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Full text of "Report of the Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines of the Province of Ontario, 1907-1918"

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REPORT 



OF THE 



Miniver of Lands, Forests 
and Mines 

OF THE 

PROVINCE OF ONTARIO 

For the Year 

1907 



PRINTED BY ORDER OF 
THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY OF ONTARIO 




TORONTO : 
Printed and Published by L. K. CAMERON, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty 

1908. 



WARWICK BRO'S & RUTTER, Limited, Prbters 
TORONTO. 



la L. M. 



CONTENTS. 



Appendices: — . Page. 

No. 1. Statement of Officers and Clerks in the Department 2 

Crown Lands Agents and Homestead Inspectors 4 

Lands Sold and Leased and Collections 6 

Gross Revenue 7 

Receipts considered as Special Funds 8 

Gross Disbursements 9 to 39 

Expenditure on Account of various services 40 

Revenue from "Woods and Forests 41 

Patents, etc. issued 41 

Timber cut and amounts accruing for dues, etc 42 

Work done in Military Branch 44 

Letters received and mailed 44 

Locations, etc., under Free Grants Act 45 

Municipal Surveys ordered 50 

" " confirmed 51 

Crown Surveys in progress 52 

" " completed 53 

Surveyor's Report, Boundary Line between Algoma and Thunder Bay, North of 

C. P. R 55 

Base and Meridian Lines, District of Algoma 57 

Base Line from N. E. Angle of Township of Purvis to Inter- 
provincial boundary 61 

Certain Township outlines West of the Montreal River in the 

Temagami Forest Reserve in the District of Nipissing 62 

Larder Lake and the W. and N. boundaries of the Township 

of Hearst, District of Nipissing 66 

Base and Meridian Lines in the vicinity of Larder Lake, 

District of Nipissing 68 

Grand Trunk Pacific Blocks 8, 9 & 10, District of Rainy River 71 
Grfind Trunk Pacific Blocks, Nos. 1, 2, 3 & 4, District of 

Thunder Bay 77 

Township of Barker 82 

" Colquhoun 83 

" Jamieson 89 

" Kendrey 92 

' ' Macdiarmid 95 

" Leitch 96 

" McCowan :... 99 

" McCrae 101 

" Reaume 104 

'• Staunton... 107 

"v Strathearn 109 

" Gallagher Ill 

" Devitt 112 

" Bowyer 114 

" Coleman 116 

' ' Glackmeyer 117 

" Hanna 120 

" Kennedy 123 

Bayly 125 

" Purvis 127 

Town Plot of Smyth 129 

129 

Township of Redditt 131 

Report of Superintendent of Rondeau Provincial Park 134 

" Algonquin National Park 136 

List of Licensed Cullers 137 

History of Crown Timber Regulations 148 

[iii] 



9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 

19. 
20. 

21. 

22. 

23. 

24. 
25. 

26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 
36. 
37. 
38. 
39. 
40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 
44. 
45. 
46. 
47. 
48. 
49. 
50. 
51. 
52. 



Report of the 

Miniver of Lands, Fore^s and Mines 

Of the Province of Ontario, for the Year 1907. 



To His Honour Sir William Mortimer Clark, 

Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of Ontario. 

Mat it Please Yotjr Honour : 

As required by law, I submit for the information of your Honour and 
the Legislative Assembly, a report for the year ending on the 31st December, 
1907, of the management of the Crown Lands of the Province. 

Clergy Lands. 

The area of Clergy la,nds sold during the year was 82 3-5 acres, aggre- 
gating in value $95.00. The collection on account of these and former sales 
amounted to |2,304.89. (See Appendix No. 3, page 6.) 

Common School Lands. 

The area of Common School lands sold during the year was 12 2-5 acres 
for fi33.00. The collection on account of these and sales of former years was 
$13,959.78. (See Appendix, No. 3, page 6.) 

Grammar School Lands. 

The area of these lands sold during the year was 91 7-10 acres, for 
$295.40. The collection on account of these and sales in former years was 
11,774.50. (See Appendix No. 3, page ^.) 

University Lands. 

The area of these lands sold during the year was 1,739^ acres, for |869.76. 
The collection on account of these and sales of former years was $1,397.03. 
(See Appendix No. 3, page 6.) 

Crovtn Lands. 

There have been sold for agricultural purposes during the year 79,418, 
5-10 acres for $64,225.89. The collection on account of these and former sales 
was $69,584.57. There were sold for mining purposes 9,309 3-5 acres for 
$1,288,705.75 and collected on account of mining sales $1,184,719.06. Of 
this $1,155,000.00 was on account of the portions of Cobalt and Kerr Lakes, 
wbich were sold by public tender. 

There were leased for mining purposes 8,194 1-10 acres for $8,088.12. 
There was collected on account of mining leases $21,563.16. There were 

fv] 



vi REl'ORT OF THE No. 'S 



3,807 4-5 acres of Crown lands leased for other than mining purposes. The 
collection on account of these and former leases was $3,716.31. The total 
area of land disposed of during the year was 102,656 7-10 acres. The total 
collections on account of lands sold and leased during the year was |1,299,- 
019.30. (See Appendix No. 3, page 6.) 

Military Grants. 

There were 550 certificates issued during the year, authorizing veterans 
to select their lands, under 1 Edward YII., Cap. 6. This brings the total 
number issued under this legislation up to 13,550. Location certificates, con- 
firming veterans in the lands selected upon prescribed conditions, were issued 
to 825, making a total of 3,727. Eight hundred and seventy-five locations 
were made during the year, nearly all in the District of Algoma, north of the 
height of land, bringing the number of locations up to 6,095. As already 
stated 13,550 certificates have been issued and there are in the Department 
new applications for certificates to the number of 50. Tinder the amendment 
to the Act, 1,025 unlocated military certificates have been surrendered to the 
Crown for the |50.00 commutation money, making a total of 2,425 disposed 
of in this way. Patents have issued to 1,044, making a total of 1,305 patents 
issued to date. (See appendix No. 11, page 44.) 

Mining Industry. 

The output of the mines and mineral works of Onta'rio for 1907 was of 
greater aggregate value than in any previous year — exceeding the output of 
1906 by 12,618,109. The largest item in the total of |25, 006,492 was the 
production of silver, of which the mines of the Cobalt camp yielded 10,028,259 
ounces valued at |6, 157, 871. This rich region has made a rapid development, 
the first production, 206,875 ounces, being in the year 1904. The total 
quantity of silver produced at Cobalt mines up to the end of 1907 was 18,088," 
256 ounces, valued at |11,297,812. The shipments of ore to the same date 
amounted to 22,446 tons, so that the average contents of silver were 806 
ounces per ton, worth |503. The principal mines are the Nipissing, O'Brien, 
Coniagas, La Rose, Kerr Lake, Buffalo, McKinley-Darragh-Savage, Trethe- 
wey, Temiscamingue, Right-of-Way, Drummond, Cobalt Silver Queen, Tem- 
iskaming and Hudson Bay, Foster, and Nova Scotia. For the most part the ore 
is purchased by smelting establishments in the United States, but there are 
two refineries now in operation in Ontario, one at Copper Cliff owned by the 
Orford Copper Company, and the other at Deloro, by the Deloro Mining and 
Reduction Company. Several other refineries are also in course of erection, 
and concentrating j)lants are being added by a number of the mines to treat 
their low-grade ores. 

Ores similar to those of Cobalt have been found on the Montreal River, 
35 or 40 miles northwest of Cobalt, and more recently on the shores of Lake 
Temiskaming, about 22 miles southeast of Cobalt. Ontario is now producing 
one-eighteenth of the total silver production of the world. 

Next in importance to silver is nickel, the chief source of which is the 
Sudbury district. The output of nickel last year was 10,972 tons, having a 
value in the matte of |2,271.616. Accompanying the nickel was copper to 
the extent of 7,373 tons, worth |1, 045, 511. From the iron mines of the Pro- 
vince were raised 205,295 tons of ore, valued at |482,532. Fuller particulars 
of the mineral production of the Province are given in the report of the Bur- 
eau of Mines. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. vii 



A remarkable feature of tlie year was the large amount received for sales 
of mining land, |1, 184,719.06. A very large part of this sum was received 
on account of the sale 'of parts of the beds of Cobalt and Kerr lakes. The 
total revenue from mining sources was |1, 731, 720. 72. 

Collections . 

The total collection of the Department from all sources was |3,068,- 
494.09. Of this amount |1, 184, 719. 06 was derived from mining lands; 
1207,945.06 from royalties; |1,219,051.32 from woods and forests; |43,453.35 
from supplementary revenue; $137,768.40 from mining licenses and |134,- 
628.73 recording fees. (See Appendix No. 4, page 7.) 

Disbursements. 

The gross expenditure of the Department for all services during the 
year was |660,556.33. The principal services were : agents' salaries and 
disbursements, |49,316.98; forest ranging, |64,887.Q7; fire ranging, $97,- 
234.51; mining development, $60,685.95; forest reserves, $41,884.72; sur- 
veys, $162,479.91; veterans' commutation, $46,850; Gillies limit, $30,686.60; 
refunds, $23,621.06; Parks, $14,675.42; contingencies, $29,671.71. .(See 
Appendix No. 6, page 9 to 39.) 

Woods and Forests. 

The total revenue from Woods and Forests was $1,219,051.32, consist- 
ing of bonus, $152,222.24; timber dues, $998,863.15; ground rent, $65,- 
084.38; transfer fees, $2,879.85. (See Appendix No. 4, page 7.) 

The financial stringency that prevailed last year was severely felt by 
the lumber trade. It was difficult to make collections. The banks adopted' 
a restrictive policy and would not make advances, except such as were abso- 
lutely necessary to keep organizations together, and tide operators along 
until conditions improved. Under these circumstances, it became impossible 
for the licensees to pay their indebtedness to the Department for timber 
dues, etc., before the end of the year. As there was plenty of security for 
the indebtedness in the shape of limits, logs and lumber, on which the 
Department has the first lien, and to insist upon payment would have 
ruined many and demoralized the trade, it was considered prudent to carry 
them for the payment of balances due. Accordingly, those who were unable 
to pay their indebtedness were given extensions of time in whole or in 
part, and thus a crisis was avoided. In consequence of this action there 
is about $500,000 revenue of 1907 uncollected, which will come in, how- 
ever, during 1908. The stringency which prevailed became more severe 
towards the end of the year, causing curtailment of operations in the woods, 
and consequently the output of logs will be smaller in volume than that of 
last year. 

Fire Ranging. 

There were 623 fire rangers on duty during the past summer, includ- 
ing those in the forest reserves. Of this number 360 were employed on 
licensed lands, half of their wages being paid by the licensees and the 
other half by the Crown. Along the line of construction of the Canadian 
Northern, the T. & N. 0. Ry., the Grand Trunk Pacific and the Canadian 
Pacific, 103 fire rangers were on duty. The cost of this service was $38,- 



viii REPORT OF THE No. 3 



110,36, which will be refunded by the railways along whose lines the rangers 
were employed. In forest reserves there were 109 rangers employed cost- 
ing 141,884.72. On lands of the Crown in the Sturgeon Valley and else- 
where 51 rangers were on duty at a cost <oi |14,497.36. The total expendi- 
ture for fire ranging last year was |139,119.23. No serious fires were 
reported. 

Cullers' Examinations. 

Examinations were held at North Bay, Port Arthur, Sault Ste. Marie, 
Fort Frances and Kenora. Seventy-six candidates were successful at these 
examinations, and were granted certificates authorizing them to act as 
cullers. (For list of Licensed Cullers see Appendix No. 51, page 137.) 

Algonquin and Rondeau Parks. 

The reports of the Superintendents of these parks will be found in 
Appendices Nos. 49 and 50, pages 134 and 136. 

Crown Surveys. 

The following Crown Surveys have been undertaken or concluded this 
year : — 

Instructions for subdivision of. twenty-three townships were issued but 
owing to the remarkably wet summer and fall in the north, only nine town- 
ships have been completed in time for this year's report. The names of the 
townships and the respective districts in which they are situate are as 
follows : — 

District of Algoma, — Barker, Colquhoun, Devitt, Eilber, Godfrey, 
Jamieson, Jessop, Kendrey, Laidlaw, Leitch, Mabee, Macdiarmid, McCrae, 
McCowan, Mountjoy, Reaume and Staunton. District of Nipissing, — Bayly, 
residue of Coleman, Glackmeyer, Hanna, Kennedy, and Purvis. Six hun- 
dred and six miles of base and meridian lines have been run during the year, 
of these, one hundred and twenty miles formed part of the district boundary 
between Algoma and Thunder Bay. one hundred and eighty miles formed the 
outlines of nine mile townships in the District of Algoma, west of the Missin- 
abie River, one hundred and fifty-nine and one half miles formed the outlines 
of six mile townships in the Larder Lake region, in the District of Nipissing ; 
twenty-two and one-half miles of base line north of Lake Abitibi in the Dis- 
trict of Nipissing, and one hundred and twenty-four miles of outlines of town- 
ships in the Temagami Forest Reserve. 

The reports of the surveyors of the base and meridian lines in what may 
be called the Clay Belt in Northern Ontario, as well as those of the sub- 
divisions into lots and concessions continue to bear out the favorable impres- 
sion of the adaptability and fertility of the soil for agricultural purposes. 

The outlines of the blocks of land set apart in accordance with the pro- 
visions of Statutes of Ontario, 4th Edward 7th, Chapter 18, along the 
Thunder Bay branch of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway to be granted to 
the said Grand Trunk Pacific Railway have been nearly all surveyed and 
defined upon the ground. Three hundred and eighty-nine and one half miles 
of outlines having been run, leaving one block yet to be surveyed. 

A number of Timber Berths in the Districts of Algoma, Nipissing, 
Rainy River and Thunder Bay have been surveyed during the year. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. ix 



Several other minor surveys have also been performed. 
The surveyors' reports so far as received and examined will be found in 
appendices 18 to 48 inclusive, pages 55 to 131 inclusive. 

Municipal Surveys. 

On the petitions of the Municipal Councils of the townships of Garafraxa, 
Hinchinbrooke, and town of Blind River, instructions have been issued for 
the survey of the original road allowance between parts of concessions three 
and four in the township of Garafraxa ; for the survey of line between 
certain lots in the third concession of the township of Hinchinbrooke and 
for the definition of a block of land in the Town of Blind River. 

The Municipal Survey of the road allowance between the rear of lots on 
the Middle Road, and the third concession, extending from the town line 
between the townships of Aldborough- and Orford northwesterly through part 
of Orford has been confirmed under the provisions of the Revised Statutes of 
Ontario, 1897, chapter 181, sections 14 and 15, such survey being final and 
conclusive. 

The particulars relating to these surveys will be found in appendices 
Nos. 14 and 15, pages 50 and 51. 

Mining and Other Surveys. 

The Mines Act requires that applicants to purchase or lease mining land.s 
in unsurveyed territory shall file in the Department, surveyor's plans (in 
triplicate) of their proposed mining locations and mining claims, with field 
notes and descriptions by metes and bounds, before any sale or lease can be 
carried out, and under Orders-in-Council, dated 23rd January, 1892; 3rd 
December 1892 ; 29th April, 1886 ; 22nd September, 1893; 26th February, 
1906; 2nd Octobei, 1907; 7th November, 1907, applicants to purchase islands, 
or locations for agricultural purposes in unsurveyed territory, are required to 
file suveyor's plans (in triplicate) of their locations or islands as the case may 
be, with field notes and descriptions by metes and bounds ; the locations to be 
of the form and size, wherever practicable, prescribed by the Mines Act, 
together with the necessary afiidavits as to their being no adverse claim by 
occi-ju\tion or improvement, etc. 

Under the above Act, Orders-in-Council and Regulations^ in the districts 
of Parry Sound, Nipissing, Algoma, Thunder Bay, Rainy River, an area of 
15,534 3-10 acres has been sold and patented during the year, for which the 
sum of 11,127,393.11 has been received; and an area of 3,527 3-10 acres has 
been leased at fl.OO per acre for the first year's rental. 



F. Cochrane, 

Minister. 



Department of Lands, Forests and Mines 
Toronto, December 31st, 1907. 



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REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



APPENDIX No. 3. 

Statement of Lands Sold and Leased, Amount of Sales and Leases, and Amount of Collections 

for the year 1907. 



Service. 



Crovm Lands: 

Agricultural 

Mining 

Clergy Lands , 

Common School Lands 
Grammar School Lands 
University Lands 

ses: 

Mining 

Crown 



'Acres sold 
and leased. 



79,418t'V 
9,309| 

82f 
12| 

1,739 J 

8,194J^ 
3,807f 



102,656tV 



Amount of 
sales and leases. 



$ c. 

64,225 89 

1,288,705 75 

95 00 

33 00 

295 40 

869 76 

8,088 12 
333 40 



1,362,646 32 



Collections on 
sales and leases. 



69,584 57 

1,184,719 06' 

2,304 89 

13,959 78 
1,774 50 
1,397 03 

21,563 16 
3,716 31 



1,299,019 30 



D. GEO. ROSS, 

Accountant. 



AUBREY WHITE, 
Deputy Minister Lands and Forests. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 7 

APPENDIX NO. 4. 

Statement of the Revenue of the Department of Lands, Forests and Mines for the year 1907. 



Service. 



Land Collections. 



Crown Lands. 
Agricultural. 
Mining 



Clergy Lands 

Common School Lands. 
Grammar School Lands 
University Lands 



Rent. 



Mining Leases. 
Crown Leases . . 



Mining Licenses 
Recording Fees . 



Royalties . 



Supplementary Revenue. 

Acreage Tax 

Profit Tax 

Gas Tax 



Woods and Forests. 



Bonus 

Timber Dues . 
Ground Rent . 
Transfer Fees. 



Assay Fees . . 
Casual Fees . 
Cullers' Fees. 



Rondeau Park . . 
Algonquin Park 
Forest Reserves. 



Refunds. 



Diamond Drill 

Temagami Timber Cutting 

Fire Ranging 

Surveys 

Inspection Fees 

Wood-Ranging 

Agents' Salaries 



69,584 57 
1,184,719 06 



2,304 89 

13,959 78 

1,774 50 

1,397 03 



21,563 16 
3,716 31 

137,768 40 
134,628 73 



5,003 88 
26,922 OO 
11,527 47 



1,642 96 
504 00 
517 19 



546 45 

503 75 
1,164 25 



$ c. $ c. 



1,254,303 63 



19,436 20 



25,279 47 



272,397 13 
207,945 06 



43,453 35 



152,223 94 

998,863 15 

65,084 38 

2,879 85 



2,664 15 



2,214 46 



6,251 76 

1,126 81 

12,507 44 

635 79 

22 50 

1,190 03 

15 00 



1,822,814 84 



1,219,051 32 



4,878 60 



21,749 33 



3,068,494 09 



D. G. ROSS, 

Accountant. 



AUBREY WHITE, 
Deputy Minister, Lands and Mines. 



2 L.M. 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



APPENDIX No. s- 

Statemknt of the receipts of the Department of Lands, Forests and Mines for the year 1907, 
which are considered as Special Funds. 



Service. 


1 c. 


$ c. 


Principal 


Clergy Lands. 


957 46 
1,347 44 




Interest , 






Common School Lands. 


2,304 89 


Principal 


4,670 56 
9,289 22 


Interest - - 






Grammar School iMnds. 


1 ^ ftfiQ 78 


Principal 


678 00 
1,096 50 




Interest - 






University Lands. 


1,774 50 


Principal 


1,091 17 
305 86 


Interest 










1,397 03 
$19,436 20 







D. GEO. EOSS, 

Accountant. 



AUBREY WHITE, 
Deputy Minister Lands and Forests. 



2a L.M. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 



9 



APPENDIX No. 6. 
Statement of Disbursements of the Departments of Lands, Forests and Mines for the year 1907 



Name. 



Agents' Salaries. 



Land. 



Anderson, Jno. H. 

Brown, Jas. B 

Baker, R. H 

Both, Chas 

Belyea, C. W 

Buchanan, Thos. . . 

Byers, R. J 

Campbell, Wm. . . . 

Deacon, J . M 

Eastland, T. G 

Ellis, Jas 

Freeborn, Dr. J. S. 

Grills, J. J 

Handy, E 

Hartle, Wm 

Hesson, VV. H 

Hollands, C. J. ... 
Hugh, Williama. . . 

Keefer, H. A 

Levis, J. A 

McFayden, Alex. . . 
MacLennan, J. K. 

Philion, J. A 

Powell, F. R 

Prince, Adam 

Pronger, R. H. . . . 
Scarlett, J. S.. .. . 

Tait, J. R 

Warren, D. B 

Whybourne. W. E. 

Wilson, Jas 

Wright, E. A 

Young, H.N 



Timber . 



Christie, W. P 

Hawkins, S. J 

Henderson, Chas. . 

Howie, R. G 

Johnson, S. M 

Kennedy, John . . . 
McDonald, Hector. 

Maughan, Jos 

Margach, Wm 

Oliver, J. A 

Stevenson, A 



Homestead Inspectors . 



Barr, Jas 

Burnes, C. W. 
Chester, Thos. 



$ c. 



300 00 
900 00 

87 50 
100 00 
287 50 
300 00 
500 00 
300 00 
500 00 
300 00 
208 34 
500 00 
500 00 
500 00 
262 50 
875 00 
300 00 
500 00 

65 69 
250 00 
300 00 
500 00 

149 04 
291 66 
500 00 
300 00 
500 00 
500 00 
300 00 
179 16 

150 00 
500 00 
300 00 



1,600 00 
1,400 00 
1,600 00 
1,200 00 
1,600 00 
266 00 
1,400 00 
1,400 00 
1,600 00 
1,400 00 
1,400 00 



1,200 00 

900 00 

1,200 00 



Carried forward 



$ c. 



I c. 



11,506 39 



14,866 00 



26,372 39 



10 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



APPENDIX No. 6.— Continued. 



Name. 



$ c. 



$ c. 



Brought forward 

Agents' Salaries . — Concluded . 

Homestead Inspectors. — Concluded 

Groulx, R.J 

Hunt, J. McK 

Quenneville, I 

Watson, T. P 

Agents' Disbursements. 



Land. 



Brown, J. B.-. . . 
Belyea, C. W... 
Byers, R.J. ... 
Campbell, Wm . . 
Deacon, J . M . . . 

Ellis, Jas 

Freeborn, Dr. J. 

Grills, J. J 

Handy, E 

Hugh Williams . 
McFayden, Alex 
Philion, J. A... 
Powell, F. R. . 
Prince, Adam. . . 
Pronger, R . H . . 
Warren, D. B. . 
Whybourne, W. 
Young, H. N. .. 



S. 



Timber . 



Christie, W. P... 
Hawkins, S . J . . . 
Henderson, Chas. 
Howie, R. G. ... 
Johnson, 8. M. . . 

Kennedy, Jno 

McDonald, li.... 
Maughan, Jos . . . . 
Margach, Wm. . . 

Oliver, J. A 

Stevenson, A 



Homestead Inspectors. 



Barr, Jas 

Burnes, C. W 
Chester, Thos. 
Groulx, R. J. . 
Hunt, J. McK. 
Quenneville, I. 
Watson, T. P. 



Carried forward 



600 00 
600 00 
600 00 
912 50 



283 00 


20 00 


13 90 


33 10 


6 18 


5 50 


30 95 


36 79 


29 22 


39 75 


63 23 


2 40 


9 56 


30 00 


35 70 


6 40 


5 12 


11 50 


517 75 


547 72 


275 01 


420 66 


253 24 


76 73 


686 92 


497 65 


1,930 47 


932 41 


545 31 


527 20 


520 54 


500 31 


102 25 


478 70 


189 48 


490 '3 



26,372 39 



6,012 50 



662 30 



6,683 87 



2,808 71 
42,539 77 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 



11 



APPENDIX No. 6.— Continued. 



Name. 



Brought fonvard . 



Miscellaneous. 

Angus, M., Inspection Township of Widdifield. 

Armitape, Jap., " lots in Kincardine 

Bilton, Geo., Caretaker Islands Crosby Township 
Campbell, H., Inspection Township of Esquesing 
I)eelbert, Ames, " Islands Dog Lake, etc. 

Danis, Samuel, Caretaker Leonard Islands 

Gamey, Wm. H., Inspection Lome, Drury, Nairn 

do " Graham and Waters 

Hurdman, John, " Shakespeare and 

McKinnon 

Seegmiller, M., services 

" disbursements 

Scovell, Dr. S. S., rent Seegmiller's office, 1906. 

Watts, Geo., disbursements 

Expense, Colonization Party 



Ottawa. 



Darby, E. J., Agent 

do Special Services. 



Larose, S. E., Clerk. 

Rent.. 

Disbursements . . 



Quebec. 



Nicholson,' B., Agent 

Harney, Thomas, Caretaker 



Rent 



Disbursements 



Wood Ranging. 



Allan, R. A 

Ansley, J. J 

Ansley, W. E 

Arnill, Wm 

Barrett, Thos 

Disbursements . 



Bastien, John 

Disbursements . 



Bdulke, G. B.... 

Bliss, L. E 

Brinkman, A. B. 
Chalmers, Geo. . . 
Chalmers, G . J . . 
Chenier, D . A . . . 



Carried forvxird 



$ c. 



156 00 
7 00 

25 00 
6 50 

20 00 

20 00 

191 00 

131 05 

132 00 
30 68 

26 90 
360 00 

9 50 
302 33 



1,500 00 
200 00 



583 33 
74 25 



1,500 00 
150 00 



93 75 
25'^ 92 



1,432 00 
96 37 



376 00 
13 20 



$ c. 



42,539 77 



1,417 96 



1,700 00 
1,000 00 

657 68 



1,650 90 
351 67 



1,110 00 

1,110 00 

590 00 

526 GO 



1,528 37 



389 20 
15 00 
1,385 00 
470 00 
185 00 
955 00 
885 00 



9,148 57 



$ c. 



43,957 73 



3,357 58 



2,001 67 



49,316 98 



12 



REPORT OF THE 



No. g 



APPENDIX No. 6.— Continued. 



Name. 



Brought forward 

Wood Ranging. Continued. 



Christie, W. P., Disbursement. 

Coburn, John 

Corrigan, R. F 

Doyle, Terence 

Durrell, Wm 

Fairbairn, N . H 

Ferguson, E . A 

Fisher, Geo 

Foster, E. G 

French, L 

Gorman, Jas. P 

Gorman, Patrick 

Halliday, Jas 

Disbursements 



Hartley, Chas 

Herring, E . C .... 

Hickerson, M. T. . 

Disbursements 

Hill, Joshua 

Huckson, A. H . . . , 
Hurdman, W. H. . , 

Hutton, Jno 

Jervis, Henry 

Johnson, S . M 

Disbursements 



Johns, Alex 

Lalonde, Ephraim 
Disbursements 



Lee, J. B 

Londry, W. E 

Lucas, R G 

Manice, William . . . 
Margach, Williajn. 
Disbursements 



Margach, J . A . . . . 
Matheson, Wm . . . 

Maughan, Jos 

Menzies, A 

Milway, Jos 

Morley, J. R 

Disbursements 



Moran, Andrew ... 

Murray, Geo 

Murray, Wm 

McCaw, John G . . 
McCreight, John . . , 
Disbursements 



$ c. 



Carried forward. 



1,225 00 
7 35 



595 00 
26 00 



314 55 
30 50 



1,108 00 
1,321 19 



1,500 00 
244 07 



480 00 
17 85 



1,638 00 
3,069 33 



I c. 



9,148 57 



33 28 

625 00 

795 00 

100 00 

1,290 00 

20 00 
220 00 
250 00 
780 38 
770 00 
100 00 
900 00 



1,232 35 

830 00 
1,140 00 



620 00 
760 00 

1,205 00 
715 00 
975 00 

1,450 00 



345 05 
640 00 



2,429 19 

870 00 

501 92 

550 00 

1,095 00 



1,744 07 
530 00 
645 00 
191 16 

1,325 00 
379 00 



497 86 

60 00 

1,260 00 

1,385 00 

1,045 00 



4,707 S3 



44,220 15 



I c. 



49,316 98 



49,316 98 



1907 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 



13 



APPENDIX No. 6.— Continued. 



Name. 



Brought forward . 



Wood Ranging. — Continued. 



McDonald, Thos 

McDonald, Hector 

McDonald, A 

MacDonald, S. C, disbursements. 

McDougall, J. T 

Disbursements 



McLean, Jno 

McNabb, Alex 

McNamara, Jno 

McPhee, Jloy 

McPherson, J. S. . . 
Newburn, Wm .... 

Oliver, J. A 

Disbursements 

Paul, Chas 

Playfair, Andrew . . 

Reid, Henry 

Reveli, L. 

Disbursements . 



Ridley, Robert 

Disbursements . 



Ritchie, Jas. A 

Rogers, Fred. W . . . 

Ross, Geo 

Disbursements . 



Shaw, Alfred 

Shaw, Geo 

Smith, LCD 

Disbursements. 



Urquhart, A 

Vincent, H. T 

Watts, Geo 

Disbursements 



Wagner, F 

Welch, Harold.... 

Weston, F. R 

Whalen, P. J 

Whyte, J. T. G. . . . 
Disbursements . 



Wilkins, Geo. 
Wood, W. D. 
Yuill, Thos. . . 



Carried forward. 



1,866 39 
133 00 



200 00 
88 75 



431 GO 

62 00 



498 00 
9 65 



707 00 
216 55 



381 00 
61 35 



1,175 00 
804 20 



500 00 
16 80 



44,220 15 



536 00 
114 25 
100 00 
182 20 



1,999 89 
100 00 
100 00 
775 00 
390 38 

1,305 00 
835 00 



288 75 
200 00 
790 00 
279 00 



493 00 



507 65 
747 30 
100 00 



923 56 

548 00 

1,135 00 



442 35 

100 00 

1,095 00 



1,979 20 
600 00 
760 00 
200 00 

1,250 00 



616 80 
200 00 
100 00 
975 00 



49,316 98 



64,887 97 



114,204 95 



14 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



APPENDIX No. 6.— Continued. 



Name. 



Brought forward 

FiRB Ranging. 



Adams, Arthur. ... 

Allan, E. A 

Disbursemente . 



Algoma Commercial Co 1906 

do 1907 



Airhart, Wm 

Ambrose, A. W 

■ Armstrong, A. C . . . 
Disbursements . 

Armstrong, Dal ton, 
Disbursements . 



Arnott, Wm 

Archer, Geo 

Atkinson, Thos. S 

August, Frank 

Barr, Archie 

Beck, C, Manufacturing Co. 

Belanger, J. B 

Bellefeville, Oliver 

Beaudry, Jno 

Bertrant, Paul 

Disbursements , 



Beggs, AV 

Benson, J. B 

Biggs. A 

Disbursements 



Biggs, J 

Disbursements 



Booth, J. R 

Boisvert, Jno 

Bonter, Smith 

Disburseuients 



Boyd, David 

Bragg, Jno 

Disbursements 



Pracken, Jno 

Disbursements . 



Brigden, Jas 

Disbursements 



Brinkman, A. B. 
Brigham, T. G. . . 

Bromley, Ed 

Brooks, F. W... 



Carried forward. 



$ c. 



197 65 
58 02 



58 66 
37 82 



352 50 
30 30 



285 00 
8 85 



362 50 

7 00 



305 00 
19 70 



305 00 
9 70 



365 00 
25 40 



362 50 

28 70 



360 OC 
29 20 



197 50 
1 30 



$ c. 



119 00 



255 67 



96 48 

55 00 

117 00 



882 80 



293 85 
124 00 
131 00 
133 00 
131 00 
131 00 
82 75 
88 00 
131 00 
262 00 



369 50 
122 00 
131 00 



324 70 



314 70 

92 50 
131 00 



390 40 
131 00 



391 20 



389 20 



198 80 
216 00 
29 50 
131 CO 
131 00 



6,027 05 



( c. 



