2Fe2 S3 

Calcite ! ! ! — Wallaroo Mine, finely crystallised (T. C. C.) 
Yudanamutana Mine (T. C. C.) ; Blinman Mine (Ulrich) 
Mounts Parry and Playfair, Central Australia (Tate) 
Cape Jervis, in stalactitic form (Tate); New Mecklen- 
burg, near Lyndoch, massive and in scalenohedrons 
(Tate) ; near the Peake, Central Australia, in quartz 
veins in metamorphic rock (Tate) ; as a cellular 
calcereous tufa forming the top crust of the Mouna 
Springs, at the Peake, Central Australia (Tate) ; 
Mount Crawfoixl, Ardrossan, Rapid Bay, Mount Gam- 
biei', Point Curtis, Macclesfield, Mattawarrangala, in 
largely ci'ystalline masses (T. C. C.) ; Whyte-Yarcowie, 
black, largely crystalline, in a vein in a dark coloured 
slate (Tate) ; colour due to contained organic matter 
(Tate) ; Cape Borda (T.C.C.) ; Barrossa Range, Flinders 
Range, Mount Lofty Range, Rapid Bay, Crystal Brook, 
Ptivoli Bay, on plains near Mount Hawdon (Burr). 

Iceland spar — Angaston (T. C. C.) ; Kapunda (T. C. C.) ; 
Franklin Harbour : in thin veins in metamorphic rocks 
(T. C. C). 

Cassiterite ! ! ! — -No authentic specimen has been found in the 
southern pai't of this province, but it occurs in the 
Northern Territoi-y on the McKinlay River, Mount 
Wells, Ac. (T.C.C); Howley Creek, Twelve Mile 
Camp (Goyder). 

Celestite ! — In the form of radiated crystalline nodules in clay ; 
Hundred of Wallaroo (Cloud). 

Cerussite ! ! — Glen Osmond : massive in stone ([uarries (T. C. C); 
western side of Spencer's Gulf : crystallized with 
phosgenite (T. C. C. ); Beltana Mine: lining druses 
(Ulrich) ; Strathalbyn Mine (L. Seeger) ; Avondale 
Lead Mine (Brown). 

Ciialcantiiite ! (Copper Sulphate) — Wallaroo Mine, Murtooroo 
]\Iine, near Cockburn (T.C.C). 



MIXERALS OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 221 

CuALCOCiTE ! ! ! (Redruthite) — The massive variety is of frequent 
occurrence in the copper mines of Yorke's Peninsula, 
fine specimens being obtained from the Moonta Mine 
(T. C. C); Kapunda Mine, Montacute Mine, Burra 
Burra Mines, Mount Barker (Burr). 

Chalcopyrite ! ! ! (Copper Pyrites) — Is of pretty general 
occurrence in the lower parts of the copper lodes of the 
province (T. C. C. ) ; Wallaroo Mine, crystallized (T. C. C. ) : 
Moonta Mine (T. C. C.) ; near the Peak, Central 
Australia, in quartz veins in the metamorphic rock 
(Tate) ; Montacute Mine, and all lodes in its vicinity, 
Rapid Bay, Flaxman Valley, Hutt Rivei", and various 
other places (Burr). Analyses of specimens from 
Moonta Mine, by Cloud : — 

I. II. III. 



Copper 


34-21 


34-04 


34-57 


Iron ... 


30-65 


31-14 


30-53 


Sulphur 


35-16 


34-34 


34-90 


Insoluble silicious 








residue 


0-50 


0-63 





100-52 100-15 100-00 

Column I. is the analysis of the untarnished variety, and 
column II. that of the " peacock ore," column III. shows the 
theoretical composition of pyiite deduced from the formula 
Cu. S, FeS,, FeS. 

Chrysocolla ! ! ! — Burra Burra Mine, associated with azurite 
and malachite (T. C. C.) ; Wallaroo Mines, Kurilhi 
Mine, Mount Gunson Mine, about 80 miles N.N.W. of 
Port Augusta (T. C. C.) ; Nuccaleena Mine, Yudana- 
mutana. Mount Lyndhurst (Ulrich) ; Mount Barker 
Mine (Burr). 

Chry'solite ! 

Olivine — Mount Schanck (J. E. T. Woods) ; Mount 
Gambler, extensively in the volcanic lavas (J. E. T. 
Woods). 

Hyalosiderite — Mount Schanck, in the basalt (J. E. T. 
Woods). 

Coal! 

Lignite — Murray Flat (Brown) ; Pedinga, near Fowlej^j 
Bay, Leigh's Creek (Brown). 

Cobaltite ! (Cobalt Glance) — Glen Bar Mine : assoc, 
Mispickel (L. Seeger). 

CoPlAPiTE — Alice Springs (Goyder). 




1222 MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 

Copper ! ! (Native) — This species is represented in great variety 
of forms in the upper parts of the lodes of the Wallaroo 
and Moonta mining districts of Yorke's Peninsula. Some 
specimens exhiljit well-defined though distorted crystals, 
and some very fine examples of the arborescent form 
have also been found. At the Sliding Rock Mine it 
occurs disseminated in grains of varying size. It is also 
found at Angaston, and to greater or less extent in 
several of the other copper-bearing lodes of the colony 
(T. C. C). 

Covellite ! (Indigo Copper Ore) — Fine specimens in the massive 
foi'm are obtained chiefly from the southern part of the 
mining district of Yorke's Peninsula. An impure 
variety, black in colour, is not vmfrecjuently found, 
especially in the northern part of tlie same district 
(T. C. C.) ; Kapunda Mine (Burr). 

Ckocidolite ! (Blue Asbestus) — Wirrawilka Mine (Ulrich). 

Cuprite ! ! ! — This mineral is of very general occurrence in the 
I upper portions of the copper lodes of tliis colony, most 

frequently in the massive form, but finely crystallized 
specimens have been obtained from the following 
localities : — Moonta Mine, Spring Creek Mine, Kapunda 
Mine, Burra Burra Mine (T. C. C.) ; near Rhondda 
Mine, north of Port Augusta, crystals converted into 
atacamite (T. C. C.) ; Burra Burra Mine, crystals 
more or less converted into malachite (T. C. C.) 

Chalcotrichite — A specimen of this variety of cuprite has 
l)een met with in this province, precise locality 
unknown, occurring in groups of small acicular crystals 
with native copper (T. C. C.) ; Mount Barker Mine 
(Burr). 

Cyanite ! — Nuriootpa, in quartz (T. C. C.) ; near Menge Town, 
Mount Crawford (Selwyn). 

Diamond ! — Echunga (Cloud) ; the largest specimen of which I 
am aware weighed before cutting h\ carats, its present 
weight being 2Ji carats. It is cut in the form of a 
brilliant, and is of a sherry-yellow colour. It is now in 
the Adelaide Museum. 

DiOPTASE ! — Appialina Mine (Selwyn). 

Dolomite ! !~Victoria Creek, AVilliamstown (Selwyn) ; Mount 

Gambler, associated with limestone (J. E. T. Woods) ; 

Belvidere Range, Barossa Range, Rapid Bay, and near 

Mount Barker (Burr). 
Pearl Spar — At Rapid Bay and N.E. of Adelaide (Burr). 
Dolomite — From Central Australia, as a pseudomorph 

(T. C. C). 



MINERALS OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 223 

Epidote ! — Barossa Range (Burr) ; Yudanamutana Mine (Ulrich). 

Erythrite ! (Cobalt Bloom)— Olen Bar Mine (T. C. C.) ; near 
Blinman, crystalli/.ed hi needles (T. C. C. ); Mount 
Ogilvie (Goyderj. 

Fluorite ! (Fluor Spar) — P.irr.Luiatta Mine and Mounta Mine 
on Yorke's Peninsula (T. C. C.) ; on the Field River, 
between Reynella and the coast, in a silicious limestone 
of Pre-silurian age (Tate) ; at Parai'a, near Ardrossan, 
Yorke's Peninsula, in Lower Silurian limestone (Tate) ; 
Kapunda Mine (Burr). 

Galenite ! ! ! — Wallaroo Mine, both crystallized and massive 
(T. C. C.) ; Waukaringa (Tate) ; Talisker Mine, Glen 
Osmond Mine, Blinman Mine (Ulrich) ; Kangarilla 
Mine, Avondale Mine, Mount Bold Mine, Two-in-the- 
Bush Mine, Mount Searle (Brown) ; Winininnie 
(Goyder) ; Rapid Bay, Lyndocli Valley, 20 miles east 
of Mount Barker (Burr) ; North Rhine, near Xorman- 
ville, near Yudenamutana (T, C. C); Glen Osmond 
stone quarries, on the Oalnina station, about 150 miles 
north-east of the Burra, and the Murray Flats. The 
foregoing are perhaps the most noticeable of numerous 
localities (T. C. C.) 

Garnet ! ! ! — Kanmantoo, red crystals in white talc (T. C. C) ; 
Bundaleei-, black garnet (T. C. C); Monarto, garnet 
rock (T. C. C.) ; Yadmana, in the Hundred of Hawker, 
iron gai'net in granite rocks (T. C. C.) ; Belvidei'e 
Range, near ]Mount Barker, red garnet (Burr). 

Cinnamon Stone — Belvidere Range (Brown). 

Almanaite (Noble Garnet) — MacDonnell Ranges, Northern 

Territory, in the form of rolled pebbles in the creeks 

(T. C. C.) Analysis by Dr. Rennie of specimens of 

noble garnet from Hale River, MacDonnell Ranges : — 

Silica ... ... ... 38-48 

Alumina ... ... 27 "09 

Ferrous oxide ... ... 26-28 

Lime ... ... ... 1-99 

Magnesia ... ... 4-20 

^[anganese oxide ... •35 



98-39 
Gehsdorffite — Mount Ogilvie (Goyder). 

GiLLiNGiTE !— Government Farm, near Bellair (Goyder). 

Glauconite ! — In the limestone rocks of the Aldinga Cliffs 
and the Bunda Cliifs of the (xreat Australian Bi^dit 
(Tate). 



224 MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 

Gold, Native ! ! ! — The geological distribution of gold in South 
Australia is restricted to the Pre-silurian, certain gravels 
of the Miocene period, and to drifts of later age. In 
the tirst it occurs disseminated in veins of quartz ; in 
the second and third cases as alluvial gold (Tate) ; 
the following are some of the localities in which gold 
has been found in one or other of the conditions named 
above : — Onkaparinga River, >South Para River, Torrens 
River, in sand (T. C. C.) ; Bremer Range, Barossa 
Range, Nairne, Woodside, Strathalbyn, Mount Barker, 
Clarendon, Noarlunga, Currency Creek, Mount Pleasant, 
Jupiter Creek, Echunga (T.C.C.) ; Ulooloo, Waukaringa, 
Bigg's Flat, near Echunga ; Balhannah Mine, associated 
with native bismuth and bismuthinite ; Teetulpa, Mount 
Ogilvie, Lady Alice Mine, with bornite ; Moonta 
Mine, with bornite (T.C.C); Bird-in-the-hand Mine, 
Echunga Mine, Fountain Head Mine ; Kangaroo Mine, 
near Oakbank, in psilomelane ; Mount Victoria, with 
copper ore ; Yudanamutana, Mount Wells, N. T., Old 
Blackfellow's Reef, N. T. (Brown). In the Northern 
Territory gold is widely distriljuted over that portion of 
Arnheim Land occupied by metamorphic rocks. The 
fields extend from the River Stapleton to the Driffield. 
The chief centres of gold-reeting are the Howley, Twelve 
Mile, McKinlay, Union, and Pine Creek (Tate). 

Graphite ! — Warrow, County Flinders, and one or two places on 
west coast of Spencer's Gulf (T. C. C.) ; Mount Charles 
(G. Francis) ; Mount Torrens (C. Thomas) ; Belvidere 
Range, and about 23 miles N.E. of Adelaide (T. Burr); 
Blanchewater (Professor R. Tate) ; Hundred of Koppio 
(Government Geologist, H. Y. L. Brown). 

Gypsum ! ! ! — Selenite is frequently met with in the form of 
isolated lenticular-shaped crystals, imbedded in the 
mud of the salt lakes, notably those of Southern Yorke's 
Peninsula. It also occurs massive in the salt lakes 
(Cloud) ; Wallaroo Mine, Hummocks Range, Kanyacka, 
Kapunda, near Point Riley, Yorke's Peninsula, on the 
Wirryalpa Run, Central Australia, Stuart's Range, 
Central Australia : satin spar (T. C. C.) ; Lady Alice 
Mine (Tate) ; clifts of River Murray (Tate) ; near the 
Springs at The Peak, Central Australia, with red 
ochre (Tate); N.E. shores of Lake Alexandrina, in 
curious rock form, composed of slightly coherent grains 
(Tate) ; Beltana Mine, in veins (Ulrich) ; Brighton 
(Burr) ; Burra Burra Mine, with malachite (T. C. C.) ; 
near Kadina, in form of fine powder like flour, undei' 
the microscope each grain shows as a distinct crystal 



MINERALS OF SOUTH AUSTHALIA. 225 

(T. C. C); Nichols' Nob (Brown): Nomiing, Gnwlei- 
Ranges (Brown). 

HiEMATiTE ! ! ! {Alicaceous Hcematite) — Angaston, Port Lincoln, 
near Inglewood, Yudanamutana Mine and Paramatta 
Mine, Yorke's Peninsula. Ulooloo, Hundred of Hallett, 
Mount Jagged, Pewsey Yale, Bugle Ranges (T. C. C.) : 
The Peake, Central Australia, Tennant Creek, Central 
Australia, in the quartz veins running through the 
nietamorj)hic rocks (Tate) ; Blinman Mine, in di'uses 
in close proximity to the copper deposits (Ulrich). 

Compact Coluvuiar (Red Haematite) — near Port Lincoln ; 
Wallaroo Mine, Barossa Range, Angaston, and 
numerous other places (T. C. C.) ; Eudunda, Tennant 
Creek, and neighbourhood of The Peake, Central Aus- 
tralia (Tate). 

Red Ochre — Parachilna (T. C. C); vicinity of The Peake, 
Centi'al Australia (Tate) ; between Avondale Lead 
Mine and Lesley's Well, near Mount Yictoria, Ethindna 
Hill, Quorn, between Tooth's Nob and Passmore Range 
(Brown). 

Martite (sub-species) — Carey's Gully, Mount Lofty, in the 
form of octahedral crystals imbedded in micaceous 
haematite (T. C. C). 

Halite ! ! ! (Common Salt) — Occurs in beds near to and on the 
shores of the various salt lakes in the colony (Cloud) ; 
cliffs of the River Murray, in the form of an 
efflorescence (Tate). 

Hallo YSiTE ! — Near Mount Morgan (Goyder). 

Hyalite (Wood Opal) — Munno Para Hills, near Smithfield (Tate); 
Mulligan Springs (Brown) ; Nairne (T. C. C). 

Iron, (Native) ! — The only specimen of native iron which has 
been found, or at least scientifically made known, up to 
the present time, is in the form of a mass of meteoric 
iron obtained in the Gawler Ranges in November, 1875. 
The form is bounded l^y a series of more or less concave 
and irregularly-shaped planes. The surface is, for the 
most part, coated with a somewhat shining, dark brown 
oxide of iron. This meteorite consists of metallic iron, 
and contains a small proportion of nickel. It weighs 
3268'7 grains, or Tibs. 3^ oz. As originally found 
it was a ti'ifle heavier, a small piece having been broken 
off by the finder, and the long chisel mark to the right hand 
on the top shows where an attempt was made to cut off 
a larger piece. The locality and circumstances attending 
the discovery of the meteorite are thus described by 

o 



•22Q MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 

Mr. James Martlew : — "I found the stone on the flat 
in a mallee scrub about half-a-mile from the northern 
foot of the range, being distant four miles south of Yardea 
Station. It was about 15 inches under the surface, and 
was surrounded for about 3 feet by limestone broken 
into small pieces. All around this there was from 4 to 
8 inches of soil covering the limestone " (T. C. C). 

Jambsonite ! — Aclare Mine (T. C. C). 

Kaolinite ! ! ! — All varities of this mineral are to be found in 
the colony, while ordinary clays, consisting of kaolinite 
more or less intimately mixed with impurities, are 
abundant. The following are a few of the many 
localities for the pure white kaolin : — Wallaroo Mining- 
District, Tanunda, Ardrossan, Hummock's Range, 
Teatree Gully, near Charlotte Waters, Central Aus- 
tralia (T. C. C.) ; Port Vincent (Tate). The following 
are the results of the analyses of two specimens of white 
kaolin dried at 100° C by T. C. C, A from near 
Wallaroo, B from Teatree Gully, the former comprising 
an aggregation of pearly scales easily seen under the 
microscope with a low power : — 

Alumina 

Silica 

Magnesia 

Lime 

Ferric oxide ... 

Titanic acid ... 

Alkalies 

Loss on ignition (water) 

100-87 100-46 

In A the alkalies, being chiefly soda, are calculated as 
such ; in B they were principally potass, and are so 
calculated. 

Lazulite ! — near Mowarto, in small veins in granite (T. C. C). 

LiMONlTE ! ! ! (Brown Haematite) — Near Montacute Copper Mine, 
Rapid Bay, Mount Barker (Burr) ; Nichol's Nob, 
Koonamore Station, Mount Coflin (Brown) ; Angaston, 
Waukaringa, Blinman Mine, Nunjibbie, Yorke's Penin- 
sula, Sixth Creek, near Inglewood, Macclesfield, 
Hindmarsh Valley, near Kanmantoo, Nuccaleena Mine 
and numerous other localities in the province (T. 0. C.) ; 
near Mount Lyndhurst it occurs in the form of 
pentagonal dodacahedral crystals, pseudomorphs after 
pyrite (T. C. C.) ; Eudunda, near Mount Pleasant, in 



A 


B 


36-18 


55-32 


47-53 


28-67 


•50 


•T2 


trace 


1-39 


2-18 


1-31 




1-62 
1-48 


1-17 


13-31 


9-95 



MINERALS OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 227 

auriferous quartz veins (Tate). Analysis of a specimen 
fruin Hindmarsh Valley, by Wallace, of Glasgow : — 



Ferric oxide 


76-71= Iron, 53-7% 


Magnanic oxide . . 


trace 


Magnesia 


0-30 


Lime 


0-45 


Phosphoric acid ... 
Sulphuric acid 
Alumina 


1-20 
0-42 
3-05 


Silica ... 


5-88 


Water (combined) 
Moisture 


10-91 

1-OS 



100-00 
Limonite pseudomorphs after pyrite, occur in the 
form of isolated and grouped cubical crystals in 
various parts of Central Australia, and near Lake 
Eyre it is very plentiful on the surface. It is also 
found in cubes at Mount Margaret and Blinman 
(T. C. C); cubes also occur on the surface 8 miles 
north of the Peake, under Mount Kingston, Central 
Australia (Tate); also near Yunta Station (T.C.C.). 

Magnesite ! ! — Flinders Range, near Port Pirie, more or less 
weathered masses (T. C. C); northern part of the 
Hundred of Cunningham, scattered about in medium- 
sized masses on hills of crystalline lime-stone (T. C. C.) ; 
banks of Oolabidnie Creek in the Hundred of Playford 
(T. C. C); Blinman (T.C. C); Mount Lofty and Barossa 
Ranges (Burr). 

Magnetite ! ! ! — Near Mount Jagged, Mount Lofty (T. C. C.) ; 
Mount Torrens, Mount Victoria (Brown) ; AVinniianie 
(Goyder); The Peake, Central Australia, Hundred of 
Cunningham (Tate); crystalised and massive varieties are 
of very genei-al occurrence from Cape Jervis to Black 
Rock Hill (Burr). The following analysis of a sample of 
ore from Mount Lofty is by Wallace, of Glasgow : — 

Iron, 66-34 % 



Ferric oxide 




88-22 


FeiTous oxide . . . 




5-66 


Manganic oxide 




-20 


Sulphur 




•20 


Iron, combined with 


sulphur 


-18 


Phosphoric acid 




-05 


Alumina, (fee. ... 




3-24 


Magnesia 




1-33 


Silica 




•92 



100-00 



02 



228 MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 

Malachite ! ! ! — Rhomlda Mine, in acicular crystals ; Wallaroo 
Mine, in brown iron ore ; Yudanamutana Mine, in 
the so-called " red jasper rock " ; North of Port 
Augusta, in nodular and lenticular-shaped masses, 
with a radiated crystalline structure (T. CO.); 
Kapunda Mine, Burra Burra Mine (T. C. C.) ; near 
Beltana, in perfectly round nodules, about three- 
quarters of an inch in diameter, on and near the surface 
(T. C. C.) ; near The Peake, Central Austi'alia, in the 
quartz veins in the metamorphic rock (Tate) ; Mount 
Barker, Montacute Mine, Rapid Bay, Wakefield, , near 
the Horseshoe on the Onkaparinga (Burr) ; Daly Mine, 
Stanley Mine, Mount Lyndhurst, Nichol's Nob, Tarlton's 
Nob, Mount Victoria, between Temple Bar and 
Blinman, between Avondale and Lesley's Well (Brown) ; 
Mount Wells, Northei'ii Territory (Goyder). 

Manganite ! ! ! — Near Gordon, between Quorn and Hawker : in 
large quantities (T. C. C. ) Oxides of manganese of 
various composition occur in the Port Lincoln district, 
at Wonna Pandappa Dam and at various localities in 
Central Australia. Burr reports manganese ores at 
Rapid Bay, Myponga, Noarlunga, River Light, Borossa 
Range and INIount Bryan. 

Margarite ! — Woodside (Brown). 

Menaccanite ! 

Ilmenite — Victoria Creek, Williamstown (Selwyn.) 

Molybdenite ! — -Yelta Mine, Moonta Mine, Wallaroo Mine, 
Kurilla and other mines in the same district (T. C. C.) ; 
near Franklin Harbour, in gneiss (Tate). 

Muscovite ! ! ! (common mica) — Of frequent occurrence in the 
granite rocks. The following localities may be specially 
noted : — Mount Pleasant, Williamstown, Barossa 
Ranges, Mount Crawford (T. C. C.) ; Macdonnell Ranges, 
in very large plates (Tate) ; River Gawler, Valley of the 
Nixon, Yunkalilla (Burr). 

Mysorin ! (sub-species) — Yudanamutana Mine, with crystallised 
malachite in red opal rock (T. C, C). 

Opal ! ! Precmis opal — Innamincka (Tate). 

Girasol—'^Q^v Arkaba (T. C. C). 

Com?non ^/a/— Angaston, Mount Crawford, all vaineties of 
colour (T. C. C); Nuriootpa (T. C. C); Yudananmutana, 
enclosing a fine network of oxide of iron (T. C. C.) ; 
Kelly's Well, 30 miles south of Tennant's Creek, vicinity 
of the Peake (Tate) ; Flaxman Valley, Belvidere Range 
(Burr). 



MINERALS OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 229 

Orthoclase ! ! — Generally distributed, well crystallised specimens 
occur at Angaston (T. C. C.) ; Wallaroo Mine, Aiigaston, 
Ardrossan; Wallaroo, massive and crystalline (T. C. C); 
Barossa Range, east of Mount Barker (Burr). 

Penninite !— Near Beltana (T. C. C). 

Phosgenite ! (Plumbic chloro-carbonate) — This mineral, asso- 
ciated with cerussite, has been obtained from the west 
coast of Spencer's Gulf, the exact locality being unknown 
(T. CO.); Glen Osmond Lead Mines (Burr). 

Pistomesitb ! — Balhannah Mine (T.O.C.) ; Nuccaleena (Tate). 
Analysis by Cloud of specimen from Balhannah Mine : — 

Hardness, 3 "5 ; specific gravity, 3' 5. 

Ferrous oxide ... ... 33-31 

Magnesia ... ... ... 20'66 

Manganous oxide ... ... 3*49 

Carbonic acid ... ... 43 "52 



99-98 
Psilomelane. — Sleaford Bay, Port Lincoln, Elder's Nob (G. A. 
Goyder). 

Pyrite ! ! ! (Iron pyrites) — This species is to be found in most 
of the lodes of the Yorke's Peninsula mining district 
(T. C. C.) ; Wallaroo Mine and Parramatta Mine, in 
finely-crystallised specimens, exhibiting the form of the 
pentagonal dodacahedron (T. C. C.) ; Rapid Bay, En- 
counter Bay, Montacute Mine, Bundaleer, Talisker 
Mine, and in the various ranges (Burr) ; Bird-in-hand 
Mine, Echunga, Queen Gold Mine, Kingston Mine, 
Snowtown, Waukaringa, Yudanamutana (Brown) ; this 
mineral also occurs in a stalactitic form at the Wallaroo 
Mine(T. C. C). 

Pyrolusite ! — Near Wallaro Mines, both massive and stalactitic 
(T. C. C.) ; Wonna Pandappa Dam (Tate); Waukaringa, 
impure variety (Tate) ; Tintara (Brown) ; Central 
Australia, on the surface (T. C. C.) ; Penang (T. C. C). 

PvROMORPHiTE ! — Massive specimens of this mineral have been 
obtained from the west coast of Spencer's Gulf, the 
exact locality being uncertain. In a private communica- 
tion J. E. T. Woods mentions that he has found 
phosphate of lead at the Strathalbyn Mine (T.C.C.) ; 
Avondale Mine, Hahndorf (Brown). 

Pyrope. — Mount Babbage (Brown) ; Hamilton Creek (Brown). 

Pyroxene ! (Augite) — Mount Schank (Tate) ; Mount Gambier 
(Burr.) 

Coccolite — Mount Gambier (Burr). 



230 MINERAL CENSUS OP AUSTRALASIA. 

Smaragdite — Woodside (Brown). 

Quartz ! ! Rock Crystal — Various parts of the colony, among 
which the following may be named : — Yorke's 
Peninsula, Angaston, Green's Plains, Highbury, Barossa 
Range, Emu Flat, near Clare, Lyndoch Valley, Coonato 
(T. C. C.) ; Williamstown, Morialta, Tanunda Creek, 
Pekina (Tate) ; Central Australia, notably near Lake 
Hope and Charlotte Water, in the form of rolled 
pebbles of clear rock crystal (T. C. C.) ; Encounter Bay, 
Montacute Mine, Flaxman Valley, Mount Barker, 
Belvidere Range (Burr). 

Amethystine quartz — Wallaroo Mine and near Point Riley, 
Yorke's Peninsula (T. C. C). 

Rose qjiartz — Hundred of Cunningham (T. C. C.) ; near 
Montacute Mine (Burr). 

Smoky quartz — Wallaroo Mine, Angaston, Mount Crawford 
(T. C. C.).; Belvidere Range (Burr). 

Milky quartz — Wallaroo Mine and other places (T. C. C.) ; 
Peake, Central Australia (Tate). 

Bronze-coloured crystals (the colour due to a thin coating of 
ferric oxide) occur at the Stanley Mine (T. C. C). 

Chalcedony — Redruth, Wallaroo Mine, Angaston, North 
Para, nearGawler ('J\ C. C.) ; Peake, Central Australia, 
mouth of Onkaparinga River in miocene cliffs, 
Ardrossan, as fossil casts (Tate) ; Flaxman Valley, 
Mount Barker, Barossa Range, near Kapunda Mine 
(Burr) ; Blanchewater (Brown). 

Carnelian — Stuart's Creek, Central Australia (Tate). 

Heliotrope — Stuart's Creek, Central Australia (Tate). 

Agate — Stuart's Creek, near Charlotte Water, near Catherine 
Telegraph Station, and various places in Central Avis- 
tralia and Northern Territory — in the form of pebbles 
(T. C. C. ) ; Flaxman Valley (Burr) ; Innamincka 
(Brown). 

Silicious sinter — Angaston (T. C. C.) ; Barossa Range, Mount 
Barker (Burr). 

Flint— In the older tertiary rocks of Mount Gambler, 
MacDonnell Bay and Bunda Clifts (Tate) ; Eucla, in 
the limestone cliffs (Brown). 

Hornstone- — Crinnis Mine (T. C. C.) ; Barossa Range, 
Flaxman Valley (Burr). 

Jasper— '^tM-AYt Range, Greenock, Ardrossan, Burra Range 
(T. C. C.) ; Angaston, near the Peake (Tate) ; Barossa 
Range, Belvidere Range (Burr) ; Innamincka (Brown). 



MIXERALS OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 231 

Lydian Stone — Innamincka (Brown). 

Plasma — Near Mount Morgan (Goyder). 

Rhodonite — Elder's Nob (G. A. Goyder). 

RuTiLE ! ! — Lyndoch, Collingrove, Tanunda Creek ; Mount 
Crawford, near Encounter Bay, in the foi^m of fair-sized 
crystals (T. C. C.) ; near Balhannah, with quartz sand 
(T. C. C.) ; Angaston (T. C. C.) ; Echunga, near Oonata 
Water (Brown) ; near Victor Hai'bour, with feldspar 
and quai'tz (Goyder). 

Serpentine !— Mount Crawford (T. C. C). 

SiDERiTE ! — Crinnis Mine (Selwyn) ; Oratunga Mine (Ulrich) ; 
Eudunda (Tate) ; Karkulto Mine (T. C. C.) ; Rapid 
Bay, Barossa Range, Mount Lofty Range, and various 
other places (Burr) ; near Blinman (Brown.) Analysis 
by T. C. Cloud of a specimen from the Karkulto Mine, 
in the form of a largely crystalline mass of a brownish- 
grey colour \ hardness, 3-5 ; and specific gravity, 3-9 : — 

Ferrous oxide ... ... 51 'To 

Manganous oxide ... ... 1-56 

Magnesia ... ... ... 7 '31 

Carbonic acid (by difference) ... 39-38 



100-00 
Silver — Although silver occurs in considerable quantities in 
some of the lead ores of the colony, so far as I am aware, 
no isolated species containing this metal as an essential 
constituent has yet been discovered (T. C. C). 

Smaltite — Mount Ogilvie (Goyder). 

Sphalerite ! ! ! (Zinc Blende) — Wallaroo Mine, Aclare Mine, 
between Point Pearce and Coxney Point, Yorke's 
Peninsula (T. C. C); Two-in-the-bush Gold Mine 
(Brown) ; North Rhine (Tate) ; Wheal Ellen Mine, in 
large quantities (L. Seeger). 

Staurolite ! — Angaston (T. C. C.) ; Mount Barker (Goyder). 

Steatite — New Mecklenberg (Tate). 

Stibnite — Aclare Mine (Goyder). 

Stilpnomelane ! — Near Oakbank, with gold (Brown). 

Sulphur ! — Echunga, in quartz, associated with pyrite (Cloud) ; 
near Montacute Copper Mine, in quartz, associated 
with pyrite (Burr) ; Wheal Ellen Mine, associated 
with sphalerite and galenite (L. Seeger). 

Talc ! ! — Flanks of the Kaiserstuhl (Tate) ; near Menge Town, 
Mount Crawford (Selwyn) ; Belvidere Range, River 



232 MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 

Hutt, Lyndoch Valley (Burr) ; Yorke's Peninsula, 
Barossa Range, Kanmantoo (T. C. C). 

TiTANiTE (Sphene) ! — Mount Barker (Tate). 

Topaz ! — Near Blanchewater, and elsewhere near Lake Eyre, in 
Central Australia ; in the form of rolled pebbles, white 
and pale green in color. 

Tourmaline ! ! — Moonta Mine, Parramatta Mine, Mount Craw- 
ford, Angaston, Ardrossan (T. C. C.) ; Mount Boothby, 
Barrow's Creek, and neighbourhood of The Peake, in 
Central Australia (Tate) ; Valley of the Nixon, Barossa 
Range, Encovinter Bay, Rapid Bay (Burr). 

Rubelllte. — Valley of the Nixon (Burr). 

Ullmannite !— Gill's Bluff, Mount Lyndhurst (T. C. C). 

ViviANiTE ! — Angaston, massive (T. C. C.) ; near Mount Rufus, 
near Strathalbyn, earthy (Burr). 

Wad {Asbolite) — Wooltana (Brown). 

Wolframite ! — Onkapai'inga, massive (C Francis) ; near 
Royston Head, Southern Yorke's Peninsula (Tate). 

WuLFENiTE!(Molybdateof Lead) — Mount Lyndhurst, crystallised 
in double tetragonal pyramids (T. C. C.) ; Avondale 
iline, near Farina (Brown). 



L i » R A « Y 30 



^ 



MINERALS OF QUEENSLAND. ^^ 



-<^-*'^' 

'■•'^^•^►.^v^^ 



<-T. 
J. 




L. 




M. or A. 


"g.: 


R. 




CLE 




Cat. C. I. 


, E. 


Q. M. C. 




•j-.i. 





after the name of a mineral, or be/ore a locality signifies that it is rare ; 
'. ! that it is common; ! ! ! that it is in ivorkable quantity. 

C. A. W. Clarke. 

D. .. ... R. Daintree. 
. A. C. Gregory. 
. R. L. Jack. 

E. B. LiNDON. 

. A. GiBB Maitland. 
. W. H. Rands. 

Report of Examiners on Miherals in Colonial 
and Indian Exhibition, by A. W. Clarke. 

Cataloo'ue of Minerals in CLE. 

Queensland Museum Catalot^iie. 
. gold-fifeld. 

Notes. 

This list has been compiled by the Queensland members of Committee 
No. 7 (who constituted themselves a sub-committee, of which Mr. R. L. 
Jack acted as Secretary), with the co-operation of Mr. A. Gibb Maitland, 
of the Geological Siirvey of Queensland, and other gentlemen whose 
names are appended to the information furnished by them. 

Most of the localities named will be found in the 16-mile map 
published by the Lands Department. 

Rock -forming minerals, as such, have been purposely omitted, except 
in cases where some peculiarity in their mode of occurrence required to 
be ijointed out. 

The occurrence of certain common minerals, e.g. Quartz and Calcite, is 
only noted in such cases as present features of scientific or economic 
importance. 

To eniimerate every locality where gold is found would be an endless 
task. The list includes the chief gold fields, with a reference to their 
geological characteristics, and a few eases in which the metal^ccurs 
under specially noteworthy circiimstances. 

Occasionally the occurrence of a mineral at a certain place is referred 
to by two or three observers, each of whom has something different to 
record regarding the mineral or the conditions under which it occurs. 
Mere duplicate observations have been struck out by the Secretary in 
editing the list. 

It may be said that the prominence given to a mineral is not always 
proportionate to its importance. Unfoitunately the amount of informa- 
tion to hand regarding minei-als bears no ratio to their scientific or 
economic value. 

The List is necessarily incomplete, but if the emendation of the 
" Censiis " is to be from year to year the care of a Committee of the 
Association, the present list, it is hoped, will form a useful basis for 
future operations. 

A. W. CLARKE, Charters Towers, ") 

E. B. LINDON, Brisbane, / Queensland 

ROBERT L. JACK, Townsville, C Sub-Committee. 



WILLIAM H. RANDS, Maryborough, , 



234 MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 

AcTiNOLiTE — Cloncurry !, on calcite (Q. M. C.) ; Mount Perry 
district ! ! !, actinolite rock, and as green radiating 
crystal in actinolite rock (R.) ; Charters Towei^s !, in 
" Day Dawn Extended " quartz reef (J.), also in 
country rock (syenite) of " North Australian Block," 
(C). 

Agate — Agate Creek, Etheridge ! !, in large quantities (L.) ; 
Burnett district ! !, over a wide area (N. Bartley) ; 
ISTarrango district ! ! (R.) ; Mount Toussaint and Mount 
Macedon ! !, in geodes in epidote rock (J.) ; Agate 
Creek, Gilbert ! ! !, occurring " in thousands of tons " 
in river gravels (.7.). 

-Amalgam — Kilkivan, in hard dark quartzose rock (R.). 

x\methyst — Logan River ! (R.) ; Upper Coomera, Albert district 
(R.) ; Cloncurry (Upper Camp?) !, in alluvial (C). 

Analcime — Strathmore Creek and Bowen River ! !, in geodes in 
epidote rock (J.). 

Anglesite — Silver Hill Mine, Mount Albion !, transparent 
pyramidal crystals (J.) ; at all the silver-lead mines, 
especially Argentine, Dry River, and Mount Albion ! ! !, 
argentiferous, enveloping argentiferous galena, and 
apparently derived from its decomposition (J.). 

Argentite — Cumnor Lease, Silverfield, Tinaroo district — " It 
is probable that in ai'gentiferous galena from here, 
assaying 1400oz. silver to the ton, a good deal of this 
silver is distributed through the galena in the form of 
free sulphide " (C. I. E.) ; Emu Plains, Bowen River, 
intimately mixed with cuprite and te no rite, especially 
the latter, the mixed ore containing 2299oz. silver per 
ton (J.). 

Asbestos — Mount Wheeler, 18 miles from Rockhampton ! !, in 
serpentine (D.) and (C.) ; Cloncurry !, in " The Contra " 
copper lode ; near Gympie !, in serpentine (R.) ;. 
Gympie !, with quartz in reefs (R.) ; Woodonga ! !, 
Glastonbury, Wide Bay district, in serpentine (R.) ; 
Mount A Ima, Charters Towers ! !, in diorite rock, the 
vein cropping out at surface from 4in. to Sin. thick (C.) 
— perfectly white and silky in part, but bulk stony : 
silky portion lost no weight on treatment with warm 
hydrochloric acid, and was unaltered by blow-pipe or 
Bunsen flame (C). 

Asbolite — Kilkivan, in a lode running neai-ly N. and S. in 
light-coloured serpentine, occurs sometimes in solid 
veins, sometimes in large botryoidal masses, but gene- 
rally running in an irregular manner through the 



MINERALS OF QUEENSLAND. 235 

gangue (R.), [Analyses : undressed ore, Co 7"oO per 
cent., Ni 2-12 per cent., (K. T. Staiger) ; fair sample of 
lode, Co 7-50 per cent., Ni 2-25 per cent., Mn 18-00 per 
cent., (K. T. Staiger) ; surface oi'e, Co 275 per cent., 
Ni 2-25 pel- cent., Mn 65-00 per cent. (W. Vivian and 
Sons, Swansea).] ; Kilkivan ! ' !, believed to be from 
lode referred to by (R.) ; " specimens of asbolite f roni 
same locality in Queensland Museum, where it is termed 
cobaltiferous wad, have the following assays appended : 
— Cobalt 22-207 per cent., nickel 3-510 per cent, iron 
29-130 per cent., manganese 2-360 per cent., copper 
0-103 per cent. (Cat. C. I. E.) ; Mountain Home !, in 
copper lode, associated with green cai'bonate of copper, 
ferruginous red oxide of copper, pyrolusite and garnets 
(J.). 

Atacamite — Mount Perry district (Q. M. C.) ; Cloncurry, pseudo- 
morphous after cuprite (Q. M. C). 

AzuRiTE — Great Kennedy Copper Mine ! ! !, in rhombic prisms 
and pyramids and in radiating botiyoidal masses in a 
large lode (J.) ; Keelbottom Copper Mine ! !, in quartz 
veins in porphyrite country (J.) ; Contra Lode, Clon- 
curry !, in large copper lode in dioi'ite country (J.) ; 
Pumpkin Gully, Cloncurry ! !, in ferruginous cup of 
copper lode (J.) ; Great Australian Copper Mine, Clon- 
curry ! !, in large lode with cuprite, native copper and 
malachite (J.) ; Ironclad Mine, Watsonville ! !, with 
cassiterite and malachite (J.) ; Clan Ronald, Eureka 
Creek, Tinaroo ! !, with malachite and cassiterite, from 
20 feet below surface (C.) ; Mount Garnet, Tinaroo 
district ! !, with malachite (C.) ; Peak Downs Copper 
Mine !, near Clermont, not so common as malachite 
(L.) ; Mount Perry district !, with other copper oi'es (L.); 
Mount Orange Copper Mine, Nebo, accompanying mala- 
chite, hfematite and black oxide of copper (W. J. C. 
Adrian) ; Pine Vale, 25 miles S.W. of Mackay ! !, 
massive in reefs, also as alteration product of copper 
pyrites, associated with quartz, zinc-blende, malachite, 
galena and quartz (M.). 

Barytes — Three miles from Mary River along Kilkivan Road ! ! !, 
as a large vein (R.) ; near Miva, Wide Bay ! ! (G.) ; 30 
miles west of Milo Station, near Adavale ! !, also 
Maxwelton, near Hughenden !, as radiated nodu^les in 
shales of the Rolling Downs (cretaceous) formation (J.). 

Bismuth — Narrango !, in auriferous lode in a matrix of steatite 
(L.) ; Mount Biggenden, Degilbo, Wide Bay district ! ! !, 
(R.) ; Stanthorpe, in tin- wash (Q. M. C.) ; Pumpkin 
Gully, Cloncurry ! !, in auriferous drift (J.) ; Mary 



.236 MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 

Douglas Reef, Cloncurry ! !, associated with quartz, 
limonite and gold (J.) ; Herberton Tin Mines !, in 
Home Rule, Herbertina and other mines, associated 
with cassiterite (J.). 

Bismuth Oxide — Mount Shamrock, Wide Bay district, veins of 
oxide of bismuth ai'e exceptionally rich in gold (R.), 
assaying 62 j)ftr cent, of bismuth and 252oz. of gold 
(Mr. Hamilton, reported by R.). 

BiSMUTiiiNiTE — Mount Shamrock !, in line acicular crystals (R.) ; 
Mount Biggenden ! ! (R.) ; Coolgarra, Tinaroo ! ! !, with 
native bismuth in lode in granite (C) ; Gilbert River ! !, 
in lode (J.) ; Great Britain Mine, Coolgarra ! !, in lode 
associated witii cassiterite, galena and sphalerite (J.) ; 
Southern Tin Mine, Irvinebank ! !, in lode associated 
with cassiterite (J.). 

BiSMUTHiTE — Cloncurry !, containing visible gold (Q. M. C.) ; 
Sellheim ! !, in lodes (L.), containing a good deal of 
copper and iron and probably derived from decom- 
position of Wittichenite (J.) ; Mount Biggenden, 
Degilbo ! ! !(R.); Mount Shamrock ! !, (R.) ; Coolgarra, 
Tinaroo !, alluvial associated with cassiterite (C.) ; Percy 
River ! ! !, in gullies worked for alluvial gold, containing 
over 72 per cent of metallic bismuth (W. M. Mowbi'ay) ; 
Percy River ! ! !, in alluvial gravels (J.). — [Analyses, 
Bi 7 2 '61, COs 12 "7 7, iron oxide 12 '80, sand, mica, 
etc. 1-82, sp. gr. 6-4 (K. T. Staiger) ; Kangaroo 
Hill ! !, in alluvial gravels (J.) ; Head of Severn 
River ! !, in alluvial gravels (J.). 

JBoRNiTB — Blue Mountains near Eton !, associated with tenorite 
and cuprite (J.) ; Mount Perry district ! !, associated 
with other copper ores, sometimes in steatite, (R.) ; 
Cloncurry ! ! (Q. M. C). 

BouRNONiTE— Mount Albion ! ! !, argentiferous : " The recent 
discovery of bournonite at JVIount Albion proves to be 
more important the more fully the deposit is opened up. 
It is calculated that there is in sight at the present 
time fully 2000 tons of black ore, which at £60 per ton 
amounts to the encouraging total of £120,000. As the 
c(jpper, antimony, ikc, in the ore pays all expenses, 
this means that the whole £120,000 is clear profit. — 
(Herberton Advertiser^ June, 1889). 

Cacoxenite — Watts' Selection, Logan district !, on limonite (R.). 

Calcite — Sellheim River ! ! !, large veins in shale and sandstone 
country (Gympie Beds), (J.) ; Hector Claim, Ravens- 
woop ! !, on hanging wall of auriferous quartz reef, 85 
-feet from surface (C.) ; Markliam's Claim, Ravens- 



MINERALS OF QUEENSLAND. 237 

wood ! !, associated with galena from 120 feet from 
surface (C) ; Ravenswood ! !, on foot-wall of a lode 
carrying chalcopyrite, sphalei'ite, iron pyrites, mispickel 
with gold and 'quartz (C.) ; Golden Bar, Rosewood, 
Rockhampton, with auriferous quartz 86 feet from 
surface (C.) ; Advance Reef, Norton Goldtield, Glad- 
stone ! !, with iron pyrites and sphalerite fi'om 180 feet. 
The same vien occurs in the adjacent claims on this line 
of reef, sometimes the calcite vain is on the hanging,^ 
less often on the foot-wall of the reef (C.) : some of 
this calcite is nearly transparent, one small piece was 
sufficiently clear to exhibit double refraction. The 
calcite vein is about 3" thick; Gympie Goldfield ! !,. 
with auriferous quartz and iron pyrites : " The manner 
in which the crystals of quartz, calespar and pyrites cut 
into each other and are indented by the gold which is 
in other parts moulded to the angles of the crystals, 
shows that they were all deposited at the same period ; 
while the lime, taking the form of calespar, indicates 
that the deposition w-as at a low temperature" 
(A. C. Gregory) ; Victory Lease, Charters Towers ! !, 
in pellucid crystals in fissures and vughs in the walls of 
the lode or reef : these crystals are so grouped together 
that only one set of facets is perfect. These facets are 
curved. Three of them grouped round the principal 
axis and terraining in a point form the only part of the 
crystals that are visible among the whole sample raised, 
(C.) ; Victory Lease, Charters Towers ! !, in opaque 
rhombohedral crystals, on auriferous quartz (C.) ; 
Gympie ! !, with quartz associated with gold and gold- 
bearing sulphides (L.) ; Kilkivan 1 '., with quartz and 
auriferous and argentiferous sulphides (L.) ; Glenlyon, 
near Stanthorpe ! !, large beds of limestone containing 
caverns with stalactites and stalagmites (L.) ; 
Warwick ! !, black and white limestone (C.) ; analysis, 
by (C.) : 





WHITE 


BLACK 


Moisture 


... MO 


1-29 


Carbonic acid 


... 43 -Oo 


43-05 


Lime 


... 54-66 


54-72 


Peroxide of iron 


... 0-35 


0-37 


Magnesia 


... 0-18 


0-55 


Insoluble residue 


1-59 


0-97 



100-93 100-95; 

Potosi claim, Tiuaroo district ! ! !, limestone used as a 
flux for silver-lead ores (C.) ; analysis by (C.) : 



23S MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 



Moisture 


1-07 


Carbonate of lime 


... 9.V83 


Silica 


1^41 


Peroxide of iron 


... 0-78 


Carbonate of magnesia 


0-47 



100-56; 

Gladstone ! !, white and coloured marbles (R.), (Q. M. C); 
in very many auriferous reefs ! !, a common form of 
gangue (L.) ; Toowoomba district I !, in cavities in 
Ijasalt (L.). 

