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V. 




REPORT 



FIFTH MEETING 

OF THE 

Australasian Association for the 
Advancement of Science, 

HELD AT 

ADELAIDE, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, SEPTEMBER, 1893. 



Edited by : 
RALPH TATE, F.G.S., F.L.S. | I I • 

E. H. RENNIE, M.A., D.Sc. 
W. H. BRAGG, IVI.A. 






PUBLISHED BY THE ASSOCIATION. 



Permanent Office of the Association : 
THE UNIVERSITY, GLEBE, SYDNEY.^N.S.W. 



South Australia: 

C. E. BRISTOW, GoVERNilENT PRINTE 

North-terrace, Adelaide. 

1894. 



^4 



'i^'•^/ CONTENTS, 

Page. 

Objects and Rules of the Association . . . . . . . . . . x. 

Officers and CouncU, and Members of Committees . . . . . . xv. 

Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of Sections . . , . xvi. 

General Programme of the Meeting xvii. 

Extracts from the Minutes of the Meeting of the General Council, 

September 26th, 1893 xix. 

Extracts from the Minutes of the Meeting of the General Council, 

October 2nd, 1893 xxi. 

Committees of Investigation Appointed at the Meeting of General 

Council, October 2nd, 1893 xxi., xxii. 

Table showing Attendance and Receipts, and Sums paid on Account of 

Grants for Scientific Purposes . . . . . . . . . . xxiv. 

General Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for Adelaide Meeting xxv. 

Balance-sheet Seismological Committee . . . . . . . . . . xxvi. 

Donations to Library . . . . . . . . . . • . . • xxvii. 

PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESSES. 

Address by Professor Ralph Tate, F.G.S., F.L.S., President of the 

Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 

Address by H. C. Russell, C.M.G., B.A., F.R.S., President of 

Section A 70 

Address by C. N. Hake, F.C.S., F.I.C., President of Section B. . . 97 
Address by Sir James Hector, K.C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S., President 

of Section C 103 

Address by C. W. de Vis, M.A., President of Section D 104 

Address by A. C. MacDonald, F.R.G.S., President of Section E, . . 119 

Address by Rev. S. Ella, President of Section F. ,. .. .. 133 

Address by H. C. L. Anderson, M.A., President of Section G. .. 144 

Address by R. J. Scott, A.M.I.C.E., President of Section H. . . 16« 

Address by A. Mault, President of Section J. ,. .. .. .. 176 

Address by Professor Laurie, LL.D., President of Section J. . . 196 

REPORTS OF COMMITTEES. 

Report of Committee on Seismological Phenomena in Australasia . . 207 

Report of Committee on the Systematic Conduct by the various 
Governments of .Australia of the Photographic Work of the 

different Geological Surveys . . . . , , . . . . . . 226 

Progress Reports of the Committee upon the Evidences of Glacial 

Action in Australasia during the Tertiary and Post -Tertiary Eras 229 

Report of Committee on the Protection of Native iFauna , . . . 241 



28509 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECTIONS. 



Section A. 



ASTRONOMY, MATHEMATICS, AND PHYSICS. 

Page. 
1. On the Construction of Pendulum Apparatus for Differaitial Obser- 
vations of Gravity. By E. F. J. Love, M.A .243 

- -2. *t)n-«©ine Drawings, showing the Effect of the Length of a Solenoid 

on' the Form of its Equipotential Surfaces. By C. C. Farr, B.Sc. 243 

3. A Review of Meteorological "Work in Australia. By Sir C. Todd, 

K.C.M.G., M.A., F.R.S 246 

4. Some of the DiflBculties in making Exact Observations in Astronomy. 

By W. E. Cooke, M.A 270 

5. Earthquake Intensity in Australasia. By G. Hogben, M.A. .. 271 

6. Origin of Earthquake of January 27th, 1892 (Australia and 

Tasmania). ByG. Hogben, M.A 277 

7. The Tides of Port Adelaide. By R. W. Chapman, M.A., and 

Capt. Inglis 277 

8. The Application of Mathematics to Actuarial Science. By J. J. 

Stuckey, M.A 280 

9. An Azimuth Diagram. By Capt. "Weir . . . . . . . . 287 

10. On Stokes' Theorem. By G. Fleuri, Licencie-es-sciences Mathe- 

matiques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 

11. From Number to Quaternions. By G. Fleuri, Licencie-es-sciences 

Mathematiques . . . , . . . . . . . . . • 301 

12. On Measurements of Double Stars. By H. C. Russell, C.M.G., 302 

B.A., F.R.S 

13. The Thermo-electric Diagram. By W. H. Steele, M.A 302 

14. A Peculiar Thermo-electric Effect. By W. H. Steele, M.A. .. 305 



Section B. 

CHEMISTRY. 

1 . Notes on Determinations of Sugar in Samples of Musts of Victorian 
Wines. By "W. Percy Wilkinson (Government Analyst's 
Laboratory, Melbourne) . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 




V. 



2. Wet Treatment for Copper and Gold in Australia. 
LAND, M.A. . . 



On" Osmotic Pressure. By Pr(J?esso^ "Okme Masson 



4. The Experimental Investigation 6i Osmotic Pressure. By Pro- 

•e^ssor Orme Masson, M.A., D.-Sc., and J. B. Eirkland .. 316 

5. On Hyporiitrites. By D.'H. Jackson, M.A. , B.iSc. .. .. 316 

6. The Preparation of Hyponitrites from Ethyl Nitrite in Alcoholic 

Solutions. By D. Avery, B.Sc 320 

7. On the Interaction of Nitric Oxide and Sodium Amalgam in Presence 

of Alcohol. "By G.W. MacDonald, B.Sc. .. .. .. 322 

8. On the Origin of Moss Gold. By Professor Liversidge, M.A., 

F.E.S 324 

9. On the Condition of Gold in Quartz and Calcite Veins. By 

Professok Liversidge, M.A. , F.R.S 324 

10. On the Origin of Gold Nuggets. By Professor Liversidge, M.A,, 

F.R.S " 324 

11. On the Crvstallisation of 'Gold in Hexagonal Forms. By Professor 

Liversidge, M.A., F.R.S 324 

12. Gold Moire-Metallique. By Professor Liversidge, M. A., F.R.S. 325 

13. A Combination Laboratory Lamp, iRetort, and Filter Stand. By 

Professor Liversidge, M.A. , F.R.S. .. .. ,. .. 325 

14. Results of Analyses of some South Australian "Waters. By G. 

Goyder, Jun., F.C.S 325 

16. Note on the Determination of Nitrates in certain Waters. By 

Pkofessou Rennie, M.A., i).Sc., and E. F. Turner . . . . 325 

16. Preliminary Note on the Coloring Matter surrounding the Seeds of 

Lomatia ilicifolia. By Professor Rennie, M.A. , D.Sc. .. 326 

17. Notes from the Laboratory of the Wallaroo Smelting Works. By 

T. C. Cloud, F.C.S., and G. J. Rogers, A.R.S.M 326 

18. Remarks on the Fineness and Distribution of Gold in North Gipps- 

land. By Donald Clark . . . . . . . , . . . , 332 



Section C. 
GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY. 

1. Notes on the Macdonnell Ranges. By H. Y. L. Brown, F.G.S. . . 338 

2. The Age of certain Victorian Plant-bearing Beds. By G. B. 

Pritchard and T. S.Hall, M.A .338 

3. On the Occurrence of Foraminifera in the Permo-Carboniferous 

Rocks of Tasmania. By W. Howchin, F.G.S 344 

4. A Census of the Fossil Foraminifera of Australia. By W. Howchin, 

.F.G.S 348 



VI. 



Pagj 



5. On the Distribution of the Graptolitidfe in the Rocks of Castlemaine. 

By T. S. Hall, M.A 374 

6. The Glacial Deposits of Bacchus Marsh District. By Messrs. Geo. 

Sweet, F.G.S., and Charles C. Bkittlebank .. .. .. 376 

7. Evidences of Recent Glaciation in New South Wales. By E. J. 

Statham 389 

8. Notes on the Igneous Rocks of South-Western Victoria. By J. 

Dennant, F.G.S., F.C.S 389 

9. Notes on Volcanic Action in Eastern Australia. By Professok 

David, B.A., F.G.S 397 

10. The Systematic Application of Photography as an Aid in Making 

Geological Surveys. By E. P. Bishop .. .. 404 

11. On the Specific Gravity of some Gems. By Professor Liversidge, 

M.A., F.R.S 404 

12. Schedules for Testing and Describing Minerals. By Professor 

Liversidge, M.A., F.R.S 408 



Section D. 
BIOLOGY. 

1. Report on the Flora of the Lower Glenelg River. By P. Eckert, 

F.R.H.S 410 

2. Geographical Distribution of Queensland Lichens. By John 

Shirley, B.Sc 410 

3. Botanical Nomenclature, with Special Reference to Fungi. By D. 

McAlpixe . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . 414 

4. Summary of the Biological Results of the Elder Exploring Expedi- 

tion. By Professor Tate, F.G.S. 420 

5. Photomicrography as a Means of Illustrating Natural Objects. By 

W. B. Poole .. 420 

6. Fm-ther Notes on the Land Planarians of Tasmania and South 

Australia. By Professor A. Dendy, D.Sc. ., .. .. 420 

7. Eggs of the Australian Breeders of the Charadriidae, or Plovers, 

By A. J. Campbell, F.L.S 423 

8. Vernacular List of Birds. By Col. Legge, F.L.S 442 

9. Plea for a Rational Popular Nomenclature of Australian Plants. By 

M. Holtze, F.L.S 443 

10. Faunal Regions of Australia. By C. Hedley, F.L.S 444 

11. Importance of Ascertaining the Distribution of Australian Fauna. 

By Rev. Thomas Blackburn, B.A. . . . . . . . . 446 

12. Vernacular List of Birds. By A. J Campbell, F.L.S 451 



VII, 

Section E. 

GEOGRAPHY. 

Page. 

1. Physiography of South Gippsland, Victoria. By J. Stirling, F.G.S. 452 

2. The Fii-st Crossing of the Australian Continent by J. McDouall 

Stuart, with Notes and Reminiscences of the Exploration. 

By P. AuLU, a Member of the Party 467 

3. Geographical Nomenclature of South Australia. By Charles 

Hope Harris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468 

4. Fiji. By J. P. Thomson, M.A., C.E., &c ..496 

5. The Elder Exploration Expedition to Central Australia : its Geo- 

graphical Results. By James W. Jones, Conservator of Water, 
South Australia 496 

6. Letter from Mr. Charles Hedley, F.L.S. .. .. .. .. 496 



Section F. 
ETHNOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY. 

1. Smoke Signals of Australian Aborigines. By A. T. Magarey .. 498 

2. On the Need for more efficient Do -operation among Anthropologists 

over the Indian, Polynesian, and Australasian Eegions. By S. E. 
Peal, F.E.G.S. ' 513 

3. The Habits, Customs, Ceremonies, &c., of the Aboriginal Tribes on 

the Diameiitina, Herbert, and Eleanor Eivers, in East Central 
Australia. By Francis H. Wells ., .. .. . 515 

4. The Stone Implements of the Aborigines of South Australia. By 

W. HowcHiN, F.G.S ".522 

5. Notes on South Australian Physique and Mortality. By J. H. D. 

Davidson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523 

6. The Sm-vival of the Untittest. By H. K. Rusden 523 

7. Notes on the Omeo and Monaro Tribes. By E. Helms . . . . 524 

8. Notes on the so-called Wild Blacks of Popiltah. By A. F. Cudmore 524 



Section G. 
ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND AGRICULTURE. 

1. Deforestation in South Australia : its Causes and Probable Eesults. 

By W. Gill, Conservator of Forests . . . . . . . . 527 

2. The Physical Properties of the Constituents of the Soil. By J. G. 

Tepper, F.L.S " ..536 

3. Agricultmal Wealth. By W. Smitheks Gadd 536 



Page. 
4. Taxation: Current Fallacies. By R. M. Johnston, P.L.S., Govern- 
ment Statist of Tasmania . . . . , . . . . . . . 536 

6. The Proper Method of Levying a Land Tax. By C. W. Adams . . 536 

6. A Plea for an Intercolonial State Board of Horticulture. By A. 

MoLiNEux . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . 537 

7. Labor, Land, and -Revenue. By A. B. Biggs .. .. .. 539 

8. The Punishment of Criminals. By His Honor Mr. Justice 

BUNDEY 539 

9. Bimetallism. By D. Murray . . .. ,. .. .. .. 557 



Section H. 
ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE. 

Some Experiments on AVind Pressure. By Professor Kernot, 

M.A., C.E ". 573 

Comments on Mr. Sulman's Paper on " The Laying Out of Towns," 
read at the Melbourne Meeting, January, 1890. By the South 
Australian Institute of Surveyors 



3. The Practice of Road-making in South Australia. By 

Hargraves, M.I.C.E. 

4. A Standard Pressure Gauge. By C. W. Smith, A.M.I.C.E, 

5. End-loading of Sheep Trucks in South Australia. By J 

Moncrieff, M.I.C.E. 



C. T. 



C. B. 



587 
587 



588 

6. Transition Curves on Railways. By S. Smeaton, B.A., C.E. .. 591 

7. Photogrammetry, or the Application of Photography to the Deter- 

mination of Measurements in Plan and Perspective. By Charles 

Hope Harris.. .. .. .. ,. .. .. .. 595 

8. The Design of Turbines. By B. A. Smith, M.I.C.E 602 

9. An Architecture racy of the Soil. By M. F. Cavanagh, A R.I.B.A. 602 

10. A Means of Spreading Oil on the Sea. By Thomas Turnbull, 

A.I.M.E 602 

11. Water Tube Boilers. By J. T. Noble Anderson, C.E 603 

12. A New Form of Telnmeter, • By Geo. Knibbs, Lecturer on Sui'vey- 

ing at Sydney University .. .. .. .. .. .. 616 



Section I. 

SANITARY SCIENCE AND HYGIENE. 

1. Hospital Construction, embracing Position, Plans, Construction, and 
Materials. By C. E. Owen Smyth, Superintendent of Public 
Buildings, South Australia . . , . . . . . . . . . 621 



7X. 

Page. 

2. Character of South Australian Water Supply, embracing Analyses 

of Characteristic Potable Waters and their Bacteriological 
Examination. By G. A. Goyder, Jan., F.C.S G27 

3. Hospitals, as a Means of Spreading a Knowledge of Sanitary Laws 

and Hygiene. By Miss Xoble . . . . . . . . '642 

4. Artisan Dwellings, with Special Reference to the Climate and Social 

Conditions of South Australia. By A. H. Gault, M.R.C.S. . . 642 

5. Reasons for connecting the High Death Rate of Adelaide and the 

Increasing Unhealthiness of some of the Suburbs with Sewers 

and Sewer Gas. By Miss Martin., .. .. .. .. 642 

6. Notes on ISpimptera associated with Tuberculosis in Cattle. By Dr. 

Baknard and A. Park, M.R.C V.S 642 

7. Disposal of Town Refuse by Destruction. By J. A. Hardy . . 645 

8. A Note on the Construction of Hospital Wards. By John Sulman, 

F.R.I. B. A 646 

5. A Note on the Axial Lines of Hospital Wards. By John Sulman, 

F.R.I.B.A. .. 648 



Section J. 
MENTAL SCIENCE AND EDUCATION. 

3. The Training of Seconrlary Teachers. By P. Ansell Robin, M.A. 650 
'.;. Public Instruction and Public Defence. By John Shirley, B.Sc. 652 

3. The Appointment of a Joint Examining Board for the Universities 

of Australia. By Rev. Canon Poole, M.A. .. .. .. 655 

4. The Home Reading Union. By Mrs. Wolstenholme .. .. 661 

5. The Education of Australian Girls. By Mrs. Kelsey . . . . 661 

6. The Value of Technical Education to Artisans in the Building Trade. 

By Hii.LSON Beasley . . . , , . . . . . . . 663 

7. A Plea for Practical Education. By W. Catton Grasby .. .. 663 

8. Deaf Mute Education. By G. Watson ,, .. ... 663 

9. Ocular Education in Public Elementary Schools and its bearing on 

Society. By A. E. Mueller 663 

10. Some Methods of Education as Practised in the Primary Public 

Schools of South Australia. By M. M. Maughan .. .. 664 

11. Some Predilections of Pictorial and Decorative Art. By H. P. Gill 664 

12. Notes of Psychophysical Experiments. By E. F. J. Love, M.A. . . 664 

13. Simplification of Difficulties in connecting the Tonic Sol -Fa and the 

l> 



Old Notation. By W. A. Jones ., .. -^^"XC^y *<. ^^^ 




LI » R ft n Y ro) 



OBJECTS AND PLES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Carried at the Clii-istcliurcli Meeting in January, 1891, and Confirmed 
at tlie Hobart Meeting, January, 1892. 



OBJECTS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

The objects of the Association are to <i;ive a stronj^er impulse 
and a more systematic direction to scientific inquiry ; to promote 
the intercourse of those who cultivate vScience in different parts of 
the Australasian Colonies and in other countries ; to obtain more 
general attention to the objects of Science, and a removal of any 
disadvantages of a public kind which may impede its progress. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES. 

1. Members shall be elected by the Council; the annual sub- 
scription shall be £1, but after June 30th, 1895, members will be 
required to pay an entrance fee of £ I in addition. 

2. The annual subscriutiou shall be £l, due on the 1st July in 
each year. 

3. A member may at any time become a Life Member by one 
payment of £10, in lieu of future annual subscriptions. 

4. Members who fail to paj^ their subscriptions before the Annual 
Session of the Association cease to be members, but may rejoin by 
paying the entrance fee in addition to the annual subscription. 

5. The Local Committee may admit any person as an Associate 
for the year on the payment of £l. 

6. Associates are eligible to serve on the Local Reception 
Committee, but are not eligible to hold any other office, and they 
are not entitled to receive gratuitously the publications of the 
Association. 

7. Ladies' tickets (admitting the holders to the General and 
Sectional Meetings, as well as the Evening Entertainments) may 
be obtained by full Members, on payment of 5s. for each ticket. 
Ladies may also become either Members or Associates on the same 
terms as gentlemen. 



XI. 

SESSIONS. 

8. The Association shall meet in Session periodically for one week 
or longer. The place of meeting- shall be appointed by the Council 
two years in advance, and the an-angements for it shall be entrusted 
to the Local Committee. 

COUNCIL. 

9. There shall be a Council consisting of the following: — (1) 
Present and former Presidents. Vice-Presidents, Treasurers and 
Secretaries cf the Association; and present and former Presidents, 
Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the Sections. (2) Authors of 
Reports or of Papers published in extenso in the Annual Reports 
of the Association. 

10. The Council shall meet only durinij the Annual Meeting of 
the Association, and during that period shall be called together at 
least twice. 

LOCAL COMMITTEES. 

11. In the intervals between the Sessions of the Association its 
affairs shall be managed in the various colonies by Local Committees. 
The Local Committee of each colony shall consist of the members 
of Council resident in that colony. 

OFFICERS. 

12. The President, five Vice-Presidents (elected from amongst 
former Presidents), a General Treasurer, one or more General 
Secretaries and Local Secretaries, shall be appointed annually by the 
Council. 

13. The Governor of the colony in which the Session is held 
shall be ex officio a Vice-President. 

RECEPTION COMMITTEE. 

14. The Local Committee of the colony in which the Session is 
to be held shall form a Reception Committee, to assist in making 
arrangements for the reception and entertainment of the visitors. 
This Committee shall have power to add to its number. 

OFFICE. 

15. The permanent office of the Association shall be in Sydney. 

MONEY AFFAIRS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

16. The financial year shall end on the 30th June. 

17. All sums received for life subscriptions and for entrance fees 
shall be invested in the names of three Trustees appointed by the 
Council, and the interest only arising from such investment shall 
be applied to the uses of the Association. 



18. The subscriptions shall be collected by the Local Secretary 
in each colony, and by him forwarded to the General Treasurer. 

19. The Local Committees shall not have power to expend 
money without the authority of the Council, with the exception of 
the Local C^ommittee of the colony in which the next ensuing 
Session is to be held, which shall have power to expend money 
collected or otherwise obtained in that colony. Such disburse- 
ments shall be audited, and the balance-sheet and the surplus funds 
forwai-ded to the General Ti-easurer. 

20. All cheques shall be signed either by the General Treasurer 
and the General Secretary, or by the Local Treasurer and the 
Secretary of the colony in which the ensuing Session is to be held. 

21. Whenever the balance in the hands of the Banker shall ex- 
ceed the sum requisite for the probable or current expenses of tue 
Association, the Council shall invest the excess 4n the names of the 
Trustees. 

22. The whole of the accounts of the Association, i.e., the local 
as well as the general accounts, shall be audited annually by two 
Auditors appointed by the Council ; and the balance-sheet shall 
be submitted to the Council at its first meeting thereafter. 

MONEY GRANTS. 

23. Committees and individuals to whom grants of money have 
been entrusted are required to present to the following meeting a 
report of the progress which has been made, together with a state- 
ment of the svims which have been expended. Any balance shall 
be returned to the General Treasurer. 

24. In each committee the Secretary is the only person entitled 
to call on the Treasm-er for such portions of the sums granted as 
may from time to time be required. 

25. In grants of money to committees, or to individuals, the 
Association does not contemplate the payment of personal expenses 
to the members or to the individual. 

SECTIONS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

26. The following sections shall be constituted : — 

A. — Astronomy, Mathematics and Physics. 

B. — Chemistry. 

C.-^-Geology and Mineralogy. 

D. — Biology. 

E. — Geography. 

F. — Ethnology and Anthropology. 

G. — Economic Science and Agriculture. 

H. — Engineering and Architecture. 

7. — Sanitary Science and Hygiene. 

/. — Mental Science and Education. 



SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 

27. The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the 
several sections shall he nominated by the Local Committee of the 
colony in which the next ensuing Session of the Association is to 
be held, and shall haA'e power to act until their election is con- 
firmed by the Council. From the time of their nomination, which 
shall take place as soon as possible after the Session of the Asso- 
ciation, they shall be regarded as an Organising Committee, for 
the purpose of obtaining information upon papers likely to be sub- 
mitted to the sections, and for the general furtherance of the work 
of the Sectional Committees. The sectional Presidents of former 
years shrill be ex officio members of the Organising Committees. 

28. The Sectional Committee shall have power to add to their 
nimiber. 

29. The Committees for the several sections shall determine the 
acceptance of papers before the beginning of the Session. It is . 
therefore desirable, in order to give an opportunity to the Com- 
mittees of doing justice to the several communications, that each 
author shoidd prepare an abstract of his paper of a length suit- 
able for insertion in the published transactions of the Association, 
and that he should send it, together with the original paper, to the 
Secretary of the section before which it is to be read, so that it 
may reach him at least a fortnight before the Session. 

30. Members may communicate to the sections the papers of 
non-members. 

ol. The author of any paper is at liberty to reserve his right of 
properly therein. 

32. The Sectional Committees shall me^t at 2 p.m. on the first 
day of the Session in the rooms of their respective sections, and 
prepare the programmes for their sections and forward the same 
to the General Secretaries for publication. 

33. On the second and following days- the Sectional Committees 
shall meet at 10 a.m. 

34. No report, paper, or abstract shall be inserted in the annual 
volume unless it be handed to the Secretary before the conclusion 
of the Session. 

35. The Sectional Committees shall report to the Publication 
Committee what papers it is thought advisable to print. 

36. They shall also take into consideration any suggestions 
which may be off'ered for the advancement of Science. 

RESEARCH COMMITTEES. 

37. In recommending the appointment of Research Committees 
all members of such Committees shall be named, and one of them 
who has notified his willingness to accept the office shall be 
appointed to act as Secretary. The number of members appointed 
to serve on a Research Committee should be as small as is con- 



sistent with its efficient working. Individuals may be recommended 
to make reports. 

38. All recommendations adopted by Sectional Committees shall 
be forwarded without delay to the Recommendation Committee ; 
unless this is done, the recommendation cannot be considered by 
the Council. 

39. The President of each Section shall take the chair and pro- 
ceed with the business of the Section at 11 a.m. precisely. In 
the middle of the day an adjournment for luncheon shall be made ; 
and at 4 p.m. the sections shall close. 

40. At the close of each meeting the Sectional Secretaries shall 
correct, on a copy of the official journal, the lists 'of papers which 
have been read, and add to them those appointed to be read on 
the next day, and send the same to the General Secretaries for 
printing. 

RECOMMENDATION COMMITTEE. 

41. The Council, at its first meeting in each year, shall appoint a 
Committee of Recommendations to receive and consider the reports 
of the Research Committees appointed at the last Session, and the 
recommendations from Sectional Committees. The Recommendation 
Committee shall also report to the Council, at a subsequent meet- 
ing, the measures which they would advise to be adopted for the 
advancement of Science. 

42. All proposals for the appointment of Research Committees 
and for grants of money must be sent in through the Recommen- 
dation Committee. 

PUBLICATION COMMITTEE. 

43. The Council shall each year elect a Publication Committee, 
which shall receive the recommendation of the Sectional Com- 
mittees with regard to publication of papers, and decide finally 
upon the matter to be printed in the volume of Transactions. 

ALTERATION OF RULES. 

44. No alteration of the rules shall be made unless due notice 
of all such additions and alterations shall have been given at one 
Annual Meeting, and carried at a subsequent Annual Meeting of 
the Council. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1893. 



|.}vi;siir£nt : 
Professor Ralph Tate, F.G.S., F.L.S. 

H. C. Russell. C.M.G., B.A., F.R.S. Barox Ferd. von Mueller, K.C.M G., 
Ph.D., F.R.S. Sir James Hector, K C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S. Sir 
Robert Hamilton, K.C.B. The Right Honorable the Earl of 
KiNTORE, P.C, G.C.M.G. 

"Son, (&tmxul ©r^asuwr: 

H. C. Russell, C.M.G., B.A., F.R.S. 
Frederick Wright, Esq. 

Pen, ^mtxul ^uutnxm: 

Professor Liversidge, M.A., F.R.S. 
Professor Rennie, M.A., D.Sc. 
Professor Bragg, M.A. 



"^on, ^tcutmm for §: 

E. F. J. Love, M.A., Melbourne. 
J. Shirley, B.Sc, Brisbane. 
Professor Parker, B.Sc, F.R.S. 
A. Morton, F.L.S., Hobaht. 



jtx €donm: 



DuNEDiN, New Zealand. 




©rirmarg ^^m&^r.<5 of Comtril: 

The Council consists of the foUowino;: — (1) Present and former Presidents, 



Vice-Presidents, Treasurers, and Secretarie 
and former Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and 
(2) Authors of Reports or of Papers published h 
of the Association. 

^iiiritors : 
R. Teece, F.I. a. I R. G. Dallen 

^xmtttn : 

H. C. Russell, C.M.G., B.A., F.R.S. 

R. L. J. Ellery, F.R.S. 

Professor Liversidge, M.A , F.R.S. 



the Association ; and present 
Secretaries of the Sections. 
extenso in the Annual Reports 



^ublijcatioit (t^awxxaxiiu ; 



His Honor Chief Justice "Way, 

D.CL. 
Hon. Allan Campbell, M.L.C. 
Sir Samuel Davenport, K.C.M.G. 
Rev. W. R. Fletcher, M.A. 



Professor Lo-\vrie, B.Sc. 
A. B. Moncrieff, M.LC.E. 
The President. 
The General Secretaries. 





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GENEliAL PROGRAMME m THE MEETING. 



Monday, September 2oth, 1893. 

2 p.m. — Sectional Committees meet in their rooms. 

8 p.m. — Lecture in the Banqueting Room, Town Hall, on " Pre- 
historic Man," by E. C. Stirling, C.M.G., M.D,, F.R.S., Lecturer 
on Physiology, University of Adelaide, illustrated by a number of 
specially prepared lantern slides. 

Tuesday, September 26th, 1S93. 
11 a.m. — General Council meets at the University. 
3-30 p.m. — Reception by His Excellency the Earl of Kintore, 
P.C., G.C.M.G., in the Grounds of Government House. 
7-30 p.m. —President's Reception in the Town Hall. 
8 p.m. — Inaugural Meeting and President's Address. 

Wednesday, September 27th, 1893. 
10 a.m. — Sectional Committees meet. 

Presidential Addresses ivill be delivered as follows : — 
10-30 a.m.— Section A.— H. C. Russell, C.M.G., B.A., F.R.S. 

Section C. — Sir James Hector, K.C.M.G., M.I)., 

F.R.S. 
Section I. — A. Mault. 
11-30 a.m.— Section 1). — C. W. de Yis, M.A. 

Section H.— R. J. Scott, A.M.I.C E. 
Section J. — Professor Laurie, LL.D. 

2 p.m.— Section B.— C. N. Hake, F.C.S., F.I.C. 

Section E. — A. C. MacDonald, F.R.G.S. 

3 p.m. — Section F. — Rev. S. Ella. 

Section G. — H. C. L. Anderson, M.A. 
8 p.m. — Lecture in the Banqueting Room, Town Hall, by C 
W. DE Yis, M.A., Curator of the Brisbane Museum, on " Dipro- 
todou and its Times " 



Thursday, Septemher 28tli, 1893. 

10 a.m. — Sectional Committees meet. 

11 a.m. to 1 p.m. and 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. — Sections meet for work. 
8-30 p.m. — Mrs. Barr Smith, At Home, Torrens Park, 

Mitcham. 

Friday, Septemher 29th, 1893. 

10 a.m. — Sectional Committees meet. 

11 a.m. to 1 p.m. and 2 p m. to 4 p.m. — Sections meet for work. 
8 p.m. — Conversazione at the University, given by His Honor 

the Chief Justice, Chancellor of the University. 

Saturday, 8eptert%ber 30th, 1893. 

10 a.m. — Sectional Committee meet. 

11 a.m. to 1 p.m. — Sections meet for work. 
Excursions to Hallett's Cove and the National Park. 

Monday, October 2nd, 1893. 

10 a.m. — Sectional Committees meet. 

11 a.m. to 1 p.m. — Sections meet for work. 
2 p.m. — General Comicil meets. 

Tuesday, October 3rd, 1893. 
Excursions to Happy Valley, Broken Hill, and Murray River. 

N.B. — Luncheon and afternoon tea provided from Tuesday ,. 
September 26th, to Friday, September 29th, inclusive, in the Drill 
Shed, adjoining the University. 



MEETING OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL 

Tuesday, September 26tli, 1893. 

Extracts from the Minutes. 

The President, Professor Ralph Tate, F.G.S., F.L.S., in the 
chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting in Hobart were taken as read 
and confirmed. 

Mr. A. Morton moved — " That this Council confirm the action 
of the Local Committee in making all arrangements for the Adelaide 
meeting." He testified to the excellence of the work done by the 
Committee, especially by Professors Rennie and Bragg, the General 
Secretaries. 

Professor Laukie seconded the motion, which was carried. 

On the motion of Mr. A. Mault, seconded by Mr. C. W. de Vis, 
the election of the sectional officers was confirmed. 

The election of members was confirmed. 

Professor Liversidge, the Permanent Secretary, apologised for 
the absence of Mr. H. C. Russell, the Treasurer, who was unwell. 
The balance-sheet had been duly audited to September 5th, and 
showed that the funds were in a satisfactory state. They would be 
able to carry on satisfactorily, and as to the publication of the 
volume it was trusted that the South Australian Government would 
make a grant for that purpose. 

Professor Rennie stated that £500 had been placed on the 
Estimates on condition that the money was spent in printing at the 
Government Printing Office. 

Mr. Shirley, the Local Secretary for Brisbane, said when he left 
that city he had been charged with the duty of proposing the 
election of Sir Samuel Griffith, the Chief Justice of the colony, as 
President. Since his arrival in Adelaide he had received a telegram 
from the Hon. A. Norton, stating that Sir Samuel Griffith had 
withdrawn, and that the Hon. A. C. Gregory, CM. G., had consented 
to be nominated. He therefore moved — " That the Hon. A. C. 
Gregory be elected President." 

Mr. DE Vis seconded the motion, which was carried. 
Messrs. J. Shirley and C. W. de Vis were appointed General 
Local Secretaries, and the Hon. A. Norton Local Treasurer. 



The following were chosen Local Secretaries : — Victoria, Mr. 
E. F. J. Love ; New Zealand, Professor Parker ; Tasmania, Mr. 
A Morton ; South Australia, Professors Bragg and Rennie. 

Mr. Shirley moved — " That the Brisbane meeting be held in 
1895." 

Mr. DE Vis seconded the proposal, which was carried. 

Professor Liyersidge moved — " That the meeting be held in 
January." 

Mr. Love seconded the motion. 

Mr. Simpson moved — " That it be a recommendation to the Local 
Committee at Brisbane that the meeting be held in January." It 
would be better to leave an opportunity for change. 

Professor Laurie seconded the amendment. 

The motion was carried b}- a large majority. 

Professor Kernot moved — "That the meeting next following 
the Brisbane meeting be held in Sydney." 

Professor Warrex seconded the motion, which was carried. 

Sir Charles Todd moved, and Sir Samuel Daa^enport 
seconded, the election of the following officers : — Recommendation 
Committee — The President, General Treasurer, General Secretaries, 
Sir James Hector, Professors Kernot, Laurie, and Lyle, Dr. Stirling, 
Messrs. A. Mault, A. Morton, and C. W. de Vis; Publication 
Committee — The President, General Secretaries, the Chief Justice, 
Hon. A. Campbell, Sir S. Davenport, Rev. W. R. Fletcher, 
Professor Lowrie, and A. B. MoncrieflE ; Auditors — Messrs. R. 
A. Dallen and R. Teece. 

The motion v.'as carried. 

On the motion of Professor Rennie, it was decided that the rule 
as to the payment of subscriptions every year should be suspended. 
He also gave notice of motion for next meeting of his desire to 
alter the rule so as to provide that one payment might be made for 
every meeting. 

On the motion of Mr. A. Morton, seconded by Professor 
Rennie, it was decided to thank Professor Liversidge, who was 
leaving on Thursday, very heartily for his services as Permanent 
Hon. Secretary. 

Professor Liversidge replied, and the meeting closed. 






MEETING OF THE GENERAL fCUNCIL. 

Monday, October 3rd, 1893. 

Extracts from the Minutes. 

The President, Professor R. Tate, presided over a good atten- 
dance. 

Mr. A. C. Gregory telegraphed — " I have to express my appre- 
ciation of the honor conferred by the appointment as the President 
of the Brisbane meeting of the Association." 

Baron Von Mueller telegraphed — " Gratefully appreciate 
sympathy expressed by the Australasian Association. I offer the 
best felicitations at the splendid prospects of the Adelaide meeting, 
Avhich again will be of lasting prominence in the history of Aus- 
tralian Science." 

Professor Bragg moved — " That a committee be appointed to 
prepare a report on the present state of knowledge of the thermo- 
dynamics of the voltaic cell, consisting of Professor Lyle, Mr. 
W. H. Steele, and Mr. E. F. J. Love." 

The motion was carried. 

The Geological Section recommended — *' That the Committee 
on the systematic conduct of photographic work in geological 
surveying be re-elected, with the addition of Mr. James Stirling and 
Mr. Dennant." 

On the motion of Sir James Hector, the recommendation was 
approved. 

Sir James Hector moved — "That the Committee of investi- 
gation upon the evidences of glacial action in Australasia be 
reappointed, with the addition of Messrs. George Sweet, James 
Stirling, and W. Howchin as Local Secretary, and that a grant of 
£20 be made to this Committee, to be used for labor only in inves- 
tigating the glacial phenomena at Hallett's Cove." 

Mr. J. Stirling seconded the motion, which was carried. 

On the motion of Sir James Hector, seconded by Mr. A. 
Morton, it was resolved — "That a committee, consisting of Messrs. 
A. Montgomery, W. F. Ward, R. M. Johnson, F. Kayser, and 
F. W. Petterd, be appointed to prepare a census of the minerals of 
Tasmania." 



It was decided, on the motion of Mr. E. F. Love, to thank the 
Government of New Zealand for dedicating Resolution Island to 
the protection of native fauna. 

It was decided that the Publication Committee should be in- 
structed that such papers as had already been rejected by the 
Sectional Committees be not printed ; and, in other cases, publica- 
tion must be limited to such papers, or parts of papers, as contain 
original matter, or statistical matter not previously published, and 
are likely to maintain the reputation of the Association as a scien- 
tific body. 

The recommendations of the Committee appointed to report on 
the protection of native fauna were — on the motion of Sir James 
Hkctok, seconded by the Rev. W. R. Fletcher — approved, with 
the exception that it was considered undesirable to appoint a 
Standing Committee on the subject. It was also decided to appoint 
the following Local Committees to report on the vernacular names 
of Australian birds, instead of the Committee named in the report 
fsee Reports of Committees). — South and Western Australia — Dr. 
R. H. Perks, Messrs. A. Zietz and M. S. Clark. Tasmania — 
Cc>lonel Legge, Messrs. A. Morton, and the Rev. H. Atkinson. 
Victoria — Mr. A. J. Campbell and Professor W. B. Spencer, with 
power to add one. Queensland — Messrs. C. W. de Vis and 
Barnard, with power to add one. New Zealand — Sir James 
Hector, Captain Hutton, Prof essor T. J. Parker, and T. F. Cheese- 
man. New South Wales — Messrs. A. J. North, Masters, and 
'J'horpe; Dr. Stirling to act as General Secretary. The following 
were reappointed the Committee for the investigation of seismo- 
logical phenomena in Australasia, with a grant of £10, namely — 
Sir James Hector, Sir Charles Todd, Messrs. A. B. Biggs, R. L. 
J. Ellerj', and H. C. Russell, with Mr. Hogben as Secretary. 

On the motion of the Rev. W. R. Fletcher, it Avas decided — 
" That a committee be appointed to consider the best means of 
encouraging psychophysical and psychometrical investigation in 
Australasia, and that such committee consist of Professor Laurie. 
Messrs. E. F. J. Love, H. P. Gill, and J. A. Hartley, with power 
to add to their number. 

Professor Kernot moved — "That the best thanks of the Asso- 
ciation be offered to the Government of South Australia for their 
promise to place on the Estimates a sum of £500 for the printing 
of the volume of proceedings, and for free postage and free tele- 
grams m South Australia ; to the telegraph departments in the 
other colonies for similar concessions, and to the Eastern Extension 
Telegraph Company and Mr. Warren for the free use of the cable 
to Tasmania ; to His Worship the Mayor and the City Council for 
the use of the Town Hall and Banqueting Room ; to the Univer- 
sity Council for the use of the University Buildings ; to the Board 



of Governors of the Public Library for the use of rooms, and for 
providing free admission to the British Art Gallery, and to Mr. 
Lake, the manager ; to His Excellency the Governor, His Honor 
the Chief Justice, Mr. and Mrs. Barr Smith, His Worship the 
Mayor, Sir Charles and Lady Todd, Mr. W. A. Horn, the 
Enyineer-in-Chief, the President, and others, for kind hospitality 
extended to the members ; to the Railway Commissioners for all the 
colonies for concessions to members ti*avelling to Adelaide to 
attend the meetings ; to Professor Ives for his organ performance 
at the inaugural meeting ; to the auditors ; to The Advertiser 
and the S. A. Register for support given to the objects of the 
Association, and for the full and accurate reports they have given 
of its proceedings ; to Dr. Stirling and Mr. de Vis for their 
valuable lectures ; and to Mrs. Bragg and the ladies associated 
with her for arranging decorations. 

Mr. J. Stirling considered that the Sectional Secretaries 
deserved full credit for what they had done. 

Professor Kernot said thanks should also be given to Pro- 
fessors Rennie and Bragg. 

Mr. E. F. J. Love gave notice of motion for Hrisbane to the 
effect that the rule for fixing the time of the meeting at 11 a.m. 
should be rescinded, and that sections should be allowed to choose 
their own time of meeting. 

The Rev. W. R. Fletcher also gave notice of motion for the 
division of the section " Mental Science and Education " into 
two sections, one for Mental Science and the other for Education. 

The Council adjourned. 




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Sums 
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FOR 

Scientific 
Purposes. 


£ s. d. 

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30 


Amount 
Received 

UP TO AND 

during 
Meeting. 


£ s. d. 

858 8 

2,081 
785 13 7 
933 16 3 

*426 2 


Attended by 


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1,162 
550 
600 
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H. C. Russell, P A., F.R.S.... 

Baron von Mueller, IC.C.M G., 
F.R.S., Ph.D. 

Sir .Tames Hector, K.C.M.G, 
F.R.S. 

His Excellency Sir Robert G. 
C. Hamilton, K.C.B., LL.D. 

Ralph Tate, F.G.S., F.L.S.... 


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Sydney, New 
South Wales 

Melbourne, 
Victor a 

Christchurch, 
New Zealand 

Hobart, 
Tasmania 

Adelaide, 

South 
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ADDITIONS TO T^E LIBRARY OF W AUSTRALASIAN ASSO- 
CIATION FOR TRE ADVANCE1V[ENT OF SCIENCE. 



Donations from Jaiiiiaiy is/, 1892, /o November i^th, 1893, 
[The Names of the Donors are in Italios.] 



Albany,U.S.A. 



Baltimore 



Birmingham 



Bonn 



Geological Survey of South Australia : 

Further Geologifal Examinations of 
Leigh's Creek and Hergott Districts; 
also, Report upon a Shale Deposit in 
the Encounter Bay District, by the 
Government Geologist : also. Papers 
on South Australian Lower Silurian 
and Mesozoic Fossils. By R. Ethe- 
ridge, jun., F.G.S., &c., 1892_. 

Report on Country in the Neighbor- 
hood of Lake Eyre. By Mr. H. Y. 
L. Brown, 1892. 

Catalogue of South Australian Minerals, 
with the mines and other localities 
where found. 1893. 

On additional Silurian and Mesozoic 
Fossils from Central Australia. By 
R. Etheridge, jun., F.G.S. 

New York State Museum of Natural 
History : 
Bulletin, Vol. i., Nos. 1 to 6, 1887-8. 
" II., Nos. 7 to 10, 1889-90. 

I John Hopkins University : 
' Circulars, Vol. ix., Nos. 80-82. 
" *' X , Nos. 83-91. 

" M., Nos. 92-100. 

" XII., Nos. 101-107. 



Birmingham Philosophical Society 
Proceedings, Vol. viii., Part i., 
1891-2. 



Naturhistorischer Vereines der Preussi- 
schen Rheinlande, Westfalens und 
des Reg. — Bezirks Osnabriick : 
Verhandlungen, Jahrgang, xlix., Folge 
5, Band 9, Hiilfie 1. 2, 1892; Jahr- 
gang L., Folge 5, Band 10, Htilfte 1, 
1893. 



The Government 
Geologist 



The Regents 
The University 

The Society 
The Society 



XXVIII. 

Additions to the Library — continued. 



Bkemen 



Brisbane . . 



Cape Town . , 



Freiburg, 

Baden 



Geneva 

GORLITZ .... 
HoBART 

KiJNIGSBERG , . 

Leeds 

Marburg .... 

Melbourne . . 

Mexico 



Donors. 

Natm-wissenschaftlicherVerein zu Bremen. The Society 
Abhandlungen, Bande xii., Heft,. 1,2,3, 

1S91-3. 
Beilage zum, Bande xii., Heft. 1, 2, 3, 

1893. 

Eoyal Geographical Society of Austral- The Society 
asia (Queensland Branch) : 
Proceedings and Transactions, Vol. ii., 
1887, and Vol. in., Part 1, 1888; 
Vol. VII., Part 2, 1891-2 ; Vol. viii., 
1892-3. 
Natural History Society : The Society 

Eeport of Council and President's Ad- 
dress, 1892. 

South African Philosophical Society : The Society 

Transactions, Vol. VI., Parts 1,2, 1889-92. 

Naturforschende Gesellschaft : The Society 

Berichte, Band iv., Heft. 1-5, 1888-9. 
" " v., " 1-2, 1890-91. 

" " VI , " 1-4, 1891-2. 

SocieteHelveiiquedes Sciences Natiu-elles: The Society 
Compte rendu des Travaux, 74me Ses- 
sion, 1891. 
Actes, 74nie Session, 1891. 

Naturforschende Gesellschaft in Gorlitz : The Society 
Abhandlungen, Band 20, \i 

Royal Society of Tasmania : The Society 

Papers and Proceedings and Report for 
1891 and 1892. 

Konigliche Physikalisch - bkonomische The Society 
Gesellschaft, Schi-iften. Jahrgang 
XXXII., 1891. 

Philosophical and Literary Society : The Society 

Annual Report for 1891-2. 

Gesellschaft zur Beforderung der gesamm- Tlie Society 
ten Naturnissenschaf ten in Marbui'g : 
Sitzungsberichte, l891 und 1892. 

Royal Geographical Society of Australasia The Society 
(Victorian Branch) : 
Transactions, Vol. x., March, 1893. 

Sociedad Cientifica "Antonio Alzate" : The Society 

Memorias y Revista, Vol. v., Nos. 5-12, 
1891-2; Vol. VI., Nos. 1-6, 9-10, 
1892-3. 



XXIX. 

Additions to the Library — continued. 







Donors. 


Minneapolis . 


Minnesota Academy of Natural Sciences : 
Bulletin, Vol. iii., No. 2, 1891. 


The Academij 


Newcastle- 


North of England Institute of Mining and 


The Imtitute 


upon-Tyne 


Mechanical Engineers : 
Transactions, Vol. xl., 1890-91. 
• " XLI., 1891-2. 




Paris 


Societe d' Encouragement j^our 1' Industrie 
National e : 
Bulletin, 4 Serie, Tome vii., 1892: 

Tome VIII , Nos. 85 to 91, 1893. 
Annuaire, 1893. 


The Society 


Perth, W.A. . 


Census of Western Australia, April, 
1891. 


Walter A. Gale 


Pisa 


Societa Toscana di Scienze Naturali : 
Atti— Processi Verbali, Vol. viii., De- 
cember, 1892, to April, 1893. 


The Society 


Salem (Mass.) 


American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science : 
Proceedings, Fortieth Meeting, Wash- 
ington, U.C, 1891 
Proceedings. Forty -tirst Meeting, Eoch- 
ester, N.Y., 1892 


The Association 


Sydney .... 


Engineering Association of New South 
Wales : 
Proceedings, Vol. vi., 1890-91 


The Association 








" VII., 1891-2 




TOKIO 


Asiatic Society of Japan : 

Transactions, Vol. xviii., Parts 1,2, 1890 
" " XIX., " 1, 1891 
" XX., " 1, 2, 

1892-3 
Transactions, Vol. xx., Supplements 
Nos. 1, 2, 3, 5, 1892 


The Society 




Imperial University of Japan : 


The University 




Calendar for 189U-91, 1891-2 




TOKONTO 


Canadian Institute : 

Transactions, Vol. ii., Part 2, No. 4, 

April, 1892 
Transactions, Vol. in.. Part 1, No. 5, 

December, 1892 
Annual Archseological Report, Session 

1891 
An Appeal to the Canadian Institute on 

the Rectification of Parliament. By 

Sanford Fleming, C.M.G., LL.D. 


The Institute 



XXX. 

Additions in ilie Library — continued. 



Trieste 



Washington . 



Fbwkes, J. 
Walter 



Kensch, Hans 
H. 



Societa Adrialica di Scienze Natural! : 
BoUettino, Vol. xiii., Parts 1, 2, 1891 
" XIV., 1893 

Philosophical Society : 

Bulletin, Vol. xi., 1888-91 
Smithsonian Institution : 
Report of the Board of Regents for 

1889-90 
Ibid., U.S. National Museum, 1889-90 
U.S. Geological Survey : 

Mineral Resources of the United States, 
1889-90 



Miscellafieous. 

American Ethnology and Archaeology, 
Vols. II., III. 

Silurfossiler og Pressede Konglomerater, 
I., Bergensskifrene 



Donors. 
The Society 



The Society 



The Institution 
The Director 



Hemenuay 

Expedition 



The Author 



Purchased. 

Hutchison's Australasian Encyclopaedia. By George Collins Levey 
Beaton's Dictionary of Geography. By S. 0. Beeton, F.R.G.S. 



ERRATA. 



Page 16, twenty-two lines from top, for " Calamnite.s '" read " Calamites.'''' 
Page 228, nine lines from top, for "points " rend " prints." 
Page 298, six lines from hottom, for /' read f. 
Page 800, five lines from bottom — 

for — read — and for — read ?^ 

dtl 9X dx 9Z 

Page 409, twenty-mie lines from top, for " HCHNO3" read " HCl, 

Hx\03." 

Page 421, head line, /o/- " hand" read " land." 

Plate XII., lower left hand corner, for " NEUER " read "NEWER." 

Plate XIV., >/• " Wanda " read " Wando." 






INAUGURAL ADDRESS 

liV 

PROFESSOR RALPH TATE 

President, 
Adelaide, Tuesday, September 26 fh, 7893. 



My first duty this evening is to acknowledge the high honor the 
association has conferred on me by electing me as its President. I 
accept the office with thankfulness, as it rewards me for the long 
years of patient striving to bethought worthy of such a distinction. 

In the distant future the only antiquity that this country can ever 
possess is the history of the occupation by its present inhabitants. 
Its aboriginal people have not furnished any evidence of a past 
history ; had it, indeed, happened that they had become extinct a 
quarter of a century before their discovery, the only traces of prior 
occupation would have been in the form of stone knives and 
hatchets and flint spearheads. 

Interwoven with the history of the progress of discovery and 
occupation is that of the successive additions to our knowledge of 
its physical structure and its natural history. The records of 
botanical science and of geographical exploration have been 
brought up to a recent date, but the annals of the history of 
geological progress have not yet been consecutively placed on 
record. In the selection of a subject for my address I had 
experienced great difficulty in discriminating between personal 
interest and representative duty, and in choosing a 

CENTURY OF GEOLOGICAL PROGRESS 

for my theme I have sacrificed the former, as to please should be a 
part of my aim ; at least it will be a reward. The labor involved 
in its preparation has been very heavy, though lightened by the 
use of Etheridge and Jack's " Bibliograjjliy of Australian Geology," 

A 



4, INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

as I have read a hundred volumes to produce a very modest 
pamphlet. Thus what I have done looks small when I recall the 
continuousness of the effort that accomplished it ; but in making 
this estimate of results I do not overlook the effects of my exertions 
on myself. 

The history of the progress of geology in Australia is inti- 
mately associated with that of its geographical discovery and of its 
advancement in scientific culture. It will constitute a chapter in 
the early history of modern Australia, and I venture to give some 
connected view of it, which, however bad it may be, is better 
than no view at all. Moreover, there are associated with the 
subject personal histories which should be recorded whilst the 
knowledge of them is still within our memory. And altho<igh it 
is my special object to depict actual culminating results, without 
any extended notice of the facts and events which may have led up 
to them, yet to a certain extent a knowledge of such facts and 
events is essential to their proper appreciation, and may be pro- 
ductive of increased interest to mv audience. 

Just prior to the close of the last century the controversy between 
the Wernerian and Huttonian schools, or those of the Vulcanists 
and Neptunists, relating to the origin of the crust of the earth, was 
at its height. The Huttonian theory, which prevailed, recognises 
that the strata of the present land surfaces were formed out of the 
waste of pre-existing continents, and that the same forces are still 
active. The characteristic feature of Hutton's theory is the 
exclusion of all causes not recognised as belonging to the present 
order of nature. 

With the opening of the present centru-y a new school arose, 
which laid the foundation of modern geology. Three men were 
largely concerned in this achievement — Cuvier, Lamarck, and 
William Smith. The two former, in France, had all the powers 
which great talent, education, and station could give, whilst 
the last was an English land surveyor without culture or 
influence. Cuvier laid the foundation of comparative osteology, 
recent and fossil ; Lamarck, that of invertebrate palaeontology ; 
whilst Smith established the fundamental principles of strati- 
graphical palfeontology, viz.. the superposition of stratified rocks 
and the succession of life in time. 

" The growing importance of the natural history of organic 
remains may be pointed out," writes Sir Charles Lyell. " as the 
characteristic feature of the progress of geological science during 
the present century." 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. d 

The earliest geological observations relating to Australia ante- 
date by only a few years the beginning of this century, so that the 
history of our progress in geology is concurrent with that of 
modern geology, and it affords grand illvistrations of the methods 
of ap})lication of the laws as they were successiA^ely eA^olved in the 
European schools to an area so distantly removed from that which 
gave them birth. Thus our history begins at a most fortunate 
period. No prejudices or scholastic dispvitations have retarded our 
progress, for those who have aided in the work were disciples in 
the modern school of geology. And though, on a retrospective 
glance, we may hesitate to attach any high value to the labors of 
pioneer geologists, yet we should not forget that our horizon is 
much vaster than theirs, and that the extension of it is partly due 
to their labors ; and though it may be true that if the geological 
progress of the first half of this century were quite ignored we 
should not suffer any great loss (as I believe that nearly all 
the areas explored at the earlier period have been re-examined 
in later times by men more carefully trained than was previously 
possible), nevertheless the gradual accumulation of data supplies 
us with a history, and makes us better acquainted with the causes 
that at certain times made that progress slow or even retarded it. 

For the first three or four decades of this century our geological 
knowledge was almost entirely the outcome of maritime surveys, 
whilst in later years it has been largely supplemented by inland 
exjiloration. Thus, for a half century or so the geological pro- 
gress is part of the history of topographical discovery, and this 
explains why our earlier geological information is inseparable from 
the achievements of such renowned geographers as Flinders, 
Baudin, King, Sturt, Mitchell, Stokes, Wilkes, Leichhardt, A C. 
Gregory, and others. 

Tne subsequent history of ovir geological progress commences 
with the establishment of systematic geological surveys in New 
South Wales and Victoria, which afterwards led to their extension 
to the other provincial areas. Almost simultaneously universities 
were founded at Melbourne and Sydney. Thus, whilst the surveys 
dealt with geology more in its industrial applications, the 
universities upheld its value on purely scientific grounds. By these 
agencies a large interest was awakened in the science, and many 
whose zeal had been latent were added to the ranks of geological 
investigators. Much of our knowledge gained in these various ways 
is expressed on the Geological Map of Australia, jjublished by the 
Victorian Government in 1887. The several steps by which this map 



4 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

has been built iip I will endeavor to make known to you ; and though. 
my geological reminiscences do not extend far back, yet they embrace 
some of the most important discoveries made on this continent. 

Though the discovery of Australia may date back to the middle 
of the sixteenth century, yet it continued a terra incognita, at least 
from a scientific point of view, until Cook, the Columbus of the 
South, began, in 1770, the present ptiase of scientific expeditions; 
and though geology reaped no gain, yet in botany was laid the 
foundation of a knowledge of that marvellous and peculiar flora of 
Australia through the labors of Banks and Solander, the com- 
panions of Cook. Banks had collected at Sydney a clay which 
was then considered a distinct mineral, and had been called 
Sydnfijite or Sydneya. Its real nature was made known by 
Hatchett* in 1798, and it was subsequently examined on the spot 
by Depuch and Baillyf with similar residts. 

La Perouse, in a voyage round the world, anchored off Norfolk 
Island in January, 1788, and described it as if surrounded by a 
wall formed by lava that had flowed from the summit of the moun- 
tain. The absence of any geological reference to Botany Bay, 
which was next visited, may be attributed to the loss by assassina- 
tion at Maouna, in the South Sea Islands, of that accomplished 
mineralogist La Manon, one of the naturalists to the expedition, 
on whom devolved the geological observations. 

Yakcouver,:}: who discovered King George Sound in 1791, de- 
scribes the summit of Bald Head as covered with a coral struc- 
ture, amongst which are many sea shells, and argues a modern 
date of elevation. However faulty the interpretation of the nature 
of the data may be, yet the deduction is sound, and it may be 
claimed as the first recorded geological observation for Australia, 
made one hundi-ed and two and a half years ago. 

D'Entrecasteux, in 1792-93, when in search of the ill-fated 
La Perouse, examined the coastline from Cape Leuwin to Nuyt's 
Archipelago, and visited Tasmania ; and although no geological 
observations seem to have been made on the continent, yet a rich 
harvest fell to the lot of La Billardiere, the botanist attached to 
the expedition, who discovered coal near South Cape, and stated 
that limestone existed on Bruni Island. 

Coal was discovered in New South Wales in 1797§, first to the 
south of Sydney, and in the same year on the banks of the River 

* Phil. Trans. Key. Soc , London. t Pemn, Voy. Terres Australis, i., p. 443, 180". 

X Voyage South Seas, vol. i., p. 77. 18U1. 
} Flinders, Vov. Terra Australis, vol. i., pp. civ-cv. ; Collins, Account of New South 
Wales, 1798, p. 617. 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

Hunter, where Newcastle now stands. After its discovery little 
exploitation was done for the first thirty or forty years ; the first 
export was in 1801, and in 1828 it reached 974 tons. The Govern- 
ment mine at Newcastle became in 1830 the property of the 
Australian Agricultural Company, which had the exclusive right 
to mine for thirtv-one years, but this monoply was mutually 
terminated in 1847. The estimated value of the output of coal 
up to 1835 was £43.504; in the next ten years it was £129,112, 
while in the next decennial period it attained to £6,766,970, as a 
consequence of the discovery of gold, but for 1855 to 1865 it 
rose to £16,001,504, this vast increase being due to the fact that 
gold was produced during the whole decade*. The coalfield of 
New South Wales embraces an area of 15,419 square miles, and 
the quantity of future available coal within a depth of 4,000ft., 
from seams over 2Jft., allowing for loss in working, is estimated 
by Geoldgical Surveyor C Wilkinsonf at 78,198,200,000 tons. 

Flinders and Bass;]:, jointly and separately, between the years 
1797 and 1798, had explored the coastline southward from Sydney, 
reaching as far west as Western Port, and they embraced in their 
voyage the circumnavigation of Tasmania. They described the 
more prominent rock phenomena, such as the basalts of the 
lllawarra Coast, the perpendicidar slates of the Furneaux Islands 
and their penetration by granite, and the lofty mass of hard 
granites of Wilson Promontory. 

In 1801 Flinders was commissioned to complete the examination 
and survey of New Holland. In the list of scientific officers appears 
the name of Robert Brown. To the 1,300 ascertained plants, chiefly 
collected by Banks and Solander, he added nearly 3,000 species 
by his personal labors, and eventually there were available to the 
author of the *' Prodromus Morae Novse Hollandise " about 6,000 
species. The coastline of Australia was traced with care as far as 
the tropics. Flinders paid much attention to physiographic 
features, whilst Brown collected rock specimens. The narrative 
by Flinders § is interspersed with occasional references to rock 
structure, and he particularly notes the prevalence of granite as 
a subter-strvicture, with a calcareous stone for a cover, throughout 
the southern coastline. Mr. Brown ascended the high peak in the 
Flinders Range which bears his name, and found the stone of this 
craggy mountain ridge to be slaty. The rock specimens collected 

* Abstracted I'lom Mineral Pioducts of New South Wales, by Harrie Wood, 1887, 
pp. 4, 5. 
t.\ust. Assoc. Adv. Sc, vol. ii.,p.463. 1890. J Voyage Terra Australis. 1814. \ Id. 



O INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

on this survey were reported, on by Dr. Fitton* in 1825, but nothing 
was done beyond their mere enumeration and the indication of 
their agreement with those of the same denomination from other 
parts of the world, no attempt having been made to chronologically 
arrange them. Others collected by Brown during his sojourn in 
New South Wales Avere reported on by Dean Buckland in 1821, 
hereafter referred to. 

Contemporaneous with the marine survey by Flinders was that 
by the French, under Baudin, who sailed along the outside of the 
islands which fringe a great extent of the north-west and south 
coasts, but who seldom visited any part of the mainland. The 
scientific equipment of this expedition is unrivalled in the annals 
of Australian exploration. To Depuch and Bailly were entrusted 
the mineralogical and geological researches. The former left the 
ship at Sydney to return to Europe, but he died at Mauritius, and 
his manuscripts, which he had taken with him, and which were to 
serve for a geological history of New Holland, Avere irrecoverably 
lost. 

Peron was the senior zoologist and the author of the narrative 
of the expedition!, the first volume of which was published in 1807; 
but the author died in 1810, before the aijpearance of the second 
volume in 1816, which was edited by his companion, Freycinet. 
His account of the physiography and geology of the places visited 
is not only graphic, but rich in details ; he closely investigated the 
nature and origin of the .^olian calciferous sandstones, and fully 
recognised their relationship to the blown sand of the dunes. 
This dominant feature of the southern shores of Australia is stated 
by him to be reproduced on the west and north-west coast. The 
entombed calcified shapes of branches and stems of trees were 
correctly recognised, though Vancouver and Flinders had erro- 
neously considered them as coral reefs. He riglitly referred the 
fundamental rocks of Kanii^aroo and King Islands to different kinds 
of 231-imitive schists, and the superimposed fossiliferous limestone 
at the former place was correctly observed, though not attributed to 
any particidar epoch. The occurrence of corals and marine shells 
of recent appearance at considerable elevations on the coast was 
justly regarded by him as demonstrating the "former abode of 
the sea" above the land, and very naturally suggested an inquiry 
as to the nature of the revolutions to which this change of situation 
is to be ascribed. The diorite of Depuch Island is described as 

• Proc. Geol. Soc, London. 
+ Voyage de Decouveite aux Terres Australes Historique, 2 vols. 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. / 

columnar basalt, and the occurrence of granite and primitive rocks 
is itientioned as forming the basis of the more jutting points and 
masses on the coastline and islands. 

Bailly described the geology about Sydney as consisting first 
of the Sydney sandstone, which is noted as extending from the 
seaboard to the escarpment of the Blue Mountains ; secondly, 
about Paramatta, of bituminous shales, fiill of plant impressions, 
chiefly ferns, disposed in horizontal layers alternating with sand- 
stones and conglomerates. He ventured to jiredict the occurrence 
of coal similar to that to the north and south of Sydney at no 
great depth. He inferred the existence of a granitic or primitive 
base somewhere within the basin of the Hawkesbury River from 
the presence of pebbles of these rocks in the bed of the river at 
Richmond Hill. He discovered kerosene shale at the foot of the 
Blue Mountains, afterwards, but elsewhere, observed by P. Cun- 
ningham in 1827, and rediscovered by Strzelecki in 1845. 

Few geologists have been more in advance of the age in which 
the}- lived, or have suffered so long an undeserved oblivion, as 
Peron. 

After the termination of the survey by Flinders, through the loss 
of his ship and subsequent detention by the French, in the which 
France was the first to debase as she was the first to promulgate 
that principal axiom of international law, " Causa scientiarum, 
causa populorum,^^ twelve years elapsed before England's atten- 
tion was diverted from the battlefield to geographic discoveries 
in Australia, and Captain King was appointed to complete the 
coast surveys left unfinished by Flinders, which occupied him 
from 1818 to 1822. King could spare but little time to land, 
and, with few exceptions, merely traced the coast. The paucity of 
geological information is thus accounted for, and the few refer- 
ences are merely lithological. Owing to Captain King's own love 
for natural history, and the encouragement he consequently gave 
to the botanist, Allan Cunningham, who accompanied him, his 
surveys were the means of adding very largely to our knowledge 
of the vegetable and animal life of Australia, especially of the 
tropical parts. All the geological observations he was able to make, 
as well as those by Robert Brown when with Flinders, were 
excellently digested by Dr. Fitton, in a general resume appended 
to an account of the voyage.* 

OxLEY, John, Surveyor-General, to whom we owe the earliest 
topographical map of New South Wales, took charge, in 1817, of 

* Narrative ol a Survey of the Intertiopical and Western Coasts of Australia, 2 vols. 1826 



O INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

an expedition to ascertain the character of the western interior, a 
practicable route across the Blue Mountains having been opened 
in 1815. He traced the Lachlan doAvn to longitude 144°, and com- 
pleted the discovery of the Blue Mountains, which constitute the 
prominent physiographic feature of New South Wales. In 1818 
he traced the Macquarie River to its junction with the Darling. 
In the volume of his narrative* are brief references to the occur- 
rence of different rocks, amongst which the more notew^orthy are 
coal at Port Macquarie harbor, coal indications at the head of the 
Macleay River, and limestone at Limestone Creek on the Lachlan, 
and at Wellington Valley on the Macquarie, " which is the first 
that has hitherto been discovered in Australia." The geological 
specimens which were collected during the two exjjeditions were 
reported on by Dean Bucklandf as alfording indications of primi- 
tive rocks (granite, mica slate, clay slate, and serpentine), trap, 
and limestone (resembling the " transition limestone" of England) ; 
as also those gathered by Robert Brown on the Hunter Hiver, 
which are described as coal and shale with plant impressions, and the 
author states that there is an analogy between the Coal Formation 
of the Hunter River and that of England, whilst certain fossiliferous 
rocks from Hobart are described as nearly, if not identical with those 
of the Mountain Limestone of England and Ireland. [This is the 
first application of palaeontology to the stratigraphical chronology 
of the Australian rocks, and a successful one, as the positions 
assigned by Buckland to the two formations are substantially those 
accepted by the local geologists of to-day.] 

Scott, Rev. Archdeacon^, refers the strata of the Newcastle 
coalfield to the "coal formation" and the limestone as resembling 
in the character of its organic remains the "' mountain lime.-tone " 
of England, and thus independently arrived at the same conclusions 
as }5uckland. 

Berry, Alexander §, describes the lithological sequence of the 
strata of the Hunter River coalfield as traced by him for nine miles 
south from Hunter River. The vegetable impressions are referred 
to, and he thought he had recognised the leaf of the living Zamia 
spiralis. Lie confounded the Carboniferous sandstone with that 
forming the Blue Mountains, though he recognised the intrusive 
nature and overlying position of the trap rocks. He records a 
sandstone lying on indurated clay slate, at Shoalhaven ; and at 

• Two Expeditions into the Interior of New South Wales (1820). 

+ Geological Trans., vol. v., p. 480. 1821. 

X Annals of Philosophy, June 2-lth. 1824. Bull, ties Sciences Nat., 1826, p. 285. 

I Geology of part of New South Wales, 1822, in Field's Geographical Memoirs. 1825. 



INADGURAL ADDRKSS. 9 

twenty miles up the river, sandstone with included fragments of 
older rocks ; at Jervis Bay and Bowen Island, horizontal sand- 
stone ; at River Clyde, coarse argillaceous schist, like greywacke 
in appearance ; at Bateman Bay, clay slate in vertical position. 
[This author added, thus, a number of valuable facts to the geology 
of New South Wales, and had they been successfully systematised 
the contribution would have been a great advance to our know- 
ledge of stratigraphical geology.] 

Cunningham, Allen*, Botanical Collector for Kew Gardens, 
journeyed in 1823 from Bathurst to Liverpool Plains, and thence 
t'l Darling Downs, and though the special object was botanical, 
yer, geography benefited. Several passing referenees are made 
to the rocks encountered, and he describes the lihysiographic 
features and the leading rock structure of the Blue Mountains. 
He discovered the Ipswich coal formation on the Brisbane River 
in 1 828. His collected geological observations made on these and 
other occasions Avere communic.tted to the Geological Society of 
London. f 

OxLEY, John;]:, in 1823 discovered the navigable river Brisbane, 
and in his official report are incidental references to geological 
features, such as those relating to Facing Island (which is 
uurolored on the Geological Map of Queensland, 1893), which 
protects Port Curtis — ' There are many indications of mineral 
substance ; some seemed to contain copper and tin." 

Uniacke. in his narrative of Oxley's expedition of 1823§, 
describes the basal part of Small Island, off Point Danger, as '' of 
volcanic origin, and the superincumbent rocks to be basaltic," 
and these are compared with the Giant's Causeway in the north 
of Ireland. The right bank of the River Boyne, Port Curtis, is 
stated to be composed of fine slate, and the left of close-grained 
.granite. (This is in agreement with the geological survey map of 
1893 — the slate rocks belonging to the Gympie Formation). 

Lesson, the naturalist to the French surveying ship. La Coquille, 
and author of the history of the voyage during the years 1822-5, 
describes the geological features about Port Jackson as constituted 
of— 

1. Granites, quartziferous syenites, and pegmatites. 

2. Stratified lignites, which are mined at Mount York at an 

elevation of 1,000ft. above sea level. 



Field's Geojrraphical Memoirs. 1825. + Troc. Geol. Soc, vol. ii., ]). 1U9. l'*34. 

X Expedition to Moreton Buy in Field's Geogr. Mem. 1S25. 
\ Field's Geogr. Memoirs. 1825. 



10 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

3. Ferruginous sandstone, which covers not only a vast extent 
of country near the coast, but forms the plateau of the Blue 
Mountains. This stratum, because of its superior position to 
the foregoing, appertains to the Tertiary system. 

This arrangement is a great advance on prior contributions, as 
it establishes a definite successional order of deposits ; and for the 
first time, though this was foreshadowed by his countryman Bailly, 
the superposition of the Sydney sandstone (No. 3) on the Coal 
Measures (No. 2) and of these on the granites (No. 1) is recognised. 

Cunningham, P.*, traces the Coal Measures from Port 
Stephens to Botany Bay and interiorly about 100 miles along the 
Hunter River, and notes the occurrence of plant remains and 
upright trunks of trees in the beds ; various rocks are named, and 
the occurrence of limestone at Bathvirst (previously observed by 
Oxley) is mentioned as being the nearest to Sydney. 

Up to this date no described fossil had been referred to as 
occurring in Australian deposits, and it was not till 1828 that 
Alex. Brongniart f described Glosnopteris Brmvniana and 
Fhyllotheca Australis from the Newcastle Coal Measures. 

Scott, Rev. Archdeacon^, describes the coastal calciferous 
sandstone about Swan River, and the Darling Range, as con- 
sisting of greenstone and syenite, and to the southward of clay 
slate. 

Cunningham, P.§, describes the leading lithological features of 
the country about Liverpool Plains : he mentions a coralliferous 
limestone, as well as other fos^siliferous strata, but makes no 
attempt to make out the order of superposition or the equivalents 
of the strata. 

SiurtII, during 1828-183 1, corrected Oxley by proving that the 
superfluous waters of the western slope of the Blue Mountams were 
di-ained by the River Murray, and thus achieved a most important 
discovery. In 1829 he followed the Murrumbidgee to the Murray, 
and thence to Lake Alexandrina. Cn his passage down the Murray 
he arrived at Overland Corner, and noted there the sudden change 
from cliffs of sand and clay to fossiliferous limestone, which con- 
tinued uninterruptedly to Lake Alexandrina. Sturt referred 
examples of the fossil moUusca, echinoids, and polyzoa to species 
of the Eocene of England, Paris, and Westphalia, and thus estab- 
lished by similaritj' of organic remains an old Tertiary formation 

* Two Years in New South Wales, 1S27, vol. ii., p;). 1-12. 

+ Hi^toil•e des Veg^taux Fossiles, 2 vols., 1828, I. p. 222. 

X Proc. Geol. Soc, vol. i., 1831, p. 32i). ?Proc. Geol. Soc, vol. i., 1831, pp.225-226. 

I, Two Expeditions into the Interior ol Southern Australia. 1833. 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 11 

in Australia ; and tliougli it has subsequently been shown tliat 
all of Sturt's identifications were wrong, yet, as most of the species 
are near allies to those to which he referred them, it is not sur- 
prising that after all Sturt was right in his correlation. Sturt 
refers also to a compact limestone, containing corals, occurring in 
a range sixteen miles due north of Bathurst, of an unassigned age ; 
also independently observed by P. Cunningham at about the same 
time. 

Mitchell, Major (afterwards Sir Thomas)^'.— In 1832 he pene- 
trated north and reached the River Darling, in lat. 29° ; his western 
limit, in 1838, was the jvmction of the Rivers Bogan and Darling ; 
and the southern, in 1836, was Portland Bay. He corroborated 
all the geographical features and positions previously ascertained 
by Oxley and Stm-t, and determined many new discoveries, 
especially that of Australia Felix or the mid and western portions 
of Victoria. 

The chief geological observations recorded by Mitchell are : — 

1. That the higher grovmd about the sources of the tributaries 

of the Murrumbidgee is composed of granite, on the flanks 
of which rests a fossiliferous limestone " much resembling 
the Carboniferous of Eiu'ope," and that there is another 
limestone about Limestone Plains containing corals, belong- 
ing to the genus Favosites, and crinoids. 

2. That in Victoria, north of the Dividing Range, granites and 

syenites are to be found, and clay slate on the River Cam- 
pas pe. 

3. That the lower part of the Glenelg River and the country 

stretching to Portland Bay is occupied with a fossilii^erous 

Tertiary formation, which is frequently interrupted by trap 

and vesicular lava ; hills of lava often occur, and one, at 

least. Mount Napier, is described as still exhibiting a perfect 

circular crater. 

The palseontological collections which were made during 

Mitchell's three expeditions were deposited in the British 

Museum, and reported on by specialists. The results appended 

to Mitchell's work demonstrated the presence of representatives of 

the following life epochs : — 

Carboniferous — Various species of moUusca, from the valley of 
the Hunter River, were described and figured by J. D. C. Sowerby, 
but no conclusions as to age or stratigraphical position were 
attempted by him. Mitchell records spiiifers in the sandstone at 

* Three Expeditions into the Interior of East Australia. 1838. 



12 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

Mount Wingen, and notes that the fossil vegetation consisted 
chiefly of Glossopteris Browniana. 

Mesozoic.~Th.e collection included also a portion of the jiuard 
of a Belemnite, obtained near Mount Abundance ; its occurrence is 
noted on Mitchell's chart, though not referred to in the letter- 
press. This is the first secondary fossil recorded for Australia, 
though it was not till 1880 that it was brought to scientific notice 
by Mr. Robert Etheridge, jun. * It probably belongs to the 
Cretaceous species, Belemnites Australia:, Phillips. 

Diprotodon Period — The ossiferous caves of the Wellington 
Valley and at Buree were discovered by Mitchell in 1830, and an 
account of the survey of them was published in 1831. f In 1835 
more extended researches were imdertaken, and the particulars 
respecting the animal remains then found were supplied by Owen 
(afterwards Sir Richard), who demonstrated that the existing 
marsupial fauna was preceded in the same area in later Tertiary 
times by one in many respects similar, yet difiering for the most 
part specifically and to some extent generically, presenting forms 
Avhich are colossal in comparison with the largest modern represen- 
tatives. Such are Diprotodon and Nototherium. This early work 
of Owen's was only the commencement of those investigations 
which culminated in that monument of marvellous industry and 
talent, the " Fossil Mammals of Australia." 

Darwin. Charles, was naturalist to the surveying ship The 
Beagle on her second voyage, 1832-'?6. The Beagle, on her home- 
ward passage, called at Sydney and King George Sound. The 
geological observations relating to those places are brief, and to a 
large extent had been anticipated by Mitchell in respect of the 
first, and by Peron in respect to the second, while, as regards King 
George Sound, Darwin corrected some of the erroneous observa- 
tions recorded by Vancouver and Flinders. Lonsdale describes some 
Australian Carboniferous Polyzoa, and Sowerby some Spiiiferidiae J ; 
and we have thus another instance of the early application of 
palaeontology to the determination of the correlative age of stratified 
deposits. 

Grey, Lieut, (now Sir George)§ was commissioned to explore 
the coastline between Prince Regent River and Swan River. 
Towards the end of 1837 he landed at Hanover Bay, and found the 
shore fringed with bold inaccessible hills and bluff headlands, as 

* Proc. Roy. Soc, Tasai.ania, for 1879, p. 18. + Proc. Geol. Soc, vol. i, p. 321. 

J Darwin's Volcanic Islands. 1844. 

J Journals of Two E.xpeditions in N.W. and W. Australia, 2 vols. 1841. 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 13 

described by King. Under great difficulties he ascended the 
elevated tableland with its deep ravines and gorges, which he 
describes as consisting of horizontally-bedded sandstones crowned 
by basaltic elevations. In 1839, he was shipwrecked in (iantheaume 
Bay, and his party wa.s forced to make an overland journey to 
Perth, in the course nf which he discovered the Murchison and 
other rivers, and the Carboniferous rocks in the Victoria Range. 

Stokes, Commander. — Captain Wickham was commissioned in 
1837 to The Beagle's third voj'age. Under him some of the most 
important objects of the voyage were achieved, hut in consequence 
of his retirement in March, 1841, owing to ill-health, the command 
devolved on Captain Stokes, who is the author of the narrative of 
the six years' voyage. •'•' The objects of the survey did not permit 
of any connected observations of the geological structure of the 
islands or coast, and though the author disclaims any pretention 
to be versed in geological science, yet some of his recorded 
observations have the merit of discoveries, which have; stood the 
test of critical investigation. The ^Eolian calciferous sandstone of 
Swan River is described, and he mentions that the most remark- 
able feature is the absence or scantiness or the secondary and 
transition rocks ; all the Tertiary appears to be of the newest kind, 
and to be in juxtaposition with the Primary. The Darling Range 
is stated to be granitic, and slate of a primitive character is men- 
tioned as occurring at the Canning River. 

The Carbonaceous series of rocks chiefly to be met with at 
Western Port are considered analogous to those of the Carboniferous 
formation^ and the occurrence of coal in the same series at Cape 
Patterson is announced. 

The escarpment of the tableland of Arnheim Land is described 
as constituted of horizontally-bedded sandstone overlying slaty 
rock. A somewhat similar arrangement is noticed at Talc Head 
and Fort Hill, Port Darwin, and the covering fine-grained sandstone, 
the stratigraphical position of which was first observed by Stokes, 
has lately acquired considerable importance by the discovery of 
radiolarians within its mass.f Fossils were collected from a cliff 
named Fossil Head, near the mouth of the Victoria River, but 
they were subsequently lost or destroyed. 

Stkzelkcki, Count J. — To this highly acconq)lished scientist 
we are greatly indebted for his arduous and gratuitous researches 

• Discoveries in Australia, 1837-1843, 2 vols. 1846. 

t Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xnv., p. 221. 1893. 

t Physical Description of New South Wales, &c. 1845. 



14 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

and labors in the field of Australian geology, the outcome of 
five years' travel, commencing from his traverse of Gippsland in 
1840, and embracing the survey of 7,000 miles. The rocks of 
New South Wales he arranges in an ascending successional series, 
and in this first attempt to construct a table of the stratified 
Deposits of New South Wales he laid the foundation of strati- 
graphical geology in Australia. His summary is as follows : — 
First epoch — (a) Irruptive crystalline rocks, constituting the axis of 
elevation, as granite, syenite, eurite, &c. (6) Stratified crystalline 
Tocks as mica slate. Second epoch — Characterised by arenaceous, 
calcareous, and argillaceous deposits, which rest on the former, and 
in Australia contain the first record of organic life ; among the 
stratified masses are intruded porphyrites, basalts. &.c. The 
greater part of the Palaeozoic rocks in Australia examined 
"by Strzelecki is the equ.ivalent of the " Carboniferous," though 
others (particularly about Yass Plains) are anterior, and may pro- 
bably be considered the equivalent of the Devonian System of 
Europe. [This is the first recognition of a fossiliferous group older 
than Carboniferous.] Third epoch — Includes the coal-series of the 
Newcastle basin. Fourth epoch — Embraces gravel beds, elevated 
beaches, osseous breccias ; alluvial deposits about Port Western 
are included, also the variegated sandstones of the tableland of the 
Blue Mountains ; '• above the last no other formation has yet been 
found, and they constitute the highest beds in the geological series." 
In this epoch are included deposits now known to be of older 
Tertiary age, as the Eocene at Port Fairy and Table Cape, and the 
Miocene at Lake King, Gippsland, " which contain Ostrea and 
Anomia different from the existing species." Strzelecki's volume 
is accompanied by a map, in which the areas occupied by each 
epoch are indicated by colors, and this is the first attempt at geo- 
logical mapping in Australia. The Palaeozoic corals and polyzoa are 
described by Lonsdale, the plant remains and Palaeozoic mollusca 
by Morris, and the Pliocene mollusca by G. B. Sowerb) . Morris 
pointed out that the facies of the coal flora was remarkably dis- 
tinguished from that of Europe and to have strong points of 
similarity with that of Northern India and of the Yorkshire 
Oolites. The doubt had thus early been expressed as to the 
possibility of the Hunter River coals belonging to the Jurassic 
system. 

Leichhakdt, Dr. Ludwig. — In 1844 this lamented traveller 
started on his adventurous journey from Moreton Bay to Port 
Essington, a distance of 3,000 miles. The expedition originated in 



IXAUGrRAL ADDRESS. 15 

private enterprise, but was promoted by public subscription, and 
the Treasury of New South Wales voted £ 1 ,000 to be distributed 
among the members on their return, which sum was increased by 
public subscription to £2,519. The narrative of Dr. Leichhardt*' 
contains as much botany as geog-raphy, and is by far the fullest 
published account of the tropical vegetation of the north and 
north-east tracts and adjacent interior parts of Australia that we 
possess. The accompanying maps and illustrations supply impor- 
tant information respecting the physiographic and geologic featiu'es. 
Necessity compelled him to abandon one portion after another of 
his collections, so that the opportunity of determining the age of 
the various deposits encountered from the nature of their fossil 
contents was lost. This is much to be regretted, because for long 
years this line of country was geologically known only through 
Leichhardt's memoranda, which contain for some portions the only 
information extant. He mentions the existence of coal on the 
Mackenzie and Bowen Rivers, and sandstones with plant remains on 
the Dawson, Comet, and Isaacs Rivers, and in other parts of Northern 
Queensland, though the geological horizon is not recognised. He 
describes the metamorphic and basaltic areas, and discovered the 
fossiliferous limestone on the Burdekin River which the Rev. W. B. 
Clarke referred to the Upper Silurian, but which is now classed as 
Middle Devonian. The tableland of North Australia, which 
reaches to near the coast, is graphically described, and its elevation 
overlooking the Alligator Rivers is given at 1,800ft., reduced by 
subsequent trigonometrical measure to 670ft. Hereabouts he 
found evidences of a fossiliferous rock. 

Dana, Professor James D., was naturalist to the United States 
exploring expedition during the years 1838-1842, under the com- 
mand of Ci'.arles Wilkes. Sydney was visited in 1839-40, but as 
the geology of the expedition was not published till 1849 Dana's 
observations were to some extent anticipated by the published 
writings of Strzelecki, Morris, Lonsdale, and McCoy. Neverthe- 
less the credit must remain to Dana of having laid the foundation 
of the classification of the great Carboniferous development in New 
South Wales, both in respect of its palaeontology and stratigraphy. 
Dana was, however, acquainted wi'h the palseontological works of 
the forenamed authors, and incorporated the results in his own. 
He describes the geology within a radius of sixty miles of Port 
Jackson under three heading-s : — (1) Sandstone above the Coal, or 
the "Sydney Sandstone"; (2) The Coal Formation; and (3) Argil- 

* Journal of an Overland Expedition in AusU-alia, &c., 1814-1845. 1847. 



16 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

laceous Sandstone below the Coal. The charactei.s ])r()per to eaca 
are briefly summarised as follows : — 

Sydney Sandstone. — Thickness, 1,400ft.: the lithological 
character, cross-beddinij, occasional concentric structure, hori- 
zontal position or dip never exceeding- 12°, and the joints in 
two directions at right angles are noted, as also the paucity of 
organic remains, there being no animals, but few vegetable 
impressions and thin seams of bituminous coal: imbedded minerals 
almost absent. 

Coal Furmation. — (1) Of the Hunter Kiver Valley : the section 
at Nobby Island and Telegraph Hill is described as containing 
five distinct seams of bituminous coal, and stratigraphical and 
lithological details are given ; faults and basaltic dykes inter- 
secting the strata are recognised. (2) In the Illawarra district : 
the section at Bulli Cliffs is described and the vegetable impres- 
sions are observed to be less plentiful than in the Hunter Bashi, 
the extension of the formation is also traced as far south as 
Wollongong and Dapto. Except one species of fish, the fossils 
of the coal formation consist of plants, the prevalent species being 
small ferns and equisetaceous forms and the remains of conifers 
allied to recent pines, but Glosxopieris Brozvntana constitutes 
four-fifths of all plant remains. The absence of Calamnite^iy 
Siffillartn, and Lepii,odendroH is noted. 

Sandstone Strata below the Coal. — It is noted that the gi'adual 
transition seen between the Coal Formation and the Sydney Sand- 
stone is traceable between it and the underlying sandstone, which 
is called "sub-carboniferous." This formation occurs from Wol- 
longong southward to Shoalhaven Kiver ; and in the Hunter 
Valley at Harpur's Hill, Glendon, and Mount Wingen. He 
describes its lithological characters (in general a greenish compact 
sandstone), stratification, dip, joints, faults, &c. The fossils of 
the " sub-carboniferous" are chiefly mollusca, corals being few and 
plant remains scanty ; eighty-six species are described and figured. 

Dana agrees with Moi-ris as to the " Carboniferous character of 
the animal remains in the Coal Formation and subjacent sand- 
stone." and that the plant remains are of more uncertain 
chronology, as they differ from those of the American and 
European Carboniferous beds and present close relation to those 
of the Oolite. 

Stukt, Captain Charles*, in 1844, under the authority of 
the Imperial Government, pushed into the central parts of 

" Narrative of an Expedition into Central Australia durinir 1844-46. 1849. 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 17 

Australia. From the River Darling, at what is now Menindie, he 
reached the Barrier and Grey Ranges, and became entangled in the 
delta-like ramifications of the River Cooper; thence he penetrated 
in a north-west direction into the sand-dune coxmtry to the north- 
east of Lake Eyre, and thvis missed the object of his ardent 
search. Sturt describes the general structure of the Barrier 
Range as of slates, gneiss, and other metamorphic rocks, and 
notes the prevalence of iron ores. He describes what is evidently 
the ironstone outcrop of a massive mineral lode, and though I 
cannot identify the locality, yet it is not at all improbable that one 
of the silver lodes of the Barrier (if not Broken Hill itself) is here 
referred to ; in the same connection that prominent landmark, 
Piesse's Knob, is indicated. The Grey Range, he says, resembles 
the Barder Range, and has the same bearing ; he compares them 
with the Mount Lofty chain, and implies that they constitute one 
formation. Between the Grey Range, and near to Strzelecki 
Creek, he observed " some fossil limestone cropping out of the 
groimd in several places." The most noteworthy observations 
recorded by Sturt are those relating to the physical character of 
the interior of Australia, which will be considered hereafter. A 
tribute is due to Sturt's scientific merit and sagacity, and I would 
add my mite to the general testimony of admiration for that 
learned traveller. He stands pre-eminent among land explorers for 
the accuracy of his observations, evincing the most patient and 
thoughtful investigation, for the great power of generalisation 
which throws a charm over all his narratives, and for his highly 
philosophical deductions. Sturt never received that honor in his 
lifetime which was his due ; and much of his geological work and 
spectdations have either been overlooked or ignored, because it 
was thought (geology being then in a not very advanced staie) that 
he was not a very experienced geologist. 

Jukes, J. Beete, who in 1839-40 held the office of Geological 
Surveyor for Newfoundland, was appointed naturalist to H.M.S. 
Fly, commissioned to survey the northern part of the Barrier Reef. 
He wrote the " Narrative of the Voyage " (1847), which embraced 
the years 1842-46 In this work the author does not occupy him- 
self with geological matters, which are dealt with in other publi- 
cations* and incorporated in an independent work, entitled "A 
Sketch of the Physical Structure of Australia" (1850). In this 
later work the author gives a connected outline of the geology of 

(1) Brit, .48800. Adv. for Science. 1846; Qusrt. Journ. Geol. Soc , vol. in., p. 241, 1847; 
Id., vol. IV., i>. 142, 1848. 



18 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

Australia, so far as it was known to him. The great merit of this 
attempt to exhibit approximately the principal features of this 
continent is that of piecing together the isolated observations of 
previous authors into a connected outline. This, because of his 
personal knowledge of considerable portions of the coastline of 
Australia, he was of all others the best able to do successfully. 
The result is a general but distinct notion of the geological structure 
of Australia, which is further illustrated by a geologically- 
colored map, the first containing so broad a survey. The author 
added nothing to our previous knowledge, but systematised what 
Avas known, and the speculations and generalisations which he 
ventured to put forward have for the most part proved correct. Some 
of the most valuable contributions of later avithors will be found to 
have been foreshadowed, or even clearly noted by Jukes, whilst some 
actual discoveries were anticipated by him. His map shows — (1) 
Alluvial deposits, (2) coral reefs, (3) Tertiary rocks, (4) unknown, 
probable Tertiary, (5) Palseozoic rocks, (6) unknown, probable 
Palaeozoic, (7) metamorphic rocks, (8) modern igneous rocks, (9) 
old igneous rocks, (10) granite, pegmatite, &.c. The members of 
the coal series of New South Wales are given substantially as 
those enumerated by Dana (whose work Jukes had evidently not 
then seen), but the Wianamatta shales are specially mentioned 
as separable from the underlying Sydney sandstone. The coal- 
bearing beds at Western Port and to the west of Geelong are 
regarded as Palseozoic. The rocks about Port Phillip are referred 
to a Palaeozoic age, the fossiliferous beds at Brighton to a Tertiary 
formation, and the volcanic rocks about Melbourne to more recent 
sub-aerial lavas, whilst the lowlands of Gippsland are considered to 
be occupied by Tertiary deppsits. The rocks of the Mount Lofty 
chain, in South Australia, are classed as metamorphic. The Tertiary 
of the Lower Murray and the Glenelg River he considers to be part 
of a widespread formation, embracing Adelaide and Port Phillip, 
but to be of a very modern date, wdiilst that remarkable mural line 
of sea cliffs extending westward from the head of the Great Aus- 
tralian Bight is conjectured to be Tertiary, and to stretch far into 
the interior, and in all probability to join on to Stmt's great central 
desert of sand and ironstone (a conception of Sturt's). 

MacGillivkay, John. — The last of the maritime surveys under 
Imperial direction which concerned Australia Avas that conducted 
by Captain Owen Stanley, of H.M.S. Rattlesnake ; it is noteworthy 
from the high scientific attainments of its officers. The Com- 
mander, who was the only son of Dean Stanley, himself an eminent 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 19 

ornithologist, took a keen interest in natural history. He died soon 
after the final return of the ship to Sydney, from a severe illness 
contracted during the last cruise, but not till he had successfully 
accomplished the chief object of his mission, which was a more 
detailed examination of the Great Barrier Reef and adjacent coasts. 
The assistant-surgeon was Thomas H. Huxley, a name familiar to 
all, who achieved fame at this early period of his career by the 
zoological researches made during the voyage. The naturalist to 
the expedition and author of the " Narrative of the Voyage of the 
Rattlesnake during 1846-50 " (1852) was John MacGilli-\Tay, who 
had held a similar position in the Fly Expedition, and who had thus 
through long official service become favorably known as a zoologist. 
The geological references in the " Narrative " are few, and consist 
iiierel}' of the names of rocks at certain observed stations. 

Gregory, A. C. — The discouraging nature of the interior of 
Australia, as made known by Sturt, and the utter disappearance of 
Leichhardt's Expedition of 1848, checked the progress of explora- 
tion for a few years; but in 1855 a successful effort was made to 
penetrate the interior from the north-west by the North Australian 
Expedition, which was fitted out by the Imperial Government, and 
was the last of the series. The expedition was placed under the 
leadership of Mr. A. C. Gregory, who was accompanied by Dr. (now 
Baron Sir F. von) Mueller as botanist, Mr. J. S. Wilson as 
geologist, and Mr. Elsey as surgeon. The party was conveyed by 
schooner to the mouth of the Victoria River, towards the exploration 
of which nothing had been done since its discovery by Wickham 
and Stokes. The Victoria River was ascended to its source in 
latitude 18° 12', and the country to the south of the Dividing Range 
was explored beyond the northern limits of the great interior desert 
to latitude 20° 16', longitude 127° 30'. The physiographic features 
of the Lower Victoria had been made known by the description of 
Stokes. The region about the Upper Victoria was found to consist 
chiefly of extensive valleys of good soil, well grassed, and of more arid 
sandstone tableland, varied with outcrops of basalt, the latter con- 
stituting rich grassy downs. The tableland rises abruptly from the 
coastal tracts, and attains an average elevation of 700ft. in the Sea 
Range,900ft.in latitude 16°, 1,600ft. in latitude 18°, falling to 1,300ft. 
in latitude 19" and l,100lt. in latitude 20°. By removal of the upper 
strata deep gorges, 600ft. in height, are formed, which open out into 
large valleys or plains. Mr. Gregory struck across from the Lower 
Victoria to the head of Roper River, and thence followed the base 
of the tableland from which he had descended, passing near the 



20 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

sources of the rivers discharging into the Gulf of Carpentaria ; from 
the Albert River to Brisbane he followed Leichhardt's route of 1844. 
This extraordinary achievement is second to none in point of 
interest, of unknown country traversed, and of the scientific results 
gained ; a vast void in the geological map was filled in. 

The geological structure of the gorges of the Victoria River inland 
from Sea Range (which had already been described by Stokes as 
consisting of horizontally-bedded sandstone overlying inclined 
metamorphic rocks) is described by Gregory* as follows : — 

1 . Thick bed of red sandstone, overlain by ironstone gi*avel. 

2. 'Ihick compact bed of siliceous sandstone, with indistinct 

stratirication, generally exceeding 300ft, ; at Sea Range a 
softer whitish sandstone, 100ft. thick, separates this forma- 
tion into three bands. 

3. Bluish shale or clay slate. 

4. Limestone of unknown thickness, covered with a stratum of 

jasper varying from a few inches to 60ft. in thickness. 

WiLSONf says — "The rocks composing the tableland are 
Palaeozoic, and, with the exception of a few beds of trap and an 
occasional prominence of granite, belong to the Carboniferous." 
The siliceous sandstones he places on the horizon of the Hawkes- 
bury series of New South Waies, but describes as differing from 
them in the absence of drift-bedding and organic remains. The 
cliffs on the north-west coast he regards as partially reconstructed 
ferruginous sandstone belonging to the Tertiary period. 

Since Gregory's expedition the interior of Australia has been 
traversed in various directions, and with such eft'orts are honorably 
associated the names of Stuart, Burke and Wills, Warburton, 
Giles, J. Forrest, &c., but the geological gain has been of a purely 
local importance. I may therefore be pardoned if I single out for 
mention that recently fitted out by — 

SiK Thomas Elder. The object — to fill up the blank spaces 
in the topographical and geological maps of Australia — was 
ambitious, and the scientific equipment of the expedition gave 
hojie that permanent results would be gained ; but its premature 
disbandment has indefinitely protracted the realisation of this 
cherished consummation. So far as the area traversed is concerned 
the expedition accomplished a very great deal ; it was a failure 
simply by reason of the limitation of the original scheme. In 
geology nothing new has been brought to light, though certainty has 

» Journal of the N.W. Australian Expedition, Pail. Kcii. 1861. 
t Journal Royal Geographical Society, vol. xxvni. 



INATIGITRAI, ADDRp;SS, 21 

re])laced previous guess-work or speculation. Nevertheless, such 
problems as the exact relation of the fossiliferous Silurian to those 
of older date, the stratigraphy and fossils of the marine Cretaceous, 
and its relation to the supra-Cretaceous rocks, still await solution 
The geologist to the expedition has done his work so conseien- 
tiously and thoroughly that the poverty of his report* is to be 
ascribed to Nature's deficiencies. In other departments of natural 
history our expectations have been satisfactorily realised. May we 
hope that the Australian Macsenas of our time will crown his 
efforts to unfold some of the mysteries of our dry interior by 
directing a systematic exploration of some well-defined area, such 
as the oasis of the Macdonnell Rano;e ? 



DISCOVERY OF GOLD. 

The year of 1851 marks an epoch in the history of Australia, 
because in that year the rich goldfield of Ophir Avas discovered. 
Gold wa« scientifically discovered by Strzelecki in 1839, and by 
Clarke in 1811, though its existence would appear to have been 
known as early as 1823. In 1814, without being aware of these 
discoveries. Sir Roderick Murchison pointed out the similarity of 
the rock structure of the Eastern Cordillera of Australia to that of 
the Ural Mountains, and predicted the occurrence of gold. Subse- 
quent events afforded a proof that geology, like the more exact 
sciences, is capable of advancing philosophical inductions to very 
imjjortant results. ► But the precious metal was not commercially 
discovered, so to speak, till 1851, by Hargreaves, who had spent 
some of his earlier years as a stock-raiser in Eastern Australia. 
In 1849 he was gold-mining in California, and his experiences 
there gained convinced him of the similarity in structure of the 
auriferous rocks of California and certain districts in New South 
South Wales. He revisited New South Wales early in 1851, to 
put to the test his geological instinct and the accuracy of his 
observations. In this he succeeded, and ultimately, under Govern- 
ment direction, the goldfield of Ophir, in the district of Bathurst, 
was declared open. He Avas awarded £10,000 for his discovery, 
and in 1876 a pension was granted him. He died in 1891 at the 
age of 75 years. 

The discovery of gold proved a source of an enormous amount 
of wealth to New South Wales, and was soon followed in the 
same year by the discovery of much richer goldfields in Vic- 

* Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., vol. xvii., 1893. 



22 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

toria, whirh had just then been separated into an independent 
colony. A powerfid factor was thus added to the economic and 
scientific advancement of the continent. The consequent stimulus 
to a higher intellectual culture resulted in the foundation of the 
Universities of Sydney and Melbourne, and the establishment of 
systematically-organised geological surveys. 

The University of Sydney was opened in October, 1852, but the 
study of geology was not introdiiced till 1866, Dr. Alex. M. 
Thomson being then appointed reader in geology and mineralogy. 
In 1870 he was made professor. On his death, in 1872, he 
was succeeded by Professor Liversidge, whose real work was 
always chemistry and mineralogy. In 1 882, upon a redistribution 
of the subjects of the University curriculum, Mr. W. J. Stephens 
was appointed professor of natural history and lecturer on physical 
geography and geology. After his death, towaz-ds the close of 
1890, the present professorship of geology and physical geography 
was inaugurated, and Mr. David, who had been assistant on the 
geological staff of New South Wales since 1882, was appointed to 
the chair in 1891. 

The University of Melbourne was opened on October 3rd, 1855, 
and from its inception took a prominent place in the history of 
geological progress in Australia. To this I shall again refer in 
connection with the Geological Survey of Victoria. 

Concurrently therefore with the memorable events just alluded 
to the history of geological progress enters upon a new period. Up 
to 1 853 our exact knowledge of the sedimentary deposits, as derived 
from the organic remains, was confined to the Carboniferous, to 
a late Tertiary (represented by the Diprotodon period), and to a 
more recent ^Eolian formation : no distinct identification of Upper 
Silurian, Devonian, or Eocene had been forthcoming, though th^ir 
existence was implied, whilst the only evidence of a Mesozoic epoch 
was a single imperfect example of a Belemnite. Restricted means of 
communication in a vast extent of country was the main cause 
which retarded advancement in geological investigation. With 
increasing population this barrier was gradually removed. Expan- 
sion of our pastoral occupation and the opening out of new trade 
routes brought new fields within the horizon of geological vision. 
It is, therefore, not a matter for surprise that in the next decade 
great and rapid advances were made in establishing a comparison 
on palgsontological grounds with corresponding geological systems 
of Europe. The history of geological progress in the second half 
century is mainly that of the Geological Surveys ; and the chrouo- 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 23 

logical treatment of my subject must be abandoned at this stage ; 
but, in the form of an appendix, I have set forth a summary of 
discoveries and original researches in respect of the principal 
periods now known to be comprised in the table of the Australian 
Sedimentary Deposits. 

GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS. 

1. NEW SOUTH WALES. 
So early as 1845 Strzelecki urged a regular geological survey 
under Government direction. The subsequent discovery of mineral 
treasures showed the importance of a minute and careful study of 
the rocks and minerals of the colony ; and, tinally, through the 
persistent advocacy of the Rev. W. B. Clarke, representations were 
made to the Home Government as to the expediency of instituting 
a mineralogical and geological survey of the colony. As a result of 
their representations, the appointment of geological surveyor Avas, 
early in 1849, offered to Mr. Beete Jukes (afterwards Professor 
and Director of the Irish Geological Survey), whose personal 
acquaintance with the geology of Australia made the selection a 
most desirable one, but it was declined ; then Mr. Bristow, of the 
Geological Survey of England and Wales, accepted the offer, but, 
before the expiry of the term allowed him to prepare for his depar- 
ture, he tendered his resignation ; Anally Mr. Samuel Stutchbury 
then curator of the Bristol Museum, was appointed, on the 
recommendation of Sir Henry I', de la Beche, Director of 
the Geological Survey of Great Britain, as being " weLl in- 
structed in survey work, with great experience as a coal viewer^ 
and a skilled mineralogist." Mr. Stutchbury arrived towards the 
end of 1850, and his fii-st official field work was to proceed with 
Hargreaves to the alleged gold discoveries, and to make a searching 
examination into the conditions of their occurrences. A survey of 
the geological features of the gold-producing country occupied 
Stutchbury about two years ; but during the latter part of his 
term of office he was chiefly employed in the southern portions of 
Queensland, particularly on the Ipswich coalfield, which he re- 
garded as contemporaneous with that of Newcastle. The Palaeozoic 
fossiliferous limestone on the western flank of the Blue Mountains, 
discovered by Mitchell, was referred on palaeontological evidence to 
the Devonian — *' Certainly older than the Carboniferous Limestone 
of Europe." The authors of the " Geology of Queensland," who 
hail Stutchbury as one of three woi'thy pioneers in Australian 
geology, have expressed the opinion that his sixteen repor-ts 



24 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

" display keen powers of observation, and are not so well known as 
they ought to be." 

Contemporaneously with Stutchbury, the Rev. W. B. Clarke 
was employed by the Government, commencing September, 1851, 
to ascertain the probabilities of the existence of ^old in various 
parts of the colony. He arrived in New South Wales in 1839, 
being then 41 years of age ; his labors as a geologist commenced 
some time before leaving the home country, and his first paper on 
Australian geology was communicated in 1842,''' but he had already 
commenced the collection of rocks, fossils, and minei'als, he having 
presented, in 1844, a set to the Woodwardian Museum of Cam- 
bridge University. In 1845 he accompanied Beete Jukes to various 
geological sections around Sydney, and much of the latter's definite 
account of the Carboniferous rocks of that part of New South Wales 
is traceable to Clarke; Leichhardt, in 1846, acknowledged his 
obligations to him. The part which he played in the discovery of 
gold I have already alluded to, and to it may be added that of tin in 
1 849. He did great good in educating the Government to understand 
how much the mineral resources of the colony were identified with 
the development of the knowledge of its rocks and minerals, and 
to him is chiefly due the credit of the estiblishment of a geological 
survey. Clarke contributed largely to the elaboration of the Siluro- 
Devonian and Carboniferous rocks in New South Wales and 
Queensland, and of the Cretaceous in Queensland. He was essen- 
tially a practical man, and while not caring very much about 
contributing to scientific knowledge for its own sake, yet he took 
a very keen interest in the progress of palaeontological research in 
Australia, and his collection of Palaeozoic fossiis formed the subject 
of a detailed Avorkf by Professor de Koninck, of Liege. The 
majority of his papers and reports were written in the interest of 
the mineral resources of the colony, and embrace an area of 
100,000 square miles. Whilst respecting the enthusiasm of younger 
workers he was not always in sympathy with them, and allowed 
himself to be led into controversies, concerning the merits of which 
it is not fitting to enter here. He was elected F.R.S. in 1876, and 
was awarded the Murchison Medal of the Geological Society in 
1877, "in recognition of his remarkable services in the investi- 
gation of the older rocks of New South Wales." His last 
contribution to the geological literature of Australia, '• The 
Sedimentary Formations of New South Wales," w^as published in 

• Oa the Fossil Pine Forest of Lnke Macquarie, Proc. Geol. Soc, vol. 4, 1843. 
+ " Recherches sur les Fossiles Palaeozoiques de la Nouvelle Galles du Sud." 1876-77. 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 25 

lf^78; the introductory notice to which is dated June 2nd, 1878, 
■only fifteen days before his death. That volume is an index to the 
immense services rendered by him to geology generally, although it 
is more particularly devoted to the Palaeozoic rocks of New South 
Wales, to the study of which he had devoted forty years of his 
life. Now that fifteen years have passed since his death we 
are better able to make a true estimate of his real achieve- 
ments than was possible at the time ot their announcement. 
'Though some of his observations have been corrected and some of 
his generalisations discarded, yet the solid mass of original work 
remains as a lasting memorial of his genius and industry. His 
name has become a household worJ amongst us, and will be handed 
do--vn to posterity as that of the '• Father of Australian Geology." 

The geological and palseontological collections made by Clarke, 
as well as his maps and books, were acquired by the New .South 
Wales Government at a cost of £7,1/00. This, as also the collection 
made by the Department of Mines at the instance of the Govern- 
ment Geologist, w-as destroyed by fire on September 22nd, 1882; 
thus maps, manuscripts, and authenticated fossils, the greater bulk 
of which had not been utilised up to that time, were absolutely lost. 

On the resignation of Mr. Stutchbury at the end of 1855, a long 
interregnum succeeded, during which Mr. W. Keene, the examiner 
of coalfields and keeper of mining records, continued, in a certain 
sense, the geological survey, but the actual advancement in our 
knowledge of stratigraphical geology and palajontology is due to 
the Rev. W. B. Clarke, and to him alone In 1873, Mr. C. S. 
Wilkinson, previously of the Geological Survey of Victoria, was 
appointed Geological Surveyor; and in 1875 the control of the 
Survey Branch of the newly-organised Department of Mines was 
vested in him. In 1880* the first geological map of New South 
Wales, based on the original map of the late Rev. W. B. Clarke, 
was issued by the Department. Some indication of Wilkinson's 
successful direction of the survey is to be found in his niunerous 
official reports and maps, wdiich evince intense application and high 
professional skill. His many papers contributed to scientific 
societies further display an untiring energy and zeal in the cause 
of his favorite science. The geology of New South Wales 
received very careful development at his hands, and a summary of 
its stratigraphy from his pen was published by the Department of 
Mines in 1887f. The classification of the Carboniferous rocks of 

* Report Department of Mines for 1880. and separately issued in ISS2. 
t Notes on the Geology of New South Wales. 



26 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 



New South Wales proposed by the late Rev. W. B. Clarke has been 
elaborated, and to some extent modified in details and added to bj 
the Geological Survey staff, especially by Wilkinson and David. 
The death in 1891 of this kindly and courteous gentleman, at a 
comparatively early age, was widely deplored. His successor is 
Mr. E. F. Pittman. 

The ai^pointment of Mr. Robert Etheridge, jun., in 1887 (formerly 
on the staff of the Geological Survey of Victoria, afterwards Palaeon- 
tologist to the Geological Survey of Scotland, and later of the 
British Museum), as Palaeontologist to the Geological Survey of 
New South Wales, is an admission of the value of palaeontology in 
its application to the elucidation of the classification of the sedi- 
mentary deposits. The memoirs issued by the Department, under 
the editorship of Mr. Etheridge, which were commenced in 1888, 
have brought within reach of those interested in Australian geology 
most A'aluable results of palseontological investigation. The eighth 
memoir was issued last year. In addition, there was commenced 
in 1889 the issue of " Records of the Geological Survey," devoted 
to current discoveries and observations regarding the geology, 
palaeontology, and mineral resources of the colony. These have 
been issued quarterly up to date, are highly appreciated, and 
cannot fail to stimulate research among amateurs who may have 
the opportunity to carry on geological investigations ; whilst the 
authentic information imparted with regard to mineral occurrences 
and laboratory work in this connection makes them valuable com- 
mercially as well as scientifically. 

2. VICTORIA. 

Prior to 1851 Victoria oft'ered comparatively little attraction to 
the immigrant, but the discovery of gold in that year arrested the 
tide of emigration, population rapidly increased, and commercial 
prosperity advanced by leaps and bounds. Mining registrars and 
surveyors were appointed. A Geological Survey was established 
under the direction of Mr. (now Sir) A. R. C. Selwyn. one of the 
ablest of the staff of the Geological Survey of Great Britain. The 
chief members of his field staff' were the late Messrs. Aplin, 
Daintree, and Wilkinson ; Messrs. Ulrich (now Professor), Norman 
Taylor, H. Y. L. Brown, R. Etheridge, jun., and R. A. F. Murray; 
whilst to Professor (now Sir F.) McCoy, who had been appointed 
to the chair of Natural History in the University of Melbourne, wa& 
entrusted palaeontology. 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 27 

Up to 1853 the geology of Victoria was almost a blank. What 
little was then known of it was due to Mitchell, Strzelecki, and 
Jukes, but that little Avas for the most part either misread or 
too indefinite to be available in the future. Thanks to the ability 
and zeal of Mr. Selwyn and the members of his staff, aided by the 
palseontological determinations of Professor McCoy, the geological 
structure of Victoria w^as rapidly unfolded, and large tracts of 
country were geologically surveyed in detail and illustrated by 
sixty-five admirably-executed maps on a scale of 2in. to one mile, 
each embracing an area of fifty-four square miles. In 1863 a 
general sketch map was published on a scale of eight miles to lin., 
and republished in 1867* in a reduced form. The Lower and 
Upper Silurian strata were recognised, and the line of demarcation 
drawn between them ; the Avon River sandstones were relerred to 
Carboniferous or passage-beds in that direction from the Upper 
Devonian ; the limestones of Buchan and other isolated patches in 
Gippsland were classed as Middle Devonian; the coal-bearing 
strata of the Cape Otway and Western Port districts were tabulated 
as Jurassic. These determinations stand to-day ; but the elabora- 
tion of the Bacchus Marsh beds and the Tertiary deposits is the 
work of later authorities. Selwyn made the first attempt to classify 
the Tertiary beds of Victoria, but as his classification was based 
on iithological characters, and as the palseontological data were not 
brought into relation with the existing marine fauna of adjacent 
areas, no high value can be attached to his determinations. Pro- 
fessor McCoy occupied himself with some of the Tertiary fossils, 
but they are, so far as published, too limited in number to serve as 
a basis of classification on the principle advocated by Sir Charles 
Lyell; other authors, with no local knowledge, have in their 
attempt to revise the classification, only made further confusion. 

It is a matter of deep regret that in a spirit of parsimony the 
Victorian Parliament in 1868 abolished the Geological Survey, one 
of the most complete ever organised. The deprivation of the 
means of obtaining accurate information as to the mineral tract* 
which remained to be explored, was, however, to some extent 
removed in 1871, when the geological work was partially resumed 
under the direction of Mr. Brough Smyth, then Secretary for 
Mines, and subsequently under his successor, Mr. J. Couchman, 
and continued by Messrs. Norman Taylor, R. A. F. Murray, J. 
Dunn, and F. Krause, assisted by Mr. A. W. Howitt (Warden of 
Goldfields) and W. Nicholas. Geological maps of the principal 

* Intercolonial Exhibition Essays, plate 1. 



28 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

goldfiplfls, and reports embodying geological descriptions of 
defined areas, were published, whilst illustrations of Palaeozoolog}', 
by Professor McCoy, and of Palaeophytology, by Baron von Mueller, 
were issued. In 1875 a " First Sketch of a Geological Map of 
Australia," by R. Brough Smyth, was issued under departmental 
authority. 