114,204 95 



114,204 95 



1907 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS^ FORESTS A-ND MINES. 



15 



APPENDIX No. 6.— Continued. 



Name. 


% c. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


Brought forivard 




6,027 05 

131 Oo 

384 60 
10 00 

131 00 

131 00 
67 00 

131 00 

301 30 

296 20 
131 00 
131 00 

130 00 
8 00 

346 60 

363 00 

131 00 

88 00 
91 00 
50 00 

131 00 
109 00 
131 00 
250 00 
73 00 

1,725 40 
277 50 

346 60 
113 00 

89 50 
131 00 

279 90 

70 00 

137 00 

378 60 

341 65 


114 204 95 


Fire Ranging. ^Co??iinw#d. 
Brooks, Thos. H 






Brown, J . B 

Disbursements 


357 50 

27 10 




Brennen, M., & Sons Co 






Brown, E. B 






Brown, John 






Brownlee, Samuel 






Brennan, Samuel 






Buchanan, R. F 

Disbursements 


300 00 
1 30 




Burger, Wm 

Disbursements 


272 50 
23 70 




Burgess, W. H 






Burns, Wm 






Burke, Jno 






Burke, James 






Burke, Jno 


320 00 
26 60 




Disbursements 




Burro wa, Chas 


335 00 
28 00 










Burton, Robert 






Byrnes, Jas ... 






Cairns, Bernard 






Cameron, J. V 






Cameron, A 






Campbell, H 






Campbell, C. A 






Campbell, W 






Campbell, J. L. 


815 00 
910 40 












Campbell, S 






Campbell, D. A 


320 00 
26 60 












Campbell, Bruce 






Canada Copper Co 






Carlin, Thos 






Carter, Thos 


257 50 
22 40 












Carter, Fenton 






Caron, Vital 






Carnachan, Gordon 


360 00 
18 60 




Disbursements 




Case. W. J 


312 50 
29 15 














Carried forward 


13,663 90 


114,204 96 



16 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



APPENDIX No. 6.— Continued. 



Name. 


$ c. 


% c. 


$ c. 


Brought forward 




13 663 90 

13 30 
103 00 
66 00 
83 88 
59 00 

69 no 

131 00 

130 00 
206 44 

177 25 . 
91 10 
97 00 

131 00 
131 00 

46 88 

381 80 

16 50 

140 00 

3,026 10 

386 80 

375 65 

131 00 

7 00 

41 00 

263 00 

484 00 

131 00 

113 00 

87 00 

43 00 

131 00 

131 00 

41 81 

131 00 

131 00 

131 00 
118 00 

132 00 

391 10 
247 00 


114,204 95 


Fire Ranging.— Continued. 
Cassiday, Jas 






Chamberlain, B. E 






Chamberlain E. H 






Charlton, J. & W. A 






Chase, Job 






Chenier, Noe 






Christilan, Hy 






Chaput, I 






Christie, W . P. , disbursements 






Clarke, Donald 

Disbursements 


172 50 

4 75 




Cleary, J. F 






Clute, Geo 






Clysdale, Alex 






Collins, Chas 






Collins Inlet Lumber Co 






Cole, J. J 

Disbursements 


360 00 
21 80 




Cavandish Lumber Co 






Conway, Richard 






Conlan, J. & T 






Coke. Ed. F 

Disbursements 


365 00 
21 80 




Colclough, J. H 

Disbursements 


342 50 
33 15 




Coghlan, Thos 












Connelly, Jas 






Conetantine, E 1906 

do 1907 


132 00 
131 00 




Cousineau, A 












Conger Lumber Co 






Connley, Dan 






Conger Bark, Limited 












Conboy, Timothy 






Cook & Bros . Lumber Co 






Corrigan M 






Cote, C 






Cousins, Jas 












Cottenham, Wm 






Coulter, Chas. 

Disbursement s 


370 00 
21 10 




Corteau, E 1906 

do 1907 


116 00 
131 00 










Carried forward 


i 2,411 51 


114,204 05 







1907 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 



17 



APPENDIX No. 6.— Continued. 



Name. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


Srouoht forvovd 




22,411 51 • 

272 20 

326 55 
62 00 

117 00 
74 00 

131 00 

360 60 
131 00 

263 00 
123 00 
131 00 
131 00 
104 00 

384 70 
119 00 

61 40 
131 00 

25 00 

131 00 

4 50 

356 70 

315 60 

345 64 

131 00 

132 00 

334 10 

108 00 
131 00 

403 60 

379 00 


114,204 95 


Fire Ranging. — Continued. 

Crawford, E 

DiBbursements 


270 00 
2 20 




Crawford, A. E 

Diebareements 


292 50 
34 05 




Crumley Chas 






Cullen, M. T 






Culhane D . 






Curtin, D 






Curtis, C . A 

Diebureements 


332 50 

28 10 




Cuthbertson, Wm 






Dale, Jno. A 1906 

do 1907 


132 00 
131 00 




Daniels, Jno 






Dane, Alfred ... . .... 






Davis W J . . 






Davidson, Jas 






Davidson, Ira 

Disbursements 


357 50 
27 20 




Dawkins, Jno 






Delmage, R. D 

Disbursements 


47 50 
13 90 




Dennison Henry 






Dever, Wm 






Dillabaugh, Reuben 






Dingman, Jno 






Dion, L . A 

Disbursements 


345 00 
11 70 








Dougan, H. L 


282 50 
33 10 




Disbursements 








Downey, R. A 


310 00 
35 64 




Disbursements 








Dowe, Wm 






Doyle T. J 






Duff, T. A. J 


315 00 
19 10 




Disbursements 




Dufond. Ignace 






Dunn, Thos . 






Duchanne, A .* 

Disbursements 


380 00 
23 60 




Duval, C. A 

Disbursements -. 


365 00 
14 00 










Carried forward 


28,131 10 


114,204 95 



18 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



APPENDIX No. 6.— Continued. 



Name. 


$ c. 


% e. 


1 c. 


Brought forward 




28,131 10 

337 00 
133 00 
131 00 
121 00 
52 00 

400 00 

69 65 

119 00 

367 25 
131 00 

386 95 

286 00 

350 80 
23 15 

131 00 
104 00 

85 00 

492 50 

125 00 

85 00 

132 00 
95 00 

131 00 

200 00 

8 50 

131 00 

131 00 

131 00 

131 00 

79 00 

79 65 

279 25 
106 00 
79 00 
108 00 
131 00 

262 00 


114,204 95 


Fire Ranging. — Continued. 

Dreany, Alex 

Disbursements 


335 00 
2 00 


Draycott, E. A 






Driver, Jos 






Eady, Robt. S 

Edwards, Jos. K 










Elliott, Jackson 

Disbursements 


370 00 
30 00 




Elliott, Wm 






Eno, Geo 






Enright, Thos 


357 50 
9 75 




Disbursements 




Ervin, Thos 






Evans, Stanley 

Disbursements 


362 50 
24 45 




Farrell, K. A 

Disbursements 


272 50 
13 50 








Ferguson, Wm 

Disbursements 


337 50 
13 30 




Fairbairn, N. H. Disbursemeuta 1906 






Ferguson, E. A 






Ferguson, Julien 






Ferguson, J. H 






Ferris, Richard 

Disbursements 


480 00 
12 50 










Findlay, John 












Fitzgerald, Jas 












Fisher, Geo 






Firstbrook Box Co . .» 






Flaherty, John 






Fleming, F. W 






Foisey, M 












Fortier, Jos 












Eraser, J. K 


265 00 
14 25 












Eraser, .John ' 






Frappiere. A 






Frawley, F 






Frechette, 






do 1907 


131 00 
131 00 














Carried forward 


34,275 80 


114,204 95 



vm 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 



19 



APPENDIX No. 6.— Continued. 



Name. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


Brought forward 




34,275 80 

212 00 

151 00 

1,134 22 
131 00 

310 00 

259 00 

262 00 

367 00 
131 00 

701 60 

366 60 

112 00 
13 50 
97 50 

131 00 
35 00 
85 00 

124 14 

131 00 
100 00 
112 00 

48 75 
5S 00 

132 00 

349 90 
80 00 
75 00 

265 00 

386 40 
131 00 
216 32 
131 00 


114,204 95 


Fire Ranging. — Continued. 

Gagnon, A 

do 


...1906 
. . . 1907 

...1906 
...1907 


81 00 
131 00 




Gagnon, Felix 

do 


52 00 
99 00 




Gagne, Ferdinand 

Disbursements 


812 00 
322 22 




Gallagher, Jas 






Gallie, Gordon 


277 50 
32 50 




Disbursements • 






...1906 
...1907 

...1906 
. . .1907 




Gardiner, Jno 

do. 


131 00 
128 00 




Garcea, A 

do 


131 00 
131 00 




Garvin, Morgan 

Disbursements 


365 00 
2 00 




Gaudette, Philip 






Gemmell, Jno 

Disbursements 


...1906 


552 00 
149 60 




Geddes, Jas. H 

Disbursements 


335 00 
31 60 




Genereaux, Nelson 






Georgian Bay Lumber Co 












Gibson, Jas 






Gilchrist, John J 






Gill, John W 






Gillies Bros 






Gongeon, A 












Gordon Jas 












Gorman, P. J 






Gould, F 






Graham, G. N 

Disbursements 




335 00 
14 90 










Grafton, W. F 






Granberger, Thos 

do 


...1906 
...1907 


134 00 
131 00 




Granton, Jas 


362 60 
23 90 










Graves, Bigwood and Co 






Grav, A 














Carried forward 


41.110 73 


114,204 95 











20 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



APPENDIX No. 6.— Continued. 



Name. 


$ c. 


f c. 


t c. 


Brought Forward 




41,110 73 

83 00 
91 00 

100 00 
131 00 

131 00 
115 00 

15 00 

262 00 
120 00 

356 10 

381 30 

132 00 
131 00 

534 00 

382 20 
131 00 

29 00 

SIO 00 
32 00 
106 00 
131 00 
106 00 

390 90 

312 40 
69 00 

8 72 

389 08 
106 00 

101 00 
287 50 
112 00 

99 00 

64 18 

127 00 

322 50 

8 00 


114,204 95 


FiEE Ranging. — Continued. 
Greenshields, Ed 






Green, Ed. W 






Griffith, Wm 






Griffin, Jas 






Groulx, Arthur 






Grozell, A. D 






Guerin, Benoit 

Guertin, Oliver 1906 

do 1907 

Gunter, P. M 


131 66" 

131 00 




Guthrie, Wm 


350 00 
6 10 




DiBbursements 




Guy, Norman 

Disbursements 


360 00 
21 30 




Haley, Edward 






Hamel, Peter 






Hand, Thomas 


524 00 
10 00 




Disbursements 


337 50 

44 70 




Harper, Thos 












Hart, R. R 


277 50 
32 50 










Hartley, Mark 












Hawley, Jas 1906 






Hawley, D. J 

Disbursements 


365 00 
25 90 




Hebert, Louis 

Disbursements 


297 50 
14 90 














Henderson, Chas Disbursements 






Herring, E. C 1906 

do 1907 

Disbursements 


128 00 

200 15 

60 93 


- 


Herriman, N. J 






Hickey, Jae. L 






Hill, Jas 






Hillman, Jno 






Hillman, Alex 






Holland and Graves 






Hogarth, Henry 






Hope Lumber Co 




















47,317 56 


114,204 95 









1907 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 



21 



APPENDIX No. 6.— Continued. 



Name. 


% c. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


Brought forward 




47,317 56 

4 00 

337 95 

395 00 

389 90 

107 00 

36 00 

131 00 

268 75 

262 50 

131 00 

89 00 

386 40 

103 00 
109 00 
131 00 
96 00 
131 00 

387 90 
25 00 

131 00 
290 00 
106 00 

79 00 
347 50 
131 00 
131 00 

75 00 

131 00 

78 94 

96 00 

80 00 
116 00 
131 00 
131 00 
127 00 

29 00 
120 00 
131 00 

1,391 56 


114,204 95 


FiRK Ranging. — Continued. 
Holt Lumber Co 






Hooey, Geo. F 


312 50 
25 45 




Disbursements 








Hodgine, Thos 

Disbursements 


370 00 
25 00 




Hubbard, W. H 


362 50 

27 40 




Disbursements 




Hunt, J. W 







Hurd, Edwin 






Hurd, Asa 






Irish, Wm 


255 00 
13 75 




Disbursements 








Johnston, Robt 






Jones, R. D 






James, Thos 






Keeler, Geo . N 


362 50 
23 90 








do 1907 


55 00 
48 00 




Kennedy, Jno. J 






Kelly, Jno 






Kirby, Jno 






Kerr, A. W 






Keys, A. B 


362 50 
25 40 




Disbursements 

Kidd, G.W 1908 




Kilby, A 












King, Chas 






Kirk, W. J 






Kruger, A. P 






Lafleur, Wm 






Lamarche, Jno 












Lamothe, Michael 












Laroque, Mark 












Larrimer, Jcs 












Law, W. J 






Lawson, David 






Ledwood, Thos. H 






Lebeau, Jno 






Leblanc, A 






Disbursements 


1,215 75 
175 81 













54,691 96 


114,204 95 



22 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



APPENDIX No. 6.— Continued. 



Name. 



Brought forivard . . 
FiBE Ranging. - 



-Continued. 



Lefrance, Thos 1906 

do 1907 

Lendrum, Jno 1906 

Lewis, Chas 1905 

Llovd, Ed 

Loiidry, W. E 

Lorenz, Chas 

Lorenz, Fred 

Lortie, Jas . H 

Disbursements 



Lovering, J. E 

Disbursements 



Loveland & Stone 

Loughrin, L 

Lynch, M. D 

Macfarlane, R. L 

Macdonald, Jno. D 1906 

do 1907 

Mackie, N 

Disbursements 



Madigan, Wm 

Major, H 

Malloy, Chas 

Manes, Jno 

Manion, Isadore . . , 

Margach, J . A 

Disbursements 



Margach, Wm., disbursements 

May, Albert 

Marion, Jule 

Marshall, Wm 

Matte, Jos 

Disbursements 



Massey, Herbert 1906 

Mercier, Pat 1906 

do 1907 



Mercer, Whitefield 
Merchant, Herbert. 

Merchant, J no 

Disbursements . 



f c. 



130 00 

131 00 



197 50 
4 40 


275 00 

7 40 



98 00 
114 00 


17 50 
3 10 



Middleton, Jno . . 
Miller, Percy . . . . 
Mitchell, Walter, 
^[ontrov, J.J. . 
do 



.1906 
.1907 



Carried Jorward. 



60 00 
37 15 



360 00 
6 20 



181 00 
131 00 



484 00 
10 00 



131 00 
131 00 



$ c. 



54,691 96 



261 00 
131 00 
106 00 
111 00 
111 00 
131 00 
133 00 



201 90 



282 40 
21 00 
131 00 
106 00 
128 00 



212 00 



20 60 

156 00 

131 00 

47 00 

92 00 

121 00 



97 15 
138 06 
131 00 

78 94 
109 00 



366 20 
131 00 



262 00 
126 00 
484 00 



494 00 

131 00 

80 00 

101 00 



262 00 



60,317 21 



$ c. 



114,204 95 



114,204 95 



1907 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 



23 



APPENDIX No. 6.— Continued. 



Name. 



Brought forw rd.' 

Fire Kanaing Continued. 



Monford, Jno 

Mongeon, Alex 

Mongeon, Napoleon 1906 

Montreuii, Louis 1906 

do 1907 



Morand, Louis . . . . 
Disbursements 

Morley, J. R 

Moore, Jos . R 

Disbursements . 



Moore & Macdonald 1906 

Morgan Lbr .Co 

Mosley, Michael 

Mountstevens, Jno 

Mulvaney, Neil 

Murphy, Wm 

Disbursements 



Muskoka Mill and Lumber Co. 

McAmmond, Jos 

McAdam, Wm 

McBean, R 

McCaffery, Jas 

McCauley, Jerry 

McClure, A 

McColl, Archie 

McCoy, Francis 

McCullough, David 

Disbursements 



McCaw, Jno . G . . . 
Disbursements 



McCaw, Jas 

McCormick, Victor O 
Disbursements . . . 



McCullough, Chris 
Disbursements. 

McDonald, Garnet . 
Disbursements. 



McDonald, A. J 

McDonald, Alex . . . 

McDonald, Frank.. 

Disbursements. 



McDonald, Malcolm 1906 

McDonald, Donald 1906 

do 1907 



Carried forward. 
3 LM. 



131 00 
131 00 



302 50 
6 25 



292 50 
28 40 



207 50 
18 30 



370 00 
23 80 

376 00 
74 40 



335 00 
12 10 



370 00 
21 50 



287 50 
21 35 



345 00 
1 40 



131 00 
100 00 



$ c. 



60,317 21 



162 50 
131 00 
131 00 



262 00 



308 75 
28 76 



320 90 

9 00 

29 28 

85 00 

68 00 

131 00 



225 80 

26 50 

102 00 

131 00 

131 00 

131 00 

66 00 

71 00 

131 00 

17 00 



393 90 



450 40 
131 00 



347 10 
391 50 



308 86 

97 00 

104 00 



346 40 
92 00 



231 00 



65,909 84 



$ c. 



114,204 85 



114,204 95 



24 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



APPENDIX No. 6.— Continued. 



Name. 


% c. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


Brought forward 




65,909 84 

262 00 
55 00 
140 48 
113 37 
131 00 

254 00 

371 50 
18 00 

69 65 
48 00 

390 10 

401 00 

131 00 

61 00 

127 00 

131 00 

11 00 

86 00 

122 50 

131 00 
106 00 
100 00 

372 00 

70 00 
95 00 

129 00 
454 75 

386 95 

262 00 
120 00 

175 SO 
83 00 

361 20 


114,204 95 


Fire Ranging. — Continued. 

McDonnell, G. D 

do 


.. 1906 
. . 1907 


131 00 
131 00 


McDougall, D. M 






McDougall, J. T. Disbursements 






McGarvey, Robert 






McGlashan, J no .... 






McGhie, Chas 

do 

McGuire, T. 


. . 1906 
. . 1907 


123 00 
131 00 

345 00 
26 50 




Disbursements 






McGuire, A. & Co 






Mclnnes, D. ., 






Mclntyre, Wm 






Mclver, Hugh 


357 50 
32 60 

365 00 
36 00 




Disbursments 

McKay, Hugh 




Disbursements 

McKay, Angus 




McKee. Chas 






McKinsey, Jos 






McLaughlin, Jno 






McLaughlin, Bros 






McLean, Jas. D 






McLeod, Bernard 






McMullen,Wm 






McMillan Jno • . ... ... 






McMillan, Donald , 






McMillan, Duncan 

Disbursements 




365 00 

7 00 




McMillan, A 






McNabb, Alex 






McRae, Alex 






McRae, Jno. D 






McTavish, R 

Disbursements 


. . 1906 
. . 1907 


350 00 
36 95 




McPhee, Hugh 

do 


131 Od 

131 00 




McQuire, Hugh 






Nadon, Xavier 

Disbursements 




165 00 
10 80 




Nault, Jas 






Nancekeville, Thos 

Disbursements 




340 00 
21 20 




Carried forward 


# 


71,630 14 


114 204 95 











3a L. M, 



1007 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 



25 



APPENDIX No. 6.— Continued. 



Name. 



Brought forward . 



Fire Ranging Continued. 

Newburn, Wm 1906 

do 1907 



Newton Thos 

Nicholson, Alex 

O'Brien, M 

O'Brien, Phil .... 

O'Connor, Jos 

Disbursements . 

O'Neil, Jas 

O'Neil, A. J 

Disbursements 



1906 



Owens, R 

Page, Noe 

Patterson, Frank. . . 
Disbursements 



Patterson, Arch. . . . 

Payne Wm , 

Pearson, J 

Disbursements 



Peeler, Chas 

Pembroke Libr. Co 

Perrault, Wm 1906 

do 1907 



Phillips, T. E. 

Pitt, Benj 

Piper, E. G. . 
do 



1906 
1907 



$ c. 



Piper, Chas 

Playfair. A. W 

Playfair and White. 

Plonde, Chas 

Pollard, W. E 

Prestley, Jas 

Disbursements . 



Price, H. S 

Disbursements 



Quilty, Jno 

Disbursements. 



Quigley, Wm 1906 

Ranger, A 

Rathbun, Co'y 

Readman, R 

Regan, Mark 

Renaud, Jos 



Carried forward 



10 00 
528 00 



376 00 
14 50 



335 00 

13 80 



347 50 
30 70 



310 00 
22 58 



107 00 
132 00 



202 00 
131 00 



217 50 
15 00 



342 50 
29 50 



375 00 

28 80 



I c. 



71,630 14 



638 00 
131 00 
114 00 
131 00 
93 00 



389 50 
6 00 



348 80 
124 00 
126 00 



378 20 
24 00 
52 00 



332 58 
98 25 
62 25 



239 00 

113 58 

82 25 



333 00 

60 00 

28 00 

42 58 

132 00 

113 68 



232 50 



372 00 



403 80 
201 00 
79 00 
64 60 
287 50 
118 00 
131 00 



77,602 01 



$ c. 



114,204 95 



114,204 95 



26 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



APPENDIX No. 6.— Continued. 



Name. 



Brought forward . 



.1906 



Fire Ranging Continued. 

Retty, Jno. G 

Retty, Jaa 

Revell, L. O 

Reynolds, Jas 

Richardson, J 

Ritchie, R. and T 

Rivers, Jno 

Rodgers, Thos 

Rocky Farm Limit 

Roes, A. C 

Ross, Geo . . ; 1906 

Ryan, Jno 1906 

1907 



Salois, Oliver 

Saginaw Lumber and Salt Co 

Saucier, O 

Savard, August 

Disbursements 



Scantlin, Jas. 
do 



.1906 
,1907 



Scheich, Jno 

Schryer, Phil 

Scott, Jno 

Scott, Robt 

Sheridan, Peter 1906 

Shields, Geo 

Shields, Thos 

Shields, W. J 

Shier, J. D. , Lumber Co 

Sheppard, pj. C 

Disbursements 



Sheppard & Morse Lumber Co. 

Sheppard & Wallace 

Sicard, Frank 

Scidmore, Ed 

Simpson, Alex 

do 



.1906 
.1907 



Sloan, Pat 1906 

Sloan, Jno 

Sloman, Thos 

Smith, Wm 

Smith, Willard 

Smith, Jos 

Smith, J. D. C 

Smith, A. L 

Disbursements 



Sneezy, Ben. . , 
Spence, W. H. 



Carried forward. 



$ c. 



78 00 
181 00 



372 50 
14 50 



95 00 
74 00 



297 50 
32 50 



126 50 
132 00 



322 50 
19 40 



77,602 01 



56 62 

66 62 

608 00 

131 00 

87 00 

16 50 

84 00 

111 00 

2 63 

130 00 

131 00 



209 DO 

104 00 

4 50 

131 00 



887 00 



169 00 
131 00 
104 00 
119 00 
532 00 
114 00 
110 00 
125 00 
150 45 
19 00 



330 00 
640 67 

19 00 
112 00 

20 00 



258 50 
70 00 
11 00 
73 00 

131 00 
69 00 
86 00 

204 00 



341 90 
131 00 
131 00 



% c. 



114,204 95 



84,051 40 



114,204 96 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 



27 



APPENDIX No. 6.— Continued. 



Name. 



Brought forward 

Fire Ranging Continued. 



Spread borough, Newell.. 

Stav, Jno 

St. Amour, Jno 

St. Anthony Lumber Co . 

St. Eloi, J. C 

St. Dennis, Chas 

Stanley, L 

Stewart, Duncan 

Stewart, D. R 

Stethun, H 

Stellar, Fred 

Strang, Philip 

Storey, S 

Stringer, David 

Stuart, H. B.... 

Disbursements 



Sully, Ed 

Symington, Wm . . , 

Tang, Jno 

Disbursements 



Terry berry, L. E. . 
Disbursements 



Todd, Chas , 

Disbursements 



Todd, J. E 

Disbursements . 



Thibert, Phil 

Disbursements . 

■fremblav, Jos. . . . 
Disbursements . 



Tompkins, Jno. H . . . 
Thessalon Lumber Co. 

Thomap, Jas 

Thomson, R. D 

do 



.1906 
.1907 



Thomson, Jas 

Disbursements . 



Thompson, Chas. R. 

'Ihompson, Geo. S.. 

Thompson, Milton . . 

Disbursements . . 



Thompson, Wm 1906 

Tulloch, L. G. 

Turner Lumber Co 

Tyson, Wm 



Carried Jorxoard. 



335 00 
31 10 



355 00 
9 50 



337 50 
22 80 



270 00 
2 20 



307 50 
29 08 



295 00 
6 00 



355 00 
9 40 



131 00 
131 00 



290 00 
23 25 



345 00 
17 60 



t c. 



84,061 40 



128 00 
88 00 

105 00 
43 00 

127 00 
82 25 
88 00 
79 00 

116 00 

290 00 
42 00 
91 00 

113 00 
78 00 



366 10 
108 00 
131 00 



364 56 
360 30 
272 20 
336 58 
301 00 



364 40 

391 00 

81 00 

109 00 



262 00 



313 26 
347 50 
104 00 



362 60 
131 00 
124 00 
7 25 
110 00 



90,466 33 



I c. 



114,204 95 



114.204 95 



28 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



APPEDIDIX No. 6.— Continued. 



Name. 



Brought forward . 



Fire Ranging.— CowHnucd. 



Tyson, Thos 

TJrquhart, A 

Valliant, G 

Vallentyne, D 

Vernette, Jno 

Vien, Michael 1905 

Villiers, C 

Volker, P. D 

Wallace, Samuel 

Wallace, Jno 

Wales, T 

Walsh, Jas 1906 

do 1907 



Watts, Geo., disbursements. 

Warrington, G. A 

Disbursements 



Watson, W. V . . . . 
Disbursements 

Watson, Geo 

Wandby, Bert .... 

Wickens, Hy 

Disbursements 



Wilford, E. C 

Disbursements 

Williamson, Robt., 
Disbursements . 



Wilkins, Geo 

Williams, A . D 

Wilson, R. D 

Wilson, Daniel 

Wilson, Dave 

Windle, Jno 1906 

Winters, Jno. W 

Woilford, A 

Woodcock, Geo 

Disbursements 



Woollings, Jos 

Wray, J. S 

Disbursements 



Wright, J 

Disbursements . 

Wright, CM 

Disbursements 



Carried forward. 



131 00 
181 00 



222 50 
23 35 



140 00 
31 00 



81 00 
57 50 

287 50 
29 20 



325 00 
6 50 



345 00 
30 10 



340 00 
32 00 



87 00 
94 40 



307 50 
26 28 



90,466 33 



124 00 
532 00 
131 00 

32 00 
131 00 
131 00 

91 00 

79 00 
104 00 
104 00 

67 00 



262 00 
299 75 



246 85 



171 00 
49 00 
17 00 



138 50 



-316 70 



331 50 
444 00 

31 00 
142 50 
121 00 

15 00 
131 00 
131 00 

66 00 



375 10 
327 50 



372 00 
181 40 
333 78 



3,494 91 



I c. 



114,204 95 



114,204 95 



1907 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 



29 



APPENDIX No. 6.— Continued. 



Name. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


1 e. 


Brought forward 


98,494 91 

410 60 

91 00 

131 00 

107 00 

1,000 00 
478 03 

1,052 73 


114,204 95 


Fire Ranging. — Continued. 
AVright, Colin 


370 00 
40 60 


Disbursements 

Yandon, Jas 




Yuill, J. A '. 






Young, ThoB 






BSLLKVILLE AsSAY OfFICK. 

Burrows, A. G 

Turner, N. L 

Emburv, W. J 

Barlow!! H. C 


. . . salary 
. . salary 

... clerk 


333 00 
667 00 

268 28 
209 75 


97,234 51 








Supplies . . . *. .... 


537 36 
343 24 
172 1.3 

383 65 

529 74 




Disbursements 




Equipment 

Mining Development. 

Exploration . 

Bowen, N. L 

Disbursements 


. services 

services 

. services 

. services 

. services 

. services 

. services 
. services 

services 

.services 

. services 

1 


2,530 76 


913 39 

336 15 

551 74 

336 55 

377 10 

308 89 
178 86 

1,618 98 
851 61 

1,187 62 
134 82 


Boyd, D. G specia 


100 00 
236 15 






338 46 
213 28 




Disbursements 




Goodwin, Wm 

Disbursements 


317 30 
19 25 




Hore, R. E 

Disbursements 


350 00 
27 10 




Kidd, G. E 


284 29 
24 60 




Mitchell, A. C 






Moore, E. S 

Disbursements 


712 54 
906 44 




Disbursements 


447 11 
404 50 




Rogers, W. R 

Disbursements 


654 84 
532 78 




r^ogers, F. C 

Disbursements 


105 77 
29 05 












6,795 71 


218,970 22 











30 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



ATTENDIX No. 6.— Continued. 



Name. 



Brought forward . . . , 
Mining Development.- 



-Continued- ' 

Kothwell, T. E eervices 

Disbursements 

Stewart, R. B services 

Disbursements 



Whitson, J. F disbursements 

Baker, M. B do 

Chester, Thos do 



Advertising 

Printing and stationery . 
Express 



Mining Recorders. 

Belyea, C. W services 

Disbursements 



Bowker, S. T 

Disbursements 



Hough, J. A services 

Browning, A. J do 

McEachren, F. Y do 

Jeffrey, W. H do 

Disbursements 



Lemieux, F. F 

Disbursements 



Morgan, J. W services 

Disbursements 

Macphail, A lex services 

Disbursements 

McQuire, H. F services 

Disbursements 

McArthur, T. A services 

McLaren, Miss K do 

Disbursements 

Smith, Geo. T services 

McAuley, N. J do 

Bruce, A . E . D do 

Ferguson, R. A do 

Meagher, T . J do 

Monroe, Miss E. L do 

Smith, Miss M. H. do 

Morgan, Miss Kate. do 

Marshall, J. A disbursements 

Disbursements 



Torrance, Thos. H., services 
Carried forward . . 



414 26 
638 61 



360 39 
3 65 



25 55 

13 85 

6 50 



15 00 
930 48 
205 47 



500 00 
84 00 



636 70 
312 48 



907 06 

470 20 

105 77 

53 46 

1,696 56 



636 70 
146 13 


525 00 
390 84 


516 60 
1,195 37 


500 00 
190 20 


1,109 60 
421 33 
499 30 



2,000 00 
1,200 00 
826 72 
850 00 
603 75 
246 92 
480 00 
297 50 
36 45 
125 93 



384 60 



•384 60 



$ c. 



6,795 71 

1,052 87 
364 04 

45 90 

1,150 95 

584 00 
949 18 

3,233 05 

782 83 
916 84 

1,711 97 
690 20 

2,030 23 



$ c. 



213,970 22 



6,667 27 



26,974 04 



213,970 22 



1907 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 



31 



APPENDIX No. 6.— Continued. 



Name. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


Brought foncard 

Mining Recorders. — Continued. 
Williamson, Wallace, do 


384 60 

374 23 

175 00 
796 31 


26,974 04 

1,730 14 

5,168 34 

2,350 57 

1,619 21 

3,247 45 

822 94 

813 62 

782 74 

1,291 84 
71 50 

1,098 16 
2,550 25 
543 07 
4,960 62 
1,925 57 
1,586 24 

2,288 66 


213,970 22 


Knapp 

Disbursements 




Mining Commissioner. 
Price, S. , services 


3,000 00 
2,168 34 • 

930 40 
1,420 17 




Disbursements 

Mining Inspeciors. 