-Cassiterite — Stanthorpe district ! ! !, stream tin in di'ifts, gene- 
rally in small water-worn crystals, with a large proportion 
oi the rudy and amber varieties, sometimes together 
with water-worn gold (J.), as crystals in quartz reefs, 
and in dykes of greisen in granite country (J.) ; 
Pascoe River ! ! I, as stream tin ore (L.) ; Mount Spur- 
geon ! ! !, principally stream tin (J.) ; Kangaroo Hills ! ! !, 
stream and lode tin (J. ) ; associated with bismuth 
(Pears) ; samples of the pannned-off ore contain abso- 
lutely white water-worn grains of tin oxide (10-1 5mm. 
diameter). i?///M' and <2Wi^^r tin also occur (C.) ; Running 
Creek, Star River ! ! !, stream tin, associated with 
garnet and topaz (J.) ; Granite Creek, Palmer Gold- 
tield ! ! !, as stream tin associated with gold, latter 
having been derived from the slates which abut on the 
western banks of the creek, while the granitic eastern 
banks supplied the tin (Sellheim) ; Cannibal Creek ! ! !, 
stream and lode tin, the latter in large quartz reefs 
in slate and greywacke country (J.) ; Annan and 
Bloomfield ! ! !, stream and lode tin, the latter associated 
with quartz, toui^maline, hornblende, and wolfram, — prin- 
cipal mines are Mount Leswell, Lion's Den, Mount 
Amos, Mount Romeo (J.); Mount Leswell, Cooktown ! ! !, 
with tourmaline crystals, under the microscope the 
panned-afF ore is mainly honey-yellow, with a little 
opaque black tin and a little ruby tin, the tourmaline 
is of a greyish blue and markedly pleochroic parallel 
to principal axis (C.) ; a specimen of schorl and tin ore 
assayed o5 per cent, of metallic tin (L.) ; Mount Amos, 
Cooktown ! ! !, with tourmaline crystals, under the micro- 
scope the cassiterite appeal's to be mainly transparent 
and of amber or honey-yellow colour, the tourmalines 
are greyish-blue and strongly jDleochroic, parallel to 
principal axis (C); Lion's Den, Cooktown, ! ! !, with 
tourmaline crystals, microscopic examination reveals 
nothing of interest (C), some of these Cooktown tin 



MINERALS OP QUEENSLAND. 239 

ores are rich, we having had samples of ^-cwt. assaying 
30-25 per cent, metallic tin, while, on the other hand, some 
•samples have only yielded 5 per cent, metal on assay 
(Coane and Clai-ke) ; 'J he Bloomfield River, Cooktowu ! ! !, 
grey very water-worn stream tin ore, a bouldei- from 
this river, exhibited in the Colonial and Indian Exhi- 
bition (1886), was nearly pure tin-stone (cassiterite), 
and weighed 821bs. (C.) ; Rose of England, Eureka 
Creek, Tinaroo ! ! !, associated with fluor spar, quartz, 
and iron pyrites (C.) ; Clan Ronald, Eureka Creek, 
Tinaroo ! ! !, with azurite and malachite, "20 feet 
from surface (C.) ; Lass of Gowrie, Eureka Creek, 
Tinaroo ! ! !, with white mica, 60 feet from surface (C); 
Black Rock, Eureka Creek, Tinaroo ! ! !, with red 
hsematite, 70 feet from surface (C ) ; Lancewood Creek, 
9 miles from Brooklands Head Station ! ! ! ; Etheridge 
Goldfield ! ! ! (Hodgkinson) ; Krombit, Port CurSs 
district !, water-worn crystals in creek (R.) ; Christmas 
Eye, Irvine Bank, Tinaroo ! ! !, with quartz, the two 
minerals occurring in alternate layers, about 15 times 
in 1", the whole having a pink cast (C.) ; General 
Gordon Tin Mine, &c., Thompson's Creek ! ! !, in lodes 
(J.) ; Return Creek ! ! !, lode and stream (J.) ; Emu 
Creek ! ! !, lode (J.) ; Halpin's Creek ! ! !, lode and 
stream (J.) ; Pinnacle Creek, near Thompson's Creek ! ! !, 
stream (J.) ; Oakey Creek, near Thompson's Creek ! ! !, 
stream (J.) ; Bachelor's Reef, Eidsvold !, in auriferous 
quartz reef, associated with tourmaline (R.) ; Dry 
River ! ! !, stream (J.) ; Aunitt or Nettles Creek ! ! !, 
stream (J.) ; Rudd Creek ! ! !, stream (J.) ; California 
Gully, near Herberton ! ! !, lode and stream (J.) ; 
Irvinebank ! ! !, in lodes in sedimentary rock, in Great 
Southern the cassiterite is associated with arsenical 
pyrites, native bismuth, stibnite, &c. (J.) ; Walsh 
River ! ! !, very fine crystals of tin ore disseminated 
through a chloritic matrix in lodes which coincide with 
the bedding of the country rock (pebbly grits), (J.); 
Gordon Mine, Glenhinedale ! ! !, the ore impregnating 
a country rock of hard, fine-grained, silicious, and 
talcose sandstone (J.) ; Koorboora, Tate River ! ! !, 
lode (J.) ; Watsonville ! ! !, in lodes in a country rock 
of shales and greywackes, associated in Ironclad Mine 
with copper pyrites and copper carbonates (J.) ; Spinifex 
Creek, near Herberton ! ! !, as stream tin (J.) ; Her- 
berton ! ! !, in leads below the basalt and in recent 
stream beds (J.); rarely in "el van dykes"; at 
" Three Star " Mine, &c., in dykes of quartzose chlorite, 
and quartzose serpentine, and in chlorite rock-country, 



240 MINEKAL CENSUS OF AUSTKALASIA. 

rock quartz-porphyry (J.), sometimes associated with 
chlorite, orthoclase, pyrites, schorl, wolfram, garnet and 
topaz (L.) ; Watsonville ! ! !, in dykes of quartzose 
chlorite, and quartzose serpentine in a country rock of 
(quartz-porphyry (J.) ; Eureka Creek ! ! !, lode (J.) ; 
The Tate River, GO miles from Herberton, Tinaroo ! ! !, 
stream (C.) ; Tornado, Newellton, Tinaroo ! ! !, with 
kaolin, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, mispickel, galena and 
quartz (C.) ; Bolton's Folly, Watsonville, Tinaroo ! ! !, 
with garnets, 30 feet from surface, in green chlorite (C); 
Return Creek, Coolgarra, Tinai'oo ! ! !, as stream tin : 
" I have seen nearly (300 grains short) 21bs. of coarse 
tin washed out of a dish full of dirt " (C.) ; Crojsus 
Claim, Tinaroo ! ! !, with fluor spar crystals from 80ft. 
level (C.) ; Denny's Claim, near Watsonville ! ! !, with 
bright red haematite (C.) ; Bonnie Dundee, Coolgarra, 
Tinai'oo ! ! !, in i-ed chlorite with wolfram and mica (C.) ; 
Pinnacle Lease, Gregory's Gully, Tinaroo ! ! !, with a 
light pink orthoclase and quartz crystals (C.) ; Adven- 
ture Claim, Tinaroo ! ! !, with kaolin and quartz (C.) ; 
Cosmopolitan, Tinaroo ! ! !, with kaolin and quartz (C). 

Cerussite — Argentine Silver Field ! ! !, argentiferous in upper 
levels of argentiferous galena lodes (J.) ; Flagstone 
Creek, Bo wen district ; with decomposing galena (L.) ; 
Lawn Hill ! !, in galena lode (J.) ; Scrubby Creek, Broad 
Sound ! !, argentiferous in lode (J.) ; Star of the South 
Gold Mine, Ravenswood !, in aui'iferous quartz reef (J.) ; 
Ravenswood Silver Field ! ! ! argentiferous, in argenti- 
ferous galena lodes (J.); Curlew, about 12 miles south 
of Charters Towers ! !, associated with galena, gold, 
quartz, malachite, chrysocolla and pyromorphite (C.) ; 
Dry River Silver Field ! ! ! argentiferous, in argenti- 
ferous galena lodes (J.) ; Rainbow Claim, Newellton, 
Tinaroo ! !, with galena and quartz in very perfect 
crystals and macles (C.) ; First Shot Claim, Coolgarra, 
Tinaroo !, with haematite and galena (C.) ; Mount 
Garnet, Tinaroo !, in minute crystals with copper 
stained quartz and galena, very much decomposed (C.) ; 
Mount Albion Silver Field ! ! ! argentiferous, in argen- 
tiferous galena lodes (J.) ; Sellheim Silver Field ! ! ! 
argentiferous, in argentiferous galena lodes (J.). 

Chabasite — Main Range, below Toowoomba !, lining cavities in 

basalt (L.) ; Darling Downs, Toowoomba !, lining 

cavities in basalt (A. C. Gregory) : a sample submitted 

to me by Mr. Gregory contained 21*76 per cent 

, water (C). 



MINERALS OF QUEENSLAND. 241 

Chalcedony — Clermont Plains ! !, in basalt (R.) ; Mount 
Toussaint and Mount Macedon ! !, in geodes in epidote 
rock (J.) ; Westwood ! in geodes in basalt (J.). 

Ohalcopyrite — Tinaroo district ! !, associated with marcasite, 
galena, mispickel, and sphalerite (J.) ; Mount Perry 
district ! ! ! generally auriferous, lodes in granite and 
schistose country, often associated with bornite (L.) ; 
Copperfield, Clermont, Peak Downs ! !, accompanying 
iron pyrites (L.) ; Ravenswood ! ! auriferous with iron 
pyrites (L.) ; Charters Towers ! ! associated with iron 
pyrites and galena (C.) ; Carnarvon Castle Claim, 
Blackfellow's Gully, Rockhampton ! ! ! auriferous in 
quartz and calcite (L.), assays from 2 to 5 oz. gold per 
ton (L.) ; Mount Morgan (London), Extended Croco- 
dile Goldfield ! ! ! readily decomposing, slightly auri- 
ferous (L.) ; Yabba Station between Nanango and 
Gympie ! ! !, lode, aurifei'ous (L.) : assays from Sdwts. 
to 4|oz. of gold per ton (L.) ; Mount Orange Copper 
Mine, Nebo ! !, lode (L.) ; Pine Vale, Merani, Mackay 
! !, with bornite in quartz, lode in granite country (L.) ; 
Pine Yale, 25 miles south-west of Mackay ! ! ! occurs in 
quartz reef in small veins and isolated masses, showing 
often a beautiful iridesence on the surface, associated 
with malachite, azurite, and tetrahedrite (A. G. M.) ; 
Kangaroo Mine, Crocodile Goldfield, 3 miles from 
Mount Morgan Mine ! ! ! in quartz lode, auriferous 
(L.) ; Copper pyrites occurs ! ! associated with pyrites 
and mispickel, more or less plentifully in the majority 
of the auriferous reefs of Queensland (J.). 

Chalybite — Normanby Goldfield (Bo wen) ! !, in Glengarry Reef 
and others (J.) ; Cloncurry Goldfield ! ! (J.) ; Mount 
Perry district !, associated with iron pyrites, galena and 
sphalerite (R.). 

Chert — Brookfield, Brisbane (Q. M. C.) ; Springsure (Q. M. C). 

Chromite — Near Ipswich ! !, in serpentine (C.) ; Mount Wheeler, 
Rockhampton ! !, in serpentine (D.) ; Kilkivan !, in ser- 
pentine (R.) ; Pine Mountain ! !, (G.) ; Gladstone dis- 
trict ! !, in serpentine (D.) ; Cawarral ! !, in serpentine 
(D.). 

Chrysocolla — Burdekin River, near Mount Keelbottom !, in 
lode in quartz, porphyry country (J.) ; Curlew, about 
twelve miles south of Charters Towers !, with galena, 
malachite, gold, quartz and pyromorphite (C.) ; Towns- 
ville Road, near Dalrymple, with native copper and 
malachite (J.). 

Chrysotile — Mount Coora !, in serpentine (R.). 

p 



242 MIXERAL CENSUS OP AUSTRALASIA, 

CiNXABAR — Kilkivan ! !, in limestone, also with tetrahedrite (L.), 
[Analysis by (C.) of limestone containing cinnabar, the 
cinnabar being determined by the use of Sonstadt's 
solution : — Carbonate of lime, 50'83 per cent., carbonate 
of iron 26'00 per cent, silica 15*13 per cent., sulphide 
of mercury 7 "01 per cent., total 98-97] ; Manumbar, 
Brisbane River ! !, reported by Mr, S. L. Hester ; 
Kilkivan district ! ! !, in lodes, country rock, micaceous, 
chlorite and serpentinous schists, also conglomerates, 
sandstones and shales, 70 tons treated, yielded 
eOOOlbs of mercury (R.). 

Coal — Ac'/'^.— Although a complete list of coal seams with their 
analyses hardly comes within the scope of a " Mineral 
Census," a list is given of localities where coal is, or has 
been, profitably worked.) — -Burrum ! ! !, the coalfield 
appears to be intermediate in age between the Bowen 
River Field (Carbonifero-Permian) and the Ipswich 
(Jurassic 1) (J.) ; Ipswich ! ! !, the coalfield is the 
equivalent of the Clarence River beds of ISTew South 
Wales (Jurassic?) (J.) ; Clifton ! ! !, part of the Ipswich 
coalfield (J.) ; Jimbour ! ! !, part of the Ipswich coal- 
field (J.) ; Cooktown, Townsville, Bowen River, Nebo, 
MacKenzie River, Dawson River ! ! !, coal of Carboni- 
fero-Permian age extending over wide areas, but not 
worked (J.) ; Styx and St. Lawrance ! ! !, Coal seams 
(Burrum beds) now being opened up (J.), 

Copper (Native) — Peak Downs ! !, with quartz (Salmon) ; Mount 
Perry district ! ! (R.) ; Alliance Mine, Morinish, Rock- 
hampton ! !, in auriferous quartz, the whole being 
crushed together and yielding loz. of gold per ton 
(L.) ; Gympie !, in amygdaloidal volcanic rock (R.) ; 
Keelbottom Copper Mine ! !, in quartz veins in 
porphyrite country (J.) ; Mount Leyshon, 17 miles 
south of Charters Towers !, in fine microscopic octa- 
hedral crystals, grouped together among decomposing 
felspars, kaolin, haematite, tfec, the volcanic ash described 
by R. L. Jack, Gov. Geol., in his report on Mount 
Leyshon (C.) ; Peak Downs !, in fine threads per- 
meating quartz, so as to render it difficult to powder 
(Salmon) ; Great Australian Copper Mine, Olon- 
curry ! ! !, with cuprite in large lodes (J.) ; Cloncurry ! ! !, 
altering to cuprite (L.); Argylla Copper Mine, Leichardt 
River ! !, in large lode with cuprite and malachite (J.) ; 
Dugald River ! !, in large lode with cuprite and 
malachite (J.) ; No. 1 Copper Selection, Dugald 
River ! !, forming veins through cuprite (J.) ; Cottais' 
Tin Mine, Herberton !, on joint planes of an intrusive 



MINERALS OF QUEENSLAND. 243 

amphibolic rock (J.) ; Kirk River, near Ravenswood !, 
in an auriferous reef (J.) ; Burdekin River, near 
Mount Iveelbottom ! !, in lode in quartz porphyry 
country (J.). 

Copperas — Ironclad Mine, Herberton, crystallises from water 
trickling from the mine associated with blue vitriol, 
ratio between the copper and iron in these mixed 
sulphates is very variable, some crystals being deep 
blue, and consequently rich in copper, while others are 
a pale green and poor in copper (C). 

Cuprite — Great Australian Copper Mine, Cloncurry ! ! !, in large 
lode with native copper, tenorite, azurite and mala- 
chite (J.) ; No. 1 Copper Selection, Dugald River ! ! !, 
in large lode, with malachite and native copper, the 
cuprite very fine, and much of it is of the ruby variety 
(J.) ; Cloncurry Copper Smelting Co.'s Mines, Clon- 
curry ! !, very fine crystals associated with haematite, 
some ^-inch in diameter, being combinations of the 
cube with the pentagonal dodecahedron, the most 
minute microscopic crystals exhibiting tlie same com- 
bination of forms (Sheatie) ; Conti-a Lode, Cloncurry ! ! !, 
in large lode in diorite country, with m:ilichite and 
azurite (J.) ; Pumpkin <Tully, Cloncurry I ! in cap of 
large lode (J.) ; Homewai-d Bound, Cloncurry ! !, in 
lode, with malachite and azurite (auriferous), (J.) ; 
Copper Mines at Duck and ^lalbon Creeks, Cloncurry 
! ! !, in lodes (J.) ; Chillagoe ! ! !, large copper lodes 
(cuprite ?), (Moffat) ; two miles north of Great Aus- 
tralian Copper Mine, Cloncurry ! ! !, group of lodes (J.); 
Argylla Copper Mine ! ! !, in large lode with native 
copper and malachite (J.) ; Leichardt River ! ! !, Cru- 
sader and other lodes (J.) ; Dugald River, 45 miles 
north-west of Cloncurry ! !, with native copper, calcite 
and melaconite (Sheaffe) ; Great Kennedy Copper 
Mine ! ! !, in a large lode with azurite and malachite 
(J.); Moreton Island ! ! (Q. M. C.) ; Mount Perry 
district ! ! !, associated with other copper ores (L.) ; 
Texas, Stanthorpe district ! ! !, with other copper ores 
(Gunn) ; Blue Mountains, near Eton ! ! (J.) \ Emu 
Plains, Bowen River ! ! (J.). 

Tile Ore — A brick red or earthy variety of cuprite generally 
containing peroxide of iron, the term is little used, 
but is convenient for a variety of cuprite very 
common in Queensland (J.); Great Kennedy Copper 
mine ! !, in a large lode with azurite, malachite and 
cuprite (J.) ; Copper Mines at Duck Creek, Clon- 
curry ! !, in lode No. 9 ; near Tierrawomba, Mackay !, 

p2 



24:4 MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 

in cap of lode, with malachite (J.) ; Gregory River !, in 
a quartz reef with malachite (J.) ; Cloncurry Copper 
Smelting Co.'s Mines, Cloncurry ! ! !, associated with 
haematite and minute crystals of cuprite (SheafFe). 

Cyanosite — Mount Morgan (London) Extended Mine, Crocodile 
Goldfield ! !, on chalcopyrite (L.). 

Diamond — Yandina !, Tabragalba !, (I have been informed that 
diamonds have been found in these localities, but cannot 
vouch for the accuracy of the information), (J.) ; Gilbert 
River ! ; — Mr. Warden Sam well in Report of the Dept. 
of Mines for 1883 says : It is stated in the prospectus of 
a gold mining company, that a " diamond of the first 
water " from the Gilbert, was in possession of " one of 
the earliest Commissioners." I am informed that Mr. 
T. R. Hackett is referred to. The same prospectus quotes 
Mr. W. O. Hodgkinson, late Minister for Mines, as. 
having written : — " If similarity of strata, associated 
mineralogical deposits and general characteristics, 
argues anything. Agate Creek holds out inducements 
for a vigorous search for the king of gems " (J.) 

Fluorite — Croesus Claim, Tinaroo !, with cassiterite in small 
cubical crystals (C.) ; Rose of England, Eureka Creek^ 
Tinaroo !, with cassiterite, quartz and iron pyrites, 
crystals octahedral and cubical (C.) ; Herberton Tin 
Mines ! !, with cassiterite in lodes (J.) ; Irvinebank 
Tin Mines ! !, with cassiterite itc, (J.). 

French Chalk (Steatite) — Mount Morgan ! ! (J.). 

Galena — Etheridge Goldfield !, in auriferous reefs with pyrites, 
arsenical pyrites, copper pyrites and sphalerite (J.) ; 
Hodgkinson Goldfield !, in auriferous reefs (J.) ; Gilbert 
River ! ! !, argentiferous, in large lodes (Mowbray) ; 
Mount Garnet, Tinaroo district ! !, cupriferous, decom- 
posing (C.) ; Black Bull, Hodgkinson, with visible gold 
(C.) ; Ravenswood Goldfield ! !, in auriferous reefs, with 
pyi'ites, arsenical pyrites, copper pyrites, sphalerite, (fee. 
(J.) ; Mount Albion Silver Field ! ! !, argentiferous, in 
lodes associated with anglesite, cerussite, cerargyrite, tkc. 
(J.) ; Chillagoe ! ! !, very large out-crop of lead ore 
(galena 1) Girofla Mine (J. MofFatt) ; Degilbo ! ! !, 
argentiferous, in lodes, with gold, arsenical pyrites and 
sphalerite (R.) ; Eidsvold Goldfield !, with pyrites (R.) ; 
Norton Goldfield ! with gold, pyrites, sphalerite, quartz 
and calcite (R.) ; Yarrol ! ! !, in lode, poor in silver (R.); 
Norton Goldfield ! !, lode in granite (R.) ; Gympie ! !, 
with fi-ee gold (R.) ; Eungalla, Broken River, North 
Kennedy ! ! !, in crystals, also massive in reef with 



MINERALS OF QUEENSLAND, 245 

quartz, galena, carbonate of zinc and iron pyrites, very 
argentiferous (M.) ; Flagstone Creek, Bo wen district 
! ! !, in a lode having an out-crop composed mostly of 
wolfram and quartz, assays 76 oz. of silver per ton (L.); 
Yarrol, Burnett district ! ! (L.) ; near Merani, Mackay 
district !, in small veins in granite (L.) ; Potosi Lode, 
Mount Perry district ! !, associated with iron and copper 
pyrites and a little sphalerite in a gangue of quartz 
and barytes (R.) ; Allendale Lode, Chowey Creek, 
Wide Bay district ! ! !, with iron pyrites, mispickel and 
sphalerite, assaying 39oz. of silver and loz. of gold to 
the ton (R.) ; Argentine Silver Field ! ! !, argentiferous, 
in numerous lodes (J.) ; Sellheim Silver Field ! ! !, 
argentiferous, in lodes associated with sphalerite and 
pyrites (J.) ; Pyramid Lease, Sellheim ! ! !, argentiferous, 
with sphalerite. [Analyses, zinc 34-23 per cent., lead 
42-01 per cent, sulphur 22-80 per cent., iron Ml per 
cent., total, 100-15 (C.) ; Charters Towers Goldfield ! 
with pyrites in auriferous reefs (J.) ; Charters Towers !, 
nearly always occurring with calcite and sphalerite in 
the auriferous quartz on this field (C.) ; Curlew, about 
12 miles south of Charters Towers !, with cerussite, 
gold, quartz, malachite, pyromorphite, chrysocolla (C.) ; 
Silver King Tin Mine, Herberton !, with cassiterite (J.) ; 
Northcote ! !, argentiferous (Towner) ; Return Creek ! !, 
silver lodes (argentiferous galena?), (J.); Lawn Hill 
! ! !, argentiferous, in large lode (J.) ; Coen River, south 
! !, argentiferous, in small lode (J.) ; Croydon Gold- 
field !, in auriferous reefs with pyrites, sphalerite and 
graphite (J.) ; Koh-i-noor, Tinaroo ! ! !, with mispickel 
and sphalerite (C.) ; Tornado Claim, Silverfield, 
Tinaroo district ! ! ! with iron pyrites and sphalerite 
(C.), assay silver loz. 2dwts. per ton (L.). [Analyses, 
zinc 13-42 per cent., copper 5-10 per cent., lead 6-06 per 
cent., arsenic 11-99 per cent., iron 29-06 per cent., 
sulphur 32-74 per cent., silica 2-11 per cent., total, 
100-48 (C.) ; Dry River ! ! ! argentiferous, with pyrites, 
marcasite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, anglesite, cerussite 
and malachite (J.); Target Mine, Newelltown, Tin- 
aroo^ ! ! !, the lode is much decomposed, the galena can 
be picked out in nodules as big as a cricket ball, on 
cracking open these nodules, a zoned structure is seen 
consisting of carbonate of sulphate and oxide of lead in 
concentric layers, with perliaps a nucleus of clean fresh 
galena. In other cases the decomposition is complete 
and there is no trace of nucleus. I have seen such 
nodules in other galena lodes throughout the Tinaroo 
district, but they always occur in the lodes above 



246 MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 

water level (C.) ; Silverfield, Tinaroo ! ! ! similar to the 
Target Mine galenas described above (C.) ; Ravenswood 
Silver Field ! ! ! argentiferous, in lodes, associated with 
cerussite, sphalerite, stibnite, pyrites, &c. (J.). 

Garnet — Eungella Goldfield ! !, with wolfram and iron glance in 
large lode in granite country (J.) ; Fyrope, Running 
Creek, Star River ! !, in tin wash, associated with topaz 
(J.) ; Coen River Diggings ! !, in auriferous wash-dirt 
(J.) ; Cloncurry ! ! (G.) ; west of Mount Eurie, Clon- 
curry ! (J.) ; Mountain Home !, in copper lode, in 
ferruginous red oxide of copper, associated with green 
carbonate of copper, asbolite and pyrolusite (J.) ; 
Bolton's Folly Tin Mine, Watsonville ! !, in chlorite 
rock, with cassiterite (J.) ; Woolgar Goldfield ! !, in 
auriferous wash-dirt (J.) ; Bolton's Folly, Watson- 
ville ! !, in green chlorite i^ock, imbedded so softly as to 
be removable by tapping the specimens smartly with a 
hammer, when the garnets drop out, with cassiterite (C). 

Gold — Etheridge g. f. ! ! !, in quartz reefs with calcite, iron 
pyrites, copper pyrites, arsenical pyrites, sphalerite and 
galena, mainly in granite country, but at Goldsmith's 
in schist and slate country (J.) ; Woolgar g. f. ! ! !, in 
quartz reefs, under conditions similar to those of the 
Gilbert Goldfield (J.) ; Gilbert g. f . ! ! !, in quartz reefs 
in slates, shales and metamorphic mica schists of supposed 
Lower Silurian age, penetrated by numerous dykes of 
elvanite, diorite, hornblende rocks, tkc, — " Where 
these dykes penetrate slates payable gold is usually 
obtained" (D.); Hodgkinson g. f. ! ! !, in quartz reefs 
in highly inclined shales and sandstones (J.), 
sometimes accompanied by galena and iron and 
copper pyrites (L) ; Palmer g. f . ! ! !, in reefs in highly 
inclined shales and sandstones, also alluvial gold (J.) ; 
Coen g. f. ! ! !, reef and alluvial gold, the gold being 
much alloyed with silver (J.) ; Croydon g. f . ! ! !, in 
quartz with oxide of iron, native silver and cerargyrite 
(L.) ; in reefs in a country rock partly granitic and 
partly metamorphic (J.) ; Pikedale ! !, in lodes with 
copper pyrites (J.) ; Jimna g. f. ! ! !, reefs in granite 
counti-y and in alluvial drifts (A.) ; Gooroomjum g. f. 
! ! !, in alluvial drifts (A.) ; Black Snake ! ! !, in reefs 
in micaceous porphyry countiy, with iron, copper and 
arsenical pyrites, argentiferous galena and stibnite (R.); 
Kilkivan g. f. ! ! ! — " The country around Kilkivan 
consists entirely of metamorphic rocks, such as serpen- 
tine and hornblende and micaceous schists. All the 
reefs found in the district occur in these rocks. From 



MINERALS OF QUEENSLAND. 247 

the Rise and Shine Reef very good specimens of gold 
were obtained in the upper part ; lower down the stone 
changes to a mundic consisting greatly of zinc-blende, 
with some iron pyrites and a little galena." . . "Most 
of the work at Kilkivan has been the driving of tunnels 
in a sheet of white porplAyry which occurs in the face 
of a range running north and south. There are no 
defined reefs at all in the porphyry, but only minute 
veins of quartz, with oxides of iron and manganese. 
Where the manganese di-oxide occurs, the veins are the 
richest in gold. In some parts of the porphyry these 
veins are very numerous, and the veins are very patchy. 
Where these patches occur, however, the whole of the 
mass will pay to crush" (R.) ; Kilkivan ! !, associated 
with oxide of manganese in a white felspar (R.) ; 
Gympie g. f . ! ! !, in reefs traversing grey shales, black 
pyritous shales, greywackes, sandstones, grits, and 
conglomerates of Carbonifero-Permian age, the richest 
deposits of gold occur where the reefs intersect the 
pyritous black shales (J.) ; No. 1 N. Lucknow Mine, 
Gympie !, associated with asbestos (R.) ; Brovinia g. f. 
! ! !, in reefs (J.) ; Eidsvold g. f. ! ! !, in reefs in granite 
country, with galena, pyrites, arsenical pyrites and 
stibnite (R.) ; Mount Shamrock g. f . ! ! !, in lodes con- 
taining quartz, haematite and bismuth oxide, — "The 
gold ajDpears to be especially associated with the bismuth, 
for the veins of oxide of bismuth are exceptionally rich. 
A small sample of the oxide assayed by Mr. Hamilton 
contined 62 per cent, of metallic bismuth and 252oz. 
of gold per ton of the material" (R.) ; Mount Sham- 
I'oek !, in molybdenite (L.) ; Old Chowey Reefs, Wide 
Bay ! !, in molybdenite in quartz (R.) ; Crocodile g. f . ! ! !, 
reefs partly in granite and syenite country and partly 
in slates, greywackes, grits, and conglomerates inter- 
sected by diorite dykes (J.) ; Rosewood g. f. ! ! !, Golden 
Bar Reef, of calcspar, with chlorite in pockets and 
coating calcite crystals, occasionally a good deal of 
quartz, some very rich specimens of gold in calcspar, 
the reef occurs in a diorite dyke for the most part 
altered to chlorite — Caledonian Reef, quartz with patches 
and pockets of chlorite, country rock altered sand- 
stone (J.) ; Blackfellow' Gully ! ! ! (J.) ; New Zealand 
Gully ! ! !, North Star Mine, in porphyry country (J.) ; 
Last Chance Reef, gold disseminated through a mass of 
chloride of silver (D.) ; Cawarral ! ! !, in serpentine 
country, also alluvial gold (J.) ; Canoona g. f. ! ! !, 
"when (in alluvial workings) found with the matrix 
attached, matrix was serpentine " (R.) ; Mouiat 



248 MINERAL CENSUS OP AUSTRALASIA. 

Morgan ! ! !, — Finely disseminated throughout a deposit 
varying from red and brown hfeniatite to a frothy, 
spongy, cellular silicious sinter, rising into a mountain 
mass through a country rock of quartzites, hardened 
sandstones, greywackes and shales of Carbonifero- 
Permian age. I believe the dejDosit to be due to a 
geyser, but different explanations have been offered by 
Messrs. Macdonald, Cameron, Ranft and others. 
The gold is extracted by chlorination. The gold is of 
remarkable purity, assaying, according to Dr. Leibins, 
99 "7 per cent., worth £i 4s. 8d. per ounce (J.) ; Norton 
g. f. ! ! !, reefs in an erupted boss of grey granite passing 
into syenite and porphyry, and intersected by dykes of 
diorite, dolerite and porphyry, reefs containing, besides 
gold, pyrites, arsenical pyrites, sphalerite, galena, 
stibnite, quartz and calcite, gold is extracted by 
chlorination (R.) ; Cania g. f. ! ! !, in reefs of quartz and 
calcite, and in alluvium, country rock sandstone, slate 
and limestone, probably Carbonifero-Permian (R.) ; 
Raglan g. f. ! ! !, reefs and alluvial, country rock slates, 
hardened sandstones or quartzites with occasional 
conglomerates and limestones, probaljly of the age of the 
Gympie beds (Carbonifero-Permian), (R.) ; Calliope 
g. f. ! ! !, reefs and alluvial, country rock chiefly altered 
.slates with limestone and marble, intersected by dykes 
and patches of serpentine, diorite and porphyry (R.) ; 
Mount Britten g. f. ! ! !, reefs, partly in diorite and 
partly in grey and black shales and sandstone of the 
" Gympie " series (Carbonifero-Permian), alluvial gold 
in large nuggets, with hardly any fine gold (J.) ; 
Yatton g. f . ! ! !, in reefs in dioi"ite country, intersected 
by dykes of silicated felstone, the gangue-stuff (gene- 
rally composed of fragments of diorite) is veined with 
calcite and decomposed concretionary carbonate of lime, 
while occasional aggregations of siderite and decomposed 
oi-thoclase are met with, some of the stone, composed of 
mixed quartz and reddish ferruginous carbonate of 
lime shows gold very freely, the gold is flaky, like gold- 
leaf (J.) ; Kroombit g. f. ! ! !, alluvial gold in Recent 
and Post Tertiary (?) drifts (R.) ; Peak Downs g. f . ! ! !, 
reefs in crumpled and fissured metamorphic schists, 
slates, &c., of supposed Lower Silurian age (D.), alluvial 
gold from recent drifts, also from deep leads covered by 
basalt, and supposed by Daintree to be Miocene, alluvial 
gold also in a drift of Carbonifero-Permian age (R.) ; 
Normanby g. f., near Bowen ! ! !, reefs and alluvial, 
country rock, a porphyry consisting of quartz, black 
mica (sparsely) and schorl passing into greywacke, 



MINERALS OF QUEENSLAND. 249 

much pyrites below water level (J.) ; Marengo g. f. ! ! 
in reefs, country rock essentially a white granite in 
which the mica is sometimes supplemented and 
occasionally replaced by hornblende, frequent bosses of 
intrusive felspar-prophyry, and occasional small 
areas of gneiss, raica schist, shales and grey- 
wackes, gold in reefs associated with quartz, calcite, 
malachite, pyrites and chalcopyrites (J.) ; Cape 
River g. f. ! ! !, filiform, in threads and hairs, 
which, under the microscope, resemble in a marked 
degree, the roots of tine grass, and in the matted mass 
small particles of opaque iron-stained quartz are observ- 
able. As much as 53 oz. at a time have been melted 
into a bar by us, the bar which weighed 52oz. Idwt. 
■6gr., assayed £3 16s. lOd. per oz. (Coane and Clarke) ; 
alloyed with a large proportion of silver, &c , and often 
takes a peculiar form, combining a thread-like structure 
with a semi-crystalline surface, which is technically 
known among Queensland diggers as " spider-leg " gold 
(D.) ; in reef in metanioi'jihic schist country, also in 
recent alluvium and older fragmentary drifts, supposed 
to be Pliocene (D), — [Analysis by Mr. Richard Smith, 
of the School of Mines, London: — Gold 89-920, silver 
9-688, copper 0-128, lead 0-026, iron 0-070, total 99-832] ; 
Paddy's Gully, Cape River ! !, alluvial (D.), [Analysis 
by Mr. Richard Smith, School of Mines, London : — 
gold 92-800, silver 6-774, copper 0-048, lead 0-048, 
bismuth traces, iron 0-014, total 99-684] ; Charters 
Towers g. f. ! ! !, throughout the goldfield, generally 
associated with galena, sphalerite, calcite, and quartz and 
iron pyrites (C.) ; the principal mines in a granitic area 
in and around the town, others in a country rock of 
quartzites, grey wackes, slates and shales, field also yield- 
ing a small and annualy decreasing proportion of alluvial 
gold (J.) ; Curlew, about 12 miles south of Charters 
Towers ! ! !, associated with cerussite, quartz, pyromor- 
phite, chrysocolla, malachite and galena (C); Ravenswood 
g. f. !, free gold in galena, in cerussite and in limonite 
(L.) ; Ravenswood ! ! !, in reefs associated with quartz, 
iron, copper and arsenical pyrites, sphalerite, 
galena, &c., country rock, grey syenitic granite, a fair 
proportion of alluvial gold also obtained (J.) ; 
Mulgrave g. f. ! ! !, in reefs in a country rock of grey- 
wacke, slate and quartzite (J.) ; Russell Terraces ! ! !, 
alluvial, in old high-level terraces, probably Tertiary (J.); 
Cloncurry g. f. !, in schorl, in malachite, in limonite, in 
sandstone, in malachite and cuprite, in carbonate of 
bismuth (L.), in reefs among highly-inclined slates, 



250 MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 

quartzites, and greywackes, with quartz, calcite and side- 
rite, and in some cases with limonite, some reefs below the 
water level highly charged with pyrites, also in alluvial 
drifts with native bismuth anrl bismuthite, the alluvial 
gold generally coated with iron peroxide, gold mostly in 
large nuggets (J.) ; Reid's Creek, 4 miles south-east of 
Mount Perry ! ! !, in reefs in granite country, associated 
with iron pyrites, arsenical pyrites, spahlerite and 
galena (R.) ; Boolboonda ! ! !, in reefs in gneiss country 
(R.) ; Molangul ! ! !, in reefs and alluvial (R.) ; Nor- 
manby (Wide Bay) ! ! !, in reefs and alluvial (R.) ; 
Lucky Valley ! ! !, in alluvial drifts (A.) ; Lucky Valley, 
Duffer Gully !, imbedded in " small, bright, foliated, 
metallic plates with scales of tellurium " (A.) ; McKinlay 
g. f. ! ! !, reefs and alluvial, country rock, gneiss and 
mica and talc schists, — " The associated minerals are 
gold and copper, the preseiice of ' dykes ' of intrusive 
material seeming to be the chief cause of mineralisation " 
(D.) ; Enoggera Ranges, Brisbane !, in quartz (L.) 

Graphite — Mount Bopple ! ! !, in micaceous granite (0.) ; 
Gympie ! !, with gold on " slickensides " (L.) ; Cape 
Upstart ! !, (J.) ; Croydon Goldfield ! ! ! common 
throughout the Held (B.). 

Gypsum — Near Mount Albion, Tinaroo ! I, cropping out at 
surface (C.) ; Victory Lease, Charters Towers !, 
pellucid crystals in vughs in auriferous quartz reef, 
(C.) ; between Fanning Old Station, and Ravens- 
wood Junction ! ! !, three feet vein in granite country 
(J.) ; 18 miles west of CoUingwood ! ! !, described 
as occurring in very thick beds in the " Rolling 
Downs" (Cretaceous), (J.); Bulimbu, near Brisbane !, 
as selenite (L.) ; Warrego district ! ! fibrous and foliated 
varieties (L.) ; Mount Gregory ! !, Clermont (R.) 

Halite— Sylvester Creek, Herbert River ! !, (Q. M. C). 

H^MITITE 

Specular iron ore — Kelvin Grove, 30 miles south of Mac- 
Kay !, occurs in thin leaders and isolated kernels in 
a rock made up mainly of actinolite and clear and 
pellucid grains of quartz (M.) ; Mount Leviathan and 
Mount Pisa, Cloncurry ! ! I, hills of pure ironstone near 
the Cloncurry copper lodes in slate, greywacke and 
quartzite country, micaceous iron ore, plentiful in the 
same neighbourhood (J.) ; Kangaroo Hills, near Towns- 
ville ! ! !, very large lodes of very pure ore (J.) ; Wild 
River ! ! !, very large lodes of very pure ore (J.) ; 
Cabbage Tree Creek ! ! !, very large lodes of very pure 



MINERALS OF QUEENSLAND. 251 

ore (J.) ; Gunpowder Greek ! !, vein in slate and quartz 
ore, greywacke (J.) ; Gilbert River (Q. M. C). 

Micaceous iron ore — Rosslyn, Burnett district !, (R.) ; Clon- 
curry district ! ! (J.) ; INfount Morgan ! ! (auriferous), 
witli haematite and silicious sinter (J.) ; Mary Douglas 
Reef, Cloncurry ! ! (auriferous), associated with quartz 
and native bismuth (J.) ; Warwick, (Q. M. C.) ; Ravens- 
wood, ochreous (Q. M. C.) ; Ipswich, (Q. M. C.) ; Kil- 
kivan, pseudomorphous after pyrites (Q. M. C.) ; near 
Calliope, Gladstone ! ! (R.) ; Mount Morgan ! ! (aurif- 
erous), with brown h?ematite and silicious sinter (J.) ; 
Cloncurry !, as pseudomorphs after iron pyrites (L.) ; 
Calliope ! ! (R.) ; Duck Creek, Cloncurry, ochreous, 
cementing a breccia (Q. M. C.) ; Yatton Goldfield, pseu- 
domorphous after pyrites (Q. M. C.) ; MacKinlay Range, 
Cloncurry !, pseudomorphs after iron pyrites, in perfect 
cubes and in pentagonal dodecahedra (Sheaffe). 

Hyalite — Stanthorpe disti'ict !, encrusting smoky quartz (L.) ; 
Northern Downs (Q. M. C). 

Infusorial Earth — Logan district (R.), — [Analysis by W. A, 
Dixon : — Moisture and traces of organic matter 10 "31, 
oxide of iron and traces of alumina 0'59, lime traces 
silica 89-10, total 100-00] ; Upper Coomera, Albert 
district (R.). 

Ironstone Blackband — Fourteen miles up Cockatoo Creek !, 
thin seams in Carbonifero-Permian formation (J.). 

Jasper — Diamantina, Springsure (B.) ; Kilkivan, in veins, both 
red and green (R.) ; Tableland, Peak Downs (R.). 

Kaolin — Stanthorpe district ! !, in the tin-drift (L.) ; Mount 
Morgan Extended of Brisbane (Callan's Knob) ! !, 
apparently in dykes and of a very pure character (L.) : 
Mount Morgan and elsewhere !• ! !, common as a result 
of decomposition of acidic felspars in dykes and of 
granites, ifcc, in reefs (J.). 

Kerargyrite — Mount Albion ! !, large " slugs " in Albion Mine 
at surface and at 19 feet, and in Lady Jane Mine at 
130 and 180 feet, associated with galena (J.) ; Croydon 
Goldfield ! !, Queen (auriferous) reef. No. 2 south (B.) ; 
Last Chance, New Zealand Gully, Rockhampton !, in 
reef ; the kerargyrite contains specks of gold (D.) ; 
Puzzler Reef, 8 miles north-east of Charters Towers !, 
in small slugs with quartz, native silver, and very 
much decomposed galena (C). This sample assayed for 
silver 618oz. 7dwt. 13gr. per ton (Coane and Clarke). 

Labradorite — West of Mount Eurie, Cloncurry !, iridescent (J.). 



255 MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 

Laumonite — Strathmore Creek and Bowen River ! !, in geodes 
in epidote rock (J.). 

LiEVRiTE — Endeavour River !, in geodes in basalt (J.). 

MA'GNEsite — Western half of Queensland ! ! !, in extensive beds, 
part of the " desert sandstone " formation (W.) ; 
Waverley Creek, St. Lawrence ! ! !, cimolitic fire-clays or 
niagnesites, with films of coal and fragments of silicified 
tree stems, in Styx Coalfield (D.) ; Tslaport, Rock- 
hampton, — [Analysis: — Silica 7-23, carbonic acid 49*08, 
peroxide of iron 1-66, magnesia 43.70, lime traces, 
total 101.67.] (C). 

Magnetite — Newelltown, Tinaroo ! ! !, the lump in my pos- 
session exhibits marked magnetic polarity and will 
support a tine sewing needle. The powdered mineral 
can be lifted up in long stinngs or brushes on a lump 
of the mineral (J.), — This is a very pure iron ore and it 
was being raised in large quantities when I was at 
Newelltown for the Mount Albion Silver Smelting Co., 
who used it in conjunction with limestone (which 
abounds in this neighbourhood) as a flux in their 
Pacific smelters (C.) ; Wild River, five miles below 
Herberton ! !, sand in tin wash (J.) ; Hinchinbrook 
Island !, fine octahedral crystals in chlorite schist (J.) ; 
Percy Island No. 2 ! !, fine sand on beach (J.) ; Great 
Northern Mine, Star River (Q. M. C.) ; Nundubber- 
mere, near Stanthorpe ! !, in granite (R.) ; Mount 
Victoria, near Mount Perry ! !, in granite (R.) ; Mount 
Webster, Mount Perry district, ciystalline and granular, 
massive (L.) ; Chowey Creek, VVide Bay district, in 
bluish grey quartzite (R.) ; Kroombit, with carbonates 
of copper (Q. M. C). 

Malachite — Flying Dutchman Reef, Cloncurry !, in auriferous 
quartz reef (J.) ; Homeward Bound, Cloncurry ! ! !, 
auriferous copper lode (J.) ; Mountain Home ! !, with 
ferruginous cuprite, pyrolusite, garnets and asbolane 
(J.) ; Duck Creek Copper Mines, Cloncurry ! ! !, in 
lodes (J.) ; Argylla Copper Mines ! ! !, in large lode 
with native copper and cuprite (J.) ; Leichhardt 
River ! ! !, in lodes (J.) ; No. 1 Copper Selection, 
Dugald River ! !, in large lode with cuprite and native 
copper (J.) ; Iron Clad Mine, Herberton ! !, with 
azurite and iron pyrites (C.) ; Mount Garnet, Tinaroo ! !, 
with cerussite and galena and haematite, in some 
portions of the lode very perfect crystals of azurite, 
measuring 12-1 5mm. in the longest axis, occur in 
vughs in the malachite (C.) ; JNIount Garnet, Tinaroo 



MINERALS OF QUEENSLAND. 253 

district ! !, with azurite (C.) ; Cloncurry ! ! !, frequent 
in "gossan " often in large masses (L.) ; Cloncurry ! ! !,. 
containing free gold ; also pseudomorphs after cuprite, 
azurite and siderite (Q. M. C.) ; Great Australian 
Copper Mine, Cloncurry ! ! !, in large lode with native 
copper, cuprite, tenorite and azurite (J.) ; Bau Bau^ 
Burnett district !, coating serpentine (Aplin) ; Taromeo, 
near Narrango (Q. M. C.) ; Curlew, about 12 miles 
south of Charters Towers !, with galena, gold quartz, 
chrysocolla and pyromorphite (C.) ; Burdekin River, 
near Mount Keelbottom ! !, in lode in quai'tz porphyry 
country (J.) ; Great Kennedy Copper Mine ! ! !, in a 
large lode, with azurite and cuprite (J.) ; Keelbottom 
Copper Mine ! !, in quartz veins in porphyry (J. ) ; 
Mount Perry ! ! !, disseminated through granite (R.) ; 
Mount Perry district ! !, in copper lodes, but not 
of very frequent occurrence (L.) ; Peak Downs Copper 
Mine, near Clermont ! ! !, in tine botryoidal masses 
(L.); Mount Gotthard, near Lake Elphinstone, 100 
miles west of Mackay ! !, in " gossan " and in small 
veins (L.) ; Mount Orange Copper Mine ! !, with other 
copper ores (L.) ; Pine Yale, 25 miles south-west of 
Mackay ! !, massive, in reefs, and as stains in quartz, 
also as an alteration product of copper pyrites (M). 

Massicot — Stanton Harcourt, Burnett district, from decomposing 
galena (R.) ; Argentine Silverfield ! ! !, (argentiferous), 
from decomposition of galena (J.) ; Dugald River ! !, in 
large lode, contains according to assays by K. T. Staiger, 
antimony and silver (J.) ; in small quantities at all the 
silver-lead mines ! ! (J.). 

Melaconite — Great Australian Copper Mine, Cloncurry !, occa- 
sional crystals, with cuprite and native copper (J.) ; 
Great Kennedy Copper Mine ! !, in a large lode, asso- 
ciated with azurite and malachite (J.) ; Ironclad Mine, 
Herberton !, with sulphates of iron and copper, and 
iron pyrites, haematite, &c., &c. (C.) ; Mount Leyshon, 
17 miles south of Charters Towers !, with pyrites in the 
country rock of the mount ; country rock has been 
identified by Mr. Jack, the Government Geologist, as a 
volcanic ash (C.) ; Pine Vale, 25 miles south-west of 
Mackay !, an alteration product of copper pyrites, in a 
quartzose matrix (M.) ; Blue Mountains, near Eton ! ! 
(J.) ; Emu Plains, Bowen River, mixed with argentite 
(J.) ; Mount Perry district ! !, with chalcopyrite (L.) ■ 
Texas, Stanthorpe district ! !, with other copper ores (G.), 

Mercury — Kilkivan district !, in a hard, dark quartzose 
rock (R.). 



.254 MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 

MiSPiCKEL ! ! ! — Arsenical pyrites occurs in nearly all the 
auriferous reefs in Queensland, especially those in which 
the country rock is granite, conspicuously at the 
Etheridge, Ravens wood and Norton (J.) ; Stanthorpe ! 
(Q. M. C.) ; Allendale lode, Chowey Creek, Wide Bay 
district ! !, with galena, sphalerite and iron pyrites (R.); 
Mount Witty, Beenleigh ! !, in dark quartz, auriferous 
(L.); Reid's Creek, Mount Perry ! !, auriferous (R.). 