In the beginning of 1878 the Geological Sixrvey was again 
discontinued, but was resumed later, Mr. Murray being alone 
reinstated, and he still remains Government Geologist. After- 
wards Mr. James Stirling was appointed on the permanent staff 
in 1887, and other assistants are occasionally engaged. 

Since 1877 there has been a practical cessation of geological 
surveying on an organised basis. Nevertheless, a valuable piece of 
work during this period was the issue of a geological map of 
Australia and Tasmania, executed by Mr. A. P^verett, chief 
draughtsman of the Mining Department. 

The resignation of Mr. Langtree as Secretary for Mines in 1889 
made room for the appointment of Mr. A. W. Howitt, so long 
favorably known for his geological investigations of Gippsland and 
for his anthropological memoirs. This transfer raised the hope 
that some return to the higher functions of a geological survey 
would be attempted. It has been realised in part, and the more 
recent geological reports, such as those on the coal formations of 
Gippsland, and on the glacial conglomerates of Heathcote, are 
■evidence of the possibility that the more purely scientific a>;pects 
of geology can be carried on concurrently with its direct applica- 
tion to industrial economics The severance of the two objects 
would be a lasting disservice to the material advancement of 
knowledge among the educated mining classes of the colony. The 
support given by our provincial Governments to geological science 
has for the most part been greatly disproportionate to its industrial 
importance. It is much to be desired that the geological reports 
of the Department of Mines should be rendered more accessible 
to the scientific reader by their separate publication, instead of 
being virtually lost amidst a mass of mining statistics of merely 
epliemeral value. 

3. QUEENSLAND. 

As already indicated, the labors of Stutchbury, and Clarke, 
•extended into what is now Queensland. On the disbandment of 
the geological staff of the Victorian Survey in 1 868, we find in that 
year Mr. C. D'Oyley Aplin appointed Geologist for the Southern 
District of Queensland, and Mr. Richard Daintree for the 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS 29 

Northern Division, both having been members of Mr. Selwyn's 
staff in Victoria. The former held office till 1870. In 1871 the 
latter proceeded to London in charge of the Queensland mineral 
exhibits at the exhibition of 1872, and remained there as Agent- 
General for the colony, a jjost he held until 1876, when in con- 
sequence of ill-health he was obliged to resign. In recognition of 
his services to the colony in his official capacitj', and to colonial 
science, Her Majesty conferred on him the distinction of C.M.G. 
His well-earned honor was held for a very brief period, as he died 
in 1878. Daintree, aided by the palseontological determinations 
of Mr. Etheridge, sen., outlined the geology of Queensland in a 
paper *, accompanied by a sketch map, the first of its kind. The 
Silurian of previous authors is referred to the Middle Devonian, 
the coal formation of N'orthern Queensland is recognised as 
Carboniferous, the removal of the coal deposits characterised by 
Taeniopteris to the Mesozoic age is insisted on, the Ipswich 
Coal Measures are regarded as the equivalent of the Carbonaceous 
series in Victoria, the marine Mesozoic fossils of the River 
Flinders area are classed as Cretaceous, whilst his " Desert Sand- 
stone " is regarded as Tertiary. The progress of the survey has 
not materially disturbed this classification. The chief emenda- 
tions are the removal of certain areas classed as Devonian to the 
Carboniferous, and the transference of the Desert Sandstone — on 
palseontological data, though it was previously thought to be 
unfossiliferoiis — to the Upper Cretaceous. 

Mr. A. C. Gregory, who explored the Gascoigne and Murchison 
rivers in 1848, directed the North- West Australian Expedition in 
1856, headed the Leichhardt Search Expedition in 1858, and was 
formerly Surveyor-General for Queensland, held the appointment 
of Geologist for the Southern District from 1875 to 1879. His 
most important reports relate to the southern coalfields, and '• that 
on the Ipswich coalfield is the most important published up to the 
present date, although it is one of the earliest." f 

Mr. R. L. Jack, who had served ten years on the Scottish 
Geological Survey, was appointed in 1877 Geologist for Northern 
Queensland, and on the retirement of Mr. Gregory became chief 
of the staff for the whole colony. Mr. N. H. Rands joined him as 
assistant in 1883, and Mr. A. G. Maitland in 1888. 

The present state of our knowledge on Queensland geology is 
succinctly and clearly set forth in the '^ Geology and Palseoutology 

* Quart. Joum. GeoloH-ical Socii-ty, vol. xxviii., 1872. 
t Geology of Qu. enslaml, by Jack and Etheridge, p. 333, 1892. 



30 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

of Queensland," by Messrs. Jack and Etheridge, published within 
the past twelve months. The issue of this work marks an event in 
the history of geological progress in Australia. It stands unrivalled 
for its rich stores of information, and for its methodical arrange- 
ment, tracing, as it does, the various steps in the growth of our 
knowledge, and giving credit to each previous observer who had 
contributed to its history. The reports of isolated surveys are 
pieced together, and the whole is illustrated by a large "geological 
map, which has been compiled with some approach to accuracy." 
The palseontological part is enriched with forty-four quarto plates 
of fossils. 

4. SOUTH AND WEST AUSTRALIA. 

The establishment of the geological surveys of these colonies 
came too late to render aid in the completion of the geological 
history of Australia, and what has been accomplished by them is 
local rather than general. 

The fovmdatJon of the University of Adelaide in 1875 gave me 
the opportunity, as the occupant of the Chair of Natural History, 
of contributing to the knowdedge of iiustralian Geology. In 1877 the 
discovery of a few fossil remains in strata where they were previously 
unknown revolutionised our ideas concerning the age of the crystal- 
line rocks, which occupy an enormous extent and thickness in this 
continent. In consequence of the recognition of the Cambrian age 
of these fossils, the underlying unconformable metamorphic rocks 
were relegated to the Archsean. 

The classification of the marine Tertiaries, after the method 
employed by Sir Charles Lyell, has gradually been evolved, and 
within the last three years four distinct populations have been 
made out, the relation of the beds containing them have been 
demonstrated, and the main divisions, corresponding with Eocene, 
Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene, have been established. So 
have been filled in the last remaining large gaps in the chronological 
sequence of the Australian sedimentary rocks. 

Thus in Australia, as in other continental areas, there are de- 
velopments of Azoic, Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, and Cainozoic rocks ; and, 
moreover, the geological sequence of the chief marine formations 
are fairly well represented — from Archaean to Permo-Carboniferous, 
from Trias to Cretaceous, and from Eocene to those deposits now in 
process of accumulation. That there are gaps of considerable 
extent in Eastern Australia is certainly true, but they owe their 
existence to the prevalence of terrestrial conditions. These gaps 
are partly filled by marine Jurassic beds in West Australia 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 31 

(discovered by Mr. F. T. Gregory in 1861*) and b}^ the marine 
developments of the Cainozoic epoch in Southern Australia. 

GLACIAL PERIODS IN AUSTRALIA. 

Neiver Tertiary Glaciation. — Prior to 1877 it had been con- 
jectured by two geologists! that certain surface features might be 
attributed to ice action; but on May 7th of that year I announced, 
in a course of public lectures, the existence of a well-preserved 
glacier path along the edge of the sea cliffs at Hallett's Cove. 
The nature of the evidence at this locality and elsewhere in South 
Australia Avas brought to more scientific notice in 1879, J and 
subsequently supplemented in 1885§ and 1888. || Observations in 
Victoria by several geologists^ have geographically extended the 
phenomena of a late Tertiary glaciation in Southern Australia, 
though Hallett's Cove remains unique in respect of the magnitude 
and completeness of the glacial features which are there preserved. 
Geologists have been slow to accept the fact, and there have been 
those who have opposed and even ridiculed the notion of glaciation 
in such low latitudes and at such inconsiderable elevations, but 
to-day we may congratulate ourselves that a Post- Miocene glacial 
period occupies an unassailable place in the geological historv of 
Australia. Mr. Jack** has lately added his testimony, as the 
result of personal inspection, that " Prof. Tate's observations are 
correct in every particular," and in addition has satisfied himself 
that the movement of the ice must have been from south to north, 
a conclusion that I had arrived at from the southerly position of 
the probable source of the morainic debris. This expression of 
Opinion by a master in the art of interpreting glacial signs will, I 
am sure, carry conviction to the minds of those who till now have 
been sceptical ; but if there be any here who are still adversely 
inclined, I beg them to withhold their decision until they have 
studied the features in situ. An opportunity is offered for that 
purpose by the excursion fixed for Saturday next, September 30th. 
" The interest appertaining to the discovery of a comparatively 
recent glacial epoch in Australia is, however, not alone of relative 

* Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, vol. xvii., p. 475. 

+ Sel-n-yn, Report Geology of S. Australia ; 18')!). Tenison- Woods, Geological 

Observations, p. 20. 1862. 

X Trans. Roy. Sjc., S. Aust , vol. ii., p. Ixiv. 

\ Id., vol. VIII., p. 49, 1866. || Id., Aust. Ass. Adv. Sc, vol. i., p. 231. 

H Howitt, Quart. Journ. Geol. Sne., vol. xxxv.. p. 35, 1879; Grifflths, Roy. Soc. Vic, 1886- 

Stirling, J., Roy. Soc. Vic, 1855; id., Proc. Lin. Soc, N.S.W., p. 483, 1886; Lencienfeld| 

Dr. R. von, Proc. Lin. Soc, N.S.W., 1885, p. 44 ; Uoivitt, A. W., Victorian Naturalist, vol 

VIII., 1891, p. 33. 

•• Geology Queensland, p. 619, 1892. 



32 INALGUKAL ADDRESS. 

scientific value .... but it is of imrinsic valiie,asaffordingr 
a clue to the unravelment of many highly complex biological 
•problems relating to the distribution, evolution, and extinction of 
organic forms.''*' 

Glaciation during Triasslc Period. — Another geological period 
in Australia furnishes evidences of ice action, namely, that of the 
" Hawkesbury sandstone," in the deposits of which occur, as first 
indicated by Wilkinson in 1879,f " angular fragments of shale, 
which have evidently been torn up by ice moving upon beds of 
shale and mingled in an irregular manner with the drifted sand 
which has formed the bed of sandstone immediately overlying the 
shale bed." 

Glaciation in Pernio- Carhoniferuus Times. — Yet a third geolo- 
gical period, that of the Permo-Carboniferous, has been interrogated 
and has yielded evidences of glacial conditions on a large and far- 
extending scale. The Bacchus Marsh sandstones and conglomerates 
were referred by Selwyn, ;]: in 1861, to a period intermediate 
between the Carboniferous and Permian, whilst the sandstones on 
the evidence afforded by their plant remains were assigned by 
McCoy to a Triassic age. From the character and* mode of arrange- 
ment of the material of the Bacchus Marsh conglomerates, Selwyn§ 
suggested transport by glacial action, though at that time grooved 
or ice-scratched pebbles and rock surfaces had not been observed. 
The occurrence of breccias and conglomerates in the Carboniferous 
rocks of New South Wales subordinate to the " Upper Marine " 
beds had been previously noted, though their significance had not 
been indicated till Mr. T. Oldham || (Deputy-Superintendent of the 
Geological Survey of India), when on a visit to Australia in 1885, 
discovered some ice-scratched pebbles among them, near Branxton, 
and correlated the conglomerates with the boulder group of Talchir 
of India, the Ecca conglomerates of South Africa, and the glacial 
conglomerates of Bacchus Marsh. Beds of similar aspect, and 
indicating a similar mode of origin, have been described by Jack ^ 
in the Bowen River coalfield, and by Hands*"* in the Gympie 
series. The proof of the glacial origin of the Bacchus Marsh 
conglomerates was indicated by Dunnf f , who reported that " a con- 
glomerate with such characteristics suggests glacial action." The 

* Stirling, J., Roy. Soc. Vict., 1885. + Proc. Roy. Soc. \ S.W.. vol. xiii., p. 105, 18^0. 

t P:xliibition Essays, p. 182. \ Id., p. 183. 

II Records Geol. Surv. India, vol. xix., p. 43, 1886 ; Id., Gaol. Jtag., July, 1886. 

TI Report on Bowen River Coalfield, 1879; and Geol. Queensland, p. 151. 

** Report on Gympie Goldrield, l.s89; Aust. Assoc. Adv. Sc, i., p. 297, 1889; also Jack, 

Geol. Queensland, p. 77, 1892. 

tt Report JUning Department, Vict., 1888, p. 81. 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 33 

same observer in 1890'^' and laterf, in a beautifully illustrated 
memoir on the conglomerates at Wild Duck Creek, near Heathcote, 
supplies all the characteristics of glaciated rock surfaces and ice- 
scratched erratics ; whilst still later similar appearances have 
been recognised in the conglomerates at Bacchus Marsh by Mr. 
G. Sweet.j 

The recognition of climatic zones in the Permo-Carboniferous 
and Hawkesbury Sandstone series permits, in conjunction with the 
distribution of the plant remains, the correlation of distant areas 
on the basis of contemporaneity. Whether or not the Indian geolo- 
gists § have pushed too far the value of such a time measure by its 
synchronous application to both hemispheres, I think we may 
safely employ it in the classification of our deposits, even if we do 
not accept a contemporaneous origin fcr the sequence of the 
sedimentary formations in South Africa between the Lower 
Carboniferous and the Uitenhage series. 

IMPERFECTION OF THE GEOLOGICAL RECORD. 

The difFusedness in the geographic distribution of the geological 
systems robs the field geologist of the means to determine the re- 
lationship that one set of beds has to another. Hitherto geological 
age has largely been determined by fossiliferous evidence, but 
deduciions drawn therefrom maybe subject to modification when the 
stratigraphical sequence has been ascertained. Paleeontology is 
the handmaiden to stratigraphical geology, and though it may- 
hold the key to the problems of local and comparative stratigraphy, 
yet it cannot afford results of permanent value when applied to 
widely separated areas. These methods of determination, when 
separately employed, gave discordant results in the case of the 
Newcastle Coal-series, and a controversy of long duration waged 
between the respective adherents of the opposite opinions enter- 
tained. 

On the other hand, palaeontology has usefully lent her aid by 
directing closer attention to stratigi-fiphical details and has thus 
led up to the discovery of a break in the succession of deposits 
co-ordinate with the palseontological one ; in this way, the separa- 
tion of the Miocene from the Eocene on stratigraphical features 
has been attained. 

• Aust. Assoc. Adv. Sc, vol. ii., p. 452. t Report Mining: Department, Vict., 1892. 

i Victorian Naturalist, 1S92, p. 130. 

(SDr. Oldham, Mem. Geol. Surv., Inoia. in., p. 209, 1863, Ur. H. F. Blandt'ord, Quart. 

Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxi., p. S19, 1875. Dr. Feistmautel, Ucc. Geol Surv., India, xiii., 

p. 250, 1881'. Dr. Waagen, Rec. Geol. Surv , India, xix., p. 22, 1886. Mn R. D. Oldham, 

Rec. Geol. Surv., India, xix., p. 43, 1886. 

C 



34 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

We have nothing at all approximating to the imbrication of one 
system by another, as in the geological succession of the British 
strata, where each has a determinable base and cover. Here, it 
may be said, that for the most part we have neither base nor 
cover ; the overlying system being, most frequently, vastly re- 
moved in time from that which underlies. Thus the Lower 
Cretaceous rocks of Australia rest directly on Archaean, Cambrian, 
or rarely Carboniferous ; nowhere are they in actual sequence with 
the next older system, that of the Ipswich Coal-series. The 
Cambrian has no Palaeozoic cover in Australia ; the Upper 
Cretaceous beds are hundreds of miles away from the nearest 
marine Eocene. 1 consider, therefore, that the definition of the 
stratigraphical boundaries of our rock systems is one of the 
most important tasks which should occupy the attention of our 
Geological Surveys. The difficulty that besets the stratigraphical 
geologist is complicated by the phenomenon of groups of strata 
separated by a physical break having the same assemblage 
of fossils, as is the case with the Desert Sandstone and Rolling 
Downs Systems and between certain sub-divisions of the Permo- 
Carboniferous in Queensland and New South Wales. 

The faunal peculiarities of the several formations are, moreover, 
such as to raise the question — are we right in adopting the chrono- 
logy of the European School ? 

Jukes*', in speaking of the Palseozoic rocks and fossils of 
Australia, preferred always to speak of them only as Palaeozoic, 
and forbore to discuss the question of their identity in time with 
the Silurian, Devonian, or Carboniferous periods of Europe, for 
which even the identity of one or two species (if it occurs) is not 
altogether sufficient evidence. 

Perhaps we may not be far wrong in regarding our Cambrian 
and Ordovician as the homotaxial equivalents to those kno\ATi by 
the same names in Europe ; and though we have a fauna Silurian 
in its composite character, yet it does not present such a sub-division 
into life zones as is well kn(Jwn to the European student. The 
limits of the Silurian and Devonian, and of the Devonian and 
Carboniferous, seem so ill-defined that it is questionable if the 
middle term exists as viewed from a European or North American 
standpoint. Then we have the palseontological overlap of the 
Palaeozoic and Mesozoic in the Newcastle Coal-series, and probably 
something analogous between Mesozoic and Cainozoic. Certainly 

•Phj's. structure of Australia, pp, 21, 22; 1850. Man. Geology, 2nd. edit., p. 408 ; 



INAUGUKAL ADDRESS. 35 

there are remnants of a Cretaceous fauna in our Eocene, which are 
not derived from an endemic source, but are migrants from the 
EurojDean or Asiatic area, and altogether it appears to be older 
than that of its representative in the Northern Hemisphere, 
Avhilst there is reason for the belief that the terrestrial equivalents 
may be synchronous with some portion of the " Desert Sandstone," 
which in part has yielded a much impoverished Cretaceous fauna. 

The attempts to bring the order of succession of the Australian 
stratified deposits in unison with that of the country in which so 
many of the geologists have gained their early impressions have at 
no time been satisfactory, and the difficulties are daily increasing. 
Even at an early period of our geological history there had been 
grasped the important idea that the geology of the typical area of 
Silurian, Devonian, and Carboniferous of Europe was not exactly 
comparable with that of Australia. This is indicated by the 
hesitancy on the part of authors to assign a given group of 
fossils to a definite epoch, and by the discordant results arrived 
at when the age has been the subject under consideration. 

Despite the desire to cling to home associations, I think the 
time is fast approaching when it will be deemed advisable to found 
an independent school for Australian Stratigraphy. But before a 
complete revision of the chronological sequence of our rocks can 
be undertaken much stratigraphical and palseontological research 
will have to be brought within some measurable distance of finality. 
Nevertheless, may it not be possible to make a beginning on what is 
fairly well known ? May we not decide to use such terms as 
Eocene and Pliocene, which, as expressions of the relative degrees 
of antiqiiity of their faunas, measured by the proportion of living 
species, do not commit us to the idea of correlation with divisions 
of similar denominations elsewhere '? But the employment of the 
time word Cretaceous conveys the idea of specific community 
between the Australian deposits so named and their supposed 
exoteric equivalents, which barely exists, or at least only under such 
modification as to be uudefinable. Such a term as Penno- Carboni- 
ferous is good up to a certain point, but it does not embrace what 
may be called the idiosyncrasies of its palaeontology, and therefore, 
like Cretaceo-Eocene and other similar terms, is misleading, and 
must be regarded as of no permanent value. Mr. R. M. Johnston 
writes : — * " We must be content to work out the true association 
of local stratigraphy and local biology unimpeded by references to 
such associations elsewhere ; we must establish the relationship 

• Aust. Assoc. Adv. Science, vol. i., p. 309. 



36 INAUGURAL ADDKESS. 

between the successive formations and their contained fossil 
remains ; and we must not, in our eagerness for geological progress, 
expect to establish at once in Australasia such close harmonious 
relationships as have been determined in Europe by the accumu- 
lated labors of several generations of distinguished workers." 

Discussing the subject of the nomenclature of the Australian 
Tertiaries, Professor Martin Duncan'^' says : — "It would be as Avell 
not to establish a too local terminology, for sooner or later the 
Cainozoic deposits of New Zealand, which attain probably a greater 
magnitude in depth than those of Australia, will be found to render 
the establishment of a great southern series necessary." So far as 
regards the magnitude of the Cainozoic beds, New Zealand has an 
advantage, but it may not be generally known that the Australian 
equivalents are much thicker than has usually been supposed. 
The Pre-Pliocene strata in the Croydon bore, for instance, near 
Adelaide,' have a thickness of 2,200ft., and in the vicinity of Mel- 
bourne very considerable thicknesses of Eocene deposits have been 
proved. But, apart from this, the faunas of our Cainozoic forma- 
tions are vastly richer than those of New Zealand, and of these and 
other geological periods the fossil contents are in course of careful 
elaboration and have largely been made diagnostically known ; so 
that, considering the little progress which New Zealand has made 
in this direction, Australia is the more likely to furnish a standard 
for reference, at least for palaeontology, if not for stratigraphical 
sequence. 

CIRCUMSTANCES RETARDING GEOLOGICAL 
PROGRESS. 

The study of geology for its own sake is extensively pursued in 
Great Britain. The science has its devotees in all ranks of the 
community, whilst its educational value is attested by its popularity. 
The official geologist draws largely upon his unofficial brother for 
local details of stratigraphy, whilst progress in palaeontology is 
almost entirely dependent upon him. In Australia the enthusiasts 
ha-\e always been few in number. Thus, on analysis of Etheridge 
and Jack's "Bibliography of Australian Geology," I find the names 
of only 110 au.thors, covering a period of eighty years, who have 
contributed to our literature from personal observations made 
within our boundary. The last decade added from twenty to thirty, 
but at the present time I doubt if there be more than twenty 
workers outside the official ranks. 

• Quart. Jouni. Gcol. Soc, 1870, p. 315. 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 37 

" The harvest truh' is plenteous, but the laborers are few." The 
reasons for this are not far to siek ; they have reference mainly to 
peculiarities in the geological structure of the continent. 

Monotony and uniformity of animal and vegetable life over 
extensive areas is a characteristic of Australia, and its geology 
partakes of it, if indeed it be not a contributing cause. Thus we 
have a single formation spreading over a wide area — a sheet of rock 
covering hundreds of square miles. It is on this account thai in 
an approximate way so much of the geology of Australia has been 
mapped, as it permits of observations made across one line of 
country being made applicable to large areas. In England a traA^erse 
from North Wales to London, which might be rapidly accomplished 
in a brief vacation, leads the amateur geologist from the base to the 
top of the geological series ; while in this country months would 
be required to visit merely the localities of our chief systems, 
leaving out of consideration the time required to ascertain the 
mutual relations of the deposits. Thus compactness and variety of 
geological structure belong to English geology, whereas simplicity 
and difFusedness are Australian characteristics. Take any one of 
the chief centres of learning in Australia — how very imperfectly 
can students be taught in a practical way the law of succession 
of deposits and of life. Melbourne is the most favorably situated, 
but what does it offer within easy reach of the student ? Lower 
Silurian and Upper Silurian, offering very limited opportunities for 
studying their structure, and none for studying their relationship ; 
beyond these there are onlj^ isolated areas occupied by Eocene and 
overlying basalts, the whole constituting a few broken links of a 
geological chain. 

Another deterrent cause affecting the popularity of the science 
is the comparative rarity of fossiliferous deposits, or at the least the 
prevailintc paucity of organic remains. Fossil collecting makes the 
tyro geologist, and in the absence of this stimulus how can we hope 
to make geology attractive? Up to the present only a con- 
spicuous few have been educated in Australia, and the majority of 
amateur geologists in Australia have brought their zeal and 
knowledge with them from the home country. The Succession of 
Life in Australia is a subject which offers a most inviting field for 
research, and largely concerns the geologist as well as the biologist, 
because it involves the question of the comparative value of 
different groups of fossils in marking geological time. In the 
Pliocene beds of this continent a rich marsupial fauna suddenly 
sprang into existence, and from that time to the present Australia 



38 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

has been constantly occupied by this type of mammalian life in the 
greatest diversity of form. Whence its origin ? Other and less 
familiar illustrations of biological import are at hand ; and, though 
this subject is alien to my purpose, yet I introduce it in passing 
because of a circumstance cognate with the life history of our 
fossiliferous deposits. I allude to the remarkable paucity in fossil 
species, and absolute poverty in specialised genera, in all forma- 
tions of the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic epochs ; only in the older 
Tertiaries does any great A^ariety and abundance appear. It 
may be said that exploitation for fossils has been too infrequent 
to permit of a census of any one of the systems of those epochs. 
This is true to some extent in respect of a few of them, either from 
the newness of the discovery or the inacessibility of their chief 
fossiliferous localities ; but it does not satisfactorily explain away 
the difficulty when applied to the Ordovician, Silurian, or Carbo- 
niferous. The comparative barrenness of life in these geological 
periods would seem to imply that the conditions of life were too 
precarious, such as may have been caused by frequent oscillations 
of level, or possibly by climatic alternations, to permit of a high 
state of evolution. When, however, we pass up into the Eocene 
the circumstances are altered ; there a fauna prevails very rich both 
in species and genera, representing a veritable population even 
exceeding in number that which occupies the same geographic 
area to day. 

A third difficulty in the way of obtaining enthusiastic students 
is the absence of remunerative positions. Professional avenues 
exist, but it has hitherto been the practice of our geological survey 
departments to import men. This course may be excusable in the 
case of high-class officers, but surely imder such tutelage as we 
can now offer our own students could be made available for minor 
services. Inducements beyond mere honors ■ in an examination 
should be offered to our students, and then our University bodies 
would probably be able to retain their graduates beyond the time 
required for the ordinary curriculum. The issues involved 
have so direct a bearing on the future progress of geological 
and biological science in this country that it is hoped that 
through the intervention of this Association the implied reproach 
that we cannot educate our young men to the required professional 
standard may be removed. Lastly, I refer to the pernicious practice, 
happily less frequent of late, of remitting pala30ntological material 
for determination beyond our own circle of workers. Wherever 
elaboration is possible within the colonies let it be done, and only 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 39 

when the necessary talent is wanting should we employ external 
aid. I think that it is only necessary to call attention to the 
existence of the evil, and appeal to the sense of justice and 
patriotism, to bring about the removal of an active cause inimical 
to palseontological progress. Palaeontology in Australia has made 
great advances during the last twenty years, as witness the 
" Decades " issued by the Geological Department of Victoria, the 
various " Memoirs " by that of New South Wales, and the numerous 
contributions to several of our scientific societies. 

ANTIQUITY OF CONTINENTAL AUSTRALIA. 

It is a general impression that Australia is a very old continent. 
Undoubtedly it is, because it presents a range of the geological 
record equal to that of other continental masses. But this impres- 
sion is based on illogical deduction, derived solely from the fact that 
certain characteristic types of the Jurassic fauna of the Northern 
Hemisphere still linger in the Australian area, such as trigonia, 
ceratodus, and marsupials among animals, c/yc«f/5 and certain conifers 
among plants. But the physiographic aspects of Australia have 
not always been absolutely continental. Since Upper Devonian 
times there have always been land surfaces, at any rate in Eastern 
Australia, where there was partial interruption to an absolute con- 
tinuity (and the area locally affected is not relatively great) during 
the deposition of the Carboniferous series, which is, however, 
in a large measure littoral. It may safely be asserted that Australia, 
certainly so far back as the deposition of the extensive marine 
Cretaceous occupying the low level tracts of the interior, j^resented 
the aspect of a vast archipelago. At the close of that epoch, the 
various insular masses became welded together, so that the antiquity 
of Australia as a whole is only Post-Cretaceous. In early Eocene or 
late Cretaceous times the flora was of a cosmopolitan type, consist- 
ing of an admixture of generic forms, some of which are now 
proper to the temperate and sub-temperate parts of the Northern 
Hemisphere, such as oaks, birch, alder, &c., and others exclusively 
Australian, such as eucalypti, banksias, araucarias, &c. The 
differentiation of the Australian flora has therefore been brought 
about during Post-Eocene times. 

Inferences as to the antiquity of Australia, drawn from its almost 
exclusive marsupial types, are erroneous, because there is every 
reason to doubt the correctness of the statement, thereby implied, 
that marsupials originated in Australia. Despite the recurrences 
of land surfaces from late Palaeozoic limes to the present day, and 



40 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

it is not improbable that some of them may have been permanent 
throughout or for a greater part of that long interval, no marsupials 
as old as those of Europe and North America have yet been found ; 
neither its coaly strata nor its ancient lake basins have yielded any 
of the higher types of fluviatile or terrestrial vertebrates. Indeed, 
the only instance of a fossil representative of the marsupialia, 
older than Pliocene in the Australian area, is that of a diprotodon- 
toid in the Eocene beds at Table Cape, Tasmania, whereas we 
must look for a polyprotodontoid as the early ancestor of the class. 
Recent researches point to South America as the area from which 
the Australian marsupial fauna has probably been derived, especially 
as that country possesses in its Eocene marsupial fauna close alliances 
with certain existing polyprotodon-types in Australia, Intimately 
connected with the origin and distribution of life in Australia is the 
geological history of its jiast and present configuration, more par- 
ticularly that of the interior. 

PHYSICAL CHARACTER OF THE INTERIOR. 

The observations of some of the earlier explorers gave rise to 
speculations as to the physical character of the interior, and when 
the facts became known they in turn served as a basis for certain 
hypotheses respecting the physiographic features of Australia at 
various past periods in relation to the distribution of its fauna and 
flora. The progress of our knowledge in these matters is worth 
relating, inasmuch as undue credit has been given tf) Alfred 
Wallace as the originator of a geological causation affecting the 
geographic distribution of our plants and animals. 

Vancouvek, 1791, writes: — " The principal part of this country 
appeared to be coral, and it would seem that its elevation above the 
ocean is of modern date, coral being found on the highest hills we 
ascended, particularly on the summit of Bald Head. Here the 
coral was entirely in its original state. In these fields of coral 
sea-shells were in great abundance."* Flinders gives the upper 
limit of the coral field at 400ft. f Peron regrets not having 
investigated the nature of the evidences, and it remained to 
Darwin ^ to rightly interpret the phenomena — thus, the corals 
become calcified branches of trees and the seashells are identified 
with a living land snail fBulhnus meloj. 

Flinders§, judging from the character and appearance of the 
coast along the Great Australian Bight, concluded that this 

* Voy. of Discovery, vol. i., pp. 165-66. 1801. + Voy. Terr. Aust., vol. i., p. 97. 

t Volcanic Observations, 2nd edit. ; Jour, of a Naturalist, 2nd edit., p. 450. 

5 Op. cit., vol, I., p. 93. 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 41 

•extensive seawall had been a coral reef raised by some convulsion 
of nature, and that an inland sea or low sandy country existed 
behind it. He had, however, not examined the rock formation, 
which was judged '• to be calcareous, the upper third brown, the 
lower two-thirds white, in horizontal layers," and attributed that of 
Bald Head to the same. The calcified casts of stems of trees 
contained in it he considered to be corals, as Vancouver did. 

OxLEY, when stopped in his westward progress by the marshes 
■of the Lachlan and Macquarie, was led to infer that the interior 
was occupied by a shoal sea, an opinion participated in by Allen 
Cunningham. 

Mitchell's exploration in 1816 yielded conclusive proof of the 
■desert nature of Central Australia. 

Stukt adopted the notion that the Australian continent had 
been an archipelago, that the interior plains had been sea beds, 
and that part of the interior was still occupied by a sea of greater 
or less extent, and very probably by large tracts of desert country. 
Thus the main object of tlie exploration of Central Australia 
undertaken by him in 1844-46 was to connect Lake Torrens with 
some more extensive and more central body of water, which he 
expected to find at or about sea level. He thought that he had 
found some confirmation of this in the fossiliferous beds of the 
Kiver Murray, which he considered to have been drifted from the 
north and accumulated against a bar of granite crossing the river 
near to its entrance into l-ake Alexandrina. Moreover, the general 
level of the Murray Plains — 2o0ft. to SOOft. — corresponds with 
that at which the rivers of the western watershed of East Australia 
lose their character as such. Arguing from the disposition and 
extent of the sand ridges in the basin of Lake Ej-re, he concluded 
that the winds had not formed them, though they had assisted in 
shaping their outlines, and he attributed their formation to water 
— supposing that originally the sand was a submarine deposition 
and that in the course of upheaval current-action made parallel 
breaches in the sandy floor in the direction of its flow.* He 
appeals to the marks of floods and violent torrents as evidences 
that the continent was at one time more humid than it now is.f 

Stokes doubted the existence of an inland sea, but suggested that 
the central part of the continent is a vast desert, though the interior 
■drainage may convert a portion into a lake. 

Eyre, who had pointed out the incompatibility of the existence 
in the interior of an extensive area of water and the occurrence of 

• Narrative Exped. Central Australia, vol. i., p. 381. i M., vol. ii., p. 124. 



42 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

excessively hot and dry winds blowing from the same quarter*-', 
unwittingly committed a similar error to that made by Vancouver 
and Flinders, and gave support to the notion of an interior 
lacustrine area by referring the helices and bulimini, buried in the 
loess of the plateau of the Great Australian Bight, to fresh water 
shellsf. 

Jukes;}:, though accepting the evidences of the existence of a 
great sea of low and level land occupying by far the larger portion 
of Australia, with the hilly districts rising from it like islands, yet 
rejects the idea of any expanse of water in much the same terms 
as Eyre used. But he holds the view of a partially submerged 
continent during the Tertiary period, and attributes the peculiarities 
in the geographical distribution of our plants and animals to 
isolation from this geological cause. These speculations of this 
able geologist are alluded to by Sir J. D. Hooker in his essay 
on " The Flora of Australia," p. ci., 1859. 

MacGillivray § agrees with the views of those geologists who 
consider Australia to have formerly appeared as a cluster of islands, 
which became connected since the Tertiary epoch, so as to form 
what may now be considered as a continent. 

Sttjkx missed the focus of centx'al depression, though subsequent 
discoveries proved him to be right as regards the existence of an 
inland sea, now vastly reduced in area from what it once had been. 
Eyre, Babbage, and Stuart added largely to ou.r knoAvledge of the 
extent of the lacustrine areas and desert tracts of Central Australia. 
During Bui'ke's expedition the limits of Sturt's " stony desert" were 
proved very little further north than the point reached by him ; 
whilst the surface features of the country bordering the Lake Eyre 
basin on the east and north are described by Wills as consisting 
of : — Stony rises, which are probably formed of the detritus of the 
sandstone ranges deposited in undulating beds of vast extent; loam 
flats, which are such an important geological feature in this part of 
the country ; and sandhills, composed of compactly-set red sand, 
which in some places have a uniform direction on the average 
N.N.E. and S.S.W. The Lake Eyre basin remained undelimited 
till surveyed by J. W. Lewis in 1874-5. 

Duncan, Professor Martin^, by a misreading of the geology,, 
assumed that the marine Tertiaries " reached far into the interior, 

' Joum. Expeditions, &c., 1845, vol. i., p. 273; Journ. Boy. Geograph. Soc, 1846, xvi., 

pp. 200-211. 

t O}). cit., vol. I., pp. 2?5 and 323. t Physical Structure of Australia, pp. 81, 84, 95. 

§ Voy. of Rattlesnake, vol. ii., p. 355. 1852. 

V Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxvi., p. 70. 1870. 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 4S 

and that it is by no means improbable that the Tertiary sea divided 
West Australia from the eastern provinces," and again that " the 
vast central area of Australia was a sea having open water to 
the north, &c." 

Wallace* appropriates the idea that, " during the Cretaceous 
period, and throughout a considerable portion of the Tertiary 
epoch," Australia was divided into two principal insular masses, 
an eastern and a south-western, a suggestion which, as already- 
indicated, originated with Sturt thirty-five years before, and was 
later adopted and supplemented by Jukes. 

From independent observations I had arrived in 1879f at much 
the same conclusions as Sturt, though from different premises. At 
that time I was not aware of his labors in this particular direction 
and now make this tardy acknowledgment of Sturt' s instinctive 
grasp of the nature and origin of the Lake Eyre basin. At the 
date mentioned I sought to connect the relative high humidity 
which prevailed in Central Australia, as indicated by the prevalence 
of Diprotodon remains, with the glacial conditions which prevailed 
farther south. Later :[, largely as the result of personal knowledge, 
I endeavored to show that a vastly increased rainfall over what is 
now the arid region of Australia during the Diprotodon Period is 
demanded by the extinct rivers, circumscribed lacustrine basins 
marked by their coincident sandbeaches, and the remains of large 
herbivores, whilst the lacustrine origin of the low level deposits is 
indicated by the presence of crocodiles, turtles, and fish. The 
subter-structure of this vast lacustrine region, formed by the union 
of Lake Eyre and the smaller lakes to the east and south-east of 
it, is Lower Cretaceovis, whilst its extent is limited by the so-called 
"desert sandstone," which almost entirely surrounds it. The last 
occupation of this region by a sea was during Lower Cretaceous 
times, and not, as has been currently held, during some parts of the 
Tertiary epoch. Indeed this lacustrine area in still vaster propor- 
tions existed during the accumulation of the Desert Sandstone; at 
least that part of the formation surrounding Lake Eyre must, from 
the land vegetation entombed in it, be regarded as of such an origin. 
Consequently I have elsewhere§ expressed the opinion that the 
isolation of West from p]ast Australia, which existed while Central 
Australia was a marine area, was continued into late Tertiary times. 
not by geological, but by climatic conditions — by conversion of 

♦Island Life, p. 465, 1880. + Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., vol. 2, pp. Ixi.-lxvii. 

t Trans. Ro}'. Soc S. Aust.. vol. viii., p. 49, et seq. 
5.\ust. Assoc. Adv. Sc, vol. I., p. 312, et seq.,l88lj. 



44 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

the depressed area into a vast fresh-water sea, to be followed in 
our own time by utter desiccation. The unconformity of the Desert 
Sandstone to the Lower Cretaceous of the country about the River 
Flinders induced Daintree, in 1872, to regard it as Tertiary, but he 
expressed no opinion as to the conditions of deposition of this 
widespread formation, which " did at one time cover nearly the 
whole of Australia;" but Mr, Etheridge * thought that the series 
was probably fresh water. The Rev. Tenisou Woods f held that 
the Desert Sandstone was of seolian origin, and had even suggested 
that it was contemporaneous with the Hawkesbury Sandstone — both 
views being quite untenable. The Desert Sandstone has since been 
found to contain, near Cooktown, interstratifi cations of coal, and at 
Croydon marine fossils ; and Mr. JackJ concludes that after the 
Rolling Downs formation (Lower Cretaceous) had been laid down in 
the comparatively naiTow sea which connected the Gulf of Carpen- 
taria with the Great Australian Bight, and converted the Australian 
area into two islands, a considerable upheaval took place. The 
denudation of the Lower Cretaceous followed ; unequal movements 
of depression then brought about lacustrine conditions on portions 
of the now uplifted bottom of the old deep sea strait, and in other 
portions permitted of the admission of the waters of the ocean. 
Finally a general upheaval placed the deposits of the period just 
■concluded in nearly the positions in which we now find them. 

A subject of great interest in this connection is the age of the 
Desert Tableland of Xorth and North-west Australia. Its struc- 
ture has been well described by King (1826), Grey (1841), Stokes 
(1846), Jukes (1850), F. Gregory (1861), and' Goyder, A. C. 
(1869). Its massive sandstones are represented by Jukes as of 
xinknown age, but are svipposed by him to be Palaeozoic. Wilson, of 
Gregory's expedition, places them on the horizon of the Hawkesbury 
Sandstone. Hardman's description of the country from King Sound 
to the Leopold Range recalls that of Grey's, respecting the country 
adjacent to Hanover Bay, and in all probability the Carbonifex'ous 
sandstone of Hardman extends thus far north. The charac- 
teristics of the quartzites of the Leopold Range are not applicable 
to the tableland sandstone of the Lower Victoria River, or of 
Aruheim's Land. If we approach these areas from the eastward 
there is much reason for the belief that the (tableland) sandstone 
is coterminous with the Desert Sandstone ; this view was held by 
Tate§ and Tenison Woods||. The fossililerous pebbles found by 

• Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxvin., p. 3i'4, lHr2. 

t Proc. Roy. Soc. N. S. Wales, 1882. i Geology of Queensland, 1892, p. 511 

i Pari. Paper, S.A., No. 63, 1882. || Pari. Paper, S.A., No. 122, 1886. 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 4& 

Leichharclt in the drainage area of the River Roper may indicate 
a Cretaceous formation rather than a Palaeozoic one ; Leichhardt 
reported finding " impressions of bivalves, one ribbed like a 
Cardiumr whilst Jukes, without sufficient warranty, conjectured 
they may have been Sp'iriferce or Product ce, and colored the area as 
probably Palseozoic. That two, if not three, geological epochs are 
represented by similar lithological and physiographic developments 
is not at all improbable ; and the origin of the tableland sandstone 
may be sought in the denudation of the Carboniferous quartzites 
of the western coastal region, whilst the reconstruction of the 
tableland sandstone may have originated some of the minor 
sandstone formations on the north coast, as suggested by Wilson. 

MICROSCOPIC PETROLOGY. 

Geologists have been too busily engaged in reaping golden 
harvests in the domains of pala;ontology and stratigraphy to be 
much tempted by the allurements of chemical geology or micro- 
scopic petrology. 

Professor Ulrich has on several occasions drawn attention to 
the desirability of the microscopic study of our rocks as an aid to 
the explanation of geological phenomena, especially because useful 
generalisations could be drawn from the characteristics of certain 
intrusive rocks. Mr. A. W. Howitt has been zealous in his 
researches in this direction, and has been of late ably supported 
by Mr. W. Anderson, Rev. Milne Curran, Professor David, and 
Mr. James Stirling. This modern method of petrographical 
research, when employed .as an aid to stratigraphical investigation,. 
promises to be a source of important discoveries in Australian 
geology, pai'ticularly in that portion of it relating to the history 
of our volcanic rocks. 

SUMMARY OF DISCOVERIES AND ORIGINAL 
RESEARCHES. 
FUNDAMENTAL ROCKS, OK ARCHAEAN. 
The generalisation which has sought to sweep all the crystalline 
rocks of Australia into the great Silurian net has been broken 
down by the discovery of unconformably superimposed Cambrian 
strata ; and though it by no means follows that the whole of the 
crystalline rock masses are of Archsean age, yet there are good 
reasons for the belief that those rocks which exhibit the phenome- 
non of regional metamorphism belong to one epoch. The chief 



46 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

evidence is that they occupy parallel lines of elevation, having an 
approximate north and south, bearing, as was first noticed by 
Jukes*, who remarks, " that to his knowledge there was only one 
exception in N.W. Australia" ; but the metamorphic area of that 
region does not offer exceptional features in the strike of its 
rocks, as over considerable tracts in Arnheim's Land it has been 
found that the " axes of the ranges coincide with the direction of 
the strike," which is north and south in the northern part and 
north-west and south-east in the southern part f , and in the 
Kimberley district the strike is, according to Hardman |, about 
W.N.W. to N.W. 

The " primitive schists " and " primitive rocks " of such early 
observers as Peron, Oxley, Stokes, &c., probably all belong to the 
Archaean epoch. Of some of them we have actual knowledge, and 
the existence of crystalline stratified rocks has been made known 
by subsequent geologists. Strzelecki (1845) was the first to place 
them in subterposition to the fossiliferous 'strata. Other authors 
have speculated on their age from structural and lithological 
considerations. 

Burr, in 1846§, says that "the rocks of which one (Mount 
Lofty) range is composed are those which belong to the Primary 
strata, probably corresponding to the Cambrian and Skiddaw 
systems of Sedgwick," because " they are apparently devoid of the 
evidence of the existence of animal and vegetable life during their 
formation." Jukes |1 classed them as metamorphic. 

Tenison Woods, Rev. J. E.^, thought the same rocks "to be 
probably of either Cambrian or Silurian formation," but went on to 
say that " this is mere guessw'ork, supported by little more than 
resemblances in mineral character, &c." 

Selavyn placed the basal parts of the Mount I^ofty chain as the 
equivalents of Upper Silurian, and higher beds as more resembling 
the Silurian of the Victorian goldfields.*'* The metamorphic rocks 
of the Alpine region of Victoria were classed as Lower Silurian, but 
considering their prevailing strike, N.N.W., their lithological 
resemblance to those of the Adelaide chain, and the possibility of 
the altered aspect of the Lower Silurian being due to contact 
metamorphism, there is presumptive evidence that the main mass 

* Brit. Assoc. Report for 1816-7 ; and Physical Structure of Australia, 1850, p. 79. 

t Tate ; S.A. Pari. Paper, Northern Territory, 1882, p. 2 and map 2. 

i W.A. Pari. Paper, Geology of Kimberley District, 1884. 

I " Remarks Geology S. Aust.," p. 4 (Adelaide). || Phy. Structure. 

H Trans. Phil. Soc, Victoria, 1858, pp. 1C8-176. 

•• S.A. Pari. Paper, Geol. Notes on S. Aust., 1860, pp. 1 and 2. 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 47 

of these metaniorphic rocks is Archaean. Resemblances in mineral 
character are at their best very unsafe guides, and we have in this 
instance an actual betrayal into a most serious error as a result of 
trusting in them. 

Selwyn* placed the metaniorphic rocks of the extreme western 
limits of Victoria as " possibly a true Cambrian or Azoic series." 
And again, " perhaps the rocks of some of the larger areas mapped 
as metamorphic repi'esent Cambrian or Laurentian series. "f 

Jukes;]: says it is highly probable that the gneiss and mica 
schists which form the mountain chains of Australia belong wholly 
or in part to the Pre-Cambrian periods, and this affords another 
instance of the marvellous geological instinct possessed by this able 
geologist. 

Geikie, A§., referring to the opinion of Selwyn and others that 
the crystalline schists are metamorphosed Palaeozoic formations, 
adds, " but there are not improbably other areas referable to an 
Archaean series." 

Hakdman II provisionally classed as Lower Silurian or Cambro- 
Silurian the metamorphic rocks of the Kimberley district, W.A., 
but adds that ''it is not improbable that these rocks, as well as 
similar formations in this colony and the other Australian colonies, 
may be of Laurentian age." 

Clarke^ was of the opinion that there is not sufficient evidence 
that Azoic rocks exist in East Australia, and that some of the 
gneiss so placed by Strzelecki are merely products of transmutation. 

Aplin considered the granite of Severn River, Queensland, as 
of metamorphic origin, quoted by Daintree.** 

It is only in South Australia and West Australia that the 
metamorphic rocks are actually known to be Pre-Cambrian, 
but those elsewhere, unless they can be shown to be transmuted 
Palaeozoic rocks, may be most conveniently referred to the same 
period. 

The grandest exemplification of the Archaeans is in the Mount 
Lofty Range of South Australia. These rocks occupy there a vast 
monocline, with a dip to the south-east, of not less than ten miles in 
thickness. One noteworthy lithological feature is the more highly 
developed metamorphism of the upper strata, mica schist, gneiss, 
and granite, succeeding in an ascending series clay slates, 
quartzites, and limestones. This exceptional phenomenon was 

• Exhibition Essays, 1861. t Cat. Rocks, National Museum, 18G8, p. 33. 

t Manual Geology, 2nd edit., p. 434, 1862. ? Text-book of Geology, p, 640, 1882. 

il W.A. Pari. Paper, Geol. Kimberley District, 1884, p. 6. 

•I International Exhib. Essays, 1867, p. 381. •* Quart. Journ. Geol. See, 1872, vol. xxviii. 



48 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

recorded by Jukes in 1850— "The prevailing south-easterly dip 
would put the clay slates under the gneiss, mica, and chlorite 
slates," and independently observed by Selwyn in li<60. The 
non-accejDtance of this view by the Government Geologist of South 
Australia has compelled him to reverse the order of succession, and he 
classes the lower series as "• Silurian (and Devonian), metamorphic 
in jjart," and relegates the upper to " Palseozoic or Azoic, highly 
metamorphic." ^' 

The elevated portions of the wide extending folds of the 
Archseans have produced our mountain topography, and have sup- 
plied the principal material of the newer deposits, all of them 
terrigenous, Avliich fill the troughs of their plications and conceal 
the continuity of far distant axes of elevation. Our now I'uined 
Mount Lofty chain must have formed a lofty watershed in Lower 
Palaeozoic times. The first of the deposits are the Cambrian, 
which are much more broken and plicated than the underlying and 
embracing Archa^ans, probably as the result of the continuation 
of the earth movements after their deposition. These were then 
compressed by the contractions of width in the synclinal folds. 
The whole area of Australia seems to have been in a state of com- 
parative quiescence since the period of those earth movements 
which resulted in the plication of the Archseans, and in the 
crumpling of the Lower Palaeozoics. Since then it seems to have 
vmdergone oscillation of level within very narrow limits, and the 
depressions which have taken place never brought more than the 
margins of insular areas beneath the level of the sea. 

Victorian Palaeozoic physical geology in its broadest features is 
represented by Mr. Selwyn f as consisting of a great crumpled, 
contorted, and broken synclinal trough of Silurian and older strata, 
overlain unconformably by an equally extensive broken and 
undulating anticlinal arch of Upper Palaeozoic rocks. 

CAMBRIAN. 
faj South Austrnlia, 
1879. Tate (Trans. Hoy. Soc. S. Aust., vol. ii.,pp. xlviii. and 77) 
refers the fossils collected by Mr. Tepper, at Ardrossan, Yorke 
Peninsula, to Lower Silurian, employing the term in the Murchi- 
sonian sense, though the Menevian series is implied. More 
detailed evidences of a Cambrian fauna at that and other localities 
are supplied by — 

1884. Woodward, H., Geol. Mag., p. 343. 

• Geological Map oi S. Aust., 1884. + Intercolonial Exhibition Essays, 1867, p. 153. 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 49 

1890. Etheridge, R., juu. (Trans. Roy. Soc, S. Aust., vol. xiii., 
p. 10). 

1892. Tate fid., vol. xv., page 183). 

(bj West Australia. 
1890. Etheridge, R,, jun. (Geol. Mag., vii., p. 97), describes 
an Olenus and a Salter el la ixom. the Kimberley district as Cambrian. 

LOWER SILURIAN. 
faj Victoria. 
1858. Selwyn (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xiv., p. 533) drew 
the line of demarcation between the auriferous graptolite slates 
and Upper Silurian, which McCoy had shown to have faunas 
characteristic of the corresponding series in Europe, and thus estab- 
lished the fact of the specific identity of the two faunas over the 
whole world. 

fb) Central Australia. 
Fossiliferous limestone, discovered in tlie Macdonnell Ranges by 
C. Chewings (Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., vol. xiv., p. 249*, 1891) 
was referred by Tate, id., p. 255, to Upper Silurian, and by 
R. Etheridge, jun. (Pari. Paper, S.A., No. 158, pt. 9t, 1892, 
No. 23, 1892; No. 50, 1893), to Lower Silurian. 

fcj West Australia. 
The existence of Silurian rocks forming the Mount Barren Range, 
as reported by F. T. Gregory (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xvii., 
p. 479), has not been proven; Avhilst the clay slates and schists 
described by H. Y. L. Brown (Pari. Paper, W.A.) may be Archaean ; 
at any rate, their Silurian age has not been conclusively determined. 

UPPER SILURIAX. 

fa) Neiv South Wales. 

(yASS and HUME SERIES.) 

1838. Mitchell, Major T. ("Three Expeditions," &e.), dis- 
covered coralliferous limestones about Yass Plains. 

1840. Vernueil (Bull. Soc. Geol. de France, xi., p. 177) 
recorded Silui-ian fossils from New Holland [probably from Mur- 
rumbidgee, teste W. B. Clarke, " Sedimentary Formations," 1878.] 

1845. Morris (in Strzelecki's " Phys. Description," p. 296) 
considered the limestone about Yass Plains [and Shoalhaven] as 
the probable equivalents of the Devonian system in Europe. 

• ReadJuiie2nd, 18'Jl. t Submitted September 9th, 1891. 

D 



50 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

1848. Clakke, W. B. (Quart. Journal. Geol. Soc, iv., pp. 
63-66), notes discovery of Trilobites, especially Trinuclmis, and 
other Silurian fossils at Yarralumla. " These and the Yass beds, 
if not Silurian, are at the very base of the Devonian System." 

1851. Clarke, W. B. (Geol. Surv., Report No. 56, p. 85), 
refers to the limestones at Buugonia, Shoalhaven River, " as not 
younger than the Wenlock rocks." 

1856. Salter declared the fossils from Yass to indicate "a true 
U. Silurian formation." 

1860. Clarke, W. B. ("Researches Goldfiekls of New South 
Wales"), demonstrated the existence of the U. Silurian rocks at a 
large number of localities ; he says that the fossils " will still be 
sufficient to justify the assertions respecting the extent to which 
rocks of the Silurian Epoch, especially of the upper beds, are 
developed in the gold-bearing regions to the southward." 

1867. Clakke, W. B. (Intercol. Exh. Essays, pp. 381-382), 
demonstrated " the existence of at least U. Silurian on both flanks 
of the southern part of the Cordillera." 

1877. DeKoninck (" Foss. Pal. de la N.G. du Sud") refers the 
fossils of Burrawang, &c., to U. Silurian. 

1878. Clarke, W. B. (" Sed. Formations," kc, p. 16), declared 
the formation at Bowning to be Devonian, from the occurrence of 
Calceola sandalina. 

1878. Jenkins, C. (Proc. Lin. Soc.,N.S.W., vol. in, pp.21-32), 
describes fossiliferous strata around Yass, diAdding them into Yass 
and Hume Series, and considers the age to be U. Silurian. 

1879. Taylor, Norman (Geol. Mag., vi., pp. 399 et seq.J, con- 
siders the bedrock of the Cudgegong diamond field to be either of 
U. Silurian or Devonian age, more probably the latter, on palseon- 
tological grounds. 

1880. Wilkinson, C. S. (Report Depart. Mines, N.S.W., p. 
216), placed the Yass Series in the Silurian. 

1880. Hector, Sir J. (Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xiii., p. 70), 
correlates the Yass and Hume beds with U. Silurian. 

1883. David, T. W. E. (Report Depart. Mines. N.S.W. for 
1882, p. 148), who surveyed the U. Silurian area around Yass, shows 
that the beds form a continuous series. 

1886. Mitchell, John (Proc. Lin. Soc, N.S.W., pp. 577 and 
1059), points out that typical U. Silurian trilobites occur at BoAvn- 
ing with and above the so-called Calceola sandalina [^Rhizophyllum 
interpunctatum, Dek.~], and that the same beds also yield grapto- 
lites. [See also, Proc. Austr. Assoc. Adv. Sc. i., pp. 291-297.J 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 51 

1892. Etheridge, R., jim. (Geol. and Pal. Queensland, p. 45), 
states that a L. Devonian age has been ascribed to various rocks in 
New South Wales which are now believed to be U. Silurian. 

fbj Victoria. 

1850. Jukes ("Physical Structure") classed the slatyrocks about 
Port Phillip as Palaeozoic. 

1856. U. Silurian fossils were signalled in the basin of the 
Yarra by the Geological Survey StafP; but Blandowski (Phil. Soc, 
Vict., 1857) claims to have been the first to discover fossils in the 
Silurian sandy slates about Melbourne. 



"CAVE LIMESTOXE" OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 
This term is used provisionally by the Geological Survey for an 
extensive series of beds on both flanks of the Cordillera, but the 
stratigraphical and palfeontological relationships to Upper Silurian, 
Devonian, and Carboniferous have yet to be determined. 

1820. OxLEY, John (" Two Expeditions," &c.), discovered this 
limestone at the sources of the Lachlan and Macquarie. 

1821, Btjckland, Dean (Geol. Trans., vol. v., p. 480), referred 
to it as resembling "transition limestone." 

1831. Cunningham, P., reported the limestone about Bathurst 
as fossiliferous. 

1833. Sturt, Capt. C. ("Two Expeditions," Sec), quoted it as 
coralliferous. 

1838. Mitchell, Major ("Three Expeditions," &c.), referred 
the " Cave Limestone " to the Carboniferous of Europe. See also 
Report, Geol. Survey, No. 121, p. 43 (1851). 

1845. Morris (in Strzelecki's " Phys. Descript.," p. 296) referred 
to the Palseozoic deposits at [Yass Plains and] Shoalhaven as the 
probable equivalents of the Devonian System of Europe. 

1851-2. Stutchbury, S. (Rep. Geol. Surv., N.S.W., No. 22, 
p. 28 ; id. No. 23, p. 35 ; id. No. 9. p. 29), referred this formation 
on pala3ontological evidence to the Devonian, "certainly older than 
the Carboniferous limestone." 

1852. Lonsdale considered the coral fauna to be Devonian. 

1867. Clarke, W. B. (Intercol. Exh. Essays, p. 383), noted that 
some of the fossils of the limestones or "Passage Beds," to the 
westward of Wellington have the Carboniferous types and others 
the Silurian. 



52 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

1870. Thompson, Dk. A. M. (Journ. Roy. Soc, N.S.W., 
p. 57), remarked that the fossils of the lower stratified deposits 
about Goulburn are closelj^ allied to Upper Silurian forms, but in 
the higher strata to the westward the fossils make an approach to 
Carboniferous types. 

1878. Jenkins, C. (Proc. Lin. Soc, N.S.W., iti., pp. 21-32), 
refers to the thick black limestone of Cave Fiat, Murrumbidgee, as 
of Devonian age. 

1886. Wilkinson, C. S. ("The Railway Guide of N.S.W."), 
proposed to include the limestone of the Jenolan Caves under the 
name " Siluro-Devonian." 

1887. Wilkinson, C. S. (" Geol. of N.S.W." p. 54), thinks 
they may be classed with the highest beds in the Silurian Series. 

1889. Mitchell, John (Aust. Assoc. Adv. Sc, i., p. 296)^ 
describes the Cave Flat beds, and throws doubt on their supposed 
Devonian age. 

MIDDLE DEVONIAN. 
(a) Victoria. 

1867. McCoy (Intercol. Exh. Essays, p. 327) correlated the 
limestones of Buchan and Bindi, in Gippsland, with the European 
M. Devonian. 

1874. McCoy (Geol. Surv., Victoria, vol. ii., p. 72) added the 
Tabberaberra shales to the Middle Devonian group in Gippsland. 

1876. HoAViTT (Geol. Surv., Victoria, iii., pp. 181-249) estab- 
lished the sequence of the Devonian and Carboniferous strata in 
North Gippsland, and introduced the Snowy River jjorphyrites as 
Lower (?) Devonian. 

(h) Queensland. 

1847. Leichhakdt discovered fossiliferous limestone at the 
Burdekin River, vs^hich were referred by W. B. Clarke to Upper 
Silurian (Journ. Overland Exped.). 

1869. Aplin, in his " Report on the Upper Condamine," 
regarded the Palaeozoic rocks on the eastern ranges of Queens- 
land as Silurian. 

1872. Dainteee (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxvrii., p. 288) 
regarded the greater part, especially the Burdekin and Fanning 
River limestones, as Devonian. 

1872. Etheridge, R. fid., p. 324) massed the fossils from two 
distinct horizons (the Middle Devonian of Burdekin Valley and 
Gympie Series) as Siluro-Devonian. 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 53 

1892. Jack (Geol. and Pal. of Queensland, ii., p. 45) correlates 
the Devonian of Queensland with the Bindi and Buchan limestones 
of Gippsland. 

( c) West Australia. 

1890. FooRD, Nicholson, and Hinde, Messrs. (Geol. Mag.), 
determined a suite of fossils from Mount Pierre, near Fitzroy 
River, Kimberley District, to belong to Devonian. 

[The conglomerates capping the Darling Range, and doubtfully 
referred to Devonian by F. T. Gregory (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 
1861, p. 475), may be Mesozoic, as suggested by R. Etheridge 
(Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxviii., p. 320, 1872).] 

UPPER DEVONIAN. 
fa) Victoria. 

1867. Selwyn (Intercol. Exh. Essays, p. 160) refers the 
Iguana Creek beds to an age inferior to the Bindi limestones. 

1874. McCoy (Geol. Surv., Vict., Report ii., p. 73) determines 
them, on the evidence of the fossil plants, as Upper Devonian. 

1876. HowTiT (Geol. Surv., Vict) shows that they are superior 
and unconformable to the Bindi limestones, and inferior to, but 
conformable with, the Avon River sandstones. The stratigraphical 
position of the Mount Tambo beds is for the first time shown to be 
Upper Devonian. 

(h) New South Wales. 

1875-8. WiLKiNsox, C. S. (Philadelphia Exh. Essays, 1875, 
p. 134 ; Report Depart. Mines. New South Wales, for 1877), 
describes the Rydal section as pi-esenting a thickness of not less 
than 10,000ft., and states that, though classed as Devonian, its 
stratigraphical horizon is not definitely known. 

1887. Wilkinson, C. S. (Geol. of New South Wales, p. 56), 
holds the same opinion. 

1892. Ross, Clunies (Austr. Assoc. Adv. Sc, vol. iv., p. 336), 
<^oasiders that in the neighborhood of Bathurst Lepidodendron 
Australe was probably of Devonian age. 

1893. PiTTMAN, E. F., and David, T. W. E. (Proc. Lin. Soc, 
New South Wales, p. 121), announce the discovery in the neigh- 
Tjorhood of Mount Larabie of a species of Lepidodendron below 
marine beds with Spirifera disjuncta. [This species — a Devonian, 
fossil in Europe — was first indicated as Australian by Stutchbury 
(Geol. Surv. Report, No. 10, p. 8, 1853).] 



54 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

CARBONIFEROUS. 
(a) New South Wales. 

1821. BucKLAND, Dean, considered the coal formation of the 
Hunter River analogous to that of England (Geol. Trans., vol. v., 
p. 480). 

1824. Scott, Archdeacon, referred the strata of the Newcastle 
coalfield to the coal formation ("Annals Philosophy"). 

1845. Strzelecki (" Physc. Desc, New South Wales") places 
the Newcastle Coal Series in his Third Epoch, and thvis detaches it 
from the underlying marine series (p. 123). 

1845. MoRKis, in Strzelecki's Phys. Desc, expressed the opinion 
that the fossil flora presents a Jurassic facies, whilst the deposits 
containing the mollusca may probably belong to the Carboniferous 
(p. 296). 

1848. McCoy determined seventeen fossil plants and eighty- 
three mollusca. The plant-beds he classed as Oolitic, noting that 
there was no trace " of any characteristic fossil of the old coal of 
Europe or America." The fossil shells he referred to a Car- 
boniferous age (Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sc. for 1847). 

1849. Dana (Geolog. Report Wilkes' Exped.) included as 
component members of a great Carboniferous series the Sydney 
sandstone, the coal formation, and the " Sub-Carboniferous" 
argillaceous sandstone. The coal formation of Illawarra and 
Hunter River is stated to be probably Permian. 

1850. Jukes ("Physc. Structure," &c.) says these coal-bearing 
beds are believed by some geologists to be of much later date 
(Oolitic) than the beds below them. " All the physical characters 
and relations of the rocks, howeA^er, led me to look upon the whole 
series as one great continuous formation." 

1850. CxARKE (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. iv., pp. 60-63) 
announced the occurrence of Palaeozoic genera of plants in the 
inferior part of the Carboniferous System, and this is reiterated in 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xi., p. 408, 1855. 

1853. Stutchbuky confirms Clarke's discovery, and figures a 
Lepidodench'on in his Report on the Geology of Liverpool Plains 
(p. 9), and it was later confirmed by J. S. Wilson (Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc, vol. XII., pp. 283-288, 1856), and— 

1865. Keene fid. vol. xxi., p. 139, 1865), who considers the 
coal measures to be as old as those of Europe. Moreover, the 
later discovery of Glossopteris and Phyllotheca with fossils of 
Carboniferous age by Clarke, Daintree, and others, both in New 
South Wales and Queensland, removed all doubt as to the 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 55 

Palaeozoic age, at least of these genera which had been so 
strenuously questioned by several writers. 

1866. Clarke (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxii., p. 439) 
classified the coal measures and associated strata as follows: — 

Hawkesbury Series. 

Upper Coal Measures. 

Upper Marine Beds. 

Lower Coal Measures. 

Lower Marine Beds (with Palseozoic plants). 

1867. Keene (Intercol. Exh. Essays, p. 396) holds that the 
Lower Coal Measures are older than any in Europe, and that the 
opinions " that the lowest intercalate with Silurian fossils and a 
Devonian flora are untenable." 

1876 McCoy limits the term Carboniferous to the beds in New 
South Wales which are below those with Glossopteris, and to the 
Lepidudendron beds underlying the Lower Marine Series (Geol, 
Surv., Victoria, Report iii., pp. 57-59). 

Clarke attributed a Silurian age to the slates and quartzites 
which cross into Queensland at the heads of the Severn River. 
These are referred by Jack to the Gympie Series (Geol. and Pal., 
Queensland, p. 74, 1892). 

1878. Clarke (Remarks Sed. Formations, p. 66) removed the 
Hawkesbury Series from the Carboniferous, 

1880. Wilkinson (Dep. Mines for 1879, p. 216) applied the 
term Permian to the Upper Coal Measures, and that of Carboni- 
ferous to the subordinate beds. 

1881. Feistmantel (Foss. Flora, Gondwana Syst., vol. iii.) 
regards the Newcastle beds as Lower Trias. 

1383. Tenison Woods (P.L.S., N.S.W., vol. viii. pp. 52-53) 
refers the Lepidodendron beds, in part, to Lower Carboniferous, 
whilst the Glossopteris beds are referred — the lower portion to 
Permian (?) and the upper to Trias. (?). 

1887. Feistmantel (Sitz. K. Bohm. Ges. der Wissen.) classified 
the Carboniferous Series of New South Wales as follows : — 

(^Newcastle beds or Upper Coal 

Measures Permian 

Marine Series Upper and Middle 

p , . . Carboniferous 

n I Upper Marine beds 

Lower Coal Measures 
I Lower Marine beds 
l^ Lepidodendron beds Lower Carboniferous 



Permo- 
I!arboni 
ferous 



56 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

1892. Jack (Geol. and Pal., Queensland, p. 142) considers the 
Lepidodendron beds of New South Wales to be appvoximately on 
the horizon of the Star Series in Queensland. 

fbj Queensland. 
Component Formations. — The Gympie, Star, and Bowen River 
(Lower, Middle, and Upper) series. (Jack and Etheridge, Geol. 
and Pal. of Queensland, 1892, p. 70, et seq.J 

I. BOAVEN RIVER SERIES. 

1847. Leichhardt ("Overland Exped.") discovers coal beds 
at Bowen River. 

1872. Daintree (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxviii.,p. 286) 
recognises the Carboniferous age of the rocks and fossils of the 
Bowen river and other northern coalfields. 

1879. Jack (Report on Bowen River Coalfield) sub-divides 
the series into three formations. 

1880. Etheridge, R., jun. (Proc. R. Phys. Soc, Edinb., v., 
p. 319), considers the L. and .M. Bowen River formations to homo- 
taxially represent the Carboniferous and Permian of Europe, and 
proposes to call the series Permo-Carboniferous. 

1892. The authors of the "Geology and Pal8eontolo<iy of Queens- 
land," p. 71, apply the term Permo-Carboniferous to the whole of 
the similar formations in Queensland and New South Wales. 

II. GYMPIE series. 

1867. Aplik (Report, Auriferous Country, Upper Condamine) 
discovers fossiliferous rocks at Lucky Valley and Gympie, which 
he regarded as Silurian. 

1868. Clarke, W. B. (Proc. Roy. Soc, N.S.W., vol. i., p. 7), 
refers the rocks and fossils on the Mary River, at Gympie, to some 
part of the Carboniferous. 

1872. Daintree (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, xxviii., pp. 286, 
289) recognises the Carboniferous age of the Don River fossils, but 
refers those of the Gymjjie mining district to the Devonian. 

1879. Gregory, A. C. (Report Geol. Features, S. E. Queens- 
land, p. 7), classes the altered slates of Moreton Bay and Darling 
River Downs and the Gympie beds as Devonian. 

1886. Jack (Handbook Geol. of Queensland) names the Gympie 
beds, removes them to Lower Carboniferous, and transfers to them 
all of the previously so-called Silurian and large areas hitherto 
regarded as Devonian. 

1892. Jack and Etheridge (Geol. and Pal., Queensland, p. 
97). — The former thinks it likely that some of the cave limestones 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 57 

of New South Wales may prove to be on the Gympie horizon, and 
the latter that the Gympie beds Avill prove to be identical with the 
New South Wales strata, termed by him " Carboniferous," and 
formerly known as •' Lower Carboniferous." The lower formation 
of the Bowen River Series is believed to be newer than the Gympie 
beds. 

III. STAR SERIES. 

1872. Daiktree (General Report, Northern District, p. 7) 
places the Mount Wyatt plant-beds, with their interstratified mai-ine 
beds, as Upper Devonian (also Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, xxviii., 
p. 289, 1872). 

1 878. Jack names the rocks of the Star Kiver basin the "■ Star 
beds," and regards tnem as of Upper Devonian age. 

188;}. Woods, J. E. T. (Journ. Roy. Soc, New South Wales, 
XVI., p. 179), announces the discovery of plant-remains in the 
strata of the Drummond Ranj^e, Central Queensland, and ascribes 
the age to the Lower Carboniferous. 

1886. Jack (Handbook Geol. Queensland) describes the Dots- 
wood beds, and places them as conformably succeeding Middle 
Devonian. 

1889. Jack (Report Sellheim Silver Field) refers to the Star 
beds those rocks which are regarded as Lower Carboniferous. 

1892. Jack (Geol. and Pal., Queensland, p. 140) groups the 
-whole of the above deposits under the head of the " Star Beds," 
and he considers these superior in position to the Gympie beds. 

(c) Victoria. 
Comijonent formations: — (x.) Bacchus Marsh sandstones and 
conglomerates; (ii.) Avon River sandstones. 

I. BACCHUS MARSH SANDSTONES AND CONGLOMERATES. 

1861. Selwyn (Vict Exh. Essays, p. 182) refers the series to a 
period intermediate between the Carboniferous and Permian. 

1867. McCoY (Intercol. Exh. Essays, p. 327) refers the sand- 
stones to the Lower Mesozoic, but considers them as probably 
inferior in position to the coal beds [of Victoria]. 

1868. Selavyn (Cat. Rocks, Nat. Mus., p. 44) speaks of the 
series under Upper Palaeozoic. 

1873. Smyth, R. B. (Internat. Exh. Essays, p. 20), regards the 
Gangamopteris beds at Bacchus Marsh as nearly the equivalents of 
the Sydney Sandstone. 



58 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

1879. Feistmantel, Dr. O. (Foss. Flora, Gondwana System, 
vol. III., pt. I,, p.p. 31-32), regards the Bacchus Marsh sandstones as 
the representatives of the Upper Coal Measures of Newcastle. 

1886. Oedham, R. D. (Rec. Geol. Surv., India, vol. xix ),. 
correlates the conglomerates with the Talchirs of India and the 
Carboniferous marine beds of New South Wales. 

H. AVON river sandstones. 

1861. McCoy (Vict. Exh. Essays) correlates them, on palaeonto- 
logical evidence, with Carboniferous " or passage beds in that 
direction from the Upper Devonian," adding that the limits of the 
Upper Devonian and Carboniferous are not clear where they occur 
in superposition, there being an insensible gradation from one to 
the other. 

1867. McCoy (Intercol. Exh. Essays, p. 327) says that the sand- 
stones were the onl)' ti'aces of the Carboniferous formation which 
he could recognise in Victoria. 

1892. Jack (Geol. and Pal. of Queensland, p. 142) says the 
Lepidodendron beds of the Avon River may be approximately on the 
horizon of the Star Series of Queensland. 

(d) West Australia. 

1841. Grey, Lieutenant, discovered Carboniferous rocks in the 
Victoria Range (" Two Exped.," &,c.) 

1849. SoMMER traced the coal formation from the head of the 
Irwin to Moore River, 160 miles, and noted the absence of lime- 
stone (Quart. Jouni. Geol. Soc, vol. v., pp. 51-53). 

1857. Gregory, A. C, states the coal formation to occur in 
four areas, between the Irwin and Murchison Rivers and in another 
to the east of King George Soimd (Trans. Phil. Soc, Victoria). 

1861. Gregory, F. T., showed that the Carboniferous to the 
north of Irwin River is overlain by Mesozoic strata (Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc, vol. xvii.) 

1876. Smyth, Brough, remarks that no rocks of Carboniferous 
age had been discovered in West Australia (Geol. Surv. Victoria, 
Report III., p. 61). 

1884. Hardman reported a large development of Carboniferous 
rocks in the Kimberley district, namely. Carboniferous Limestone 
of about 4,000ft. thick and containing marine fossils, overlain by 
Carboniferous sandstone of about 1,000ft., yielding Palaeozoic 
plants (Pari. Paper, W.A., No. 31, pp. 8-10). 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 59* 



River Clarence 
Area. 

Coal Series at 
Dubbo 



LOWER MESOZOIC. 
(a) Neio South Wales, 

Component Formations. Sydney Area. 

( Narrabeen or Chocolate 
I.Clarence Series .. < Shale 

I Estheria Shales 

iWianamatta Shales 
Hawkesbury or Sydney 
Sandstone 

I. CLARENCE SERIES. 

185"2. Stutchbury (Geol. Surv. Report) describes the coal- 
bearing beds at Dubbo, which were by him, as well as by Clarke 
(Geol. Surv. Report, No. 8, p. 7, 1853), referred to as Carboni- 
ferous. 

1875. Wilkinson (Philadelphia Exhib. Essays, p. 125) 
suggested that the Clarence River coal-bearing shales are the 
equivalents of the Mesozoie coal strata of Victoria, and that they 
are a long way above the Newcastle coal beds. 

1880. Wilkinson (Depart. Mines for 1879, p. 216) places the 
Clarence Series superior to the Wiananiatta shales, and as belong- 
ing to Jurassic. Pittnian expresses the same view (Dejjt. Mines 
for 1880, p. 244). 

1883. Tenison Woods, Rev. J. E. (Proc. Lin. Soc, N.S.W., 
vol. viii., pp. 53 and 54), places the plant beds at Ballinore, near 
Dubbo, as Rhaetic or Lower Lias, and those at the Clarence River 
as Jurassic. 

1885. Curran, Rev. J. Milne, places the Clarence Series, on 
the evidence of the plant-remains, between the Upper Coal 
Measures and the Hawkesbury sandstone (Proc. Lin. Soc, N S.W.) 

1886. Wilkinson and David (Department of Mines for 
N. S.W. for 1885, p. 130) discovered fossil plants in the Narrabeen 
shales, and correlated them and the Estheria shales with the 
Clarence Series. 

1890. Wilkinson, C. E. (Pal. Memoir, No. 3, Depart. Mines 
N.S.W., p. 41, 1890), discovered that the coal-bearing series of 
the Clarence River district underlay the Hawkesbury formation. 

II. hawkesbury series. 

1810. Bailly, in Peron's " Voy. Terres Aust.," describes the 
Sydney sandstone and Parramatta [Wianamatta] shales. 

1825. Lesson (" Voy. La Coquille^') referred the Sydney sand- 
stone to Tertiary, and noted its superposition to the Coal Measures. 



60 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

1845. Strzelecki (" Phys. Description," &c.) expressed the 
same opinion. 

1849. Dana includes the Sydney sandstone as a component 
formation of the Carboniferous Series. 

1850. Jukes (Phys. Structure) included the Hawkesbury Series 
in the Permo-Carboniferous, but separated the Wianamatta shales 
from the underlying Sydney sandstone. 

1865. Keene (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxr., p. 138) 
names the upper beds of the Sydney sandstone (=: Wianamatta 
shales) the " false Coal Measures." 

1867. Clarke (Intercol. Exh. Essays, p. 389) was disposed to 
transfer the Hawkesbury Series to the Trias. 

1876. McCoy regards the Upper Coal Measures and the over- 
lying Hawkesbury Series as parts of one great Oolitic Series (Geol. 
Surv. Victoria, Report 3, pp. 57-59). 

1878. Clarke (" Sed. Formations," p. 66) removes the Hawkes- 
bury Series from the Carboniferous and refers it to an undefined 
period of the Mesozoic, but at the same time calls it Supra- 
Carboniferous. Feistmantel's view of the Triassic Age of the 
Hawkesbury Series, based on the nature of the flora, was 
accepted by — 

1880. Wilkinson (Rep. Depart. Mines, X.S.W., for 1S79, 
p. 216). 

1881. Feistmantel (Proc. Roy. Soc, N.S.W., vol. xiv.. p. 106) 
correlates the Hawkesbury Series with the Talchir beds of India 
and the Bacchus Marsh sandstones of Victoria, on account of the 
glacial phenomena presented by each. A correction made by 
Wilkinson (Rep Depart. Mines for 1880, p. 241). 

1882. Tenison Woods, J. E. (Joum. Roy. Soc, N.S.W., vol. 
XVI., pp. 53, &c), holds the opinion " that the Hawkesbury sand- 
stone is a wind-blown formation." 

1886. Stephens, Prof. (Proc. Lin. Soc, N.S.W., 2nd ser., 
vol. I., p. 932), refers to the discovery ot' Labyrinthodonts in 
the Hawkesbury sandstone as accentuating its Triassic age. 

1890. The assigned Triassic age of the Hawkesbury Series 
gains support from Mr. A. S. Woodward's study of its fish- 
remains (see his Memoir, Depart. Mines, N.S.W.) 

fhj Carbonaceous Series of Victoria. 
1828. Hume is the reputed discoverer of the Cape Patterson 
Coal Series. 



INAUGVRAL ADDRESS. 61 

1840. Coal of excellent quality discovered at Western Port (Proc. 
Geol. Soc, HI., p. 495). 

1846. Stokes ("Discoveries in Australia") considers the Cape 
Patterson and Western Port Coal Measures analogous to those of 
the Carbonifero'is. 

1850. Jukes ("Physical Struct.") regards the coal-bearing 
formation about Western Port and west of Geelong as Palaeozoic. 

1858. Selwyn (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, xiv.) regards the 
series as Oolitic (?). 

1861. McCoy and Selwyn (Victorian Exhib. Essays, pp. 165 et 
186) place the plant-bearing beds at Cape Patterson and Bellerine 
in the Mesozoic. 

1867. Selwyn (Intercol. Exh. Essays, p. J 64) reiterates his 
conviction that they are newer than Palaeozoic, and may be 
representative of the Wianamatta shales of New South Wales. 

1867, Clarke (Intercol. Exh. Essays, p. 389) is disposed to 
place the Victorian Carbonaceous Series above the Wianamatta 
shales. 

fcj Coal Series of LeigJis Creek^ South Australia. 
1889. Brown (Pari. Paper, S.A.) refers them, with a doubt, to 
Cretaceous. 

1891. Etheridge, Jun. (Pari. Paper, S.A., No. 168, p. 9), 
places them under Lower Mesozoic (see also loc. cit., No. 50, p. 8, 
1893). 

fdj Trias-Jura, of Queensland. 

1892. Messrs. Jack and Etheridge ("Geol. Queensland"') 
classify the Lower Mesozoic into (i.) Burrum Coal Formation, and 
(ii.) Ipswich C'oal Measures. 

I. BURRUM COAL FORMATION. 

1870. Gregory, A. C, reports on the Burrum coalfield 
(Rep., &c.). 

1872. Daintree (Quart. Journ., Gool. Soc, vol. xxviii., pp. 
283-284) includes this formation with the Ipswich coal series 
under Mesozoic. 

1870. Gregory, A. C, reports on this series as developed at 
Wide Bay and Burnett River (Report Geology of). 

1883. Tenison Woods (Proc. Lin. Soc, N.S.W., vol. viii., p]). 
53-54) places the Burrum coal formation as U. Lias (?), beneath 
the Ipswich coal series, and above those of the Burnett River which 
he classed as Rhajtic or L. Lias. 



•62 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

1886. Jack (Geological Map) refers the series to the Trias. 

1890. Rands (Report on Tiaro District) shows that the Burrum 
T^eds rest tin conform ably on the Gympie beds. 

1892. Jack (Geol. Queensland, p, 312) classifies them as Lower 
Trias-Jura. 

II. IPSWICH COAL MEASURES. 

1828. Cunningham, A. (Proc. Geol. Soc, vol. ii., p. 109, 
1834), discovers coal on the Brisbane River. 

1872. Daintree (Quart Journ. Geol. Soc , vol. xxviii., p. 283) 
insists on the removal of the Queensland coal deposits characterised 
by Tceniopteris to Mesozoic, and regards the Ipswich coal forma- 
tion as the equivalent of the Carbonaceous Series of Victoria. 

Carruthers fid., p. 356; refers the plant remains to the 
Oolitic pei'iod. 

1876. Gregory, A. C. (Report Coal Deposits, &;c.), exhaustively 
describes the Ipswich coal fields. 

1H83. Tenison Woods (Proc. Lin. Soc , N.S.W., vol. viii.) 
expresses his belief "' that no very clear line of separation can be 
made between the coal beds of Newcastle and Queensland," p. 97 ; 
*' at present the Newcastle beds are regarded as Palaeozoic, and 
those at Ipswich as Mesozoic; I cannot find any such clearly 
marked distinctions," p. 98 ; but, at p. 54, he refers the Ipswich 
formation to Jurassic, and correlates therewith the " Carbonaceous 
of Victoria and the Hawkesbury sandstone." 

1886. Jack (Geol. Map) regards the Ipswich beds as Jurassic; 

1892. And (Geol. Queensland) classes them as Upper Trias- 
Jura. 

fej Marine Series, West Australia. 

1861. Gregory, F. T. (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xviii., 
p. 475), discovers Mesozoic rocks with Ammonites, Trigonia, &c., 
overlying Carboniferous coal measures in the basin of the Gascoyne 
River and near Champion Bay. They are referred Avith a doubt to 
Cretaceous. 

1862. Jukes (Man. Geol., 2nd edit., p. 593) says that the fossils 
discovered by Gregory " seem more like those of the Oolitic series 
than any others." 

1863. MooRE, C. (Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sc, p. 83), observes that 
the bulk of the Mesozoic fossils are of Jurassic age. 

1870. The same author (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxvi., 
p. 226, et seq.J more fully elaborates the fossils, describing several 
new species, and establishes a large community of species between 
England and West Australia. 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 63 

UPPER MESOZOIC. 
Cretaceoxts. 
Component formations according to Jack and Etheridge : — 
Upper Cretaceous, Desert Sandstone (including Maryborough 
Iseds) ; Lower Cretaceous, Rolling Downs Formation. 

(a) Queensland. 
1848. Mitchell ("Journ. Inter-tropical Australia") notes on 
liis chart the occurrence of a Belemnite near Mount Abundance, 
Fitzroy Downs. 

1861. McCoy ("Exhibition Essays," p. 166) determines a 
collection of fossils from Wollumbilla, submitted by Clarke to 
be " the marine equivalents of exactly the same age as that I 
assign to the plant beds, i.e.., not older than the base of the Trias 
and not younger than the lower part of the Great Oolite." The 
Triassic genus Myophoria is quoted as evidence of that age. 

1862. Clarke (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xviii., p. 246) 
announced the existence of marine Mesozoic rocks at Wollumbilla, 
based on the fossil determinations by McCoy ; but regards the 
beds as "altogether above the coal-beds of the Hunter River." 

1865. Keene (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxi., p. 130) 
refers Belemnites and shells from the River Belliando (Belyando) 
to the Cretaceous epoch. 

1865-1868. McCoy submits tangible evidence of the Cretaceous 
facies of the marine Mesozoic rocks about the head of the Flinders 
Kiver (Trans. Roy. Soc, Victoria, vol. vi., pp. 42-46 ; to?., vol. vii., 
pp. 49-51 ; ^J., vol. VIII., p. 41 ; ^V/., vol. ix., pp. 77-78 ; Annals 
Nat. Hist., 1865, vol. xvr., p. 383; id., 1867, vol. xix., p. 335; 
Intercol. Exh. Essays, 1867, p. 325), though the Wollumbilla fossils 
are still retained as Oolitic (Intercol. Exh. Essays, 1867, p. 327). 

1867. Clarke (Intercol. Exh. Essays, p. 388) states on the 
authority of European geologists that the Wollumbilla fossils are 
really Cretaceous. 

1870. Moore (Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, vol. xxvi., pp 226 et seq.J 
describes the fossils from Wollumbilla, referring them to Jurassic. 

1872. Daintree (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxviii., pp. 
278, kc) describes the rocks of the Flinders area, classifying them 
as Creataceous ; the Maryborough beds are placed at the base of 
the Cretaceous and overlying the Burrum coal series. 

Etheridge fid. J describes the fossils, and refers those from 
Gordon Downs, near Roma, and those from Wollumbilla to the 
Oolite, p. 325. 



64 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

1880. Hector, Sir James (Proc. R03-. Soc, N.S.W., vol. xiii., 
pp. 70, et seq.) places the Fiiuders River beds as the equivalent of 
the Neocomian of New Zealand. 

1883. Tenisox Woods (Proc. Lin. Soc , N.S.W., vol. viii. 
p. 55) regards the Desert Sandstone as an seolian formation of 
Jurassic age. 

1889. Jack (Aust. Assoc. Adv. Sc, vol., i., p. 205) attaches 
the Desert Sandstone to the Oretaceous on palaeontological evi- 
dence, as demonstated by R. Etheridge, jun. It had been referred 
by Daintree, <p. cit., to Cainozoic, because '■ above and unconform- 
able to the Cretaceous of the Flinders area." 

1892. Jack and Etheridge (•' Geology of Queensland") classify 
the Cretaceous as above tabulated. 

fbj Centred Australia. 

1849. Stxjrt (Exped. Central Aust.) records fossiliferous lime- 
stone about Grey Range. 

1863. Waterhouse, F. G. (Pari. Paper, S.A., No. 125, pp. 
2-3) records fossiliferous argillaceous rock in the Lake Eyre basin, 
and refers it to Tertiary. 

1877. Tate (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xlii., p. 258) records 
the occurrence of Bdemnites Ausfralis and other Jurassic (?) 
fossils at Stuart Creek, Lake Eyre. 

1879. The same author (Trans. Roy. Soc, S. Aust., p. xlix.) 
expresses the opinion that the Wollumbilla type, to which the 
Lake Eyre fossils belong, approximates to a Cretaceous facies. 

1882. Wilkinson adds Cretaceous to his Geological Map, the 
north-west country, embracing the western tributaries of the 
Darling, being so colored. 

1883. Brown, H. Y. L. (Pari. Paper, South Australia, No. 
146), colors the area between Lake Frome and Cooper Creek as 
Cretaceou.s covered by Tertiary. 

1884. The same geologist, in his Geological Map of South Aus- 
tralia, represents the vast area around Lake Eyre as " Mesozoic 
(Cretaceous and Oolitic), with or without overlying Tertiary beds." 

1884. HuDDLESTONE (Geol. Mag., vol. i.. No. 8, p. 339) refers 
some fossils from Lake Eyre basin to Mesozoic, none being abso- 
lutely decisive of their age, but quotes Mr. Etheridge, jun., for 
the opinion that they are Cretaceous. 

1889. Tate (Aust. Assoc. Adv. Sc, vol. i., p. 228) rectifies the 
errors made by Moore in identifjdng certain of the Wollumbilla 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 65 

fossils with Jurassic species, and submits further evidence of their 
Cretaceous age. 

(c) ]\ est Australia. 

1861. Gregory, Y. T. (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xvii., p. 
475), offers the first positive evidence of the occurrence of Meso- 
zoic fossils in Australia, and, though his discovery relates with 
certainty to ihe Jurassic, yet it probably embraces Cretaceous as 
well, as the chalky limestones with flints and Ventriculites near 
Gingin doubtless belong to that period. 

1870. Moore, C. (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxvi.), thinks 
that there is evidence sufl&cient to show the presence of Cretaceous 
rocks as well as Jurassic. 

CAmOZOIC. 

Component Systems. 

[Tate and Dennant, Trans. Koy. Soc. S. Aust., vol. xvii., June 

1893.] 

Pleistocene. — Raised beaches — ^olian calciferous sandstones 
and limestones. 

Newer Pi,iocene. — Elevated shell beds — South-east from 
Mount Gambler and at Limestone Creek, W. Victoria. 

Osseous breccias and mammaliferous drift of the Diprotodon 
Period. 

Older Pliocene. — Marine sands beneath mammaliferous drift 
of the Adelaide Plain, 

Miocene. — Upland Miocene plant beds, South Australia ; low- 
level marine bcls — Gippsland Lakes, upper beds of the Miiddy 
Creek section, oyster banks of the River Murray cliffs, and 
Aldinga Bay. 

Eocene. — Clays and polyzoal limestone — Rivers Mitchell, 
Tambo, &c. ; Sale ; Gippsland ; Port Phillip Bay ; around the 
Carbonaceous area of Cape Otway ; Camperdown ; Mu.ddy CreeK, 
Hamilton. 

Polyzoal limestone — Mount Gambler, River Murray, St. Vincent 
Gulf, Great Australian Bight. 

Plant beds at Vegetable Creek, New South Wales — Plant beds 
inferior to the older basalts of Victoria. 
Eocene. 

1810. Feron (Voy. Terres Australes) describes the fossiliferous 
limestone at Kingscote, Kangaroo Island. 

1833. Sturt (Two Expeditions, &;c.) refers the formation of the 
cliffs of the Lower Murray River, on fossil evidence, to Eocene. 

E 



66 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

1845. Strzelecki (Physical Descript., &c.) classifies the Eocene 
polyzoal limestone at Port Fairy as a raised beach. 

1854. SfiLWYN (Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania, p. 169) considers the 
fossils at Schnapper Point to resemble those of the Paris basin and 
Tjondon clay. 

1859. Selwyn (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xvi., p. 147) 
provisionally adopts the following classification of the Tertiaries 
[Eocene] in Victoria : 3. Newer Pliocene. — Flemington red 
Tertiaries, marine (like the Red Crag). 5. Miocene — Corio Bay, 
Cape Otway Coast, Murray Basin, and Lower Brighton beds. 
6. Eocene— East Shore of Port Phillip, Muddy Creek, &c. 

1859. Tegison Woods (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xvi., p. 
259) describes the Mount Gambler limestone, and thinks the forma- 
tion of an Eocene character. Busk fid., p. 260) regards the jDolyzoa 
as indicating an age equivalent to the Coralline Crag of England. 

1861. McCoy (Vict. Exh. Essays, p. 168) believes the Geelong 
beds to be Lower Miocene and those at Schnapper Point to be Upper 
Eocene [afterwards altered to Oligocene in accordance with revised 
classification of the Older Tertiary of Europe]. 

1862. Tenison Woods (Geol. Obs., S. Aust., p. 82) compares 
the fossils of the Mount Gambler limestone with those of the 
European Upper Eocene and Lower Miocene. 

1865. Tenison Woods (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxi. p. 
393) regards the Mount Gambler limestone as not so modern as the 
Coralline Crag, but yovinger than the Muddy Creek beds, and the 
Murray River beds as of intermediate age. 

1868. Selwyn (Descrip. Cat. Nat. Museum) classes the rocks of 
Bird Rock Bluff as Upper Miocene and Lower Miocene, and 
correlates the Mount Gambler series with Upper Miocene (p. 55) ; 
the clays at Schnapper Point are classeil as probably Upper Eocene, 
(p. 56), the Flemington fossiliferous sandstones as Older Pliocene 
and the limestones of Moorabool River as Miocene (p. 61). 

1872. Smyth, R. B. (Vict. Exh. Essays, p. 13) refers the 
fossiliferous beds at the Glenelg River and near Camperdown to 
Miocene. 

1874. McCoy (Geol. Surv. Vict., Report No. 2, p. 72) places 
the Bairnsdale limestone as " Middle Eocene, such as Corio Bay 
and Bird Rock, Geelong." Howitt (id., p. 62) uses the phrase 
Middle Tertiary. 

1876. Smyth, R. B., and McCoy (Geol. Surv. Vict., Report 3, 
p. 81) provisionally adopt the following divisions [of what is 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 67 

believed by Tate and Dennant to be the component formations of one 
series] : Lower Pliocene. Marine beds — Near Flemington; Mio- 
cene — Bird Rock, Boggy Creek near Sale, Bairnsdale, coastline 
from Princetown, at Curdies River, Cobden, Maude ; Oligocene — 
Schnapper Point, Princetown, near mouth of Gellibrand River, 
near mouth of Aire River, at Cape Otway. 

1878. Tate (Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., vol. i., pp. 90-97 and 
120) divides the Older Tertiary of the Aldinga and River Murray 
Cliffs into two series. Eocene and Miocene. 

1880. Hector, Sir James (Proc. Roy. Soc, N.S.W.,vol. xiii., 
p. 70 et seq.j, correlates the Schnapper Point, Murray River, and 
Table Cape beds, with the Oamaru Series of New Zealand (Upper 
Eocene); the beds at Portland with Pareora beds (Lower Miocene); 
and the limestones of the Great Australian Bight with the 
Wanganui and the Awatere beds (Upper Miocene). 

1888. Johnston, R. M. ("Geology, Tasmania"), places the 
marine Older Tertiary of Victoria — Cape Schank, Bird Rock, 
Muddy Creek — and that of the River Murray Cliffs as the 
equivalents of the Table Cape beds (Eocene). 

1889. Dennant, J. (Trans. Roy. Soc, S. Aust., vol. vi., p. 30, 
et seq.J, recognises two separate zones in the Muddy Creek beds, 
and correlates the older with the Schnapper Point clays. 

1889. CossMANN, M. (L'Annuaire Geol. Universelle), declares 
that the Gasteropod fauna of the Older Tertiary of Australia has 
incontestable analogy with that of the Paris basin. 

Miocene. 
1874. McCoy (Geol. Surv. Vict. Report 2, p. 72) places the 
fossiliferous beds at Jemmy's Point, Gippsland Lakes, on the 
horizon of Pliocene, and, as the equivalent of the Wanganui 
series of New Zealand. Howitt fid. p. 60) uses the phrase Upper 
Tertiary. 

1890. Dennant, J. (Proc. Roy. Soc, Vict., p. 53, et seq.J, 
correlates the strata at Jemmy's Point with the younger series 
(Miocene) at Muddy Creek. 

For other references, see vmder " Eocene." 

Older Pliocene. 
1890. Tate (Trans. Roy. Soc, S. Aust., vol. xiii., pp. 172- 
184) elaborates a fauna from strata passed through in the Dry 
Creek and Croydon bores, near Adelaide. He regards it as 
younger than Miocene, and provisionally calls it Older Pliocene. 



68 INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 

Newer Pliocene or Pleistocene. 

1886. Dennant, J. (Trans. Roy. Soc, Vict.), describes beds in 
Soutb-Western Victoria containing about 2U per cent, of extinct 
species. 

1884. Brown, H. L. Y. (Geol. Map of S. Aiist.), colors as Lower 
Tertiary a large area in tbe south-east of the province wbicb is 
certainly not older than Pleistocene. 

INTERCALATED IGNEOUS ROCKS. 
L. OR M. Devonian. 
Tbe Snowy River felstone porphyrites, felstone asb, and agglome- 
rates are described, and their stratigraphical position is assigned by 
Howitt, A. W. (Geol. Surv., Victoria, Report 3, 1876). 

M. Devonian. 
Felsite breccias and felsite tuffs with a compact sheet of compact 
felsite and one of basalt are described by Howitt, A. W. (op. cit. 
Report No. 5, p. 117), as interstratified with the Buchan lime- 
stones. 

U. Devonian. 

Interbedded melaphyres beneath tbe Avon River sandstone are 
described by Howitt. 

Permo-Carboniferous. 

Diabasic and felsitic tuffs, together with sheets of felsitic and 
diabasic basalt, are interstratified with tbe Rhacopteris beds in 
New South Wales (David, Aust. Assoc. Adv. Sc, vol. iv., p. 67, 
1893), and agglomerates and dolerites in the Lower Bowen Series 
in Queensland (Jack. Geol. Queensland, p. 145). 

Volcanic lavas and tuffs in tbe Greta Coal Measures, in the 
Illawarra coalfield ; lavas of the Canobolas, near Orange ; those 
near Rylstone and in the Murrundi District — all in New South 
Wales. (David, op. cit., pp. 68-70). 

Hawkesbury Series. 
Volcanic tuffs at various horizons (David, op. cit., p. 70). 

Ipswich Coal Measures. 
Volcanic asb-bed in neighborhood of Brisbane (Jack, op. cit., 
p. 321). 

Carbonaceous Series, Victoria. 
Mr. A. W. Howitt records tuffaceous beds, teste David fop. 
cit., p. 71). 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 69 

Desert Sandstone. 
Basaltic lavas and tuffaceous beds of insignificant thickness 
occur in this formation in Queensland (Jack, Geol., Queensland, 
p. 517). 

Pre-Eocene. 
The older basalts of Southern "Victoria, previously referred to 
Miocene, have been sho^\^l by Tate and Dennant to be Pre-Eocene 
(Trans. Roy. Soc, S. Aust., vol. xvii., p. 212, 1893), 

Eocene. 
The Eocene flora at Vegetable Creek, in the district of New 
England, New South Wales, is buried under contemporaneous lava 
and tuff (David, Geol. Survey, N.S.W, Memoir, 1887, p. 25 
et seq.J. 

Post-Pliocene. 

The newer basalts and ash beds of Victoria ; the ash beds of 
the Mount Ganibier area. South Australia (David, Assoc. Adv. 
Sc, vol. IV., p. 73, teste Tate) overlie deposits of the Diprotodon 
Period. 




Section A. 
ASTRONOMY, MATHEMATICS, AND PHYSICS. 



ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT, 
H. C. RUSSELL, B.A., C.M.G., F.R.S., 

Government Astronomer, Sydney. 



THE PROGRESS OF ASTRONOMICAL PHOTOGRAPHY. 

Our section embraces a wide range of subjects, and the honorable 
position in which you have placed me to-day gives me a recognised 
right to select a theme for my address from any of these subjects, 
and to treat it in one of two ways — either to endeavor to add some- 
thing of my own to the present sum of knowledge, or to endeavor 
to pass in review what has been done. My impression is that the 
latter is the better course, and I hope you will be able to agree 
with me. 

I will confine my remarks to a branch of one of our subjects 
which, within the past twenty years, has done more than any- 
thing else to accelerate the progress of our knowledge and to extend 
our grasp of the grand truths of astronomy. I refer, of course, to 
the application of photography to the wants of astronomical 
research. Coming in at first as another possible aid to the observer, 
it has already shown us that in many cases the observer must stand 
aside while the sensitive photographic plate takes his place and 
works with a power of which he is not capable ; and 1 feel sure that 
in a very few years the observer will be displaced altogether, while 
his duty will be done by a new sensitive being, not only taking in 
the visu.al ray, but also the actinic rays into ultra violet — a being 
not subject to fatigue, to indigestion, to east winds, to temper, and 
to bias, but one, above all these weaknesses, calm and unruffled, 
Avith all the world shut out, and living only to catch the fleeting 
rays of light and tell their story. 

It has been well said by a very gifted writer' that "the invention 
of the telescope itself does not mark an epoch more distinctly than 
the admission of the camera to the celestial armory. All the con- 
ditions of sidereal research in especial are being rapidly transformed 
by its co-operation." 

By this new lever the progress of astronomy is being urged for- 
ward at a rate which accomplishes more in ten years than was 



president's address SECTION A. 71 

possible in a hundred years by older methods. Its whole life history 
covers but fifty-three years, and its infancy and youth were cramped 
by the want of means of existence and growth ; but its latter years 
have been marked by a Adgor which has done so much that I shall 
have little more than time to mark the stepping-stones in that 
onward march ; to trace the details would take volumes. 

Fifty-three years ago photography was in the daguerreotype 
stage, when it was just possible to get a rough photograph of the 
moon ; forty-three years ago it had reached the collodion stage, 
and was capable of rendering great aid to astronomy. Its worth 
had been proved, and the conditions of its successful application to 
the wants of the astronomer were known, but the enormous value of 
that power was somehow overlooked. Was it that the innovation 
was too great to be accepted at once, or that they did not consider 
the matter sufficiently ? If the following record of the slow progress 
that followed that time and the gradually accelerating progress of 
the last few years should enlist some other worker into the army 
of astronomers, it will have done something to add to our know- 
ledge. 

It is generally stated that astronomical photography began when, 
in 1850, Professor Bond succeeded in taking daguerreotypes of the 
moon with the great loin, refractor at Harvard College Observa- 
tory, but there seems to be no doubt that impressions of the moon 
were obtained with more or less success some ten years earlier. 
Professor Henry Draper, of the New York University, writes'^ : — 
" The first photograph of the moon was taken by my father. Professor 
•I. W. Draper, M.D., who published notices of them in his quarto 
work on the forces of organised plants, and in the Philosophical 
Magazine. The specimens were about lin. in diameter, and were 
presented to the Lyceum of Natural History of New York. They 
were taken with a photographic lens of 5in. in aperture, furnished 
with an eyepiece to increase the magnifyino^ power, the whole 
mounted on a polar axis and moved by clockwork ; the time of 
exposure was twenty minutes." In September, 1840, he writes : — 
" There is no difficulty in procuring an impression of the moon bv 
dagueireotype beyond that which arises from her motion." This 
was not his first attempt to apply photography to astronomical 
work, for he tried in 1834 to fix the lines of the spectrum. The 
sensitive surface used was bromide of silver as a coating on 
paper. The experiment was not a success, but it is mentioned in 
the Philosophical Magazine for 1843, " and in the summer of 1842, 
simultaneously with M. Becqueret, by using daguerreotype plates, 
I succeeded, and in the following March sent a drawing of the 
photograph to the Philosophical Magazine, and in 1843 I made 
photographs of the diffraction spectrum by a grating both by 
reflection and transmission." 

Arago announced to the Academic of Sciences at Paris on the 
13th of August, 1839^, the great discovery of Niepce and Daguerre, 



72 president's adijress — section a. 

and expresses the opinion that it would be possible to make the 
sun and moon record their oavii features by photograph)- ; and, 
acting upon this suggestion, Daguerre tried, and failed to get any- 
thing more than a very faint impression, from which all detail was 
absent. In Arago's Popular Astronomy there is reproduced a 
daguerreotype of the sun, taken, as stated on it, on April 2nd, 1845, 
by MM. Foucalt and Fizeau, but no particulars are given. The 
long exposure of twenty minutes required to get a daguerreotype 
of the moon no doubt deterred many who would have tried, and it 
was only the genius of Bond, coupled with the great refractor, 
which enabled him to get the first really valuable photograph of 
the lunar surface. It appears in Astron. Nachrichten, No. 1105, 
that the artists Whipple and Black (of Boston) "for many years 
before this " had been experimenting whenever they could get the 
use of the great telescope, and that the earliest successful experi- 
ments were made with daguerreotype plates in July, 1850; but 
the labor and time demanded was so great that he was obliged to 
put the work aside until he should be able to get improved instru- 
mental appliances. Some of the photographs obtained were taken 
to England and exhibited at a meeting of the Royal Astronomical 
Society on May 9th, 1850, again at the meeting of the British 
Association in September following, and then at the Great Exhibi- 
tion in 1851 ; and they were so good that they may be said to have 
taken the scientific world by storm, but I find at this time no 
description of what they did show of the moon's surface. The 
result might have been anticipated. Everybody who could com- 
mand a telescope from 4in. to 6ft. tried to photograph the moon 
with such means as he had, and in one case they induced an 
astronomer, Mr. De La Rue, to become a worker, and his energy 
and success did very much to promote the study of astronomical 
photography I have said that at the time no measure of what 
was meant by '• good " photographs of the moon was given, but 
four years later we find a measure of the term good applitid to 
them. In the British Association Report for 1854, p. 10, the Rev. 
J. B. Reade, M.A., F.R.S., writes: — "The daguerreotype produced 
in the Bond refractor possesses a latent sharjiness which is difficult 
to see, but which was brought out by taking a copy of it with a 
camera. This copy was compared with his owai photograph, and 
he found in both the Mare Crisium with bright surrounding 
country which separates it from Mare Fecunditatis, and Mare 
Tranquilitatis, the crater Menelans, and the ray of light extending 
from it across the Mare Serenitatis, the semicircular ridge round 
Mare Imbrium and the unreflective crater Plato,"* so that Bond's 
picture of the moon must have possessed a large amount of 
detail, 

Mr. Dancer^, of Manchester, seems to have been the first in 
England to follow Bond's lead, and in February, 1852, made some 
sharp jjictures of the moon, using a 4i-in. equatorial. These are 



president's address — SECTION A. 73 

believed to be the first taken in England, and were of such excel- 
lence that they would bear examination with a compound micro- 
scope with a Sin. objective. 

Professor Bond^ had not been content with his successful photo- 
graphs of the moon. He wished to see what could be done with the 
stars; and, on July 17th, 185o, Mr. Whipple, under his direction, 
placed a daguerreotyj)e plate in the focus of the great refractor and 
obtained the first known stellar photograph — a picture of Alpha 
Lyrae. The time it took is not given, but it is stated' that no 
image of the pole star could be obtained, no matter how long the 
•exposure was continued, but an elongated image of the double star 
Castor was obtained before the experiments were given up. At 
first it seems strange that a picture of the moon could be taken with 
comparative ease, while bright stars, which we know are capable of 
recording themselves in less than one-tenth of the time reqiiired for 
the moon, required a much longer exposure, and in some cases 
would not do it at all ; but it is obvious that the reason of this is to 
"be found in the imjjerfection of the clockwork, which, instead of 
keeping the star image fixed on one spot on the jjlate, c tuses it to 
wander about that point until the light was too diffused to produce 
the desired effect. 

In 1858** Dr. Luther, of Konigsberg, showed Mr. De La Rue the 
daguerreotype of the total eclipse of 1 851 , which had been taken by 
Dr. Busch with the Konigsberg heliometer. Considering the state 
of photography at that time the successful i-esult was remarkable, 
Avhen due allowance is made for the uncertainty then existing as to 
the brilliance of the prominences. Towards the end of 1852 Mr. 
De La Rue" took some photographs with the then new collodion 
process on glass. He used his 13in. metallic reflector without clock- 
work, and naturally met with considerable difficulty, although the 
time of exposure, ten to thirty seconds, was very short for those 
days. The work required two persons, and was very tiring, owing 
to the number of failures. Motion was at first given to the telescope 
I)}' means of the tangent screw, and then better results were ob- 
tained by putting the sensitive plate in a slide and moving it to 
follow the moon's apparent motion. This was done by hand, and 
the amount of motion was determined by looking at a crater through 
the transparent collodion film, and keeping it bisected by cross 
wires attached to the back of the plate. Rough as these con- 
trivances seem when measured by modern apj^liances, Mr. De La 
Rue succeeded in making some excellent photographs, but, owing 
to the ditf'culties, he came to the conclusion to discontinue the work 
until he should get clockwork to move the reflector. 

These photographs were exhibited at a meeting of the Royal 
Astronomical Society in 1853 ; they were ly-oin. in diameter, and 
"were considered very good indeed. 

It appears'" that at this time (1853) the possibility of using 
photography to delineate the surface of the moon became a burn- 



74 president's address — section a. 

ing question with the British Association Committee for the sm-vey 
of the physical aspect of the moon, and one of the members, Mr. 
John Phillips, M.A., F.K.A.S., determined to try what he could 
do with his own telescope, which had a 6Jin. Cooke objective and 
lift, focus. Though, in part, prepared at the beginning of the 
year, he was not able to make an actual beginning until July, and 
on 15th and 18th, assisted by Mr. Bates, he obtained some photo- 
graphs, which were exhibited at the British Association meeting 
September, 1853. The committee thought that they proved beyond 
a doubt that the research is of a useful and practicable kind, and 
may be followed up by better things. The images were on collo- 
dion plates, and measured l-2ii). in diameter and were enlarged by 
an eyepiece in the telescope to 2in., and the time of exposure was 
thirty seconds. 

In 1 854 the Photographic Society of Liverpool", being anxious 
to show moon photographs with others of more general character 
to the meeting of the British Association that ycitr, appointed a 
committee of the members, of whom Mr. J. Hartnup,the astronomer, 
was one, to mtike some lunar photographs for exhibition at the 
British Association meetins; in Liverpool in September of that year.''" 

The telescope used had an objective 8iu. diameter and 12^ft. focal 
length. Mr. Hartnup, of course, did the work, and got some very 
good photographs, of which, it is reported, the photographs of the 
moon shown at the meeting of the British Association at Liverpool 
were said to have " outstripped all olher attempts made elsewhere." 
and in the report of the council of tlie Royal Astronomical 
Society, February 10th, 1854. it is said that " tiiC beautiful art of 
photography seems likely to be of much utility in conducing to 
a more accurate knowledge of the physical condition of celestial 
bodies." 

At the Royal Astronomical Society meeting, June 9th, 1854, Mr. 
Hartnup exhibited ten collodion pictures of the moon, l-35in. in 
diameter, and ten enlarged copies, some of which were 4^m. in 
diameter. These were all taken during May, 1854. 

When thrown upon the screen and made 8ft. in diameter they 
were much admired by the astronomers present, and the president 
alluded to the gratifying progress of Mr. Hartnup's labors in 
connection with this interesting subject. The report of the Royal 
Astronomical Society for 1854 goes on to say that Sir John 
Herschel strongly reconlmended'^ under date April 2Jth, 1854'*, 
the daily photographic representation of sun spots, and the Kew 
Committee took the matter up and moved the covmcil of the Royal 
Society, who decided that the work should be undertaken at Kew, 
and placed in Mr. I)e La Rue's hands the duty of carrving out the 
work for the council Hoss, the optician, made the photo-helio- 
graph, which had an objective 3-4m. diameter, a focus of 50in., 
and an enlarging lens, which made the sun's image 12in. in diameter. 
While this was going on an amateur, the Rev. J. B. Reade, M.A.^ 



president's address — SECTION A. 75 

F.R.A.S., whom I have already quoted, was very busy tryinj? to take 
photographs with what must have been in those days a very large 
instrument. The Craigh telescope, at Wandsworth, Avhich he used, 
had a diameter of 2ft. and a focal length of 77ft. It is not stated 
whether it was a refractor, but " the true photogenic focus was 
difficult to find," and he goes on to say, "that so large an object 
glass worked by hand should do so much with the stars is far from 
discreditable.'"' He then speaks of reworking the surfaces of the 
object glass, which seems to leave no doubt that it was not a 
reflector, which has one surface only. With such a long focus the 
moon's image should be nearly Sin. in diameter; the time of 
exposure for a collodion picture of the moon was thirty-five seconds. 
This telescope was not equatorially mounted, and the moon's 
apparent motion when near the meridian was counteracted by a 
•' screw motion given to the eye end of the telescope"; the rate was 
guided by looking through the collodion at a crater kept on crot^s 
wires; from a negative taken on September 6th, 1854, a negative 
9in. in diameter was made, which was compared with one taken by 
Bond at Harvard Observatory, and Mr. Reade adds, "in this photo- 
graph all the more important features of the moon's surface will 
be discovered by those who are familiar with their telescopic 
appearance." I have already quoted his comparison of his photo- 
graph with the Bond photograph. 