Bartlett, Jas . , services 

Disbursements 




Burrows, A. G. , services , 

Disbursements 


1,066 67 
552 54 




Corkill, E. T., services 

Disbursements 


2,000 00 
1,247 45 




Houston, D. W., services 

Disbursements 

Irwin, R. T., services 

Disbursements 

McLaren, Geo. R., services 

Disbursements 


689 29 
133 65 

698 97 
114 65 

689 29 
93 45 




MacKenzie, G. C, services 

Disbursements 


881 60 
410 24 




Murray, C. W., services 

Disbursements 


750 00 
348 15 




Robinson, A. H. A., services 


1,900 00 
650 25 

471 62 
71 45 

4,000 00 
960 6z 




Disbursements 

Wade, E., services 




Disbursements 




Miller, G. W. , services 

Disbursements 




Knight, C. W., services 

Disbursements 


1,581 26 
844 31 








Coleman, A. P. , services 

Disbursements 


500 00 
1,086 24 




Supplementary Revenue. 
Mickle, G. R . , services 


1,793 86 
494 80 




Disbursements 










Carried forward 


59,819 95 


213,970 22 







32 



REPORT OF THE 



No. S 



APPENDIX No. 6.— Continued. 



Name. 


$ c. 


% c. 


1 c. 


Brought forward 




59,819 95 

463 20 

402 80 


213,970 21 


Supplementary Revenue . — Continued. 
Scott, Jno. , services 


313 46 
149 74 

300 00 
102 80 


Disbursements , . . . 




Toyne, Jno. , services 




DisbursementB 










16 00 

26 70 


60,685 95 


Cullers' Act. 
Currie, D. H. , services 


42 70 

10 50 

8 00 

23 50 

22 30 

4 80 

8 40 


DisbursementB 




McDougall, J. T., disbursements 






McNabb, A. D. , services 






Margach, Wm., diabursements 






Oliver, J. A., disbursements 






Watts, Geo. , disbursements 






Advertising 








310 00 
17 60 


120 20 


Forest Reservb. 

Temagami Reserve. 

Baker, H. W 


327 60 

849 10 

130 85 

377 90 

349 90 

358 20 

383 90 

330 30 

340 10 
86 00 

309 60 ; 




DisbursementB 




Bayliss, J. W 

Disbursements 


327 60 
21 60 




Bickford, L. D 

Disbursements •. 


117 50 
13 35 




Bracken, E. J 

Disbursements 


345 00 
32 90 




Byers, Jas. C 

Disbursements 


339 00 
19 90 




Carruthers, R. A 

Disbursements 


340 00 
18 20 




Cornett; W. F 

Disbursements 


350 00 
33 90 




Currey, D. V ' 

Disbursements 


310 00 
20 30 








Delbec, Trefles 

Disbursements 


332 50 

7 60 




Davidson, Ernest 






Davidson, Geo. T 

Disbursements 


290 00 
19 60 
















3,342 45 


274,776 57 









mr, 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS. FORESTS AND MINES. 



33 



APPENDIX No. 6.—€onUnued. 



Name. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


Brought forward 




3,342 45 

358 70 

336 65 

376 70 
1 00 

407 «0 

382 16 

284 90 

161 05 
16 35 

340 10 

286 20 
1 00 

325 05 
525 00 

368 60 

2,124 91 

249 10 

273 «0 

422 60 

385 40 


274,776 37 


Forest Reserve — Continued 

Temagami Reserve. — Continued. ' 

Deacon, Wm. A 

Disbursements 


350 00 
8 70 


Dion, A 


330 00 
6 65 

347 50 
29 20 




Disbursements 




Duff, Job 




Disbursements 




Dyson, T. W 






Ellis, John 


400 00 
7 00 




Disbursements 




Ellis, Richard, J 


347 50 
34 65 

277 50 
7 4« 




Disbursements 




French, Jno. J 




Disbursements 








Gondro, A 


155 00 
6 06 




Disbursements 




Hamilton, C. D 






832 60 

7 60 




Disbursements 








Jenks, Jas 


277 50 
8 70 




Disbursements ! 








Johnson, A 






Kellv, C. B 


305 00 
20 05 












Lemarche, Alphonse 






Loucks, R. W. E 


345 00 
23 60 




Disbursements 




Disbursements 


1,300 00 
824 91 




Mason, Basil 


227 60 
21 60 








Miliigan, Frank 

Disbursements 


250 00 
23 60 








Montgomery, Alex 


405 00 
17 50 




Disbursements 




Disbursements 


350 00 
35 40 










Carried forward i 


10,968 41 


274,776 37 







34 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



APPENDIX No. 6.— Continued. 



Name. 


$ 0. 


$ c. . 


5 c. 


Brought forward 




10,968 41 

484 20 

• 353 80 

390 65 
400 00 

293 10 

430 30 

321 70 

371 10 

148 10 
475 00 

233 10 

336 55 

373 70 

140 80 

366 35 

1 00 

1 00 

312 50 

75 00 

25 00 

347 65 

411 20 

311 20 


274,776 37 


Forest ^YiSKRVY^.— Continued. 
Temagami Reserve. — Continued. 

McGregor, Peter 

Disbursements 


475 00 
9 20 




McLean, Jae. M 

Disbursements 

Parke, T. F 


330 00 
23 80 

350 00 
40 65 




Disbursements '. 




Petrant, Wm 






Pratt, Henry L • 


270 00 
23 10 

392 50 
37 80 




Disbursements 

Prudholmme, Adolph 

Disbursements 




Ranger, T 


310 00 
11 70 




Disbursements 








Reed, Wm 


347 50 
23 60 




Disbursements 








Rochefort, Patrice 


145 00 
3 10 




Disbursements 




Rochon, Jos 




Rodden, Jno. J , . 


230 00 
3 10 

317' 50 
19 05 








Ross, Douglas H 




Disbursements 








Shields, W. J 


370 00 
3 70 












Shortt, W. F 


120 00 
20 80 




Disbursements 




Smith, Frank L 


340 00 
26 35 














Stairs, G 






Turner, John 






Turner, Jos 






Tufts, Robt 






Tytler, Norman B 


330 00 
17 65 




Disbursements 








Vivervais, D 


402 50 
8 70 




Disbursements . . . 








Williams, Chas 


307 50 
3 70 


















Carried forward 


17,571 41 


274,776 37 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 



35 



APPENDIX No. 6.— Continued. 



Name. 


$ c. 


f c. 


$ c. 


Brought forward 

; FoREBT Reserve.— Continued. 
Temagami Reserve. — Continued 
Woodhouse, R 




17,571 41 

1 00 
267 30 

1,182 06 
232 50 

370 90 

372 90 

338 40 

365 65 

360 90 
398 85 
384 15 
437 90 
354 80 
372 40 
334 05 
368 90 
356 45 

361 65 


274,776 37 


Young, C. S 

Diebursements 


255 00 
12 30 




Metogami Reserve. 
Burden, J no 


664 00 
518 06 




Disbursements 








Chanabois, Sandy . . 






Chown, W. D 

Disbursements 


346 00 
25 90 




Duff, Alex. C 

Disbursements 


347 50 
25 40 




Goldie, D. M 

Disbursements 


312 50 
25 90 




Haywood, A . K 

Disbtirsements 


337 50 

28 15 




Hill, Harold 


335 00 
25 90 




Disbursements 




Hunter, Frank 

Disbursements 


372 50 
26 35 




Kennedy, Gordon M 


355 00 
29 15 




Disbursements 




Kent, Hubert 

Disbursements 


410 00 
27 90 




Kersey, Robert R 


330 00 
24 80 




Disbursements 




Quail, James 

Disbursements 


345 00 

27 40 




Robertson, A. D • 

Disbursements 


307 50 
26 55 




Ryerson, E. E 

Disbursements 

Stutt, H. G 

Disbursements 

Webb, C. E 

Disbursements 


345 00 
23 90 

325 00 
31 45 

335 00 
26 65 










Carried forward 


24,432 17 


274,776 37 








36 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



APPENDIX No. 6.— Continued. 



Name. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


Brought forward 




24,432 17 

391 50 
228 40 
216 10 
381 15 
332 15 

389 00 
1,086 99 

388 90 
262 60 
396 20 
302 25 
351 45 

390 45 
222 50 
318 90 
390 90 
302 10 
310 35 


274.776 37 


FoRisT Resbhvb. — Continued. 

Mis,msaga Reserve. 

Albright, Lewis 

Disbursements 


372 50 
19 00 








Darroch, John 

Disbursements 


212 50 
15 90 




Dey, W. F 

Disbursements 


197 50 
18 60 




Hall, Morton E 


355 00 
26 15 

317 50 
14 65 

362 50 
26 50 




Disbursements 

James, G. Albert 

Disbursements 

Keys, W. Ralph 




Disbursements 




Kinney, Wm 

Disbursements 


656 00 
430 99 

365 00 
23 90 

232 50 
30 10 

362 50 
33 70 








Disbursements 




Lee, Jas. W 




Disbursements 




Disbursements 




Manzer, Emerson J 


287 50 
14 75 

337 50 
13 95 

355 00 
3,S 45 

197 50 
25 00 




Disbursements 








Disbursements 




Marshall, J. F. S 

Disbursements 








Disbursements 








Moorehouse, V. H. K 

Disbursements 


295 00 
23 90 








Omelia, H. S 


365 00 
25 90 




Disbursements 




Playfair, A. W 

Disbursements 


290 00 
12 10 








Richardson, Lome W 


292 50 

17 85 




Disbursements :..■ 










CaTTied forward 


31,094 06 


274,776 37 







1907 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 



37 



APPENDIX No. 6.— Continued. 



Name. 


. $ c. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


Bvouoht foTWurd 




31,094 06 

174 45 

361 60 
341 05 
392 30 
361 10 
346 30 
364 35 
248 10 
170 50 
380 60 

371 10 * 
2,575 61 

372 40 
301 60 
386 00 
286 30 
288 30 


274,776 37 


FoRKST Reserve. — Continued. 

Mississaga Reserve. — Cor< iinued. 

Westby, W. R 

Disbursements .... 


87 50 
86 95 


Nepigon Reserve. 

Adams, W . F . Morris 

Disbursements 


292 50 
69 10 




Armstrong, W. H 

Disbursements 

Bonnvcastle, R . H 


285 00 

56 05 

335 00 

57 30 

290 00 
71 10 




Disbursements 

Burns, W. S 

Disbursements 




Dowling, Chas 

Disbursements : 


285 00 
61 30 




Drope, Harry E 

Disbursements 


292 50 
61 85 




Evans, R . Ramsay 

Disbursements 


195 00 
53 10 




Qiffler, W . G 


162 50 
8 00 




Disbursements 








Helliwell, Paul 

Disbursements 


320 00 
60 60 




Holton, Geo. H 

Disbursements 


297 50 
73 60 




Leitch, Peter A 


1,131 25 
1,444 36 




DiebursementB 




Disbursements 


297 50 
74 90 




Marter, Fred M 


242 50 
59 10 




Disbursements 




Moyer, L. Clare 

Disbursements 


317 50 

68 50 




McNeil, E. H 

Disbursements 


- 242 50 
43 80 




Nesbitt, M 

Disbursements 


232 50 
55 80 










Carried forward 


38,805 72 


274,778 37 









38 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



APPENDIX No. 6.— Continued. 



Name. 



Brought forward 

Forest Reservb. — Continued. 
Nepigon Reserve. — Continued. 



PoisBon, Paul 

Disbursements 

Robertson, Fred. A 
Diebureements 

Stirrett, J. T 

Disbursements . 



Tichborne, A 

Disbursements 



Eastern Reserve . 



Godkin, J. A 

Mills, G. G., jr..., 
Disbursements 

Mills, S. G 

Disbursements 



McGregor, Chas . . . 

Tapping, Thos 

Disbursements 



Sibfey Reserve. . 



Oliver, J. A. 



Surveys 

Board op Surveyors 

Gillies limits." 

Mineral Collections 

Refunds 

Contingencies. 
Bureau of Mines. 



Printing and Binding . 
Stationery and Papers . 



Postage 

Telegraphing 

Express and cartage. 



Advertising . 
Subscription 



Carried forward 



$ c. 



300 00 
68 80 



320 00 
58 10 



337 50 

42 10 



232 50 
51 40 



265 00 
14 40 



300 00 
18 40 



400 00 
33 30 



2,319 80 
3,147 66 



372 48 
273 64 

128 77 



3,047 02 
103 95 



3,150 97 



? c. 



38,805 72 



368 80 

378 10 

379 60 
283 90 
272 50 
279 40 



318 40 
265 00 



433 30 
100 00 



5,467 46 



774 89 



$ c. 



274,776 37 



41,884 72 

162,479 91 

200 00 

30,686 60 

70 00 

23,621 06 



6,212 35 I 533,718 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 



39 



APPENDIX No. 6.— Concluded. 



Name. 



Brought forward 

Contingencies. — Continued. 
Bureau of Mines . — Continued. 



Books 
Maps . 



Gibson, Thos. W., traveling expenses 
Lount, H. M., do 



Typewriter repairs, etc 

Bell Telephone Co., messages. 



Extra clerks 

Denton, Dunn and Boultbee, legal expenses 
Bicknell and Co., do 
McDougall, J. Lome, do 
Price, Samuel, do 
Sundries 



Departmental. 



Printing and binding. 
Stationery 



Postage 
Express 



Telegraphing 

Telephone messages. 

Telephone rent 

Cab hire 

Car fare 



Subscriptions 
Advertising. . 



Typewriter, rents and repairs 

Whitson, J. F., traveling expenses. 
Yates, Geo. W., do 

Ledger, W. R., do 



Extra clerks 

Hearst, W. H., legal expenses 
Sundries 



$ c. 



3,150 97 



530 84 
871 53 


41 27 
106 42 


12 50 
3 45 



250 00 
226 34 
124 90 
500 00 
30 60 



2,982 47 
6,895 11 



2,257 76 
306 21 



584 67 

18 25 

30 00 

3 50 

70 00 



233 15 

7,751 29 



18 60 

lOL 17 

5 50 



25 00 
66 05 



6,242 35 



4,553 34 
147 69 



15 95 
3,118 29 



1,131 84 

9,877 58 
2,562 97 

706 42 



7,984 44 
451 75 



125 27 

7,872 23 



91 05 



$ c. 



533,718 66 



15,209 46 



29,671 71 
578,599 83 



D. GEO. ROSS, 

Accountant. 



AUBREY WHITE, 

Deputy Minister. 



4 L.M. 



40 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



APPENDIX No. 7. 



Statement of Expenses on account of various Services, under the direction of the Department 
of Lands, Forests and Mines, for the year 1907. 



Name. 



Diamond Drill. 



Roche, E. K., salary 
Disbursements . . 



Mackenzie, R. J., salary. 
Disbursements 



MacVicar, J. A., salary. 
Disbursements 



Labor 

Freight, express, etc. 
Advertising 



Supplies 

Carbons 

Drill furnishings 



Mining Schools 

Algonquin Park 

Rondeau Park 

Temagami Timber Cutting.. 

English Journalists 

Veterans' Commutation . . .\ 
Canadian Mining Institute. 



1,749 96 
140 59 



190 00 
241 75 


643 47 

213 42 



3,599 45 

359 58 

5 03 



1,865 99 

3,424 85 

904 94 



1,890 55 



431 75 



856 89 



3.964 06 



6,195 78 



13,339 03 
1,155 46 

11,16« 48 
3,508 96 
1,560 10 
3,376 49 

46,850 00 
1,000 00 



81,956 60 



D. GEO. ROSS, 

Accountant. 



AUBREY WHITE, 

Deputy Minitter. 



4a L. M. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 41 

APPENDIX No. 8. 

WOODS AND FORESTS. 

Statement of revenue collected during year ending December 31st, 1907. 



Amount of western collections at department 
do do Quebec . . . . 

do of Belleville collections 

do of Ottawa collections 



$ 980,922 46 

37,673 54 

49,084 99 

151,370 33 



$1,219,051 32 



J. A. G, Crozier, Aubrey Whiti, 

Chief Clerk in charge. Deputy Minister. 



APPENDIX No. g. 

PATENTS BRANCH. 

Statement of Patents, etc., issued by the Patents Branch during the year 1907. 



Crown Lands . 670 

School do 49 

Mining do 286 

Public do (Late Clergy Reserves) 14 

Free Grant Lands (A. A. ) 91 

do (under Act of 1880) 323 

Rainy River Lands (Mining and Crown) 147 

Mining Leases 58 

Licenses of Occupation 17 

Rondeau Harbor Leases 5 

Crown Leasee 18 

Crown Lands (University) Patents 21 

Under Act of 1901 (Veterans) 1,024 

Temagarai Leases 4 

Pine Patents 3 

Total 2,730 



CHARLES S. JONES, AUBREY WHITE, 

Chief Clerk. Deputy Minister. 



42 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



APPENDIX 



Woods amd 
Statement of Timber and Amounts accrued from Timber Dues, Ground 





Area 
covered 

.by 
timber 
license 


Quantity and 


Agencies. 


Saw logs. 


Boom and Dimen 




Pine. 


Other. 


Pine 




Square 
miles. 


Pieces. 


Feet B. M. 


Pieces. 


FeetB.M. 


Pieces. 


Feet B. M. 


Western Timber 
District 

Belleville Timber 
District 

Ottawa Timber 
District 


11,741| 
1,233^ 
5,755 

18,730 


12,392,287 

389,404 

1,537,538 


556,957,014 

27,169,200 

153,886,264 


1,488,902 
342,561 
274,301 


53,984,471 

14,309,112 

9.999,335 


257,554 

3,883 

28,218 


33,507,027 
1,013,446 
5,227,670 




15,319,229 


738,012,478 


2,105,764 


78,292,918 


299,655 


39,748,143 



GENERAL STATEMENT 







Cord wood. 


u 
tn 

c 


H 

3 


Posts. 


A 


Agencies. 


Cedar. 


Hard. 


Soft. 


Telegrap 
Poles. 




Pieces. 


Lineal 
feet. 


Cords. 


Cords. 


Cords. 


Pieces. 


Cords. 


Pieces. 


Western Timber 
District 

Belleville Timber 
District 


5,051 


147,421 


11,379 


17,116 


20.156 
112 


1,958,683 
13,814 
15,043 


118 
163 
119 


4,847 
6,128 


Ottawa Timber 
District 




2,305 


454 


6,581 


4,806 










5,051 


149,726 


11,833 


23,697 


20,268 


1,987,540 


400 


15,781 



J. A. G. CROZIER, 

Chief Clerk in Charge. 



1907 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 



43 



No. 10. 

Forests . 

Rent, and Bonus during the year ending 31st December, 1907. 



Description of Timber. 



sion Timber. 


Square Timber. 


Pine. 


Pilea. 


Pile Timber. 


Other. 


Pine. 


Ash, Birch and 
Elm. 




Pieces. 


Feet B. M. 


Pieces. 


Cubic 
feet. 


Pieces. 


Cubic 
Feet. 


Lineal 
Feet. 


Lineal 
feet. 


Pieces. 


Feet 
B. M. 


40,179 
5,119 
6 902 


6,348,095 
784,430 
710,316 


20,120 


1,053,187 


Ash 66 
Birch 16 
Elm 1 


1,772 

642 

41 




218,128 


2,247 


193,386 










779 






















, 


52,200 


7,842,841 


20,120 


1,053,187 


Ash 66 
Birch 16 
Elm 1 


1,772 

642 

41 


779 


218,128 


2,247 


193,386 



OF TIMBER.— Confinued. 



pq 
t 


% 




Amounts Accrued. 






3 

Ph 








Cords. 


Cords. 


Transfer 
bonus. 


Interest. 


Trespass. 


Timber 
dues. 


Bonus. 


Ground 
rent. 


Total. 






$ c. 


% c. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


3,148 


67,080 


2,179 10 


3,303 45 


12,592 62 


1,035,427 03 


214,267 30 


41,727 00 


1,309,496 50 




45 


81 10 


283 79 


708 62 


37,430 62 
179,531 44 




4,074 00 


42,578 13 




4,010 


700 75 


73 94 


1,459 60 




19,217 00 


200,982 73 








3,148 


71,135 


2,960 95 


3,661 18 


14,760 84 


1,252,389 09 


214,267 30 


65,018 00 


1,553 057 36 



AUBREY WHITE, 

Deputy Minister. 



44 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



APPENDIX No. II. 

Statement of the work done in the Military Branch of the Department of Lands, Forests and 

Mines, during the year 1907. 



Letters received 9,200 

do written 8,600 

Certificates issued .- 550 

Maps issued in connection with certificates 2,500 

Forms issued 500 

Location Certificates issued 826 

Locations made 876 

Surrenders 1,016 

References for Patents issued , 1,044 



R. H. BROWNE, 

Clerk in Charge. 



AUBREY WHITE, 

Deputy Minister. 



APPENDIX No. 12. 

Statement of the number of Letters received and mailed by the Department 
in 1905, 1906 and 1907. 





Letters received. 


73 
01 

01 

C 

• »-( 

s 

1 


c 

o 
O 
h 

o 


t 

73 

o> 

c 
u 


1 


§8 


Year. 




S 
1 


op 

OCt4 


CO 

a 


O 

H 


Letters, circulars 
reports mailed 
Department. 


1905.... 
1906.... 
1907.... 


19,932 
21,525 
24,871 


8,018 
11,490 
13,463 


7,126 
9,620 
9,218 


4,000 

7,702 

10,060 


46,220 
50,337 
57,612 


53,100 
59,250 
63,120 


220 
262 

284 


60 
80 

92 


55,400 
60,000 
66,000 



FRANK YEIGH, 

Registrar. 



AUBREY WHITE, 

Deputy Minister. 



1907 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 



45 



Appendix No. 13. 



Statement showing the number of Locatees and of acres located, of purchasers and of acres 
sold ; of lots resumed for non-performance of the settlement duties ; and of patents issued 
under "The Free Grants and Homesteads Act," during the year 1907. 



Township. 


District 

or 
County. 


Agent. 


OQ 

o 
£ . 

Ph a) 

o g 
d— ' 


m 


i 

o 


73 
"o 

K 
CD 

1 


^ a 

O 3 

O »H 

5zi 


OQ 

c 
a> 

73 


Baxter 

Brunei . 


Muskoka 

u 
u 
a 

a 
(( 
i< 
(1 
i( 
i( 
(1 
u 
(< 

Haliburton 

Muskoka 


J. B. Brown, Bracebrldge 

i( 11 

II II 
<i II 
II It 
II ii 
II II 
II ii 
II II 
II II 
II II 
II II 
II ii 
ii II 
II II 
II II 
II II 
II 11 

l< X 

II l< 

11 11 

F. R. Powell, Parry Sound 

11 i< 

11 II 
II i< 
Ii 11 
II <i 
II (< 
<< i< 
<i 11 
II 11 
II II 
II II 
II 11 
II 11 
11 II 
II i< 

Dr. J . S . F.'-eebom, Magane- 
tawan 


13 

2 

4 
6 


J, 484 
200 
508 
695 


14 


86 


8 
2 
5 

7 


18 


Cardwell 






4 


Chaffey 

Draper 

Franklin 

Macaulay .... 
Medora 






1 








4 


494 


4 


15 


7 


5 


3 

1 
2 
2 

15 
3 

14 
2 
6 
9 
1 
3 
1 
8 

5 

- 9 

10 


300 
127 
387 
187 

1,877 
309 

1,757 
676 
504 

1,546 

85 

392 

103 

1,283 

901 
1,226 
1,296 






4 
1 
3 
2 
20 


'7 


Monck 






1 


Morrison 

Muskoka 

Mc Lean 

Oakley 

Ridout 

Ryde 


7 
4 

1 


98 
69 
40 


8 
5 
2 
3 


1 


14 


18 
5 


2 
2 


Sherbourne . . . 






2 


Sinclair 


1 


47 


11 

7 
5 

1 

7 

10 
9 
6 


3 


Stephenson . . . 
Stisted 


K 
(( 
(1 
(< 

Parry Sound . . 

(( 

i( 

(< 

(1 
(( 
i( 
(( 

K 

H 
(( 

U 

<l 
(( 
(1 
II 
II 
t < 

II 








14 


Watt 








Wood 






6 


Carling 

Christie 


7 


59 


16 
1 


Conger , . , 

Cowper 

Ferguson 

Folej' 

Kagernian 

Humphry 

Harrison 


3 

1 


27i 

8J 


9 


2 

4 
4 
2 


301 
550 
537 
263 




3 


3 

4 
1 

17 
2 
6 


85 
282 

^ 
50 
133 
19 


2 
6 
2 


11 
4 
2 


McOonkey 

M'Dougall 

Mc Kellar 


5 

7 
1 
5 
8 
1 
5 

4 
6 
3 
9 
5 
28 
7 
2 
6 
5 
5 


673 
783 
200 
797 
1,075 
208 
902 

338 

583 

295 

1,137 

886 

3,948 

1,029 

421 

680 

719 

500 


5 
5 


2 

9 


McKenzie 

Monteith 

Shawanaga 

Wilson 


3 
3 

18 


14 

114 

64 


5 
5 

"4 

3 

8 
4 
6 
4 
18 
3 


3 

6 

21 

4 


Chapman 


4 
3 


131 

78 


7 


Croft 

Ferrie 


<i 11 
II II 
11 11 
II II 

11 11 

II <i ■ 
11 11 
(1 II 

11 11 


3 
1 


Gurd 


2 
6 


27 
19 


4 


Lount 

Machar 


10 
5 


Mills 


2 


132 


4 


Pringle 


1 


Ryerson 

Spence 


1 


100 


5 
5 

4 


4 
3 


Strong 






4 











46 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Appendix No. 13. — Continued. 



Township. 


District 

or 
County. 


Agent. 


o 


03 

. o 


ft, 
"o 
6 


2 

EC 

c4 

"o 
o 




1 

. to 

0"" 


Armour 


Parry Sound. . 

t( 

(t 
(< 
(1 
i( 

Nipissing 

Parry Sound . . 

(( 
<< 

(( 

Haliburton 

(( 

i( 
11 
(( 
ti 
11 

Peterboro 

u 
tl 

<( 

(< 

Haliburton . . . 

Hastings 

(( 

(( 

(1 
(1 
i( 
(( 
11 
<( 
(( 
(1 
t( 

Renfrew 

It 

(( 
(1 

(1 
<( 


E. Handy, Emsdale 

(( <( 

a (1 
<i i< 
<< >( 

J. S. Scarlett, Powassan.. 
<( (( 

(< (( 

>( (1 

(( (< 

<< (1 

R. H. Baker, Minden... 

a (( 

H (1 

<( (( 
(I i( 
(( << 
(< i( 

T. G. Eastland, Apsley. . 
(< It 

It tt 

It (1 

tt tt 

Jas. Wilson, Kinmount 

11 11 

J . H . Anderson, Tory Hill 
11 11 

11 It 

t( It 

it it 

J. R. Tait, L'Aroable ... 

(1 11 

i< It 
It tl 
It tt 
tt tt 
tt tl 
tt It 
tt It 

Adam Prince, Wilno 

tt tt 

ft It 
It It 
It tt 
tt It 


2 
5 
5 

11 
3 

1 

15 
4 
26 
11 
10 
4 

1 
1 
1 
3 
2 
5 
2 

1 
4 
1 
2 

1 

3 

1 

3 

7 
3 
4 
6 

2 
2 
3 
6 
4 


309 
658 
880 
1,375 
400 
100 

1,922 
687 
4,356 
1,817 
1,210 
592 

96 
98 
151 
389 
183 
505 
160 

100 
440 
86 
292 
100 

204 
111 

387 
497 
325 
543 
890 

288 
200 
201 
654 
516 






3 

15 


3 


Bethune 

Jolv 


2 


43 


7 
3 


McMurrich . . . 

Perry 

Proudfoot . 


2 

2 


110 
200 


4 

7 
4 

5 

4 

28 

12 

11 

1 
8 
2 
4 
2 
4 
1 


5 

7 
6 


Chisholm . 






4 


Hardy 

Himsworth . . 

Laurier 

Nipissing 

Patterson 

Anson 


6 
6 
2 
6 
1 


65 
77 
15 
32 
20 


6 
6 
4 

7 
5 


Glamorgan . . . 

Hindon 

Lutterworth 








1 


4 


1 
3 


Minden 

Snowdon 


1 


4 


7 


Stanhope 

Austruther . . . 

Burleigh, N.D. 

" S.D. 


2 

2 


113 

78 


2 

4 
1 










Chandos 

Methuen 


2 


29 


3 

1 

6 

1 

3 
6 

"5 


2 
1 


Cavendish 

Galway 

Cardiff 


1 


3 


1 
3 






3 


Monmouth 






5 


Bangor 

McClure 

Wicklow 


3 
1 

1 


48 

4 

22 


1 
5 
2 

1 


Cashel 






1 
4 

7 
1 




Dungannon. . . 
Faraday 






? 


2 


219 


2 
3 


Limerick .... 








Mayo 

Monteagle 

Wollaston 


7 
7 


1,057 
748 






5 
6 




1 


8 


4 


Algona, S 

'• N.... 
Brougham — 
Brudenell .... 


2 

1 

3 

10 


290 

204 

407 

1,010 


4 
5 


"ios 


3 

1 


1 
1 






5 


1 










Grattan 


6 


542 






4 


1 



1907 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 



47 



Ajypendix No. 13. — Continued. 



Township. 



District 

or 
County. 



Agent. 



525 



o S 



w 






t- 


'd 










«( 


o 

CO 




-Q 






u 




odtS 


CIh 


eS 


■f-t 


U-l 


"*-' S 


o 


O 


C OD 


o 


o 


O ^ 


iz; 


S5 


Z 



&,-T3 

6-2 
^5 



(Griffith 

Hagarty 

Jones 

Lyell 

Lyndoch 

Matawatchan . 

Radcliffe 

Raglan 

Richards 

Sebastopol .... 

Sherwood 

Wilberforce . . 

Alice 

Buchanan (pt) 

Fraser 

Head 

Maria 

McKay (pt).. 

Petawawa 

Rolph 

Wylie (pt).... 

Bonfield 

Boulter (pt) . . 

Calvin 

Cameron (pt) . 

Ferris 

Lauder (pt). . . 

Mattawan 

Papineau 

Korah 

Parke 

Prince 

Plummer 

do add. 

St. Joseph lel'd 

Blake 

Conmee 

Crooks 

Dawson Rd. . . 

Dorion 

Gillies 

Gorham 

Lybster 

Marks 

Mclntyre 

McGregor 



Renfrew . 



Nipiseing. 
Renfrew . 



Renfrew. 



Nipissing 



Algoma 



Thunder Bay 



Adam Prince, Wilno. 



D. B. Warren, Pembroke. 



J. M. Deacon, Mattawa. 



H. N. Young, S. Ste. Marie 



Thos. Buchanan, Thessalon 



W, E. Whybourne, 

Marksville 

H. A. Keefer, Port Arthur. 



15 



1,301 
495 
945 
269 



1,897 
281 

1,491 
339 

2,049 



11 68 

4 624 

31 222 

2 267 



125 



73 
691 



294 

1,453 

1,069 

905 

746 

1,199 



156 
1,040 

331 



1,669 



1,320 

1,990 

352 

4,455 
1,284 
3,365 
2,565 
2,518 
2,786 
312 



73 



86 



133 



40 



159 
25 

8 
429 



19 



103 



166 
160 

ieo 

173 
182 
168 

7 
1 



19 



4S 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Appendix No. 13. — Continued. 



Township. 



District 

or 
County. 



Agent. 







£ 






a> 


C 




^ 

-S 


E 


01 


fc: 


(»T3 


cd 


g 


ft_2 


08 V 


a 


og 


oS 


o 


• O 


. o 




O— ' 


o — 


o 


^ 


Iz; 


;?; 



'o 



■2'^ 



o ^ 

55 



At: 

° i 

. 03 

;2i 



O'Connor 
Oliver . . 
PaipoongeN.R 
S.R 
Pardee . . . 
Pearson . . 