Molybdenite — Stanthorpe district ! in greisen dykes, with 
wolfram and cassiterite (R.), also in quartz at Noble 
Tin Mine and at Greenups (J.) ; Townsville district ! 
(D.) ; Halifax Bay, near Townsville ! (J.); Herberton 
district ! (J.) ; Ravenswood Goldfield !, in quartz (J.) ; 
Herberton, Young American Claim !, with wolfram (J.) ; 
Cania Goldfield !, with gold in calcite (R.) ; Ipswich 
(Q.M.C.); Walsh River ! (J.); Eidsvold Goldfield !, in 
"Moonlight" Reef, auriferous, in quartz (R.) ; Stan- 
thorpe !, in quartz, sometimes with arsenical pyrites and 
with tin ore (L.) ; 30 miles west of Mackay ! ! !, large 
blocks obtainable (Staiger) ; Mount Ophir, Chowey 
Creek, Wide Bay district ! !, with iron pyrites in 
auinferous quartz (R.) ; Old Chowey reefs, nearly due 
north of Didcot, Wide Bay district ! !, with specks of 
gold in its midst (R.) ; Mount Shamrock Mine, Wide 
Bay district !, containing visible gold (L.) ; Burnett 
district ! !, exact locality not yet made public, in quartz 
with molybdic ochre, showing fine flakes of gold (L.). 

Molybdic Ochre — Burnett district, in quartz with molybdenite, 
specks or flakes of fine gold being A'isible in the ochre, as 
well as in the sulphide mineral (L.). 

Natrolite — Main Range, below Toowoomba !, in basalt (L.) ; 
Degilbo Run, Wide Bay !, in basalt (R.). 

Olivine — Gatton, in basalt (L.) ; Albert district, in basalt (R.) ; 
Cania Goldfield, in basalt (R.) ; Cania, Burnett district, 
in basalt (R.) ; Albert and Logan districts, in basalt (R.). 

Opal — Bulloo River ! ! (L.); Barcoo River ! ! (L.) ; Logan River !, 
(Hinchcliffe) ; Springsure (Q. M. C.) ; BJackwater 
Creek, Bulgroo, Keeroongooloo, Mayne River, Nicka- 
villa, Winton ! !, "in nodules of ferruginous silicious 
sandstone and silicious ironstone, either in the ' desert 
sandstone' formation or denuded out of it and resting on 
the surface of the underlying 'Rolling Downs' formation. 
The whole of the area over which the 'desert sandstone' 
extended — the western half of the colony — might 
therefore be given as the locality in which ' opal mines ' 
are ' undeveloped ' " (J.) ; Mount Toussaint and Mount 



MINERALS OP QUEENSLAND. 255 

Macedon ! !, in geocles in epidote rock (J.) ; Cape Hills- 
borough, about 20 miles north-west of Mackay ! !, as a 
coating in many fragments of the desert sandstone, 
forming the Cape tableland (M.). 

Orthoclase - Stanthorpe ! !, associated with smoky quartz, the 
felspar being in large crystals (L.) ; Pinnacle Lease, 
Herberton ! !, of pink colour as matrix of cassiterite (L.); 
North Australian Block, Charters Towers !, in fine pink 
crystals with chlorite and iron pyrites on granite (C). 

PiMELlTE — Cobalt lode, Kilkivan !, earthy variety (R.). 

Platinum — Russell River Terraces !, ininute flakes associated 
with gold and cassiterite in high-level river drifts capped 
by immense basaltic flaws, probably miocene (J.). 

Prehnite — -Biralee, Bowen River ! !, in cavities in epidote rock, 
"in radiating groups of crystals" (Allport), — [Analysis 
of " prehnite rock" by Mr. R. Daintree :— Silica 42-033, 
alumina 21*606, ferric oxide 8-829, lime 23-633, water of 
constitution and hygroscopic 2-900, copper cai'bonate 
0.825, total 99.826, sp. gr. 2-844.] 

Psilomelane — Brookfield, Brisbane (Q. M. C.) ; Beenleigh 
(Q. M. C.) ; Between Chinaman's Creek and Duck 
Creek, 13 miles from Cloncurry ! !, loose blocks in slate 
country (J.) ; Gregory River ! ! !, large lode in sandstone 
country (J.) ; left bank of Police Creek, 300 yards 
from Gregory River ! !, very pure ore (J.). 

Pyrites — Bee Creek, 60 miles west of Mackay ! !, as crystals in 
most of the mines, generally enclosed in a quartzose 
matrix, associated with galena, zinc blende and copper 
pyrites (M.) ; Allendale Lode, Chowey Creek, Wide 
Bay district ! !, associated with mispickel, galena and 
sphalerite (R.) ; Eungella, Mackay district ! !, in quartz 
with small quantities of copper pyrites and galena (L.) ; 
Ravenswood !, in chert as hexakisoctahedra (Q. M. C.) ; 
Mount Webster, Mount Perry district ! !, with fine 
grains of magnetite (L.) ; Union Claim, Rackhampton 
district ! !, auriferous associated with black schorl (C.) ; 
Eungella Lime Plains ! ! !, in quartz with a trifling 
quantity of chalcopyrite and galena, assays 2;|oz. gold 
per ton (L.), iron pyrites occurs probably without 
exception in all the auriferous reefs in Queensland, 
in most of the metalliferous lodes, disseminated 
through most of the plutonic and igneous rocks, in 
many sedimentary rocks, and conspicuously in the 
carbonaceous shales which form the country rock of 
the Gympie goldfield (J.). 



256 



MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 



Pyrolusite — Near Didcot Creek, Wide Bay district (R.) ; 
Leyburn, near Warwick, very pure massive and some- 
times crystalline (L.) ; 8 to 9 miles west of Gympie ! ! 
(R.) ; Thanes Creek, Warwick ! !, crystallized, massive 
and stalactitic (R.) ; 20 miles from Port Douglas, 
near Mount Spurgeon ! ! !, the ore is of a high 
percentage and the lode very large (Towner) ; Mountain 
Home !, dendritic markings on quartz in copper lode 
associated with green carbonate of copper, ferruginous 
red oxide of copper, asbolane and garnets (J.) ; 
between Gregory River and Police Creek ! !, loose 
pebbles (J.) ; Mitchell River, below mouth of St. 
George River ! ! !, large lodes associated with quartz in 
slate and greywacke country (J.) ; between Police 
Creek and Fiery Creek ! ! (J.) ; Mount Morgan !, with 
silicious sinter and red and brown hsematite (J.) ; 
Mount Leyshon, near Charters Towers !, in volcanic 
ash traversed by auriferous ferruginous veins (J.) ; 
Argentine Silver Field ! !, with argentiferous lead ores 
and pyi-ites in "Colorado" and other mines (J.); 
Hodgkinson Goldfield !, coating quartzite on Peak 
river (J.) ; Flinders River, near Coalbrook !, in films 
on bedding-planes and joints of "desert sandstone" (J) ; 
Magazine Island, Townsville, and west of Arthur's 
Creek, Burdekin River ! !, as dendritic markings on 
quartz poryhyry, unusually fine examples (J.) ; Glad- 
stone Harbour ! ! !, with ferruginous quartz among hard 
jasperised metamorphic rocks (R.). Gladstone (C), — 
[Analyses : — 

Available peroxide of 

manganese 
Protoxide of manganese 
Oxides of iron 
Alumina 
Carbonic acid 
Sulphur 
Water 
Silicious insoluble matter 



Loss 



74-84 


57-00 


8-20 


9-30 


8-60 


3-80 


2-80 


2-00 


traces 


traces 


0-22 


0-13 


3-80 


2-70 


jr MO 


25-00 


0-44 


0-07 



100-00 100-00 
-(Messrs. Johnson, Matthey & Co., 



no gold or silver- 
London). 

Pyromorphite — Etheridge Goldfield !, in auriferous quartz reef, 
with galena and pyrites (J.). ; Curlew, about 12 miles 
south of Charters Towers, with cerussite, galena, gold 
quartz, chrysocolla, malachite, &c. The pyromorphite 



MINERALS OF QUEENSLAND. 2o7 

is in very small perfect crystals, being combinations of 
the prism with the basal pinacoid (O.P.) (C). 

Quartz — Day Dawn P.O. Mine, Charters Towers ! ! !, aurifei'ous, 
associated with pyrites, galena, sphalerite, tfec, occurs 
in quartz lode, which is associated with diorite (?) and 
runs through granite country. The ore is taken from 
a depth of 997ft. on the course of the lode, representing 
a vertical depth of 732ft. The lode underlies at an 
angle of about 50° (T. Buckland). 

Iron ... ... ... 23-10 

Lead ... ... ... 13-70 

Zinc ... ... ... 6-50 

Copper ... ... ... -15 

Alumina ... ... ... -30 

Sulphur ... ... ... 30-10 

Siliceous insoluble matter ... 25-90 

Gold, silver, oxygen and loss ... -25 



100-00 



Produce of gold 14oz. 2dwt. per ton of 22401b. ; produce 
of silver, 9oz. 15dwt. per ton of 22401b., (assay 
by Messrs. Johnson, Matthey and Co., London) : — 



Lead 


7-79 


Copper 


•36 


Iron 


, 20-27 


Zinc 


6-70 


Manganese, with a little cobalt . . . 


•30 


Sulphur 


, 27-65 


Arsenic 


•15 


Antimony 


•09 


Carbonate of lime 


1-50 


„ „ magnesia 


•21 


Alumina 


1^20 


Silicious rock 


33-10 


Gold and silver 


-04 


Oxygen and loss 


-64 



100-00 

Silver 6oz. lldwt. per ton of 22401b. ; gold 6oz. lOdwt. 
12gr. per ton of 22401b. (assay by Fred. Claudet, 
Esq., London, assayer to the Bank of England) ; Black 
Jack, Charters Towers ! !, with calcite, the latter in 
opaque rhombohedral crystals (C.) ; Charters Towers ! !, 
when associated with galena, sphalerite and calcite and 
ii'on pyrites, nearly always auriferous (C.) ; Smoky quartz 
Stanthorpe district ! !, with tin ore, with orthoclase felspar 

Q 



258 MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 

(L.) ; Stanthorpe Tin Field ! !, in reefs with cassiterite and 
in stream tin wash (J.). All the goldtields in Queens- 
land ! ! !, containing free gold and auriferous pyrites (L.). 

Kedruthite— Alliance Mine, Morinish, Rockhampton ! !, in 
auriferous quartz (L.). 

_RuBY — Gilbert River !, "in creeks flowing from the Conglomer- 
ate Ranges " (Samwell). 

Sapphire— Stanthorpe ! ! (Q. M. C.) ; Leichhardt district ! (R.) ; 
Gilbert River !, " in creeks flowing from the Conglomer- 
ate Ranges " (S.). 

Sardonyx — Stanthorpe ! ! (B.). 

Schorl — Irvinebank Tin Mines ! ! (J.) ; Ravenswood Goldtield ! !, 
in granite country (J.) ; Cooktown ! !, with the tin ores 
of this district, particularly Mount Leswell, Mount 
Amos, and The Lion's Den, (^oide cassiterite), (C.) ; 
Union Claim, Rockhampton ! !, with auriferous iron 
pyrites and calcite (C. ). 

Serpentine — Gladstone (R-); i^^^^' Ipswich, as matrix of chromite 
(C.) ; Canoona, a belt of serpentine (D.) ; Kilkivan and 
Yarrol, Burnett district, forming rock masses (L.) ; 
different parts of the Burnett district, as Sandy Creek 
and Mount Coora, coated with green carbonate of 
copper, or containing copper lodes (Gregory and Aplin) ; 
Mount Wheeler, 18 miles from Rockhampton, " within a 
radius of one mile of Mount Wheeler the serpentine is 
traversed by auriferous quartz reefs, while the extension 
of the same band of serpentine over a large area beyond 
this contains no parallel to the auriferous area round 
the above-mentioned hill " (D.). 

SiLicious Sinter — Mount Morgan ! 1 !, highly auriferous, 
supposed deposit of a hot spring (J.). 

Silver (Native) — Croydon Goldfield !, Waratah (auriferous) 
reef (Biccard) ; Croydon Goldtield !, in " Miners' Right" 
and "No. 2 S." Queen auriferous reefs (Wallmann) ; 
Queen line of reef, Croydon, Avith free gold in quartz 
(Morgan) ; Mount Albion, Tinaroo district, in oxide of 
iron (L.) ; Puzzler Reef, 8 miles north-east of Charters 
Towers, in spangles splashed over quartz (C.) ; Scrubby 
Creek, Broad Sound !, in cerussite lode (J.); Nannam 
Mine, Orient Camj) (Ringrove). 

Smitiisonite — Bowen district !, in vesicular quartz, with carbonate 
of lead and galena. 

Sphalerite — Bee Creek, 60 miles west of Mackay ! !, massive, in 
many of the mines enclosed in quartz, associated with 



MINERALS OF QUEENSLAND. 259 

iron pyrites, copper pyrites and galena (M.) ; Tornado 
Claim, Silverfield, Tinaroo district I !, with chalcopyrite, 
arsenical pyrites, and galena (J.) ; Koh-i-noor, Newell- 
town, Tinaroo district ! !, with arsenical pyrites and 
galena (J.) ; Hector Claim, Ravenswood ! !, auriferous, 
with iron pyrites (C.) ; Currency Lass and Politician 
Claims, Ravenswood ! !, auriferous, with iron and 
copper pyrites and galena (C.) ; Alexandra Hill 
Gold Mine, Charters Towers ! !, auriferous, with iron 
and copper pyrites (C.) ; Sunburst P. C, Chartei's 
Towers ! I, with galena and iron pyrites in quartz, auri- 
ferous (L.) ; Mary Florence, Rockhampton !, auriferous, 
with iron and copper pyrites in quartz (C.) ; Kilkivan 
Amalgamated Gold Mine, Kilkivan I ! !, in quartz with 
a little calcspar, associated with galena and iron pyrites, 
free gold often visible (l>.) ; Gympie !, in quartz with 
free gold (R.) ; Rise and Shine Reef, Kilkivan ! !, auri- 
ferous (R.) ; Mount Leyshon, 17 miles south of Charters 
Towers ! ! !, with galena, assayed 21oz. 4dwts. 4grs. 
silver per ton (C.) ; Ravenswood I !, with galena 
(Christoe),— The sample assayed 430oz. silver per ton. 
An experiment was tried to see whether the galena or 
the zinc-blende carried most silver, and as the sample 
was remarkably pure and the two minerals in com- 
paratively large crystals, it was possible to sort out 
sufficient of each (from the coarsely powdered ore) for a 
separate assay, and the following returns were obtained : 
— Galena 431oz. silver per ton, sphalerite 429oz. silver 
per ton (C.) ; Charters Towei's Goldfield !, with pyrites 
and galena in auriferous reefs (J.) ; Ravenswood Silver 
Mines ! ! !, in lodes with galena, cerussite, stibnite, 
pyrites' tfec. (J.) ; Sellheim Silver Mines ! ! !, in lodes 
associated with galena and pyrites (J.) ; Dry River 
Silver Mines ! !, in lodes, associated with pyrites, marca- 
site, chalcopyrite, galena, anglesite, cerussite, and mala- 
chite (J.) ; Degilbo ! !, in lodes, associated with gold, 
galena and arsenical pyrites (R.) ; Croydon Goldfield !, 
in auriferous reefs associated with pyi'ites, galena and 
graphite (J.) ; Ravenswood Goldfield ! !, in auriferous 
reefs associated with pyrites, arsenical pyrites, copper 
pyrites and galena (J.) ; Etheridge Goldfield ! !, in auri- 
ferous reefs associated with pyrites, arsenical pyrites, 
copper pyrites and galena (J.) ; Norton Goldfield ! !, 
with galena, iron pyrites, quartz and calcite, auriferous 
and argentiferous (C). — [Analyses and assays of two 
complex zinc, iron and lead sulphides from Iforton 
Tield :— 

q2 



260 



MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 



Goody's Frampton's 









Eeef. 


Eeef. 


Iron 
Lead 






30-60 
8-90 


25-10 
1-10 


Zinc 






6-00 


7-60 


Arsenic 






1-55 


6-80 


Copper 






0-95 


0-65 


Sulphur 






36-00 


25-70 


Alumina 






0-40 


0-20 


Silicious 


insoluble 






matter 






15-20 


32-60 


Gold, silver, 


oxygen 






and loss 






0-40 


0-25 



100-00 100-00 

Sample from Goody's reef: Produce of gold, 2-400oz. 
per ton of 20cwt. ; silver, 14-700oz. per ton of 20cwt., 
sample from Frampton's claim : produce of gold, 
5-5OO0Z. per ton of 20cwt., silver 4-700oz. per ton of 
20cwt. (Messrs. Johnson, Matthey and Co., London)]. 

Stannite — Eureka Creek ! !, in Ivanhoe Mine, associated with 
cassiterite (J.) ; Watsonville, with cassiterite in 
Stewart's T. Claim (J.). 

Staurolite — -Agnes Yale, Wide Bay district ! !, twin cruciform 
crystals in argillaceovts slate (R.). 

Steatite — Cobalt lode, Kilkivan (R.). 

Stibnite — Neardie, near Gympie ! !, with valentinite in quartz 
(R.) ; St. John's Creek, Burnett district ! !, with 
valentinite (L.) ; Victoria Claim, Silverfield, Tinaroo 
district ! !, accompanying galena (C.) ; Emily Reef, 
Northcote, Hodgkinson district ! ! !, auriferous, yielding 
over 2oz. gold per ton, value of gold £3 19s. per oz. (0.) ; 
Rishton ! !, lodes (J.) ; Mount Wright, near Ravens- 
wood ! ! !, White and Phillips' and other lodes (J.) ; 
Herberton !, Home Rule and other tin lodes (J.) ; 
Fanning River ! !, lodes (J.) ; Northcote ! ! !, in large 
lodes, some of which have yielded payable gold (J.) ; 
Woodville, Hodgkinson River ! ! !, lodes (J.) ; five 
miles north-west of Gympie !, in fossiliferous limestone 
(R.) ; Eidsvold Goldlield ! !, in auriferous quartz reef, 
south of Stockman's Claim (R.) ; Ethei'idge Goldfield ! ! 
(Hodgkinson). 

Sulphur — Curtis Island, Keppel Bay !, cementing grains of sand 
(L.) ; Taylor's Range, Brisbane !, in cavities of quartz 
formed from the decomposition of pyrites (Q. M. C.) ; 
Etheridge ! !, on highly decomposing pyrites (L.). 



MINERALS OF QUEENSLAND. 261 

Tellurium — Lucky Valley, Duffer Gulley ! in a quartz vein 
there are found "small, bright, foliated, metallic plates 
and scales of tellurium, in which gold may be seen 
imbedded " (Aplin). 

Tetrahedrite — Pumpkin Gully, Cloncurry !, in cap of a large 
lode (J.) ; Copper Mines at Duck Creek, Cloncurry ! !, 
in rainbow lode (J.); Argylla Copper Mine ! !, in large 
lode, with native copper, cuprite and malachite (J.) ; 
Leichhardt River ! !, Crusade and other lodes (J.) ; 
Mount Orange Copper Mine, Nebo district ! !, with 
chalcopyrite (L.) ; Bo wen district ! !, with calcite, assay- 
ing to iOOoz silver per ton (L.) ; between Bowen and 
Mackay ! ! !, rich in silver (L.) ; Emu Plains, Broken 
River, North Kennedy !, occurs in thin strings, as an 
alteration product of azurite, associated with calcite and 
malachite, argentiferous (M.) ; One Mile, Ravenswood 
! ! !, in Great Extended Shaft at 700 feet, " the gangue 
is 5 feet wide, the ore is exceedingly rich, assays giving 
by ordinary fire process from 500 to 5000 ounces of 
silver per ton, the rich ore is contained in a vein from 
6 to 12 inches thick, and, singular to say, contains the 
merest trace of lead. The formation (gangue) below 
this ore is intersected by small galena veins " (Archibald), 
although generally spoken of as tetrahedrite, with which, 
or rather with the argentiferous variety, freibergite, 
analyses sometimes roughly correspond, the " ore " does 
not appear (judging from what samples I have seen) to 
be a single mineral, but an intimate mixture of several 
ores of antimony, copper, iron, zinc, ifcc. (J.), assay silver 
2384oz. lOdwt. per ton (L.). — Analysis by (J.) : — 



Copper 

Antimony ... 
Silver 


... 12-67 
... 11-38 
... 7-29 




Iron 


... 10-31 




Zinc 


... 31-54 




Sulphur 
Silica 


... 24-87 
... 3-90 




lysis, different sample : — 

Copper 

Antimony ... 

Silver 


101-86 

... 16.25 
... 26.30 
... 15-35 


(C). 


Iron 


8-49 




Zinc 


8-75 




Sulphur 
Silicious matter 


... 17-02 
... 7-31 






99-47 


(Merry). 



262 MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 

Thomsonite — Strathmore Creek and Bowen River ! !, in geodes 
in epidote rock (J.). 

TiTANiFEROUS Iron — In creeks in Mount Perry district (R.) ; 
watercourses on the flanks of Mount Jukes, 20 miles 
west of Mackay ! !, as rounded grains and regular 
octahedrons, associated with grains of magnetite and 
quartz (M.). 

Topaz — Never-can-tell claim, Coolgarra, Tinaroo, with cassiterite 
crystals (C.) ; Running Creek, Star River (yellow), in 
tin wash, associated with garnets (J.) ; Stanthorpe 
district (white) in tin wash (J.). 

Tourmaline — Cloncurry ! !, with free gold (Q.M.C.) ; Union Gold 
Mine, Rockhampton ! !, with calcite as matrix of auri- 
ferous pyrites ; Great Freehold, Mount Perry district ! !, 
in masses composed of fine divergent acicular 
crystals (L.); Mount Leswell, near Cooktown ! ! !, in coarse 
ciystals with cassiterite (L.) ; Stuart Valley, Burnett 
district ! !, in fine-grained felsphatic rock ; St. John's 
Creek, Burnett district !, in quartz (Q.M.C); Cooyar 
Range, Narrango !, long prismatic crystals in coarse 
granite (R.) ; Mount Victoria, Mount Perry district ! 1, in 
radiating crystals (R.) ; "VVoodonga, near Kilkivan, in 
radiating crystals (R.) ; Lizard Island ! !, in large 
crystals (J.) ; Argentine Silver Field ! !, large thick 
crystals embedded in quartz (J.) ; Fanning Diggings !, 
small crystals passing into the aggregated fibrous 
bundles called schorl (J.). 

Valentinite — Neardie, near Gympie ! !, and St. John's Creek ! !, 
with stibnite (L.). 

Wolfram — Noble Island ! ! !, in quartz (L.) ; Stanthorpe 
district ! !, associated with cassiterite (L.) ; Brisbane 
district! !, in quartz (L.) ; Flagstone Creek, Bowen 
district ! !, in quartz, forming cap of a galena lode (L.) ; 
Bonnie Dundee, Coolgarra, Tinaroo !, with cassiterite 
and mica in red chlorite (C.) ; Mackay district !, in 
quai'tz (G. Francas) ; Great Northern P. C, Herberton ! !, 
with quartz and cassiterite (C.) ; Chance claim, Watson- 
ville, Tinaroo ! !, in fine large crystals in ferruginous 
gangue, with quartz and cassiterite, also massive (C.) ; 
Eureka Creek, Tinaroo ! !, with cassiterite (C.) ; 
Herberton Tin Mines ! !, with cassiterite in lodes (j.) ; 
Stanthorpe Tin Field ! !, with cassiterite (J.) ; Eungella 
Goldfield ! !, with garnets and iron glance in a large 
lode in granite country (J.) ; Annan Tin Mines ! !, with 
cassiterite and tourmaline in lodes at Mount Amos (J.). 



MINERALS OF QUEENSLAND. 



263 



Zeolite — (Scolecite 1) Charters Towers, — This zeolite, which is 
of a pale pink, occurs in the joints and cleavage planes 
of the granite. One sample from the Rainbow Lease is 
massive and is found on botli walls of the lode. The 
polished surface shows an included vein of pure white 
calcite. The mineral is found at various depths (C). 

(L) (II.) (III.) (IV.) 



SiO, ... 46-2.5 


49-04 


47-0 47-24 


AI.O3 ... 27-35 


26-64 


2664 


CaO ... 13-95 


12-24 


12-95 


H2 (by igni- 






tion) ... 13-47 


13-30 


13-7 14-20 


Fes O3 ... trace 


trace 


trace 



In the above analyses No. 1 is from the Queen Block 
Extended, No. 2 from the Mary claim. No. 3 from the 
Rainbow, and No. 4 from the Mexican (C). 

Zircon, Narrango Creek (R.) ; Russell River Terraces ! ! (hya- 
cinth), water- worn, associated with gold, quartz (Clarke); 
Eungella, Broken River (J.) ; Constant Creek, about 
18 miles west of Mackay, occurs both as small crystals 
and grains of a deep yellow or reddish brown colour, 
all more or less rounded by attrition, in the sandy 
gravel in the bed of the creek, associated with fragments 
of quartz and mica (M.) 




MINERALS OF NEW ZEALAND. 

By Sib JAS. HECTOE, K.C.M.G., F.E.S. 



AcTiNOLiTE ! — Milford Sound (Hector) ; Para-para, (Cox), as 
radiating fan-shaped crystals in metamorphic schists. 

Albite, or Soda Felspar ! ! — Maori Point, West Coast, 
Wilkes River, Makarora, Dun Mountain, George 
Sound, in diorites (Hector, Haast, Davis). 

Alum ! ! — Pomahaha, as a product of pyritous shale (Hector, 
1862) ; Puai Island, Waikuaiti (Hochstetter, 1860); 
Tokomairiro, as potash alum (Hector, 1862) ; D'Urville 
Island, as manganese alum (Hackett, 1866). Analysis 
per cent (Skey) : — 

Alumina ... ... ... 10-40 



Ferric oxide... 


... Ml 


Lime 


•50 


Magnesia 


... 546 


Soda 


•41 


Sulphuric acid 


... 37-40 


Hydrochloric acid 


. . . traces 


Water 


... 42-72 


Insoluble in water 


... 2-00 



100-00 
Alunite ! — Rotorua, deposited by geysers (Ulrich) 

Alunogene ! ! — Tuapeka, Manawatu, occurring in some of the 
brown coals, is colourless, crystalline, and completely 
soluble in water. Analysis per cent. (Skey) : — 

Sulphate of alumina 
Sulphate of lime 
Sulphate of magnesia 
Alkaline sulphates 
Water 

100-00 
Andesine ! — Colleville Peninsula, Taupo district, Ruapehu, in 

andesites (Hutton). 
Anorthite ! — Kakapo Lake, West Coast, in diorite dykes 

(Hutton). 
Anthophyllite ! — Karori, Wellington, in a massive laminated 

form (Davis). 
Antigorite ! — Dun Mountain, in serpentine schists (Cox). 



55-60 


1-01 


2-99 


3-00 


37-40 



MINERALS OF XEW ZEALAND. 



265 



AxTiMONiAL Ochre ! — Endeavour Inlet, as a coating on antimonite 
(Cox). 

Apatite ! — Wangapeka (Lab. and Geol. Reports). 

Apophyllite ! I — Tui nagain Point, in amygdaloids, Rangitata, as 
ichthyopthalmite in felsite porphyries (Haast). 

Arahonite ! ! — Collingwood, Dunedin, Thames, in cavities in 
basaltic rocks and from hot springs (Hector) ; and 
several other places, lining fissures and cavities in 
volcanic rocks of Bank's Peninsula (Haast). 

Arsenic (Native) ! — Kopanga Mine, Coromandel, in auriferous 
quartz lode with calcite (Hector, 1S67). 

Asbestos ! ! ! — Milford Sound, Collingwood, Takaka (Hector). 

AuGiTE ! ! — Hororata district, Dunedin, Nelson, Auckland, 
Collingwood, Bank's Peninsula, Acheron, Chatham ; 
enters into the composition of all basalts, dolerites, 
anametesites, trachydolerites, diabases and melaphyres ; 
sometimes in crystals ^ inch long, Nelson (Hector). 

Azurite ! — Nelson, Great Barrier Island, in gossan of copper 
lodes in serpentine. 

Barytes !— Waikoriti (Mantell, 1852); Akitea (Hectoi% 1867); 
Thames (Skey, 1870) ; East Cape (McKay, 1874). 

Beryl ! — Dusky Sound, in hornblendic schists (Cox) ; Stewart's 
Island, with tin stone in large crystals (McKay), 
determined by Skey. 

Bismuth ! — Owen, Collingwood, alloyed with gold (Hector), 
determined by Skey. 

Bitumen — Cast up on the south and east coast of New Zealand 
in considerable quantity (Lab. Geol. Reports III.) 

Bole ! ! — Lytt elton Tunnel, in dolerite rocks (Haast). Analysis 
(Skey) :- 

Silica ... ... ... 44-78 



Alumina 


. 15-66 


Iron 


. 16-87 


Manganese ... 


-60 


Lime 


2-02 


Magnesia 


. 5-02 


Potash 


. 2-69 


Water (constitutional) 


. 12-36 



100-00 
BoRNiTE ! — Kawau, Dunstan, in micaceous quartz (Hector). 
Bournonite ! — Wangapeka, occurs in quartz with galena (Hector). 

Braunite ! ! — Malvern Hills, vicinity of Wellington, massive 
(Geol. Survey, 1873). 



266 MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 

Bronzite ! — Dun Mountain, in diorite rocks (Hector, Davis). 

Brookite ! — Otepopo, in crystalline dolerite (Hector, 1862). 

Calamine ! — Tararu Creek, as lustrous transparent crystals 
attached to cliallogite, but always external (Skey). 

Calcspar (Calcite) ! ! — Tokotea Range, Otago, in tertiary rocks 
of Otago as dogtooth spar ; Nelson, in limestone at 
Moeraki ; Canterbury, as Iceland spar (Hector 1862, 
Haast 1864) ; Dunedin, Sea-clitl", near Waikouaite,. 
Cape Rodney, Tararu Creek, Thames, smoke-coloured 
calcite. Cape Rodney (Cox, 1882). 

Marble ! !— Collingwood district (Hector, 1863) ; West Coast 
Sounds (Hochstetter, 1860) ; Kakaka, Canterbury 
(Monro, 1866). 

Stalactite and Stalagmite ! ! — Whangarei, Waipu, Colling- 
wood, Mount Somers, occur in many limestone caves. 

Travertine ! ! — Oaraaru, Mauriceville, Takaka, and many 
other places, deposited from calcareous waters (Hector, 
1862). 

Cervantitb ! — widely distributed, occurs incrusting stibnite. 

Chabasite ! — Dunedin, in vesicular basalts (Hector) ; Helen- 
burn and Bank's Peninsula, in trachytic rocks (Haast). 

Chalcopyrite ! ! ! — Kawau, Great Barrier Island, Moke Creek, 
Paringa River, Canterbury, Collingwood (Geol. Surv.), 

Chiastolite ! — Collingwood, embedded in clay slate (Hector). 

Chlorite ! I — Fox Glacier, Westland, in chlorite schists (Cox) ; 
Tararu Creek, Thames (Skey) ; West Coast of Otago 
and Otago Heads, in an amorphous form in vesicular 
basalts (Hector) ; Kakapo Lake (Liversidge). 

Chrome Ocure ! !— Nelson, occurs in combination with 
"chromite" in small quantities (Hackett, 1861). 

Chromite ! ! — D'Urville Island, Dun Mountain, Aniseed Valley,, 
Red Hills, Otago, in a band of serpentine and olivine, 
also occurs as massive ci'ystals, massive amorphous 
crystalline, disseminated, and granular (Hector, 1865) : 
Nelson ! !, associated with nephrite (Hector, 1865). Sp, 
gr. 3-328. Analysis (Skey) :— 

Silica ... ... ... 12-66 

Chromic oxide ... ... 47-69 

Ferrous oxide ... ... 24-08 

Alumina ... ... ... 6-29 

Lime ... ... ... 3*16 

Magnesia ... ... ... 6*12 

100-00 



MINERALS OP NEW ZEALAND. 



267 



Chrysoberyl ! — Stewart Island (determined by Skey, 1889). 

Chrysocolla ! — Nelson, encrusting gossans of copper ores in the 
serpentine belt. 

Chrysotile, or Peridot — Dun Mountain, traversing the dark 
green serpentine (Cox). 

Chlorophyllite ! — Mount Somers, fine earthy mineral filling 
cavities in rocks (Haast). 

Coals ! ! ! — Special schedule, abstract of report by Sir J. Hector 
(Geol. Surv. Dept. 

Coals of New Zealand. 





Description. 


Localitj-. 


Analyses by Skey. 


No. 


i-io 


So 




■< 




1 


Anthracite 


Acheron, Canterbury ... 


84-12 


2-06 


1-80 


12-12 


10-93 


2 


Bituminous 


Coalbrookdale 


74-83 


20-50 


1-16 


3-51 


10-72 


3 


„ 


„ 


70-00 


22-15 


252 


5-33 


9-10 


4 


„ 


Banbury 


69-97 


25-71 


-99 


3-33 


9-09 


5 


Altered brown coal 


Malvern Hills 


68-54 


19-89 


4-15 


7-42 


8-87 


6 


Bituminous 


Tyneside 


65-59 


29-18 


■82 


4-41 


8-52 


7 


Glance Coal 


Kakaika Gorge 


64-51 


21-27 


6-76 


7-46 


8-30 


8 


Bituminous 


Wallsend 


62-87 


31-64 


1-66 


3-83 


8-17 


9 


„ 


Grey River 


62-37 


29-44 


1-99 


6-20 


8-01 


10 


Pitch Coal 


Kawa-Kawa 


61-16 


28-00 


2-51 


8-33 


7-95 


U 


Bituminous 


Preservation Inlet 


60-88 


20-69 


4-33 


6-19 


7-91 


12 


Pitch Coal 


Black Creek, Grey River . 


60-20 


29-97 


8-01 


1-82 


7-82 


13 


Bituminous 


ilokiliinui 


59-75 


3-2-14 


3-27 


414 


7-76 


U 


I 


Coalpitheath 


58 81 


38-98 


1-02 


1-19 


7-64 


15 


„ 


Mokiliinui 


57-92 


34-94 


3-96 


3-18 


7-50 


16 




Bruuner Mine 


56-62 


35-68 


1-59 


6-11 


7-36 


17 


... 


„ 


56-21 


37-83 


1-60 


4-56 


7-3(» 


18 


" •■■ 


Westport 


56-01 


37-17 


2-60 


4-22 


7-28 


19 


... 


Mokiliinui 


55-59 


38-86 


3-16 


2-39 


7-20 


20 




Brunner 


54-16 


35-85 


2-50 


7-49 


7-04 


21 


Altered brown coal 


Malvern Hills 


53-29 


32-04 


12-65 


2-02 


6-92 


22 


Bituminous 


Otamataura Creek 


52-89 


36-63 


2-19 


8-29 


6-911 


23 




Wallsend 


53-10 


35-47 


1-41 


10-02 


5-90 


24 




Near Cape Farewell 


48-59 


43-17 


2-18 


6-06 


6-31 


25 


Pitch coal 


Shag Point 


43-19 


30-15 


15-82 


10-94 


5-61 


26 




Kawa-Kawa 


50-15 


42-63 


4-18 


3-04 


6-50 


27 


Glance coal 


Whaiigarei 


50-11 


38-68 


8-01 


3-20 


6-50 


28 


Pitch coal 


Kamo 


60-01 


37-69 


9-61 


2-69 


6-50 


29 


Brown coal 


Malvern Hills 


49-99 


35-42 


11-79 


2-80 


6-49 


30 




Fernhill 


49-95 


36-95 


12-00 


1-10 


6-49 


31 




AUandale 


47-31 


36-26 


12-41 


6-02 


6-15 


3i 




Kaitangata 


46-48 


33-48 


1466 


5-38 


6-04 


33 




Shag Point 


46-21 


32-65 


16-02 


5-12 


6-00 


34 




Homebush 


44-92 


36-00 


15-83 


3-25 


5-83 


35 




Hokonui 


44-28 


S8-22 


16-50 


1-00 


5-75 


36 


" ... 


Kaitangata 


44-11 


38-32 


15-44 


2-13 


5-74 


37 


., 


Nightcaps 


43-62 


33-68 


18-33 


4-37 


5-67 


38 




Springfielil 


42-68 


33-66 


18-65 


5-01 


5-55 


39 




Orepuki 


42-64 


36-26 


14-44 


6-66 


5-54 


40 


Pitch coal 


Walton's Whangaraei ... 


38-80 


41-20 


7-20 


12-80 


4-96 


41 


Brown coal 


Kaitangata 


38-29 


32-43 


17-50 


11-78 


4-87 


42 


„ 


Shag Point 


3.5-76 


30-92 


13-22 


20-16 


4-64 


43 


I) 


Allandale 


34-72 


40-26 


18 99 


4-86 


4-51 


44 


Pitch coal 


Grey River 


34-72 


55-48 


6-20 


2-60 


4-51 



.268 



MINERAL CENSUS OP AUSTRALASIA. 



Name of Coal. 


Ap])roximate Total 

Output of Coal 

up to the 

31st December, 1888. 


Bituminous 

Pitch 

Brown 

Lignite 

Totals 


Tons. 
2,484,687 

803,948 
1,797,725 

146,472 


5,232,832 



Total output of coals of New Zealand to 31st December 
1888, 4,618,937 tons. 

Cobalt Bloom ! — Otago, occurs in schists and gneiss (Hector). 

Copper (Native) — Great Barrier Island, Nelson, Lake Wakatipu, 
Dun Mountain, Perserverance Mountain, &c., in plates 
associated with copper deposits in serpentine (Skey); 
as grains disseminated thi'ough a granular serpentine, 
as fine grains in basaltic dykes which cut through 
trachydolerite breccias (Geol. Survey), (Cox). 

Black Copper^ or Tenorite- — D'Urville Island. 

Copper Glance ! — Nelson, in various parts of the serpentine 
belts, in a massive form. 

Peacock Copper — ^Maharahara, Champion Mine, occurs asso- 
ciated with native copper (Hector). 

Red Copper ! — D'Urville Island, Lake Te Anau ; 35-60 per 
cent, copper. 

Copper Pyrites ! ! ! — Waipori, Moke Creek, Coromandel, in a 
compact amorphous form (Hector). Analysis (Skey): — 

Copper ... ... ... 15-03 

Iron ... ... ... 28-00 

Quartz ... ... ... 21-00 

Sulphur ... ... ... 35-97 



100-00 
Copperas ! — Kawau, Barrier Islands, crystallised. 

■CovELLiNE ! — D'Urville Island (Hector, Cox). 

Dermatin ! — Dun Mountain, West Coast Sounds, occurs in their 
faces with smooth polished surfaces (Davis). 

Diallage, or Aluminous Augite ! ! — Kakapo Lake, in diorites 
(Hector) ; Martin's Bay, in gabbro and in reefs 
traversing mesozoic limestones (Hector). 

Green Diallage ! ! — Mount Arthur, in serpentine schists 
(McKay). 



MINERALS OF NEW ZEALAND. 269' 

DiALLOGlTE ! ! — Thames (Hectoi*. 1881), associated with calamine ; 
Makara (Skey, 1870). 

DiLESSlTE ! — Mount Soniers, fine earthy mineral filling up 
cavities in melaphyres (Haast). 

DiOPTASE ! — Thames, Nelson, occurs as an encrustation on the 
copper ores (Skey). 

Dolomite ! — Malvern Hills, interstratified with augitic sand- 
stone (Haast, 1865); Collingwood (Hector, 1872). 

DoPPLERlTE ! — Waiapu, formed as a surface deposit by oxidation 
of exuded petroleum. Analysis (Skey) 

Oils ... ... ... 3-1 

Paraffin ... ... ... 9-3 

Earthy matters ... ... 26-9 

Water ... ... ... 11-3 

Oxygenated hydro-carbons ... 49-4 



100-0 

DuFERENOYSiTE !■ — Great Barrier Island, as a fine crystalline 
vein associated with galena in large crystals (Hutton). 

DuNiTE ! ! — Dun Mountain, found in masses (Hochstetter), named 
by Hector, 1863. Analysis (Reuter) : — 

Silica ... ... ... 42-80 

Magnesia ... ... ... 47-38 

Protoxide of iron ... ... 9-40 

Water ... ... ... -57 



100-15 

Elaterite ! — Kawau (Hector, 1865), hardness 2 sp. gr. 1-034 ; 
Poverty Bay (Liversidge, 1877). 

Electrum ! ! ! — Thames, usually found in places where gold 
occurs. 

Emerald ! — Dusky Sound, in quai'tz with pyrrhotine (collected 
by Dockerty, determined by Cox and Skey). 

Epidote ! — West coast of Otago, in granites (Hector) ; Mount 
Torlesse, in diorites (Haast) ; Wairarapa, in massive 
form (Hector). Analysis (Skey) : — 

Silica ... ... ... 44-71 



Iron 


... 14-66 


Alumina 


... 11-47 


Lime 


... 22-93 


Magnesia 


2-13 


Water of constitution 


4-10 



100-00 



270 MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 

Epsomite, or Epsom Salts ! — Otasjo, as an efflorescence (Hector, 
1865). 

Fayalite ! — Nelson, in scliist, contains 2 '6% copper (Skey). 

Felspar (Glassy) ! — Taupo district, in rhyolites, &g. (Hector). 

Fluor Spar ! ! ! — -Stewart's Island and West Otago (McKay, 
1889) ; Batton Kiver, associated with sulphate of 
baryta (Park, 1889) ; determined by Skey. 

Fuller's Earth ! — Great Barrier Island Hot Springs, in 
trachyte tuffs (Hutton). 

Gahnite ! — Stewart Island, with tin stone (McKay) ; determined 
by Skey, 1888. 

Galena ! — Kaituna and Kaimauawa Range, associated with 
quartz, generally argentiferous ; Wangapeka, containing 
an average yield of about 91 ounces of silver per ton; 
Great Barrier Island (Skey). 

Garnet (Iron Z/wi?J — West Otago, in gneiss (Hector). 

Black Garnet — Dunedin, in vesicular basalts (Hector). 

Glauber Salts ! — Brancepeth, Whareama, Wellington, sample 
forwarded by Mr. W. H. Beetham in 1874 (determined 

by Skey). 

Glauconite ! — Otago, occurs in schist and green sands as rounded 
grains in several of the younger secondary beds (Hector). 

Gold (Native) ! ! !— Auckland, Taranaki, Hawke's Bay, Welling- 
ton, Nelson, Marlborough, Canterbury, Southland, 
Westland, occurs plentifully in reefs, alluvial deposits, 
sea sand, &c., as crystals in the Ben Nevis Range and 
Mahakipawa. 

Graphite ! ! 1 — Pakawau, occurs chiefly as thin flat veins inter- 
stratified with metamorphic schist, was largely worked 
prior to 1866 ; Wangapeka and Mount Potts, dissem- 
inated throughout the graphtolite or carbon slates 
(Silurian) and in the glossopteris beds (Permian), 
(collected by Hector) ; Waikoura Creek, a boulder of 
very pure graphite in a stream from Mount Egmont. 
Analysis of Pakawau sample (Skey) : — 

Carbon ... ... ... 58-10 

Water ... ... ... 2-68 

Ash ... ... ... 39-22 



lOO'OO 

Green Earth ! — Malvern Hills, filling cavities in melaphyres 
(Haast). 



MINERALS OP NEW ZEALAND. 



271 



Halloysite ! ! — Dunedin (Hector) ; Water of Leith (Liversidge) ; 
Scinde Island (McKay), in decomposing basalts. 
Analysis (Skey) : 

Silica ... ... ... 58-22 



Sesquioxide of iron 


... 5.82 




Alumina 


... 24-34 




Lime 


2-02 




Magnesia 


... 2-53 




Water 


... 4-81 




Alkalies and loss 


2-26 






100-00 




— Wakatipu district, 


Collingwood, in 


crystals 



(McKay) ; Hauerite per cent. 10-87 (Skey). 

Hausmannite ! — Selwyn IJiver, in rolled pieces and coating joints 
in rocks (Haast, 1865). 

Hectorite ! — Dun INIountain, named by Cox, occurs with 
serpentine rocks (Cox, Tran. N.Z.I. 1882, p. 409). 
Analysis (Skey) : — 

Silica ... ... ... 57-89 



Ferrous oxide 

Alumina 

Ferric oxide 

Manganese . . . 

Lime 

Magnesia 

Water 



18-46 
4-74 

traces 

traces 
1-99 

13-94 
2-98 



100-00 

Hematite! — Mount Gilbert, Nelson, Dunstan, as lenticular 
masses. Analysis (Skey) : — 

Silica ... ... ... 4-60 

Alumina ... ... ... 3-00 

Sesquioxide of Iron ... ... 90-60 

Water of constitution... ... 1-80 



100-00 

Heulandite ! — Canterbury, in amygdaloidal trajDs associated 
with felsite porphyries (Haast). 

Hessite ! — Te Aroha, in auriferous quartz (Hector) ; analysed 
by Skey. 

Hornblende ! ! — Widely distributed (Hocbstetter, 1863). 

Hypersthene ! ! — Warp Point, Kaduku River, in diorite rocks 
and in hypersthenite (Hector). 



272 MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 

Idocrase, or Vesuvianite ! — Dusky Sound, as dirty-green, fluted 
prismatic crystals in quartz associated with crystalline 
rocks (Docherty), (identified by Skey). 

Idrialite, or Inflammable Cinnabar ! — Dunstan, Serpentine 
Valley, Waipori, Ohaeawai Springs, occurs as rounded 
grains in alluvium (Hector). Analysis (Skey) : — 

Water ... ... ... 6-89 

Hydrocarbon .. ... 21*50 

Cinnabar ... ... ... 34"10 

Sand ... ... ... 37-51 



100-00 
Ilmenite ! — Taranaki, in iron sands in all parts of New Zealand, 

especially Taranaki. 
Iridosmine ! — Takaka, Orepuke, occurs in gold wash as small 

flat grains (Hochstetter). 
Iron Pyrites ! ! — Collingwood, Wakatipu district, &c., occurs in 

octahedral crystals (Lab. and Geol. Reports). 

Iserine ! ! — Common on the West Coast, S. I., (Lab. and Geol. 

Reports). 
Jade, Nephrite, or Axe-Stone ! !— Milford Sound, Teremakau 
River, known as " maori greenstone." It occurs as 
rolled pieces on the beach and as white nephrite 
(Hector). Analysis (Skey) : — 

Silica ... ... ... 51-03 

Ferric oxide, with traces of man- 
ganese and chronium ... 12-43 
Alumina ... ... .. 1-42 

Lime ... ... ... 9-00 

Magnesia ... ... ... 21-35 

Soda ... ... ... traces 

Water (constitutional) ... -97 



95-20 
Kaolin ! ! ! — Manuherikia, Arrow River, Mount Somers, Colling- 
wood, Stewart Island, formed by the decomposition of 
felsite porphyries (Hector, Cox). 

Kermes ! — Endeavour Inlet, occurs with stibnite. 

Kyanite, or Disthene ! — Westland, associated with quartz. 

Labradorite ! ! — Purahanui Range, Mount Charles, Bank's 
Peninsula, in trachydolerites (Hector, Haast). 

Lead (Native) ! — Collingwood, in the wash of a creek in the form 
of round grains, like shot. It is alloyed with gold 
(Skey, Tr. N.Z., In. XIL, p. 367). 

Lepidolite ! — Thompson Sound, in marble (Hector). 



MINERALS OF XEW ZEALAND. 