In 1857 Professor Henry Draper'**, after seeing Lord Rosse's 
great reflector, returned to America with his mind made up to con- 
struct a large reflector and use it for astronomical photography. He 
made a metallic reflector 15^in. diameter and I2it. focus, but soon 
discarded it for a silvered glass one of same size and r2ft. 6in. 
focus.'' He made 1,500 photographs of the moon with it, of which 
the best was made September 3rd, 1863, and was enlarged to 3ft., 
the original being 1-Ain- diameter. In 1857 Bond'-, having sup- 
plied the driving clock of the equatorial with the spring governor 
which he had invented, again turned his attention to photography, 
and by the aid of the more rapid collodion plates took photographs 
of stars of various magnitudes up to the sixth ; the brighter star 
of Zeta Ursee Majoris recorded itself in two seconds and the 
companion in eight seconds. Measures were made of these, and in 
this early stage it was found that the probable error of a single 
measiu'e of the distance between them was only + 0'12". Star 
pictures were made soon afterwards by Mr. De La Rue and Mr. 
Rutherford, at the meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society on 
November 1 3th, 1857. Mr. Airy, the Astronomer Royal, exhibited 
Bond's photographs of this double star, Zeta Ursse Majoris, and used 
these memorable words — " This photoi;ra[)h marks a step of very 
great importance which has been i^iade, of which either as regards 
the self-delineation of clusters of stars, netailaj, and planets, or as 
regards the self-delineation of observations, it is impossible at 
present to estimate the value." Mr. Bond had, in 1857, obtained 



76 president's address — section a. 

photographs of the bright stars Castor and Vega, and now with 
more sensitive collodion he was able to take the companion of 
Zeta Urste Majoi'is, which is fifth magnitude and emerald green 
in color, so would photograph in normal conditions. The time 
required was eight seconds. Now the Brothers Henry photograph 
such a star with a 13in. star camera in one-fifth of a second. 
Bond's objective reduced to 13in. would take 10-7' to photograph 
this star, and therefore fifty-three and a half times longer than it 
does now. 

Hartnuj), in Liverpool, 1864, took 124 times longer for the moon 
than it does in Sydney to-day. 

Mr. De La Rue's''' work in 1852 has already been mentioned, 
and the photographs then taken without clock movement were so 
promising that he determined to have a proper clock. This was not 
finished till 1857, and he then devoted his whole energy and his 
observatory to the study and practice of astronomical photography, 
and everyone is aware of his pre-eminent success — success eclipsing 
all that had been done before ; and even in the present day his work 
must still be classed as good, but not equal to the best modern 
efforts. 

At the British Association, in September, 1859, he exhibited two 
original negatives of the moon, which would bear considerable 
magnifying power — two enlargements from these Sin. in diameter, 
other enlargements 3^in. diameter; photographs of Jupiter, showing 
his belts and satellites ; and one of the Moon with Saturn near the 
limb taken in fifteen seconds. 

From the same source I learn that experiments in lunar 
photography were made by Lord Rosse with his 6ft. reflector. 
Having no clock motion for the telescope, he applied to it a 
sliding plate holder of the kind used by De La Rue in his first 
experiments, but this is said not to have met all the exigencies of the 
case. The telescope was wanted for other purposes, and from the fact 
that no photographs with the great reflector were published, it is 
probable they were not so good as it was hoped they would be. In 
his best photographs of the moon'-" De La Rue claimed to have 
recorded in a picture of the moon 1-roin. diameter details so small 
that any subsequent change over a space measuring two miles each 
way must be detected, and claimed^' to be able, with best weather 
and chemicals, to get a photograph of dark parts of crescent moon 
in from twenty to thirty seconds which would show all the parts 
visible near the dark limb. 

Having made a new driving clock in 1857, Bond devoted the 
great refractor at Harvard College to a series of experiments, 
which lasted to 1858'--, making photographs of stars with various 
apertures from the full 15in. down to lin., to ascertain the 
possibility of classifying the stars by their photographic images 
on the plate, which, being suitable for accurate measurement, he 



PRESIDENT S ADDRESS SECTION A. V 7 

deemed more satisfactory than the method of eye estimates in 
common use; and he came to the conchision that the photographic 
magnitudes of stars increase by equal areas for equal increases in 
time of exposure, so proving that the photographic method of 
dettrmininj,' star magnitudes proceeded on the same principle as 
eye estimates, and anticipating by twenty-six years the same work 
which has been gone over by several astronomers for the star 
charting now in progress. -'' Professor Pritchard, however, came to 
am ther conclusion, viz., that the area of the star image varies as 
the square root of the time of exposure. 

The photo-heliogi*aph-*, which had been set up at Kew on the 
earnest recommendation of Sir John Herschel, already referred to, 
was completed at the end of February, and work on the sun was 
begun with it on March 1st, 1858, but at first was not continuous 
owing to the necessity for modifications in order to make the 
exposure short enongh. This was ultimately accomplished by a 
sliutler with a slit in it working in the focus of the objective. 

About 1860 Mr. De La Rue-' turned his attention to the possi- 
bility of photographing the details of sun spots with his reilector, 
and exhibited some on a scale of 3ft. to the sun's diameter. They 
were not so good as he hoped to make them, but the cause he 
thought was in the secondary magnifier. They were taken in one- 
twentieth of a second. It does not appear thai they ever came to 
perfection ; indeed it is well known now that the chief difficulty 
is vibration in the atmosphere, which is seldom absent ; but he 
pursued the subject, and we are told in 186.3-*^ that he had exhibited 
some photographs of sun spots on the enormous scale of 13ft. for 
the sun's diameter, and also some prints from them produced by 
Herr Pretsche's process (untouched by the graver). 

Meantime this enthusiast, whose ability and energy for many 
years led the way in the application of photography to astronomy, 
was busy photographing star clusters with his reflector, but he found 
it better to use a large portrait lens, which gave very encouraging 
results. He remarks " the difficulty does not consist in fixing the 
images of the stars, but in finding the images when they are 
imprinted, for they are no bigger than the species common to the 
best collodion." 

At this time-^ some curiosity existed as to the possibility of 
photographing comets. " I tried" writes De La Rue, " w ith my re- 
flector, on the appearance of Donati's comet in 1858, several times, 
without success, and on the appearance of the comet of the 
present year (1861) I tried not only with my telescope, but also 
with a portrait lens, and with an exposure of fifteen minutes, not 
seconds, but I failed to get the slighest trace with either." Tlie 
care in stating the time of exposure was probably due to a report 
that Mr. Usherwood'", of Walton Common, in Surrey, had secured 
a photograph of Donati s comet on September 26th, 1858. He 
used an ordinary portrait lens without equatorial stand, but set 



78 president's address — section a. 

the camera in the ordinarj' way, and exposed for seven seconds. 
The picture was about an inch long, and bore enlargement to same 
extent. Mr. IJpherwood used a portrait lens of very short focus on 
a hill 700ft. high. Still the great difference between his exposure 
and those of Mr. De La Rue is not easily accounted for, although 
manv accepted Mr. Usherwood's picture as the first one ever made 
of a comet. 

We are told"^ that in his photographs of the moon and other 
objects Mr. De La Rue iised a negative collodion containing iodide 
of cadmium and avoided acetic acid and alcohol in the bath, which 
he made as neutral as possible. In this way he obtained photographs 
of full moon, either instantaneously or in five or six seconds, and in 
its half phase in twenty to thirty seconds.^" Early^^ in 1859 Mr. 
De La Rue had the courage to propose, and the ability finally to 
carry out, the transfer of the Kew photo-heliograph to Spain in 1860, 
in order to photograph the total eclipse of July 18tli in that year. 
It was a bold experiment, and was crowned with success. In esti- 
mating the conditions we must remember that he had no chance of 
finding ovit beforehand the time of exposure for red jjrominences. 
Two photographs of the totality were secvired ; each had an 
exposure of one minute, and each showed the red prominences 
clearly, and served for ever to set at rest the much vexed question 
of those days, viz., Avhether they belonged to the sun or the moon, 
for the photographs proved definitely that the red prominences 
belonged to the sun. Mr. De La Rue's station was at Rivabellosa, 
in Spain, and on the Mediterranean coast of Spain, 240 miles from 
Rivabellosa, Father Secche^'^ had set up his observatory, and took 
photographs v.dth a 9in. refractor on a smaller scale than those 
taken by Mr. De La Rue, but they fully confirmed the results obtained 
by the English party — that the prominences belonged to the sun. 

In the first photograph taken at Rivabellosa there was to be 
seen to the east of the sun a totally detached prominence or 
cloud of curved or boomerang form, and in the second this was 
partly covered by the advancing limb of the moon, and a fresh 
lot showed themselves on the other side. The light of the red 
prominences was estimated to be photographically 1 80 times 
brighter than that of the moon.^^ 

On 27th of February, 1863^*, and on 3rd March of the same 
year. Dr. Huggins led the way in photographing star spectra, 
and found that when the spectrum of Sirius was caused to fall 
upon a sensitive collodium surface an intense photographic spectrum 
of the more refrangible part was obtained ; but, " from want of 
accurate adjustment of the focus, or from the motion of the star 
not being exactly compensated by the clock movement, or from 
atmospheric tremors, the spectrum, though tolerably well defined 
at the edges, presented no indication of lines." 

Rutherford^^ began his work in lunar photography in 1858 
Math an equatorial 11 ^in. aperture and 14ft. focal length. Finding 



president's address SECTION A. 79 

it impossible to get with this instrument, intended for vision, 
such perfect photographs as he desired, he tried first a reflector of 
13in., but ultimately gave it up, and determined to make an 
1 l|-in. objective corrected for photographic purposes. This was 
not accomplished until December, 1864, and he did not get a 
satisfactory negative until March 6th, 1865. The construction 
of this lens was difficult, because its progress could not be tested 
by the visual image. Mr. Rutherford got over the difficulty by 
testing it with a spectroscope. With this instrument stars down 
to ninth magnitude were taken with three minutes' exposure, and 
the only photograph of the moon taken with it was sharper than 
any other Mr. Rutherford had ever seen. 

It was suggested at the time that photographs of the sky 2° on a 
side might be taken with it.^** 

The power to obtain photographs of stars down to the ninth 
magnitude with such a small aperture and an exposure of three 
minutes promises to develop and increase the application of photo- 
graphy to the mappinu; of the heavens, and in some measure to 
realise the hopes that have so long been deferred and disappointed. 

On January 11th, 1869, M. Janssen^' presented to the Academie 
of Sciences a short note pointing out that it was possible to isolate 
any part of a spectrum bj- placing a second slit near the eyepiece 
— an idea which underlies some of the most remarkable results of 
the present day, but it lay dormant until 1892. 

In 1871 Dr. Diaper^** completed a 28in. silvcred-glass reflector, 
made for the purpose of photographing star sj^ectra, and in May, 
1872, and again in August, he photographed the spectrum of 
Vega, showing four strong lines. Dr. Huggins, as we have seen, 
photographed the sjjectrum of Sirius on a collodion plate in 1863. 
In 1870^^ Professor C. A. Young succeeded in photographing the 
prominences of the sun. Negatives were made showing the solar 
disc on a scale 2in. in diameter, Avhich represented clearly the 
general form of the prominences, but the telescope was too small 
for good definition, and the work was given up. The light of the 
hydrogen line Y was used because more actinic than K. They 
were taken with an open slit on the spectroscope. 

In 1872 Mr. Ellery photographed the moon with the great 
reflector at Melbourne with marked success, and produced the 
finest photographs that had been seen up to that time. 

In 1873-4 many persons urged that photography should be 
applied to the transit of Venus, and Sir G. B. Airy, after some 
hesitation, adopted this as an auxiliary method, and in 1874 it was 
used by the majority of parties sent out as a means of determining 
the position of Venus on the sun. It did not prove so successful 
as it was hoped it would, but on many of the photographs taken 
in New South Wales the ring of light surrounding the planet at 
and near the sun's limb was clearly recorded and shown to be 
brighter than the sun itself by the greater deposit of silver which 



80 president's address — SECTION A. 

it produced. In 1874 Dr. Huggins tried to photograph the spectra 
of planetary nebulae, but wiiiiout success, the instrument at his 
command not beina; large enough. 

The year 1876 was an important epoch in the application of 
photography to the astronomer's needs, for in that year gelatine 
dry plates, which had been first put on the market in 1871, attained 
such perfection that Dr. Hu^igins, after an extensive series of 
tests comparing them with the best collodion films, gave the 
preference to the new-fashioned dry plates, and therefore ex- 
posures could be continued for hours, and even days, instead of 
a few minutes, the possible limit for collodion plates. Dr. Huggins 
used the ncAv plates to record ihe spectrum of Vega on December 
21st that year ; it contained seven strong lines, all of them strongly 
shaded at the sides, and two of them coinciding with the well- 
known lines of hydrogen. Thus another advance was made; the 
greatest number of lines previously photographed was four. 

Dr. H. Draper^" in 1877 announced his discovery of oxygen 
in the sun in a paper read before the American Philosophical 
Society. On July 20th he found, by photographing the spectrum, 
a number of bright lines in the solar spectrum coinciding with 
lines of oxj^gen, and said "We can no longer regard the solar 
spectrum as a continuous spectrum with certain rays absorbed by 
a layer of igniied metallic vapors, but as having also bright lines 
and bands superposed on the background of the spectrum." 

In 1877 came another important advance. M. Janssen suc- 
ceeded*' in photographing the sun, with extraordinary results. 
The images were 12in. in diameter, and displayed remarkably 
sharp details of the sun spots, willow leaves, lice grains, and 
faculse. But the most remarkable result obtained — and which 
was exclusively due to the improved photographic method — the 
whole photosphere was covered with a fine granulation of very 
varied forms, dimensions, and arrangements ; but the most re- 
markable of all was the discovery of a fine photosplieric network 
— " Reseau photosperique " The forms generally have rounded 
contours, but some are rectilinear and others polygonal ; and in the 
intervals of this network the rice grains are distributed and definitely 
bounded, and in their interior (i.e , the net spaces) the " granules 
are half obliterated, drawn out, and confused." This great step 
in advance was obtained chiefly by improving the old flashing 
shutter and reducing the time of exposure to -airoTyth part of a second. 

In 1878*^ Dr. H. Draper succeeded in getting very perfect 
photographs of the solar eclipse in July of that year, showing that 
the spectrum of the corona was similar to that of the sun — in other 
words, the corona must be sunlight reflected from matter in the 
neighborhood of the sun, and, if that accounts for the whole of its 
light, then it would not be possible to photograph it apart from the 
sun. The photograj^h was confirmed by the visual observations of 
Professors IBarker and Morton, two of Dr. Draper's party. 



president's address — SECTION A. 81 

In a paper read before the Royal Society on December 18th, 
1879, Dr. Huggins gives details of his work in photograpliing star 
spectra since he began his new and successful process in 1876, 
when he obtained seven lines in the photograph of the spectrum of 
Vega. He used a prism of Iceland spar and lenses of quartz. With 
this arrangement definition was so good that he could count seven 
lines between H and K in the solar spectrum, and could photograph 
star spectra from G to O in the viltra violet. He made it a practice 
to set the slit always to the same width {^io of an inch), and he used 
gelatine dry plates because they were more sensitive and could be 
exposed as long as he desired. ^^ He had photographed the spectra of 
Sirius, Vega, Arcturus, Beta Pegasi, Betelgeux, Capella, Alpha Her- 
cules, Rigel, and Alpha Pegasi : also Jupiter, Venus, Mars, and por- 
tions of the moon. The planetary spectra show no sensible modifi- 
cation in the violet and ultra violet parts such as would result from 
atmosphere on any of them. Six of the stars belonged to the " white" 
cla.ss. In this paper Dr. Huggins states that the spectroscope aided 
by photography miglit be made to afford valuable information in 
the study of variable stars — a prophecy which we shall find was 
fulfilled a few years later — and that it was evident the period of 
the sun's rotaton could be determined by spectroscopic observa- 
tions on each side of it. These brilliant results had not been 
attained without a determined battle with the difficulties in instru- 
ments and appliances then in use, and an amount of energy had to 
be expended in that way that would have borne grand fruit had 
instrument makers been equal to the demand of science. An 
indication of what had to be gone through is found in the fact 
that, in order to get the equatorial to follow the stars, it had been 
necessary to get made no less" than seven different driving clocks. 

In July, 1881, Professor VogeP' announced his important work 
and complete success in ])hotographing the specti-a of rarefied 
hydrogen, which gave a spectrum almost exactly coinciding with 
Dr. Huggins's ultra violet spectra of white stars. 

Dr. H. Draper^", on March llth, 1881, photographed the nebula 
in Orion, and one of the stars shown in it is of 14*7 magnitude, 
which is about the limit of what can be seen with a telescope of 
that size. So he had just brought the star camera to record as 
much as could be seen, and he would doubtless, had he lived a few 
years more, have done what has since been done, viz., photograph 
stars far beyond the range of vision : it was done soon after his 
death by A. A. Comman and others. 

Between 1868 and 1881 improvement in spectra photographing 
apparatus had been very great, but there had in the interval been 
no comet bright enough to try the experiment of photographing 
its spectrum, and Dr. Muggins^' eagerly seized the opportunity on 
the 24th June, and succeeded in getting a fine photograjjh of the 
spectrum of bright comet b of 1881. The photograph was the 
result of an exposure of one hour, and on another bright night he 
p 



82 president's address — section a. 

got one with one and a half hour's exposure. Two superposed 
spectra are shown — one a continuous spectrum of reflected sun- 
light extending from F to a little beyond H : the other two sets 
of bright lines from the comet's own light, with a suspicion of the 
Ijresence of a third set of lines. 

Dr. Henry Draper^* su.cceeded in photographing the comet b in 
Aurigae on June 24th, 1881, in one exposure of two hours forty- 
two minutes ; the comet is shown w4th tail about 10° long, and 
several stars showing through it. He tried to get its sjDectrum 
first, wdth a direct vision spectroscope and an exposure of eighty- 
three minvites, which gave a spectrum of nucleus coma and tail, 
then used a two-prism spectroscope, vpith three exposures, 180, 
196, and 228 minutes. There is in the spectrum a heavy band 
above H, which is riivisible into lines between G and h, and 
another between h and H. 

M. Janssen*'* also secured a photograph of comet b on July 
1881. He vised a telescope half a metre in aperture and r60m. in 
focal length. The photograph was exposed for thirty minvites, 
and shows a tail 2A^" long, in which were some rectilinear rays, 
which Avere revealed by the camera, but not visible. It will be 
remembered that, seven days before. Dr. H. Draper, vising a larger 
telescope and more than five times the exposure, found the tail on 
his photograph 10° long. 

On the 7th March, 1882, Dr. Huggins'^'' succeeded in taking a 
photograph of the spectrum of the great nebulse in Orion. He 
vised the 18in. reflector metallic speculum, and the exposure was 
limited by clouds to forty-five minutes. The photograph shows 
a spectrum extending from a little below F to beyond M in the 
ultra violet ; there are five bright lines as well as a narrow^er con- 
tinuous spectrum, which Dr. Hviggins thought was due to stellar 
light. It may be mentioned that only four bright lines had been 
seen by the eye. 

Dr. Draper", of New York, had been for eighteen months 
taking photographs of the nebula in Orion — to see, first, if it 
was changing, and, second, for the spectra of the various parts. In 
March, 1H82, he made two good photographs with two hours' ex- 
posure. On these he saw four of Dr. Huggins' lines, but not the 
■fifth (\3730). In one of the plates is the spectrum of a tenth- 
magnitvide star — the smallest star that had so far had its spectrum 
;photographed. 

On May 31st, 1882, Dr. Huggins^^ obtained a photograph of the 
spectrum of comet (Wells). It showed an essential difference 
between the spectrum of this comet and others. The nucleus 
shows a distinct spectrum, in which five brighter parts are seen, 
.probably due to bright lines. The spectrum extends from F to a 
little beyond H, and no Fiaunhofer lines can be seen in it. 

Professor Schuster's photographs of the eclipse of May 17th, 
J-882, show the coronal light is very strong from about G to H ; 



president's^ ADDRESS SECTION A. 83 

and Dr. Huggins'^ thought that it would be possible, by using 
absorbing media, to keep out the other rays, and that it would be 
possible to photograph the corona by the part between G and H. 
The importance of this will be seen when it is remembered that the 
eclipsed sun is only visible about eight days in a century, and then 
only from small and inconvenient areas of the earth's surface, and 
even this small chance is again limited by cloud and possibly in- 
accessible positions on the earth's surface. The possibility of 
making an artificial eclipse such that the sun's surroundings could 
be photographed at any time Avas a problem worth working at, and 
Dr. Huggins", with characteristic energy, threw himself into it, 
and succeeded by using absorbing media in getting faint but un- 
mistakable photographs of the corona ; the available media were 
insufficient for better results. 

In 1866 and 1868" he had tried by the same method to see the 
prominences, but met with only partial success for want of more 
suitable media. He had, however, in 1867'''', by means of absorb- 
ing meJia, insulated the spectra of different parts of the sun's 
surface, such as the spots and the umhrce of spots. The photo- 
graphs of the corona taken by Dr. Huggins about the time of the 
eclipse of May 17 th, 1868, were examined by Captain Abney, who 
said that '• not only were the general features in thern the same as 
in those taken by himself in the actual eclipse in Egypt, but also 
that details, such as rifts and streamers, have the same form and 
position," but the absorbing media were not satisfactory, and he 
subsequently used a reflecting telescope and chloride" of silver 
as a sensitive surface, which is sensitive only to violet rays. With 
this some success was attained, but not enough to satisfy Dr. 
Huggins, and the work was given up, although he felt " that 
problems of the highest interest in the physics of the sun are 
doubtless connected with the varying forms of coronal light, which 
only seem to admit of solution on the condition of its being possible 
to study the corona continuously." From fifty photographs of 
the corona which Dr. Huggins had taken in this way during 
May, Mr. Wesley was able to prepare a number of drawings of the 
corona. 

In 1883 Professor Pickering'® designed a star camera with the 
object of making regular comparisons of star magnitudes. It 
was so arranged that the whole heavens from 30° south to 60° 
north and over three hours of right ascension coald be photo- 
graphed on one plate measuring 6in. x 8in., which was divided into 
six parts or pictures, all of which could be taken in eighteen 
minutes. The great facility such an arrangement affords f(n- com- 
paring star magnitudes is obvious, and the result has fully justified 
the time given to it. 

For some years before his death (in 1882) Dr. H. Draper had 
devoted himself to the study of stellar spectra, and his death for a 
time put an end to this important work, but it was subsequently 



84 president's address — section a. 

(1883) taken up by Professor Pickering at Harvard College, and 
Mrs. Draper was induced to provide the money for this work as a 
memorial to her husband — one of the noblest monuments ever 
raised over a scientific man. 

In May, 1884, MM. Henry Bi'others were making photographic 
experiments to test the accuracy of their method of measuring 
double stars from ])hotographs, and in September the same year 
they had succeeded in photographing the small stars of the ecliptic. 
The difficulty of recording the positions of these stars in the 
old laborious way had induced them to try to photograph this 
part of the heavens in order to avoid the labor of lecording 
them by the eye and hand. The method when completed not 
only recorded the stars which were required in the search for 
small planets, but actually made it unnecessary to look for the 
planets through a telescope, because they show themselves amongst 
the stars by making a trail instead of a round spot, and this was 
done with the experimental G^in. star camera. This success was 
so satisfactory that they began at once to make an objective of 
13|^in. for this special purpose, and expected to be able to photo- 
graph stars to the twelfth magnitude. 

With this larger star camera, on November 16th. 1885, they 
found in taking photographs of the Pleiades a hitherto unknown 
nebula about the star Mia. The star camera had literally called 
it from darkness to light. 

In October, 1884, MM. Henry'^ had got the new 13in. star camera 
fairly at work. They had taken a photograph of the cluster of 
stars in Hercules, giving it fifty minutes' exposure, and found 550 
stars of from seventh to twelfth magnitude In another place with 
sixty minutes' exposure on a surface five degrees square they counted 
2,790 stars between sixth and fourteenth magnitades, and traces of 
fifteenth magnitmie stars, whose diameter was only — o-ooiiiM and 
Admiral Mouchez, in referring to this work, said they had gone so 
far as to secure images of a few stars of seventeenth magnitude, 
"and such stars, without doubt, have never been seen before" — they 
are beyond the reach of any telescope. 

Their experiments proved that they could photograph a star of 
the first magnitude in o^^oth part of a second, one of fifth in one- 
fifth of a second, one of sixth in half a second, one of tenth in 
fifty seconds, and stars of sixteenth magnitude, only just visible 
in the largest telescopes, in eighty-three minutes, and their 
experiments led them to estimate the whole number of stars 
visible in Sir John Herschel's telescojje which they could 
photograj)h as twenty-two and a half millions. Herschel, as the 
result of niMuy counts in various parts of the sky, had estimated 
the number he could have seen in the whole sky, if he spent 
forty-five years in doing it, as twenty and a half millions. 

It is obvious that a photograph taken now and showing 
accurately the positions of the stars will, if compared by super- 



president's address — SECTION A. 85 

position with another taken on the same scale a few years 
hence, point out at once any change of position due to proper 
motion, kc. 

When, on December 13th, 1885, the new star (Nova Orionis) 
was discovered by ]Mr. Gore*"*, Professor Pickering's photographic 
star charts, showing all the stars, became at once aA'ailable, and 
one taken on November 9th, 1885, affords unmistakable evidence 
that this star was then much fainter than it was five weeks later 
when he discovered it. 

On the 15th March, 1885"^ a very brilliant am-ora at Christiana 
was photographed by Mr. Sophus Tromholt. He used Viogtlander's 
euroscopic No. 1 lens and rapid dry plates. Exposure of from two 
to four minutes gave nothing, but one of eight and a half minutes 
showed the light in the sky, with buildings outlined on it. This 
M-as the first time an aurora had been photographed. 

On May 11th, 1885, Admiral Mouchez"^ at a meeting of the 
Academic of Sciences, at Paris, stated the first experiment made 
by MM. Paul and Prosper Henry with a camera, objective 6}in. 
diameter, had proved so successful that a new instrument had been 
Cunstructed, which had a star camera with objective of 13Jin., and 
another telescope for a pointei' alongside of it for watching the clock 
motion, and although it was not quite complete it had already yielded 
some remarkable results, and seemed to solve the question how to 
use photogi'aphy in mapping the heavens, taking in stars down to 
the fourteenth or fifteenth magnitude. As we have already seen, it 
was thought just twenty years before this that Rutherford's 
star camera had solved this question, and so it had ; but the 
astronomical world was not ready for such a gigantic step forward, 
and therefore it had to wait vmtil the general progress in astrono- 
mical photography had cleared the way for its adoption in 
recording star positions. 

It was found by Professor Pickering in 1885 that photographs 
of star spectra can be obtained by simply placing a large prism on 
the outside of the object glass of the telescope"^ and he adopted 
this method v/ith a star camera of short focus, and thus in an 
exposure of five minutes the spectra of all stars down to the 
sixth magnitvide, and included in an area 10° square, are recorded; 
and arrangements have been made to photograph in this way the 
spectra of all stars down to the sixth magnitude, and it is found 
that the spectra of stars down to the tenth magnitude can in the 
same way be got in one hour. 

In 1886 Professor Harkness** 2>i"oposed to get over the difficulty 
caused by the heat of the sun on transit instruments by arranging 
it so that a sensitive plate could be put near the wires, and a 
momentary flash of light let in just enough to photograph the sun 
and show the wires. 

Several others had proposed to photograph the stars in transit, 
but nothing important has yet been done in this direction; but I 



86 president's address — section a. 

hope to show you presently that 1 have the design ready l)y which 
meridian transit work will be done by photography in a far more 
exact way than it can be done by the eye. 

Professor Pritchard, of Oxford'^% was the first to apply the photo- 
graphic method to the determination of stellar parallax. He con- 
ceived the idea in May, 1886, put it to the test of experiment by 
determining the parallax of 61 Cygni, not with the object of deter- 
mining the distance of a star so well known, but for the purpose of 
putting his novel method to a crucial test. He selected a star the 
parallax of which had been so well determined that there was a 
definite value before he began ; probably the parallax of this star 
was better established than that of any other. His great success 
is well known, and the accuracy of the method so great, tliat a most 
satisfactory value of the parallax was obtained coming close to the 
mean of the four best values previously determined by older 
methods. 

The Oxford value is : — 

6V Cygni 0-4.38 

61 2 Cygni 0-441 

Anwer's, value 0-348 

BesseTs, value 0--564 

Ball, value 0-468 

Asap Hall, value 0-261 

Mean 0-410 

The professor determined the parallax of thirty stars conveniently 
situated from Oxford of first and second magnitudes; and collecting 
those determined by (Jill and Elkin of stars of the first magnitude, 
he was able to give in his "Researches into the History of Stellar 
Parallax" a list of ninety-three bright stars, the distances of which 
have been recently measured. This list includes the majority of 
the bright stars, and from this he deduced that the averajje 
parallax of first magnitude stars is 0-89" and of second magnitude 
0"056''. There are considerable deviations from the mean in both 
classes ; but the fact remains that the first magnitude stars are 
nearer to us than the second, and both very much nearer than the 
faint stars with which they Avere compared to determine their 
distances. 

On October 24th, 1886, Dr. Isaac Roberts, who had been so 
successful in photographing faint objects, turned his telescojje on 
the nebula about Mia, and found that it was much more extensive 
than had been supposed ; many branchings seemed to form a back- 
ground for the whole cluster of the Pleiades. 

In April, 1887, a conference of fifty-four astronomers from all 
parts of the world met at Paris, and agreed upon a scheme in which 
eighteen of them undertook to carry out the work. All were to 
use star cameras of the same size and focal length and take two 



PKESIDENT S ADDRESS SECTION A. »< 

sets of photographs — one including stars down to the fourteenth 
magnitude, the other set to take stars to the eleventh magnitude 
only. These are to be measured and catalogued for reference, and 
the heavens have been divided into eighteen portions as nearly equal 
as possible. 

On March loth, 1888, Professor Vogel*'" announced in a paper 
read before the Royal Prussian Academy that he had found in 
taking photographs of the spectra of stars that the vibrations of 
our atmosphere, which are so exceedingly troublesome to the eye, 
rendering it oftentimes impossible to make a measure, do not affect 
the definition of a photograph of the spectrum at all. 

Dr. Huggins, as we have seen, was the first to use the spectro- 
scope to determine the motion of stars in the line of sight, and 
Professor VogeF' was the first to apply photography to recording 
spectra in order to determine star motions in the line of sight. 
For this purpose he used the 12in. equatorial at Potsdam to carry 
the very fine spectrograph which he had designed. The work 
was begun in September, 1888, and by May, 1891, all the stars 
in the northern heavens, fifty-one in all, bright enough for the 
purpose had been examined with this instrument, and their velo- 
cities in the line of sight accurately determined. 

On December 29th, 1888, Dr. Isaac Roberts succeeded in 
making a very fine photograph of the great nebula in Andromeda, 
which is a startling revelation of its extent and complex character. 

At a meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society, March 8th, 
1889, Captain Abney"**, the highest authority, replied, in answer to 
a question, that •' I have made experiments and can say distinctly 
there is, as far as I know, no light so feeble that an accumulation 
of it will not give an image upon a photographic plate." And not 
long since we were told, upon other authority, that a good photo- 
graph of a dark interior of a building has been taken and required 
seven whole days' exposure. There seems then no reason why 
exposures should not be continued night after night, reaching 
fainter and fainter lights. 

Professor Pickering®" had a startling report to make in the fact 
that the work of photographing the spectra of all stars down to 
the sixth magnitude, between 25° south declination and the North 
Pole, was completed in May, 1889, and that it contained 10,800 
stars and '28,600 spectra ; that in practice it was found that 
planetary spectra are readily distinguished from those of stars, and 
it had been decided to take the Bache telescope to Arequipa, and 
continue this survey to the South Pole, and Mrs. Draper has 
enlarged her original gift in order to determine the spectra of all 
stars down to the tenth magnitude ; the original 28in. reflector 
made by Dr. Draper for star spectrum work is to be used. In 
1888 and 1889 Dr. Huggins secured photographs of the spectra 
of the nebula in Orion, confirming his results obtained in 1882, 
only altering the wave length of one line from 3,730 to 3,724, and 



88 PRESIDENT S ADDRESS SECTION A. 

revealing a number of additional lines in the ultra violet as well 
as in the continuous spectrum, and he considered it probable that 
these features indicate a physical condition at or near the beginning 
of the cycle of their celestial evolution. 

The white stars are distinguished by the number of their spectra 
lines in the ultra violet, Avhich indicate a greater intensity of tem- 
perature and point to a comparatively recent formation from the 
condensation of highly heated matter; as these stars radiate their 
heat they change color, the red stars being the coldest we know. 

In 1890 the southern part of the Milky Way was photographed 
at Sydney with a 6in. protrait lens, special attention being given to 
to the parts that are dark to the eye. and the camer.-i revealed a 
multitude of stars in them, especially in the Coalsack in Crux, in 
which the stars seemed about as numerous as in the pans about, 
and their distinctive grouping has such a strong family likeness to 
the parts of the Milky Way near them that there seems to be no 
reason to doubt they belong to the same system. 

In August, 1889, Professor Pickering'" pointed out that u star 
camera with double objective 24in. in diameter would be a power- 
ful aid to astronomical photography, and Miss C. W. Bruce, 
of New York, came forward and gave 50,000 dollars for the pur- 
pose of making this great instrument for photograj^hing star 
spectra. On January 8th, 1890, Professor Pickering"' announced 
that one of the results of the work done under the Draper Memorial 
was the discovery of a new class of binary stars, whose components 
are far too close to be seen hj any other method. 

It was first noticed that the conspicuous lines in the star were 
sometimes double, and an extended series of photographs revealed 
the fact that the duplication came at intervals of fifty- two days, 
and this is completely accounted for if one assumes the existence 
of two stars with similar spectra very close together and revolving 
round each other in a plane passing nearly through the sun ; the 
doubling of the line is, of course, caused by the fact that the star 
is at one time moving towards us and at another away from us. A. 
similar case was discovered by Miss A. C. Maury, who, when 
examining the photographed spectra of Beta Aurigse on forty- 
seven photographs, found that the star line doubled periodically 
like those in Zeta Ursse Majoris, hut at shorter intervals ; in fact, 
that one of the stars goes round the other in two days. It is a 
startling discovery to find binary systems of this kind so very 
different from any previously known, and I think there can be no 
doubt that this fact would have been hidden for ages to come but 
for photography, because until the discovery was made there was 
no apparent reason for every day examination of the spectrum of a 
star ; indeed, until then, when the lines were once carefully mea- 
sured they were put aside by the observer as finished and definite 
records of the star's spectrum. These first results indicate that the 
components of Beta Aurigse are separated by an angular interval of 



president's address — SECTION A. 89 

only 0-004", a quantity so small that twenty years ago no one ever 
dreamt of being able to measure it. 

At the meeting of the Royal Prussian Academy of Science on 
November 28th, 1889, Professor Yogel'^ stated that he had photo- 
graphed the spectrum of Algol six times — three in the winter of 
1888-9 and three times in November, 1889 — and that he found 
before the minimum the lines in the spectrum of Algol are displaced 
towards the red, showing that the star is receding, and after the 
minimum they are displaced towards the violet, showing approach- 
ing motion, and these facts can only be accounted for b)' the theory 
that Algol is associated with a dark star, and that tlie two revolve 
in the plane of the line of sight round the common centre of 
gravity once in 68"8 hours. At minimum the dark star intercepts 
some of the light by being on this side of Algol, and the 
photographed spectrum further justified the conclusion ,that 
the diameter of the larger body was 1,074,000 miles; of the 
smaller one, 840,000 miles ; the distance between them, 3.269,000 
miles; the speed of Algol in its orbit, 27 miles per second; and of 
the dark one, 56 miles per second, and that the system was ap- 
l^roaching the earth at rate of 2 miles per second. 

In March. 1891, it was announced that Professor Rowland"^ has 
accurately photographed the whole of the solar spectrum from D 
down to the extreme ultra violet, by means of concave gratings. It 
is the most perfect map of the solar spectrum that has ever been 
made. He has further proved that thirty-six terrestrial elements are 
■certainly present in the solar spectrum, the presence of eight others 
is doubtful, and fifteen others (incluciing nitrogen, as it shows itself 
under the electric spark) have not been found in it ; and it follows, 
he thinks, that if the whole earth wei-e heated up to the tempera- 
ture of the sun its spectrum would resemble very closely the solar 
spectrum. 

On August 7th, 1891, M. Deslaudres'* exhibited the results he 
liad obtained since May in photographing the bright lines of the 
solar prominences. The negatives show good reversals of the lines 
H and K, and the first two lines of the ultra violet hydrogen 
lines. Professor Hale, of Chicago, also in the middle of April 
obtained the first reversals of the lines H and K by his method. 

The year 1891 will ever be memorable in the annals of 
astronomy as that in which the great work of a photographic 
survey of the heavens, which was arranged in 1887 at the Paris 
conference, was actually bei'un.'* 

The 24in. star camera, the splendid gift of Miss Bruce, was nearly 
finished in January, 1893, and it had been decided to use it first at 
the Boyden Observatory, near Arequij^a, under Professor Picker- 
ing. 

We now come to one of the most surprising results that has marked 
the application of photography to the wants of the astronomer. 
Several attempts had been made with more or less success to get a 



90 president's address— section a. 

method by which the sun's surface and surroundings could be 
regularly studied, but Professor George Hale, guided by what 
had been done by others, studied and succeeded in working out a 
new method, which seems to meet all, or nearly all, the require- 
ments. He had completed this work ready to take solar photographs- 
by January 22nd, 1892. He calls the instrument a spectro-helio- 
graph™, and by it the solar prominences, faculaj and chromosphere, 
can be clearly photographed by monochromatic light of the waA^e 
length K. It is not necessary here to describe the instrument; it 
will suffice if I mention the essential points of difference i>etween 
the spectro- heliograph and an ordinary solar spectroscope. Let us- 
suj)pose, then, that we have a solar spectroscope. The professor 
removes the fixed slit, and puts in its place one large enough to 
take in the whole of the sun and surroundings ; this slit can, by 
suitable machinery, be made to move across the image of the sun. 
The^'grating is next so adjiisted as to give only the K line of the 
spectrum. The ordinary eyepiece for viewing the spectrum is next 
removed and in its place is fixed another movable slit, which is- 
moved by the same machine as the other one, and at a definite- 
relative rate ; all being adjusted, the light of the K line of the- 
spectrum will pass from the grating through the second slit, the 
use of which is to prevent any side light near the K line from 
falling on the sensitiA-e surface ; to complete the arrangement it is 
only necessary to put a sensitive plate very close to the second slit. 
Everything being ready the telescope is uncovered and the slits set 
in motion. As the first moves across the image of the sun the- 
second moves across the sensitive plate, and any K light passes 
through it and leaves its record on the plate in a position 
relative to that on the sun. Thus, practically, a series of very fine 
lines, sections as it were, a(^ross the prominences are recorded side 
by side until the whole disc is included, and the photosphere and. 
prominences clearly photographed. The operation requires first- 
rate apparatus ana every precaution to ensure success 1 will only 
mention one contrivance. When the slits are adjusted and everything 
ready to take the photograph, a round disc of metal is put in front 
of number oire slit ; it is nearly as large as the image of the sun, 
and practically makes an eclipse of the brighter parts, leaving only 
the edge of the sun, the photosphere, and ])rominence-i and corona 
to pass to the spectroscope." The next point is to secure on the 
same sensitive plate a photograph of the faculaj and spots. The 
grating is now set, so that the combined slits only allow the 
faculaj light to pass. All is then prepared, so that the slits will 
move across tlie sun's disc and across the plate. The disc is re- 
moved, and the faculaj >pots recorded in their true relative 
positions to the prominences. The apparatus is quite successful, 
and the professor thinks that, with a modification, he can alsO' 
photograph the corona ; but up to latest reports this has not been 
successful. 



president's address — SECTION A. 91 

Encouraged by the success of his spectro-heliograph. Professor 
Hale'** has designed for tlie Yerkes Observatory, Chicago, an 
improved spectro-heliograph, which will, when finished, carry 
seventy-two sensitive plates, and automatically record on each of 
them at any interval that may be desired complete pictures of the 
spots, faculas, photosphere, and prominences in true relative position 
on each plate. All that will be necessary will be to set the 
telescope, wind up the machinery, and set it to work, the only 
limits being, first, that it takes two minutes to get a complete 
picture of the sun ; and, second, the number of plates put in the 
wheel that carries them. 

Under the old system it was a good hour's work to record the 
prominences alone ; the new apparatus will do the same work far 
better in one minute. So far it has not been found impossible to 
photograph the corona with this apparatus, but experiments are in 
progress and confidently expected to succeed by which a modified 
spectro-heliograph \vill photograph the corona, using only the ultra 
violet light. 

One remarkable result of Professor Hale's spectro-heliograph 
work is the abundance of faculse all over the sun from pole to 
pole, and seen thus they are of curved forms, generally like the 
figure 3, though spread over the whole surface they are strongest 
within 40^ of the equator north and soutli, and the greater part of 
them are invisible to the eye, and in Professor's Hale's opinion 
they "are not to be confused with Janssen's reseau photo- 
sperique." Janssen, in 1869, in a paper read before the British 
Association meeting at Exeter, pointed out that it was possible 
to isolate any particular line in the spectrvun by using two slits, one 
being near the eye. 

On March 22nd, 1892, a photograph of Swift's comet was taken 
at the Sydney Observatory, which shows eight narrow rays ex- 
tending from the head. As these were all quite invisible with the 
large refractor, it is probable that they were composed of blue or 
violet light, because if of white light they would have been visible 
through some of the larger telescopes turned to the comet, if not 
through the Sydney refractor. 

Professor Schaerberle"^, at Lick Observatory, has recently photo- 
graphed the corona by the method of absorption introduced by 
Dr. Huggins, and has obtained satisfactory pictures. He con- 
ducted the Lick Expedition to observe the solar eclipse of April 
16th, 1893, and in his report he says that the observations and 
photographs of the eclipse taken confirm his opinion of the 
structure of the corona, and his photographs of it by Dr. Huggins'^ 
method. One of the eclipse pictures shows the dark sun 4in. in 
diameter, and the corona round it covers a plate l«in. x 22in. 

In March and April, 1893, selected parts of the Milky Way were 
photographed at Sydney with the large star camera and specially 
sensitive plates, with the results that parts that look nebulous in 



92 president's address — section a. 

the photographs of 1890 are simply masses of stars, that a group 
that Herschel with, his great telescope estimated to contain 200 
stars, on the photograph contains 14550, and that a well-defined 
portion in Sagittarius, which in the 1890 plates contained eighty 
stars, is now found to contain 1166, or fourteen times as many. 

Professor Kapteyn, from his study of photographs taken at the 
Cape of Good Hope, was able to announce in March, 1893, that 
stars near the Milky Way and in it are photographically brighter 
than stars of the same visual magnitude which are at a distance 
from the Milky Way, and the diiference is in proportion to the 
distance. 

The photo- spectrograpliic method of measuring star motions 
has already been referred to, but the results have recently, in tne 
hand of Dr. Kempf, given a new and quite independent determina- 
tion of the rate and direction of the sun's motion in sjiace. 
Dr. Vogel thought that fifty-one stars were not enough to give the 
result desired, but as the present apparatus is not powerful 
enough to determine the motion of any more stars the comjiuta- 
tion was made, with the result that " the apex of the sun's way " is 
situated in R.A. 206° and north declination 46°, in the constellation 
Bootes, and that its motion in that direction is at the rate of 
eleven and a half miles per second. Many previous attempts have 
been made to locate the '• apex of the sun's way," and they 
jjlaced it in about R.A. 267° and north declination 31°. This 
older method affords no means of determining the rate of the 
sun's motion, unless an assumption was made as to the distances 
of certain stars, and this made the velocity sixteen miles per 
second, which does not differ very much from eleven and a half — 
the value determined from phonographs. 

As an index of the great accuracy attained at Potsdam in 
determining motion in the line of sight, it may be mentioned 
that six photographs of the spectrum Arcturus were taken, from 
which its motion in the line of sight was determined, and 
Professor Keeler, using the great JAck telescope on three nights, 
determined the same quantity by eye measurements, and the two 
values agree within the tenth of a mile per second. 

Professor Keeler, using the great Lick telescope, 36in. in 
aperture, has determined the motion of several nebidse in the line 
of sight, and finds values ranging from two to twenty-seven miles 
per second, and in one case forty miles per second. 

In this brief outline of what photography has done, and is 
doing, much has been omitted for want of space, and in many 
places the bare facts are given in order of time simply to recall 
important steps in the progress to your memories. Kven in its 
infancy photography was received kindly by astronomers, and 
although much was expected from it nobody dreamt what it would 
be to-day. Sir George Airy, as we have seen, was very much 
impressed with what he saw, and he felt that a new power in 



president's address SECTION A. 93 

astronomy was coming to the front ; but it is evident that he had 
no adequate conception what it was going to do for exact records- 
or for descriptive astronomy, or we should have had his great 
powers devoted to its development. But who could dream in those 
days that it would be possible now to say, as Professor Pritchard^" 
has said, that in measuring distances of over 2,000 seconds of arc for 
his photo-parallax experiments he had found the probable error of 
the distance between two stars so measured to be only one-tenth of 
a second of arc, and that the camera and spectroscope combined, in 
Professor Yogel's hands, had separated a double star with a dis- 
tance of only six-thousandths of a second of arc — a quantity so 
small that our great telescope will have to be enlarged thirtyfold 
before we can see it. And Professor Vogel's determination of 
star motions in the line of sight has, in the opinion of competent 
persons, shown that attempts to determine the motions of stai's in 
the line of sight without tlie aid of photography was little better 
than a waste of time. And Professor Keelei"*^', recently in charge 
of the great Lick telescope, and therefore having full knowdedge of 
the powers of the greatest telescope in the world, writes it has been 
shown " that visual observation of the spectrum cannot in general 
compete with photographic methods applied to the same as even 
much smaller telescopes." Indeed no one can study the results^ 
obtained by photography where it has been fully applied without 
being impressed by the fact that the results are not only far in 
excess of the amount possible by eye observation, but also of far 
higher value, and that after a time photography will displace the 
observer from all astronomical instruments and do much better 
work than he could ever hope to do with his eyes. 

We have to-day passed in hurried review the application of 
photography to the wants of the astronomer in delineating the 
moon's surface in the study of her libration; to recording the sun's 
disc, his spots, faculse, rice grains, photosphere, red jjrominences, 
the corona in actual and in artificial eclipse; to the sun's motion 
in space ; to the sun's rotation periods ; to recording that wonder- 
ful spectrum with its thousands of lines ; to the record of double 
stars ; star charting ; star magnitudes ; to their classification by 
quality of light ; to recording their almost inconceivable numbers ; 
to star drifting ; to star motions in the line of sight ; to double 
stars so close and so remarkable that they can only be recorded by 
this means ; to the record of all the visible stars in the sky for the 
purpose of detecting changes of magnitude : to the record of the 
spectrum of every star doAvn to the tenth magnitude; to finding 
invisible stars and invisible lines in their spectra ; in recording the 
forms and details of nebulse ; to their spectra, to show that the eye 
does not see all details they present nor their extraordinary exten- 
sion ; its application to rec 'I'ding the form and appearances of 
comets ; to the record of the invisible rays in their tail ; to their 
spectra; to the surface-marking of planets; to their spectra; to 



94 president's address — section a. 

show their satellites, and to record the places of the satellite of 
Neptune, which it is difficult to see with any telescope, but is photo- 
graplied easily ; to proving that the liji;ht round Venus in transit is 
much brighter than the sunlight itself ; to recording the lines in 
the ultra violet of the spectra of heavenly bodies, lines the exis- 
tence of which otherwise must have lemained for ever unknown 
to us, because they are invisible. 

We have taken only a passing glance at many of the applications 
of photography, and each of them would repay a careful study. 
Indeed, the results obtained by means of photograj^hy come upon 
us so fast that one hardly realises their importance. Think for a 
moment what it means to catch a fleeting ray of light that maybe 
has for hundreds of years been flying through space with the 
inconceivable velocity of 180,000 miles per second, to catch and 
fix it on a ])hotographic plate, and extort from it, not only where 
it came from, but the physical and chemical condition of the 
star it came from — whether it be old or young, coming to us 
or going away, whether the parent star has a bright or dark 
companion, their dimensions, distance apart, speed in their orbits, 
and their mass. To extort all this from a wandering ray of light 
is more wonderful than anything in romance ; or, to turn in another 
direction, the pliotographic survey of the heavens now in progress, 
and many plates of which have been taken, will contain a record 
of at least 3,500 stars for every 1 we can see with the eye. 

But grand as the work has been so far, there is yet much to do, 
and more fields to conquer. It must replace the transit instrument 
with another more accurate and capable of recording all stars to 
the tenth or twelfth magnitude. It must find an instrument large 
enough to record the closest double stars, and such clusters as 
Omega Centauri. It must write at short intervals the exact forms 
of nebulae as well as their spectra, showing motion in space, and so 
record their changes in form as well as their disappearance and 
appearance that any change will be detected ; must make still more 
accurate records of the magnitudes and spectra of the stars ; must 
sound the star depths in all directions so that photographs of star 
clusters will show the stars still more accuiately, and must find an 
automatic camera suited to its needs that will keep records of sun, 
moon, and stars ; must picture the moon as perfectly as we can 
see it, and make it possible to compare minute details month after 
month, and so detect any changes. No doubt there are difficulties 
in the way, and even this moderate view of the wants of the 
future presents many, but they are not insuperable. The army of 
science is in one respect like the army of war — it is stirred to 
conquering effort by the difficulties that stand in the way. Given 
a citadel to be won, and there is always a forlorn hope to Avin it. 
Given a glimpse of one of nature's secrets — the photosphere, the 
prominences, and the corona hidden by the sunlight, except for a 
moment in each century — and at once you see the army : Huggins, 



president's address — SECTION A. 95 

and Airy, and Young, and Janssen, and Lockyer, and a host of 
others, all battling with the overpowering light of day in order to 
win the secret that it hides, winning bit by bit of the difficult way 
until siiccess is attained. 

With such a record of unexpected successes in the past, and so 
much more that is possible now. it would he folly to attempt to 
forecast what another ten years Avill bring forth. Es'er3-thing points 
to an enormous increase in the details of the known, and to at 
least an equally great advance into the unknown. Photographs 
taken three j'ears ago filled the durk places of the southern Milky 
Way with stars, ami brought at least strong evidence that they 
have grouping exactly resembling the Milky Way near them — a sort 
of family likeness which cannot be mi>taken. This year some 
Milky Way spaces taken with the camera of 1890 have been 
probed by the large star camera, and it may be mentioned, as a 
measure of the difiereuce of the two instruments, that a well-defined 
but small space which in the 1890 photograph contains eighty 
stars, is found in the 1893 photograph to have fourteen times as 
many stars, or 1166. Now it is possible to-day to get a camera 
made ten times as powerful as those in use, and there is a talk, and 
one may say a probability, that in the very near future one will be 
made a hundred times more powerful. Moreover, the experience 
of the past has been that the limit in power of the telescope of one 
age is not the limit of the next. There has been a gradual expansion 
in the arts, which the astronomer has taken advantage of, and there 
is every reason to suppose this will continue in the future to an 
extent of which we can form no estimate. One is tempted to ask — 
Will the star depths unfold in the same ratio ? And the reply comes 
in the words of the German poet — " Other worlds more billowy, 
other heights and other depths are coming, are neariug, are at hand ; 
for end there is none to the Universe of God I" 



NOTES. 

1. Miss Gierke : System of the Stars, p. 23. 

2. Nature, vol. x., p. 243. Quarterly Journal Science, toI. i., p. 381. 

3. Nature, vol. xliv., p. 380. 

4. Nature, vol. xlii., p. 568 ; also Observatory, vol. ii., p. 13. 

5. Chamber's Astronomy, third edition, p. 708. 

6. An Investigation into Stellar PhotOE^raphy, vol. x!., North American Academy of 



7. Astron. Nachrichten, No. 1105. 

8. Phil. Trans., 1862, p. 333. 

9. British Association Report, 1859, p. 134, et seq.; also Astronomical Register, 

p. 65. 

10. British Association Report, 1853, p. 15. 

11. British Association Kep .rt, 1854, p. 66 ; also .\stronomical Register, lb63, p. 65. 

12. Royal Astronomical Society Monthly Notices, vol. sv., p. 132. 

13. Royal Astronomical Society Monthly Notices, vol. xv., pp. 140 and 158. 

14. This was the second time, see Cape Ohseryations, p. 435, foot note. 

15. British Association Report, 1854, p. 10. 

16. Quarterly Journal of Science, 1864, pu. 381 and 384. 
17 Quarterly Journal of Science, 1864, p. .382. 






96 president's address — section a. 

18. An Investigation into Stellar Photograpliy by Professor Pickering ; sea also Astron. 

Nachricliten, UO.i ; also Astronomical llegiscer, vol. i., p. 65, vrhich says the moon 
photos, were Sin. in diameter. 

19. British Association Report, 18S9, pp. 130, 139, 140. 

20. Royal Astrunom cal Society Monthly Notices, vol. xix., p. .3.54. 

21. Roval Astronomical Society Monthly Notices, vol. xix., p. 3.56. 

22. Bri"tish A.-ssociati n Kepoit' 1S59, pp. 139, 140; Mso A.-tvon. Xachricten, 1105, 1129, and 

1158 ; also Monthly .Notices, vol. xix., pp. 138 and 139. 

23. Proceedings of Roval Societv, ISS*^, No. 247, p. 207. 

24. British As-ociation' Koport, 18.59. p. 149. 

25. British A^sociatiuu Report, 1861, p. 96; also Royal Astronomical Society Monthly 

Notices, p. 'JTM, v.-vh plate. 

26. Astronomical Register, vol. i., p. 118, 119. 

2". British Association Report, 1861, p. 95; also Royal .Astronomical Socie'y Monthly 
X'lticcs vol. XIX.. p. 138. 

28. Roval .\stronomicrtl Society M(mthly Notices, vol. xix., p. 13S. 

29. Astronomical Register, vol. i., pp. 67 and 118. 

30. British A-^xiciatioa Report, 1859, p. 137. 

31. Phil. Trans., Is(i2. p. 333. 

32. Astronomical Re-ister, vol. i , p. 119. 

33. Pliil. Trans., lS(i2, p. 4(I5. 

34. Phil. Trans., 1861, p. 428. 

35. An I'lvestigation into Stell.ir Photography, by E. C. Pickering, p. 181 ; also Astrono- 

mical Register, vol. ii., p. ir.'9. A list of Kutherford's photographs is given in the 
Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Xo. 311, p. 89. 

36. Quarterly Journal ot Science, !8(i5. pii. <;.)1 and 652. 

37. Comptes'Rendus, 1869; also British A.ssiici .tiou Report, 1869, p. 25. 

38. Nature, vol, xxi., p. 23; alsj Astronomy anil .Istro-Physics, June, 1893. 

39. Nature, vol. in , p. 111. 

40. Nature, vol. xvi., p. 364. 

41. Nature, vol. xviii., p. 643. 

42. Nature, vol. xviii., p. 43. 

43. >atmv, vol. xxi., pp. 269 and 270. 

44. Nature, vol. xxxi., p. 84. 

45. Nature, vol. xxi.. p. 41(1. 

46. Nature, vol. xxiv., p. 308; also An Investigation into Stellar Parallax, by E. C. 

Pickering, p. 181. 

47. British .Association Report, 1881, p. 52it, with plate; also Nature vol., xxiv., p. 464. 

48. Natme, vol. xxiv., pp. 236 and 308. 

49. Nature, vol. xxv., p. 132. 

50. .Nature, ' ol. xxv., p. 489. 

51. Nature, vol. xxvi., p. 33. 

52. Nature, vol. xxvi., p. 179. 

53. Nature, vol. xxvii., p. 199. 

54. Nature, vol. xxvii., p. 199. 

55. Royal Astronomical Society Monthly Notices, xxviii., p. 88, and xxix., p. 4. 

56. Royal Astronomical Society Monthly Notices, vol. xxviii., p. 88. 

57. Nature, vol. xxviii., p. 606. 

58. Nature, vol. xxviii., p. 255. 

59. Astronomical Register, vol. xxiv., pp. 246-7 ; also Nature, vol. xxxiv., p. 35. 

60. Nature, vol. xxxv., p. 37 ; also Royal .Astronomical Society Notices, vol., xlvi., p. 107. 

61. Nature, vol. xxxi., p. 480. 

62. Nature, vol. xxxii., p. 70. 

63. Nature, vol. xxxv., p. 37. 

64. Nature, vol. xxxv., p. 16. 

65. In his Researches into Stellar Parallax. 

66. Nature, vol. xxxvii., p. 616 ; also Antronomy and Astro-Physics, Feb., 1893, p. 150. 

67. Astronomy and Astro-Physics, March, 1893, p. 271. 

68. Observatory, vol. xii., p. 165. 

69. Nature, vol. xi.., p. 17. 

70. Nature, vol. xl., p. 417 and 418. 

71. Royal Astronomical Society Monthly Notices, March, 1890, p. 296. 

72. Nature, vol. xli., p. 164. 

73. Natuie, vol. xliii., p. 452. 

74. Nature, vol. xliv., p. 438. 

75. Nature, vol. XLVii., p. 304. 

76. Aslronomv and .A>tro-Physics, May, 1892, p. 403. 

77. Astronomy and Astro-Physics, May, 1892, p. 408 ; also Aug., 6 3. vrith two plates, 

actual photographs. Nature, vol. xlvii., p. 498. 

78. Astronomy and Astro-Physics, October, i89J, p. 741. 

79. Astronomy and Astro Phyics, March, 1893, pp. 255 a d 2G0; also jlay, 1893, p. 463. 

80. Reseaiches in Slellvir Parallax, by Professor Pritchai d. 

81. Astronomy and Astro-Physics, June, lo93, p. 351. 



Section B. 
CHEMISTRY. 

ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT. 
C. N. HAKE, F.C.S., F.LC, 

Chief Inspector of Explosives, Victoria. 



RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN MODERN EXPLOSIVES. 

In compliance with your request to read an address before you 
Association at this meeting, I have chosen a subject — I am afraid 
rather a dry one — but it is one I am most conversant with ; and, in 
dealing with it, I do not consider it advisable to repeat the so often 
mentioned generalities about the manufacture and composition of 
explosives, but will only touch lightly on representative types, and 
on improvements which have gradually led up to the reliable pro- 
pellants of the present time. 

Within the memory of many here present gunpowder was 
practically the only explosive available, both for industrial and 
military purposes, but the discovery of guncotton and nitro-glycerine 
has gradually encroached upon its old domains and is displacing it 
from its former unique position. It is, however, still the most 
important and most commonly used explosive, both in the industries 
and for warfare. Within recent times gunpowder was made in a 
haphazard sort of way, and one kind was used for all Service pur- 
poses. It was known as a violent explosive ; but no one troubled 
about its characteristics, or about the pressures exerted in the gun, 
or the muzzle velocity of the projectile. With the old smooth-bore 
gun, with plenty of vvindage, no one could predict whether the 
projectile would deflect to the right or to the left. But in spite of 
all this the obsolete gunpowder, fine grained and quick burning, 
was well suited to the ordnance, and very effective at close quar- 
ters. The composition of Service gunpowder has undergone very 
little change in recent times ; but, although still a mechanical 
mixture of saltpetre, sulphur, and charcoal, the care bestowed on 
its manufacture makes it possible to obtain with certainty uniformity 
of results under similar conditions, as if it were a chemical com- 
bination. These results, however, have only been obtained after 
long study, patient research, and under difficulties which few 
xinacquainted with the subject will appreciate. The principle 



98 



PRESIDENT S ADDRES SECTION B. 



upon whicli improvements in modern gunpowder are based lies in 
the slowing down of the powder, and this alteration became neces- 
sary by the introduction of rifled ordnance. It is now required 
that when the charge is fired in the breach of the gun the com- 
bustion shall commence comparatively slowly, so as to overcome 
the vis mertice of the projectile, and that as the projectile passes up 
the bore of the gun the combustion shall increase in rapidity, so as 
to supply a progressively increasing quantity of gas to accelerate 
the momentum of the shot, Avhich should leave the muzzle of the 
gun with the maximum velocity. The Service powder known 
as E.L.G. represents the first attempt in this direction, and this 
improvement was accomplished by incx'easing the size and shape 
of the grains. A further improvement was made by increasing 
the density of the powder, as in P2 powder, and it was found on 
experiment that a charge of P2 powder equal to that of R.L.G. 
gave considerably reduced pressure in the gun, accompanied by 
■an increased muzzle velocity of the projectile ; but, as even these 
powders exerted too great a strain upon the gun, it became neces- 
sary to slow down still more, and many suggestions were made 
with this object in view. General Rodman, of the American 
Service, first overcame this difficulty with some sviccess by build- 
ing up a charge of solid slabs perforated Avith holes, the object 
being to expose a minimum surface of powder at the commence- 
ment of combustion, and an increasing surface as the projectile 
moved up the bore of the gun. 





Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 



It Avas in accordance with this idea that the Black Prism powder 
was first made, and it needs no explanation to demonstrate that a 
charge of powder moulded to a regular shape, and of uniform size, 
must give more uniform results (ceteris paribus) than can be 
obtained by an equal weight of irregular grains or lumps. This 
modern-shaped powder, however, possesses other advantages of 
considerable import over the irregular P2 powder, which burns 
from surface to centre, and thus has a continually decreasing sur- 
face of combustion as the shot travels up the bore of the gun. The 



PRESIDE>T S ADDRESS SECTION B. yy 

perforated prisms, on the other hand, develop an increasing surface 
as it burns away, thereby keeping up a constant supply of speed- 
producing gas, and accelerating the speed of the projectile. In the 
P2 powder, thereiore, we have actually a decreasing evolution of 
gas, whereas in the prism powder the order of things is reversed, 
as shown by the diagram.* 

In burning it is probable that the prisms break up across the 
lines of least i-esistance, as shown in Fig. 1., ««, bb, and so on, 
thereby producing many new surfaces for combustion and fully 
developing the jDrogressive character of the powder. 

The prism form has been adhered to, but the Black Prismatic 
powder has been superseded by a still slower burning powder, 
which differs somewhat in composition from it in so far as it con- 
tains only 3 per cent, of sulphur and as much as 3 per cent, of 
moisture. It is known as S.B.C , or slow burning. " Cocoa 
Powder." 

This new form of prismatic powder brought about a complete 
revolution in gunnery. With a slower burning powder the lengthen- 
ing of the gun followed as a m.atter of course, the chambering was 
increased, and the muzzle loader was converted for obvious reasons 
into a breechloader. " Cocoa powder " may be looked upon as 
the connecting link between the obsolete black powder and the 
modern smokeless powders. Although it cannot be looked upon 
as a smokeless powder, in the latest sense of the term, yet the 
smoke produced by its combustion is white, and disperses very 
quickly. It is probable that the evidence of this, brought forward 
in experiments with heavy ordnance and quick-firing gurs, served, 
in the first instance, to attract attention to the necessity of reducing 
the production of smoke to the least possible point, and finally 
led to the conviction among naval and military experts that the 
substitution of smokeless powder for black powder in artillerj^ and 
small arms was a matter of the first importance. In accordance 
with this view, the energies of scientists, both at home and abroad, 
have, during the last few years, been devoted to the task of bringing 
this undertaking to a successful issue. 

SMOKELESS POWDERS. 

Guncotton in every form. Picric acid, and Nilro-cellulose, have, 
during the last twenty years, been subjected to experiment with 
the object of forming smokeless powders, but the problem, simple 
as it appears, presented almost insurmountable difficulties, and 
baffled the energies and knowledge of the most scientific chemists, 
so that it is only within the last few years that any approach to 
success has been made ; and this success has been due to recent 
discoveries in chemistry. 

• Taken from " A Lecture delivered before the R. A. Institution on January 23rd, 1893," by 
Lieut.-Col. F. W\ J. Barker, R.A. 



100 president's address — SECTION B. 

The following table gives the formula of — (1) Guncotton ; (2) 
Nitro-glycerine ; and (3) Picric acid. For all practical purposes 
these may be considered the bases of all smokeless powders. 

(1) Guncotton. — Trinitro-cellulose, Cg H^ O2 3 (NO3 ). obtained 

by the action of nitric acid upon cotton, thus : — 
C6H7 0,3(HO) +. 3 HyQ3) = C.H^O a 3 (NQ3 ) + SH^^ 
Cotton or Nitric Guncotton. Water, 

cellulose. acid. 

(2) Nitro-glycerine.— C3H5 3 (NO3 ), obtained by the action of 

nitric acid on glycerine. 

(3) Picric acid. — Trinitro-phenole, Q H3 3 (NO., ) O, formed by 

boiling carbolic acid or phenole and fuming nitric acid. 

As most of you are acquainted with the processes of the manu- 
facture of guncotton and nitro-glycerine, it will be unnecessary to 
describe them, but a few details referring to their properties may 
be of interest. 

Guncotton possesses totally different properties from gunpowder. 
Its temperature of ignition is from 250°-300° C. lower than that of 
gunpowder, but at this comparatively low temperature it burns 
away so rapidly that an experiment can be made on the palm of 
the hand without any fear of scorching it. For the same reason a 
piece of guncotton can be fired on a pile of gimpowder without 
the powder being ignited. It is easily detonated by means cf a 
falling weight, but the explosion is confined to the portion struck. 
The pressure exerted by guncotton under the most favorable 
conditions has been estimated by Berthelot to be 160 tons to the 
square inch. The fact that all the products of the explosion of 
guncotton are gaseous renders it smokeless. Only 50 per cent, 
of the products of the ignition of gunpowder are gaseous. When 
wet it is absolutely uninflammable, but even when containing from 
1 5 per cent, to 20 per cent, of water it can be detonated by the 
detonation of a dry primer of the same material. It presents many^ 
special advantages for its application in naval and military opera- 
tions; but as a smokeless powder it possesses one serious drawlsack, 
viz., it does not produce a satisfactory proportion of permanent 
gases during combustion, and, under certain circumstances, the 
violent local action of the explosive makes it, jjer se, unsuitable 
and highly dangerous as a propellant. 

Nitroglycerine enters into the composition of a very important 
class of explosives possessing the generic title of " dynamite." 
When pure it is a colorless mobile liquid, of sp. gr. 16 at 15-o° C. 
When ignited in small quantities it burns slowly away, but when 
heated to the temperature of 188° C. it explodes with great violence. 
When spread in a thin layer it is extremely sensitive to slight con- 
cussion or blow. At a temperature of 4° C. it takes the crystalline 
form, and in this condition is far less sensitive to concussion or 



president's address — SECTION B. 101 

blow than when in the liquid condition. Some idea of the 
"power" of this explosive can be gathered from the fact that, 
\inder the most favorable conditions, 1 cub. foot of nitro-glycerine 
on explosion would expand to 10,000 cub. feet of gas in the short 
space of s-iTu^-o TT second. 

Picric acid, which is largely used as a dye, was first investigated 
by Sprengel, in 1873, with regard to its properties as an explosive. 
Exhaustive experiments were carried out by Colonel Majendie, 
K.A., and Dr. Dupre, F.R.S., which went to show that picric acid 
could be readily detonated by so small a quantity as five grains of 
fulminate of mercury, and that such detonation would extend to 
picric acid containing over 14 pei' Cetit. of water. In fact, when 
detonated, this acid behaves very much in the same way as com- 
pressed guncotton, as regards sensibility and the power of trans- 
mitting the initial detonation of the dry material to the same 
substance wetted. The products of the explosion of picric acid 
are gaseous, and consist of aqueous vapour and actively poisonous 
carbonic oxide. It is used in the manufacture of rhe French 
smokeless powder known as " Melinite." 

The important discovery made a few years back by Mr. Alfred 
Nobel, that a certain kind of collodion cotton was soluble in nitro- 
glycerine, may be looked upon as the first step towards a new era 
in smokeless explosives. This new explosive, known as " Blasting 
Gelatine," consisting of 90 per cent, of nitro-glycerine and 10 per 
cent, of collodion cotton, formed a very powerful compound, which, 
"while suitable in an eminent degree for industrial purposes, was 
found to be too violent for Service purposes. The pi-oblem had 
yet to be solved, viz., how to tame this explosive, i.e., to impart 
to it a sufficient energy for use in modern arms, combined with 
certainty and regularity of propulsion. To the unscientific mind 
this problem seemed easy of solution. The properties of guncotton 
were well understood ; all that was required w^as a diluent or 
retarding agent, to slow down the violence of explosiveness ; but 
the first approach to success was again due to the imtiring perse- 
verance of Mr. Alfred Nobel, who found that guncotton could be 
incorporated with nitro-glycerine in equal jiroportions, and that 
when combined in such proportions an explosive was formed, even 
without the addition of any retarding agent, which w-as thoroughly 
reliable for Service purposes. It is a curious fact that two of the 
most violent explosives known, when combined, form a moderate 
exjDlosive completely under control. The working out of this 
observation has led to the production of one of the most valuable 
of smokeless powders. This powder, known as " Ballistite " or 
" C/89," consists of nitro-glycerine and guncotton, and is prepared 
in the following manner : — 

The nitro-glycerine and guncotton are placed in a vessel and the 
temperature raised by means of hot water, the contents being 
agitated until the whole mass has gelatinised. It is then placed 



102 president's address SECTION B. 

between rollers and rolled out into thin plates. These plates are 
cut into strips, and then into cubes, the thickness of the plates 
being regulated according to the purpose for which the powder is 
intended to be used. This powder has a horny, brownish-yellow 
appearance, and is so soft that it can be cut with a knife. 

The composition of "Cordite," the new English smokeless 
powder, thovigh similar to is not identical with that of Ballistite. 
A committee of distinguished chemists in England, appointed by 
Governnaent, determined after long investigations that the ingi'e- 
dients of Cordite should be as follows : — 

GuncottoD 37 per cent. 

Nitro-glycerine 58 per cent. 

Mineral jelly or vaseline 5 per cent. 

100 

The method of manufacture differs somewhat from that of 
Ballistite, in so far as the properties of acetone in dissolving gun- 
cotton are applied. About 20 per cent, of acetone is poured over 
the ingredients in the incorporating machine, and the charge is 
worked up for several hours until it has the consistency of dough. 
When completed it is taken to the press house, where it is placed 
in a machine of similar construction to a pump, the cjdinder of 
which contains a small perforated hole at i's base ; the pressure 
of the cylinder on the soft material forces it through the hole at 
the base of the cylinder, through which it is squirted in the 
form of a cord of any required thickness. The sizes vary from 
"OSTSin., used in small aims, up to 0-oin., for lieavy ordnance. 
The cord is wound on reels for the small arm powder, and cut into 
lengths for the purposes of heavy ordnance. Experiments on a 
large scale have given most satisfactory results, both as regards its 
ballistic properties and its safety in manufacture, storage, and 
handling. Consignments of this explosive have been subjected 
alternately to the the cold winter of Canada and the tropical heat 
of India, and it has been foimd on examination to be quite un- 
changed. 

Invention in smokeless powders is in its infancy, and it is 
impossible to say what the near future may bring forth. 

The question which has often been asked, as to whether there is 
any urgent need for smokeless powders, has not yet been fully 
answered. 

The direct advantages claimed in the case of cordite are — 

1st. Increase of rapidity in firing, combined with greater 
accuracy of aim. 

2nd. Higher velocity and flatter trajectory. 

3rd. A diminution of the weight, thus allowing a larger 
number of rounds to be carried. 

4th. Absence of fouliny;. 



president's address — SECTION B. 103 

For quick-firing guns and masked batteries the advantage is 
obvious, and it is not too much to say that their full effect is 
undeveloped without it ; but for the ordinary rifle in the hands 
of a soldier the advantage is not so clearly apparent. The firing 
of blank cartridges at a review can hardly be considered a satis- 
factory test, nor does it afford sufficient experience to enable a 
complete answer to be given to this question. It is, however, 
certain that the general adoption of smokeless powder will change 
both the strategy and tactics of war. 



Section C. 
GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY. 



Address* by ihe President Sir James Hector, K.CM.G., i\/I.D., 
F.R.S.. on " The Progress of Geology in tfie Southern 
Hemisphere during the past Year." 



* The manuscript of this address was not forwarded in time to be inserted here. II 
received before the volume is completed, it will be found in an appendix. 



Section D. 
BIOLOGY. 



ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT 
C. W. DE VIS, M.A., 

Brisbane. 



LIFE. 



By a custom which has risen almost to the dignity of a law, the 
President of a section is not at liberty to invite his colleagues to 
proceed to business until he has discharged a preliminary duty ; 
and how to perform that duty in the most useful manner has 
doubtless been in all cases a matter of serious thought with those 
to whom it has been entrusted. If we share the opinion of many 
who think that the tendency of all official duties appointed to be 
done on behalf of this and kincired associations is necessarily 
determined by that peculiar mode of advancing Science which is 
prescribed by their constitution, we shall conclude that loyalty 
enjoins us to keep steadily in view the main reason which induced 
the founders of associations of the kind to adopt a mode of pro- 
cedure so entirely foreign to the habits of all other bodies having 
the same excuse for existence. Sedentary science became loco- 
motive, not chiefly to enable its agents and friends to assemble 
together periodically in response to distant invitation, though the 
personal and corporate benefits arising from mutual intercourse 
and extended experience are obvious and manifold, but to heighten 
the scientific level of general intelligence in whichever of its chief 
centres they might happen to meet. The expediency of bringing 
the outside world of thought into more intimate relation with 
Science dictates our peripatetic policy, as clearly as the need of 
instructing the farmer in his art defines that of similar associations 
for the advancement of agriculture. It is by raising the spirit of 
emulation that each travelling body seeks to compass its purpose, 
but in our case there is a prcAaous requirement which does not 
exist in the other. A profound sense of the value of soil culture 
is almost instinctively confessed by the rudest farm laborer ; our 
estimate of the worth of Science culture is more exposed to cavil 



president's address SECTION D. 105 

Though soundly based on experience of its results and strongly 
supported by the general predilection for prying into nature shown 
by civilised man, it is yet liable to be questioned by prejudice or 
negatived by that more contemptuous opponent Avhich in its 
monopolising ignorance arrogates to itself the style of practical 
common sense. A friendly feeling towards Science, rising into a 
genuine delight in its intellectual charm, must antedate the emulation 
■which will, we may hope, direct an irrigating stream of new laborers 
into our fields ; a vivid expectation of its matei-ial rewards must 
precede the emulation which will suffer no one of our communities 
to be long distanced by the rest, in their endeavor after that which 
is even now seen to be the foundation of national leadership — pre- 
eminence in the dominion of mind over matter. To foster this 
feeling and this expectation is vmdeniably the fundamental purpose 
of the body of which we are members. To this end our sections 
invite their hosts to accompany them in their researches, to par- 
ticipate in the discussions which at once enliven and enlighten their 
proceedings, to criticise proposed applications of theory to practice, 
to bring forward new discoveries or speculations of their own; for 
all this they know to be the most efficient means of eliciting 
curiosity, arousing interest, and demonstrating that Science claims 
no more at their hands than she deserves Hut it is also a means 
which may safely be left to those whose function it is to supply 
our sections with the fruits of study. Whether he who is required 
by his office to open the business of a section with an introductory 
discourse should, like his colleagues, address himself on that 
occasion to a subject of detail and therefore of limited interest 
and not rather use the opportunity of aiding the cause in less 
abstruse fashion by inviting the friends of the section to meditate 
on themes of more general moment is, of course, a matter of 
opinion. In adopting the latter course I may perhaps be laying 
myself open to the charge of taking a too partial vicAV of the intent 
of the Association ; still I am apt to think that by so doing I shall 
best consult the interests we all have at heart. But, purposing 
to speak for the moment on Some biological genei*alities alone, I 
find myself under the necessity of soliciting the forbearance of 
those among my hearers who will necessarily find what I have to 
fsay trite and jejune. Perhaps their forbearance will be extended 
to me the more contentedly if it should appear to them that in 
this, as in other instances, it may be useful to have the memory 
refreshed concerning matters with which we are perfectly familiar 
but not always in mental contact. 

The unity, the continuity, and the nature of that which is the 
one mine for biological exploitation — life — are among the many 
questions which, on presentment, woxdd be likely to generate a 
desire to know ho\v or to what extent they have been solved by 
systematic inquiry. These may be chosen for consideration, 
though it be with undue brevity. 



106 president's address — SECTION D. 

The young student in biology would think it almost incredible 
that one who has not lived through two generations should be 
able to recall from among the thoughts of adolescence the crude 
conception of plant life which then lodged in his mind, undigested 
by the pepsine of scholarly instruction as at that time imparted. 
That plants had life of a kind appeared evident; they grew, mul- 
tiplied, died, and decayed ; they even showed signs of irritability. 
Yet it seemed little more than a metaphor, a concession to the 
poverty of language, to speak of vegetables being endowed with 
life such as other organisms possess. In this, as in most respects, 
plants appeared to be as foreign in nature to animals as animals 
obviously were to man. The times change and we change with 
them, but the margin of a pool long remains unruffled by the waves 
that creep from its disturbed centre. At the present day the 
same traditional opinion in favor of the fundamental diversity of 
life in the animal and vegetable realms would be professed by 
numbers of reflective persons whose intellectual exercise has not 
carried them within the pale of biology. It may then be asked of 
us, Have you by searching foimd out anything to the point ? We 
can answer in the affirmative ; it has long been established beyond 
doubt that life in the plant and life in the animal, phenomenally 
so discordant, are substantially one and the same. The steps by 
which biology has mounted to this eminent conclusion — eminent 
because from its height we can take a bird's eye view of life in all 
directions — are Avorth recovmting. Their story will one day form 
an interesting page in a history of knowdedge. 

For nearly 150 years there has been known a substance scattered 
in minute masses through water, Avhere each particle discharges 
on its own behalf every essential function of animal life — motion 
through space, extension and retraction of parts, quest, selection, 
ingestion and assimilation of food, circulation of fluids, secretion 
and excretion, respiration, and reprodviction — in all these modes 
of activity automatic, vet without definite organs or members, 
without so much as a containin;^ investment. To us the creature 
is partiall}' intelligible; but in 1755, the year of its discovery, 
amoeba was a passage in the volume of life utterly undecipher- 
able, and, as a cryptoijram teaching nothing, it was sufl^ered to lie . 
for eighty years almost forgotten. Meanwhile the intimate struc- 
ture of plants was being scrutinised by anatomical botanists, some 
of whom found that the cells, which appeared to be the structural 
elements into which all plant tissues could be resolved, were in 
certain cases and circumstances capable of exhibiting automatic 
movements. These observations also were impotent of results, but 
lay as isolated facts, unincuhated till others were placed around 
them, and all stimulated to find their way to light toeether. 
Zoologists on their side had been pursuing a parallel path, and 
had learned that animal tissue was structurally nothing more than 
a system of cells. They now pushed the inquiry further, putting 



PRESIDENT S ADDRESS SECTION D. 



lor 



questions to the cells themselves; and in 1835 one of them, in his 
study of the foraminifera, made an epochal discovery — he ascer- 
tained that the vital properties of the cell are peculiar to a portion 
of its contents, a transparent slime insoluble in water, and, though 
irritable, apparently structureless, and to this he gave the name 
of '' sarcode." Eleven years later botany brought up its arrears 
of progress by demonsti-ating that a like substance was the seat of 
energy in the vegetable cell, but, unconscious that it could be other 
than newly discovered, called it by another name, " protoplasm." 
Of course it was not long before the two substances were rigor- 
ously compared one with another in all their known phases and 
conditions of existence. 'J'he result may be anticipated — sarcode 
and protoplasm were found to be identical. By a further deduc- 
tion the presence or absence of a limiting envelope was rendered 
a condition to which the physiological completeness of the cell was 
perfectly indifferent. As an abstract conception the cell became 
the prisoner, and that though the prisoner were unconfined. Then, 
by the way, it came about that amoeba, so long overlooked, was 
remembered, and found full of interest as the first-discovered 
realisation of the ideal of a living cell, a cell, moreover, with inde- 
pendent life. Protoplasm now became, in ordinary but expressive 
terms, " the physical basis of life" common to the two great 
kingdoms of organisation. But the whole life of an organism 
being but the sum of the life of its constituent cells, it follows that 
the Ufe of the one-celled plant that tinges the arctic snow and 
that of the many-celled animal that tames to his will the restless 
energies of nature differ only by the phenomena resulting from 
modifications of their common protoplasm. The conclusion is not 
affected by the event that protoplasm has been proved to be by no 
means the structureless substance it was long accounted to be, and 
therefore not that immediately prevenient source of structure that 
the real physical basis of life must be. The properties of a pre- 
cursor of protoplasm are but the more remote properties of the 
substance from Avhich plant and animal were to arise through the 
interinediacy of protoplasm. 

It has been a happy consequence of the establishment of the 
doctrine that life is identical wherever it exists, that the partition 
which during all time stood between two companies studying 
almost within mutual touch was thrown down. The schools of 
botany and zoology recognised that the book before them was the 
same, however dift'erently its volumes had been edited, and thence- 
forth united in the endeavor to find its full and true interpretation. 
A higher category inclusive of both their sciences had arisen, and 
for its common denomination they had no choice but to adopt that 
of the science of life — biology. A great step had been taken ; but 
if this category prove, as it will assuredly, to be but a constituent 
of a still higher one, whose terms will bind together the organised 
and the unorganised, a still greater advance will be made towards 



108 



PRESIDENT S ADDRESS SECTION D. 



solving the great problem of all Science — find the prime motor of 
secondary causes. Meanwhile it is a fact fraught with significance 
to a thoughtful man that all living things are of the same vital 
substance with himself. 

Reflection on the oneness of life, fruitful of good to the moraliser 
as to the knowledge-seeker, becomes far more edifying to both 
when life appears to the mind steadfast in continuity. 

In the early days of biology its ablest expounders rarely or never 
doubted that, under favorable circumstances, life could spring up 
where no life was before. The fact that it commonly entered its arena 
by process of descent did not compel them to question the truth of 
the general opinion of the age that lix-ing things frequently issued 
fatherless from the womb of unknown conditions. They had not, 
indeed, a broad unswerving base of experience on which to found 
a generalisation which should exclude that assumption; nor was 
the tenet held fast by all around them that life, as ordinarily 
acquired, is a special gift to the unborn, a guide to the path of 
heterodoxy. It was by slow degrees that observation gave form to 
suspicion, and, pouring down a fuller volume of rays, ripened it 
into certainty that in the ordinary course of nature abnormal 
generation was not in the least likely to occur under any con- 
tingency. In our own day attempts to prove by exact experiment 
that the well-tried maxim of biology, " Life from the living only," 
may not be unexceptionallj^ true, shows that the inheritors of the 
discredited hypothesis still number among them men of scientific 
training ; but these are certainly not the revivex's of an obsolete 
doctrine That absence of biological knowledge which permitted 
a past generation to believe that geese of certain kind were the 
fruit of a tree, and which among our Australian selves — even 
amongst our educated selves — sees no difficulty in maintaining that 
the young kangaroo is born on the nipple of its mother, will long 
bar the mind against the conviction that external circumstances 
alone are powerless to produce life, will long throw the imagination 
open to entertain a fallacy which may indeed be less grotesque but 
is not less inconsequent than these. Biology does not, of course, 
assert dogmatically that the reintegration of life, which is really 
meant by the term " spontaneous generation," is theoretically im- 
possible ; it seems to her only less conceivable than that primaeval 
integration of life, which, if terrestrial, was in a sense spontaneous 
generation, but she does say that, after decades of toilsome research 
into the obscurest recesses of nature by her acutest experts, she 
has never met with an instance in which life came into existence 
by its own will — an obvious absurdity — or by abnormal means. In 
defiance of the advocates of spontaneous generation she declares 
that every plant or animal is, in its inception, necessarily a part of 
a similar body pre-existing. In opposition to mistaken conceptions 
of generative methods founded on inconclusive observation she 
teaches that these are not subject to violent revolutionary changes 



president's address — SECTION D. 109 

in particular instances — that, for example, all geese are, like other 
birds, hatched from eggs ; all marsupials, like other mammals, born 
from the womb. 

But constancy of parentage is not to all minds a sufficient expla- 
nation of the origin of life in the individual. It is pos-ible for a 
living body to derive its substance from its progenitors, its life 
from some extraneous source. If this were more than a gratuitous 
hypothesis, if it were supported by any evidence whatever, one of 
the further questions which biology has yet to solve would tend 
towards solution. Not only should we then have some reason to 
think that life is not simply the quality of living matter, but an 
entity capable of existing apart from it — a view which has been 
gradually shut out by every increment of knowledge ; but we 
should be inclined, in proportion to the proof offered, to believe 
that even under present terrestrial conditions a substance capable 
of life can exist apart from that which alone proves its capacity for 
life — a rather profound problem, and one not to be solved by 
offhand inconsiderateness. But the evidence is wanting and the 
assumption is improbable in itself. There are three possible modes 
by which the incipient organism may receive life, and of these we, 
as reasoning men, must choose the most reasonable, remembering 
the while that it is life simply, the common attribute of plant and 
animal, that has to be considered, and disallowing all exclusive 
thought of ourselves and our human gifts. Either the offgoing 
part of the parent is dead, an effete excretion, and lite is introduced 
to it from without, or it is a living part from which in the process 
of separation inherent life is expelled in order to be replaced by 
life from without, or the life of the offspring as a separate body is 
in uninterrupted continuity with that of its parent substance. 
Remembering again that nature works in the ways that are most 
direct, and that she secures economy of labor by never doing any- 
thing, on the large scale at least, unnecessarily, we shall have no 
difficulty in fixing the respective values of these alternatives and 
assigning the highest to that which affirms continuity between the 
two terms of life, the old and the new. But biology does not leave 
us to judge by mere likelihood. She declares that her peculiar 
instrument, the microscope, has revealed to her as a fact that the 
initial point of life is not otdy of itself a living being Avhile still 
an intrinsic part of the parent body, but that alter separation it 
necessarily carries forward the parental life. She is shown a living- 
body gradually constricted in the middle till it parts asunder, and 
each half goes its living way, a part of the body wall bulging out- 
wards, and assuming more and more the form of a body similar to 
that from which it sprung till it either drops off more or less fully 
accoutred for independence or grows up to maturity without losing^ 
its connection with the parent mass. In these cases continuity of 
life, if not in the latter case continuity of the entire sub.stance. is 
beyond question. Between these instances of life — at once extended 



110 president's address SECTION D. 

"by means which limit its range in time and sjjace and the dis- 
persive mode of reproduction which as a rule provides for the 
extension of the organism both in time and space, by storing up in 
a more or less enduring form, as spores, seeds, or eggs, the capacity 
for future development without necessarj' dependence on the 
integrity of the parental life— there are several gradations of 
method, but at no point do we find the thread of life — continuity 
between parent and embryo — snapped apart. Whether scattered 
through the body or located in a special organ, the cell of proto- 
plasm prepared for the reproduction of the whole series of vital 
phenomena manifested by the congeries of cells around it has at 
least as great a share in the process of preparation, and therefore 
as great a share in the common life, as each one of them, and that 
life, unless prematurely destroyed, never ceases till it has accom- 
plished its cycle of development, for organised as protoplasm is now- 
known to be its further organisation proceeds without a break to 
maturity. As far then as parent and oft'spring are concerned, it 
may be held indubitable that they have the selfsame life con- 
seciitively embodied. 

Here I am tempted to pause and ask my fellow biologists and 
myself whether this truth, to them so unnecessarily spoken, does 
not impose a duty upon us as citizens of our respective States, as 
sharers in that commonwealth of humanity in which, however 
absorbing our special pursuits, we must feel a personal interest. 
Life as we know it, not only in its ordinary functions, but in its 
idiosyncracies, and in their necessary influence on things external, 
is transmitted imbroken from parent to child. Intellect or idiocy, 
physical vigor or decrepitude, virtue or vice, are conferred or 
inflicted on the issue of the body. It is a very solemn thought. 
Truly it is a matter for anxious inquisition and resolute action on 
the part of those whom we appoint conservators of our health, our 
morals, our education, and our property. Remedies for inherited 
evils are as plentiful as they are ineffectual ; every man has his 
specific — for the encouragement of the good that is born with us 
we have our schoolmasters and our divines — but, whether to 
implant or displant, we want to grip the tap-root of the matter. 
The savage, well aware that the existence of his tribe depends on 
its freedom from useless and noxious members, its vigor on the 
renunciation of close marriage and the restriction of marriage to 
the full}' matured, and among them to the stoutest, bravest, and 
■wisest, and conscious that for his own welfare he should prefer the 
life of the tribe to that of any injurious particle of it, obeys without 
compunction the death-dealing decisions of tribal policy. The 
storage of foods or its equivalents, the mainspring of civilisation, 
relieves us from the necessity of ridding ourselves of the unpro- 
ductive units of society ; so far we are privileged to indulge the 
so-called humanitarian sentiment with safety — we may even go 
further and tolerate the presence amongst us of the lets hurtful of 



president's address — SECTION D. Ill 

our mischief workers. But it follows that we have the greater 
necessity for compensatory measures tending to restrain the pro- 
cieation of any predisposition to disease and vice, and to encourage, 
on the other hand, the production of a superior manhood. Some 
measures of restraint at least, some measures of stimulation perhaps, 
are within the range of practical statesmanship, and the statesman 
who with a far-seeing eye to his country's good Avill give them 
shape will earn its gratitude and that of the civilised world. At 
pi-esent it is curious to witness the stockbreeder's watchful pains 
to avert from his stud the slightest taint of inferior blood, and the 
politician's vitter indifference to all precaution of the kind, or it may 
be his dread of the obloquy which would be his were he to meddle 
with this one of the greatest of all causes of crimmality and folly 
in the body politic. But the public opinion he fears will one day 
say in chorus that it is a crime to perpetuate anything obnoxious 
to the public weal. It will have realised to itself the mighty 
though noiseless battle that is raging in every community between 
its strong desire to rise in the scale of man's development and its 
equally strong inclination to yield to agencies of debasement. It 
is the struggle of the diver in the embrace of the cuttlefish whose 
arms are beset with the suckers of moral and physical degeneracy. 
Biologists are neither statesmen nor social reformers by profession, 
but in nil that pertains to heredity they stand in the position of 
trained advisers to the public and its leaders : and in a matter 
of such grave import they should not hesitate to declare that 
ordinary experience of the influence of heredity on domesticated 
subjects is but an experience of a natural law which controls for good 
or evil man, equally with all other organisms, and to remonstrate 
against allowing the human subject to continue exposed to its 
influences so far as they are malignant. Their remonstrance will 
probably long fall on inattentive ears. Men and women are inapt 
to think an application of the principles of successful breeding 
requisite in their own case ; and will remain so, resentful of any 
interference with their liberty of choice, until trained to subordinate 
self-indulgence to the common good. In time, however, we may hope 
to make some impression on the public mind, if it be only the 
natural effect of our insistence on that absolute continuity in the 
life of parent and child which has led to this digression. 

To predicate continuity of life between parent and offspring in 
the present is to affirm the same of all such relations as far back 
as human experience reaches. But present life is at one step 
backward in geologic time found associated with, at the next seen 
emerging by insensible gradations from, past life — no chasm of 
death exists between them. All known life then comes under the 
same predicament, and we are inevitably led back to its first 
appearance on the earth. Assuming the truth of the conception 
of cosmical evolution known as the " nebular hypothesis," the one 
attempt at cosmogony so far successful as to be able to harmonise 



112 president's address SECTION D. 

known facts and withstand rational criticism, there must have been 
a period in the history of our earth when the existence — or at least 
the permanence — of life upon it first became possible. Previous to 
this the elements entering into the complex composition of that 
which we at present recognise as the sole manifestor of life — pro- 
toplasm, or more probably of some much simpler forerunner of 
protoplasm — were not permitted by physical conditions to combine 
in suitable proportions, or at least to remain in combination — the 
earth's temperature, for example, continuing higher than that which 
now forms the limit of life endurance. Whenever by secular 
change such inhibitory conditions became gradually relaxed, it is 
conceivable that a critical point would at length be reached at which 
a form of energy, till then exclud-d from this mundane sphere of 
action, could begin to operate upon the material placed in readiness 
by some one of the combinations effected by the chemical experi- 
ments of that energetic period, and life would commence. It is 
usual to stigmatise this hypothesis of the origin of terrestrial life 
as a materialistic extravagance based on a "fortuitous concurrence 
of atoms." The epigram is good logic to those who believe in — or, 
at the most, have an unintelligent disbelief in — the supposed fact 
that the result of a toss of a penny or a throw of the dice is purely 
a matter of chance, unconscious that it is as much a prescript of 
law, the outcome of an antecedent combination of conditioned 
forces, as all things else in nature. The muscular play in the hand 
that throws, the form in all its parts of the cavity whence the dice 
are thrown, the shapes, sizes, and specific gravities of the dice 
themselves, the properties of the resisting bodies on which they 
fall, the density of the medium through which they are projected — 
were all these beforehand calculated, and in the act controlled, the 
expert could throw just what number he pleased. 'J'o speak of 
the effect of a sequence of causes rationally believed to exist, 
though imperfectly or not at all known, as gratuitous, merely 
exemplifies the propensity to throw from under the veil of wit dust 
into eyes which might perchance see more clearly than we wish. 

It is reasonable to suppose that the beginning of life on the earth 
could occur but once, since secular change, ceaseless ever after as 
before initiation, would eventually leave in the rear that state of 
things which had proved favorable to its occurrence. We have no 
right to assume that its terrestrial origin was equally possible under 
two different sets of conditions. It is certain that there is an 
opportune period for the appearance and career of each living 
thing, and that this period once passed never returns. No fact in 
palaeontology is better established than the inability of an extinct 
organism to re-enter the stage of life ; and as life must have been 
introduced in some plastic form which is not known to exist now, 
we may fairly infer that this form never did and never can exist 
twice. It is therefore allowable to repeat that the reintegration of 
mundane life, the possibility of which under present conditions is 



president's address — SECTION D. 113 

presupposed by believers in spontaneous j^eneration, is less con- 
ceivable tban its primary integration. In the words of the author 
of " Tlie Correlation of Physical Forces" — "■ Nothinj^ repeats itself, 
because nothin'^ can be placed again in the sams condition. The 
past is irrevocable." 

But it is obvious that the argument as to time does not apply to 
space conditions. It is not only unnecessary to suppose that life 
began in a single speck of plasmogen, and thus incur the necessity 
of tabulating a common pedigree for all organisms, but it is 
needful to admit tliat probability points in the opposite direction. 
If life activity became set up as a consequence of a secular change 
the opportunity for its being set up was probably cosmopolitan, 
and the probability of its failing to be set up in moie places than 
one very little. It is therefore admissible at least to regard it as 
commencing at several points in the earth's surface simultaneously, 
that is, within the limits (possibly of enormous duration) of the one 
period of change which allowed its introduction. 

It has been suggested that the origin of terrestrial life may have 
been due to a biogenetic agency previously excluded from opera- 
tion on the earth. On the subject of extra-mundane life 
speculation has long been active, and, as the wont of speculation 
is, useful as a stimulus to continued inquiry. It may be well to 
note, by the way, how the question stands at present. Are we 
compelled to believe that this earth, a mote in the universe, is the 
sole receptacle of life ? Clearly not, since that belief could only be 
founded on the knowledge that life is impossible elsewhere. Are 
we then, on the othtr hand, justified in concluding that life is not 
restricted to our globe ? Clearly not, since all the reasons 
advanced in favor of the opinion show nothing more than either 
its probability on general grounds or the absence of non-prohibitory 
conditions in particular cases. In combination they cannot lead to 
anything higher than probability, but it is a probability, be it 
observed, that is not countered by any weight at all in the opposite 
scale. It would seem on the face of it hopeless to wait for some 
unmistakable evidence of the actual existence of life outside our 
planet, yet a seemingly near approach to the evidence required has 
more than once been reported. For instance, on the 9th of June, 
1889, there fell at Migheni, in Russia, a remarkable meteorite. On 
a cursory inspection, it appeared to be of a carbonaceous nature ; 
on being handled it proved to be very friable and apt to soil the 
fingers. External aspect, friability, and soiling to the touch may 
all have been due to an unusual proportion of carbide of iron. But 
it is said that chemical analysis showed the substance to be of the 
customary meteoric composition, with the addition of nearly 5 per 
cent, of organic matter, and that this matter, extracted with alcohol, 
yielded a bright yellow resin much resembling kabaite. Moreover, 
we are told that a cold aqueous extract of the substance contained 
an organic salt and nearly 2 per cent, of mineral matter possessing 



114 president's address — SECTION D. 

properties of a novel character, such as giving a heavy white 
precipitate with baric chloride which was not baric sulphate, and a 
peculiar precipitate wdth argentic chloride. The weak point in 
the study of this meteorite was that its so termed organic 
constituent was not, prior to chemical treatment, subjected to 
microscopical examination for the detection of structure, but the 
fact that it yielded a resin to alcohol points strongly towards the 
reality of its organic origin. This case, indeed, seems to have 
advanced us a step beyond the state of vague suspicion aroused by 
certain famous American meteorites in which the presence of 
diamonds is said to have been demonstrated. By a pretty general 
consensus of opinion diamonds are of organic origin. It has, 
however, lately been announced that they have appeared among 
the by-products of a furnace, and, if so, the antecedent difficulties 
of accounting for the presence of organic matter in a meteoric 
body and for its passage through the atmosphere undestroyed are 
diminished. At any rate, if, as there seems no reason to doubt, 
life products have been found in meteorites, it will be difficult to 
escape the conclusion that life is not confined to this earth. It is 
therefore quite possible that in the first instance it may have been 
transmitted to us fi'om without ; but. as frequently remarked, this, 
though it prove to be a fact, cannot affect any conclusion we may 
reach as to the mode of the origin of life. It will merely compel 
us to decide that life is not peculiarly an attribiite of the earth, 
but that it had a birth- time and place in the infinities of the 
cosmos. 

It is only natural that the mind which is apt to claim a monopoly 
of reasoning power should tend to speculate on the nature of that 
which underlies all reason, that, too, vvhich is certainly the most 
energetic factor in the superficial economy of this globe, and very 
possibly in that of many others. A present mystery life is 
undoubtedly. A pei-petual inscrutable mystery it is said to be with 
the surest confidence, and they who say so must be wise, for who 
can say so but he whose mind is a true measure of the utmost 
reach of human intellect in all time to come. Modesty, however, 
suggests that in the light of the revelations of the last tenth part 
of the Christian era it may be as presumptuous to pronounce any 
object of natural inquii-y to be out of the range of the intellect 
of the future as to assert the contrary ; nor does it well become 
those w^hose stimulus to labor is the hope of solving or of helping 
to solve the most intricate problems of nature to hug to their 
breasts that darling of inane contentment — inscrutable mystery. 
Excluding all but purely physiological views of the question — 
What is life ? let us endeavor to formvilate a conception of the 
meaning of the term " life " in its most comprehensive and, there- 
fore, truest sense. For this it is necessary to clear the way by 
dismissing to oblivion the long dominant opinion that the life we 
speak of is a being capable of existing apart from body, resident 



president's address — SECTION D. 115 

in matter for temporary purposes, and, these fulfilled, quitting it for 
another phase of existence. Such terms as "vital principle," 
" organising agent," in the sense of a presiding genius regulating 
bodily functions, have become almost obsolete in biological litera- 
ture ; the generation which from a scientific standpoint upheld the 
hypothesis of its existence has well nigh passed away, and left to 
the conservatism of popular sentiment the struggle against the 
logic of fact. But though it is perfectly clear to most physiologists 
that life is not an embodiment of anything at any time external to 
the body, wh?t it actually is, is less unanimously decided upon by 
them. By many it is defined to be " the sum of the actions of an 
organised being;" others, very properly objecting that the actions 
of an organised being cannot of themselves constitute its life, prefer 
as a definition •' the state of the actions peculiar to an organised 
being," and an improvement on this again is made by those who say 
it is '• the condition of activity manifested by such beings." The 
defect in all these renderings seems to be the imcertainty attaching 
to the unqualified use of the terms " action " and " activity," a defect 
which may perhaps be remedied by defining life as " the molecular 
activities peculiar to organic structure." It is the consequence of 
the formation of a substance susceptible of organisation under the 
impress of that mode of intramolecular motion. Its prime pheno- 
mena are irritability — aptness for automatic motion in mass in 
response to stimtili, and metabolism — the faculty of converting 
irritants of a suitable kind into nutrients, suitability being deter- 
mined by elective means akin to if not identical with chemical 
affinity. The molecular activity in wdiich life consists is the 
ultimate fact in this direction, and must remain so until the time is 
ripe for resolving ail modes of energy into one. So far as this 
peculiar activity produces pecidiar effects, life mtist for the present 
be held distinct from those energies which are incapable of bring- 
ing them about. On the other hand the production of phenomena 
identical wdth those which are characteristic effects of the physical 
energies warns us against the assumption that life has in its nature 
nothing in common with them. The molecidar activity — life — is 
apparently convertible into the other molecular activities; the work 
done by the contracting muscle-fibre appears partly as heat, partly 
as electricity, that of other tissues as light, of others as chemical 
synthesis or analysis. Were the question between any two of 
these physical forms of energy, such convertibility would be held 
to indicate mutual relationship, and though no one of the latter is, 
so far as we know, convertible into life, this is hardly sufficient 
grotmd for regarding the organising activity as essentially different 
from the non-organising. 

Seeing that the operations of ordinary chemism within the body 
are directed and controlled by vitality, and are at the same time 
necessary to the continuance of vitality, it is conceivable that life 
is a concurrence of the two modes of molecular activity mutually 



116 president's address — SECTION D. 

adjusted and equilibrated, i.e.,ot two sets of vibrations of different 
velocities and different amplitudes. This is pure hypothesis, but it 
goes in the direction towards which the tide of opinion is strongly 
setting — the correlation of lite energy with those which work 
physical results only. 

As though springing from the same root stock in the mind, the 
t-ndn ideas of life and death rise so constantly together that to 
regard the one and neglect the other would be. in the language of 
the chemist, to leave a bond unsatisfied ; but Avhat can even a 
biologist have to say of death more than that it is the universal 
bourne ? He may, indeed, discredit the ordinary notion which by 
ei-ecting metaphors into facts succeeds in evolving a positive out of 
a negative, and creates for itself death as a real presence. He may, 
at the same time, guard against hasty conclusions in cases where 
the occui'rence of death is liable to be affirmed on insufficient 
grounds, by defining it as the absolute loss of the power of evincing 
the phenomena of cell life; but what then? Death comes to all, 
and there an end. All that lives dies is the verdict of universal 
experience. But many biologists are not so sure as once they 
were that death does come to all of necessity, that individual life 
must from its very nature and work come to a stop Ground for 
asserting that some organisms are potentially immortal has been 
found in the leading feature of the life-history of amoeba and those 
other monoplastids that propagate by fission of the body into 
equal parts. Apparently' no valid argument can be adduced 
against the conclusion that the mature cell undergoing fission does 
not die. As a unit of life it disappears, but surely it is an abuse 
of terms to call that death which leaves nothing to show that life 
has ceased. But though in attaining the end of its existence the 
cell has acquired immortality, it does not follow from this that 
prior to maturity it has no inherent tendency to die. There is 
little doubt that in the higher organisms normal death ensues from 
the excess of cell waste over cell production, and that this again 
is the necessary result of the cells being too hardly worked. Cells, 
like citizens of a commonwealth, have a double duty lo perform — 
to feed and reproduce themselves, and to discharge whatever 
fimctions are committed to them for the benefit of the community. 
In proportion as these latter are more distinctly specified the 
ability of the cells commissioned to execute them to effect growth 
and reproduction is diminished because a portion of the energy 
which should have been expended on self-maintenance is diverted 
from it, and the more excellent the work performed as a con- 
sequence of the division of labor the less aptness of the workers 
to provide for their own wants. All this is obvious enough in its 
application to many-celled organisms. But it is claimed that in 
imi-cellular organisms, whose parts are not distinguishable one from 
another, there is no division of labor; it is the whole cf the cell 
which reproduces, assimilates, excretes, and so forth. I must 



president's address SECTION D. 117 

confess that, for my own part, I find it very difficult to conceive 
that every particle of the protoplasm is equally capable of perform- 
ing these different functions, nor does the necessity of doing so 
seem so imperative now that we know that a certain degree of 
organisation is present in cell matter. Becaiise we cannot as yet 
distinguish differential media of function in the structure of the 
monoplastids we are hardly at liberty to build theories on the 
assumption of their non-existence, and conclude that these 
organisms are exceptions to the otherwise general law of cyclical 
life. In view of the fact that all nucleated cells, and probably 
all non-nucleated monoplastids, conjugate and undergo a certain, 
however slight, change in the molecular arrangement of their 
protoplasm, a change followed by a period of incubation prepara- 
tory to the renewal of reproduction by fission, it seems likely that 
this process is in them, as in the higher organisms, necessary to the 
reinstatement of life in the vigor of youth, and that were this 
process prevented they would become incapable of fission and die. 
The renewal in the offspring of the energy, not exhausted, but 
diminished in the parent, appears to me to be at least as much the 
purpose of conjugation as the commixture of heredity coiu-ses and 
that no less in the protozoa than in the metazoa. The immortality 
of the former is not potential but incidental to the attainment of 
matui-ity. A defender of the theory that reproduction is established 
solely for the purposes of heredity might urge that the higher rate 
at which vital processes go on in the earlier stages of individual 
life is not due to a renewal of energy as a primary intention, but 
that this is the necessary means by which alone tlie product of the 
fusion of hereditary tendencies can be brought with speed to 
maturity and so enabled to escape the perils of youthful feebleness. 
Kapid growth is merely an adaptation brought about by natural 
selection. But heredity itself is as much a process of utility to the 
sjDecies as reinvigoration is to the individual ; adaptation, common 
to both cases, does not affect the real significance of either. On 
the whole, it is perfectly true that the monoplastids are con- 
ditionally immortal, but there is not sufficient evidence to show 
that the condition being unattained, they are not potentially mortal. 
To these few of the biological themes which have an attraction 
extending beyond the pale of Science it would have been a pleasure 
to add that great, and, so far as the public mind is concerned, still 
unsettled question — the origin of species. Evolution, whether by 
natural selection or other secondary causes, stands now in almost 
the same relation to biology as gravitation to astronomy. It is the 
master key which, in the hands of the expert, is constantly opening 
to the light the recesses of nature ; it is repeatedly explaining the 
apparent contradictions and inconsistencies met with in his re- 
searches; and, above all, it is conferring upon him the power of 
anticipating discover}' by enabling him to inform us with a very 
great degree of probability, followed by verification, of otherwise 



118 president's address SECTION D. 

unexpected facts. No wonder that such a theory should be 
unanimously accepted by those who can appreciate its power for 
good. No wonder that its beneficiaries should be desirous to see 
it entertained on its merits by all persons of intelligence. But I 
have been speaking too prodigally on other topics, and time fails. 

In a gathering of the sciences it would be bad form to recom- 
mend one to special favor rather than another. I feel hardly at 
liberty to say even this much of biology : that from it emanates the 
aetiology of body and mind, and to ask on what but this depends 
the happiness of the individual, the maintenance of the society, 
the future of the race ? Add to this the purely intellectual profit 
accruing from close study of the operations of life in the world or 
worlds around us, and we cannot deny that biology well deserves 
the utmost encouragement we can give it. That encouragement 
she is here to seek, and happily she can seek it here with lively 
gratitude for help already given. Coming from a State which has 
Iiot as yet made provision for academical research in biology, I can 
feelingly congratulate those who have on this occasion extended a 
welcome to our Association, that they have had it in their power, 
and not neglected the opportunity they had, to secure to themselves 
the priceless boon of university teaching in addition to other potent 
means of mental culture. Though fully alive to and grateful for 
the splendid work which has been done and is being done by 
privaie biologists in all departments of the science, Ave cannot, if we 
would, gainsay the fact that the greatest mass of the best results is 
effected by those whose only occupation it is to learn that they may 
teach, and amongst the bodies set apart by public foresight for 
such purposes the universities throughout the world are conspicuous 
for the excellence and multiplicity of their biological labor. Were 
it not the merest presumption in me to thrust advice upon the 
intelligence of South Australia, I Avould, in the interest of biology 
and through it in the interest of the State, say to them- Cherish 
your vmiversity, extend its searching power, amplify its teaching 
power with all your might, and do not be too solicitous to see it 
exercising an immediate influence upon your national progress — the 
nimblest ox is not usually the best worker. 



Section E. 
GEOGRAPHY. 



ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT, 
A. C. MacDONALD, F.R.G.S. 



THE SCOPE OF GEOGRAPHY, AND THE ADVANTAGES 
OF GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION. 

It is with no small amount of diffidence that I rise to address an 
audience such as I have the pleasure of meeting here to-day, for, as 
I only claim to have the same general interest in geographir.al 
research that should be taken by every intelligent man and woman 
the whole world over, I feel that the honor conferred by my election 
to the Presidency of this section of the Australasian Association for 
the Adyanceinent of Science arose from a desire to acknowledge 
the good work achieved by the Victorian Branch of the Royal 
Geographical Society of Australasia, rather than from any special 
personal fitness for the position. It was a stern sense of duty alone 
that induced me to accept the onerous task now before me, engaged 
as I am in active business pursuits. The terrible wave of com- 
mercial depression which all the colonies have to a greater or lesser 
degree experienced of late ha? left me but little time for thinking 
out and preparing an address worthy of this occasion. On that 
ground, ladies and gentlemen, I ask your kind indulgence for the 
many shortcomings in my attempt to add something to the sum of 
human knowledge on the important subject of geography. 

There is jiower in union, and through the medium of this 
Association, which is a union of scientists throughout Aiistralasia, 
we may hope to promote geographic research and to spread a 
knowledge of the results of exploration over a wider area than 
could otherwise be accomplished. Through the same medium we 
may also hope to awaken fresh interest in the exploration and 
geography of our own continent, and of the still unexplored regions 
of the Antartic Ocean. I propose — 

Firstly. Answering the question, " What is geography, its sco2De, 
and the advantages of geographical education?" 

Secondly. To note the advance made in geographic research, and 
the geographical distribution of man in his progress towards 
civilisation. 



120 president's address SECTION E. 

Thirdly. To speak briefly of cartography, with special reference 
to Professor Dr. Penck's projiosal to construct a colossal 
map of the world on a uniform scale; the geographical, 
commercial, and educational value of such a map, and the 
necessity for completing the topographical and geological 
surveys of the whole of the Australian Colonies. 

Fourthly. To touch on geographical discovery and exploration, 
and the importance of photography in its relation thereto. 

Fifthly. To suggest fields for future exploration. 

WHAT IS GEOGRAPHY? 

In an address delivered by Mr. J. H. Mackinder, B.A., in 1877, 
before the Royal Geographical Society of England, he puts the 
above question, and he proceeds to reply to it thus: — "There are 
at least two reasons why it should be answered, and answered now. 
In the first place geographers have been active of late years in 
pressing the claims of their science to a more honored position on 
the curriculum of our schools and universities. The world, and 
especially the teaching world, replies with the question, ' What is 
geography?' There is a touch of irony in the tone. The other 
reason is that for half a century several geographical societies have 
been active in promoting the exploration of the world. The natural 
result is that we are now near the end of the roll of great discoveries. 
The polar regions are the only large blanks remaining upon our 
maps. A Columbus can neA^er again discover another America, nor a 
Stanley reveal another river like the mighty Congo to the delighted 
world.'" 