Scoble 

Strange . . . 



. Thunder Bay 



Atwood 

Hlue 

Curran ...... 

Dewart 

Dilke 

Morley 

McCrosson . . 

Nelles 

PattuUo 

Roseberry . . . 
Shenstone . . . 

Spohn 

Sutherland . . 

Sifton 

Tait 

Tovell 

Worth ington 

Aylsworth . . 
Barwick . . . . 

Burriss 

Carpenter . . . 

Crozier 

Dance . . 

Devlin 

Dobie 

Fleming . . . . 
Kingsford . . . 

Lash 

Mather 

Miscampbell . 



Potts 

Pratt 

Roddick . . 
Richardson 
Woodyatt . , 

Aubrey .... 

Eton , 

Langton 

Rugby 

Sanford ... 
Vanhorne . 



Rainy River 



H . A Keefer, Port Arthur 



Wm. Campbell, Stratton. 



Alex . McFayden) Emo . 



R. H. Prouger, Dryden 



27 



11 



17 



10 



19 



10 



4,270 

1,243 

652 

1,256 



2,731 
1,072 
1,516 



3,681 

814 

205 

60 

203 

3,505 

1,858 

885 



342 
2,433 
2,202 

320 
2,045 
6,539 



684 



210 



179 
13 
26 



248 



35 
137 

44 
124 
266 
128 



180 
17 



454 



2,495 
1,818 
1,506 
4,307 
324 
967 



3,104 

972 

1,453 

2,374 

966 
1,613 
160 
159 
154 

1,887 
1,743 



1,888 
1,495 



230 

6 

271 

257 

369 



12 



25 



234 

132 
188 
240 
44 
298 



78 

14 

536 

41 

1 

130 



40 



9351 
401 



200 
280 



1907 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 



49 



Appendix No. 13. — Concluded. 



Township. 


District 

or 
County. 


Agent. 


No. of persons 
located . 


No. of acres 
located. 


i 

a. 
d 


2 
'3 

03 

I 
6 


^-6 

O 0) 

~" s 
o2 


c 

d . 

a,T3 

•1 


Wainwright . . 
Zealand 

Melick 


Rainy River. . 

n 
i( 

Sudbury 

(( 

(( 

(( 

Algoma 

Sudbury 

u 
11 

<( 

l( 

(( 

l( 
(( 

Nipissing .... 
Sudbury 

Nipissing 

Sudbury 

Nipissing 

Sudbury 

Nipissing 

Nipissing 

Lennox and 
Addington. . 

Frontenac .... 

Lennox and 
Addington. . 

Frontenac 

(( 

K 
(( 


R. H. Pronger, Dryden . 

<( (( 

C . W. Belyea, Kenora .... 


10 
5 


1,271 
520 


2 
6 

6 
3 

2 


240 
635 

772 
56 

200 


1 
1 


3 

7 


Pellatt 

Balfour 

Blezard 


J. K. MacLennan, Sudbury 

(( <( 

it (< 
i( . (1 

K (( 
It (( 
<< (( 
(1 (1 
1( (( 

E. A. Wright, Warren .... 


8 

3 
12 

4 
18 


1,227 

454 
1,6«7 

653 
2,205 




,3 

4 
4 


Broder 

Capreol W. J. 

Chapleau 

Hanmer 

Garson 

Neelon 

Rayside 

Appleby 

Casimir 


2 
1 


27 

28 




2 
3 


3 
10 

7 

7 

1 


405 
1,323 
1,110 

996 

161 


1 
4 
1 
2 

3 

2 

1 


2 

22 
92 

45 

352 
316 
160 




2 

9 

14 

7 

3 


Dunnet 


U (( 










Hagar 

Jennings 

Kirkpatrick . . 
Ratter 


l< (( 










• < >< 














(( (( 






1 
1 

3 


156 
160 

448 






J. A. Philion, Sturgeon Falls 

(( <i 

(< (< 

4< (( 

Unattached 


1 


160 






Caldwell 






Cosby 

Grant 






















Macpherson . . 
Martland .... 


















2 
4 


260 
480 






Springer 

Sabine 










4 

2 
2 

1 


800 

200 
248 

191 




4 


Abinger 


Chas. Both, Denbigh 

(( K 

(( (1 
<( It 










Clarendon (pt) 
Denbigh 


1 


4 




1 
1 


Canonto S . . . . 










" N.... 


(1 U 














Miller (pt) ... 
PalmerstonCpt) 


Total 


1 


100 










1 95 




















1,282 1«0 8fi4 


393 


16 608 1 970 


736 












■ 





W. C. CAIN, 

Clerk in Charge. 



AUBREY WHITE, 

Deputy Minister. 



50 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



APPENDIX No. U. 
Statement of Municipal Surveys for which instructions issued during the year 1907. 



No. 



Name of Sur- \ -^ 
veyor. 



H. J. Bowman. 



Thos. Byrne. 



E. T. Wilkie..., 



660 



fk 'Date of 
instructions. 



August 7, 1907. 



Description of Survey. 



661 



662 



September 24. 

1907 ; 



October 3, 1907 



To survey the original road allow- 
ance between the 3rd and 4th 
concessions of the township of 
Garafraxa, situate between the 
east, otherwise called the north- 
east halves of lots 11, 12 and 13, 
in the 3rd concession, and the 
west, otherwise called the south- 
west halves of lots 11, 12 and 13, 
in the 4th concession, of the said 
township, and to have the said 
road allowance marked by per 
manent stone or iron boundaries ; 
and if the original monuments 
cannot be found at the corners of 
these lots to make the survey 
between the nearest undisputed 
points on said road allowance. 

To survey the block of land situate 
in the town of Blind River bound- 
ed by Michigan Ave.,Hanes Ave., 
Lakeside Ave., and Centre Street, 
and to define the same by per- 
manent monuments planted at 
the angles of the said block as 
well as elsewhere along the lines 
of said block as may be necessary 
Enclosed herewith is a part of 
plan No. 180 of the town of Blind 
River, showing with a red cross 
the angles of the said block, which 
has been forwarded to this De- 
partment by the Municipal Coun- 
cil of Blind River. 

To survey the line between lots 5 
and 6, concession 3, in the town- 
ship of Hinchinbrooke, in the 
county of Frontenac, and to plant 
permanent monuments at the 
front and rear angles of said line. 



Date when con- 
firmed R. S. O., 
1897, Cap. 181, 
sees. 10 to 15 in- 
clusive. 



GEORGE B. KIRKPATRICK, 

Director of Surveys . 



AUBREY WHITE, 

Deputy Minister Lands and Forests. 



1907 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 



51 



APPENDIX No. 16. 

Statement of Municipal Surveys confirmed during the year 1907. 



No. 



Name of Sur- 
veyor. 



No. 



■ Date of ' 
Instructions.' 



Description of Survey. 

,■"13 

■JS bi 



Date when con- 
firmed under R. 
S. O., 1897, chap. 
181, sees. 10 to 15 
inclusive, i 



A. S. Code. 



659 



March 23, 1907 



To survey the allowance for road 
between the rear of lots on the 
Middle Road and the 3rd con- 
cession extending from the town 
line between the townships of 
Aldborough and Orford, north- 
westerly across lots 1, 2 and part 
of 3, to a point where the devia- 
tion of the concession road allow- 
ance between the 3rd and 4th 
concessions of Orford strikes said 
road allowance in rear of the lots 
along the Middle Road, and to 
have the said road allowance 
marked on either side by per- 
manent monuments. 



October 14th, 
1«07. 



GEORGE B. 



KIRKPATRICK, 

Director of Surveys. 



AUBREY WHITE, 

Deputy Minister Lands and Forests. 



52 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



APPENDIX No. 16. 
Statement of Crown Surveys in progress during the year 1907. 



Date of 
Instructions. 



May 31, 1906. 
July 10, 1907. 
July 10, 1907. 
May 6, 1907. 
May 6, 1907. 
May 6, 1907. 
May 6, 1907. 
May 30, 1907. 
May 25, 1907. 
May 20, 1907. 
May 30, 1907. 
May 20, 1907. 
May 20, 1907. 
June 16, 1907. 
June 16, 1907. 
May 6, 1907 
May 6, 1907 
May 27, 1907. 
Dec. 9, 1906. 

Oct. 21, 1907. 
April 18, 1907. 
May 15, 1907. 



Name of 
Surveyor. 



J. J. Francis .... 

J. H. Burd 

J. H. Burd 

Thomas Bryne . . 
Walter Beatty . . . 
Walter Beatty . . . 
E. D. Bolton ... 

J. S. Dobie 

T. Fawcett 

W. Galbraith . . . 

J. J. Dalton 

T. H. Dunn 

T. H. Dunn 

T. D. Green . . . . 
T- D. Green . . . . 
Jas. Hutcheon. . 
Jas . Hutcheon . . 
L. V. Rorke.... 
J. Cozens 

J. H. Smith 

E. Seager 

A. F. Wells.... 



Description of Survey. 



Survey of township of Temple, District of 

Rainy River 

Survey of township of Jamieeon, District 

of Algoma 

Survey of township of Jessop, District of 

Algoma ... 

Survey of township of Bayly, District of 

Nipissing 

Survey of township of Devitt, District of 

Algoma ; 

Survey of township of Staunton, District 

of Algoma 

Survey of township of Reaume, District of 

Algoma 

Survey of 3 blocks Thunder Ray branch, 

G.T.P. Ry., Rainy River 

Survey of 4 blocks Thunder Bay branch, 

G.T.P. Ry., Thunder Bay 

Survey of township of Leitch, District of 

Algoma 

Survey of 3 blocks Thunder Bay branch, 

G.T.P. Ry., Rainy River 

Survey of township of Mabee, District of 

Algoma 

Survey of township of Laidlaw, District of 

Algoma 

Survey of township of Mountjoy, District 

of Algoma 

Survey of township of Godfrey, District of 

Algoma 

Survey of township of Barker, District of 

Algoma 

Survey of township of Eibler, District of 

Algoma 

Survey of township outlines west of Mon 

treal River, District of Nipissing 

Survey of boundary, timber berth 22, 

range 10, north of Curtis, District of 

Algoma 

Survey of town site Smyth, District of 

Nipissing 

Survey of timber l)erths in Rainy River 

District 

Survey of township of Kennedy, District of 

Nipissing 



Amount 
paid. 



1,500 00 
1,750 00 
1,750 00 
2,000 00 
3,800 00 
3,800 00 
1,700 00 
5,550 00 
6,450 00 
4,000 00 
3,000 00 
2,650 00 
2,000 00 
2,450 00 
1,250 00 
2,800 00 
2,800 00 
7,500 00 

950 00 

500 00 

1,000 00 

4,500 00 



$6.^^,700 00 



GEORGE B. KIRKPATRICK, 

Director •f Survevs. 



AUBREY WHITE, 
Deputy Minister Lands and Forests. 



1907 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 



53 



APPENDIX No. 17. 
Statement of Crown Lands surveyed, completed and closed during the year 1907 . 




May 15th, 1906 
May 15th, 1906 
May 15th, 1906 
June 11th, 1906 
June 11th, 1906 
July 6th, 1906 
Dec. 29th, 1906 

Jan. 18th, 1907 
Feb. 1st, 1907 
Mar. 16th. 1907 
April 18th. 1907 

May 6th, 1907 
May 6th, 1907 
May 6th, 1907 

May 6th, 1907 
May 6th, 1907 
May 6th, 1907 
May 6th, 1907 
May 6th, 1907 
May 3l8t, 1907 



Walter Beatty . . . . 
Walter Beatty . . . . 

W. Galbraith 

T. J. Patten 

T. J. Patten 

E. Seager 

De Merest & Stull 

W. W. Stull 



Speight and Van 

Nostrand . . . . 

L. V. Rorke 



E. Seager. 



Speight and \'an 

Nostrand . . . . 

James L. Morris . 

Alex. Niven 



H. J. Beatty .... 
E. P. Bolton .... 
Cavana & Watson. 

A. S. Code 

J. W. Fitzgerald. 
DeMorest & Stull. 



June 11th. 1907 

June 11th, 1907 

June nth. 1907 
June 22nd, 1907 
July nth, 1907 
July 17th, 1907 



J.J. Newman ... 



T. J. Patten 



J. J. Newman . , . 

James Dickson . . . 
James Dickson . . . 
J. W. Fitzgerald. 



L. 0. Clarke . 



Survey of township of Gallagher, 
District of Algoma 

Survey of township of Strathearn, 
District of Algoma 

Survey of township of Clute, Dis- 
trict of Algoma 

Survey of portion of boundary be- 
tween Ontario and Quebec 

Survey of township of Bowyer, Dis- 
trict of Nipiseing 

Survey of township of. Redditt, Dis- 
trict of Rainy River 

Survey of timber berths WD 1 and 
WD 2, south of Ridout, District of 
Algoma 

Survey of water power on Sable 
River, District of Algoma 

Survey of timber berths west of 
Onaping Lake, District of Algoma 

Survey of residue of township of 
Coleman, District of Nipissing. . . 

Survey of timber berths on Eagle 
and Clear Water Lakes, District of 
Rainy River 

Survey of base and meridian lines 
District of Algoma 

Survey of township of McCowan 
District of Algoma 

Survey of boundary between Terri 
torial Districts of Algoma and 
Thunder Bay 

Survey of township of McCrae, Dis 
trict of Algoma 

Survey of township of Hanna, DiS' 
trict of Nipissing 

Survey of township of Colquhoun, 
District of Algoma 

Survey of the township of Glack 
meyer, District of Nipissing .... 

Survey of the township of Kendrey, 
District of Algoma 

Suivey of two blocks of timber 
south of Windemere Lake, Dis- 
trict of Algoma 

Survey of base and meridian lines 
near Larder Lake, District of 
Nipissing 

Survey of base line District of Nipis- 
sing (from north-east angle of Pur- 
vis to Int. boundary) 

Survey of base and meridian lines. 
District of Nipissing 

Inspection of surveys, 1907 

Transport of three canoes 

Survey of township of Macdiarmid, 
District of Algoma 

Survey of burnt areas north of 

township of Osborne, District of 

• Nipissing 



5) c. 
246 32 

76 76 

187 30 

3,087 73J 

2,010 10 

429 68 

1,251 69 

65 50 

1,414 85 

1,481 80 

853 70 

13,503 23 

5,190 30 

9,000 00 
5,185 10 
3,220 56 
5,611 50 
6,071 80 
6,066 90 

958 08 

1,294 18 

1,236 12 

8,163 65 

2,798 73 

11 25 

3,532 26 
471 04 



23,079 
22,522 
51,873 

22,935 
23,183i 



14,818 



51,903 

51,851 
23,004 
51,616 
51,718 
51,659 



23,088 



54 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



APPENDIX. No. 17.— Concluded. 



5 


Date of 
Instructions. 


Name of 
Surveyor. 


Description of Survey. 


Amount 
paid. 


No. of 
acres. 


•28 


June 14th 1907 
Dec. 30th, 1906 

July 23rd, 1907 
June 10th, 1907 


T. J. Patten 

A. T. Ward 

A. L. Russell 

Thomas Byrne .... 

James Dickson. . . . 


Survey of township of Purvis, Dis- 
trict of Nipissing 


2,708 86 

2,211 60 
864 87 

621 30 

40 00 
509 70 

7,747 50 
410 30 

25 00 
5 85 

136 50 
78 30 


15,746 


29 


Survey of timber berths on line of 
Transcontinental Railway, District 
of Rainy River 


30 


Survey of Dog Lake Dams in Dis- 
trict of Thunder Bay 




31 


To survey north boundary of Mulli- 
gan and boundary between Skead 
and Rattray 




32 


Amount for canoe purchased from 
A. J. Cameron 






C. Tarling & Co. , mounting maps . . 
E. H. Harcourt & Co., lithograph- 
ing maps 






Rice Lewis & Son, iron posts 

T. D. Wardlaw, survey water power 

on lot 9, con. 6, Macaulay 

Rice Lewis & Son, express on poets. 
Dr. Malcolm, services re drowning 

of Thos. Fletcher, of O.L.S. 

Code' s party 






King's Printer, stationery, 






98,779 91 


478,994J 



GEORGE B. KIRKPATRICK, 

Director of Surveys. 



AUBREY WHITE. 

Deputy Minister of Lands and Forests. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 55 



{Appendix No. 18.) 

Boundary Line between Algoma and Thunder Bay, North of Canadian 

Pacific Eailvvay 

Toronto, November 28th, 1907. 

Sir, — I have the honor to submit the following report on the survey of 
one hundred and twenty miles of the boundary line between the Districts 
of Algoma and Thunder Bay from its intersection with the Canadian Pacific 
Railway due north towards the Albany River, under instructions from your 
Department, dated, the 6th of May, 1907. 

I left Toronto on the fourth of June last and proceeded to White River 
Station on the Canadian Pacific Railway, the initial point of my survey, 
being about three miles west of that place, at the centre line of the said 
railway's right of way, where it is intersected by the meridian of eighty- 
degrees twenty minutes west longitude, as laid down by Ontario Land 
Surveyor, Thomas B. Speight, in October, 1902, said poixit of intersection 
being in latitude forty-eight degrees, thirty-six minutes and forty seconds 
north. 

After obtaining the necessary observations I commenced the survey on 
the 7th of June and ran north astronomically from day to day until the 
7th of September when the work was discontinued at the end of the one 
hundred and twentieth mile, the reason for this being that a number of the 
men in my employ were out of footwear and as the country was very wet 
from the almost continuous rainfall of the summer they refused to go farther. 

After caching the remainder of my supplies (about twenty-five hundred 
pounds), I returned via the English River, Long Lake and the Pic River to 
the Canadian Pacific Railway at Heron Bay, arriving there on the 20th of 
September and at Toronto two days later. 

I had a party of twenty-six all told, six of them being Indians and 
these were almost the whole time engaged in canoeing supplies from Monti- 
zambert to Obakamaga Lake and from* Heron Bay to English River where 
the line was to cross these waters. About ten of the men were engaged in 
packing the supplies and moving the camp outfit along the line. Mj? assist- 
ant was Walter Smith, O.L.S. of Lindsay and Mr. A. L. Parsons of Toronto 
University accompanied the party as geologist. 

The survey was made in accordance with instructions in every parti- 
cular. An iron post one and seven-eighths inches in diameter and three feet 
m length marked "Algoma" on the east, ''Thunder Bay" on the west and 
"R" on the south was planted along side a pitch pine post, similarly marked, 
six inches square and four and a half feet high in a stone mound at a dis- 
tance of two_ chains and twenty-four links north of the centre line of the 
railway on the northern limit of the right of way being one hundred feet 
from the centre line measured at right angles therefrom. 

Wooden posts were planted at the end of every mile marked with a 
scribe iron, the number of the miles on the south side, "A" on the east side 
and "T.B." on the west side, and at the end of every six miles an iron post 
was planted alongside the wooden post similarlj marked with a cold chisel, 
stone mounds were built around all posts whenever stones could be obtained 
and bearing trees taken, marked "B.T." and distance and direction noted 
from the post wherever there were trees standing. 

5 L. M, 



56 REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Where the end of a mile came in a lake or river, the posts were planted 
on the nearest land and distance noted. The line was well cut out and well 
blazed. 

Observations for Azimuth were frequently taken. The magnetic vari- 
ation of the needle was fairly steady at from two to four degrees west. 

General Description. 

The line for the first seventy-five miles passed through a rough rocky 
and broken country of little value for agricultural purposes. Hills from two 
hundred to four hundred feet and sometimes more in height were often met 
with. Large areas have been burnt over and timber blown down in many 
places making the work of getting a line through it or over it very difficult 
and the packing of supplies along the line a very expensive matter. 

Some groves of banksian pine (often called pitch or jack pine) fit for 
railway ties were met with, but as a rule the timber is not of much value 
along this part of the line. There is, however, a considerable amount of spruce 
fit for pulp wood in the swamps between the hills. 

The height of land between Lake Superior and Hudson's Bay was crossed 
on the thirty-first mile, a few chains south of Obakamaga Lake. 

The clay belt was entered on the eightieth mile and continued as far as 
the line was run, the timber being chiefly spruce from four to fourteen inches 
in diameter with tamarac, balm of Gilead, poplar, white birch and some 
cedar. There is not much of the latter however, in the country. It is 
mostly found along the rivers and creeks. Much of the land on these forty 
miles was covered with deep moss, but this can be easily burnt off as settle- 
ment takes place upon completion of the National Trans-continental Rail- 
way which was crossed on the ninety-seventh mile. No construction work has 
yet been done on this undertaking near the boundary line. 

The Pegutchewan River was crossed on the seventy-ninth mile. It 
was over two chains wide and quite deep, flowing easterly with rapid current 
and many rapids. 

Flint River on the one hundred and twelfth mile about two chains in 
width, joins the English River about two miles east of the line. 

The English River was ten chains wide where the line crossed it at the 
end of the one hundred and twelfth mile flowing to the Albany with 
rapid current over limestone rock. On this river there are many rapids 
and falls making it difficult to ascend with canoes, the distance to Long Lake 
being about sixty miles up stream. 

At the one hundred and twentieth mile the timber was spruce and tamarac 
and smaller than farther south. 

Numerous lakes were crossed on the first seventy-five miles of the line, 
many of them containing fish of the usual kinds, pike, pickerel, etc., speckled 
brook trout were met with in one stream on the thirty-ninth mile. Obaka- 
maga Lake on the thirty-first mile is a beautiful lake of clear water flowing 
to the Albany River and is on the canoe route from Montizambert Station 
on the Canadian Pacific Railway to the Albany River and Hudson's Bay. 

Game. 

Moose were frequently seen and a few cariboo. Partridge were not much 
in evidence, signs of fur bearing animals were often met with, otter, mink, 
marten, etc. The line passes through the trapping ground of the Indians 

oa L.M. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 57 



from the different reserves along the Canadian Pacific Railway and Lake 
Superior and Long Lake. A few bears were seen, but wolves were neither 
heard or seen. 

I saw no white or red pine in the country along the line. 
No minerals were met with. The Laurentian formation was the princi- 
pal rock along the line. The first limestone met with was at the Flint and 
English Rivers. There were no heavy frosts during the survey and the finest 
weather we had was during the first and second weeks of September. I 
thing the remainder of the line to Albany River could be best run during 
the winter. 

Herewith will be found the field notes and plan of survey and account 
in triplicate. 

I have the honor to be. 
Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

(Signed) Alexander Niven, 

Ontario Land Surveyor. 
The Honorable, 

The Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, 
Toronto, Ont. 



(Appendix No. 19.) 
Base and Meridian Lines, District of Algoma. 

Toronto, November 20th, 1907. 

Sir, — We have the honor to submit the following report on the survey 
of certain base and meridian lines forming the outlines of townships nine 
miles square, lying between Missanabie River and the western boundary of 
the Territorial District of Algoma, made by us during the past summer, 
under instructions from your department, dated 6th of May, 1907. 

The instructions were received on the 20th May, and we lost no time in 
completing the arrangement of details, but, owing to the unusually late 
opening of spring, it was found advisable to defer starting for a fortnight. 

With ten men from the County of York and vicinity we set out from 
Toronto on the 5th of -Tune and were joined by ten more men at Missanabie, 
from which point we went by canoe route about 150 miles to the starting 
point of the work. This journey was by way of Dog Lake, to the height of 
land and thence by Crooked Lake, Brunswick Lake and Missanabie River 
occupied from the 8th to the 18th of June and included twenty-eight port- 
ages. 

We commenced the survey on the 19th of June, at the end of the ninth 
mile of our meridian line run last season, north astronomwcally, from the 
northea.st angle of the township of Devitt, or the northwest angle of the 
township of Eilber. At the north end of this meridian, we found the tama- 
rac post six inches square referred to in the instructions marked **IX" on 
the south side and we re-planted the post, marking thereon the names of 
the adjoining townships of Sisk, Sankey, Mulvey and Shannon. Beside the 
tamarac post we planted an iron post one and seven-eighth inches in dia- 
meter and marked the names of the above four townships on both posts. 

Beginning the line at the northwest angle of the township of Sankey, 
we ran due east astronomically for a distance of nine miles on the chord 
of a parallel of latitude passing through the starting point, planting a 



REPORT OF THE No. 3 



wooden post at tlie end of each mile with the number of the mile marked on 
the west side. At the end of ninth mile we planted, beside the wooden post, 
an iron one, similar to the above noted and marked on the proper side of both 
posts, the names of the townships of Sisk and Sankey. 

Returning to our starting point we ran due west astronomically sixty- 
three miles of base line on nine mile chords of a parallel of latitude, 
planting a wooden post at the- end of each mile, and at intervals of ndue 
miles, iron posts were planted in addition. 

From the ends of the ninth, eighteenth, twenty-seventh, thirty-sixth, 
forty-fifth and fifty-fourth miles on this base line we ran meridian lines 
north and south, nine miles from the base line. On these lines, posts were 
planted at the end every one and one half miles corresponding with the depth 
of two concessions in the new system of township surveys and on these posts 
we marked the distance, north or south of the base line and at the end of 
ihe ninth mile of each meridian line we planted an iron post alongside the 
wooden post, so far as the supply of iron posts lasted. The south angles of 
the township of Studholme and the north angle of the township of Rogers 
were not marked by iron posts. 

An exceptionally rainy season impeded the progress of the work and the 
desertion of three of the packers, near the end of the season, added to the 
disabling of two other men by accidents, so crippled our transport services 
that we were unable to continue the work over the large stretch included in the 
instructions. We, therefore ran — by using flying camps — the west boundaries 
of the townships of Gill and Auden, but were obliged to leave unrun the 
twenty-seven miles of base line necessary to connect with the boundary be- 
tween the Territorial Districts of Algoma and Thunder Bay. 

All lines run were well opened out and blazed, and bearing trees were 
blazed and noted. 

Astronomical Qbservat^^ ons when required, wecre taken whenever the 
weather permitted, but during parts of the season the continuous cloudy and 
stormy weather rendered observations less frequent than was desirable. The 
ob nervations were not in all cases entered in the field notes. 

It may here be noted that the Azimuth Tables prepared by Mr. F. L. 
Blake for the Association of Ontario Land Surveyors and published in the 
Annual Report for 1906 were found of great service. 

Generai- Features. 

The tract embraced by this survey is eighteen miles wide by seventy-two 
miles long, being sixteen large townships with a total area of one thousand 
two hundred and ninety-six square miles or eight hundred and twenty-nine 
thousand, four hundred and forty acres. It lies in the valleys of the Mis- 
sanabie, Kabinagagami, and Nagagami Rivers and is distant from one hun- 
dred and twenty-five to one hundred and fifty miles by canoe route north 
frm that part of the Canadian Pacific Railway stretching from Missanabie 
Station to White River Station. Access is had by means of canoe routes on 
the three rivers above named, but all require experienced canoe-men for 
reasonable safe navigation. 

The surface is slightly more undulating and high lying than that lying 
to the south and east reported upon by us last season and the swamps are 
smaller in extent, notwithstanding the exceptionally wet season of 1907. At 
a rough estimate fifty per cent, would be considered high lying, and, where 
wet, easily drained, the remainder being also good land, but requiring good 
drainage. The trend of the rivers being northward the general slope is 
in that direction, the undulations paralleling the rivers. 



1907 i)I<:i'ARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 59 



Soil, 

The soil is chiefly clay and clay loam with rare instances of sandy 
ridges. With the exception of rapids in the rivers and the shores of the 
larger lakes, few outcroppings of rock were seen. 

Gravel was noted in one place and that in only small quantity. There 
is very little genuine muskeg, although the prevalence of moss would give 
one the impression that muskeg areas are numerous and large. As has been 
so frequently reported of the clay belt, the moss, resting as it does on solid 
clay, will readily be removed by fire when the land is required for settle- 
ment. Another feature noticed is the shallow hold, which the spruce and 
• tamarao forest trees have upon the heavy clay soil, so that the removal of 
slumps and roots when the land has been cleared, will be easily effected. An 
example of this was seen near the north boundary of the township of Sankey, 
east of the Missanab e River, where a tract two or three miles in extent had 
been burned for the second time, probably two years ago, and the moss and 
stumps almost completely cleared away, showing an area of good clay soil 
apparently ready for the plough. 

Drainage facilities will be found good as the numerous small streams 
tributory to the larger rivers have almost invariably a good rapid flow and 
fairly straight courses. 

Timber. 

Much of the country in this rej^ion was swept by fire about forty years 
ago, as we were informed by an Indian employed by us on the survey, and 
this statement was borne out by the rings of annual growth on the present 
timber. This timber is, of course, of comparatively small size, the growth 
being unusually dense. Spruce, tamarac, white poplar, white birch, 
bnlsam, and balm of gilead form the chief varieties and are in the 
above order as to predominance. Where the original forest remains, the 
timber is of larger size, particularly for a distance of one or two miles back 
from the rivers, where it again becomes somewhat inferior in size and qual- 
ity. The largest trees seen near the rivers measured three feet in diameter 
at the stumps, but as a rule the diameter is from twelve to twenty inches. A 
few cedars of inferior size and quality are found along the rivers and creeks. 

Water. 

Several fair sized lakes were seen. The Pewabiska (White Water) 
stretches from near the northwest corner of the township of Casgrain, across 
the breadth of the township of Hanlan and about half of the township of 
Stoddart, in four large bodies of water connected by "Narrows." This 
lake which has not hitherto been shown on official maps, is dotted with 
islands and contains abundance of pike, pickerel and whitefish. Apart from 
this, few lakes of importance were found, numerous lakes not being a 
characteristic of the clay belt. 

The three rivers mentioned are fairly well known as canoe routes and 
some d»y the numerous rapids and falls will be harnessed to furnish power 
and light. Taken in order of position from the east side of the tract sur- 
veyed, the main rivers are as follows : — The Missanabie, the Mattawishquia, 
the Pewabiska, the Kabinagagami, the Nagagami and Nagagamichi. 

The Missanabie, flowdng northerly across the townships of Sankey and 
Sisk, in a fine stream of good water, about five hundred feet in width and four 



60 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



to ten feet in depth with, clay banks from ten to fifteen feet high, its current 
at this part is estimated at from three to four miles an hour. Three large 
islands, known as Skunk Islands, are situate near the boundary between the 
two townships referred to. 

The Mattawishquia crosses the south boundary of the township of Cas- 
grain near its centre and, flowing in a devious north-easterly course, across 
the townships of Casgrain and Mulvey, joins the Missanabie about two and 
a half miles north of the south boundary of the township of Sankey. Its 
breadth is from two hundred to two hundred and fifty feet, and depth three 
to eight feet, with numerous rapids and good current generally. The clay 
banks on either side average eight to ten feet in height. 

The Pewabiska River has three distinct branches with their sources 
apparently in the townships of Stoddart, Hanlan and Casgrain respectively, 
the lake expansions of the same name as the river occurring in those three 
townships. Below these lakes the river has a breadth of about two hundred 
feet with a depth of from five to six feet. It crosses the township of Ritchie 
in a north-easterly direction, and at a distance of about twenty-five miles 
north-eastward, enters the Missanabie. 

The Kabinagagami, sometimes called the Mamattawan, enters the town- 
ship of Stuanolme about three miles west of its south-east angle, and flowing 
in a generally northward course, crosses the north boundary of the township 
of Fushimi, eventually emptying into English River at Mamattawan Post 
about thirty-five miles farther northwestward. The breadth of this stream is 
from three hundred to three hundred and fifty feet, and depth from four to 
ten feet, with banks from ten to fifteen feet high, and, unlike the Pewabiska, 
it has few islands and lake expansions. 