27a 



48-63 


48-29 


43-06 


25-39 


26-59 


24-34 


20-70 


20-47 


11-47 


traces 


traces 


7-24 


2-93 


•85 


9-06 


2-35 


2-53 


3-42 




1-27 


1-41 



Lepidomelane ! — Milford Sound, in schists and gneiss rock 

(Hector). 
Leucite !— Castle Point, in leucite basalt (McKay). Analyses 
(Skey) :- 
Silica ... 
Lime ... 
Alumina 

Iron and man- 
ganese 
Magnesia 
Water • 
Loss ... 

100-00 100-00 100-00 
Leucopyrite ! — Thames, Reefton, Collingwood, with mispickel 

(Cox). 
LiMO>fiTE ! ! — Wangaru, Parapara River, Shotover River, Col- 
lingwood, in massive earthy botryoidal, mamillary and 
concretionary forms (McKay). 

Magnesite ! — Rotorua, crystalline (Cox, 1878); Chatham Islands, 

massive (Smith). 
Magnetite ! ! — Lake Wakatipu, Mount Cook, disseminated 
through various rocks in minute crystals and grains 
(Haast), 72 per cent, iron (Skey). 
Malachite — Moke Creek, D'Urville Island, occurs as thin 
encrusting tilms on some copper ores (Hector, Cox). 
Analysis (Skey) : — 

Copper ... ... ... 58-20 

Iron ... ... ... 1-10 

Silica ... ... ... 3-33 

Sulphur ... ... ... traces 

Carbonic acid and water ... 37*37 



100-00 
Manganite ! ! — Tory Channel, Kawarau, Clutha, Otago, 
Waiheke, Waimarama, Wellington, Waipu, " in veins 
in schists," "as rolled fragments in alluvial drift.'' 
Analysis (Skey) : — 

Sesquioxide of manganese ... 63-42 

Sesquioxide of iron ... ... 66-66 

Alumina ... ... ... traces 

Silica ... ... ... 7-25 

Sulphur ... ... ... traces 

Water (hygroscopic) ... ... 10-22 

Water (constitutional) ... 12-45 



100 00 



274 MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 

Margarite ! — Milford Sound, in schists and gneiss (Hector). 

Meerschaum ! — Dun Mountain, in contact with massive white 
quartz (Davis). Analysis (Skey) 



Silica 


.. 53-76 


Lime 


.. 2-36 


Alumina 


.. 4-35 


Iron oxides ... 


. . traces 


Magnesia 


.. 20-36 


Water of constitution... 


.. 19-17 



100-00 
Mellite ! — Thames, described as a resinous substance with a 
splintery fracture (Hutton, 1870) ; Bligh Sound, from 
a cave (Hector, 1876). 

Menaccanite ! — Brancepeth, Wairarapa, occurs associated with 
felspar (Skey). 

Mercury ! — Waipori, Bay of Islands, Westport, occurs in alluvial 
wash in the form of small thin globules (Hector) ; 
contains 99.54% of mercury. 

Meteorite, or Meteoric Iron ! — Wairarapa. Hardness 5-6, 
specific gravity 3-254, weight, 9^1bs., contents 49 cubic 
inches, containing 24 % iron, with silica, sulphur, 
nickel, ifec. 

Mica ! ! ! — West Coast, in all schists ; Charleston, in granite as 
large plates. 
{Biaxial, or Potash) ! — West Otago, in schists (Hector). 

{Uniaxa/, or Biotite) \ — Dusky Inlet, Milford Sound, a black 
green mica rock with numerous minute crystals of 
zircon (Hector). 

Chrome Alica ! — Dead Horse Gully, in flat tabular plates 
(McKay, Skey). Analyses (Skey 2) : — ■ 



Specimens 


from 1 


2 




SCHWAET- 


DEAD HORSE 




ZENSTEIN. 


GULLY. 


Silica 


... 47-68 


39-25 


Alumina . . . 


... 15-15 


22-12 


Chromic oxide 


... 5-90 


1-56 


Ferric oxide 


... 5-72 


18-69 


Manganous oxide 


1-05 


-41 


Magnesic oxide 


... 11-58 


10-60 


Sodic oxide 


... 1-17) 


1 1-13 


Potassic oxide 


... 7-27 1 


Water ... 


... 2-86 


4-06 


Lime 




2-18 



98-38 100-00 



MINERALS OF NEW ZEALAND. 275 

Muscovite, or Mica ! ! — Snowy Peak Range, Milford Sound, 
Charleston, Dusky Bay, Great Barrier Island, as a 
common constituent of mica schist, gneiss and granite. 

MiSPiCKEL ! —Milford Sound, Waipori, Malvern Hills, Colling- 
wood, Thames, associated with gold (Hector, Hutton, 
Cox). Analysed by Skey. 

Molybdenite ! — Dusky Sound, as flakes in a gneiss rock 
(Docherty, 1880). 

Natrolite I — Dunedin, in vescicular basalts (Hector) ; Bank's 
Peninsula, in volcanic rock's (Haast) ; also in cavities 
of basalts from Dunedin (Hector) ; Mount Livingstone, 
Look-out Point, Whakahara. 

Obsidian, or Volcanic Glass ! ! — Mayor Island, Bank's 
Peninsula, Mount Eden, Taupo Island, associated with 
rhyolites and on the sides of trachyte dykes (Hochstetter, 
Hector). 

Oligoclase ! ! — Mount Misery, Malvern Hills, Snowy-peak 
Range, in quartz porphyries (Haast, Daintree). 

Olivine, or Chrysolite ! ! — Mandamus district, Hurunui district, 
in dolerites (Liversidge, Hutton) ; Banks' Peninsula, 
Chatham Islands, as grains in basaltic rocks (Haast) ; 
Saddle Hill, Milford Sound, in basaltic rocks (Hector, 
1862). 

Opal ! 1 — Mount Somers, Malvern Hills, inferior qualities only. 

Common Opal and Semi-opal ! ! — Malvern Hills, filling small 
cavities in quartz porphyries (Cox, Haast). 

Fire Opal ! — Otago Peninsula, in tuffs, collected by Capi. 
Fram, determined by Skey. 

Opal Jasper ! ! — Portobello, Otago, in trachy tic tufa (Liver- 
sidge). 

Pitch Opal ! I — Dunstan, Rakaia Gorge, Harper's Hill 
(Liversidge). 

Wood Opal, or Silicified Wood ! ! — Mount Somers, Canter- 
bury, Coromandel, occurs in tuffs and conglomerates 
and where silicious rocks are decomposing (Haast, 
Hochstetter). 

Geyserite ! ! — Rotorua (Hochstetter). 

Hyalite ! — Bank's Peninsula, Malvern Hills, found lining 
cavities in vocanic I'ocks (Haast) : Dunedin, in vesicular 
grey-trachyte (Liversidge). 

Menilite ! ! — Bay of Islands, 

Orthoclase, or Potash Felspar ! 1 — Mount Misery, Bank's 
Peninsula, West Coast, Auckland Islands, Ruapuke, 

r2 



276 MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 

Great Barrier Island, Sugar Ijoaves, Boulder Bank, 
Nelson, Hororata district, Dusky Sound, as a con- 
stituent of granites, syenites, gneiss, trachytes and 
rhyolites. 

Ozokerite ! — Dunstan, Otago, occurring brown coals (Hector, 

1865). 

Palagonite ! ! — Harper's Hill, Two Brothers, Taipo Hill, as 

angular fragments in palagonite tufas (Haast). Analysis 

(Skey) 

Silica ... ... ... 38-82 

Alumina ... ... ... 23-17 

Iron oxide ... ... ... 6-30 

Lime ... ... ... 3-65 

Magnesia ... ... ... 3-27 

Alkalies ... ... ... 2-08 

Water ... ... --• 22-76 

Carbonaceous matter ... ... traces 



99-97 
Pearl Spar ! — Thames (Hector, 1878). 

Petroleum ! ! — Sugar Loaves, Taranaki, from deep-seated coals, 
altered by volcanic dykes. A specific gravity, -960 to 
•964, rich in lubricants (Hector, Geol. Rep., 1866 ; 
Poverty Bay and Waiapu, deep wells and surface 
springs from middle jurrassic strata (Hector, Geol. Rep., 
1873). Paraffin oil, sp. gr. -843 to -872, yielded 64% to 
84% kerosene (Skey). 

Picrolite ! — Dun Mountain, coarsely fibrous, of a dark-green 
colour (Cox). 

PiCROSMINE ! — Dviu Mountain, associated with chromite, and is 
also found as a network of veins in which crystals of 
bronzite occur (Cox). 

PiMELiTE !— Malvern Hills, Clent Hills, filling cavities in 
amygdaloidal rocks (Haast). 

Pistacite ! — West Coast, Mount Torlesse, Mount Somers, 
Wairarapa, in gneiss, granite, and granulite, and in 
melaphyres (Hector, Haast). 

Pitchstone ! — Mount Somers, Snowy Peak, associated with 
quartz porphyries (Haast). 

Platiniridum ! — Takaka, Orepuke, as grains in gold-wash 
(Hochstetter). 

Platinum (Native) ! — Orepuke, Stewart Island, Collingwood, 
Nelson, Takaka, in the form of small flat grains of a 
steel-grey or white colour, associated with gold and 
zircons in southern goldfields, but it has never been 
found in reef (Hector). 



MINERALS OF NEW ZEALAND. 277 

Prehnite ! — Moeraki, Otepopo, Canterbury, in trap rocks 
(Hectoi'j Daintree). 

Proustite ! — Thames (Hutton). 

PsiLOMELANE ! ! — Waiheke, Wairuakariri, Bay of Islands, Kawau, 
Wellington, massive, and is associated with manganite, 
forming a valuable oi^e. Analysis (Skey) — sample from 
Bay of Islands : — 

Manganese oxides ... ... 7 5 '46 

Ferric oxide ... ... 11-76 

Silicious matters ... ... 2*74 

Water ... ... ... 10-04 



100-00 
Pumice ! ! ! — Tongariro, Tokano, Lake Taupo, Kereru, Ruapehu, 
&c., along the coast and on the banks of rivers, and on 
the plateaux round Lake Taupo, 2000 feet above the 
sea level, occurs also as pumice sand (McKay) at 
Kereru. 
Pyrites (Auriferous) ! ! — Thames, Otago, as octahedral crystals 
in quartz reefs. 

<5uARTZ — Amethyst ! ! ! — Rakaia Gorge, in an amygdaloidal trap ; 
Canterbury, in the melaphyres (Haast). 

Cellular Quartz ! ! — Thames. 

Ferrugitious Quartz ! ! — Abundant (Lab. and Geol. Reports, ' 
1865). 

Milk Quartz ' ! — Everywhere, in the granites, schists and 
slates. 

Rose Quartz ! ! — Rakaia Gorge, in trachyte and pitchstone 
(Haast). 

Bloodstone ! — Clent Hills, Snowy Peak, Malvern Hills, in 
small fragments (Haast). 

Carnelian ! ! — Malvern Hills, Mount Chai'les, Otago, in 
volcanic rocks (Hector). 

Chalcedony ! I — Canterbury, Clent Hills, Gawler Downs, 
Tokatoka, Nioeraki, Otepopo, kc, in "geodes" in the 
" melaphyres " and quartz porphyries (Hector, Haast, 
Hochstetter). 

Chrysoprase ! — Moeraki, Otepopo, Dunedin, Canterbury, 
Coromandel, filling cavities in amygdaloidal rocks 
(Haast). 

Flint I ! — Kaipara, Mount Somers, in chalk marls (Hector) ; 
Campbell Island, in chalk (Hector) ; Amuri Bluff, in 
limestone (Haast); Bay of Islands, Tapanui (Liversidge), 
(see Trans. N.Z. Inst.) ; Whanganui Heads, in diatom 
earth (Hector). 



278 MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 

[asper ! ! — Coromandel, abundant in volcanic and porphy- 
ritic rocks (Hector) ; Snowy Range, as porcelain jasper 
(Haast) ; Auckland, in tufis and conglomerates (Hocli- 
stetter). 

Agate Jasper ! ! — Coromandel, in trachytic tuffs (Hector). 

Plas?na ! ! — Mount Somers and Gawler Downs, tilling fissures 
in tertiary quartzose trachyte (Haast) ; Moeraki and 
Otepopo, in volcanic rocks (Hector). 

Potato Stone or Geode ! ! — Snowy Ranges (Haast). 
Pearl Sinter ! ! — Rotorua. 

Prase ! — Gawler Downs, as small deposits in quartzose 
porphyritic trachytes (Haast, 1865). 

Rock Crystal ! ! ! — Tamata, Kereru, Napier, Taupo, Canter- 
bury, Milford Sound, in metamorphic schists, and derived 
from rhyolitic rocks (Lab. and Geol. Reports). 

Silicious Sinter \ ! — Orakeikorako, surrounding thei^mal 
springs (Hochstetter) ; Te Tarata, in terraces. 

Siderite ! ! — Mongonui, in cover of bi'own coal beds (Hector, 

1866). 
Tridymite \ ! — Lyttleton Harbour, in trachytic rocks (Ulrich), 

Retinite, or Ambrite ! !^ — ^Hyde, Caversham, Tuapeka, "VVaita- 
huna, Dunstan, Bay of Islands, occurs as masses of 
altered kauri gum in brown coals. First mentioned 
by Hochstetter, also Hector (Geol. and Lab. reports). 
Mean of three analyses by Richard Maly : — 
Carbon ... ... ... 76-65 

Hydrogen ... ... ... 10-38 

Oxygen ... ... ... 12-78 

Ash ... ... ... -19 









100-00 


Rhodonite, or Manganese Spar ! — 


Canterbury, Kawarau, 


Clutha, Dunstan, Waiheke, as 


veins 


in schists and as 


rolled fragments in alluvial 


drifts 


(Haast, 1865), 


Analysis (Skey.) 






Silica 




25-20 


Sesquioxide of iron 






40-10 


Protoxide of iron 






1-20 


Protoxide of manganese 






18-85 


Alumina 






7-20 


Copper 






traces 


Lime 






3-02 


Magnesic oxide 






3-00 


Water (constitutional) 






1-43 



100-00 



MINERALS OF XEW ZEALAND. 



279 



RuBELLANE ! — Bank's Peninsula (Haast.) 

Sapphire ! — Soutliern A]ps and Collingwood, in alluvial gold 
beds (Haast, Hutton), determined Viy Skey. 
Emery — Stewart Island. 
Saussurite I — Mount Torlesse, in gabbro (Haast). 

Scheelite ! ! ! — Lake Wakatipu, Buckle Burn, Rees River, 
Waipori, Richardson Mountains, Havelock, solid lodes 
and large I'olled fragments and in arsenical pyrites in 
the form of small grains (Hector 1863, McKay 1880). 

Schiller Spar ! — West Coast, with iron pyrites (Hector.) 

Schorl ! — Bedstead Gully, Mosquito Hill, Resolution Island, in 
gneiss and in micaceous and hornblendic schists (Hector). 

Schrotterite ! — Malvern Hills, filling the cavities in 
amygdaloidal trachytes, having a mammilated crust on 
its surface (Liversidge). 

Selenite, or Gypsum ! ! — Widely distributed throughout 
Canterbury, Auckland, Nelson, New Plymouth, &c., as 
groups of crystals associated with sulphur, or as nests of 
crystals in clay or marls. It is very plentiful, and is 
mentioned several times in the Geol. Sur. and Lai). 
Reports. 

" Selen-Sulphur" ! — White Island, massive dark yellow varieties 
of sulphur (Liversidge, Trans. N.Z. Inst., Vol. X). 

Serpentine, or Marmolite — Minei-al Belt, Nelson, and Dun 
Mountain, as common serpentine forming rock masses 
(Hochstetter) ; Milford Sound, noble serpentine, occurring 
with nephrite in thin grains (Hector). Analyses (Skey): — 



Silica 

Protoxide of iron 
Alumina 
Manganese 
CTiromium 
Magnesia 
Water (consti- 
tutional 



40-i'0 
12-10 
traces 
traces 
traces 
33-20 



(n.) 
41-20 
12-10 
traces 
traces 
traces 
34-02 



2-70 12-94 12-67 



Silver ! 




98-20 10006 100-95 
1 — Kawau Island, Lake Wakatipu, Waipori, alloyec 
with gold and as a component of tetrahedrite ; Golden 
Crown Mine, as rolled fragments. 

Smaragdite ! — Red Hill, Collingwood, in diorite (Hector). 

SpHiEROSiDERiTE ! — Mount Scmers, Bank's Peninsula, in volcanic 
and dyke rocks (Haast). 



280 



MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 



Spinel — Manawatu and Waipori, Otago, as rhombic dodeca- 
hedrons, nearly opaque (Hector). 

Steatite, or Soap Stone ! ! — Milford Sound, massive ; CoUing- 
wood, foliated (Hector). 

Stibnite ! ! — Otago, Endeavour Inlet, Reefton, Langdons (Hector, 
1865) ; Thames (Hutton, 1867) ; Endeavour Inlet (Cox, 
1879), in schistose rocks. 

Stilbite ! ! — -Karori, Mangawhai, Tokatoka, Dunedin, as radiating 
pearly crystals forming films in joints of aui-iferous 
rocks (Skey), also in trachytic rocks as detached 
crystals (Haast, Liversidge). 

Sulphur ! ! ! — White Island, deposited from fumaroles and 
geysers and from an enormous spring in the centre of 
White Island (Hector, 1865) ; Roturua and Taupo 
districts, from Hot Springs (Hochstetter) ; Waipara, 
efflorescence from carbonaceous standstones (Haast, 
1870), efflorescence from pyritous reefs (Davis) ; Wan- 
gapeka. Analyses : — 

Liversidge Cox 



Sulphur 
Foreign matters 



99-614 
•386 



98-888 
1-112 



99-9 
•1 



62-5 
37-5 



100-000 100-000 100-00 100-00 

Tachylite !— Bank's Peninsula, Oamaru, on the sides of fissures 
where basaltic dykes have intruded (Haast). 

Talc ! ! — West Coast, S.I., Jackson's Bay, Collingwood, in 
quartz, and associated with crystalline rocks (Hector). 

Taranakite !■ — Taranaki, very much like wavellite, is a double 
hydrous phosphate of alumina and potash, part of the 
alumina being replaced by ferric oxide, discovered and 
described by Skey as a new mineral. Analysis per 
cent. (Skey) : — 

Phosphoric acid .. ... 35-05 

Alumina ... ... ... 51-43 

Ferrous oxide ... ... 4-45 

Lime ... ... ... -55 

Potash ... ... 4-20 

Soda ... ... ... traces 

Chlorine ... ... ... -46 

Sulphuric acid ... ... traces 

Insoluble in acid (silica) . . . -80 

Water driven oflfat 212° 15-46 ^ g^.^g 
„ ,, i-ed heat 17 "60 j 



100-00 



MINERALS OF NEW ZEALAND. 281 

Tetrahedrite ! — Collingwood, a variety, Kichmondite, occurs as 
as a lode at Richmond Hill. Analysis (Skey) ; — 



Sulphide of lead 

„ ,, antimony... 

,, ,, bismuth ... 

„ „ copper ... 

„ „ iron 

„ zinc 

„ silver 

„ ,, manganese 



36-12 

22-20 

traces 

19-31 

13-59 

5-87 

2-39 

-52 

100-00 

Tin ! — Reefton, in granite (McKay, 1874); Stewart Island, in 
mica gneiss (McKay, 1889). 

Topaz ! — Chatto Creek, Arrow River, Waipori, in alluvium, 
mixed with rubies, garnets, &c. (Hector) ; Stewart 
Island, with tin stone (McKay), determined by Skey. 

Tremolitb ! — Kanieri, Hokitika, Milford Sound, in quartzite 
(Hector). 

Vivianite ! — Dunedin, Awatere, as prismatic crystals in moa 
bones (Hector). 

^^^AD ! ! — Auckland, as crystals (Hector, 1870) ; Stewart Island 
(McKay, 1886). 

"Wavellite ! — Taranaki, occurs in thin seams of a deep yellowish 
brown colour, hard, translucent and infusible, traversing 
the taranakite in various directions (Skey). 

WiTHERlTE, or Baryto-calcite ! — Thames, in gold mines (Skey). 

Wolfram ! ! — Stewart Island, with tin stone (McKay, 1889). 

Analyses 



i^'OLLASTONIlE ! — Dun Mountain 


massive in form. 


(Skey) :— 










1 


2 


3 4 


Silica 


48-01 


49-30 


50-62 58-80 


Lime 


46-20 


45-91 


44-88 24-60 


Magnesia 


traces 


•80 


traces 1 -60 


Alumina 


1-45 


1-41 


1'8-i I 12-20 
1-64 ) ^^^"^ 


Iron oxide 


traces 


traces 


Loss 


2-19 


1-19 


traces 1 -40 


Water .. 


215 


1-39 


1-02 1-40 



100-00 100-00 100-00 100-00 
WuLFENiTE I — Dun Mountain, as crystals of a flat tabular form. 



282 MINERAL CENSUS OF AUSTRALASIA. 

Zinc Blende ! — Bedstead Gully, Tararu Creek, Great Barrier 
Island, associated with gold (Hector, Hutton). Analysis 
(Skey):- 



Sulphide of zinc 


... 77-61 


Sulphide of cadmium 


. . . traces 


Sulphide of iron 


... 20-14 


Silicious matter 


2 •25 



100-00 
ZiNCiTE ! — Collingwood (Skey). 

Zircon ! — Southern Alps, Timbrill's Gully, Doubtful Inlet, 
associated with platinum and gold and in the wash, and 
also in " biotite rock " (Hector). 



NOTE. 

This Report is not yet complete, as it does not include the 
Census of Victorian or Tasmanian Mifierals. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE No. 14. 

The State and Progress of Chemical Science in Aiistralasia^. 
with Special Reference to G&ld and Silver Appli- 
ances used in the Colonies and elseivhere. 



Members of Committee : —Professor Black, Professor Kernot, Dr. 

Leibius, Professor A. Liversidge, Professor Orme Masson, Professor 

Eennie, Mr. S. H. Cox (Secretary). 



DuRiXG the past year, although a good deal of new work has 
been projected in Australasia, there is comparatively little fresh 
to chi-onicle regarding the treatment of ores of this class. It is 
true that new inventions have been brought out, but, with very 
few exceptions, they have not found favour with owners of mines, 
because, in the majority of cases at any I'ate, they offer no real 
impi'ovements upon old and well-tried processes. 

We may call attention at the outset of our report to certain 
subdivisions which may be made in considering the subject, and 
classify the ores as follows : — 

p , ] I 1. Free milling gold ores, 
i 2. Refractory gold ores. 

[ 3. Free milling silver ores. 
Silver - 4. Easy smelting silver ores. 
( 5. Refractory silver ores. 

It will be understood that there is, perhaps, no hard and fast line- 
to be drawn between these different groups, and thus that Nos. 1 
and 2 often occur in the same stone, while No. 1 very generally 
gives place to No. 2 as depth is attained. The characters of the 
silver ores, moreover, and the methods of treatment to which 
they must be subjected, necessarily depend largely upon the 
surroundings, the nature and quantity of flux attainable, the 
price of coke, salt, and other substances required in the processes 
to be adopted, and so forth ; and our division must thus be of a 
somewhat arbitrary nature. We shall endeavour, however, to 
define our meaning in speaking of these different classes of oi'e sO' 
as to make plain the reasons which have induced us to adopt- 
them. 



:284 state and progress op 

Gold. 

Free ijiilling gold ores include all those ores in which the gold 
is in a free state, associated generally with quartz as a gangue, 
>)ut occasionally also with porous ironstone or gossan. In the 
majority of cases, however, where gold occurs under the latter 
•condition, it is coated by a film of oxide of iron, which prevents 
proper amalgamation, and is also, in many cases, of a very fine 
nature ; these characters would transfer the ore from this class 
■to that of class No. 2. 

The treatment of ores of class No. 1 has, from the earliest 
"times, consisted of crushing and amalgamation, and although 
many new systems of crushing have been tried from time to 
time, no machine has yet been introduced which will compete 
with stamps when a large quantity of ore has to be dealt with. 
The primitive battery crushing of the early days has, however, 
given place in the better managed mines to plants in which all 
tlie points which promote rapid, efiicient, and economical work 
.are considered ; and although we still find batteries supplied 
from some foundries built upon the old systems and employing 
the old patterns, there is a decided tendency at present to erect 
thoroughly capable machines, and to study what really are the 
best methods of treating the ore. 

Perhaps the chief point of difference to be noted in batteries is 
that some employ light stamps, with a high drop, while others 
use heavy stamps, 8 or 9 cwt., with a drop of 6in., or, in some 
cases, even less. It will be evident that one advantage of the 
latter form is that the battery can be worked at a higher speed, 
since those with a low drop will not take the same time to fall 
as those in which the drop is higher. Another point in which 
.a great difierence presents itself in the efficiency of different 
machines, is to be found in the method of feeding the stone to the 
battery. In many cases, even now, the stone, as it is brought 
from the mine, is roughly spalled by hand, and fed into the mill 
whenever the feeder has time or inclination to attend to the 
"work ; and thus at times we hear the stamps striking direct on 
the dies, having nothing to crush, while at others there is so 
much stone in the battery that the stamps have a large part of 
their fall cut ofi", and are, moreover, crushing stone on stone 
instead of, as intended, directly on the dies. The more improved 
batteries of the present day are supplied with ore crushers (stone 
^breakers), which reduce the stone to about one and three-quarter 
inch metal, and this is fed into the boxes by means of improved 
self-feeders, such as the Challenge Ore Feeder, which can be 
regulated so as to furnish a regular supply of ore to the mill. 

There is a good deal of prejudice against ore-feeders at some 
mines even now, and no doubt, in certain cases, they have not 
'.worked satisfactorily ; but the fault has been, not in the feeders 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE IX AUSTRALASIA. 285» 

themselves, but in the neglect to regulate them so as to produce 
the best results. 

A crushing battery that is firmly set on good foundations, 
consisting of vertical mortar blocks, well rammed with sand, 
that has substantial mud-sills and cross-sills, and the housing 
constructed so as to resist the strains put upon it, and that is fed 
regularly with ore that has been first broken by a stone-breaker,, 
will work rapidly without very great vibration, and should put 
from two to three tons per head per twenty-four hours through a 
No. 8 screen. 

The boxes or mortars are made of various forms, and with a 
deliveiy which is high or low, according to the fineness or coarse- 
ness to which the crushing is to be carried, and the arrangement 
of the screens is also varied by different makers. It is in these 
boxes that the first amalgamation takes place, and usually a stout 
copper plate is placed in a recess at the back of the box, on which, 
when the gold is coai'se. a considerable proportion is retained. It 
is, also, sometimes considered advisable to place free mercury in 
the boxes, but the practice should be deprecated, as it flours the 
mercury, and a considerable loss frequently ensues. 

Outside the screens plates of copper amalgamated with mercury 
are placed to catch the gold as it flows over the surface, and in 
many cases of late these copper plates have been replaced by 
electro plates, which avoid the constant formation of a green scum 
wdien the plates are new. Mercury wells are also used in many 
batteries, but they are not beneficial, because, if any sulphides are 
present in the stone, they soon form a coating on the mercury and 
destroy its utility. 

For true free milling ores this treatment is all that is necessary, 
and although machines have been introduced to replace the 
stamps there are none which have as yet been tried which can 
claim to have superseded them. Probably the best of the new 
machines is the Huntingdon mill, which has achieved a certain 
measure of success, and for small mines is undoubtedly an 
economical system of crushing. It has, however, been so 
frequently erected by men who have not had any experience in 
the plant, and worked by others who are equally ignorant in the 
matter, that there have been many failures recorded in these 
colonies against comparatively few assured successes. 

The Globe mill again claims to supersede the stamps, but has 
not yet, so far as we are aware, succeeded in establishing itself 
at any mine. Another machine, the Ashcroft Pulveriser, 
which has been patented, works upon a different system, the 
grinding being done by heavy balls and pestles, an attempt 
being made to imitate, as closely as possible, the action of 
the pestle and mortar. The inventor claims that the motion 
of a ball, or a hemispherical surface, revolving on its own axis at 
the same time as it is driven round the pan, is the most economical, 
way of reducing mineral to fine powder. 



Hibb STATE AND PROGRESS OP 

In the earlier machines this motion was imparted to the balls 
Toy cones, against which the centrifugal force so acted as to 
produce the rotatory motion desired, and it acted well so long as 
the balls preserved their spherical form, but if any small flat 
surface became worn, or if tine matter accumulated in the machine, 
the balls ceased to rotate. In the present arrangement the balls 
cannot stop, and the true spherical form is preserved. 

The result of experiments with the lirst mill made on the new 
plan is that the hardest quai"tz can be rapidly reduced to the 
iinest powder, and the inventor has supplied us with the following 
iigures, derived from actual experiments, as illusti'ative of the 
work performed : — 

Power required to work a four feet diameter 

mill ... ... ... ... 6 liorse-power. 

Quantity passed through wire screen, with 

IGOO holes to square inch, per hour ... 25 cwt. 

Weight of heaviest piece in mill ... 21 c\Ni;. 

Total weight of mill ... ... ... 3 tons. 

A plant is now being erected at the Britannia Mine, near 
Porbes, which will afford an excellent guide as to the actual 
working results of the machine. There are several incidental 
advantages which are claiitied for this mill. The whole grinding 
pan can be replaced at the same cost as replacing a false bottom. 
The wearing parts are all castings. The mill requires no founda- 
tions, and can be set to work a few hours after arrival at a mine, 
and can easily be moved from place to place. 

The refractory gold ores, in the majority of cases, carry a certain 
amount of free gold in them, and are thus generally subjected to 
the processes to which we have alluded before undergoing further 
treatment. They are sometimes, however, taken direct from the 
battery for concentration without the intervention of any method 
of amalgamation, or, at times, passed through a .system of pan 
amalgamation, which will be alluded to further on, without being 
concentrated at all. 

In concentration there is a wide field for inventors, and to 
this subject a good deal of attention has been directed. Until 
comparatively lately concentration was performed on blanket 
tables, in buddies of various form, or on end blow, percussion, or 
shaking tables only ; but of late the Frue Vanner and Triumph 
Concentrator have been somewhat extensively introduced, doing 
their work very completely, but working at a comparatively slow 
rate, hvo vanners being required for eachj^w heads of stamps. 

A patent has been taken out by Mr. G. C. Knapp and 
Mr. T. E. Fuller for a concentrator known as the "Champion," 
which, while working on a similar principle to the Triumph, has 
different mechanical arrangements, and the belt is shorter and 
wider. This concentrator comes under the head of belt 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE IN AUSTRALASIA. 2&7 

machines, and was designed by the inventors to modify 
and overcome some of the defects experienced in their practice 
with the Frue Vanner, Triumph Concentrator, and other machines 
of a like character. Their first object was to gain a larger 
cencentrating surface by widening the belt, and their second to 
do away with a needless length of belt, and thei-eby increase the 
facility with which the tailings could flow away. The superfluous 
length was ascertained by direct experiments with existing 
machines. With this object in view, the length of the top surface 
of the belt, from centre to centre of the two end rollers, was made 
six feet, and the width the same, thereby decreasing the length 
of the vanner belt by about one-half, and increasing the width by 
two feet, giving a large increase in the concentrating power of 
the machine, and getting rid of the tailings in about half the 
time of the Frue Vanner. Another special point in the construc- 
tion of the machine, which the inventors claim in their patent, 
has relation to the means by which the " grade " is raised or 
lowered, and is one of which any practical man who has seen it 
will at once admit the advantage. 

The woi'k of a machine of this class can be regulated almost 
exclusively by the alteration of the grade, without reference to 
the " uphill travel," and, in most machines, this alteration has 
been eflected by wooden wedges, driven in or out by a hammer 
according as the grade is to be lessened or increased. As, in 
that case, the whole of the stationary framework has to be raised, 
it detracts very considerably from the stability of the machine, 
and, in the case of the Triumph Concentrator, slackens the 
driving-belt to a great extent, as the wedges have to be driven 
under the frame at the head. 

In the machine now under consideration the raising and 
lowering is done by a separate framework, made of angle iron, 
on which the supports of the shaking frame rest in suitable 
sockets. The front ends of this frame are pivoted on the main 
standing frame, which is made of cast iron, and bolted permanently 
down to the longitudinal mud-sills, and it is raised or lowered on 
the pivots by two hand wheel-screws situated at the foot of the 
machine, which woi'k in cast iron bosses bolted to the floor. 

This machine has been built by the Mort's Dock Engineering 
Company Limited, but has not yet been woi-ked, pending the 
arrival of the belt ; but it may be mentioned that Mr. Egleston 
states, in his " Metallurgy of Silver, Gold and Mercury,'' 
Vol. I., p. 481, that at the Silver King Mine, in Arizona, six 6ft. 
vanners were started in August, 1886, and by January, 1887, 
they had treated 10,178 tons of tails from the twelve 4ft. vanners 
on which the first concentrations were made. The average 
amount treated on each of the 6ft. vanners was twelve and a half 
tons per day, nearly twice the quantity dealt with by the 4ft. 
machine. The tails from the large vanners yielded only 2'03oz. 



288 STATE AND PROGRESS OF 

of silver, or 7|- % of the value of the original ore, and was almost 
entirely composed of argentiferous zinc blende. With any of 
these concentrating machines the heavy pyritous minerals can lie 
concentrated from the ores, leaving the tailings almost absolutely 
clean, but since every ore requires special adjustments of the 
concentrators to achieve the best results, it is only by actual trials, 
which may take a few days, that the most perfect adjustment 
can be arrived at. Where vanners are employed it is necessary 
to crush with as little water as possible, and consequently the 
tables have to be set on a steep grade. If this be not attended 
to there is too much water for the vanners to work satisfactorily. 

It is the subsequent treatment of the concentrated sulphides 
that has, perhaps, received the greatest amount of attention of 
late, as the colonies have but recently awakened to the fact that 
on this treatment the ultimate success of the gold-mining 
industry depends. In every case the pyrites has to be roasted 
in the tirst instance, with the exception of the so-called cyanide 
process, in which the finely-divided sulphides are digested with 
potassic cyanide, which is stated to dissolve the silver and gold, 
and these are subsequently precipitated by zinc, the cyanide 
being recovered. We are not aware that this process has been 
tried on a practical scale in the colonies, but the results of 
laboratory tests by several observers has disclosed the fact that 
the results are very various, and while sometimes nearly 90 % of 
the silver and gold are obtained, in other cases not more than 
half that proportion is saved. It would appear, therefore, that 
there are some disturbing agencies which are not yet thoroughly 
understood, and consequently that the process requires further 
investigation before it can be considered a practical success. 
Roasting is the first requisite in ail other processes, the object 
being to oxidise the sulphides and liberate the gold in a free state, 
and this is done at sevei^al of the mines. There are certain 
difiiculties attached to roasting ores, some relating to the question 
of expense and others to the complete extraction of the gold and 
silver if it is present. 

The simplest form of furnace, and the one which is usually 
employed here, is the reverberatory, the floor of which is made 
very long, and the ore being fed through a hopper at the end 
farthest from the bridge, is gradually raked down until it reaches 
the hottest part near the flame, and from this point it is scraped 
through a hole in the floor into cars, which convey it to the cooling 
chamber. Roasting in this furnace can be done as perfectly as in 
any other, but the expense of handling, and the hard work it 
entails on the men, is a decided disadvantage, and a good deal of 
attention has been directed elsewhere to the construction of 
furnaces which obviate these difiiculties. We may mention 
Bruckner's revolving cylinder, White's, White-Howell and 
Howell's improved revolving furnaces, which have been largely 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE IN AUSTRALASIA. 289 

used in. America ; but we believe there is only one mine in 
Australasia, the Waiorongamai, at Te Aroha, New Zealand, 
where any of them have been erected. Another furnace, the 
" Stetefelt," works on the principle that a rapid oxidising and 
chloridising action can be produced by bringing the finely-divided 
particles, either with or without salt, in contact with an ascending 
column of hot air, and this again, although it has been worked 
successfully in America, has, we believe, been only tried at one 
place, St. Arnaud, in the colonies, where it was subsequently 
stopped. 

A furnace has been patented in the colonies by Mr. H. D. 
Meston, which consists of several floors communicating one 
with the other by slots, which can be opened or closed 
at pleasure. The ore is transferred from one shelf to a lower 
one through these slots from time to time, and the ore is stirred 
by revolving stirrei's, the final roasting being j^erformed in a 
reverberatory furnace. This would appear to possess the 
principal requirements for perfect and economical roasting. 
It is at present in operation at the Clyde Smelting Works, 
near Sydney, where it is stated to perform its work 
satisfactorily. 

So long as the gold is free from silver, or contains only a small 
projDortion of that metal, but little difficulty is experienced in 
roasting, provided sufficient care is taken not to raise the heat 
too rapidly, and thus fuse or cake the material ; but with silver 
the greatest care is necessary, because, in order to recover this 
metal, it is necessary to introduce salt at some time during the 
roast, preferably near the end, and a volatile chloride of gold is 
frequently formed, i-esulting, unless the greatest care is taken, in 
a loss of that metal. It would appear, however, that care and 
attention can overcome this difficulty, and the loss is comparatively 
slight where the process is thoroughly understood. After roasting, 
there are two distinct processes open, each of which has received 
a good deal of attention ; these are respectively amalgamation 
and chlorination. 

Where amalgamation is employed, the roasted ore is ground in 
charges in some form of pan, and of these there are numerous 
adaptations. The objects of these pans are to provide as great a 
grinding surface as possible, and to have a complete circulation 
of the pulp. This circulation is generally secured by wings in 
the side of the pan diverting the flow of the current to the 
centre, but a pan has been patented in the colonies of late 
by Mr. G. C. Knapp which has an octagonal form, the mullers 
having, of course, only a circular rotation, and the circulation of 
the pulp in this machine is as perfect as it is possible 
to desire. Another pan, invented by Mr. C. Dubois, is 
closed at the top, and having a steam jacket below, 
it is claimed that the mercui'y is volatilised, and thus 

s 



290 STATE AND PROGRESS OP 

permeates every pore of the pulp. We have not seen this pan ha 
operation, but it appears that the heat gained could not be 
sufficient to volatilise the mercury, except at a prohibitory 
expense. 

In chlorination there is not a single instance in which Plastner's 
system is being employed, that known locally as the Newbery- 
Yautin process, with modifications, having entirely taken its 
place. We think some notice of this class of process is necessary, 
because there is some misconcepion as to the origin of the 
principle. 

Dr. Mears seems to have been the first to introduce the 
system of working chlorination under pressure, and to do this he 
employed a revolving barrel, into which chlorine, generated 
from chloride of lime and sulphuric acid, was pumped, and the 
barrel was subsequently rotated. Mr. Thies evolved chlorine 
from the same substances, but did it in the barrel itself, not 
obtaining any adventitious pressure ; while Messrs. Newbery and 
Vautin proposed to secure the pressure by pumping in air, the 
chlorine being generated as in Mr. Theis' process. The system 
employed here seems to be identical with that of Mr. Theis. 

In all chlorination it is necessary to keep the pulp damp after 
crushing, the test of suitability being that it can be crushed 
together in the hand, but commences to fall to pieces when the 
pressure is released. Under these conditions, the chlorine pene- 
trates the ore more completely than when it is dry, besides 
which, if allowed to dry it cakes, and has to be reground. 

Silver Ores. 

The various processes of treating the more simple silver ores 
has been so thoroughly exhausted in numerous works on the 
subject that it would be going outside our province to note any 
details regarding it. For the free milling ores a chloridising 
roasting is first resorted to, and this is followed by amalgama- 
tion in pans. This process is now in operation at Waiorongomai, 
at Te Aroha, New Zealand, and will probably be introduced at 
the White Rock Mine in New South Wales. There have not, 
so far as we are aware, been any improvements introduced into 
the methods of treatment in these colonies, in which, indeed, the 
silver mininc industry is but new. The principal method of 
treatment which has found favour here is by smelting, and this 
is adopted over a wide-spread area. At Broken Hill, Sunny 
Corner, Mount Costigan, Port Pirie, and other places the ores 
are smelted, and in some cases lead has been bought and passed 
through the furnaces with the view to recover the silver. In the 
majority of cases the water-jacket continuous furnaces are 
employed for smelting, and although, in some cases, refining has 
been attempted, the bullion is now generally shipped. At Sunny 



CHEMICAL SCIENCE IN AUSTRALASIA. 291 

Corner the first system adopted has given place to smelting to a 
regulus in the first place, and from this the silver is subsequently 
recovered with lead. There are, however, no new adaptations of 
well-known processes to chronicle. As regards the refractory 
silver ores at Webb's Mine, New England, an ore is being raised 
which consists of a mixture of fahloi*e, galena, zinc blende, and 
copper pyrites, and this has been subjected to a leaching process, 
modified from Von Patera's. There are many other localities, 
notably in Northern Queensland, where very refractory ores are 
met with, and which are generally shipped for sale. 

The leaching process does not appear to have been worked 
satisfactorily at Webb's — at least, operations were suspended, and 
a good deal of discussion ensued as to what was the best method 
to adopt for dealing with the ore. Amalgamation was advocated 
by some, but this has been overruled, and the process about to be 
employed is stated to be Russell's modification of the Von Patera 
process, in which sodium hyposulphite takes the place of the 
corresponding calcium salt, and sodium sulphide is used as a 
precipitant. There are many advantages in this change, the 
principal, perhaps, of which is that the lead can be precipitated 
as a carbonate, leaving the silver in solution, and although the 
sodium hyposulphite solution is more expensive than the calcium 
hyposulphite one, it can be used in a more concentrated form, and 
the sodium sulphide precipitates a larger proportion of the silver 
than the corresponding calcium salt. This process is about to be 
introduced at the Broken Hill Proprietary Mine to treat some of 
their ores, but the "extra solution," a double cuprous and sodium 
hyposulphite, which forms one of the features of the Russell process, 
is to be used weaker than specified in Russell's patent. We believe 
this process to be admirably adapted for the treatment of many of 
the more complex ores in the colonies, and may quote Mr. Stetefelt's 
resume of the advantages of this system over pan amalgamation, 
set forth in a paper read before the American Institute of Mining 
Engineers. These are as follows : — 

1. In amalgamation the fineness to which the ore has to be 
crushed is determined by the capacity of the settler to work oflT 
coarse sands without loss of quicksilver. It is not practicable to 
use a coarser screen than No. 30 if the crushing is done by 
stamps. This is almost equivalent to sifting through a No. 40 
revolving screen, if the crushing is done by rolls. In lixiviation, 
pulverising as coarse as possible is desirable. The limit of coarse- 
ness is determined by the roasting process. It depends upon the 
character of the ore, and, principally, upon the manner in which 
the silver-bearing minerals are distributed in the gangue. 

2. The original cost of the lixiviation plant is much lower than 
that of pans and settlers. A further saving is effected by a 
reduction in the size of the engines and boilers. 

s2 



292 CHEMICAL SCIENCE IN AUSTRALASIA. 

3. In amalgamation the pans and settlers consume not less 
than one and a half horse-power per ton of ore. The power for 
pumping solutions, &c., in the lixiviation process is merely 
nominal. 

4. In large mills the quantity of quicksilver in rotation repre- 
sents a capital of from £6000 to £8000, while the stock of 
chemicals required for lixiviation does not cost more than one- 
tenth of this amount. 

5. With Russell's improvements, the percentage of silver 
extracted by lixiviation is much higher than by amalgamation. 

6. Lixiviation by Russell's process requires a less careful 
chloridising roasting. In many cases the salt may be dispensed 
with. 

7. The value of the lost quicksilver and cost in wear and 
tear of the pans and settlers amounts to more than that of the 
chemicals consumed in the lixiviation process. 

8. The lixiviation process permits of the extraction of copper 
and lead as valuable by-products. 

9. The sulphides from the lixiviation process can be more 
easily converted into fine bars, and the gold parted, than this 
can be done with the bullion obtained in amalgamation. 

10. Amalgamation is invariably injurious to the labourer's 
health. 

11. Where gold-bearing silver ores have been roasted with 
salt, lixiviation extracts, in most cases, more gold than amal- 
gamation. 

12. The possibility of lixiviating many so-called "free milling 
ores " without previous roasting, including tailings resulting from 
amalgamation of roasted or raw silver ores. 

13. The possibility of lixiviating with profit some classes of 
silver ores after they have been subjected to an oxidising- 
roasting only. 

Since the foregoing was written, a patent by A. A. Lockwood 
and H. Chappel has come under our notice, in which the 
roasting of auriferous and argentiferous ores is performed in 
retorts by steam, super-heated steam, or carburetted hydrogen. 
An experimental plant has been erected in Sydney, but we 
have not yet had an opportunity of ascertaining the completeness 
of the operation. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE No. 11. 

The Bibliography of the Australasian, Papuan, and 
Polynesian Races. 



Members of Committee : — Hon. Dr. Agnew, Eev. J. Copeland, Eev. 

S. Ella, Eev. W. Wtatt Gill, Sir James Hector, Mr. A. W. 

HowiTT, Mr. J. F. Mann, and Dr. John Eraser, Secretary. 



All the members of this committee have been consulted, but 
the arrangement of the work to be done and the doing of it have, 
of necessity, been mainly in the hands of those members of it 
who reside in Sydney. Thus it was agreed that the Papuan Race 
should be inserted in our programme ; it was also thought 
desirable, and in this all the members of the committee concurred, 
that an effort should be made to present to these colonies, and 
especially to Britain, a full and reliable account of some of the 
less known features of the social and domestic life of the 
Australasian, Papuan, and Polynesian Races, based on the same 
topics of inquiry, and written, as it were, in jDarallel columns. 
Even those who are well informed on such subjects may find it 
pleasant to have thus the means of comparing and contrasting at 
one glance some of the characteristics of these races ; and when 
we consider the lack of trustworthy information of that kind 
among scientists in European countries, our committee is of 
opinion that a voluntary labour such as this, may well be added 
to the work assigned to us. The following syllabus was 
accordingly prepared and issued to the members of the committee 
and to others : — 



Topics to be Discussed in the Report on the Australasian, 
Papuan, and Polynesian Races. 

N.B. — The characteristic features of the Races and other well-known 
points are omitted. 

Birth and Childhood. — Observances and superstitious beliefs in con- 
nection with the birth of a child — any variation in these when 
the child is a female — is the woman isolated and regarded as 



294 AUSTRALASIAN AND POLYNESIAN 

unclean for a time — how long ? Infanticide of males, females ; 
when, how, why practised— any cannibalism then ? Is child 
named in any formal way — when, how — whence comes the name ? 
How are deformed and sickly children treated ? How does the 
mother carry the child or children — does the father ever carry it ? 
Suckling, how long conthiued ? Is anything applied to the 
child's head to regulate its shape ? During childhood is the child 
lovingly cared for, disciplined, taught useful habits by parents ? 
Is female child betrothed when young — by whom ? 

Maturity. — At what age mature ? For females, observances on reaching 
matru'ity ? For males, rites of initiation into the tribe and the 
privileges of manhood — circixmcision, how done, why (as natives 
say), with what instrument, by what person— how long is initiation 
carried on — is it progressive as in the grades of freemasonry ? 
Are there mystic ceremonies— of what kind — a badge or sacred 
belt, a new name, tattoo, hair cut off, restrictions as to food ? Are 
there special colours used at the ceremony — sacred songs, dances, 
taught ? What privileges does the fully initiated youth possess ? 