That no doubt is true, but there yet remains a large amount of 
work for geographers in New Guinea, in Africa, even in Central 
Asia, in the North and South Polar regions, as well as in Central 
Australia. For many a year to come a Tasman, a Cook, a Greely, 
or a Nansen will now and again arise to show that the rai e of 
heroes in discoverv has not become extinct. Still, as tales of 
geographic adventure grow fewer and fewer, even geographical 
societies may despondently ask, "What is geography?" 

Geography, as I xmderstand it, is a complete and systematic 
knowledge of the science which treats of the world, describing the 
earth, its physical structure and characteristics, natural products, 
political divisions, and the people by whom our globe is inhabited. 
Geography, therefore, viewed from its scientific side, is something 
more than committing to memory the names of places and lines 
laid down on the maps and globes. 

SCOPE OF GEOGRAPHY. 

In our Australian Colonies, at least, the true scope and aims 
of geography as a science are still very far from being properly 
understood. It has been aptly said " that geography is the central 



president's address —section e, 121 

sun round which the other sciences circulate, like so many con- 
tributory planets." 

It would be difficult, indeed, to say what geography does not 
include, since a description of the earth would be incomplete 
without a knowledge of the elements of which it is composed ; of 
its natural features, climates, and products; the different races of 
beings by whom it is inhabited, and of the part which these have 
played in the past history of the earth- 

I am far from wishing it to be understood that an accurate 
acquaintance with all the details of each particular science is 
necessary to the right concteption and comprehension of geography, 
but it is, I think, self-evident that any system of geography worthy 
•of the name must embrace a general view of the other sciences with 
which it is so intimately allied. In Germany and Austria this com- 
prehensive view of geography is now fully recognised, and there it 
ranks much higher in the educational system than it does in any 
other part of the world. 

It has been said that geography covers so great a variety of 
departments of natural science ttiat it really can call none its own. 
Geologists have taken possession of the modifications of the earth's 
surface, meteorologists lay claim to the science which treats of the 
atmosphere and its phenomena, and among the other sciences there 
seems little Ir^ft to the geographer. 

The late Professor Green, in his " Short Geography of the British 
Islands," even maintains that " history strikes its roots in geography, 
for without a clear vivid realisation of the physical structure of a 
country the incidents of the life which men have lived in it can 
have no interest or meaning. Through history, again, politics strike 
their roots in geography, and many a rash generalisation would 
have been avoided had political thinkers been trained in a know- 
ledge of the earth they live in, and of the influence which its 
varying structure must needs exert on the varying political 
tendencies and institutions of the people who part its empire 
between them." 

Precise observation has now supplied satisfactory proof that the 
•earth's surface, with all that is on it, has been evolved through 
countless ages by a process of constant change. Those features 
that at first appear most permanent, yet in detail undergo perpetual 
modification, under the operation of forces which are inherent in 
the materials of which the earth is composed, or are developed by- 
its movements, and by its loss or gain of heat. 

The highest mountain which rears its lofty crest is slowly but 
surely being thrown down ; the sternest, most impregnable rock 
which frowns above the sea is gradually being worn away by that 
insidious enemy ; the deepest waters, the wddest oceans, are 
unceasingly being filled up. The destructive agencies of nature are 
in never ceasing activity ; the erosive and dissolving power of 
water in its various forms, the disinte<j:ratin2: forces of heat and 



122 president's address — section e. 

cold, the chemical modifications of substances, the mechanical 
effects produced by winds and other agencies, the operation of 
vegetable and animal organisms, and the arts and contrivances of 
man, combine in the warfare against "what is." 

But hand in hand with this destruction — nay, as a part of it — there 
is everywhere to be found corresponding reconstruction, for 
untiring nature immediately restores that wliich she has just 
destroyed. If continents are disappearing in one direction, they 
are rising into new existence in another. Though the great sea 
wears down tlie cliffs against which it beats, the earth takes ita 
revenge by upheaving the ocean bed. 

The duration of the successive ages of the earth's past existence 
ismeasuied almost wholly by reference to the fo-sil remains of 
animals and plants found embedded in the rocks of which its crust 
is composed. 

The recent highly important discovery of fossil bones at Lake 
Mulligan, in the colony of South Australia, will be of great scien- 
tific value, exceeding as it does in magnitude and variety any 
other of a like nature hitherto made in Australia. 

It is through the facts of geography as now known and inter- 
preted that the geologist and zoologist are enabled to understand 
the true signification of much that has occurred in the past, 
the traces of which survive in physical features or organic forms. 
He finds that the most important agencies in determining and 
modifying the present conditions on the earth, whether as 
affecting inorganic nature or organic beings, are closely connected 
with the actual distribution of land and sea, and in the configura- 
tion of the surface learns that it is through these agencies that he 
must seek to unravel the intricacies of the long past. 

In its turn, geology throws a light on much that would be other- 
wise unintelligible to the geographer. It teaches him how the 
bormdaries of the sea and land have been determined, where former 
connections have been severed, how islands have risen from the 
ocean, and how even continents may have sunk below it. 

The Most Honorable the Marquis of Lome, in his presidential 
address, delivered at the anniversary (1888) meeting of the Koyal 
Scottish Geographical Society, remarked " that if the noblest 
science among us is the knowledge of man, we may claim that we 
work to raise man to a higher level in making each life an aid for 
the advance of all. Each individual's devotion helps the second 
noblest science when his effort is directed to a knowledge of the 
features of that earth God has given to be shared among us, in 
proportion as we use the talents of courage, enterprise, and 
patriotism." 

GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION. 

To the Australasian Colonies the study of geography is of especial 
importance, and it comes home to each and all of us in a way that 



president's address — SECTION E. 125 

could hardly be the case in other countries, where almost every 
problem connected with the commercial, industrial, and physical 
aspects of the science have been long mastered and understood. 
But in these lands geography is a nascent science. We have still 
vast areas in our own continent, as well as in New^ Guinea and the 
islands of the Pacific and Antarctic Seas, that are either wholly 
unexplored or so impeifectly known that stores of interesting and 
invaluable information await the explorer who brings to his task, 
not only the energy and endurance which so many of his prede- 
cessors have displayed, but that jjractical knowledge and grasp of 
the relative importance of things to be observed which only a 
scientifically trained mind can ever hope to acquire. 

Lord Napier, of Magdala, speaking at the Exhibition of 
Appliances used in Geograp ideal Education, pointed out " the 
importance attached to such education. Every trained soldier in 
the German army was provided with a map of the country," and ta 
this he attributed "• the great advantage of the German over the 
French in the Franco-German war." 

Through the w4se liberality of the Royal Geographical Society 
of England in off'ering prizes for proficiency in geography, no less 
than 3,237 male and female students presented themselves from 
forty-fom- training colleges for examination in 1887. Of these. 
Her Majesty's Inspector reports that 534 male and 576 female 
students passed in the first division, and 698 male and 1,139 
female students in the second division ; there also passed, in the 
third division, 149 male students and 189 female — a very success' ul 
beginning of a highly important, but hitherto much n(!glected, 
branch of education. It is also a very significant fact that in every 
division the greater number of students were women. 

To the practical mind, whether he aims at distinction in the 
State or at the amassing of w^ealth, a knowledge and study of 
geography is a store of invaluable information ; to the student it 
is a stimulating basis from which to set out along a hundred special 
lines; to the teacher it is an implement for the calling out of the 
powers of the intellect — unless, indeed, we except that old-world- 
class of schoolmaster, who measures the disciplinary value of a 
subject by the repugnance with which it inspires the pupil. 

The geographical descriptions now accessible in print are, to use 
a mild term, old fashioned. Where newer material has been pub- 
lished it is but fi-agmentary at best, brief, and imperfectly illus- 
trated. The first elements of geographical study — the physical 
features of the earth — still call for close investigation. 

THE PROGRESS OF GEOGRAPHY. 

Sixty-three years have elapsed since the institution of the Royal 

Geographical Society of England — on the 24th of May, 1830. 

Before that time geographical science was practically unborn. 

At its inaugural meeting the President, Mr. John Barrow, in his 



124 president's address - section e. 

opening address, observed " that among the numerous literary and 
scientific societies established in the British metropolis one was 
still wanting to complete the circle of scientific institutions, whose 
sole object should be the promotion and diffusion of that important 
and entertaining branch of knowledge — geography." 

During the past five years at least fifteen new geographical 
societies have come into existence. The number of members of 
geographical societies in 1892 was 52,800. France heads the list 
with thirty-one societies and 18,630 members; Germany stands 
next, with twenty-three societies and 8,960 members ; the British 
Empix-e (exclusive of the Australian Colonies) numbers twelve 
societies and about 8,100 members, of which the parent society 
claims no less than 3,191; Russia follows, with eight societies; 
Switzerland takes the fifth place, owning six societies and 1,788 
members. In Australia we have four societies or branches; and, 
although we cannot claim a numerous body of members, let us 
hope that the rising generation of Australians, as well as their 
fathers — to say nothing of the women of South Australia and New 
Zealand, whose political rights have been justly recognised by 
Parliament — will, when the present commercial and industrial crisis 
has pnssed away, feel it to be a duty and a privilege to keep alive 
the interest already created in geographical and maritime discovery, 
more especially in regard to Australasia. 

An interesting volume was published in 1891 (report on the 
scientific results of H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-6).* 
During the seventeen years that have passed since that report was 
written the subject has gradually evolved from small beginnings, 
and its latest developments are to be seen in the volume referred 
to, which, in point of interest, is second to none of the long series 
containing the results of that memorable voyage. The volume 
opens with a brief historical sketch of the progress of our know- 
ledge of oceanography in general, or, as the Americans term it — 
and I think rightly term it — the geography of the sea, and of the 
materials composing the sea bottom in particular. 

Another valuable book, entitled " Deep Sea Soundings," which 
is a brief account of work done by the United States steamer 
Enterprise during the years 1883 to 1886, has just issued from the 
press. f 

Of the importance of such works to the whole scientific woi'ld it 
is quite needless to speak. They form a rich storehouse of facts 
which cannot be neglected by those who study either the history 
of the earth in the past, and the changes which are taking place on 
it at present, or the general biological problems involved in the 
relation of marine animals to their environment. 

American explorers have sounded the depths of the ocean and 
discovered mountains and valleys beneath the waves ; they have 

* Deep Sea Deposits, by John Muiray, LL.D., and the Rev. A. F. Renard, LL.D. 
t Deep Sea Soundings, by Captain A. S. Barker, U.S.N. 



president's address — SECTION E. 125 

found the great plateaux on which rest the cables that bring us 
into instantaneous communication with the whole civilised world ; 
they have shown the probable existence of a vast submarine range 
of mountains extending nearly the entire length of the Pacific 
Ocean — mountains so high that their summits rise above the sur- 
face of the sea to form islands, abysses so deep that the powerful 
rays of the sun could only feebly penetrate to Avarm or illuminate. 

The exploring vessels of the American Fish Commission, in one 
single season, have discovered more forms of life than were found 
by the Challenger expedition in a three-years' cruise. They have 
shown that an acre of water may^ be made to produce more food 
for the support of man than ten acres of average land, and have 
thus thrown open to cultivation a territory of the earth constituting 
three-fourths of the entire surface of the globe. 

America also claims to have led the way to and laid the founda- 
tion of a geography of the air greater in extent than all the 
oceans and all the land combined. Explorers in this branch of 
geographical science are now able to track the wind from point to 
point, and telegraph warnings in advance of the storm. A central 
bureau has been established in Washington, and an army of trained 
observers has been dispersed over all the world, and they^ observe 
the conditions of the atmosphere according to a preconcerted plan; 
the collocations of these observations jiive us a series of what may 
be termed instantaneous photographs of the conditions of the whole 
atmosphere. From the co-ordination of these observations, and 
their geographical representations upon a map, we obtain a weather 
map of the world for every day of the year. By careful study of 
the past movements of the atmosphere, and from these observations, 
we shall surely discover the grand laws that control aerial 
phenomena. Already a useful, though limited, power of prediction 
has been obtained. Continued research will in the future give us 
fresh forms of prediction, and increase the value of this new branch 
of science to mankind. 

iJuriny; this present epoch many and valuable additions have 
been made to our knowledge of the ocean, its depth, its temperature, 
the winds and climates that prevail over its various portions, its 
currents, and the life with which it abounds. Much of the 
information thus acquired has supplied completely new and wholly 
unexpected data upon which to deal, in our endeavors to interpret 
the earth's history and to understand the phenomena it presents 
to us. 

GEOGHAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF MAN IN HIS PROGRESS 
TOWARDS CIVILISATION. 

The geographical distribution of life and the geography of man 
is another important branch of the science, which time will not 
permit of my entering upon at any length. 



126 president's address — section e. 

From the days of Plato to Donnelly we have heard, at intervals, 
of the buried Atlantis; Dr. Bowdler Sharpe has now brought 
foi'ward a formidable rival to it in the South Seas. Lecturing at 
the Royal Institution on the geographical distribution of birds, 
he suggested " that there once was a great continent, with its centre 
at the South Pole, now submerged under 2,000 fathoms of water. 
It embraced," he said, " New Zealand, South America, Madagascar, 
Mauritius, and Australia ; thus is explained the existence of the 
•cognate struthious (wingless) birds that now exist, or did once exist, 
in these countries." 

That great changes have in past ages occurred, and are still 
taking place, must be evident to every student of nature. 

General Strachey, R.E., F.R.G.S., late President of the Royal 
Geographical Society of England, in his fourth lecture on 
geography, delivered before the University of Cambridge in 1888, 
says — " Of the origin of life, either when or how it began, we know 
nothing ; all that can be said is that the earlier conditions of the 
earth were altogether incompatible with life as we know it. For 
ages, as the globe cooled down, its surface must have been deluged 
with boiling water, and, until a temperature had been established 
not very greatly exceeding the present, none of the forms of life 
found in the lowest fossiliferous rocks could have come into 
existence." 

The opinion that life originated in the North Polar regions, where 
the gradually cooling globe must first have reached a temperature 
in which it became possible to live, was, I think, first expressed by 
Buffon. There are indications, considered valid by competent 
authorities, that it was aroiind the North Polar area that both 
vegetable and animal life were in the first instance developed, and 
thence disseminated over the rest of the earth. Within this area 
have been found representations of all the principally known 
fossiliferous systems, containing the remains of plants and animals 
closely resembling the present inhabitants of far lower latitudes, 
and even of tropical climates. Thus, in lat. 82° N. Silurian rocks 
exist, containing corals such as are to be now found under the 
equator in water of a temperature of 70° to 85* Fahr. In other 
localities, within 10° of the North Pole, remains of deciduous trees, 
similar in all respects to those now growing in warmer temperate 
regions, have been discovered. 

Until aboiit the middle of the present century both man and the 
world were popularly supposed to be about 6,000 years old, or, 
according to Jewish chronology, 5,654 years on the 12th of this 
present month (September, 1893); but during the last fifty years the 
discoveries made by Egyptologists, and the excavations of buried 
monuments of Assyria, Arabia, Phoenicia, and recently in the valley 
of the Mississippi, and the bringing to light of hieroglyphics, 
inscriptions, and fossil remains on our planet at an epoch almost 
inconceivably remote from our own ; the discovery of a human skull 



president's address SECTION E. 127 

at a depth of 153ft. in the auriferous gravels of California, with 
remains of the mastodon, and covered by five or six beds of lava, 
or A'olcanic ashes ; the fossil man of Denise. in the Auvergne, 
mentioned by Sir Charles Lyell : neolithic implements foimd with 
the skull discovered by Professor Cocchi, at Olmo, near Arezzo, 
and many other like discoveries, have combined to shatter all the 
old systems of chronology, and to put back the appearance of man 
on the globe to the tertiary period of its development. 

In the valley of the Nile fragments of pottery have been brought 
up from depths indicating an antiquity of at least 11,000 years, 
while other remains are conjectured to have belonged to an epoch 
separated from our own by an interval of not less than 26,000 years. 

That man was the contemporary of many extinct animals, at a 
time when the configuration of land and sea and the conditions of 
climate were wholly difi^erent from the present state, there can be 
no doubt ; and modern research has done much to show how our 
race has been advancing towards its condition of to-day during a 
series of ages, for the extent of which a geological rather than an 
historical standard of reckoning is required. 

The facts thus brought to light have, in recent years, given a 
different direction to opinion as to the manner in which the great 
groups of mankind have become distributed over the areas w^here 
they are now found ; and difficulties once considered insuperable 
are easily overcome, when regarded in connection with the now 
ascertained extreme antiquity of the human race and those great 
alterations of the outlines of land and sea which are shown to have 
been going on up to the very latest geological periods. 

\\Tiat were the stages through which primaeval man passed in 
acquiring his present place in the advancing front of li\dug 
creatures will probably never be more than a matter of specula- 
tion. The progress of the human race towards civilisation has 
been controlled in all directions by the features and conditions of 
the earth's surface. The climate, temperature and moisture, suc- 
cession of seasons, length of day and night, have gone far in 
determining the physical characteristics, the bodily strength, and 
the duration of life in various races, and as less direct consequences 
and under the greater or smaller need for the exercise of fore- 
thought in providing against vicissitudes of existence, have been 
developed their several capacities, social and intellectual, their 
numbers, wealth, and power. . 

With all his arts man remain^ubject to the irresistible power 
of terrestrial conditions and geogi^hical influences. History tells 
us how, under the influence of causes that can be traced back to 
the material earth, the destinies of our race have been determined, 
nations have been born, have grown, have flourished, and have 
perished; for whether we call it mother-country or fatherland the 
soil under our feet, as in the Greek fable, is the true source from 
which we draw our bodily, mental, and social strength, A know- 



128 president's address— section e. 

ledge of the relations that subsist among living beings, which is a 
direct result of geographical discovery, shows us man's right place 
in nature. 

The accumulation of knowledge from other countries of various 
forms of life, and of the different conditions under which they are 
found, could only have been obtained by means of geographical 
exploration; and it was this, without doubt, that rendered possible 
the remarkable generalisations of Darwin and Wallace as to the 
origin of species, 

CARTOGRAPHY. 

With special reference to Professor Pet.cJv ' proposal to construct a Colossal Map 
of the World, 6(C., ^c, ^c. 

When Joshua divided the Promised Land among the twelve 
tribes, minutely describing their respective boundaries, we can 
hardly conceive that he did so without the aid of a map of some 
kind. It may, therefore, be taken for granted that maps have 
existed from very early times. The only document of the kind 
which has come down to us (and that in fragments) is a map of 
ancient Rome, engraved on slabs of marble originally fixed into 
one of the walls of the Forum. 

The proposal of Professor A. Penck to construct a colossal map 
of the world, on a uniform scale of 15-78 (or about 16) miles to the 
inch, has been recently submitted to an international committee of 
about twenty-five cartographers to concert measures and frame 
regulations for its execution. 

Some idea of the magnitude of the work may be gathered from 
the following figures: — Area of paper required, 1,000 sheets 
14in. X 18in. ; cost of drawing, lithographing, and printing each 
sheet in six colors, on six separate stones, £100 per sheet. Total 
cost of the complete map, £100,000. At the Paris (1889) Exhibi- 
tion, a globe 42ft. in diameter, r.UTs 070-00" of the diameter of the earth 
(the scale of Dr. Penck's map) was exhibited, the surface area of 
which was 5,500 square ft. 

The advantages of a map of the whole world on a uniform scale 
must be evident to all. A survey of Australia mapped on the scale 
indicated would be a grand Avork, and well worthy of the attention 
of all geographers. A general map of the world on the same scale 
would mark an epoch in the history of cartography, and confer 
incalculable benefits on geography. The large map of Australia 
now before you on the wall is on a scale of twenty-six miles to lin. 
On the colossal scale proposed the Australian Continent would 
cover a sheet two-thirds larger. 

A ncAv and carefully revised edition of this map of Australia, 
with additions and numerous corrections, and showing the latest 
geographical discoveries, is now being compiled by A. J. Skene,M,A., 



president's address SECTION E. 129 

late Surveyor-General of Victoria, whose map of continental 
Australia, published in 1887, is well known. This new map it is 
proposed to publish under the auspices of the Victorian Branch of 
the Royal Geographical Society of Australasia, of which Mr. Skene 
is a member. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISCOVERY AND EXPLOEATION, AND THE 
IMPORTANCE OF PHOTOGRAPHY IN ITS RELATION 
THERETO. 

Now that the more important geographical features of the 
Australian Continent are known, the necessity for correct topo- 
graphical and geological surveys are becoming every day more and 
more apparent . A topographical map, showing a correct delinea- 
tion of the surface features of the country, is a fundamental neces- 
sity for the geological surveyor ; the localities where mineral 
substances of value exist, the soils suitable for agriculture and 
horticulture, and the facilities for Avater storage and irrigation 
clearly indicated ; in short, topography is to the geologist what 
anatomy is to the surgeon and physician. 

In a paper read a short time ago by Mr. James Stirling, F.G.S., 
of the Geological Survey Department, before the Institute of Sur- 
veyors at Melbourne, that gentleman urged, in the interest of the 
miner, the agriculturist, the civil and hydraulic engineer, the 
duty of the Victorian Government to complete the topographical 
and geological surveys of the colony. The suggestion is a valuable 
one, and should be acted upon by Lha Governments of all the 
Australian Colonies. 

The growing importance of photography in its application to 
science, notably to geography, is a matter of congratulation. 
Every explorer should avail himself of the great advantages that a 
knowledge of photography secures in enabling him to illustrate his 
route, register his observations, portray with scientific accuracy 
the visible objects, topographical and otherwise, met with in his 
travels. Until very recently the work was done by pen and 
pencil. The most finished illustrations, though they had a more 
or less amount of truth, were often obscured by some personality 
which rendered them valueless, or even misleading; but no one 
will deny that it might have been more satisfactorily accomplished 
by well-executed photographs. 

It is not possible to portray with any degree of accuracy, or to 
illustrate and describe in a perfectly realistic manner, scenes and 
incidents by the way, so as to render them of permanent value, 
without the aid of the camera. The series of photographic views 
taken by the Elder Scientific Exploring Expedition will be of 
great interest for all time, and it must be admitted that in no other 
way could true pictures of the country traversed have been con- 
veyed to the general public. 
I 



130 president's address — SECTION E. 

FIELDS FOR FUTURE EXPLORATIOA'. 

To all who take an interest in the history of the human mind, 
and the development of human enterprise, geographical science 
and geographical discovery must be deeply interesting. We can 
but faintly picture to ourselves the feelings of Columbus when he 
first caught a glimpse of the islands of the Western World ; of 
Tasman, as he beheld the rugged coast of Van Diemen's Land, and 
the lofty snow-crowned mountain peaks of New Zealand ; or of 
Cook and Flinders when they sailed along the coast of Australia, 
with its ever-varying scenery. What intense satisfaction and pride 
must have rilled the heart of Governor Phillip, who first discovered 
the beautiful valley of the Hawkesbury ; of Hume and Hovell, when, 
during a long overland journey, they successively discovered the 
Murray, the Ovens, and Goulburn Rivers, and the placid waters of 
Corio Bay. How impossible it is for us to fully realise the 
emotions of our Australasian explorers — Eyre, Light, Sturt (the 
recollection of whom should inspire the present generation), Gregory, 
Giles, Stuart, Lindsay, Sir Wm. Macgregor, and other heroic 
explorers who, in their turn, have revealed the existence of important, 
rivers, lakes, and mountains in Australia, New Zealand, and New 
Guinea. 

The fact, humiliating to our pride as geographers, must be 
admitted that altogether apart from the North Polar and Antarctic 
regions, a great amount of further research has to he undertaken 
before our geographic knowledge can be said to be complete. 
When we embark on the vast ocean of discovery, the horizon of 
the unknown recedes and surrounds us in whatever direction we 
go. The more knowledge we acquire, the greater becomes the 
sense of our ignorance. Notwithstanding the increased facility 
for solving the geographical secrets of the globe placed within the 
grasp of man during the present century by the steam-engine, the 
printing press, and electricity, the civilised world knows compara- 
tively little about the centre of Africa, the great watershed of the 
Amazon River, in South America, where there are tracts as large as 
the whole of France of which we know less than of almost any 
equal area on the globe (tribes of men are living there who are yet 
absolutely in the Stone Age, and who, even by barter or distant 
rumor, never heard of the European race or the use of metals), the 
great tablelands of Asia, the interior of New Guinea, a large portion 
of the interior of Australia, or even the beautiful islands that stud the 
Pacific Ocean. We live in an age of feverish excitement and per- 
sistent toil, and yet years must pass ere the contradictory state- 
ments of explorers shall have been satisfactorily explained. Much 
patient labor must also be endured before the climate, hydrography, 
botany, zoology, commercial resources, and capabilities of these 
unknown regions can be thoroughly familiar to us. 

To fully elucidate the gradual changes in the aspect and physical 
phenomena of many parts of the globe, minute and systematic 



president's address SECTION E. 131 

reseaiches have to be conducted, while the greatest caution has to 
be exercised to differentiate between those changes arising from 
the spontaneous action of nature and the changes produced by 
human agency. A knowledge of all these facts of science must 
be acquired before we can boast that we know all about the globe 
we inhabit. At present we are but standing on the threshold of 
this great knowledge. The full accomplishment of the task will 
be the heritage of future generations, "■ when fellow- workers from 
all jDarts of the globe will meet to write the grand book embodying 
the sum of human knowledge." Upon scientists in Australasia 
devolves the duty of collecting some of the data for that book, and 
I cannot therefore conclude without asking the members of the 
Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science to mark 
the large area of the earth's surface that lies so near at hand, and 
which presents a virgin field for exploration and scientific investi- 
gation, namely, the region encircling the Antarctic pole. 

It is now more than eight years since that leader among botanists. 
Baron Sir Ferdinand von Mueller, reawoke the mind of the scien- 
tific world to the need for following up the discoveries of Captain 
Jas. Clarke Ross, R.N., in the vicinity of Victoria Land; and simul- 
taneously my attention was called to the important question of 
Antai'ctic exploration by a lady present at this meeting, who, when 
a girl, stood on the decks of the JErebiis and Terror on their return 
to Hobart. Under that impulse,* the Councils of the Victorian 
Branch of the Royal Geographical Society of Australasia and the 
Royal Society of Victoria appointed an Antarctic Committee, to act 
in conjunction with the societies in the other colonies, for the pur- 
pose of raising a fund to fit out a scientific expedition, and to 
arouse public attention, both in Australasia and Europe, to the 
valuable sources of national wealth which such an expedition would 
reveal by the discovery of whaling and sealing grounds in the 
Antarctic seas. Nor has this committee (of which Commander 
Pasco, R.N., F.R.G.S., is president, Mr. G. S. Griffiths is an 
enthusiastic member, and the Rev. W. Potter. F.R.G.S., hon. 
secretary) ever flagged in prosecuting the work assigned to it. In 
compliance with an offer made to the committee by Barons Nor- 
denskjold and Dickson, a Swedish-Australasian Scientific Antarctic 
Exploring Expedition was projected, and several subscriptions to 
the expedition fund were promised, notably one of £5,000 from the 
great Sou^th Australian Maecenas. Owing, however, to the severe 
commercial depression, already alluded to, only a very small portion 
of the Australasian subscriptions were paid into the Antarctic Com- 
mittee by the end of 1892, and consequently^ Barons Dickson and 
Nordenskjold withdrew their offer of co-operation, and the project 
of a purely scientific expedition has had to be abandoned, for the 

*The owners of the four vessels which foi-nied the Artarctic sealing fleet, at a meeting 
held in Dundee vesterdav, agreed to form a limited liability company with a capital of 
£60,000.— TAe Dundee Advertiser, Wednesday, July 5th, 1893. 



132 president's address — section e. 

present at least. But the labor of the Antarctic Committee has 
been far from futile. Immediately upon its creation it placed itself 
in communication with the heads of the Arctic whaling firms in 
Great Britain, and also with the Antarctic Committee of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science, and pointed out the 
inducements for steam whaling ships to visit the Antarctic on Aus- 
tralian longitudes. This action of the committee it was, no doubt, 
that led to the commercial enterprise of the Balaena and other 
vessels which last year sailed from Europe for the Antarctic upon. 
American meridians, all of which vessels returned this year richly 
laden with seal oil and seal skins, although not having discovered 
the coveted " right whale" It is more than probable that the 
Antarctic Committee will by next season be able to induce some of 
the whaling firms to send their ships out on our longitudes. One 
of the Norwegian firms has, I rmderstand, already intimated to the 
Government of Victoria its willingness to send out some of its best 
steam whaling ships to operate in the vicinity of Victoria Land if 
a small subsidy can be obtained. Would it not be Avell, then, if this 
Association were to co-operate with the Antarctic Committee, and 
address the several Australasian Governments upon the subject ? 
[n addition to the commercial advantages to be gained, there are 
various important scientific problems that need solution, and which 
it would redound to the honor of this Association to assist in 
solving. With the revival of commercial prosperity, the Antarctic 
Committee may hope to succeed in raising the necessary funds for 
an expedition, more especially if Sir Thomas Elder can be induced 
to make good his promise to the Committee. 

In the cause of science, which is cosmopolitan, and in the 
carrying out of a project so pregnant with scientific and com- 
mercial good to Australasia, all local feeling and prejudice should 
be cast away. Let us see to it that the glory of making discovery 
and explorations in these Southern Seas be not borne from us by 
others, to our everlasting discredit. 

In conclusion, I desire on behalf of this Association to recognise 
the patriotic and munificent assistance rendered by the Honorable 
Sir Thomas Elder, K.C.M.G., F.R.G.S., to the cause of Australian 
exploration, by the equipment and dispatch of several expeditions 
into the interior of our Continent, especially those under the leader- 
ship of Ernest Giles, F.R.G.S., in 1875, and David Lindsay, 
F.R.G.S., in 1891, and last, but not by any means least in point of 
scientific interest, the dispatch of teams to bring down fossil 
remains of extinct animals lately discovered at Lake Mulligan. 
The noble generosity displayed by Sir Thomas Elder in thus aiding 
geographical and zoological research reflects the highest credit 
upon him personally, and also upon the ' 'olony of South Australia, 
with which he has been so long and so honorably identified. 



Section F. 
ETHNOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY. 

ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT, 
REV. S. ELLA. 



THE ORIGIN OF THE POLYNESIAN RACES. 

At the several Sessions of the Australasian Association for the 
Advancement of Science it is gratifying to observe that the Anthro- 
pological Section has commanded a large amount of attention, and 
our meetings in the different colonies in which they have been held 
have attracted a good attendance, and the audiences have always 
manifested deep interest in the proceedings. Many of the matters 
brought before them were, indeed, of much interest and of con- 
siderable importance, especially to the intelligent student of 
anthropology. Much valuable matter has been collated, and fresh 
facts of vast significance have been brought before us by gentlemen 
whose knowledge and experience of the subjects stated entitle them 
to respectful attention. Indeed, the only disappointment felt was 
that more papers of the character were not forthcoming and a 
more extensive and fuller collection of facts placed before the 
anthropologist, to satisfj^ the craving of his mind and the desire of 
many others for reliable information on the subjects of ethnology 
and comparative philology. 

Anthropology opens up a large field of investigation and discovery 
in the various branches connected with the study — in ethnology, 
archceology, history, and philology. There is connected with each so 
vast an area that, with the intelligence already established and 
knowledge yet unrevealed, or but dimly perceived, the most ardent 
and ambitious student may feel assured that there stands before him 
much ground to be explored and a most inviting field for investiga- 
tion, not so much for the solution of sundry hypothetical theories 
as for the unearthing of stores of scientific wealth in the regions 
of anthropology. There is enough information gathered, and much 
more as yet unknown, to stimulate and encourage the earnest 
student in any one of these branches. Each fresh discovery, 
every new fact, and even unproved theory, stimulates and 
encourages wider inquiry. Each becomes a stepping-stone to 
cross to more substantial ground. The student maj^ safely leave 
alone some interminable and unsatisfactory speculations which 



134 president's address — section r. 

have been advanced by writers who have theorised without 
sufficient authority, for there are ample facts fully established to 
guide him in his pursuit of knowledge. The efforts of the student 
should be directed by a clear, patient, and persevering research. 
He should carefully avoid being misled into a labyrinth of vague 
conjectures, by which the truth often vanishes from the grasp. 

The Polynesian Islands afford a large field for anthropological 
study and research, and a grand discovery will be made when it is 
elucidated whence their inhabitants came, and how they made their 
way to this part of the world. We in Australasia have not only a 
more intense interest in these people, but also far better means and 
opportunities for settling questions regarding them, than they 
possess who are at a greater distance from these islanders. No 
time should be lost in following up the inquiry. The data obtained 
in the discoveries already made are so many landmarks of essential 
value to the explorer in reaching regions not yet explored. The 
time favorable for the acquisition of positive Knowledge of the 
races of Polynesia is fast slipping away, and ere long it will be too 
late to gather up facts now existing bvit gradually vanishing into 
obscurity. It is a fact that must not be lost sight of that the lapse 
of time is obliterating many sources of information which might 
have afforded valuable aids in the investigation. In many islands 
and groups the progress of civilisation is changing entirely the 
former customs of the aborigines, and blotting out the memory of 
their ancient traditions and legends. A generation has grown up 
who are utterly ignorant of the ethnology of their forefathers, and 
who possess but a very slight acquaintance with their myths and 
legendary lore. Foreign residents, missionaries, and others at the 
present day experience much difficulty in obtaining intelligence of 
the native customs and mythology from the natives themselves, and 
reliable information can be procured from the old people alone, 
and these are becoming fewer and fewer, and ere long they will 
have passed away. Missionaries, too, who took an interest in the 
study of these subjects, and Avho by familiar intercourse with the 
natives during a long residence among them when in their primeval 
condition, are likewise moving off frona the active stage of the world. 
Some have passed away without leaving a trace behind them of the 
knowledp-e they had acquired, notconsideringits importance to future 
generations in the advancement of scientific truth. It is greatly to 
be regretted that valuable documents of deceased missionaries have 
been lost through the indifference of surviving relatives. Some of 
these were orderly compilations of facts, others little more than un- 
connected notanda, all more or less useful had they been preserved. 

There is a question I would earnestly submit to the members of 
this Association, especially to those interested in the subjects 
of this section, and urgently press on their intelligent attention, 
viz. — Can a satisfactory solution be obtained regarding the origin 
of the Polynesian people ? 



president's address SECTION F. 135 

In placing before you this question I am not making any new 
suggestion. The inquiry has already exercised the minds of many 
intelligent, ethnologists. Some have given considerable attention 
to the subject, and have attempted, to a certain extent, to elucidate 
the theories which they have formed. In 1834 the late well-known 
divine and historian. Dr. John Dunmore Lang, of Sydney, 
published a work which has been read and pondered with much 
interest, although it gives but little satisfaction as regards the 
origin of the Polynesian natives, for the reverend doctor's state- 
ments are mostly hypothetical and unsupported by historical facts. 
One important theory the doctor seems to have established — that 
the original inhabitants of Polynesia came from the west by way 
of India, and not, as many supposed, from the east by way of 
America. Dr. Lang's book may be recommended as a help in 
following up the inquiry to a more positive and definite issue. 

At the first meeting of the Australasian Association, held in the 
Sydney University. Dr. Carroll read a very long paper, containing 
much historical information, in which he attempted to associate the 
progress of the races from Asia to Polynesia with the march of 
conquering armies from the Euphrates on to the Malay coasts. 
But this paper, however deeply interesting, as it was, and supported 
by historical records, satisfied only to a partial extent, that is as 
far as the historical data proceeded, but beyond that seemingly 
there were only vague suppositions to supply the place of sub- 
stantial facts. 

It will be readily admitted by all who have given attention 
to the inquiry that the investigation is by no means a hopeless 
one, though surrounded by difficulties. A few landmarks may now 
be found, although separated by long distances. The lapse of 
time may have obliterated some which were plainly visible in former 
ages. The evidences of their existence at one period, though 
partially obscvired, are not entirely and irrecoverably lost ; and out 
of the remaining vestiges there may be revealed some authentic 
data which will lift the inquirer to a more solid and secure basis, 
and clear away much of the mist which vague theories have 
created in the mind, and also dissipate the confusion occasioned by 
oppo.site opinions and argumenis. Diversity of opinion will exist 
in proportion to the want of positive and scientific knowledge. 

A large amount of information has been supplied from various 
sources and by Avriters whose authority may be safely depended 
upon. Their contributions may be collected by a diligent student, 
and comparisons made that will enable him to form a corollary of 
evidences, and a clear and faithful method of tracing what is 
evident will help in discovering what is out of sight. Difficulties, 
indeed, may be experienced in defining what may appear to cor- 
respond, but patient and painstaking study will help the student 
to distinguish the correlative from the diverse. Profitable and 
reliable research must be made with a clear unbiassed mind, free 



136 president's address— section r. 

from prejudice and hasty conclusions, and, above all, free from any 
favored theory of our own conception or misleading theories 
advanced by others. We shall find ourselves on a dangerous road, 
which will undoubtedly lead us astray, if we start with a pet 
supposition, and seek to bend facts to support a mistaken theory, 
and deem such warped facts as truths and evidences. 

The tastes and proclivities of students vary, but each will find 
abundant scope to exercise his mind and direct his study of anthro- 
pology in its several phases of genealogy, ethnology, archaeology, 
and comparative philology ; and each may work towards a solution 
of the question here proposed regarding the origin of the Poly- 
nesian people — Whence they came and what directed their various 
migrations ? It is difficult to conceive that the various islands were 
entered and populated by series of accidental circumstances of 
waifs and castaways, as some have supposed Settlements have 
been made by large numbers at different periods. We find the 
Indo-Polynesian races occupying large territories and forming dis- 
tinct nationalities in certain groups of islands, and Melanesian races 
possessing other groups ; and in some countries, as in New Guinea 
and the Fiji Islands, the two races commingling or preserving 
distmct boundaries. In Eastern Polynesia — from Tonga to Easter 
Island and from New Zealand and the Paumotu Archipelago 
southward to the Sandwich Islands northward — the Indo-Polyne- 
sians hold possession of the entire area, covering some thousands of 
square miles. Then, again, north-west to the Caroline Archipelago 
the same race prevails, and are found in like preponderance in the 
Malay Archipelago. On some of the groups in the west, in the 
New Hebrides and other islands, this conquering race are found 
established in settlements which were evidently made long ages ago. 
In the western regions of Polynesia the Melanesian race prevails, 
under the form of what are denominated Papuans and Negritos. 

Evidences have been obtained of the manner in which some 
Polynesians have been carried to islands at considerable distances 
fi'om their native lands, and where they have settled among other 
races and maintained their distinctiveness for several generations. 
I may mention some instances which have come under my own 
observation. About fortv years ago we discovered a tribe of 
Samoans occupying a district on the island of Efate (Sandwich I.), 
in the New Hebrides Group, with whom easy intercimrse was held 
through the medium of the Samoan language. The account of 
their immigration was to this effect : Before Christianity was intro- 
duced to Samoa, in one of their sanguinary conflicts, a canoe party 
eft'ected an escape from the conquered district and fled to seek 
refuge in Tonga. Owing to adverse winds these natives missed 
their intended destination and were carried to the New Hebrides, 
and reached the island of Efate. Here, after several conflicts with 
the natives, they were able to establish themselves. Many years 
afterwards they were visited by the missionary ship John Williams, 



president's address — SECTION F. 137 

and some returned in that vessel to Samoa. The islands of Aniwa 
and Futuna, in the New Hebrides, are peopled by natives originally 
belonging to Tonga and Futuna proper, N.W. of Samoa, intermixed 
with natives of Tanna. Other islands in the group are inhabited 
by Malayo-Polynesians, probably from the east. 

On the island of lai (Uvea), in the Loyalty Group, some cast- 
aways from Tonga and Wallis Island have long been settled, one 
party — Uveans (WaUis I.) — occupying the northern end of the 
island, and the other on the southern extremity, which they call 
Tonga. The original inhabitants, laians, occupy the central dis- 
tricts. A description given me by these, and also by some natives 
of the Union Group, in some measure accounts for the manner in 
which these waifs get driven away to distant islands. They were 
accustomed to move from one island to another, long distances 
apart, in their clumsy prahs in times of scarcity of food or other 
emergencies ; and the night time, when the sea is calm and the 
wind light, was generally selected for these voyages. They steered 
by the stars, ami if th^ nigiit became cloudy, or an adverse wind 
arose, they would simply lower the sails, entreat the protection of 
the gods, and then quietly resign themselves to drift whither the 
sea and winds might bear them. 

We have notices of two instances of castaways which occurred 
last year. On the passage of the Changsha to China, in February, 
she picked up fifteen Malay castaways. Their food supply consisted 
solely of cocoanuts and a little water. When picked up the poor 
natives were huddled together in four junks. They had started 
from Amboina with a fleet of seventeen junks, and they had been 
thirty days knocking about at the disposal of the wind and the sea. 
During a gale thirteen of the junks went down. These survivors 
were landed by the Changsha at Amboina. In April the American 
mission vessel conveyed to their homes at Tapvituea. in the Gilbert 
Group, a family of natives of that island, who had been carried 
away during a gale. I hey had gone out one night in a small canoe 
to fish ; the wind came on to blow hard, and the canoe drifted out 
of sight of the island. They liad neither food nor water in the frail 
canoe, while for forty days they driited over the wild ocean. One 
of the four perished. At the expiration of those terrible forty days 
the canoe reached Ocean island. The survivors stayed on Ocean 
Island some days, and were then taken by a vessel to the island of 
Annungion. Then they were picked up by the Morning Star and 
conveyed to their home. 

These instances will afford some evidence of the manner in which 
the islanders are often borne from their native lands by accident, 
and have found asykuns in distant parts of the Pacific. Yet we cannot 
suppose that the various groups were occupied and populated under 
such distressing circumstances. The evidence is much clearer that 
the advance of the aborigines Avas made under voluntary influences 
and with settled desiy-ns. 



138 president's address — section f. 

Unfortunately, from the lack of historical records, and with 
only the dim light of native traditions, there is an insurmountable 
difficulty in defining dates and periods of native events. Take, for 
instance, the history of the New Zealanders. It is plainly seen 
that the Maoris were not the original inhabitants of New Zealand, 
and the question arises— Whence came they? and how was New 
Zealand occupied before the Maori incursion ? Some aid to this 
inquiry will be found in the works of Sir George Grey and in Dr. 
Gill's Rarotongan Myths. The invasion and conquest of Chatham 
Island by a tribe of Maoris afford an instance of the way in which 
a superior race has subjugated a weaker and jDossessed its terri- 
tories. The ancient Moriori of Chatham Islancl have been nearly 
extinguished by their savage conquerors. [Morioi'i, the name of 
the aborigines of Chatham Island. Perhaps the name "Maori" 
is a corruption derived from the original people of New Zealand 
so called.] 

Notwithstanding the obscurity which now prevails, and the 
many difficulties that have to be surmounted in obtaining light and 
information to guide to right conclusions, I believe satisfactory 
answers to the questions will ere long be obtained. I desire now 
to stimulate sttxdents of anthropology in making investigation, and 
to help them in the inquiry. I am not sanguine enough to expect 
that all that is required will be effected at once, or by any 
individual student. It is a search in which several will have to 
start in different directions and meet together at a given point. 
Each may take the course which most suits his own taste and 
desire. The ways are open and lie directly before us — in history, 
genealogy, ethnology, folklore, archaeology, and comparative 
philology. A few remarks here on each of these subjects may be 
helpful. Much information on all these subjects has already been 
published. What is now requisite is to follow up the inquiry, 
procure further information, and bring all into conjunction, with 
careful anal) sis and just comparison, and then that Avhich now 
appears shrouded in mystery will be vmravelled. 

In history no direct unbroken chain has up to the present been 
discovered. There is, however, some isolated information that may 
be brought together which will enable the student to obtain a clue 
to the knowledge sought. Marsden's " History of Sumatra " and 
■works of that order, will be found of great advantage. It will be 
Avell, perhaps, for the student, in the first instance, to direct his 
attention to the histories of India, especially those of the southern 
nations ; then to what can be collected of historical records of the 
ancient peoples of South America, although regarding these the 
philosopher and historian. Dr. von Martius, despaired of obtaining 
any correct information. He says — " There is not a vestige of 
history to afford any clue, not a ray of tradition, not a war song nor 
a funeral lay can be found to clear away the dark night in which 
the earlier ages of America are involved." The mists of long ages. 



president's address — SECTION E. 130 

once penetrable, have been left undisturbed, and now it may be too 
late to dispel them by any light which modern discovery may 
bring to bear upon them. But, remembering what recent dis- 
covery has done in revealing historical facts of ancient nations, we 
will not despair of revelations yet to be made in this direction. 
Humboldt's Researches offer considerable aid in reference to the 
ancient American nations, and have led some to identify them with 
the Polynesians. 

Of genealogy there have been lately published some valuable 
records, exhumed from long hidden native traditions, myths, and 
legends. I may particularise those from Maoriland, Samoa, 
and the Hervey Group. Thanks to the transcribers of these, we 
have a chain of events that bears remarkable comparison, and are 
favorable to the formation of some links in historical evidences. 
The Rev. J. G. Lawes is collecting another fund of interesting 
information in New Guinea I believe there is much light yet to 
be gathered in this direction, and I sincerely trust that every 
literary and intelligent resident in Polynesia will take every oppor- 
tunity for searching for such intelligence as may be procured from 
the natives among whom he resides. Ere long the time for such 
research will be closed, and records be lost for ever. Facts of 
great value in the inquiry as to the origin of the Polynesian races 
will be found in native genealogies. 

In ethnography some very interesting and valuable intelligence 
will be found in papers supplied to this Association, and published 
in its several volumes ; but these comprise only a portion of 
information that may yet come before you in connection with this 
section of the Association. There is also a large amount of 
ethnological facts contained in various works of missionaries, 
travellers, and residents of Polynesia that will aid the ethnologist 
to trace a unity of origin in many distinct nationalities of the 
Pacific islands. Time will not allow of entering into details, or I 
might point out striking comparisons. I may say this, however : 
I am deeply impressed with the conviction that the native customs, 
manner of life, modes of government, &.c., point to an oriental 
origin. The Polynesian Journal contains imjjortant and deeply 
interesting papers, which will be highly appreciated by ethnolo- 
gists. I would call attention to the first article published in No. 
1 of the Journal by Mr. Eldon Best, on "The Races of the 
Philippines." Wallace's " Malay Archipelago." though of most 
value to the naturalist, affords available facts also to the 
ethnologist, and it supplies aids for the investigation I have 
suggested. Ellis's "• Polynesian Researches " is an old and 
valuable book, and the same author's work on Madagascar will 
be found of much use. 

Closely allied to the study of ethnology is that of folklore, a 
subject of deep interest to many in Australia. I'olynesian myths, 
legends, songs, and superstitions supply a large fund of folklore. 



140 president's address — SECTION F. 

Comparisons in this direction will give some clue to the relationship 
existing among the various races of Polynesia. Records of folk- 
lore vpill be found in some books of travels and voyages, missionary 
works, and notices of native legends, &;c. The late Kev. Thos. 
Powell made a large collection of these in Samoa, a portion of 
which has been published by the Royal Society of N.S.W. The 
Folklore Society of Great Britain is publishing in extenso all that 
is brought before it. One may discover a resemblance, if not an 
exact parallel, in Polynesian folklore to some well-known folklore 
of Scandinavian and Noi'man origin, as well as to many of the 
Hindoo, Japanese, and Malagasy contributions. An opinion 
expressed 300 years ago by the poet Edmund Spenser will denote 
the value of this study in elucidating the inquiry placed before 
you. He says, " By these old customs, and other like conjectural 
circumstances, the descent of nations can only be proved where 
other monuments of writings are not remaining." 

A few monuments of archaeological remains are found in the 
Pacific Islands, which may serve as landmarks denoting the advance 
of a people accustomed to erecting gigantic structures, either as 
temples to their deities or shrines for their dead — perhaps for both 
purposes. Some of these structures have a pyramidal form, some 
are stone terraces spreading over a wide surface, others are massive 
stone platforms, probably the base of a superstructure which has 
long since been destroyetl. In certain places there are still found 
some colossal statues, hewn and sculptured with evidences of 
skill. The most remarkable of these, which have attracted the 
attention of travellers and others, exist on Easter Island. Similar 
structures were found on Tahiti, and in the Marquesas and other 
islands. Captain C ok was much struck with the gigantic statues 
on Easter Island, somewhat resembling Egyptian sphinges. The 
sculpture was rude, but not void of skill. Some of the figures stood 
in groups on massive platforms of stone, tenoned, but witnout 
cement. One statue measured 27ft. by 8ft. In 1868 one of the^e 
statues was conveyed to the British Museum, and weighed five 
tons. The platforms in some places contain inscriptions in 
hieroglyphics. In Mexico and Peru there exist remains of very 
ancient architecture ot the same character, and the hieroglyphics 
have been translated and found to have reference to the worship of 
the sun and moon deities. The pyramids in South America were 
appropriated as biu-ying-places of chiefs, and, so far as can be 
gathered from native traditions, these in Polynesia were used for 
a similar object. A platform of huge stones which I saw on the 
island of Manono, Samoa, was pointed out to me as the tomb of 
one of their old chiefs. The teocalli of South America evidently 
bear a close relationship to the heiaus and maraes of Eastern 
Polynesia and the dubus of New Guinea, and may also be 
considered as possessing some affinity Avith similar pyramidal 
•constructions in China and India. 



president's address SECTION F. 141 

In the first number of the Journal of the Polynesian Society- 
there is a description of one of these ancient structures, discovered 
by Mr. Handley Sterndale on the island of Upolu, Samoa. While 
rambling in the interior of the island he came to a lof'y spur of 
a mountain, Avith a volcanic centre. He crossed several deep 
ravines, down which flowed mountain torrents. One of these 
ravines had been converted by the hand of man into a fosse. In 
some parts it was excavated, and in others built up at the sides 
with large stones, and in one place he found a parapet wall. He 
climbed up this gully, and passed through a narrow gap in the 
wall. Then he discovered on a level space before him a conical 
structure of huge dimensions, about 20ft. high and 100ft. in 
diameter, bviilt of large basalt blocks, some of which he considered 
to have been about a ton weight ; they were laid in even courses. 
In two places near the top he remarked what appeared to have 
been entrances to the interior. He entered a low cave or vault, 
choked with rock and roots of trees. He found appearances of 
narrow chambers within. Mr. Sterndale thought that this pyra- 
midal structure at one time formed the foundation of some build- 
ing of importance. Many other such fomidations of 10ft. high 
were near it. He also observed a number of stone cairns, appa- 
rently graves, disposed in rows. There was also a paved court, or 
mausoleum, covered by a huge banyan tree, with a stone cromlech 
in the centre. Mr. Sterndale asks, " What manner of men could 
have inhabited the stronghold below, and have been laid to rest in 
this woodland necropolis ':"' and adds, "• I am well convinced that 
these remains were the work of a people anterior to the existing- 
race of Samoans. Their origin, like many other remarkable relics 
and ruins in the Pacific, is a part of the great mystery of the 
isles, i.e., of the early distribution of man throughout the Poly- 
nesian archipelagoes." This philosophical remark accords Avith the 
opinion held by many anthropologists, that there were Polynesian 
races of very high antiquity. The investigation before us will, I 
firmly believe, open up a long vista of past ages, and reveal to us 
races of men occupying the isles of the Pacific long anterior to the 
races now found there. Without venturing an assertion, except 
upon more valid grounds than a mere supposition, yet I may 
suggest with some diffidence that these monumental structures of 
South America and Polynesia may have derived their ori;,'in from 
the temple of Belus in Babylon, and the gigantic tumuli of Lydia 
and Lycia in Asia Minor. The clay pottery manufactured in some 
parts of New Guinea, New Caledonia, the New Hebrides, and in 
Fiji bears some resemblance to the terracotta vessels of these 
countries. 

The philological phase of anthropology we may consider as the 
most important and helpful factor in determining the question of 
the origin of the Polynesian races. It is gratifying to find that 
many philologists in Europe, America, and Australia are devoting. 



142 president's address — section r. 

much time and earnest attention to the Oceanic languages, Indo- 
Polynesian and Melanesian. These tongues are numerous and 
diverse. Especially may this be affirmed of the Melanesian and 
Papuan races, among whom a perfect Babel of tongues may be 
found ; yet even here some philologists have discovered a root 
language, and have traced to some extent the course of divergence. 
That which is commonly termed the Malayo-Polynesian is most 
readily reduced to its primary condition, and the various dialects of 
this language are spoken by the larger portion of Polynesian nations. 
One of our members. Dr. John Fraser, of Sydney, is now engaged 
in a close analysis of some of the Melanesian tongues. Mr. Sidney 
Ray, of London, has labored for many years upon the same topic, 
and he has laid under tribute every South Sea missionary he has 
come across to supply him with the information which each pos- 
ses>es, and there are none so able to afford him the desired know- 
ledge. There are many other philologists, like Dr. Max Mliller, 
who are working in the same direction ; some of them with the 
aim and purpose of fixing the origin of the Oceanic people in 
defining the origin of their language. 

The Rev. D. Macdonald, of the New Hebrides, has supplied a 
valuable paper to the Polynesian Society on " The Asiatic Origin 
of the Polynesian Personal Pronouns " (see Journal of the 
Society, December, 1892). With careful comparison of different 
languages, he arrives at the conclusion " that the Oceanic pro- 
nouns are descended from one original, and that they represent 
the personal pronouns of the original Oceanic mother-tongue." 
After a clear and patient analysis of the Oceanic pronouns, Mr. 
Macdonald, with some ingenuity that arouses many questions, 
arrives at the roots of these pronouns, and then discovers that the 
same roots may be found in ancient Arabic, Himyaritic, Ethiopic 
of Abyssinia, Chaldaic, Hebrew, and Pha3nician, and in ancient 
and modern Syriac. To illustrate intelligibly Mr. Macdonald's 
theory would require the iise of his tables 1 to 8 and his explana- 
tions thereof. He concludes with the remark, which defines his 
position : " It seems sufficiently clear from the foregoing that the 
Oceanic pronouns are of Asiatic origin, and belong exclusively to 
the particular Asiatic family indicated." There may be room for 
difference of opinion as to this or that detail, but it seems suffi- 
ciently obvious that the Oceanic compares with the Asiatic. 
Oceanic. Asiatic. 

alio, ku compares with ho, ku— I. 

ik " ika — thou 

ni - . " ni, — he (they) 

ana " na, nha, ahna — we 

ituma, kemu ...... " atem, kemu — you 

in, inia, nia " (hem, hen) ani, ni, 

(inun, inin) — they 
ila, era " ela, &c. — these, those. 



president's address SECTION F. 143 

Professor Bopp, of Berlin, recognises the relationship of the 
Oceanic tongues with the Malay, and traces these to Sanskrit 
originals. Another and more recent writer. Judge Abraham 
Fornander, of the Sandwich Islands, believes that the Malay words 
found in the Polynesian languages are a recent and accidental in- 
troduction, and that the root words of these languages can be 
traced to the Aryan family. Dr. J. Fraser. who has given con- 
siderable attention to Polynesian and Australian tongues, is of the 
same opinion with respect to the Aryan originals. Dr. Codring- 
ton's investigations will afford much light on these subjects. In 
some of the islands of the Indian Ocean the languages of the 
people bear a close affinity with those of Polynesia. This is 
observable in the Malagasy and in the tongue of the Weddahs, a 
primitive and wild tribe of Ceylon, now nearly extinct, whose 
language is pronounced to be a corrupt form of Sanskrit. 

Much more might be added on this important topic, but I 
forbear. I have already made my address too long, and many able 
writers are publishing their investigations in comparative philo- 
logy, and clearer light is being thrown on the subject than has 
hitherto been obtained. It is apparent that various and long- 
continued migrations of the people, and the consequent admixture 
of the races, are the causes to which we may attribute the dis- 
memberment and corruption of languages. 

History affords us some evidences of the stupendous upheavals 
of Asiatic peoples, and the changes and convulsions which over- 
threw one nation after the otlier when Assyrian. Babylonian, 
Persian, Greek, Arab, Saracen, and Tartar successively struggled 
for supremacy, and displaced and superseded each other in power ; 
and in their march of conquest overran India, extending further 
and further eastward. From these causes Ave may look for a con- 
tinued intermixture of races ; and the turbulence of war propelled 
weak races to seek asylums at a distance from their conquerors, 
and such asylums may have been found in the Pacific Islands, from 
the Malay Archipelago to the coast of America. 

You will pardon me for a slight digression, and jiermit me, as an 
old Polynesian missionary, to add that a desirable aim in our pursuit 
is to awaken increased interest in the remarkable people of the 
Pacific Islands, and to desire above the solution of scientific ques- 
tions an ethical and benevolent inquiry — How may these people 
be best reached by evangelical and civilising influences ? Thus, 
our investigations will possess a tone and object of vast moment to 
the future well-being of the Polynesians. 




Section G. 
ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND AGRICULTURE. 

ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT, 
H. C. L. ANDERSON, M.A. 

(Late Director of Agriculture, N.S.W.j. 



Permit me, in the first place, to express my deep regret that I 
have been prevented from being present to preside over the meet- 
ings of the section — an honor to which I had been looking forward 
with all the bright anticipations which we have learned to associate 
with Adelaide in its lovely spring time. 

The fact of taking charge of a new department of our Public 
Service but three weeks before the Association meeting has robbed 
me of my expected pleasure, but it has not prevented me from 
doing myself the honor of placing before this section a few thoughts 
on a subject of the deepest interest to South Australia, in common 
with New South Wales and the other Australian Colonies. 

As it seems peculiarly becoming that " Agriculture " should this 
year, when the Association meets in an agriciiltural colony, have 
been added to the title of this section, I cannot do better than 
confine my attention to that branch of our subject, and more 
especially to that aspect of it with which I am perhaps best 
acquainted — the state of agriculture and agricultural education 
in New South Wales. 

Whatever may be the causes — and they are many — New South 
Wales is not an agricultural country to such an extent as we might 
fairly expect from her age, her richness of soils, her great diversity 
of climatic conditions, and the character of some of her founders. 

We have not hitherto supplied ourselves with bread, though it 
is expected that this year we shall do so. We import agricultural 
products, all of which we could ourselves produce, to the value of 
more than £3,000,000 per annum, while our exports of wines, 
fruit, butter, and a few other articles reach barely one-tenth of 
that amount. 

We export every year from 4,000 to 7,000 tons of bonedust and 
dried blood — the very bone and sinew of our pasture — to New 
Zealand and Mauritius, and bring them back in the form of oats, 
potatoes, chaff, sugar, and other pioduce. 



president's address — SECTION G. 145 

We have had a sj'stem of education admirably adapted for the 
hoys intended for city life, hut which had till three years ago little 
agricultural flavor in it to recommend it to those who are to go on 
the land. 

We have a very complete system of general education, leading 
from our public primary schools throusjh our superior public 
schools, our high schools, and our grammar schools, to the uni- 
versity with its complete courses in arts, medicine, law, science, 
engineering, and philosophy ; but, until two years ago, the only 
systematic instruction in agriculture was through the agency of 
the night classes at the Technical College, where Mr. Angus 
Mackay has done very useful pioneering work. For years this 
gentleman had to act as agricultural chemist, pathologist, ento- 
mologist, botanist, and general agricultural expert for the whole 
colony, and did much, single-handed, to arouse interest in the 
subject and to stimulate a spirit of inquiry. 

The general body of our farmers in New South Wales are men 
who have had no previous experience in agriculture, but have gone 
on the land through pressure of circumstances. Their own brave 
hearts and strong arms have enabled them, with a rich virgin soil, 
to achieve good results while prices were high and as long as the 
soil retained its fertility and pests and diseases caused little trouble. 

Things have been generally prosperous till a few years ago, 
when problems began to present themselves which the merely 
practical man could not solve after any amount of theorising and 
vain imaginings. The wheat farmers became concerned about the 
periodic visitations of rust, and though some of the more advanced 
thinkers were quite certain that it was only "a hinsect," this 
happy inspiration did not bring with it any suggestions as to 
remedial or preventive measures. Phylloxera seriously menaced 
our vine-growing industry, and we suddenly found that, with all 
our accumulated wisdom, we knew nothing about this little insect's 
life history, and our ignorance led us to work out our own salvation 
in a very clumsy and expensive manner. 

Our orchardists began to find the codlin moth a serious trouble, 
and though this beautiful little moth had been with us for fifty- 
three years, it had been nobody's business to cultivate friendly rela- 
tions with her, nor to prosecute her with ai'senical sprays and crafty 
bandage traps, so that many of our oldest orchards became useless 
to their owners and breeding grounds to infest the whole colony. 

Aspidiotus aurantii was playing havoc with our old orange 
orchards ; Schizoneura lanigera and Mytilaspis pomorum were re- 
ducing our apple-growers to despair ; and yet the man who blamed 
protection for it all was as successful in stopping the ravages of 
these insects as the man who thought that vmtaxed bananas from 
Fiji were ruining the fruit industry. Simply because the one was 
as ignorant of the true cause of the mischief as the other, and it 
was easier to blame politics than to deal with the scales. 

K 



146 president's address — section g. 

Many of our orchardists, after treating their orange trees with 
bonedust for ten or twenty years in succession, found this phos- 
phatic manure beginning to lose its efficacy ; but they could not 
agree as to the cause, some blaming the manufacturers, others the 
sheep and cattle which were not building up their bc^nes with the 
same phosjihate of lime and gelatine as in the good old days. If, 
perchance, some enthusiastic experimenter hinted that perhaps the 
soil and the tree needed some potash to make its diet more com- 
plete he was laughed at as a harmless lunatic, and invited to offer 
his kainit and other foreign stuff to those who knew no better. 

Our dairy farmers were finding their pastures deteriorate, and 
though they were vaguely conscious that our indigenous grasses — 
Eraqroslis leptostachya., Danthonia pallida, Cynodon dactylon, 
Andropogon sericeus, Astrebla triticoides, Chloris trimcuta, Pappo- 
phortim nigricans, and a hundred others — stood by them well in 
their droughty seasons, they all with one accord sowed the Lolivms, 
Foas, Fe.scties, and other tender European grasses, alike on the 
dry hill sides, the hot western plains, the sub-tropical river banks, 
and the New England tablelands, because perhaps our dairy 
farmers in the south coast district, with its mild climate, regular 
rainfall, and rich deep soils, had found these grasses do well in any 
average season. 

In short, so many troublesome problems were presenting them- 
selves to our farmers, graziers, orchardists, and vignerons with 
reference to their soils, their crops, their stock, their insect pests 
and fungus diseases, and many other matters of vital importance, 
that the more intelligent of our agriculturists, recognising that 
they could expect no light from their neighbors — no more en- 
lightened than themselves — asked for the formation of a Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. Each of the other Australian Colonies had 
such an educational agency, in one form or another. Victoria had 
two agricultural colleges in full working order, South Australia 
had her Roseworthy, but the mother-colony had done almost 
nothing for the agricultural community. 

In February, 1890, the Hon. Sydney Smith, M. P., was appointed 
the first Minister of Agriculture, and at once entered with vigor 
upon the work of forming a department adapted to the needs of 
the men whose interests it had to serve. The objects were stated 
as follows : — 

To obtain data necessary to complete the history of agriculture 

in New South Wales. 
To collect, arrange, publish, and disseminate for the benefit of 

the agriculturists of the colony all useful information in 

regard to agriculture in its many branches. 
To recommend, by gathering together the highest agricultural 

experience of other lands, the best methods of culture, the 

choicest grasses, cereals, plants, vegetables, fruit, and other 



PKESIDENT's address SECTION G. 147 

suitable crops, the most improved implements of husbandry, 
and all other improvements of interest to the farming com- 
munity. 

To introduce and distribute new seeds, cereals, plants, and 
cuttings from other lands with climatic conditions similar 
to our own. 

To answer questions submitted by those striving after better 
methods and more advanced ideas in agriculture ; to stimu- 
late inquiry, and to invite discussion from agriculturists of 
all classes ; to test, by experiments in different parts of the 
colony, seeds, trees, implements, improved methods, new 
crops, manures, and everything else of local interest to the 
farmers of the surrounding district ; to analyse typical soils 
of the colony, commercial manures, indigenous fruits, ashes 
of plants of all kinds, Australian wines, medicinal products 
of the native vegetation, as well as testing supposed poison- 
ous plants to discover the nature of their injurious qualities ; 
to record and describe the botany of the colony. 

^I'o investigate the insect life of economic interest to our farmers 
and fruitgrowers, distinguishing between friends and foes ; 
and convey the information thus gained in the clearest 
possible way for the information of those directly interested. 

To form a museum, which will contain specimens of all products 
of economic importance grown in the colony ; collections of 
insects ; named fruit models ; typical soils, Avith their 
analyses : samples of manures available for farmers' use ; 
models of implements and machines ; and any other objects 
that will be of educational value to the farming classes. 

To get together an agricultural library which will contain the 
wisdom of all countries upon the different subjects connected 
with agriculture, from which appropriate advice can be 
always obtained to supplement the pi-actical experience of 
the experts of the department. 

To educate adult farmers by means of lectures, practical demon- 
strations, and by experimental farms, and to stimulate them 
to healthy rivalry by means of national prizes ; to educate 
the youth of the colony in the best science and practice of 
agriculture and its many allied subjects, by means of a 
system of education graduated from the primary schools up 
to the university, and having for its sole object the study of 
both the practice and science of agriculture. 

To disseminate useful knowledge gained at home and from 
abroad, and thus cause a rational system of agriculture to 
be established in New South Wales. 

To indicate improved methods by which to learn how to turn the 
land to better account, and to get the greatest possible 
return from any given area, and to grow the most suitable 
crops at a minimum of cost and maximum profit. 



148 president's address — section g. 

To make the farmers' condition more stable, and thus raise the 
status of the settlers, wiio Avill found a generation of farmers, 
instead of squatters' dummies, to make agricvilture tiie 
mainstay of the country. 
To assist in extending our markets for the disposal of the surplus 
of such crops as fruit, maize, wine, Sec. ; to enlarge our pro- 
ductive capacity, so as to completely supply our own wants 
in such crops. 
Above all, to bring the agriculturists of the colony into such 
close and cordial relations with the department as will make 
them acquainted with its work, and inspire them with con- 
fidence in its ability to serve them, and at the same time 
make the officers of the department informed of the dilfi- 
culties and needs of the tillers of the soil. 
In choosing a scientific staff for the new department, the Minister 
was very fortunate in securing the services of the most able men — 
each in his own line of work — available in New South Wales, and 
their record of original investigations has amply justified his choice. 
Dr. N. A. Cobb has done work of the utmost value to the other 
colonies as well as to New South Wales. He has investigated and 
identified the principal fungi attacking our farm crops, fruit trees, 
and vines, has figured and described their diseases, indicating 
either the approved remedies or those likely to prove etfeciive 
under our conditions. He has fully investigated the different 
rusts that affect our cereals, more especially the Puccinia graminis 
and P. rubigo-vera. His series of articles on these rusts, illustrated 
by his own drawings, have enlightened our farmers as to the true 
nature of this parasite, and have convinced many of them of errors 
of treatment in the past. Acting on the valuable suggestions of 
the three intercolonial conferences on wheat rust that have met 
successively in Melbourne, Sydney, and Adelaide, Dr. Cobb has 
devoted several months to the examination of each of the 600 
wheats cviltivated experimentally by Mr. W. Farrer, of Queanbeyan. 
His methods, lines of investigation, and practical deductions were 
published, admirably illustrated, in the Agricultural Gazette of 
New South Wales, vol. 3 (1892). Following up this profitable 
line of work, he has photographed and accurately described the 
375 best varieties of wheats grown in Australia, a complete stool of 
each of which has been sent to each of the other colonies for 
reference purposes. These sorts are being further tried by Mr. 
Farrer, working with Dr. Cobb, and by the latter on an ex- 
perimental plot of ten acres at Wagga Wagga, as well as by over 
500 of our farmers, to whom small packets of the best sixty-five 
varieties have been issued. It may be confidently expected that 
the result will be much additional light on the exact conditions 
that favor the spread of rust ; the inherent properties of the plant 
■ that enable certain varieties to resist rust better than others ; and 
the methods to be adopted to raise, by cross-fertilisation, varieties of 



president's address — SECTION G. 149 

Avheat at once suited to our climatic conditions, resistant of rust, 
and not too distasteful to the fastidious tastes of our millers, who 
have to cater for the public in their demand for a white flour, 
regardless of its flesh-forming- or bone-making properties. 

Dr. Cobb has also investigated the mysterious " takeall " in 
wheat, which has long exercised the minds of our farmers. His 
exhaustive article on the subject in the Agricultural Gazette, vol. 
3, part 12 (December, 1892), has clearly indicated the principal 
■causes of the disease as known to us in New South Wales. 

During the present year Dr. Cobb has given special attention to 
the mysterious disease that was attacking the sugar-cane on our 
northern rivers, and the results of his microscopic investigations in 
the cane fields and the laboratories of the Colonial Sugar Refining 
Company enable him to suggest remedial measures for this disease, 
and explriin to us the unsuspected cause of allied diseases in our 
fruit trees and other crops. Though he discovered no less than 
six different fungi and twenty species of nematodes, none of these 
could account for the mischief reported, which turns out to be 
associated with the presence of a microbe in the sap of the vessels 
of the cane indicated to the eye by the exudations on freshly cut 
surface of a yellow gummy substance. Dr. Cobb's exhaustive 
report, now in press, shows that this disease, Avhich he calls 
"gumming of the sugar-cane," never occurs without the presence 
of this gummy matter, which never occurs without the microbes, 
and is, in fact, a product of their growth. He proposes to inoculate 
healthy cane with this microbe. Bacterium vasculorum, and the 
results will, in due time, tie recorded. Another valuable line of 
work now in Dr. Cobb's hands is the question of worms in sheep. 
He has erected a laboratory at Moss Vale, and is systematically 
examining the grasses and other fodder plants of this infected 
district for their microscopic fauna, and compariu}; the same with 
the larval stages of the worms parasitic in sht-ep — an entirely new 
line of inquiry, which will result in filling up some gaps in the life 
history of some of these worms. When the complete life history 
of these worms is known preventive or remedial measttres will 
suggest themselves, as was the case with trichina and hydatids. 
He has already discovered larval forms in the sheep's dung, and 
we may therefore look forward to the publication in due course of 
results of practical value. 

1 )uring the past year the Chemist of the department, Mr. F. B. 
Guthrie, has done valuable educational work. He has analysed 
very completely eighty typical soils from different parts of the 
colony, and has made a systematic examination of all the manures 
offered for sale in New South Wales. From these analyses we 
have been enabled to value on a common basis all our commercial 
fertilisers, and the results as published in the Gazette have indicated 
to those interested how they can most cheaply and effectively 
manure their crops and improve their soils. The result has been 



150 president's address — SECTION G. 

to stimulate immensely the manm-e trade in New South Wales ; 
one company alone selling, in 1892, 3,000 tons of hi^h-class manures 
where they sold only 300 tons in 1890. Mr. Guthrie has also 
devoted much attention to the analysis of several supposed poison- 
ous plants, notably the Darling pea f Stcamsona galeglfolia), and 
has encouraging indications of being on the track of the cause of 
the trouble to sheep from this peculiar plant. The chemist's 
experiments with the Babcock milk-tester, and his analysis of 
ensilage, milks, artesian waters, wheats, fruits, wines, and ashes 
have been of great service to different classes of our farmers. 

He is now engaged in determining the composition of the 
" gummy " substance — which is not, however, a gum — that Dr. 
Cobb has been investigating and has called vascuUn. 

The Botanist has done much since the creation of the department 
to educate our farmers and their children on the economic value of 
our indigenous grasses and other forage plants. He has published 
a census of the grasses, giving a full description of the principal 
195 grasses of New South Wales, with twenty-four exotics that 
have been naturalised. Excellent drawings of sixty of these have 
been reproduced by photography, and have been of great service to 
manv persons studying this most useful order of plants. Examples 
of these drawings are submitted herewith, as indicating a A-aluable 
means of educating our students by means of wall pictures and 
plates in text books. Mr. Turner has also jiublished a vohmie of 
the forage plants of Australia, giving exact information with 
excellent drawings of ninety of the saltbushes and other fodder 
plants that have been so viseful to our pastoral industry. He has 
also published a series of illustrated articles dealing with supposed 
poisonous plants, numerous weeds, and new economic crops that 
might be profitably introduced into Australia. 

The work of the entomologist (Mr. A. S. Olliff) has been of 
special value to the orchardists, who as a class needed special 
instruction on insect pests and the best means of combating them. 
He has made good collections of scale \ns,eci& f Coceid(Bj destructive 
to fruit trees, and one of gall insects f Hymenopteroiis, Dipterous, 
and HomopterousJ affecting fruit and timber trees. With the aid 
of a collector, over 18,000 insects, including a large number of 
parasitic and predaceous enemies of the injurious insects them- 
selves, have been got together and suitably mounted and displayed 
for the instruction of those concerned. Small cases of the most 
important insects — with complete life histories — have been sent 
round to the agricxdtural shows of the colony, and have aroused 
great interest in thousands of fruit growlers, who are now taking 
vigorous measures for the destruction of their insect enemies and 
the conservation of their friendly lady-birds f Orcus chalyheus, 
Orcus Australasia, Halyzia galbula, Leis conformis, Verania 
frenata, Vedalia cardinalis, and others) which do such serviceable 
work on the different scales and aphides that infest our fruit trees. 



president's address — SECTION G. 151 

The original investigations of Mr. OllifF on the saltbvish scale 
f Pulvinaria MaskelUj, bronzy orange bug f Oncoscelis sulciventrisj, 
the orange borer ( Ur acanthus cryptophagusj, the pumpkin beetle 
( Aidacophora hilarisj, the potato beetle (Monolejita rosea), and 
the potato moth (Lita solanellaj destroying tobacco, are worthy 
of special notice. 

Experiments are being conducted with the parasitic fungus 
( Botrytis fenella) that has been found so destructive to cockchafer 
larva? in France. The results hitherto in our cane and maize fields 
have not borne out the favorable reports from the French vineyards. 

I submit for your inspection a number of illustrations of insects, 
grasses, fungus diseases, and new commercial crops, from the pen 
and brush of Mr. E. M. Grosse, the artist of the department. I 
think you will agree with me that these are quite up to the standard 
of such works in older' countries, and are better adapted to adorn 
the walls of our schools and colleges, and to illustrate our reading 
books and Australian agricultural text books, than the useless 
reproductions we so often see. 

The whole of the original investigations of these specialists, 
admirably illustrated by the artist, have been published from 
month to month in the official publication of the department — the 
Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales, of which 5,00(1 copies 
are distiibuted free to hona fide agriculturists and fellow workers 
in these subjects in other countries. I cannot speak too highly 
of the good influence of this publication in educating our most 
intelligent farmers, in stimulating the younger men to study, in 
bringing the department into constant touch with the more 
progressive students, and in communicating our work to other 
countries, and thus earning generous exchange of reports, bulletins, 
and current literature. 

The vignerons of the colony have been much assisted by the 
services of Mr. J. A. Despeissis, viticultural expert, who has 
visited all the vine- growing districts to give practical instruction, 
and has written a series of articles on " The Vineyard and the 
Cellar," which, when completed, will form a valuable text book on 
vine-growing and wine making. 

A thoroughly practical fi-uit expert (Mr. A. H. Benson) has 
visited all the fruit growing centres, giving instructions in all the 
operations of the orchard, and doing special good by practical de- 
monstration of the mixing of the best fungicides and insecticides, 
and their application by means of the excellent spray pumps now 
available from America. Under his supervision valuable experi- 
ments have been carried out to discover the conditions under w^hich 
fruit can be best kept in cold storage, with a view to opening up 
larger markets and making more stable conditions for our fruit 
industry. 

A travelling dairy was sent round all the districts likely to take 
up this branch of agriculture, and a large number of pupils have 



152 president's address — section g. 

been instructed by Mr. M'Caffi-ey in the most modern methods of 
butter and cheese making. Factories have been started in new 
districts, and increased prosperity secured to them through this 
profitable industry. Mr. M'Caffrey has also written, in conjunc- 
tion with Mr. J. P. Dowling, a handbook on dairying in New 
South Wales, which will, I believe, supply a distinct want. 

Farmers have been encouraged to experiment with new varieties 
of seed and new economic crops by the issue of 13,235 packets of 
seeds, plants, and cuttings to 3,182 applicants. 

I have endeavored to describe briefly the principal steps that 
have been taken by the Department of Agriculture in New South 
Wales to educate those now on the soil. 

Every man who has travelled throughout the agi-icultural dis- 
tricts of New South Wales, and has noted with intelligent eyes the 
progress of agricultm-e, both as an art and a science, must have 
satisfied himself that there has been a steady, though perhaps slow, 
progress in most of its branches during the past few years. He 
notes improved agricultural implements being largely used, better 
homes, brighter gardens, more extensive vegetable plots, more 
convenient barns, better fences, more drainage, more skilful use of 
the subsidiary aids on the farm, more economical conservation and 
application of water, and more co-operation in matters of mutual 
interest ; more markets have been opened up, and better access to 
those markets has been provided. In short, since by beneficial 
legislation men were encouraged to select portions of land suitable 
for agriculture, and entered upon its possession as bo?ui Jide f^ettlers, 
their positions have generally improved in every material direction, 
till they have in many cases become independent freeholders, 
enjoying most of the comforts and simple luxuries of the old 
civilised countries, forming the sinews of this young country, and 
supplying its greatest soiu-ce of strength in peace and war — an 
internal food supply. But while recognising with thankfulness these 
signs of improvement, it may not be out of place to inquire what are 
the conditions essential to a still grander progress and prosperity. 

These, I think, might be defined almost on the same lines as 
those laid down by Mr. Isaac Newton in his first report as Com- 
missioner of Agriculture for the United States of America : — 

(1) Good government, which will continue to provide wise land 

laws, and favor in every way possible those who form the 
great source of wealth to this as to every other country. 

(2) To increase the demand for agricultural produce at home and 

abroad, and to utilise in more ways our home products. 

(3) To increase the respect paid to honest labor. 

(4) To improve the condition ot reproductive labor. 

(5) To impart a better knowledge of the science and practice of 

agriculture by providing farmers, and more especially 
their children, with a better education in all the branches 
of agriculture and its allied subjects. 



president's address — SECTION G. 153 

I shall content myself by offering a few thoughts on the last 
proposition. 

I think that I have shown tiiat in New South Wales a great 
deal has been clone to educate our aditlt farmers, and to help those 
who wish to help themselves, but I cannot hel}) feeling that in this 
we have commenced at the wrong end. It is to the rising genera- 
tion that we must look for ]n-ofitable results from our labors, and 
in their interests 1 should like to see a complete system of agri 
cultural education adopted throughout the whole of Australia. 

Feeling as 1 do that, in order to make Australia an agiicultural 
country in the highest sense, we must give our children the best 
technical training possible, I must assume that the State will 
undertake this line of education as it has done, whether for good 
or for ill. Avith all the other branches of education — literary, 
professional, and technical. After twenty-two years' practical 
acquaintance with all the systems of education purstied in New 
South Wales, I hope that it will not be considered out of place for 
me to discuss the means by which om national schemes of education 
can be made to have a stronger agricultural fl^ivor than at present, 
and can be further supplemented by the State so as to meet a 
distinct want for agricultural education — graduated to sviit alike 
the free selector's son and our future professors of agriculture. 

But before I discuss the means bv which our boys can be trained 
in the practical operations of the farm, orchard, dairy, vineyard. Sec, 
as well as in the sciences which iiave so much bearing upon these 
operations, I would venture to express the opinion that the principal 
part of the child's education has been commenced before he or she 
has come under the control of the public teachers. I cannot help 
feeling strongly that our l>est farmers are those that have conceived 
in their early infancy a liking for country life, a taste for outdoor 
work, and a strong desire to add to the material wealth of their 
country. I very much fear that v oung people who have been 
brought up in dwellings which are deficient in ail the best attributes 
of a home, where everythint; is squalid and ugly, and no attempt 
is made to beautify in a simple way the home and its surroundings, 
such children can hardly have such a love for a country life or for 
the manual toil which is inseparable from an agricultural occupation 
as will induce them to stay in the country with its early disad- 
vantages, instead of congregating together into the towns and 
cities which have such attractions for the young and thoughtless. 

In the first place, then, we must teach our boys and girls to 
respect honest labor, to consider that manual labor is as honorable 
as that which is followed in city offices, shops, or warehouses. 

All unselfish parents will make the home as attractive as possible 
to the boys and girls, and provide them with such simple amuse- 
ments and pleasures as their circumstances will permit ; will make 
the surroundings of the farm house congenial by means of its 
garden, its vegetable plots, its orchard and its playground ; will 



154 president's address — section g. 

allow the young folk a fair leisure for their own pursuits ; will 
encourage their children to study books that refer to their special 
calling ; and will direct their attention to the praiseworthy examples 
of men who have raised themselves to the most honorable positions 
in the State, and have advanced the best interests of their country 
by their success in agricultural pursuits. 

There are doubtless many disadvantages inseparable from a 
country life, more especially in newly-settled districts and during 
the early struggles ; but these should be minimised as much as 
possible, while the advantages of the freedom, the healthiness, 
and independence of farm life, with its delights of overcoming 
difficulties, its ever-changing pleasui'es and its noble influence on 
their country's destiny, should be kept constantly before the minds 
of our boys and girls when at their most impressionable age, 
instead of holding up to their envy the circumstances of those in 
city occupations whose genteel clothes, clean hands, and generally 
more luxurious mode of living, place them in the opinion of some 
silly parents on a higher plane of "respectability" than their 
rough-spun cousins in the country. 

When our country buys and girls start out fi-om home to go to 
the nearest school they should do so with the feeling that their 
father's occupation is as honorable as any other, and has its own 
peculiar attractions, pleasures, and good prospects. They should 
not start their school life with the idea that the ultimate object of 
their education is to learn a little Latin, a little al.eebra, a little 
Euclid, a little French, and a little of many other subjects which 
will have but slight influence on their after life. They should 
start with the definite idea that they are going to be agriculturists 
in one branch or another, and that they must give their special 
attention to the different branches of study that will fit them for 
their future calling. As one who has gone through the full 
classical course of our own university, I may be permitted to 
indorse most strongly the continental views rapidly gaining ground 
amongst Englishmen, that education as such can be given quite as 
effectively through the medium of sciences, including those bear- 
ing upon agriculture, as through the exclusive medium of dead 
languages and pure mathematics. I would also express my belief 
in teaching facts before abstract principles, and in educating by 
means of objects rather than by means of symbols. The instruc- 
tions to teachers in French elementary schools say: — "They should 
commence by employing visible and tangible objects, which they 
should make the children see and feel . . . then by degrees 
they can exercise them by obtaining from these objects abstract 
ideas, by comparison and generalisation, and by use of the reasoning 
faculties." 

In other countries of the world at the present time great atten- 
tion is being paid to agricultural education in the primary schools. 
The reading books have judicious selections appealing to the 



president's address — ^^SECTION G. 155 

patriotism of their readers, holding up to their admiration a love 
of country life, and giving instructions in the different operations 
of an agricultural occupation. It is beginning to be felt even in 
England that the country boy. instead of learning mythology, 
history of the fabulous class, sentimental poetry, stories of travel, 
and other subjects of little personal interest to himself, should be 
taught the "why" and "wherefore" of all the stages of growth 
of the different plants ; the composition of the soil and mode of its 
formation ; the history, uses, and methods of cultivation of the 
principal plants of his own country ; and the chemistry of the 
water, soil, and air, which would be his chief assistants in his 
future calling. He should be instructed in the elements and 
seasons ; the weeds of the farm ; the animals and poultry ; the 
vermin and insects; the implements and tools ; the machinery of 
the farm — all being used in conjunction with other subjects of 
general instruction that form the basis of a practical education. 

It is felt that the walls of schools in agricultural districts, 
instead of being adorned with pictures of wild and strange animals, 
maps of distant and foreign countries, and pictures of manufactures 
belonging to towns, should have noAv-a-days illustrations showing 
insects injurious to farm crops and those which are parasitic or 
predaceous on them; illustrations of the different cereals, showing 
their periods of growth from the seed to the full ear ; pictures 
of types of all kinds of domestic animals, farm implements, local 
grasses and weeds. Plants of all kinds that can be grown in the 
respective districs are always before the children's eyes, so that 
the schools in the farming districts have an agricultural flavor 
about all their teachings. The masters encourage everything con- 
nected with agricultural pursuits, and the children's ambition is to 
excel in the special branches of agricultural knowledge, and they 
consequently know more about manures, the points of a horse, or 
the construction of a plough than about Latin roots or Euclid's 
problems. Some of the school boards in England have published 
a few excellent wall curds illustrating the life history of a few 
of the insect enemies of farm crops ; also the different stages of 
growth of a wheat plant from germination to friiition. 

It is felt that the object lessons which are of value as a means 
of instruction in the primary schools should be made as appropriate 
as possible for the class of scholars being taught. It would surely 
be better to give object lessons on the animals reared in the district, 
and on crops peculiar to it, showing from the objects themselves 
the lessons to be learned in relation to their uses and mode of 
growth, rather than to give lessons on a whale, a swordfish, a 
rhinoceros, a crocodile, a unicorn, an elephant, or a camelopard, 
as is often done. 

In New South Wales the value of agricultural education has 
been recognised by the gentlemen at the head of the Department 
of Public Instruction, and the result was the issuing of an admirable 



156 president's address — section g. 

circular in April, 1890, by order of the Hon. J. H. Carruthers, 
M .P., then Minister for that department, from which the following 
extracts are taken : — 

" The Minister for Public Instruction is anxious that the lessons 
given in the public schools should be of as practical a character as 
possible. He has therefore decided that in future teachers be 
invited to give special attention to agriculture and horticulture. 

" Instructions in these subjects can best be given in the form of 
object lessons, and you will find that it is so provided for in the 
revised standards of proficiency. 

" The lessons might take up the work in three stages, thus — 

"■ First stage — The principles influencing the supply of plant 
food in the soil, the necessity for cultivation, and the 
circumstances making tillage more or less effective. 

"Second stage — The principles regulating the more or less 
perfect supply of plant food ; manures, as supplemental 
sources of plant food. 

" Third stage — The principles regulating the growth of crops, 
and the variations in their yield and quantity. 

" With a view of encouraging teachers in giving practical illustra- 
tions indicated, the Minister has decided to give annually a bonus to 
■each teacher wdio has results to show. The bonus will vary from 
£1 to £5, according to the quantity and quality of the work done." 

There are at the present time in our public schools many teachers 
who take a keen interest in agricultural matters, and are well able 
to teach theoretically, and in some cases practically also, the princi- 
ples of agriculture. During the year 1«91 the l30nus referred to 
was earned by eight j'-eight teachers, but I hope yet to see a much 
greater number of the country teachers undertaking the practical 
education of their pupils in the working of small gardens and 
experimental plots in connection with their schools. This plan has 
I)een found most effective in France, and did immense good at the 
■critical period of the agricultural history of Ireland, imbuing the 
children with a love of nature, and different operations of tilling 
the ground, and teaching them to think of the reasons that prompt 
those operations on the farm. 

The important subject of tree-planting has also been recognised 
by the institution of Arbor Day in our schools, and the reasons for 
it are thus set forth in a circular by Mr. E. Johnson, the Under- 
Secretary : — "The improving of school grounds by tree-planting is 
recognised as a work of educational importance. By such means the 
school will be made attractive, and an interest in nature and a love for 
the beautiful will be stimulated and encouraged among the pupils. 
In time, also, the summer shade, so necessary in our climate, will be 
provided for the children, and thus the general comfort and happi- 
ness of their school life will be promoted. Much useful knowledge 
respecting the nature and growth of plants will, moreover, be 
•obtained by the pupils ; and, from working to improve their school 



president's address SECTION G. 157 

grounds, they will be led to plant and beautify the grounds about 
their homes. In this way the information and advantages gained 
will be likely to have a permanent effect." Succeeding generations 
of school children will have reason to bless the Minister who 
instituted Arbor Day in New South Wales. 

I believe that the liberal and progressive gentlemen who guide 
the destinies of our Department of Public Instruction will, in the 
course of time, make the teaching in our agricultural districts as 
practical and valuable for the children concerned as the general 
teaching is for our city schools. In due course the schools in 
farming districts Avill have special reading books dealing with the 
many interesting subjects connected with agi'iculture, specially 
written and illustrated to suit the conditions of Australian farming. 
They will have maps, pictures, and illustrations representing the 
plants, insects, and domestic animals of the respective districts. 
They will have object lessons given by intelligent and enthusiastic 
teachers, all having a distinct agricultural bias, and in a limited 
number of cases little gardens and plots worked by the children 
themselves under the teachers' supervision. 

And here, when we begin to talk of teaching practical agriculture 
to our rising generation, it may seem jjroper to inquire what agri- 
culture is, whether a science, an art, or a business — each and all of 
which it is called in these days. 

If it were merely a science it could be taught at school or college 
as is done in Germany, with a small experimental farm as a 
laboratory, in the same way as chemistry is taught. I am strongly 
of the opinion that agriculture, as suited to the conditions of this 
country, can never be taught in such a way. Though agriculture 
may not be strictly defined as a science, I should rather be inclined 
to call it the application of several sciences to one particular 
purpose — the cultivation of the soil. 

It is an art, inasmuch as it needs a workshop, that is, a farm, for 
the exercise of the pupils ; and it is a business, as it needs a regular 
system of apprenticeship to learn the many operations of commercial 
life necessary on a well-managed farm. 

Mr. J. C. Morton, in a lecture before the Royal Agricultural 
Society of England, made the following pertinent remarks : — 
" Agriculture is an art or manufacture. It is also a business or 
trade ; and people have of late years got into the habit of calling 
it a science. By this last designation it can, of course, be meant 
only that the facts which make up the experience of the farmer — 
like those, indeed, of any experience whatsoever — are recognised by 
many scientists as in perfect keejjing with the laws of nature. 
Agriculture, though not a science, has thus at length become a 
museum, as it were, of facts and instances and specimens, in the 
classification of which students of all sciences have been successfully 
at work, so that every part has now the right upon it of a well- 
defined relationship with scientific truth. If this be a correct 



158 president's address — section g. 

account of agriculture as so-called science, how is it with agriculture 
as a trade ? There is here an even more complete explosion of the 
idea of anything exceptional and mysterious. The relationship of 
the farmer to him of whom he hires the land which is the manu- 
factory, to those of whom he purchases the labor which he directs, 
to those who are his customers, to those of whom he is the customer, 
is of the ordinary kind, dependent for its establishment and main- 
tenance on the ordinary principles of human nature, and requiring 
only such protection from without as an equitable administration 
of the law secures for it. Bvit agriculture is especially a manu- 
facture and an art dependent on professional intelligence and 
skill ; and here, of course, we come upon the essential features 
which distinguish it. I believe that I am right in saying that its 
chief and ruling characteristics have arisen from the fact that 
throughout it deals with life. To be a good and successful agricul- 
turist therefore needs not only familiarity with the ordinary routine 
of farm practice, and both industry and promptitude in its direction ; 
it needs especially : — (1) The qualities of patience, by which a full 
share of the farm work is given to nature to accomplish ; and it 
needs especially, (2) The exercise of quick-sighted observation, by 
which the earliest natural indications of what is going on, the 
earliest intimations of natural tendency of movement, whether to 
the good or bad, are detected in the living creatui-e with which the 
farmer has to deal. Intelligence, activity, and promptitude in 
carrying out the routine of operations are necessary to every other 
business as well as that of farming, but none other, unless it too 
have equally to deal with life, so needs the exercise of quick- 
sighted, careful, habitual observations for its successful prosecution. 
A quick and watchful eye, and prompt activity at the right 
moment, have to be united with the faculty of waiting to the proper 
time in order to secure good agriculture." 

In order to secure such a complete training as is here indicated 
we should have a national — may I venture to hope a Federal 
Australian — system of agricultural education, which will take boys, 
and, if necessary, the girls after they have left the primary schools, 
and give them a thoroughly practical and scientific education in 
the different branches of agriculture for which they are intended. 
For this purpose we shall need farm schools in different parts of 
the colony, and these, I hope, will be started on the model of 
similar institutions in France, where practice and theory are taught 
together, and not as in Germany, where the theory is taught first 
and the pi-actice is acquired in after years, if ever. At these 
schools boys of 14 years of age would be admitted, the only 
necessary qualifications for admission being a fair English educa- 
tion, good health, and a good record from a previous school. It is 
admitted that the system of agriculture in France is as good as any 
in the world, and that the great source of wealth of that country 
is her agriculture as practised by the French peasants. 



president's address SECTION G. 159 

Some years n^o, when the butter industry in the south of Ireland 
had fallen off to a tjreat extent and was threatened with extinction, 
the Education Board of that country started the Munster Dairy 
School, at which special instruction was given during two sessions 
per annum to the daughters of the surrounding farmers. Several 
hundred young girls ar, once went through this course of instruction, 
and the result was soon seen in the immense improvement in the 
quality of the butter made and in the restoration of the Cork butter 
trade, while the improvement in the value of Munster farms is 
computed at an immense sum. 

In the same way it would probably be found in Australia that 
special schools for the study of dairying, viticulture, fruit-growing, 
and other minor industries would be of immense service in bringing 
those branches of agriculture up to the position which they must 
eventually hold in this country. 

At the majority of the farm schools so established general agri- 
culture would doubtless be taught, or, in other words, the mixed 
farming which would be most suitatile to the surrounding district. 
Boys would get a knowledge of stock, of all the principal opera- 
tions of the farm, rotation of crops, draining, use of artificial 
manures, farm implements, the blacksmithing and carpentry 
needed on the farm, the use of an engine and other necessary 
machinery, and many other things which they might not be able 
to learn on their fathers' farms. 

I imagine that I can hear the criticism that farmers' sons could 
learn all these things at home as well as at a farm school. Perhaps 
so, if our best farmers could find the leisure and opportunity to 
personally instruct their sons in all the operations of the farm, and 
at the same time teach them the "why" and "wherefore" of each 
of these operations. But we know that the old saying about " the 
shoemaker's children being often worst shod" holds good also with 
education. Children of the best educated parents do not always 
get the best education from them. 

But even granting that our best farmers may find the time and 
opportunity to instruct their sons methodically and practically in 
the science of their calling, must we not make provision for those 
boys in the towns and cities who wish to leave such a life and learn 
farming as a calling, as well as for the sons of farmers who have 
not themselves had the advantage of a good farm training and 
hope to give their sons better advantages than they themselves 
have ever had. It is a recognised fact that farmers' sons, as a 
rule, begin their business in life with a general education inferior 
to that of men in other walks of life corresponding in the social 
scale with their own. They are removed from school earlier than 
those destined for mercantile pursuits, or even those intended for 
clerical work, and hence a young farmer often begins his business 
with a small liberal education and with none at all of a technical 
character concerning his future work. He is, therefore, but little 



160 president's address SECTION G. 

more enliglitened than liis father with regard to modern improve- 
ments in artificial manures, drainage, management of stock, new 
implements, and better methods of cultivation. 

I am aware that a grave objection to this scheme of education 
in the minds of many of our small farmers wovdd be the expense, 
not only in the actual outlay for fees (which would probably be 
made very small), but also in the loss of the boy's services at a 
time when he is becoming useful on the parental farm. 

As one who is proud to acknowledge his indebtedness for his 
education, and the consequent pleasure of doing, or trying to do, 
some useful work for his fellows, to the vmselfish love of parents who 
preferred their children's interests to their own personal comfort 
and luxury, I would venture to assert that nothing our farmers can 
do for their children will be more likely to bear such a rich harvest 
of filial gratitude and unmixed satisfaction in after years as the 
memory of the sacrifices they made for their children's sake in the 
pioneering days when they were struggling with a new farm and a 
young family. Evei-y true parent who wishes to see his children 
rise to a higher plane of usefulness in the commonwealth, and 
attain to greater success than he himself has been able to do, will 
think little of the strict economy and personal privations that will 
be necessary to enable him to give his children the best education 
the State can afford, and to allow them the fullest opportunities of 
improving their knowledge of their profession, and thus becoming 
as valuable citizens as possible to the country at large. 

Doubtless the system of bursaries which prevails at our ixniver- 
sity and at our high schools will be extended to this class of school 
also, and thus settlers and struggling farmers who cannot pay the 
necessary fees, however small, as well as lose their son's valuable 
services just as he is becoming of use to them, will be able to see 
their boy educated at the cost of the State by the aid of a scholar- 
ship earned by his own honorable industry and perseverance. 

When a lad has spent two years at such a farm school he should 
have such a knowledge of stock, farm implements, and general 
farming operations as to be fit either to return to his father's home 
as a useful assistant, or to go on to a higher school of agricidture, 
where the scientific subjects allied to agriculture will receive fuller 
attention. 

To show how much these schools are valued on the Continent, I 
may mention that in Prussia alone there are thirty-two of them, 
and the same number in France, together with a large number of 
apprentice farms, on which the owners of first-class farms are 
allowed to take students to learn the principles of their calling, a 
bonus for each student being paid by the Government. 

In these countries the system of agricultural education has de- 
veloped on no fixed plan, and does not therefore present an 
harmonious whole. Each part of the system has been forced upon 
the State by the exigencies of the times, and there is therefore 



president's address— section g. 161 

no scheme of agricultural education in any of the coimtries of the 
Old World that we can copy in its entirety. There is no graduation 
from the schools to the colleges, and from the colleges to the 
university classes. There is no supervision exercised over the 
different grades of education to harmonise their teachings, and to 
bring them into correspondence with one another. 

In this young country we have still an ojDportunity of making 
our system of agricultural education correspond with our national 
scheme of general instruction, having the university as its culmi- 
nating point, i would therefore propose to offer special induce- 
ments for students from our farm schools to go on to our college, 
which is at present our Agricultural University. I should like to 
see scholarships given from each of the farm schools, to enable the 
holders to proceed to the college for a fm-ther period of two years. 
At the college, which has now been started two years, we have 
two classes of students — seniors and juniors, one of which is at 
work each day on the farm, the other being engaged in the class- 
room or the laboratory. On the farm every practical operation — 
from fencing, cutting drains, working at the saw bench, making 
gates, erection of farm buildings, blacksmithing, harness-mending, 
pruning vines and fruit trees, budding, grafting, making a stack of 
ensilage, butter-making and cheese-making ; each of these opera- 
tions is done by the students in turn, so that each maybe supposed, 
at the end of his course, to have had the same manual training as 
he would have had on the best-managed general farm. 

In the class-room he goes through an advanced course of botany, 
with special reference to all plants of economic value ; of ento- 
mology, by which to learn enough about insect life to enable him 
to distinguish between friends or foes, and in after life to devise 
means himself for dealing with the numerous insect pests with 
which his crops may be afflicted. He w'ill learn sufficient geology 
to enable him to vmderstand the composition of rocks — how they 
have been formed, and how they in turn form soils. 

From his chemistry he will learn the composition of the soils he 
has to deal wiih, of the manures he has to employ, and of the crops 
he may grow ; he will learn how to adapt one to the other, and 
supply the deficiencies in the soil in the most effective manner and 
at the least possible cost ; he will learn to discern what changes 
take place through fermentation, and how this great agency can be 
controlled and utilised ; he will learn sufficient veterinary science 
and practice to enable him to deal with the diseases of his oAvn 
stock, and be a valuable help to his neighbors ; he will learn a 
system of book-keeping that can be adapted to a farmer's require- 
ments — a branch of education as much needed by the farmer as by 
any other man of business, and yet strangely neglected by them as 
a class. He will learn the scientific principles underlying every 
agricultural operation, and will be taught the reason for every 
such operation, however small, which he is daily performing on 

L 



162 president's address — section g. 

the farm. All the teaching of such a college will have hut one 
purpose in view — everything about the place, from the student's 
leggings and moleskin trousers up to the science lectures and 
demonstrations, will have an agricultural tone and bias. 

In Germany the High School of Agriculture, corresponding 
with our college, is of a purely theoretical character, and the pro- 
fessors themselves admit that residence in a city like Berlin, and 
teaching theory alone, tend rather to give the students a distaste 
for the country life which they are afterwards supposed to follow, 
and the result is that but a small percentage of the students on 
leaving this high school go to actual farm work. In France, on 
the other hand, their National Agricultural Institute provides for 
practical work as well as theoretical teaching To show how 
thoroughly equipped this college is, and how it is valued by the 
French people, I may mention that the annual cost to the State of 
this one institution alone is over £10,000, a sum which is never 
grudged, because the people are aware that from this college there 
are being turned out their best farmers, their most progressive 
landlords, and their most viseful professors of agriculture. 

I liave heard two very different opinions expressed about the 
way in which the farms connected with our agricultural schools 
and colleges should be managed. One party asserts that the farms 
should pay commercially in much the same way as a private farm 
is made to do. The gentlemen who talk like this lose sight of the 
fact that a large amount to be done on the college farms must be 
of an educational nature. The experiments to be carried out must 
often be undertaken with a full knowledge that they will fail in a 
pecuniary sense, but will on that account be none the less valuable 
and instructive to the hundreds of farmers who will by their means 
be enabled to avoid similar costly experiments. This educational 
work can never be made to show a balance on the right side of the 
ledger in £ s. d., but who can estimate the value to the whole 
farming community of a series of such experiments properly con- 
ducted ? On the other hand, some persons assert that the com- 
mercial aspect of the question need never be considered ; that the 
whole object of the farm in connection with the college should be 
instruction of the best possible kind. 

Now I cannot help feeling that no farm teaching can be pro- 
perly successful imless it be taught on commercial lines, and that 
our students should not be taught amateur farming and experi- 
mental plot cultivation without at the same time seeing constantly 
before them a certain area of land farmed and managed on strictly 
commercial principles. I hope therefore that at each of our ex- 
perimental farm schools and colleges there will be a certain area, 
sufficient to constitute a farm of medium size, set apart for farming 
operations suitable to the district, which will be carried on with a 
strict view to profit. The expenses of such a farm should be 
amply met by the returns from it, and there should be a small 



president's address^ — SECTION G. 163 

siirphxs to pay some of the costs of working the other part, which 
I will call the experimental section. This, I maintain, must be 
worked at the expense of the State, for whether it embraces 10 or 
100 acres, it cannot be expected to give yields of great value in a 
commercial sense. Experiments with new cereals, new fruit, new 
crops of any kind, would bring no money returns, for the simple 
reason that the resultinij yields would have to be distributed free 
to the surrounding farmers for further experiments. 

The labor entailed in cultivating small plots — for manuring, 
treatment of pests and diseases, and many other points of interest — 
is always out of proportion to the area of laud cultivated, and gives 
practically no return in the market. I hope therefore that those 
who believe that our prosperity must come from the soil will be 
the last to object to a fair expenditure from the public purse, for 
the educational agencies in connection with a complete scheme of 
agricultural education such as I have endeavored to describe ; for 
there seems to be no valid reason why public money should not be 
expended as liberally on agricultural education as has been done 
in the past years for our professional men at the university, and 
oiu- commercial men at our grammar schools, high schools, and 
national schools. 

I have given most of my attention to the question of educating 
the young, because I feel that the best return is to be expected 
from them ; but there is also a great deal to be done in educating 
the adult farming population. For their benefit experimental 
stations are scattered over the length and breadth of the best 
agricultural countries of the Old World and America. In this last 
coimtry alone there are fifty-eight such stations. Here a small 
area of ground is cultivated entirely at the expense of the State, 
and purely for experimental purposes. There is one of these in 
each State or Territory, where experiments with any new crops, 
manures, new methods of treatment, new implements, new varieties 
of fruit, methods of treating fungus diseases and insect pests, and 
many other similar matters are dealt with, the results are com- 
municated to the farmers interested, and the method of working 
always open for their inspection and criticism. There is room for 
a lew of these stations throughout each of our colonies, at which 
we shall be able to work out the many problems that are awaiting 
our attention. The annual expenditure on each experimental 
station would not be heavy, and should surely be as fair a charge 
on the public purse as that incurred on any of our other schools 
and educational institutions so liberally assisted by the State. 

We have to settle the best varieties of grapes for our different 
districts, and the best method of treating them, in order to make 
distinctive Australian wines of a constant quality and recognised 
value ; we have to determine the varieties of fruit that will best 
suit our different climatic regions, besides introducing new sorts 
not yet tried ; we have to determine the most economical ways of 



164 president's address — section g. 

manuring our different classes of soils, with special reference to the 
crops desired ; we have to find out a great deal about the treatment 
of fungus diseases in fruit and cereals, and of insect pests in our 
orchards and vineyards ; we have to find out the varieties of 
cereals and roots best suited to the different districts, having regard 
to the different soils, and diseases to which certain districts are 
specially liable ; we have to test new implements, new machines, 
new varieties of stock, new crops, new methods, and new ideas. 
This kind of work can be done only by trained men, who give their 
whole time and enei-gy to such investigations, for which the Stcite 
must be expected to provide the means. In France there are 
twenty-three such stations, and in Germany twenty-seven, where 
seventy trained chemists, botanists, and experimenters are employed 
constantly in the service of the farming community. A large 
amount of the work done by these scientific nr»en has been 
published to the world, and has been placed as fre^-ly in our hands 
as in those of the men for whom it was primarily intended. It surely 
behoves us, as a young nation hoping to make a foremost place 
amongst the nations of the earth, to be up and doing, bearing our 
fair share in educating the great agricultural masses. We have 
received a noble heritage of agricultural experience and scholarship 
from our own ancestral country, as well as from America, France, 
Germany, Italy, Holland, and Denmark, and we ought surely in 
return to be conducting new lines of investigation on our own 
account, and imparting the results as freely to them as they have 
done to us in the past. 

I have said nothing about a chair of agriculture in our 
universit)% which might be considered as a necessary coping-stone 
to our educational structure, because I feel that our education in 
agriculture is at present far too backward to need such an advanced 
stage for a few years to come. I assume that the university course 
would be one fitted to turn out specialists in all of the sciences 
allied to agriculture, men who would be our future principals of 
colleges, professors of agriculture, agricultural chemists, botanists, 
pathologists, and entomologists. 

There is a very limited demand for such men just now. We are 
not yet, as a community, educated suflficiently to appreciate the 
value of these scientific experts. There seems to be only room for 
the practical farmer, and the city theorist, and clerical agricultiirist 
who live on the farmer, not on the soil ; but when we have 
established a number of agricultural schools of a standard equal at 
least to that of our existing colleges, and have raised our college 
standard in a corresponding ratio, we shall have room for a number 
of practical scientists, men who have gone through a long scientific 
and practical training, first in the field, then in the college class- 
room and experimental grounds, and finally in the university 
laboratories, and who will have love for, and faith in, agriculture 
to devote their lives to its service. 



president's address — SECTION G. 165 

When that time has arrived I trust that we shall be so far 
federated that there will be needed only one chair of agriculture 
for all the Australian Colonies, to be established in connection 
with the university which may be able to offer the greatest 
facilities for the practical study of the sciences allied to agricul- 
ture. In the meantime, let us fervently hope that the best possible 
means may be devised of opening u]) the immense tracts of unused 
lands suitable for agricultural settlement, of settling genuine farmers 
on the soil, and of educating themselves and their children in such 
a way as to fit them for the highest possibilities of their future 
calling. If these great problems can be brought to a happy 
solution, federated x\ustralia will soon be independent of the out- 
side world for all her food supplies and economic products, and 
we shall be exporters instead of importers of agricultural produce 
to the value of millions. Men will invest their savings as readily 
in agricultural land as in suburban allotments, and our monetary 
institutions Avill advance money to improve farms, orchards, and 
vineyards on terms as favorable as they now give to the builders 
of city shops and warehouses. 

There will be room for our boys, who now can find so few 
openings for their energies. We shall have towns where there are 
now villages, and villages where there are now the solitary roadside 
inns. As the population becomes denser throiiiih the holdings 
becoming smaller we shall have better roads, better means of 
communication, more opportunities of social intercourse, more 
attractive surroundings for the young people to reconcile them to 
the minor drawbacks of rural life. Our fathers have subdued the 
wilderness, and made farms where it was thought but a few years 
ago that no crops could he grown. Our sons must populate these 
great inland plains, and make vineyards, orchards, and wheatfields, 
where there are now only sheep runs, until we have a population 
befitting the resources of this great continent, and enjoy the 
advantages, pleasures, and comforts of the best agricultural dis- 
tricts of the old land our fathers and many young Australians are 
still proud to call " home." 

[f it be not sacrileiiious to quote poetry before the members of 
this scientific association. I should wish that Australia may beget 
an intelligent and independent yeomanry like that Avhich has done 
so much for the stability, prosperity, and true greatness of our 
fatherland, concluding with the apostrophe of Robert Burns to 
his native land, substituting Australia for Scotia: — 
Australia ! my dear, my native soil ! 

For whom my warmest wish to heaven is sent, 
Lonf? may thy hardy sons of rustic toil 

Be blest with health, and peace, and sweet content ; 
And, oh I may Heaven their simple lives prevent 

From luxury's conta<i;ion, weak and vile ; 
Then, howe'er crown and coronets he rent, 

A virtuous populace may rise the while. 

And stand a wall of fire around their much-loved isle. 



Section H. 
ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE. 



ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT, 
MR. R. J. SCOTT, A.M.I.C.E., 

Of Canterbury College, Chriskhurch, N'exv Zealand. 



THE DIRECTION OF PROGRESS IN ENGINEERING. 

When I accepted the office of president of this section, I did sa 
believing that I should have the honor of personally oj)ening its 
proceedings. Being, to my great regret, prevented from visiting 
Adelaide, I must be content to express the hope that the Session of 
this, the section of applied science, may be productive of pleasure 
to members attending, and of benefit to the several branches of our 
profession. The importance of these gatherings can hardly be 
over-estimated, for at them the engineer is brought into close 
contact with every branch of Science; and to-day, to be successful, 
he must be, in the true sense of the term, a scientific man, quick to 
grasp the practical importance and to devise means for the applica- 
tion of those great discoveries, to the close sequence of which we 
have grown so much accustomed. 

The march of progress in engineering is now so rapid that, on an 
opportunity such as the present, it may be as well to pause in the 
hurry of practical work and review the ground which has been 
covered in the last few years, with the object of so directing our 
course in the immediate future that we may occupy a position in 
the front ranks of future advance. I propose, therefore, to-day to 
consider the most recent developments in those branches of 
engineering with which I am most familiar ; and, bearing in mind 
that it is the commercial and not the purely scientific or interesting 
aspect of an invention that determines its adoption, to venture to 
point out the direction in which it appears to me that the light of 
past experience suggests future improvement. 

Turning first to the cradle of all mechanical processes and 
engineering operations — the workshop — we find that the intro- 
duction of electrical welding has greatly facilitated the manufacture 
of wrought-iron piping and the various small forgings used in the 
gun, tool, and agricultural implement trades, whilst the fact that 
there is no wasting of the material by this method is in itself a 



president's address — SECTION H. 167 

sufficient cause for its universal adoption for all descriptions of plate 
work. The simple fusing together now so often practised cannot, 
however, be regarded as satisfactory. At such a juncture the 
physical nature of the material must differ considerably from that 
of the remainder of the plate or bar, this nature having been to a 
great extent derived from the treatment received during manu- 
facture. Electric welding to be efficient should, therefore, be 
accompanied by hammering, or by severe pressure from all 
directions. 