The Nagagami, which runs in a generally north direction, crosses the 
townships of McMillan, Fintry and Auden. Its breadth is from two hundred 
to two hundred and fifty feet, and depth about four feet, with rapid current. 
In the southern part of the township of McMillan, the banks are the usual 
clay, ten to fifteen feet high, but within the next four miles they rise to an 
altitude of from one hundred and forty feet to one hundred and fifty feet, 
decreasing again to fifty feet where the east boundary of the township of 
Fintry is crossed. 

The Nagagamichi, in the township of Gill, is a rapid stream from one 
hundred and eighty to two hundred feet in width, and four to six feet in 
depth. Rapids are numerous, and near the confluence with the Nagagami 
there is a fall of about fifty feet in height, the roar of which is heard at a 
distance of nine miles. 

We have no doubt that when these rivers are explored water powers of 
considerable importance will be found and the presence of lake expansions 
will give guarantee in most instances of continuity by storage. 

Minerals. 

With few exceptions, the rock formation noted is Huronian and no indi- 
cations of economic minerals were seen. 

Game. 

Moose, red deer and caribou were seen from time to time during the 
season, and bear, beaver and marten were fairly numerous. Nearly all the 
rivers and larger lakes contain fish in abundance, including pike, pickerel 
and white fish, with speckled trout in some of the smaller streams. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 61 



General Remarks. 

For agricultural purposes, the lands embraced by this season's Burvey are 
fully equal to that to the south and east reported upon by us last year, not 
less than seventy-five per cent, being good farm land, needing only clearing 
and in some cases draining. 

The National Transcontinental Railway line has been located in the 
townships of Hanlan, Stoddart, Studholme, Gill and McMillan, and when 
opened for traitic will give access to a vast area of fertile soil. 

Accompanying this report, are a general plan, field notes and triplicate 

account. 

We have the honor to be, 
Sir, 
Your obedient servants, 

(Sgd.) Speight & Van Nostrand, 

Ontario Land Surveyors. 

The Honorable, 

The Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, 
Toronto. 



(Appendix No. 20.) 

Base Jj^ne extending from the North-east Angle of the Township oh 
Purvis, District of Nipissing, to the Interprovincial Boundary. 

Little Current, Ont., November 15th, 1907. 

Sir, — I have the honor to submit to j'ou the following report on the 
survey of a base line running due east from the northeast angle of the town- 
ship of Purvis, in the District of Nipissing, a distance of twenty-two miles 
and thirty-eight chains, to the -'nterprovincial boundary, performed in accord" 
ance with instructions from your department, dated June 14th, 1907. 

After establishing the north-east corner of the said township by planting 
an iron post, one and seven-eighths inches in diameter, beside the wooden 
one, and marking thereon "Purvis" on the southwest side, also the lot num- 
bers, I commenced the survey of this base on the 29th of August, and ran east 
astronomically the above mentioned distance to its intersection with the inter- 
provincial boundary, at a distance of thirty-six chains and eighty-six links 
north of the ninety-seventh mile post on said boundary. 

Wooden posts, six inches in diameter, were planted at the end of every 
mile, and two bearing trees were marked "B T." The bearing and distance 
from the posts to the trees were noted. 

At the end of the third, ninth, fifteenth, eighteenth, twenty-first miles, 
and at the intersection with the boundary, iron posts one and one-quarter 
inches in diameter, and at the end of the sixth and twelfth miles, iron posts 
one and seven-eighths inches in diameter were planted beside the wooden ones. 
On both wooden and iron ones were marked in Roman numerals the miles 
reckoning from the initial point at said north-east angle of Purvis. 

The line was run with a six-inch Burts solar compass and checked with 
three observations for meridian made with a transit at the eastern elongation 
of Polaris, details of which will be found in the accompanying field notes. 

While returning on the base line to the township of Purvis, all the tallies 
were carefully counted in order to be certain that there was no miscount. 



62 REPORT OF THE No. ;{ 



The first three miles is broken with rocky ridges and occasional tracts of 
boulders and sand. In some of the lower tracts there is good clay land. From 
tl\e third mile to the end of the twelfth mile it is mostly clay land with a few 
ridges of boulders and sand. 

From the twelfth mile to the boundary there is considerable sand and 
gravel and boulders with occasional tracts of clay. 

The country generally is rolling. In the sixteenth mile there is an ele- 
vation of about one hundred feet. A very small percentage is muskeg. 

Probably one-half of the country is fit for agriculture. 

No indications of mineral were found. 

The timber is black spruce, poplar, jack pine, balsam, white birch and 
balm of Gilead, also dry tamarac. 

The black spruce, balsam and birch is from six to thirteen inches in 
diameter, poplar from six to twenty inches, and the jack pine mostly from 
five to fifteen inches. Some jack pine was found twenty-four inches in 
diameter in the fourteenth mile. There is very little balm of Gilead. The 
tamarac is fairly sound and a good size. 

The magnetic variation for the first ten miles is about nine degrees and 
forty-five minutes west. The balance of the line averages about ten degrees 
west. 

At fifty-three and sixty-two one-hundredths chains, on the east bank of a 
creek, in the fourth mile, a good pack trail to Lake Abitibi was crossed. It 
follows southerly along the east bank to about half a mile from the lake. It 
then crosses the creek and comes out on the west bank at the mouth. The 
distance along this trail from the base line to the lake is about three miles. 

At forty-seven chains in the eighteenth mile, the line runs between two 
huge granite boulders lying close together on the east bank of a creek. The 
details are shown in the field notes. This will be a landmark for centuries 
to come. 

Some delay was caused by the heavy rains. On the 18th of September, 
I returned to the township of Purvis and after a few days spent in completing 
that township I commenced my return journey on the 27th of September. 

In the sandy portions of the country blueberries are very plentiful. 

Accompanying this report will be found field notes, plan and account. 

I have the honor to be, 
Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

(Signed) T. J. Patten, 

Ontario Land Surveyor. 
The Honorable, 

The Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, 
Toronto. 



(Appendix No. 21.) 

Certain Township Outlines, West of the Montreal River, in the 
Temagami Forest Reserve, District of Nipissing. 

Toronto, Ontario, December 12th, 1907. 
Sir. — I have the honor to submit the following report upon the survey 
of certain township outlines, west of the Montreal River, in the Temagami 
Forest Reserve, made by me under instructions from your department dated 
the twenty-seventh day of May, 1907. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 63 



On the 3rd day of June, after havinj? procured a sufficient number of 
men and supplies, I proceeded from Latchford via tlie Montreal River to my 
starting point, being an iron post planted by Ontario Land Surveyor W. J. 
Blair on tbe south boundary of the township of Barr at its intersection with 
the easterly shore of the Montreal River, 

From this point I ran a base line due west for a distance of more than 
twenty-two miles, defining the south boundary of the townships of Barr, 
Klock, Van Nostrand and Whitson, and being also the north boundary of the 
townships of Kittson, Dane, Leo and Rorke. 

From the six-mile point on this line, which falls within the Mattawapika 
River, I located by traverse the production of a meridian line due north from 
this point to the shore on the westerly side of the said river at a distance of 
one mile sixty-five chains and forty links therefrom and produced the same 
to the southerly shore of the Montreal River, thus defining the boundary 
between the townships of Barr and Klock. 

From the twelve-mile point I ran a line due north to the southwest 
corner of the township of Auld, defining the boundary between the townships 
of Klock and Van Nostrand, and also produced the same due south for a 
distance of three miles, defining the boundary between the townships of 
Dane and Leo for that distance. 

From the eighteen-mile point I ran a line due north to the southwest 
corner of the township of Barber, defining the west boundary of the town- 
ships of Van Nostrand and Speight, it also being the east boundary of the 
townships of Whitson and Banks. I also produced the same due south for a 
distance of six miles, defining the west boundary of the township of Leo, it 
also being the east boundary of the township of Rorke. From this point I 
ran due west six miles, defining the south boundary of the township of Rorke, 
and thence due north to the southerly shore of Little Macobe Lake, defining 
the west boundary of the townships of Rorke and Whitson, it also being the 
east boundary of the townships of McGiffin and Trethewey. 

From the northwest angle of the township of Klock, I ran a line due west 
to Little Macobe Lake, defining the south boundary of the townships of 
Speight and Banks, and from the twelve-mile point which was determined 
bv triangulation to the north shore of Little Macobe Lake I ran a line due 
north to the southwest corner of the township of James, thus defining the 
west boundary of the townships of Banks and Willet, it also being the east 
boundary of the townships of Wallis and Roadhouse. 

From the northwest angle of the township of Speight I ran a line due 
west six miles, defining the north boundary of the township of Banks, it being 
also the south boundary of the township of Willet. 

From the southwest angle of the township of James I ran a line due west 
for five miles, marking for that distance the south boundary of the township 
of Mickle or the north boundary of the township of Roadhouse. 

From^the northwest angle of the township of James I ran a line due west 
six miles, marking the south boundary of the township of Farr, and thence 
north six miles more or I'^as to the intersection with the south boundary of the 
township of Willison, which was produced due west from an iron post at the 
southwest angle of lot four, concession one, of the said township of Willison, 
on the east side of the Montreal River. 

Good^ substantial, squared wooden posts were planted at every mile 
throiighout the survey, excepting where such point came within a lake or 
river; in such cases a witness post was planted at the shore with the proper 
chainage inscribed thereon. The mile posts were all properly marked with 
the mileage, numbered from the east and south from 1 M. to 6 M. for each 



64 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



township boundary. At the township corners iron posts one and one-quarter 
inches in diameter were planted in addition to the wooden posts, and both 
were marked with the names of the several townships on the sides adjacent 
thereto. Where a township corner came within a lake or river, iron posts 
were planted on t' e shore and properly marked. These points may be enum- 
erated as follows : — 

1. On the east bank of the Mattawapika River on boundary between 
townships of Barr and Kittson. 

2. On the west bank of the Mattawapika River on boundary between the 
townships of Klock and Dane. 

3. On the west bank of the Mattawapika River on boundary between the 
townships of Klock and Barr. 

4. On the south bank of the Montreal River on boundary between the 
townships of Klock and Barr. 

6. On the north bank of Willow Island Lake at the southeast angle of 
the township of Rorke. 

6. On the east bank of Little Macobe Lake on the boundary between the 
townships of Whitson and Banks. 

7. On the west bank of the Montreal River at the northeast angle of the 
township of Farr. 

Physical Features. 

In general the surface is broken, rough and rocky, the trend of the 
hills may be said to be northerly and southerly, though the water 
divides are very irregular and in many cases the hills break off 
abruptly. There is a decided exception to this irregularity, how- 
ever, in what is known as Maple Mountain, which extends north- 
erly and southerly through the centre of the townships of Rorke and Whitson 
and rises to an altitude of eight hundred or nine hundred feet above Lady 
Evelyn and Anvil Lakes; its easterly slope is gradual and the western slope 
is more in the nature of large steps with intervening rolling land or gradual 
descent. The western base at Gray's Lake and Little Macobe Lake is prob- 
ably two hundred or two hundred and fifty feet above the eastern base. 

Viewing the country from the several heights of land crossed during the 
course of the survey, the most noticeable features were the numerous small 
lakes and ponds and the several round and round-topped hills to be seen in 
every direction. 

Timber. 

The country is timbered with jack or banksian pine, spruce, poplar, and 
white birch, varying in size from twenty inches down, while the average run 
is from six to twelve inches in diameter. Some red and white pine is seen 
scattered throughout, but not in great quantities in any particular part. 
Other kinds of timber seen, but not in a general way, were cedar, balsam, 
tamarae (dead), ash and oak. The largest spruce is located along the river 
valleys: geuerally described, however, the ridges and high ground are cov- 
ered with jack pine, poplar and birch, while the lower land is swampy and 
timbered with spruce. 

During the course of the work I met Mr. E. Lalonde a few times (who, I 
understood, was making an estimate of the timber for your Department,) 
and gave him what assistance I could in the matter of canoe routes and gen- 
eral descriptions of the country gone over. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 65 



Water Powers. 

The water powers worthy of recognition at the present time or those tkat 
might be developed for power transmission, which lie within the country 
traversed, are as follows : — 

1. Mattawapika Falls, in the township of Barr over which all the waters 
tributary to Lady Evelyn Lake fall into the Montreal River, an estimated 
distance of twenty feet. 

2. Helen's Falls, eighty feet, Centre Falls thirty-five feet, and Frank's 
Falls thirty feet, on the Lady Evelyn River and all within a distance of 
one and one-quarter miles are adapted for development to an extensive capa- 
city. The fall is almost perpendicular in each case. 

3. Indian Chute and Rapids, on the Montreal River, at the north boun- 
dary of the township of Barr, with an estimated fall of eighteen feet and 
five feet, respectively, is an ideal site for a power plant. 

In addition to those above mentioned there are several rapids and falls 
from five to fifteen feet along the north and south branch of Bear Creek, 
Lady Evelyn River and Gray's River, which might be suitable for local 
mining or milling purposes. 

Rock Formation. 

As this part of the Reserve has been given considerable attention and 
research by the Bureau of Mines within recent years the reports from that 
source on the Geological features will be much more conclusive and in 
detail, than any report I could make from such observations as it was possi- 
ble for me to make. 

Quartzite and quartzose schists of the Huronian formation extends 
throughout the south-western portion of the country surveyed. 

Greywacke and slate were most prominent in the township of Barr and the 
the south-eastern part of Township of Klock. 

Diabase gabbro and conglomerate were most noticeable along the west 
side of the Mattawapika River and in the townships of Willet, Mickle and 
Farr. 

Game. 

Moose are plentiful, and signs of bear were frequently seen throughout 
the country. In two cases fresh beaver works were found, while mink were 
frequently seen by some of the party. The scarcity of partridge and duck 
was very noticeable as comjmred with former seasons. 

Pike, pickerel, bass and trout were caught for camp use in some of 
the lakes, while in other waters it was impossible to secure any. 

General Conditions. 

The season was late in opening, some of the lakes were not free from 
ice until the 1st of June, and the water was very high in the rivers and 
swamps during that month. The axemen and chainmen of the party were 
frequently wading in two or three feet of water while opening out and chain- 
ing the line across flooded land. 

Rain storms and a cloudy atmosphere were prevalent during the months 
of July, August and September, and it was impracticable to secure as many 
observations for determining meridian as was desirable. 



66 ' REPORT OF THE No. ;{ 



A great number of prospectors were met on the Reserve during the 
month of June, but a decided migration took place as the mosquito made 
his appearance. 

The portages along the canoe routes are not in good condition, and those 
which I had occasion to use for portaging supplies over were improved to 
some extent. 

Travelling by canoe being the only means of conveyance in the interior 
of the Reserve, the idea suggests itself that to improve the portages on several 
of the main canoe routes and clean up good camp grounds would be a bene- 
ficial outlay of money to the tourist, the prospector, and the ranger, and thus 
indirectly to the Crown. 

Accompanying this report, I submit plan, field notes, affidavits and 
accounts. 

I have the honor to be. 
Sir, 
, Your obedient servant, 

(Sgd.) L. V. RoRKE, 

Ontario Land Surveyor. 
The Honorable, 

The Minister of Lands, Forests, and Mines, 
Toronto, Ont. 



{Appendix No. 22.) 

Larder Lake, and the West and North Boundaries of the Townshii' 
OF Hearst, in the District of Nipissing. 

AViNDSOR, Ontario May 30th, 1907. 

Sir, — In compliance with instructions received from your department, 
dated March 28th, 1907, I have made a survey of Larder Lake, and the west 
and north boundaries of the township of Hearst, in the district of Nipissing. 

I left Windsor on the morning of March 30th via Canadian Pacific 
Railway, and arrived at New Liskeard on the morning of March Slat, where 
I completed my supplies, and engaged what men I needed to complete my 
party. I left New Liskeard on the evening of April 3rd, going by Temis- 
caming and Northern Ontario Railway as far as Heaslip, thence by sleigh 
to Tomstown, thence to Larder Lake via Wilson's Trail, arriving at the 
lake at noon of Friday, April 5th, and having made camp at the narrows, 
I commenced the survey of the lake immediately. 

The ice was good when I arrived, and continued perfectly safe until T 
completed the survey, although slush formed from four to eight inches deep, 
some of the warmer afternoons. Having completed the survey of the lake, 
I moved out to the continuation of Smith's tie line three miles north of 
the north-east angle of the township Catharine. From here I rechained and 
blazed the two miles of Smith's tie line and continued the same line north 
four miles farther, to the north-west angle of the township of Hearst, thence 
I ran due east five and one-half miles (5i) to where the said line intersects 
the west shore of Larder Lake proper, having cut off or ran across two bays 
as shown on the accompanying plan, I completed the whole of this work 
on the evening of Wednesday, April 24th, and having packed my goods 
and disposed of my excess supplies, I started for home, Thursday morning, 



11)07 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 67 



arriving in Tomstown the same night, thence to New Liskeard on Friday 
morning's train, and having settled with the men, I left on Friday evening's 
train arriving in Windsor on Saturday at three o'clock p.m. 

In making this survey, I noted all the survey posts or lines I saw, and 
marked and numbered fourteen (14) trees or posts on prominent points around 
the lake. Having found and located so many survey and mining location 
posts, I did not deem it necessary to mark, and locate a very great number 
of other trees and posts. 

I also located the position of all the islands in the lake, and marked 
one or more trees on each with a designating letter. I did not traverse the 
shore line of these islands and hence the shapes and areas given on the plan 
are only approximate, being as near the shape and size as my chainmen 
could estimate in walking around and locating them. The position of these 
islands as you will notice on the plan are all located from some point on 
the traverse line, the kind, and approximate size of trees marked, are all 
given on the plan and field notes. 

In running the west boundary of the township of Hearst, I measured 
the line and set the posts one mile apart, marking them on the south side 
with the number of miles each is from the north-east angle of Catharine 
township. I planted a one and a quarter inch iron post three (3) feet long, 
painted at the bottom, forged at the top, painted red, and marked "III.M." 
on the south side at three (3) miles north of the north-east angle of the 
township of Catharine. I planted a one and seven-eighth inch iron post 
three (3) feet long, pointed at the bottom, forged at the top, painted red, 
and marked "Gauthier" on the northwest side, "McElroy" on the south- 
-vest side, "Hearst" on the south-east side, "McVittie" on the north-east 
side, and "YI.M." on the south side, at the northwest angle of the 
township of Hearst, alongside of a six (6) inch spruce post similarly marked. 
At, where the north boundary of the township of Hearst intersects the west 
shore of the first bay of Larder Lake, I planted a one and one-quarter inch 
iron post three (3) feet long, pointed at the bottom, forged at the top, painted 
red, and marked "II. M. 59c." on west side alongside of a five (5) inch cedar 
post similarly marked. At, where the north boundary of the township of 
Hearst intersects the second bay of Larder Lake, I planted a six (6) inch 
spruce post marked "III.M. 79c." on the west side. At, where the north 
boundary of the township of Hearst intersects the west shore of Larder Lake 
proper, I planted a five inch jack pine post marked ''V. M. 39c 801." on the 
west side. 

The surface of this section of the country is quite uneven, particularly 
is this so in the neighborhood of Larder Lake. 

The timber is quite small, consisting chiefly of poplar, balsam, spruce, 
birch, jack pine, and alder, being of little value except as firewood. 

The principal part of all the country worked over, has been staked out 
in mining locations, but only a very small percentage of the claims staked 
have been as yet surveyed. 

Accompanying this report, you will find plans, field notes, accounts, etc., 
all of which I hope will prove satisfactory to the department. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

I have the honor to be, 
Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

(Sgd.) J. J. Nev^tman, 
The Honorable, Ontario Land Surveyor. 

The Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines. 
Toronto. 



68 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



(Appendix No. 23.) 

Base and Meridian Lines in the Yicinity of Larder Lake in the District 

OF Nipissing. 

Windsor, Ontario, December 7th, 1907. 

Sir, — In compliance with instructions received from your department, 
dated June 11th, 1907, I have completed the survey of the Base and Meri- 
dian Lines in the vicinity of Larder Lake, in the district of Nipissing. 

I left Windsor by the Canadian Pacific Railway on the morning of 
June 20th, and arrived at New Liskeard on the morning of June 21st, where 
1 had made arrangements for my supplies and some men, and was thus 
able to complete arrangements during the day, and left for Englehart that 
evening, and was thus able to arrive at Boston on the evening of the 22nd. At 
Boston, I secured a few pairs of blankets and shoe packs, etc., for some 
of my men, and packed into the north-west corner of the township of Boston 
on Monday, June 24th, where I commenced the survey on Tuesday. 

I commenced my survey at a one and seven-eighth inch iron post set 
beside a six inch spruce post in a cairn of stones, both marked on the north- 
east "Lebel," on the south "Con. VI.," on the south-west "Otto," on the 
south-east "Boston." Thence I ran the second base line east to its inter- 
section with the second meridian. 

I then returned to the northwest corner of Boston and ran the first 
meridian due north six miles, numbering the posts on the south side with 
the number of miles each was from the northwest corner of Boston. From 
the sixth mile post on the first meridian I ran the third base line due east 
until it intersected the third meridian, numbering the posts on the west 
hide as shown on the accompanying map. 

I then returned to the sixth mile post on the first meridian and con- 
tinued it due north twelve miles 5.57 chains to the southerly boundary of 
the township of Barnet, which I intersected 24.88 chains west of the south- 
east corner of the said township. 

I then moved north to the northeast corner of the township of Barnet, 
which is also the southeast corner of the township of Michaud, where I found 
a one and seven-eighth inch iron post set beside a seven inch spruce post 
marked on the northwest side "Michaud," on the southwest "Barnet," on 
the south "Con. VI.," on the north "XVIII. M.+3.70c," on the west "Lot 
I, XII. M. -f- 6.83c." From the last mentioned corner I ran the fourth base 
line due east to the line between the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec, 
intersecting the third base line at 11 M.+ 61.16 chains from the northeast 
corner of Barnet, and the interprovincial boundary 27.53 chains north of 
the 61st mile post on the said boundary. 

Again I commenced the second meridian line at the one and seven- 
eighth iron post, set beside a three inch spruce post marked on the south 
side "VI. M.," on the southeast side "Catharine," on the southwest 
"Pacaud," on the northwest "Boston," and a six inch cedar post marked 
on the south side "Con. VI.," on the west side "Lot I.," planted on the 
northwest corner of the township of Catharine, which is also the north- 
east corner of the township of Pacaud and running due north to the 
3rd base line, intersecting the 2nd base line at 5 M.-|- 78.54 chains and the 
south shore of Victoria Lake at 5 M. + 14.57 chains from the 2nd base line. 

After completing the 2nd meridian I returned to the 2nd base line 
which I continued east to the line between the townships of McElroy and 
Hearst which intersected the last mentioned line at 2,83 chains south of the 



im)7 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 69 



northwest corner of Hearst. From the last mentioned point, I commenced 
my 3rd meridian, running it due north thirty miles, intersecting the 3rd 
base line at 6 M. + 6.07 chains from the northeast corner of the township 
of McElroy, and the 4th base line at 18 M.+ 8.54 chains north of the 
3rd base line. I then returned to the 3rd base line which I continued east 
to the interprovincial boundary which I intersected at 12.875 chains north 
of the 43rd mile post on said boundary. From the 6th mile post on the 
last mentioned line I ran the 4th meridian due south to the 1st base line, 
crossing Larder Lake as shown in the field notes. I commenced the 1st 
base line at a one and seven-eighth inch iron post set beside a six inch jack 
pine post in a cairn of stones, both marked "Catharine" on southwest, "Mc- 
Elroy" on northwest, "Hearst" on northeast, and "Skead" on southeast. 
From these posts I ran due east crossing Ontario Land Surveyor Byrne's 
line between the townships of Skead and Rattray at 6 M.-f 1.75 chains, and 
my 4th meridian at 6 M.+2.67 chains, and intersecting the interprovincial 
boundary *at 13.90 chains north of the 31st mile post. Again I commenced 
the 2nd base line at a five inch jack pine post marked "V.M. — 
XXXIXC." "LXXX." on west side and ran due east to the interprovincial 
boundary, which I intersected at 18.08 chains north of the 37th mile post. 
Iron posts were planted and marked as follows : — 

1. At north-west corner of Lebel marked on south side "VI.M," south- 
east side " Lebel." 

2. At lake, 6 miles north of Lebel, marked on south side " V.M. -f 79.00c." 

3. At south boundary of Barnet marked on south side "XII.M.-}-5.57c." 

4. At intersection of 2nd meridian and 2nd base line marked on south 
side " VIM. — I.46c," northwest side " Lebel," southwest side " Boston," 
southeast side " McElroy." 

5. At south side of Victoria Lake marked on southeast side " Gauthier," 
south side " V.M+ 14.30c," southwest side "Lebel." 

6. Where the 2nd base line intersects the line between the townships of 
Hearst and McElroy marked on the northwest side " Gauthier," on the south- 
west side " McElroy," on the west side " V.M.+LXXVL, VIL" 

7. Where the 3rd meridian crosses the 3rd base line marked on the 
Bouthwest side " Gauthier," on the southeast side " McVittie," on the west side, 
" VI.M.-MC." 

8. On 3rd meridian, 6 miles north of 3rd base line, marked south side 
" VLM." 

9. On 3rd meridian, 12 miles north of 3rd base line, marked on the soutli 
side "XILM." 

10. At intersection of 3rd meridian with 4th base line marked on south 
side " XVIILM.— 8.54c," on west side " XI-|-6].16c." 

11. On the north- end of the 3rd meridian, marked on south side "XXIV. 
M. -I- 8.54c. 

12. Where the 4th meridian intersects the 1st base line marked on north- 
east "McFadden," on north-west "Hearst," on west, " VIM.+'i.07c." 

13. On north shore island C C marked on south "IV.M+9c," marked on 
south-west " Hearst," on south-east " McFadden." 

14. Where 4th meridian intersects north shore of Larder Lake marked' 
36c, 601, on south side, marked " McGarry " N.E. corner, marked "McVittie' 
N.W. corner. 

15. Where the 4th meridian line intersects the 3rd base line marked " VI.M." 
on W. side, marked " McVittie " on S.W. side, marked " McGarry " on S.E. side 
marked " VLM." on S. side. 



70 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



16. Where the 1st base line intersects the boundary line between Ontario 
and Quebec, marked " Rattray " on S. W. side, marked " McFadden " on N. W. 
side, marked " V.M.-)-20 chs. 10 Links" on W. side. 

17. Where the 2nd base line intersects the line between Ontario and Quebec, 
marked "McFadden" on S.W., marked " McGarry " on N.W., marked " V.M.4- 
17c 8 links " on W. side. 

18. Where the 3rd base line intersets the west shore of Victoria Lake, 
marked " V.M.-|-35.40c" on W. side, marked " Lebel" on S. W. side. 

19. Where the 3rd base line intersects the boundary between Ontario and 
Quebec, marked on S.W. " McGarry," marked on W " V.M H-14c." 

20. On 4th base line six miles east of Barnet, marked on west side 
"VI. M." 

21. On 4th base line six miles east of 3rd meridian, marked on west 
side VI. M." 

22. Where the 4th base line intersects the line between Ontario and 
Quebec, marked on west side "XI., M.i-4:.40c." 

All these posts were three feet long, one and one-quarter inches in 
diameter, forged at the top, pointed at the bottom and painted red. 

Wooden posts were planted at every mile and marked with the number 
of miles, each is from the initial point, on the south side of the post, on all 
meridian lines, and on the west side of the post' oil all base lines. At all 
township corners the names of the townships were marked on the side of 
the post which faces the respective townships. 

The magnetic variation is fairly uniform at about 9 degrees 30 minutes 
to 10 degrees w. 

All lines were well cut out and blazed. 

The distances of all lines from the various closing points are noted in 
the field notes. 

Owing to the extremely wet and cloudy weather, I was unable to observe 
for Azimuth as often as I wished. 

With the exception of Larder Lake, Beaver House Lake and Victoria 
Lake, all the lakes crossed by the lines were small and of little importance. 
The White River, Izzabamageezy River and Black River were the only large 
streams crossed. 

The -country on the whole is quite rocky, rough and hilly, particularly 
south of the height of land around Larder Lake and along the White River 
and Beaver House Lake. The land in the vicinity of the fourth base line 
is much leveller, better timbered and more valuable from an agricultural 
standpoint. 

Nearly the whole country south of the height of land has been prospected 
over, a great deal has been staked out as mining claims, and a small portion 
of the claims have been surveyed. All surveyed lines and claim lines that 
were noticed were tied on to my lines wherever crossed, and the distances 
to some post measured, as shewn in the field notes accompanying this report. 

There appears to be more or less mineral in nearly all the outcropping 
rock, but I did not notice any mineral veins which were not already staked 
out and located. 

The timber consists chiefly of poplar, spruce, white birch and balsam 
from 6 inches to 20 inches in diameter, with banksian pine and a few white 
pine on the higher sandy or gravelly soil. The tamarac is all dead. 

Fire has been through the country around the 1st meridian about thirty 
years ago, I was informed by the Indians, and hence the timber along the 
western part o^ the district covered bj^ this survey is mostly second growth 
and of little value. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 71 



Of large game, moose and bear are quite plentiful, and several were 
seen by members of the party; partridge, duck, beaver, rabbits and mxisk- 
rats are numerous, trout and pike were caugbt in the lakes and streams. 
Blue berries were exceptionally plentiful on the higher lands, and raspberries 
and cranberries, red currants and sugar plums are well distributed over the 
whole area. 

All of which is respectfully submitted, 

I have the honor to be. 
Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 
* (Sgd.) J. J. NEWMAisr, 

Ontario Land Surveyor. 
The Honorable. 

The Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, 
Toronto, Ont. 



{Appendix No. 24.) 
Grand Trunk Pacific Blocks 8, 9 and 10, District of Rainy River. 

Bruce Mines, Ontaeto, December 14th, 1907. 

Sir, — I beg to state that in accordance with your instructions dated 
May 30th, 1907, I have completed the survey of the outlines of Blocks 8, 9 
and 10 in the District of Rainy River, these blocks forming part of the 
Grand Trunk Pacific Railway Company's land grant under Chapter 18, 4 
Edward YII.. and I have the honor to submit the following report. 

I started for Dinorwic on June 19th and proceeded as quickly as pos- 
sible, by way of Minnietakie Lake, to Block 10. which was surveved first. As 
soon '^s the outlines of this block were completed, I moved my outfit up Eng- 
lish River, and through Flying Loon Lake to the southwest corner of Block 
9- On the completion of this block, I moved to Lake of Bays, and up a 
river flowing into the west side of this lake to a spot near the starting point 
for Block 8. I completed the survey of Blc^k 8 on October 19th and arrived 
home a week later. 

In performing the surve^-. all the lines were run astronomically north and 
south and east and west. Frequent observations were taken to confirm or 
correct the bearing of the lines. The details of these observations are noted 
in the field notes. All the lines were carefully cut out and blazed. 

Iron posts were planted at the corners of the blocks with the exception 
of the northeast corner of Block 10 and the southeast corner of Block 9. 
These corners happened to fall in the water, and the iron posts were planted 
on the lines at the shore. The details of the planting of these posts are 
given in the field notes. Wooden posts of the best timber available, were 
planted every mile on all the lines run. 

The posts on the east and west boundaries of the blocks are all. marked 
oTi the south side with the number of miles the post is distant from the 
southeast or southwest comer, as the case may be. 

On the north and south boundaries, the posts are marked on the east 
side with the number of miles the post is distant from the northeast or south- 
east corner of the block. In cases where the end of a mile came in a lake, 
a post was planted on the nearest shore and the chainage to the last mile 
post was marked on it with a scribing iron. In most cases, two bearing 

6 L.M. 



n REPORT OF THE No. 3 



trees were marked at each post, and 'the distance and bearing 
of each tree from the post recorded in the field notes. Wherever possible 
a mound of stones was piled ai-onnd the post. These are also recorded in 
the notes. Throughout the survey, nothing but cedar and tamarac was 
used in making the posts. 