Makbiage. — Preliminaries ? Does a betrothed child at once pass into 
the charge of her husband ? Is there marriage by force, by 
capture, by sale, by barter ? State restrictions, if any, as to 
marriage among the classes of the tribe — marriage ceremonies 
and observances ? Is there polygamy ? Is it restricted to the 
chiefs ? Do children take their tribal (totem) classification from the 
father or from the mother — in war do they join their mother's kin ? 
The law of inheritance of land or property ? How is a widow 
tx'eated — orphans ? Is there any restriction of converse or inter- 
course between relatives by blood or marriage — why (as natives 
say) ? What work has the married woman to do — how is she 
treated by her husband ? 

The Tkibe. — What constitutes a tribe ? Is there one chief or several — 
how does a man become a chief — is the office of chief hereditary — 
how does it pass — the power and authority and duties of a chief ? 
Is there a tribal council — how constituted — its work ? How are 
infractions of tribal law punished ? 

Social and Domestic. — Huts — how built — of what material, shape ? 
Cultivation — how — kind of food — abundance of food — work done — 
by whom ? Meals, how cooked, how eaten — when, how many each 
day — reception of strangers ? Ornaments — of hair, ear, nose, 
arms, legs ? Clothing ? Are the natives well nourished ? 

Wizards. — What makes a man a wizard ? How is he supposed to obtain 
his magic powers — how use them, for good, for evil — in bringing 
rain or driving it away — in causing sickness — in curing the sick — 
in driving away evil spirits — in causing death — in discovering the 
cause of death, &c. ? Does he receive any pay or reward ? 

Death. — Beliefs as to causes of natural death — observances by relatives 
at death — cutting of gashes on head or body — modes and colours 
of moiu-ning — wrappings of dead or other preparations — funeral — 
grave — mode of interment — grave mound or other mark — articles 
put in the grave with deceased— offerings or watchings at fire at 
grave, mourning, how long continued ? 

Spirit World. — Where ? Beliefs as to the continaed existence of 
spirit, and its first condition after death — changes which the spirit 
undergoes, when, how — transmigration — the spirit's ultimate 



RACES BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 295 

destiny and abode — its presence and influence among the living — 
the entrance and road to the spirit world ; beliefs as to the 
deceased great men of the tribe or race ? 

MTTHOLOGr. — Beliefs as to a creator or creators — assistants in the work 
of creation, in administration, in communicating with men — as to 
inferior deities and their province and attributes ? — are these 
supposed to be heroes or (family) ancestors deified ? — do they help 
or injure men ? 

Philology. — A list of the numerals and pronouns in the language, with 
suggestions as to their etymology ? Paradigm of the conjugation 
and declension of the verb " to go," and of the verb " to kiU.," 
with a pronominal object ? A few simple sentences to show the 
grammatical structui'e of the language 'f A list of words for the 
English — man, woman, head, hair of head, eye, nose, tongue, ear, 
hand, thumb, foot, bone, blood, fire, water, sun, moon, father, 
mother, son, daughter, brother, sister, cousin, uncle, avmt ; and 
the verbs give, take, make or do, bear, burn, see, hear. 

Our committee wishes to present to the next meeting of this Associa- 
tion a comparative view of the Australasian, Papuan, and Polynesian 
races, to be written in sections and on the same lines (as above) by those, 
who are well acquainted with these races, and are thus able to give 
reliable information regarding them. 

Reports on these lines may yet be obtained in sections for 
Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, the New Hebrides, New 
Guinea, Fiji, and the chief groups in Polynesia. These reports 
would, doubtless, show considerable uniformity in the usages of 
the races, but the divergences would also be considerable, and 
especially interesting to a mind accustomed to observing these 
usages, and to ask what was their origin and how they came to 
vary. Of course such a task is a large one, and can be managed 
only by instalments. We now present two of these instalments, 
the one written by the Rev. W. Wyatt Gill, B.A., LL.D., and 
the other by that indefatigable pioneer missionary, the Rev. 
James Chalmer.s, of Port Moresby, New Guinea. Dr. Gill's 
report applies to Polynesia, and especially to the Hervey Islands, 
where he so long laboured. 

The bibliography of the races has been compiled from two books 
already published, the " Catalogue of the York Gate Library," 
formed by Mr. G. Wm. Silver, and the " Catalogue of the Sir 
George Grey Collection," in the Free Public Library at Auckland, 
of which the latter has been forwarded to us for this purpose 
through the courtesy of Sir George Grey himself. Our committee 
has entered in these lists only such books as throw light on the 
ethnography of the races or the philology of their languages ; 
concise notices of some of the chief publications in the native 
languages will be found under each head. These lists do not 
pretend to be complete, and therefore may require to be supple- 
mented at some future time, when also other portions of our 
report on the races themselves may appear, if the Science 
Association should wish our labours to be continued. 



29& AUSTRALASIAN AND POLYNESIAN 

I.— BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

(1 ) Australia. 

1. Angas, G. French.— " South Australia Illustrated, with 

illustrations of the Australian Aborigines." 60 plates 
with letterpress. Folio. London, 1847. 

2. Angas, G. French. — " Savage Life and Scenes in Australia 

and New Zealand." 2 vols., 12mo. London, 1847. 

3. Bennett, J. W. O. — " Vocabulary of the Woolner District 

Dialect, Adelaide River, Northern Territory." Adelaide, 
1869. 

4. Bleek, W. H. I. — "On the Position of the Australian 

Languages." 

5. BoNWiCK, Jas. — " William Buckley, the Wild White Man, 

and his Port Phillip Black Friends." 8vo. Melbourne, 
1856. 

6. BoNWiCK, Jas. —"The Last of the Tasmanians and the 

Black War of Van Diemen's Land." 8vo. London, 
1870. 

7. BoNWiCK, Jas. — "Daily Life and Origin of the Tasmanians." 

8vo. London, 1870. 

8 BoNWiCK, Jas. — "The Australian Aborigines" (see 14). 

9, Brady, Rev. J. — " Descriptive Vocabulary of the Native 
Language of Western Australia." Rome, 1845. 

10. Breton, Lieut. H. W. (R.N.)— "The Aborigines of New 

Holland." In " Excursions in New South Wales, &c." 
1833. 

11. Buckley (see 46). 

12. BuNCE, Daniel.— " Language of the Aborigines of the Colony 

of Victoria, with Ti'anslations." Melbourne, 1851. 

13. C ALDER, J. E.—" Account of the Wars, Extirpation, Habits, 

&c., of the Tasmanians," 12mo. Hobart, 1875. 

14. Cassell's "Illustrated Travels." 6 vols., 4to. Vol. VL— 

" At an Australian Corroboree," by J. A. Skektchley. 
Vol. VI. — " The Australian Aborigines," by Jas. 
BoNWiCK. London, 1869-74. 

15. Collins, David. — "Account of New South Wales, with 

Remarks on the Native ; Particulars of New Zealand, 
and the Discovery of Bass' Straits." Plates. 2 vols., 
4to. London, 1798-1802. 

16. Collins, David. — " The Australian Aborigines ; their Habits, 

Manners and Customs." With plates. In " The Account 
of New South Wales." (See 15). 



RACES BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 297 

17. Cunningham, Petek(R.N). — "The Aboriginals, their Personal 

Characteristics, Mode of Life, Customs, &c." In "Two 
Years in New South Wales." 2 vols., 12mo. London, 
1827. 

18. Dawson, Robt. — "The Present State of Australia, with an 

Account of the Aborigines." 8vo. London, 1831. 

19. Dawson, Jas. — "Australian Aborigines; Languages and 

Customs of Several Tribes of Aborigines in Western 
Victoria." With photographs. 4to. Melbourne, 1881. 

20. FisoN, LoRiMER, and Howitt, a. W. — •" Kamilaroi and 

Kurnai ; Group, Marriage, and Relationship, ifec." 8vo. 
Melbourne, 1880. 

21. Fraser, John.^ — ^" The Aborigines of Australia ; their Ethnic 

Position and Relations." London, 1888. 

22. Grey, Sir George. — " The Aborigines of Western Australia ; 

in Two Expeditions in North-west and W^estern Aus- 
tralia, 1837-39." 2 vols., 8vo. London, 1811. 

23. Grey, Sir George. — " Vocabulary of the Dialects of the 

South-west of Australia." London, 1841. 

24. Grey, Sir George. — The Library of /%//c/(?§7 — "Languages 

of Australia, Papua, Fiji, New Zealand, Polynesia." 
8vo. London, 1858-9. 

25. Gribble, Rev. J. B. — "Black but Comely; Glimpses of 

Aboriginal Life in Australia." 12mo. London, 1884. 

26. Hale, Horatio. — "The Australian Aborigines, etc." In 

the " Ethnology and Philology " of the " U.S. Exploring 
Expedition." Royal 4to. Philadelphia, 1846. 

27. Henderson, Lieut. John. — " Excursions and Adventures in 

New South Wales ; Description of the Australian 
Natives, &c." 2 vols., 12mo. London, 1857. 

28. Henderson, John. — " Observations on the Colonies of New 

South Wales and Van Diemen's Land." 8vo. Calcutta, 
1832. 

29. Hodgkinson, Clement. — " Australia, from Poi't Macquarie 

to Moreton Bay." 8vo. London, 1845. 

30. HowiTT, A. W. (see 20). 

31. Jardine, J. — " Overland Expedition from Rockhampton to 

Cape York." 1867. 

32. Keane, a. H., and Wallace, A. R. — " Australasia." Edited 

by A. R. Wallace, 1879. In Stanford's "Compendium 
of Geography and Travel." 6 vols., 8vo. London, 
1879-85. 

33. Lang, G. S. — " The Aborigines of Victoria." Melbourne, 

1865. 



298 AUSTRALASIAN AND POLYNESIAN 

34. Lang, Eev. J. D. — " Queensland : a Field for Immigration, 

&c., with a Disquisition on the Aborigines." 12mo. 
London, 1864. 

35. Leichardt, Dr. Ludwig. — •' Journal of an Overland Expe- 

dition in Australia (from Moreton Bay to Port 
Essington, a distance of upwards of 3000 miles) During 
the Years 1844-45." 8vo. 1847. 

36. MacGillivray, John — " Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. 

Rattlesnake" 1852. 

37. Martin's " Colonial Magazine." — Articles on " The Abori- 

gines of Australia." In vols, ii., v., vi. 

38. McCoMBiE, Thos. — " Arabin ; or the Adventures of a 

Colonist in New South Wales." With " Essay on the 
Aborigines." 12mo. London, 1845. 

39. Melville, Henry. — " Present State of Australasia ; 

Remarks on the Aborigines, &c." 12mo. London, 1857. 

40. Meyer, H. E. A. — " Manners and Customs of the Aborigines 

of the Encounter Bay Tribe, South Australia." Adelaide, 
1846. 

41. Meyer, H. E. A. — "Vocabulary of the Language Spoken 

by the Aborigines of the Southern and Eastern Portions 
of South Australia." Preceded by a Grammar. Adelaide,. 
1843. 

42. Milligan, Joseph. — " Vocabulary of the Dialects of Some 

of the Aboriginal Tribes of Tasmania." 8vo. Hobart, 
1866. 

43. Mitchell, Major T. L. — "Three Expeditions into the 

Interior of Eastern Australia." 2 vols., 8vo. London, 
1838. 

44. Moore, G. F. — " Descriptive Vocabulary of the Language 

in Counnon Use amongst the Aborigines of Western 
Australia." London, 1842. 

45. MoORHOUSE, M. — "Vocabulary of the Murray River 

Language." Adelaide, 1846. 

46. Morgan, John. — " Life and Adventures of William Buckley ; 

for 32 Years a Wanderer amongst the Aborigines of 
Victoria." 12mo. Hobart, 1852. 

47. Morrill, Edmund. — " Sketch of the Residence of James 

Morrill among the Aborigines of Northern Queensland 
for 17 Years. Brisbane, 1865. 

48. MuDiE, RoBT. — "Account of the Native Inhabitants of 

Australia," from Collins, Flinders, Oxley, Barron Field, 
and other.s. In the "Pictures of Australia." 8vo. 
London, 1829. 



RACES BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 299 

49. MuNDY, Col. G. C. — " Our Antipodes ; or, Residence and 

Rambles in the Australasian Colonies." (1846-51). 
8vo. London, 1855. 

50. Paterson, G. — " History of New South Wales ; with a 

Description of the Natives, &c." 8vo. Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, 1811. 

51. Peron, Fred. — "Voyage de Decouvertes aux Tei'res Aus- 

trales, 1800-1804." Paris, 1807. 

52. Perox, Fred., et Freycinet, Louis. — "La Force Physique 

des Peuples Sauvages de la Nouvelle Hollande et la 
Terre de Diemen." In the " Voyage aux Terres Aus- 
trales." 2 vols., folio. Paris, 1807. 

53. Ridley, Rev, W. — "Gurre Kamilaroi ; or, Kamilaroi 

Sayings." Sydney, 1856. 

54. Ridley, Rev. AVm. — "Kamilaroi, Dippil, and Turrubul ; 

Languages Spoken by Australian Aborigines." 4to. 
Sydney, 1866. 

55. Ridley, Rev. Wm. — "Kamilaroi and (20) other Australian 

Languages." 2nd edition, revised and enlarged. 4to. 
Sydney, 1875. 

56. ScHURMANN, C. W. — " Aboriginal Tribes of Port Lincoln, in 

South Australia." Adelaide, 1846. 

57. ScHURMANN, C. W. — " Vocabulary of the Parnkalla Lan- 

guage." Adelaide, 1844. 

58. Skertchley, J. A. — " At an Australian Corroboree " (see 14.) 

59. Smyth, R. Brough. — "The Aborigines of Victoria, Ac." 

2 vols., 8vo. Melbourne, 1878. 

60. Stanbridge, W. E. — " General Characteristics, Astronomy, 

and Mythology of the Tribes in the Central Part of 
Victoria." 8vo. 1861. 

61. Stokes, J. L. (R.N). — " Discoveries in Australia; the 

Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle in the Years 1837 to 1843 ; 
also a narrative of Captain Owen Stanley's Visit to the 
Islands in the Arafura Sea." 8vo. London, 1846. 

62. Sturt, Capt. Charles. — " Two Expeditions into the Interior 

of Southern Australia during the Years 1828-31." 2 
vols. London, 1833. 

63. Sturt, Capt. Charles. — " Narrative of an Expedition into 

Central Australia, tkc." 2 vols. London, 1849. 

64. Taplin, Rev. G. — "The Folklore, Manners, Customs, and 

Languages of the South Australian Aborigines." 8vo. 
Adelaide, 1879. 



500 AUSTRALASIAN AND POLYNESIAN 

65. Teichelmann, C. G., and Schurmann, C. W. — " Outlines of 
a Grammar, Vocabulary, and Phraseology o£ the Abori- 
ginal Language of South Australia." Adelaide, 1840. 

-66. Thorne, E. — " The Queen of the Colonies ; with an Account 
of the Aborigines of Queensland." 8vo. London, 1876. 

67. Threlkeld, L. E. — " An Australian Grammar, &c." 8vo. 

Sydney, 1834. 

68. Threlkeld, L. E. — " A Key to the Structure of the Aborig- 

inal Language." 8vo. Sydney, 1850. 

69. TowNSEND, J. Phipps. — " Rambles in New South Wales ; 

Sketches of the Aborigines." 12mo. London, 1849. 

70. Wallace, A. R. — "Australasia." In Stanford's "Com- 

pendium of Geography and Travel," based upon 
Hellwald's " Die Erde und ihre Folker." London, 1879. 

71. WiLiiELMi, Carl. — "Natives of the Port Lincoln District, 

South Australia." 

72. Williams, W. — "Vocabulary of the Language Spoken by 

the Aborigines of the Adelaide District." 

73. Wood. — "The Native Australians." In " Wood's Natural 

History of Man." Illustrated. 2 vols., royal 8vo. 
London, 1868-70. 

74. Woods, J. D. — "The Native Tribes of South Australia." 

8vo. Adelaide, 1879. 

Vocabularies and incidental notices of Australian words, and 
their meanings, are found in the works of many authors who have 
written about Australia; e.g. — 1790, White has a few names of 
animals ; 1763, Hunter, about 390 words ; 1793, Tench, between 
70 and 80 words; 1798, Collins, about 400 words; 1807-11, 
Pero, about 20 words; 1811, Patterson, a few words; 1814, 
Flinders, about 15 words; 1820, Oxley, 37 words; 1825, Field, 
a few words; 1827, Cunningham, over a dozen words; 1827, 
King, about 50 words ; 1832, Henderson, about a dozen words; 
1833, Breton, 70 words; 1833, Sturt, a few words; 1834, 
D'Urville, about 150 words; 1834, Geo. Bennett, 130 words; 
Threlkeld's Grammar has a large vocabulai-y of words ; 1839, 
Ogle, about 170 words; 1839, Mitchell, about 350 words and 
names; 1844, Mrs. C. Meredith, 25 words ; 1845, Hodgkinson, 
a few names ; 1845, Strezlecki, remarks on the language; 1845, 
Eyre, nearly 100 words ; 1845, Rev. D. McKenzie, about 50 
words ; 1846, Dr. Braim, a few notices from Threlkeld ; 1846, 
Hale (U.S. expedition), about 360 words ; 1847, Marjoribanks, a 
feAv words; 1848, Mitchell, some names; 1848, Gould ("Birds"), 
about 230 native names ; 1849, Sturt (" Central Australia"), some 
names ; 1850, Threlkeld's Key has comparative tables of words ; 



RACES DIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 301 

1851, Bunce, about 80 words ; 1851, Henderson, about 70 words ;. 

1852, Mundy, half a dozen words; 1857, Cooper, 220 words; 
1860, Geo. Bennett, 50 names ; 1862, Latham, about 150 words; 
1863, Rev. J. Graham, upwards of 30 words; 1865, Sam. 
Bennett, comparison of words; 1866, Bailliere (''Gazetteer of 
New South Wales "), about 3000 names of rivers, mountains, &c. ;. 
1866, Ridley, first edition; 1875, Ridley, second edition, greatly 
enlarged, about 1200 words; 1878, R. B. Smyth, about two- 
dozen words ; 1880, Fison and Howitt (" Kamilaroi and Kurnai"), 
words for relationships ; Curr. 

Information about the aborigines of Australia and their 
languages may also be obtained from " Notes and Proceedings of 
the Parliament of New South Wales, 1834-38 ;" " Report of the 
Select Committee of the Parliament of New South Wales, 1838- 
1845 ;" and from numerous articles in the volumes of the 
"Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain," the 
"Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London," the 
"Journal of the Royal Colonial Institute of London," the Journals 
of the Royal Societies of New South Wales, Victoria, ifec. 

(2.) East Indian Archipelago. 

1. Bopp, Franz.— "Tiber die Verwandschaft der Malayisch. 

Polynesischen Sprachen mit den Indisch. Europaischen." 
Berlin, 1841. 

2. Crawfurd, John. — " History of the Indian Archipelago ; 

Manners, Arts, Languages, Religious Institutions, and 
Commerce." 3 vols., 8vo. Edinburgh, 1820. 

3. Crawfurd, John. — " Grammar and Dictionary of the Malay 

Language." 

4. Hartwig, Dr. George. — " On the Malayan Race." Vol. iv.- 

5 vols., 8vo. London, 1881-82. 

5. Humboldt. — "Tiber die Kawi Sprache." 

6. Marsden, William. — " History of Sumatra ; its Native 

Inhabitants, Natural Productions, &c." 3rd edition, 4to. 
With Plates, Folio. London, 1811. 

7. Marsden, William. — Miscellaneous Works on " The Poly- 

nesian and East Insular Languages ;" on " A Continental 
Roman Alphabet, Applicable to Oriental Languages, 
&c." 4to. London, 1834. 

8. MuLLER, F. — " Reise der Fregatte JVovara." Wien, 1867. 

9. Wallace, A. R. — " Physical Geography, Ethnology, &c., of 

the East Indian Islands." In Stanford's " Compendium 
of Geography ^id Travel." 6 vols., 8vo. London,, 
1879-85. 



302 australasian and polynesian 

(3.) Melanesia (General). 

1. Anderson, J. W. — "Notes of Travel in Fiji and New 

Caledonia." London, 1880. 

2. Campbell, F, A. — " A Year in the New Hebrides, Loyalty 

Islands, and New Caledonia." Melbourne, 1874. 

3. CoDRiNGTON, Rev. R. H. (D.D.).— "A Sketch of Motu 

Grammar." London, 1877. 

4. CoDRiNGTON, Rev, R. H. (D.D.). — -"The Melanesian Lang- 

uages." 8vo. Oxford, 1885. 

5. Copeland, Rev. J. (Futuna Island, New Hebrides). — " The 

Language of Aneityum." 1861. 

6. Copeland, Rev. J.- — " Sheet of Meteorological Observations 

Made at Futuna Island during the years ." 

Dunedin, 1878. 

7. Duncan, Prof. — " Types of the Lowest Races." Folio. 

London, 1874. 

8. Gabelentz, H. C. von der. — " Die Melanesischen Sprachen, 

&c:' Leipsic, 1860. 

9. Garnier, Jules. — "La NouvelleCaledonie et Tahiti" 12mo. 

Paris, 1871. 

10. Grezel, Le Pere. — " Dictionnaire Futunien-Francais, avec 

Notes Grammaticales." 8vo. Paris, 1878. 

11. GUPPY, H. B. (late surgeon R.N.). — "The Solomon Islands 

and their Natives." 8vo. 1887. 

12. Hood, T. H.—" Notes of a Cruise of H.M.S. Fawn in the 

Western Pacific in 1862." 8vo. Edinburgh, 1863. 

13. Inglis, Rev. J. (D.D.). — "A Dictionary of the Aneit- 

yumese Language." 8vo. London, 1882. 

14. Inglis, Rev. J. (D.D.).— "In the New Hebrides." 8vo. 

London, 1887. 

15. Macdonald, Rev. D. (Havannah Harbour, New Hebrides). 

" Oceania : Linguistic and Anthropological." 8vo. 
Melbourne, 1889. 

16. Macdonald, Rev. D. — "Three New Hebrides Languages 

(Efatese, Eromangan, Santo)." 8vo. Melbourne, 1889. 

17. Markham, Com. A. H. (R.N.). — "The Cruise of the Rosario 

Amongst the New Hebrides and the Santa Cruz 
Islands." 8vo. 1873. 

18. Martin's "Colonial Magazine." Articles on the various 

Islands and Groups of Melanesia, in vols, iii., iv., v., vi., 
vii., viii. 1840-42. 



RACES BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 303 

19. McFarlane, Rev. S. — "Story of the Lifu (Loyalty Islands) 

Mission." 12mo. London, 1873. 

20. Meyer, Dr. A. B. — " Beitrage der Kentniss der Melanesis- 

chen, Mikronesischen und Papuanischen Sprachen." 
Leipsic, 1882. 

21. Pickering (see Polynesia). 

22. RiENZi, G. L. DoMENY DE. — " Oceanie." Paris, 1836. 

23. KoMiLLY, H. H. — " The Western Pacific and New Guinea." 

8vo. 1886. 

24. Smythe, Mrs. — "Ten Months in the Fiji Islands." 8vo. 

1867. 

25. Tyerman, D., and Bennett, G. (see Polynesia). 

26. Wallace, A. R. — "Australasia." In Stanford's "Compen- 

dium of Geography and Travel." Chapters xxii., xxiii., 
and Appendix. 

27. Wilkes (see Polynesia). 

Articles on the various groups and islands of Melanesia will be 
found in the " Encyclopaedia Britannica." 

(4.) Melanesia (New Guinea.) 

1. Chalmers, Jas., and Gill, W. Wyatt (B.A., LL.D.). — "Work 

and Adventure in New Guinea, 1877-85." 12mo. 
London, 1885. 

2. Earle, G. Windsor. — " The Papuan Races of the Indian 

Archipelago." 12mo. London, 1853. 

3. Lawes, Rev. W. G. — " Grammar and Vocabulary of the 

Language Spoken by the Motu Tribe, New Guinea." 
With Introduction by Rev. Geo. Pratt. 8vo. Sydney, 

1885. 

4. Lindt, J. W. — "Picturesque New Guinea; with Chapters 

on the Manners and Customs of the Papuans." With 
50 autotype illustrations. 4to. 1887. 

5. Stone, O. C— "A few Months in New Guinea." With 

Illustrations and a Vocabulary. 12mo. London, 1880. 

6. Tregance. — "Adventures of Lewis Tregance ; Nine Years a 

Captive in the Interior of New Guinea." Edited by 
Rev. H. Croker. 12mo. London, 1876. 

7. Wood, J. G. — " The Papuan Race, their Customs, (fee." In 

Vol. II. of " Wood's Natural History of Man." Illus- 
trated. 2 vols., royal 8vo. London, 1868-70. 

Articles on New Guinea, the New Hebrides, New Caledonia, 
and the other adjacent groups will be found in the " Encyclopsedia 



304 AUSTRALASIAN AND POLYNESIAN 

Britannica," " Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of 
London," and " Proceedings of the Royal Colonial Institute." 

Books and pamphlets in the native languages of Melanesia 
are : — 

Neiv Hebrides, etc. 

In the languages of Aneityum, Futuna, Tanna, Eromanga, 
Aniwa, Efate, Nguna, Epi, Anibryni: — Primer, Catechism, 
Hymn Book, Lesson Book, Vocabulary, portions of the 
Bible (the earliest of these dating from the year 1855). 
The Aneityumese has the whole Bible (1889) and the 
" Pilgrim's Progress," also a dictionary of the language. 
Almanacs were printed in 1855 and 1859. 

Of the Northern Groups of Melanesia, 

Motu Island 

Has the Lord's Prayer, Reading Book, and Hymns in the 
native language. 

Solomon Islands 
Have Prayers and Scripture Readings. 

Neiv Britain 

Has Catechism and Hymns, a Dictionary and Grammar, and 
St. Mark's Gospel. 



(5). — -The Fiji Islands. 

L Erskine, J. E. (R.N.). — "Journal of a Cruise Among the 
Islands of the Western Pacific, Fiji, &c., in H.M.S. 
Havannah" 8vo. London, 1853. 

2. GoRDON-CuMMiNG, Miss C. F. — " At Home in Fiji." 2 vols., 

12mo. London, 1881. 

3. Hazlewood, Rev. D. — "A Fijian and English Dictionary." 

8vo. Fewa, 1850. 

4. Hazlewood. — " A Fijian and English and an English and 

Fijian Dictionary, &c., with a Grammar of the 
Language." 8vo. London. 

5. Moore, Rev. Wm. — -"Handbook of the Fijian Language." 

8vo. Hobart, 1866. 

6. Pritchard, W. T. (H.M. Consul at Samoa and Fiji). — 

" Polynesian Reminiscences." 8vo. London, 1866. 

7. ScHOLES, S. E. — " Fiji and the Friendly Islands ; their 

Scenery and People." 16mo. London, 1882. 



I 



RACES BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 305 

8. Turner, Geo. (LL.D.). — "Nineteen Years in Polynesia, 

Fiji, &c." 12mo. London, 1884. 

9. Waterhouse, Rev. Joseph. — "The King and People of 

Fiji." 12mo. London, 1866. 

10. Williams, Rev. T. and Calvert, Jas. — "Fiji and the 
Fijians ; the Islands and their Inhabitants. 2 vols., 
12mo. London, 1858. 

Books in Native Language are : — 

" Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress. " London, 1867. 

" Teacher's Hymn Book, Catechism, and Book of Offices.' 

London, 1884. 
" Church History." Barth. London, 1867. 
" System of Theology." Hunt. Viti, 1850. 
" Lectures on the Doctrines of Christianity and Wes- 

leyan Catechism." London, 1884. 
Arithmetic (no date). 
Catechism, 1863. 
Geography, 1879. 
Arithmetic Book, 1871. 
Hymn Book, 1884. 
Outline of Theology, 1863. 
History of Daniel and Esther, 1883. 
The New Testament. Mission Press, Vuva, Fiji, 1853. 
The Bible. London, 1864 and 1867. 



(6.) Micronesia. 

1. Martin's "Colonial Magazine." — Articles on the various 

Islands and Groups of Micronesia in vols, v., vi., vii., viii. 
1840-42. And in the " Encyclopaedia Britannica." 

Some of the books on Polynesia also include Micronesia. 

2. Meyer (see Melanesia). 

3. Wallace, A R. — "Australasia," in "Stanford's Compen- 

dium." Chap. XXY. 

Pamphlets in the native languages are : — 

Gilbert Islands — 
Spelling Book, 1860; Catechism, Hymn Book, Geography. 

Marshall Islands-— 
Arithmetic Book, 1863 ; Hymn Book, 1869; Geography, Spelling 
Book, Reading Book. 

T 



306 australasian and polynesian 

(7.) Polynesia. 

1. Andrews, Lorrin. — " Grrammar of the Hawaiian Language." 

8vo. Honolulu, 1854. 

2. Andrews, Lorrin. — " A Dictionary of the Hawaiian Lang- 

uage." 8vo. Honolulu, 1865. 

3. Angas, G. French. — "Polynesia; a Description of the 

Physical Features, Inhabitants, History, and Productions 
of the Islands of the Pacific." 12mo. London, 1866. 

4. Arbousset, Th.— "Tahiti et les lies Adjacentes." 12mo. 

Paris, 1867. 

5. Bird, J. L. — " Hawaiian Archipelago ; Six Months in the 

Sandwich Islands." 

6. Boddam-Whetham, J. W. — "Pearls of the Pacific." 8vo. 

London, 1876. 

7. Brenchley, Julius L. — "Jottings During the Cruise of 

H.M.S. Ciiracoa Among the South Sea Islands in 1865." 
With Illusti'ations and Natural History notices. 2 vols., 
8vo. 1873. 

8. Buzacott. — " Mission Life in the Pacific (Tahiti, Rarotonga); 

Life of Aaron Buzacott." 12ruo. 1866. 

9. Cheever, Rev. Henry T. — "The Island World of the Pacific 

(Hawaii)." 12mo. Glasgow, 1857. 

10. Cheever, Rev. Henry T. — " Life in the Sandwich Islands : 

As It Was and As It Is." 12mo. London, 1857. 

11. Cook and King. — Atlas, containing two charts of Cook's 

Discoveries and 61 plates of the Races of the South 
Pacific Folio. 

12. Cook. — "The Three Voyages of Captain Jas. Cook;" with an 

appendix giving an account of the present condition of 
the South Sea Islands. 2 vols., 4to. 1846. 

13. Cooper, H. Stonehewer. — "Coral Lands." 2 vols., 8vo. 

London, 1880. 

14. Davies, Rev. John. — "A Tahitian and English Dictionary." 

4to. Tahiti, 1857. 

15. Dibble, Rev. Sheldon. — " History of the Sandwich Islands." 

12mo. Lahainalima, 1843. 

16. Ellis, Wm. — "Narrative of a Tour Through Hawaii; with 

Observations on the Natural History of the Island and 
its Inhabitants." 8vo. London, 1824. 

17. Ellis, Wm. — "Polynesian Researches, Natural History of 

the Islands, History, Mythology, Traditions, Arts, 
Manners and Customs of the Islanders." 2 vols., 8vo. 
London, 1829. 4 vols., 8vo. London, 1859 



RACES BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 307 

18. FoRNANDER, ABRAHAM. — " The Polynesian Race ; its Origin, 

Migrations, and Ancient History of the Hawaiian 
Peoples." 3 vols., 8vo. London, 1878-85. 

19. Gill, Rev. W. Wyatt (B.A., LL.D.).— "Myths and Songs 

from the South Pacific." With preface by Max Miiller. 
12mo. London, 1876. 

20. Gill, Rev. W. Wyatt (B.A., LL.D.).— "Life in the Southern 

Isles ; or, Scenes in the South Pacific and New Guinea." 
12mo. London, 1876. 

21. Gill, Rev. W. Wyatt (B. A., LL.D.).—" Historic Sketches 

of Savage Life in Polynesia." With illustrations, clan 
songs, &c. 8vo. Wellington (KZ.), 1880. 

22. Gill, Rev. W. Wyatt (B. A., LL.D.).—" Jottings from the 

Pacific." 8vo. London, 1885. 

23. Gill, Rev. W. Wyatt (B.A., LL.D.).— "Gems from the 

Coral Islands of the South Seas." 8vo. London, 1856. 

24. GoDEFFROY MusEUM, Catalogue of — Being a Handbook of the 

Ethnography and Ethnology of the South Sea Tribes, 
including Australians, by J. D. E. Schmeltz and R. 
Kranse, M.D. Map and 46 plates. 8vo. Hamburg, 
1881. 

25. GoDEFFROY MusEUM. — Album of 28 Photographs, containing 

175 subjects, with descriptions. 4to. Hamburg, 1881. 

26. Grey, Sir George. — " Polynesian Mythology and Ancient 

Tradition ; History of the New Zealand Race, as 
furnished by their Priests and Chiefs." 8vo. London, 
1855. 

27. Jarves, J. J. — " The Hawaiian Islands ; their Antiquities, 

Mythology, Legends, History, &c." With additions by 
H. M. Whitney. 8vo. Honolulu, 1872. 

28. Keane, a. H.— " The Philology and Ethnology of Polynesia." 

In Wallace's " Australasia." (See 47.) 

29. Lang, Rev. J. Dunmore. — " Origin and Migration of the 

Polynesian Nation, &c." 8vo. Sydney, 1877. 

30. LuNDiE, G. A. — " Missionary Life in Samoa." Being the 

Journals of Geo. Arch. Lundie, 1840-41. 12mo. 
Edinburgh, 1846. 

31. Mariner. — " Account of the Natives of the Tonga Islands." 

Edited by Dr. John Martin. 2 vols., 8vo. London, 
1878. 

32. Murray, Rev. A. W.— "Missions in Western Polynesia." 

8vo. London, 1863. 

33. Murray, Rev. A. W.— "The Martyrs of Polynesia, &c., 

from 1799 to 1871." 8vo. London, 1885. 

t2 



308 AUSTRALASIAN AND POLYNESIAN 

34. Murray, Rev. A. W. — "Forty Years' Mission Work in 

Polynesia and New Gruinea." 12mo. London, 1876. 

35. Perkins, Edward T. — " The Hawaiian, Georgian, and 

Society Islands." With plates. 8vo. New York, 
1854. 

36. Pickering, Chas. (M.D.) (Member of the U.S. Exploring 

Expedition. — "The Races of Man and their Geogra- 
phical Distribution." 8vo. London, 1854. 

37. Pratt, Rev. Geo. — " A Samoan Dictionary ; English- 

Samoan and Samoan-English ; with a Short Grammar." 
8vo. Samoa, 1862. 

38. Pritchard, W. T. — " Polynesian Reminiscences." By W. T. 

Pritchard, H.B.M.'s Consul at Samoa and Fiji. 8vo. 
London, 1866. 

39. RiENZi, G. L. DoMENY de. — "Oceanie; Revue Geographique 

et Ethnographique de Melaisie, Micronesie, Polynesie, 
Melanesie." 3 vols., 8vo. Plates and Maps. 1836-37. 

40. Russell, Bishop M. (LL.D.). — "Polynesia: Account of the 

Islands of the South Sea, including New Zealand, their 
Inhabitants, &c." 12mo. Edinburgh, 1842. 

41. Stewart, Rev. C. S. — " Private Journal of the Rev. C. S. 

Stewart, Missionary to the Sandwich Islands." 12mo. 
Dublin, 1830. 

42. Stewart, Rev. C. S.— " A Residence in the Sandwich 

Islands." With Introduction and Notes by Ellis. 
12mo. London, 1832. 

43. Turner, Rev. Geo.— "Nineteen Years in Polynesia; 

Missionary Life and Travel." 8vo. London, 1861. 

44. Turner, Rev. Geo. — " Samoa a Hundred Years Ago ; with 

Notes on the Cults and Customs of 23 other Islands in 
the Pacific." 12mo. London, 1884. 

45. Tyerman, D., and Bennett, G. — "Voyages and Travels 

Round the World, 1821-29." London, 1840. 

46. Veeson, George. — " Authentic Narrative of Four Years' 

Residence at Tongatabu." 8vo. London, 1810. 

47. Wallace, A. B. — " Australasia." In Stanford's " Compen- 

dium of Geography and Travel." Chap. xxiv. and 
Appendix by A. H. Keane. 

48. West, Rev. Thomas. — " Ten Years in South Central 

Polynesia." 8vo. London, 1865. 

49. Wilkes, Commodore Charles. — "U.S. Exploring Expe- 

dition to Polvnesia and the Antarctic Regions in 
1838-42," 5 vols., 8vo. Philadelphia, 1845. London. 



RACES BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 309 

50. Wood, J. G. — " The Sandwich Islands." In "Wood's 
Natural History of Man." Illustrated. 2 vols., royal 
8vo. London, 1868-70. 

Books, Pamphlets, &c., in the Native Languages. 

Rarotonga. 

Catechism, 1847; Arithmetic, 1848; Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress, 1849 ; Hymn Book, 1852 ; Astronomy illustrated ; 
English and Rarotongan Grammar (Buzacott) ; Bogue's 
Theological Lectures ; Scripture Lessons ; Geography 
and School Reading Book ; the Laws of Rarotonga, 
written by the chiefs, and printed at their special 
request and cost, 1862 — all printed at Rarotonga; 
Barth's Church History ; Commentaries on Several 
Books of the Bible (William Gill) ; Ata Ao, " Peep of 
Day" (Mrs. W. W. Gill)— all printed at London; 
and many others. The New Testament (translated by 
John Williams), London, 1838; the Bible (translated 
by Williams, Pitman, and Buzacott), 1st edition, London, 
1851 ; 2nd edition (edited by William Gill), London, 
1855 ; 3rd edition (edited by Geo. Gill and E. R. W. 
Kranse), London, 1872 ; 4th edition (carefuUy revised 
and carried through the press by Rev W. Wyatt Gill, 
LL.D.), London, 1888. 

Hawaiian. 

Catechism on Bible History, 1832 ; Hymns and Times, 
1834 ; Geography Book, 1845. Printed at Oahu. 
Sacred Readings, 1841; Pilgrim's Progress, 1842; 
Arithmetic Book ; Church History ; Moral Philosophy ; 
The Story of the Lady of the Twilight ; Baxter's Saints' 
Rest ; Evidences of Christianity ; Keith on the 
Prophecies ; Wayland's Moral Science ; Wayland's 
Political Economy ; General History ; Ancient History; 
the Bible ; and many others. Printed at Honolulu. 

Maori. 

Maori Catechism (the first book printed in New Zealand), 
16nio., Kirikiri, 1825; The Pilgrim's Progress; Robinson 
Crusoe ; Poems, Traditions and Chants of the Maoris, 
edited by Sir Geo. Grey ; Proverbial and Popular 
Sayings of the Ancestors of the New Zealand Race, 
edited by Sir George Grey ; and other books; pamphlets 
very numerous. 

Marquesan. 
Geography, Arithmetic, Hymn Book, 1869. 



310 australasian and polynesian 

(8.) New Zealand. 

1. Angas, George French. — "The New Zealanders." Illus- 

trated. Folio. London, 1847. 

2. Angas, George French. — " Polynesia ; a Popular Descrip- 

tion of the Physical Features, Inhabitants, &c." 8vo. 
London, 1866. 

3. Angas, George French. — "Savage Life and Scenes in 

Australia and New Zealand." 2 vols., 8vo. London, 
1847. 

4. Brown, Wm. — " New Zealand and its Aborigines, and the 

Means of Civilising Them." 12mo. London, 1845. 

5. Buller, Rev. Jas. — " Forty Years in New Zealand ; with 

an Account of Maoridom, &c." 8vo. London, 1878. 

6. Campbell, Dr. J. L. — " Poenamo." Sketches of the early 

days of New Zealand. 8vo. 1881. 

7. Fenton, F. D. — " Origin and Migrations of the Maori People," 

8vo. Auckland, 1885. 

8. Fenton, F. D. — " Observations on the Aboriginal Inhabitants 

of New Zealand." 

9. Grey, Sir Geo. — " Polynesian Mythology and the Traditional 

History of the New Zealand Race." 12nio. London, 
1855. ' 

10. Johnstone, J. C. — "Maoria; Manners and Customs of the 

Aboriginal Inhabitants of New Zealand." 12mo. 1874. 

11. Maunsell, Rev. R. — "Grammar of the New Zealand 

Language." Third edition, Melbourne, 1882 ; first 
and second editions, Auckland, 1842, 1862. 

12. PoLACK, J. S. — " Manners and Customs of the New 

Zealanders, &c." 2 vols., 8vo. London, 1840. 

13. Rutherford. — "The New Zealanders; Account of New 

Zealand and its Inhabitants." With a History of John 
Rutherford, a Sailor, Detained among them Several 
Years (1816-27). 12mo. 1830. 

14. Shortland, Edward. — "The Southern Districts of New 

Zealand, with Notices of the Aborigines." 12mo. 
London, 1851. 

15. Shortland, Edward. — Traditions, Superstitions, Manners 

and Customs of the New Zealanders." 2nd edition. 12mo. 
London, 1856. 

16. Taylor. — "Te ika a Maui; or, New Zealand and its 

Inhabitants, their Origin, Manners, Customs, 
Mythology, Religion, Songs, Proverbs, Fables and 
Language." 8vo. London, 1870. 



RACES BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 311 

17. White, John. — "Te Rou ; or, the Maori at Home." 8vo. 

1874. 

18. White, John. — "The Ancient History of the Maori; His 

Mythology and Traditions." 8vo. Wellington, 1887. 

19. Williams, W. — "Dictionary of the New Zealand Language." 

8vo. London, 1852 and 1871. 

20. Wood, J. G.— "The Maoris." In " Wood's J^atural History 

of Man." Illustrated. 2 vols., 8vo. London, 1868-70. 



I 



IL— REPORT ON THE AUSTRALASIAN, PAPUAN, 
AND POLYNESIAN RACES. 

(1.) New Guinea. Toaripi and Koiari Tribes, by 
the Rev. James Chalmers. 

(a) TOAEIPI TEIBE. 

BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD. 

In many of the tribes a feast is prepared by relatives when a 
woman is known to have conceived, but here (Toaripi, or Motu- 
motu) nothing is done. After conception a woman is not sacred, 
but lies with her husband until near childbirth. When she feels 
the pains of childbirth, she goes to the bush close by, and 
selecting a cocoanut or other large tree, lies down beside it. A 
friend brings her a chatty of water and a shell. She is left 
alone, and does everything for herself and the child. The after- 
birth she takes home and presents to her mother or other near 
relative, who keeps it for a day or two, when it is thrown into 
the sea. If a son is born, great is the joy ; if a girl — well, only 
a little pleased. She cooks her own food, but the husband does 
not partake of food cooked by her ; he remains away from her 
until the child is well grown, when he enters the house, talks 
with his wife, and nurses the child. There is no cohabitation 
until the child is grown and able to crawl about. Only then 
"will the husband have connection with her and eat food cooked 
by her. A man having connection with his wife before then 
would injure the child, who would sicken and die. 

A woman having another child before one is quite grown is 
spoken of as an animal, a pig, or something else ; she would be 
terribly ashamed. An Eastern Polynesian woman had two 
•children within a year, and the natives were horribly disgusted, 
and said she was only a sow. 



312 AUSTRALASIAN AND POLYNESIAN 

For the first child, on the fifth day after birth, food is cooked 
by the husband's and wife's relatives, and the women of the 
village where the woman who has given birth to the child resides 
partake of it. 

Only illegitimate children are killed. There is no infanticide 
and no cannibalism. 

Children are named by relatives — if a girl, the mother's friends 
give the name ; if a boy, the father's friends. A name will be 
given for a quarrel, or a journey, or anything particular occurring 
on it, or sickness. A man is now here named by a relative who 
at the time of his birth was sufiering from a sore chest, and he 
named the child Harepai (sore chest). They do not actually kill 
deformed children, but they are so neglected that they soon die. 
They do not pierce the nose until the child is about five or six 
years old, having no superstition regarding it. The mother 
carries the child in her arms, or, when going a distance, in a net 
bag over her back. The father frequently nurses the child. 
Yesterday a father returned from a journey, and when safely 
landed, his wife met him, gave him the child, which he nursed 
afi'ectionately, whilst the wife carried home the things on the 
canoe. Such may be seen any day. The child suckles until 
walking about. Children are lovingly cared for by parents and 
relatives. Uncles and aunts take as great an interest in the 
children as the parents do. They are not disciplined, are taught 
planting, sago-making, and fighting. 

There is no betrothal in infancy. When young women, they 
are betrothed. Parents make all arrangements, but not unless it 
is agreeable to the young man and woman. 

MATURITY. 

Fourteen and fifteen years old. There are no observances at 
that time. Lads, when about seventeen or eighteen, leave ofi" the 
sporran worn by all boys, enter the Eramo (temple or dubu), and 
these adopt the string, shave the head, and remain for many 
months until the hair has grown long and frizzy. Before entering 
the Eramo the father, or nearest relative, kills a pig and makes 
a feast, and invites all friends to assemble. A relative takes off 
the sporran, and fastens on the sihi (string), after which all sit 
down and eat. When the hair is well grown he leaves the Eramo, 
and again there is feasting. He is now considered a man, and is 
marriageable. When in the Eramo he is not supposed to look upon 
or be seen by a woman. Female friends cook food and leave it 
outside, making a noise as they leave, and shortly the lad 
• descends, takes it into the Eramo, and eats it. They spend the 
time in the Eramo making armlets from fibres. The old men, who 
live mostly in the Eramo, occupy themselves in working (plaiting) 
belts, which are worn by young men after birth of the first child. 



RACES BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 313 

When the first child is born the father cooks a pig and food, and 
the belt, being purchased with food, is then fastened on, there to 
remain until rotten, or, on death of a near relation, it is cut ofi". 

When in the Eramo, various kinds of food may not be eaten, 
especially taro. Sago and bananas may be eaten, and only a very 
few kinds of fish. The young man's hair is shaven ofi" on entering 
by a friend, for whom he will do the same. 

Not until after they have left the Eramo is the " Roaring 
Bull " seen. On the occasion of its being worked all women and 
children and young men keep away. Near to here are two large 
houses filled with masks, which are all very sacred, and are now 
kept from vulgar gaze until after a large feast, soon to be held, 
when they will be used for dancing, and afterwards burned. A short 
time ago two old men sat in one of the houses, communicating 
with the spirits and working the " Bull." Large quantities of 
food were brought them by men. Not until a youth has been 
in the Eramo can he wear a mask or join in the dances and 
drum-beatings of the tribe, and only then is he considered a man. 
Not until he has descended from the Eramo does he know a 
woman. All singing, dancing, and drum-beating are considered 
sacred, and never uselessly done. 

There is no circumcision practised in the Toaripi Tribe. 

MARRIAGE. 

When about fourteen years of age, boys and girls go planting 
in difierent places, and there is a custom (Hiriho), when the 
afternoon arrives, the boys get their bows and arrows and rush 
the girls, who make for the sea, and if one of them is wounded, 
she is supposed to become the wife of the boy who fired the arrow. 
Many girls attend school who, a few days ago, were wounded. 

As already stated, there is no betrothal in infancy. A young 
man gives areca nuts to a girl, and she tells her parents, and the 
young man informs his. The youth's father then gets bananas 
and areca nuts and carries them to the maiden's parents, and if 
accepted they are said to be betrothed, and the girl carries firewood 
at night to the boy's home. They are not married until the young 
man leaves the Eramo. Should the girl not care for the lad, she 
informs her parents, and the bananas and areca nuts are returned. 