A series of tests on the relative strength under alternation of 
stress ot electrically-welded as against fused joints woidd probably 
result in much valuable information on the subject being obtained. 
The extent to which it is desirable to apply the process will greatly 
dejjend on the relative local cost of current and fuel, which will 
also be the chief factor in determining the use of electricity for 
heating purposes in connection with industrial operations. There 
is no comparison between the efficiency of direct and current 
heating ; yet in Norway, where water power is abundant and fuel 
scarce, it is found profitable to utilise electricity to a considerable 
extent for the heating of nail rods. There a hollow carbon is 
brought to a high temperature by the passage ot a low tension 
current, and the nail lod fed through it at a speed dependent on 
the degree of heat required. Rivets are also heated in a similar 
manner. 

In the process of finishing surfaces there has been a marked 
advance. Milling is rapidly displacing planing and shaping. By 
milling is to be understood the shaping of metal by rotary cutters. 
The milling machine is capable, not alone of doing with far greater 
expedition all the work usually executed by the planer and kindred 
tools, but also of preparing curved profiles hitherto finished by 
filing to template. It is essentially a sizing-machine, and the work 
turned out from it cannot be improved by any subsequent treat- 
ment. It owes its efficiency to the use of a series of cutting edges, 
and a continuous feed, as opposed to a single tool- point and 
intermittent action. This principle is capable of very extended 
application, and the metal-working machine of the future Avill 
probably resemble in general character the appliances used for the 
preparation of timber lo-day. 

Few who have had charge of Avorkshops can have failed to have 
noticed the inefficiency of the means usually adopted for tlie con- 
veyance of power from the prime mover to the various machine 
tools. The wear and tear, interference with space and light, and 
liability to accident accompanying belt transmission are familiar to 
most. So keenly was this brought home to me some five years 
ago that I elaborated a scheme for driving each individual machine 
by a small "•Brotherhood" engine, actuated by compressed air. 
The problem is now, however, solved in a more simple manner by 
the use of electricity ; and a few years hence we shall look with 



168 president's address SECTION H. 

curiosity on photographs of the assemblage of shafts and strings 
now considered a necessary part of the equipment of a machine shop. 

The advantages which the electric system possesses over its rival 
are numerous ; not the least being the fact that an idle machine 
absorbs no power, there being no lengths of shafting and accom- 
panying belting to be kept in motion, whether the whole or a single 
machine of the group is employed. That electric-driving has passed 
the stage of experiment is evident when we find that Messrs. 
Siemens are in their own work steadily doing aw^ay with the many 
independent engines they once possessed, concentrating the pro- 
duction of motive power, and distributing it electrically to the 
various shops, the machines therein being driven either individually 
or in groups, according to the nature of the work on which they 
are employed. 

Messrs. Siemens inform me that a considerable econ my in fuel, 
wages, and upkeep has already been effected, and that they propose 
to complete the application of this system. Messrs Easton and 
Anderson have for the past five years been driving electrically tw^o 
overhead travelling cranes, one a t20-ton crane of 40ft. span, in 
which a single five-unit motor running continually effects the 
necessary movements through the medium of spare gearing. The 
current is conveyed to this crane by an angle iron supported on wood 
blocks and running along the shop wall. One face is ground up 
bright, and contact made by a sliding!spring. The retiirn is through 
the rails. The second crane is of 15 tons capacity, and has a 
separate motor for each motion, which is stopped, started, or 
reversed, as required, the current being collected and returned by 
means of overhead wires. So satisfactory has been the performance 
of these cranes and of other electrically-driven machines that 
Messrs. Easton & Anderson contemplate a complete re-arrangement 
of their driving plant, substituting for indejiendent prime movers 
a central generating station with triple-expansion engines, from 
which power will be electrically distributed throughout their work- 
shops. The Northern Railway of France find that, at a small 
repairing shop, substituting electric power at fkl. per B.T.U.. with 
a separate motor to each machine, has effected an economy of 50 
per cent, (all charges and depreciation included) as compared with 
the cost of the previous ariangement of gas-engine and belting. In 
mining operations hand labor is being rapidly replaced by power. 
Coal-cutting machines have eflTected a saving of about 15 per cent, 
of the coal vein otherwise wasted in the form of fine coal and dust. 
The coal is obtained in more solid and larger blocks, whilst the cost 
of production has been reduced by from 20 per cent, to 30 per 
cent, as compared with hand labor. 

The transmission of power underground has been accomplished 
by the use of compressed air, hydraulic pressure, and wire ropes — 
the efficiency of such methods being fi-om 30 per cent, to 40 per 
cent. By the adoption of electricity, however, the efficiency of 



president's address SECTION H. 169 

transmission can be raised to over 50 per cent., and, as this can be 
accomplished with a reduced capital expenditiire, accompanied by 
a more portable and easil\' erected plant capable of supplying the 
power necessary for getting, hauling, pumping, and lighting, it 
would appear that electricity is in the future destined to become 
the principal transmitter for mining purposes. It is true that its 
use in fiery pits cannot at present be regarded as absolutely safe ; 
but enclosed motors, non-sparking switches, and Mr. Atkinson's 
safety cable have greatly diminished risks which will, no doubt, 
eventually be completely removed. 

The safety cable mentioned consists of a main and a subsidiary 
conductor, in circuit with each being a fuse. These conductors are 
connected with the same terminals at dynamo and motor, the 
current dividing between them in proportion to their carrying 
capacity. If now the main conductor be broken, the subsidiary 
conductor remaininji intact, no spark results at the breaking, the 
circuit still being closed, but the whole current is thrown on the 
subsidiary conductor, and its fuse is melted, which occurrence, hy 
means of a suitable mechanical arrangement, causes the whole 
circuit to be switched off. To carry this principle into effect the 
< able is composed of a closely wound spiral of tinned copper wire 
(several wii'es being arranged in parallel), which is braided over 
but not heavily insulated. Over this is laid a stranded conductor 
of the required area, and the whole is then fully insulated. If the 
cable be torn down by a fall, or broken in any wav by tension, the 
inner conductor extends to an unlimited exten"- and maintains the 
circuit until, by the action of the fuse, the whole cable is discon- 
nected. 

Closely connected with mininfi are the tunnelling mn chines, which 
have so lightened what was perhaps the most tedious work the 
civil engineer could be called on to execute. The driving of the 
Mersey and the trial borings for the proposed channel tunnel 
marked a new era in such operations. An average forward progress 
of ten yards in twenty-four hours, with a maximum of fourteen, 
was obtained in the new red sandstone of the Mersey tunnel, whilst 
the grey chalk of the channel was pierced at a maximum rate of 
over a yard per hour, the heading in each case being 7ft. in 
diameter. In extensions of the London underground railway the 
needle system has proved expeditious and remarkably efficient in 
preventing subsidence, there having been absolutely no disturbance 
of the heavy buildings under the foundations of which the works 
have been carried. 

The City and South London Railway, which, starting from the 
Monument, traverses the bed of the Thames, and has its other 
terminus at North Brixton, is carried for the whole of its length in 
a pair of tunnels 10ft. 6in. in diameter, lined with cast-iron 
segments. The heading was driven the full diameter of the 
tunnel by means of a cutting shield forced forward by hydraulic 



170 president's address SECTION H. 

jacks abutting on the completed portion of the work. As soon as 
the advance of the shield permitted it a new ring of segments was 
put in place, the cutting and lining thus proceeding almost 
simultaneously. The space between segments and bore was filled 
with grout forced in by air pressure. Where much water was met 
with, a stream of grout played on the working face greatly assisted 
the air pressure in retarding the flow. The work proceeded at an 
average rate of 13ft. Gin. per day. 

The tendency of modern practice is thus (when the nature of the 
material to be pierced admits) to conduct boring opei'ations on a 
large scale in a very similar manner to that in which they are 
effected on a small one, namely, by the removal at one operation of 
a core the full diameter of the finished cross section, and, where 
lining is necessary, to supply it in the form of large segmental pieces 
or even to mould it in place. In the other operations connected 
with railway formation the use of machinery has greatly increased 
the rapidity of execution. The excavation of cuttings and founda- 
tions, formation of embankments, ditching, and even track-laying 
and ballasting, can be much facilitated, if not entirely performed, 
by mechanical appliances, the adoption of which is rapidly becoming 
general. 

The production of reliable steel of great strength and moderate 
price gave a great impetus to the construction of long- span bridges. 
That over the Firth of Forth, with its spans of 1,661ft., height 
above bed of Forth of 570ft., and in which 50,000 tons of steel 
and iron were used, will probably remain vmsurpassed in dimensions 
until a material of still higher grade is introduced. 

Turning now to inland locomotion, we find that extremely high 
speeds have been lately attained in England and America, and 
we are promised still greater velocities on specially constructed 
electrical railways. Such speeds as 120 miles per hour are of 
course possible, but would necessitate a considerable distance 
between the tracks, and an expenditure of energy at the rate of 
about 250 horsepower in overcoming air resistance alone. It must 
also be remembered that it would now be difficult to locate a rail- 
way of this kind in a district so populated as to afford reasonable 
prospect of paying traffic without its being brought into du-ect 
competition with some existing steam line having greater facilities 
for the exchange of vehicles, and which has probably been con- 
structed at a far lower capital expenditure. Though the immediate 
future of high speed electrical railways is not promising, electricity 
is fast displacing other methods of traction on tramways and light 
railways. 

In America, horse traction is being superseded by the overhead 
conductor, or, as it is there termed, the trolly system, on which 450 
tramways, with a total of 4,000 miles of track, are now being 
worked. An electromotive force of 500 volts is used, and geared 
motors are universally adopted. 



president's address — SECTION H. 171 

In England there are two remarkable examples of electric light 
railways — the City and South London Railway and the Liverpool 
Overhead Railway. The C'ity and South London Railway is about 
three miles long, and is carried for the whole of its length in the 
cast-iron tunnels previously described. The average speed of the 
trains, including stopjjages, is eleven and a half miles per hour, and 
their gross weight about 40 tons each. The locomotives are of 100 
horsepower, and are carried on two axles, on each of which a motor 
acts directly. The rurrent is collected from an insulated channel- 
iron conductor laid between the rails, fed at intervals from a 61-14 
B.W.G. Fowler-Waring cable. The generating station is at the 
Stockwell terminus of the line, where there are four dynamos, each 
capable of supplying 450 amperes at 500 volts. 

The Liverpool Overhead Railway may be classed as one of the 
most interesting of modern engineering achievements. It consists 
of six miles of double track of standard gauge running on a plate- 
iron viaduct alongside the Liverjiool docks, and, for the greater 
part of its length, over the existing dock railway. There are in 
all fourteen stations, and the steepest gradient is 1 in 40. The 
main generating station (placed near the centre of the line) 
contains four 400 horsepower engines, each driving a dynamo 
capable of an output of 475 amperes at 500 volts. The con- 
ductors are inverted channel irons of steel, laid between the 
ordinary rails and carried on pot insulators. They are jointed 
by copper fishplates. The current is conveyed to the cars by 
means of hinged cast-iron shoes, the return being through the 
ordinary rails, which are electrically jointed at the fishplates. A 
train consists of two bogie-cars, and is capalde of seating 114 
passengers ; each car is furnished with a single motor, the 
armature of which is mounted directly on one of the bogie axles. 
The line was first opened for traffic on March 5th last, and during^ 
the first three months 71,122 train miles were completed. Trains 
are now run every five minutes, which necessitates twelve trains in 
traflSc. The average total output at the Central Station is 650 
amperes, at 430 volts ; the consumption of small coal is at the rate 
of 24lbs., costing |d. per train mile. The trains stop at all thirteen 
stations, and complete the six miles in twenty-five minutes, the 
average speed, including stoppages, being 14-4 miles per hour. 
Not the least interesting feature of this line are the signalling 
arrangements, which are effected electrically, and are perfectly 
automatic. 

The application of electric traction to existing roads will be 
attended with considerable difficulty. To fully equip one of the 
great lines on the conductor system would mean enormous- 
expenditure, and, in the goods yards, prohibitive complication ; 
but when it is apparent that irrespective economy warrants such 
expenditure being incurred, there should be no insurmountable 
obstacle to main line and branches being so fitted. 



172 president's address — section h. 

The marshalling at goods yards could be carried on by steam or 
storage locomotives,' and the other motors supplied with sufficient 
storage capacity to enable them to effect shunting operations at 
way stations. It is to be remembered, however, that an improved 
storage system might remove the existing necessity for the 
conductor. In the meantime we have a proposal to apply electric 
traction to existing railways in such a manner that no special 
plant beyond the actual locomotive is required. The engine (at 
present being constructed on the plan of M. Heilmann) differs 
from the ordinary locomotive in the fact that instead of the engine 
proper being coupled directly to the driving axle, it actuates a 
dynamo, the current from which is utilised to turn the engine 
wheels through the medium of motors placed directly on the axles. 

At first sight it would appear that such an arrangement could 
only result in loss; but a little consideration will shew us that 
vexatious limits as to diameter of wheels, size of boiler, and 
length of wheel base disappear, whilst the total weight of the 
engine can be iitilised for adhesion. Coupling rods are not 
required, and all reciprocating parts can be balanced without the 
introduction of disturbing forces, in themselves fatal to the 
attainment of high speeds ; and as the efficiency of transmission 
is high, and the engine can be run continually at the most 
economical expansion ratio, the fuel economy of the machine 
will probably be greater than that of any existing locomotive. 
It has also the advantages of being capable of attaining a higher 
velocity, and of dealing indiscriminately with express and goods 
traffic. 

Only practical experience can determine whether these results 
can be obtained without a disproportionate expenditure in first 
cost and ujikeep. At present it would appear that this locomotiye 
is destined to form a link in the chain of transition from direct 
steam to electrical traction on our railways, l)ut that it will in turn 
be displaced by a conductor or storage system. 

The excessive waste of material which occurs in the stoppage 
and control of the movement of railway trains is well known, and 
attempts have from time to time been made to reduce this loss and 
to obtain some return for the energy given up during retardation. 
It is a matter for sux'prise, therefore, that no efficient electrical 
brake has yet been introduced ; by electrical brake being under- 
stood, not an arrangement where electricity simply replaces fluid 
pressure as means for actuating the brake blocks, but one in which 
there is no frictional contact, the kinetic energy of the train being 
absorbed in the production of electrical currents. On electrical 
railways it would probably be found economical to conserve this 
energy, but for present application such complication would be 
b)etter avoided. 

With respect to steam navigation, the high rate of speed now 
maintained over long voyages and the regularity with which such 



president's address — SECTION H. 173- 

are accomplished are remarkable. These results are, doubtless, in 
some measure due to an increased size of vessel, but chiefly to the 
great advance which has been made in marine engine construction. 
The adoption of high boiler pressures, triple expansion engines, 
and the free use of steel has enabled the marine engineer to so 
increase the efficiency of his machinery that we now find 2*4 indi- 
cated horsepower per gross ton of vessel attained, as against the 
one horsepower per ton of ten years since. An indicated horse- 
power is produced for a consumption of a little over l|^lbs. of fuel,. 
and the careful proportioning of details has rendered stoppages 
from breakdowns of rare occurrence. 

To the active competition between the great English torpedo boat 
builders much of this progression can be traced, and the new water 
tube boiler of Mr. Thornycroft promises, from its comparative 
lightness, to enable a further stride to be taken in high speed 
navigation. But is advance in this direction to be completely 
dependent on the engine-builder ? The naval architect has certainly 
somewhat reduced the weight of the hull, but the form of vessel 
has remained for many years practically unchanged. The great 
improvement in the speed of our large racing yachts that (under 
similar conditions of stiffness and displacement) has followed the 
adoption of great beam, shallow body, and round linos, points to 
the possibility of a beamy, pram-bowed vessel of moderate draught 
being propelled with a less expenditure of power than is required 
in the case of the pointed tanks now so common. Between the 
seaworthiness and comfort of the two types there could be little 
comparison. 

It is to submarine navigation we must look for the attainment 
of extremely high velocities ; but if a submarine vessel — in every 
way as desirable as the creation of Jules Verne's fertile brain — 
were introduced to-morrow, it is extremely doubtful if it would 
command a share of traffic sufficient for its profitable employ- 
ment. 

Aerial navigation will in all probability be, before long, an 
accomplished fact. Messrs. Maxim and Phillips have each suc- 
ceeded in causing machines carrying their own motive power to 
lift themselves from the ground, and move through the air at a 
high velocity. This has been effected in the apparatus of the 
former by the reaction of a single inclined plane ; whilst Mr. 
Phillips has adopted a series of narrow planes arranged in much 
the same manner as the laths of a Venetian blind. In both cases 
the machine is propelled by a single stream-driven screw ; but it 
is open to question if the aero-plane surface might not be mvicli 
. reduced, and the manipidation of the contrivance made far more 
easy, by so arranging the propeller shaft that its axle with the 
horizontal could be varied at pleasure. The immediate use to 
which the successful flying machine will undoubtedly be put will 
be that of increasing the horrors of war, the character of which 



174 president's address — section h. 

its employment must completely change; for cities, no matter 
how fortified, will be completely open to attack, and treaties not- 
with>tanding the destruction of non-combatants and of private 
property will be appalling. 

In conclusion, I would refer to the long distance transmission of 
power. Passing over as experimental the now historical installation 
at Frankfort, where 300 horsepower was electrically transmitted 
108 miles, with a stated efficiency of 73 per cent., we find that the 
adoption of the high tension alternating current system has ren- 
dered it possible to transmit power over long distances with com- 
mercial success. An electromotive force of 10,000 volts is now 
recognised as a safe pressure if proper precautions be used. With 
high pressures the cross section and cost of conductor is greatly- 
reduced. The smallest sized wire having the necessary strength 
for line work (No. 6, B. and S.) will, at 4,000 volts, transmit 100 
horsepower ten miles with 80 per cent, efficiency. When pressures 
exceeding 5,000 volts are employed it is advisable, on account of 
difficulties connected with the insulation of the machines, to make 
use of transformers, the current being raised for transmission at 
the generator and again reduced at the motor terminals. As 
transformers having an efficiency of 97 per cent, are now con- 
structed the loss from this arrangement is insignificant compared 
with the saving in cost of the conductor. 

The want of a perfected alternating-cm-rent motor has alone 
delayed the rapid extension of this system ; but this difficulty has 
apparently been completely overcome by the recent inventions of 
Nicholas Tesla, and has been reduced to a minimum in an instal- 
lation which has for the last two years been in regular work in 
America. 

At the Gold King Mine, Colorado, power was required for 
-operating crushers and stamps; fuel could only be procured from 
long distances at enormous cost, but a few miles from the mine 
Avater power was avadable ; the intevening country, however, was 
so rough and so often snowed up that no ordinary means of trans- 
mission could be made use of. Electricity was therefore adopted. 
The plant consists of a Pelton wheel driving an alternating-current 
generator. The current is carried by a bare wire up the mountain 
side to the mine at a height of 2,500ft. ; here it drives a 100 
horsepower synchronou.s motor, which is started by the assistance of 
a small motor of the Tesla type. The efficiency of the system was 
found on test to be 83A- per cent, at full and 74 per cent, at half 
load, losses in generator and motor, but not those of conductor, 
included. So satisfactory has been the practical working of the 
plant that a 750 horsepower generator and a 300 horsepower and 
some smaller motors have lately been added. 

Long distance transmission for lighting purposes has for the last 
three years been in satisfactory operation at Portland, Oregon. 
The falls of the Willamette River, thirteen miles from Portland, 



president's address — SECTION H. 175 

are estimated at 250,000 horsepower, 300 horsepower of which 
is utilised by means of turbines driving two alternating-current 
dvnamos. The current, generated at 4,000 volts, is carried by a 
No. 4 B. &, S. wire on ordinary glass insulators across country 
to the sub-station at Portland, where it is received at 3,300 volts, 
and reduced by transformers to 1,1 Oo volts for distribution through 
the city to ordmary transformers, by which it is again reduced to 
50 volts. Additions have lately been made to the plant, the total 
capacity of which is now 8.750 sixteen-candlepower lights. Works 
for the utilisation and electrical distribution of the great energy 
of Niagara are being actively prosecuted. 

The immense waterpower of the world is now available, and 
can be conveyed to situations where the difficulty of procuring 
fuel has hitherto prohibited mining and other operations. It 
will be jDOssible for manufacturing to exist far removed from 
coal measures, and even for industries, the profitable prosecution 
of which has been dependent on abundant fuel supply, to be carried 
on without such aid. To the small manufacturer the supply of 
cheap and readily applied motive jDOwer will be a great boon, and 
we may look for a revival in the prosperity of the small workshops 
now almost crushed out of existence by the competition of their 
more powerful rivals. The utilisation of power obtained at a 
distance may, in fact, be expected to effect a change in industrial 
operations hardly inferior in magnitude to that brought about by 
the introduction of the steam engine. I think, therefore, you will 
agree with with me in considering the successful transmission of 
power over long distances as " the greatest mechanical achievement 
of the age." 




Section I. 
SANITARY SCIENCE AND HYGIENE. 

ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT, 
A. MAULT. 

URBAN SANITATION. 

I. 

Ever since men gathered themselves into communities they have- 
found that some laws or regulations were needful to preserve 
health. Comfort and natural decency perhaps first prompted these 
laws, but soon safety more imperatively asked for them. Even the 
temporary camping-place of a nomadic horde would soon become 
unbearably offensive and unhealthy if its filth and refuse were not 
got rid of. To get rid of it from the camps of a wandering people 
was one of the objects of the health clauses of the earliest code of 
law that we possess : one of the objects, I say, but not the only 
one. And it is interesting to note how farseeing and foreseeing 
was the wisdom that prompted the sanitary provisions of the 
Mosaic law, and based them on what are still recognised as the 
true foundations of sanitation — cleanliness of person and of dwel- 
ling-place, wholesomeness of food, and isolation of infectious 
disease. 

What is needful in a camp with respect to the health of the 
sojourners therein is still more needful in a city; but the means 
for securing it are necessarily different in the differing circum- 
stances of a movable and of the fixed dwelling-place of a people. 
At first these means were very often rude, and not only inadequate, 
but sometimes calculated rather to endanger health than to preserve 
it. But the garnered experience of each place, on the one hand, 
and the results of scientific research and their dissemination, on the 
other, have, slowly at first, but much more rapidly in recent years, 
placed matters in a more satisfactory position. 

Coincidently with the growth of knowledge of the best means 
of safeguarding the public health, there has grown up — I think I 
may say that there has consequently and necessarily grown up — 
the principle of leaving less and less to private initiative and 
control, and more and more to the management of public sanitary 
authorities. There is therefore to-day, in all civilised countries, a 



president's address SECTION I. 177 

great body of sanitary law administered by local authorities ; and 
the completeness of this body of law and the thoroughness of its 
administration is one of the best, if not the best, standard where- 
with to measure the real civilisation of a people. 

I propose, as an introduction to the work of this section, to 
address to you some observations on the general scope of the 
powers entrusted and duties imposed by modern legislation on the 
municipal authorities who are the guardians of the health of a 
town community, with illustrations of the means employed by some 
of these authorities in the exercise of these powers and fulfilment 
of these duties. In speaking of powers entrusted and duties im- 
posed 1 hold that in health matters the entrusting with power is 
the imposing of a duty — that where issues of life and death are 
involved may and can should be read ought and must. Of course 
the means employed must always greatly depend upon the circum- 
stances of the community under the care of the authorities, as a 
large and wealthy city may employ a staff and do work quite 
beyond the capabilities of a small and poor one. But it is none 
the less interesting and useful to know what may and ought to be 
done, when financially jjossible, and it is better to set up a high 
standard for attainment than a low and easier one. Furthermore, 
a small community can often usefully modify the means employed 
by a large one, and thus arrive at the end to be aimed at — the 
securing and safeguarding the health of the people. 

The work of the health board for a town may be broadly 
divided into the prophylactic, the curative, and the constructive — 
the first and second being under the direction of the medical 
officer of health, and the third under that of the engineer or town 
surveyor. There is no definite boundary between these divisions ; 
and the work to be done often belongs almost as much to one 
di\dsion as to another, and can be efficiently done only by the 
hearty co-operation of both branches of the service, for much pre- 
ventive and curative work requires special constructions, and most 
sanitary construction is undertaken with the view, at least indi- 
rectly, of preventing or treating disease. 

The duties of the officer of health embrace the measures to be 
taken to guard the public health generally, and the special means 
to be used in regard to infectious and epidemic diseases. He needs 
a staff of inspectors sufficient for the thorough and continuously 
recurrent examination of the whole of his district, and a material 
equipment to enable him to deal promptly and efficaciously with 
infectious diseases as they arise. The sufficiency of this equip- 
ment is the principal factor which determines in ordinary circum- 
stances whether an outbreak of such disease shall or shall not 
assume the proportions of an epidemic. 

The town surveyor or engineer's staff should be sufficient not 
only for designing and superintending the construction of the 
sanitary works undertaken by the municipal authorities, but also for 

M 



]78 president's address — section I. 

the performance of other such work not involving construction, and 
for the supervision of all house and other building done by private 
persons, so as to secure good wholesome dwellings, workrooms, 
and meeting places of all kinds. The tendency of modern legis- 
lation is, as I have already mentioned, to leave in sanitary matters 
less and less to private initiative. The result is that in some large 
cities the town surveyor's staff is a very important one, and directs 
a considerable body of workmen of all sorts. 

Enactments relative to public health may be broadly classed 
into measures for securing the purity of the air we breathe ; 
measures for securing the wholesomeness of the food and water 
we eat and drink : measures for securing the healthiness of the 
houses we dwell in, or work in, or meet together in ; measures 
taken with respect to infectious diseases ; and measures other than 
these, but which have a general reference to the public health. In 
connection with ail these measures it is interesting to note how they 
are being more and more based on scientific principles, and how 
more and more attention is being paid to the investigation of those 
principles. Much of this investigation is beyond the means of 
small communities, and has to be undertaken either by the central 
government of a coimtry or by the local authorities of large and 
wealthy cities. To some of these authorities much praise is due 
for the perseverance with which some branches of inquiry have 
been carried on, not only in directions that have at once proved 
useful, but also in some that are thus far apparently barren, of 
practical result. Still more is praise due to scientific men in 
private life, especially to medical men, for their unwearying inves- 
tigations in matters of such vital importance to their fellow men, 
for facts and coincidences are being observed and recorded that 
may yet serve to point out law and order where now all is obscure 
and seemingly disconnected. 

II. 

The work to be done by a local board of health, acting as a 
municipal authority, may be thus summarised in the classes above 
mentioned : — 

(«) MEASURES FOR SECURING THE PURITY OF THE AIR. 

1. The determination of the condition of the air, by observation. 

2. The removal of superfluous moisture, by drainage. 

3. The collection, removal, and proper disposal of sewage. 

4. The construction of streets in a manner to be easily kept clean. 

5. The proper cleansing of streets and disposal of street refuse. 

6. The proper control of offensive trades. 

7. Smoke prevention. 

8. The proper construction and cleansing of yards and courts. 

9. The prevention of over-density of population on a given area. 



president's address — SECTION I. 179 

10. The provision and conservation of open spaces in towns. 

11. The removal and prevention of miisances of all kinds. 

12. The removal and proper disposal of refuse of all kinds. 

{b) MEASURES FOR SECURING WHOLESOMEXESS OF FOOD. 

1. The provision of good water in sufficient quantity. 

2. The prevention of water pollution 

3. The establishment of properly-organised slaughter-houses and 
control of the meat supply. 

4. The control of dairies, milch kiue, and the milk supply. 

5. The control of bakehouses and the bread supply. 

6. The provision and control of fish, vegetable, and fruit markets. 

7. The prevention of the adulteration of food. 

!c) MEASURES FOR SECURING THE HEALTHINESS OF HOUSES. 

1. The control of housebuilding, so as to secure healthiness. 

2. The control of the sanitary condition of existing houses. 

3. The demolition of unhealthy houses and building of healthy 
ones. 

4. The prevention of over-crowding in houses, factories, &c. 

5. The control of the sanitation of schools, factories, lodging- 
houses, &,c. 

6. The control of public buildings as regards health and safety. 

7. In seaports, tlie control of the sanitary condition of ships. 

(d) MEASURES FOR DEALING WITH INFECTIOUS DISEASES. 

1. The establishment of a proper system of notification. 

2. The carrying out of special prophylactic measures, such as 
vaccination. 

3. The provision of sufficient special hospital accommodation 
and ambulance service. 

4. The provision of reception and observation wards. 

5. The provision, where necessary, of a special medical service. 

■ 6. The provision of a properly- equipped house-disinfection 
service. 

7. The establishment of disinfecting stations or provision of 
movable disinfectors for clothing, bedding, &;c. 

8. The control of the transport of the sick from the point of 
view of the public safety. 

9. The control of the burial of infected bodies and provision of 
mortuaries. 

(e) GENERAL MEASURES. 

1. Infant life protection. 

2. The provision of public baths and washhouses. 

3. The control of burial grounds. 



180 president's address — SECTION 1. 

4. The control of streets, including tramways, lighting, &c. 

5. The provision of public parks and recreation gi-ounds and 
other such like measures. 

The time at our disposal forbids much illustration of the work 
thus summarised, but I will shortly notice some of the measures 
taken. 

III. 

MEASURES FOR SECURING THE PURITY OF THE AIR. 

In the lirst place it is necessary that the condition of the air be 
known. It is liable to pollution both from what may be called 
natural and artificial causes. Thus the air of a swamp is unwhole- 
some by reason of excessive humidity, and by the results of 
vegetable decomposition. If a town be built on the swamp, to 
these natural causes of impurity are superadded those resulting 
from human occupation. If the town be built on a dry site, these 
latter causes may be the only ones to be dealt with. Special 
meteorological, climatological, and microscopic observations not 
only furnish information of conditions affecting health, out also, 
when properly understood, may give direction to the efforts to be 
made with the object of avoiding or controlling changes of con- 
dition of the air caused by human occupation. So far microscopic- 
examination of the air does not seem to have yielded practical 
information to the health officer except in connection with hospital 
treatment. In the open air the change of condition caused by 
human occupation is strikingly shown by comparison of town with, 
country air. Records are available for a number of years in con- 
nection with, the urban observatory at the Hotel de Ville of Paris, 
and the suburban observatory at Montsouris in a park of about 
350 acres. The mean of the observations for the ten years ending- 
1890 gives 345 as the number of bacteria in a cubic metre of air 
at Montsouris, to 4,790 at the Hotel de Yille. I have called this 
"a change of condition" rather than pollution in a morbific sense, 
as, though it is difficult to suppose that a large quantity of vege- 
table organism can exist in the air without aft'ecting its wliolesome- 
ness, so far no direct relationship has been observed between the 
prevalence of disease of any kind and the bacteriological condition 
of the air. The Paris observations are published for every Avcek 
with tables of the deaths from zymotic diseases and diseases of the 
respiratory organs, and no series of coincidences can be remarked. 
Very often there is a sudden rise or fall in the mean number of 
bacteria found in one week as compared with the preceding — the- 
differences being sometimes equal to 500 per cent. — without any 
corresponding rise or fall in the death rate of either the week itself 
or of any subsequent one. Furthermore, after making allowance 
for the existence in the same arrondissement, the XIV., as that in 
which is the park of Montsouris, of the great hospital of the 



president's address SECTION I. 181 

Enfants assisfes, and other hospitals and asj'lums, that arrondisse- 
ment, Avith a density of population only one-third of that of the 
IV. arrondissement, in which the Hotel de Ville is situated, has a 
rate of mortality that is quite as high. 

With regard to drying the air of a town, it is often effected by 
the work done in laying the ordinary sewers, and shown to be 
effected by an immediate fall in the death rate from phthisis and 
diseases encouraged by excess of humidity. Where the land 
drainage is not so efPected it should be done by special works. 

The questions of the system of sewerage and of sewage disposal 
can receive no satisfactory specific answers applicable to all places 
and circumstances. The answers must depend upon so many 
different conditions and contingencies that those of each place 
must be important factors in deciding upon the answer to be given 
for the place. But there are certain requirements that must be 
fulfilled ill all places. The sewers must be well and economically 
built, large enough to do their duty, but not too large ; they must 
be self-cleansing, or have special means of being cleansed ; and 
they must be well ventilated ; and the sewage must be disposed of 
without causing a niiisance. The proper fulfilment of all these 
requirements, especially the last, is often no easy task. Were this 
the proper arena for such a discussion, and were ihere time at our 
disposal. I should be inclined to maintain the following theses ; — 

1. With regard to the Sizes of Sewers. — That they should be no 

larger than fully sufficient to carry off in the hour of 
greatest daily flow the sewage and so much of the rainfall 
as could not be excluded during that hour, as they would 
thus secure greater efficiency of action with greater 
economy of construction, better ventilation with a smaller 
supply of air, and better flushing with a smaller supply of 
water. 

2. With rfspect to the Ventilation ></ Servers. — That the best 

mechanical means for effecting it are those making use of 
the force of the wind as motive power. 

3. With relation to Seivage Disposal. — That our present experi- 

ence shows that where it can be safely discharged without 
treatment, as, for instance, into the sea, such discharge is 
the most economical method : that w,here such discharge 
is impracticable, the purification of the sewage before dis- 
charge by some chemical agent, such as ferozone, that 
does not add much to the bulk of the deposited sludge, is 
the most economical method of disposal. 
With regard to street construction, the principal object to be 
attained from a sanitary point of view is to have a surface easily 
kept clean. From this point of view an asphalted roadway is the 
best, and a macadamised one, if the road be made at all, the worst, 
as virtually only offering the choice of having the air polluted by 



182 president's address — section I. 

emanations from a damp svirface charged with the impurities caused 
by the constant passage of animals or by those same impurities in 
the shape of dust. The cost and the slipperiness of bituminous 
pavement usually hinder its use. Wood pavement comes next in 
healthiness, and it, upon comparatively level ground, and stone 
pavement on steeper gradients, are practically the best. In the 
cities of Europe every year sees a large development in the use of 
wood pavement, and as these colonies have large supphes of the 
woods most suitable for the purpose, it is much to be desired that 
the streets of our towns should give examples of what these woods 
— such, for instance, as stringybark — can do in the way of furnish- 
ing a good paving material. The administration of the streets of 
Paris is probably one of the best in the world. It exercises the 
strictest economy ; but, in its ideas of true economy, public health 
and comfort and convenience are considerations as well as expendi- 
ture of money. It has about 10,500,000 square yards of street 
surface to take care of, of which about 7,500,000yds. are paved in 
stone; 1,750,000yds. are macadamised; 380,000yds., chiefly foot- 
ways and gutters, are asphalted ; 640,000yds. are wood pavements ; 
and a small poition is yet unmade. The extent of stone pavinjj: is 
slightly decreasing, that of macadamised road is decreasing by more 
than 30,0UOyds. a year, and that of wood paving is increasing at 
the rate of 60,000yds. a year. This is a striking fact, as wood 
paving is much more expensive to keep in repair than stone 
pa^^ng. The yearly cost of street repairs and cleansing, exclusive 
of interest on first cost of construction, is about Is. 5d. a yard tor 
wood paving and macadamised surfaces, Is. Id. a yard for asphalte, 
and 5^d. a yard for stone paving. 

The next point is : What is the best method to keep roadways 
clean ? I think all experience shows that street sweeping and 
watering and the disposal of the sweepings are best done by a 
direct municipal service, without the intervention of a contractor. 
Ordinary street sw^eepings have usually some manurial value, and 
can usually be easily disposed of, either untreated or mixed with 
sewage skidge or other matters ; but as the collection and disposal 
of house refuse are most economically done at the same time as 
those of street sweepings, 1 will say more about the matter a little 
further on. 1 believe also that your attention will be specially 
called to it by Mr. Hardy during our meetings. 

Legislation on the subject of noxious or offensive trades has 
thrown considerable responsibility upon local boards of health. 
The classification of these trades into groups, something like the 
three classes into which French law divides them, would facilitate 
the proper dealing with the whole subject, and allow of the con- 
solidation of the provisions of such Acts as the Alkali Acts in 
England and of the various Acts connected with the public health 
in respect of all noxious trades. The first class of the French law 
comprises trades that must be worked at a distance from any 



president's address — SECTION I. 183 

dwelling ; the second class, those which may be allowed under 
rigorous conditions as to methods of working in the neighborhood 
of houses ; and the third class, those which may remain there with- 
out inconvenience, but which require and are subject to constant 
inspection. Full schedules of all the classes are annexed to the 
decree of 1886, which codifies the whole of previous legislation on 
the subject. These schedules make mention of the special incon- 
veniences, nuisances, or dangers that may arise from each of the 
various establishments. None are authorised withovit public 
inquiry and until the proper technical conditions for avoiding the 
apprehended inconveniences, nuisances, and dangers have been 
fulfilled. 1 may mention, as examples of the classification, that 
manure works are in the first class, tanneries in the second, and 
sawmills in the third. To encourage the application of science to 
diminish the evils of noxious manufactures, such as take special 
measures to that end may be re-classed. Thus some chemical 
works, where no absorption of noxious vapor is effected, are in the 
first class, others of the same nature that apply proper processes to- 
absorb the noxious fumes are put in the second class. 

Smnke prevention is in many places of great importance. The 
not undertaking of it by a local board of health, on the ground 
that the prevention of smoke interferes with trade, is basing in- 
action on a very futile plea, as the law in regard to it is most 
vigorously carried out in cities like Birmingham and Manchester, 
where large manufacturing interests are concerned, and least 
vigorously in places like Hobart, where only small interests are 
concerned. Naturally the evils arising from smoke are greater in 
damp climates than in our drier ones. The observations being 
carried out in London and at Manchester are specially interesting, 
particularly with regard to the connection of smoke with town 
fogs. 

Of even more importance than the cleansing of the public streets 
is that of house-yards and courts, and the condition of these places 
is the crucial test of the effectiveness of the sanitary administration 
of a town. They are the niside of the cup and platter, of which 
the streets are the outside. The back doors and back windows of 
houses are their chief means of ventilation, and the quality of the 
air that enters by them depends upon the condition of the yard. 
Where a yard belongs to one householder, proper inspection by the 
health authorities may secure its cleanliness ; but where its use is- 
common to several houses, the only effectual way to secure its, 
cleanliness is to make its cleansing part of the regular scavenging 
work of the town. This is done with the best results in Edin- 
burgh, Glasgow, Liverpool, Manchester, and other large cties; 
and leaving it to be done by owners or occupiers is marked by 
correspondingly bad results in other p'aces I could name. The 
character of the surface of the yards is the most important factor 
in the ease or difficulty of keeping them clean. The paving of 



184 president's address — section I. 

them with natural or artificial asphalte puts them into the best 
condition. It not only makes the surface that is mopt easily 
cleaned, but its imperviousness prevents rain and house slops from 
soaking into the soil, and carrying surface impurities that pollute 
the ground air that finds its way into the neighboring house. 
Much of the disease in the older colonial toAvns and villages is 
caused by the fact that, for some generations, that part of the 
sewage which is represented by household slops has been thrown 
out of the back door, and that consequently the soil upon which the 
house stands is sewage-sodden, and the ground air tainted. This 
making of the back yard into the slop and refuse receptacle of the 
houses causes probably the M'orst evils attending over-occupation of 
the ground of towns. 

The influence of the density of the population of a given area on 
the health of that population is well known. The precise condi- 
tions under which arose the most flagrant instances of over- 
crowding are not likely to recur on this side of the world ; but the 
value of land in the larger cities is having the effect of encouraging 
the building of many-storied houses. The greatest density of 
po|)ulation that I have heard of occurred in the Cowgate, at 
Edinburgh, with 900 people to the acre. An area in Dundee had 
724 to the acre, with a yearly death rate of 58*4 in the thousand. 
These were small areas; but in Glasgow there were x8 acres with 
574 people to the acre. In these cities, and in Birmingham, 
Liverpool, London, and other places, much has been done under 
special Acts or under the Artizans' and Laborers' Dwellings Acts 
in the way of clearing out these nests of disease, and with marked 
effect on the health of the people. The death rate of the areas 
dealt with in Birmingham fell from o3-2 in the thousand to 21 -3 ; 
and in these colonies all of us who have to do with the conservation 
of public health know places where wholesale demolition and re- 
building are the only effectual remedies for the present unhealthy 
condition of things. 

In connection with the prevention of over-density of population, 
the establishment and keeping up of public parks and open spaces 
is of great importance. The neglect of public authorities at home 
to do this in the past has thrown a great burden on the present 
generation. Let us, wherever there is time and opportimity, 
follow the excellent example of the founders of the city we are 
meeting in, when they reserved the belt of park lands. Such a 
belt is to my mind better than the same area of land in one block 
or park, just as securing wide tree-planted streets and boulevards 
is better than the formation of extra urban parks. Have both if 
possible, but begin with the streets. In nearly every city chances 
continually occur, and are continually lost, of securing and planting 
odd nooks and corners in the more thickly-peopled districts. 

When all the work thus far mentioned in connection with 
securing the purity of the open air have been carried out, there 



PRESIDENT S ADDRESS — SECTION I. 



185 



remains yet to be done what is practically the most important 
function of the health authority — the seeing that sanitary duties 
are properly performed by owners and occupiers of urban property 
— the function of the inspector of nuisances. The way in which 
this function is performed is another crucial test of sanitary adminis- 
tration. The more continually and effectively the inspection is 
done, the less necessity is there to enforce the law by legal pro- 
ceedings. In Birmingham in 1890 in 21.342 cases nuisances were 
abated on notice being given, while in only 57 cases was it 
found needful to enforce the notice in the police court; and in 
Liverpool last year in one class of nuisances over 93,000 were 
abated on notice, and only 122 enforced by law. The principal 
factor in the success of an inspector's work is the knowledge that 
^it is unremitting 

When a district requires a number of inspectors it is very 
desirable that some of them should be women, either directly 
engaged and employed by the health department, as at Glasgow, 
or authorised by and acting under its control, though working in 
connection with benevolent societies, as at Manchester. The 
object of inspection is twofold -the finding oat of matters that 
require attention, and the seeing that they are attended to by the 
fulfilment of the preventive measures ordered. With regard to 
the first-named object experience has shown that women are in 
many cases more efficient than men, and naturally so. At the 
time inspections are usually made in the houses of working people 
the men are away, and the women at home are reticent — and not 
improperly so — with men inspectors, and consequently the men 
have to find out everything for themselves ; but if women inspec- 
tors come, their inspection is greatly assisted by the freedom with 
which information is given them. 

There are two circumstances connected with this subject that 
are greatly to be regretted. They probably are mutually explana- 
tory the one of the other. The one is that people in general take 
so little pains to give the health authorities information of what it 
is urgently important that they should have knowledge. As in 
many other things, we are in this ruled by false sentiment. We 
hold that it is an unneighborly act to tell the inspector that our 
neighbor's children have diphtheria : but we do not hold that it is 
unneighborly to let the children of fifty other neighbors take their 
chance of catching the infection. The other circumstance is that 
sanitary authorities, when necessary information is tendered either 
by persons or societies, seem to regard the matter as an inter- 
ference with or a reflection upon their performance of their duty. 
The work of preserving the health of the people is so important 
that everyone should work to secure it, and everyone's help should 
be heartily accepted. 

With regard to the disposal of all the refuse of households and 
of the trades and occupations of a city, including slaughter-house 



186 president's address — section I. 

offal and market-jDlace garbage, the most effectual and harmless 
way is by burning in properly-construoted furnaces or " destruc- 
tors " ; "and the most dangerous and objectionable way is to use it 
to fill up claypits, quarries, and such like places in the neighbor- 
hood of cities. 

As far as my observation and experience go, the quantitj' of 
objectionable refuse to be treated in a year amounts, in the larger 
English towns, to about 12cwts. or IScwts. for each head of the 
population. Well designed and built destructor furnaces, such as 
Fryer's, will burn about 8 tons a day in each cell ; so that one destruc- 
tor cell is required for each 4,000 of a population. If the heat that 
is generated in the destructor be utilised for steam production, and 
if the steam power and clinkers resulting from the burning be profit- 
ably employed, as at Southampton, this method of the disposal of 
town refuse may be said to cost nothing. I am not speaking of the 
cost of collection, as the refuse has to be collected however dis- 
posed of. If no use can be made of the heat or of the clinkers, the 
cost of destruction will be, including interest on outlay, repairs, 
and labour, about Is. a ton, or Tjd. a year for each head of the 
population. 

As the greater part of the expense of refuse dis^oosal is connected 
with its collection, it is important in large towns to distribute as 
much as possible the emplacement of the destructors, so as to 
reduce tbe length of the cartage. It should also be borne in mind, 
when selecting destructor sites, that cartage uphill ordinarily costs 
50 per cent, more than cartage downhill. 



IV, 

MEASURES FOR SECURING WHOLESOMENESS OF FOOD 
AND WATER. 

The principal constructional work in this section is connected 
with the water supply of towns. We hope to hear something 
about the supply of the city we are meeting in from a very com- 
petent authority. I will only generalize. In these dry Australian 
climates the procuring and conserving of a good water supply is a 
matter the difficulty of which becomes the greater almost in geo- 
metrical ratio to the increase of population. The first difficulty muy 
be as to quantity. The increase of the population means the dis- 
afforesting of the country, and that in turn means the decrease of 
rainfall, that is of water supply. On the other hand, where sufi5- 
cient quantity is obtainable from forest-covered land, the quality of 
the water is apt to be deteriorated by the presence of excessive 
quantities of albumenoid ammonia and impurities resulting from 
vegetable decomposition. In such cases it should certainly be 
purified before being delivered for consumption. A matter to 
which too little attention is usually paid is the necessity, or at 



president's address — SECTION I. 187 

least desirability, of having both dark and cool storage for water. 
Service reservoirs should always be covered, and distributing mains 
laid low enough in the ground, and house pipes kept from direct 
sunshine. 

A matter connected with coiuitry rather than town Avater supply 
that I should like to see taken into consideration is the probable 
influence of rain-water drinking on our population. Are there not 
signs that it is being physically affected by its use of soft-water 
drinking ? 

The whole matter of water supply should be in the hands of the 
health authorities. But even when it is, there is none the less a 
necessity for constant inspection. The services, both chemical 
and microscopical, of the analyst should be exercised not only in 
connection with the choice of a supply, but continuously afterwards 
in connection with the water actually drawn out of the household 
taps. Constant inspection, both for the prevention of pollution 
and for the detection of it when it does occur, is still more needed 
when a communit}- is dependent for its water supply iipon a variety 
of sources, such as wells, small streams, and rain-water tanks. 

"With regard to the meat supply of a people, the most' effective 
way to control its wholesomeness is to provi()e properly designed 
and built public slaughter-houses, in which alone should be allowed 
the slaughtering of animals intended for food. In such establish- 
ments the measiu'es to be taken to ])revent the use of unwholesome 
meat, and meat that may be the vehicle of the contagium of diseases 
that are communicable from animals to man, can be most easily and 
effectively carried out : and so also can those for preventing the 
nuisances that usually accompany the keeping and killing of animals. 

Too much attention cannot be paid to the sources of the milk 
supply of a people. The results of thorough ortinnisation and 
inspection are well exemplified in Denmark. The people of 
Copenhagen have not only the best milk supply of any large 
community, but the dairy produce commands — and deservedly 
commands — the best price in the largest markets in the world. 
This with some peo[)le is the ultimate gauge of success, and pre- 
cautionary measures which might be characterised as excessively 
stringent, when taken merely for protecting human life, are held 
to be justified by their influence on the far more important matter 
of commercial profit. Some of our colonies have special laws 
dealing with dairies from the standpoint of public health. Others 
are trying to open a trade with England for butter and cheese. 
The securing of absolute cleanliness is the most important factor 
in the securing of success in regard to both these matters. 

The inspection of milch kine is also very necessary. However 
much medical opinions may vary as to the dangers attending the 
consumption of the meat of tuberculous cattle, I think there is no 
difference of opinion as to the necessity of preventing the use of 
the milk of tuberculous cows. 



188 president's address — section I. 

The great points to be attended to in connection with all structures 
having to do with food supply — whether slaughter-houses, cowhouses, 
dairies, bakehouses, meat or fish or vegetable markets — are to build 
them of materials and on a plan easily kept clean, and to provide 
in connection with them proper means of disposing of all their 
refuse — solid or liquid. 

Proper inspection of fruit and vegetable markets is usually much. 
neglected. At Glasgow, New York, and Paris properly organised 
services for this purpose do much good. 

The detective work carried on by the public analysts of the local 
boards of health is very important. The results of this work in 
Great Britain, that can be definitely appraised, are the great and 
steady diminutions that are continuously occurring in ihe numbers 
of adulterated articles among those submitted to examination. The 
precise effect of this diminution of adulteration upon the public 
health is difficult to exactly determine, but what is sure is that the 
public health has improved /»«/•« passu with the improvement in the 
purity of food. 



MEASURES FOR SECURING THE HEALTHINESS OF HOUSES. 

New houses are comparatively easily dealt with where there are 
proper by-laws and regulations setting forth the conditions under 
which they may be built and occupied. The sanitary portion of 
these by-laws should not only regulate drainage and ventilation, 
but should have regard to the nature of the site on which a house 
is to be built and the open spaces that are to be left about it, and 
should insure its thorough inspection and the testing of its drains 
before its occupation. This is done in many towns with very use- 
ful results, the experience of New York illustrating what I have 
said as to the efficacy of \mremitting inspection. At first the 
notices served had frequently to be enforced by legal proceedings ; 
but soon the astute builders of the empire city found out that it 
Avas cheaper to fulfil the building regulations than to try to evade 
them. I am sorry that my experience of colonial life shows me 
that the great want is not provision of good laAvs and regulations, 
but of steady determination to enforce them. 

There is more difficulty in dealing with the unhealthy condition 
of existing buildings. This difficulty arises not so much from the 
impracticability Avhich often exists of effectually remedying 
structural defects as from financial considerations in connection 
with the fact that unhealthy dwellings are, as a rule, occupied by 
the poor, and are often owned by them. Improving them usually 
means raising their rents; demolishintr them often deprives the poor 
of homes near their work. To the evils arising from the actually 
unhealthy condition of a house are often added those arising from 
overcrowding. The poorer a family becomes the less accommoda- 



president's address SECTION I. 189 

tion it can afford for itself. The scant accommodiition often 
becomes scantier by the giving up of some of it to lodgers — the last 
resource of a poor housewife to eke out her means. The difficulties 
attending the dealing with these poor houses have been more 
resolutely, and I believe therefore more successfully, faced at 
Glasgow than in any other large city I know. As far back as 
1862, under the provisions of a special Act, all houses of not more 
than three rooms, and with a total cubic space of not more than 
2.000ft., were placed under special sanitary observation, were 
measured, and allowed inmates at the rate of one adult or iwo 
children under ten years of age for every 400 cubic feet of space, 
the allowed number being stamped upon a tin ticket on the door. 
These " ticketed houses " are liable to and receive inspection by 
night as well as day, and their sanitation has done marvels in 
improving the health of the city. 

In my own experience I have found that in hard times, such as 
these we are now unhappily having, the sanitary condition of the 
poorer classes of houses rapidly deteriorates. Landlords get less 
rent from such property, and therefore spend less upon it. The 
tenants pay their rent less regularly, and therefore can demand less 
in the way of repairs, however necessary, A soi't of tacit under- 
standing on this matter is arrived at; but in some cases it is openly 
expressed. A family as it goes down in the world gets less and less 
exigent as it descends the social scale, u«itil its refuge is a place the 
landlord will let them have onlj' on condition that he is not to be 
asked to do anything. To meet such and such like cases we are in 
Tasmania asking Parliament, among other amendments of the 
Health Acts, to apply to existing houses on change of tenancy the 
provisions as to inspection and certificate before occupation that are 
elsewhere in force with respect to newly-built houses. We hope 
by this means, not only to prevent the letting of houses in an un- 
healthy condition, but also to effect good with regard to poor 
houses under existing tenancies, as landlords may as well do repairs 
for the present tenants as be obliged to do them for new ones. 

In many cases the only practicable remedy for the unhealthy 
condition of a house, or group of houses, is the drastic one of 
demolition. Reference has already been made to the good work 
done in many places by exercising the legislative powers granted to 
this end. As important is the exercise of the legislative powers 
granted for reconstruction. The results following this exercise at 
Birmingham, Glasgow, Liverpool, and London, under powers 
obtained vmder special Acts, amply justify the granting of similar 
powers to all urban sanitary boards as effected by the Housing of 
the Working Classes Act of 1890. The building work thus 
authorised has not only done good directly to the people who have 
actually been provided with improved dwelling-places, but in- 
directly also by raising the standard of cottage and house building 
over whole districts. 



190 president's address SECTION 1. 

I need not enlarg^e upon the sanitation of lodging-houses, 
schools, factories, and public places of all kinds, such as churches 
and theatres. It is in principle similar to that of dwelling-houses. 

VI. 

MEASURES FOR DEALING WITH INFECTIOUS DISEASES. 

Whatever may be done with relation to ordinary diseases, the 
State claims the right to interfere in the case of infectious disease, 
as its treatment concerns every one within reach of the infection. 
The tendency appears to be towards increasing the number of the 
diseases to be classed as infectious. This is the case in America, 
where phthisis is, in some sanitary administrations, so classed. 

As regards notification of infectious diseases, the yearly reports 
of the medical officers of health of many of the large towns in 
Oreat Britain continually call attention to the beneficial effects that 
have followed the adoption of the Infectious Diseases Notification 
Act, 1889. As far as I know, it is only in the United Kinodom and 
in this colony of South Australia that any fees are paid to medical 
men fnr notification; and here I understand that, as the fees are 
only paid on notification of smallpox, cholera, and yellow fever, the 
payments are seldom or never made. My own opinion is that this 
list should be extended to embrace other diseases in which imme- 
diate preventive measures are known to be effectual. As it is 
certain that in such cases early notification of every case is one of 
the most important factors in the success of such preventive 
measures, such notification is worth securing at some cost and 
should be obligatory. If it be not the cases that are most likely to 
spread infection, such as those occurring in inns, lodging-houses, 
dairies and retail shops will not be notified. 

As to special prophylactic measures, such as vaccination, I will 
not occupy your time, but only express my regret that in some of 
these colonies, as our governments must surely recognise the value 
of the operation, they do not seem to have the courage of their 
opinions and insist on its performance. 

As regards hospitals for infectious diseases, our attention will, I 
understand, be specially directed to the provision that is made in 
this city of Adelaide. It is certain that the knowledge of the pro- 
per construction and proper administration of them has made great 
advances in recent years. The establishments and services of the 
Metropolitan Asylums Board in London, and of the city authorities 
at Glasgow, are especially complete. As an example of good con- 
struction, I may mention the floating hospitals for smallpox on the 
Thames, where the difficult problems of warning and ventilation 
have been solved with singular success. In the comparatively 
large Avards the air is renewed every seven minutes without creating 
draughts. The only negligence I would remark upon is that the 
outgoing air is not subjected to any antiseptic treatment — a very 



president's address — SECTION I. 191 

important matter in relation to the outgoing air from a smallpox 
hospital. The omission could be easily remedied, as means are at 
hand for super-heating steam. 

At Glasgow provision is made, not only for the patients, but in 
some cases for their families in reception or observation wards con- 
nected witli the hospital establishments. Otiservation wards for 
doubtful cases are very useful adjuncts to all hospitals for infectious 
diseases. The proper construction of ambulances tor the transport 
of infectious cases is very important, but still more important is the 
proper regulation of their work and service. 

Hospital treatment, though primarily intended for the cure of 
disease, is certainly one of the most effectual means of preventing 
its spread in highly infectious cases, such as those of scarlet fever, 
as in the removing a patient the source of inl'ection is removed from 
a family. I'robably the diminished death rate from scarlet fever of 
recent years in Great Britain is due to hospital isolation and treat- 
ment, as diminished death rate from smallpox is due to vaccination, 
diminished death rate from typhoid fever to sewerage, and 
dimininished death rate from diarrhoea to improved water supply. 

With respect to hospital accommodation for infectious diseases 
that should be made in large cities, it is probable that a permanent 
provision of one bed for each 1,000 or 1,200 of the population 
would be sufficient. The present provision in London is about one 
bed for each 1,400. In Aberdeen, Birmingham, Edinburgh, and 
Glasgow it varies from one for 1,000 to one for 1,200; while in 
Cardiff it is only one for 2,500, and in Dundee one for each 4,000 
of the population. 

In small communities I should advise that provision be made of 
a proper site, with such preparations as would enable the Health 
Board to at once isolate the more serious infectious cases when 
necessity arose. At Launceston we have secured twenty acres of 
suitable and easily accessible land about three miles from the centre 
of the city. The site is high and well wooded, and has a sandy 
soil over gravel. An acre in the middle of it is surrounded with a 
high fence, Avithin which are arranged concreted and asphalted 
platforms to receive hospital huts or tents ; and drains are laid and 
water supplied. Hospital huts could be put up at a few hours' 
notice, and tents immediately. I believe this to be the most 
economical way for such a community to make jireparations 
against, say, a visitation of smallpox, as no staff is required until 
the emergency arises. Beyond this, provision of a proper ambu- 
lance should be made and its service organised. 

The proper disinfection of houses in which cases of infectious 
disease have occurred is a matter that cannot safely be left to 
private enterprise and responsibility. It is one that can be more 
efficiently as well as more economically done by a staff of trained 
workmen, who can, moreover, do the work with safety to them- 
selves. 



192 president's address — section I. 

The disinfection of clothing, bedding, and furnishings of all 
kinds requires special apparatus, either fixed or locomotive. All 
experience is showing more and more clearly that disinfection by 
heat is more efficacious than disinfection by chemicals; conseqviently 
hot air or steam should be used wherever practicable. 

It is proposed by some to apply the principle of disinfection by 
heat to the bodies of those who have died of infectious diseases. 
This is hardly likely to become a general jjractice at present, though 
it seems that cremation is slowly coming into favor ; but as regards 
the burial of infected bodies, some regulation is necessary both as 
to time and method. The earliest practicable burial should be 
insisted on, due precautions taken for the disinfection of the body 
and coffin, and the use of vaults strictly forbidden. I wovild that 
it were forbidden with respect to all burials. 

YII. 

ADMIXISTRATION. 

The proper carrying out of all this sanitary work by the medical, 
engineering, and inspecting staff is rendered possible or impossible 
by the manner and spirit in which it is regarded by the general or 
local government under which it is undertaken. Unfortunately 
its importance is generally under-estimated, especially in young 
commimities. It would be natural to suppose that the offshoots 
of older civilised peoples would, after they had fairly settled down 
in new countries, continue the work of sanitation fi'om the point 
arrived at in their old home But no. It seems that our race is 
determined at every fresh settlement to ignore the experience of 
its past, or to deem that its new circumstances are so exceptional 
as to render that experience worthless. Sanitarians are thus con- 
stantly told, " That is all very well in England, but it is quite 
unnecessary here." So the old battle against preventible disease 
has to be fought all over again, not only in every country, but 
almost in every town in it. There is frequently no definite 
Government policy in health matters, and no genei-ally expressed 
public opinion asking for such a policy. The consequence is 
that the financial difficulties in the way of sanitation are 
greatly aggravated. From no point of view is the truth of the 
old saw, " Prevention is better than cure," more forcibl}- illus- 
trated than from the financial one. A small sum judiciously 
and continuously spent in preventive measures will — altogether 
apart from saving life and diminishing suffering — often amount 
to far less than the cost of the measures taken to meet a scare. 
Some years ago we had such a scare in Tasmania. A few 
cases of smallpox occurred in Launceston — thirty-three. Math ten 
deaths. The Vaccination Act had virtually become a dead letter, 
and there was consequently a little panic. The other colonies 
quarantined us; our postal and shipping services were greatly 



president's address — SECTIOX I. 193 

embarrassed; and our commerce suffered severely, and its mone- 
tary loss 1 cannot appreciate. But apart from it the Government 
spent about £9,000 in dealing with tne outbreak, of which about 
£1.000 was for gratuitous vaccination. Apart from this £1,000 
(which may be said to have been expended in giving immunity 
from smallpox to about 10,000 of the populntion of the island) 
none of the money was spent in preventive work ; and at the end 
of the outbreak, with the exception named, the colony was just as 
open to the inroads of the disease, and just as unprepared to meet 
it, as at the beginning. I am not finding fault with the spending 
of this money : the outbreak had to be dealt with at any cost. 
What I find fault with is that it is not thought worth while to 
prepare beforehand, by having a definite policy in legard to the 
prevention of preventible disease — and smallpox is eminently a 
preventible disease. If the Vaccination Act had been duly 
administered, and if there had been an infectious diseases hos- 
pital at Launceston, I am convinced that £l,0ii0 — that is, £30 
a head for the patients treated— woidd have sufficed to have 
stamped out the disease. 

As might be expected, local boards of health are often still more 
short-sighted than Governments. Every member of some of the 
boards appears to think, with respect to health matters, not that 
he is bound to protect the interests of the ratepayers in e very- 
possible way, but in one particular way — to protect them from 
paying a sanitary rate. I know cities, undrained cities, where the 
yearly monetary loss, measured only by the time lost by bread- 
winners from typhoid fever, would pay for their thorough drainage 
in four years, and yet where nothing permanent is done to remove 
the causes of typhoid fever ; and there are not a few places where 
comparatively large sanitary rates are paid — I will not say are cheer- 
fully paid, for who does pay rates cheerfully?— but paid year after 
year to carry out the pail system, without any provision being made 
for the disposal of household slops and the rest of the sewage, 
where a proper system of sewerage would dispose by water carriage 
of both the solid and liquid portions of the entire sewage, and 
Avould need no larger a rate to pay for it. And thus not only are 
the larger economies of life, and health, and comfort sacrificed to 
the smaller economies of ratepaying, but the smaller economy itself 
is sacrificed through ignorance and short-sightedness. 

On the other hand, I do not know of any health authority that 
has fairly, manfully, and intelligently faced the whole problem of 
the sanitation of the place and people committed to its charge 
that has not justified its action by success that can be appraised in 
money, as well as in the far more important successes that are 
priceless in the way of lengthening life and increasing comfort and 
lessening pain and suffering. I hold that business matters in 
which monetary profit and loss are the main concern are best left 
to private undertaking ; but in health matters the standard of 

N 



194 president's address— section I. 

profit and loss is on a higher footing — though the monetary phase 
of it must not be disregarded — and the undertaking of all that 
concerns these matters is best left in public hands ; and I am not 
disposed to curtail the bounds of the matters that concern the 
public health. For instance, I would include some matters that 
may be said rather to affect public comfort and convenience than 
health. I have referred to the condition of the streets and roads 
of a town as an important factor in the matter of its health. I 
would therefore advise that everything connected with that con- 
dition should be under the control of the authorities — paving, 
cleansing, sewers and drains, water mains and services, gas mains 
and services, tramways, tree planting, and such like. I would do 
so all the more on account of the commercial aspect of some of 
these undertakings, for commercial considerations might require 
that streets should be dealt with in one way while public health 
and convenience might lequire something different. Some of us 
who have had exjierience in street making and maintenance know 
the annoyance and evils connected with the joint occupancy of 
a roadway by water and gas and tramway companies, all claiming 
rights interfering Avilh the duty of the town authorities to maintain 
the surface in good, safe, and clean condition. Moreover, the 
proper administration of all these matters not only prevents the 
annoyances and evils referred to, but secures to the public a 
better service than can be attained when trade profit is the main 
consideration, and at the same time secures the profit also. For 
instance, the city of Birmingham acquired the gasworks by 
purchase in 1875. Since that time the chief point aimed at has 
been the making of a gas as free from impurities and of as high an 
illuminating power as practicable. And not only has this been 
secured, but the price of gas has been reduced from 3s. 6d. a 
thousand feet to small consumers to 2s. 7d., and at the same time 
a profit averaging £50,000 a year has been made, half of which 
has been placed in a reserve fund and half gone in aid of the 
general improvement rate of the city. " The ratepayers of 
Glasgow," as Dr. Russell says, " through their representatives, not 
only purvey their own water, gas, electricity, and street locomo- 
tion, but under the force of circumstances are becoming holders 
■and purveyors of house accommodation," and, I may add, the 
ratepayers are finding it quite worth their while to do all this. 

I would be willing to base the whole case in favor of energetic 
administration of health laws upon the arguments to be dra^vn 
from the example and experience of the proverbially shrewd and 
practical men of Glasgow% They have not only done what Dr. 
ilussell mentions, but have carried out all that the health laws of 
the country empower them to do ; and where they found that the 
pro\'isions of the general law were not sufficient, they have pro- 
moied special sanitary legislation for their city. There are no less 
-than twelve such special Acts on the statute rolls of Parliament. 



president's address SECTION I. 195 

They have fulfilled my ideal of administering such laws by reading 
permissive clauses relative to life and health as mandatory. They 
have endowed their city with an executive guided by eminent 
intelligence and actuated by ceaseless energy, and have equipped 
that executive with all the means that Science recognises not only 
as essential, but also as helpful, to safeguard the health of a great 
community. Their reward has been that their city, whose " wynds 
were a byword among strangers, and a scandal in the eyes of all 
thoughtful citizens for generations," has become a pattern of 
health administration, and an example of the success that attends 
well-directed and persistent effort to improve the material and 
physical wellbeing of a people. 



Section J. 
MENTAL SCIENCE AND EDUCATION. 



ADDRESS BY THE PRESIDENT, 
HENRY LAURIE, LL.D., 

Prof, of Mental and Moral Philosophy^ UniversUy, Melbourne. 



RECENT PROGRESS AND PRESENT POSITION OF 
MENTAL SCIENCE. 

Last year the Section of Literature and Fine Arts made an 
effective exit, and to-day the Section of Mental Science and 
Education makes its entrance on the platform of the Australasian 
Association for the Advancement of Science. Hitherto papers 
on education have been submitted under the disguise of the Section 
of Literature, and an occasional paper on mental science has 
found listeners tinder some other subterfuge ; but now, for the 
first time, these important subjects are openly recognised. We 
may, I think, congratulate the Association on the step in advance 
which it has taken, and ma}' cordially invite the co-operation of 
all who take an enlightened interest in the .«tudy of mental science, 
or in the theory and practice of education, to make the new depar- 
ture a success. 

These topics are, it is evident, very closely allied. A science 
which proposes to throw light on mental facts, and which includes, 
therefore, the consideration of attention, habit, memory, imagina- 
tion, reasoning, and the emotions and desires, has an intin)ate 
bearing on the question of the best methods of educing the powers 
and capacities of the human mind ; and the teacher who from 
month to month and year to year has had amjjle opportunities of 
watching the development of the young, cr of imparting special 
knowledge, may in his turn contribute important facts and gene- 
ralisations to psychology. From this point of view the subjects 
may be fitly laracketed together. I shall not attempt, however, 
in this inaugural address, to take even a general survey of the 
theory of education ; but, leaving this to others who may come 
after me, shall be content if I can throw some lighten the present 
position of mental science. 



president's address —SECTIOX J. 197 

In the history of British thought, psychology — or the science 
of the facts of mind — has been intermingled with metaphysics, or 
philosophy in the stricter acceptation of the words, as denoting the 
theory of first principles. The name of Locke, for example, will 
be long remembered as that of one who gave a powerfvd impetus 
to the study of mental science ; but Avhile he adopted the psycho- 
logical method of observing the facts of mind, in so far as he could 
read these in himself or decipher them from the language and acts 
of others, his chief aim was philosophical. His purpose, as he 
said, was to inquire into the origin, certainty, and extent of human 
knowledge. In the spirit of natural science he sought to observe, 
analyse, and classify the mental facts before him, and to ascertain 
their sequences and co-existences ; but, in doing so, he S(mght also 
to solve questions as to the first principles of knowledge and of 
reality as known to us, and the questions which he raised were 
answered by his successors in ways which would have astonished 
him. Coming down to the Scottish school, whose tenets were in 
vogue in the first half of the present century, we find that it also 
represented philosophy as an inquiry into the human mind, re- 
quiring careful observation of mental facts ; but, above all, it aimed 
at the establishment of first principles, principles of common sense 
or primary beliefs, which might be accepted as idtimate criteria of 
truth. FiA-en by J. S. Mill and Bain Ave find inquiries into mental 
facts, and questions of the origin, the validity, and the limits of 
human knowledge, mingled together as parts of one science; and, 
in fact, the vague name mental philosophy which is in use to-day, 
and Avhich has so often been defined as the science of mind, 
testifies to the common practice of binding questions of mental 
fact which belong to psychology with philosophical questions 
which relate to the first principles of knowledge and of being. 

Now, there can be no doubt that the endless conflicts of philo- 
sophic thought have generated a profound distrust of the methods 
and conclusions of philosophy. Many fail to see that from the 
discussion of centuries any solid ground of vantage has been 
gained, and Avhen they .try to enter into these controversies for 
themseh'es they feel — 

As on a darkling plain 

Swept with confused alarms of struggle and fight, 

Where ignorant armies clash by night ! 

Men of science in particular ask for the positive results to be 
obtained by generalisation from authenticated facts, or by demon- 
strative reasoning ; and, dominated by this craving, they are apt 
to set aside the questions of philosophy, not only as lying beyond 
their special quest, but also as in themselves unprofitable or in- 
soluble. I may be tempted to ask, in the sequel, if this is reason- 
able. The fact, at least, is notorious. And so closely have the 
fortunes of jisychology been boimd up with those of philosoj)hy, 
that both have fallen under the same suspicion. Thus, I think, 



198 president's address — -section J. 

we may account for the curious circumstance that the science of 
mind, supplanted by its younger sisters, has been hitherto neglected 
by our modern Associations for the Advancement of Science. 

The events of recent years are, hoAvever, significant of change. 
Psychology is now separated from philosophy, and is based, like 
other natural sciences, on a survey of positive facts. Starting with 
the common sense distinction between mind and matter, it is the 
task of empii-ical psychology to deal with mental facts, leaving 
material facts to sciences which may be comprehensively classed 
under the heads of physics, chemistry, and biology. The facts of 
mind, like those of matter, are to be observed and classified ; the 
complex are to be analysed into their simpler elements, and their 
conditions and the order of their occurrence are to be ascertained. 
A science of psychology, thus formed, has special features of its 
own. It proceeds, in the first instance, by means of introspection 
or self-observation, without which any advance would be impossible; 
for our own minds are known to each of us individually, while we 
can only infer what passes in the minds of others. It is compelled 
also to classify aspects of mind rather than separate facts, for the 
same complex fact may include knowledge, feeling, and will. These 
peculiarities, however, do not invalidate its claim to be a natural 
science. Like other natural sciences, it seeks to arrive at facts and 
their uniformities ; and, like them also, it begins Avith assumptions 
— such, for example, as the independent existence of the material 
world, which it does not profess to investigate. The modern 
psychologist has, doubtless, his philosophical creed as well as 
another, and it may creep in where it is not wanted ; but he 
acts wisely when he tries to keep the questions of philosophy 
out of the way, confessing frankly that any assumptions which he 
may make provisionally are to be handed over to another court for 
ultimate judgment. However opposed psychologists may be to 
each other in their philosophical tenets, they have thus found it 
possible to maintain an armed truce, and to unite in doing excellent 
work. In such circumstances psychology justly claims to be 
aflaliated with the other sciences. Nay, the attitude which she 
assumes in asserting a temporary independence may contain a 
lesson for them also, for they are all branches of one tree of 
knowledge — ways which part and divide themselves, as Bacon said 
from the main and common way oi philosophia prima^ and there is 
not one which does not move forward on assumptions which may 
be called to submit themselves in the end to the criticism of 
philosophy. 

The new conception of psychology involves an extension of its 
territory. The older psychology was almost entirely restricted to 
the consideration of the adult human mind in its normal mai.i- 
festations ; and each observer was disposed — naturally enough — 
to regard his own mind as typical of others. The development of the 
human mind from earliest infancy is now more distinctly recognised 



president's ADDRESS-^SECTION J. 199 

as forming })art of the problem. It is seen, too, that even in their 
normal working minds differ from each other more widely than 
was at one time supposed. Galton has shown, for example, hy his 
statistical inquiries, that imagination differs so greatly in different 
minds that in some it is the constant and vivid accompaniment of 
thought, while in others thought may proceed without the reflective 
consciousness of any representative image. In the light of sucli 
facts as these the old controversy of conceptualism and nominalism 
wears a different complexion. Then we have the singular pheno- 
mena of number forms, or visual images, which in some minds 
accompany any arithmetical calculation ; Avhile in some cases, again, 
the imagination is auditive rather than visual, as in the case of the 
wonderful mental calculator Inaudi, who is said to hear his figures 
as thougli they were whispered in his ear. When we extend our 
survey to various races and climes, other differences emerge. 
These are of })ractical as well as theoretical importance, for the 
philanthropist or doctrinaire who sits at home at ease may be so 
bent on the kinship of human nature as to neglect most important 
difi'erences ; he may be ready, perhaps, to extend trial by jury 
to Malta, or Parliamentary representation to India, disregarding 
differences of mental powers or habits. Folk-psychology, as it 
has been called, may ransack all the ages for its materials, turning 
to its use all that history or ethnology may contribute. The 
manifestations of mind in the development of the race, no less 
than in the development of the individual, thus fall -within the 
scope of psychology. 

In recent years, also, intellectual activity has been largely 
expended in the study of abnormal facts of mind. In the various 
forms of insanity and hallucination, in hypnotism, in cases of 
amnesia and multiplex personality, in the alleged facts of telepathy 
and other phenomena usually classed as spiritualistic, there has 
been an immense amount of special work. Hypnotism has already 
to a large extent passed from the hands of the showman and the 
charlatan into those of the man of science. Here, as elsewhere, 
the first desideratum has been to make sure of the facts; the nexi, 
to interpret them. The tendency of recent investigation is to 
range many of the most important facts of hypnotism in line with 
the more normal phenomena of suggestion, but it must be 
admitted that many of the phenomena cannot be brought under 
this foimula, and await interpretation. The therapeutic value of 
hypnotism still gives rise to controversy, but it may at least be 
said that the facts are now open to scientific investigation. The 
Society for Psychical Research has chosen for its special task the 
exploration of "• various sorts of debatable phenomena which ar-? 
prima facie inexplicable on any generally recognised hj'pothesis." 
These, including the alleged phenomena of thought-transference, 
clairvoyance, and spiritual manifestations have, till recently, been 
the happy hunting-ground of the impostor and his dupes. There 



200 president's address — section J. 

is a danger even for cultivated minds of attaching an exaggerated 
importance to puzzling phenomena, and of over-credulity ; and 
the risk is greater when inquiries are undertaken by those who are 
devoid of the requisite knowledge of nature, and of human nature, 
and of the resources of the prestidigitateur. But yet it must be 
recorded with satisfaction that attempts are being made to verify 
and classify the facts in the spirit of exact science, with a view to 
their ultimate explanation. We are entitled to set aside as un- 
worthy of credence every statement which shuns the light of 
scientific inquiry ; the carefully guarded circle and the darkened 
room may be left unentered ; but, on the other hand. Science must 
not shrink from the task of examining all alleged phenomena, 
whether physical or psychical, which challenge her verdict. 
Imposture may thus be mitigated, and any residual phenomena 
which remain must be worthy of attention on their own account, 
as well as in their bearing on other facts of mind. 

Psychology, in its crudest form, has always contained some 
reference to the bodily organism. The reflective separation of 
mind from body was, indeed, the beginnmg of mental S' ience. 
And it is clearly impossible, in classifying sensations as states of 
consciousness, to describe the sensations of vision without reference 
to the eye, or the sensations of sound without reference to the ear. 
Such obvious connections as these led to more minute inquiries into 
the connection of mind wdth the mechanism of the body ; but it is 
only within the lifetime of the present generation that physio- 
logical psychology has assumed much scientific importance. 
Phrenology having been s^t aside as an ambitious, but inadequite, 
attempt to exhibit the correlations of mental and cerebral facts, 
a new beginning has been patiently made. How, and to what 
extent, do organic changes condition the facts of mind ? In this 
inqviirj' all the available resources of observation and experiment 
have been brought to bear; but when we consider the vast com- 
plexity of the nervous system, and especially the complex inter- 
connection of the cells and fibres of the brain, and, further, the 
difficulty of experiment on the living body, it is not surprising 
that wdth all the industry and ingenuity that have been shown 
progress has been sIoav. The problems of the neural conditions 
of sensation and voluntary motion have been attacked with a large 
measure of sucess ; but in other respects the study is still in its 
infancy, and abounds with hypotheses to be verified or disproved. 
It is of little consequence whether we regard neuro-psychology as a 
special branch of psychology, or whether, with Herbert Spencer, 
we describe it as a unique science lying midway between subjective 
psychology and physiology, taking a term from each, but not to be 
identified with either. The place which it occupies in a classifica- 
tion of the sciences must be dictated by our convenience. In any 
case modern psychology cannot leave it untouched, and we may 
certainly lay claim to it as falling under the jurisdiction of the 



president's address SECl'ION J. 201 

section of mental science. If it be treated at all in the pro- 
ceedings of the Association, it will be here. 

Under the general title of phj-siological psychology it is usual 
also to include psychophysics, which has been principally occupied 
with the relations between sensations and their extra-organic 
stimuli. In fact, it has t.een found convenient to group together 
all those subjects to which the method of external experiment 
may be applied, including the time occupied in nervous processes 
and tlie correlated mental facts, and experiments on memory and 
association as well as the localisation of the cerebral conditions of 
m.ind and the laws of physical stimuli. The importance now 
attached to these subjects is indicated by last year's meeting of 
the International Congress of Experimental Psychology, attended 
by over 300 persons, and divided into two sections, the first 
occupied with neurology and psychophysics, and the second with 
hypnotism and kindred questions. I he experimental nature of 
these studies should have a special attraction for a scientific 
association ; and 1 would appeal, not only to this section, but also 
to the Association generally, to encourage the systematic prosecu- 
tion of such studies in Australasia. Neither psychology nor 
jjhilosophy can afford to neglect researches which are now carried 
on in the ])sychological laboratories of Germany and America, and 
the time may come when such appliances may be deemed as 
essential a part of a modern university as the physical, the 
chemical, or the physioloi^ical laboratory. The first psychological 
laboratory was established at Leijjsic by Wundt, in 1879, and the 
example has since been followed by other centres in Germany and 
in the United States. England has lagged behind, but a beginning 
at least has been made in Cambridge. The present is a bad time 
to propose any extension of imiversity teaching or expenditure, 
but it is to be lioped that the endowment of research will be 
carried on by the liberality of individuals, if not by our heavily 
l)urdened Governments ; and we may claim for such a purpose the 
goodwill of all who desire to see the facts of mental science 
atfiliated with those of physics and physiology. 

Yet another recent development of mental science remains to be 
mentioned. Psychology may fairly include the whole of the 
phenomena of intelligence dis|)layed throughout the animal 
kingdom. As there is a study of comparative anatomy in which 
the structures of different organisms are compared, and a study of 
comparative physiology in which organic functions are compared, 
so there is a legitimate study of comparative or animal psychology 
in which the sensibilities and intelligence of the lower animals are 
compared among themselves and with those of man. The inquiry 
lias its peculiar difficulties : for if the intelligence of our fellow- 
men is known to us only by inference, it is by a more remote 
analogy that, we pass from the actions of the lower animals to the 
measure of their intelligence. Still, we must not underrate its 



202 president's address — section j. 

importance on this account, and it has received a povverful stimulus 
from its connection with the theory of evolution. If, it is argued, 
there is reason to believe that all animals are descended from the 
same primitive forms, is it not reasonable to believe that the intel- 
ligence associated with these organisms has similarly developed? 
On this hypothesis the problem of evolutional psychology is to 
show how, in accordance with the known or inferred facts of 
animal intelligence, the supposed development may have taken 
place. The theory which presents itself for verification offers, at 
the same time, a powerful stimulus to the investigation of facts. 
Much has been done in collecting, verifying, and arranging facts 
in a graduated series, and progress has been made also in 
obtaining a criterion by which the first beginnings of animal 
intelligence may be tested, and in fixing the intellectual limits 
which sever the lower animals from man. Wherever we find the 
power of making new adjustments or modifying old ones as a 
result of individual experience, there we may infer with very great 
probability the ])resence of intelligence. Ascending in the scale, 
we must admit that our humbler brethren are capable of percep- 
tion, memory, and imagination. They exhibit curiosity also, paying 
attention to characteristics which interest them; and we cannot 
deny them the power of reasoning, since they form expectations 
on the strength of past experience. At the same time it would 
appear that their reasoning is always about concrete facts. There 
is no evidence that they can, like man, form abstract ideas in 
which attributes are regarded in isolation from concrete things, 
or that they can reason abstractly, or are capable of reflective 
self -consciousness. I need scarcely add that in this region many 
questions remain unsolved, and there is much which is open to 
dispute. 

While, as I have said, it is the tendency of modern Science to 
investigate these departments of psychology in abstraction from 
the ultimate problems of philosophy, it is not to be understood that 
the task of isolation is an easy one. I have not yet met with any 
work on psychology which did not betray, more or less distinctly, 
the philosophical tenets of its author. Philosophy is more closely 
related to psychology than to the sciences which are occupied with 
the material world. The physicist has no diflficulty in considering 
the world of matter and motion in abstraction from the mind which 
knows it. If he seeks to examine thoroughly the conceptions which 
he is constantly using, and begins to inquire into the nature of 
causation, of matter, and of force, he has left the physical sphere, 
and has entered the metaphysical. But, as a physicist, he is under 
no temptation to make the transition. With the psychologist it is 
otherwise. At almost every point he is in danger of crossing the 
dividing line. He must take for granted, to begin with, the existence 
of mind. It is easy to say that he should occupy himself with the 
facts or phenomena of mind. But what are the facts ? If it be 



president's address SECTION J. 203 

meant that lie is to attend only to sensations and ideas, or other 
states of consciousness, without ascribing them to a mind whose 
states they are, then we may reply, with Lotze, that this " involves- 
a wilful departure from what is actually given in experience," since 
a mere sensation or idea " without a subject is nowhere to be met 
with as a fact." And if we speak of phenomena, do we not imply 
some reality of which we know the phenomena or appearances ? 
Here, then, we find ourselves encompassed by metaphysical ques- 
tions. While psychology has been sometimes used to assist the 
doctrine of a transcendent ego, it has been used equally in the in- 
terests of an atomistic philosophy — as when Hume descended into 
his own consciousness, with the result that he never caught himself 
without a perception, and never succeeded in finding anything 
more. If in mental science we are to maintain the strictly 
scientific point of view, the only cure for such controversies is 
to state at the outset the assumptions which we make. It seems 
to me that it would be enough for psychology to begin with that 
common-sense assumption of the self, or I, which is conveyed in 
ordinary language, leaving it to metaphysics to decide what is the 
precise meaning to be given to this conception. There cannot be 
a doubt that there is some bond of connection between our suc- 
cessive states of consciousness. Even in the strange cases of 
double personality the facts of each phase are in some way bound 
together. Take, for example, the oft-quoted case of Felida X.» 
who alternated between her natural condition, in which she was 
serious and reserved, and a condition of restless gaiety. The events 
of each condition were knit together as belonging to the experience 
of the same person ; and there was a connection also between the 
two, since during the second condition the occurrences of the first 
were remembered. But after pyschology has said its last word 
about memory, or customary feelings, or anything else, as eluci- 
dating the connection of oiu- states of consciousness, the meaning 
of personality remains for the treatment of philosophy. On the 
other hand, the psychologist is at liberty, if he thinks it will do him 
any good, to begin with the hypothesis that states of consciousness 
are separate existences. But even if such a hypothesis could 
endure the test of comparison with the mental facts, it, too, would 
need to be referred to the criticism of philosophy. Another instance 
of the temptation to pass lightly from psychology to metaphysics 
may be found in the attitude of the psychologist towards the 
material world. He begins by adopting the dualism of ordinary 
thought, w^hich supposes the objects which we perceive in space to 
be altogether different from the percipient mind. But his treat- 
ment as a psychologist limits him to impressions and ideas, 
sensations and percepts ; he nowhere comes into contact with the 
independent material world which he postulated. What, then, can 
be more natural than that his thought should turn back on itself, 
and that he should ask if the material world may not be resolved 



204 president's address — section j. 

into complexes of sensations and their possibilities ? Thus an 
intelligent student, after the perusal of such a textbook as Sully's 
" Outline of Psychology," ma)' imagine that there is no escape from 
a doctrine of subjective idealism. But here, again, as Sully is careful 
to point out, a distinction must be made between the psychology 
and the philosophy of perception. The '•individualistic" con- 
clusion is the result of the limitation of our inquiry to mental 
facts ; and Ave are not to take a restriction which we have ourselves 
deliberately made as the ultimate limit of our knowledge. In this 
case also psychology must stand aside, and make way for the final 
criticism of philosophy. Kven physiological psychology, while it 
clings to the phenomenal dualism between mind and matter, is 
not free from the temptation of making certain presuppositions of 
its own the ba^is of a metaphysic. It begins by postulating an 
exact correspondence between physiological and psychical facts, 
the latter depending on the former as their conditions. Here is an 
hypothesis which may be fairly worked, as Professor James puts 
it. " for all it is worth ;" we need not exclude working hypotheses 
in psychology any more than in other positive sciences. Hut the 
psycho-physiologist may proceed to ignore, or to deny, mental facts 
for which he is vmable to find any physiological counterpart ; and 
thus in psychology he may give us a revised edition of the old 
theory of transformed sensations, and may also use his psychology 
as the basis of a philosophical theory of materialism or automa- 
tism. Such a use of his own presuppositions is clearly illegiti- 
mate.* Facts which consciousness attests do not depend for theii 
reality on the success of an explorer in the field of cerebral 
physiology, and the enunciation of a hypothesis at the outset of an 
inquiry does not prove its truth. Any results which may be 
reached in following out such a hypothesis are subject to the 
verification of facts, and, finally, to philosophical investigation into 
the ultimate nature of matter and of mind. 

Of the methods to be employed in philosophy, as thus dis- 
tinguished from psychology, time would fail me to speak. Strictly, 
philosophy should not be included under mental science ; but we 
may, I think, taking a liberal interpretation, gladly welcome any 
philosophical contribution which is the outcome of genuine 
thought. The imreasonableness of attempting to exclude all 
consideration of the questions of philosophy is shown by its 
futility How is it possible that the human mind, encouraged by 
the spirit of modern Science to push its inquiries to the uttermost, 
should stop short abruptly, declining all investigation into the first 
principles or conditions of knowledge and of being? Every 
polemic against metaphysics is itself a metaphysic in disguise, 
for an assertion of the impossibility of answering metaphysical 

•The danger here briefly touched upon has been fully ti eateil, with leterence to recent 
speculations, by Dr. Ward, in an article entitled ".Modern Psychology: a Reflection," in 
Mind for January, 1893, and by Professor Seth in an article on "The New Psychology and 
Automatism," in the Contemporary JRevieio for April, 1893. 



president's address SECTION J. 205 

questions implies, if it be made with any show of reason, that 
these questions have been faced ; and experience proves that 
philosophy, if denied admittance at the door, will come in at the 
windows, and will make itself heard, if in no other way, in the 
ostensible utterances of physics and physiology. 

I cannot conclude without referring, however briefly, to logic, 
ethics, and aesthetics, as sciences at once theoretical and practical, 
drawing their materials to a large extent from mental science while 
connected with philosophy in their fundamental ])rinciples. In 
aesthetics little has been done of recent years beyond assimilating 
more thoroughly the results attained by Continental thinkers. 
There are, I think, influences now at work in Australasia which 
prophesy a deeper interest than has hitherto been taken among us 
in the philosophy and history of art. The aspect of logical science 
has been completely changed within the jiresent century. It was 
remarkt d by Kant, that since the time of Aristotle logic had not 
retraced a single step, nor had it been able to take one step in 
advance. But now it must be confessed by the firmest adherents 
of the traditional logic, that even formal logic has undergone some 
changes, and has added to its territory a symbolic logic which ivas 
little more than hinted at before. So powerful, indeed, are the 
methods of symbolic logic, even in its simplest forms, that its 
analysis goes far beyond the needs of ordinary reasoning, and 
logicians are compelled to manufacture complicated arguments to 
illustrate its strength. In inductive logic we have a study which, 
though foreshadowed by Bacon, is pecidiarly the product of our 
century, which follows closely the procedure of scientific thought, 
and was impossible till Science had achieved its modern triumphs. 
The indebtedness of inductive logic to Whewell, Herschel, and Mill 
cannot be forgotten ; but in Great Britain and her dependencies 
we have suffered, perhaps, by too great a deference to the autho- 
rity of Mill, and we owe to Germany the best work which has 
recently been done in this branch of study. In ethics and moral 
philosophy a great change is now in progress. The individualistic 
view of man which has been prominent in English thought is now 
being supplemented, under various influences, by that older view 
which represents man as essentially a social being, a member of a 
social organism, fulfilling his own life most fully in living for others 
as well as for himself. The two great schools of moral jjhilosophy 
— one seeking to resolve morality into simpler elements, the other 
denying that it can be so resolved — still remain ; but both have 
been profoundly influenced by the thought of evolution, a concep- 
tion, indeed, which was freely applied to the development of 
morality before it found its way into natural science. The older 
empirical doctrine, that morality has its origin within the lifetime 
of the individual from egoistic or social impulses, is dying out, 
and is replaced by the doctrine that the moral intuitions and 
sentiments are the results of ages of evolution. The "long results 



206 president's address — section j, 

of time " in the moral education of mankind are equally acknow- 
ledged by philosophers of the opposite school ; and it is for them 
to reconcile their faith in morality as part of the constitution of 
man with the general theorj' of evolution, and to show how the 
growth of the principle of duty in the lives and institutions of men 
is compatible with the denial of an empirical origin of morals. 

The sketch which I have offered you of the present position of 
mental science is necessarily imjjerfect. Many topics might have 
been dealt with in greater detail ; but this could have been done 
only at the cost of laying a greater burden on your patience, which 
has already, I fear, been too heavily taxed. I have aimed at 
showing that mental science in every one of its branches has been 
no exception to the law of progress. If I have succeeded here I 
shall be satisfied, for progress in the past must inspire hope for 
the future. To me it seems not only likely, but inevitable, that in- 
creasing attention will be paid to mental science. The child, drawn 
out of himself by the sights and sounds which solicit the senses, 
acquires a knowledge of surrounding objects and persons before he 
gains a distinct idea of himself ; and so the human mind, enriched 
by its triumphs in physics, in chemistry, and in biolog}', must return 
upon itself, feeling that the circle of its knowledge is incomplete 
till the secrets of mind as well as of the material universe have 
been thoroughly explored. 



REPORT OF SSISMOLOGICAL COrWITTEE, 



Members of Committee. 



Mr. a. B. Biggs 
Mr. R. J. L. Ellery 
Sir James Hector 
Mr. H. C. Russell 



Captaix Shortt 
Sir C. Todd 
Mr. G. Hogben 

(Secretary). 



With the exception of the earthquake of January 27th, 1892, 
which was felt throughout Tasmania and in the south-east of 
Australia, and one or two slight shocks in Tasmania, recorded by- 
Mr. A. B. Biggs, earthquake activity in Australasia during 1892 
was confined to New Zealand. In the last-named cohmy there 
■were seventy-one shocks, of the usual mild description. For the 
recording of these we have again to thank Dr. Lemon, Superinten- 
dent of Posts and Telegraphs, Wellington, for his kindness in 
allowing memoranda to he forwarded by the officers of his depart- 
ment. We are also indebted to several private observers, chief 
among whom must be mentioned Mr. H. C. Field, of Wanganui, 
who regularly supplied careful notes of all shocks observed by 
him. 

The Tasmanian earthquake of January, 1892, has been the sub- 
ject of an investigation by Mr. G. Hogben. He assigns to it an 
origin situated east of Tasmania, the epicentric area being a 
narrow strip lying between 153° 56' and 154° 36' east longitude, 
and between 41° 13' and 40° 46' south latitude, and situate at its 
nearest point 353 miles from Launceston and 365 miles from 
Hobart. The maximum intensity was between VH. and VIII, on 
the Rossi-Forel scale ; the velocity of propagation about twenty- 
six miles per minute. The ejiicentrum is not far from that found 
•by the same writer for the earthquake of the 13th May, 1885, and 
it would probably be safe to conclude that all the chief shocks of 
the remarkable series of earth disturbances that tuok place in Tas- 
mania and South-East Australia from April, 1883, to December, 
1886, proceeded from the same region, and possibly that the 



208 SEISMOLOGICAL PHENOMENA. 

smaller and more isolated shocks were secondary earthquakes, 
whose primary source was also situated there. 

The late Captain Shortt was good enouijh to place in the hands 
of the Secretary of this Committee his full and interesting records 
of Tasmanian earthquakes (18.^3-6); but to include all these — 
there were 2,540 shocks — in the present report would extend it to 
too great a length. The records have been collated and reduced 
by the Secretary, and any one who wishes to consult them for the 
purpose of scientific work may apply to him. 

The chief details of the most important shocks have been 
already published in papers, read by the late Captain Shortt and 
Mr. A. B. Biggs before the Royal Society of Tasmania. 

In New Zealand the earthquake of December 4th, 1891, alluded 
to in our last report, was dealt with in a paper by Mr. George 
Hogben, M.A. (see Transactions N.Z. Inst.. 1892, p. 362). During 
the present year (February 1 2th, 1893) Nelson has been visited by 
perhaps the most considerable earthquake since 185.5, which threw 
down a large number of chimneys, but did not do much other 
damage. The epicentrum was not far from the town of Nelson. 
The velocity of propagation was much greater than is usual with 
New Zealand earthquakes, forty-nine or fifty miles per minute 
(paper read before the l^hilosophical Institute of Canterbury by G. 
Hogben, July, 1893). 

The Committee has begun correspondence with observers in 
various parts of the Pacific. It is, however, too early yet to expect 
many definite results. The Rev. W. Gray, of Tanna, New 
Hebrides, has kindly forwarded, through Mr. H. C. Russell, notes 
of earthquakes since 1887, and now (since March, 1892) is making 
regular observations in the manner recommended by this Com- 
mittee. A table appended to the report contains the chief details 
of Mr. Gray's observations. The following notes will perhaps 
serve to make the table more useful : — There are three active 
volcanoes in the New Hebrides — one on Tanna, another on Ambrim, 
and a third on Lopevi; that on Tanna has the largest crater, is 
600ft. high, and is distant five or six miles from VVeasisi, where 
Mr. Gray lives. Volcanic action is almost exactly in the line of 
the group of islands, and the volcanoes and volcanic springs of this 
group and Banks' Islands (next to the north) are nearly in one 
line. This line has the largest islands on either side, and extends 
600 miles (Steel's " New Hebrides " and Markham's " Rosario," as 
quoted therein). 

We find the following notices of previous earthquakes : — 

August, 1868. — Tidal wave from east (observed also in New 
Zealand) at Port Resolution, Tanna (*•' New Hebrides," Inglis, p. 
184). 

March 28th, 1875, 11*15 p.m. — Heavy earthquake and tidal 
wave on Aneityum (south of Tanna), followed by three other 
shocks. Intensity of greatest probably VIII. to IX. on the Rossi- 



SEISMOLOGICAL PHENOMENA. 209 

Forel scale. Earthquake and wave also felt on Aniwa and 
Eromanga, and the tidal wave most severely felt at Lifu, on the 
Loyalty Islands.* 

May 5th, ls75, 2 a.m. — Very heavy earthquake in Aneityum, 
intensity IX., followed by frequent slighter shocks for three months 
("New Hebrides," Inglis, p. 194). 

January 10th, 1878.— Great earthquake at Port Resolution, 
Tanna; " two minutes after the earthquake a rise of the land on the 
whole west side of the harbor took place, to the extent of about 
twenty (20) feet" (Steel's " New Hebrides," p. 189). 

February 14th, 1878. — Another earthquake "caused a further 
elevation of the western side of about twelve (12) feet. Rocks 
which were formerly covered with seven or eight fathoms of water 
are now above high-watermark " f ibid J. 

Darwin alludes, it may be remembered, to the recent elevation 
of these islands ("Coral Islands," chap, vi., p. 100, Minerva 
Lib. Edn). 

In this connection a portion of a letter from Mr. Gray, dated 
January 27th, 1890, contains a record of such a striking instance 
of rapid and permanent elevation of land, that it deserves to be 
quoted in its entirety : — " In the early part of 1888, while we were 
absent, earthquakes were very severe and frequent. In April and 
June upheavals took place in Port Resolution harbor, so that since 
1868 (? 1878) there have been three upheavals at this same spot. 

The upheaval in 1868 was instantaneous and to the 

height of fully 20ft. The opposite side of the harbor was not 
affected. It was followed by an enormous tidal wave, and a part 
of the harbor where ships used to anchor was left high and dry. 
On April 20th, 1888, a similar upheaval took place, but did not 
extend so far along the coast. On examining this part I walked 
over ground dryshod, where, about a year before, I sailed in a boat, 
and at one time there was 30ft. of water. There is a perpendicular 
cliff (cc, as shoAvn in diagram on page 210), then boulders for 31yds., 
next 27yds. of sedimentary soil in layers at regular intervals, follow- 
ing the same curve as the cliff, and with a slight dip seawards from 
the cliff to line aa. This distance (cc to aa, 58yds.) shows the width 
of land lifted out of the sea on April 20th; between the next two 
lines (aa and bb) the upheaval of June 24th, 97yds. in width; 
total width, 155yds. «♦) shows the spot where our mission vessel 
lost an anchor more than ten years ago. It was brought up now. 
• • • These upheavals occurred at the time earthquakes were 
so violent on Tanna." 



* It miijht be interesting; to know whether the earthquake shock as well as the tidal wave 
was observed at Lifu, or whether other earthquakes, originating:, as this probably did, 
beneath the plateau on which the New Hebrides stand, have been felt in the Loyalty Islands 
or m New Caledonia, which are separated from the New Hebrides by a narrow but deep 
depression in the ocean bed. If so, the evidence would suggest a general movement of this 
part of the Pacific bed, or at least a fairly deep extension of the centrum of the earthquakes. 
We must wait, however, till we get returns from the Loyalty Islands and New Caledonia 
(Sec. Seism. Comm.). 
O 



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PROGRESS REPORT ON THE SYSTEMATIC CONDUCT OF THE 
PHOTOGRAPHIC WORK OF GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS. 



Members of Committee. 



Me. E. p. Bishop 


Mr. F. Belstead 


Professor Tate 


Mr. J. M Harvey 


Sir James Hector 


(Secretary). 



Owing to the great distances by which the centres of the various 
colonies are separated, the members of this Committee have had no 
opportunity of meeting and exchanging their views in the ordinary 
manner. The draft report was submitted to each of them, and it 
has been deemed prudent to place on record such of the items as 
have been adojited, leaving the remainder to be dealt with in 
the next report. The work hereinafter nuticed is that of the 
photographing and reproduction of objects of purely geological 
interest, but in the following report the application of photography 
to topograjihical surveying will be introduced, and a simple and 
systematic method of conducting a survey by means of the camera 
will be described. 

Apparatus. — This should be in all particulars as near perfection 
as it is possible to make it. The camera (at any rate all the main 
working parts of it) should by preference be made of metal, and 
should be constructed so as to work with extreme accuracy; no such 
accessories as swing back, swing front, or side swings are allowable. 
The tripod head should be large, so as to ensure rigidity, and should 
be so constructed as to admit of being levelled in the same manner 
as a theodolite, and it should always be carefully levelled previous 
to making the exposure. A comjjass shoidd also be attached, so 
that the direction of any view can be determined. The size recom- 
mended is what is known as "half-plate" (4|in. x 6|^in.), this being 
a reasonable and useful size for practical work when ordinary flat 
photographs are used ; at the same time it lends itself admirably to 
the production of stereoscopic work, and, again, it is a size always 
in the market. Lenses of "symmetrical" or "rectilinear" pattern 
must be used in order to avoid ditstortion. and the equivalent 
focal length of each lens must be accm-ately determined, and this 
together with its "optical centre " should be engraved on the 
mount. Several pairs of lenses of different focal lengths siiould be 
attached to each outtit. The recently-introduced " tele-photo." lens 



PHOTOGRAPHY IN GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS. 227 

will, when the atmospheric conditions are favorable, give valuable 
results when views of distant objects are required, and it should be 
added. (In exceptionally rough country it has been suggested that 
a quarter-plate camera, 4iin. x 3Jin., be used in order to reduce 
bulk and weight. When this is done a tripod top, known as the 
" Latimer Clark," should be provided in order to produce the 
stereoscopic negatives.) 

Plates. — The plate used should be so treated as to be proof 
against " halation," and under such circumstances as justifiy their 
use " isochromatic plates " should be employed. Reliable films 
should not be used, as their manufacture has not yet been brought 
sufficiently near perfection as to ensure accuracy in the resulting 
negatives. 

Reproduction of Prints. — The prints from the negatives should 
be reproduced in carbon or platinum, as prints of this nature should 
be permanent. 

Nature of Worh. — Two exposures should be made on each 
subject. When the camera is 6|in. x 4fin. in size, one of these 
should be a stereo., the lenses being separated to such an extent 
horizontally as shall be determined at the time (a record of this 
distance being kept), and a 6^in. x 4^in. negative taken on the 
second plate, including either the same angle as the stereo, exposure 
or such other angle as may be deemed desirable, but in taking it 
the camera should be pointed in the same direction as for the 
stereoscopic negative. The front of the camera must possess means 
for altering the distance between the centres of the lenses laterally. 
The half-plate negative may be printed from, and the print mounted 
so as to allow of examination as a diagram, the prints from the other 
negative being trimmed and mounted in the usual manner for the 
lenticular stereoscope. The photographs of all fossils should also be 
executed so as to form subjects for the stereoscope, though in this 
case often the stereo, negative will be found sufficient. A scale 
should always be attached, so that the actual size of the fossil can 
be seen. Sufficient reasons for the photographing of the subjects 
in this manner were advanced in the paper read at the Hobart 
meeting by the Secretary to this Committee, and an additional 
reason is that, should any accident happen to a plate in transit, the 
other always remains to be rr.ade use of. In all cases the very 
best technical work is absolutely necessary ; no wrongly exposed 
or carelessly developed negative should be allowed to find a place 
in the collection, and in order to make certain of this photographers 
of the greatest ability and experience should be chosen to do the 
work. '1 hese men will in many cases be found already in the 
Civil Service of the colonies, so that, if their services are availed of, 
no extra expense to the State will be involved. 

Field Work. — In making a set of photographs of a particular 
district a plan of the locality should be set down, and the various 
photographs which have been taken from points within its ai'ea 



228 PHOTOGRAPHY IN GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS, 

may be mounted upon the same sheet with it, every photograph 
being distinguished by a sign. The position from which each view 
was taken should then be plotted accurately on the plan, and the 
direction in which the camera was pointed indicated, as should also 
be the focal length of the lens with which the view^ was taken, and 
in the field should be included one or more graduated staffs, so as 
to convey an impression of the scale of the objects photographed, 
and the correct position of each of these should also be indicated 
upon the plan. The value of these detail points will be greatly 
enhanced if they are sent to the geological surveyor to be colored 
while the objects are before his eyes. The classification of the 
collections calls for no special mention, as they would be arranged 
in such a manner as is most convenient for office work in each 
colony. The whole of the negatives should be preserved as records, 
and before any permanent prints are obtained a full size trans- 
parency should be made from each, so that any negative may be 
duplicated shoidd any accident befall it. "Retouching" or 
" improving " of negatives should not be allowed under any 
circumstances. 



REPORT OF THE RESEARCH COMMITTEE APPOINTED TO 
COLLECT EVIDENCE AS TO GLACIAL ACTION IN AUS- 
TRALASIA IN TERTIARY OR POST-TERTIARY TIME. 



Members of Committee. 

Captain Hutton Mr. R. M. Johnston 

Mk. R. L. Jack - Professor Dayid 

Professor Tate (Secretary). 



I.— AUSTRALIA AND TASMANIA. 

By Professor T. W. E. David. 

Only two reports have reached me on the above subject — the first 
by Captain F. W. Hutton, F.R.S., and the other a short statement 
by Mr. R. L. Jack, which, as it merely records the absence of 
evidences of ice-action in Queensland in Tertiary or Post-Tertiary 
rocks, is necessarily very brief. 

Queensland. — Mr. Jack states that hitherto he has been unable 
to detect any evidence of ice-action in Queensland in rocks of Ter- 
tiary or Post-Tertiary age, though, as already recorded by him,* there 
is evidence in the shape of fjroups of travelled boulders of probable 
ice-action in the Bowen Series (Permo-Carboniferous). Mr. Jack, 
however, is of opinion that the extensive tin-bearing drifts at Stan- 
thorpe, near the boundary between Queensland and New South 
Wales, probably imply a Pluvial Epoch. The evidence is as yet 
insufficient as to the exact geological age of these deposits, but they 
are probably either Pleistocene or Pliocene, these terms being used 
of course to express only a general homotaxial relationship to beds 
of that age. Biological arguments are in favor of a Pluvial Epoch 
in Queensland. Mr. R. Etheridge, jun., has called my attention to 
the fact that crocodilian remains referable to PaUimnarchus pollens 
have been recorded by M r. C. W. de Vis from the Condamine beds 
(late Tertiary or Pleistocene) and also from near Brisbane from a 
similar geological horizon. Teeth and coprolites of crocodile, 
also referred by Mr. de Vis to Pallimnarclms pollens, have been 
obtained from the Warburton River (Diamentina). 

* Report on the Bowen River Coalfield, 



230 GLACIAL ACTION IN AUSTRALASIA. 

Neiv South Wales. — In New South Wales little additional 
evidence has been obtained since the expedition of Professor 
R. von Lendenfeld, Ph. D., to Mount Kosciusko in 1885. Dr. 
Lendenfeld affirms that in this portion of the Australian Alps (the 
Kosciusko plateau) evidences of glaciation are to be met with in 
the shape of smoothed and rounded surfaces, somewhat of the 
naiure of roches moutonnees. These evidences are stated to have 
been most markedly developed in the Wilkinson Valley and on the 
Abbot Range. No evidence, however, was obtained of rocks 
grooved or striated by ice, nor was any evidence observable 
indicative of glacial-action at a level of less than 5,800ft., Mount 
Townsend, the highest peak of Kosciusko, being over 7,200ft. 
high. Lately, however, Mr. R. Helms claims to have discovered 
evidence of moraines and striated rock surfaces at Mount Kosciusko 
at a lower level. As far as I am aware, no evidence of Tertiary or 
Post-Tertiary glacial-action has been observed anywhere outside of 
the Kosciusko plateau of New South Wales. The Government 
Geologist of NcAV South Wales (Mr. C. S. Wilkinson) was of 
opinion that there was undoubted evidence of a Pluvial Epoch in 
late Tertiary or Pleistocene time in New South Wales on strati- 
graphical and biological grounds. The widespread deposits of 
red sandy clays and quartz gravels which cover such a vast area 
on the western plains of New South Wales indicated, in Mr. 
Wilkinson's opinion, a far greater volume in our western rivers in 
flood-time than they have ever been known to possess in historic 
time. Mr. Wilkinson"'''' states : — " 'J'he alluvial deposits of diluvial 
origin forming over vast -western plains, those high terrace banks 
of gravel along our river valleys, the deeply-eroded ravines carved 
out on the sides of our mountains, all plainly tell of a time of great 
rainfall since the Pliocene Period. The heaA^^ precipitations then 
covered Mount Kosciusko and other of our Alpine peaks with 
perennial snow, strong rivers coursed down the valleys, and their 
flood-waters, I'eaching the low-lying country and becoming con- 
fluent, spread out far and wide over it and deposited their burden 
of muddy sediment to form the level plains of the western interior, 
over extensive portions of which the highest floods of to-day never 
reach, and wells or artificial reservoirs have now to be made to 
supply water for stock." With Mr. Wilkinson's general conclu- 
sicms I quite concur, but consider that the evidence as to these 
plains being Post-Pliocene is insufficient, as portions of them are 
probably at least as old as the Pliocene. At Cuddle's Springs, near 
Brewarrina, teeth of crocodile have been found apparently smaller 
than those of PalUmnarchus pollens, but of equal value as evidenc- 
ing the existence in late geological times of extensive marshes in 
what is now a semi-arid region. Evidence has been obtained by 
Mr. H. C. Russell, F.R.S., at Lake George, in New South Wales, 
that that lake, vidiich at present has no outlet, has, in late geo- 

* Anniversary Address to Royal Society of New South Wales. May 2nd, 1888. 



GLACIAL ACTION IN AUSTRALASIA. 231 

logical time, been of far vaster extent, implying a heavier rain- 
fall. The wide distribution of Diprotodnn over not only New 
South "Wales, but over nearly the whole of Australia, also probably 
implies a humid climate or Pluvial Epoch, giving rise to the 
development of extensive marshes. Remains of Diprotodon have 
been found in New South Wales from near Queanbeyan on the east 
to near the borders of South Australia in the west; and in Victoria 
at Limeburners' Point, near Geelong, at Portland, and at Colac ; 
and in South Australia in the mamraaliferous drift described by 
Professor Tate as underlying in places the tuffs of Mount Gambler 
and as developed on the banks of the River Torrcns near Adelaide. 
And northwards Diprotodon must have ranged at least as far as the 
Kimberley goldfield in Western Australia, as described by Mr. 
Hardman. There is, therefore, clear evidence in New South Wales, 
both stratigraphical and biological, of an epoch when the rainfall 
was more abundant than it is at present, but whether this Pluvial 
Epoch was in Pliocene or in Pleistocene time the evidence at 
present forthcoming is inconclusive. 

Victoria. — In Victoria Mr. Stirling, F.G.S., has confirmed Pro- 
fessor Lendenfcld's views as to evidence of glaciation in the 
Australian Alps, at Mitta Mitta, the Cobberas, Mount Bogong, 
Omeo Lake basin, &c., but no vmdoubted evidence seems to have 
been observed by him similar to that observed by Professor Tate 
at Hallett's Cove, near Adelaide. Messrs. Graham, Officer, and 
L. Balfonr claim to have lately discovered glacial conglomerates 
as low as 7oOft. above the sea; but I believe that it is possible, if 
not probable, that the horizon of these conglomerates belongs to 
that, of the Bacchus Marsh and Wild Duck Creek conglomerates, 
and may therefore probably be Permo-Carboniferous, as at Bacchus 
Marsh. Gnngamopteris. so characteristic of the Permo-Carboni- 
ferous series of New South AVales, has been found in some numbers. 

Tasmania. — An excellent summary of glacial -action in Tasmania 
and of glacial-action in Australia is given by Mr. R. M. Johnston, 
F.L.S., m his paper entitled the " Glacial Epoch of Australasia."* 
Mr. Montgomery, M.A., the Government Geologist of Tasmania, 
has also contributed an important paper on the subject of glacial 
phenomena in the vicinity of Mount Pelion and Lake Eyre. 
Moraine stuff and perfect roches moutonnees are described by him, 
together with erratics, as traceable to from 2,000ft. to 2,792ft. 
above the sea. Mount Tyndall, on the authority of Mr. Moore, is 
polished and striated at an altitude of 3.850ft.. At Lake Dixon 
also, and other localities mentioned in Mr. Johnson's carefully- 
compiled paper, there appear to be undoubted evidence of glacial- 
action. 