Block 8. 

The survey of Block 8 was commenced at the 17th mile post marked 
"XVII. M." on the base line run by Ontario Land Surveyor Alexander 
ISTiven in 1897. This base line commences at the 120th mile post on the 
boundary between the districts of Thunder Bay and Rainy River and runs 
due west astronomically from that point. 

From the 17th mile post on this base line, I ran a line north astrono- 
mically a distance of two miles. I then returned to my starting point and 
ran south astronomically a distance of sixteen miles, thence east astronoraically 
a distance of six miles, thence north astronomically a distance of eighteen 
miles, thence west astronomically a distance of five miles seventy -nine 
chains, thirty-five links, intersecting the line first run at a point two miles 
three links north of the starting point. 

An iron post, one and seven-eighths inches in diameter, was planted 
alonsrside of a wooden post at each of the four corners of the block. Each 
post was marked "G.T.R. Block eight" on the side facing the block. 

Block 8 contains a number of lakes, of whichi Lake of Bays in the north- 
ern part of the block is the largest. This lake is about fifteen miles long, 
and lies almost wholly within the block with the exception of a long bay, 
which extends for about five miles southwest of where it is crossed by the 
west boundary of the block. The shoresof this lake are mostly rocky, the 
prevailing formation being Laurentian. The outlet of Lake of Bays is a 
rough rapid stream, running in a northerly direction towards Sturgeon 
River. It leaves the lake about a half a mile north of the northeast corner 
of Block 8. In the southern portion of the block occur Pine Lake, White- 
rock Lake and Young Lake. These lakes are each from two to three miles 
across, and are tributary to English River. The shores of these lakes arp 
mostly low lying, the rocks being drift covered to a large extent. Where 
exposed, however, they appear to be of Huronian formation, hornblende 
and other green schists predominating. The east boundary is crossed in 
the ninth mile by Penassie Lake, a large narrow lake which extends about 
four miles east of the east boundary of Block 8. The formation surround- 
ing this lake is^ granite. One large outcrop of trap occurs at a high point 
a few chains west of the line on the south side of the lake. 

The contact between the Huronian and Laurentian formations occurs 
on a high ridge between two smaller lakes at five miles, tliirty-two chains 
from the southeast corner. A great deal of Block 8 is covered with glacial 
drift, composed of sand and gravel mixed with large boulders. The rock 
exposures are frequent, and the ridges are mostly less than sixty feet in 
height. , East of Lake of Bays, however, are a number of high hills run- 
ning from two hundred feet to two hundred and fifty -feet in height. Con- 
siderable areas of muskeg are met with, the largest being in the southwestern 
portion of the block. 

Of agricultural land, there is little worth mentioning. 

Block 8 is well timbered throughout, having been damaged but little by 
fire. The best timber now standing is north of Lake of Bays, where there 
is a heavy growtli of jack pine suitable for tie timber. Most of the north 

6a L. M. 



j<>07 DFPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 



boundary runs through timber of this class, with some very good tamarac 
id the low places. This class of timber appears to extend for a consider- 
able distance north of Block 8. On the west boundary the timber is a rather 
poor average, being composed of jack pine, spruce, white birch and poplar 
on the higher lands, with spruce, tamarac and balsam in the muskegs. The 
average size of all this timber is small, but there is a consiiderable quantity 
of lar^^e timber throughout. Southwest of Pine Lake a fine block of red pine 
has recently been cut. The stumps show that nearly all of this timber was 
inside of Block 8. The timber along the rest of the south boundary is 
similar to that already described, except that south of Young Lake, there 
are some scattered white pine trees, all of wEich appear to be inside of Block 
8. A large number of these trees, however, are unsound. North of Young 
Lake there is an area of brule, about twenty-five years old, which extends 
back for about half a mile from the lake, and appears to run northeast 
towards Sturgeon Lake. A large portion of the block east of Lake of Bays 
has been burnt over. One fire ran through about ten or twelve years ago, 
and a p^Tialler one occurred about two years ago. Outside of these areas of 
brule, the timber along the east limit of the block appears to be about the 
same as on the west boundary, and I am convinced that the same descrip- 
tion applie-' to practically the whole of the block. There are no water powers 
of any magnitude, as there are no large rivers inside Block 8. On the 
streams connecting Penassie Lake with Lake of Bays there is a rough rapid 
having a fall of about twenty feet lin less than a quarter of a mile. On 
Grassy River, there is a fall of about fifteen feet in about six chains a short 
distance below Pine Lake. In neither instance, however, is the volume of 
water large enough to maintain a power of any great magnitude. No economic 
minerals were met with, although, as before stated, considerable areas of 
promising rocks occur, especially the Huronian series, in the southern part 
of the block. 

The Thunder Bay Branch of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway crosses 
the block near the southwest corner. The line crosses the Grassy River at 
the rapids referred to above. 

Block 9. 

The survey of Block 9 was commenced at the eighteenth mile post 
fni'^rked XVTTI. M.) on the first meridian run by Ontario Land Surveyor 
Alexander Niven in 1897, west of the boundary between the districts of 
Thunder Bay and Rainy River, this point being the southwest corner of 
Block 9. From this point a line was run due east astronomically a distance 
of six miles, thence north astrooiomically a distance of eighteen miles, nineteen 
rhains, fo^ links, to Ontario Land Surveyor Niven's base line run in 1897. 
The base line was intersected at a point eleven chains thirty links east of 
the twenty-thiT-d mile post (marked XXIII. M."). The north and west 
boundaries of Block 9 were run as base and meridian lines by Ontario Land 
Surveyor Niven in 1897. An iron post one and three-quarter inches in 
diameter was planted by Ontario Land Surveyor Niven at the eighteenth 
mile on the meridian above referred to. This post was marked "XVIII. M." 
on the south side by Mr. Niven. I marked this post "G.T.R., Block Nine" 
on the northeast side. The end of the sixth mile on the south boundary 
being the southeast corner of Block 9 calne in the water of Otter Lake. The 
point where the east boundary of Block 9 intersected the shore of Otter Lake 
was located by means of a triangulation, the details of which are shown in 
the field notes. At a point above high water near the eastern extremity of 



74 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



the south boundary of Block 9, a cedar post was planted alongside an iron 
post, one and seven-eig-th inches diameter. The cedar post was marked 
"I.M, — 6.92 chains" on the east side, and the iron post was marked "G.T.E., 
Block nine" on the north side. Similarly, a cedar post was planted beside 
a,ri. iron post, one and seven-eighth inches in diameter, at a point on the east 
boundary of the block a little above high water mark. The cedar post is 
marked "I.M. — 40.68 chains" on the south side, and the iron post is marked 
"G.T.R., Block nine" on the west side. At the northeast corner of Block 9 
an iron post one and seven-eighth inches in diameter is planted beside a large 
tamarac post. The iron post is marked "G.T.R., Block nine" on the south- 
west side. 

A number of small lakes occur in Block 9 and the English River flows 
in a northwesterly direction across the southern portion of the block. The 
English River consists mostly of a series of lake expansions, of which Otter 
Lake and Tarvis Lake are the largest. Between Otter and Jarvis Lakes, 
there is a fall of about seven feet. A dam has been built at this point, and 
the water backed up into Otter Lake about three or four feet above the nor- 
mal level. The raising of the water in Otter Lake and tributary lakes and 
streams has greatly facilitated the moving of supplies from the main line 
of the Canadian Pacific Railway to the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway now 
under cop«truction. Since the building of this dam, it is possible to run a 
gasoline launch, towing a fair sized scow, right up to the falls on Grassy 
River, whereas, previously it was with difficulty that a canoe could be taken 
up during a dry season. A very good water power could be developed nt 
this point. Below Jarvis Lake on English River, there are four other falls 
and rapids where water powers of considerable importance could be developed 
^\ithin Black 9. As there is a large amount of pulpwood tributary to these 
waters, these water powers may be of great importance in the future. 

The greater portion of Block 9 is covered with glacial drift, consisting 
of sand and gravel with large boulders. There are also considerable areas 
of muskeg scattered throughout. 

The rock ridges are not usually more than forty or fifty feet high. The 
highest hills being sand and gravel ridges south of Jarvis Lake. The exact 
location of the geological contacts are hard to determine, owing to the 
amount of glacial drift, but an area of Laurentian rocks consisting of granite 
and gneiss crosses the southern three miles of this block antl extends south 
beyond the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. North of this. 
Block 9 is crossed by a belt of hornblende and other green schists of the 
Huronian age, striking generally east and west. The Laurentian rocks 
occur again towards the northern portion of the block along the east bound- 
ary, but it is impossible to say from the information at hand where the con- 
tart occurs. No traces of economic minerals were met with in running any 
of the lines. 

Of agricultural land, there is practically none. 

The south boundary crosses a belt of very good red pine between the 
third and fourth mile posts. The greater portion of this pine appears to 
be south of Block 9, but a considerable quantity occurs inside the block. 
The timber along the rest of the soiith boundary is balsam, spruce and 
tamarac on the low ground, and jack pine, spruce, poplar and white birch 
on the higher areas. The timber is small for the most part, but larger 
trees occur scattered throughout and occasionally occur in belts of fairly 
large size. Along the east boundary there is very little good timber. Between 
Jarvis and Otter Lakes, there is a large area of old brule, with very little 
timber of any value. West of English River, however, the fire has appar- 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 



ently not reached and tlie timber is of better quality. North of Jarvis Lake 
foi about six miles, the line runs through a fairly good growth of timber 
similar to that already described along the south boundary. No pine, how- 
ever, was noticed except jack pine. One or two burnt areas occur, the fires 
having apparently started at the right of way of the Grand Trunk Pacific 
Kail way. The northern, six miles of the east boundary were practically 
all burnt over during the past season and whatever valuable timber there 
was has been destroyed. A few green belts remain, but they consist of low 
swampy areas, which have been run around by the fire. This burnt area 
extends east of Block 9 as far as could be seen from the line, but no sign of 
fire was noticed on the west boundary of Block 8, w-hich is about six miles 
east of the line above referred to. This fire also appears to have originated at 
the right of way of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway and has burnt over a 
very large extent of country. 

The Grand Trunk Pacific Railway crosses the block about the middle 
of the block. The general direction of the railway being northwest and 
southeast. 

Block 10. 

! 

The survey of Block 10, was commenced at the thirty-fifth mile post on 
the base line run by Ontario Land Surveyor Alexander Niven in 1897. 
From this point, a line was run due north astronomically a distance of eight 
miles, the north-east corner of Block 10, being at the end of the eighth mile. 
This corner came in Deception Lake. The point where the north limit of 
Block 10 intersected the shore of Deception Lake was determined by a 
triangulation, the details of which are shown in the field notes. From the 
north-east corner, the north boundary of Block 10 was run due west astro- 
nomically, a distance of seventeen miles, fifty three chains, sixty five links, 
to where it intersected the east boundary of Indian Reserve number twenty- 
eight. The Indian Reserve boundary was opened out and re-blazed as far 
as the shore of Lost Lake, where the original corner post of the Reserve 
was discovered. This line was then produced across a bay of Lost Lake and 
across the point of the Indian Reserve which extends a considerable dis- 
tance east of this line. This line was not re-blazed in crossing the point of 
the reserve. I obtained an observation on Polaris on this point, and found 
the bearing of the line to be south 1 degree .07 minutes west astronomically. 
I corrected this at the south side of the point on the Reserve by off-setting a 
distance of 2 chains, 56.6 links to t4ie east, which gave me a point due south 
astronomically from the original corner post of Indian Reserve number 
twenty-eight above referred to. The details of the observations and calcu- 
lation involved in making this correction are shown in their proper place 
in the field notes. 

I then ran due south astronomically, until I had reached a point six 
miles, six chains, fifty-four links south of the northwest corner of Block 10. 
The south boundary of the Block was then run due east astronomically to 
where it intersected the line first run at a noint, one mile seventy-two chains 
ninety-one links north from the thirty-fifth mile post on Ontario Land Sur- 
veyor Niven's Base Line, the said point beinsr the south-east corner of Block 
10. The east boundary of Block 10, is therefore, six miles, 7.09 chains in 
length, and the west boundary is six miles, 6.54 chains in length. 

An iron post, one and seven-eighth inches in diameter was planted at 
the southeast corner of Block 10, and m-^rked "G.T.R. Block 10" on the 
northwest face. The northeast corner of Block 10 came in Deception Lake, 
as before stated, but an iron post one and seven-eighth inches in diameter 



76 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



was planted alongside a wooden post at a point in tlie east boundary of 
Block 10, a little above bigh water mark of Deception Lake. This iron 
post was marked "G.T.E. Block 10" on the west side. At the northwest 
and southwest corners of the Block similar iron posts were planted and are 
marked "G.T.R. Block 10" on the side facing the Block. 

Block 10 is well w^atered by a number of large lakes and rivers. Sturgeon 
River crosses the east boundary about a mile and a half north of the south- 
east corner and flows in a southwesterly direction to Abram's Lake. 
Sturgeon Eiver is a large stream of fairly clear water, flowing with a slug- 
gish current, and is navigable for small steamers throughout the limits 
of the survey and for a considerable distance east. 

English River flows through the block in a general north and south 
direction. It is a large stream of fairly clear water, and is extremely irre- 
gular in outline. Vermilion River is entirely within the block, from where 
it leaves Big Yermilion Lake in the south-western portion of the block to 
where it empties into Pelican Lake. It is a beautiful stream of clear water 
about a chain in width, and flows with a moderate current. The largest 
lakes are Lost Lake, Pelican Lake, and Abram's Lake. These are really 
expansions of the English River, and are extremely irregular in shape, 
and are large in extent. Abram's Lake is nearly all outside the block, 
a portion of the northeast bay being the only part which crosses the south 
boundary. In addition to these, are a number of smaller lakes, all tribu- 
tary to English River or its lake expansions. There are two water powers 
of importance. Pelican Falls at the outlet of Pelican Lake is ihe larger, 
and a splendid power can be developed here. The total fall is about fifteen 
feet and consists of two cascades a short distance apart, of which the lower 
one is the higher. The distance across the portage around the two cas- 
cades is about a quarter of a mile. A very large volume of water passes 
here and as the present intention appears to be to locate the junction of 
the Thunder Bay Branch of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway with the main 
line of the National Transcontinental Railway very near here, the water 
power which can be developed will be of very good value in the future, as 
there is an immense amount of pulpwood which can be easily driven to this 
spot. There is also a smaller power on Vermilion River about a half a mile 
below the point where the river leaves Big Vermilion Lake, This fall 
consists of an almost perpendicular drop of about twelve feet. The volume 
of water is not nearly so large as in the case of Pelican Falls, but a power 
can be developed which will undoubtedly be of some importance in the 
future. 

The general characteristics of block 10 as regards land and timber, are 
very similar to blocks 8 and 9. There is no agricultural land worth men- 
tioning. The country is largely drift covered sand and gravel with stony 
land being very much in evidence. 

There are also considerable areas of muskeg. The rock exposures are 
frequent, the ridges being usually not more than sixty feet in height. The 
prevailing formation is granite and gneiss, although there is a considerable 
area of Huronian rocks consisting of traps and schists along the Vermilion 
and Sturgeon Rivers and extending south for some distance. A number 
of mining locations have been surveyed in this belt, principally along the 
Vermilion River. No economic minerals were met with, however, in run- 
ning any of the lines. There tis considerable local magnetic variation along 
the west boundary of block 10 south of Lost Lake and also on the east boun- 
dary between Sturgeon River and Botsford Lake. Elsewhere the magnetic 
variation remains fairly constant at about 5 degrees 30 minutes east. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 77 



The timber is similar as a whole to blocks 8 and 9, being composed of 
spruce, balsam and tamarac in the lower lands, and jack pine, spruce, poplar, 
and white birch in the higher lands. Along the north boundary there is 
H large quantity of very good spruce, tamarac and jack pine, and a large 
amount of very good tie timber can be obtained in thei portion of 
block 10 lying northeast of Pelican Lake and adjacent to the north boun-^ 
dary. This belt of timber appears to extend for a considerable distance 
north of this block. There is also some very good timber of the same class 
south of Pelican and Lost Lakes. Some small areas of red pine exist along 
the shores of Pelican and Lost Lakes, and also on English River, but none 
of any extent were encountered on the lines. Along the Sturgeon River, 
there is a large area of brule with no timber of value. This area extends 
for a considerable distance back from the river. South of Sturgeon River 
a fire of considerable extent raged during the early part of the past season 
and in fact was still burning in places when the survey was commenced!. 
The timber destroyed, however, in this locality was of small value as most 
of this section had been burned over some years ago. A small area of brule 
exists also along the north shore of Big Yermilion Lake. 

The Thunder Bay Branch of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, and 
the main line of the National Transcontinental Railway both cross block 10, 
and it is expected that the junction of these two will be in the neighborhood 
of Pelican Falls. 

Throughout the season the magnetic variation remained fairly constant 
at from 5 degrees to 6 degrees, 30 minutes east, with the exception of a few 
places on Block 10 where the local attraction was very noticeable. When- 
ever any such local attraction was met with, it was noted in the proper place 
in the field notes. 

All the lakes encountered during the season abound in fish. Splendid 
trout and whitefish are to be obtained in large quantities in all the large 
lakes, and pike and pickerel may be caught anywhere. Moose appear to 
be very plentiful and the Indians report fur bearing animals still numerous 
although not so plentiful as in former years. 

Accompanying this report, are a mounted plan, and tracing of each 
block, a certified copy of the field notes, and accounts in triplicate. 

I have the honor to be. 
Sir, 
Your obedient servant, * 

(Sgd.) James S. 1)obie, 

Ontario Land Surveyor. 
The Honorable, 

The Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines. 
Toronto. 



(Appendix No. 25.) 

Grand Teunk Pacific Blocks, Nos, 1, 2, 3, 4, District of Thunder Bat. 

Niagara Falls, Ont., December 27th, 1907. 
Sir, — I have the honor in accordance with my instructions dated the 
25th day of May, 1907, to survey the outlines of four blocks of land along 
the Thunder Bay Branch of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway to submit the 
following report. 



REPORT OF THE No. 3 



The final instructioBS for my guidance reached me on the third day of 
June and I started the same evening for Fort William, where I arrived two 
days later and spent the next few days in securing and forwarding supplies and 
necessary camp equipment and selecting men to take charge of the transport. 
On Saturday the 8th, I proceeded with a full party to Osko, a station on the 
Canadian Pacific Railway in Block No. 1, about a mile and a half from the 
north boundary of the block. Here I found a small storehouse where I left 
part of my supplies and started in search of a post planted by Mr. E. Stewart, 
Ontario Land Surveyor, in 1895, to mark the township outline which was 
taken as the north outline of this block. 

Having taken observations for Latitude and Azimuth, I proceeded to 
reopen the line run west by Mr. Stewart twelve years ago, a mile and a' 
half to the west boundary of the township and re-establish the post planted 
by him and there planted the iron post marking the northwest corner of 
Block No. 1, and the southeast corner of Block No. 2. Tleturning to thei 
railway I produced the line east ten and a half miles to the proposed easterly 
limit of the block; then returning to the northwest corner I ran the west 
boundary south six miles and then proceeded to the intersection of the south 
boundary with the Canadian Pacific Railway, finding Mr. Stewart's post 
about a quarter of a mile southeast of Buda Tunnel, marking the outline 
taken as the south boundary of the block. 

From the Canadian Pacific Railway I first re-opened Ontario Land 
Surveyor Stewart's line two and a half miles to his iron post at the south- 
east corner of the township renewing the posts and marking them as peii 
instructions. I then ran west to the southwest corner of the block and' 
returning east six miles to Stewart's iron bar, I produced the line east six 
miles further to the proposed southeast corner of the block, where I turned 
and ran north eight-five chains, coming suddenly on the Dog River, which 
I was instructed not to cross but to fall back on my south boundary far 
enough so that in running north the boundary would not come in contact 
with the Dog River or Lake. I set the iron post marking the southeast 
corner of Block No. 1, forty chains farther west and ran the east boundary 
of the block north to its intersection with the north boundary and marked 
the northeast corner with an iron bar as per instructions. 

The surface of the ground may be classed as undulating to hilly, becom- 
ing rougher towards the east end of the block. The soil throughout is sandy 
loam, sand or gravel. Some spots are covered with large eratic boulders of 
glacial deposit. The rock, where outcrops occur, is granite of the Laurentian 
formation. The block as we recede from the railway becomes heavily 
timbered, the timber increasing in size and value towards the east end of 
the block where there are scattered pines from twenty to twenty-eight 
inches in diameter, also some large poplar, birch, spruce and tamarac. In 
the vicinity of the railway, the timber has been to a great extent fire killed, 
some parts of recent date and others where ten or twelve years have 
expired since_ injurious fires passed over. 

There are no lakes within sight of the outlines in the block that are' 
worthy of mention, and the only stream of any size is the Osko River, which 
enters the block from the west crossing the west boundary in the fifth mile 
and leaving the block near the west end of the eleventh mile on the south 
boundary. 

Work in this block was finished the 10th of July and a move made bj 
train from Buda to Dexter on the day following, the weather from beginning 
of June having been all that one could desire. On the 13th of July the 
weather took on a great change, heavy showers accompanying electric 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 79 



storms bacame of daily occurrence and from that time until the middle of 
October there were few days on which it did not rain sometime during the 
twenty-four hours. At intervals heavy rain fell for two or three days in 
succession and watercourses, creeks, rivulets and muskegs were filled to 
overflowing. These conditions caused considerable delay in the prosecution 
of the work. 

In surveying Block No. 2, I began at the southeast corner and ran the 
east boundary astronomically north six miles to a post and iron bar planted 
by Ontario Land Surveyor Stewart, in 1895, to mark the northeast corner 
of a township which was adopted as the northeast corner of this block. Here 
1 planted the iron post marked as per instructions and turning west reopened 
Mr. Stewart's line to the Canadian Pacific Railway renewing the posts and 
marking the mileage thereon. Where the line crossed the Canadian Pacific 
Railway much work had been done during recent years on both sides 
ol the track and no trace of the posts planted by Mr. Stewart remained. 
New ditches had been excavated and undoubtedly the land marks had been 
destroyed at that time. 

The line was continued west to the eighteenth mile point crossing mus- 
kegs, streams, lakes and hills to where the iron bar marking the northwest 
corner of the block was established and turning here we ran the west 
boundary south six miles and planted another iron bar. When at this end 
of the block I sent to Savanne on the Canadian Pacific Railway and Kasha- 
boiwe on the Canadian Northern Railway for supplies, there being a canoe 
route from both these places to Trout Lake, near the southwest corner of this 
block and completed the survey by running eighteen miles east to the place 
of beginning. 

The suface along the east boundary and the first six miles of the north 
boundary is for the greater portion level while it becomes rougher as we- 
proceed west and the remaining portion of the boundaries range from undu- 
lating to hilly. 

Five and a half miles from the northeast corner the Savanne River 
is crossed and another stream flowing north of considerable dimensions that 
might be utilized for running timber, is crossed on the ninth mile. The 
timber towards the southwest would be taken out via Trout Lake to Kasha- 
boiwe Lake and the Canadian Northern Railway. 

There are several Lakes of considerable size either crossed by or ii\ 
close proximity to the outlines on the north, west and south boundaries, the 
largest being Trout Lake, near the southwest corner of the block, which* 
from the apparent accuracy' with which it appears on the map would indicate 
that it must have been traversed some time in the past. The lake both as 
tc position and dimensions, coincides very closely with its projection on the 
maps of the Department. 

The land area is thickly timbered with poplar, birch, spruce, tamarac 
and pine, varying in size from underbrush to timber with a diameter of 
thirty inches. There has been excellent pine on the westerly six miles but 
this has been lumbered over for years to supply the mills at Savanne, and 
a large proportion of the best pine has been removed. There still remains 
considerable good timber. 

The soil throughout is of a sandy nature, while the growth of timber 
would indicate a fertile soil where not too wet. Along the west and south 
boundaries, the country is pretty rocky, the outcrop being granite of the 
Laiirentian formation and the boulders piled up in heaps in several locali- 
ties would indicate glacial deposits. No minerals of economic value were 
noticed, but in places the oxide of iron in the water would indicate the 
presence of that metal in those localities. 



80 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



At the sixtli mile post on the north boundary of Block No. 2, I planted 
an iron bar to mark the southwest corner of Block No. 3 and ran north six 
miles from this point and set an iron bar to mark the northwest angle of 
the block. From thence I ran due east eighteen miles and marked th^ 
northeast corner with an iron bar and thence south six miles to the southeast 
corner which was marked in a similar manner, viz., the initial letters 
"G.T.P.R." and the number of the block cut on the iron bar with a cold 
chisel, turned so as to face the block. From thence running west twelve* 
miles we arrive at the northeast corner of Block No. 2, which completes the 
outUneB, 

The surface of this block especially along the north boundary is quite 
hilly and broken by wet spruce and tamarac swamps, some of which contain 
very fine tie timber. North of the Canadian Pacific Railway on the west 
boundary and along the north boundary for fourteen miles, the country 
is heavily timbered with spruce, and tamarac on low ground and poplar, 
birch, spruce tamarac and pine on the higher ground. In the vicinity of 
Dog River, which crosses the north boundary at the ninth mile post there is 
quite an area of sandy land timbered with Jack Pine suitable for tie timber. 
Between the third and fourth mile posts from the northeast corner we come 
into brule or burnt country, part of which had been fire killed from twelve 
to fifteen years ago, and recently burnt over. The east boundary for about 
half the distance runs through burnt country and the first twelve miles of 
the south boundary passes through a country overrun by fires with th'e 
exception of a few green spruce or tamarac swamps. Nearly half the entire 
block has been burnt over. A line drawn from the eleventh mile on the, 
south boundary to the fourth mile on the north boundary would mark- 
approximately the part fire killed. Green timber occurs only in swampy spots 
01- this burned area while the standing timber on the higher ground is 
mostly dead and blackenedor already fallen and undergoing rapid decay. 

There are many rocky ridges bearing north and south or nearly so. 
Along the south boundary we noticed several places where the Huronian 
formation alternates with the Laurentian, a vein or fault usually separat- 
ing the two but no valuable minerals were seen. 

The soil is generally a sandy loam and in some localities a pure sand, 
such as produces the groves of Jack Pines. 

Dog River which enters the block at the ninth mile post on the north 
boundary leaves it near the fourth mile post on the east boundary but 
follows the line southward to within a mile of the southeast corner of the 
block. There are several small lakes in the block. The largest noticed is 
situate near the northwest corner and locally known as Whitefish Lake. 
There are two Indian families resident here during the winter months having 
houses near the margin of the lake on the southwest shore. This lake forms 
a link in the canoe route from Savanne River to Dog River and also to 
Muskeg Lake. The portage from Savanne River to this lake is a little over 
a mile in length well opened out and frequently used. 

For the purpose of locating the position of Block No. 4, I had the 
option of running a line north from the Canadian Pacific Railway at a 
point west of Savanne to the southwest corner of the block or of running 
north six miles from the northwest corner of Block No. 3 to determine the 
southeast corner of Block No. 4. The latter course I chose as the most con- 
venient and accessible. Having returned to the northwest corner of Block 
No. 3, I started on the 19th of September to run the meridian outline north 
to establish the southeast corner of Block No. 4. At sixty-one chains on the 
fourth mile we arrived at the south shore of Muskeg Lake which we found to 
be upwards of two and three-quarter miles where crossed by the line from 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 81 



south to north, the corner of the block falling in the lake twenty-nine chains 
from the east shore and forty-eight chains from the north shore. The lake 
from east to west where crossed by the south boundary is nearly three and a 
half miles in length. 

It will be seen from an examination of the notes that some difficulty 
was experienced in obtaining suitable data for the several triangulations. 
From Muskeg Lake, I ran the south boundary west to the grade of the Grand 
Trunk Pacific Railway and then returning to Muskeg Lake, I ran north to 
the northeast corner of the block and planted an iron bar, a wooden post 
having been planted as a witness to the southeast corner, twenty-nine chains 
east from the corner which falls in the lake. From the northeast corner 
of the block I ran due west twelve miles and planted an iron bar to mark the 
northwest corner, thence south six miles to the south boundary and return- 
ing east to the Grand Trunk grade, I completed the south outline and planted 
the iron bar at the intersection of this line with the meridian run from the 
north. 

The surface along the east and north outlines is undulating to hilly, 
while the west boundary is comparatively level. The block contains very 
good timber, east of the railway, the best being north of Muskeg Lake. 
There has been excellent timber in the vicinity of the southwest corner but 
it has suffered much from the operations of the lumberman who could raft 
or drive it from here down the north branch of the Savanne River, which 
is quite a large stream, where it crosses the southwest corner of this block. 

The timber consists of poplar, birch, spruce, tamarac and pine. A few 
good white pine trees were noticed as we ran the fourth and fifth miles on 
the north boundary. West of the railway on the south boundary there are 
some large poplar trees and good size birch as well as tamarac and spruce. 

There is a heavy windfall on the west boundary of this block south of the 
railway grade, which in conjunction with muskeg makes that part very diffi- 
culty of access in summer. A strip of country near the railway right of way 
has been overrun with fire but at no great distance from the right of way. 
A belt of low flat country runs from the southeast to the northwest and this 
is followed by the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway. The road here is almost 
straight for a distance of twenty miles and the black decayed vegetable 
muck, full of roots, is about three feet deep overlying sand or clay. Those 
swamps are often underlaid with clay, beneath the vegetable mould, which 
forms the surface. On the higher ground the surface soil is sandy loam. 
There are a few rock outcrops, but considerable areas where no rock is seen. 

Muskeg Lake, so called, at the southeast corner of the block is not what 
its name would indicate a marshy lake, but rocky with in many places fine 
iandy beaches and islands which would make it a model summer resort. It 
can be reached by canoe from the railway by following a stream and string 
of smaller lakes. 

We secured some excellent potatoes grown by Indians at the west end 
of Muskeg Lake. 

No minerals of economic value were seen in the block. 
I have the honor to be, 
Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

(Signed) Thomas Fawcett, 

Ontario Land Surveyor. 
The Honorable, 

The Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines. 



82 REPORT OF THE No. li 

(Appendix No. 26.) 
TowNSHir OF Barker, District of Algoma, 

GuELPH, Ont., Jany. 15th, 1908. 

Sir, — I have the honor to submit the following report on the survey of 
the township of Barker, in the District of Algoma, made under instructions 
from your Department dated May 6th, 1907. 

I left Missanabie Station on the Canadian Pacific Railway on June 3rd 
and arrived at the southwest corner of the township on June 14th. 

The outlines of the township were run by Ontario Land Surveyor Alex- 
ander Niven, the north boundary being his base line of 1900, while the east, 
west and south boundaries were surveyed by him in 1906. 

The township is nine miles square and is subdivided under the new 
system approved by Order-in-Council dated April 24th, 1906. 

A road allowance fifty links wide is left on each side of the outlines and 
a road allowance one chain in width between alternate concessions, i.e., 
between two and three, four and five, six and seven, eight and nine, ten and 
eleven, and also a side road allowance one chain wide between lots six and 
seven, twelve and thirteen, eighteen and nineteen, twenty-four and twenty- 
five. 

The lines were run in the centres of the road allowances. 

Posts were planted on the concession lines between each of the lots, a 
post being planted on the centre line as a guide to the corner posts and. 
marked with the lot numbers on the east and west sides and "W on the north 
and south sides, and a post on the south side of the road allowance marked 
with the lot numbers on the east and west sides and concession number on the 
south side and "li" on the north side; and a post on the north side of the 
road allowance marked with the lot numbers on the east and west sides, the 
concession number on the north side, and "R" on the south side. 