Before marriage, food is collected in large quantities by parents 
and relations of the young man, and on a fixed day carried to the 
girl's home. Her parents dress her in feathers, arm-shells, shell 
necklaces, and best petticoats. The bridegroom remains at his 
home. The girl, when dressed, sits on a mat in presence of the boy's 
parents and eats out of a dish cooked specially for her. She then 
rises, and her father places on her shoulder a bow and a bundle of 
arrows, and she then accompanies the boy's parents to their home. 
A large party accompanies them, all carrying food, and preceded 



314 AUSTRALASIAN AND POLYNESIAN 

by a man carrying a bunch of ripe bananas, which he distributes 
one at a time to the crowd of children and others who follow. 
On arrival at the bridegroom's home, she takes off all her finery, 
which then becomes the property of the husband's parents, and 
she presents him with the bow and arrows ; a dish of food having 
been prepar'ed, they both eat out of it. The day after, the woman's 
head is shaven and a large feast is prepared and distributed to 
each Eramo. She is now a married woman, and does all the 
work of a married woman. 

Relations do not as a rule marry. They are polygamists, but 
only a few have more than one wife. When two or more 
wives, they all live in one house. Polygamy is not restricted to 
■chiefs. 

The classification is from the father, and in the event of war 
children would join the father's tribe. 

Sons and daughters share alike in land. A woman takes land 
with her, and dying without issue, the land would return to her 
own family, brothers or sisters. If there are children, they 
•claim it. 

Widows, if they have children, remain with the husband's friends ; 
if no children, they return to their own families. Should a widow 
again marry, the payment for her is very great, and goes to the 
first husband's relatives. 

Orphans are well cared for by relatives of the father and 
mother ; after death of both parents they are divided. 

Women do all the cooking, and a great part of the fishing. 
Husband and wife plant, fetch wood, make sago, &c. 

As a rule the women are well treated ; not many beat their 
wives. A husband beating his wife would have to bear the wrath 
of all her relatives. 

Sometimes a woman, after a quarrel, will leave her husband, and 
will remain with her relatives until fetched back by him. A 
woman leaving her husband takes all the children with her. 

THE TRIBE. 

There is one language, one tradition. There are several chiefs, 
and no distinction between them. Chieftainship is handed down, 
and if there are no sons the girls can take it. The chief is 
supposed to have plenty of pigs, and makes feasts, assisted by 
his friends. He is not supposed to fight, and does not carry 
warlike implements — only goes about with a net bag containing 
areca nuts, betel, pepper, and lime calabash. 

They have no councils. Each one does his own sweet will. 
Breach of custom is punished by the sufierer. Theft or any other 
crime is so also. As a rule there is very little crime. When food 
is stolen all denounce it, and it may lead to serious quarrels. 



I 



RACES BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 315 



SOCIAL AND DOMESTIC. 

Huts are built of wood, on wooden piles about 9 feet above 
the ground. The house slants towards the back. In the front 
there is a platform. They plant yams, taro, sweet potatoes, sugar- 
cane, and always have plenty. There is a very large supply of 
sago, and at all times it is used. Spoons made from cocoanuts 
are used for sago and any other soft food, a one-pronged fork is 
used for other food. They always cook in pots bought from the Motu 
tribe. They have two meals a day as a rule, sometimes only one. 

Husband sleeps in the Eramo, and only occasionally visits his 
wife, and very seldom sleeps a whole night with her. When 
they are alone in plantations they will have intei^course. 

Father and small children will eat together, and mother, grown- 
up daughters, daughters-in-law or other female relatives eat apart. 
Sometimes grown-up sons will eat with the father, but more 
frequently come in after the meal and have their food. 

Strangers are kindly treated and fed regularly as long as they 
like to remain. Male strangers live in the Eranios, women in 
houses with other women. They cover themselves from the cold 
with a cloth, made by the men from the bark of a tree, some 
made from mulberry tree. 

They are greatly given to ornamenting themselves, using 
various coloured ochres, and marking in various ways. They 
wear feathers and shell ornaments of various kinds, also collars, 
garters, and anklets made of netted twine. All men on feast 
days wear a large carved belt, made from the bark of a tree. 
They are all well nourished. 

WIZARDS {Karisu Vita). 

There are none here, but plenty at Kerema and Vailala. A 
spirit enters into a man, and he becomes Karisu Yita. The spirit 
gives him power. When he desires to kill anyone he gets various 
kinds of plants, cooks them, and drinks the water. He then goes 
outside, and near to where the party is asleej) whom he wishes to 
destroy. He goes through some incantations, when pigs' and 
dogs' bones enter into sleeping one, who soon wakes up ill, and 
not long after dies. The spirit is said then to carry heart, lungs 
and liver to some other place, where they are buried. 

These Karisu Vita are employed by others, and receive large 
payment in pigs, shell ornaments and feathers. 

When anyone is sick the Karisu Vita is fetched, who prays, and 
then extracts from the sick one's body pigs' and dogs' bones, and 
sometimes men's. He is then paid. Should the sick one die, it 
is because some spirit is having revenge for some misdeed. 

The Karisu Vita can cause sickness, and can drive it away. 
They declare the cause of death, and point out who killed. 



316 AUSTRALASIAN AND POLYNESIAN 

The rain-makers, lightning and thunder makers, sun, wind and 
calm makers reside chiefly at Oiapu, and receive payment from 
people all round. There is one here, and he often gets payment 
for wind, rain and sun. 

To frighten away general sickness they beat drums, blow 
conchs, throw fire-sticks, and shout. 

DEATH. 

Only old people die natural deaths. All others are slain by 
spirits, it matters not how they die. Relatives assemble and 
mourn, and cut themselves with shells. The body is dressed in 
all the ornaments belonging to the deceased. They dig a grave 
and then place the body in it. In the evening all ornaments are 
taken ofi", the body is covered over, and never again uncovered. 
A house is built over the grave, and relatives sleep there. If a 
husband dies, the widow throws ofi" her petticoats and goes about 
as if demented. Her first sign of mourning is to plaster herself 
all over with river mud and live naked over the grave. Friends 
bring her food, which she cooks. Three months after death a 
feast is made, and she goes into black, which is made from burnt 
cocoanut husk and water. The last mourning is a dress that 
covers from the neck to the knees, made of native twine, netted. 
Widows mourn for very long. I have known them continue it 
for three or four years. 

After death the spirit roves about until there is plenty of food 
got together, when a double canoe is carried to the side of the 
grave. A number of young men, artistically dressed in their 
finest, get in, and stand with paddles ready to pull. A large 
quantity of food is placed on the centre, the widow sits beside it, 
there is then a loud, long shout, and the young men paddle. 
They soon get out, and the canoe and food is carried to the river, 
and in the evening the food and areca nuts are divided amongst 
the relatives. The spirit has now gone to Lavau, far away to 
the west. 

SPIRIT AYORLD. 

Motu motu (Toaripi) spirits go to the west, and there all 
meet. Those there first will be informed of the approach of 
friends, and they will come to meet them, throw their arms 
round them, and embrace them. In Lavau they build houses, 
plant food, and live as man and wife as we do here. It is a 
good place, with a constant and plenteous supply of food. 

MYTHOLOGY. 

Hiovaki Semese, one spirit, who lives in the heavens, made 
the sea and the land. There was nothing until he descended. 
When he made the sea and land he dwelt at Meveave, and there 



RACES BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 317 

he planted trees which cause elephantiasis ; hence the prevalence 
of that disease at Meveave. They take oflFerings to Hiovaki, and 
seek his favour in fighting. All killed in fighting go to Hiovaki. 
Hiovaki is the son of Semese by his wife Kauue. He has a 
younger brother, and they divide work — Miai is his name. 

Hiovaki made first men and women from a cocoanut tree 
which he cut down, and he first taught men how to build houses 
and Eramos. 

I cannot find that they deify heroes or ancestors. Spirits 
both help and injure men. 

PHILOLOGY (see Motu Grammar). 



(b) KOIAEI TEIBE. 



BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD. 



When a woman is known to have procreated, her husband 
takes a spear and points it at her breasts, signifying he wants a 
son, males being more desired than females. When it is certain 
a woman is in such a state, food is cooked and a feast (udugui) 
is made by the parents of the husband and wife, and eaten by the 
woman and all friends and relatives. The woman is not then 
sacred, but cooks food and sleeps with her husband. 

When pains of childbirth first begin, her friends get a supply 
of dried banana leaves, spread them on the floor, and on these she 
lies. The house will be full of women, the only males present 
being her father and husband. The father will call on the spirits 
of his forefathers to come and help his beloved daughter in her 
pains. He will take an old cocoanut, break it in two, and over 
it prays that the child may be quickly born. Food is cooked by 
the woman's friends, and the women in attendance eat it. The 
husband, when the pains are great, takes off" his sihi (string — 
only article of clothing worn) and armlets and sits apart. The 
sihi is made fast to a rafter in the roof, and in pain the woman 
hangs on to it. An old man, a member of that part of the tribe, 
is fetched, who looks at the woman, then goes inland and plucks 
long grass, returns to the house, breaks the grass up small and 
places it in a dish, pours water over it, repeating a prayer and 
breathing on it. The grass is then thrown away, and the water 
poured on the woman's head, who sips what flows over to her 
mouth. The old man leaves, and soon after the child is born. 

When the child is born, food is prepared by friends of both 
parties. When the navel string drops (dokoru negea), more 
food is cooked. 

The woman stays in the house after the birth of her first child 
for a month or two. When she goes out for the first time, food 
is again cooked (hadihoa). From the birth the woman becomes 



318 AUSTRALASIAN AND POLYNESIAN 

sacred, and is not touched by the husband, nor can he approach 
any other woman, until the child is grown, crawls about, and 
picks up food. 

The woman does not cook food during the time the child is 
small, lest the child should suffer ; the husband cooks, or friends 
for him. 

Illegitimate children only are destroyed. I know of no 
infanticide anywhere in New Guinea. 

The first-born child, if a son, is named by the father ; if a 
daughter, by friends. Children are named frequently from events. 

Deformed children are not destroyed. Fathers frequently 
nurse children, and are very fond of them. 

Children are carried in arms, and, when grown, on the hips. 
The cradle used is a netted bag, hung up to a rafter, and swung 
to and fro. 

The child is long suckled. I have seen children playing with 
spears, bows and arrows, sporting in the sea, and spying the 
mother, rush up to her, insist on her sitting down until they have 
been suckled. Women suckling frequently suckle a young pig or 
a pup at the same time. I have seen a child at one breast and 
a pig at another. 

Nothing is applied to the child's head to regulate its shape. 
When the child is first washed with lukewarm water the head is 
squeezed to make it round. At Levalupo and Eelema, after birth, 
the mother and child bathe in the sea. 

All children are lovingly cared for. Discipline is unknown, 
"they grow." Fathers teach sons to fight, hunt, fish, plant, and 
to make nets, and mothers teach girls to make pottery, cook, ikc. 

Children are betrothed sometimes in infancy by their parents. 
The boy's father, seeing a nice girl, or because of friendship, Avill 
take a present of food to the girl's parents, signifying he wishes 
their daughter for his son. If the food is taken it is agreeable, 
and the betrothal is made. The mother and daughter will 
constantly visit the boy's home, fetching water, wood and food. 
The food is cooked in the boy's house by the girl's mother, and 
eaten by the boy's parents. 

MATURITY (Tiibna-kohi). 

When menses are first seen, the girl will be ordered to wash the 
blood off her legs, and taught how to use her under rami (petticoat). 
When getting better food is cooked, and friends invited, and an 
aunt will then take some of the food, pass it round her head, 
body, and under her legs, praying to the spirits that the girl may 
grow up strong, beautiful and pure. The girl will be taught to keep 
pure, to remember that for a virgin a great price is paid. During 
menstruation she is not allowed to eat pig, fish, or kangaroo. 
They reach the age of maturity when thirteen or fourteen years 
old. 



RACES BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 319* 

At Kabadi and Nara, girls, on reaching maturity, are kept 
indoors for a long time, well fed, and not allowed to be in the 
sun. When they are to go out a feast is prepared by her parents, 
and she mixes with the company, dressed up with all the finery 
available. 

Girls also have tattoo marks made at various times, and when 
menses appear, the finale is made between the legs and back, and 
then she waits until marriage, when her chest is done. 

In Motu and other tribes, lads when about 14 years old, or 
when hair appears, I'eceive the sihi (string). When the parents 
think the time has arrived he is sent to his aunt on father's side 
with food, pig, and arm-shells, and she ties on the sihi. He 
receives presents from father's and mother's relatives, and visits 
every part of the village. If there is any girl he likes he may 
spend the evenings with her, she lying close to him, it may be on 
his arm, but they must have no intercourse. If he has not been 
betrothed he can then select the girl he wishes for wife, and will 
inform his parents of it. 

There is no circumcision, and the only place I have seen it was 
on Rook Island. 

MARRIAGE. 

Marriage is by payment. After betrothal, the boy's parents 
and relatives give articles of value to the girl's parents, also give 
food, fish, wallaby, and pig, when these can be got. Near relatives 
do not marry. 

A young man who has been betrothed will sleep in the girl's 
house, leaving it before morning light ; his parents, knowing: where 
he has been, will ask him if he has been with the girl, and if they 
had connection. The same is asked of the girl by her parents, and 
if answered in the affirmative, the girl is that day taken to the 
husband's house, food is cooked by the friends of both parties, 
husband and wife eat out of one dish, and she remains in the 
husband's home. Afterwards, final payment is made, the husband's 
friends carry to the bride's parents, arm-shells, necklaces, toma- 
hawks, and food. The bride takes home with her to her husband 
cooking pots, water pots, fish net, hunting net, spear and shield, 
bow and arrows. 

Many betrothed ones, not cai-ing for one another, never come 
together, and, the girl marrying another, the payment is made to 
the betrothed. There is generally a good deal of trouble about 
such lapses. 

There is polygamy : it varies in the various tribes — in some 
many, in others few. It depends upon the wealth of a man the 
number of wives he has. The more he has the more food he will 
have, and hence the greater man he becomes. 

Children follow their father's tribe, but can hold property in 
their mother's. In war they follow their father's. Sometimes,, 



320 AUSTRALASIAN AND POLYNESIAN 

when brought up in the mother's, they become members of 
the same. 

Property is divided equally between sons and daughters, and 
the latter hold land equally with the former. A woman marrying 
into another tribe takes land with her. Leaving her husband, or 
dying childless, the land belongs to her father's party. If there 
are children, on the death of the parents property will be equally 
divided between sons and daughters. A widow is treated very 
well; she belongs to her husband's party, and should she marry 
again, the payment will go to them. When old they are well 
cared for by their children and friends. Orphans are adopted by 
the friends of their father and raothei'. 

Relatives do not marry, as they say it is one blood. Cousins 
of several degrees are called brothers and sisters. 

The married woman is fairly well treated. Some husbands are 
wife-beaters. The Kirarians (inland tribe) often kill their wives. 
■She is supposed to care for the house, fetch and cook food ; she 
assists in planting, but the husband does all the heavy work. 
She follows to the fight, urges the husband on, and helps in 
looting. 

THE TRIBE. 

In former ages there must have been chiefs of some power, 
btut now their power is very nominal. Nowhere is there a real 
•chief with kingly or priestly power to be felt. 

A people speaking one language and with like traditions we 
have called a tribe. 

Many become chiefs by force of character, prowess, large 
family connections, and plenty of food. These often come to the 
front, and the real hereditary chief sinks into insignificance. 
Sometimes a soi'cerer will hold great influence over a tribe and 
neighbouring tribes. The oldest member of a family would be 
called a chief, and would be listened to in restraining from or 
urging on to fight or kill. In making peace or friendship, it 
would be done through him. Chiefs such as mentioned declare 
taboo, order feasts and dances, and have a kind of superintendence 
over others. 

There is no tribal council and no law. There is no one who 
can pass punishment on another. Only custom is honoured. 
Breaking a taboo the spirits punish. 

SOCIAL AND DOMESTIC. 

Nearly everywhere huts are built on piles ; at Maiva and 
some parts of Eelema they are built on the ground. In the Motu 
district some of the villages are built at sea. The huts vary in 
kind, from the small humpy to the fine large houses of Kalo. 
Some are square, with a level ridge pole ; others are round at 



» 



RACES BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 321 

the top, and shaped like a canoe afloat ; others like a canoe turned 
upside down ; others like a crocodile with large open mouth. 
They are built of wood, some of bamboo ; some thatched with 
sago leaf, others with nipa leaf, and others with long grass. 
The flooring in some parts is large planks made from old canoes ;, 
in other tribes strips of palm, and, inland, frequently the sago 
leaf stem. 

In cultivating, the earth is turned over with long, pointed 
sticks, natives standing in a row, and each native with two 
sticks. When dry, the women go over the ground, pick out all 
roots and burn them, breaking up the clods with short pieces of 
hard wood at the same time. The fencing and hard work 
generally is done by the men, the women assisting. The women 
plant, weed, and fetch, the men assisting. Yams, bananas, sweet 
potatoes, and sugaT-cane are the chief kinds of food, and in some 
districts these grow abundantly. 

Food is cooked in pots made from clay by the women, and in 
some parts earth ovens are sometimes used. 

There is only one meal a day, and that in the afternoon. 
As a rule, strangers are kindly received, but sometimes 
rudely, and even cruelly, treated. At Aroma they were badly 
treated. 

Visitors are generally met in a kindly manner, and have food 
cooked for them. Friends bring dishes of food and place near to 
visitors. 

All the tribes love dress, and use flowers and variegated leaves. 
In many parts they very artistically paint the face. On the head 
they wear various kinds of head dresses made from birds' feathers, 
and greatly delight in the whole plume of the Paradisea regimia. 
They have shell ornaments on the forehead, also necklaces, made 
from small shells, dogs' teeth, and kangaroos' teeth. On the 
breast they wear a large pearl-shell crescent. Everywhere they 
wear tortoise-shell earrings ; in some districts they are very large. 
In the nose they wear ground pieces of shell, and sometimes 
coral, also pieces of wood when not dressed. On their arms they 
have large toeas (arm-shells, made from a large conical shell) ; also 
armlets, made from vines, pandanus leaves, and reeds. Round 
the body they have belts of various kinds, some made of native 
cloth and coloured, others made of the bark of a tree, nicely 
carved, and inlaid with lime and red ochre. On legs they wear 
knitted garters and anklets, some very tastefully worked. The 
most dressy of all the tribes is the Eelema. 

The Dahuni natives wear the soft part of the sago leaf, which 
covers the person, and they look respectable. Mailiu, Aroma, 
Levalupo, Motu, Eelema, and others wear only a string, and on 
occasions a narrow piece of native cloth, coloured. Kabadi, 
Nara, Lolo, Maiva, Kiveri, cover the person with a piece of native 
cloth, and are ashamed if seen without it. 

u 



322 AUSTRALASIAN AND POLYNESIAN 

As a rule, the natives are well nourished, and have plenty to 
eat ; but some seasons, such as this, there is a great scarcity of 
food in some districts, and hunger is known. 

WIZARDS (or sorcerers). 

Generally descend from father to son. Spirits are supposed to 
be their familiars. They cause sickness, and remove it. They 
withhold and give I'ain. They give fine weather at sea, and cause 
storms. They kill by their magic, and discover the causes of 
death. They are much feared, and large presents are given to 
them, such as large pigs, arm-shells, necklaces, tomahawks, 
tobacco, and food of various kinds. 

DEATH. 

Death occurs by some unseen agency. The sorcerer pronounces 
the tribe that is guilty, and sometimes the individual, and then 
the dead will be revenged, just as if they had been killed by the 
hand of an enemy. 

Spirits travel by night, and cause sickness and death. 

Mourning continues for a long time. The juice from the body 
is rubbed over the chest and back, and sometimes, mixed with 
black, it is rubbed over the whole body. Friends and relatives 
sleep over the grave. At stated times food is cooked, presented 
to the dead, and eaten by the living. At death they cut them- 
selves with shells and flint, and do so until the blood flows freely. 

In Eelema, for some time they besmear themselves with mud 
as a mark of mourning. Food is cooked, and they then use black. 

The dead are wrapped in old mats or native cloth, and laid in 
a grave covered with a plank. In some districts great mounds 
of earth cover the graves. 

The funeral is attended by friends and relatives, and these also 
dig the grave. The grave is dug under the house or in the 
village street. 

A chief will be buried with his finery on. Over the grave, if a 
man, the bow and arrows and spear used by him, also cooking 
pot and dish, and small bag containing lime oalabash and betel 
nuts, will be placed. If a woman, her petticoat, cooking pots, 
and dishes, and any other article she used much. 

A year is very general for mourning for grown-up people, 
especially for husband or wife. I have known widows in 
mourning for three or four years, and widowers for two years. It 
is indecent to get married within a year or two. 

SPIRIT WORLD. 

Spirits go west towards the setting sun. On leaving the body 
they seek some point of land near to, and there await some 



i 



RACKS BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 323 

friendly spirits, who lead them away to a land of plenty. All 
with a pierced nose pass into that country, hence every native 
has the nose pierced in childhood. The Motuans say the spirit is 
dried over a fire, and when light and dry is taken into Tauru. 
Spirit land is one of plenty, and there they live as they do here. 
There is death there, and after it the spirits become lights 
(mamaro) that wander over the sea. 

When chiefs or leading men in families are laid in the grave, 
friends l:)end down and speak into their ears, and ask that they 
may be remembered in that other state, and that they always may 
have plenty of dugong, turtle, fish of all kinds, and kangaroo. 

MYTHOLOGY. 

The sorcerers and sorceresses have communication Avith spirits, 
and it is they who know all about the other state. Spirits can 
both help and injure men, and are more dreaded than loved. 

PHILOLOGY. 

See Motu Grammar, by Mr. Lawes, and list of words at end. 



(2.) Mangaia (Hervey Islands), by Rev. W. Wyatt Gill. 

BIRTH and childhood. 

On the island of Mangaia, iu the Hervey Group, as soon as a 
child is born, a leaf* of the Alocasia indica (Seeman) was cut off, 
its sides carefully gathered up, and filled with pure water. Into 
this extempore baptismal font the child would be placed. First 
tieing with a bit of "tapa" (native cloth made from the inner 
bark of the Broussonetia papyri/era) the part of the navel-string 
nearest the infant, the right hand of the operator longitudinally 
divided the cord itself with a bamboo-knife. The dark coagulated 
blood was then carefully washed out with water, and the name of 
the child's god declared, it having been previously settled by the 
pai-ents whether their little one should belong to the mothei-'s 
tribe or to the father's. Usually the father had the preference ; 
but occasionally, when the father's tribe was devoted to furnish 
sacrifices, the mother would seek to save her child's life by getting 
it adopted into her own tribe, the name of her own tribal divinity 
being pronounced over the babe. As a rule, however, a father 
would stoically pronounce over his child the name of his own 

* From 8 to 12 feet in circumference. The Alooasia indica is a gigantic aroid, the native 
name of which is "kape." 

u2 



324 AUSTRALASIAN AND POLYNESIAN 

god, Utakea, Teipe, or Tangiia, which would almost certainly 
insure its destruction in after years. It was done as a point of 
honour ; besides, the child might not be required for sacrifice, 
although eligible. The bamboo-knife would be taken to the 
" marae " of the god specified, and thrown on the ground to rot. 
If a second god's name were pronounced over the child, the 
bamboo-knife would go to one " marae " and the name of the 
babe only be pronounced over the second " marae." The removal 
of the coagulated blood was believed to be highly conducive to 
health, all impurities being thus removed out of the system. 

An analogy was believed to exist between the pith of a tree 
and the umbilical cord at birth. Hence the expressions "ara io" 
i.e., "pathway of the pith," or simply "io"t i.e.., "pith," are still 
used for "God." 

On the island of Rarotonga, when a boy was born, a collection 
of spears, clubs, and slinging stones was made. When the sun 
was setting, a leaf of that gigantic aroid, Alocasia indica, filled 
with water, was held over these warlike weapons, and the umbilical 
cord treated as above described. The idea was that the child 
should grow up to be a famous warrior. 

The wife is, as a rule, isolated from her husband ten nights only. 

Infanticide was rarely practised in the Hervey Group, excepting 
at Rarotonga, where it was common. 

In six out of of seven islands of the Hervey Group cannibalism 
ceased only with the introduction of Christianity. It is worthy 
of note that on the remaining island — Mangaia — this revolting 
practice ceased before the introduction of Christianity, a circum- 
stance unparalleled in Polynesia. It was in this wise : About a 
century before the Gospel was conveyed to those islands, the 
famous priest-chief, Mautai'a, had, by craft and force, crushed out 
all his foes, and seized the i-eins of government. There was not a 
person living on the island but was connected with him or his by 
worship, blood, or marriage. When this far-seeing man acquired 
absolute power, he wisely forbade cannibalism, through fear of 
perpetuating the anarchy which for generations had existed. Still 
the old habit showed itself again, even in Mautara ; and solitary 
instances of cannibalism are known to have taken place in later 
times by stealth, not openly and constantly as in the early days 
of the celebrated priest-chief. 

Old cannibal Hervey Islanders have assured me that human 
flesh is "far superior to pig." My worthy friend and helper, 
Maretu of Rarotonga, was, in early manhood, a cannibal. This 
I learnt from his own lips. But the last generation that practised 
cannibalism has entirely disappeared. Their descendants, in many 
instances, through shame, deny the well-known facts of the past. 

flu Maori "ilio" (^io) meaus the funis umbilicus. See "Myths and Sougs" by the 
present writer, page 37. 



RACES BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 325 

At Mangaia, and, I believe, the other islands of the Hervey 
Group, it was customary to prepare the body in this wise : The 
long spear, inserted at the fundament, ran through the body, 
appearing again with the neck. As on a spit, the body was slowly 
singed over a fire, in order that the entire cuticle and all the hair 
might be removed. The intestines were next taken out, washed 
in sea-water, wrapped up in singed banana leaves (a singed 
banana-leaf, like oil-silk, retains liquid), cooked and eaten, this 
being the invariable perquisite of those who prepared the feast. 
The body was cooked, as pigs now are, in an oven specially set 
apart, red-hot basaltic stones, wrapped in leaves, being placed 
inside to insure its being equally done. The best joint was the 
thigh. In native phraseology, " nothing would be left but the 
nails and the bones." It is worthy of notice that only warriors 
partook of these horrid feasts in the Hervey Group, very rarely, 
and by stealth, women and children (as in times of famine), or the 
remains of a broken clan hiding in the forest or in caves. 
Indeed, when a warrior wished his son to partake of human flesh 
for the first time, it was needful to deceive the lad by saying "it 
was only a bit of pork." Of course, when the truth oozed out, 
the son felt less scruple in following the evil ways of his father 
and uncles. Taoro, of Rarotonga, cooked his only child (a son) as 
a return feast for his cannibal friends. There can be no question 
that, at first, an inward voice protested against this unnatural 
practice. Yet, after a time, they learned to glory in their shame. 

For many generations after the settlement of the islands 
cannibalism was rarely practised. Native traditions distinctly 
informs ivhen it was first sanctioned by the authority of leading 
men, and thus grew to be customary. Strange that on Mangaia 
it should again have ceased. In the opinion of many, in the 
deadlock which existed about the date of the introduction of 
Christianity, the natives of Mangaia would have relapsed into 
cannibalism. The deadlock was this : — Teao would only consent 
to beat the drums of peace on condition that his two maternal 
uncles, the leading victorious warrior chiefs (Teao being himself 
amongst the vanquished), were slain, and laid on the altar of 
Rongo as the price of peace ! It was for this that Teao lost his 
rank in after days. 

Deformed children are very kindly treated indeed, although, 
perhaps, the deformity was occasioned by the cruel treatment of 
the parents in a burst of passion. 

A single child is universally carried astride on the hip of the 
mother. " Thy daughters shall be nursed at thy side" (Isaiah, 
Ix. 4.). When there is a second child to be carried, it is placed 
on the shoulders of the mother, so that it rides triumphantly, 
holding on to the hair of the parent. This leaves one hip free to 
carry a basket of food and cooking leaves. It is rare for a father 
to carry his child. 



326 AUSTRALASIAN AND POLYNESIAN 

I have known a lad, three years old, to be still suckled, but in 
general the period of suckling does not extend beyond two years. 
Too often infants are not suckled at all, on the plea that the 
"mother's milk is bad." Such children are "mama paru," i.e.^ 
brought up by hand. Bits of " taro " {Caladiiim petiolatuni), well 
chewed, are given to it from time to time. The kernel of an old 
cocoanut is finely scraped, the rich, oily juice is then expressed 
from it, and given in small quantities to the infant. The spoon 
anciently used for the purpose is the leaf of the gardenia. I have 
often wondered how the stomach of the infants should be able to 
stand it ; but they do, and become fine men and women. Of late, 
however, the use of the cocoanut has gone out of fashion, much 
to the detriment of the children. The soft, half-formed kernel 
itself is much used as the child becomes stronger. 

Many natives feed their new-born children on " paka," i.e.^ the 
baked leaves of the " taro," dipped in water. The mortality 
amongst infants thus reared is great, and should they attain to 
adult age they have a diminutive frame. 

A chief's child would have three or four wet nurses, in order 
to produce the enormous frames for which they were famous. 

It is customary for a native woman, when visiting her friend, 
to suckle her infant. 

At Rarotonga, to regulate the shape of the child's head, it 
was a common practice to apply slabs of soft wood (" buka tea ") 
to the forehead and back of the head to produce the desired 
shape, i.e., a high head. This practice did not obtain on Mangaia, 
nor, I think, on any other island of the Hervey Group. 

It is still customary in the Hervey Group for mothers to press 
with the palm of the hand the noses of their infants, so that they 
may grow squat and round, " not (as I once overheard a woman 
say) like the thin, starved nose of the white race." 

When children are small they are spoiled by their parents ; 
but when of a useful age all this disappears, and many of them 
have a very hard life. The curse of native family life is adoption ; 
this makes discipline almost impossible. A cross word will make 
the youngster run off" to its adopted parents, who sympathise 
where they ought to scold. I have known parents take a present 
of food to the runaway, and humbly entreat his return ; but all 
in vain ! These adopted parents, however, will resolutely set 
themselves to discharge the duties of real parents in teaching the 
youngster the arts needful in after life. 

The betrothal of the female child often takes place in the 
families of chiefs, in order to secure a suitable match. In that 
case the girl is continually receiving presents from the family 
into which, at adult (say 13 or 14 summers) age, she is to marry. 
Should the contract not be fulfilled, full payment is exacted for 
all these gifts ; but, as a rule, the contracts are well kept, so 
many parties being interested in the the affair. 



RACES BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 327 

MATURITY. 

When circumcised, a lad considei's himself to be a man. This 
rite was not unfrequently delayed, so that the lad might become 
a finer man. It was perfoi'med about the age of 17 or 18. 

A Hervey Island girl may be considered mature at the age of 
14. It must not be imagined that the ages of children were 
marked off by years, as with us. 

For females, a slight tatooing, the patterns being different 
from those on males. 

She is expected to make her debut by taking part in the next 
grand dance. The great i-equisites of a Polynesian beauty are to 
be fat and as fair as their dusky skins will permit. To insure 
this, favourite children in good families, whether boys or girls, 
were regularly fattened and imprisoned till nightfall, when a 
little gentle exercise was permitted. If refractory, the guardian 
would even whip the culprit for not eating more, calling out, 
" Shall I not be put to shame to see you so slim in the dance T 

These dances invariably took place in the open air, by torch- 
light. About a year was required for getting up one such 
entertainment. This long interval was needed, first, for the 
composing of songs in honour of the fair ones and the rehearsal 
of the performers; secondly, for the growth of " taro," &c., &c., 
to provide the grand feast necessary. The point of honour was 
to be the fairest and fattest of any young people present. I 
know of no more unpleasant sight than the cracking of the skin 
as the fattening process proceeds ; yet this calls forth the 
admiration of the friends. 

There is no analogy between the initiation of males into the 
tribe and the grades of freemasoiiry, it being done once for all. 
No new name is taken, no special colours used at the ceremony. 
The advantage that accrues is simply this — he ranks as a man, 
can marry, take part in tribal dances, songs, recitations, and the 
various duties of adult native life. 

CIRCUMCISION. 

An imperfect sort of circumcision has been practised in the 
Hervey Islands from time immemorial. Captain Cook's account 
of the ceremonies attending this rite at Tahiti applies to nearly 
all the branches of the great Polynesian family. In point of fact, 
the term "circum-cision," as applied to these islanders is a solecism. 

The operation is sometimes attended with danger, and is usually 
performed about the age of sixteen. The lad invariably wears a 
necklace of fragrant flowers after his recovery, and takes the 
coveted rank of a man. 

Two reasons were assigned for this observance in heathenism. 
First, in the event of being slain in battle, or being offered in 



328 AUSTRALASIAN AND POLYNESIAN 

sacrifice, that the nude body should not be reviled as "the carcase 
of an uncircumcised wretch." It was considered to be sufficiently 
remarkable to be handed down in tradition that amongst the 
•sixty who fell in the important battle of Maueue, fought about 
184 years ago, were two uncircumcised youths. 

Secondly and principally, the performance of this rite was, and 
still is, absolutely indispensable to marriage. No Hervey Island 
woman would knowingly marry an uncircumcised husband. A 
few years ago a young man, a church member, complained to me 
that nothing could induce his wayward spouse to live with him. 
The near relatives of the woman had again and again taken the 
truant wife back to her husband, but in vain. I requested a 
■deacon to go and remonstrate with her upon her conduct. The 
dark-skinned shrew said to the deacon, "What ! ask me to go and 
live with an uncircumcised husband? Never!" A year or two 
afterwards, severe illness caused her to alter her mind. 

The greatest insult that can be offered to a man is to accuse 
him of being uncircumcised. The contemptuous expressions in 
the sacred writings, in reference to the uncircumcised Gentiles, 
seem to the Hervey Islanders to be quite natui'al. 

This epithet, put in the most offensive way, led to war some 
years prior to the introduction of Christianity to the island of 
Mangaia, in the Hervey Group. The predecessor of Numangatini, 
the late king of Mangaia, was on one occasion thus reviled, 
without reason, by his maternal uncle. The irate sovereign 
demanded that his two maternal uncles should be slain, and 
presented in sacrifice to the god Eongo, by way of atonement for 
the insult. The leading warriors of the day declined to carry 
out his insane wish. Two bloody battles resulted from the 
king's persistence. 

The first native pastors sot their faces like flint against the 
practice of circumcision. The entire despotic power of the great 
warrior chief, who embraced Christianity, was brought to bear 
upon the extinction of this custom, but utterly failed to uproot it. 
My predecessor wisely persuaded the chiefs to Ijlot circumcision, 
as a crime, out of their statute-book. 

Numbers of white men in the Eastern Pacific Islands, married 
to native women, have submitted to this degrading custom to 
please their wives. 

The natives of Peurhyus, Manihiki, Kakaauga, Pukapuka, and 
Niue, also the Ellice and Gilbert Islanders, do not practise 
circumcision, although the parent stock of all those islanders still 
observe it. The reason for its disuse, doubtless, was the fact that 
in all those islands the sharp red quartz, invariably used in 
•circumcising, is not found. Bamboo is unsuitable for the opera- 
tion; like Zipporah of old, they " take a sharp stone " for a knife. 

In the Southern New Hebrides, i.e., Fotuna, Aniwa, Aneityum, 
Tauna, and one half of Erromanga, circumcision is universally 



I 



RACES BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 329 

practised. It appears to have been introduced from Tonga by 
the first settlers on Fotuna and Aniwa, who originally drifted 
from that Island. These di'if t natives have, in most of the islands, 
intermixed with the true Papuans, and propagated their own 
customs. The Loyalty Islanders, the natives of New Caledonia, 
and the Northern New Hebrides, who appear to be pure Papuans, 
are reported not to practise circumcision. 

The mythical origin of circumcision at Mangaia runs thus : — 
The god Rongo invented it in order to steal away the affections 
of Taka, the beautiful wifn of his twin-brother Tangaroa. In this 
he was but too successful. Unable to endure this new affront 
put upon him by his unscrupulous brother, Tangaroa took flight 
(accompanied by his other wife) to other lands, where he enjoys the 
supremacy justly due to the eldest-born divinity. Rongo enjoined 
the observance of circumcision upon his worshippers. 

It should be borne in mind that Rongo, tutelar god of Mangaia, 
is the " Orono " (or rather Rono) of the Sandwich Islands ; the 
" Oro " (or rather Ro'o) of Tahiti and most of the Leeward 
Islands; "Terongo" {= the Rongo) of Atiu ; the "Longo" of 
Samoa. In some mythologies he is the son of Tangaroa, in others 
the twin-brother, to indicate equal rank. 

The modus operandi is as follows : a piece of cocoanut shell 
(scraped smooth and thin) is introduced beneath the upper part 
of the prepuce, and a longitudinal slit made. The divided 
prepuce is then drawn underneath into a slight twist. A soothing 
application heals the wound in a few days. The operator 
frequently renews the twist, so that eventually a small lump 
remains underneath the urethra. I asked a \'enerable deacon the 
motive for this singular custom. Respondit ille : Hoc facere eo 
consilio, cum ne album illud (piapia quam vocant), sub prseputio 
exsistat ; turn autem maxime, quo magis feminfe venerea voluptate 
fruantur. I believe that the statement of my aged friend is 
perfectly correct ; indeed, it may serve to explain why Polynesian 
women are far more lascivious than their Melanesian sisters in 
the Western Pacific, where this curious practice was originally 
unknown. 

MARRIAGE. 

Special messengers, of high social rank, are despatched to 
make the proposal and convey presents in ratification of the 
conti act ; but the betrothed child usually remains in the custody 
of its parents, now and then paying a visit to the other parties 
with much ceremony and under proper guardianship. 

Marriage never occurs by force or capture. Sometimes a fallen 
tribe or family would endeavour to resuscitate its fortunes by 
giving in marriage the flower of the tribe to some disagreeable 
but powerful old chief. 

The pet daughter of a chief often married into an inferior or 



330 AUSTRALASIAN AND POLYNESIAN 

fallen tribe, the parent intending thereby to swell the ranks of 
his own wariiors by the welcome addition of this inferior or 
unlucky clan. In times of peace this servile son-in-law is 
expected to be at the beck and call of his father-in-law. There 
is, properly speaking, no such thing as sale or barter of wives in 
the Hervey Group. 

Exogamy was the universal rule of the olden time. Should a 
tribe be split up in war, the defeated portion was treated as an 
alien tribe. I have known comparatively near relatives to marry 
with the approbation of the elders of the victorious portion 
of the tribe, expressly on the ground that the sanctity of the clan 
law had been wiped out in battle. 

Distant cousins sometimes (though rarely) marry ; but must 
be of the sauie generation, i.e., be descended in the same degree 
(fourth or fifth, or even more remotely) from the common 
ancestor. That the male branch should thus invade the female 
is a far more pardonable offence that the converse , but even then, 
should misfortune or disease overtake these related couples, the 
elders of the tribe would declare it to be the anger of the clan- 
god (kua kai te angai). It is the duty of parents to teach their 
growing children whom they may lawfully marry, the choice 
being extremely limited. The correct thing in the native mind 
undoubtedly is exogamy. 

The nuptial ceremony consisted merely in a feast, when bride 
and bridegroom, seated together on a piece of the finest white 
native cloth,* ate together in the presence of their friends, and 
received gifts from them, the good things of the bridegroom's 
friends going to the bride, and vice versa. 

A remarkable ceremony obtained on Mangaia in families of 
distinction on the marriage of the first-born. Gaily dressed, he 
walked from his own door-way to the house of the father-in-law- 
over a continuous pathway of living human bodies, members of 
the wife's clan. On reaching the goal, three elderly females so 
prostrate themseves as to form a living seat for the bridegroom. 
A fish is now brought forward, and, with the aid of a bit of 
sharp bamboo, cut up into dice upon a human body. It is now 
presented to the bridegroom, who eats it raw. Piles of native 
cloth and food are then formally presented to the happy man. 
All parties partake of the feast, and afterwards the road of 
living bodies is again formed for the distinguished son-in-law to 
go back, as he came, to his home. 

In due time (a few months later on) the husband's friends 
return the compliment to the bride, only it is understood that 
(unless of inferior social status) the second exhibition should 
surpass the first. The native name of this remarkable custom is 
"maninitori." It is a usage of great antiquity, but no account 

* The inner bark of the Brcusionelia papirifeia beaten out with mallets and pasted 
together. 



RACES BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 331 

is given by tradition of its origin. (See my " Life in the 
Southern Isles," pp. 59, 60.) 

Polygamy has been entirely done away with by Christianity. 
In the olden time it was A-ery common, and was not restricted to 
chiefs. As women were rarely slain in wai', superfluous females 
were divided out amongst the victorious warriors. The famous 
Arekare, of Mangaia, had ten wives, Parima six, others two 
apiece. In general, if a man of position married the eldest 
girl of a slave-family, the younger sisters became his as a matter 
of course, being only too glad to have a protector. Even amongst 
those of equal rank a man often had two or three sisters to wife 
at the same time. Even now, in Christian times, a woman feels 
herself to be deeply injured if her brother-in-law does not, on the 
death of his wife, ask her to become a mother to his children. 

Children, unless distinctly adopted into another clan, always 
follow the father. The name of the god pronounced at the 
severance of the funis iimbilicus really detei'mines the clan of the 
infant, as before stated. In war they usually followed the 
father's kin ; but the duty of an adopted son would be to fight 
alongside of his adopted father. Sometimes serfs, forgetting the 
claims of blood, followed their lord to battle. 

Land is the property of the tribe, and must on no account be 
alienated. The adopted son possesses land only so long as he 
goes with the clan, obeys the commands of the elders, and fights 
(if need be) against his nearest of kin for the tribe into which he 
has been adopted. A woman, in general, owns not an inch of 
soil, lest she carry away the right to it into another family. 
Usually she gives up one child at least to her own tribe, the rest 
going to the father's. When her husliand dies, she lives on with 
the tribe as slave to her children. She weeds, plants, and eats 
because of them. If they die, she goes back to her tribe as she 
originally came — empty-handed. 

When a chief has only a daughter, and that daughter is 
married (by the father's arrangement) to a man of inferior (/.(?., 
slave) rank, the husband lives with her on land given to her for 
their mutual support (or, as the phrase runs, " land given to her 
to feed her husband T) In all points ^/z^ rules the household and 
lands ; but should war break out, he may elect to fight by the 
side of his father-in-law, and if victory incline to their side, he is 
no longer counted a slave. Should he go with his own clan to 
fight against his father-in-law's tribe, the wife may or may not 
go with him. Sometimes the wife, with her children, will stay 
on with her own clan \ so that, if victorious, the children will 
share the good things of the mother's tribe, whilst the unhappy 
father, if not slain in battle, becomes a homeless, hunted fugitive. 
In no case may a woman take into another clan any portion of 
the ancestral lands of her own tribe. The reason of this is 
obvious ; these lands were originally won and subsequently kept 



-332 AUSTRALASIAN AND POLYNESIAN 

by the bravery of the entire tribe. Earely did women fight ; 
their part was to stand a little behind the husband, to carry baskets 
■of stones and weapons with which to supply the warriors. 
Heavy tikoru clothes were thrown by the wives over these spears 
•to turn their points aside from the mark. 

At Rarotonga, &c., the soil was the sole property of the high 
■chiefs (areki) and under-chiefs. These distributed the land in 
accordance with their own wishes 

I do not consider that orphans were in general ill-treated ; the 
uncles, as a matter of course, looked after their welfare. In the 
native language there is but one word for " father" and " uncle." 
It was of the last importance to the tribe that their numbers 
should be kept up ; hence tlie care taken of the children, and their 
.careful education in mimic war. 

There are no restrictions as to converse, but as to kissing 
(" rubbing of noses ") plenty. The rule is to " kiss " only near 
relatives on either side. The elders of the tribe settle these 
knotty points. Many a quarrel have I had to compose, the 
ground of the dispute being that the lady had no right to permit 
:So-and-so to kiss her. The usual defence is, "it was done openly, 
and therefore could bear no ill signitica-nce." Half the troubles 
in native life arise from this source ; the other half from land- 
grabbing, or, as the natives phrase it, " land-eating." 

Woman is the slave of man in heathen society. She plants, 
carries home the food, collects the firewood and succulent oven- 
leaves, cooks her lord's meal, spreads out supper on hibiscus 
leaves (in lieu of plates, and of the same size), never omitting the 
sea-water, used as sauce and salt. Torch-fishing is woman's 
occupation only. Whenever she gets home, often in the small 
ihours of the monaing, a special oven for these dainties must be 
prepared by her for husband and children. The wife is expected 
iiot only to feed but to clothe her husband. She strips off the 
bark of the paper-mulberry [Broussonetia papyriferd), steeps it in 
running water, beats it out with a square iron-wood mallet, pastes 
the strips together, stains the cloth, or, with the aid of leaves, 
makes designs on it, glazes the outer side, that her lord may strut 
about m his new clothes. His duty is to defend land and life, to 
plant and weed, and to fish witli hook or net or spear. The wife, 
in her torchlight fishing, simply grabs sleepy fish, or puts her 
Iiand in holes which they haunt (often to her cost), but never 
uses either canoe, hook, or net. 

But as their children (girls) grow up, all the duties of the 
mother are performed by the daughters. And the strange thing- 
is, that they are perfectly content with their lot. To see a 
woman emerge from the mud of a taro-patch (up to her waist), in 
which she has been planting taro-tops (no man at Mangaia plants 
.a taro-patch), and then go to the stream to wash herself, excites 
pity. But she does not think herself to need pity. 



f 



RACES BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 333' 

At Rarotonga, and some other islands, men plant and brino-, 
home the " taro," but the women weave mats and baskets. 

After all, despite the horny hands of Mangaian women, their- 
lives are pleasant, so long as Christianity secures immunity from; 
the cruel bloodshed of heathen times. Even in the old time they 
enjoyed their old dances and semi-dramatic performances. In. 
general, it was the young women and girls who took part in these 
diversions, the middle-aged prompting or clapping hands or- 
looking after the feast to follow. 

The model Rarotongan warrior never (like other natives)i 
allowed his wife to sleep on his arfti, lest his spirit should become- 
enervated. After slaying a foe, he became " tapu," so that he- 
might, for a certain period, only kiss his wife and children. On, 
no account might he cohabit with his wife until the " tapu " had 
been removed. During this period of "tapu," all the warriors of." 
the same tribe lived together, receiving immense presents of food. 
"When a sufficient interval had elapsed, in preparation for the 
removal of the " tapu," they would go unitedly to fish. If, while 
fishing, a warrior happened to be bitten by an " aa " (conger eel), 
or get his legs clasped by an octopus, he regarded this as a sure 
presage of a violent death. If he, that day, caught only a 
miserable fish, such as the poisonous " no'u," it plainly indicated 
that in his next battle he would only kill a wretched sort of 
person, not a chief or a warrior. On the other hand, if he caught, 
a really fine fish, it was evident that he would hereafter conquer- 
and kill some person of distinction, and thus enhance the fame o£ 
his tribe ! 

THE TRIBE. 

Descent in the male line fi'om a common ancestor (tama tane)' 
constitutes the tribe. Descendants in the female line (tama 
vaine) may be adopted into the tribe, with the consent of the 
elders, after bathing in a sacred stream in order to wash ofi" the 
taint of old slave or antagonistic associations. (See my " Historical 
Sketches of Savage Life, " pp. 136-9). In general, slaves married 
into the victorious clans, were content to follow its fortunes ; but 
there were numerous exceptions to this rule. When dying, 
mothers of rank would commend their children to the chiefs of 
their own tribe, the slave-fathers having no voice whatever 
concerning their own oflispring. The filial instinct, however, 
often led these children to endeavour to restore the fallen fortunes 
of the father's conquered clan. Usually, the question of tribe- 
was decided by the divinity or divinities named at the severance- 
of the funis U7?ibilicus. But all the worshippers of Tanfe, with its 
numerous modifications, were supposed to form but one tribe 
In every case there miLst be oneness of origin (on the maternal if 
not on the paternal side), even in cases of adoption. When a 



334 AUSTRALASIAN AND POLYNESIAN 

great favour — life or land — was sought, it was wonderful how 
close the relationship was made to ajDpear ; but when a grudge 
had to be paid off, the sins (blood-shedding) of that branch of the 
clan were alone remembered. 