South All sfralia. — 'Evidence of ice-action in South Australia has 
been so fully described already by Professor Tate as to need no 
further comment. Mr. R. Etheridge, jun., who has personally 

* Papers and Proceetlings, Koyal Society of Tasmania, 1893. 



232 GLACIAL ACTION IN AUSTRALASIA. 

examined the classical locality at Hallett's Cove, informs me that 
he thinks it not improbable that the glaciated rocks extend under 
the Marine Tertiaries at Hallett's Cove. This question will no 
doubt be settled during the present Session of the Association. 



II.— NEW ZEALAND. 

By Captam F. W. Hiitton. 
Plate I. 

Although there is a large mass of ice in the old crater of 
Ruapehu (8,878ft.) in lat. 39° 12', it is not a true glacier, for 
accumulation is prevented by melting at the present crater, and no 
marks of ancient glaciers have ever been found on Ruapehu or in 
any other part of the North Island. These are confined to the 
South Island alone. 

At the present day the most northerly glaciers in New Zealand 
are on Mount Armstrong, Mount Greenlaw, and Mount Rolleston, 
at the head of the Waimakariri River, in about lat. 42° 53', the 
terminal faces of which are not less than 4,000ft. above the sea. 
The most southerly are a few small ones round the head of the 
Ai-thur River, which runs into Milford Sound in lat. 44° 40'. The 
largest glacier in New Zealand is the Tasman, eighteen mdes in 
length, and averaging somewhat imder two in breadth, with its 
terminal face about 2,500ft. above the sea. On the western side 
of the mountains, however, the Francis Joseph glacier comes down 
to about 950ft., and the Fox glacier to within 6o0ft. of the sea level 
in about lat 43° 30'. All these glaciers come from the highest 
group of mountains in the Alps. Further southward, as the 
mountains become lower, the glaciers become smaller and their 
tenninal faces are at considerably greater altitudes. 

Ancient glacier-marks are numerous in the South Island, but 
their geographical distribution differs much from those of the 
present day. These ancient glacier-marks are, no doubt, of 
various ages, but it is difficult to correlate them, and it is uncertain 
whether they form a continuous and diminishing series fi-om the 
earliest records to the present day, or whether there have been two 
or more periods of marked extension of the glaciers. If rouk 
basins be taken as evidence of the former presence of ice, then 
the old lake basins of central Otago — the Maniototo plains and 
the valleys of the Ida-burn and Manuherikia — will be among the 
most ancient of our ice-marks ; but as the glacial origin of these 
old lake basins is disputed it will be better to omit them here. 

Another supjjosed evidence of very ancient ice in Otago is the 
breccia at Henley, near the mouth of the Taieri River."^^ This 

* Hutton, Ueolosy of Otago, Dunedin, 1875, p. 62, and Hector, Reports of Geological 
Explorations during 1890-91, p. Iv. 



GLACIAL ACTION IN AUSTRALASIA. 233' 

supposed ancient moraine extends from near Otokaia in a south- 
west direction to Waihola, a distance of about eight miles. North, 
of the Taieri River it occurs at the sea level and forms rounded 
hills 400ft. to 500ft. in height, but south of the Taieri it ascends 
the schist hills, and, at its southern extremity, attains its greatest 
elevation of 1,200ft. above sea level. It is composed of a 
confused loose mass of angular fragments of mica-schist, many 
of the blocks being 10ft. or 12ft., or even more, in diameter. 
North of the Taieri it is covered on the seaward side, nearly to 
the top, by water- worn gravels. At the northern end it rests, 
apparently conformably, on coal beds, which appear to be identical 
with those of Green Island and of Kaitangata ; but sovith of the 
Taieri it rests directly on the schists, without the intervention of 
the coal-bearing series, and at Waihola sands and sandy clays,. 
forming the base of the breccia, have yielded a few marine 
fossils which apjjear to be of Miocene age. The local distribution 
of this breccia, as well as the included blocks being formed of 
mica-schist like that in the neighborhood and in central Otago, 
preclude the idea that it has been formed by icebergs : and the 
only possible explanation seems to be that it is the terminal 
moraine of a Miocene or Pliocene glacier which came from 
Waipori and Strath Taieri. This would, no dovibt, be accepted as- 
the explanation if it were not an isolated phenomenon. At 
present its mode of origin must remain sub judice. 

Omitting the Henley breccia, the other ancient glacier-marks 
form a connected grouj) of phenomena all through the New 
Zealand Alps, from Southland to Nelson, the most northerly being 
around Mount Olympus (o.400ft.) in about lat. 42° 52'. No- 
marks of ancient glaciers have been recorded from the Kaikoura 
and Looker-on Ranges, although they attain altitudes of from 
9,700ft. to 8,500ft. in lats. 42° 0' and 42° 15' respectively, and are 
capped at the present day with perpetual snow. This may be due 
to these mountains not having been so elevated at the time of the 
great extension of the glaciers, or it may be due to their narrow- 
ness, which did not give sufficient room for a snowtield large 
enough to produce even a moderate sized glacier. 

A. — GEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE. 
CHARACTER OF THE ICE-MARKS. 
Moraines. — These are the most abundant and the most con- 
spicuous marks that the ancient glaciers have left behind them in 
New Zealand. It is by their moraines that the former limits of 
the glaciers have in nearly all cases been traced. Without them 
there would be very little evidence that the glaciers had ever 
extended further than they do at present. They are, in fact, the 
most permanent of all glacier-marks. The ancient moraines, both 
lateral and terminpi like the recent moraines in New Zealand, 



"234 GLACIAL ACTION IN AUSTRALASIA. 

contain A^ery few scratched stones. They are recognised by their 
composition and their position. Lateral moraines may sometimes 
be mimicked by landslips, but there is hardly ever any doubt 
about the true nature of a terminal myraine. 

Karnes and Drumlins. — It is doubtful whether any of these 
•exist in New Zealand. Small detached hills, formed of morainic 
deposits more or less mixed with rounded gravel, occur near the 
western margin of the Canterbury Plains on either side of the 
Malvern Hills— Woolshed Hill, Racecourse Hill, and Little Race- 
course Hill — but these are certainly not drumlins, and probably 
they are merely relics of terminal moraines, the greater part of 
which have been washed away by the rivers. 

Erratics. — No true erratics — that is, blocks which have been 
transported from one drainage system to another by ice — have 
iDcen recognised in New Zealand. Our erratics are merely large 
angular boulders brought do^vn the valley, from the sides of which 
they have been detached ; but sometimes they have crossed from 
one side of the valley to the other. No sea-borne erratics have 
"been noticed. 

Till Deposits. — The only kind of till found in New Zealand is 
what is called " surface-till " or "moraine-till," characterised by 
being sandy and containing large angular unscratched stones. 
This is merely the surface moraine of a vanished glacier. No 
sub-glacial till (u- boulder-clay — characterised by being formed of 
tough clay containing more or less rounded stones generally 
scratched or facetted — has as yet been recorded. Neither is there 
any stratified floe till. Even the ancient moraines of the west coast, 
Avhich stretch into the sea and form cliffs along the shore, show no 
stratification, and no marine shells have ever been found in them.* 
Hoches Moutonnees and smoothed Surfaces. — These are not un- 
common, and are particularly noticeable and fresh looking in the 
A'alley of the Rakaia, and in parts of N.W. Nelson district. In 
Otago the rock surfaces have undergone much more weathering 
than further north. This may in part be due to diiferences in the 
nature of the rocks, and in part to differences in climate, and 
consequent differences in the rate of weathering. 

Ice Grooves on Bedrock. — A few cases on the sides of valleys 
have been recorded, but none on the tojjs or near the tops of 
ridges. Possibly this may be due to the absence of a protecting 
cover of boulder clay. 

Conclusion. — It appears, therefore, that the ice age in New 
Zealand consisted of a great extension of the valley glaciers of 
the South Island, and that there is no evidence of the former 
existence of an ice sheet, or of any floe ice or icebergs in the New 
Zealand se^s. Also there is no proof that any of the glaciers, 
even at the period of their greatest extension, reached into the sea. 

* Haart, Geology of i anterburj- and AVesiland, p. 378 ; and Hutton, Ann. and Mag. 
>at. Hist., ser. 5, Yol. 15, p, 87. 



GLACIAL ACTION IN AUSTRALASIA. 235 

THE ANCIENT GLACIERS OF NEW ZEALAND. 

A few details of what we know about the ancient glaciers of 
New Zealand may be interesting, and 1 will begin with Nelson and 
work southwards. 

Nelson. — The most northerly ice-marks yet discovered are near 
Mount Olympus, in Collingwood county. I have not seen them 
myself, but they are thus described by Mr. .lames Park, F.G.S. : — 
*' Glacier detritus is found only in the upper basin of Big Boulder 
River, where it covers an area of perhaps 150 acres in extent. The 
morainic matter occurs mostly on the west side of Boulder Lake at 
the eastern foot of Lead Hill, but the remains of old moraines, 
principally composed of large angular fragments of granite, are 
found on the opposite side of the lake resting upon the slates. It 
is evident that at one time thi< valley was occupied by a large 
glacier, which must have excavated the fine rock basin in which 
the present lake rests. The line of roches vnoutonnees on 
the west side of the lake near the outlet are as fine an example 
of ice-erosion as anything of the kind to be seen elsewhere in 
New Zealand."* 

Mr. A. D. Dobson, -who was the first to call attention to these 
ice-marks, says that Boulder Lake, or Te Warau, is 3.200ft. above 
sea level, and that Lead Hill is a mass of granite, which rises to a 
height of 4,4o0ft. above the sea. The glacier, when it attained its 
fullest size, was about four miles long.f 

Several other small glaciers also formerly existed in the same 
district at the heads of the Anatoki River. 

"■ The Mount Arthur Range, which attains its greatest height 
(5.8()0ft.) in the Mitre Peak of Mount Arthur, gave rise to many 
small glaciers." Those on the eastern sl()23es descended to 3,600ft. 
and 3,000ft. above present sea level, while those on the western 
side were larger and their terminal faces are 3,000ft. and 2,700ft. 
above the sea. Some of the terminal moraines are almost com- 
pletely hidden by detritus from the mountains. :J: 

The St. Arnaud and Spencer Mountains, wliich rise in places to 
over 8,(KJ0ft. above the sea, gave origin to many glaciers. The 
principal ones on the north-west were those which filled the valleys 
now occupied by Lakes Rotoiti and Rotorua Lake Rotoiti is 
2,()60ft. above the sea, and its former glacier was about twelve 
miles in length by two in breadth. On the eastern side a glacier 
came down the Rainbow Hiver, which is a branch of the Wairau, 
and others down the Clarence and Waiau-ua. The old glacier 
of the ^^'^aiau-ua or Dillon must have been not less than fourteen 
miles in length, with a branch five miles long in the valley of the 
Ada. The terminal moraine at one time held back a lake which 



• Keports Geal. Exploration, 1888-9, p. 242. 

+ Trans., N.Z. Inst., vol. 4 (1871), p. 337. 

X Dobson, 1. c, pp. 338-9. 



236 GLACIAL ACTION IN AUSTRALASIA. 

has been entirely filled up, the moraine rising to about 100ft. above 
the old lake deposits.* 

Canterbury. — We now pass over a space of about fifty miles in 
length in which no ice-marks have been described, although no 
doubt they exist, and come to the group of mountains which give 
rise to the Waimakiriri on the east and south and to the Teremakau 
on the north and west. 

The ancient glacier of the Waimakiriri was thought by Sir J. 
von Haast to have extended for a length of fifty-four miles, reach- 
ing as far as the middle portion of the Malvern Hills. But in the 
valley itself there appear to be no glacier-marks below the junction 
of the Broken River, neither are there any in the valley of the 
latter, and it is probable that the morainic accumulations at Little 
Racecourse Hill and at the junction of the Kowhai with the Wai- 
makiriri may have been brought about by a glacier coming down, 
the Kowhai Valley and fed from the slopes of Movmt Torlesse and 
Big Ben. Lakes Grasmere, Sarah, Letitia, and Blackwater are 
remnants of old glacier lakes now almost entirely filled up.f 

In the valley of the Rakaia the ancient glacier-marks are 
clearer than in any other part of New Zealand which I have 
visited, the lateral moraines on the sides of the hills being specially 
noticeable. It appears to be pretty certahi that this glacier, at the 
time of its greatest extension, debouched on to the Canterbury 
Plains, and that we have in Woolshed Hill a remnant of its 
terminal moi-aine.;}: Lake Coleridge is an excellent example of a 
rock basin formerly covered by ice. as it has no morainic accmnu- 
lations at the lower end. It will be difficult to explain the origin 
of this rock basin except on the theory that it avus excavated by 
the ice. A large lake formerly existed in the Rakaia Valley above 
the gorge, but it has been filled up a long time. The reason why 
Lake Coleridge still remains is that it lies outside that part of the 
valley occupied by the Rakaia, and that it drains back into the 
Wilberforce so that no stream of any size runs into it. A branch 
glacier from that of the Upper Rakaia passed by the valley of the 
Cameron River to Lake Heron and Lake Acland, and emptied into 
the valley of the Rangitata between Mount Harper and the Moor- 
house Range. § Sugar Loaf, near Lake Heron, shows admirably 
the height to which the ice of this glacier reached. After it had 
melted away a large lake was left, of which Lake Heron is but a 
remnant The Rakaia glacier at the time of its greatest extension 
appears to have been between fifty and fifty-five miles in length. 

* Hutton, Kepoits Geol. Explorations. 1,h73-4, p. 52 ; Travers, Quar. Jour. Geol. Soc. vol. 
22, p. 254, and Trans., N.Z. In-t., vol. 6, p. 297; McKay, Rep. Geol. E.xplorations, 1878-9, 
p. 121 ; Cox, Hep. Geol. Explorations, 1SK4-5, p. 9. 

t Haast, Report on Geologv of Canterburv and Westland, pp. 212 and 391 ; Report Geol. 
Exploration, 1871-2, p. 31-3o;' Hutton, Trans , X Z. Inst., vol. 16, p. 449, and vol. 19, p. 395. 

t Haast, Report on the flead-Tvaters of the R. Rakaia, Christchurch, 186fi ; Rep., Geol. 
Exploration, 1871-2, p. 32, Ge^'l. Canterburv and Westland, p. 386; Hutton, Rep., Geol. 
Explorations, 1873-4, p. 52; Cox, Rep., Geol". Explorations, 18S3-4. p. 43 

5 Haast, Rep. Geol. Explorations, 1873-4. map opposite p. H) ; Geol. Canterbury and 
Westland, Christchurch, 1879, p. 387 ; Cox. Rep. Geol. E.^plorations, 18S3-4, p. 43. 



GLACIAL ACTION IN AUSTRALASIA. 237 

The Upper Rangitata Valley I have not visited, but Sir Julius 
YOU Haast says that this glacier, during the time of its greatest 
exieusion, reached "several miles into the Canterbury Plains, 
crossing the front ranges, before the lower gorge was cut, by a 
saddle to the south of it.'^^ Sir J. von Haast recommends the 
banks of the Potts River as a good place for studying the glacier 
deposits, one of which he thinks to be a ground moraine, the only 
one as yet noticed in New Zealand. The Rangitata glacier is 
estimated to have been forty-eight miles in length. The head 
waters of the River Waitaki includes the basins of Lake Tekapo, 
Pukaki, and Ohau. and the ancient glaciers descended, undoubtedly, 
to beyond the lower ends of these lakes ; but whether they con- 
tinued on until they met and, united together, formed a Waitaki 
glacier appears to be doubtful. Sir Julius von Haast was of 
opinion that they did do so, and says that the lowest moraine 
deposits of the Waitaki glacier which he was able to trace are 
situated six miles below the junction of the Hakateramea River, 
and consequently he makes this ancient glacier to have been 112 
miles in length. Mr. McKay, however, doubts this, and thinks 
that the moraine deposits at Wharekauri and Upper Ferry are 
local, and have been brought by glaciers from the Kurow and 
Hakateramea Mountains. f I am inclined to agree with Mr. 
McKay, because I could see no evidence of a glacier having ever 
come down the Ahuriri Valley. 

Westland. — Lake Brunner is due to the terminal moraine of the 
ancient glacier of the Teremakau : and the country about Kumara 
is covered by immense morainic accumulations which have, for the 
most part, come down the valley of the Hokitika. At Bold Head, 
a little south of Koss, the morainic accumulations reach the sea 
level, and continue all along the coast to Bruce Bay.| According 
to von Haast these moraines afford proofs of several oscillations in 
the glaciers, but no marine shells have been found in them, and it 
is doubtful if they were deposited at the low level at which they 
now stand. 

Otago. — Both Lake Hawea and Lake Wanaka are bounded at 
their southern ends by moraines which slope gradually away into 
the alluvial gravels of the plains below them. Further down the 
Clutha River a large moraine once existed at the junction of the 
Lindis, and large angular blocks of rock are found in the river 
alluvium as far down as Cromwell. These are very conspicuous 
near Cromwell at the entrance to the Kawarau Gorge. Below 

• Haast, Geolour of Canterbury and Westland, p. 390. See also McKay, Rep. Geol. 
Explorations, 1877-8, p. 108. 

+ Haast, Geology of Canterbury and Westland, p. 389, and Report on the Head- waters of 
the Waitaki River". Christchurch, 1865; and Quarterly Journal, Geological Society, 1865, p. 
135. Hutton, Geology of Otago, Dunedin, 1875, p. 88. Mr. McKav, Hep. Geol! Explora- 
tions, 1881, pp bO and 98 ; Green, High Alps of New Zealand, p. 128-134. 

± Haast, Geology of Canterbury and Westland, Christchurch, 1879, p. 392 ; Cox, Rep. 
Geol. Explorations, 1S74-6, pp. 85 and 93. 



238 ' GLACIAL ACTION IN AUSTRALASIA. 

Cromwell none have been found.* This would give a length of 
sixty miles to the glacier. 

In the days of the old glaciers the Wakatipu Valley did not 
drain, as at present, into the Clutha, but went due south by Athol 
into the Oreti. Besides the numerous terminal moraines in the 
valleys of the Rees and Dart rivers, lateral moraines are found oa 
both sides of Lake Wakatipu. At Kingston there is a large and 
well-marked terminal moraine, and large angular stones extend as 
far down as Athol, where they stop. This glacier appears to have 
been about eighty miles long. According to Mr. A. McKay, the 
lateral moraines at Lake Wakatipu are found at 1,500ft. above the 
level of the lake.f 

The low land on the eastern sides of Te Anau and Manapouri 
Lakes and across the Muraroa River as far as the base of the Taki- 
timu M ountains is strewed with angular fragments of crystalline 
rocks, which must have come from the western side of the lakes, 
and which have, therefore crossed a deep valley ; but there are no 
distinct moraines at the end of either of these lakes. These angular 
blocks extend down the Waiau Valley to the transverse hills 
between Red -bank Creek and Blackmount. This hill appears to 
have been the tei'minal moraine of the ancient Waiau glacier, which 
must have been about sixty five miles in length. According to 
Mr. S. H. Cox, the ice reached a height of 550ft. above the present 
level of the water.| 

It is remarkable that throughout Otago the evidence of the 
former extension of the glaciers is almost entirely confined to 
moraines, and the ice-mai*ks do not look nearly so fresh as they 
do in Canterbury. On the other hand, the old glacier lakes in 
Canterbury are either filled up or have become quite shallow, 
while in Otago they still remain very deep, and are only partially 
filled up at their heads. 

IJ^esi Coast Sotinds. — Sir James Hector mentions several 
moraines as occurring up the Cleddau Valley, in Milford Sovmd,§ 
and probably they exist in most of the valleys running up into the 
mountains. It is also probable that the bars at or near the 
entrances to the sounds are old terminal moraines, although it is 
possible that they may be due, in part at least, to ancient river- 
bars which would be formed when the land Avas at a higher level. 
Evidence of former glaciers in Preservation Inlet is found in the 
large boulders of pink syenite which are scattered over the islands 
and sides of the inlet near its entrance, || which must have been 
brought down the inlet by ice. Sir James Hector has recorded 
(I.e., p. 458) grooves and polished surfaces caused by ancient 

* Geology of Otago, Dunedin, 1875, p (i9. 

+ Keports, Geological Explorations, 1879-80, p. 146. 

t Rep. Geological Explorations, 1877-8, p. 118. 

5 Geological Expedition to West Coast of Otago. Provincial Government Gazette, 

Nov. 5th, 1863. 

I| Hutton, Report on the Geology of Otago. Dunedin, 1875 p. 68. 



Plate! 




SURVEYOR CENCAALS OFFICE- ADELAIDE A Vfui^/um Phot<. UlAo^frMfi/irr 



GLACIAL ACTION IN AUSTRALASIA. 239' 

glaciers in Thompson Sound ; and near Deas Cove, as well as on 
the south side at the entrance to the Narrows, in Milford Sound, 
the rocks are rounded as if they had been smoothed by ice. But 
this may be deceptive, and the rounded surface may be due to the 
decomposition of a granitic rock. Certainly the islands in the 
sounds are not now mammillated or ice-smoothed, and they show 
no sign of lee and strike sides, which is, no doubt, due either to 
the wet climate, or to the great length of time which has jjassed 
since glaciers filled the valleys ; or perhaps to a combination of 
both causes. In either case it is difficult to believe that ice grooves 
would still remain on rocks which are not covered by clay. 

Conclusion. — It thus appears that at the time of their greatest 
extension the ancient glaciers of New Zealand were larger and 
descended lower the further they were south. The terminal 
moraines in N.W. Nelson go to 2,700ft. above the present sea 
level ; Lake Rotoiti, in S. Nelson, to 2,000ft.; Lake Sumner, 
probably a glacier lake, is 1,700ft. above the sea. In S. Canter- 
bury the terminal moraines are 1,000ft.. and in S. Otago only 600ft. 
above the present sea level. In Westland and in the West Coast 
Sounds the glaciers advanced to below the present sea level. The 
glacier of Boulder River was four and that of Lake Kotoiti about 
twelve miles in length ; the glacier at the head of the Waiau-ua or 
Dillon, fourteen miles ; that of the Rakaia, fifty-five miles ; the 
Wanaka glacier, sixty ; that of Wakatipu, eighty ; and that of 
Te Auau, sixty-five miles in length. There is, therefore, a con- 
siderable difference in relative proportion between the ancient 
glaciers and their present representatives, as a glance at the map 
(Plate I.) will show. At present they reach their maximum in 
South Canterbury, and get smaller both to the north and to the 
south ; while in ancient times their maximum was in Central Otago. 
This difference niriy, perhaps, be due to the Otago mountains having 
then been relatively higher than they are at present ; or it may 
have been due to the great breadth of mountains, at present from 
4,000ft. to 7,000ft in height, in central Otago, which Avere probably 
covered with snow during the great Glacier Period. 

B.— BIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE. 

In Europe and North America the geological evidence of a 
former ice-age is accompanied by the biological evidence of a 
southerly migration of arctic shells, which subsequently became 
extinct as the ice-age passed away. In New Zealand we find 
nothing of this kind of evidence, for the mollusca of the Pliocene 
and Pleistocene beds show no sign of a refrigeration in climate.* 
Indeed several of our living shells, which are not now found in the 
seas of the southern parts of New Zealand, occiir in Miocene beds ; 
consequently it would seem probable that the climate of the 

* Trans. N.Z. Institute, vol. viii., p. 385. 



240 GLACIAL ACTION IN AUSTRALASIA. 

northern parts of New Zealand has never since the Miocene been 
as cold as that of the southern part at the present day. Indeed, a 
large part of the present sub-tropical fauna and flora of New 
Zealand was introduced from the north before the Miocene Period 
and has flourished ever since ; and this would not have been possible 
if there had been a great and general reduction in temperature in 
the Pleistocene Period. 

Again, the islands lying south of New Zealand contain a large 
number of endemic species of plants and some animals. For 
example, ajyaYoquet f Cya7io7'hainphifs unicolnr J on Anti'podes Island, 
a duck fHeronetta AticklandicaJ on Auckland Island, and a rail 
{Rallus Macqu'iriensisJ on Macquarie Island. These facts prove 
that the islands have been disconnected from New Zealand for a 
very long period, and during that time they could not have been 
covered by ice. 

Lastly, we have the local occurrence of some of the warmth- 
loving plants and animals of the North Island in isolated places in 
the South Island — such as the New Zealand palm f Areca rapidaj 
at Akaroa, and several North Island shells in Stewart Island* — 
which is hardly compatible with the occurrence of a former cold 
epoch, but points to a gradually cooling climate. 

The biological evidence is, therefore, to the effect that the ocean 
round >Jew Zealand has not been much colder than at present ever 
:since the Miocene Period. 



Pro. Lin. Soc, N.S. Wales, vol. x., p. 338. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE APPOINTED TO MAKE RECOMMENDA- 
TIONS FOR THE PROTECTION OF NATIVE FAUNA 

CAS AMENDED AND APPROVED' BY COUNCIL). 



Pkofessor Tate 
Professor Spencer 
Mr. a. J. Campbell 
Mr. S. Dixon 



Members of Conunittee. 

Colonel Legge 
Mr. G, M. Thomson 
Mr. a. F. Robin 

(Secretary). 

The Committee desire to make the following recommendations 
for the approval of the Association : — 

1, That close reserves, controlled by local honorary trustees 
and supported by Government grants, should be proclaimed as 
under — 

(a) New Zealand — Resolution and Little Barrier Islands. The 
Committee would express their cordial approval of what 
has been already done by the Xew Zealand Government 
with regard to these reserves, and hope that they will 
speedily be finally dedicated in accordance with the 
resolution carried at the Christchurch meeting of the 
Association in 1891. They also consider that islands 
should be set apart for the preservation of the Tuatara 
lizard. 

(J)) Tasmania — Sehouten Main (Freycinet Peninsula). This is 
recommended as the Tasmanian National Park. 

(c) South Anstialia — It is urged that the lighthouse reserve at 
the western end of Kangaroo Island should be dedicated 
to the preservation of native fauna. 

{(l) Queensland- — Mount Bellenden-Ker, and part of Fraser 
Island to be hereafter determined. 

(e) Western Australia — Rottnest Island (more particularly for 
the protection of the mallee hen), Houtmann's Abrolhos 
Group. 

(/) New South Wales — Cave reserves. 

{g) Bass's Straits — The Committee consider that the Victorian 
and Tasmanian Governments should be requested to 
draw up a joint Act for the protection of the Cape 
Barren goose on those islands on which it is found. 
They are also of opinion that the destruction of the 
mutton birds for commercial purposes should be properly 
controlled by Governmental regulations. 
Q 



242 PROTECTION OF NATIVE FAUNA. 

2. That the existing game laws should be strictly enforced. 

3. That in all Game Acts provision should be made for the 
proclamation of districts, comprising both Crown lands and private 
property, wherein particular species may be absolutely protected 
for indefinite periods. 

4. That special legislation should be introduced in all the 
colonies to provide for the protection of animals of economic 
value or particular biological interest. 

5. That a standing committee of local naturalists should be 
appointed in each colony to deal with the protection of the native 
fauna. 

6. That copies of the foregoing resolutions be sent to the 
Austi-alasian Governments witli the request that they will give 
their assistance in carrying them into effect ; also to all colonial 
scientific societies with a request for co-operation and support. 

7. The Committee recommend that the following local com- 
mittees be appointed to prepare systematic lists of the vernacxilar 
names of Australasian birds : — 

South Australia and Western Australia. — Messrs. Zietz, Perks, 
Clarke. 

Neto Zealand. — Sir J. Hector, Captain Hiitton, Professor T. J. 
Parker, and Mr. Cheeseman. 

Tasmania. — (-olonel Legge, Mr. A. Morton, and Rev. H.Atkinson. 

New South Wales. — Messrs. North, Masters, and Thorpe. 

Victoria. — Mr. A. J. Campbell and Professor Spencer, with power 
to add one. 

Queensland. — Messrs. de Vis and Barnard, with power to add one. 

Dr. Stirling, General Secretary. 



Proceedings of Sections. 



Section A. 
ASTRONOMY, MATHEMATICS, AND PHYSICS. 



1.— OX THE CONSTRUCTION OF PENDULUM APPA- 
RATUS FOR DIFFERENTIAL OBSERVATIONS OF 
GRAVITY. 

By E. F. J. LOVE, M. A., Fellow and Rector of Queen's College, Assistant 

Lecturer and Demonstrator in Natural Fhilosophy to the 

University of Melbourne. 

[Abstract.] 
In this paper the author lays down certain main principles, to 
■which attention shoiild be paid in the design of invariable pendu- 
lums. Exception was taken to pendulums of the flexible pattern 
designed by Kater, and reasons advanced for preferring the more 
rigid form adopted by von Sterneck. The forms of stand previously 
employed were also criticised and an improved pattern suggested. 
The paper concluded with a discission of the methods adopted for 
investigating the temperature and pressure corrections. 



2.- ON SOME DIAGRAMS SHOWING THE RELATION 
BETWEEN THE LENGTH OF A SOLENOID AND 
THE FORM OF ITS EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES. 

By C. COLERLBGE FARE, B.Sc, Mathematical Tutor in St. Paul's 
College, University of Sydney. 

Plates II.- V. 

Some months ago the author had occasion to design a solenoid, 

in which the variation of the field strength between the axis and 

the inside edge for a short distance on either side of the equatorial 

plane should not exceed a certain amount. For this purpose it 



244 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 

was necessary to draw roughly the equipotential lines in the 
interior of coils of different lengths, and the curves so obtained 
proved interesting enough to indiice him to go into the calculations 
more fully and attempt to draw the curves more accurately, both 
inside and outside the solenoid. The equipotential lines have 
therefore been drawn for four coils, whose lengths are — (1), L = a; 
(2), L = 2a; (3), L = 4«; (4), L = co (Plates II., III., lY., 
and Y.), where L is the length of the solenoid and a the radius of 
its transverse section. These coils will be referred to as coils 
(1), (2), (3), or (4). The formulae used are given in "Maxwell's 
Electricity and Magnetism," vol. ii., p. 284, second edition, and 
are as follows : — 

The magnetic potential at any point outside is 

n = ny(Y, - YO; 

at any point inside it is 

O = ?» J (— 4 TT z + Yi — Yo), 
where 

O = magnetic potential at the point considered : 

n =■ number of turns of wire per unit of length : 

J = current in C.G.S. imits : 

Yi = potential at the point due to a plane area of surface density 
unity at the positive end of the solenoid : 

Ya = potential at the negative end : 

z = distance of the point from the centre of the solenoid measured 
along the axis : 

the values of Yi and Yo are found from the expressions 

Y = 2 ^ i — rPi + a + ^ -Po — — C, P4 + ,&c.,whenr< a, 
{ 2 a 2-4 a 

\ = 2 TT { — ? P2 + r P4 — , &c., when r > a. 



For points along the axis the simpler formida Y= 2 tt (i/a^ + ^^ 
— rj was used, where 

r = distance of the point from the centre of one of the circular 
ends of the solenoid. 

Pi, Po, &c., are the zonal surface harmonies of orders 1. 2, &c., 
corresponding to the angle which r makes with the axis of the 
coil. 

The values of Y^ and Yo at different points inside and outside 
ihe solenoid were worked out by means of these formulae, and the 
cbrrespondmg values of Q were thus found for between forty and 



Platen. 



EquipotentiaL Lines iri a Solenoid 




Coil 1 . L - a 



SUPVCYOft CENER-KLS OFHC-E ADELAint A Vr.wffiur P*u^cUdfoi^n'pf^. 



Eqiiipotential Lines in a Solenoid 



Plate in. 




Coil 2. L-Za 



SURVEYOR OENCRALS OmCL ADELAIDE A Vnitqhan. Ptu>U,iiVia^rKifif>^r 



Eqidpote/itial lines in a SoUnoid 




Coil 3. L=4a 



PlateV. 



Eqiiipoteridal Lines in a SoLenoid 




Coil 4. X =00 



SURVEYOR CENCRALS Omtt ADELAIDE .'. V;.uyiW-' PhnU iiihogmpf.er- 



EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES OF A SOLENOID. 245 

fifty points in one quadrant, which, on account of symmetry, gives 
about 160 points at which the potential was known round the 
solenoid. The potential at any other point was then found by 
interpolation. Points Avhose potential was the same were joined 
by the curves which seemed best to suit. The spherical harmonies 
were obtained from a table recently published by Professor Perry* 
The difference of potential between points lying on one curve and 
on the next, both inside and ourside, is 2 tt n 7 a X '05. This 
difference was chosen as a matter of convenience, 2 tt nj a being 
in all these coils a factor of O. In the three shorter coils the equi- 
potential curves start with a value zero at the equator, increasing 
positively and negatively respectively on each side by 2 tt n j a X *05 
from line to line, both inside and outside. In coil (4), Plate V.. the 
potential inside is infinite, on account of :: being infinite. Outside 
the potential of points on the outermost line is 2 tt n j a Y. -2, 
those for 2 tt nj a X "15, 2 tt nj a X -1, &c., going off the paper. 

As Maxwell points out. there is a discontinuity in the magnetic 
potential at the plane ends of the solenoids, but the equipotential 
surface lines inside at the end are connected with those outside at 
the end, and the curvative is the same for both. 

In some cases it was exceedingly difficult to find curves -which 
passed nicely through the points Avhich had to be joined together, 
and the drawing was all done at night. The most palpable error, 
which, however, is not likely to mislead anyone, is to be found in 
coil (2), Plate III. The spacing of the lines near the corners of 
the square representing the solenoid obviously requires altering. 
The curves bring out very clearly the want of uniformity of the 
field in the interior of short coils, even the first line from the 
equatorial in coil (I), Plate II., being sUghtly curved. In the other 
coils it is uniform for a greater and greater length, as the solenoid 
becomes longer and longer. In coil (2), Plate III., it is uniform 

for a little less than - on either side of the central line, in coil (3), 
8 



oa 
2^ 

end. Since the curves are all drawn to the same scale, the ratio of 
the distance between any pair of lines in one coil to that of the 
corresponding pair in all other gives us the ratio of the magnitude 
of the force in the second coil to that in the first, so that the curves 
ishow also how very much feebler the force is at the centre of the 
solenoid for a short coil than for a long one which has the same 
number of turns per centimetre, the same radius of section, and 
the same current round the coils. 

* Phil. Mag., ser. 5, Dec, 1891. 



246 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 

3.— METEOROLOGICAL AVORK IN AUSTRALIA : 
A REVIEW 

By Sir C. TODD, K.G.M.G., M.A., F.R.S., F.Ii.A.S., Govvrnmott 
Astronomer, Adelaide, S.A. 

Plate VI. 

The object of the present paper is to place before the Association 
a brief and succinct account of meteorological work in Australia. 
Mr. Russell has already told us, in his interesting paper on astrono- 
mical and meteorological workers, read before the Associaticm at 
its first meeting in Sydney in 1888, what had been done in the 
early days of the mother colony, and brings the history up to 
the year 1860, or immediately following the commencement of 
the active work of the new observatory completed in 1858, an 
establishment with which he has been associated during the past 
thirty-four years, and over which he has so honorably presided 
since his appointment as astronomer in 1870, on the death of 
Mr. Smalley in July of that year. 

It is unnecessary that I should travel over the same ground. My 
intention is to carry on the history of which Mr. Russell ha& 
already given us the opening chapter. Indeed, as regards 
meteorology but little had been done before the advent of Mr. 
Scott, the first director of the Sydney Observatory, in 1858, who, 
Mr. Russell tells me, established twelve meteorological stations, 
two of which, Brisbane and Rockhampton, were in Queensland, 
then forming part of New South Wales. Each station was 
equipped with a standard barometer, dry and wet bulb thermo- 
meters, maximum and minimum thermometers, and a rain gauge. 

Meteorological stations had previously — in 1840 — been estab- 
lished at South Head, Port Macquarie, and Port Phillip, Victoria 
being then under the Government of New South Wales. The 
observations at South Head were kept up, but, I fear, not in a very 
satisfactory or systematic manner, for fifteen years, or until 1855. 
At Port Phillip and Port Macquarie they are said to have been 
discontinued after six years. During Mr. Smalley' s tenure of 
oflfice several stations started by his predecessor, for some reasoii or 
other, probably owing to his bad health, were closed or allowed to 
fall into disuse. These were, however, speedily re-estabhshed by 
Mr. Russell : and I may here mention as showing the active manner 
in which that gentleman has prosecuted the work commenced by 
Mr. Scott, that he has now in addition to the ■'Sydney Observatory 
thirty-five meteorological stations, having barometers, dry and wet 
bulb thermometers, maximum and minimum thermometers, and 
rain gauges ; 1 39 stations furnished with thermometers and rain 
gauges; and 1,063 stations having rain gauges. 

The Sydney Observatory is equipped with continuous self- 
recording barograph and thermograph, pluviometer and anemograph, 
made after Mr. Russell's own designs, besides underground ther- 



METEOROLOGICAL WORK IN AUSTRALIA. 247 

mometers at depths of 10ft., 5ft., 2ft. 6in., and lin. ; an evapora- 
tion tank, or atmometer, &c. ; a record, combined with the valuable 
astronomical work being done, worthy of the oldest colony of the 
group, which had already gained distinction in its promotion of 
science by the Daw^es Point Observatory, erected in 1788, and 
the celebrated Paramatta Observatory, established in 1821 by Sir 
Thomas Brisbane. 

In Mr. Tebbutt, Mr. Russell has found a most valuable coadjutor. 
That gentleman has not only carried imt an extensive series of 
astronomical observations entirely at his own cost, but also 
furnished his observatory with a complete meteorological outfit. 

In Victoria there were only broken records of rainfall, tempera- 
ture, and weather, made chiefly by New South Wales officials 
in Melbourne, from 1840 to about 1849, and of rainfall up to 1851. 
In 1 854 observations of barometer and temperature for astronomical 
purposes only, and of rainfall, were made at the VVilliamstown 
Observatory, then in charge of Mr. R. L. J. Ellery. Meteorological 
observations were also made at Melbourne bj- Mr. Brough Smyth, 
of the Crown Lands Department, from 1856 to the end of Feb- 
ruary, 1858, when Professor Neumayer, now director of the 
Nautical Observatory at Hamburg, commenced systematic obser- 
vations at the new ^Nlagaetic and Meteorological Observatory, at 
Flagstaff Hill, Melbourne. Dr. Neumayer also established several 
observing stations at the lighthouses on the coast, and at a few 
places inland. 

On the retirement of Dr. Neumayer in 1863, the Magnetic and 
Meteorological Department was transferred to the present Astrono- 
mical Observatory, then just erected, and placed under the direc- 
tion of the as ronomer, Mr. Ellery. in whose hands the institution 
soon became what it is to-day — not only a credit to the colony which 
founded it, but second to none in the Southern Hemisphere. He 
threw all his energy and skill as a physicist into his work, and 
early introduced photographic and other systems, by which we 
obtain continuous records of all variations of terrestrial magnetism, 
barometric pressure, and changes of temperature, electrical states 
of the atmosphere, and the direction and force or velocity 
of the wind, besides thermometers sunk at various depths 
(3ft., 6ft., and 8ft.) to determine the temperature of the ground; 
while, as regards astronomy, we have only to visit the observatory 
to see that it possesses some of the finest instruments in the 
world. 

Besides the Melbourne Observatory, he has established meteoro- 
logical stations of the second order at Portland. Cape Otway, 
Wilson's Promontory, Gabo Island, Ballarat (Mount Pleasant), 
Bendigo, Echuca, Sale (at the School of Mines), and twenty- 
three stations of the third order, besides 515 rainfall stations 
judiciously distributed throughout the colony. 



248 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 

In South Australia, thanks to the late Sir George Kingston, 
father of the present Premier, we have a continuous record of the 
rainfall in Adelaide from 1839, which that gentleman maintained 
until 1878. 

Meteorological observations, more or less complete, were made 
at the Survey Office for a number of years, or until I took up the 
work in November, 1856, when the observatory records commenced 
under my direction as Government Astronomer. 

Since May, 1860, all the observations have tjeen made at the 
West-terrace observatory. For several years I had no assistant, 
and having a growing Telegraph Department to look after and 
control, the area of my work was necessarily restricted, and I 
labored under many disadvantages ; but I early established meteoro- 
logical stations at Clare, Kapunda, Strathalbyn, Goolwa, Robe, and 
Mount Gambler, and placed rain gauges at the different telegraph 
offices. I also introduced the system of publishing daily reports 
of the w^eather and rainfall from all stations at the head telegraph 
office in Adelaide.. 

We have now meteorological stations, having standard or Board 
of Trade barometers, dry and wet bulb thermometers, maximum 
and minimum thermometers, and rain gauges, at Port Darwin, Daly 
Waters, Alice Springs, Charlotte Waters, Strangways Springs, 
Farina, Port Augusta, Yongala, Clare, Kapunda, the Agricultural 
College at Roseworthy, Mount Barker, Strathalbyn, Eucla, Fowler's 
Bay, Streaky Bay, Port Lincoln, Cape Borda, Robe, Mount 
Gambler, and Cape Northumberland, and 370 rain gauges ; at the 
lighthouses at Cape Borda and Cape Northumberland, and at the 
telegraph offices at Port Darwin and Alice Springs, the observa- 
tions are taken every three hours, night and day; at other stations 
at 9h. a.m., 3h., p.m., 9h. p.m. ; whilst at Alice Springs there is a 
large evaporation tank similar to the one at the observatory, which 
it may be convenient here to describe. 

It consists, first, of a brick tank, lined with cement ; internal 
measurement, 4ft. 6in. square and 3ft. 2in. deep. Inside this tank 
is another, made of slate, 3ft. square and 3ft. deep, leaving an 
intervening space between it and ihe larger tank of 7in. Both 
tanks are filled to the same level, or to within 3m. or 4in. of the 
top, fresh water being added as required. The evaporation is 
measured by a graduated vertical rod, which is carried by a float 
placed in a vertical cylinder of copper 4in. in diameter (perforated 
at tlie bottom) standing in the inner tank. The rod is graduated 
to iV of an inch, and is read off by means of a fixed vernier to 
1^77 of an inch. A rain gauge is placed by the side of the tank, 
and both the evaporation and the rainfall are read at 9 am. and 
9 f..m. 

As the question of evaporation is an important one in connection 
with water conservation, I give below the mean evaporation at 
Adelaide, deduced from twenty-three years' observations, and at 



METEOROLOGICAT. WORK IN AUSTRALIA. 



249 



Alice Springs, in the centre of the continent, during the years 
1890, 1891, and 1892. 



Evaporation at Adelaide. 


Evaporation at Alice Springs. 


Mean of Twenty-three Yc 


ars. 


1890. 


1891. 


1892. 


January 


Inches. 

8-928 
7-226 
6 -030 
3-599 
2-11 
I-3S2 
1-41^ 
2-029 
3-017 
4-859 
6-499 
8-359 

55-525 


Inches. 

11-200* 
11-990 
6-000 
4-760 
3-150 
4-44U 
5-430 

11-222 
11-730 
13-790 


Inches. 

12-840 
13-840 
11-850 
5-040 
4-480 
2-660 
3-8-.0 
5-810 
7-780 
8-225 
9-265 
12-940 

98-550 


Inches. 

14-020 
10-550 


March 


8-720 
7-180 


Mav 


4-660 


June 

July 


3-950 
4-210 


August . . . . 


5-690 


September 

October 

>'ovember . . 

December 


8-170 
9-845 
11-870 
11-490 


Year 


100-355 







* Twenty-seven days. 

Greatest in One year at Adelaide 60-953 inches in 1876. 

Least in one year at Adelaide 47-392 inches in 1892. 

Average rainfall at Adelaide for fifty-four years 21-077 inches. 

Average rainfall at Alice Springs for nineteen years . . 11-254 inches. 

In Tasmania the Imperial Government established a magnetic 
.and meteorological ol servatory at Hobart. as part of an inter- 
national scheme, in charge of Captain Kay, and systematic meteoro- 
logical observations were conducted i'rom 1841 to 1854, hourly 
readings bemg taken until the end of 1848. The results were 
published, together with the magnetic observations, in four large 
quarto volumes with a short but interesting and instructive 
article by the late Professor Dove, then director of the meteoro- 
logical stations in Prussia. Similar observatories were established 
at Greenwich, St. Helena, Cape of Good Hope, and Toronto, 
besides places in Europe, and by Russia in Asia. 

From the beginning of 1855, the Imperial Observatory being 
closed, meteorological observati'ins at Hobart were carried on by 
the late Mr. Francis Abbott imtil about the year 1880, when the 
Government took up the work, Avhich was entrusted to the late 
Captain Shortt, R.N., who died last year. Captain Shortt proved 
a valuable coadjutor, and established eight other observing stationf 
besides a number of rain gauges in various parts of the island, os 
which there are now about fifty-nine. 



250 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 

In Western Australia a meteorological observatorj' was 
established by the Government, in connection with the Surveyor- 
General's office, the work being entrusted to Mr. iVI. A. C. Fraser, 
in 1876, since which continuous records have been published. 
Prior to the date mentioned we have rain and temperature records 
at Perth from 1860 to 1869, taken by Mr. H. Knight. At present 
Mr. Fraser has fifteen meteorological stations, exclusive of Perth, 
and ninety-one rain gauges At Perth there is a self-recording 
barometer, selected by me when in England in 1886. The observa- 
tions in this colony are very valuable, extendnig, as they do, 
from the south coasi well into the tropics at Wyndham, Cambridge 
Gulf. 

In Queensland, as has already been stated, meteorological 
stations were started at Brisbane and Rockhampton by Mr. Scott, 
the first Government Astronomer of New South Wales. I do not 
know the exact date but Mr. Scott arrived in the colony in 1858, 
and retired in 1862. The instrviments were transferred to 
Queensland on its separation from the parent colony, and for some 
years the duties of meteorologist devolved on Mr. Edmund 
MacDonneil, who established several observing stations and a 
number of rain gauges. 

In 1887 Mr. Wragge was appointed, who — with the great ability 
and energy which characterises him, and which had brought him 
so much renown in starting, 1 believe at his own expense, the high 
level observatory at Hen Nevis, where he conducted the work 
under difficulties which would have deterred most men — soon 
effected a complete revolution. Beginning his work on January 
1st, 1887, he speedily equipped stations of the several orders all 
over the colony, along the coast round to the Gulf of Carpentaria,, 
and inland to the very western boundary of the colony. He 
classified his stations under five orders, according to the com- 
pleteness of their equipment, as follows: — First order, second 
order, third order, third order A. third order B. 

Stations of the first order are equipped with the following 
instruments : — Standard barometer, barograph, Stevenson's double- 
louvred thermometer screen, hygrometers, maximum and minimum 
self-registering thermometers, thermograph, solar and terrestrial 
radiation thermometers, earth thermometers, wind compass, and rain 
gauge. The hours of observation of stations of this order are 3 a.m., 
9 a.m.. 3 p.m. and 9 p.m. (local time), and also in some instances 
at the time (depending on longitude) corresponding to mean noon at 
Greenwich, when synchronous observations are taken at the prin- 
cipal stations throughout the world. The barographs and thermo- 
graphs are of Richards' construction. 

The equipment of stations of the second order is generally the 
same as above, with the usual exceptions of t)arograph and thermo- 
graph. I'he observing hours at these stations are 9 a.m. and 9 
p.m. (local time). 



METEOROLOGICAL WORK IN AUSTRALIA. 251 

Third order of climatological stations are sujoplied with a 
thermometer screen, hygrometer, maximum and minimum self- 
registering thermometers, wind compass, and rain gauge. In "A" 
division tlie hygrometer is excepted, and in " B " division a rain 
gauge only is employed. The time of observation at all stations of 
the third order is 9 a.m., local time. 

Following the example of Mr. Ellery, Mr. Russell, and myself,. 
Mr. Wragge commenced the system of publishing daily reports of 
weather and rainfall, and a synoptic map similar to the map we 
had for some time been issuing in Adelaide. He also co-operated 
with us in publishing forecasts of the probable weather during 
each ensuing twenty-four hours, with this addition, that he issued 
forecasts not only for Queensland, but also for the other Australian 
Colonies ; and, as these latter were made without regard to those 
published at an earlier hour by the several local authorities, it has 
occasionally happened that the two forecasts for the same colony 
differed from each other. I will not venture an opinion as to the 
desirableness of this independent action, beyond remarking that 
supposing the judgment and qualifications of the other meteorolo- 
gists to be equally good, their local experience, and the 
possession of more detailed information in regard especially to 
prognostics, clovids. Sec, gives them an advantage, and their 
forecasts should be of equal value, and be more frequently justified. 
Of Mr. VVraggtt's zeal and high qualifications for his special work 
there can be no two opinions. I regret that his collected obser- 
vations have not yet been published — from causes, it may be 
presumed, beyond his control — in such detail as he himself would 
wish, and which, in the interests of science, we all desire. This is 
to be regretted, as his stations are so distributed as to represent the 
climate of all parts of that large colony. There are now in 
Queensland sixteen stations ot" the first order, thirty->ix of the 
second order, forty-five of the third order "A," and 398 rain gauge 
stations, third order " B." Included in the second order are two 
priA^ate stations and five in the third order "A." 

Besides the stations in Queensland, Mr. Wragge tell- me he has 
supplied instruments for two stations of the first order in New 
Guinea, for one in New Caledonia, one in Fiji, and one in Norfolk 
Island, and two others ot the second order in New Guinea 

In New Zealand, I learn from Sir James Hector, that from 1853 
meteorological reports were included in the yearly volume of 
statistics issued by the Registrar- General, but the observations 
were of irregular character, and possessed little value nntiL 
1859, when the work was taken up in a more systematic manner. 
Observers were appointed at Wanganui, Auckland, Napier, New 
Plymouth, Wellington, Nelson, Christchurch, and Dunedin, each 
being supplied with a set of standard instruments. The service 
appears to have been placed, in the first instance, under the 
supervision of Dr. Knight, the Auditor-General, bui in 1867 it 



"262 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 

was transferred to Dr. (now Sir James) Hector, under whose skilful 
manag-ement great, improvements were introduced. The principal 
stations are supplied with mercurial Fortin barometers, dry and 
wet bulb and self-registering maximum and minhnum thermo- 
meters, solar and lerrestrial radiation thermometers, Robinson's 
anemometers, and rain gauges. The height of every barometer 
above sea-level has been ascertained, and every reading, as in the 
-other colonies, is reduced to sea level and 32° Fahr. 

At present there are eight stations, viz., Te Aroha. Taranaki, 
Russell, The Bluif, Wellington, Lincoln, Hokitiki, and Dunedin, 
equipped as above, except Te Aroha, wliich has an aneroid ; and 
seventy-nine rain stations. 

To facilitate the transmission of daily weather reports Sir James 
Hector has prepared a series of isobaric maps, which fairly repre- 
sents all the different types of weather. These maps are nnmbered 
in consecutive order, and stereotyped copies are supplied to each 
station, so that all that is necessary is for the head office to 
telegraph to each office the number of the map to be posted up tor 
the infoimation of the public. In the same manner typical maps 
of the pressure in Australia have been prepared, with the assis- 
tance of Mr. Russell, of Sydney. The reports from a few selected 
stations, a brief description of the weather, and the number of the 
map are daily exchanged between Wellington and Sydney (repre- 
senting Australia) ; the New Zealand reports being transmitted by 
telegraph to the head office in each of the other colonies. 

Spread throughout the colonies we have 357 meteorological 
stations more or less completely equipped, and 2,575 rain gauges. 

In will be seen that, excepting the magnetic and meteorological 
observatory at Hobart, established in 1841, which was an Imperial 
institution, systematic observations under the auspices of the 
Colonial Governments date, speaking approximately, from about 
1858, a date which closely coincides with that given by Professor 
Waldo (1860) as marking a definite epoch in the (ievelo])ment of 
the modern science of meteoiology. The investigation of the law 
of storms by Buys Ballot, Dove, and others, and the researches of 
Ferrel, then just commenced, on the theory of atmospheric motions, 
cleared the way to further advances ; and, later on, the utilisation 
of ihe electric telegraph, which is to the meteorologist what the 
telescope is to the astronomer, in extending his field of view OA^er 
large areas of the earth's surface, enabled the observer to mark 
and watch the birthplace of storms, track their course and rate of 
translation. The same means informed him of the general distri- 
bution of pressure, and, knowing the laws governing the circulation 
of air currents round regions of high and low barometers, he soon 
felt himself justified in issuing warnings of coming gales and the 
probable state of the weather some hours in advance. He was no 
longer confined to his own particular locality, laboriously compiling 
statistics and studying local prognostics; he could look far around 



METEOROLOGICAL WORK IX AUSTRALIA. 2o3^ 

him, see storms a thousand or more miles distant, and tell people 
with a considerable amount of confidence when they niifjht be 
expected and what would be their force. This is the great func- 
tion of modern meteorology. Hnt, like everything- else, it too'ic 
time. It required money from the State, which was not always 
readily forthcoming ; it required, moreover, a complete and exten- 
sive organisation of skilled observers, all working on the same 
lines and with the same objects in view. It had also to win the 
confidence of a sceptical public, which still placed confidence in 
quack weather prophets, who. like Moore and Saxby, could fell 
them what the weather would be all the year through, according 
to the phases of the moon. Confidence, we are told, is a plant of 
slow growth. So it is, and so it should be if progress is to be 
made on a sound, solid, lasting basis. 

So long ago as 1854 Admiral Fitzroy advised the Home Govern- 
ment to establish a meteorological office, with a view to the issue 
of weather forecasts and storm warnings to all the princijial ports 
of the kingdom. This sugiicstion was ultimately adopted, and 
a Meteorological Department, under the Board of Trade. Avas 
organised, over which Admiral Fitzroy presided until his death, and 
storm warnings were issued as proposed. Leverrier, at Paris, also 
commenced the publication of daily weather bulletins. 

On the death of Admiral Fitzroy the Government, invoked the 
aid of the Royal Society, which resulted in the appointment of a 
standing committee to superintend the meteorological work under- 
taken by the Board of Trade. 

The functions of the Committee were divided into three great 
branches : — 

I. Ocean Meteorology. — 'ihc object of this branch is to deduce 
the meteorology of all parts of the ocean from observa- 
tions made by ships. The surface of the ocean is con- 
ventionally portioned off by lines of latitude and longi- 
tude into a vast number of sections, and the meteorology 
of each section is discussed as though it were an inde- 
pendent district. The issue of instruments to ships is 
also undertaken by this branch. 

II, Telegraphic Weather Information. — This branch of the 
functions of the Committee comes most prominently 
before the public, but it must not therefore be assumed 
that it is the most useful or imjjortant part of their 
work. 

III. Land Meteoroloyy of the British Isles. — The new feature 
of this branch consists in the establishment of seven land 
observatories, provided with self-recording instruments. 
Its object is twofold : first, to give accurate data for a 
discussion of the law of storms and weather changes ; 
and, secondly, to ascertain meteorological constants,. 



254 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 

thereby performinji; with great precision for the land 
stations that which is aecoraplished with moderate pre- 
cision by branch I. for the entire ocean. 
On the recommendation of the Committee, Mr. R. H. Scott, 
F.R.S., was appointed director of the meteorological office, Capt. 
Toynbee, R.N.. as marine superintendent, and Mr. Balfour Stewart 
as director of the Kew Observatory. 

Shortly after, the storm warnings, which had been temporarily 
suspended, were resumed, and daily forecasts have been issued up 
to the present time with a very fair amount of success. It soon 
"became evident, however, that concerted action to secure uniformity 
of systems and a more complete organisation was urgently necessary ; 
and, on the invitation of Ur. Bruhns of Leipzig, Dr. Wild of St. 
Petersburg, and Dr. Jehnck of Vienna, a meeting of meteorologists 
was convened and held at Leipzig in 1872. The invitation stated 
that ■* the development of in':erest in meteorological investigation 
in modern times among all civdiscd nations has brought into 
prominence a requirement which has long been felt, viz., that of 
greater uniformity of procedure in different countries." This was 
followed by congresses at Vienna in 1873, at London in 1874, at 
Rome in 1879, the last being at Munich in 1891. 

In the United States, where they have done more, perhaps, than 
any other country, a very complete system was organised in charge 
of the Chief Signal Officer, no expense being spared, and for many- 
years three synoptic weather charts were issued daily. 

Turning again to Australia, we found the same need for uni- 
formity and co-operation between the colonies, and, at the instance 
of Mr. Russell, a conference was held at Sydney in 1879, which 
was attended by the following delegates : — Mr. Russell, Govern- 
ment Astronomer, New South Wales ; Mr. Ellery, Government 
Astronomer, Victoria ; Mr. Todd, Government Astronomer, South 
Australia; Sir James Hector, K.C.M.G., Inspector of Meteoro- 
logical Stations, New Zealand. 

Aher discussion the following resolutions were arrived at: — 
I. That, in view of the great importance which a better know- 
ledge of the movement and origin of strong gales and 
storms on our coastlines and neighboring seas is to the 
shipping and commercial interest generally, it is desirable 
to secure, as far as possible, co-operation in all the Aus- 
tralasian Colonies for the investigation of storms, as well 
as for agricvdtural and general climatological purposes. 
II. That, with the view of giving effect to the foregoing reso- 
lution, similar observations and the same form of publi- 
cation should, as far as possible, l)e adopted throughout 
the colonies. 
III. That, in order effectively to carry out tbe objects of the 
Conference, as affirmed in the foregoing resolutions, it 
is desirable to establish first-class meteorological stations 



METEOROLOGICAL WORK IN AUSTRALIA. 255 

in certain well-selected positions in the several Austra- 
lasian Colonies, including New Zealand, in addition to 
those existinj^. 
IV. That the definition of the work of a first-class station, 
given in the preface to the New Zealand Meteorological 
lleport for 1873, be adopted, viz.: — "The observations 
taken are limited to those for determining atmospheric 
pressure, maximum and minimum daily temperature of 
atmosphere, and of insolation and radiation, the average 
daily amount of moisture, the rainfall and number of 
rainy days, the force and direction of wind, and amount 
andcharacter of cloud." 
V. That the instruments at each first class station consist of 
a mercurial barometer, of either the standard or Board 
of Trade form ; thermometers of new or approved 
patterns, compared with standards as frequently as 
possible ; rain-gauges of Sin. collecting diameter, and 
wind-gauges of any a])proved form. The local hours 
of observation to be 9 a.m., 3 p.m., and 9 p.m. Beau- 
fort's scale of wind to be adopted. The observations 
to be recorded in equivalents and pressure. 
VI. That it is very desirable to obtain the co-operation of the 
Government of Tasmania, and to persuade them to 
establish a station at the public expense at Hobart Town. 
VII. That it is desirable to secure the co-operation of the 
Governments of Western Australia. New Zealand, and 
Tasmania in" the system of weather telegrams, which 
now embraces the colonies of South Australia, Victoria, 
New South Wales, and Queensland. 
VIII. That, in the opinion of this Conference, it is desirable 
that weather telegrams and forecasts shall, in all cases, 
depend upon the observations used for general meteoro- 
logical and climatological statistics, and be under the 
direction of the head of the meteorological department 
in each colony. 
IX. Thar this Conference, having been informed that the 
Eastern E.x:tension Telegraph Company will charge half 
rates for the transmission of weather reports through 
tlie cable connecting Australia and Tasmania, and 
probably also the cable to New Zealand, recommend 
that the cost of such reports be defrayed hj the 
participating colonies in equal proportioiis ; and that, in 
the opinion of this Conference, such cost need not exceed 
in the aggregate £350 per annum. 
X. That, in the opinion of the Conference, this expenditure 
is justified by the extreme importance to the shipping 
interest of early information of the approach of dangerous 
easterly and westerly gales. 



256 PKOCi/EmNGS OF SECnON A. 

XI. That the several Uovernihents be requested to cause pre- 
cedence to be given to the regular weather telegrams 
and special storm reports. 

XII. That, in the opinion of this Conference, there should be 

established in each of the colonies, upon a high mountain 
f)eak, a meteorological observatory for the special study 
of winds and other meteorological phenomena ; and that 
the most desirable positions for them would be tlie 
following : — 

South Australia . . ilount Lofty . . About 2,500ft. above sea-level. 

New South Wales .Kiandra . ." " 4,6(i0ft. " 

New Zealand Tauhara Taupo. " 4,600ft. " 

Ditto Mount Herbert.. " 4, 000ft. '• 

Tasmania Mt. Wellington. " 4,000ft. " 

"Victoria Mount Macedon " 3,600ft. " 

XIII. That the revision of the present telegraph weather code 

be referred to Messrs. Russell and Ellery, with a view to 
its simplification and extension. 

XIV. That the interchange of weather statistics, in carrying 

out the suggestions of this Conference, between the 
different Australasian stations, should be in the form of 
a diagram ; and that this should not interfere with the 
printing of statistics by the different colonies in any way 
they like. 

XV. (1) That the monthly graphic records for interchange shall 

consist of curves, showing barometer, velocity and 
direction of wind, temperature, humidity, rainfall, 
with remarks upon weather, especially with reference 
to storms and atmospheric disturbances ; and that 
specific forms be prepared and distributed to the 
co-operating colonies. 

(2) That the mean humidity curve be derived from the 

means of maximum and minimum of wet and dry 
bulb thermometers. 

(3) The barometer curve to be constructed from baro- 

graphic records, so as to depict the turning points. 

(4) The temperature curve to represent maximum and 

minimum and mean for each day. 

(5) The velocity and direction of the wind to be deduced 

from the anemometer. 

XVI. That, in the transmission of telegrams, the reports be 

generalised from the local weather reports. For New 
Zealand the following sub-division into districts is 
recommended for convenience of reporting : — 

A .... N.E. aspect .... North Cape to East Cape. 
B . . . . N.W. aspect. . . . Cape Maria to West Cape 
(exclusive of Cook 
Straits). 



METEOROLOGICAL WORK IN AUSTRALIA. 257 

C .... S. aspect West Cape to Moeraki. 

D . . . . S.E. aspect .... Moeraki to East Cape (ex- 
clusive of Cook Straits). 
E . . . . Cook Straits. . . . Comprising Wancjanui, Wel- 
lington, Cape Campbell, 
and Cape Farewell, Nel- 
son. 
A code to be framed to express the weather in each of 
above aspects in general terms, according to the judg- 
ment of the reporter, thus : — 



Aspect. 



Wind and Weather. 



Eain. Sea. 



N^ remark to indicate absence of phenomena. 
That the telegrams furnished to Melbourne by Tasmania 
should conform with those between the Australian 
Colonies. 

(1) That weather telegrams from the Australian Colonies 

shall comprise : — 

1. Barometer reduced to 32'^ F. and sea-level 

2. Dry bulb 

3. Humidity 

4. Maximum and minimum 

5. Direction and velocity of wind 

6. State of weather 

7. Rainfall 

8. Sea disturbances, 

with a synoptical report of the weather generally. 

(2) And that within New Zealand the same system should 

be adopted. 

That the extreme importance of the weather system pro- 
posed be strongly urged upon the Queensland Govern- 
ment, with a view to obtain their more active co- 
operation. 

That Australia be divided into six meteorological areas 
for transmission of reports to New Zealand, viz.. 
Western Australia, South Australia, Victoria, New 
South Wales, and Queensland ; South Australia being 
divided into two districts, tropical and extra-tropical. 

That weather telegrams be written on paper of a special 
color, so as to be readily distinguishable in the offices. 

That the solar radiation thermometers should be blackened 
bulb thermometers in vacuo, and should be exposed on 
an open space at an elevation of 4ft. 6in. from the sur- 
face of the ground, supported by a post carrying two 
light arms. 
. That radiation thermometers be placed over grass. 



258 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 

XXIV. That the following subjects for experiment be referred to 
each member of the C'onference, for future consideration 
and report : — 

1. Shade temperature. 

2. Swinging thermometer and thermometer sheds in 

use. 

3. Standards to be swung with 2ft. 6in. string during 

sunshine and after sunset. 

4. Observations to determine the difference in 

hvimidity, by self-registering maximum and 
minimum thermometers, and by other methods. 

5. The best method of measuring the velocity and 

pressure of wind. 

6. Whether any better method than black bulb ther- 

mometers can be devised for measuring the 
direct effect of the sun. 

7. As to the best method of determining spontaneous 

evaporation. 
XXV. That, as investigation of the Newcastle tide-gauges has 
shown that such instruments give valuable indications 
of distant earthquakes, gales, and sea disturbances, it is 
desirable, in the opinion of the Conference, that self- 
registering tide-gauges be established in as many con- 
venient jilaces as possible on the coast, in connection 
with the meteorological departments of tlie different 
colonies. 
XXVI. That the foregoing minutes be adopted as the report of 
this Conference on the various matters referred to it, 
and that the chairman be requested to report to the 
Government of New South Wales. 
A second conference was held at Melbourne in April, 1881, the 
same gentlemen being present. Among other resolutions, it was 
agreed — 

That daily isobar maps, on the system adopted in Europe and 
America, should be issued by the head office in each colony. 
That, with a view to the instrumental readings being referred to 
one uniform standard, a complete set of standard instru- 
ments, viz., barometer, thermometer, solar thermometer, 
and anemometer, be purchased for circulation between the 
then four chief stations, viz., Melbourne, Sydney, Welling- 
ton, and Adelaide. 
That the New South Wales Government should move the 
Queensland Government to co-operate by transmitting daily 
reports from Brisbane, Rockhampton, Cooktown, Norman- 
ton, and Cloncurry. 
The Governments of New Caledonia and Fiji were also to be 
moved to have regular observations taken and published, on 
the Australian system. 



METEOROLOGICAL WORK IN AUSTRALIA. 259 

A third conference was held at Melbourne in September, 1888, 
at which all the colonies were represented: — Mr. Ellery, Victoria; 
Mr. l\ussell. New South Wales: Sir James Hector, K.C.M.G., 
New Zealand; Mr. C. L. Wragge, Queensland; Sir John Forrest, 
K.C.M.G., Western Australia; Captain Shortt, Tasmania: Mr. 
Toild, South Australia. 

A number of important subjects were discussed at this Con- 
ference, whicli I need not here particularly specify. 

Amongst other things it whs agreed — Mr. Wragge dissenting — 
that each head office should restrict its forecast, as a rule, to its 
own colony, and that the colonies should exchange their forecasts 
by telegraph, so thai they might be published in a comjDlete form 
in the daily papers. 

The object of the Conference in arriving at this decision was to 
secure the publication of the local forecasts at the earliest possible 
hour; and, further, to avoid tlie issue of conflicting forecasts, which 
it was thought would confuse the public, and create a want of 
confidence in the system. 

I may say here that, in Adelaide, Ave publish our forecasts for 
South Australia shortly after 1 p.m., in time for insertion in the 
afternoon papers, frequently including the forecasts for Victoria 
and New South Wales, supplied by ]Mr. Ellery and Mr. Russell. 
The forecasts, which apply to the twenty-four hours ending at 6 
p.m. on the following day, and a short description of the Aveather 
generally, are posted in the hall of the General Post Office, at Port 
Adelaide, Largs Bay, and several other ports and towns in the 
colony. 

As the outcome of these conferences Ave noA\' have a daily (Sun- 
days excepted) interchange of Aveather telegrams between all the 
Australian Colonies, including Tasmania and New Zealand. 

In all there are about eighty selected reporting stations, besides 
AA'hich nearh' every telegraph station reports at 9h. a.m. to the head 
office the direction of the Avind, the state of the weather, and the 
rainfall, which are also posted in a collective form at the General 
Post Office for jjublic information. 

From these data isobar and weather charts are compiled in 
nearly all the colonies, together Avith the forecasts to whicli I haA-e 
referred. 

At Adelaide, Avhere, as I have already said, Ave have issued daily 
isobar niHps since 1882, we exhibit a diagram shoAving the baro- 
metric ciu-ve at selected stations along the south coastline from 
Albany to Cape HoAve during the month, Avhich enables persons to 
see at a glance the Avesterly progressiA-e march of coastal depres- 
sions ; and Ave haA'e recently added a map Avhich shoAvs the 
distribution of rain in the colony on each Avet day. 

We also publish monthly a statement of the rainfall at every 
station throughout the colony, compared AA'ith the average of the 
corresponding month deduced from previous years, accompanied 



260 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 

by a comi^lete cliscussion of the characteristics of the month in 
regard to temperature, pressure, the 'passage of "highs" and 
" lows," and the weather generally, in which comparisons are 
made between the month under review and previous seasons, 
attention being drawn to any abnormal features that may have 
presented themselves. 

The annual volumes give in detail the observations at Adelaide, 
the principal results at outstations, and majjs showing in graduated 
tints the general distribution of rainfall during the year. 

An examination of tlie daily isobar maps extending over a period 
of eleven years shows that, while we have an infinite variety of 
details, there are several well-marked types which are frequently 
recurring. 

No two maps of the same type, perhaps, may exactly agree or 
resemble each other, but the type to which they belong is at once 
recognised. We can thus classify our maps into their respective 
types. 

1 have selected seven well-marked types to accompany this paper 
(see Plate VI.). 

MAP No. 1— FEBRUARY 18th, 1890, 
Shows the ordinary summer high pressure over the south coast, 
having its maximum about latitude 45°, which is further south 
than usual, covering Tasmania, with gradual falling gradients 
northwards to the usual low pressure conditions of the tropics. 

The map indicates a cyclonic centre to the north-west of Aus- 
tralia, where the barque Dorunda reports the barometer down to 
29-47, in longitude 114° E. and latitude 15° S. 

This cyclone was moving westward when encountered by the 
Dorunda^ and probably passed through the S.E. trade belt; then 
recurving to the eastward, may possibly be identical with a south 
coast depression which appeared off the Leeuwin on the morning 
of the 24th, but if so it had greatly lost its energy. 

The weather corresponding to this map was — Fine, except on 
and near the east coast from Caj^e Howe to the Gulf of Carpen- 
taria, where the weather was everywhere cloudy and unsettled, 
with rain, heavy rains falling on the coast. Over the whole of 
Australia the winds were south-east, and strong from the east 
through Bass's Straits. 

F'ollowing, we had general and heavy continuous rains for 
several days in both Queensland and New South Wales, the isobar 
charts showing a V-shaped depression gradually extending south- 
ward into Queensland fror»i the Gulf of Carpentaria, whilst the 
high pressure to the south became split up into two parts by a 
northerly low pressure extension towards our south coast. In 
Queensland and northern New South Wales many heavy floods 
Avere reported, Townsville (Queensland) having over 19in. of rain 
in three days. 



SYNOPTIC WEATHER CHARTS FOR AUSTRALASIA 



N°l 





N?2 




N?3 



N?4 



12 \" MARCH. 1831 




5 .FEB. 1890 



•'""o^ 




N95 




N96 



27 '."MAY. 1895 



29\"JUNE.I893 



LOW \^\- 




N97 



I*""" JULY 1893 




METEOROLOGICAL WORK IN AUSTRALIA. 261 

MAP i\o. 2— JAXUARY 14th, 1891, 
Shows a tropical " low " in the Gulf of Carpentaria, working its 
■way southwards over Queensland, whilst to the south is a " high," 
having its maximum, 30-2in., over Tasmania, the south coast of 
Victoria, and part of New South Wales between two "• lows." one 
approaching from the west and south of the Leeuwin, and the 
other to the east, covering southern New Zealand. 

With this map we had fine weather over Tasmania, Victoria, 
South Australia, and Western Australia ; cloudy to gloomy and 
very unsettled throughout Queensland and New South Wales, with 
Tcdn, very heavy in former colony. 

Subsequent weather. — The " low " shown over the gulf country 
of Queensland passed slowly southwards, and on the morning of 
the 17th lay over the Riverina districts of \ew South Wales. 
Very heavy and general rains continued all over the eastern 
colonies, and heavy floods resvdted in many parts of Queensland 
and New South Wales, and stormy conditions afi'ected the east 
constline. The ''high" shown o& the south coast moved eastward, 
as the "low" worked its way southward from northern Queens- 
land. 

MAP No. 3— MARCH 12th, 1891, 
Is a very important type. It shows a tropical cyclonic " low " 
approaching the east coast between Sydney and Brisbane from the 
north-east — a not infrequent occurrence in the summer. A "high" 
lies to the south-east, with compact gradients, the maximum pres- 
sure, about 30-4. embracing the whole of New Zealand. 

Another "high" is seen pushing its way over Western Australia, 
whilst a " low " lies to the south of Victoria. 

This map and No. 2 deserve careful study, as the conditions 
they indicate affect largely the weatlier on the east coast of 
<iueensland and New South VVales generally, bringing heavy flood 
rains in both colonies, the rains frequently extending well into the 
interior, occasionally reaching the north-eastern districts of South 
Australia. 

In this instance the weather was stormy, with heavy seas and 
strong southerly gales along the New South Wales and South 
Queensland coasts ; fine inland and throughout all southern, 
central, and western Australia, with some cloud along the coast 
between Kangaroo Island and the Leeuwin. 

The first indications we had of the approach of this disturbance 
was on the morning of the 7th, when the barometer on the 
Queensland coast commenced to fall, with freshening south and 
south-east winds. By the morning of the loth it had become 
merged into the low pressure waves shown off Tasmania, and 
passed south of NeAv Zealand during the following night. The 
weather, as it progressed, was very coarse and bad on the east 
coast, with heavy rains ; but the rains were confined to the c^ 
districts, and the reports on the 14th show heavy weather 



oastal I 



262 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 

south of New Zealand, with strong south-west gales. Two days 
after this, the "high " shown on the map of the 12th to the west- 
ward of Perth had moved eastward and covered the whole 
continent, with its centre (30-45) off Kangaroo Island (S.A.). 

MAP No. 4, FEBRUARY 5th, 1890, AND MAP No 5, MAY 27th, 1893^ 
Show low pressure valleys stretching across the continent con- 
necting the tropical and south low pressure belts. These are 
frequently productive of good general rains ; the winds on the east 
side of the trovigh are northerly, and southerly on the west side — 
strong if the valley is narrow and nipped up between two "highs" 
with steep gradients on either side. 

With No. 4 map the weather was cloudy and unsettled in the 
rear or west side of the low pressure trough, with showers all 
along the coastline of Western Australia ; in advance of the low 
pressure valley it was partially clouded in central and north 
Australia, gloomy and sultry in South Australia with steady rain 
falling over the nirthern areas, very hot (95" at Eucla) over the 
head of the Great Australian Bight, fine and warm in Victoria and 
Tasmania, cloudy in eastern Queensland and north-east parts of 
New South Wales, and thundery in Central Queensland. 

The maps for the previous day or two show that ttie formation 
of the valley of low barometers was preceded by a general taking 
off of pressure over the interior of Western Australia on the 3rd. 

Next morning, the 4th, the valley was very well defined, the 
weather chart for that date being almost identically the same as 
that on the 5th. Splendid general rains set in over South Aus- 
tralia during the afternoon and evening of the 4th, extending from 
Strangways Springs to the Mount Lofty Ranges. Subsequent 
maps sliow that as the isobars moved eastward the low pressure 
valley or trough underwent considerable modification, though the 
valley-like depression was clearly marked in each map. 

The heavy steady rains which fell in advance of the valley in 
South Australia did not, however, extend to the eastern colonies, 
and its effect on the weather in New South Wales and Victoria 
was to produce sultry and oppressive conditions, Avhich culminated 
later on in heavy thunderstorms and rains over a large part of 
both colonies. 

The weather with No. 5 map was cloudy to gloomy in southern 
West Australia, with heavy showers on south coast, fine and clear 
in the north. All over South Australia (nearly across the con- 
tinent), Victoria, Tasmania, and the western half of New South 
Wales it was cloudy to gloomy, and threatening with rain falling 
in the northern areas of South Australia, and in places in the other 
colonies ; in Queensland fine but cloudy. 

This map shows a slightly different trough formation to No. 4. 
In the latter the valley ran north and south across Australia. In 
this the axis lies north-west and south-east. 



METEOROLOGICAL WORK IN AUSTRALIA. 263 

The maps immediately preceding the 27th show an ordinary low 
pressure wave advancing eastwards along the Southern Ocean, with 
a "high " over the continent, gradually retreating before it to the 
eastwards. On the 26th signs of a valley forming were very 
marked, and on the next day we have the trough shown in map No. 5. 

The subsequent weather charts are very interesting. The 28th 
being a Sunday no chart was issued, but oa the 2'.nh. we find that 
a well-marked cyclonic depression had developed over South Aus- 
tralia, the centre lying between Adelaide and Port Aujjusta, and 
the Barrier Ranges in New Sovxth Wales, whilst a large high 
pressure area lay over New Zealand and the ocean between those 
islands and the Australian coast, and another " high " overlapped 
the south-western portion of the coniinent. This low pressure 
centre then passed southwards to between Kangaroo Island and 
Lacepede Bay, thence down the coast over Tasmania, and off 
towards New Zealand. 

Splendid rains fell all over this colony, Victoria, and Tasmania, 
e.\tending well inland over the norh-east districts of South Aus- 
tralia into western and central Queensland. In South Australia it 
was one of the lieaviest, if not the heaviest, general rainstorm of 
which we have records. The bulk of the rain fell between 9 a.m. 
on the 27th and 9 a.m. on the 30th, and during that period we 
find that in South Australia heavy rains fell everywhere south of 
Alice Springs ; in New South Wales light to heavy rains fell 
almost generally ; also in Queensland, especially in the centre and 
west ; whilst in Victoria and Tasmania there was a copious rainfall 
throughout. 

I doubt if so extensive a rainstorm has been experienced since 
records began. The drought over our north-eastern country, 
western and central Queensland, was broken up, and practically 
more than half the entire continent participated in the downpour, 
which was certainly as beneficial as it was extensive. 

MAP No. 6, JUNE 22.vd, 1893, 
Is a typical winter map, an anticyclonic area resting over the 
interior, with its maximum extending from the Great Australian 
Biaht to the centre of the continent, and in a long loop from 
Western Australia to near the coast range in Queensland, whilst 
over the Southern Ocean we have the usual low pressure belt. 

The weather was mostly fine and clear in Western Australia; in 
South Australia dry south-east winds were blowing in the interior 
from Lake Eyre to the north coast, and the weather was cloudy 
fine to gloomy, and in parts foggy, with misty rain over southern 
districts. On the Victorian coast it was cloudy and showery, and 
fine and clear inland there and in New South Wales ; fine but 
more or less cloudy in Queensland and the Northern Territory. 
There were frosts in early morning in Victoria and southern 
Queensland. 



264 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 

Subsequent maps show that the " high " g-radually increased in 
energy till the 1st of July ; then decreased slightly during the next 
day or two, the centre of the anticyclone remaining stationary over 
the southern part of South Australia. Yevj cold frosty nights 
were experienced inland over South Australia and New South 
Wales, the thermometer on grass at the Sydney Observatory on 
the morning of the 4th reading 24° — the lowest reading there in 
thirty-five years. 

MAP No. 7, JULY 14th, 1893, 
Is another typical winter map showing an extended series of low 
pressure waves passing in rapid succession easterly along the south 
coast — one rounding the Leeuwin, another to the west of Tasmania, 
while a third is over southern New Zealand, vvith its centre to the 
south of the island. A moderate "high" covers Australia from 
west to east. 

The trend of the low pressure isobars on the south coast is a very 
general feature. Reaching up northwards into Victoria, they curve 
abruptly southwards, rounding Tasmania to the south, and then 
recurving northwards up the east coast. In many maps this is 
much more marked. The same feature may be seen in maps 3 
and 6. This abrupt northerly extension east of Tasmania frequently 
gives rise to strong southerly winds on the New South Wales coast. 

The weather was cloudy to threatening and showery in West 
Australia ; cloudy to gloomy and threatening, and in a few places 
showery, with squalls on coast, in South Australia, Victoria, and 
Tasmania; tine and clear in north-east New South Wales, un- 
settled in west : cloudy to gloomy in south and east parts of 
Queensland, clear in centre and north-west districts. 

This map was taken at random from several during a long spell 
of cyclonic conditions, lasting from the 8th to the 24th. and clearly 
shows the rapid succession of V-shaped depressions along the south 
coastlines. With each depression unsettled weather and rain 
passed along the south coast of the continent. The "low" shown 
off the Leeuwin when it reached the Bight passed inland over 
South Australia, causing the rains to be heavier and more general 
than when the previous depression passed along the south coast 
further to the south. 

Leaving the maps, and speaking generally, I would point out 
that in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres is a belt or 
zone of high pressure, separating the tropical and polar zones of 
low pressure at the latitude where the return trade and polar 
winds descend towards the surface of the earth. 

The southern belt passes over the extra-tropical or temperate parts 
of Austi-alia. It is made up of long loops, or antioyclonic areas, 
being broken up at intervals by low pressure intrusions from the 
tropics and northerly extensions of V-shaped depressions from the 
south. When these join they form a barometric trough or valley, 
effecting a complete rupture of the anticyclonic belt. The position 



METEOROLOGICAL WORK IN AUSTRALIA, 265 

or latitude of this anticyclonic belt depends on the time of the year, 
and varies in different years. Normally, during the winter the crest 
of the "high " lies over the interior, approximately about latitude 
29° or 30° fvide map 6). North of this the continent is swept by 
the dry south-east trade winds, whilst to the south we have, in South. 
Australia, a prevalence of dry northerly (north-east to north-west) 
winds, varied by strong west and south-Avest winds as coastal 
depressions pass from west to east, with rain and squally weather. 
On the east coast west winds prevail during the winter. 

The character of ovu- winter season, in South Australia especially, 
depends very ch)sely on the position of this wall, as it were, of 
high barometers, which plays a very important part in Australian 
climate. If it lies too far south, or near the coast, the winter over 
the southern districts of the colony (I am speaking of South Aus- 
tralia) is dry, but we may, and. occasionally do, have under these 
conditions good rains in the north, due to the extension of tropical 
depressions bringing rain over the interior of Queensland, New 
South Wales, and South Australia east of Lake Eyre and the 
Flinders Range. 

On the other hand, if the anticyclonic areas keep more to the 
north, the southern or coastal V depressions extend further 
inland, at times being felt as far as the tropics, and we haA-e 
copious rains all over the colony, a^^ well as in Victoria and western 
^evv South Wales. As the depressions pass the winds veer from 
north-east and north to north-west, west, and south-west. Steady 
rains set in with the wind at north-east to north, heaviest at north- 
Avest. and. break up with heaA-y shoAvers and squalls at south-Avest, 
-'sometimes accompanied by heavy thunderstorms, AA^hile the Avind. 
is iiorth-west to south-we-t. 

As the sunmier advances the high pressure belt retreats, and 
usually lies a little to the south of the coast, Avith its maximum 
pressure about latitude 37° to 40°, and the Avhole of the interior of 
Australia is then Avell within the equatorial belt of Ioav pressure. 

On the north coast, and for some distance inland, the winds are 
uorth-Avest, monsoonal rains setting in at the end of October and 
lasting till the end of March or April, the heaA'iest rain being in 
December, January, and February, in which months the aAerage at 
Port Darwin is 10-420, 14-782, and 13-009 inches, respectively. 

The southerly reach of the north-Avest monsoon depends on the 
pressure in the interior, Avhich is frequently A'ery uniform, but 
when a barometric valley fvide maps 4 and 5) is formed the rains 
may extend almost witbout a break right across the continent, 
being in some years very heavy and general in South Australia. 
■On the east coast summer rains are frequent and heavy, especially 
A\-hen troi^ical •' Ioavs " pass down from the north and north-east 
fvide maps 2 and 3). 

In South Australia the prevailing wind in summer is south-east, 
varied by hot, dry, northerly winds, as coastal "lows" approach 



266 



PKOCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 



from the west, followed on their retreating side by a sudden shift 
of wind to south-west and a rapid fall of temperature as the 
depression passes, the thermometer at times falling 30° or 40° in a 
few hours. I have known a fall of 20° in almost as many minutes. 
From what I have said you will see that we have, as weather 
conditions : — 

1st. A continual series of anticyclonic areas, which in the winter 
pass over the interior, covering the whole or greater 
part (if the continent, with gradual falling gradients from 
the centre, while in the summer they pass along or near 
the south coast. 
2nd. Cyclones, disturbers of the peace, but bringing fi'uitf ul rains ; 
sometimes, alas ! disastious floods These are mostly of 
tropical origin, and, starting on a west to south-west 
course, they re curve south of the irade belt, and move to 
the south-east. Some — those approaching from the 
north-east of Avistralia — strike the east coast of Queens- 
land : others enter by the Gulf of Carpentaria, and, passing 
inland, shed rains over the western interior of Queensland 
and New South Wales: others pass over the interior from 
the north-west ; whilst others again pass to the west of 
Australia, and ultimately, rounding the Leeuwin, appear 
as a south coastal disturbance. 
3rd. Northerly extensions of the antarctic low pressure, which, 
passing along the south coast, give us our winter rains, 
and, on their retreating side, south-westerly gales. 
Taking the five years 1888 to 1892, Mr. Russell, in a recent paper 
to the Koyal British Meteorological Society, states that on the 
average about forty-three high pressure areas pass over us during 
the year, and that they are more frequent in summer than in winter. 
Their general movement, as with cyclones, is from west to east, 
cin-ving to the south-east, no doubt dying out as they reach 
higher latitudes. Mr. Russell makes their average rate of motion 
to be about 400 miles a day, passing over Australia in seven or 
eight days in summer anti nine or ten in winter. My own observa- 
tions lead me to the conclusion that anticyclonic areas seldom retain 
their general outlines and energy for any great length of time ; 
both are continually varying, according to surrounding conditions. 
For instance, our weather charts may show an anticyclone on the 
west coast pushing its way inland, and in a few days covering nearly 
the whole of the continent; but by that time it will very fre- 
quently have greatly increased in energy, and the central pressure 
may be 30-oin. or more, although no such pressure may have 
passed over the west coast ; it gets built up over the land. '1 his 
is especially noticeable when there is a deep " low " adjoining, 
say, off the coast to the south-east, the increased pressure in the 
anticyclone being probably due to the upper outflow of air from, 
the neighboring "low," or cyclone. 



METEOROLOGICAL WORK IN AUSTRALIA. 267 

An anticyclone is. fitful and uncertain in its movements ; it may 
remain stationary, or nearly so, over the interior for days together, 
and then suddenly split up, or contract, or show diminished 
pressure ; and then, perhaps, make a rapid forward move, and 
again come to a slandstill, after which it will pass off to the south- 
east and in a few days appear over New Zealand. The movements 
of cyclonic areas are more marked and regular, though by no 
means uniform. Taking the south coastal depressions, of which 
about sixty pass during the year, I find they travel on the average 
at the rate of 25 miles an hour. 

Over the United .States the aA-erage is about 28-4 miles, ranging 
from 34-2 in February to 22 6 in August. Over the Atlantic in 
middle latitudes the average is 18 miles, ranging from 20 in 
November to 15-8 in Jvdy. Over Europe the average is 16-7,- 
ranging from 19 in October to 14 miles in August. 

The progress of our south cjastal depressions is frequently 
retarded by anticyclonic conditions ahead or to the east of them,, 
which will sometimes deflect them such a distance to the sovith 
as to barely affect the weather in this colony In other cases, after 
pvishing up into the Great Australian Bight, or near Eucla, as a 
well-marked Y, they will, more particularly during the winter, 
open out and the isobars will run roughly parallel with the coast 
(or east and west), and w^e have then long shoots of north-west 
and west winds, with either no rain or squally showers on the 
Mount Lofty Ranges and the coast, and fresh westerly winds witk 
rain through Bass's Straits. All these conditions have to be taken 
int) account in framing our daily forecasts. Taking the last four 
years, the forecasts issued in South Australia have been justified 
to the extent of 73 per cent., partially justified 20 per cent., and 
wholly wrong 7 per cent. In connection with this work, I have 
much pleasure in acknowledging the great and zealous assistance 
I receive from Mr. Griffiths. Our usual practice is for Mr. 
Griffiths and myself each to write out independently a forecast. 
The two are then compared, and adopted if they agree. If they 
disagree we discuss the conditions very carefully, and decide what 
the forecast shall be. In my absence this work entirely devolves 
on Mr. Griffiths. 

SEASONAL FORECASTS. 

The importance to the farmer, the horticidturist, and pastoralist 
of knowing beforehand the probabilities of dry or wet winter 
seasons, and whether the rains will be early or late, or both, has 
naturally led to a desire for seasonal forecasts. They have them, 
it is said, in India ; why not in Australia ? 

A letter from Mr. Archibald, at one time on the meteorological 
staff in India, published in Queensland, opened the ball. As 
the responsibility of issuing such forecasts would not devolve upon 
himself, he was, perhaps, the more fearless in suggesting what 
should be done by others. The Postmaster-General of Queensland, 



268 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 

the Hon. Mr. Unmack, expressed a desire that the matter should be 
discussed at the recent Brisbane Postal and Teleo:raph Conference, 
and for this purpose Mr. Russell, and Mr. EUery, and myself were 
invited to meet Mr. Wragge. I think we all felt that it was alto- 
gether premature to attempt anything of the kind, at all events for 
the present, and the suggested conference of meteorologists fell 
through. HoweA'er desirable such seasonal forecasts maj- be, to 
be of any practical value they must be reliable, or at least so far 
generally verified by the results as to secure the confidence of the 
community. Frequent or even occasional failure would bring the 
system into contempt, and do tar more harm than good. We have 
had instances of rashness in the prediction of droughts, which 
A-ery seriously depreciated jiroperty, and we should move cautiously 
where so many interests are affected. Meteorology is still far 
from being an exact science, and the phenomena presented to us 
are so complex as to render the prediction of the weather even a 
few days in advance very often a matter of considerable difficulty. 
I have always regarded what we are doing as paving the way to 
further extensions of the system, with a view to the forecasts cover- 
ing longer periods. This, however, can only be done by the 
accumulation and intelligent discussion of the necessary data, and 
the correlation of weather conditions over considerable areas of the 
earth's surface. I have already made some attempts to do this, 
but much remains to be done. 

I may, perhaps, add that, so far as I know. India is the only 
country which has attempted anything like a systematic issue of 
seasonal forecast's. These are mainly based on the amount of 
snow falling during the previous winter on the Himalayas, and the 
general character of the weather' in India during the five or six 
months preceding the setting in of the south-west monsojn ; the 
chief objects of the forecasts being to give some idea of the 
probable rainfall during the ensuing monsoon. 

DROUGHTS. 
Australia, lying between the parallels of 11° and 39° S. has a 
tropical and sub-tropical climate, with monsoon summer rains on 
the north coast and winter rains on the south coast, both extending 
well inland. A great part — all the interior — is within the anti- 
cj'c onic region of high pressure and dry south-east winds ; it is 
therefore subject to severe droughts, more or less prolonged. The 
driest portion appears to be a belt of country reaching from north 
of the Great. Right and Lake Eyre, or about lat. 30°, to near the 
north-west coast, which is swept nearly throughout the year by 
the sovith-east trade. The climate of the eastern half of the con- 
tinent is more favorable, as the monsoonal rains extend further 
south over the coastal ranges, which fiu-m the watershed of the 
large rivers and watercourses running through the interior on the 
one side, and to the coast on the other. 



METEOROLOGICAL WORK IN AUSTRALIA. 269 

With regard to the whiter rainfall in South Australia, our 
records appear to show — 

1. That in the thirteen years when the mean summer pressure 

was ahove the average aud the temperature below, the 
following winter rain was below the average in nine 
years, above the average in only one year, and about an 
average in three years : 

2. That in the nine years when the summer pressure was belowf 

the average and the temperature above, the following 
winter rain was above the average in seven years, below 
in only one year, and an average in one year : 
From which we obtaia ihe following general rough rale : — 
Summer cool, with high barometer : winter dry. 
Summer hot, with low barometer : winter wet. 

As regards the future, if I may venture to make any suggestions, 
it appears to be desirable that the meteorological observaiions of 
the different colonies should be published in a more uniform and 
systematic manner, in such complete detail as will assist theoretical 
deductions, and be accompanied by fuller discussion of results, 
general character of the weather, storms, extent and duration of 
droughts, and any abnormal conditions that may have occurred 
during the year. Mr. Russell has done very much in the latter 
direction in his publications on the climate of New South Wales, 
and rains, and state of rivei's, &c. 

We also require normal isobaric and isothermic mnps for each 
month and the year, but the observations as at present published 
hardly afford sufficient data for these, and many of the stations 
have been too recently established to furnish more than roughly 
approximate averages. 

New Caledonia would be a valuable reporting station in regard 
to cyclones approaching the Queensland coast from the east, and I 
trust the cable now laid will be utilised as early as possible. I would 
also strongly urge an exchange, by mail, of weather charts and 
observations with the Cape of Good Hope. Natal, and Mauritius. 

CONCLUSION. 
I feel that I haAC trespassed too long on your time, but I have 
had a considerable stretch of ground to cover. The record I have 
placed before you — very imperfectly, I fear — is one of which we 
have have no need to be ashamed. That meteorology should have 
been taken up so energetically and been so liberally supported by 
the several Colonial (iovernments, on whose purse, in building up 
a new nation, there are so many claims, is nor, however, without a 
sufficient cause. To successfully occupy and establish industries 
in new countries, a knowledge of climate and the meteorological 
conditions under which we are to labor is essential to success, 
as teaching us what we can best and most profitably produce. 
Situated Avithin and without the tropics, with such a range of 



270 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 

climate, from the snows of Kosciusko to the buniin<^ plains of the 
interior and the humid heat of l*ort Darwin, we can obtain nearly 
all that man requires. Our marvellous growth in the j)a^t is only 
a foretaste of the future, and under such sunny skies we should 
be, as I trust we are, in spite of the clouds of depression which 
occasionally hang over us — with, however, silver linings not far 
away — a happy and contented people. 'J'he lines have fallen to us 
in pleasant places, and tridy we have a goodly heritage. 



4.— SOME OF THE DIFFICULTIES OF OBTAINING 
EXACT MEASUREMENTS IN ASTRONOMY, 

By TF. E. COOKE, M.A., Adelaide Observatory. 
[Abstract.] 

These refer to — 1st, naHir point; 2nd, effect of temperature 
upon a micrometer; 3rd, determination of co-latitude; 4th, instru- 
mental flexure; and 5th, refraction. 

1st. The old forms of mercury trough (non-amalgamated) fail to 
give satisfactory images of the wires, but this difficulty has been 
partially overcome by amalgamating the sides and bottom of the 
trough. The nadir point is subject (at Adelaide) to two kinds of 
variations, viz., a change in short periods of time, or during a 
night's observing, evidently depending upon local variations of 
temjDerature ; and an irregular, but, on the whole, progressive change 
from day to day, especially noticeable during the summer months. 

'2nd. The nadir point reading changes whilst the observer is 
simply standing near the micrometer, and if the observer stand on 
the same side of the instrument the change is always in the same 
direction. During an hour's observing of stars, all of which are on 
the same side of the zenith, the nadir point alters by as much 
(sometimes) as 2" 5", and it invariably increases Avhilst observing 
stars on one side of the zenith and decreases for stars on the other. 
It seems necessary, therefore, to take at least two nadir point 
readings during each evening's work. 

3rd. The latitude obtained for the same place with the same 
instrument varies from year to year, and this sometimes to an 
extent which cannot be explained by Chandler's periodical "varia- 
tion in latitude." I cannot suggest any direct remedy for this, but 
perhaps close attention to the other points raised may indicate a 
method of obtaining this important constant with greater exactness. 

4th. The flexure of the transit circle varies from time to time, 
and its law does not seem to be satisfactorily determined. A 
correction of the form/sm. Z.D. gives ap))arently the best results, 
and the quantity f (horizontal flexure) ought to be determined 
once a week at least, or probably with greater frequency. The 



EARTHQUAKE INTENSITY IN AUSTRALASIA. 271 

correction to Z.P. obtained from the reflections of stars is very 
unsatisfactory, and there are grounds for believing that it is time 
to discontinue the " double observation " of a star, and to adopt 
some other method of reflection observation. Sir Charles Todd 
proposes to select groups of stars, of which one (A) will be 
observed directly, and another (B) by reflection, on one night, 
whilst on tlie next B will be observed directly and A by reflection. 
This will eliminate any error "due to comparatively violent usage 
which a telescope must experience when a star is observed both 
directly and by reflection on the same evening. 

5th. The law of, and the mean, refractions are not yet definitely 
settled. !t would be well if all astronomers were to agree upon a 
form of thermometer exposure, and if two or three northern and 
southern observatories were to take a set of stars selected so as to 
de ide these points as far as possible. 



-o-tji-o- 



5.— EARTHQUAKE INTENSITY IN AUSTRALASIA: 

WITH A FEW REMARKS OX THE TASMANIAN EARTHQUAKES, 
SUGGESTED BY THE DIAGRAM OF INTENSITY. 

Bij GEORGE HOGBEX, M.A., Tlmaru, X.Z., Sccretdri/ Scisttiulogiccd 

Committee, A.A.A.S. 

Plate YII. 

Dr. Edward S. Holden, Director of the Lick Observatory, in a 

paper entitled " Earthquake Intensity in San Francisco " (American 

Journal of Science, June, 1888), has given the equivalents of the 

degrees of intensity of earthquake shocks on the Rossi- Forel 

scale, in terms of the acceleration due to the velocity of the shock 

itself, expressed in millimetres per second. These equivalents 

are : — 

Rossi-Fovel Intensity in 

Scale. Millimetres per Sec. 

1 20 

II 40 

III 60 

IV 80 

V 110 

VI 150 

VII 300 

VIII 500 

IX 1,200 

The absolute scale is calculated, on the assumption that earth- 
quake motion does not diti^er greatly from simple harmonic, by 
means of the formula — 

J V'- 47r"ff 

li "T^ 



272 



PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION' A. 



where a = amplitude of largest wave, T = its period, V = velo- 
city of impulse given by tlie shock, and I = intensity of shock, or 
destructive effect, defined mechanically as =i maximum acceleration 
due to the impulse, a and T are taken from the records of 
twenty-one carefully selected earthquakes in Japan, for which these 
elements Avere observed by Ewing, Milne, and Sekiya. The 
determination is possibly the best possible at present, and forms 
the basis of the remarks in this paper. 

I. Nein Zealand. — For New Zealand we have, for the years 
184S-92, the records of 926 earthquake shocks; but in the earlier 
years only the severest shocks were recorded, and until December 
1889, when the present system of observation through the officers 
of the Telegraph Department was begun, most of the shocks of 
intensity I. -1 1 1, were probably neglected. Now I am convinced, 
however, that comparatively few shocks pass unnoticed ; those 
that do would be all, or nearly all, of the degree I. or II., on the 
Rossi-Forel scale. As there is such a difference in the quality of 
the records, we shall get the best estimate of the average intensity 
of shock in New Zealand by taking only recent years into account. 
I have therefore based my calculations on the records of the three 
years 1890-92. 

The following table shows the number of shocks in each year, 
classified according to intensit}", and the total intensity in absolute 
units : — 



EARTHQUAKE 


SHOCKS 


IX NEW ZEALAND, 


1890-92. 


Intensity. 


Number of Shocks Recorded. 














Total Intensity 


Milli- 








Total 

(3 years). 


in Millimetres 


Rossi-Forei 

Scale. 


metres 
per Sec. 


1890. 


1891. 


1892. 


per Sec. 


I. 


20 












II. 


40 


— 


1 


8 


9 


360 


II.-III. 


50 





3 


6 


9 


450 


III. 


60 


11 


21 


45 


77 


4,620 


III.-IV. 


70 


16 


36 


4 


56 


3,920 


IV. 


80 


10 


5 


5 


20 


1,600 


IV.-V. 


95 


2 




3 





475 


V. 


110 


5 


2 


1 


S 


880 


V.-VI. 


130 




— 


1 


1 


130 


VI. 


150 


3 


1 


1 


5 


750 


VI.-VII. 


'225 





_ 


3 


3 


675 


VII. 


300 


— 


1 


3 


4 


1,200 


VII .-VII I. 


400 


— 


1 


— 


1 


400 




47 


71 


80 


198 


15,460 



Average maximum intensity of shock 



78. 



EARTHQUAKE INTENSITY IN AUSTRALASIA. 



273 



The average maximum intensity is 78 millimetres per second, or 
a little less than IV. 

In every case where an earthquake was observed at more than 
one place, I have taken the estimate of intensity where the shock 
was most severe. If we were to take the lowest estimate of 
intensity, we should get about 66 millimetres per second for the 
average intensity of shock. The mean of these is 72 millimetres 
per second ; * that is to say, the average intensity of shocks as 
felt in New Zealand is between III. and IV. on the Rossi-Forel 
scale, or sufficient to make pictures move a little, and to cause 
some doors and windows to creak or rattle slightly. 

The total maximum intensity for three years is 15,460 units, or 
1*576 times the acceleration due to gravity (which = 9,810 units 
per second). If the force of the 198 shocks were concentrated 
into one, each earth-particle would receive an impulse of a little 
over 50ft. per second. 

Neio South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia. — As in the 
case of New Zealand before the adoption of the present system, 
the severer shocks were noted and nearly all those of lower inten- 
sity were not observed, or at least not recorded. From the 
catalogue of earthquakes published in the last report of the 
Seismological Committee f we can construct the following table, 
which may be taken for what it is worth : — 



New South Wales 

Victoria 

South Australia. . 







Average 


Length 
of the 


Total 


of 


No. of 


Shocks 


Record. 


Shocks. 


Y^a^ 


Years. 






12 


24 


2 


8 


61 


7-6 


10 


81 


8-1 



Total 
Intensity 
of all the 
fhocks. 



Average 
Intensity 
of Shock. 
Maximum 
Value. 



In millimetres. 



2,270 
5,200 
6,525 



94-6 
85-2 



Average 
Intensity 
of Shock. 



75 

73-2 

59-3 



Mean 
Average 
Intensity 

of 
Shock. 



84-8 
79-2 
63-8 



In New South Wales and Victoria the average intensity of shock 
is certainly one degree too high ; but in South Australia, where 
the records seem to have been more complete, the estimate is 
lower, and probably not very far from the truth. The average 
maximum intensity of shock is between III. and IV., and the mean 
average intensity of shocks as felt in South Australia about III., 
or sufficient to be felt by several persons at rest, and for the dura- 
tion or the direction to be appreciable. 

Tasmania. — The records for Tasmania consist chiefly of those 
for the remarkable series of shocks felt in that colony in the years 
1883-86. Soon after these shocks began. Captain Shortt com- 
menced a regular system of recording the observations made at 

• i^hese figures would of coursd all be reduced if we could include the shocks below 
J . III., which generally escape notice. t Transactions, A..\.A.S., 1892. 



274 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 

the various meteorological stations, principall)' in the north and 
north-east of Tasmania and on the islands between Tasmania and 
the mainland. For this purpose he issued instructions to the 
various observers as to the consistent use of the adjectives " very 
slight," " slight," " heavy " or " severe," and "very severe." In 
a large mimber of instances sufficient details are given to enable 
me, especially after discussing the matter with Captain Shortt, to 
assign valvies, on the Rossi-Forel scale, to each of his adjectives. 

The result of the steps taken is a most valuable catalogue of 
the shocks. Unfortunately the time observations were not exact 
enough, except in one or two cases, to enable us to ascertain the 
origin thereby ; but an earthquake that occurred on the 27th 
January, 1892, can be referred to a definite origin; and I hope to 
examine many of the shocks of the years 1883-6 as to the possi- 
bility of their having come from the same spot. 

The table appended gives the number of shocks for each 
month from April, 1883, to December, 1886, arranged according 
to intensity, on the Rossi-Forel scale, and the total intensity per 
month in absolute units. 

[Note. — It will be observed that no shocks are classed as IV. 
This does not mean that no shocks of that intensity Avere felt, but 
indicates some difficulty in assigning the exact degree for a large 
number of shocks between III. and V. I tried several hypotheses 
agreeing with the available evidence, but all came to nearly the 
same result, namely, that there were 2,210 shocks varying from III. 
to v., and their total intensity was a little less than 160,000 units. 
The shocks that might therefore be classed as IV. are put down as 
III. or v., according as the evidence inclines to one or the other 
degree of the scale.] 

The total number of shocks for the forty-five months was 2,540, 
an average of 56-4 per month, which would be sufficiently startling 
were it not that the average intensity of shock was only between 
III. and IV. One month — October, 1883 — enjoys the questionable 
distinction of having 231 shocks recorded against it, that is, seven 
or eight shocks a day ; and November of the same year is not far 
behind. The total intensity was 186,690 units, or about nineteen 
times acceleration due to gravity, which gives an average intensity' 
per shock of 73*5 millimetres per second. If all this were concen- 
trated into one instant it would give an impulse of 612ft. per 
second. 

[The minimum value assignable for the average intensity of 
shock is 68"3, a figure that allows also for the possibilities of error 
introduced by classifying shocks of intensity IV. as III. or V. 
The mean of '73-5 and 68-3 is 70-9 units, which we may take to be 
the average intensity of the shocks felt.] 

The diagram accompanying this paper (Plate VII.) shows, in a 
graphical form, the history of the series of shocks ; the ordinate of 
any point on the curve shows the total intensity Der month in 



Plate VII. 





1883. 


1884. 


1885. 


1886 


i 


1 


i 


1 


i 




i 


i 


i 


i 


=■ 


i 


1 


^ 


i 


i 


3 


i 


S 


1 


t 


1 


t 


i 


i 


i 


ui 

i 


1 


i 


i 


y 


i 


i 


i 


s 


1 


i 


i 


i 


1 


i 


t 

^ 


s 


i 


^ 


18000 
17000 
1600O 
ISOOO 
14000 
13000 
12000 
11000 
10000 
9000 
8000 
7000 
6000 
5000 
4000 
3000 
2000 
1000 









































































































1 — 


























































































r 


^ 






















































































/ 




\ 


























































































\ 
























































































































































































A 


























































































A 














A 












































































1 












1 
















































































\ 








/ 


^ 




1 












































































\ 




/' 


V 








\ 












































































\ 


V / 












\ 














































































v 












\ 






























































/ 


























































































r 








r 






















r 


























































1 
































\ 




















































' 






[/ 


~ 


















~~ 


"~ 


~~ 


~~ 




~~ 


^ 


\ , 


^ 


'^ 




~ 


~ 


~ 










































/ 


r 










1 






























\y 


-^ 


^ 


-^ 




/^ 






































zf 
























~ 


~ 


~ 




~~ 




" 


~ 


~ 










Nt* 






^^ 


'^ 




-^ 




__ 


.. , 


_^ 






^ 


.^ 




"^ 


^r-. 





















...... 






























































_ 


zl 


zl 









EARTHQUAKE INTENSITY IN AUSTRALASIA. 275 

absolute units. The diagram shows very clearly — (1) the rapid 
rise to the first maximum in October and November. 1883; (2) a 
second maximum in August 1884 ; (3) a very gradual decline for 
nearly two and a half years, the shocks slowly dying away at the 
end Jf 1886. 

Four of these shocks reached the intensity VII. on the Rossi- 
Forel scale ; for these Mr. A. B. Biggs and Captain Shortt assigned 
approximate origins. I have also tried to use the available data 
to ascertain the epicentrum or epicentra ; but only in one case is 
the conclusion at all definite — in the case of the shock-earthquake 
of the 13th of May, 1885 : — Its epicentrum is either identical 
with or not far from that of an earthquake already referred to, 
January 27th, 1892, which I have discussed in another paper. For 
the present I assume that all the important shocks proceeded from 
the same region, east of Tasmania, about 353 miles from Launceston 
and 365 miles from Hobart, nearly in the middle of a deep 
depression in the bed of the Tasman sea. An examination of the 
records, however, shows that the majority of shocks were felt at 
one place only (or at two places near together) ;- even when slight 
they were generally distinct in character, and the nimbling was 
often of such a nature as to suggest that the cause of it was com 
paratively near. Hence I conclude that there were constantly going 
on a large number of smaller movements in the crust of the earth 
immediately beneath Tasmania and Bass's Strait,- - which were 
secondary to greater movements which took place about an axis, 
or about a point in the deep sea. For three or four years a re- 
adjustment of some kind was going on ; the larger shocks Avere 
perhaps merely incidents caused by movements a little quicker 
than usual, or by the sudden slipping of large glasses out of the 
position of unstable equilibrium into which the slow movements 
bad brought them. 

If these large or primary movements were fault-movements, one 
would almost expect to find the axis on the edge and not in the 
middle (or at the bottom) of a steep declivity in, the ocean bed. 
If the primary movement was one of revolution (principally) about 
the axis, interrupted by an occasional sliding of the mass on one 
side of the axis upon the mass on the other side, then we must 
look for secondary movements at some distance fi-om the axis, 
where the displacement caused by revolution is greater. Is it 
possible that the lesser shocks were more or less local movements 
of this character ? 

Is there any evidence of fault-movements having taken place in 
Tasmania within the period of these shocks ; or any evidence of 
a change of the level of the land in Tasmania, or in S.E. Australia, 
or in the islands between them ? If such evidence exists, I should 
be glad to hear of it ; but, till it is forthcoming, it would be vain to 
theorise any more.* 

• Any such information may be adcli-essed to G. Hogben, Timani, N.Z. 



276 



PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 



The large expenditure of energy implied by the total intensity 
of the series of earthquakes suggests at least a possibility of a very 
appi-eciable amount of movement of the land-mass of Tasmania 
and S.E. Australia, either upwards or downwards. One does not 
like to think of mother earth wasting so much of her strength for 
nothing. 



EARTHQUAKE SHOCKS IN TASMANIA, APRIL, 1883, TO 
DECEMBER, 1886. 
Classified accm'ding to Intensity on the Rossi-Forel Scale, with the Total 
Intensity per Month, expressed in terms of the acceleration due to 
Velocity of Shock. 



1883. 

April 

May 

June , 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December . . , . , 

1884. 

January , 

February .... 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September .... 

October 

November . . . . 
December . . . . 

1885. 

January 

February . . . . 

March 

April 

May 

Jane 

July 

August 

September..., 

October 

November 

December 



Intensity. -Rossi-Forel Scale. 


1 

Total 


Total Intensity 

per Month 
in Millimetres 












No. of 


II.-III. 


III. 


V. 


VI. 


Vll. 




per Sec. 