At a side road a post was planted at the intersection of the survey lines 
and marked "E," on each of its four sides. A post was also planted on each 
of the four lot corners and marked "B," on the two sides next to the road 
allowances and with the number of the lot on the east or west side and the 
number of the concession on the north or south side according \to the corner 
on which it stood. 

No posts were planted on the side roads at the blind lines. 

There is an iron post one and seven-eighths inches in diameter at each 
of the townshir) corners, marked "Barker" on the side facing the township. 

An iron post, one and one-quarter inches in diameter, is placed beside the 
wooden post in the centre of the road allowance on the south boundary 
between lots twelve and thirteen, marked "E," on four sides, "Lot XII." on 
the east side, "Lot XIII." on the west side, "Con. I." on the north side. 

An iron post one and one-quarter inches in diameter is also planted 
b?side the wooden post at the intersection of the line between concessions six 
and seven with the side line between lots twelve and thirteen, marked "R" 
on the four sides, "Lot XII." on the east side, "Lot XIII," on the west side, 
"Con. VI." on the south, side, "Con. VII." on the north side. 

An iron post one and one-quarter inches in diameter is also planted 
beside the wooden post on the north boundary at the line between lots twelve 
and thirteen, marked "R" on the four sides, "Lot XII." on the east side, 
"Lot XIII." on the west side, "Con. XII." on the south side. 

The surface of this township is comparatively level and there are no lakes 
or large streams. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 83 



A little soutli of the centre of the township there is a large swamp 
extending from lot six to lot twenty-four, and about two miles in width at 
the centre. This swamp is thinly timbered with small, scrubby trees, and 
the ground is wet and mossy. 

The remainder of the township consists of low ridges of dry land and 
intervening stretches of spruce swamp. 

The soil is clay, and in the swamps the clay is overlaid with black muck 
varying from a few inches to a foot or more in depth and with a thick growth 
of moss. The swamps are not wet. 

This land is well drained by a number of small creeks, and when cleared 
will be good farming land. 

No rock exposures were seen in the township. 

Taking the township as a whole, probably three-fourths of it is suitable 
for farming, the remainder being swampy. 

The timber is chiefly poplar and spruce with some balm of Gilead, white 
birch, tamarac and balsam. The poplar is of good quality and in size runs 
from about twelve inches to twenty-four inches in diameter. The spruce as 
a rule is not large, very little of it being over twelve inches in diameter, and 
where the growth is large the trees are often thin on the ground. The town- 
ship as a whole is not heavily timbered. 

The summer of 1907 was warm and showery, with a great deal of cloudy 
weather, and on that account it was difficult to get astronomical observations. 

There was no summer frost. 

Game was not plentiful. A few moose were seen, but no other large 
animals. 

Accompanying this report are the field notes of the survey, a map of 
the township, and a timber plan, all of which I trust will be found satis- 
factory. 

I have the honor to be, 
Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

(Sgd.) James Hutcheon, 

Ontario Land Surveyor. 
The Honorable, 

The Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, 
Toronto. 



(A/ppendix No. 27.) 

Township of Colquhoun, District of Algoma. 

Orillia, November 20th, 1907. 
Sir,- — Pursuant to the carrying out of your instructions for the survey 
of the township of Colquhoun, in the District of Algoma, dated the 20th 
day of May, 1907, our party left Orillia on the 17th day of June, following, 
prepared to proceed to the locality of the work. Having been assured upon 
inquiry from the officials of the Temiskaming and Northern Ontario Railn 
way that the line was in fair working shape as far as McDougall's Chute, we 
determined to go in by that route, thus cutting down the length of the canoe 
trip and saving time as compared with the Mattagami route. Owing to the 
usual delays incident to travelling over a railway in course of construction 
and in getting supplies and men to that point, it was the 25tli of the month 
before we got our canoes into the Black River at a point about two miles 



84 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



above McDougall's Chute and began the voyage down stream. We followed 
the Black River to its confluence with the Abitibi and thence down the latter 
stream to a point about five miles below the mouth of the Frederick House 
B-iver, where a small stream known as the Driftwood enters on the west side. 
As this last mentioned stream flows directly through the township in ques- 
tion, we proceeded up stream in a southerly direction to the place where work 
was commenced. The canoe route from McDougall's Chute to the mouth of 
the Driftwood presents few difiiculties, the notable exception being the stretch 
of rapids and falls, covering a distance of about five miles on the Abitibi, 
known as the Long Sault. The passage of this stretch occupied a day and a 
half, it being considered better to make double trips over the more dangerous 
parts than to invite almost certain disaster by allowing any but expert canoe- 
men to make the passage. Only two portages occur on this rapid, both on 
the left side, and short, the first being about three chains in length and the 
second or lower one about ten chains. The Abitibi itself is a magnificent 
water stretch, in places a quarter of a mile across, sweeping northward in 
long easy curves with fairly strong current but very muddy water. The water 
in this and the Mattagami Biver is said to have reached an unprecedented 
height last spring owing to the great depth of snow in the winter. The sea- 
son had been dry up to the middle of June, when the rains set in and through 
the whole duration of our trip there was scarcely a twenty-four hour interval 
in which rain did not fall, and it was a rare thing during the progress of the 
work for us to leave camp and return without a drenching. The weather 
conditions were in sharp contrast to those prevailing during the previous 
summer, which was exceptionally dry, and it rendered bush work in a coun- 
try so thickly forested with evergreens and dense undergrowth unpleasant to 
a degree. Actual survey work was commenced on the 5th day of July, and 
we were again at McDougall's Chute on the return journey on the 7th of 
September following, having experienced no mishaps worthy of mention. 

The township of Colquhoun is laid out in double front alternate con- 
cession, each concession thus having a road allowance in front and a blind 
line separatiiLg- the concessions in the rear. The concessions are numbered 
from one fronting on the south boundary to twelve fronting on the north 
boundary, and have a depth approximating to fifty-nine chains and fifty 
links. The lots are numbered from one at the east boundary to twenty-eight 
at tlie west boundary, and have a frontage approximating to twenty-five 
chains and twenty-five links and an area approaching one hundred and fifty 
acres. Lots nine and ten are the furthest variants from tliese conditions. 
Side roads were laid out between lots six and seven, twelve and thirteen, 
eighteen and nineteen, and twenty-four and twenty-five, and allowances for 
road one chain in width were left around all lakes crossed by the lines run, 
and also along both banks of the Frederick House and Abitibi Rivers. 

The survey was commenced from the southerly boundary, being the 
northerly boundary of the township of Calder, run by us last year; the side 
lines being run due north astronomically and being continuations of the 
several side lines in the township of Calder with the exception of that between 
lots twenty-four and twenty-five, which was commenced at a point thirty- 
three links west of the corresponding side line in Calder, giving lot twenty- 
five a width of twenty-five chains and twenty-five links. This northerly 
boundary of Calder had been run with special care, hubs being driven and 
pickets firmly planted in such a manner that it could be safely used as a base 
line to turn the several side lines from, and the value of this became evident 
as it was not until the beginning of August that we were able to obtain a 
satisfactory observation to check bearings, and when it was obtained showed 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 85 



the bearings of the lines to be entirely satisfactory. From these side lines 
the several concession lines were turned east and west astronomically. Owing 
to the extremely rough nature of the country about the southeasterly corner 
of the township, and the water intersections at this point, it was deemed a 
most unsatisfactory place to commence the east boundary, which was 
therefore begun from the line between concessions two and three, 
by giving lots one to six a uniform width of twenty-five chains 
and twenty-five links. On running south to intersect the south boun- 
dary this line was found to be somewhat west of the point aimed at, which 
we believed to be due to errors in chaining, there being several very 
deep and steep gullies on the above concession line; as re-chaining for 
the third time, however, failed to reveal the discrepancy and angular checks 
proved the correctness of the bearing, we were fain to leave the puzzle 
unsolved. A difference also appears in the triangulations of the small lakes, 
entering lot one across the south boundary, from that of last year, the curious 
fact being that while the total distance across the lot agrees within a few links 
the individual lake distances do not, the easterly lake being wider than pre- 
viously shown and the westerly one narrower owing to wrong base measure- 
ments being taken last year. As it is somewhat puzzling to understand the 
exact relationship of the several lines forming the boundaries of the four 
townships abutting at the southeasterly corner of Colquhoun, a detail has 
been shown on page 66 of the field notes which clearly shows the relative 
positions of the three iron posts planted for these townships. 

The posts planted in the centre of the road allowance along the north 
boundary of the township of Calder to mark the division lines between the 
several lots, with the exception of lots twenty-four and twenty-five previously 
mentioned, and those on the east boundary , are also the centre posts for the 
corresponding lots in the township of Colquhoun. 

The line run by O.L.S. T. J. Patten in 1904, on a bearing north no 
degrees ten minutes east astronomically, was used as the line between lots 
nine and ten across the first four concessions where it terminates at the cor- 
rection line run by the same surveyor now forming the line between conces- 
sions four and five. From the line between concessions four and five to the 
ctoi-th boundary of the township the meridian run by 0. L. Surveyors Speight 
and Yan Nostrand, in 1905, forms the line between lots nine and ten, thus 
leaving a jog in this division line on concession line four and five. 

The lines were run in the centre of the road allowances, which were laid 
out of a perpendicular width of one chain. Upon all east and west lines 
wooden posts were planted to mark the division lines between the several 
lots. At the intersections of the interior side lines and concession lines five 
wooden posts were planted, one at the intersection of the lines marked ""R" 
on four sides, and one at each of the abutting lot angles marked with the 
numbers of their respective lots and concessions and "R" fronting the road 
allowances. At boundary intersections three posts were planted marked in 
a siinilar manner, and at the extreme angles of the township, two posts. At 
the intervening lot lines between the side lines a post was planted on the 
centre line of the road allowance marked with the lot numbers on east and 
west sides and ''R" on the north and south sides. Wooden posts were also 
planted on the centre line to mark the road allowances round lakes and along 
rivers, marked "R" facing the water. At all posts planted off the centre 
lines bearing trees were marked, and their bearings and distances from the 
several posts noted. The intersection of the lines between concessions six 
and seven, and side line eighteen and nineteen occurs in the Driftwood 
River, the posts for concession six being planted to the south, and those for 



86 REPORT OF THE No. H 



concession seven to the nortli along this side line. Where lot corners fell in 
lakes the posts were offset north and south in their proper positions. Beside 
the wooden posts iron posts one and one-quarter inches in diameter were 
planted at the following points : on the centre line of the road allowance 
between lots twelve and thirteen, at its intersection with the centre line 
of the road allowance along the south boundary, (this post is the same 
planted for the township of Calder), at the centre line of road between con- 
cessions six and seven, and at its intersection with the centre line of the road 
allowance along the north boundary. Similar posts were also planted 
on the centre line of the road allowance between concessions six and seven, 
at its intersections with the centre lines of roads along the east and west 
boundaries. An iron 'post, one and seven-eighths inches in diameter, was 
planted alongside a wooden post at the intersection of the centre line of 
the road allowance along the east boundary with the centre line of the 
road along the north boundary marked "R" on four sides, and ''Colquhoun" 
on the southwest side, and a similar post at the intersection of the centre 
lines of the boundary road allowances at the northwest angle of the town- 
ship, marked "R" on four sides, and "Colquhoun" on the southeast 
side. The iron post planted at the centre line of road allowance 
intersections to mark the northwest angle of the township of Calder, 
was marked ^'Colquhoun" on the northeast side. At the intersection of 
the centre line of the road allowance along the east boundary with 
the northerly limit of the road allowance round the shore of the small lake 
at the southeasterly angle of the township, an iron post, one and seven-eighths 
inches in diameter, was planted alongside a cedar post, and marked "B," on 
the south, east and west sides, "Colquhoun" on the northwest, and "Leitch" 
on the northeast. 

The area covered by this township consists largely of fine agricultural 
land, of a sufficiently rolling character to afford effectual drainage. The 
easterly portion bounded roughly by the line between lots six and seven, 
presents a decidedly rolling surface in many places broken by sharp ridges 
and gullies, and with the exception of the extreme southeasterly part well 
timbered with large spruce, poplar, white birch, balsam and tamarac; a 
large number of trees of the first two species exceeding twenty inches in 
diameter. Over most of this area there is also a thick growth of moosewood 
or mountain maple and alder, and a great deal of windfall. A number of 
small lakes of pond-like dimensions also occur within these limits. At the 
southeast corner and extending as far north as the northerly limit of con- 
cession three on the east boundary, thence sweeping in a southwesterly direc- 
tion to lot five on the line between concessions one and two, and again 
retreating southeasterly to the neighborhood of the small lakes at the south- 
east angle of the township is an area of fire-swept country, comprising 
about thirteen hundred acres. A great deal of the timber is still standing, 
but dead, and here and there within the area are small patches of green 
bush, partially fire killed. Along the east boundary across concession one, 
and the greater part of concession two occurs a «uccesvsion of ridges so steep 
that they must measure very closely the angle or repose of the clay com- 
posing them, and packed as closely together as the depth of the intervening 
gullies will permit. These gullies are littered with windfall trees, and 
choked with dense undergrowth, rendering travelling extrelnely difficult 
and laborious. The soil near the steep gullies on lots three and four crossed 
by the line between concessions one and two is a coarse sand, the only place 
in the township where this was noted. The soil throughout the rest of this 
area is clay of good quality. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 87 



The nortliwesterly portion of tlie townsliip west of the Driftwood River, 
and mostly north of the line between concessions eight and nine is also suffi- 
ciently distinctive to be described by itself. This part consists of level or 
gently rolling country and fine loamy clay lajid. It has apparently been 
burned over at some earlier date and is reforesting with spruce, poplar and 
tamarac, seldom at the present time exceeding four or five inches in diameter, 
and at infrequent intervals contains small patches or belts of trees of larger 
growth. In this area there are also some patches of peat swamp or open 
spruce flats which will probably require artificial drainage to produce the 
best results. The land of this tract is excellently adapted for farming pur- 
poses, easily cleared, generally well drained and of fine quality. 

The balance of the township has a gently undulating surface just suffi- 
cient to afford good drainage, and has throughout a good clay soil, generally 
somewhat loamy, and in places with a light covering of black mould. The 
whole of this tract is forested with the species previously mentioned but 
chiefly with spruce and poplar. The trees are of small diameter, it being 
unusual to meet with one much exceeding twelve inches except on the creek 
banks and the average diameter is much below this. On the whole the 
township presents a fine agricultural prospect and at least seventy-five per 
cent, of its area would be readily available for farming purposes. 

With regard to timber value, it would offer more inducement to the 
manufacturer of pulp than to the sawmilling industry, though in the 
easterly part some good timber might be procured. 

The only rock outcrop met with, with the exception of some small 
showings of schist at the water level of the Driftwood, occurs on lots four- 
teen and fifteen where the line between concession two and three crosses 
apparently near its northerly edge. This outcrop consists of a number of 
bare hills of red granite apparently of eruptive origin, rising to a height of 
al)out one-hundred and fifty feet above the surrounding country; and from 
the summits of these hills a wide view of the surrounding country may be 
obtained, especially toward the northeast. 

The main drainage channel for the greater part of the township is the 
creek or little river known as the Driftwood, which flows through a narrow 
valley depressed from twenty-five to one hundred feet below the level of the 
surrounding country, entering across the south boundary on lot twenty-four, 
and flowing northerly across the north boundary on lot thirteen, thus occupy- 
ing in its general course a central position. This stream has an average 
width of from two to two and a half chains, and at ordinary water stages a 
sluggish current. It is capable, however, of accommodating a considerable 
volume of water, and by removing the rock dams which occur on its course, 
would furnish an excellent drainage outlet. There are several rapids on its 
course through the township, and at one place just south of the line between 
concession eight and nine, the stream drops about twenty feet in a distance 
of ten chains. There is not enough water passing through to form a power 
sufficient for commercial purposes beyond what would be required for a 
small mill working intermittently for local purposes. The Abitibi River 
crosses the extreme northeasterly corner of the township on lots one and two 
concession twelve, and the Frederick House River enters in concession 
eleven and forms its junction with the Abitibi on lot two, concession twelve. 
Xo falls or rapids occur on these streams within the boundaries of the 
township. The lake areas are small and of very minor importance, some 
being merely basins where water is held by the old beaver dams and could 
readily be drained. The general water supply is abundant, furnished by 
small streams, and of excellent quality. On lot five on the line between 

7 L.M. 



88 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



concession six and seven there is a steep clay bank rising some thirty feet 
in height, and at its foot a niimber of springs break forth. The water in 
these springs is exceptionally clear and has a slight saline taste as if it had 
passed through strata containing common salt. 

Berries of various kinds were abundant, including high-bush cran- 
berries and elderberries. Wild strawberries were exceptionally large and 
abundant, ripening in August, A notable characteristic of the forest pro- 
ducts of this part of the country is the immense number and great variety 
of species of the fungi. The wet season was apparently conducive to the 
growth of these forms of vegetable life, although even in the dry season of 
last year we observed large numbers of them, and from the middle of August 
they began to multiply in astonishing numbers and almost endless variety 
of form. Many edible species were observed, and this locality would 
abundantly repay the visit and close study of a competent mycologist, and 
would doubtless furnish new species to be added to the already long list of 
fungi. Could some one be induced to undertake the work and publish a 
reliable guide to the edible species, it would prove of great value, and 
enable the sojourner in the woods to add a very acceptable item to his bill 
of fare. 

Very little game of any description was seen, only one moose and that 
one within the boundaries of the township. We have before noticed the dis- 
appearance of the grouse in the autumn of 1905, whether from being snowed 
under or other cause is unknown, and they have since been very scarce. 
This condition does not appear to be local but by the accounts of others to 
apply to the whole northern district. These birds were plentiful in the 
neighborhood of the Matagami River in September of 1905, and upon our 
return there in November had practically disappeared. At the latter date 
there was about a foot of snow. Beaver appear to have been entirely killed 
out in this part, and considering the importance of this valuable and inter- 
esting animal, both as a fur producer and a conserver of water supply in 
forest areas, an inquiry should be instituted into the cause of its disappear- 
ance, and a remedy, if possible, applied. We have heard fur dealers claim 
that over protection was the cause, the families becoming too numerous, but 
from our own observation believe the reverse to be true. Bird life, includ- 
ing many of our common southern species, was well represented. 

Referring to the item in our instructions in regard to the right of way 
of the Transcontinental Railway, we found that the survey parties engaged 
in this location were still in doubt as to the exact final location and were 
still working when we left, in the Township of Calder, with the possible 
chance of cutting the present township close to the southwest corner. We 
are consequently unable to shew this location on our plans. 

We have the honor to be. 

Sir, 
Your obedient Servants, 

(Signed) Cavana & Watson. 

The Honorable, 

The Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, 
Toronto, Ont. 



Ta L.M. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 89 



{Appendix No. 28.) 
Township of Jamieson, District or Algoma. 

Sudbury, December 18th, 1907. 

Sir, — I have the honor to submit the following report of the survey 
of the Township of Jamieson, in the District of Algoma, performed under 
instructions dated July 10th, 1907. 

I proceeded to the work by way of Metagami Station on the main line 
of the Canadian Pacific Railway, July 22nd, 1907, thence by the usual canoe 
route down the Mattagami River, arriving at O.L.S. Niven's second base 
line on August second. The work of surveying the township of Jessop was 
commenced on August third, as per instructions but in ten days was com- 
pelled to abandon this work owing to disaffections among my men, on account 
of the wet and low nature of the ground, due to incessant rains and conse- 
()uent drowned land and proceeded to subdivide Jamieson township, which 
was much better drained. 

This township is bounded on the south by O.L.S. Niven's second base 
line run in 1905, and by the township of Godfrey, being surveyed this 
season by O.L.S. Green. On the west by O.L.S. Niven's meridian run in 
1905, and by the unsurveyed lands of the Crown. On the north by the 
Township of MacDiarmid, being surveyed by O.L.S. Fitzgerald this season 
and on the east by the township of Jessop, being surveyed by the writer 
this season. 

The survey of this township was commenced on August fourteenth by 
running a meridian line due north from O.L.S. Niven's sixth mile post on 
his second base line run in 1905, to the south boundary of Kidd and Mac- 
Diarmid, our line coming out two links east of the post planted for the south- 
west corner of Kidd. Posts were planted at every mile on this line for the 
several concessions, the sixth concession, however, was found to be seventy- 
nine chains and ninety-one links. 

Posts were planted at the end of forty chains in every mile on O.L.S. 
Niven's second base line, forming the south boundary of the township to 
mark the width of lots not otherwise marked by mile posts. 

Our chainage practically agreeing with that of O.L.S. Niven's on his 
base line in every mile, his mile posts were adopted as the starting points 
for our several meridians run due north through this township from the 
base line. The concession lines were run due west across the township from 
the posts planted on the east boundary every mile as before mentioned. 

Where I started my survey at the southeast angle, I found a one and 
seven-eighths inch iron post marked ^'VIM" on the east side, on which I 
marked **Con. I" on the north side, "XII" on the east side, "I" on the 
west side, "Jamieson" on the northwest side, and "Jessop" on the north- 
east side. A wooden post found beside the iron post was similarly marked 
except for the words "Jessop" and "Jamieson." On the south boundary 
was found a one and one-quarter inch iron post marked "IX M" on the 
east side, on which I marked "YI" on the east, "VII" on the west, "Con. I" 
on the north. A wooden post beside it was similarly marked. 

On the south boundary at the intersection of O.L.S. Niven's base line 
with his meridian run in 1905 was found a one and seven-eighths inch iron 
post marked "XII M" on the east "VIM" on the south on which I marked 
"XII" on the east, "Con. I" on the north and "Jamieson" on the north- 



90 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



east side. A wooden post similarly marked except for the word "Jamieson" 
was found, both in a stone mound. On the east boundary between concessions 
three and four, I planted a one and one-quarter inch iron post marked "Con. 
IV" on the north, "Con. Ill" on the south, "XII" on the east and "I" 
on the west. A^wooden post planted beside it was similarly marked. 

On the front of concession four between lots six and seven, I planted a 
one and one-quarter inch iron post marked "Con. IV" on the north, "Con. 
Ill" on the south, "VI" on the east and "VII" on the west sides, respec- 
tively. A wooden post planted beside it was similarly marked. Where con- 
cession four intersected O.L.S. Niven's meridian line, (the west boundary), 
I planted a one and one-quarter inch iron post marked "Con. IV" on the 
north, "Con. Ill" on the south and "XII" on the east. A wooden post 
similarly marked was planted beside it and the distance north to O.L.S. 
Niven's IX M post was noted. 

At the northeast angle of the Township I planted a one and seven- 
eighths inch iron post marked "Con. VI" on the south, "XII" on the east, 
"I" on the west, "Jamieson" on the southwest and "Jessop" on the south- 
east. A wooden post similarly marked was planted beside it. 

On the north boundary between lots six and seven was planted a one 
and one-quarter inch iron post marked "Con. VI" on the south, "VI" on 
the east, and "VII" on the west sides. A wooden post similarly marked 
was planted beside it and the distance to O.L.S. Fitzgerald's post noted. 
At the intersection of the north boundary (run by O.L.S. Fitzgerald this 
season), with O.L.S. Nfven's meridian run in 1905, was found, a one and 
seven-eighths inch iron post marked "Con. I" on the north, "^11" on 
the east and "MacDiarmid" on the northeast to which I added "Jamieson" 
on the southeast, "Con. VI" on the south. A wooden post similarly marked 
except for the words "Jamieson" was planted beside it. All of the iron 
posts 'were of tubing, forged at the top, pointed at the bottom and painted 
red and all marking done with a cold chisel. 

The wooden posts planted between lots two and three, four and five, 
six and seven, eight and nine, and ten and eleven, on the different conces- 
sions were marked according to the different lots and concessions to which 
they referred, that is, on north, south, east and west. The wooden posts 
planted on the different concessions between lots one and two, three and 
four, five and six, seven and eight, nine and ten and eleven and twelve, 
were marked on three sides only, that is on north, east and west sides, 
according to the different lots and concessions to which they referred. Bear- 
ing trees at a convenient distance were carefully marked and noted for every 
post planted by me. 

The distances along the north boundary from my posts to those placed 
by O.L.S. Fitzgerald for Macdiarmid and along the west boundary to those 
placed by O.L.S. Niven were chained and noted in each case. 

Observations on Polaris at .Elongation for Azimuth were taken when 
convenient which was seldom on account of continual rain. 

The magnetic variation was found to be fairly constant at eight degrees 
west. 

All lines were well opened up and blazed and were run with transit and 
all are straight lines through the township from boundary to boundary 
except in one instance where a slight deflection was made after observing 
Polaris, viz., at front of concession three on line between lots three and 
four where it crosses Mattagami River. The traverse of Mattagami and 
Kamislrotia rivers was made with transit and micrometer. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 91 



General 'Features. 

The township is situated on the verge of the clay belt and except for 
part of the southwest quarter is practically level and for the most part 
rolling clay land. Numerous creeks found have cut the surface into deep 
ravines especially is this noticeable on both sides of Mattagami river and 
for some distance on each side of this river. Stretches of muskeg are 
scattered throughout the township, the largest area being in the eastern 
part and are moss covered to some depth. 

Soil. 

The soil for the most part was found to be clay loam, in some parts 
covered to some depth with black muck and moss, but which could be easily 
drained and burned. I would consider about seventy-five per cent, of the 
land area to be good agricultural land. 

Rock. 

Rock was encountered on lots six to twelve, concession one, six to ten, 
concession two, and seven to twelve, concession three, and was mostly of 
slate, some diabase, no indications of economic minerals were found. On 
lot eight, concessions two and three, there is a very high rocky hill from 
which the surrounding country could be viewed in every direction and 
which gradually descends to south and west. Boulders were numerous on 
lot eight and nine, concession three, and along concession two, lots eight, 
ten and eleven, also on line between ten and eleven, concession two. 

Timber. 

The township is well timbered throughout, cedar, spruce and balsam 
being most prominent along the river banks. On the higher ground back 
from the rivers are large, white spruce, balm of Gilead, poplar, white 
birch to six or eight inches and balsam. 

Timber seemed to increase in size towards the rivers. The rocky hills 
in the southwestern part of the township were mostly covered with small 
Banksian pine About sixty per cent, of the township was thickly grown 
with tag-alders and other underbrush, making the work slow and laborious. 
Along the north boundary a brule of six or seven years' age was met with on 
lots four and five and extending west to the river. Also in the northwestern 
part of the township a brule of apparently the same age was found and is 
shown on accompanying timber plan. 

Water. 

As will be seen from accompanying plans the township is well watered 
by rivers and numerous small creeks. Only three very small lakes or ponds 
were found, around which were marshy shores or floating muskeg. The 
Mattagami river enters the township in lot three, concession one, following 
an irregular course northwesterly and leaving in lot six, concession six, and 
is an average width of three chains and seventy-five links, being much 
swollen on account of incessant rains. The north branqh of the Kamiskotia 
river enters the township from the northwest in lot twelve, concession six, 
flowing southeasterly over numerous rapids filled with rocks and boulders 



92 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



and other obstructions, making canoeing dangerous, if not impossible, and 
reaching the Mattagami river in lot five, concession three, where it is about 
one and a half chains in width. A swollen stream enters the township from 
the west in lot twelve, concessions two and three, and enters the Kamiskotia 
river in lot eight, concession three, flowing over many rapids and jams of 
trees, only the upper part being navigable for canoes. A still smaller stream 
enters from the south in lot eleven, concession one, flowing northeasterly 
and reaching the Kamiskotia river in lot eight, concession three. This 
stream would be only an ordinary creek in dry weather, but was much 
swollen by continual rains. I noted the Mattagami and Kamiskotia rivers 
rise over eight feet at their junction after a thirty hours' rain in September. 
The waters of the Kamiskotia river and its tributaries being spring fed 
ordinarily are very cold. I would not consider any of these rapids valuable 
for water power development on account of their source being spring creeks 
and rainfall j^ of which latter there was ample during our residence there. 

Game. 

Evidences of moose, caribou and bear were plentiful. Fresh beaver 
work was frequently met with on the numerous creeks and marshes. 

Partridge were plentiful, but we caught no fish. 

Accompanying this report are general plan, timber plan, traverse plan, 
field notes and account. 

I have the honor to be 
Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

(Signed) J. Henry Bued, 

Ontario Land Surveyor. 
The Honorable, 

The Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, 
Toronto, Ont. 



(Appendix No. 29.) 
Township of Kendrey, District of Algoma. 

Peterboeotjgh, Ont., December 5th, 1907. 

SiE, — I have the honor to submit herewith the field notes and plan of 
survey of the township of Kendrey, in the District of Algoma, performed 
under instructions from your department, dated the 6th May, 1907. 

After taking the necessary observations, I commenced the survey, as 
instructed, at the northeast angle of the township of Bradburn, from this 
point, I ran the east boundary north astronomically. 

To all the regular lots along the south boundary I gave a uniform 
width of twenty-five chains and twenty-five links. Lot one is nineteen 
chains and ninety-three links, and lot twenty-eight is thirty-five chains and 
seventy-three links. 

All the side roads I ran north astronomically from the proper points on 
the south boundary. 

The west boundary I ran north astronomically from the northwest 
angle of the township of Bradburn. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINKS. 93 



As will be noticed by tbe plan I did not run the side line in the centre 
of the road allowance between lots twenty-four and twenty-five, through con- 
cessions eight, nine, ten and eleven. I thought it better to leave lots twenty- 
four and twenty-five through these four concessions extend to the road 
allowance along the Mattagami river on either side. That part of the 
above side road through concession twelve, I ran south astronomically from 
the proper point on the north boundary. 

The concession roads, including the north boundary, I ran east and west 
astronomically from the proper points on Ontario Land Surveyor Speight's 
meridian to their intersections with the east and west boundaries of the 
township. 

Wooden posts of the most durable timber at hand were planted along 
the concession roads between the lots ; one on the line itself as a guide post 
with the numbers of the lots on the east and west sides and "B," on the 
north and south sides, one fifty links north of the guide post and one fifty 
links south of the guide post with the numbers of the lots on the east and 
west sides and the number of the concession or "R" on the north and south 
sides as the case may be. 

At the intersection of the centre line of the different concession road 
all(^wances with the centre line of the different side road allowances, dur- 
able wooden posts were planted, marked "R" on the north, south, east 
and west sides. 

Good wooden posts were also planted at the angle of each of the four 
adjoining lots marked with the number of the concession on the north or 
south sides as the case may be, and the number of the lot on the east or 
west side as the case might be, with "R" on the two sides facing the con- 
cession and side road allowances. These posts were planted at a distance 
of fifty links from the centre of the concession road allowance and fifty 
links from the centre of the side road allowances. 

A road allowance of one chain in perpendicular width was left along 
each side of the Mattagami and Muskego rivers, also around all lakes cut 
by the concession or side lines and around all other lakes of any consider- 
able area. All these road allowances are delimited by wooden posts planted 
on the lines of survey. 

To all posts, with the exception of the guide posts and those defining a 
road allowance along lakes or rivers, bearing trees, were taken and recorded. 

To make the survey as permanent as possible in case of fire, iron posts 
of the following dimensions were planted at the following points : — On the 
iron post one and seven-eighths inches in diameter planted at the southeast 
angle of the township, I marked "Kendrey" on the northwest side, the 
letter "R" had already been marked on the north, south, east and west 
sides. 

On the iron post one and seven-eighths inches in diameter planted at 
the southwest angle of the township, I marked "Kendrey" on the north- 
east side, the letter "R" had already been marked on the north, south, 
east and west sides. 

An iron post one and seven-eighths inches in diameter was planted at 
the northeast angle of the township marked "Kendrey" on the southwest 
side and "R" on the north, south, east and west sides. 

An iron post one and seven-eighths inches in diameter was planted at 
the northwest angle of the township marked "Kendrey" on the south- 
east side, and ''R" on the north, south, east and west sides. 