Each tribe had its own god or gods,* its own marae or mai-aes 
(groves for worship), its own prayers and incantations, and its 
own songs. Even in the matter of clothing there were special 
differences. I have seen a man stripped naked for presuming to 
wear the garments of another tribe. The meek defence was that 
his grandmother was a member of the said tribe. Thus the will 
of the individual counted for nothing, or next to nothing, in 
heathen times. 

There is one head chief, many subordinate ones. The office 
and power of chief is usually passed on to the brother, but when 
all the brothers were dead, would be transmitted to the eldest 
born of the eldest male Ijranch of the ruling family (" te kiko 
mua "). Whenever this individual was deficient in intellect or 
courage, the tribal oracle was sure to declare that the god had 
taken up his abode in another (generally speaking, the youngest 
male) member of the ruling family. This divinely-favoured 
individual was then duly installed, and the entire tribe compelled 
to obey, as there could be no appeal from the word of the priest 
when inspired, for it was the hat of the gods. On the island of 
Mangaia " Barima " was not the representative of the eldest 
branch of the tribe of Tane, but he was undoubtedly the fittest 
man, specially selected, it was averred, out of his family by the 
god Tane-i-te-ata. Primogeniture was the rule, selection by the 
god the exception. The kingly office might descend in t\iQ female 
line ; and this of necessity, as the males were so generally slain. 
But the male line would invariably be preferred. 

The duties of a tribal chief were (1) to adjust disputes, (2) to 
confirm or lay aside wills {viva voce wills, of course), (3) to lead 
in battle, (4) to preside at all tribal work or feasting, (5) to 
provide at all points for the well-being of the clan, and (6) not 
the least important of a chief's duties was to consult or worship 
the gods, on his own behalf as chief and on behalf of the tribe. 
On Mangaia every high chief must worship Kongo, god of war and 
ruler of the invisible world. But there would be also his own 
private god, who must be duly honoured in the daily concerns of 
life. The worship of Bongo was reserved for great occasions, the 
making of war or peace, the selection of human sacrifices for the 
ratification of all degrees of chieftainship, kc. Summoned by 
the king, as high-priest of Bongo, all tribal chiefs were bound 
to attend, with a few followers, on behalf of their respective clans 

The state was conceived of as a long dwelling standing east and 
west ; the chiefs of the southern (right) side of the island 

» The tribe of Ngariki worsliipped Kongo, Ruler of Night, i.e., the inyisible -world, aad 
Motoro, one of the gods of " Day," or this upper and visible world. 



I 



RACES BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 335 

represented one side of it ; the chiefs of the northern (left) side 
of the island represented the other side. The under-chiefs 
everywhere symbolized the lesser rafters ; individuals the separate 
leaves of thatch covering. Yet, by a subtle process of thought, 
the state itself — with its great and lesser chiefs, and its numerous 
members — was but the visible expression of a spirit-dwelling in 
under-world, in which the major and minor divinities did not 
merely live, but actually constituted it ; the major gods being the 
pillars and main rafters, the minor gods the lesser rafters, 
&c., &c. The safety of the state consisted' in this — that in the 
spirit-temple in the nether-world there should be no schism or rent ; 
for should there be one, divisions will immediately arise in the 
visible state, z'.e., in the councils of the great chiefs; the necessaiy 
consequences being war and bloodshed. 

The order of descent in regal families was usually from father 
to son ; but with great land or warrior chiefs it was different, 
the brothers of the deceased taking precedence of his sons, 
for the excellent reason that it was their strong arms that won 
or preserved the tribal lands. The kings were sacred men, priests 
of the great tutelar divinities ; therefore the representative of the 
senior branch in each generation was held in the greatest 
veneration, irrespective of age and sex, as being the visible 
mouth-piece and shrine of the invisible and immortal gods. But 
710 fema/e was competent to offer " prayers " (karakia), however 
well versed in them. 

The elders and wise men of the tribe constituted the tribal 
council. The paramount chief or king must endorse their advice, 
else it was not law. It was the duty of the presiding chief to 
ask the opinion of the elders on any point. 

Punishment for theft of food was the destruction of everything 
edible on the land belonging to the family of the thief, or the 
taking of the culprit's life. In general, the former penalty was 
for members of the tribe ; the latter for outsiders. In some 
islands all offences were punished with one — the death — penalty. 
No idea of proportion between an offence and its punishment 
existed in the native mind. As a rule, a chief might do anything 
he liked ; not so the members of the tribe. 

Polynesian chiefs were invariably tine men. Makea Damfela 
of Rarotonga would have been considei'ed a very tall man but 
for his extreme corpulence. He seemed to waddle, not to walk. 
In his infancy he had (as was usual with the children of high 
chiefs) three or four wet nurses at the same time. His eldest 
brother weighed 312 lbs., their father nearly 5 cwt. 

SOCIAL AND DOMESTIC. 

In the Hervey Group the huts were in the form of a rectangle, 
and made of reeds. The thatch used by the common people was 



336 AUSTRALASIAN AND POLYNESIAN 

mei'ely the plaited leaflets of the cocoanut palm — very pervious 
to rain. The idol-temples and the great dwellings of the chiefs 
were covered with pandanus-leaf thatch — idol-temples first, 
dwellings of chiefs afterwards. The doors were always sliding. 
There was a sacred and a common entrance. Squares were 
prettily worked in black sennit on the front and back sides of 
the dwelling. The "tirango," or threshold, was made of a single 
block of timber, tastefully carved. JVe name our dwellings 
because they are are enduring ; they name the site, their huts 
being so perishable. 

Only the large open valleys of Mangaia and Atiu were culti- 
vated in the olden time, but at Rarotonga a considerable portion 
of that narrow strip of rich soil near the sea was well planted. 

The weeding spade of Mangaia was not unlike a club in shape, 
and was made of iron-wood ( Casiiari^ia equisetifolia). The length 
was live feet nine inches. Indeed, it was a most formidable 
weapon at close quarters, as many an unfortunate has found to 
his cost. 

The stafi:' of life on Mangaia and Atiu is the " taro "* plant ; on 
Aitutaki, the sweet potato ; on Rarotonga, bread-fruit and plan- 
tains ; on Mitiaro, &c., &c., cocoanut. In most of the islands a 
vast quantity of fish is eaten as soon as it is captured. 

On Mauihiki the natives subsist on cocoanut and fish ; on the 
sister island of Rakaauga they have in addition a good supply of 
"puraka" i.e., a coarse species of Caladiiim. On most of the 
atolls the inhaVjitants live contentedly on cocoanut and fish only. 

Food is abundant throughout the Hervey Group except when 
a cyclone has wrought its desolation, or continuous rain has 
flooded the valleys where " taro " is cultivated. 

About two days' work in a week will keep a plantation in good 
order. On atolls, like Mauihiki, where only the cocoanut palm 
flourishes, no weeding or planting can be done, as the soil 
consists of sand and gravel thrown up by the ocean on the ever- 
growing coi'al. Hence it is that the natives of these atolls are 
such excellent fishermen, having little else to do. 

The usual time for the one real meal of the day in the Hervey 
Group is at sunset. The licher natives have a warm meal about 
ten a.m., but in general they cook enough at sunset to last for the 
morning's repast. 

Throughout Polynesia the mode of cooking is similar. A 
circular hole, two or three feet in diameter, is dug in the ground, 
the centre being deeper than any other part. Firewood is split 
and piled up in the hole. Basaltic stones are now laid on the 
firewood just before it was lighted. When the fire had burnt 
out, and the red-hot stones fallen to the bottom amongst the 
glowing ashes, they are carefully arranged by means of a hooked 

» Caladiiim peliolatum. 



RACES BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 337 

green stick, of a sort that will not easily burn. A large bundle 
of succulent leaves are now thrown upon the hot stones, occa- 
sioning a deiLse cloud of steam to arise. On this the well-scraped 
" taro," split bread-fruits, sweet potatoes, or plantains are placed. 
Fish are invariably wrapped up in the leaves of the Cordyline 
termiftalis, so that their juices may be retained. The oven is 
now covered in with a second bundle of fresh-plucked leaves. 
The dry leaves of yesterday are thrown on the top, and the whole 
pressed down by heavy stones kept for the purpose. In fine 
weather this steaming oven was made in the open air, in rainy 
weather under shelter. 

In heathen times it was customary at Mangaia and some other 
islands to slay all strangers. At Rarotonga, if a stranger 
landed in sight of one of their kings his life was safe ; but even 
then it was not quite wise to ti'avel any distance in the bush 
without the chief. But in these days the stranger is fairly well 
treated, often far better than he deserves. He shares the good 
things going and remains as long as he likes. It is usual, on 
meeting another, to share whatever food may be in the hand or 
in the basket. The influx of visitors is rapidly producing a 
change in their customs ; still, I think an unprejudiced observer 
must admit that the stranger is better cared for in Christian 
Polynesia than in Christian Britain. The generous man is the 
ideal good man yet. 

Ear ornaments were universal. The shell of a species of 
cocoanut producing small, long nuts — their ends rubbed off on 
madrepore coral — were filled with fragrant flowers and leaves and 
worn in the slit lobes of the ears of persons (males) of distinction. 
The lobes were marvellously distended by this practice. 

The arms of warriors^between the elbow and the shoulder — 
were tatooed black only, so that, on dance nights, the beautiful 
white {Ovtila ovum, Linn) shell fastened across with sennit might 
be the more admired. Happy was the dancer who had a shell 
for both arms. 

Just above the ankles finely-plaited hair was wound repeatedly, 
the amount indicating the rank and wealth of the wearer. So, 
too, with the wrists and neck. From the plaited hair on the 
neck was suspended a large pearl shell, or, in lieu of this coveted 
ornament, a piece of "miro" wood ( Thespesia populnea), adzed 
into its shape. This plaited hair was called " manoa ; " the 
breast ornament, " tia." 

The ears of children were pierced with fish-bone, then enlarged 
with a twig of the gardenia, so as to admit a fresh-plucked 
flower (the scarlet Hibiscus or the Garde?iia). 

The women had to be content with necklaces and chaplets of 
flowers, but a favourite daughter might wear plaited hair round 
her neck. Of course, in each ear a flower was worn, and on her 
bosom a woman of rank might wear a " miro " ornament. Men 



338 AUSTRALASIAN AND POLYNESIAN 

emulated the other sex in regard to wreaths and necklaces, the 
latter often descending nearly to the knee. It is noteworthy 
that the septum of the nose was never pierced by the Hervey 
Islanders, as nasal ornaments were never in vogue in that part 
of the Pacific. 

The Hervey Islanders were a clothed race. The inner bark of 
the paper-mulberry {Broussofietia papyri/era) yielded them the 
material for their "tikoru." Poorer natives were content to use 
the inner bark of the " aoa," or banyan tree. On Raro tonga, 
Aitutaki, and Mauke the inner bark of the bread-fruit tree 
yielded a light and beautiful garment. Even the Eutada scandens 
was utilised by the poor for the manufaoiture of clothing. 

The defect of native garments is their inability to keep out 
moisture. To remedy this, on Mangaia, the outside was some- 
times anointed with scented cocoanut oil. The varieties of native 
dresses, with their distinctive names, were very numerous. 

A native woman, in her own dwelling, wears a single garment. 
In the cold season she throws a " tiputa " over her shoulders. A 
man at work in the olden time, i.e., when weeding, canoe-making, 
or fishing, wore only a girdle (maro). Travelling through the 
rain he was content with a girdle, but on arriving at his hut he 
would put on old warm clothing. A good covering ot native 
cloth is (as I know from experience) as warm as a blanket. 

An unmarried gii'l wore her petticoat nearly to the knee ; when 
married, it was brought down just below the knee. In sitting, 
the Hervey Island females rested upon their heels, not, as in 
these days, tailor fashion. This latter indelicate custom was 
imported from Tahiti in recent times. 

Speaking generally, it may be confidently stated that the 
natives are a well-nourished race. But in the old fighting days, 
when so small a portion of the soil was cultivated, it was hardly 
so. The chiefs and all the ruling race were indeed well nourished, 
but the " ao," or serfs, had sorry times of it. The frequent famines 
of those days were terrible. I have known natives who kept 
themselves alive on candle-nuts alone for months together ; but 
they were wretched objects to look at. It is curious that a 
starved race becomes black almost, but if plenty returns, their 
natural, agreeable, coffee-colour is restored. In atolls, to the 
north-west of the Hervey Gi'oup and the Line Islands, the natives 
.subsist chiefly on cocoanut, pandanus drupes, and fish. Should 
any accident {e.g., if the leaflets are devoured by a plague of 
Lopaphus coccophagus, or a cyclone, or if the crowns are sprinkled 
by ocean spray) occur to the cocoanut palm, it is frightful to see 
the wasted forms of the islanders. 

But even on the most fertile islands, after a cyclone, the 
sufierings of the natives are great. Happily, now, there are so 
many introduced plants, as well as imported food, that the natives 
do not perish of sheer starvation as in the days of heathenism. I 



RACES BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 339 

have known entire families to subsist on the crown of a felled 
cocoanut, with what fish they could catch. 

The salutation of the Hervey Islanders was the very reverse 
of our own. We boiv to our friends ; they toss the head upwards, 
at the same time elevating the eyebrows. 

Their great national amusement was the dance. In this 
singular performance the joints seem to be loose. I do not believe 
it possible for any European to move the limbs as a Polynesian 
loves to do. At a very early age mothers carefully oil the hands, 
(fee, and then knead the tiny limbs, stretching and " cracking " 
each joint. Respecting the morality of their dances, the less said 
the better ; but the " upaupa dance," introduced from Tahiti, is 
obscene indeed. 

WIZARDS. 

Priests ex-officio dealt with the gods and the invisible world. 
It was for them alone to approach the deities on behalf of the 
state, clan, or chiefs, i.e.^ to chauiit karakia (prayers) at the 
inarae* and present offerings. If Rongo were the divinity to be 
propitiated, a liunian sacrifice specially selected must be ofl[ered. 
To all other gods offerings of fish and "taro," ikc, with the indis- 
pensable bowl of piper viythisticum, were presented from time to 
time. No worshipper dared go empty-handed to his priest to 
inquire the will of the gods. The value of the gift must be 
proportioned to his rank and means. The load might be carried 
by male slaves to the outskirts of the inarae, but the offerer had 
a place allotted to him within the sacred precincts. The priest, 
or " god-box," clothed in whitef iikoru, at a little distance, alone, 
in the most sacred place, went through the needful prayers. 

In a case of sickness the deity would be asked about the fate 
of his devoted worshipper. At Mangaia the favourable response 
would be couched in these terms — ("The spirit) will go to the 
sun-rising " (ka aere ki te ra iti), i.e., the sick will recover. For 
the spirit to descend with the sun-god Ra into the nether, or 
invisible, world is death. If the sufferer must die, a different 
metaphor was employed by the priest — "kua rau ti para" — "The 
leaf of the //tree {Cordyline terminalis) is sere," i.e., will drop off 
and perish. 

The office of priest was hereditary throughout the Hervey 
Group. When a new priest wate installed, he first bathed in the 
sacred stream of his tribe, put on the white tikorii, ate only 
certain kinds of food, and abstained from many things permitted 
to others. On the day of installation of the priest of Rongo the 
temporal chief accompanied him to the marae — not too closely 
following him. Offerings of food having been deposited at the 

-*■ Idol grove. 

t OS duty, the priest might wear a yellow "tiputa "' over his shoulders. 

v2 



340 AUSTRALASIAN AND POLYNESIAN 

usual spot, cooked " taro " and the invariable bowl of " kava " 
having been disposed of by the new priest-king, the temporal 
chief shouted, " Ka uru Rongo" — " Let Rongo enter" {i.e., inspire). 
The new high-priest, seated on a sacred stone,* then fell into 
convulsions, and spake in a most unearthly voice (? ventriloquism), 
the words so uttered being accepted as a divine oracle ! Thus 
did the /ew/f^ra/ sovereign install the new priest-king {i.e., spiritual 
ruler). A grand feast would follow. 

Less of ceremony was observed with priests of divinities of 
inferior rank, but substantially the same process was carried out. 
The technical phrase for this was " Va'i i te pia atua ou " — " open 
up the new god-box." 

On the eve of an important battle " the omens were taken " 
(ka pa te vai) by the warrior chief himself. These omens 
consisted in the drowning of insects, itc, in water, or a fish hunt 
on the reef. (See my " Savage Life," page 104). 

The native phrase, " Ka pa te vai," means, literally, " enclose the 
water," because in taking the omens by the drowning of insects, 
(fee, it was customary to arrange the cut stems of a banana in a 
square on the ground. A single leaf of the Alocasia indica 
(Seeman), holding half a bucket of water, was deposited in the 
hollow, the water being kept from spilling by the cut banana 
stems. A number of centipedes, green lizards, and dragon-flies 
were now dashed into the water. The total of creatures drowned 
prefigured the number of warriors doomed to perish in to-mori'ow's 
battle. There was a special prayer (now lost) for this ceremony. 

Sometimes two shells {Turbo petholatiis), intended to repi'esent 
the two hostile camps, were deposited by the warrior chief on his 
own niarae, with an appropriate prayer, in the dusk of evening. 
On retui'ning at daylight, it is averred that Moke found the shell 
representing his foes turned upside down, a sure omen of their 
destruction, which accordingly took place. 

On most of the eastern Pacific islands were " wise women," 
who were consulted respecting the minor affairs of daily life. 
These women were supposed to be inspired by a female divinity. 
A small present must be made ere consulting the priestess. On 
Mangaia the goddess Ruatamaine was consulted to discover a thief, 
and to secure success in fishing. There were numberless Ruaatu, 
or fishermen gods (of stone) in all the islands, each demanding an 
oftering of a newly-caught fish from its votaries, or, in default of 
that, a hollow pebble to be strung into a sort of necklace, or the 
midrib of a cocoanut leaf, and thrown into the darkness, with 
these words, " Here is thy share, O Ruaatu !" 

The native name for sorcerer is "taugata purepure," i.e., "a 
man who prays." A heathen only prays for the ill-luck or death 
of his foes. The j)rayers offered by the priests to the gods 

*"Te koatu karakia — tlie stoue for praying. 



RACES BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 341 

worshipped on the national or tribal maraes were termed 
" karakia ; " those on minor occasions to the lesser gods were 
named '■^ pure."* All these prayers were metrical,! and were 
handed down from generation to generation with the utmost 
care. There were " prayers " for every phase of savage life ; for 
success in battle ; for a change of wind (to overwhelm an 
adversary fishing solitarily in his canoe, or that an intended 
voyage of his own may be propitious) ; that cocoanuts, yams, 
(tc, ifec, may grow ; that a thieving or murder expedition may be 
successful ; that his hook or net may catch plenty of fish ; that 
his kite may fly higher than all others ; that his "teka" (reed) 
may outstrip the rest ; that strong teeth may take the place of 
his child's first tooth Avhen extracted. Arc, itc. A gi-eat secret 
was the prayer at the excision of the funis ujulniiais, that the 
boy might be brave, or that the girl might in after-life be fruitful. 
Few men of middle age were without a number of these 
"prayers" or charms. They were usually uttered in too low a 
key to be heard by a stranger, lest he, too, should thus be armed 
with a dangerous we;ipon of offence. If a plantation were to be 
robbed, the appropriate " prayer " or charm must be uttered near 
to it, so that it might have its full effect. If a man were to be 
clubbed in his sleep, the "prayer" must not be used until the 
hut is in sight. Important charms or " prayers "' such as these 
were to grown-up sons part of the equipment of life. In most 
cases, one or two would never be divulged until there was a 
premonition of death in sickness or battle. A man felt that if 
his last bit of "wisdom" were "reeled off" (to use a native 
parable), die he must. 

Payment to the sorcerer consisted in a couple of pieces of native 
cloth, or fish and "taro," ifec. 

The succession was from father to son, or from uncle to nephew. 
So, too, of sorceresses ; it would be from mother to daughter, or 
from aunt to niece. Sorcerers and sorceresses were often slain by 
the relatives of their supposed victims. 

A singular enchantment was employed to kill off the husband 
of a pretty woman desired by someone else. The expanded 
flower of a Gardenia was stuck upright — a very difficult perform- 
ance — in a cup {i.e., half a large cocoanut shell) of water. A 
" prayer " was then offered for the husband's speedy death, the 
sorcerer eai'nestly watching the flower. Should it fall, the 
incantation was regarded as successful. But if the flower still 
remained upright, he will live. The sorcerer would in that case 
try his skill another day, with perhaps better success. Old 
natives assert that these enchantments, if persevered in, never 
failed ; but that since the prevalence of Christianity they have 

* In Kew Zealand "karakia." 

t Hence appropriately ter.uecl hy us incantations. 



342 AUSTRALASIAN AND POLYNESIAN 

all become impotent. Indeed, the " prayers " themselves are 
happily lost. 

In adzing a canoe, it was the duty of the chief taiinga (artisan- 
priest) to chaunt an extempore never-ending song, which the other 
workmen took up. The song gave precision and unity to the 
stroke of their stone adzes, added to their cheerfulness, and 
was believed to be supernaturally efficacious in helping on the 
work to its completion. As the taiinga would be sure to be 
associated with the same set of helpers, the assistants knew 
pretty well what was being chaunted. This sort of thing was 
called a "pataratara" — "a talking," of which I retain two 
written but untranslated specimens. Originally it was an address 
to the tree-spirit not to be angry at their adzing the noble trunk, 
with an invocation to the axe-fairy, Ruateatonga, to aid the 
progress of the work. 

Taraaere, the last priest of Tangaroa (who had often offered 
human sacrifices to the tutelar god of Rarotonga), when nearly 
ninety years of age, said to me : — 

" My father taught me how to retain wisdom (korero). He also 
told me when to marry. He did not feed me with bananas, 
plantains, and fish, lest, the food being light and slippery, wisdom 
should slip away from me. No ! he fed me with ' taro,' well 
beaten with a pestle, and mixed with cooked ' taro '-leaves, the 
glutinous nature of the ' taro ' being favourable to the retention 
of wisdom." 

This was uttered without a smile, in the full belief that this 
simple diet of his youth and early manhood accounted for the 
marvellous memory which he possessed to the very end of life. 
He assured me that it was thus the priests of the olden days 
were brought up. 

DEATH. 

No one was believed to die a strictly natural death unless 
extreme old age was attained. Nineteen out of every twenty 
were regarded as victims of special divine anger or of the incan- 
tations of "the praying people" ( Tangata purepiire) i.e., the 
sorcerers. Causes of death were : — 

1. Infringement of tapu laws of all kinds. 

2. An uttered resolve broken ; e.g., preparation for battle 
upon the receipt of false intelligence. The trick may be seen 
through after a time, still the fight must at all risks come off, if 
once the ivar-girdle has been put on. Not only would shame attend 
the withdrawing warriors, but the special wrath of the war-god 
would rest upon them. So that there is nothing for it but fight at 
all risks. A journey prepared for, but not carried out. Many years 
ago it was intended that the writer should remove to Rarotonga to 
take charge of the mission there. Everything was ready, when 
a brother from England arrived for that station. It so happened 



J 



KACES BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 343 

that just afterwards I lost two sons in one week of diptheria. I 
was astounded to find that the natives of Mangaia, while 
sympathizing with my loss, attributed the sad blow to my failure 
to carry out my original purpose. 

3. A grave dug for a corpse, but not occupied. At the last 
moment perhaps the owner of the soil objects to the burial, so 
the corpse is disposed of elsewhere. In that case, the natives 
firmly believe that someone else must die in order to occupy 
the empty grave. 

4. Unusual luxuriance of growth of plantations of food. The 
saying is, " E mou Avaiki tena," i.e., "it is also a crop for spirit- 
land " (portends a crop for the reaper Death, as we perhaps 
would phrase it). 

The bodies of deceased friends were anointed with scented oil, 
carefully wrapped up in a number of pieces of cloth, and the same 
day committed to their last resting-place. A few were buried 
in the earth within the sacred precincts of the appropriate 
?narae ; but by far the greater number were hidden in caves 
regarded as the special property of certain families. 

If a body were buried in the earth, the face was invariably 
laid downwards, chin and knees meeting, and the limbs well 
secured with strongest sinnet cord. A thin covering of earth 
was laid over the corpse, and large heavy stones piled over the 
grave. The intention was to render it impossible for the dead 
to rise up and injure the living ! The head of the buried corpse 
was always turned to the rising sun, in accordance with their 
ancient solar worship. 

It was customary to bury with the dead some article of value — 
a female would have a cloth-mallet laid by her side ; whilst her 
husband would enjoin his friends to bury with him a favourite 
stone adze, or a beautiful white shell {Ovula ovum, Linn) worn 
by him in the dance. Such articles were never touched after- 
wards by the living. 

Numbers were buried in caves easily accessible, to enable the 
relatives to visit the remains of the dearly-loved lost ones from 
time to time. The corpse was occasionally exposed to the sun, 
re-anointed with oil, and then wrapped in fresh tikorii (white 
native cloth). 

The dead were never disembowelled for the purpose of 
embalming. The corpse was simply desiccated, and daily 
anointed with cocoanut oil. A month would suffice for this. 

Warriors were in general carefully hidden by their surviving 
friends, through fear of their being disinterred and burnt in 
revenge. 

The people of the entire district where the dec-eased lived take 
up " taro " and prepare a feast in honour of the dead. A grand 
interchange of presents is usual on these occasions ; but, excepting 
the near r^-latives of the deceased, no one is really the worse for 



344 AUSTRALASIAN AND POLYNESIAN 

it, as it is etiquette to see that distant relatives get back similar 
articles to what they brought. 

Whatever is laid upon the corpse is buried with it, and no 
further notice taken of it ; but whatever is placed by the side, 
2vithout touching it, is repaid. 

The moment the sick died, the bodies of near relatives were 
cut with sharks' teeth, so that the blood might stream down the 
bodies ; their faces were blackened, and the hair cut off. At 
Rarotonga it was usual to knock out some of the front teeth in 
token of sorrow. Everywhere the moment of death was the 
signal for the death-wail to commence. The most affecting things 
are said on such occasions, but always in a set form, commencing 
thus : — 

Aue toil e ! Aue ! Aue ! 

Alas for us ! Alas ! Alas ! &c. 

The wallers usually lose their voices for several days, and their 
eyes are frightfully swollen with crying. 

As soon as the corpse was committed to its last resting-place, 
the mourners selected live old cocoanuts, which were successively 
opened, and the water poured ovit upon the ground. These nuts 
were then wrapped up in leaves and native cloth, and thrown 
towards the grave ; or, if the corpse were let down with cords 
into the deep chasm of " Auraka," the nuts and other food would 
be successively thrown down upon it. Calling loudly each time 
the name of the departed, they said, " Here is thy food ; eat it." 
When the fifth nut and the accompanying " raroi," or pudding, 
were thrown down, the mourners said, "Farewell ! we come back 
no more to thee." 

A death in the family is the signal for a change of names 
amongst the near relatives of the deceased. 

Chiefs and priests occasionally received the honour of a " spirit- 
burial," the corpse being borne to the most renowned inarae of 
his tribe on the island, and allowed to remain within the sacred 
enclosure for some hours, but the same day hidden away in the 
tribal cave. In such cases the depositing of the body in the 
marae was " the burial," or the committal of the spirit to the care 
of the god worshipped in life, whilst the letting down of the 
corpse into the deep chasm was designated '• the throwing away 
of the bones " {tiringa ivi), the well-wrapped-up body being 
regarded as a mere bundle of bones after the exit of the spirit. 

In the olden times, relatives of the deceased wore only 
"pakoko," or iiative cloth, dyed red in the sap of the candle-nut 
tree, and then dipped in the black mud of a taro-patch. 'J'he 
very offensive smell of this moui'ning garment was symbolical of 
the putrescent state of the dead. Their heads were encircled 
with chaplets of mountain fern, singed with fire to give it a red 
appearance. 



RACES BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 345 

The eva, or dirge, and the mourning dance succeeded. Of this 
dirge, four varieties are known. They invariably took place by 
day, occupying from ten to tifteen days, according to the rank of 
the deceased. Sometimes " a death-talk " was preferred, consisting 
of sixty songs in honour of the dead, mournfully chanted at night 
in a large house built for the purpose, and well lighted with 
torches. Each adult male relative recited a song. A feast was 
the inevitable 7f«rt!/^. 

Each island of the Hei^vey Gi'oup had some variety of custom 
in relation to the dead. Perhaps the chiefs of Atiu were the 
most outrageous in mourning. I knew one to mourn for seven 
years for an only child (a woman), living all that time in a hut in 
the vicinity of the grave, and allowing his hair and nails to grow, 
a,nd his body to remain unwashed. This was the wonder of all 
the islanders. In general, all mourning ceremonies were over in 
a year. 

SPIRIT WORLD. 

Spirit-land proper is underneath, where the sun-god Ra reposes 
when his daily task is done. It is variously termed Po (Night), 
Avaiki, Hawai'i, Hawaiki, or home of the ancestors. Still, all 
warrior spirits, i.e., those who have died a violent death, are said 
to ascend to their happy homes in the ten heavens above. 
Popularly, death in any form is referred to as " going into night," 
in contrast with day (ao) i.e., life. Above and beneath are 
numerous countries and a variety of inhabitants — invisible to 
mortal eye ; but these are but a facsimile of what we see around 
us now. 

The Samoan heaven was designated Pulotu or Purotn, and was 
supposed to be under the sea. The Mangaian warrior hoped to 
"leap into the expanse," "to dance the warrior's dance in Tairi " 
(above), " to inhabit Speck-land (Poepoe)" in perfect happiness. 
The Rarotongan warrior looked forward to a place in the house 
of Tiki, in which are assembled the brave of past ages, who spend 
their time in eating, drinking, dancing, or sleeping. The 
Aitutakian brave went to a good land (Iva) under the guardianship 
of the benevolent Tukairaua, to chew sugar-cane for ever with 
uncloyed appetite. Tahitians had an elysium named " Miru." 
Society Islanders looked forward to "Rohutu noanoa," i.e., "sweet- 
scented Rohutu," full of fruit and flowers. 

At Mangaia the spirits of those who ignobly " died on a pillow "* 
wandered about disconsolately over the rocks near the margin of 
the ocean, until the day appointed by their leader comes (once a 
year), when they follow the sun-god Ra over the ocean and 
descend in his train to under-world. As a rule, these ghosts 
were well disposed to their own living relatives ; but often 
became vindictive if a pet child was ill-treated by a step-mother 

* I te urunja piro, i.e., a natural death. 



346 AUSTRALASIAN AND POLYNESIAN 

or other relatives, &c. But the esoteric teaching of the priests 
ran thus : — Unhappy* ghosts travel over the pointed rocks round 
the island until they reach the extreme edge of the clift" facing 
the setting sun, when a large wave approaches to the base, and at 
the same moment a gigantic ^'•bua" tree ( Fagrosa berteriaua), 
covered with fragrant blossoms, springs up from Avaiki to receive 
these disconsolate human spirits. Even at this last moment, with 
feet almost touching the fatal tree, a friendly voice may send 
the spirit-traveller back to life and health. Otherwise, he is 
mysteriously impelled to climb the particular branch reserved for 
his own tribe, and conveniently brought nearest to him. 
Immediately the human soul is safely lodged upon this gigantic 
" bua" the deceitful tree goes down with its living burden to 
nether-world. Akaanga and his assistants catch the luckless 
ghost in a net, half drown it in a lake of fresh water, and then 
usher it into the presence of dread Miru, mistress of the nether- 
world, where it is made to drink of her intoxicating bowl. The 
drunken ghost is borne off to the ever-burning oven, cooked, and 
devoured by Miru, her son, and four peerless daughters. The refuse 
is thrown to her servants, Akaanga and others. So that, at Man- 
gaia, the end of the coward was annihilation. 

At Rarotonga the luckless spirit-traveller who had no present 
for Tiki was compelled to stay outside the house where the brave 
of past ages are assembled, in rain and darkness for ever, shivering 
with cold and hunger. Another view is. that the grand rendezvous 
of ghosts was on a ridge of rocks facing the setting sun. One 
tribe skirted the sea margin until it reached the fatal spot. 
Another (the tribe of Tangiia, on the eastern part of Rarotonga) 
traversed the mountain range forming the backbone of the island 
until the same point of departure was attained. Members of the 
former tribe clambered on an ancient ^'' biai " tree (still standing). 
Should the branch chance to break, the ghost is immediately 
caught in the net of "Muru." But it sometimes happens that a 
lively ghost tears the meshes and escapes for awhile, passing on 
by a resistless inward impulse towards the outer edge of the 
reef, in the hope of traversing the ocean. But in a straight line 
from the shore is a round liollow, where Akaanga's net is concealed. 
In this the very few who escape out of the hands of Muru are 
caught without fail. The delighted demons (taae) take the 
captive ghost out of the net, dash his brains out on the sharp 
coral, and carry him off in triumph to the shades to eat. 

For the tribe of Tangiia an iron-wood tree was reserved. The 
ghosts that trod on the green branches of this tree came back to 
life, whilst those who had the misfortune to crawl on the dead 
branches were at once caught in the net of Muru or Akaanga, 
brained, cooked and devoured ! 

* Because they had the misfortune "to die on a pillow," a;id because they had to leave 
their old pleasant haunts and homes. 



RACES BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 347 

Ghosts of cowards, and those who were impious at Aitutaki, 
were doomed likewise to furnish a feast to the inexpressibly ugly 
Miru and her followers. 

Evidently, the ancient faith of the Hervey Islanders was 
substantially the same. Nor did it materially differ from that of 
the Tahitian and Society Islanders, the variations being such as 
we might expect when portions of the same great family had been 
separated from each other for ages. 

There is no trace in the Eastern Pacific of the doctrine of 
transmigration of human souls, although the spirits of the dead 
are fabled to have assumed, temporarily, and for a specific purpose, 
the form of an insect, bird, fish, or cloud. But gods, specially 
the spirits of deified men, were believed permanently to reside in, 
or to be incarnate in, sharks, sword-fish, &,c., eels, the octopus, the 
yellow and black-spotted lizards, several kinds of birds and insects. 
The ignis fatuus, opportune mists concealing a victim, imagined 
balls of fire guiding the fleeing or killing party, were all the work- 
ing of their gods for the destruction, safety, or guidance of mortals. 

In sleep, the spirit was supposed to leave the body and travel 
over the island, to hold converse with the dead, and even to visit 
spirit-woi'ld. Hence the dreams of mortals. Some of the most 
important events in their national history were determined by 
dreams. 

The place in which the placenta (enua) of an infant is buried 
is called the " ipukarea," or natal soil ; and it was believed that, 
after death, spirits of adults, as well as children, hover about the 
neighbourhood. 

MYTHOLOGY. 

Strictly speaking, tlie Hervey Islanders had no conception of a 
creator, as the islands were believed to be dragged up out of the 
depths of Avaiki, or Nether- World, otherwise called Po, or Night, 
These islands are merely the gross outw ird form, or body, whilst 
there still remains behind in the obscurity of Nether- World the 
ethereal essence or spirit. 

The primary conception of the Hervey Islanders as to existence 
is a point ; tlien something pulsating ; next, something greater 
— everlasting. 

The universe is to be conceived of as the hollow of a vast 
cocoanut shell, the interior of which is named Avaiki. At the 
very bottom of this supposed cocoanut shell is a thick stem, 
gradually tapering to a pointy whi<-h represents the very beginning 
of all things. This point is a spirit named The-root-of all-existence. 
Above this extreme point is another demon, named Breathing, or 
Life, stouter and stronger than the former one. The thickest part 
of the stem is The-long-lived. These three stationary, sentient 
spirits constitute the foundation, and insure the permanence and 
well-beinof of all the rest of the universe. 



'348 AUSTRALASIAN AND POLYNESIAN 

In the interior of the supposed cocoanut shell, in the lowest 
•depth of Avaiki, lives a woman, or demon, of flesh and blood, 
named Vari-ma-te-takere (shortened into Vari) — The-very- 
heginning. At various times Vai'i plucked oflf three Vjits from 
each side, and moulded them into human shape. These six are 
the primary gods of the universe. Yet no " niarae " or image 
was ever sacred to them, nor was any offering ever made to them. 

The first of the six primary gods is Avatea or Vatea (Noon), 
half man and half fish, whose eyes are the sun and moon.* 
Evidently we have in Avatea, or Vatea, the god of light. The 
second primary god is Tinirau (Innumerable), the lord of all fi>h. 
The third is Tango (Support). The fourth is Echo (Tumuteanaoa), 
regarded as a female dwelling in hollow rocks. The fifth, 
Raka, or Trouble^ presides over winds. At the edge of the 
hoi izoii are a numVjer of wind-holes. To each child is allotted one 
of these apertures, through which he blows at pleasure. The 
sixth and last of the primary gods is a female, Tu-metua, or 
Tu-papa, who dwells with the Great Mother, " Vari," at the very 
bottom of Avaiki, in the Silent-land, the only language of which 
is that of signs and smiles, to comfort her. Tuf (short for 
Tu-metua or Tu-papa) was the tutelar goddess of the island of 
Moorea. To her the fourteenth night in every moon was 
sacred. 

In his dreams, Vatea, the eldest of the primary gods, saw a 
woman, Papa (Foundation), whom he afterwards succeeded in 
making his wife. Now, Papa was the daughter of Timatekore 
(Nofhing-more). Tangaroa and Rongoj were the twin children 
of Vatea and Papa. They were the first beings of perfect human 
form in the universe, and possessed no second shape. Three 
other sons (Tonga-iti, Tangiia, and Tane-papa-kai) were born to 
Vatea and Papa. These are the principal deities of the Hervey 
Islanders and (with numerous variations and additions) of Eastern 
Polynesia. To the children of Vatea and Papa belong the maraes 
and idols ; they received the offerings and listened to the prayers 
of mankind. 

The tutelar god of Mangaia is Kongo, whose wife, Taka, bare 
him a daughter named Tavake. The boast of the three original 
tribes on Mangaia is that they are the descendants of Tavake by 
her own father Kongo, i.e., that they are of divine origin. 

Now, Kongo was likewise the dread deity of Tahiti and the 
Leeward Islands, under the slightly modified designation of 
"Oro." The original marae of " Oro " in Eastern Polynesia was 

■' The moon is tlie fisli-eye, on account of its paleness. 

t When Captain Cook, for tlie second time, visited Talilti, he found the king to be " Otoo," 
ancestor of the present Pomare. '■ Otoo " should be written 7 «, the being a mere prefix 
to all ))roper name-;. This mythological name was adopted in order to secure for its owner 
the reverence due to the gods, who are invisible to mortal eye. 

X In the Society Islands " Oro " (Ko[ng]o) was the .so// of Ta'aroa (Tangaroa), not his twin 
brother. 



RACES BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 349 

Opoa, on the island of Raiatea, whence the worship spread to all 
the neighbouring islands. 

At the shrine of this deity, on the island of Tahiti alone, fifty 
reeking heads were offered in a single generation. To Rongo,. 
Oro, Rono, or Orono (as he is variously named), no offering was 
acceptable but a bleeding human sacrifice, specially selected, males 
being always preferred to females. At Tahiti females were 
ineligible, being regarded as " noa " (common) ; whereas males 
were " tapu " (sacred), and therefore suitable for sacrifice. 

Tangaroa was specially honoured at Rarotonga, Aitutaki, Samoa, 
and the Society Islands. In the Tahitian and Society Groups, 
Ta'aroa was regarded as the originator of the world, and the 
parent of gods and men. At Samoa, Tangaloa was regarded as. 
the great creator. 

The gods were divided into two orders, "dwellei's in day," and 
" dwellers in the shades, or night." T\\e former busied themselves 
with the affairs of mortals ; moving, though unseen, in their 
midst ; and yet often descending to Nether- World, the true home 
of the major gods. The latter frequently ascend to day to take 
part in the affairs of mankind, but prefer to dwell in spirit-land 
(night). A few were supposed to remain permanently in the 
obscurity of Avaiki. 

Many of the deities worshipped in the Hervey Group and other 
islands of the eastern Pacific were canonised priests, kings, and 
warriors, whose spirits were supposed to enter into various birds, 
fish, reptiles, insects, ifec, &c. Strangely enough, they were 
regarded as being, in no respect, inferior to the original divinities. 

The gods first spake to man through the small land birds ; but 
their utterances proved to be too indistinct to guide the actions 
of mankind. The gods were thus led to communicate with 
mankind through the medium of a human priesthood. Whenever 
the priest was consulted, a present of the best food, accompanied 
by a bowl of intoxicating "piper mythisticum," was indispensable. 
The offerer, in a stentorian voice, said, "Ka uru Motoro" — Enter 
{i.e. J inspire), Motoro !* At these words the priest would fall into 
convulsions, the god Motoro having inspired (literally, " entered ") 
him, and the oracle would be delivered. From the oracle thus 
delivered no appeal whatever lay. The best kinds of food were 
saci'ed to the priests and chiefs. 

Although unsuited for the delivery of oracles, birds were ever 
the special messengers of the gods to warn individuals of 
impending danger, each tribe having its own feathei^ed guardians. 

The great Polynesian word (Atua) for " God " means strictly 
the pith, core, or life of man. This is evident from its constant 
equivalent, " ara io," shortened sometimes into "io," which 
literally signifies "pathway of the pith," or " pith." What the 
pith is to the tree the god is to the man, i.e., its lije. 

"* Or whatever may be the name of the wor.shipper's deit j. 



350 



AUSTRALASIAN AND POLYNESIAN 



The greater gods alone had carved images for the convenience 
of worshippers ; the lesser were countless, each individual 
possessing several. 



PHILOLOGY. 



A list of numerals and pronouns in the language, with 
suggestions as to their etymology : — 





NUMERALS. 


1 


... Okotai, tai. 


2 


... Eiia. 


3 


Toru. 


4 


A. 


5 


Rirna. 


6 


Ono. 


7 


Itu. 


8 


... Varu. 


9 


... Iva. 


10 


Ngauru. 


11 


Ngauru ma tai (10 + 1). 


12 


... Ngauru ma rua (10 + 2), &c. 


20 


Eua ngauru (2 X 10). 


21 


... Eua ngauru ma tai (2 X 10 + 1). 


22 


Eua ngauru ma rua (2 X 10 + 2), &c. 


00 


Anere (i.e., from the English "hundred") &c 



In the Hervey Group we have two distinct bases of numeration 
— four and ten. The former base is used in counting cocoanuts, 
which were from time immemorial tied up in fours (kaviri). 

5 Bunches (kaviri) of cocoanuts make one Takau, i.e. 20 
10 Takau „ „ Eau 200 

10 Eau „ „ Mano 2,000 

10 Mano „ „ Kiu 20,000 

10 Kiu „ „ Tiui 200,000 

All beyond this is uncertain. 

PKONOUNS. 



1. — Personal. 



Maua 
Taua 
Korua 
Eaua 



Matou 
Tatou 
Kotou 
Eatou 



First person ... ... Au 

First person, including the second . 
Second person ... ... Koe 

Third person ... ... Aia, ia . 

Of the dual and plural pronouns of the first person, " taua ' 
■" tatou " include the person or persons spoken to, while " maua 
" matou " exclude them. 

2. — Relative. 

Tei and nona, nana. 

" Tei " is used only in the past tense and becomes " te ' 
and is generally accompanied with " ka." 



and 
and 



in the future. 



RACES BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE 



351 



First person singular . . 
Third person sinojular .. 
First person plural 



-A djective. 

Toku, taku 
Tona, tana 
To matou, ta matou, &c. 



4 . — In ter roga iive. 



Koai 
Teiea 
Eaa 
Teea 



Koai and teiea are declinable. 



Who z^Ct^ ■ ■ 

Where / V- "'" 
What hS" ** 
WhiclfC' 



Singular 



Plural 



r Tela 
J Teianei 
1 Tena . 
C Tera . 

^Eia 

^ Eianei . 

') Ena 
(.Era ., 



Demonstrative . 

This 

This here 

That (near the person spo' 

That (at a distance) 

These 

These here 

Those (near the person spoken to) 

That (at a distance) 



Etai, tokotai 




— Indefinite. 



Some, few 



Paradigm of the conjugation and declension of the verb "to go" and 
of the verb " to kill," with a pronominal object : — 



Aere 



Go 



Singular. 

Pres. — Te aere nei au 
Past — I aere ana au 
Fut. — Ka aere au 



Indicative Mood. 

Dual. Plural. 

Te aere nei maua - Te aere nei matou, &c., &c. 
I aere ana maua - I aere ana matou, &c., &c. 
- Ka aere maua - Ka aere matou, &c., &c. 

Imperative. 
Ka aere koe, &c. 

Subjunctive or Conditional Mood. 

Present — Me aere au, &c. 
Past — Naringa au i aere. 
Future — Kia aere au. 

Infinitive. 
E aere. 



Participle. 
Aere anga. 

... Strike, kill* 



Ta 



* When a native wishes to say "kill," he uses this phrase, " Ta kia mate" — "Strike, so 
that (he) may die ; " or "Ta ua." Still, "ta " may by ahbreviation mea:i '• kill." 



352 



AUSTRALASIAN AND POLYNESIAN 



Singular. 

Pres. — Te ta nei au, &c. 
Past — I ta ana au, &c. 
Put. — Ka ta au, &c. 



Indicative Mood. 

Dual. 

Te ta nei taua, &c. 
I ta ana taua, &c. 
Ka ta taua, &c. 



Plural. 

Te ta nei tatou, &c. 
I ta ana tatou, &c. 
Ka ta tatou, &c. 



Pres.- 
Past- 

Fut. - 



Singular, 

-Te taia nei au, &c 
-I taia na au, &c. 
• Ka taia au, &c. 



Imperative. 
Ka ta koe. 

Subjunctive or Conditional Mood. 

Present — Me ta au, &c. 
Past — Naringa aii i ta, &c. 
Ftdiire — Kia ta au, &c. 

Infinitive. 
E ta. 

Participle. 
Ta anga. 

Indicative Mood (Passive Voice). 
Dual. 



Plural. 



- Te taia nei taua, &c. - Te taia nei tatou, &e. 

- I taia na taua, &c. - I taia na tatou, &c. 

- Ka taia taua, &c. - Ka taia tatou, &c. 

hnperative Mood. 
Ka taia koe, &c. 



Subjunctive or Conditional Mood. 

Present — Me taia au, &c. 
Past — Naringa au i taia, &c. 
Future — Kia taia au, &c. 



A few simple sentences to 
the language : — 

Eaa tena ? 

E noo ki raro 

E tu ki runga 

Aea koe aere ei ? 

Apopo 

Kapikiia 

Teia, te aere mai nei 

Koai tooix ingoa ? 

E vaine taau ? 

E tamariki taau ? 

Tokoia? 

Kua maki koe ? 

Ka mate paa koe 

Kare rava ia ... 

Man 

Woman 
Head ... 
Hair of head 

Eye 

Nose 



show the grammatical structure of 



What is that ? 

Sit down 

Get vip 

When will you go ? 

To-morrow 

Call (him) 

Here he comes 

What is yoiu' name ? 

Are you married ? 

Have you any children ? 

How many ? 

Are you ill ? 