3 


1 






4 


200 


1 


3 


1 


— 


— 


5 


340 


— 


21 


4 


6 


— 


31 


2,600 


18 


46 


11 


4 


— 


79 


5,470 


44 


32 


15 


6 


— 


97 


6,670 


43 


102 


53 


4 


— 


202 


14,700 


3 


173 


41 


14 


— 


231 


17,130 


7 


151 


45 


18 


— 


221 


17.060 


9 


97 


26 


U 


— 


143 


10,780 


2 


124 


37 


6 


_ 


169 


12,510 


1 


94 


17 


5 


— 


117 


8,310 


— 


71 


12 


4 


— 


87 


6,180 


11 


80 


22 


9 


— 


122 


9,120 


2 


96 


17 


3 


1 


119 


8,480 


15 


98 


25 


5 


— 


143 


10,130 


12 


97 


23 


4 


1 


137 


9,850 


10 


110 


39 


5 


— 


164 


12,140 


7 


70 


17 


2 


1 


97 


7,020 


5 


40 


5 


— 


— 


50 


3,200 


5 


12 


10 


— 


— 


27 


2,070 


— 


18 


12 


2 


— 


32 


2,700 


3 


15 


16 


2 


_ 


36 


3,110 


2 


15 


2 


1 


— 


20 


1,220 


2 


18 


9 


— 


— 


29 


2,170 





9 


7 


— 


— 


16 


1,310 


3 


12 


5 


— 


1 


21 


1,720 




10 


2 


— 


— 


12 


820 


1 


15 


4 


1 


— 


21 


1,540 





4 


6 


— 


— 


10 


900 





13 


1 


— 


— 


14 


890 


1 


4 


7 


— 


— 


12 


1,060 


1 


6 


1 








8 


520 




6 


1 


— 


— 


7 


470 



TIDES OF PORT ADELAIDE. 277 

Earthquake Shocks in Tasmania, April, 1883, to December, 1886— continued. 



Total Intensity 

per Month 

in Millimetres 

per Sec. 



1886. 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Total for 45 months 



Intensity.— Rossi-Forel Scale. 


Total 
No. of 












II.-III. 


III. 


Y. 


VI. 


VTI. 


Shocks. 




1 


3 






4 





1 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


1 


1 


— 


— 


2 





4 





1 


— 


5 





2 


1 


— 


— 


3 


3 


6 

2 
2 


1 


— 


— 


10 
2 
3 





1 








2 


7 
4 
5 


4 


— 


— 


13 
4 
9 





4 


— 


_ 


— 


1 


609 


— 


— 


1 


213 


1,701 


113 


4 


2,540 



390 
60 
170 
390 
230 
620 
120 
230 
960 
240 
740 



Average intensity of shock = 73*5 millimetres per sec. 



-o-^J-o- 



-ORIGIN OF EARTHQUAKE OF 27th JANUARY, 1892 
(AUSTRALIA AND TASMANIA). 

£>/ G. HOGBEN, M.A. 



'©-►Ji- 



7.— THE TIDES OF PORT ADELAIDE. 
By R. W. CHAPMAN, M.A., and Captain IXGLIS. 

At the last meeting of the Association in Hobart we presented 
to the section the results of an harmonic analysis of the curves 
obtained from the tide gauge at Port Adelaide. This analysis 
only embraced the short period tidal components. We afterwards 
extended the computations to include the fortnightly, monthly, 



278 



PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 



semi-annual, and annual tides, and the complete results we now 
append in tabvdar form. The largest of these long period tides 
we find to be the solar annual, which has a total range of 6in, 
Next in order comes the solar semi-annual, with a range of 4in. 
The hmi-solar fortnightly comes next with a range of 3in., while 
the lunar monthly and kmar fortnightly have each a range of just 
about 2in. We also give a table showing the mean level of the 
sea at Port Adelaide for each year, and for each month of the 
year, since 1882. These have been computed from the records of 
high and low water levels, and show considerable fluctuations in 
value. The yearly mean has its greatest value (4*29 1) in 1889, 
and its least value (4-007) in 1885. The average of the monthly 
means shows a well-marked yearly tide, but the number of years 
is of course not sufficiently great to eliminate the effects of the 
lunar tides. We are now proceeding with a second analysis of 
the Port Adelaide curves, and this time have the advantage of the 
use of the computing apparatus which has been designed by 
Professor G. H. Darwin. He has very generously sent us the 
apparatus, and we take this opportunity of acknowledging our 
obligation. 

The average heights of the barometer at Adelaide, for each 
year under consideration, are appended to the table, and it will be 
noticed that, as a rule, where the barometer level is high the sea level 
is low, and vice versa. The barometric mean heights have been 
obtained from the records of the Adelaide Observatory : — 



RESULTS OF THE HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF THE TIDES AT 
PORT ADELAIDE (Lat. 34° 51' S., Long. 138° 30' E. 




S, 

Mx 

M„ 

Mi 

Ki 

K„ 

O' 

P 

N 

Mm 

Mf 

Msf 



Solar diiimal 

Solai" semi-diurnal > . . 

Solar quarter-diumal 

Lunar diurnal 

Lunar semi-diurnal 

Lunar quarter-diumal 

lAmi-solar diurnal (declinational 

Luni-solar semi-diurnal (decKnational) 

Lunar declinational diurnal 

Solar declinational diurnal 

Larger lunar elliptic semi-diurnal .... 

Lunar monthly 

Lunar fortnightly 

Luni-solar fortnightly 

Solar annual 

Solar semi-annual 



122 
180 

204 
121 

231 
177 
34 
231 
114 
258 
194 
256 
132 
304 



TIDES OF PORT ADELAIDE. 



279 



i 


4-2330 
3-8760 
3-9871 
4-1082 


4-6385 
4-3762 
4-2912 


4-1397 

4-0494 
3-9557 
4-1838 


en 




03 


1 




p 


CO t^ 00 O .- CO 1- OJ CO Tt< W5 cp 

T*.COCO^Tj.^^T).Tj4TH«>Ti. 


lis 
i 5 


1 


1 


-Hi^t^co '*<oot^co^»^-^^ 
■*co^c^— '^^-coooo0550 


i i 


o 

CO 


}_ 


t- CO CO <>] 
n CO op c 
M CO oo 4» 

<>) I^ (M C 

s ^ § s 

■* M ■* -* 


.-(Oiiri--HTt<.oco^ 


2 
S 


C5 


i 

o 
CO 


CO—lOMtlGOOO-HOJ 

(r^-Ti-Ti'pcooo-Hco 


g 




o 


1 


05cot^coo(Mco«:)Oaoooo 

<M00CO>-l«0CO00tM'-llOCCiO 

--icpa>ci.-iiCt---;^CT>cpopt~- 

r)<4t<MM4)<-*-*Tt<«)K>COCO 


00 


CO 1 IM 


i 


asi_--cOr-(cocpopr;--*--iOQO 


i 


=. 1 CO 

CO 


i 


iiliiSsSiils 


1 1 

s ^ 


i 


i 


OJOOOt^i-HTjHOWSOOCOCO'— 1 o o 


c3 




•ooococooooooocot^cooo 


CO (M 1 O 


1882. 1883. 

1 


.-iTj<«3000>t^C^(M^O-^0l' 
C0«5O5«5'Mi-H00>OO5-<+'«3r- 
l^OOeOCO^-C<l-*C0050-* 


1 




o 

k 


(^^»--Ci>co^-eocpOr1<a>osOi 
4(<c«3COT«-*-*-*-*4)»ebeo«> 


o 


CO 1 ^ 

r 1 9 







>> 




> 

^1 






1 


II 

m C 


1 
g 


1 
1 








^ 




1 

si 





280 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 

8.— THE APPLICATION OF MATHEMATICS TO 
ACTUARIAL SCIENCE. 

By JOSEPH J. STUCKEY, M.A. 
[Abstract.] 

I am very glad that the work of an actuary can now, with any 
degree of fairness, be classed as a science, and that the certainties 
of mathematics are applicable to this branch of science, although 
it deals with such uncertainties as the duration of individual life or 
of the sickness which anyone will experience during life, the pro- 
bability that a bachelor of a certain age will marry, the probability 
of issue, of fires, of accident, of marine disaster, and many others. 

The method which I propose to adopt in this paper is to take, 
first, the most advanced branch of actuarial science, and give the 
application of mathematics to the various stages in chronological 
order. This, it is hoped, will be satisfactory, although it takes the 
various branches of mathematics in very much the inverse order of 
difficulty. 

Life msurance is the most advanced branch of actuarial science, 
but is still pushing on to greater and greater scientific exacti- 
tude. It is the comi^oimd growth, first, of our commercial 
necessities, excited by a love of speculation, and, later, of our 
progressive civilisation. For the former, rough and ready means 
of estimation were resorted to ; for the latter, a long and elaborate 
course of progressive investigation was needed. The development 
has taken some three or foiu- centuries, and has had three phases 
— The experimental period, the speculative period, and the period 
of scientific exactitude. 

It was, we are told, 1721 with which this third period began, 
though the early specimens of life policies of this period are too 
like the present fire and marine to have much claim to be scientific. 
They were for one year at 5 per cent., irrespective of age, and 
seem to have been taken from the then rate of insurance on ships. 
This period of scientific exactitude is said to have culminated in 
1769, with the advent of the Northampton Table of Mortality, and 
the coincident work of Dr. Price on " Reversionary Payments, &c." 

I imagine I can hardly claim that any jjreat use is made of 
mathematics in the collection of the statistics of life, age, and death, 
but I may remark that the imperfection and incompleteness of the 
statistics so collected has required of the actuary and mathematician 
two things, at least-^the supervision of ; the collection of new sta- 
tistics, arid the adjustment and graduation of the tables of mortality 
obtained from those already collected; The bills of mortality, the 
registers oi birth, life, and death, were made for other purposes; but 
it was early seen that the application of the principles of probability 
to these bills woxdd enable them to furnish the expectations of life 
and the values of annuities, assurances, and premiums, at any 
selected rate of interest. They were for a long time used in their 



MATHEMATICS AND ACTUARIAL SCIENCE. 281 

unadjusted or ungraduated state, and the tables of assurances and 
premiums on them formed the basis of our numerous life assurance 
companies for a long period ; indeed, some of our existing companies' 
premiums, and even some of their valuations, are still made by the 
Carlisle table. 

In 1848 was formed the Institute of Actuaries, which is described 
as a scientific and practical association amongst actuaries, and 
Avhich had amongst its objects " the development and improvement 
of the mathematical theories on which the practice of life insurance 
is based, and the collection and arrangement of data connected wilh 

the subjects of the duration of life, health, and finance 

The improvement and diffusion of knowledge, and the establish- 
ment of correct principles relating to subjects involving monetary 
considerations, and the doctrine of probability." 

In 1863 the institute became convinced that the existing tables 
of mortality were scarcely sufficiently reliable as bases and tests of 
the stability of life insurance companies, and that at all events the 
actual results of the experience of a selected twenty of the old 
English and Scotch companies would be a valuable help to the 
actuary. The institute consequently set on foot the collection, 
classification, arrangement, and adjustment of the results of actually 
assured lives in these companies. The work occupied ten years, 
and was completed in 1873, embraced some 160,000 lives, and gave 
as the result the Hm, Hy, H^j., H^ (j, tables of extremely extensive 
use to-day. 

I notice that again, on June 3rd of this year, 1893, the institute 
thinks the time has come when a fresh investigation into the 
mortality amongst assured lives may usefully be entered into, and 
has started again this arduous piece of work, so that in a few years 
we may have the up to date experience to help us in our scientific 
researches. 

Whether collected by the actuary or by others, for insurance or 
other purposes, the question of adjustment or graduation of the 
residts next claims the help of mathematics, and that of the higher, 
if not highest, order; since, as they are to be used as a prediction 
of the future, a basis for contracts to be completed thirty, fifty 
years hence, a graduation or adjustment to make them what they 
would have been if extended over a larger number of years, larger 
and more varied area of country, or a larger population, or number 
of lives, becomes not only allowable, but absolutely necessary. 
With a view to graduation, and of saving the enormous labor 
involved in the calculation of annuities, &,c., specially those on 
several lives, various efforts have been made to put into a mathe- 
matical formula the 

LAW OF MORTALITY. 
All these efforts have a very distinct scientific basis, and have 
produced increasingly useful results to the actuary and the cause 
of science; but it will probably be necessary now only to refer to 



282 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 

two. One is that of equal decrements of life in equal times, known 
as DeMoivres' hypothesis, and the formulae and tables giving the 
values of annuities and assurances on one or more lives on this 
h}^othesis have been obtained and calculated. From a mathe- 
matical point of view these formulse are simple, and the 
calculations of the annuities and assurances are for several lives 
comparatively easy. It is therefore to be regretted that the 
hypothesis is very far removed from the truth, so that these formulaB 
and tables are practically useless ; as;, if you take any of the tables 
• — as Northampton, Carlisle, or indeed any table of actual results 
of duration of life — you will see that the decrements of life are 
anything but equal. 

These decrements of life are now known as d^, i.e., the number 
who die between age x and x -\- \, and just as these decrements are 
the first differences of the column 4, the number alive at age x, so 
they in turn may be differenced so that DeMoivres' hypothesis is 
that the second differences vanish and the first are constant. 
Although this is not true in any ti'ue table, yet if the second and 
subsequent dift'erences, whether positive or negative if only small ,^ 
be taken out. some of the advantages of the simplicity of the 
DeMoivres' formulae may be retained. I can here speak of my 
own knowledge, having differenced out the H^j table to the fifth 
difference, and the Carlisle to the fourth, one starting with 100,000 
lives, and the other with 6,460 at age 10, and have used these 
differences to construct the C, D, M, N, R, and S columns for 
each table. The late Peter Gray gives a mode of constructing the 
D column given C, and while not knowing his mode 1 had extended 
it to the construction of the C column which involves d^, or the first 
difference from a column we may call C'^, including the smaller 
numbers of the second dift'erence, and these again from, say, 
C"^, involving the third difference, and so on. This I regard as a 
good mode of constructing the C and D columns to a large number 
of places of decimals, or even to the usual six or seven figures, 
more especially as the M, N, R, and S columns are easily obtained 
at the same time. 

It may be remembered that these C, D, M, N, R, and S columns, 
are the commutation columns, and that a^ A^,, the annuity and 
assurance on life, aged x, are given by the formulae — 

N, , M, 

fl., = d; ^' = d: 

while the R and S columns are needed for the values of increasing 
annuities and assurances. 

The only other attempt, and it is a brilliant one, to obtain the 
law of mortality to which I shall refer is that of Benjamin 
Gompertz. His principles seem to be that " death may be the 
consequence of two generally co-existing causes, the one chance 
without, i.e., independently of any previous disposition to death or 



MATHEMATICS AND ACTUARIAL SCIENCE. 283 

deterioration, the other a deterioration, or an increased inability to 
withstand destruction." The formula given by Gompertz is an 
exponential one, A'iz. : — , 

L = k (g) 

which gives for the "force of mortality" 

that is, the values of the force of mortality at successive ages form 
a geometrical series. 

These formula; of Gompertz, by assigning suitable values to the 
constants, A-, y, y, represent the results of observations for a series 
of consecutive ages for about thirty years, but require the intro- 
duction of new sets of constants at certain periods of life to com- 
plete the table of mortality. The modification of Makeham on 
these formula; is — ^ —. j. ^ -r / , q'' 

whence 

^t, = A H- B ?' 

A few words from Gompertz's writing show that the hypothesis 
itself was derived from an analysis of the experience disclosed in 
various published tables of mortality, so that he would seem to 
have taken the observed results, and thence, by the differential and 
integral calculus, derived the philosophical hypothesis already re- 
ferred to. Makeham' s modification is, we are told, really included 
in the two suppositions or conclusions of Gompertz — the one being 
reproduced in the A of the jn^ and the other in the B y^. We are also 
told that Makeham's modification, M'ith only one change of constants 
for the childhood ages, will hold good for the whole term of life. 

We are now ready to consider the question of graduation of mor- 
tality tables — that is, to modify and adjust the actual results, so as 
to make them reliable for future probable experience. I can only 
indicate some of the various methods — 

1. Woolhouse's, which seems to be to take the number living at 

any age of the unadjusted data for intervals of five years, 
commencing at 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, to interpolate by finite 
differences tor the intermediate ages, thereby producing, 
so to say, five curves of life. The arithmetical mean of 
the ordinates of these five curves is at each age then taken 
as the adjusted number living at that age. 

2. The graphic method, which appears now to be championed 

mostly by Mr. Sprague, and which appears to be to plot 
the values of the function to be graduated by means of 
abscissae and ordinates as points in a curve, and then by 
the eye and hand to draw a curve which shall, to the best 
of the operator's judgment, make a smooth and even 
representation of the original facts, or as they would be if 
due weight were given to all and the effects of further 
data duly allowed for. 



284 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 

3. Mr. Makeham, as may be supposed, graduates by his modifi- 

cation of Gompertz's law. 

4. Mr. McKay's method claims to allow for the weight of obser- 

vations, and seems also based on some modification of 
Gompertzs law. 
After the adjusted table of mortality is obtained the calculation 
of the annuities, assurances, and premiums at various rates of 
interest becomes principally a nvimerical task in which the actuary 
is aided by logarithms— ordinary and Gaussian — by tables of 
interest, and by the help of the calculating machine, the arith- 
mometer. 

There seems now little diversity of opinion that the method of 
commutation columns is the best for obtaining the annuities, 
premiums, and assurances, whether of, for, or on single or several 
lives or survivorships, and they also give the simplest formulae 
for short-term assurances, for increasing or diminishing assurances, 
annuities, or premiums, return of premiums, endowments, endow- 
ment assurances, &.c. 

For several lives these calculations become long and trouble- 
some, and here the use of Gompertz's law (where applicable) very 
much reduces the tables to be calculated, and, where not appli- 
cable, the approximate formula? given by the application of the 
differential and integral calculus for questions involving more than 
two lives become indispensable. Possibly the simplest case of the 
use of these commutation columns, i.e., a single life, may not be out 
of place — 

D, = lif N, = 2 D, , 1 
'V being the present value of £1 due one year hence. 
C, = f4 V' " ' M, = S C, 
TT^, the annual premium, = ^-'^— 

In chronological order, the next point where mathematics meet 
the actuary is in the valuation of the assets and liabilities of a com- 
pany, and ascertaining the profits or loss, and allocating (in a 
mutual company) the bonuses. This, too, is best effected by the 
commutation columns, or by the annuities deduced therefrom; for 
instance, the best whole life formula is now considered to be 

.,v.= i-iT±i^" 

" •" 1 + Oj- 

Here, too, the question of interpolation comes in, to avoid the 
necessit)^ of separate calculation of each value required of premiums 
or what not, but every, say, fifth or tenth value is calculated, and 
then the others are interpolated by the formidas derived from finite 
differences of which those proceeding by central differences are 
probably the best. Conic sections., and its extensions also here find 
a place, as we find the actuaries now interpolating by means of 
what they call the quartic parabola, whose equation appears to be 
y ■=. ax •\- b x" ■\- c x^ -\- d x* 



MATHEMATICS AND ACTUARIAL SCIENCE. 285 

and is spoken of as the curve of constant fourth differences. From 
this, by the differential calculus, and that of finite differences, other 
formula? for interpolation are obtained. 

In quitting, for this present purpose, the branch of life insurance,. 
I may remark that these mathematical niceties and absolute formulae- 
added to the mercantile reserves and precautions render a policy 
on one's life in a good office, spite of the uncertainty of life, one of 
the most certain things in the world. 

I class Friendly Societies as the next branch of actuarial science 
where mathematics are applicable. As the question of sickness- 
incapacitating from work is now involved, as well as that of death,, 
one is sorry that, though they have more need, they have made less 
use of the certainties and formulae of science. The principle of 
the sickness question is that the society receives so much a week 
from the member during life, or up to a certain age, and undertakes 
to pay him a certain amount a week when too ill to work. This 
sick pay is often diminished after the first six months of sickness^ 
Again the same processes have to be gone through, and first the 
collection of statistics. Here these are done by the societies, or 
the larger associations, comprising many societies, such as the 
Oddfellows, Rechabites, Foresters, &c. Then these are adjusted 
by the actuar}' by some of the previous methods, and w^hen adjusted, 
commutation columns, including now additional cokimns for each 
class of sickness, first six months, second six months, and subse- 
quently, are constructed, and from them the present value of the 
sick pay is formed. 

Their assets and liabilities, and their financial position, are also 
valued by similar methods to those indicated for life companies. 

I hope that these societies will soon pass into the stage of 
scientific exactitude, as there is no reason why the weekly contribu- 
tions should not bear a strictly mathematical relation to the sick 
pay to be received. It will be seen, therefore, that sickness matters 
are considerably behind life ones in scientific exactitude; for while, 
as regards both the mathematical theory and the data to which it 
can be applied, the science of life contingencies may now^ be said to 
be nearly perfect, the extension of these principles to the work of 
friendly societies is still in its infancy. 

Insurances against Issue are efi'ected by a good many companies, 
and to apply the science to these matters we require a combined 
marriage and mortality table, and to be able to answer such questions 
as — What is the probability that a bachelor of a given age will (1) 
marry, or (2) die unmarried in an assigned year from the present 
time, or (3) be alive and still unmarried after the lapse of a given 
number of years ; and some progress has been made in the collec- 
tion of statistics, graduation, &;c. ; also in the preparation of such 
a table with the value of monetary benefits dependent thereon. 
Similar to these may be mentioned the qiiestion oi family annuities^ 
which are spoken of quite recently as a very important and difficult 
element in some of the State insurance schemes which have lately 



286 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 

been put forward, i.e., the provision of a small annuity to each child 
of a deceased father until the child attain the age of say tAvelve or 
fourteen years. The factors in the calculation are (I) the pro- 
bability that at the moment of death of a male he is a married 
man. i.e., a husband or widower, (2) the value at the moment of 
death of a married man of an annuity to each of his children, (3) 
the probability of death at a given moment of age, and (4) the rate 
of interest. The speaker I refer to starts off with the formula — 

and breaking up this into its component parts he j^roceeds to 
discuss, discover, and use from various parts of the world the 
statistics necessary for the purpose, taking the '' orphanhood of 
children " from our own colony of New Zealand, where the Govern- 
ment Actuary, Mr. F. W. Frankland, secured that the registrars 
should ascertain and record the numbers, ages, and sex of children 
left by deceased males. He then proceeds by graduation, where 
possible, and by commutation columns, to find the value of the 
benefits concerned. 

Accident Insurance appears, as far as I know, to be just peeping 
over the boundaries of actuarial science with, I hope, longing eyes, 
and has already received some notice from the institute, as I notice 
that in 1882 a writer to their journal had collected and partly 
arranged from various sources the statistics of death from accident 
from various causes. 

These, however, seem insufficient for the mathematician to 
graduate and for the construction of tables of premiums against 
death by accident. 

Fire Insurance also has, I fear, scarcely begun to claim to be an 
illustration of the subject of this paper, as the premiums have, as 
far as I know, no claim to be actuarially or mathematically derived 
from the value of the risk incurred. The institute, through the 
contributors to its journal, is not silent on the subject, though the 
contributions scattered over the last thirty years are few. It does 
appear strange that fire insurance has never attained to anything 
like scientific exactitude, by being based on exact statistical details. 

Marine Insurance appears to have given one of the first ideas of 
premiums on life, as we are told that the reason why 5 per cent, 
was charged on the captain's life was because 5 per cent was 
charged on the ship. Both were " A'alued policies," and both were 
for one year. 

We have seen that life insurance has wonderfully advanced in 
scientific exactitude during the last two centuries, but, from the 
actuary's point of view, marine insurance is just where it was. I 
venture to suggest that the same scientific principles which govern 
life insiu-ance as now conducted would and should be extended to 
marine insurance. 



aveir's azimuth diagram. 287 

In closing, I may add that while fire and marine have much 
actuarial science to learn from life insurance, yet the life insurers 
have somewhat of importance to learn from the fire and marine 
insurances. These latter are "valued policies," i.e., the ship or 
house is insured for its full value — that which will replace it if it is 
lost. Now, of course no mere moiiey will replace a life lost, but 
for financial purposes I venture to throw out the hint that a man 
is worth ten years' purchase, i.e., his life should be insured for ten 
times as much as he earns by personal exertion. And, lastly, 
may 1 express the hope that life insurance may progress still in 
scientific exactitude, that the other branches may follow in her 
steps speedily, and that, seeing that the uncertainty of life is 
reduced to a mathematical certainty by the mathematician, the 
actuary, and the insurance companies, that it will be much more 
largely availed of by the general population, and that we shall hear 
no more of the opposition of science or the aspersions of gambling 
as regards those matters which are applications of mathematics to 
actuarial science. 



-o-^Jl-o- 



9.— EXPLAINING THE CONSTRUCTION AND USE OF 
WEIR'S AZIMUTH DIAGRAM.* 

By PATRICK WEIR, Master Mariner. 

Before proceeding to the principal business of this paper it may 
be well for me to say a few words regarding the importance to 
navigators of possessing some simple and inexpensive means of 
readily ascertaining the true bearing of a celestial body at any 
time, certain necessary data being available. 

It may seem superfluous for me to enlarge on the vital impor- 
tance of knowmg exactly in what direction a vessel is being steered ; 
but I may point out that in these days of record-breaking, when 
fast steamers, to render the distance as short as possible, cut close 
to dangerous corners at full speed and in spite of fog or darkness, 
accuracy in the adjustment of the compass is of far more impor- 
tance than was the case a few years ago, and is at the same time 
more difficult of attainment on account of the universal employ- 
ment of iron or steel in modern shipbuilding. 

As an example of the influence of a steel ship on the magnetic 
needle, I may mention that in a new vessel the compass has been 
deflected as much as thirteen points. When we consider that six- 
teen points is a semicircle, and would be a complete reversal of the 
needle, it becomes rather rough on the old proverb which says 

* Captain Weir's Azimuth Diagram is published with the Admiralty Charts by J. D. 
Potter, 11, King-street, Tower Hill, London, 



288 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 

something about the needle pointing true to the pole. This, I 
admit, is an extreme case, but very few iron ship's compasses are 
less than four or even five points out on some courses. 

I need scarcely mention that vessels are not allowed to proceed 
to sea with their compasses in this condition. The Board of Trade 
insists on their being compensated, within manageable limits, by 
means of magnets suitably placed; and the ability to properly and 
intelligently manipulate these correcting magnets constitutes a 
■very important element in the qualification of a shipmaster or 
officer. But it is almost impossible to so adjust a compass that it 
will be correct under all circumstances ; the varying influence of 
the earth's magnetism, the heeling of the vessel, shifting of masses 
of iron on board, and various other causes, combine to interfere 
with its correct action, and the only safeguards are constant watch- 
fulness and frequent correction. 

As an instance of the numerous and unexpected dangers which 
threaten the compass, I may mention the case of a vessel which 
came under my notice. The iron mainyard of this vessel was 
simply an enormous magnet, and according to whether the port or 
starboard yardarm was nearer the standard compass, distant 
perhaps 60ft., the north pole of the needle was attracted or 
repelled about half a point, making a total error on swinging the 
yard of a full point. 

The usual method of ascertaining the error of a compass is by 
comparison of the true bearing of an object with its bearing by 
compass, and the difference between these two bearings will be the 
error of the compass for that position of the ship's head. In port 
or when near the land it is generally possible to work by the true 
bearing of a fixed object on shore, such as a chimney, tower, flag- 
staff, &.C., and this is the method adopted by professional adjusters. 
At sea, however, with no land in sight, the only available method 
is by comparison of the true bearing of a celestial body with its 
bearing by compass, and the object of my diagram is to facilitate 
the computation of the true bearing of such bodies as are generally- 
used for this purpose. 

In all well-regulated ships the sun's bearing by compass is 
noted every time that he can be observed rising or setting, and 
this, compared with his true amplitude by calculation, gives a very 
handy and correct method of ascertaining the error of the com- 
pass. Few parts of the world are, however, blessed with such a 
clear atmosphere as we have in South Australia, and in many 
I^laces it is seldom that the exact moment of the sun's rising or 
setting can be observed. It is also very often desirable to ascertain 
the error of the compass at other times than when the sun is on 
the horizon, and during the day the only available means is by 
com])arison of the sun's true azimuth with his bearing by compass. 

I may here say, though in future I will only mention the sun, 
that all statements apply equally to any celestial body whose 
declination is not more than 60°. 



WEIR S AZIMUTH DIAGRAM. 



289 



The sun's true azimuth or bearing may be computed from either 
of two sets of data, which can be readily obtained at sea — 
first, from the latitude of the ship and the declination and altitude 
of the sun ; or, second, from the latitude, declination, and hour 
angle of the sun, or time from noon (apparent time). In the first 
case, when the sun's compass bearing is taken, his altitude must 
be observed simultaneously by sextant or other means ; while, in 
the second case, it is only necessary to note the time at which the 
bearing was taken, as shown on the ship's clock, which is always 
kept at apparent time, making allowance, of course, for any dif- 
ference of longitude in the ship's position since the clock was set. 
This second case (known amongst navigators as a time azimuth) is 
generally employed on acciount of its convenience, and it is to 
facilitate the computation of the sun's true azimuth by this method 
that the diagram is especially intended, although both cases can 
with equal ease be solved by it. 

I will now proceed to explain, as clearly and briefly as I am 
able, the train of reasoning by which I succeeded in constructing 
the diagram, and trust that I may succeed in making my explana- 
tion intelligible to the members. 

In the natural projection. Fig. 1., suppose the observer to be 
placed at C in the centre of the sphere ; then let H R represent 
the horizon, N S a line passing through the poles, E Q the equator, 
-p, ^ Z the zenith, and Y 

the nadir, E D the de- 
clination, D L a small 
circle parallel to the 
equator, O the posi- 
tion of a celestial ob- 
ject, N O S a meridian, 
and Z O Y a vertical 
or azimuth circle. 

In computing a 
time azimuth, we have 
given in the spherical 
triangle O Z N the 
side O N=the polar 
distance or comple- 
ment of declination, 
the side Z N=the 
complement of the la- 
titude, and the angle 
Z N O = the hour 
angle, to find the angle O Z N^the azimuth, which, it will be 
evident to anyone acquainted with trigonometry, can be done. 

The general principles on which I have worked in constructing 
a diagram to solve this problem were to project the great circle 
E Q vertically into the plane of the horizon, and. as this is a 
circle projected obliquely, the resulting projection will be an ellipse, 




290 



PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 



the semi-major axis of which will be equal to the radius of the 
circle H R, and the semi-minor axis to the radius X sine Z C E, 
which is the sine of the latitude. In the same manner it may be 
shown that, with any latitude, if the circle representing the 
equator be projected vertically into the plane of the horizon, its 
projection will be an ellipse which will have its major and minor 
axes in the proportion of 1 : sine latitude. 

I will now ask the members to imagine two extreme cases. 
Suppose, in the first place, that an observer is situated at, say, the 
north pole. From this point of view the sun's path would evidently 
be a circle, which it would also be according to Fig. 1, because an 
ellipse whose semi-minor axis is equal to semi-major axis X sine 
90° would be a circle ; and, again, his bearing at any particular 
time would not be affected by his declination, the altitude only 
being altered, that is to say, his bearing would be exactly the 
same at the same hour, say, Greenwich time, all the year round, 
and of course with any declination. 

Suppose, again, that the observer is on the equator and the sun 
is in declination 0, or also on the equator, it is self-evident that he 
would rise due east, pass directly overhead, and set due west, so 
that his path projected on the plane of the horizon would be repre- 
sented by a straight line, which it would be according to Fig. 1, 
because with lat. the circle E Q. would be projected edgewise. 

If the observer were still on the equator and the sun's declination 
Avere, say, 20° N., his rising amplitude would be E. 20° N. (Fig. 2), 
meridian zenith distance 20° N., and setting amplitude W. 20° N., 
so that his path might still be represented by a straight line, but 
distant from the equator by the sine of 20°. 

As the sun's path when off the equator is a small circle it would 

be represented (Fig. 2) by the line D L, which is shorter than the 

-p, c) diameter W E, and 

distant from it by r 

X sine declination. 

If, however, it were 
required to represent 
the sun's path in dif- 
ferent declinations by 
a line of constant 
length, as D' L', which 
is the same length as 
W E, it would have to 
be removed from the 
equator by a distance 
equal to r X the tan- 
gent of the declination 
in order to make the 
rising and setting am- 
plitudes work out as 
by calculation, as can 




WEIR S AZIMUTH DIAGRAM. 



291 



be seen on Fig. 2 without any explanation. If, therefore, it were 
necessary, instead of moving the line, to imagine the position of the 
observer' to be shifted in the opposite direction, it is evident that he 
-p, „ would have to be re- 

■ ■ moved to a distance 

equal to r X the tan- 
gent of the declina- 
tion. A scale of tan- 
gents laid down above 
and below the eqiiator, 
as Fig. 3, would there- 
fore represent the 
position of an observer 
at the equator for each 
degree of declination, 
and if the line C E 
were divided into a 
scale of sines repre- 
senting the sun's posi- 
tion on it for, say 
every fom-th minute of 
time, we would have 
a diagram by which 
the sun's bearing might be calculated at any time, and with any 
declination, as seen by an observer at the equator. 

As I before showed, with the help of Fig. 1, that an ellipse 
representing the sun's path in any latitude would have its major 
and minor axes of the same relative dimensions as 1 : sine latitude, 

I have constructed a 




Fig. 4. 




diagram on this prin- 
ciple (Fig. 4), the 
ellipses being drawn 
for every tenth degree 
of latitude.' and the 
position of the sun on 
them shown for every 
twenty minutes by the 
vertical lines. The 
sun's true azimuth 
may be taken from 
this diagram for any 
latitude and any time 
as long as his declina- 
tion is 0°, but if de- 
clination be intro- 
duced into the pro- 
blem it becomes more 
difficult to solve, as I 



292 



PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 



shall presently endeavor to show. Referrmg again to Fig. 1 ; if it 
were desired to represent the sun's path in any declination by a great 
circle, that is, a circle of the same size as the equator, instead of a 
small circle, as shown by D L, it would have to be distant from the 
equator by r X tangent declination, as shown by the dotted line 
D' L', instead of the sine as D L, as is also shown in Fig. 2. 

If, however, E Q, and D' L' were both projected vertically into 
the plane of the horizon H R, it is evident that they would not be 
distant from each other by E D, the tangent of declination, but by 
E F. But E F is the residt of multiplying ;• tangent declination into 
cosine latitude, .'. equal ellipses representing the sun's path on the 
equator, and his path in any other declination when projected 
vertically into the plane of the horizon would have their centres 
distant from each other by the following quantity — (r tangent decli- 
nation X cosine latitude). As, however, it is impossible to slide the 
ellipses nlong the paper, or even to draw a separate ellipse for each 
degree of declination, we are reduced to the expedient of supposing 
the position of the observer to be moved in the opposite direction to 
an equal distance, that is to say, with north declination he \\ ould 
have to be moved south and vice versa, a clistance equal to (r tangent 
declination X cosine latitude). As this quantity varies with the 
latitude, a separate scale of declinations would have to be made 
for each degree of latitude, and though the sun's true bearing in 
any latitude and with any declination might be taken from a 
diagram constructed on the principle of I'ig. 4, it would be a 
comparatively complicated operation. 

Fig. 4, I may state, was the form in which my first diagram Avas 
constructed, and, while experimenting with it, the idea occurred to 
me that it might be possible, instead of varying the scale of 
declination for each degree of latitude, to vary the size of the 
ellipses in, of course, the inverse ratio. I therefore decided, instead 
of multiplying tangent declinations by cosine latitude, to divide the 
major and minor axes of each ellipse by that quantity (cosine 

latitude). This gives for 



Fig. 5. 




semi - major axis r secant 

latitude and for semi-minor 

sine latitude 

axis /• : — = — , — r- = r 

cosine latitude 

tangent latitude. It will 
easily be seen that this pre- 
serves the relative lengths 
of the major and minor axes 
for any degree of latitude, 
because 1 : sine z= secant ; 
tangent (Fig. 5). 

Here occurred a very happy 
coincidence. In increasing 
the size of the ellipses the 



WEIR S AZIMUTH DIAGRAM, 



293 



semi-minor axes, as I have shown, become ^= tangent latitude, and 
a scale through which to draw the ellipses Avill be a scale of 
tangents laid down on the meridian, but the declination scale is 
also a scale of tangents along the meridian ; therefore both 
declination and latitude can be measured on the same scale. 

Another advantage of this particular proportion of axes (secant 
and tangent) is that it locates the foci of all the ellipses in the same 
two points, which was of great assistance to me in constructing 
my original diagrams with pins and threads. 

Having calculated the dimensions of the ellipses and laid them 
down, the next step is to fix the position of the sun on them for 
each particuhir period as minutely as may be required. It is evident 
that the noon line in all latitudes, and no matter what the declina- 
tion may be, will correspond with the meridian or minor axes of 
the ellipses ; and it is also equally certain that the six-hour line will 
be at right angles to the meridian and will correspond with the 
major axes of all the ellipses, as the sun will just have performed 
one- quarter of his diurnal revolution at this time. The ])ositions of 
the intermediate hours, &c , will be simph' their positions on a 
circumscribing circle projected into the ellipse, and may be arrived 
at as follows : — Take any ellipse of latitude, and with centre O 

Fig 6 ^^^"- ^) '^"^ ^^^* 

the major axis of 

the ellipse as radius, 
describe a circle 
about the ellipse ; 
divide this circle 
into hours, &:c., as 
minutely as may 
be required, and 
through these divi- 
sions draM' lines 
parallel to the me- 
ridian and cutting 
the ellipse. The 
point where each 
cuts the ellipse will 
indicate the same 
time as where it 
cuts the circle. This 
routine must be 
gone through for, 
say, every fifth or 
tenth degree of 
latitude, and when the points so foimd on the ellipses for each 
particular period have been joined in a regular sweep they will 
be found to form a curve which it can be proved is a hyperbola, 
whose focus is also the foci of all the ellipses. 




294 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 

These hyperbola;, or time curves, may, however, be described in 
another and more convenient way by means of a ruler, thread, and 
pencil, which is, in fact, the usual method of describing a hyperbola. 
One end of the thread must be fixed in the focus of the hyperbola 
to be cbawn, and one end of the ruler pivoted in the opposite focus ; 
the free end of the thread is made fast to the free end of the ruler. 
The radius line, that is, the line between the centre of the diagram 
and the focus of the hyperbola, being laid out in a scale of sines, 
the length of the thread must be such that the pencil will just be 
able to touch the sine of the hour for which the hyperbola is to be 
described. If the ruler be then swung round its pivoted end, the 
pencil kept close to its edge and the thread extended, the curve 
described will be a hyperbola, and the point at which it intersects 
each ellipse of latitude will indicate the position of the sun on that 
ellijjse at the time for which the curve is drawn. 

For convenience in measuring off the azimuth I have put a 
graduated horizon round the marghi of the diagram, but any other 
mechanical means may be substituted. 

This completes the diagram as published ; and, before compli- 
cating it any further, I will explain how it is used for compiiting a 
time azimuth by reading the description and instructions printed 
thereon, which description and instructions, I may mention, were 
written by Sir W. Thomson (now Lord Kelvin), who has taken 
great interest in the diagram : — " To find the true bearing of a 
celestial object, the latitude, declination, and time from crossing 
the meridian (hour angle) being given — 

" Rule. — Change the signs of both latitude and declination ; then 
from the latitude (on the meridian) follow the ellipse to its point of 
intersection with the hyperbola of the required hour angle, and 
mark it ; this may be called the position of the object. (If the 
hour angle is less than six hours, this intersection Avill be on the 
same side of the equator as the latitude as used on the diagram ; 
if more than six hours, it will be on the opposite side, as the amount 
over six hours must be measured beyond the equator to obtain the 
position of the required hour-angle hyperbola). Mark the declina- 
tion on the meridian; this may be called the position of the observer. 
With the parallel ruler transfer the line joining these positions to 
the centre © of the meridian ; the point where the edge of the 
parallel ruler cuts the graduated horizon is the true bearing, to be 
reckoned north or south, according as the place where the horizon 
is cut is north or south of the equator, and east or west, according 
as the heavenly body is east or west of the meridian." 

Although the principal purpose for which the diagram is in- 
tended is the computation of a time azimuth, it may be used to 
solve a variety of other problems, a few of which I now propose to 
bring under your notice. 

Having given the latitude, declination, and hour angle, the true 
azimuth may be found as I have been endeavoring to explain, but 



weir's azimuth diagram. 295 

it is just as simple with any three out of these four elements given 
to find the fourth. Thus, given latitude, declination, and azimuth, 
the time may be obtained, and so on. 

The diagram may be used as a sundial, which will give the 
correct apparent time at all places on the earth's surface, tlie 
latitude being not more than 60°, by placing it horizontally, with 
its meridian exactly north and south, and erecting a shadow-pin 
vertically over the declination. Where the shadow thrown by this 
pin cuts the ellipse corresponding to the latitude of the place 
will show the apparent time ; and, given any three of the four 
elements mentioned, the fourth may be found by varying the 
position of the pin, the direction of the meridian, or the ellipse of 
latitude. 

The diagram may also be used to calculate the sun's semi-diurnal 
arc or time of rising and setting, and, at the same time, his ompli- 
tude or bearing when on the horizon, the latitude and declination 
being given. 

Referring to Fig. 1 : In the triangle N A 11 we have given 
N R=latitude, N A=polar distance, and the right angle N R A, 
to find A 11 tlie cosine amplitude, which, it will at once be evident, 
can be done. With the same data we can also find the angle 
A N R, which is the semi-nocturnal arc. I may state that both 
of these problems can be solved b}' the diagram in four different 
•ways, but I will not encroach on the time of the meeting by 
attempting to explain each method, and shall simply try to give an 
idea of the general principles involved. Find the position of the 
observer, as explained on the diagram, and, with this point as a 
centre, describe a circle about the ellipse of latitude and just 
touching it. This circle will represent the circle of the horizon, 
and the point where it touches the ellipse of latitude will be the 
position of the sun when on the horizon. Reference to the nearest 
time curve will give the semi-diurnal arc ; and the bearing from 
the position of the observer to the position of the sun, taken ofi' in 
the usual way, will give us his true amplitude or bearing when 
rising or setting. 

As each hyperbola on the diagram intersects each ellipse at 
right angles, this point (the position of the sun when rising or 
setting) may be found by using a pair of parallel rulers. 

Place the edge of the ruler over the position of the observer, 
and note which time curve it just touches at the ellipse of latitude ; 
this will be the same point as was previously found, namely, the 
position of the sun when on the horizon. 

In some of my earlier diagrams I laid down another set of 
lines, which, for want of a better name, I called rising and setting 
circles. They were drawn for each degree of declination up to, say, 
30*^, and where each curve cut each ellipse of latitiide showed the 
position of the sun when on the horizon at the latitude of the 



296 PROCEEDOGS OF SECTION A. 

ellipse, and with the declination of the circle. The method of 
using them is simply to note where they cut the proper ellipse of 
latitude, and this -will be the position of the body when on the 
horizon. 

The centres of these circles may be found by the following 
rule: — Subtract twice the declination from 90, and the remainder 
will be the centre of a circle on the meridian, using the declination 
scale, radius being equal to the distance from this point to the 
focus of the diagram. The reasoning by which I arrived at this 
rule I am not at present prepared to give, but its correctness may 
be proved in several ways, und it gives the same results as are 
obtained by calculation. An illustration of its correctness at one 
point may, however, be given on the diagram itself. If an observer 
were in latitude 60° S., and a celestial body were in declination 30*^ 
S., the body would not set at all, but would simply touch the south 
point of the horizon and again commence to rise, and similarly at 
any place where the declination of the body is the complement of 
the latitude and of the same name it would simply touch the horizon 
as described ; and this, it will be observed, is exactly what happens 
on the diagram. 

In the preceding problems we have again four elements to work 
with, viz., latitude, declination, time, and bearing; and, given any 
tico of these, the other two can be found by the diagram, provided 
that one of the known quantities is either latitude or declina- 
tion. 

So far it may be observed that I have said nothing about 
altitude^ although it plays a very important part in nautical 
astronomy. The diagram may, ho-\vever, be used for workintj out 
problems in which altitude is one of the elements, by the help of 
a pair of compasses and scales of cosines, laid down separately. 
Having found the radius of the circle representing the horizon, 
with a given latitude and declination, as previously explained, 
apply it to the scales of cosines, and find with which cosine of 0° 
it corresponds. The altitxxde of any point within this circle may be 
found by measuring its distance from the centre, and this distance 
applied to the proper scale will give its altitude. 

Here we have five elements to work with, viz., latitude, declina- 
tion, altitude, hour angle, and azimuth ; and, given three of these, 
the other two can be found, provided that either latitude or declina- 
tion is included amongst the known quantities. 

I will not further intrude on the time of the meeting by going 
into the variety of ways in which the diagram may be used, but 
will content myself with laying before you a list of problems 
Avhich I have succeeded in solving by the use of ihe diagram; and 
I may mention that there are a few which I have failed to solve, 
although I have no doubt they can be solved, and probably there 
are a good many which I have not thought of, but which can be 
worked out by its use. 



WEIR S AZIMUTH DIAGRAM. 



297 



CAPTAIN WEIR'S AZIMUTH DIAGRAM. 

A List of rroblfms which can be Solved by its use. 









In the 


We have 


To 




No. 


May be Found. 


Data Ketiuired. 


Triangle 


given 


find 


Which is 


1 


Azimuth 


Lat , decl., H A. 


OZN 


Z N, N, 
ZNO 


OZN 


Azimuth 


2 


'( 


" " alt.. 


OZN 


ZN,ON,OZ 


OZN 


" 


3 


Hour angle 


" " alt . 


OZN 


ZN.ON.OZ 


N 


Hour angle 


4 


" 


" " az. . 


OZN 


Z N, N, Z 


N 


" 


6 


Latitude 


Decl., H A, az. 


OZN 


N, N, Z 


ZN 


Co. lat. 






" a'lip 


N AR 


N A, A R, R 


NR 


Lat. 


8 


<< 


" SD.arc. 


N AR 


N A, N, R 


NR 


" 


9 


Declination 


Lat., H A,az.. 


OZN 


Z N, N, Z 


ON 


P. distance 


10 


'( 


" amp 


N AR 


N R. A R, R 


N A 


" 


11 


<« 


" SD.arc. 


N .AR 


N R, N, R 


N A 


'< 


12 


Amplitude 


" decl 


N AR 


NR,NA,R 


AR 


Co. amp. 


13 


.1 


" SD,a.c.. 


N AR 


N R, N, R 


AR 


'< 


14 


" 


Decl., SD, arc. 


V AR 


NA,N, R 


AR 


" 


15 


Semi-diurnal 


Lat., decl 


N AR 


NR,NA, R 


N 


SNarc 


16 


arc 


' ' amp 


N AR 


N R, A R, R 


N 


a 


17 


'< 


Decl., amp 


N AR 


N A, A R. R 


N 


" 


18 


Altitude 


Lat., decl , H A. 


Z N 


Z N, N, N 


Z 


Zen. dist. 


19 




" " az. . 


OZN 


Z N, N, Z 


Z 


" 



£y G. 



10.— ON STOKES' THEOREM. 

FLEUIil, LicvHcic es-scicitccs Mathcinatlques and Licencie 
h-scie/iccs Phi/.siques, Sifdiieij, New South TFales. 



Plate VIII. 

One of the most interesting questions in mechanics and mathe- 
matical physics is the study of the integral 

fXdx + Ydi/ + Zdz 
where X, Y, and Z are functions of three independent variables 
x, y, and ;:, and this study becomes of capital imjiortance when the 
■well-known necessary and sufficient conditions of integrability, i.e., 
9Y _9X aZ_aX 9Y_ £Z 
9x dy dx dz 9z dy 

of function under sign / are fulfilled. 

The first step in connection with that study is to show that the 
integral round a closed curve is equal to zero, provided that the 
functions Y, Y, and Z satisf}' certain conditions of continuity. 




298 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 

The most satisfying process of demonstration is certainly based 
upon Stokes' theorem. However — strange enough to say — although 
the importance of that theorem is everywhere recognised, a correct 
demonstration of it I have been unable to find. 

Analytical transformations either establishing directly Stokes' 
theorem or deducing it from Green's theorem are easily found, but 
the difficulty, I think, consists in showing clearly what conditions 
must be fulfilled by the functions considered to satisfy the theorem. 

I propose to give here a complete and correct demonstration of 
Stokes' theorem, furnishing at the same time a criterion not yet 
given for the conditions to be satisfied by the closed curve and the 
functions X, Y, and Z. 

I will use, as far as analytical transformations are concerned, a 
process somewhat similar to the one used by Minchin in his 
Statics.* I will start from the following well-known theorem, 
which is a particular case of Greerx's theorem on the transformation 
of a triple integral. 

Theorem. — If U and V are two functions of the realf variables x 
and .V, single valued, and continuous (and consequently finite) 
within the plane area A (that is to say, for all values of x and y 
corresponding to points inside A) the double integral 

taken over the whole area A is equal to the value of the simple 

integral ^ 

/Vf/y -f Vdx 

taken along the boundary curve of area A (that is to say, taken in 
giving successively to x and y all the systems of values which 
correspond to the different points of the boundary curve) supposed 
described in such a manner that the area be always kept on the left 
hand side.]: 

Now let us put u = (ii — V = ^ 

'^ dx" ^ dy 

in the expression of that theorem, being a single-valued and 
continuous function of x., y and :; for every point on a surface 

(I) ~=/(^>y) 

z being first supposed to be a single-valued function of x and y, or, 
in geometrical language, any parallel to oz being supposed to meet 
the surface only at one point, and therefore the projection of the 
surface on plane xy being then the projection of its bounding 
edge. . 

* Minchin : A treatise on Statics, 4th edition, vol. ii., pages 2i2-245. 

t The theorem is also true for comple.'c variables. 

X By replacing V by U ^and U by - U ^1 that particular case of Green's theorem is 

obtained under the ordinary torm. 



Plate VIII 




SURVEYOR GENERALS OmCtADEtAlOE ,1 •*uighaj<. Phutoliihogrofha- 



ON stokes' theorem. 299' 

Thus U and Y are single-valued and continuous functions within 
the plane area A, bounded by the projection of the bounding edge 
of the surface on plane x y, and we obtain 

* -^ \3y dx dx dy J ' ■' \9y '^ dx J 

But denoting by I, vi, n the direction cosines of the normal at x^ 
y, z to surface (1) reckoned in positive direction we have — 
9z dz 



/ 


• - m 


-m 




3y 

m = 

VZ 


— 1 

n = 

VZ 




dx dy =: nc 


m = ds 



and 

dx dy =: ndS = 

V/Z 

Where f/S is the element of area at x, y, z of the surface con- 
sidered. We have besides by differentiation of (1) — 

— dy -\ dx = dz 

dy dx 

And now noticing that a passage from one point to another point 

on the area A corresponds to a passage from a point to another 

point on surface z-=f{x,y), and similarly that a passage from 

one point to another point on bovmding curve of area A corresponds 

to a passage from one jjoint to another point on the bounduig edge 

of our surface, we can write from (2) — 

90 d(h 

m — 

dy dx , 

where the first integral is to be taken over surface z ■=. f {x, y) 
and the second one over its bounding edge. 

Let us now suppose that z is a many- valued function of x and y^ 
or, in geometrical language, that a ])arallel to oz meets the surface 
at several points ; then the projection of surface z =.f(x, y) on 
plane xy is no more the projection of its bounding edge, but 
an other curve, B. 

Now let us consider the narrow path determined on the surface 
by two planes, parallels to xoz, and infinitely near. On the corres- 
ponding projection we have an infinitely narrow strip parallel to 
ox. If we go over the surface along that path always in the same 
direction — for instance, the direction of the arrow — the corres- 
ponding motion on plane xy will consist in : — Starlmg from A to B,. 



.//•( 



r-^- m^^) dS =f(fidz 



300 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 

then coming back to B, then coming back to A, and so on, so that 
any infinitely small element of the portion of the strip bet\A'een A 
and B (portion shaded on the figure) is gone over n times in one 
direction and n times in the opposite direction, whilst every 
infinitely small element of the portion of strip inside A is gone 
over n times in one direction and {n — 1) times in the opposite 
direction."^' Therefore, dividing the surface into slices by planes 
parallel to xoz, we see that, when we go once over the surface, we 
go n times in one direction and n times in the opposite direction over 
every element of area between A and B, whilst we go n times in 
one direction and n — 1 times in the opposite direction over every 
element of area bounded by A. 
But as obviously 

/fc=-//-c 

the index indicating that the integral is taken over any element of 
area C between A and B in one direction and the index — C that 
the integral is taken over the same element of area C in opposite 
direction (the same single-valued function being under sign fj 
we can replace the dovible integral of (-) by 

//'sc _ :sc + A 

that is to say the integral of the same function over elements of C in 
one direction, over the same elements in the opj^osite direction, and 
over A in the standard direction withoiit changing anything. 
Applying, then, the same transformation as in the first case 

./T'sC - EC + A 
becomes, by an appropriate choice of 2C, an integral all over 
surface, z = ffx, y), and the theorem is still true. 

Now, considering three functions, ?<, v, iv, single-valued and 
continuous (and therefore finite) of x, y, z, all over a certain surface 
ffx, y, zj =z we can write — 

where /, m, n, are the direction cosines of normal to surface 

reckoned in positive direction. And making the sum we obtain — 

I ^9« _ ._.\ /^, _ ^A J9V _ 9«\ 1 ^g 

•'•' ( \9y dz) ^ \dz, dxj \dx dyj \ 

■=■ fudx -}- vdy •\- 10 dz 

' It is clear that accoi-ding to the shape of the surface z=f{x, y) n may vary from 
one element to another. 



ON stokes' theorem. 301 

That is to say, Stokes' theorem, which is true as long as u, r, tv, 
are single-valued nnd continuou.t functions all over the surface. 
This is the necessary and sufficient ci>ndition. 

Now, coming back to our function — 

Xrfr + Ydij + Zdz 
sujjposed integrable, and assuming that X, Y, and Z are single- 
vahied and uniform within a certain region of space, let us con- 
sider within the same region a closed curve. 

Within that region a surface having the curve as bounding 
edge can generally be constructed, and, for that surface, Stokes' 
theorem being applicable gives (taking into account the conditions 
of Integra bility) — 

J\Xdx + Ydy + Zdz) = o 
the integral being taken along the closed curve. 

If the region of space considered is like the inside of a sphere, 
or like the body bounded by the two sheets of a wave surface 
(a cyclic region), a surface can always be constructed enclosed by 
the region, and having as bounding edge any closed curve within 
that region, so that always in that case 

fX dx + Y di/ + Zdzzzz o 

along any closed curve within the region considered; but if the 
region is like a ring, that is to say, with hole or holes piercing 
through (cyclic region), such a surface cannot always be constructed 
for any curve whatever. These curves, which enclose one ,^^or 
several holes, are excepted (irreconcilable curves). Stokes' 
theorem is no more applicable for them, and therefore for them 
/X dx + Y dy + Zdz:^: o. 
Remark. — I have not thought necessary to examine in detail the 
several demonstrations given of Stokes' theorem, amongst which 
stand pre-eminent the following, viz. : — Clerk Maxwell (A Treatise 
on Electricity and Magnetism, th. lY., of preliminary chapter) : A 
demonstration by means of curvilinear co-ordinates. ^Thomson 
and Tait ( Natural Philosophy, § 1 90 fjj). ^Tait— On Green's and 
Other Allied Theorems (Trans. K.S., p]din., 1872, p. 69) : This 
demonstration by means of a network is certainly the best of all. 
Minchin (Statics, vol. 2) *■. A simple comparison with the demon- 
stration I have given will easily show Avhat I intend to criticise. 



11.— FROM NUMBER TO QUATERNIONS. 

By G. FLEURI, Licoicie cs-sciences 3Iathi'»uifiqiies and Licoicie cs-scienees 
Fhysiqiies. 

•Miiichin's ileiaonsUatiims luo ri'markablt- for their inaccuracy. In the theoiems 1,2, 
and 3, passes 241-2-15, he does not state a single time what conditions must be fulfilled by his 
functions ^ and -i^ and u, v, w. 



302 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A, 

12.— ON MEASUREMENT OF DOUBLE STARS. 
By H. C. RUSSELL, C.3I.G., B.A., F.R.S. 



13.— THERMO-ELECTRIC DIAGRAMS FOR SOME 
PURE METALS. 

By W. HUEY STEELE, M.A. 
Plate IX. 

The paper by Professor P. G. Tait in the Tx-ansactions of the 
Society of Edinburgh, 1878, " A First .Approximation to a Thermo- 
electric Diagram," has hitherto been admitted to contain the best 
work done on the thermo-electric diagram. This paper, however, 
was stated by the author to be merely a preliminary to more 
accurate results that were to follow, but which have not yet 
appeared. The paper is mostly taken up with the discvission of 
the peculiarities in the iron line, and it is not stated whether the 
metals used were pure or otherwise, what the limits of accuracy 
of observation were, nor what methods of observation were used. 
Being in possession of a piece of thallium, whose line was not 
determined by Professor Tait, I determined its position relatively 
to silver, in order to determine its position on the diagram, and 
then, finding its line cutting that of copper at about 70° C. 
according to Professor Tait's results, I measured its position 
relatively to copper, and found that the two results were utterly 
inconsistent, according to Professor Tait's results. On measuring 
the relative positions of copper and silver, using fairly pure 
specimens, copper was found to be \erj close to and above silver, 
while Professor Tait puts it a considerable distance below. I 
therefore proceeded to construct the diagram afresh for as many 
pure metals as I could obtain. 

The first essential in accurate thermo-electric measurement is a 
.sensitive galvanometer, the one indicating the least current not 
necessarily being the best for the purpose, but the one that 
indicates the least current in proportion to its resistance, or, in 
other words, the one that will indicate the lowest e.m.f. applied 
to its terminals. Out of half a dozen types of sensitive 
galvanometers I found the best for my purpose an astatic 
instrument Avith one coil and a resistance of about half an ohm. 
To magnetise the needles as strongly as possible I made a coil of 
a very large number of turns of fine wire, and, putting the needles 
into it, flashed as great a current through it as the wire would carry ; 
the astatic pair was then suspended and the stronger needle 



THERMO-ELECTRIC DIAGRAMS. 



303 



stroked with a small weak mag-net till the condition of instability 
was approached as nearly as was desired. A silk suspension was 
\ised for some time, but it was afterwards replaced by a quartz 
fibre, the finest I could make, but not the finest I could wish for. 
I put it in in hopes of doing away with the fatigue of the silk, 
which was continually shifting the zero of the instrument, and 
was somewhat disappointed in finding that the charge of zero 
was still observed after a large deflection. The mirror was a 
very fine concave one, of about Sin. focal length. Glass scales 
Avere found far preferable to opaque ones, but with glass scales 
one has again a variety of choices. Clear lines on black ojiaque 
ground, black lines on clear grovmd, and clear lines on red 
transparent ground (got by etching through the red "flashing" on 
common red glass) were all tried, and each has some advantages 
over the others, the red being delightful to work with in very 
strong light. I decided to use a dark scale on clear ground, and 
ruled a half millimetre scale accordingly. I fixed it between 
the galvanometer and a frosted window of northern aspect, to 
make sure of its always being well lighted. Its distance from 
the mirror was about 4ft. The image fonned about 9in. from 
the mirror was capable of being magnified about ten diameters 
without sacrifice of distinctness, and a Ramsden eyepiece pro- 
vided with cross wires was used to examine it ; tenths of a scale 
division could be estimated, equivalent to measuring to 5" of arc in 
the movement of the magnet. A deflection of one scale division 
would be produced by an e.m.f. of 4 or 5 absolute units, according 
to the resistance of the junction being measured. A Thomson 
galvanometer of 10,000 ohms, to be of equal sensitiveness, would 
have to indicate 10~^- ampere. 

The method of observation vised is diagrammatically shown 
_ in the figure. E is a battery, R a 

high resistance, r a low resistance 
(generally 1 ohm), G the galvano- 
meter, e the junction whose e.m f . is 
to be measvu-ed. R, is adjusted till no 
current flows through the galvano- 
meter. 

Then if C be the current through 
the large circuit e is equal to the 
e.m.f. at the ends of r, i.e , e z=. CV. 
The current might be determined either 
by using a constant cell and using 
known resistances, or by measuring it 
directly by a tangent galvanometer or 
current balance. The former method 
was used. For a constant cell the 
choice was open for one or other of the various forms of Standard 
Daniell or the Latimer Clark cell. I first tried Fleming's Daniel 



\ 



— jwwuwb 



py 



5^ 



304 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION A. 

cell, but found that the liquids diffused iuto one another too 
quickly, and that it -would rsquire attention every few minutes, 
and so turned uiy attention to Clark ceils. Professor Threlfall and 
Mr. Pollock had pointed out (Phil. Mag. 1891), its suitability for 
small constant currents as well as for constant e.m.f. on open 
circuit. I set up three, following Lord Rayleigh's directions as 
closely as possible, and found that they gave perfectly consistent 
results when closed through resistances of not less than 6,000 
ohms, the minimum being still lower in the case of one of them. 

To eliminate thermo-electric effects other than the one being 
measured, I took a copper wire of the same resistance as the 
two metals whose junction was being examined, and arranged 
it as an alternative circuit, so that by closing the galvanometer- 
key the deflection produced was that due to the unequally heated 
portions of the circuit. Thougli this consisted only of brass and 
copper, I do not remember ever closing circuit without getting a 
deflection, so sensitive was the galvanometer. Both junctions of the 
metals being examined when copper was one of them, as it generally 
was, were immersed in an oil bath ; and when the junction consisted 
of two other metals, say lead and tin, the junction of copper and 
lead and copper and tin were kept in the same cold bath, with a 
thermometer, the lead -tin junction being in the other, which was 
heated. No precautions were taken to keep the cold bath at a 
constant temperature, it being sufficient to know its temperature ; 
it being possible, from the observations taken, to correct exactly 
for the rise or fall of the temperature of the cold junction. 

The results obtained are, in a sense, unsatisfactory. Thus, 
while the mean error of a set of observations might be '5° C, the 
results would differ from another set, taken under exactly the 
same circvmistances, by 3° or 4°. I am convinced that the 
so-called thermo-electric "constants" are not constant, but vary 
considerably with the least change in temper or condition of the 
body, and sometimes appear to vary arbitrarily. In a paper read 
before the Royal Society of Victoria, in the early part of this year, 
I discussed several months' experiments on the heating of a single 
metal, and showed that the ordinary thermo-electric phenomena are 
swamped at a temperature of about a red heat by great and 
arbitrary (apparently) e.m.f. s. generated in single metals them- 
selves. In the case of half a dozen different metals one-third of 
a volt was reached by heating them to about 1,000° C. In some 
metals this effect on a small scale could be observed at com- 
paratively low temperature, and would interfere with the ordinary 
thermo-electric effect. To avoid it as far as possible I only went 
up to 100° C. in my observations, but even then I sometimes 
recognised, on a small scale, the irregularities with which I was 
familiar from jjrevious work. In any set of observations, the 
relation between the e.m.f. e and the excess of the hot junction 
over the cold (assumed constant, or corrected for change) /, is 



) 




ThjerrrxM 


Elecirhc diagrams 


Plate IX. 




















y 


















X 


/^ 














y 


















i-*/ 


/ 
















f 


5^ 
















y 


/ 














/ 


X 














;^ 


y 








coP 


\jj3' — ' 


:^ 








y . 


^ 


==" 














^ 












KiC — ' 


^ 




.^ 












t 




A/ 










^ 


^ 












































LE 


AD 


















T 


N 


















ALUM 


NIUM 































SUBVEYOfi CENERAtS OfriCE ./ 



THERMO-ELECTRIC DIAGRAMS. 305 

parabolic, e = at •}- bt^, where b is positive or negative, according 
as the lines for the metals cut below or above the temperature of 
the cold junction, and is equal to half the difference of the Thom- 
son effects for the two metals. To determine a and b as accurately 
as possible I worked it out for each series of observations by the 
method of least squares. Thus a and b must be determined so that 
2 (e — at — bt") is a minimum, the conditions being that 

e?2 , c?2 

— — = o and ~—j~ :=. o, i.e. : — 

da db 

^ et — a^ t" - b'2 f" = o 

'2, et" — a^ t'-" — b^ f- = 
two equations which give a and b, but necessitate finding 2 et, 
2 et",^ t^,^ t\^ t*. The finding of a and b from a dozen 
observations takes about 90 minutes arithmetic. I took three or 
more sets of observations on each junction examined, the mean 
results being embodied in the following table and shown graphi- 
cally in the diagram (see Plate IX.): — 

Aluminium — 52-7 + •2lt 

Tin — 11-1 -t- -Oit 

Zinc 91 -j- l-92< 

Thallium 214— -lit 

Silver 250-1- 1-I5t 

Gold 254 + l-Zlt 

Copper 276 4- l-22i! 

Cadmium 285-1- 3-89< 

Antimony 3,558 -f- 14-5< 



14.— A PECULIAR THERMO-ELECTRIC EFFECT. 

£>/ W. RUEY STEELE, M.A. 



Section B. 
CH EM ISTRY. 



I.— THE SUGAR STRENGTH AND ACIDITY OF 
VICTORIAN MUSTS, WITH REFERENCE TO 
THE ALCOHOLIC STRENGTH OF VICTORIAN 
WINES. 

By W. PERCY WILKINSON. 

Part I. 

The present is a second instalment of a systematic examination 
of Victorian and other Australian wines with a view to making a 
scientific comparison between these wines and the typical French 
and German, for which such elaborate data have been published 
by various French chemists (Faure, Analyse chimique et comparee 
des Vins de la Gironde ; Fortes & Ruyssen, Traite de la Vigne et 
de ses produits, 1886; Gayon, Blarez, & Dubourg. Analyse 
chimique des Vins de la Gironde, 1888 ; and numerous analyses 
by Houdart, Girard, and others, quoted in Viard's Traite General 
de la Vigne et des Vins, 1892), and the German Imperial Com- 
mission for Wine Statistics, appointed in 1884 (Zeitschrift fiir 
Anal. Chemie, 27, et seq). 

In the first instalment (Journal of the Board of Viticulture for 
Victoria, May, 1892, pp. 81-96) it was pointed out, as the result 
of determinations on 600 Australian wines, that the average strength 
of Australian wines is 12 grammes of absolute alcohol per 100 
cubic centimetres, as compared to an average of 8 grammes per 
100 c.c, characteristic of French and German wines (nearly 2,000 
samples). 

In view of the great practical importance of the fact that Aus- 
tralian wines are half as strong again in alcohol as French and 
German, it was necessary to ascertain whether it is due to a 
corresponding excessive sugar strength in Australian musts. Some 
attention had already been given to the relation of Australian 
musts to wines, resulting in the publication from time to time of 
specific gravities of musts, by the Hunter River Vineyard Asso- 
ciation from 1847 onwards, by the Royal Commission appointed to 
inquire into the Alcoholic Strength of South Australian Wines in 
1874, and by H. Lumsdaine, Chief Inspector of Distilleries for 
New South Wales, 1875. These determinations demonstrated the 
high specific gravity, and accordingly the high sugar strength of 
Australian musts as compared to French and German. (The 



VICTORIAN WINES. 



307 



South Australian Commission of 1874 found an average specific 
gravity of 1-118 from seventeen samples of grapes, representing 
28-4 grammes of siTgar per 100 c.c). The reason for the diiference 
in the alcoholic strength of the wines may therefore be partly 
ascribed to a difference in the sugar strength of the musts. As 
these previous determinations of the specific gravity of Australian 
musts were very few, it seemed desirable to make determinations 
for a number of typical Victorian samples, and at the same time to 
measure the acidity of the same musts, on account of its radical 
importance to the character of a wine. 

During the Victorian vintage of 1893, 119 samples of must 
were examined, and as the determinations for each were made on 
the vineyard where it was produced, and as the vintage season is 
short and the vineyards are widely scattered, it was not possible 
for me, single-handed, to do more than determine the specific 
gravities and acidities of the 119. The separate determinations 
for each sample are given in the tables appended, also with notes 
indicating the district, name of vineyard, variety of gi'ape, con- 
dition of grajjes, date of examination. The specific gravities are 
referred to a temperature of 15° C. and water at 15° C, the acidity is 
given as free acids, calculated in the usual manner as tartaric acid, 
in grammes per 100 c.c. of must. The sugar strength given in 
the tables as grammes per 100 c.c, is derived from the specific 
gravity, according to a table in Traite de la Vigne et de ses 
produits. Fortes ic Ruyssen, vol. ii., 1886. Salleron's allowance 
being made in that table for the effect of matters in the must 
other than sugar on the specific gravity. This allowance has been 
obtained as empirically suitable for French musts, and it remains 
to be ascertained how far it applies accurately to Australian musts, 
but for present purposes it must be accurate enough. In addition 
to sugar strengths and acidities the ratio of acidity to sugar 
strength is given in the last columns as parts of acid to 100 parts 
of sugar. 

From these determinations on 119 musts an average can be 
obtained for comparison with the French and German average, as 
given in the following small table : — 





Specific 
Gravity, 
15715° C. 


Sugar, 
Grammes, 
per 100 c.c. 


Free Acids, as 

Tartaric Acid, 

Grammes, 

per 100 c.c. 


Parts of Acid 

to 

100 parts 

Sugar. 


France 

Germany 

Victoria 


1-083 
1-075 
1-108 


19-1 
17-0 
25-7 


•79 
•96 
•72 


4^13 
5-65 
2-80 



The great sugar strength of Victorian musts is quite conspicuous 
in this table ; it is nearly half as great again as those of the musts 



308 PROCE'EDINGS OF SECTION B. 

of Germany and France. The acidity is also lower, and though 
not much lower absolutely it is much lower in relation to equal 
quantities of sugar. In determining the relation to these sugar 
strengtlis of musts to the alcoholic strength of * the resulting wines, 
on the supposition that all the sugar is fermented, we can use 
Pasteur's result (Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 3rd ser. 58, p. 
330), that the sugar gives half its weight of alcohol. Accordingly 
our average Victorian must of 1893 would, if completely fermented, 
give a wine containing 12-8 grammes of alcohol per IdO e.c, 
while the average alcoholic strength of Victorian wines previously- 
given by me is nearly 12 grammes of alcohol per 100 c.c. Thus it 
appears that the high sugar strength of Australian musts explains 
the high alcoholic strength of Australian wines. When the same 
comparison is made for French and German musts and wines there 
is the same agreement ; thus, the average German must, were all its 
sugar fermented, would give a wine containing 8*5 grammes of 
alcohol per 100 c.c, the actual average strength of German wines 
being 7"6 grammes per 100 c.c. ; similarly with the French. 

It is obvious that if Australian wines are to be brought nearer 
to the French and German standard the musts must be lowered in 
sugar content and raised in acidity. As to definite methods of 
achieving these desirable ends, special practical experiments in 
cultivation and in accurate timing of the vintage seem io be 
required. Apparently it is almost uniformly the practice in 
Vict(jria to allow the grapes to becoiue over-ripe before gathering. 
It ought to be possible on each vineyard to determine a point in 
the ripening at which sugar and acid stand nearly in the pro- 
portion characteristic of French and German musts. By reducing 
the sugar strength the alcoholic strength of the resulting wine will 
be reduced, and by increasing the acid the material will be 
proA'ided for the formation of those ethers which are regarded as 
giving the higher qualities to a wine. In connection with this it 
is interesting to know that as long ago as 1851 the great Liebig 
(Letters on Chemistry, 3rd ed.) says, "The free acids which are 
present in fermenting juice take a most decided part in the 
formation of those aromatic matters upon which odor and flavor 
depend. T'he wines of southern regions are produced from 
perfectly ripe grapes; they contain tartar, but no free organic 
acids ; they scarcely possess the characteristic odor of wine, and 
with respect to bouquet or flavor they cannot bear a comparison 
with the nobler French or Rhenish wines." 

Associated with the question of sugar strength, tliere is an interest- 
ing result of, receipt researches on the sugars, that the sugar in grapes- 
is a mixture of dextrose and levulose, the latter preponderating in 
over-ripe grapes and the former in unripe (Mach & I'ortele, Bied. 
Centr. Blatt., 1881 .; Jour. Chem. Soc. Abstr., 1881, p. lOGi;, and 
ks levulose. is iesis fermentable than dextrose (Dubrunfaut, I'ortes 
aiid Kuj-ssen, vol. ii., p. 214; Borntriiger, Zeit. fiir ang. Cheau€y 



MCTORIAX WINES. 



309 



1892; Jour. Chem. Soc. Abstr., 1893, p. 169) there is a tendency 
for some of the levulose of the must to remain unfermented, in 
which case it is liable to produce secondary fermentations. 

To sum up : Victorian musts contain nearly 50 per cent, more 
sugar than they ought, if desired to give a wine of the average 
French and German alcoholic strength. A reduction in the sugar 
and an increase of the acidity of musts are the problems in 
Australian viticulture which demand the earliest attention. It 
will be seen in the detailed tables that some musts aj)proach the 
French and German standard much more closely than others, so 
that the problem is one capable of practical solution. 

It is with great pleasure that I desire to acknowledge the 
facilities rendered me in this work, in the middle of their own 
but-iest time, by the proprietors of the vineyards at which the 
tabulated determinations were made. 




310 



PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION B. 




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VICTORIAN WINES. 



311 



1-76 
2-26 
332 
2-62 
1-87 
2-14 
3-17 
2-37 
2-20 
4-95 
2-46 


3-00 
2-55 
2-80 
2-30 
4-10 
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312 



PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION B. 



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VICTORIAN WINES. 



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314 



PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION B. 






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316 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION B. 

2.— WET TREATMENT FOR COPPER AND GOLD 

IN AUSTRALIA. 

B>/ GEORGE SUTHERLAND, M.A. 

[Synopsis.] 
This paper calls attention to the special applicabilit)' of the 
method of extracting copper from its ores by the use of the 
protochloride of iron in the cases of Australian mines which are 
situated at great distances from the seaboard. Passing on to the 
consideration of the cupric salts it, cites their successful api)lication 
to the jnirpose of the economical production of chlorine from 
hydrochloric acid, and suggests that chlorination for the extraction 
of gold might be rendered less costly than it now is if copper salts 
were utilised in this way. Finally, it discusses the reported 
successful combination of wet treatment and amalgamation for 
gold, by which it is claimed that, with the use of a current of 
electricity, gold may be extracted without coming into actual 
contact with the mercury. 



o-i^-o 

3.— ON OSMOTIC PRESSURE. 

By Professor 0R3IE MASSOX, M.A., D.Sc. 
(Withdrawn.) 



4.— THE EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF 
OSMOTIC PRESSURE. 

By Professor ORME JIASSOX, M.A., E.Sc, and J. B. KIRKLAXB. 

(Withdrawn.) 

o-»J<-o 

5.— ON HYPONITRITES. 

By B. H. JACKSON, M.A., B.Sc. 
[Communicated by Professor Orme Masson, M.A., D.Sc] 
Since the hyponitrites were discovered by Dr. Divers in 1871 
(Proc. Roy. Soc. xix., 4'25) a considerable number of investiga- 
tions have been made on this subject, but in none of the papers 
published, with one exception (Menke, C.S.J., 33, 401), is there 
any account of the isolation of the alkaline hyponitrites. • 



HYPONITRITES. 317 

The following work, tlierefore, was directed to the examination 
of sodium and ammonium hyponitrites and, incidentally, to the 
examination of the method of preparation of hyponitrite of silver, 
which is the starting-point in the pre])aration of other hyponitrites. 

The yield of hyponitrite by the different methods of preparation 
varies from an amount which is described as bad and variable to a 
disputed maximum of 15 per cent, of the " theoretical quantity," 
and it was therefore considered advisable to ascertain, in the first 
place, if it were possible to readily improve this yield. 

Fyroyenous Methods of Formation. — As nitrite is readily 
obtained from nitrate by heating, as well as by reduction in 
solution, it wovdd seem, at first sight, that hyponitrite would most 
easily be obtained by heating nitrates, either alone or in contact 
with some reducing agent. Support is given to this view by 
Menke, Avho states that he obtained alkaline hyponitrites by 
heating sodium or potassium nitrate with iron filings in the 
presence or absence of sodium carbonate, and a considerable 
number of experiments were made, but without result, to test this 
method of preparation. It may be mentioned that Divers and 
Zorn have also been unsuccessful in repeating Menke' s experi- 
ments. Moreover, there are several important reasons for thinking 
that Menke himself did not obtain hyponitrite, for (1) Menke 
states that his sodium salt gives a turquoise blue precipitate with 
eoi^per sulphate, whereas Kolotoff has shown (C.S.J., Mar., 1893) 
that copper hyponitrite is yellow ; (2) Menke boiled his product 
of reduction with water to extract the hyponitrite. As a matter of 
fact, sodium hyponitrite is very meltable under these conditions ; 
(3) Menke heated his silver salt with ethyl iodide in a sealed tube 
and fractionated the product. Zorn has shown that this could not 
be carried out with real hyponitrite, as ethyl hyponitrite is violently 
explosive. 

After trying unsuccessfully to obtain hyponitrite by reducing 
nitrate with aluminium, and also by reducing potassium and barium 
nitrates with barium amalgam, it was decided to adopt the 
original method of Divers, tha* is, reduction of nitrate with 
sodivini amalgam, neutralisation of the resulting alkaline liquid with 
acetic acid, and precipitation of the silver hyponitrite with silver 
nitrate. 

The. Divers' Methods of Preparation. — Zorn states that the best 
amalgam for the purpose contains one part of sodium to thirty 
of mercury, but, as the product is still very small, a series of 
experiments was made with different strengths of amalgam, and 
these results showed that the largest yield was obtained with a 
very dilute amalgam and the smallest with a very strong one. 
Intermediate amalgams gave a secondary maximum. A similar 
series of experiments was conducted at 4°, and these show that 
the yield is much increased when the reduction is carried on at a 
Ibw temperature. 



318 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION B. 

Crude hyponitrite of silver, prepared according to Divers' 
method, invariably changes from a yellow to a green color. The 
percentage of silver in four cases in which the crude product was 
analysed varied from 77'4 to 84"8 (the theoretical percentage 
being 78-2 per cent.), and it was found on treatment of the hypo- 
nitrite with dilute sulphuric that this result was mainly due to the 
presence of more or less finely divided silver. 

The only substances of a reducing character present in the 
liquid from which the silver hyponitrite is precipitated are 
potassium nitrite, acetic acid, and hydroxylamine acetate, and as 
KNO2 will not reduce AgNO either in presence or absence of 
acetic acid, the reduction must be due to the hydroxylamine 
acetate. It thus appears that hydroxylamine acetate, though it 
does not reduce (faintly acid) silver nitrate, possesses the property 
of reducing AgNO to the metallic state. In accordance with this, 
it was found that the filtrate from the precipitated hyponitrite 
gave no trace of hydroxylamine, though the original alkaline 
liquid readily gave the tests for it. This conclusion as to the 
origin of the silver is to some extent confirmed by the recently 
published papers of Wislicenus (Ber. Apr., 1893, p. 773) and 
Paal (Ber., May, 1893, p. 1028). Wislicenus prepared hyponitrite 
by the action of hydroxylamine sulphate on sodium nitrite ; Paal 
by the action of hydroxylamine hydrochloride on silver nitrite. 
Both found that the hyponitrite obtained contained metallic silver, 
so that other hydroxylamine salts, as well as the acetate, reduce 
AgNO. A specimen of AgNO was actually tried with acetic 
acid and hydroxylamine acetate, and, in accordance with what has 
been stated, was found to be reduced to metallic silver. 

In order to prevent loss of hyponitrite, therefore, by this 
reduction it is advisable to treat the alkaline liquid with pre- 
cipitated mercuric oxide. This decomposes the hydroxylamine. 
The crude hyponitrite obtained in this case does not contain 
metallic silver, and remains yellow in the dark under water. 

Preparation of the Sodmm Salt. — Although sodium hyponitrite 
has never been satisfactorily obtained in the solid state, several 
facts are known about its solution in water. Thus Divers shows 
that this solution is alkaline to litmus, and that it gives precipitates 
with certain salts of the heavy metals. He also mentions that 
alkaline hyponitrites are decomposed by COo. It was found that 
somewhat diluted solutions of sodium hyponitrite (prepared 
according to the equation AgNO + NaCl = NaNO + AgCl), 
or strong solutions which were slowly evaporated at the ordinary 
temperature (in vacuo) gave no appreciable quantity of solid 
hyponitrite. The residue contained, on the contrary, caustic soda, 
so that the sodium salt had evidently decomposed in accordance 
with the equation 2NaN0 + Ho O = 2NaH0 + N, O. As 
caustic soda is produced in this hydi-olysis it was thought that 
a strongly alkaline solution of sodium hyponitrite would be more 



HYPONITRITES. 319 

stable. Siich a solution was prepared by reducing a strong 
solution of Xa NOn with sodium amalgam, and was evapoi-ated in 
a vacuum over sulphuric acid. Although the evaporation took 
several weeks, the residue contained abundant hyponitrite of soda 
— a more soluble salt apparently than caustic soda. Some of the 
crystals Avere pressed between sheets of blotting-paper, redissolved 
in water, neutralised, and used to precipitate solutions of the heavy 
metals. Another portion of the crystals was treated with strong 
alcohol, and it was found that the hyponitrite remained undissolved, 
and could thus be completely separated from caustic soda. Dry 
sodium hyponitrite, freed from cau>*tic soda in this way, was placed 
in an ordinary desiccator, and kept for weeks without being 
noticeably altered. The preparation of sodium hyponitrite by the 
above method is not a satisfactory one, however, as the evaporation 
of the alkaline liquid is very slow, and the product is impure. An 
attempt was therefore made to isolate the salt by precipitating a 
strong solution (from AgNO and NaCl) with alcohol. Crystals 
separated out immediately and settled on the sides of the flask in 
groups of plates. I satisfied myself that these were crystals of 
sodium hyponitrite, and converted them, after carefully drying in 
vacuo over sulphuric acid, into sodium sulphate in order to determine 
the percentage of sodium. Found 43-0 per cent, of Na. Calculated 
for the formula Na NO, 43-4 per cent. The salt, when separated 
by means of alcohol and dried in this way, has therefore the com- 
position Na NO. 

Before lea-sing the subject of sodium hyponitrite it may be well 
to lay stress upon its decomposition by water. This decom- 
position takes place in time at the ordinary temjierature, and is 
much more rapid at higher temperatures. It gives an easy 
explanation of the small yield obtained by most of the known 
methods of preparation, and is in accord with the statement of 
Divers, that the decomposition of the oxyamido-sulphonates is by 
far the most productive method of preparation, since in this method 
the strongest potash obtainable is used to eff'ect the decomposition 
of the oxyamido-sulphonate into hyponitrite and sulphite. It indi- 
cates, moreover, that success in obtaining large quantities of hypo- 
nitrite will depend on the use of some liquid which, like alcohol, 
will remove the hyponitrite out of the sphere of action of water. 
Hyponitrous acid and all the alkaline and alkaline-earth hyjioni- 
trites show more or less tendency to decomposition in presence of 
water. 

Ammonium Hyponitrite. — Our knowledge of this is almost con- 
fined to the original statement of Divers, that it exists in solution, 
but is unstable. Ammonium chloride and silver hyponitrite, or 
barium hyponitrite and ammonium sulphate, readily react, and a 
solution containing hyponitrite is thus obtained, but it leaves no 
residue on evaporation under the pump, the smell of ammonia 
observed indicating the decomposition of the salt with separation 



320 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION B. 

of ammonia. It was thought that the ammonium salt might be 
separated as the sodium salt had been, by the addition of alcohol to 
its aqueous solution. It was found, however, that no precipitate 
was thus obtained, the salt being soluble in alcohol; and an attempt 
was next made to obtain it by eA'aporating an alcoholic solution. 
Accordingly, anhydrous (NHi), S was prepared, and this was made 
to act on dry AgNO. The silver sulphide was filtered off and 
the filtrate vvas evaporated under the pump over sulphuric acid, a 
column of KHO being placed between the pump and the desiccator 
to prevent the entrance of moisture to the alcoholic ammonium 
sulphide. In this way stellate groups of long needles were obtained; 
these contained ammonia, and at once gave the characteristic 
yellow AgNO on direct treaiment with AgNOj solution. They 
were evidently crystals of ammonium hyponitrite. Several small 
preparations of the ammonium salt have thus been made, but the 
salt has not been yet prepared in sufficiently large quantities to 
allow of a full examination of its properties. The decomposition 
of the salt by water, however, is a notable fact. It may be 
mentioned, in conclusion, that the decomposition of ammonium 
hyponitrite by heat is of considerable interest, for, as suggested to 
me by Professor Masson, it may be expected to decompose thus : — 

(NH,)2 N2O2 = N,H, + 2H2O. 
This N4H4 may be the hitherto undiscovered tetrazone, or possibly 
its isomer ammonium hydrazoate. The following are analogous 
cases to that stated above : — 

NH4 NO3 = X O + 2H.,0 

NH4 NO, = N2 + 2H.,d 

NH2.OH.HNO2 = HO. N. N. OH + H,0 
= N2O + 2H.,0 (Paal) 

N2H4 + HNO2 = HN3 + 2H2O (Curtius, Ber., 1893, p. 1263). 
Similarly NH2. OH. HNO, Avhich I find to be readily obtained 
from NH.,. OH. HCl and AgNO, may be expected to decompose 
thus :— nYl. OH. HNO = N, + 2H,0. 

This investigation was carried out vmder the direction of Pro- 
fessor Masson, iu the chemical laboratory of the University of 
Melbourne. 



o->2<-o 

6.— THE PREPARATION OF HYPONITRITES FROM 
ETHYL NITRITE IN ALCOHOLIC SOLUTIONS. 

By B. AVERY, B.Sc, F.C.S., Fellow and Tutor of Queen's 
College, University of Melhourne. 

This investigation was undertaken at the suggestion of Professor 
Masson. The work of Mr. D. H. Jackson, who investigated 



HYPONITRITES. 321 

the preparation of hj'ponitrites in this laboratory, pointed to the 
partial decomposition, by the excess of water present, of the 
hyponitrite formed by ihe reduction of nitre; hence it was thought 
that in the absence of water a larger yield of hyponitrite might be 
obtained. 

The preparation was based on the expectation that the reaction 
of soilium amalgam with ethyl nitrite would yield sodium hyponi- 
trite and sodium ethylate. 

The ethyl nitrite was obtained, as the most convenient method 
of formation, by the action of glyceryl trinitrite on absolute alcohol, 
glycerol being formed at the same time ; but this apparently does 
not affect the reaction, and, being soluble in alcohol, is easily 
separated from the hyponitrite afterwards produced. The glyceryl 
trinitrite whs prepared by the action of nitrogen trioxide on 
glycerol (Masson, J.O.S., 1883). The preparation is most con- 
veniently performed in Varentrapp and Will bulbs— the absorption 
of the gas being very rapid and complete — the bulbs being kept 
cooled to about 10° in a current of water. 

'J'he trinitrite was separated as completely as possible from the 
water produced in a separating funnel, but not further purified. 

About 18c. c. (23grms.) of the ether were thus prepared and 
intioduced drop by drop into a large flask containing 2,000 grams 
of 9 2ier cent, sodium amalgam and a large excess (1 litre) of 
absolute alcohol. The ether sinks to the surface of the amalgam, 
reacting with the alcohol, forming ethyl nitrite and j^lycerol, and 
the ethyl nitrite then reacts with the sodium, forming sodium 
ethylate and sodium hyponitrite. 

C3H5 (N02)3 + 3 EtOH = C3H5 (0H)3 + 3 EtNOi 
EtN02 4- 2 Na = EtONa + NaNO. 

Heat is evolved during the reaction and the flask was kept cooled 
in a current of cold water. After the whole of the ether was intro- 
duced the flask was allowed to stand over night in the water. A 
voluminous white precipitate is formed and a considerable amount 
of ammonia evolved, hydroxylamine being, probably, also formed 
by the further reduction of the nitrite. The precipitate was 
separated from the mercury, filtered out, and washed with absolute 
alcohol, in which sodium hyponitrite is quite insoluble, till only 
slightly alkaline. This removes all the glycerol and sodium 
ethylate, as well as all reducing substances, such as hydroxylamine, 
which may be formed, and leaves the sodium hyponitrite only 
mechanically mixed with a little mercury. Experience showed 
that very thorough washing with alcohol is necessary to yield the 
hyponitrite in a pure state. It was then dissolved in w-ater filtered 
from the mercury present, the filtrate being an almost pure solution 
of sodium hyponitrite. This was acidified Avith a drop of acetic 
acid and silver nitrite added, tiiving a bright yellow precipitate of 
silver hyponitrite, which did not blacken on exposure to light, as 

X 



322 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION B. 

samples obtained by the older methods iuvai-iably do unless at once 
purified by solution in dilute acid and reprecipitation with ammonia. 

The silver hyponitrite was filtered off on a tared filter, washed 
free from silver nitrate, then treated with alcohol and ether to get 
rid of the water present, and finally dried in a vacuum desiccator 
over sulphuric acid and weighed, giving 3"042-l grams of silver 
hyponitrite, or about 6 per cent, of the theoretical yield. This is 
abfuit the same as the yield obtained by Divers' original method. 

To test its purity a weighed quantity of this hyponitrite was 
taken, dissolved in nitric acid, and titrated for silver, the amount 
found present being •i-2 per cent, below the theoretical amount 
calculated for pure silver hyponitrite. 

In another experiment the materials were kept during the reduc- 
tion process at 0° C. by immersing in a bath of melting ice instead 
of merely cooling to about 10° with a stream of water. In this 
case the reaction took very much longer, being still incomplete in 
forty-eight hours, and gave only a 2 per cent, yield of silver 
hyponitrite. 

This method, though apparently not possessing any advantage 
over Divers' method in the yield of hyponitrite, is, however, not 
inferior to it in that respect, and possesses the advantage that the 
reducing substances formed in the reaction, being completely 
removed by washing with alcohol, the resulting hyponitiite is 
easily obtained in a pure state. 



-o-ijl-o- 



7.— ON THE INTERACTION OF NITRIC OXIDE AND 
SODIUM AMALGAM IX PRESENCE OF ALCOHOL. 

Bij GEO. W. MACLONALD, B.Sc, University of Melbourne. 
[Communicated by Phofessor Orme Masson, M.A., D.Sc] 

The results of this investigation, undertaken at the suggestion 
and with the guidance of Professor Orme Masson, being as yet 
incomplete, the author has deemed it advisable to give only a brief 
summary of the work so far accomjilished, reserving a fuller 
account for a future date. 

This investigation differs from previous work* in the use of 
sodium amalgam as the reducing agent and the sxibstitution of 
absolute alcohol for water. 

• Lossen. Ann. Cliem. Phaim., Suppl. Bd. vi., 220. Ludwig & Hein. Ber., Deutsch Chem., 
Ges. II., 671. piveis & Ilaga, J.C.S., vol. 47, p. 361. Dunstan & Dj-muml. J.C.S., vol. 
61, p. 646. The fti>t iwo i e^eal•ehes deal wiili the production of hydioxylamme by reduction 
of nitric oxide in acid solution ; the two latter with the formation of potassium hyponitrite 
hy the action of an silkalino solution of potassium stannite on nitric oxide. 



NITRIC OXIDE AND SODIUM AMALGAM. 323 

The method of experiment was as follows : — A stream of nitric 
oxide was passed through a bent tube, containing the sodium 
amalgam and alcohol, jjreviously freed from all traces of air by a 
current of hydrogen passed through purifying and deoxidising 
agents. The product of the reaction, sodium hyponitrite, as it 
formed, separated out in the alcohol as a white finely- divided pre- 
cipitate. 

Although water was used in the first instance, this method of 
experiment was abandoned owing to the small yield of sodium 
hyponitrite (-54 per cent, of the theoretical yield) and the gradual 
decomposition of the soluble salt so formed in the presence of 
nascent hydrogen. By using absolute alcohol in place of water 
the yield was increased to 6 per cent, of the theoretical, and the 
decomposition above mentioned avoided A small volume of nitric 
oxide (82-5c.c.) left in contact for forty-two hours with sodium 
amalgam and alcohol entirely disappeared, as such, with the pro- 
duction of about half its volume of nitrogen. All amalgams used 
contained less than 1 per cent, of sodium, and the duration of each 
experiment was some two hours ; with stronger amalgams (3 per 
cent, to 4 per cent.), no yield of hyponitrite was obtained. 

An experiment in which some 8 litres of nitx-ic oxide were 
left in contact for nine days, under slightly increased pressure, with 
1,470 grammes of amalgam and 150c. c. of alcohol, gave somewhat 
unlooked-for results. The sodium compound produced, which was 
found to contain no trace of mercury, while resembling sodium 
hyponitrite in respect to its being a white comjDJund insoluble in 
alcohol and readily soluble in water, possessed other properties 
of a very peculiar nature in no respect resembling hyponitrite. 
While kept under alcohol it was somewhat flocculent in appearance, 
but immediately on exposure to air became of a pitch-like consis- 
tency, insoluble in ether and benzine even on boiling. When 
heated it swells up, and at a moderate temperature decomposes 
explosively. It is decomposed by both strong and dilute mineral 
acids, the former action being very energetic. 

Reactions with solutions of mineral salts : — Silver nitrate — A 
white precipitate, soluble in excess of the sodium salt ; readily 
soluble in either dilute nitric acid or ammonia, and reprecipitated 
on neutralisation as a chocolate-colored precipitate. The white 
preciiDitate when dry blackens immediately on exposure to light, 
and is explosive at a moderate heat. Copper sulphate produces a 
green preciintate, and ferric chloride a brown precipitate closely 
resembling the hydrate in appearance. Lead acetate gives a dirty- 
white precipitate, while with mercuric chloride no reaction takes 
place. 

The absorption of nitric oxide, judging from a curve constructed, 
was very regular, and the gaseous products of the change were 
found to be ammonia and nitrogen, the latter by rough measure- 
ments being about half the volume of nitric oxide absorbed. 



324 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION B. 

It appears from the foregoing that hyponitrite is produced 
during the first few hours, but that prolonged contact brings about 
a decomposition of the hj^ponitrlte with production of a new com- 
pound possessing the somewhat peculiar properties which have 
been detailed. The explosive nature of the sodium and silver 
salts suggests the possibility of the compound being a derivative of 
hydrazoic acid, a conclusion which does not appear improbable 
when we consider that the hyponitrite was standing for a 
lengthened period in contact with sodium. The chemical nature 
of this compound is the subject which is at present under review, 
and the uncertainty on this score is the reason for the somewhat 
abbreviated account here presented. 



o-vJ(-o 

.—ON THE ORIGIN OF MOSS GOLD. 

By Professor LIVERSIDGE, M.A., F.R.S. 
(See Pkoc. Roy. Soc, N.S.W., 1893.) 

o-^Jl-o 



-ON THE CONDITION OF GOLD IN QUARTZ AND 
CALCITE VEINS. 

By Professor LIVERSIDGE, M.A., F.R.S. 
(See Proc. Roy. Soc, N.S.W., 1893.) 

o-*- o 



10.— ON THE ORIGIN OF GOLD NUGGETS. 

By Professor LIVERSIDGE, M.A., F.R.S. 
(See Proc. Roy. Soc, N.S.W., 1893.) 



-o-jjj-o- 



11.— ON THE CRYSTALLISATION OF GOLD IN 
HEXAGONAL FORMS. 

By Professor LIVERSIDGE, M.A., F.R.S. 
(See Proc. Roy. Soc, N.S.W., 1893.) 



NITRATES IN WATER. 325 

12.— GOLD MOIRE-METALLIQUE. 

By Professor LIVERSIBGE, M.A.. F.R.S. 
(See Proc. Roy. Soc, N.S.W., 1893.) 



13.— A COMBINATION LABOUATORY LAMP, RETORT, 
AND FILTER STAND. 

By Professor LIVERSIBGE, M.A., F.R.S. 
(See Proc. Roy. Soc, N.S.W., 1893.) 



14.— RESULTS OF ANALYSIS OF SOME SOUTH 
AUSTRALIAN WATERS. 

By G. GOYDER, Jim., F.C.S. 
(See Proceedings of Section I.) 



-o-«-o- 



15.— NOTE ON THE DETERMINATION OF NITRATES 
IN THE ADELAIDE WATER. 

By E. H. REXXIE, M.A., D.Sc, and E. F. TURNER. 

Some time ago Warrington (C.S. J., xxxv., 377) made some experi- 
ments which went to prove that in determining nitrates in potable 
waters by the nitric oxide method it was not necessary, as intimated 
by Frankland, to remove any chlorine which might be present, but 
that, on the contrary, in some cases at any rate, the presence of 
chlorine was distinctly beneficial. In examining samples of the 
Adelaide water supply, we have made some observations which 
seem to confirm Warrington's results. The Adelaide water con- 
tains so much chlorine as to render it imjjossible to use the 
evaporation residue for the evolution of nitric oxide unless the 
chlorine be first removed, because of the large quantities of hydro- 
chloric acid evolved. In our experiments, therefore, we first 
completfly removed the chlorine in the usual manner, filtered off the 
silver chloride, evaporated the filtrate to dryness, took up in a very 
small quantity of water, and again filtered to remove some silver 
reduced by the action of organic matter on the excess of silver 
sulphate. In several experiments made in this way no nitric oxide 
was evolved on shaking with mercury and sulphuric acid in the 



326 PROCEEDIKGS OF SECTION B. 

ordinary manner. On introducing a very small quantity of sodium 
chloride, however, and again shaking, reaction commenced, and in 
most cases nitric oxide was evolved corresponding approximately 
in quantity with the amount of nitrates present as determined by 
other methods ; though, in some cases, there was a decided 
deficiency in the quantity of gas evolved. It should be stated 
that nitrates were present in small quantity, nitrogen as nitrates 
being only about "OS parts per 100.000. If considerably larger 
quantities were introduced, reaction set in without addition of 
sodium chloride, but no exact experiments were made to ascertain 
if there was any considerable deficiency. We are at a loss to 
account for these results, unless by supposing that the organic 
matter present in the water exerts a retarding or preventive in- 
fluence on the reaction when the quantity of nitrates is small. 



16.— PRELIMINARY NOTE ON THE COLORING 
MATTER OF LOMATIA I LI CI FOLIA. 

Bij E. H. RENNIE, M.A., D.Sc. 
Surrounding the ripe seeds of Lomatia ilicifol'ia is a yellow 
powder. This substance is soluble in alcohol and the ordinary 
organic solvents, and also in hot water, from which it crystallises on 
cooling in fine needles. It can easily be purified by two or three 
crystallisations from hot water containing a little acetic acid, and 
it then consists of a mass of fine needles having a melting point of 
126°-127° C. It dissolves in alkalies yielding a red solution. The 
combustion results and a molecular weight determination point to 
the formula 0,6 Hig O4, but further experiments are necessary to 
definitely fix the formula. It yields apparently a diacetyl derivative, 
and salts, in which one atom of hyiirogen is replaced by metal, the 
barium salt forming red needles. 'I'he examination of this sub- 
stance is being continued. 



o-^Jl-o- 



17._N0TES FROM THE LABORATORY OF THE WAL- 
LAROO SMELTING WORKS, SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

By T. a. CLOUD. Assoc. Royal School of Mines, F.I.C., F.C.S., and 
G. J. ROGERS, Assoc. Royal College of Science. 

(1.) DETERMINATION OF COPPER. 
The determination of copper by electrolysis was first proposed 
by Gibbs in 1864. The separation was made from a sulphuric acid 



LABORATORY NOTES. 327 

solution ; this method is A'ery exact when the solution consists of 
pure or nearly pure sulphate of copper, but it is not satisfactory 
when iron is present. With large quantities of iron present, as 
frequently occurs in the case of an ore analysis, the separation of 
the copper is unduly prolonged, sometimes more than twenty-four 
hours being required for complete precipitation. In 1869 Luckow 
.showed that a nitric acid solution could be used and was much 
more advantageous than the solution of the sulphate. "With slight 
modifications this process has been the one in general use at the 
Wallaroo Smelting Works for the past twenty years, and has given 
great satisfaction, and we propose to place before you the methods 
and apparatus used for the purpose. 

Apparatus. — The battery used consists of four cells of the 
Meidinger type, joined in series. Two siich batteries are kept 
going for "rdinary work. The negative element in this battery is 
a ring of rolled zinc jin. thick, 4in. high, and 4^in. outside diameter. 
To the top edge of this ring three pieces of stout sheet copper are 
soldered so as to project about fin., and one of these carries the 
binding screw. These three projecting lugs serve to suspend the 
zinc ring in the upper part of the glass jar. The po.sitive element 
is formed of a cylinder of 4lbs. or olbs. sheet lead, 11 in. high and 
2in. diameter. It may be formed of a piece of lead pipe, but is 
preferably made from sheet of the weight named, the joint being 
soldered up. The lower end of the cylinder is slit up for a distance 
of about 2in. at four opposite points, and the tongues thus formed 
are spread out so as to nearly fit the inside diameter of the con- 
taining glass jar, which is SA^in. high and 4fin. diameter inside. 
To the top of the cylinder on the outside a copper wire is soldered 
to allow of connectms; up the cells. The zinc and lead cylinders 
being placed in position, the cell is charged by filling up the lead 
cylinder with crystals of copper sulphate, and by then filling up 
the jar to \vitl\in fin. of the top with saturated solution of mag- 
nesium sulphate. When such a battery is first made up it requires 
to be put on closed circuit for about twenty-four hours before it 
comes into working order. It will then be noticed that some of 
tlie sidphate of copper has dissolved, and. passing through the 
openings iti the lower part of the lead cylinder formed by the 
spreading abroad of the tongues mentioned above, has formed a 
well-defined layer of this substance at the bottom of the jar, while 
above it rests the magnesium sulphate solution. In tui-n one cell 
in each battei-y is cleaned up every week, i.e., the copper which 
has deposited on the lead is removed by gentle hammering ; the 
copper sulphate crystals and the magnesium sulphate solution 
renewed. In this way the battery is kept very constant for any 
length of time. Four such cells yit Id a current of -l-'lo amperes 
?-t 2 volts. If the battery is allowed to stand for more than twenty- 
four hours on open circuit the two liquids commence to diffuse; 
copper deposits on the zinc cylinder and the battery when required 



328 PROCEEDIXGS OF SECTION B, 

does not work satisfactorily, so that if not required for work it is 
desirable to place it on closed circuit for about half an hour in 
each twenty-four. For receiving the deposit of copper we use a 
cathode formed of a platinum cylinder. The solution is plated 
out in a beaker. The platinum cylinder is Ifin. high, liin. 
diameter, about -iri-in- thick, and has riveted or soldered to 
it a platinum wnre about -rein, diameter, 4|in. long, formed into 
a hook at the upper end. The weight of such cylinder is 44grms. 
The anode is formed of a piece of platinum wire iS.-in. diameter. 
19in. long, of which about lOiin. is formed into a flat spiral with 
the balance of the wire forming an upright stem rising from the 
centre of the spiral; the upper enH of the wire is formed into a hook. 
These hooks formed in the wire serve to suspend the cathode and 
anode from their respective supports, and are preferred to binding: 
screw attachments. The support for the cathode is so formed that 
the weight of the cylinder tends to make good electrical contact. 
The anode being comparatively light good contact is made by 
means of a brass spring resting upon it and forming part of the 
supporting arm. 

The beakers used meaure 4fin. high by 2Jin. diameter, and hold 
about 9oz. The process is conducted as follows : — Igrm. of ore 
is taken. 10 drops of strong sulphuric acid added, and a drop of 
hydrochloric acid to precipitate any trace of silver, 10c. c. of strong 
nitric acid added, watch glass put on, and the whole mixed by 
gently twirling the beaker. It is then allowed to stand till 
temperature has gone down, and then heated upon the steam bath 
until all brown fumes have ceased to come off and all sidphur is 
dissolved. If the heating is slow and the mixture not actually 
boiled all the sulphur from an ore containing 25 per cent, sulphur 
wall be readily oxidised. The cover and sides of the lieaker are 
then washed down and the solution evaporated to dryness on the 
steam bath, the cake broken up with glass rod and heated on sand 
bath till fumes of svdphiu'ic acid come off. It is allowed to cool, 
and 100c. c. of nitric acid added (Ipt. cone, acid to 120pts. water). 
It is not necessary to filter from insoluble residue, but electrodes 
may at once be placed in the solution and connected to the battery. 
The wire anode should be placed as near bottom of beaker as 
possible without actually toviching it, and the lower edge of 
cylinder should he about ,^in. off the spiral. The cpiantity of 
solution in the beaker should be such as to allow about ^in. of the 
cylinder to remain above it. The time allowed for electrolysis 
necessarily varies with the quantity of copper present, but twelve 
hours is generally allowed for amounts up to -ogrm. By means of 
a clock contact is made automatically at 9 p.m., or any other hour 
for which it may be set, so that the estimations are finished by 9 
next morning, 'ihe electrolysis should not be allowed to continue 
for any long period after the copper is removed from the solution, 
as the texture of the deposit is apt to be injuriously affected thereby. 



LABORATORY NOTES. 329 

To ascertain if all the copper has been deposited the sides of the 
beaker are washed down with hot water, and the whole left one 
hour; if more copper then comes down on the previously clean 
portion of the cylinder a little more water is added, and so on until 
no more copper is deposited. The solution is drawn off with a 
syphon, and the solution gradually replaced Avith water whilst the 
current is still passing (beaker twice filled is generally sufficient) ; 
finally sufficient water is left in the beaker to cover the cylinder. 
The cylinder and spiral are now disconnected from battery, the 
cylinder removed from beaker and washed with hot water, then 
with alcohol, and dried by^ burning off the alcohol. The cylinder 
is hung in balance case for twenty minutes and weighed. The 
cylinders vary but little in weight; they lose slightly in use, and are 
in practice only weighed clean about once a week. 

The following duplicate determinations made exactly as above 
show that the process admits of considerable accuracy: — 

P, I 14-190 .' ( ol-6o ■( I 19-045 \ j 21-12 i ) 17-4(1.5 ( 

ures.... ^ j^.j.- ^ 1,51.711 \ 19-045 I ) 24-11 j U7-345 ! 

Electrolytic copper taken, -1127 ; found, -1126. 

The presence of bismuth to an extent of 1 per cent, calculated 
on the amount of copper in solution is indicated by a darkening 
of the deposited copper. With larger quantities of bismuth 
present the deposit is dark and sjjongy, and cannot be washed 
without loss. In such cases the method is modified as follows: — 
The sohition of ore is made with aqua regia, and evaporated to 
dryness, taken up with hydrochloric acid, filtered and insoluble 
residue washed with hot water, filtrate precijjitated with 
sulphuretted hydrogen, precipitated sulphides filtered, washed 
and oxidised with smallest possible quantity 1 — 1 nitric acid; 
solution nearly neutralised with ammonia, ammonium carbonate 
in slight excess added, and then a snail quantity of ammonia 
warmed, and allowed to stand to cool ; precipitate filtered off, 
washed, and filtrate made slij^htly acid with nitric acid, and 
evaporated to convenient bulk for plating out. 

Arsenic and Antimony .—Oi these the former is not precipitated 
until all the copper is removed, but antimony, according toHampe, 
is deposited to a small extent together with the copper ; in «ny 
casi; their removal is necessary if present to extent of more than 
0-05 per cent, on the ore. We accomplish this by precipitating 
the copper in a caustic soda solution by means of sulphuretted 
hydrogen. The precipitate is filtered off from the solution 
containing arsenic and antimony dried, oxidised with nitric acid, 
evaporated just dry, taken up with water, and plated out. 

Selenium and tellurium, if present, may be removed in a similar 
manner. 

Silver, if in large quantity, is precipitated as chloride and 
filtered off, and the solution evaporated with sulphuric acid as 
before; if in but small quantity — less than loz.to the ton of ore — 



330 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION B. 

the addition of a dro]) of dilute sodium chloride before plating 
out will prevent its deposition. 

In the copper ores coming before us containing large 
quantities of silver, arsenic, or antimony, or both, are always 
present, and for the determination of the copper such ores are 
treated with aqua regia, evaporated to dryness, taken up with 
hydrochloric acid, filtered, and copper separated from arsenic and 
antimony, and plated out as above described. 

(2.) DETERMINATION OF ANTIMONY IN ANTIMONIAL 
PYRITES. 

We have recently had occasion to make a considerable number of 
antimony determinations in pyritic ores containing large quantities 
of both antimony and arsenic. 'J'he ordinary methods of separa- 
tion and determination of the former constituent involve the 
expenditure of a considerable amount of time. By the method 
which we shall now describe it is possible to complete an estima- 
tion in an ordinary working day. 

The process is a combination of the methods proposed by Clark, 
(J. S.C.I. 10. 444 and J.C.S. 46,424), and by Paul Fr. Zeits (31,537). 
Clark shows that on heating antimony and arsenic sulphides with 
hydrochloric acid and ferric chloride the arsenic distils over as 
chloride and the antimony is dissolved and remains in solution as 
trichloride. From this solution the antimony is precipitated as ti i- 
sulphide with sulphuretted hydrogen in the ordinary manner. Clark 
then collects this precipitate on a weighed filter, washes free from 
sulphur with carbon bisulphide, dries at 130°, and weighs as tri- 
sulphide of antimony. We do not collect and weigh the sulphide 
in this manner, but, instead, make use of the very convenient 
process of Paid referred to above The antimony sulphide is 
filtered off and washed on an asbestos filter in a Gooch crucible, 
gently dried, and finally heated in a stream of dry carbon dioxide. 
By this means all fi*ee sulphur is expelled and there remains pure 
trisulphide of antimony, which is allowed to cool and weighed. 
The process is carried on as follows : — Half a gram of the finely- 
ground ore is weighed out into 4|in. jjorcelain dish, covered with 
funnel w^ith bent stem ; there is then added 5c. c. of a solution of 
ferric chloride (made by dissolving 20 grams of ferric chloride in 
lOOc.c. of strong hydrochloric acid), together with 20c. c. of strong 
hydrochloric acid, and the dish and contents are heated on the 
water bath for half an hour ; the funnel cover is then washed down 
with a little hot water and the solution evaporated to about 7c. c. 
to 10c. c. Care must be taken not to carry the evaporation too far, 
as, if all the hydrochloric acid is exjjelled, the trichloride of 
antimony will volatilise. Another 20c. c. of hydrochloric acid is 
now added and the evaporation carried to the same extent ; then a 
third quantity of 'hydrochloric acid and the evaporation again 



LABORATORY NOTES. 



331 



repeated. A few drops of tartaric acid solution are added and 
20c. c. of hot water, the solution filtered into a oODc.c. beaker, 
the insoluble residue washed free from hydrochloric acid with hot 
water. In order to reduce mo>t of the ferric chloride, and so pre- 
vent the precipitation of large quantities of sulphur by sulphuretted 
hydrogen, the solution is warmed with 2c. c. of saturated solution 
of ammonium bisulphite tdl smell of sulphur dioxide has dis- 
appeared and diluted to about 250c. c. ; sulphuretted hydrogen is 
then passed through the heated solution till the precipitate becomes 
dense and granular and the excess of sulphvu'etted hydrogen driven 
off in the ordinary manner by a current of washed carbon dioxide. 
The precipitate is then hltered on a weighed Gooch filter, washed 
with hot water containing a little sulphuretted hydrogen and 
drained with the filter pump. The cap is placed on the bottom of 
the crucible, which is then transferred to the special air bath 
designed by Paul and figured in his paper. It consists of an iron 
bath, inside which the Gooch crucible is supported in the enlarged 
upturned end of a glass tube, tlirough which the current of carbon 
dioxide is passed. This enlarged end of the glass tube is covered 
with a small watch glass and the whole bath closed by^ a clock 
The apparatus we use is of the following dimensions : — 




The current of carbon dioxide is then turned on and heat applied 
by means of a couple of large Bunsens or a Fletcher's burner; a 
slow current of carbon dioxide is kept going continuously, the 
temperature kept between 220° ami 230° C. for half an hour. The 



332 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTIOX B. 

sulphur will be seen to condense at first, on the inner watch, glass, 
but slowly disappears. The whole is allowed to cool to about 100° 
in a current of carbon dioxide ; tlie crucible is then transferred to 
tbe desiccator and weighed when cool. In the papers of Clark and 
Paul many experimental resulis are given showing, the accuracy of 
their separate processes. To test the determination of the 
antimony by the above combined method the following experiments 
were made — Two samples of pyrites were analysed by the method 
of Fresenius (Quant. Anal., p. 48Sj, the arsenic being precipitated 
with magnesia mixture and the antimony weighed as oxide o£ 
antimony, and also bv the ab ive-described method. 