You will perhaps die 

Not a bit of it 

Tangata 

Vaine 

Upoko, mimiti (of animals) 

Rauru 

Mata 

Putaiu, putangiu 



i 



RACES BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE. 



353 



Tongue 
Ear 
Hand . . 



Thumb 



f Mangaia 
^ Earotonga 

Foot . 

Bone . 

Blood 

Fire 

Water . 

Sun . 

Moon . 

Father 

Mother 

Son ... 

Daughter 

Brother (of a woman) 

Sister (of a man) 

Cousin 

Uncle 

Aunt 

Give 

Take 

Make 

Bear 

Burn 

See 

Hear 



Arero 

Taringa 

Eima 

Nui {i.e., big) 

Maikao maata (big finger) 

Vaevae 

Ivi 

Toto 

A'i 

Vai 

Ka 

Marama 

Metua tane 

Metua vaine 

Tamaroa 

Tamaine 

Tungane 

Tuaine 

Taeake 

Metua tane 

Metua vaine 

Omai ; oronga mai 

Eave atu 

Anga 

Apai, maranga 

Ka 

Akara 

Akarongo 



W 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE No. 3. 

Australasian Biolo°^ical Station Committee. 



Members of Committee : — Mr. A. Dendt, Mb. J. J. Fletcher, Mr. 

A. H. S. Lucas, Mr. MacGillivrat, Professor W. Baldwin Spencer 

and Dr. W. A. Haswell {Secretary) . 



'Owing to the impossibility of holding meetings at other times than 
duringthe meeting of the Association, the members of the committee 
being scattered over all the Australian colonies, it has been 
impossible for the committee as a body to do much in the course 
of the year. Measures, however, have been taken, which it is 
hoped will lead to their being in a position to report an important 
step before the next meeting of the Association. 

It was the general opinion of the members of the committee 
who were present at the Sydney meeting of the Association that 
Port Jackson is in many respects the most favourable situation 
for the establishment of the proposed station. The proximity to 
a capital in which there are good scientihc libraries, the sheltered 
character of the shores, and the richness of the marine fauna all 
combine to render it the most convenient situation that could be 
selected. In addition, the neighbourhood of Sydney, or at least 
some part of the New South Wales coast, is to be preferred as 
the site of the proposed station, owing to the fact that there 
already exists there a nucleus for such an institution. 

From 1881 to 1886 there was at Watson's Bay, near the Heads 
•of Port Jackson, a small building entitled the Biological Station, 
which was constructed on a piece of land granted by the 
Government. The expense of the construction of the building 
having been defrayed by private subscriptions and subscriptions 
from various learned societies, including the Royal Societies of 
New South Wales and Victoria, supplemented by a Government 
subsidy. The situation was not very convenient, and the station 
was little used, except by M. N.de Miklouho Maclay, by whose 
efforts it was founded. In 1886, at the time of a scare regarding 
war with Russia, the land was resumed by the Government of the 
colony for military purposes ; a sum of money being granted to 
the trustees of the station as compensation for the loss of the 
building. This sum of money is now available as a nucleus of 



AUSTRALASIAN BIOLOGICAL STATION COMMITTEE. 355 

the sum required for endowing a new station, and it is proposed 
that, as soon as a suitable site can be got, additional subscriptions 
should be solicited, both from private individuals and from the 
learned societies in the various colonies, so that the trustees may 
be enabled to begin the construction of the new station. It is 
proposed that this should at first be on a small scale, but so 
constructed that further extension could be readily efi'ected when 
required. It is hoped that the New South Wales Government, to 
whom application has been made, will grant a portion of one of 
the numerous reserves on the shores of the harbour as a site for 
the proposed new station. 



w2 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE No. 6. 

The Construction and Hygienic Requirements of Places of 
Amusement in Sydney. 



Members of Committee : — Mr. TV. E. Eoth, Dr. Ashbueton 

Thompson, Professor Warben, D. J. T. Wilson, and Mr. 

John Sulman {Secretary). 



The committee has been compelled to confine its enquiries to the 
City of Sydney, and has been much assisted by a report of the 
Royal Commission appointed on the 17th June, 1886, to enquire 
into the construction of theatres, public halls, and other places of 
public amusement or concourse. With this report the committee 
is in full accord, and appends a copy thereof. 

As far as the committee has been able to ascertain, there is no 
legislative enactment dealing with the subject ; but as the 
licensing of theatres is annual, a practical control is thereby 
secured. These licenses are issued by the Colonial Secretary, and 
in one recent instance, viz., the Theatre Royal, the pressure 
employed has been sufficient to secure the carrying out of very 
necessary alterations and improvements, which will tend to the 
greater safety and healthfulness of this building. 

The committee is, however, of opinion that the annexed report 
should form the basis of specific legislation, and that an existing 
body, such as the Board of Health, should be entrusted with the 
administration of the same, and with power to appoint competent 
inspectors and other necessary officials. There is a precedent for 
this course in the position accorded to the Board of Health in 
Melbourne. 



1 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE No. 13. 

Australasian Geolocrical Record. 



Members of Committee : — Professor F. W. Hutton, Mr. E.. L. Jack, 

Mr. R. M. Johnston, Mr. James Stirling, Professor K. Tate, and 

Mr. E. Etheridge {Secretary). 



(1.) New Zealand. 

1. Beal, L. O. — The Alluvial Deposits of Otago. Trans. N.Z. 

Inst., vol. xxi., p. 332. 

2. BiNNS, G. J. — On a Striated Rock Surface from Boatmans, 

near Reefton. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxi., p. 334. 

3. Boxney, T. G.— Note on a Rock Collected by the Rev. W. S. 

Green from near the summit of Mount Cook. Trans. 
N.Z. Inst., vol. xxi., p. 334. 

4. Crie, L. — Sur les affinites des flores jurassiques et triassiques 

de I'Australie et de la Nouvelle Zealande. Comptes 
Rendus, Tome cvii., 1888, p. 1014. 

5. Davis, J. W. — Fossil-fish Remains from the Tertiary and 

Cretaceo-tertiary formations of New Zealand. Scientific 
Transactions Roy. Dublin Soc, 1888. Vol. iv.. Series 
II., p. 7. 

6. Davis, J. W. — On a new Species of Scynmtis from the Upper 

Tertiary Formation of New Zealand. Geol. Mag., 1888, 
p. 315. 

7. Ettingshausen, C. Y. — Bertrage zur Kenntniss der fossilen 

Flora Neu-Seelands. Kaiserliche Akademie der 
Wissenschaften Anzeiger. Vienna, 1887. 

8. Hamilton, A. — Notes on a Deposit of Moa Bones in the 

Te Aute Swamp. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxi., p. 311. 

9. Harding, J. — On the Neighboui-hood of Te Aroha. Northern 

Wairoa. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxi., p. 336. 

10. Hill, H. — Disco veiy of Fossil Moa Feathers in Rocks of 

Pliocene Age. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxi., p. 318. 

11. Hill, H. — The Oil Prospects of Poverty Bay and District. 

Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxi., p. 320. 

12. HuTTON, F. W. (C.M.Z.S).— Notes on the Mueller Glacier, 

Pro. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, 1888. Series 2. 
vol. iii., p. 429. 



358 AUSTRALASIAN GEOLOGICAL RECORD. 

13. HuTTON, F. W. (C.M.Z.S).— The Earthquake in the Amuri. 

Trans. N.Z. Inst., 1889, vol. xxi., p. 263. 

14. HuTTON, F. W. (C.M.Z.S.).— The Eruptive Rocks of New 

Zealand. Pro, Roy. Soc. New South Wales, 1889. 

15. Lantour, de H. a. — On the Fossil Marine Diatomaceous 

Deposit near Oamaru. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxi., 
p. 293. • 

16. O'Reilly, J. P. — On the Antipodal Relations of the New 

Zealand Earthquake District of 10th June, 1886, with 
that of Andalusia, of 25th December, 1884. Jour. 
Roy. Geol. Soc. of Ireland, 1887, vol. xxii., p. 179. 

17. Park, J as. — The extent and Duration of Workable Coal in 

New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xxi., p. 325. 

18. Rath, vom G. — Ueben den Ausbruch des Tarawera auf 

Neu-Seeland, 10th Juni, 1886. Neues Jahrbuch fiir 
Mineralogie, &c. Band i., p. 101. Stuttgart, 1887. 

19. Thomas, A. P. (M.A., F.L.S.).— Notes on the Geology of 

Tongariro and the Taupo District. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 
vol. xxi., p. 338. 

(2.) Queensland. 

1. De Vis, C. W. (M.A.).— On a New Genus of Extinct 

Mammals. Proc. Royal Society of Qd., vol. v., pt. 5, 
1888, 8vo., 3 pp. 

2. De Vis, C. W. (M.A.). — On Diprotodon minor, Huxley. Proc. 

Royal Society of Qd., vol. v., pt. 2, 1888. 8vo., 7 pp. 
With a plate. 

3. Fletcher, Joseph (F.C.S., F.I.C., M.R.I.A., Brisbane City 

Analyst). — The Analysis of Soils. Brisbane Courier, 
27th August, 1889. 

4. Gregory, Hon. A. C. — Report to the Board of Waterworks 

on Proposed Boring for Artesian Water at Brisbane. 
19th September, 1888. Brisbane Courier oi 4th Feb- 
ruary, 1889. 

5. Henderson, J. B. (M.I.C.E.). — Report on the Blackall 

Artesian Well. Addressed to the Minister for Mines 
and Works, Brisbane, 16th May, 1888. 

6. Henderson, J. B. (M.I.C.E.). — Report on the Charleville 

Artt-sian Bore. Addressed to the Honourable the 
Colonial Treasurer, Brisbane. 12th September, 1889. 

7. Henderson, J. B. (M.I.C.E.). — Report on the Racecourse 

Bore. Addressed to the Honourable the Colonial 
Treasurer, Brisbane. 18th September, 1889. 



AUSTRALASIAN GEOLOGICAL RECORD. 359 

8. IviMEY, Aleck. J. — Rockhampton and Mount Morgan : a 

Mining and Descriptive Account of Central Queensland. 
Brisbane : Davison and Metcalf, 1888. 8vo., 84 pp. 

9. Jack, Robert L. (F.R.G.S., F.G.S.). — On some Salient 

Points in the Geology of Queensland. 

10. Jack, Robert L. (F.R.G.S., F.G.S.).— Preliminary Report 

to the Minister for Mines and Works in Limestone 
District, part of the Palmer Goldfield. Brisbane : 
by Authority, 1888. 2 pp. foolscap. With map. 

11. Jack, Robert L. (F.R.G.S., F.G.S.). — Report on Rock and 

Other Specimens from New Guinea and Neighbouring 
Islands, forwarded by Sir William MacGregoi-, 
K.C.M,G., etc. 5th June, 1889. Published in New 
Guinea Gavernment Gazette. 

12. Jack, Robert L. (F.R.G.S., F.G.S. ). — Report to the 

Minister for Mines and Works on Coal Discoveries on 
the Flinders. Brisbane : by Authority, 1888. 2 pp. 
foolscap. 

13. Jack, Robert, L. (F.R.G.S., F.G.S.).— Report to the 

]Vlinister for Mines and Works on the Geology of the 
Russell River. Brisbane: by Authority, 1888. 5pp. 
foolscap. With geological map. 

14. Jack, Robert L. (F.R.G.S., F.G.S.). — Second Report to the 

Minister for Mines and Works on Mount Morgan Gold 
Deposits. Brisbane : by Authority, 1889. 6 pp. 
foolscap. With plans and sections. 

15. Jack, Robert L. (F.R.G.S., F.G.S.). — Report to the 

Minister for Mines and Works on Taranganba Gold 
Mine. Brisbane : by Authority, 1889. 10 pp. fools- 
cap. With plan of mining operations. 

16. Jack, Robert L. (F.R.G.S., F.G.S.). — Report to the 

Honourable the Minister for Mines and Works on 
Proposed Boring for Artesian Water in the vicinity of 
Brisbane. Published in Brisbane Observer of 9th 
March, 1889. 

17. Jack, Robert L. (F.R.G.S., F.G.S.).— The Mineral Wealth 

of Queensland. Brisbane : Warwick and Sapsford, 
1888. 8vo., 71 pp. 

18. LiNDON, Edwd. B. (A.R.S.M., F.R.G.S., F.G.S.).— A Cata- 

logue of such Minerals as are at present known in 
Queensland, with their Principal Associations and 
Places of Occurrence. Brisbane : R. S. Hews and Co., 
1888. 8vo., 47 pp. 

19. Rands, William H. — Notes on Certain Boulders met with 

in the Beds and Reefs of the Gympie Goldfield, Queens- 



360 AUSTRALASIAN GEOLOGICAL RECORD. 

laud. Proc. Aust. Assoc. Adv. Sci., Sydney, 1888. 
Pp., 297-299. 

20. Rands, William H. — Report on Gympie Goldfield. 

Brisbane: by Authority, 1889. 

21. Rands, William H. — Report to the Minister for Mines and 

Works on the Geology of the Albert and Logan 
District. Brisbane: by Authority, 1889. Foolscap. 
With map. 

22. Smith, James. — Fossils at Neerkol, near Rockhampton. 

Published in the Rockhampton Bulletin^ June, 1888. 

23. Smith, James. — Mount Morgan Fossils. Letter in Rock- 

hampton Bulletin, dated 30th January, 1888. 

24. Smith, James, — On the Discovery of Fossils at Rockhampton. 

Abstract in Proc. Aust. Assoc. Adv. Sci., Sydney, 

1888. 

25. Smith, Jambs. — The Desert Sandstone. Rockhainpton Bulletin 

of 17th August, 1888. 

26. Smith, James. ^ — The Geological Features of Central Queens- 

land. Pajjer read before Natural History Society of 
Rockhampton, 8th April, 1889. 

27. Sykes, F. W. — A Practical Treatise on Mount Morgan : 

Including a concise and detailed Account of the Mines 
in and around Mount Morgan, and also of the celebrated 
Taranganba Mine. Compiled by F. W. Sykes for 
W^illiam Donaghey. Mount Morgan : Donaghey, East- 
wood and Co., 1888. 8vo., 52 pp. 

28. Tenison-Woods, Rev. J. E. (F.G.S., F.L.S.)— The Desert 

Sandstone. Royal Society of N.S.W. 7th November, 
1888. 8vo., 45 pp. 

29. Annual Progress Report of the Geological Sui'vey for the 

year 1888. Brisbane : by Authority, 1889. Foolscap. 

30. Annual Report of the Department of Mines for the year 

1888. Brisbane: by Authority, 1889. 

31. Balcardine Artesian Well. Article in Sydney Daily Tele- 

graph of 11th January, 1889. 

32. Canoona Goldfield. Leading article in Rockhampton Btdletin 

of 6th August, 1889. 

33. Saltern Creek Artesian Well. Article in Queenslajider of 

19th May, 1888. 

34. Sandringham Artesian Well. Article in Townsville Bulletin, 

dated 14th May, 1888. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECTIONS, 




PROCEEDIN&S OF THE SECTIOI^^J;- 7*T A 
- \f>^- ^ v>^ 

Section A. 

ASTRONOMY, PHYSICS, MATHEMATICS, AND 
MECHANICS. 

President of the Section : R. Threifall, M.A., Professor oj Physics^ 
University of Sydney. 



1.— THE ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF QUARTZ 
THREADS. 

By R. Threlfall, M.A., Professor of Physics, University of 

Sydney. 

\Abstract.\ 

The research of which the following is an abstract was carried 
out in the Physical Laboratory of the University of Sydney, 
with the assistance of Messrs. J. F. Adair and J. A. Pollock. 
The undoubted superiority of quartz fibres for purposes' of 
suspension led the author to undertake the present investigation, 
in order to supply the requisite data to instrument makers, and 
to physicists engaged on the designing of instruments. The 
investigation of most of the elastic properties of quartz threads 
depends on the accurate estimation of the thickness of the threads 
used. The microscopic methods of measuring the quantity were 
made the subjects of special enquiry, and it is shown that in the 
measurement of fibres of the order of "01 cm. diameter con- 
stant errors may be practically avoided, and accidental errors 
reduced to 3 or 4 per cent, per measurement. The greater 
portion of the uncertainty of a single observation can be eliminated 
by multiplying the observations. A new method of drawing 
threads suitable for the production of short, thick fibres was 
devised. The following points were investigated : — 

1. The breaking strength of fibres of various thicknesses, 

investigated in two ways. 

2. The simple rigidity of quartz fibres. 

3. The tempei'ature co-efficient of the simple rigidity. 

4. The temperature co-efiicient of the total torsional rigidity 

of cylindrical fibres (the datum to be used in instru- 



564 PROCEEDINGS OP SECTION A. 

ment making), and practically identical with the 
temperature co-efficient of the " modulus of torsion." 

5. The co-efficient of expansion of fused quartz — a datum 

requisite for the calculation of (3) from (4). 

6. The Young's modulus of quartz fibres. 

7. Calculation of the bulk resilience from the foregoing. 

8. General investigation as to the limiting intensity of 

torsional strain which may be given to a quartz fibre 
without making it exhibit torsional fatigue or 
nachwirkung. 

(1.) The breaking strength turned out to verify Boys' estimate 
of from 50 to 70 tons per square inch. A new method, involving 
the use of a spiral spring of brass wire was used for producing 
the stresses. 

(2.) The simple rigidity was calculated from vibration experi- 
ments made in an exhausted vibration box. The mean value of 
several experiments on difiei'ent fibres was — 

W = 2-8815 X 10" C. G. S. at 22°C 

(3.) The temperature co-efficient of the simple rigidity is 
calculated from the next series of experiments by means of a 
value for the co-efficient of expansion of quartz, which was the 
average of a large number of unsatisfactory experiments — 
it is +0 00013 per degree cent. 

(4.) Determined from experiments on three fibres which were 
heated and vibrated in a special and rather elaborate piece of 
apparatus. In order to overcome an experimental difficulty, a 
method of soldering quartz to brass was devised, depending on 
the coating of the quartz with platinum. This datum gives the 
co-efficient of increase of torsional rigidity of any cylindrical fibre, 
and is the number which must determine the amount of tempera- 
ture correction to be used in any instrument in which quartz 
fibres are employed. The co-efficient ^=-00013307 between 
22° and 98° C 

(5.) The coefficient of expansion of fused quartz was got from 
an experiment on about 14 grammes of fused quartz, by Matheson's 
method of weighing in water at different temperatures. The 
results were such as to show that the expansion of sticks of fused 
quartz is very irregular. The most probable value over the range 
30°- — 100° is a^ ='0000017 (co-efficient of linear expansion). 

(6.) Young's modulus was got by bending a thread of quartz, 
supported at each end on a knife edge, by a platinum wire rider. 
Several experiments agreeing very well gave M = 5.178 x 10" 
C.G.S. Which in combination with the result (2) gave. 

(7.) Bulk modulus or resilience K= 1-435 x 10" C.G.S. 

(8.) The tests as to torsional fatigue and nachwirkung were 
made in the usual way, and showed that no fatigue is to be 
apprehended in any experimental use to which quartz fibres are 
likely to be put. As to nachwirkung, the usual symptoms were 



PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 365 

produced when the intensity of twist rose beyond a certain 
point. From the experiments it is deduced that a good margin 
for safety will be left if a fibre "01 cm. in diameter is not twisted 
at a greater rate than one-third complete turn per centimeter, 
and in other fibres at a rate simply inversely as the diameter. 
The claims of quartz fibres for suspension purposes are established 
beyond criticism by the above researches. 

Note. — Further experiments have shown that the tempera- 
tive coefficient of total torsional rigidity is more nearly -00012 
than '00013 ; also that the amount of nachwirkunk exhibited 
appears to depend on the thickness of the threads in a manner 
probably related to their rate of cooling during manufacture. 



2.— CLOUD OBSERVATIONS. 
By W. W. CuLCHETH, M.Inst. C.E. 



3.— SOME REMARKS ON THE TEACHING OF ELE- 
MENTARY MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

By Rev. W. L. Bowditch, M.A. 



4.— NOTE ON THE EULERIAN EQUATIONS OF 
HYDRODYNAMICS. 

By Alexander McAulay, M.A. 

Mr. Larmor (Proc. Loti. Math. Soc, March, 1884) has from 
general dynamical principles deduced the Lagrangian equations 
of hydrodynamics by the principle 

f{8Z + ^Q8^)dt=o (1). 

[Z the Lagrangian function of a system, ^ a co-ordinate, Q the 
external force corresponding to ^; the initial and final positions 
and times of the motion, invariable.] We may, by considering any 
finite portion of a fluid, deduce the Eulerian equations, and also 
the fact that the stress is a hydrostatic pressure. Here by 2^. fluid 
is understood a substance, the potential energy due to whose 
strain is a function of the density only. For the finite portion 
we have with usual notation 



366 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 

L=ffJ\\{tf + '-J-Vw')-V-f{p))pds (2) 

where /(p) is the potential energy per unit mass due to strain 
and ^j- is an element of volume. Eq. (1) gives 

fdt{lL+ffJ\iX+-qY^tZ)pds^Sf{^ip,+-r]P,-Vip,)dS-) (3) 
where {$,-q,t,) is the virtual displacement, (X, Y, Z) au external 
bodily force independent of V, and (/i.A./s) the stress per unit 
surface at the boundary. If by means of the displacement the 
point would move from J^ to /" and if J^ be the value of any 
quantity at J^ before displacement, J^ + 8 J^ will be supposed to 
mean the value at /" after displacement. Thus 8 ( p d s) = o, S u = h 
Hence, 

where /^ stands for dfjdp and where (I, vi, n) are the direction 
cosines of the normal outwards. From equation (3) we obtain 
the surface equations 

(say), shewing that the stress is a hydrostatic pressure of 
magnitude p _/' ; and the volume equations 

''^d^ + 'odx-^=' ^^^' 

and two similar ones. 

Notice that p^f^ = / gives /= -fp dv" where v" is the volume 
of unit mass. This is the ordinary expression for the potential 
energy of strain per unit mass. 



5.— ON THE DESIGNING OF TRANSIT 
INSTRUMENTS. 

By Professor Kernot, M.A., C.E. 

The transit instrument is an appliance of cardinal importance to 
the astronomer. By its means he determines the relative positions 
of the heavenly bodies, and upon the accuracy of its indications 
all his calculated results depend. It is therefore of the utmost 
importance that this instrument should be in every respect as 
perfect as it can be made. 

The transit instrument consists of a telescope attached at right 
angles to an axis, which latter is provided with a graduated circle, 



PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 367 

and supported upou two bearings. For its proper performance it 
is necessary that the axis be placed horizontal and truly east and 
west, that the line of coUimation of the telescope be exactly at 
right angles to the axis, and that the circle give a definite and 
known reading when the line of collimation is horizontal. That 
these conditions may be always complied with, it is desii'able that 
all parts of the instrument be rigid, or, in other words, remain 
invariable in form. Now, a rigid substance, though often 
postulated by lecturers on physics, does not exist in nature. All 
known solid materials are more or less elastic, and change their 
form to a greater or less extent. Thus the telescope of the transit 
instrument may be straight when vertical, but when placed in a 
horizontal position the ends will droop, and this effect will take 
place, though to a less degree, in positions intermediate to the 
horizontal and vertical. Similarly, the axis will droop, but its 
flexure will be the same, provided the material is homogeneous in 
all positions of the telescope. 

Now, did both ends of the telescope and axis bend equally, no 
harm would be done, as the effect of flexure would simply 
move the line of collimation to a position parallel to and a 
minute distance from that which it would occupy were there no 
flexure. Unfortunately, however, this equality or symmetry of 
flexure does not appear to exist; hence, errors arise, and the 
performance of the instrument is impaired. 

In all transit instruments known to us, the telescope tube is 
of circular section, consisting of two slightly conical portions 
united by a central cube, or sphere, and the axis consists of two 
other conical parts. Now, this section is suitable for a beam 
exposed to bending moments equally in the direction of all its 
diameters, but is totally unsuitable to the case in point, in which 
the bending moment is all in one plane, that in which gravity 
acts. What would be thought of an engineer who employed a 
circular tube as a girder for a bridge 1 Why, he would be an 
object of ridicule to the whole profession. The transit telescope, 
equally with the bridge-girder, is a beam always flexed in the 
same plane, and, in the interests of both strength and rigidity, 
should be made so that its cross section has as large a moment of 
inertia as possible about its central axis. In this respect ic|. 
differs essentially from the telescope of an equatorial, upon which 
gravity may act in any plane. The section, then, of a transit 
telescope should be rectangular instead of circular, and the bulk 
of the material should be concentrated in the top and bottom, 
the sides being as thin as practical considerations permit. The 
best depth of the beam or tube cannot, I think, be determined by 
the methods of maxima and minima, but will be as great as 
practical conditions allow, as the flexure of a beam made as 
described varies inversely as the depth. In side elevation the 
tube will have the form of a lozenge, the greatest depth being at 



368 PROCEEDINGS OP SECTION A. 

the centre, whence it diminishes uniformly to each end, when it 
need be no greater than is necessary to accommodate the optical 
apparatus. 

The axis may remain a double cone as at present, but preferably 
enlarged in diameter at its centi'e, whereby flexure will be 
reduced. 



to 



6.— FURTHER INVESTIGATIONS ON THE LAWS OF 
MOLECULAR FORCE. 

By William Sutherland, M.A., B.Sc. 

{Abstract^ 

In this paper the author gave a brief sketch of the methods and 
results of his researches during the past year on the subject of 
molecular force. The most important point in the theory of 
molecular force is the establishment of the characteristic equation 
for fluids on the model of Clausius's equation of the Virial — 
%.pv - 2 i ?« V~ - \-\^% Fr., where F is the force between two 
molecules at distance r apart. According to a law of force 
3 A vi' j r* between two molecules of mass m, ^22 Fr the internal 
virial must vary inversely as the volume. In agreement with 
this, the equation for the elementary gases and methane is 
from Amagat's experiments proved down to the critical volume 

be pv = RT\^ l+^i{v-~) I -- where//z;isf-|2:Si^rfor 

unit mass of gas. But in the case of compound gases a different 
form is, from Ramsay and Young's experiments on ethyl oxide 
and Amagat's on carbonic dioxide, proved to hold down to the 

/ 2 k \ I 
critical volume pv = RT \\-^ r - — , which is indirectly 

proved to apply to the great majority of compounds, the most 
prominent exceptions being the alcohols and water, ethylene and 
bodies such as acetic acid and nitric peroxide, which have been 
shown to contain double molecules. The most notable point 
about this equation for compounds is that the form I j {v + k) for 
the internal virial holds down to volume v = k, at which it 
becomes // 2 k, and below which it becomes // 2 v. Hence, below 
a certain volume, k, the internal virial for compounds varies 
inversely as the volume, as the law of the inverse fourth power 
requires, but above the volume k the form I j {v + k) would seem 
to be in contradiction to that law, only that the author is able to 
show that this form is due to the pairing of molecules in com- 
pound gases, the virial constant for the free molecules being /, 



PROCEEDIXGS OF SECTION A. 369 

and that for the j^airs being // 2, so that when the volume k is 
reached all the molecules are paired, and then through the whole 
range of liquid volume the pairs behave as single molecules in 
the matter of molecular force. These equations apply down to 
the critical volume ; in the case of the elements and methane the 
critical volume pressure and temperature are given by the con 

Aitions, dp jdv = o d- PI dv' = o, svhence i\ =—,T^ = IQ/ /27 Ji k 
p^ = iljll k\ At the critical volume i? | 1+ _ /(j;--) I 

o p 

becomes — -- and the form established below the critical volume is 

■^ R T f ^ , V, -V . I ^ . , - . 

pv= — r ( 1 + /'' — — I - - in the case or compounds the 

condition d'pjdv' = <? is not a possible one, and the critical 

Ik 
values are given by dp j dv = o and v, = — whence T^ = 120 // 

409 R k,p^ = 36 //409 ^ . By means of Ramsay and Young's data 
for ethyl oxide, the general form pv= — -- — (\-\ — - ' \ 

— r — is established for compounds below the volume k, while 
2 V 

between k and ~ kj'o the form is / z; = "— rz — ( 1 + -— '- ) 

lo ^ jB V - [i ' 

I 

Thus equipped with equations covering the whole 



V ■\- k 

of the present experimental range of fluidity, one can proceed 
to applications too numerous to detail in an abstract ; thus it 
is possible to amend to a more accurate statement Van der 
Waals' generalisation that, if volume pressure and temperature 
for any substance be expressed in terms of its critical values, 
as units, then one and the same law applies to all fluids. 
The more accurate statement is that above the critical volume 
the elements and methane follow the same law, while compounds 
with the previously mentioned exceptions follow another law, the 
same for all compounds, but difi'erent from that for elements. 
Below the critical volume these statements are not strictly but 
only approximately true. With these equations there are five 
main methods of finding values of the viiial constant / from 
available data. The first is from extended enough observations 
on the compression and expansion of bodies as gases ; the second 
from one measurement of the co-efficient of expansion a and of the 
compressibility /x, at temperature T of the body as a liquid 



370 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 

accordino: to the relation /= # iv,, - + ~ J^]v T the third from 



IX. 26 

/-^3 ^ p 
the latent heat X- according to the relation J L = / T -~^ d v 

which, with appropriate reduction and approximation, gives 
M 1 1 Vi =66 "5 J/X.-101 Tf, in terms of the megadyiie, gramme 
and centimetre, where M is the molecular weight and T^ the 
boiling point (counted of course from absolute zero) X. being 
measured in calories ; the fourth from the equations given for 
T: and /„ whence /= 409 R' T^j 400 /, The fifth method depends 
on results already established [Phii. Alai^.. July, 1887, and 
April, 1889), that the internal virial is 3 tt .4 p log L j a, so that, 
for compound liquids, / = i tt A log L j a where L j a is a ratio 
which is constant and the same for all compounds ; and that the 
surface tension ;!^ is given by ;>( = tt p^ Ae / (2 + v' 2) where e is 
like a a quantity nearly equal to the mean distance apart of the 
molecules, from these we get / = c x'V^ I Ms where ^ is a constant 
whose value can be found. To get comj^arable values for different 
bodies we must measure ;)( and v always at the same fraction of 
the critical temperature. These methods enable us to calculate 
values of / for a large number of bodies ; the following are three 
illustrative samples of the agreement of the different methods : — 

Fifth 

26-9 I Values of J/' in terms 
36"8 > of megamegadyne, 
43 "8 ) gramme and an. 

Agreement such as this in a large number of cases constitutes 
the veritication of the theory so far unfolded. In s- eking for the 
law that connects the virial constant / of a compound with its 
chemical composition, it proved advantageous to multiply / by 
M~, and it was then found that J/V = 66" + •666'" where S is 
called the dynic equivalent of the compound and is defined as the 
number of CH^ groups in the normal paraffin which exerts the 
same molecular force as the compound; 6' is the sum of the dynic 
equivalents of the radicals in the compound. The following are 
the values of the dynic equivalents for several radicals, along 
with their molecular refractions in terms of that for CZ^ as unity 

CM, c H CO" a a nh, cn 

Dynic equivalent 1 -57 •215 1-9 -6 1-23 r35 
Molecular refraction 1 54 -23 1-4 -35 M2 M8 

NO, CNS S' C\ Br I 

Dynic equivalent 2-2 2-85 1^6 1^3 1^6 2-3 

Molecular refraction 2^2 3^0 Vl 1-3 2^0 3^1 



Method Second 


Third 


Fourth 


CS, 26-5 


25^7 


27-2 


CHC\ 330 


38^2 


36-1 


C,H, 40-0 


43^1 


42^7 



PROCEEDINGS OP SECTION A. 371 

The significance of the parallelism in the values of these two 
quantities cannot be discussed in this abstract. The law of / has 
thus been found, and as / is proportional to A, we have the law of 
Am^ in ^Am^ jr* the expression for molecular force. 

In extending the theory to inorganic bodies with data at 
present available it is necessary to construct a theory of the 
capillarity and compressibility of solutions ; this is successfully 
done with the unfolding of some interesting results in the 
process, and the same parallelism between dynic equivalent and 
molecular refraction is again established for a large number of 
elements. Many matters are treated of in the full investigation 
which cannot be touched on in this abstract. 



7.— REMARKS ON THE ARRANGEMENT OF A 
GALVANOMETER. 

By E. F. J. Love, M.A., Fellow of Queen's College, Melboui-ne, 

and Assistant Lecturer and Demonstrator in Natural Philosophy 

to the University. 

[Abstract.'] 

The author of this paper described a ballistic galvanometer, the 
suspension and mounting of which offered some peculiarities. 
The suspended system of magnets was made as nearly astatic as 
possible, and the restoring force was supplied by the torsional 
rigidity of the suspending fibre. For the latter, the author 
employed dark human hair, of suitable length, mounted in its 
natural state without cleansing. This substance he found to 
possess very perfect torsional rigidity, and to be nearly free from 
"elastische nachwirkung." It was recommended that all 
delicately-suspended apparatus should be mounted on india-rubber 
pillars, of height equal to their diameter, as such a mounting 
almost completely insulates the apparatus from external 
disturbance, and, at the same time, rapidly takes up and damps 
vibrations actually set up within the instrument. The paper 
further contained a comparison of the merits of Gauss's method 
of observing by means of telescope and scale with those of Sir 
W. Thomson's lamp and scale method, the conclusion being 
strongly in favour of the former for absolute measures of angle, 
and concluded by describing a simple method of constructing 
circular scales. 



-AIDS TO CALCULATION. 
By J. J. Fenton. 



x2 



Section B. 
CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY. 

President oj the Section : Professor E. H. Rennie, Af.A., D.Sc, 
University of Adelaide. 



1.— ON AN APPLICATION OF CHEMICAL CONTROL 
TO A MANUFACTURING BUSINESS. 

By Ed. W. Knox. 

As there ai'e still doubts in many minds about the money value 
of scientific aid in practical work, I have thought that some 
interest might be taken in a short account of a purely commercial 
application of chemical science to a manufacturing business — 
an application, I think, unique in its completeness as far as 
Australasia is concerned, though in Euroj)e many better examples 
might easily be found, but few, if any, where the staff of experts 
is so large or the work done so wide in its scope. 

The business I speak of is that of the company known as the 
Sugar Company, which is largely interested in the manufacture 
and refining of sugar in five of the colonies of the Australasian 
group. Having entered the service of this company twenty-five 
years ago, and having since passed through all its grades, I can 
speak with some authority of its transactions ; but as I have not 
enjoyed any training in science, I will deal with the subject on 
which I am to address you merely from the point of view of one 
concerned with the results alone. 

About ten years since we were led by the great attention then 
being paid to chemical research in connection with the beet-sugar 
industry to commence such investigations into our mode of work. 
We did not know clearly what was wanted, nor did the man we 
engaged, so the first start was not a success ; but it showed us 
we were on the right track, and we accordingly engaged in 
Scotland a refinery chemist, and a year later two beet-sugar 
chemists in Germany, and began the systematic check on our 
working. Of these gentlemen, the former is now our head 
chemist (Mr. T. U. Walton, B.Sc, F.LC, F.C.S.), and one of the 
latter our inspecting chemist (Dr. Gustav Kottmann, Ph.D.) ; 
and it is to the patience and industry of these two gentlemen, and 
to the system they introduced, that much of the success we have 



PROCEEDINGS OF SECTIOX B. 373 

achieved is clue. The chemical staff then fast increased in numbers, 
but it was not till I visited Europe in '85 and saw there to what 
an extent the supervision of industrial work was passing into the 
hands of those having chemical knowledge that any large portion 
of the practical work was entrusted to members of our chemical 
staff. I sought, however, authority for such a change, and during 
the past two or three years have gradually, as chances offered, 
transferred to men who were trained chemists or analysts, the 
management of a lai'ge part of our manufacturing operations. 

The method adopted now is as follows : — There is a central 
laboratory in Sydney, where the head chemist is stationed. Here 
five or six officers, including juniors receiving elementary training, 
are always at work, and to this centre all the returns from each 
factory are forwarded weekly. At each sugar-mill and refinery 
(nine and three respectively) there are employed a chemist or 
analyst, and one or more juniors or assistants — not counting the 
officers who may be engaged in overlooking the manufacture — 
and each of these analysts is responsible for the chemical 
investigations to be carried out at his station. At the mills 
these comprise : — 

1. Analysis of the sugar-cane as received 

2. ,, ,, juice expressed 

3. ,, ,, megass or crushed cane after the juice 

has been removed 

4. ,, ,, clarified juice 

5. ,, ,, ,, ,, after it has been boiled down 

6. ,, ,, massecuite from the pans 

7. ,, ,, sugar and molasses 

8. ,, ,, coal 

and in addition a record is kept of the work done, and each week 
a statement is prepared which shows the quantity of cane crushed 
and sugar produced. The work, of coui'se, is so arranged that 
the more important analyses which determine the amount of 
sugar lost in the various processes are made frequently, and those 
of smaller moment as time permits. 

At the retinei'ies the sugar is all sampled and analysed according 
to the various brands on being landed from the ships, and it is 
stowed so that it can be procured as wanted. Each day's melting 
is again analysed, and the weekly averages of all sugars and syrup 
produced. There is also a careful examination made of the bone- 
black used for filtering, to determine if this has been rightly 
re-burned, and full analyses of this also are made from time to 
time. The records of the work are prepared on different lines 
from those for the mills, but there is a similar check, and 
occasional investigations have also to be made into other points 
connected with the refinery work. 



374 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION B. 

At the end of each quarter for the refinery, and of each 
crushing season at the mills, the weekly returns which have been 
prepared are summarised and tabulated, and careful comparison 
made between the results at the various factories, improvements 
effected or new methods suggested being brought under the 
notice of the leading officers, as are also the occasional short- 
comings relentlessly exposed by the figures recorded. The refinery 
returns are all under the charge of the head chemist, the mill 
returns under that of the inspecting chemist ; and the whole of 
them are made out in such a way that the administrative heads 
of the different departments — who, as a rule, know nothing of 
chemistry- — can grasp the main features very easily, and then at 
once deal with any matters which call for attention or explanation. 
All the work in connection with sugar is carried out by the aid 
of the polariscope, and indeed could hardly be done without this 
instrument, which has been devised to make a practical applica- 
tion of the property that a solution of sugar has of altering the 
character of polarised light allowed to shine through it. The 
degree of change thus experienced by the i-ays of light is in exact 
proportion to the quantity of sugar present in the solution, and 
when measured by suitable prisms the amount of sugar thus 
becomes known. This apparatus is the outcome of a long series 
of experiments and discoveries commenced nearly seventy years 
ago, and it serves well to illustrate the dependence of practical 
work on purely scientific enquiry conducted for the acquisition of 
knowledge, and in this instance, I think, without thought of 
personal gain. 

So far I have spoken altogether of the manufacturing work, 
but I should here state that we have now also taken the chemical 
staff into our counsel in regard to the cultivation of the cane 
grown on our own plantations, at present about 14,000 or 15,000 
acres. In past years we have not availed ourselves to any extent of 
the assistance of the chemists in this department, partly because 
we were working virgin land, and partly because, till a 
short time ago, nearly the whole of our supply of cane — -and 
still a large proportion — was grown by others and sold to us when 
cut. However, the partial exhaustion of our lands and the 
necessity for applying manure, the desirability for improving the 
present canes and for introducing new varieties, and some little 
trouble with diseases in the canes, compelled us to seek the aid of 
our chemical staff in this branch also, and we are now carrying 
out an elaborate investigation into the composition of the soils of 
our various estates ; and, under the supervision of the chemists, 
a vast number of trials in the special cane nurseries established 
by us two or three years ago, and in the fields with manure of 
various compositions applied in different ways, and with irrigation 
and many systems of planting. From all these experiments we 
shall, in the course of time, derive much benefit ; but though there 



PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION B. 375 

can be little doubt that, by careful selection of cane and manures, 
we can increase considerably the production of sugar per acre, 
still we can hardly hope that there can, in a short time, be any 
improvement in the sweetness of the cane at all corresponding 
with that obtained in Europe in a few years in beet-roots. Sugar- 
cane is one of those grasses which has been hitherto believed not 
to produce fertile seed, and as propagation is therefore effected by 
planting cuttings, no one has attempted to produce by selection 
of seed — as is done with the beet — that marked increase in 
saccharine contents which is so much desired ; and any advance 
in this direction, if actually obtained at all by continually planting 
the sweetest canes, can only be made by slow and painful steps. 
Fertile seeds have, however, been lately found by scientific 
observers in the West Indies and in Java, and as their success 
in raising plants from such seeds will be emulated by hundreds 
of planters all over the world, it seems possible that we may now 
be on the threshold of an important change in our methods of 
propagating cane, and that we may have grounds for hoping that, 
in the early future, Ave may bring about a sensible improvement 
in the sweetness of sugar-cane, which has not, so far as our know- 
ledge extends, been as yet inci'eased, even if it has not, in some 
countries, been diminished by the use of immature stalks for 
cuttings and by careless cultivation. To what extent the beet 
has been improved can be gathered from the fact that, during 
the last twenty-live years, its sweetness has been practically 
doubled, and that nearly 20 per cent, of pure sugar in the picked 
beets is not unusual, this increase being obtained by extreme cai'e 
in the cultivation and manuring, but principally by the special 
selection of sweet beets for seeding, thus following the same line 
as that pursued by Mr. Hallett when raising the celebrated 
pedigree wheat, which attracted so much notice a good many 
years ago. 

A good deal of attention is also paid by the chemists to the 
saving of what are usually called waste products. These play an 
important part in the manufacture of sugar from the cane. The 
crushed cane, after the obtainable sugar has l^een extracted, is 
used for firing the boilers, and thus furnishes a very large 
proportion of the fuel needed for working the factory ; and this, 
too, serves a second purpose, as the ashes from it contain a good 
deal of potash and other fertilising substances which are needed 
for application to the fields from which the cane has been taken. 
Then, again, at all our factories, the water driven off the juice of 
the cane while this is being boiled down is caught and used for 
watering the megass before it goes to the second mill and for 
other purposes ; and at our New South "Wales mills, where fresh 
water cannot be obtained, it is fed into the boilers, which are 
thus both fed and fired with parts of the cane we buy. There is, 
however, one waste product for which yet but little use has been 



376 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION B. 

made : this is molasses, of which we make about 5000 to 
7000 tons a year. Of this quantity we distil nearly half, and 
sell a small proportion for other purposes ; but the balance is put 
on the fields as manure, or thrown away. As it contains about 
40 per cent, cane sugar and from 10 to 20 per cent, glucose or 
grape sugar, it is a matei'ial of the greatest value for feeding 
stock ; but so far we have not found it possible to make arrange- 
ments for disposing of it in any quantity. In the refineries, also, 
we effect some savings from the by-products by recovering 
sulphate of ammonia from the bones we distil for making the 
filtering charcoal, and the spent charcoal itself is converted into 
sui^erphosphate, the thi^ee impoi'tant components of cane manure — 
ammonia, phosphoric acid, and potash- — being, to a certain extent, 
provided by the waste material of our own business. 

It could not be expected that changes in our methods, such as 
have been here alluded to, and the general adoption of chemical 
control, could be carried out without some friction. Among 
even the strongest and most intelligent of our officers there was 
at first a hardly-concealed scorn for the new-fangled notions and 
distrust of the chemists' work ; but these have now entirely 
disappeared, and in every direction their reports are, as a rule, 
accepted without question, and with confidence in their fairness 
and accuracy ; and the help of the chemists is sought in many 
ways — here by a manager who wants to check waste in some 
branch of the manufacture, there by an agricultural overseer who 
wishes an analysis of the water he is using for irrigation, or 
advice as to the proportion of manure to apply to a field, or, 
again, by an engineer who asks for an analj'sis of the coal he 
uses or of the gases from a boiler flue, in order that he may know 
if the setting of the boilers and the arrangement of the fire-bars 
are those most conducive to the economic combustion of coal. 

Having thus briefly sketched our system, I may say a few 
words about the financial results ; and first, as to our expenditure, 
would state that we are now paying to the chemical staff" and 
to those officers charged with the control of jDart of the manu- 
facturing business who possess a knowledge of chemistry, and 
have been chosen for those posts in consequence, some £8000 to 
£9000 a year in the shape of salaries and allowances for board, 
itc. There may be some doubt how we can be repaid for such 
expenditure, but any douljts on this point I do not in the 
remotest degree share. It would be almost impossible, even if it 
Avere necessary, for me to state exactly what is the value of the 
savings we have to set against such an expenditure ; but among 
those in whose hands the general control of our business is placed 
there is not a second opinion as to the money advantage of the 
chemical check ; and when I say that saving lOlbs. or 121bs. of 
sugar from each ton of cane — say 5 per cent, of the weight of the 
cane — means to us £15,000 to £20,000 a yeai', and that an 



PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION B. 377 

improvement in the colour of our refined sugar, which will bring 
us a few shillings per ton more for it, represents a similar sum, 
some-idea can be gained of the ground on which the chemical 
staff has to work and of the savings they can effect ; and I can 
add that some of the losses in our manufacturing business have 
by their aid been reduced by one-third during the past four 
years, and the extent of this saving can be guessed by the fact that 
in one year the entire losses of sugar at our mills amounted to 
14,000 tons, i.e., the cane we crushed contained 14,000 tons more 
sugar than we were able to turn into marketable sugar. From 
the sum of such loss it is easy to see that there are yet great 
possibilities in the manufacture of sugar from the cane, and in 
the cultivation of this crop much can still be done by manui'ing 
and thoi'ough culture, even if the sweetness of the cane be not 
increased, as before suggested. We know now that on one 
plantation in Java the entire crop of cane has contained in one 
year as much as 8 tons of sugar to the acre, the cane being al;>out 
twelve months old ; and when we bear in mind that the weight 
of an unusual crop of maize (80 bushels) is two tons, and that a 
40-bushel crop of wheat gives a total yield of one ton of grain 
and two tons of straw, some idea will be gained of the effect of 
tropical rain and sunshine in forming sugar in the cane when 
the circumstances are favourable and the cultivation and manui'ing 
are cai'efully done under skilled supervision. It will be seen, 
moreover, that sugar-cane occupies an exceptional position among 
other crops in the weight of marketable pi'oduce which can be 
extracted from it. 

And to the money benefits obtained by the chemical check we 
must add two more, both of considerable importance. The first 
is the great advantage of having in a large service like oui's a 
body of men of various ages trained in the knowledge that their 
work is useless unless it is carried out with patient thoroughness, 
accompanied by uncompromising truth-telling. No chemist worth, 
his salt dreams of concealing anything wrong or twisting his 
conclusions so as to hide defects in the work of himself and 
others, and it is surely of great value to have an example of this 
sort always before the younger as well as the older men. To 
those who fear to confess a mistake the certainty of its exposure 
acts as a useful tonic, while to all, from the top to the bottom 
of the staff", the example is wholesome. The second is the 
mental refreshment and the increased interest in the work due 
to the constant discussion of recorded facts and opinions, and of 
tlie experiments of the chemists. Speaking for myself, I can say 
tliat I have frequently found that energy flagging from the 
pressure of routine and other monotonous work has again been 
roused by interesting reports of experiments or suggestions as to 
changes in our methods ; and in the case of others, the constant 
competition between the officers, the chance-; offered in the 



378 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION B. 

interval between the seasons for independent research and the 
interchange of results, certainly produce healthful and useful 
interest in the work. 

Such is the record of our experiences, but I may, before con- 
cluding, answer two questions which are sometimes put to me. 
These are — '-How was such a staff got together," and "What 
education do you consider best for boys intended for chemical 
work." To the first I would say that the officers I have 
mentioned, as well as one Englishman, one Scotchman, and one 
German, were engaged in Europe and brought to Australia by 
us. The