No. 1. No. 2. 

Eesults by method of Fresenius z: Antimony 19-34 Antimony 4-fi6 
Results by above combined method = Antimony 19- 12 Antimony 4-60 



18.— REMARKS ON THE FINE.NESS AND DISTRIBU- 
TION OF GOLD IN NORTH GIPPSLAND. 

Bit DOXALD CLARK, B.C.E., Director North Gippsland School of Mines. 

Perhaps there is no other district in the colony where the 
fineness of gold differs so much within small areas as North 
Gippsland. From the almost chemically pure sott yellow gold of 
the Nicholsin River one has not to go many miles to find the 
greenish yellow alloy, electruin, in Swift's Creek. 

The main geological features of the country have been so well 
mapped out by Mr. ilowitt, F.G.S.. the present Secretary for 
Mines, that special comment is almost unnecessary. 

In many of his papers Mr. Howitt endeavored to trace the 
relationship of the strata to the fineness of the gold within certain 
areas ; and though I think the occurrence of alluvial gold on any 
strata is accidental, yet valuable \vork could be done by determin- 
ing how the fineness of the gold is influenced by associated rocks 
and minerals. 

The fineness of gold, no doubt, depends originally on the 
solvents which held it in solution, and also on the amount of 
silver and baser metals present at the same time. 

In auriferous belts in this di^strict gold is distributed through 
the slates and sandstones, and sometimes in sufficient quantities 
to be remuneratively worked, but by far the largest proportion of 
gold obtained comes from the quartz reefs. In some cases, as at 
Yahoo Creek, the gold is on one side of the reef in slate, not a 
color being present in the quartz alongside ; in other cases it is 
in small reefs which cross large barren ones, the latter being 
enriched wliere the contact plane is. 



FINENESS OF GIPPSLAND GOLD. 



333 



Almost every gold-bearing reef has arsenical pyrites in abun- 
dance, and in many instances this mineral is studded with free gold. 
As might be expected, minerals arising from arsenides, as pharma- 
cosiderite, scorodite, and erythrite, are alwaj's present near a shoot 
of gold. Ordinary pyrites and marcasite, as well as pyrrhotite, also 
carry gold, whether found in the strata or in the reef. Pyrites in 
a vein of carbonate of lime at Long Gully gave a yield of over loz. 
per ton. 

Zinc blende (sphalerite), or black jack, is always looked upon as a 
most favorable accompanying mineral, and in many instances .specks 
of gold may be seen through it. 

While all the oxidised and hydrated ores of iron derived from 
pyrites carry gold, in the Omeo district the gold occurs at the 
surface in a honey-combed iron-stained quartz, the gold being left 
in the cavities when the accompanying minerals were dissolved 
out. In that district a comj)aratively large amount of galena 
occurs in the reefs, and it probably has a lowering influence on 
the fineness of the gold. As rarer occurrences gold is found in 
wolfram in Swift's Creek, in bismuth at Wombat Creek, and 
probably in many other minerals not yet investigated. 

As a general rule the fineness of alluvial gold is determined by 
that in the existing reefs, and the fineness is fairly constant for 
each creek ; yet in one place I am familiar with, viz., the Sons of 
Freedom line of parallel reefs at Boggy Creek, the gold in the reef 
deteriorates as you go away from the porphyry, while the alluvial 
gold is constant in fineness. 

The following table will show the decrease in fineness : — 



Number. 


Gold. 


Silver. 


Oxide 
Metals. 


Locality and Remarks. 


1 


95-76 


3-55 


0-69 


2 miles from poi-j^hyry 
2i 


2 


95-68 


3-55 


0-77 


3 


95-62 


5-68 


0-70 


2i 


4 


95-10 


4-72 


0-18 


2i 


, . , , 


93-54 
93-45 


6-13 
5-65 ' 


0-33 
0-90 


3 <' 


6 


3 


7 


87-49 


8-62 


3-89 


4 " 


8 


84-42 
76-35 


14-16 
18-20 


1-42 
5-45 




9 


10 


74-95 
68-22 


21-97 

30-78 


3-08 
1-00 


5 " 


11 


5 " 







334 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION B. 

The last sample represents the average of fifteen assays from the 
Monte Christo mine. That reef is interesting, because it contains 
cerargyrite and embolite in many intersecting clay seams. I found 
that when these were dissolved out with thiosulphate of soda, a 
small quantity of gold coidd always be obtained from the filtrate, 
as well as a considerable amount of lead. 

The gold in this mine varied from a greenish-white alloy to one 
that did not contain more than 1 per cent, of silver. Beyond this 
boundary the gold increases in fineness, rising suddenly to 94 per 
cent. 

It would thus appear that there is a well-defined belt of 
auriferous country having a low standard gold lying parallel to 
the intrusive igneous rock, and about four miles distant from its 
outcrop. 

The alluvial gold table, on the other hand, shows a fineness from 
94 to 97. 

As a general rule I find the gold is better in quality when from 
slate, or a rubbly reef, than from solid quartz in the same neigh- 
borhood. 

With regard to alluvial gold, it is ni}^ belief that it has all been 
derived in this district from pre-existing rocks. Pieces of clean, 
rounded gold, before the blowpipe, will give a fine white ash of 
silica ; nuggets, with all their mammillary excrescences, are rarely 
without attached pieces of gangue, and when cut in half seem to 
be composed of strings and branches, pounded and battered into a 
rounded shape, while their mammillar}" form is dvie to erosion and 
not growth. The wearing down of a soft material like gold, when 
in a gravel wash, must be enormous, and but a small fraction can 
exist of that derived from ancient strata. In rivers and creeks 
where the gold has travelled — as the Mitchell, Tambo, and Lower 
Boggy Creek — the gold has the appearance of bran, so scaly and 
flaky is it. 

Gold which is ragged with quartz attached may often be traced 
to some reef higher up the stream, thus showing its derivation. 

From one creek, the Five- Mile, gold crystals may be obtained, 
principally having the forms of octohedrons or rhombic dode- 
cahedrons. 

With regard to the fineness, the following table Avill show that 
of the least variable creeks and rivers in the district, large 
variations occur in the Livingstone Creek and its branches within 
short distances, and as my information was incomplete about these 
I have discarded the results obtained. 

With regard to the oxidisable matters, and substances other 
than gold or silver, silica is the main ingredient ; in some samples, 
Merrijig, a trace of bismuth existed, and a small quantity of iron ; 
copper was present in every sample, and lead occurred in that of 
Long Gully. 



FINENESS OF GIPPSLAND GOLD. 



335 



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Section C. 
GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY. 



1.— NOTES ON THE MACDONNELL RANGES. 
By H. Y. L. BROWN, F.G.S. 



2.— ON THE AGE OF CERTAIN PLANT-BEARING BEDS 
IN VICTORIA. 

By T. S. HALL, M.A., and G. B. PRITCHARL). 

In Victoria we have a series of deposits containing- plant 
remains which have up to the present been generally regarded as 
of Miocene age. It is onr present intention to bring forward a few 
facts concerning these beds which, in our opinion, seem to point 
to the necessity of altering the age to which they should be referred. 

LOCALITIES. 

In the vicinity of J'lemington, not far from the old Model Farm, 
a deposit of Avhite plastic clay, containing plant imprf ssions, occurs, 
lying on the denuded surface of the Upi^er Silurian rocks, and 
underlying the so-called Older Basalt. 

Similar clays, said to belong to the same horizon, are recorded* 
as occurring on the west side of the Melbourne swamp, near 
Footscray. 

In Mr. Wilson's quarry, at Berwick, we have fine, somewhat in- 
durated clays, for the most part of a dark color, yielding numerous 
plant impressions, underlying the Older Basalt, and resting on the 
Upper Silurian rocks. Mr. R. A. F. Murray remarksf that 
" there is no doubt as to the lignites of McKirley's Creek and the 
Tarwin, in Gippsland, being of Miocene age, because they are 
overlaid by older volcanic rocks." In these cases also the bed- 
rock is L'pper Silurian. Ferruginous, sandy, and clayey beds, 
containing fossil leaves, occur beneath the basalt of the Cobungra 
High Plains. Similar beds also underlie the basalt of the Dargo 
High Plains and the Bogong High Plains. J At Bacchus Marsh 

• International Exhibition Essay, by R. Biouffh Smyth. 1873. 

t Geo. and Phys. Geog., Vic, p. 105. 

X Piog. Eep. Geo. Surv. Vic, No. v., p. 96. et seq. 



AGE OF CERTAIN PLANT-BEARING BEDS. 339 

ferruginous beds occur which contain numerous fossil leaves and 
fruits.* 

At several localities in south-western and south-eastern Gipps- 
land there are gravels, sandy beds, clays, lignites, and siliceous 
rock, ascribed to the same age as the beds above mentioned. They 
are generally found underlying the Older Basalt, though occasion- 
ally they occur capping some of the hills which are surrounded, 
though not covered, by the volcanic rock, and are found resting 
on Upper Silurian and on Mesozoic (Carbonaceous Series). 

For further particulars of these beds, see Progress Report of 
the Geological Survey of Victoria, No. iii., p. 146, et seq ; also 
No. v., p. 44-70. 

The auriferous gravels of Hoddle's Creek, Upper Yarra, have 
yielded fossil fruits, and are overlain by the Older Basalt. 

FOSSIL FLORA. 

Cinnamomum polymorphouhs (McCoy) occurs at Bacchus 
Marsh, the Cobungra, Bogong, and Dargo High Plains. (For 
description, see Prod. Pal. Vic, Dec. iv.) 

Laurus Werriheensis (McCoy) occurs at Bacchus Marsh and 
Dargo High Plains. (See Prod. Pal. Vic, Dec. iv.) 

Salishuria Murrayi (McCoy, MS.) occurs at the Dargo High 
Plains. (See Prog. Rep. Geol. Surv., No. v., p. 106.) 

Lastrea Da/u/oetists (McCoy, MS.) occurs at the Bogong High 
Plains. (See Prog. Rep. Geol. Surv., Vic, No. v., p. 102.) 

Ta-nionteris tenui^sime-striata (McCoy, MS.) occurs at the 
Bogong High Plains. (See Prog. Rep. Geo. Surv., Vic, No. v., 
p. 102.) -..li 

Spotulyloslrobus Smythii (F. v. M.), Phyniatocaryon Mackayi 
(F. V. M.), Celyphina McCoyi (F. v. M.), Conchotlieca turgida 
{V. V. M.), Plotycoila Sullivani (F. v. M.), occur at the Tanjil, 
Gippsland. "' ^^f^ 

The above fossils are described by Baron F. von Mueller in his 
papers on the New Vegetable Fossils of Victoria. They were 
first obtained from the Haddon gold drift, Ballarat, which is said 
to be of Pliocene age. We include them here because they^are 
said to occur in deposits imderlying the Older Basalt. f 

Plesiocapparis prisca (F. v. M.) occurs at Hoddle's Creek, and is 
described along with the preceding. 

Daphwgena sp., from Bacchus Marsh. 

Acer (?) sp., from Bacchus Marsh. 

Ficiis sp., from Dargo High Plains. 

REMARKS ON THE FLORA. 
Respecting the fossils of the Miocene beds of Bacchus Marsh, 
Professor McCoy has reported as follows : — " The fossil plants of 

* Geology of District irom Bacchus Marsh to Bass Straits, by R. Daintrce, 1863 ; 

also, Geo. and Phys. Geog., Vic, Murray, p. 105. 

t Geo. and Phys. Geog., Vic, Murray, p, 109. 



340 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION C. 

the ironstones are strikingly distinguished from the Pliocene 
Tertiary leaf-beds of the Daylesford and other older gold drift 
deposits by the total absence of myrtaceous plants, which so 
strongly mark the recent forest foliage of Victoria. I have no 
doubt the fossil leaves fi'om this locality indicate a Lower Miocene 
or Upper Eocene Tertiary flora, in which lauraceous plants form a 
remarkable feature. All the species seem new ; but leaves of 
Laurus, Cinnamomum, Baphnogina, and possibly Acer, are scarcely 
to be distinguished from species referred to those genera in the 
leaf-beds (of the geological age mentioned) of Rott, near Bonn 
and CEnningen, especially the Cinnamomum polymorphum (Herr^. 
Professor McCoy also remarks* — "The specimens from this locality 
(head of the Bundarrah, i.e., Bogong High Plains) are of great 
interest from containing a new species of Taniopteris, T. tenuis- 
sime-striata (McCoy, MS.), the first example of this in Tertiary rocks 
in Australia, although well-known in rocks of this age in other 
parts of the world. There is also a Lastrea, L. Dargoensis 
(McCoy, MS.), allied to a Miocene species from the Arctic regions. 
With these are a few fragments of di(!otyledonous leaves, apparently 
identical with some from Bacchus Marsh, but too imperfect for 
precise identification." The same authority, in the report above 
referred to, also remarks on specimens from the Dargo High 
Plains as follows : — " Several imperfect lauraceous leaves of un- 
described species, occurring also in the Miocene Tertiary beds of 
Bacchus Marsh. With these is a most interesting specimen of a 
species of Salisburia, S. Murrayi (McCoy, MS.), nearly allied to 
some Miocene forms from the Arctic regions, but not hitherto 
found in Australian strata." Also, " The specimens are all clearly 
of Miocene Tertiary age, the Cinnamomum polymorphokles (McCoy) 
and Laurus Werriheensis (McCoy) being the only ones as yet 
described and figured, but several others are identical with forms in 
the Bacchus Marsh beds, bearing out my former suggestion of 
the geological identity of the deposits of these two localities. In 
addition to these are some imperfectly preserved impressions, 
apparently referable to the Ficiis Dionysia (Massalongi) from the 
South Eviropean Miocene beds, and traces of at least two plants 
not previously observed." 

AGE OF THE BEDS. 

The apparent reason for determining these beds to belong to the 
Miocene age is a comparison of the fossil flora with that of Europe. 
Professor McCoy has stated that he has no doubt that the fossil 
leaves from Bacchus Marsh indicate a Lower Miocene or Upper 
Eocene Tertiary flora, but we are not aware of any subsequent 
reference to Upper Eocene age in any of the Victorian geological 
reports on these beds. As only a very few determined plants have 

• Prog. Rep. Geo. Surv., Vic, No. v., p. 175. 



AGE OF CERTAIN PLANT-BEARING BEDS, 341 

as yet been recorded from the Victorian beds, any comparison with 
European Tertiary floras must have been of a somewhat slight 
nature. Then, with regard to the overlying basalt, the officers of 
the Geological Survey of "\''ictoria determined the age of the so- 
called ■' Older Basalt " as Miocene, because they say they have 
observed it overlying marine Miocene beds, the latter said to have 
been determined upon their fossil contents. Mr. Murray remarks : 
— *"ThG older volcanic rocks are the latest products, and mark 
distinctly the close of the Middle Tertiary or Miocene era." In 
speaking of the basalt of the Dargo and Bogong High Plains, the 
same authority says : — f '• The basalt or lava forming the high 
plains is here referred to the older volcanic (Miocene) period, 
immediately overlying, as it does, sedimentary deposits shown by 
their fossil flora to be of Miocene or Middle Tertiary age. Objec- 
tion may be taken to this classification on the ground tluit the fact 
ijf basalt overlying Miocene deposits does not necessarily prove it 
to belong to that ejjoch ; but the evidences here are to the effect that 
the Miocene beds were still in actual progress of deposition when 
the lava poured over them." At Curlewis, near Geelong, the Older 
Basalt is distinctly mapped and reported on by Dainiree as over- 
ling marine Miocene beds. Recently we had an opportunity of 
visiting this locality, and were surprised to find that the Older 
Basalt distinctly underlies the so-called Oligocene of the Survey. 
The fossils we obtained from these clays clearly indicate a lower 
horizon than Oligocene, most decidedly Eocene, and probably 
Lower Eocene, as the specimens were almost all identical with 
species occurring at the typical Eocene localities, such as Muddy 
Creek and Mornington| ; so that at this locality the " Older 
Basalt," with its upper surface showing considerable denudation, is 
clearly anterior to the deposition of the marine Eocene beds. This 
is also the case at Flinders, where an undoubted marine Eocene 
limestone rests on the denuded surface of the volcanic rock. On 
the Otwaj' coast, at Eagle's Nest, a volcanic deposit is recorded, 
underlyinii Eocene beds (Miocene of Survey). § Other localities 
showing the same sequence of the rocks have lately come under our 
notice. 

Mr. Selwyn records|| a section on the Moorabool River, near 
Maude, where there is a band of older volcanic intercalated between 
marine Miocene beds, but we have not yet had an opportunity of 
visiting this locality, and so are not at present prepared to say any- 
thing further on it. Nowhere, so far as our observations have yet 
extended, have we observed the " Older Basalt" overlying or inter- 
calated with the Eocene Series ; so that from the evidence we 
have thus far adduced it can be clearly seen that the so-called 

* Geo. and Phys. Gco., Vic, p. 109. t Prog. Rep. Geo. Suiv. Vic, No. v., p. 108. 

t Proc. Roy. Soc, Vic, N S., vol. vi. 

? Geological Map of the Cape Otway District ; also, Geelong Naturalist, vol. ii., No. 8, p. 3. 

II Intercol. Exhib. Essay., 1866-67. 



342 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION C. 

"Older Basalt" of the localities mentioned is considerably older 
than it has hitherto been regarded, and, as there is a decided un- 
conformit)' between it and the marine Eocene beds, which are now 
looked upon by some authorities as Lower Eocene, it is even 
probable that it may ultimately be found convenient to remove the 
basalt from the Tertiary Period. 

Professor Tate and Mr. Dennant, in their paper on the Corre- 
lation of the Marine Tertiaries of Australia,* make the following 
remarks, which have an important bearing on this part of our 
paper : — " This basalt rests directly upon Mesozoic strata at San 
Remo, on the eastern shore of Western Port, while at Flinders, 
on the west, it is overlain by the Eocene Tertiary. The " Older 
Basalt" is commonly called Miocene, because the strata overlying 
it were assumed to belong to that period. Instead of such being 
the case they are, as we have endeavored to prove, of Eocene age, 
and the epoch of the basalt must be correspondingly altered. It 
cannot be younger than Eocene, and maj' ultimately prove to be 
Cretaceous " 

Previous to the publication of the above paper we had come 
to similar conclusions from independent observations in the Bella- 
rine Peninsula and elsewhere, and had communicated our results 
to the Royal Society of Victoria at their first meeting for this 
year. 

Now let us look at the evidence w-e can obtain from a brief 
examination of the plant remains themselves. Taking the j^enera 
above mentioned, which are based on the leaf remains, we find that 
their distribution confines our attention between the limits of 
Cretaceous, as represented in the Laramie Group of America and 
Miocene as represented in Europe. Mr. Lester l'\ Ward, in his 
" Synopsis of the Flora of the Laramie Group," gives a table of 
the distribution of Cretaceous and Eocene plants.f uhich bears out 
the above statement. 

From our remarks on the "Older Basalt," and its unconformable 
marine Lower Eocene cover, it can be readily seen that the limits 
are narrowed down to the consideration of Cretaceous on the one 
hand and very early Eocene on the other. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

There are a few points with regard to certain deposits in some 
of the other colonies which tend to a great extent as confirmation 
of the above. 

Professor Tate has already indicated his discovery of a Cretaceous 
fauna mixed with a Tertiary flora, which was at one time regarded 
as Miocene,;]: from a locality near Lake P'rome, in South Australia. 

• Trans. Hoy. Soc. S.A., vol. xvii., pt. i., p. 212. 

+ U.S. Geol. Surv., Gtli Report, 1885. 

t Adelaide Philosophical Society, President's Address, 18"9. 



AGE OF CERTAIX PLANT-BEARING BEDS. 343 

We have in this a somewhat parallel instance to the famous 
Laramie beds of North America. In the latter case a comparison 
with European floras was made, but was found very unreliable in 
face of the evidence obtained from stratigraphical position and 
palseontological evidence based on marine forms. 

A peculiarity of lithological resemblance between some of the 
beds seems so marked a feature that it may be w^orthy of mention. 
In certain of the Victorian beds, particularly in the Gippsland 
district, a marked character is the presence of a siliceous cement, 
which has been suggested as probably due to hydrothermal action.*' 
Certain Upper Cretaceous rocks of Queensland and South Australia 
are mentioned by some authors as being characterised by the 
occurrence of a similar cementing material. 

The late Mr. C. S. Wilkinson has remarked on the apparent 
identity of certain plant-bearing beds of New South Wales with 
the Victorian beds in the following terms : — f " In many places on 
the Great Dividing Range and at various elevations up to 5,000ft. 
above the sea occur beds of conglomerate, siliceous sandstones, 
clays, and ironstones, containing impressions of leaves. In litho- 
logical character these beds have a perfect resemblance to the 
Lower Miocene leaf-beds of Bacchus Marsh in Victoria : some of 
the impressions of leaves in the former seem to be undistin- 
guishable from the Victorian fossils." 

Baron von Ettingshausen, in dealing with similar material to 
that which occurs in the Victorian beds from Dalton, near Gun- 
ning, New South Wales, regards the fossil flora from that locality 
as Eocene, the classification being ajiparently based upon the plants 
themselves.;]: The same authority, in dealing with the fossils from 
Vegetable Creek, comes to the conclusion upon the same some- 
Avhat precarious method, that that fossil flora might be referred to 
Lower Eocene, from the European point of view.§ At the same 
time he draws attention to the close affinity of some of the forms 
to those usually belonging to the Cretaceous Pei-iod, but does not 
seem to lay very much stress upon them, as he says — 1| " Examples 
indicating the attachment of our flora to that of the Cretaceous 
Period appear, however, to be only isolated when we take into 
consideration its numerous analogies to real Tertiary plants." 

We have shown that the age of the Victorian leaf-beds has 
been brought within comparatively narrow limits, and if Mr. 
Wilkinson's comparison holds good, and is still borne out when 
more is known of the various species occurring in the Victorian 
beds which have not yet received any attention, is it not possible 
that the New South Wales beds also may require to be placed 
further back in time? 

' Prog. Rep. Geol. Surv., Vic, No. iii., page US. t Notes on the Geology of New 

South Wales, 1882, p. 56. 

i Contributions to the Tertiary Flora of Australia, pp. 8, 9. 

? 1(1., p. 77 et seq. || Id., p. 80. 



344 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION C. 

3.— ON THE OCCURRENCE OF FORAMINIFERA IN THE 
PERMO-CARBONIFEROUS ROCKS OF TASMANIA. 

By WALTER HOIFCHIN, F.G.S. 
Plates X. and XI. 

In 1889 Mr. Thos. Stephens, M.A., F.G.S., of Hobait, published 
a short note in the Proceedings of the Roy. Soc. of Tasmania 
(p. 54), on " Foraminifera in the Upper Palaeozoic Rocks." The 
locality from which the foraminiferal rock was obtained was stated 
to be "the north-eastern district of Tasmania," and the testimony 
of Mr. R. Etheridge, jun.. Government Geologist of New SoUth 
Wales, was quoted to the effect that this was the first record of 
this division of the animal kingdom occurring in the Permo- 
Carboniferous rocks of Australia and Tasmania. In the same 
year Mr. Etheridge kindly forwarded to me samples of this 
interesting rock, together with two transparent slides which he 
had made by sectioning the stone. I have deferred until now 
any descriptions of these embedded forms, influenced by the 
hope that better material for their determination might be 
obtained ; but, as this is not likely at present, it is perhaps better 
to publish a few notes on the subject which may draw the 
attention of geologists to the possible occurrence in other 
localities in Australia of foraminiferal rocks of this age. 

Additional samples of the stone have been forwarded by Mr. 
Stephens, and, in answer to several queries, has kindly supplied 
the following particulars as to the stratigraphical position and 
locality of the rock in question : — "• There is no particular name 
for the locality where I found the foraminiferal limestone some 
years ago ; but it is on the right bank of the RiA'er Piper, not very 
far from a place called Lilydale. There are other outcrops of the 
same formation, or one very near it, in the neighborhood, but it 
was only in the one place that I was able to detect the foraminiferal 
remains. So far as I remember, they were only found associated 
with the characteristic fossils of the Permo-Carboniferous beds, 
which were present in great variety ; but there was no sufficient 
exposure of any section to show the thickness of these fossiliferous 

bands The rock belongs to the marine beds near the 

base of our Permo-Carboniferous Series, and is associated with coal 
measures, containing a bed of free-burning shale, which appears to 
be on the same geological horizon as the Tasmanite of our Mersey 
district." 

The rock in question is a dark-colored, compact limestone, 
exhibiting on its weathered faces gastropods, bivalves, fronds of 
polyzoa, &.C., in bass-relief. When a fractured face of the stone is 
closely examined, it is seen to be largely composed of minute 
foraminiferal shells. Very few of these break clear of the matrix, 
so as to expose their exterior surface, but suff'er fracture when the 



FORAMIXIFERA OF TASMANIA. 345 

stone is broken, and are therefore chiefly seen in section, the white 
lines of the chambers showing up very distinctly on the dark 
ground of the stone in which they are set. 

The prevailing foraminifer (which occurs in this bed in astonish- 
ing numbers) undoubtedly belongs to the genus Nubecularin. 
This is evident, not only from its exhibiting the mode of growth 
characteristic of the genus, but is confirmed by the transparent 
sections, which show the test to be imperforate, whilst the objects 
give by transmitted light the dark-brown color that is eminently 
characteristic of the porcellaneous group to which Nubecularia 
belongs. The minuteness of the objects, coupled with the hard- 
ness of the matrix, renders it almost impossible to obtain examples 
of this form in a free condition, and it is not easy to mark off with 
clearness specific distinctions where the data are limited almost 
entirely to transparent sections. This is especially the case when 
dealing with a genus of so protean a habit of growth as the one 
imder discussion ; j'et for reasons assigned below we have thought 
it advi.=able to give a varietal value to the features which distinguish 
these remote geological representatiA'es of the genus from the 
closely-related modern Nubecularia lucifuga. It is with pleasure . 
that I associate the name of Mr. Thomas Stephens, M.A., F.G.S., 
with this interesting foraminifer, for reasons that will be apparent. 

NUBECULARIA LUCIFUGA, Var. STEPEEXSI, Var. Nov. 

Habit of growth closely resembling the type. Initial chamber,, 
globular. Subsequent chambers, elongated and slightly inflated. 
Chambers arranged, either on a spiralline plan, in rectilinear order,, 
or in irregular acervaline masses. Walls of the test, thin, uniform 
in thickness, and sharply defined in outline. Septal divisions 
marked on exterior surface by sunken lines. 

A comparison of transparent sections of recent examples of 
N. lucifuga, and the form now under description, reveals a striking 
difference in the partitional walls. In the recent examples the 
walls are thick, irregular, and sometimes membranous, Avhilst the 
fossil form jjreserves a remarkably uniform thickness in its septal 
partitions. In existing examples the sutural lines are generally 
more or less obscured by an excessive deposit of shell substance on 
the exterior surface. The Tasmanian specimens, on the other 
hand, do not thicken the periphery by secondary deposits of shell 
substance, as is frequently the case with living forms. The present 
descriptions can only be taken as provisional. Should a portion of 
the rock in which they are contained be discovered sufficiently 
fi-iable to yield the Nubeculariw in a free condition, it may be 
found that they are practically identical with the recent species, 
or the differentiation may receive a higher value, reqiiiring a 
specific rather than a varietal distinction fi-om the existing species. 

The geological range of the genus is extensive, although it has 
apparently found its maximum development in existing seas, and 



346 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION C. 

in no part of the world does it appear more at home than on some 
of the Australian coasts. Messrs. Jones and Parker have figured 
two species of Nuhecidaria from the Upper Triassic clays of 
Chellaston, Derbyshire. It occurs sparingly in later .Mesozoic and 
Tertiary formations of P]ngland and the Continent, and the author 
has obtained about half a dozen small examples of A^. lucifuga 
from the Carboniferous limestone shales of Northumberland (M.S.), 
which is the lowest position in which it has been recorded in the 
geological series. 

SPIROLOGULINA (?) PLANULATA (Lamk.). 

The transparent rock sections exhibit a few Spiroloculince^ cut at 
various angles, and apparently all of the same species. One of 
these can be seen on Plate X., near the central line and one- 
fourth distance from the bottom, the line of section cutting the 
object transversely nearly through the centre of the test. The 
segments (about eleven in number) are narrow, of rounded contour, 
increasing slowly in size with the growth ; the final chambers 
enlarge suddenly, and on one side there is an apjjearance of a 
carinate ridge running longitudinally along the exterior periphery. 
No other example of SpirolocnUna in the sections exhibit the 
carinate feature, and it may be only a defect in grinding the object. 
It is impossible to determine the specific relationship of this form 
with any certainty on the slender data at command. It somewhat 
resembles (so iar as can be judged from the section) the neater 
varieties of >S'. planulata, and to this species we have provisionally 
referred it. Messrs. Parker and Jones have observed the presence 
of this species in the Lower Lias of Warwickshire, which has 
been, up to the present, the earliest geological record of the occur- 
rence of the genus. 

(1) CORUNSPIRA INVOLVENS {^^v&s). 
There are one or two very small planospiral shells that can be 
recognised in the transparent slides. Considered morphologically 
they may belong to one or other of three genera — Cormispira (in 
which the shell is porcellaneous and imperforate), Spirallina (with 
the test hyaline and perforate), or Ammodiscus (an arenaceous 
foraminifer). The last-mentioned is a common form in the Car- 
boniferous limestone of Europe, from which about eight species 
have been determined. The analogous form in the Permo- 
Carboniferous rocks of Tasmania is evidently calcareous in 
structure, and must therefore be referred to one of the two former 
genera. The minuteness of the objects and the infiltration of 
mineral matter, to which they have been subjected, make it most 
difficult to decide on the existence or absence of perforation in the 
test. It is probable that, for similar reasons, great uncertainty 
exists as to the distribution of these respective forms in a fossil 
condition. They have not always been clearly distinguished by 



rOKAMINlFERA OF TASMANIA. 347 

observers, and it is difficult to say with exactness the respective 
geological range of the tvpo genera. The oldest record for 
Spirallina is in the Lower Tertiary (or Eocene), and is limited at 
this horizon to the rocks of South Australia and Victoria, whilst 
fossils attributed to Cornuspira have been noted by several 
observers in the Liassic rocks of England and the Continent. In 
Eocene strata, and later, Cornuspira is an extremely common form 
in both hemispheres. Cornuspira involvens is the simplest and 
commonest member of the genus, and, in the absence of any clear 
evidence of perforation, we think it better to classify the objects 
under consideration as above.* 

XODOSARIA (?) RADICULA (Linne). 

It is evident from the sections that some Nodosarian form is not 
uncommon in the rock. They have been cut at various angles. 
When taken in transverse section they exhibit a perfectly circular 
outline; others are inclined to the plane of the section, and show a 
limited number of chambers cut obliquely; and in two instances 
the longitudinal axis of the object and the plane of section have 
been nearly coincident. As far as can be judged, the test is 
straight, or nearly so. The best example is shown on Plate X., 
near the top, where it will be seen that eight rectilineal segments 
have been included, with a slight indication of a ninth chamber. 
The segments are sub-globular, tapering, and with slight septal 
constrictions. These features point to ^Y. radicula, to which the 
species may be provisionally assigned. This species has been 
already recorded from the Permian of Durham and Germany. The 
section figured of this form by Mr. Brady ("Carboniferous and 
Permian-ForHminifera," PI. X., Fig. 9) from the magnesian lime- 
stone (Upper Permian) of Durham agrees very closely with the one 
reproduced from the Permo-Carboniferous of Tasmania, the line 
of section through the object in the last-named not being quite so 
central as in the case of Mr. Brady's figure. Another member of 
the genus, N. Jarcimen, also joossesses a very high antiquity in the 
geological series, occurring not only in the magnesian limestone of 
Durham, but was discovered by the authorj- in the " D. Lime- 
stone " (Lower Carboniferous) of Xorthumberland, in which it was 
very rare. This is the oldest record for the genus. 

Scanty as is the material at our disposal for determining the 
foraminiferal fauna of the Permo-Carboniferous rocks of Australia, 
it is of special interest, so far as it goes, as being the first instance 
in Avhich there has been any record of Palaeozoic foraminifera in 

* In a letter to me, Mr. Stephens says: — " When breaking up a large block of the rock 
■when I first came across it, a quite perfect forarainifer dropped out, shaped something like 
a small £uomphalus, and about the size of a small pin's head. This, unfortunately, got 
lost, and I never found another specimen like it." This descripti(m applies with great 
appropriateness to Cornuspira invnlvetis. 

t "Additions to the Knowledge of Carboniferous Foraminifera," by W. Howchin, F.G.S., 
Jour. Koy. Micro. Soe., August, J888. PI. IX., Fig. 21. 



348 



PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION C. 



Australian g-eology. The extraordinary prevalence of Nuhecularia 
in the rock — a form which hitherto has been considered more a 
modern than ancient type of Protozoa — is a notable fact. Moreover, 
in the Upper Palaeozoic rocks of Australia, judging from the 
Tasmanian evidence, there is an apparent absence of the arenaceous 
and sub-arenaceous types, which are the chaiacteristic forms of the 
Carboniferous foraminifera of the Northern Hemisphere, and their 
places are taken by genera which construct calcareous and hyaline 
tests, types that are more characteristic of related faunae of Secondary 
and Tertiary age. It must, however, be remembered that the data 
at present are extremely slender on which to base any broad 
generalisations, and a more extended examination of rocks of this 
age may bring to light a closer affinity between the foraminiferal 
fauna of the Upper Palaeozoics of the two hemispheres than, 
appears at present. 



DESCUIl'TIOX OF PLATES. 

The Plates exhibit portions of the transparent sections of the 
foraminiferal rock magnified twenty-six diameters. 

Plate X. 

a. Eight of the more conspicuous sections of Nubecnlaria luci- 

fuya, A-ar. Stephensi, var. nov., are marked a. The example 
in the upper left-hand corner is a flat parasitic form, the 
rest are investing. 

b. Longitudinal section of Nnrlosaria f? J radicula, Linne. 

c. Transverse section of SinrolocuUna f?J planulata, Lamk, 

passing nearly through the centre of the test. 

Plate XI. 
a. Nine of the more conspicuous sections of N. lucifuga, var. 
Stephensi, cut at various angles, are marked a. 



-o-^T^-o 



4.— A CENSUS OF THE FOSSIL FORAMINIFERA OF 
AUSTRALIA. 

By WALTER HOIFGHIN, F.G.S. 

It is intended by the present paper to tabulate a complete list of 
the fossil foraminifera of Australia so far as known at present. 



Plate X 




SURVEYOR GENERALS OfFICtADELAlOE . 



. PhoU.Lilhttgr<,p},rr 



^/•»* ^ 



fc-,** 



•,\ 



C 



Ms 






Plate X( 




xi 




SUWEYOB GENERALS OfFICE. AOCLAIOE A \f,iu/fuut. PKob.lU^rafilta- 



CENSUS OF FORAMINIFERA. 349 

Many years ago small samples of material from the Lower Tertiaries 
were examined for foraminifera by the Rev. Tenison Woods, 
Messrs. Parker and Jones, and Dr. H. B. Brady, particulars of 
which will he found in the sequel. About ten years ago the 
author commenced a systematic examination of the microzoal 
Tocks of this continent, with the result that the list of kno-wn 
species of foraminifera in the fossil condition has been greatly 
increased and many interesting facts bearing upon the distribution 
of this order in relation to space and time have been collated. 

The Held of investigation in this department of research is a very 
wide one, and the methods of observation, demanded by the 
minuteness of the objects, necessarily slow and tedious. Added to 
these difficulties is the serious disadvantage of being widely 
separated from co-workers in the same departments of study and 
the inaccessibility to works of reference, which is one of the 
greatest drawbacks to original workers in these colonies. I have 
to express my grateful acknowledgments to the late Dr. H. B. 
Brady, F.R.S., Monsieur C. Schlumberger (of Paris), C. D, 
Sherborn, Esq., F.G.S., F. Chapman, Esq., and others for valuable 
assistance given in the determination of new and doubtful forms ; 
also to Professor R. Tate, F.G S., Jas. W. Jones, Esq. (Conservator 
of Water), John Dennant. Esq., F.G.S., R. Etheridge, jun., Esq. 
(Government Palajontologist, New South Wales), H. P. Woodward, 
Esq., F.G.S. (Government Geologist, Western Australia), and many 
others who have placed geological material at my disposal. 

The classification and nomenclature adopted in the present paper 
are in the main the same as those laid down by Dr. H. B. Brady, 
in his descriptions of " The Reticularian Rhizopoda of the 
Challenger Expedition," modified only in a few instances where 
later researches demand it. 

The letters in the columns indicate the relative number of 
individuals observed whilst searching the material, and have the 
following values : — V R, very rare ; R, rare ; R S, rather scarce ;' 
M C, moderately common ; C, common ; Y C, very comm.on ; X, 
indicates occurrences when the relative numbers of the species is 
■unknown. 



POST-TERTIARY. 

Material obtained from elevated sea bed bordering the coast. 
The Post-Tertiary beds at Port Adelaide are divided into two 
strongly- marked divisions — an upper bed of bluish sandy clay 
Avith shells, and a lower bed of white calcareous sand very full of 
organic remains. The foraminifera specified below were obtained 
from the upper bed exposed in the banks of creeks on the Port 
Adelaide flats. The lower bed has not yet been examined for 
foraminifera, but large numbers of Orbitolites complanata^ Lamk., 
can be easily distinguished in it by the naked eye. 



350 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION C. 

TABLE I. 

MlLIOLID.%:. 

Nubecularia lucifuga, Defr V C 

Miliolina Boueana, d'Orb R 

ciicularis, Bornem R S 

Ferussacii, d'Orb R 

labiosa, d'Orb R 

oblonga, Montag V C 

subrotunda, Montag V C 

seminulum, Linn M C 

(Tri.) insignis, Brady M C 

' ' tricarinata, d' Orb V C 

' ' trigonula, Lamk R 

Spiroloculina excavata, d'Orb R 

grata, Terq M C 

Vertebralina striata, d'Orb C 

Peneroplis pertusus, Forskal R 

planatiis, F. & M R S 

Textularidje. 

Textularia conica, d' Orb R 

Valvulina pupa, MS. Howebin R 

Virgulina paucilociilata, Brady R 

Boliviaa punctata, d' Orb M C 

textilarioides, Rss R S 

tortuosa, Br R 

Lagenid^. 

Lagena clavata, d'Orb R 

globosa, Montag R 

gracillima, Seg M C 

semistriata. Will M C 

Polymorpbina lactea, W. & J R 

RoTALIDjE. 

Discorbina globularis, d'Orb R 

rosacea, d'orb R 

turbo, d'Orb G 



CENSUS OF FORAMINIFERA. 351 

RotaliDjE — co)i tin ued. 

Discorbina, valvulata, d'Orb E. 

vesicularis, Lumk V C 

Planorbulina Mediterranensis, d'Orb R S 

Truncatulina lobatula, W. & J ; E, 

Rotalia Beccarii, Linn R S 

NuMMULINIDiE. 

Polystomella crispa, Linn Y C 

macella, F. & M R 

striato-punctata, F. & M V C 

The above list contains thirty-eight species, all of Avhich are 
more or less common in the neighboring Gulf St. Vincent at the 
present day. Some changes in local distribution are apparent in 
a few species, particularly^ those contained in the calcareous bed of 
the lower division. In the latter bed Orbitolites complanata is 
the prevailing foraminifer. This species is still living on some 
portions of the Australian coast, but has apparently become extinct 
in the adjoining waters within recent times. 



PLIOCENE. 

A bore put down by the Dry Creek Smelting Company about 
six miles north of Adelaide yielded artesian water at a depth of 
320ft. The water stratvim proved to be a white quartzose sand of 
marine origin and very fossiliferous. On the determination of 
Professor Ralph Tate the mollusca have a facies that can be most 
appropriately referred to the Pliocene — a marine formation of this 
age being vmique for Avistralia. On examination, the following 
species of foraminifera were noted : — 

TABLE IL 

MiLIOLID.E. 

Biloculina bulloides, d'Orb V R 

Miliolina Ferussacii, d'Orb R 

oblonga, Montag R 

(Tri) tricarinata, d'Orb R 

Lagenid^. 

Polymoipbina oblonga, d'Orb R 

Sagrina (?) columellaris, Brady V R 



352 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION C. 

RoTALIDiE. 

Discorbina vesiciilaris, Lamk R S 

turbo, d'Orb R 

Rotalia Beccarii, Linn V C 

NUMMULINID.T-:. 

Polystomella crispa, Linn Y C 

Only ten species have been recorded at this horizon. The 
material is of a characternot particularly favorable for the presence 
of foraminifera. Rotalia Beccarii and Polystomella crispa are the 
prevailing forms, both of which are characteristic of shallow water 
conditions. 

MIOCENE. 

LOCALITIES. 

No. 1. — From material collected by Professor Tate from the 
Murray Cliffs, near the North-West Bend Station. It is a fine sand 
Avith a small proportion of argillaceous matter Avith it. Forami- 
nifera scarce. 

No. 2. — A fine reddish sand (similar to No. 1) gathered from 
beds exposed when cutting foundations for new engine-sheds near 
the west end of Torrens Lake, Adelaide. The foraminifera are 
somewhat sparingly distributed through the bed, but as there is 
little or no infiltration of mineral matter in the chambers they can 
be easily separated from the material by water. 

No. 3. — The upper bed of the Muddy Creek section, near 
Hamilton, Western Victoria. Material supplied by Mr. J. 
Dennant. 

TABLE in. 



Genera and Species. 


1 

N.W. 
Bend. 


2 3 

Adelaide. ^^^^^l 


MiLIOLIDJE. 

Nubecularia lucif uga, Defr 


-_ 


1 
1 

MC — 

- ! R 




— RS 


elonerata d' Orb . 




— ' R 


rinfirens Lamk. 


— Irs 


Miliolina agglutinans, d'Orb 


— R s 


bicornis, W. & J 

insignis, Brady 


— ' y R 

R VR 



CENSUS OF rORAMINIFERA. 
Table III. — continued. 



353 



Genera and Species. 




Mii.iOLiD.B — continued. 

Miliolina Linneana, d'Orb 

oblonga, Montag , 

secans, d'Orb 

seminiilum, Linn 

(Tri) tricarinata d'Orb 

" trigonula, Lamk 

Spiroloculina grata, Terq 

liiubata, d'Orb 

Hauerina intermedia, Howchin 

Vertebralina iusignis, Brady 

Fabularia Howchini, Scblumb 

Sigmoilina sigmoidea, Bradj- (sp.) 

LiTUOLID.E. 

Lituola nautiloidea, Lamk 

Placopsilina cenomana, d'Orb 

Textulakid.^. 

Textularia agglutinans, d' Orb 

var. porrecta, Brady 

sagittula, Def 

Verneuilina pygmsea, Egger 

triquetra, Miinst 

Clavulina angularis, d'Orb 

communis, d'Orb 

Bulimina elegantissima, d' Orb 

Cassidulina subglobosa, Brady 

LAGENIDiE. 

Lagena lineata, "Will 

melo, d' Orb 

sulcata, W. & J , , 

Nodosaria (Gland.) oequalis, Rss 

consobrina, d'Orb 

filiformis, d'Orb 

(Gland.) laevigata, d'Orb 

pauperata, d'Orb 

rapbanus, Linne 

Frondicularia complanata, Def 

Rhabdogonium exsculptum, Howcbin .... 

Polymorphina augusta, Egger 

communis, d'Orb 

compressa, d'Orb 

elegantissima, P. & J 

ta, Howcbin, M.S. .. 



VR 



VR 



RS 

C 
RS 
VC 

R 

RS 
VR 
RS 
MC 

R 

R 

R 



VR 
VR 



RS 

C 
VR 

R 
VR 
VR 
VR 
VR 



— 


VR 





VR 


_ 


R 





VR 


VR 




_ 


VR 


— 


R 





R 


— 


VR 





R 


MC 





MC 


RS 




MC 


MC 


C 


VC 


— 



354 



PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION C. 
Tohle III. ~ continued. 



Genera and Species. 


1 

N.W. 

Bend. 


LagenidyE — continued. 
Polvmorphina eibba d' Orb 




lactea W&J '■■ .. 


_ 


oblonea, d'Orb 


_ 


i-otundata, Born 


- 



R S 
ES 



probJema, d'Orb. 
Uvigerina pygmsea, d'Orb 

Globigerinid^. 
Grlobigerina bulloides, d'Orb. . . 
Orbulina universa, d' Orb .... 



EOTALID^. 

Spirillina tuberculata, Brady 

Discorbina biconcava, P. & J 

globularis, d'Orb 

opercularis, d'Orb 

pileolus, d' Orb 

rarescens, Brady 

rosacea, d' Orb 

polystomelloides, P. & J 

tuibo, d'Orb 

Tesicularis, Lamk 

Vilardeboana, d'Orb 

Planorbulina Mediten-anensis, d'Orb 

Truncatulina ecMnata, var. laevigata, Howchin 

Haidingerii, d'Orb 

lobatula, W. & J 

reticulata, Czjzek 

Ungeriana, d' Orb 

Anomalina ammonoides, Ess '. 

Polytrema miniaceum, var. alba. Carter 

Gypsina globulus, Ess 

vesicularis, P. & J 

Pulvinulina repanda, F. & M 

Eotalia Beccarii, Linn , . , 

clatbrata, Brady 

papillosa, var. conipressiuscula, Brady 
Calcarina rarispina, d'Orb 

NUMMULINID.E. 

Nonionina depressula, W. & J. 



Polystomella, crispa, Linn. 

craticulata, F. & M. . . . 

macella, F. & M 

imperatrix, Brady 

striato-punctata, F. & M. 

subnodosa, Munster . . . . . 
Amphistegina, Lessonii 



M 
E 



K S 

ES 

E 



MC 



E S 
VC 



E S 
E S 



CENSUS OF FORAMINIFERA. 355 

The Miocenes of South Australia are not particularly rich in 
foraminifera. They are, for the most part, either closely com- 
pacted ()3'ster beds or fine variegated sands that are sparsely 
fossiliferous. In the Muddy Creek section, however, there is a 
rich a'^semblage of forms. Altogether there are eighty-nine species 
recorded from these localities, including one new species from the 
Adelaide beds and several from the Muddy Creek upper bed, some 
of which are of great interest. 

[In the course of discussion at the close of the reading of the 
present paper, in Section C, Mr. Dennant remarked he has since 
discovered that the material supplied by him (and from which the 
determinations have been made) had inadvertently got mixed with 
material from the lower bed (Eocene). In consequence of this 
fact the above list may require some revision. I had suspected the 
presence of foreign forms, and rejected a few as " derived " when 
searching the material. — W. H.] 



EOCENE. 

LOCALITIES. 

1. Muddy Creek, No. ]. — The occurrences noted in No. 1 
column have been taken from a short list of species published 
by the late Rev. Julian E. T. Woods " On Some Tertiary Deposits 
in the Colony of Victoria (Muddy Creek)." (See Quar. Jour. 
Geo. Soc, 1865, vol. xxi., p. 391.) In this article the author 
states : — " The foraminifera are large and numerous ; indeed one 
species ( Amphistegina vulgaris, d'Orb.) is so common that the 
clay is principally composed of it. Its large lenticular form can 
be traced in almost every pinch of the debris, and what makes the 
individuals more conspicuous is that they have all received the 
ferruginous glaze, which makes them look like little coins. From 
their numbers the strata may in truth be called an AmphisUgina 
bed, similar to that in Vienna, and probably of the same age." 
Mr. Woods is evidently mistaken in his determination of Amphis- 
tegina as the leading feature of the foraminiferal fauna at Muddy 
Creek. Amphistegina exists in the Muddy Creei^ material, but is 
not nearly so large or numeroxis as another species, viz., Nummu- 
lites variolaria, which answers in all respects to Mr. Woods's 
descriptions, and is evidently the form intended. It is, therefore, 
really a Nummulitic rather than an Amphistegvne bed. I have 
taken the liberty of making this correction in Mr. Woods's list. 

2. Muddy Creek, No. 2. — This lis" of 164 species was deter- 
mined by the present author fi'om the very rich material gathered 
by Mr. Uennant. A goodly number of the species in this list are 
more or less rare, and were compiled as the result of a careful 
microscopic examination of the material extending over a period 
of two years. For further particulars see " The Foraminifera of 
the Older Tertiary of Australia (No. 1, Muddy Creek, Victoria)," 



356 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION C. 

Trans, lioy. Soc. S.A., 1889, vol. xii., p. 1. A few alterations 
in the nomenclature have been made in the list as now published, 
to bring it up to date, and also includes two additional species 
— Trillina Hoivchini, Sch. — through the industry of Mons. 
Schlumberger, of Paris, who discovered this new species in a 
sample of the material sent him,* and Fabularia Howchijii, Sch., 
descrijitions of which will be found in Trans. Hoy. Soc, S.A., vol. 
XIV., p. 346. PL XIIL, Figs. 5-8. 

3. In January, 1885, Mr. H. Watts, of Melbourne, sent me a 
few slides of mounted foraminifera for identification, selected by 
himself from the Lower Tertiary beds of Waurn Ponds, near 
Geelong. Column 3 in the subjoined table gives the results of the 
determination. For a note on the occurrence of Astrorhiza angulosa, 
Br., in this series, see Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., 1885, vol. viTi.,p. 160. 

4. For the species indicated in the fourth column I am indebted 
to Mr. R. M. Johnstone, F.L.S., who published a list of the fora- 
minifera of the Eocene beds of Table Cape, Tasmania, in his 
"Observations with respect to the Nature and Classification of 
the Rocks of Australia," and the same has been reproduced in his 
work on "The Geology of Tasmania." In addition to the species 
indicated in the column below, Mr. Johnstone has noted the 
presence of the following genera, of which he was unable to 
determine the specific relationships, viz., Biloculijia, Miliolina, 
Cassidulina, Polymoijyhina, OrhuUna, Nonionina, and Nummulites. 

5. The Mount Gambier determinations in column 5 were made 
by Messrs. W. K. Parker and T. Rupert Jones, F.G.S. (See 
" Foraminifera from the Bryozoan Limestone near Mount Gambier, 
South Australia," Quar. Jour. Geol. Soc, 1860, vol. xvi., p. 261.) 

6. In a letter to the "Geological Magazine," 1876, p. 324, Mr, 
R. Etheridge, jun., includes a list of foraminifera determined by 
the late Dr. H. B. Brady, F.R.S., from material secured "in 
sinking a Government well in the Murray River flats, on the road 
from the Burra Burra mines to the great bend on the Murray River, 
about half-way (thirty miles) between the two points named." In 
this letter the beds are erroneously said to be of Post-Tertiary age. 
Dr. Brady's list is given in column 6. 

7. The material which supplied the forms indicated in this 
column was obtained from the Government bore put down in the 
waterworks yard, Kent Town, Adelaide, in 1881. The lithological 
characteristics of these beds differ considerably from those known 
on the eastern side of the Mount Lofty Ranges, consisting of brown 
and greenish argillaceous sands, and are underlain by a series of 
freshwater beds. Fuller notes on the foraminifera of this section 
will be found in an article on " The Foraminifera of the Older 
Tertiary of Australia (No. 2), Kent Town Bore, Adelaide," Trans. 
Roy. Soc. S.A., 1891, vol. xiv., p. 350. 

* " Note sur les Genres Trillina et Lindcrina." Bulletin de la Societc^ Geologique de 
France, 3 sevie, tome xxi., p. 118, annoe, 1.893. 



CKNSUS OF FORAMINIFERA. 
TABLE IV. 



357 



Genera and Species. 


1 

1 


2 

1 

t 


3- 

s 


4 

i. 
S 

1 


1 ^ 

^ 15. 
1 1 I 

1 s 

s j s 


7 

1 


M1LI0LID.E. 
Biloculina oepressa cl'Orb , 


X 
X 

I 

11 


RS 

R 

RS 
RS 
VC 

R 

RS 
MC 
RS 
MC 
MC 
MC 

R 
MC 




i 1 




elonsata d'Orb 








ringens, Lamk 

Miliolina a^o'lutinans d'Orb 


R 


Brongniartii, d'Orb 

Cuvieriana, d'Orb 


— 


- '- 


- 




— _ RS 




— X 





oblonga, Montag 

prisca, Terq 


_ i _ 


RS 


pygmcea, Ess 

scrobieiilata, Brady 

seminulum, Linn 

secans, d'Orb . 




— 


- 


_ 

X 
X 
X 

X 

X 

X 
X 

X 
X 


RS 


subrotunda, Mont 

(Triloc) tricarinata, d'Orb 

trigonula, Lamk 

undosa, Ear 

valvularis, Rss 


Rsi — 

Rs: - 

C 1 - 
VRi — 
MC 


R 


Trillina, Howchini, ScMumb 

Spiroloculina asperula Kar , 


RS 
R 

us 

RS 
R 

RS 
RS 

R 

R 

R 

R 
MC 
MC 

R 


X 
X 

X 


- 


affixa, 'I'erq 

canaliculata, d'Orb 

grata, Terq 

Ci-rnuspira crassisepta, Brady 

foUacea, Phil 


R S 


Hauerina compressa, d'Orb 




Orbitolites complanata, Lamk 

Vertebralina insignis, Brady 

Articulina sagra, d'Orb 

sulcata, Rss 

Sigmoilina sigmoidea, Brady, sp 

Tateana, Howchin, sp 

Planispirina exigua, Brady 

contraria, d'Orb. .... 

ASTRORHIZID.E. 
Astrorhiza angulosa, Brady 


- 



358 



PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION C, 

Table IV. — continued. 



Genera and Species. 



LiTUOLID.B. 

hax fusiformis, Will 

scorpim-us, Mont 

Haplophragmiiim agglutinans, d'Orb. . . 

pseudospu-ale, "Will 

spbeeroi'liniformis, Br., MS. 
Bdelloidina aggregata, Carter 

Textulakid^. 

Textularia aspera, Brady 

aggUitinans, d'Orb 

var.porrecta, Br. 

carinata, d'Orb 

gibbosa, d'Orb 

gramen, d'Orb 

pygmaea 

rugosa, Ess 

sagittula, Def 

var. fistulosa, Brady 

Pavonina flabelliformis, d'Orb 

VemeuiUna polystropba, Rss 

tricarinata, d'Orb 

triquetra, Munst 

Gaudryina nigosa, d'Orb 

Clavulina angularis, d'Orb 

communis, d'Orb 

Bulimina elegantissima, d'Orb 

obtusa, d'Orb 

pupoides, d'Orb 

pyrula, d'Orb 

Bolivina dilatata, Rss 

limbata, Brady 

punctata, d'Orb 

Cassidnlina laevigata, d'Orb 

crassa, d'Orb. (oblonga, Rss.) 

subglobosa, Brady 

Ehrenbergina serrata, Rss 

LAGENIDiE. 

Lagena globosa, Mont 

hexagona, Will 

Itevis, Mont 

lineata, Will 



RS 

R 
VR 
RS 

C 

R 



C 
RS 
RS 
VR 
MC 
RS 

R 
V C 

R 
VR 

R 

R 


RS 
VR 
VR 
VR 
VR 



MC 
R 



R 
R 
RS 



H 
VR 



VR 



- I X 



MC 



- i R 



RS 
MC 



X MC 



— RS 



i R 



CENSUS OF FORAMIXIFERA. 



359 



Table I]". — continued. 



Genera and Species. 


1 


2 

1 
■a 
1 


3 

g 


4 


5 

i 
o 
g 


6 

1 


7 

1 
< 


Lagenid.e — continued. 
Lagena marginata, W. and B 


X 


R 

R 

R 
VR 

R 
RS 

R 

R 
VR 
RS 
RS 

R 

VR 
RS 
R 

VR 
RS 
VR 

R 

R 

R 

RS 
MC 

C 
MC 

R 
VR 
VR 

R 

RS 
RS 

VR 

VC 
RS 
R 

RS 
VC 


X 




MC 
C 




R 
R 


sulcata, W.& J 

Nodosaria affinis, d'Orb. 


R 


costuiata, Kss 






-^^ 


multilineata, Borne 

obliqua, Linne 


X 


R 






raphanus, Linne 

scalaris, Batsch 

soluta, Rss 


R 
RS 


veiTuculosa, Neugel 

Lingulina carinata, var. seminuda, Batsch 

Marginulina costata, Batsch 

Frondicularia complanata, Def 

Vaginulina leguraen, Linne 

linearis, Mont 

Cristellaria articulata. Ess 

convergens, Borne 

cultrata, Mont 


VR 
R 
R 






Polymorphina communis, d'Orh 

dispar, Stache 

elegantissima, P. & J 

gibba, d'Orb 


R 

MC 
C 


lactea, W. & J _. . 

var. oblonga, Will, 
oblonga, d'Orb 


R 


regina, Br., P. & J 

Uvigerina Oanariensis, d'Orb 

angulosa. Will 

Sagrina limbata, Brady 

Globigerinid^. 


R 

RS 


var. triloba, Rss. 
helicina, d' Orb 


: — 


inflata, d'Orb 






■- 




1 



360 



PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION C. 
Tahh IV. — continuerl. 



Genera and Species. 


1 

! 

1 


2 

1 


3 

1 


4 

1 


5 

! 

a 
1 


6 

1 

g 
3 


7 

1 


GLOBiGERiNiDiE — Continued. 

Pullenia quinqueloba, Ess 

sphoeroides, d'Orb 

Sphoeroidina bulloides, d'Orb 

EoTALIDiE. 

Spirillina decorata, Brady 

insequalis, Brady 

limbata, Brady 

tuberculata, Brady 

Discorbina araucana, d'Orb." 

Bertheloti, d'Orb 

biconcava, P. & J 

cruciformis, Howchin .... 

globularis, d'Orb 

orbicularis, Terq 

patelliformis, Brady 

polystomelloides, P. &. J 

rosacea, d'Orb 


X 

— . 


MC 

E 
ES 

R 
ES 

E 

E 

S 
MC 
ES 

E 

ES 
VE 
ES 

E 

ES 
VE 
MC 

E 

ES 
MC 
ES 
ES 

MC 



E 
M C 

E 

E 
MC 
MC 

C 

E 

c 

E 

ES 


- 




X 

r 

X 




MC 

— 

MC 

MC 

vc 

E 


X 

_ 

X 
X 

X 


E 
E 

MC 

MC 

R 
E 


(?) tabernacularis, Brady .... 


- 


Planorbulina acervalis, Brady 

larvata, P. .V J 

Mediterranensis, d'Orb. . . 

Truncatuiina echinata, Brady 

var. laevigata, Howchin 
Haidingerii, d'Orb. .... 

lobatula, W. & J 

margaritifeia, var. Ade- 
laidensis, Howchin 

reticulata, Czjzek 

Ungeriana, d'Orb 

Viiriabtlis, d'Orb 

Anomalina ammonoides. Ess 

polyniorpha, Costa 

rotula, d'Orb 


?VE 

ES 
MC 

C 
E 


Carpenteria proteiformis, Goes 

Polytrema miniaceurn, var. alba, Carter 
Gypsina globulus. Ess 


— 


inherens, Schultze 




vesicularis, P. & J 

Pulvinulina auricula, F. &M 

Berthelotiana, d'Orb 

elegans d Orb 










CENSUS OF FORAMINIFERA. 

Ttible 77'.— coDtinued. 



361 



Genera and Species. 


1 
o 


2 

1 


g 
1 


4 

t 

6 


5 

1 
o 

■1 


6 


7 

< 


^OTXLiT).-^— continued. 




R 


X 
X 


z 


- 


- 
- 

— 

X 

X 
X 


R 


oblonga, "Will 

Pataeonica, d'Orb 


- R 

- ! R 

- , RS 
X 1 c 




Partschiana, d' Orb 


— 


repanda, F. & M 

Schreibersii, d'Orb._ 

semiornata, How chin 




vc 

RS 
RS 

R 

MC 

R 
R 

R 

RS 
RS 

R 
YC 

R 
MC 
RS 

C 

C 
VC 

C 
VC 


R 


calcar d'Orb 





clathrata, Brady 

orbicularis, d'Orb 


- 


papillosa, Brady 

var. compressiuscula, Brady 
Soldanii d'Orb. 


- 


Zi Z 


R 


NUMMULINJDJE. 

Nonionina depressula,W. & J 

stelligera, d'Orb 


- 


- 


- 




iimbilicatula, Mont 

Polystomella craticulata, F. & M 

macella, F. & M 

Terriculata, Brady 

Amphistegina Lessonii, d'Orb 


- 


Mantelli, Morton 

stellata, d'Arch 


X 

X* 


— 


Operculina complanata, Def 

var. granulosa, Leymerie 
Nummulites variolaria, Sow 





The Lower Tertiaries, which have yielded such a profusion of 
moUusca under the zealous researches of Professor Ralph Tate, 
have proved relatively quite as rich in their foramini feral fauna. 
Of the 187 species in the above Table, no less than 164 species are 
recorded from the extremely rich beds of Muddy Creek. It is 
somewhat remarkable that a considerable number of the new 
species of the Challenger expedition are found fossil in the 
Lower Tertiaries of Avistralia. So far as the foraminifera can be 
taken as indicative of bathymetrical and climatic conditions in 

* See obseivanons under MiicUly Cieek, No. 1. 



362 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION C. 

geological times, the present Tables point to a gradual elevation of 
the sea-bottom in southern Australia, dating from Eocene times, 
and coincidently with this shallowing of the sea there was 
apparently a slow lowering of temperature. Taking the Muddy 
Creek formations for analysis in these particulars, we find the lower 
bed (Eocene) contains 49 per cent, of shallow water species, and 
28 per cent, of those which have a moderately deep, to deep, habitat, 
whilst in the upper bed (Miocene) the shallow water species reach 
58 per cent., and the moderately deep, to deep, forms are reduced 
to 16 per cent. — a decided change in the fauna in the direction of 
shallowing conditions. Again, by comparing the lists with regard 
to climatic distribution, the Eocene beds contain 26 per cent, 
characteristic of tropical and 33 per cent, of warmer temperate 
zones, whilst in the Miocene beds the tropical forms are reduced to 
1 8 per cent., and the warmer temperate increased to 35 per cent. 
In the later Pliocenes and Post-Tertiaries the same tendencies are 
not only conthiued but accentuated. It is interesting, as bearing 
upon this subject, to observe that the author has found several sub- 
arctic species living in the Port Creek.* 



CRETACEOUS. 
The Cretaceous beds of central Australia have yielded in 
A^arious places a remarkable supply of artesian water. For the 
purpose of tapping these subterranean supplies many bores have 
been sunk, and it has been chiefly from the cores of the diamond 
drill thus used that the following species of foraminifera have 
been obtained. 

LOCALITIES. 

1. Hergott, No. 1 Bore. — The results given in this column 
were obtained from the examination of material at nine different 
horizons, ranging from 15ft. from the surface down to 309ft., at 
which depth the bed-rock was touched. For fuller particulars of 
this bore, see Uoy. Soc. Trans., S. Aus., vol. viii., 1885, p. 79. 

2. Hergott, No. 2 Bore. — This bore was put down about 150 
yards from the preceding. A very complete series of samples at 
regular distances of 10ft. have been placed at my disposal by 
Mr. Jones, the Conservator of Water, and, so far as searched, 
have yielded the forms now indicated. My examination of the 
core is incomplete. The occurrences noted were observed at the 
following depths from the surface in feet, viz., 50ft., 100ft., I20ft., 
130ft., 140ft., 150ft., and 210ft. 

3. Tarkaninna Bore. — This bore is situated on The Clayton, 
about thirty miles north-east of Hergott. Twenty samples of 
material were examined, ranging in depth from near the surface 
down to 1,226ft. The quantities available for examination were, 

*"The Estiiarine Foraminifera of the Port Adelaide River "—Trans. Roy. Soo. S.A., 
vol. XIII., 1890, p. 161. 



CENSUS OF FORAIMINIFF.RA. 



863 



in most instances, very limited. Had the material at command 
been greater no doubt a much longer list of foraminifera would 
have been obtained. Ref. Roy. Soc. Trans. S.A., vol. xvii., 1893, 
p. 346. 

4. Mirrabuckinna Bore is situated about twenty miles north of 
the head of Lake Torrens, and forty-three miles in a straight line 
south-west of Hergott. Six samples were examined, included 
within the geological horizons of 40ft. and 153ft. The foraminifera 
noted in the Table below were limited in their occurrence to the 
first 50ft. of the section. Below this level the beds proved to be 
gypseous and unfossiliferous. Ref. Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., vol. 
XVII., 1893, p. 346. 

5. Williavi Creek is situated on the Northern railway, about 
125 miles north-west of Hergott. The few foraminifera mentioned 
in No. 5 column were observed in searching a very small supply of 
material taken from the heap at mouth of bore that was put down 
in this locality. 

6. Wilcannia. — I am indebted to Mr. Dombraine for a small 
sample from the Wilcannia bore, which on searching yielded 
a few fragments of Bigenerina nodosaria, one of the most 
characteristic of the Australian Cretaceous foraminifera. 

7. Wollumbilla, Queensland — From gatherings made by the 
late Rev. W. B. Clarke, F.G.S., and published in " Australian 
Mesozoic Geology and Palaeontology," by Mr. Charles Moore, 
F.G.S., Qy. Jour. Geo. Soc, 1870, xxvi.. p. 239; also " Geology 
and Palaeontology of Queensland," by Mr. R. L. Jack, F.G.S., 
and Mr. R. Etheridge, jun., p. 435. Mr. Moore floe, cit., p. 231) 
gives the occurrence of Cristellaria cultrata, Mont., in the 
Mesozoic rocks of Western Australia, but without locality. 



TABLE V. 



Genera and Species. 


1 
He 


2 

rgott. 


3 

1 

1 

? 
R 


4 

i 
1 

c 

c 


5 


6 


7 

it 




li 

R 
R 

"c 

R 


RS 
VR 

C 

R 


li 


AsTEORHIZID.li. 

Hyperammiiia vagans, Brady 

LlTUOI.ID.^. 

Reophax ampiillacea, Brady 

difflugiformis, Brady 

fusiformis, "Will 

scorpiurus, Moutf 






364 



PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION C. 

I'ahie V. — continued. 



Genera and Species. 



LiTUOLiD^ — con t inued. 

Haplophragmium agglutinans, d'Orb. 

sequale, Romer .... 

^lomeratum, Brady 

Cauariense, d'Orb. . . 

Australis, Howchin, MS. 

Placopsilina cenomana, d'Orb 

'J hurammina compressa, Brady 

Amniodiscus incertus, d'Orb 

Sigmoilina celata, Costa, sp. . . = 

Textulakid^. 



Bigenerina digitata, d'Orb. . . . 

nodosaria, d'()rb. . 
Verneuilina polystropha, Kss. 
Gaudryina pupoides, d'Orb. . 

scabra, Brady . . . 

siphonella, Rss. . 



Lagenid,^,. 

Lagena laevis, Montf 

Nodosaria communis, d'Orb 

larcime.j, Sold 

pauperata, d'Orb 

radicula, i^inne 

soluta, Rss 

subtertenuata, Scbwag 

Lingiilina (arinata, d'Orb 

Frondicularia complanata, Defr 

species 

Vaginulina legumen, Linn 

linearis, Mont 

striata, d'Orb 

Marginulina costata, Batsch 

glabra, d'Orb 

Cristellaria acutiauricularis, F. & M. . . 
var. longicostata, Moore. . 

cassis, F. & M 

crepidula, F. & M 

cultrata, Mont., var. radiafa, 
Moore 

gibba, d'Orb 

rotulata, Lamk 

Schloenbachi, Rss 



Hergott. 



RS 



VR 



RS 
M V, 

R 
M C 
RS 

M C 



VR 

R S 



VR 

V R 
R 

V R 
R 
R 

VR 

R 

VR 
RS 
VR 

RS 

MC 

R 



s ! ^ 



I 

•5 


6 






o 








O 




i 


^^ 










s 


■"5,' 



s-i 






C 
V R 
RS 



MC 



VR 



VR 



RS 



RS 



MC 



CENSUS OF FORAMINIFERA. 

Table !'.— conlimied. 



365 



Genera and Species. 


1 2 

Hergott. 


3 

1 

R 
R 


4 

1 


5 

1 
1 
1 


6 

15 


7 

si 




R 
VR 


il 

US 
RS 
R 

VR 
VR 
RS 
C 
RS 
V R 

VR 


11 
1^ 


Lagenid.e — continued. 

Polymorphina angusta, Egger 

lactea, W. & J 

rotimdata, Boraem 

gibba, d'Orb 


X 


ROTALID^. 

Spirillina (?) vivipara, Ehrenb 

margaritifera, Will 

Patellina Jonesii, Howchin, MS 

Discoi'bina Vilardeboana, d'Orb 

Anomalina, ammonoides, Rss 

TruTicatulina lobatula, W. & J 

Ungeriana, d' Orb 


X 
X 


(?) Ampbistegina Lessonii, d'Orb 





The marine beds of Secondary age have an immense develop - 
ment throughout the central regions of Australia. The lithological 
features of this formation are very uniform both in section and in 
area, and so far as these researches have gone the distribution of 
the foraminifera in the Australian Cretaceous sea was equally 
general and uniform. The most remarkable feature in the Table 
is the unusual proportion of foraminifera with arenaceous tests, 
there being no less than twenty species belonging to this class out 
of a total of fifty-six. 



UPPER PALEOZOIC. 

Permo- Carboniferous. 

Australian foraminiferal material of Palaeozoic age, so far as 
obtained, is of the most scanty description. Only two localities 
have hitherto yielded examples of these minute forms, and under 
cii-cumstances not the most favorable for their elucidation. The 
results, so far as can be determined at present, are contained in the 
subjoined Table. 

LOCALITIES. 

No. 1. — The few species indicated in the first column have been 
determined with some reservation from two transparent rock sections 



366 



PROCEKDINGS OF SECTION C. 



made by Mr. R. Etheridge, jvin., Government Palaeontologist 
of New South Wales, from cliippings sent by Mr. Thos. Stephens, 
F.G.S., of Hohart. Mr. Stephens obtamed the foraminiferal rock 
from an outcrop of Permo-Carboniferous limestone, on the River 
Piper, in the north-east of Tasmania. Nubecularia is the prevail- 
ing form, and occurs in the rock in very great numbers. Ref. See 
p. 344 ante. 

No. 2. — The foraminifera mentioned in the second column of the 
table, together with some other indeterminate and doubtful forms, 
v>-ere obtained by washing the clayey material out of a few small 
shells of Productus and Spirifera, kindly sent me by Mr. H. P. 
Woodward, Government Geologist of Western Australia. The 
fossils had been collected by him from the Carboniferous beds on 
the Irwin River, Western Australia. This bed would doubtless 
yield a much greater number of species if a larger quantity of 
material could be treated : — 

TABLE VI. 



Genei-a and Species. 


1 
Tasmania. 


2 

Irwin River. 


TS^ubecularia lucifuga, var. Stephens!, Howchin 

Spiroloculina (?) planulata, Lamk 

Cornuspira involvens, Reuss 


X 
X 
X 

X 


- 


" Schlumbergi, Howchin, MS 


X 


species 


X 


Frondicularia, species 


X 



This first list of the Palaeozoic foraminifera of Australia is of 
special interest as the oldest fauna of this class of organisms 
observed in the Southern Hemisphere. The facies of the Aus- 
tralian species differs widely from the foraminifera of the Carboni- 
ferous limestone of the opposite hemisphere, in which this group 
is essentially an arenaceous or sub-arenaceous one, whilst those 
observed in rocks of this age in Australia are characterised by 
])orcellaneous or hyaline tests. The Australian Palaeozoic forms 
show a closer affinity with the Permian, and more particularly with 
the Liassic faunae of the Northern Hemisphere, than they do with 
the Pala'ozoic. The Irwin River material contains several new 
species, which will be described in due course. 



CENSUS OF FORAMINIFERA. 
VII.-COMPAEATIVE TABLE. 



367 



Genera and Species. 



Fam. Miliolid.e. 

Sub-Fam. MilioUnwce. 

Nubecularia lucifuga, Defi- 

var. Stephen^!, Howchin 

Bilocuiina buUoides, d" Orb 

depressa, d'( )rb 

elongata, d'Orb 

irregularis, d'Orb 

ringens, Lamk 

Miliolina agglutinans, d'Orb 

Boueana, d'Orb 

bicornis, W. & J 

Brongniartii, d' Orb 

circularis, Bornem 

Cuvieriana, d'Orb 

Ferussacii, d'Orb 

insignis, Brady 

labiosa, d' Orb 

Linneana, d'Oi'b 

oblonga, Moatag 

prisca, Terq 

pygmsea, Rss 

scrobiculata, Brady 

secans, d'Orb 

seminulum, Linn 

subrotuuda, Montag 

(Tri) tricarinata, d'Orb 

trigonula, Lamk 

undosa, Kar 

valvularis, Ess 

Spiroloculina affixa, Terq 

asperula, Kar 

canaliciilata, d'Orb 

exeavata, d'Orb 

grata, Terq 

limbata, d'Orb 

(?) planulata, Lsmk 

Pentellina saxorum, d'Orb 

Trillina HowcHni, Scblumb 

Cornuspira crassisepta, Brady 

foliacea, PbiL 

involvens, Rss 

Schlumbergi. Howcbin, MS. 

Hauerina compressa, d'Orb 

intermedia, Howcbin 

Vertebralina insignis, Brady 



X — 
X 



X 





X 


X 


X 


X 





X 


X 


X 


X 


X 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

- I X 

- ^ 

- ! X 

- t X 






368 



PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION C. 
VII. — Corn /icnri live Table— conlinned. 



Genera and Species. 



Fam. MihioijiJ)JE—co>itiuHfid. 
Sub-Fam. MilioUnma—eontinnei. 

Vertebralina striata, cl'Orb 

Articulina sagra, d' Orb 

sulcata, Ess 

Fabularia Howchini, Schlumb 

Sigmoilina sigmoidea, Brady sp 

Tateana, Howchin sp 

celat.'i, Costa, sp 

Planispirina contraria, d'Orb 

exigua, Brady 

Sub-Fam. Orbitoliiincs. 

Peaeroplis pertusus, Forskal 

plauatas, F. & M 

OrbicuUna adiinca, F. & M 

Orbitolites complanata, Lamk 

Fam. AsTKORHiziD.E. 

Astrorbiza angulosa, Brady 

Hyperammina vjgans, Brady 

Fam. LiTUOLiD^. 

Eeophax ampuUacea, Brady 

difflugiformis, Brady 

fusiforniis, Will 

scoi-piurus, Montg 

Placopsilina cenomana, d'Orb. , 

Thurammina compressa, Brady 

Ammodiscus iucertus, d'Orb 

Haplopbragmium aggiutinans, d'Orb. .. 

aequale, Eomer 

Australis, Howchin MS. 
pseudospii-ale, Will. . . 

Canariense, d'Orb 

glomeratum, Brady . . . . 
sphffiroidiniformis, Br. 
MS. 

Lituola nautiloidea, Lamk 

BdeUoidina, aggregata, Carter 

Fam. Textularid^. 
Sub-Fam. Textuhrince. 

Textularia aggiutinans, d'Orb. . , . . 

var. porrecta, Brady 






X 


_ 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


— 


X 


— 


X 





X 


X 


X 


— 


X 


— 


X 


X 


— 





X 


— 


X 



CENSUS OF rORAMINIFERA. 
VII. — Comparative Table — continued. 



Genera and Species. 



Fam. Textularid^ — continued. 

Sub-Fam. Textularince — continued. 

Textularia aspera, Brady 

carinata, d'Orb 

conica, d'Orb 

gibbosa, d'Orb 

gramen, d'Orb 

pygmtea 

rugosa, Rss 

sagittula, Def 

var. fistulosa, Brady 

Bigenerina digitata, d'Orb 

nodosaria, d'Orb •. . . . 

Pavonina flabelliiormis d'Orb. 

Verneuilina poly stropha, Rss 

pygmoea, Egger 

tricarinata, d' Orb 

triquetra, Miinster 

Gaudryina pupoides, d'Orb 

rugosa, d'Orb. 

scabra, Brady 

sipbonella, Rss 

Valvulina pupa, Howcbin, MS 

Clavulina angularis, d'Orb 

communis, d' Orb 



Sub-Fam. Buliminince. 

Buliniina elegantissima, d'Orb. 

obtusa, d'Orb 

pupoide?, d'Orb 

pyrula, d'Orb , 

Virgulina, pauciloculata, Brady 

Bolivina dilatata, Rss 

limbata, Brady , 

punctata, d'Orb. 

textUarioides, Rss. . . , 
tortuosa, Brady . _., 



Sub-Fam. Cassidiilininm. 
Cassidulina laevigata, d'Orb. , . , 

crassa, d'Orb 

subglobosa, Brady . 
Ebrenbergina serrata, Rss... ....... 



„ ^ 



X X 
X X 



a2 



aro 



PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION C. 
VII. — Comparative Taife— continued. 



Genera and Species. 



Fam. Lagenid^tj. 

Sub-Fam. Lagenince. 

Lagena clavata, d'Orb 

globosa, Mont 

gracillima, Seg 

hexagona, Will. 

Isevis, Mont 

lineata, Will 

marginata, W. & B 

melo, d'Orb 

semistriata, Will 

squamosa, Mont 

sulcata, W. & J - 

Nodosaria affinis, d'Orb 

(Gl) Eequalis, Ess 

communis, d'Orb 

consobrina, d'Orb 

costulata, Ess 

farcimen (Sold) 

filiformis, d'Orb . . 

(Gl) laevigata, d'Orb 

multilineata, Borne 

obliqua, Linne . 

pauperata, d' Orb 

plebia, E,ss 

radicula, Linne 

raphanus, Linne 

scalaris, Batscb 

soluta, Rss 

subtertenuata, ScLwag 

verruculosa, Neugeb. 

species 

Lingulina cariaata, d'Orb 

var. seminuda, Batsch . 

Frondicularia complanata, Def 

species „ . .. ... . 

species 

Vaginulina legumen, Linne 

linearis, Mont 

striata, d'Orb 

Rhabdogonium exsculptum, Howchin . . 

Margimilina costata, Batsch 

glabra, d'Orb 

Cristellaria acutiauricularis, F. & M. . . 
var. longicostata, Moore 

articulata, Rss 

cassis, i'. & M 



- i X 
X i — 



— i X 

— ! X 



CENSUS or rORAMINlFERA. 
VII. — Comparative Table — continued. 



371 



160 
161 
162 
163 
164 
165 
166 



168 
169 
170 
171 
172 
173 
174 
175 
176 
177 
178 
179 
180 
181 
182 
183 
184 
185 
186 



187 
188 
189 
190 
191 
192 
193 
194 



195 
196 
197 
198 



Genera and Species. 



Fam. Lagenid.t2 — continued. 
Sub-Fam. Lagenuue — continued. 

Cristellaria convergens,, Borne 

crepidula, F. «& M 

cultrata, Mont. 

var radiata, Moore 

gibba, d' Orb 

rotulata, Lanik 

Schloenbachi, Ess 

tricarinella, Rss, 

Sub. Fam. PolymorphinitKe. 

Polymorphina angusta, Egger 

communis, d'Orb. 

compressa, d'Orb 

dispar, Stacbe. 

elegantissima, P. & J 

elongata, Howcbin, M.S. 

gibba, d'Orb. ,,., 

lactea, W. & J 

var. oblonga, "Will. 

oblonga, d'Orb 

ovata, d'Orb 

regina, Br. P. & J 

rotundata, Borne 

problema, d'Orb 

Uvigerina angulosa, Will . , 

Canariensis, d'Orb, , , 

pygmaja. d'Orb 

Sagrina (?) columellaris, Brady 

limbata, Brady 

Fam. Globigerinid^. 

Globigerina bulloides, d'Orb 

var. triloba, Ess . , 

helicina, d'Orb 

inilata, d'Orb. .,., 

Orbuliaa uuiversa, d' Orb 

Pullenia quinqueloba, Rss. , , . , 

spbferoides, d'Orb. , ■ . , 

Spbajroidina bulloides, d'Orb. 

Fam. RoTALiDiE. 

Spirillina decorata, Brady .,..,., 

inajqualis, Brady 

limbata, Brady , 

margaritifera. Will. , 





S 


i 


i 

1 


- 


— 




X 
X 
X 


X 
X 

X 
X 

X 


— 


— 


X 
X 
X 


X 
X 


_ 


_ 


X 


X 


— 


X 


X 
X 
X 
X 


= 


X 


X 

X 

X 

X 


- 


X 


X 
X 

X 


- 


- 


X 


X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 


- 


- 


X 


- 


- 





X 
X 
X 


— 


~~ 


— 


— 



372 



PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION C. 
VII. — Comparative raJfe— continued. 



199 
200 
201 
202 
203 
204 
205 
206 
207 
208 
209 
210 
211 
^12 
213 
214 
215 
216 
217 
218 
219 
220 
221 
222 
223 
224 
225 
226 

227 
228 
229 
230 
231 
232 
233 
234 
235 
236 
237 
238 
239 
240 
241 
242 
243 
244 



Genera and Species. 



Fam. Rotalid^ — continued. 

Spirillina tuberculata, Brady 

(?) vivipara, Ehrenb 

Patellina Jonesii, Howcliin, MS 

Discorbina Araucana, d'Orb 

Bertheloti, d'Orb 

biconcava, E. & J 

cruciformis, Howcliin 

globularis, d'Orb 

opercularis, d' Orb 

orbicularis, Terq 

patelliformis, Brady 

pileolus, d'Orb 

polystomelloides, P. & J 

rarescens, Brady 

rosacea, dOrb 

(?) tabemacularis, Brady 

turbo, d'Orb 

valvulata, d? Orb 

vesicularis, P. & J 

Vilardeboana, d'Orb 

Planorbulina acervalis, -Brady 

larvata, P.- & J 

Mediten-an*nsis, d'Orb. . . 

Truncatulina echinata, .Brady 

var. Issvigata, Howchin. 

Haidingerii, d'Orb 

lobatula, W. & J 

margaritifera, var. Ade- 
lai^iensis, Howcbin 

recti culata, Czjzek 

Ungeriana, d' Orb 

variabilis, d'Orb 

Anomalina ammonoideSi Ess 

polymorpha, Costa 

rotula, d' Orb 

Carpentaria proteiforniis. Goes 

Polytrema miniaceum, var. alba., Carter 

Gypsina globulus Ess. . 

inherens, Scbultze . . ........ 

vesicularis, P. & J 

Pulvinulina auricula, F. & M 

Berthelotiana, d'Orb 

elegans, d'Orb 

Hauerii, d' Orb . . < 

oblonga. Will. 

Patagonica d'Orb 

Partscbiana, d'Orb 



- 
X 
X 

X 



CENSUS OF FORAMINIFERA. 
VII. — ' 'omparative Table — continued. 



373 



Genera and Species. 



245 
246 
247 
248 
249 
250 
251 
252 
253 
254 
255 
256 



257 
258 
259 
260 
261 
262 
2'^3 
264 
265 
266 



267 
268 
269 
270 
271 
272 
273 



Fam. Rotalid.^ — continued. 

Pulvinulina pulchella, d' Orb 

repanda, F. & M 

Schreibersii, d'Orb 

semiornata, Howchin 

Rolalia Beccarii, Linn 

caicar, d'Orb 

clathrata, Brady 

orbiculiris, d'Orb 

papillosa, Brady 

var. coinpressiuscula, Brady . . 

Soldanii, d'Orb 

Calcarina rarispina, d'Orb 

Fam. Nummulinid^. 

Sub. Fam. rolystomellince. 

Nonionina depressula, "W. & J 

stelligera, d' Orb 

umbilicatula, Mont 

Polystomella crispa, Linn 

craticulata, F. «& M 

macella, F. & M 

imperatrix, Brady 

striato-punctata, F. &. M. . 

subnodosa, Miinster 

vemculata, Brady 

Sub. Fam. NummuUtince. 

Amphistegina Lessonii, d'Orb 

Orbitoides dispansus, Sow 

Mantelli, Morton 

stellat:i, d'Arch 

Operculina complanata, Def 

var. granulosa, Leymerie. . 
Nummulites variolaria, Sow 



^1 


g 


'^ 




g 








X 




— 


— 


X 


X 
X 


— 


X 


X 


X 


X 

X 
X 
X 
X 


— 


~ 


- 


X 


- 


— 


— 


X 


X 
X 
X 


— 


— 


- 


X 


— 


— 


— 


X 


X 
X 


— 


X 


X 


X 


X 


— 







X 


X 





X 


— 


X 
X 
X 
X 


X 


— 


X 


— 


X 


— 


- 


- 


X 


X 
X 
X 
X 


- 


- 


- 


~ 


X 
X 
X 


~ 



I ^1 



-o-^Ji-o- 



374 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION C. 

r—NOTE ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE GRAPTO- 

LITID^ IN THE ROCKS OF CASTLEMAINE. 

By T. S. HALL, M.A. 

The view formerly expressed by many authors who have dealt 
with the Lower Silurian rocks in Victoria, that it was not pos- 
sible to sub-divide the series either on lithological or on pala^onto- 
logical grounds, is one that appears improbable if we consider the 
great thickness that has been ascribed to the beds. It has been 
stated that the Graptolites, which almost solely constitute the fauna 
of the deposits, are all to be found throughout the series from 
base to summit. An examination of the rocks of Castlemaine, 
however, shows that this is not the case, but that certain forms are 
characteristic of some localities, while others are found elsewhere. 
At present I have many species that I am unable to determine 
specifically, so that I must withhold a detailed discussion till a 
later date. Of the identifiable fonns, however, there are some 
which range throughout the series, while others afford a ready 
means of distinguishing certain zones, and I have quite recently 
been able to determine with certainty the order of succession. 

The texture of the rocks has frequently been described, ranging 
as it does from coarse grits with grains ^in. in diameter down to 
fine slates. Slaty cleavage is well developed all over the field, and 
dips about 80° to the. westward. As in Bendigo, the anticlinal 
folds follow in rapid succession, and I have traced thirteen in 
two and a quarter miles. The strike is very constant, being about 
N. 5° W., with an average dip of about 70°. The covmtry is very 
rugged, though the hills are of no great height. 

The loAvest beds examined are well seen in Lost Gully, between 
Chewton and Fryers, the faima being apparently identical with 
that of the central area of Bendigo. This zone is characterised by 
the abundance of Tetrayraptus fru/icoms, which ranges no higher 
in the series. There are several other peculiar forms, notably 
Goniograptus Thureaui and Thamnograptus typus. Other forms 
with a wider range also occur, such as Didymoyraphis caduceus, 
which is small and rare, but which increases in numbers and in 
size as higher beds are reached. Associated with these are Tetru- 
graptus quadribrachiatus, T. bryonaides, Dichoyraptus sp., and 
Phylloyraptus typus, which have a somewhat extended range. 

These beds are seen in Wattle Gully to be overlain by a series 
showing a somewhat diff"erent fauna. Tetrayraptus fruticosus has 
disappeared, and the commonest form is Didymoyraptus bifdm. I 
have found two other outcrops of this zone on ditt'erent anticlines to 
the west, but cannot as yet directly connect it with the fossi- 
liferous beds above it, as a considerable thickness of sandstones 
and unfossiliferous slates, extending over several anticlines, 
intervenes. 



DISTRIBUTION OF GRAPTOLITID^. 375 

The next clearly-marked zone above these is well shown at the 
head of Victoria Gully, and is characterised by the great abundance 
of Didymograjitus caduceus and Phyllograptus typus. This is seen 
to be overlain by a set of beds containing D. caduceus in still 
greater relative abundance, but without Phylloyraptus. These two 
zones occur repeatedly over the field, both east and west of Wattle 
Gully, and are readily distinguished, as Phylloyraptus if present is 
quickly found, as, owing to the broad extent of its surface, it is 
easily displayed, even in badly cleaved beds. 

Loyanoyraptus Loyani occurs somewhere near this last zone, but 
I have onlv a single fragment from a " mullock -heap " in a dis- 
.turbed locality. Professor M'Coy says it is abundant at one 
locality here, but I am afraid the spot is built over, and I camiot, 
therefore, state definitely where it comes in. 

Taking the fauna as a whole, we have, in the highest beds I 
have examined, what is apparently a 2Ionoyraptus, represented at 
present by only a single specimen, and related closely to M. Nils- 
som\ the sole difference apparently being the much smaller number 
of hydrothecse. Didymoyraptiis is represented altogether by 
about six species, D. caduceus being taken as a true species. 
Tetrayraptus has three species, two (T. quadribrachiatus and 
T. bryonoidesj ranging throvighout, and the latter attaining a larger 
size in the uppermost beds. The third species, T. jruticosus, is 
confined to the lowest rocks. Dichoyraptus has two species, I 
think — D. octohrachiatus and D. octonarms. Gonioyraptus is repre- 
sented bv two species, G. Thureaui being confined to the lowest 
one, while the other species has a more extended range. Temno- 
yraptus has one species at any rate, though, perhaps, some of the 
fragments I have may be distinct. It ranges widely. Two species 
of Diployraptus occur, D. mticronatus being very common in the 
highest zone. Pliylloyraptus is represented by perhaps two 
species, but more specimens of the doubtful form are required. 
hendroyraptus is fairly common, and I do not know hoAV many 
species may be claimed. D. diver yens is one, while another closely 
resembles D. fiexilis. Thamnoyraptus typus occurs in the lowest 
zone. 

The only other fossils found comprise a single spicule of a 
silicious sponge and Linyulocaris M' Coyi (Eth. Jim.), which is 
abundant throughout. Other species of allied crustaceans occur, 
but are always very obscure. 

It is interesting to note that the line of strike of the lowest 
zone passes through what was the richest reefing country in the 
field. Mr. E. J. Dunn states that the central area of Bendigo is 
occupied by the lowest rocks exjjosed, and that where the beds 
crop out most gold is obtained. 



376 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION C. 

6.— THE GLACIAL DEPOSITS OF THE BACCHUS 
MARSH DISTRICT. 

Btj GEO. SWEET, F.G.S., and GHAS. 0. BRITTLEBAXK. 
Plates XII. and XIII. 

The great and general interest that associates around all ancient 
as well as modern glacial phenomena, and the recent publication of 
certain articles referring to the above locality which, if they have 
not already misled students of such phenomena, have created diffi- 
culties where none existed, and increased the labor of more cautious 
observers, and which, it is thought, call for important and speedy _ 
modifications, are our reasons for contributing the present paper to 
to this Association. 

The district of Bacchus Marsh has, since it was first visited 
and described by Mr. (afterwards Sii-) Richard Daintree, possessed 
great interest to geologists. Several gentlemen — including the 
early officers of the Geological Department, Mr. R. Daintree, 
Mr. (afterwards Sir) A. R. C. Selwyn, the late S. C. Wilkinson, 
F.G.S., and others, and of the later officers, R. A. F. Murray, 
F.G.S., E. J. Dunn, and lastly, Messrs. G. Officer and L. Balfour 
— have written of various parts or features of the district. Of 
all the early geologists that mentioned this deposit, none found 
striated stones*' till the later officers of the department observed 
tkem in the conglomerates near Darley and Bacchus Marsh, and 
no writers appear to have recognised the close relationship of the 
sandstone with the conglomerates, or the great development of both. 

But the residence in the northern part of this area for the past 
five years — that known as the Pentland Hills, lying between Bacchus 
Marsh and the Dividing Ranges — of one of the writers of this 
paper, Mr. C. C. Brittlebank, has caused this part of the district to 
receive more particular attention than it had before claimed. He 
had observed flattened, polished, and striated stones in several parts 
of the surface beyond the area of the conglomerates, where they 
had been found previously, and many hundred feet above them, so 
that, anticipating the excursion of the Field Naturalists' Club of 
Victoria to the Werribee Gorge, which is formed through these 
rocks, in October, 1891, he requested that a geologist should be 
included in the visiting party. Mr. A. J. Campbell, the leader for 
the occasion, requested the other writer of this jjaper to go, and he 
consented, when both writers met in the field. We had not been 
there long before the whole party were brought up by the obser- 
vance of the first flattened and striated pebble seen on that 
occasion, of the kind which has since been fouud in such abundance. 
We then commenced and have since continued working together, 
with the intention of making the results of our investigations known 
at as early a date as possible, and as much was hinted by the leader 

»See R. A. F. Murray's Geology, p. 87. 




yylaSSMiiiiii^ 



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GLACIAL DEPOSITS OF BACCHUS MARSH. 377 

of the excursion above referred to in liis report to the Field Natura- 
lists' Club.* We soon found, however, that the subject and the 
locality were such that they could not be fairly dealt with in a 
hurry, and we concluded it was better to delay publication than 
give utterance before we had quite digested all the more salient 
facts. However, we communicated to such fellow-workers as 
we came in contact with the results of our work ; for instance, to 
Professor K. Tate, in January, 1892, and one of us exhibited 
several of the striated pebbles at the Field Naturalists' meeting 
in the same month. f 

Shortly after this, on February 5th, 1892, we traced the junction 
of the dejiosit with the Siku'ian rocks, and photographed the site 
of the first smoothed and scratched rocks discovered. We con- 
tinued to investigate the subject as opportunity offered, and had 
concluded that the evidence before us confirmed the general 
correctness of the opinions of the early geologists concerning the 
lower conglomerates, for we had obtained in abundance the striated 
pebbles they failed to find ; and we had extended the area over 
which they were foimd very far beyond the locality of the conglo- 
merates referred to by them, and into other rocks, Adz., the mudstones 
and sandstones lying to the north-west of those described by Mr. 
Dunn and others. 

In the following June of that year Messrs. Graham Officer, B.Sc, 
and Lewis Balfour visited the locality for the first time, and on 
several occasions were conducted over various parts of the area, 
and shown the chief points of interest then known to us, by one of 
the present writers, and on July of the same year they read a paper 
before the Royal Society of Victoria, entitled " A Preliminary 
Accoimt of the Glacial Deposits of Bacchus Marsh." As this paper 
treated of a work on which we had been for some nine months 
previovisiy engaged, and as one of us (Mr. C. C. Brittlebank) had 
conducted one or more of these writers to many of our first dis- 
coveries, and as, further, their conclusions differed so utterly from 
ours, we still further delayed publication, and reviewed our work, 
seeking still further evidence, with the result that the further 
evidence but confirmed our previous conclusions. 

Following this a second ])aper was read in June, 1893, retracting 
some and very much modifying other contentions of the first pajjer, 
but without giving the evidence on which the retraction was made, 
and still embodying some of the errors of the first. We have 
therefore concluded to adhere to our first intention, and give the 
facts as observed by us. 

The rocks of which this paper treats have now been traced from 
a little south of the Ballarat railway line to the Lerderderg Ranges 
and Mount Blackwood in the north, and from Bacchus Marsh in 
the south-east to near Ballan in the north-west. Leaving Mel- 
bourne, the first point at which these rocks have been observed to 

•Vict. Nat., vol. viii., p. 100. + Vict. Nat. vol. viii., p. 132. 



378 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION C. 

occur is about thirty miles west — slightly north of a direct west 
line — extending from east to west thirteen miles and from south to 
north ten miles ; they embrace a total area of 130 square miles. 
They include ( 1 ) the long known stratified "Triassic" sandstones and 
leaf beds, containing Ganganiopteris, Schizoneura, Zeugophyllites^ 
&c. ; and on the south and east (2) the conglomerates described and 
attributed to glacial causes by Mr. R. Daintree, and Sir A. R. C. 
Selwyn, 1866, and further described by Mr. E. J. Dunn, F.G.S., at 
the A.A.A.S. meeting in 1890; (3) the so-called older Tertiary 
boulder-clay or till, and the so-called moraine profoiide, the supposed 
two distinct glacial deposits of Messrs. Officer and Balfour. As 
might be expected, these rocks are not present on the surface of 
the whole of this area, but the rivers and creeks have eroded their 
course deep down into and through the upper beds and into the 
lower, in some places to a depth of over 500ft. Down these slopes 
and valleys (though it is weary work) examination of the upper, 
middle, lower, and bed rocks is practicable. The newer rocks met 
with on the higher siimmits are the newer and older basalts which 
cap several of the greater elevations, and have once nearly covered 
the whole area within the given boundaries. Underneath them we 
meet with Miocene rocks, containing Laurus Werribeensis, ike, and 
recently we have obtained a considerable variety of fruit casts in 
the ferruginous sandstones. They lie directly but unconformably 
on the Triassic sandstones of the earlier geologists, and above the 
conglomerates of Messrs. Dunn and others, the two latter of which 
in turn lie directly and unconformably on the almost vertical 
denuded, deejily grooved, smoothed and striated surfaces (the 
roches mmUonmes of Messrs. Officer and Balfoxu-) of the upturned 
edges of the Silurian rocks, the general direction of the striae on 
these surfaces being from S.W. to N.E. In a few places they rest 
on granite. 

We have referred at the beginning of this paper to the junc- 
tion of these two ; this jimction has been observed at the follow- 
ing points among many others : — Werribee Gorge, Pike's Creek, 
Lerderderg Ranges and River, Korkuperrimul Creek, junction of 
Werribee and Myrniong creeks, between Parwan Creek and 
Melbourne and Ballarat line, in cuttings on line ; and at nearly all 
the places where we have been able to remove a portion of the super- 
incumbent rock from these upturned ed2:es one or more of the 
features referred to, often all of them — the groo^-ings, striae, 
polishings,and occasional very small fractures — have been observed. 
The groovings are usually in the direction of the strike of the 
underlying rocks, and form rounded ridges from Sin. or.4in. to 
double that width and over. When, however, it rests upon granite, 
as it does at Werribee River and Myrniong Creek, at points about 
one mile above their junction, fragments of granite are sometimes 
included in the lower bed, viz., that lying directly on the granite, 
while at. other places the granite has a worn appearance. We 



GLACIAL DEPOSITS OF BACCHUS MARSH. 87^ 

have not, however, observed striae on the granite itself, but in 
places where the underlying granite has decomposed it has left 
the imprint of the polished surface and striae on the overlying 
rock, and these also have a S.W. to N.E. direction. The sam.e 
remarks apply to the imprint of the striae where the Silurian 
rock has decomposed from beneath the mudstone or drift, as has 
also been observed in many places. 

The rock immediately reposing on the Silurian and granite base 
is composed alternately of conglomerate mudstone and sandstone. 
These are repeated indefinitely, the dip varying from about 10° to 
45°, rarely more ; they begin south of the Werribee Gorge with a 
dip of 8° to S.W. and increase to 10° and 14°, and so continue to 
the main road. From here the basalt overlies the deposit, on the 
N.E. edge of which the sandstones dip 15° S.W., increasing to 35° 
and running up to 40° at the Korkuperrimul Creek, and an 
approximate average dip across the whole area would, we think, be 
about 25°. These conglomerates are composed of material chiefly 
derived from various schists and schistose rocks, granites (very 
many varieties), gneiss, quartz, jasper, porphyry, fine-grained slates, 
red, dark, pink, gray, and greenish-white quartzites, and indurated 
sandstones, some containing waterworn quartz pebbles. 

The mudstone and sandstone rocks contain a similar assortment 
of stones and conglomerates, which vary much more in size, from 
the finest mud tu large erratics, though there is generally an 
arrangement of the material which has classified it somewhat; 
hence, we have beds of varying grade, of very fine to coarse, and 
conglomerate, or one merging gradually or suddenly into the other, 
but all occasionally contain material quite out of the general pre- 
vailing assortment of any particular bed. Thus all may contain here 
and there any sort of stone of any size that is found in any of the 
beds. Even the most regularly arranged sandstones contain occa- 
sional pebbles up to several feet in diameter, and these may be 
simply waterworn, flattened and striated, facetted, or highly 
polished and flattened. This is true of the whole of these beds 
across the whole area and from top to bottom in the sections, as 
seen in the cliffs and outcrops. There is a fine section to be seen 
in the cutting near the gate-house No. 24. This appears to be false 
bedded. Some of the contained stones are 4ft. in diameter ; these 
have deflected the underlying strata ; the dip is 15° to 23° S.E. 
No porphyTy or black slate, or indeed any of the rocks such as are 
to be found close at hand, have been seen in this glacial deposit in 
any part, except in the case of some granite. South of gate No. 24 
there are patches of drift, and the joints run through the beds, 
cutting through the quartzite bovdders, which have not moved 
since these joints passed through them. Several fine sections, are 
to be seen up the flanks of the Werribee Gorge ; some appear to be 
current bedded; the general dip is to the S.W. The peculiar 
•vveathering of some beds give them at the flrst glance the appear- 



380 PROCEEDINGS OF SECTION C, 

ance of being unstratified. The sandstone about here also contains 
striated stones as well as waterworn pebbles. There is a section 
one and a half miles up the Korkuperrimul Creek, north of the Big 
Quarry, dipping 45° S.E., showing for a short distance highly 
contorted sandstone and clay bands with striated stones ; these 
latter rest on well- stratified sandstones, all 37° S.E. Two miles 
higher up the creek there is a section of sandstones and mudstone 
45° S.W. From here the dip gradually becomes less as we 
proceed up the creek, the average being 42° S.W., and the beds 
can be examined consecutively for nearly one mile higher up. 

Where the sandstones are overlaid by conglomerate the surfaces 
of these sandstones are roughened as if by currents ; some of the 
stones are half imbedded in the sandstone. The lowest beds seen 
in this section are stratified clays containing great numbers of 
striated stones ; these are overlaid by finely stratified sandstones 
and then conglomerates. Here several basaltic dykes of varying 
thickness have cut through the beds, and close to the larger dyke 
a fault occurs; the downthrow is about 95ft., and there are signs of 
slicken-sides. These faultings do not, however, affect (/reatli/ the 
estimate of position and thickness of the beds, which can be 
followed still further up the same creek for nearly half a mile, 
where the deposit on this side of the range terminates against the 
Silurian spur, near to which several Graptolite^ have been obtained 
by us. From this creek we may cross the Lerderderg Ranges, 
where outlines of the beds are again seen, and thence across the 
river of that name. 'I'he deposit is again found maintaining its 
usual characters ; on both sides of the Lerderderg River and on the 
ranges the dip is 3o° to S.W. Skirting the river at the head of 
the cultivated river flats a section of drift is seen forming a river 
cliif about 50ft. high, the upper beds of which are covered by old 
river wash. Here the lower part is stratified clay in places, through 
the whole of which great numbers of striated stones are scattered, 
some several feet in diameter, and these in some cases have deflected 
the beds. FolloAving the irrigation channel down the river, at the 
junction of the Silurian with this deposit are to be seen the grooves 
and striae common to nearly all the other localities, running from 
south to north. Another section is seen about half a mile down 
stream, on the same side, of fine sandstone and mudstone, with 
small striated and waterworn stones ; the dip is 20° to 25° S.W. 

At Goodman's Creek, a tributary of the Lerderderg River, there 
are sections of drift containing good examples of striated stones 
and many varieties of granite. Here also the beds of sandstone 
and mudstone are intercalated, dipping 25° to E.S.E., jointed as at 
the Werribee Gorge. Returning to the Lerderderg River on the 
opposite side to that already described, sections of mudstone and 
sandstone are seen dipping \b° E.S.E. Further up the stream a 
fine section is exposed, consisting of blue grey clay, stratified and 
containing numbers of stones, one 5ft. 6in. x 3ft. 6in. x 2ft. 6in. ; 



GLACIAL DEPOSITS OF BACCHUS MARSH. 881 

this section is capped by the old river bed terrace. The next section 
up the stream is one of blue-grey clay, with bands of sandstone 
about 4in. thick running through it ; the stratification is very even, 
except on the south, where a slight bulge upward is seen 

The erosion of these river valleys has been effected since the 
basaltic overflow, and therefore since the so-called Miocene leaf- 
beds — which underlie it — were deposited. They could not have 
existed as valleys at the time of the basaltic overflow, or the 
viscous mass would have flowed into them, and that being now by 
far the harder rock, the pi'esent valleys would certainly not have 
been identical with the former ones. 

South-west of Dunbar Farm, in the Myrniong Creek, and in the 
Korkuperrimul Creek from west of the large quarrj', occur deposits 
of basalt that descend to a much lower depth than usual, and 
occupy what were jjrobably ancient valleys, being over 400ft. in 
thickness ; but the creek sweeps over and around it, or erodes 
narrow courses only through it, as it forms barriers difficult to 
erode, and something of this kind would be anticipated wherever 
the present watercourses approached the ancient valleys which had 
been filled with the overflow of basalt. 

In the paper (referred to above) of Messrs. Officer and Balfour it 
is mentioned that the first section they examined was situated on 
the Ballarat-road, about three miles on the Ballavat side of Bacchus 
Marsh, and is at a height of about ToOft. above the sea, which is 
some SOOft. higher than the small quarry. They state that the 
deposit exposed consists of a matrix of clay of a quite unstratified 
appearance and of a somewhat variable consistency. It is tough 
and hard in places, while in others it is soft and less tenacious. 

This deposit had, previously to those gentlemen visiting it, been 
examined by ourselves, as also since, and we find that it is strati- 
fied and the dip is 25^^ E.S.E. Its variable consistency, described 
as being " tough in places, while in others soft and less tenacious," 
is caused by the denudation of the higher stratified rocks, which 
have decomposed, and some have fallen down on to the sides o£ 
the cutting ; so that instead of a Tertiary " till or boulder-clay 
backed up against stratified silicious sandstones — really overlying 
them " — being stamped as of glacial origin by " the unstratified 
nature of this deposit, together with the peculiar nature and want 
of arrangement of the included stones," it is rather stamped by 
these conditions as "talus." We have simply the stratified rock 
(Triassic sandstones), mudstone, and sandstone, including in its 
mass boulders of granite (one about 18in. in diameter lying on the 
road side) and very hard dark-colored quartzite, and the sorts of 
stone before mentioned, intercalated with beds of pebbly con- 
glomerate. It is the mudstone rock that is exposed here, and the 
stones are scattered somewhat, irregularly and are of various sizes 
and sorts, round and sub-angidar. The angularity of the fragment 
of sandstone described as occurring in this cutting is caused by 



382 PROCEEDI^^GS OF SECTION C. 

the jointing of a bed of sandstone which runs through the mass, 
this bed being conformable with the contiguous beds. 

An outcrop of white silicious sandstone is noted, and the opinion 
expressed that "the glacial deposit, i.e., the supposed Tertiary- 
glacial deposit, is banked up against this, really overlying it." 
This outcrop is a part of the harder beds, while that which is the 
supposed " glacial deposit backed up against it " is simply surface 
denuded rock — "talus" — as before described. They also remai'k 
as to the imstratified nature of the small cutting in the Lateral- 
road, not far from this, which is due to similar, though not iden- 
tical, causes. Mention is also made of the fact that a considerable 
amount of this material about half a mile uj) the Myrniong Creek 
frona the confluence of the Myrniong Creek and Werribee River, 
about lOOft. in thickness, similar to that described on the Ballarat- 
road, is exposed, and this, it is said. " consists of a mass of 
yellowish-white clay, quite unstratified, soft on the weathered 
surface, but harder on being penetrated." Again, it is stated 
that " on the other side, to the north of the Myrniong Creek, but 
nearer its junction with the "Werribee River, this glacial deposit 
attains a depth of about 1.50ft., and can be traced over the brow 
of the valley to the level of Mr. Brittlebank's house, 350ft. above 
the creek and about 1,100ft. above the sea. It then spreads out over 
the surface" — from Avhich they "think it evident that the valley 
now occupied by the Myrniong Creek, at this point at any rate, is a 
v^ery ancient one, and was at one time probably almost filled up by 
this Tertiary glacial conglomerate." The observations made by these 
gentlemen in reference to the position, depth, and composition of 
the first two of these deposits are approximately correct ; but the 
nfei'ence as to their having been deposited by Tertiary glaciers 
appears to us not to be borne out by the evidence, inasmuch as this 
valley would seem to have been completely eroded since the newer 
basaltic overflow ; the unstratified material referred to — that at the 
100ft. and 150ft. sections — being made up in part by slips and 
denudations from the stratified rocks, other portions having ap- 
parently been deposited by the creek as it eroded its course 
from side to side on the flanks of the valley and continued to 
deejjen its bed, the river wash referred to in turn also wearing 
away and rolling down the sides of the valle)^ 

This is proved by the fact that the stones in this unstratified and 
disarranged material are of the same character as the stratified 
beds, but that many of its contained stones are more waterworn. 

There is also a very much larger number of stones in this 
material, in proportion to the quantity exposed, than exists in the 
rocks from which it is derived, because, having lost much of the 
finer sediment in process of re-deposition, it is generally (excepting 
in cases of old land slips or creek wash) merely superficial, and 
in the case of the 100ft. section some of the included stones 
are angular fragments of the basaltic cap that overlies them. It 



GLACIAL DEPOSITS OF BACCHUS MARSH. 383 

will be seen that if this 100ft. bed had been laid down before the 
basaltic overflow b)' any cause, glacial or otherwise, it could not 
include angular fragments of the basaltic sheet that flowed over 
it subsequent to its deposition, and this it does. 

Nor have we as yet observed the basaltic overflow reposing 
directly upon this unstratified material, although Fig. I. of the 
section given by these gentlemen makes it appear so, but wherever 
seen it reposes directly either on the granite, Silurian, the old drift 
deposits — Triassic sandstones — or on the so-called Miocene leaf- 
beds, but not on this re-dei^osited material. 

And further, these basaltic fragments are found — in places — to 
increase in number as the basaltic sheet is approached, due, 
evidently, to the breaking away of the edges of the sheet, which of 
course gravitates to lower levels along the valley sides among the 
surface material. 

The general characters of the conglomerates, as understood by 
Messrs. Officer and Balfour, " much incline them to the opinion 
that they would turn out. to be, not an ' iceberg drift ' " — as the 
eminent geologists before mentioned proclaimed the conglomerates 
occurring in the S. and E. of the area mapped by us to be, and 
which we find underlie and are intercalated with the Triassic sand- 
stones — " but in reality till or boulder-clay, in fact the ground 
moraine of glaciers." 

These characters they sum up to be — First, " the unstratified 
nature of the clay matrix," but we have seen that the rocks 
throughout this area, though sometimes disturbed and contorted 
are unmistakably stratified, so that it is rare that any difficulty is 
met with in obtaining the strike and amount of dip, and that the 
only unstratified material to be found is made up of hill wash or 
talus, river wash, small slips, and denuded material reposing on 
the flanks and edges of the stratified rocks and some of the con- 
glomerates. 

Their second reason for believing this " imstratified " material 
to be due to a ground moraine is " the num