94 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



An iron post one and one-quarter inclies in diameter at the intersection 
of the north boundary line with the line in the centre of the road allowance 
between lots twelve and thirteen marked *'Con. XII" on the south side, 
and the letter "W on the north, south, east and west sides. 

An iron post one and one-quarter inches in diameter on the east 
boundary line at its intersection with the line in the centre of the road 
allowance between concessions six and seven, marked "Con. YII" on the 
north side, "Con. YI" on the south side and the letter "R" on the north, 
south, east and west sides. 

An iron post one and one-quarter inches in diameter, on the west 
boundary line at its intersection with the line in the centre of the road 
allowance between concessions VI and VII marked *'Con. VII" on north 
side, ''Con. VI" on south side and the letter "R" on north, south, east and 
west sides. An iron post one and one fourth inches in diameter on the south 
boundary line at its intersection with line in centre of the road allowance 
between lots twelve and thirteen marked "Con. I" on the north side, and the 
letter "R" on the north, south, east and west sides. 

An iron post one and one-quarter inches in diameter at the intersec- 
tion of the line in the centre of the road allowance between concessions six 
and seven with the line in the centre of the road allowance between lots 
twelve and thirteen marked "Con. VII" on the north side, "Con. VI" on 
the south side and the letter "R" on the north, south, east and west sides. 

The most notable feature in this township is the Mattagami river 
which enters it from the south, on lot twenty-seven and flowing in a north- 
erly direction, leaves it at lot twenty-four. It is a fine river, being from six 
to twelve chains in width with good current and a depth of from five to 
fifteen feet. There are no rapids and only one fall on the river, in its 
course through the township, this fall which is known as "Smooth Rock" 
occurs in concession ten, between lots twenty-four and twenty-five. I made 
a careful survey and estimate of the power available at this point, full 
particulars of which will be found in the notes. 

There are a few small islands in the river in the township, which are 
of little value either for agriculture or as summer resorts. 

The east branch of the Muskego river enters the Mattagami from a 
northwesterly direction, in concession five. It has an average width of one 
chain and fifty links with a fairly good flow of water. 

There are only a few small lakes in the township, these as a general 
rule are shallow and have low shores. 

The whole township may be described as more or less rolling in char- 
acter, timbered with spruce (white and black) up to sixteen inches in 
diameter, poplar, (white and black) up to twenty inches in diameter, white 
birch, balsam and cedar up to ten inches in diameter with considerable wind- 
fall, willow and alder throughout. Numerous swamps of limited extent 
and covered with small spruce, occur in various parts. There is not more 
than one hundred and fifty acres of muskeg in the whole township. 

The soil is a rich black loam from eight to twelve inches in depth with 
clay subsoil and entirely free from stone. A few small outcroppings of 
rock (Huronian) were noticed along the Mattagami river. 

No indications of mineral were seen. 

The average magnetic variation I found to be fairly constant at nme 
degrees and thirty minutes west. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 95 



Taking tlie township as a whole, I consider fully sixty-five per cent, 
suitable for immediate settlement and with a proper system of drainage 
nearly all the remaining thirty-five per cent, can be made suitable for 
agriculture. 

Several trial lines of the proposed Transcontinental railway cross the 
township in a northwesterly direction. I was unable, however, to defi- 
nitely ascertain along which of these the road would be built. I have there- 
fore made no record of them in the notes. 

Fish and game were fairly plentiful, while fur seemed to be very 
scarce. 

Strawberries, raspberries, etc., fully matured, were to be had in 
abundance. 

Observations for latitudes and azimuth were taken at several points, 
records of which will be found in the notes. 

Trusting the accompanying plans and field notes of the township will 
be found satisfactory. 

I have the honor to be, 
Sir, 
Tour obedient servant, 

(Signed) J. W. Fitzgerald, 

Ontario Land Surveyor. 
The Honorable, 

The Minister Lands, Forests and Mines, 
Toronto, Ont. 



{Appendix No. 30.) 
Township of Macdiaemid, District of Algoma. 

Peterborough, Ontario, December 5th, 1907. 

Sir, — I have the honor to report the completion of the survey of the 
township of Macdiarmid in the District of Algoma, performed under instruc- 
tions from your department, dated July 11th, 1907. 

After taking the necessary observations, I commenced the survey at 
the southwest angle of the township of Kidd; from this point I ran the 
south boundary west astronomically to its intersection with O.L.S. Niven's 
meridian line. Along the south boundary, I gave the lots a uniform front- 
age of forty chains, lot twelve being thirty-nine chains and ninety-one 
links. 

The side lines I ran north astronomically from the proper points on 
the south boundary. 

The concession lines were run east and west astronomically. 

The Mattagami river enters the township from the south at lot 
six, and flowing in a northerly direction leaves it at lot five. It has an 
average width of four to five chains, depth of from five to fifteen feet, with 
good current, and vegetation, as a rule, almost to the water's edge. There 
are no falls, rapids or islands on the river in this locality. 

There are no lakes or ponds in this township.. 

As to the general character of this township, it may be described as a 
gently, undulating country, timbered with spruce (white and black), up to 
sixteen inches in diameter, poplar, white birch and balsam up to ten inches 
in diameter, with considerable willow and windfall throughout. 



96 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



Large tracts, especially in the southerly portion of the township, were 
overrun by fire four years ago, and are now almost destitute of green timber. 
Swamps covered with small spruce occur at different points. 

Generally speaking, the soil is a rich, black loam from eight to twelve 
inches in depth with clay subsoil. 

There are a few rock exposures (Huronian) along the river, also along 
the west boundary run by O.L.S. Niven; these, however, are generally of a 
very limited extent and will not materially retard the settlement of this 
district. 

The average magnetic variation I found to be nine degrees west- 
No indications of minerals were found. 

1 would consider about sixty per cent, of this township suitable for imme- 
diate settlement while about sixty per cent, of the remainder can under a 
proper system of drainage be made good paying agricultural land. 

Fish, game and fur I found rather scarce in this vicinity, raspberries, 
strawberries, etc., especially in the brules were very plentiful. 

Trusting this report with the plans, field notes, etc., will be found cor- 
rect and satisfactory to your Department. 

I have the honor to be. 
Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

(Sgd.) J. W. Fitzgerald, 

Ontario Land Surveyor. 
The Honorable, 

The Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, 
Toronto. 



{Appendix No. 31.) 
Township of Leitch, District of Algoma. 

Bracebridge, Ontario, December 21st, 1907. 

Sir, — I have the honor to submit the following report on the survey 
of the township of Leitch, in the district of Algoma, made in accordance 
with instructions from your department, dated the 20th day of May, 1907. 

With as little delay as possible, I proceeded by way of the Temiska- 
ming and Northern Ontario Railway to the end of the steel of that line, and 
from there paddled down the Black and Abitibi rivers to the township, 
which is situated near the junction of the Abitibi and Frederick House 
rivers. 

The north boundary of the township of Clute, surveyed by me last year, 
forms the south boundary of the township of Leitch, and I began the survey 
by planting the lot posts along this line, twenty-five chains and twenty-five 
links apart, leaving road allowance of one chain between lots six and seven, 
twelve and thirteen, eighteen and nineteen, twenty-four and twenty-five, 
with half a chain at the east and west boundaries. 

The side roads were run from south to north, and the concession roads 
were run west from the district boundary, making the regular lots twenty- 
five chains twenty-five links in width, and fifty-nine chains fifty links in 
depth, with a road allowance of one chain between every second concession 
two and three, four and five, etc., and a blind line between the other conces- 
sions. 



11K)7 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 97 



The district boundary run in 1898 forms the east boundary of the town- 
ship, and the west boundary was surveyed during the present season by 
Messrs. Cavana & Watson 

Along the lines of survey in the centre of the several concession road 
allowances, posts were planted at the intersection of the lot lines, marked 
with the numbers of the lots on the east and west sides, and "E," on the 
north and south side ; at the centre of the side road allowances the posts were 
marked "R" on four sides. 

At the distance of fifty links north and south from the centre of the 
concession road allowances, posts were firmly planted at the front angles 
of the lots, and marked to indicate the number of the lot and concession, and 
with the letter "R" facing the road allowance. 

Posts were also planted to mark the limit of road allowances around the 
shores of lakes and rivers ; and where the front angle of a lot came in a lake 
or river, the posts were placed on the lot line at the distance of one chain 
from high water mark, and guide posts planted and trees marked near the 
shore so as to be readily found. 

No posts were planted along the side roads to mark the blind conces- 
sion lines. 

In addition to the wooden posts referred to, iron posts, one and one- 
quarter inches in diameter were planted in the centre of the road intersections 
at the following points : between lots twelve and thirteen on the south boun- 
dary, marked "Con. I" on the north side, and "R" on four sides. 

Between lots twelve and thirteen on the line between the sixth and 
seventh concessions, marked "Con. VI." on the south side, "Con. VII." on 
the north side, and "R" on four sides. 

i3etween lots twelve . and thirteen on the north boundary marked 
"Con. XII." on the south side, and "R" on four sides. 

On the line between the sixth and seventh concessions at the east boun- 
dary, and also at the west boundary, marked "Co. VI." on the south sides, 
"Con. VII." on the north sides, and "R" on four sides. 

At the northwest angle of the township an iron post one and seven- 
eighths inches in diameter was planted and marked "Leitch" on the south- 
east side, and "R" on four sides. 

At the southeast angle the iron post one and seven-eighths inches, for- 
merely planted, was marked "Leitch" on the northwest side. 

At the northeast angle the iron posts one and one-quarter inches, 
planted by A. Niven, O.L.S., at the 180th mile, was marked "Leitch" on 
the southwest side, and "R" on. four sides. 

At the southwest angle the iron post, one and seven-eighths inches, by 
0. L. Surveyors Cavana & Watson, was marked "Leitch" on the north- 
east side. 

Timber. 

Black spruce forest extends over the greater portion of the township, 
on the higher lands these trees are from eight to twelve inches in diameter 
but the great bulk of this timber is somewhat smaller. 

From one end to the other dead tamarac of about the same size is found. 

Poplar, white birch and balsam, six to eighteen inches in diameter, are 
quite common, and along the rivers and streams, white spruce, balm of 
Gilead, and cedar of larger size are scattered over the country, but no exten- 
sive tracts of large timber were met with. 



98 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



Fire burnt over some comparatively small areas about 1905 or 1906, the 
largest of tbese burnt portions is near the east boundary, evidently starting 
from the Abitibi river. 

Soil. 

Sandy loam was found in a few places, while throughout the greater 
part of the country the soil is clay or clay loam, overlying which is a layer 
of vegetable matter several inches in thickness on the higher lands, and from 
one to three feet thick on the wet land ; and evidently this soil is well adapted 
for agriculture. 

Rock. 

At the different rapids in the Frederick House and Abitibi rivers, expo- 
sures of Laurentian gneiss and. boulders of the same age occur, and also at 
lot twenty-two in the sixth and seventh concessions where a rapid stream 
flows over rocky beds of similar formation. 

Aside from these exposures at the water levels of the streams, only one 
outcropping was observed, this is on lot eighteen in the fourth concession, 
where a ridge of gneissoid rock is exposed for a short distance. No indi- 
cations of minerals of economic value were noticed. 

Water. 

The Abitibi river flows through the northeast corner of the township 
with a modeitate current, leaving the township on lot three, and is again 
crossed by the north boundary at lot twenty-eight, about five chains down 
stream from Kettle Falls; from here to the west boundary the current is 
quite strong and the river wide and shallow. 

The Frederick House river, through the first and second concessions, 
flows with a continuous rapid current over a rocky bed, strewn with boul- 
ders and stones, making it a difiicult stream to navigate with canoes; below 
this stretch of rapids this river becomes a large stream of from five to eight 
chains in width, flowing smoothly between gently sloping clay banks, until it 
discharges into the Abitibi, a quarter of a mile west of the township; the 
only break occurs in the seventh concession where a small rocky island causes 
a short rapid with a fall of one foot. 

A stream of one chain in width enters the township from the south on 
lot twenty-five, and flows with average current through level country until 
it reaches the fifth concession, while from here until it empties 
into the Frederick House river this stream is a succession of rapids flowing 
over a bed of boulders and stones. 

At a fall and rapids on lot twenty-two, concession seven, a head of 
twenty feet could be obtained, but the volume of water in this stream becomes 
so small at low water that as a water power it would be of little value. 

Several small lakes are scattered over the township, they are generally 
shallow with low marshy shores. 

The water in these lakes and in the smaller streams is clear and of good 
quality. 

General Features. 

In the vicinity of the rivers and extending for about one mile on each 
side, the land is rolling or undulating, and free from stone or boulders, while 
the surface of the country is from twenty to fifty feet above the surface of 
the water in the streams ; this portion will become desirable agricultural 
land when cleared. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 99 



Nearly one-half of the township is practically level, and during much 
of this season was quite wet on account of the excessive rainfall, so that 
artificial drainage will be required for parts of the level areas. 

On the whole about sixty per cent, of the total area will be good agri- 
cultural land after removal of the timber, and nearly all of the balance can 
be made good farming land by a system of drainage which will not be very 
expensive, as no drain would require to be of any great length to reach an 
outlet in a stream. 

The usual game and fur-bearing animals are found here but are not 
numerous. 

During the hunting and trapping season three Indians with their fami- 
lies reside in the township, but they do not appear to have made any per- 
manent improvements. 

The variation of the magnetic needle ranged from eight to ten degrees 
west of north. 

Accompanying this report are a plan, timber map, field notes, etc. 

I have the honor to be. 
Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

(Sgd.) W. Galbraith, 

Ontario Land Surveyor. 
The Honorable, 

The Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, 
Toronto, Ontario. 



(Appendix No. 32.) 
Township of McCovtan, District of Algoma. 

Pembroke, Ontario, December 11th, 1907. 

Sir, — I have the honor to report that the township of McCowan in the 
district of Algoma has been surveyed in accordance with instructions from 
your department, dated May 6th, 1907. 

At present the most feasible route by which to reach this township is 
from Missinabie Station on the Canadian Pacific Railway via the Missinabie 
and Opazatika rivers to the crossing of the surveyed line for the National 
Transcontinental Railway which passes through the township of McCrae 
about three and one-half miles south of the southeast corner of this town- 
ship. 

The south boundary was surveyed in 1900 by Ontario Land Surveyor Alex- 
ander Niven. The east, north and west boundaries were surveyed in 1906 
by* Ontario Land Surveyor T. B. Speight, 

The survey was commenced by chaining and posting the south boun- 
dary, and from the posts established on this line for the starting points for the 
centre lines or road allowances between lots six and seven, twelve and 
thirteen, eighteen and nineteen, and twenty-four and twenty-five, meridians 
were run north astronomically, and chords of latitude were run east and 
west astronomically in the centre of the road allowances between each alter- 
nate concession. 

One half chain was allowed inside each of the four boundaries as half 
of the width of the road allowance. 



.100 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



Guide posts were planted on the south and north boundaries marked 
"R" on the side facing the township, and lot numbers on the east and west 
sides, excepting at the intersection of centre lines of road allowances where 
posts were marked "E," on the east and west sides, and on the side facing 
the township, the lot posts being off-set to their proper position and marked 
"E," on the side facing the road allowance, the concession number on the 
opposite side and the lot number on the east and west sides. 

At the intersection of the centre line of road allowances between con- 
cessions with the east and west boundaries, posts were marked "R" on the 
north and south sides and on the west or east side facing the township. 
x\t the intersection of side road allowances with concession road allowances 
posts were planted at the lot corners, marked "R" on the sides facing the 
road allowances, lot numbers on the east or west side and concession numbers 
on the north or south side as the occasion demanded, while, one marked 
"R" on four sides was placed at the intersection of the centre lines. 

Where lot corners were broken by lakes the position of the posts were 
located by off-sets, etc., and posts were planted in accordance with instruc- 
tions at the edge of the road allowance around the lake, guide posts being 
also planted. In all cases posts were made of the most durable wood avail- 
able and firmly planted, bearing trees being marked for lot posts only and 
recorded in the field notes. 

I planted iron posts one and seven-eighths inches in diameter alongside 
the wooden posts at the southeast and southwest angles of the township, 
marking the former "Neely" on the northeast side, "McCowan" on the north- 
west side, and "R" on the north, south, east and west sides, while the latter 
was marked "McCowan" on the northeast side, "Eilber" on the northwest 
side, and "R" on the north, south, east and west sides. 

I planted iron bars one and one-quarter inches in diameter on the centre 
line of road allowance between lots twelve and thirteen at the following 
places, "viz.," at its intersection with the south boundary, marked "R" on 
the north, east and west sides ; at its intersection with the centre line of road 
allowance between concessions six and seven, marked "R" on north, south, 
east and west sides; and at its intersection with the north boundary marked 
"R" on the east, south and west sides. I also planted an iron bar one and 
one-quarter inches in diameter at the intersection of the centre line of the 
road allowance between concessions six and seven with the west boundary, 
marked "R" on the south, east, and north sides. 

The iron bar at the northeast angle of the township is marked "R" on 
the east, "Neely" on the southeast, "R" on the south, "McCowan" on the 
southwest, and "R" on the west side, while the bar at the northwest angle 
is marked "R" on the east, ''McCowan" on the southeast, "R" on the 
south, "Eiber" on the southwest, and "R" on the west side. 

Observations for azimuth were frequently taken to check the bearings of 
the lines. The magnetic variation was found to be about six degrees and* fif- 
teen minutes west. 

There are a few small lakes or ponds scattered through the township 
with one fair sized lake on lots thirteen, fourteen, fifteen and sixteen, con- 
cessions eight and nine. 

The township is well supplied with water, small creeks being numerous, 
the majority of which join, and from a stream about half a chain wide, and 
from two to four feet in depth, which crosses the east boundary near the 
line between concessions one and two, and which will form a good outlet for 
drainage. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 101 



The surface is level and gently rolling land covered with a dense growth 
of spruce from four to eight inches in diameter in the swamps, and poplar, 
spruce, balsam and bircli from four to twelve inches in diameter on the 
higher lands. The timber at present is only suitable for pulpwood. 

The soil is a good clay loam, mostly covered with moss which varies 
from one to two feet in depth in the swamps, and from three inches to one 
foot in depth on the rolling land. About fifty per cent, of the township 
will require the construction of drains before it can be cultivated. 

No traces of economic minerals were seen, outcrops of rock bei^ng rare 
and of small area. 

The National Transcontinal Railway when constructed will make this 
township easy of access, and with the opening up of the country adjacent to 
the railway, I have no doubt that this township will become eventually a 
prosperous farming section, but at present is handicapped by the short season 
and summer frosts. 

Game does not appear to be plentiful though occasionally traces of 
moose and caribou were seen. 

Accompanying this report are a general plan, timber plan and field 
notes. 

I have the honor to be. 
Sir, 
Tour obedient servant, 

(Sgd.) James L. Morris, 

Ontario Land Surveyor. 
The Honorable, 

The Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, 
Toronto. 



{Appendix No. 33.) 
Township of McCrae, District of Algoma. 

Eganville, November 2nd, 1907. 

Sir, — I have the honor to report that in accordance with your instruc- 
tions dated the 6th day of May, 1907, I have completed the survey of the 
township of McCrae, in the District of Algoma. 

With a party which numbered eighteen men all told, I left Missanabi 
Station on the Canadian Pacific Railway, on June 11th, and, crossing Dog 
Lake, Crooked Lake and Missanabi Lake, I went down the Missanabi river 
to the chain of portages leading to Lake Opazatika, and thence down the river 
of the same name until I reached the south boundary of my township. This 
is a good route in high water, using large canoes manned by experienced 
river men. 

The east, south and west boundaries were surveyed in the summer of 
1906, the north boundary in the summer of 1900, all by A. Niven, O.L.S. 
Taking Mr. Niven's field notes as a guide, I calculated the position of his 
five mile post on the south boundary with reference to the side line between 
lots thirteen and fourteen, and from this I chained east and west, making all 
of the lots twenty-five chains and twenty-five links wide, excepting lots one 
and twenty-eight, which I found to be twenty-five chains and nine links and 
thirty-five chains and thirteen links, respectively. Fifty links were allowed 
inside each of the four boundaries as half the width of a road allowance. 



102 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



guide posts being planted on the south boundary, marked "R" on the north 
side, with lot numbers on east and west sides excepting at the starting points 
of the centre lines of side road allowances, where posts were marked "R" on 
east, north and west sides. The lot posts were planted in their proper posi- 
tions at the corners of the respective lots one-half chain north and marked in 
accordance with instructions. Meridians were run north astronomically from 
posts established as starting points of the centre lines of road allowances 
between lots number six and seven, twelve and thirteen, eighteen and nine- 
teen, and twenty-four and twenty-five, and chords of latitude were run in the 
centre of the road allowance between the alternate concessions on which guide 
posts were planted, marked 'R" on the north and south sides with lot num- 
bers on east and west sides, from which the lot posts were carefully located 
by perpendicular offsets, and marked "R" on the side facing the road allow- 
ance, the concession number on the opposite side, and the lot numbers on the 
east and west sides. At the intersection of these chords of latitude with centre 
line of side road allowance, posts were planted marked "R" on four sides, and 
posts planted at the corners of the adjoining lots marked "R" on the side 
facing the road allowances, the lot number on the east or west side and the 
concession number on the north or south sides as the occasion demanded. The 
road allowances were all made one chain in perpendicular width. At the 
intersection of all centre lines of road allowances with boundaries, posts were 
planted marked "R" on three sides only, the sides facing the adjoining town- 
ships being left blank. 

Road allowances, one chain in perpendicular width, were left on each 
side of the Opazatika river and the navigable portion of the large creek which 
joins it on lot two, concessions five and six. At the intersection of centre lines 
with road allowances along these streams posts were planted at a perpendicular 
distance of one chain from high water mark, properly marked, and where the 
lot corners were broken by water the lot posts were established by means of 
offsets and guide posts planted at the shore. The posts were made of the most 
durable wood available and firmly planted where possible, but, owing to a 
late spring, the frost interfered with this part of the work in a great many 
places. Bearing trees for the posts at the lot corners were marked and recorded 
in the field notes. 

I found an iron post one and seven-eighths inches in diameter at the 
southeast angle of the township, marked "Idington" on the northeast side 
and "McCrae" on the northwest, which I marked "R" on the north, east, 
south and west sides, and at the southwest angle of the township I found a 
similar post marked "McCrae" on the northeast side and "Barker" on the 
northwest side, which I marked '*R" on the north, east, south and west sides. 

At the intersection of the centre lines at the following places, iron posts 
one and a quarter inches in diameter were planted along side the wooden posts 
marked as stated. On the south boundary at centre of road allowance between 
lots twelve and thirteen marked "XII." "R" on the east, "Con. I." "R" 
on the north, and "XIII." "R" on the west side. At the intersection of 
centre line of road allowance between concessions six and seven with the east 
boundary, marked "Con. YIII." "R" on north side; "I." "R" on west side, 
and "Con. YI." "R" on south side, and at its intersection with centre line 
of road allowance between lots twelve and thirteen marked "R" on north, 
south, east and west sides, and at its intersection with west boundary marked 
"R" on north, east and south sides. 

Iron posts, one and seven-eighths inches in diameter, were planted at 
the northeast and northwest angles of the township, the former being marked 
''Idington" on the southeast, "McCrae" on the southwest, and "R" on the 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 103 



nortli, east, south and west sides, the latter being marked "McCrae" on the 
southeast, "Barker" on the southwest, and "R" on the north, east, south and 
west sides. 

Frequent observations for azimuth were taken, the magnetic variation 
was found to range from six to six and a half degrees west of the astronomic 
north, six and a quarter degrees being a fair average. 

The river Opazatika is a stream from two to three chains wide and from 
six to ten feet deep in high water. In the spring and during rainy seasons 
it has a considerable volume of water, but gets very low in dry summer sea- 
sons. Only one fall occurs on the river in its course through the township; 
this varies from ten to fourteen feet in height, but does not appear to me to 
be of any particular value as a power site, as, owing to the manner in which 
this stream floods its banks in high water, I consider it will be necessary to 
enlarge its cross-section at this point to increase the flow of the water in times 
of freshet to facilitate the drainage of the land above. Only one lake, on lot 
fifteen, concession seven, was seen, this being small. There are numerous 
creeks which will afford good drainage outlets when properly attended to. 
The surface of the township is level or gently rolling, and is covered, gener- 
ally speaking, with spruce swamps with scattered patches of tamarac, the 
timber being from four to eight inches in diameter, excepting along the banks 
of the river and the large creeks, where I found a thrifty growth of white 
poplar from four to twelve inches in diameter, the large trees being an excep- 
tion ; this extends but a short distance from the banks of the streams. Small 
areas of dry land were found scattered throughout the township, and on this 
land the timber varies from six to fourteen inches in diameter. 

JN'o traces of economic minerals were seen, only two or three outcrops of 
rock of small area appearing in the township. A recent fire has run through 
the southwesterly portion of the township, and where the moss has been burned 
off a good clay soil is exposed. The remainder of the township is generally 
covered with moss from a couple of inches to two feet in depth, but the under- 
lying soil appears to be a good clay, and this township will no doubt eventu- 
ally be a good farming community when properly drained. Summer frosts, 
however, are quite prevalent at present. 

There are indications of this whole township having been burned over 
at a date which I estimate to be from eighty to one hundred years ago, and 
the present growth of timber is too small to be of much commercial value. 

Several lines have been surveyed for the National Transcontintmtal Rail- 
way through this township, and intersections with the different lines are 
shown in field notes, but it was impossible to say which, if any of them, is a 
final location, and none of them are shown on the plan. 

Game does not appear to be very plentiful. 

Accompanying this report are a general plan, timber plan, traverse 
sheet and field notes with the usual affidavits. 

I have the honor to be. 
Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

(Sgd.) Herbert J. Beatty, 

Ontario Land Surveyor. 

Tho Honorable 

The Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, 
Parliament Buildings, Toronto, Ontario. 

8 L.M. 



104 REPORT OF THE No. '^ 



(Appendix No. 34.) 
Township of Reaume, District of Algoma. 

LiSTOWEL, Ontario, December 21st, 1907. 

Sir, — In pursuance witli instructions dated May Gth, 1907, from the 
Honorable the Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, I beg leave to report 
the following : I had the same difl&culty this year in procuring suitable canoes 
for my trip, I had canoes ordered from the Peterborough firm and just when 
the time was up for delivery I received word that they could not be shipped. 
However, I was fortunate in getting canoes at Orillia and North Bay, after a 
delay of two weeks. I left Toronto on June 25th, 1907, and reached Engle- 
hart, via the Temiskaming and Northern Ontario Railway, on June 27th. 
This point is one hundred and thirty-eight miles north of North Bay, and was 
at that time as far north as the regular trains were running. From Engle- 
hart we travelled north on the contractor's construction train to McDougall's 
Chute, a distance of sixty-five miles, the steel on the railway was laid to this 
point on July 2nd. McDougall's Chute is situated on the Black River. We 
left McDougall's Chute on July 2nd, with seven canoes, fourteen men, camp 
outfit and supplies, and got as far as the junction of the Black and Abitibi 
rivers that night, a distance of fourteen miles. The next day we travelled 
down the Abitibi to the boundary line between the townships of Pyne and 
St. John, on line between concessions two and three, a distance of nineteen 
miles. In this distance there are three small portages, one at Iroquois Falls, 
about five miles below the junction, and the other two at the Buck Deer 
rapids, ten miles below the falls. At these rapids we took our canoes down 
with a light load and portaged the remainder of our outfit. This rapid is not 
a bad one to run, but one has to be careful. We ran down on the left side for 
the upper part, and took the right for the lower part. The current in the 
Black river is very slow, but in the Abitibi it is rapid. The water in both 
these streams was very high, as the season was a late one. From this point 
on the Abitibi river I proceeded west along the line between concessions two 
and three in St. John township to the east boundary of the township of 
Hanna, a distance of six miles. It rained nearly every day on our way into 
the work so that we made very slow progress. On August 24th I commenced 
the survey of the township of Reaume at the southeast angle running north 
from the base line run by Ontario Land Surveyor Patten and west from the 
boundary line between the Districts of Algoma and Nipissing. During the 
survey of this township the weather was decidedly wet, the prevailing winds 
being southwesterly. I may say that I read the Act for the Preservation of 
forests against fire, once, but had no occasion to read it again. 

The iron posts furnished me by your department I planted and marked 
as follows : 

The iron post, one and one-quarter inches in diameter and three feet long, 
planted alongside a wooden post on the east boundary of the township between 
concessions three and four, is marked "Con. Ill," on the south side, "Con, 
IV." on the north side, and "I." on the west side. The wooden post is simi- 
larly marked. 

The iron post, one and one-quarter inches in diameter, planted alongside 
a wooden post, intended to be planted on the south boundary of the township 
at the intersection of the side line between lots six and seven, is planted at 
chainage five and thirty-three one-hundredth chains, on said side line, as 
the corner comes in a lake. The post is marked "Con. I." on the north side, 
"VI," on the east side, and "VII," on the west side. The wooden post is 
similarly marked. 

S.b L M 



liH)7 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 105 



The iron post, one and one-quarter inches in diameter, planted alongside 
a wooden post, intended to be planted on the north boundary of the township, 
on the side line between lots six and seven, is planted at chainage sixty-seven 
and thirty one-hundredth chains on said side line, as the corner comes in a 
lake. The post is marked "Con. VI." on the south, "YI." on the east, and 
"YII." on the Mest. The wooden post is similarly marked. 

The iron post, one and one-quarter inches in diameter, planted alongside 
a wooden post on the west boundary between concessions three and four, is 
marked "Con. j.il." on the south side, "Con. IV." on the north side, and 
"X." on the east side. The wooden post is similarly marked. 

The iron post, one and one-quarter inches in diameter, planted alongside 
a wooden post at the centre of the township, where the side line between lots 
six and seven intersects the line between concessions three and four, is 
marked "Con. III." on the south side, '^Con. IV." on the north side, "VI." 
on the east side, and "VIT." on the west sfde. The wooden post is similarly 
marked. 

The iron post, one and seven-eighths inches in diameter, planted along- 
side a wooden post at the northeast angle of the township, is marked "Con. 
VI." on the south, "Con. I." on the north, "Lot I." on the west, "Four- 
nier" on the northwest, and "Reaume" on the southwest. The wooden post is 
similarly marked. 

The iron post, one and seven-eighths inches in diameter, planted along- 
side a woodeii post at the southeast angle of the township, is marked "Con. 
I." on the north side, "Con. VI." on the south side, "XII." on the east side, 
"I." on the West Side, "Hanna" on the northeast side, "Reaume" on the 
northwest side, "Mann" on the southeast, and "Duff" on the southwest side. 
The wooden post is similarly marked. 

The iron post, one and seven-eighths inches in diameter, planted along- 
side a wooden post at the southwest angle of the township, is marked "Con. 
I." on the north side, "Lot XII." on the east side, "I." on the west side, 
"Reaume" on the northeast side, and "Beck" on the northwest side. The 
wooden post is similarly marked. 

The iron post, one and seven-eighths inches in diameter, planted along- 
side a wooden post, at the northwest angle of the township, is marked "Con. 
VI." on the south side, "XII." on the east side, "I." on the west side, 
"Reaume" on the southeast, and "Beck" on the southwest side. The wooden 
post is similarly marked. 

Under the head of "Timber," I beg leave to report the following: The 
kinds of timber found in this township are in order of their relative abund- 
ance: spruce, poplar, tamartc, white birch, balsam, balm of Gilead, cedar 
and white spruce. The only place where I found white spruce and cedar was 
along the shores of the lakes and streams, and not much of it is found. The 
underbrush consists of moose maple, alder, hardback and mountain ash. The 
black spruce is the prevailing kind of timber in this township, and the largest 
and best trees are found along the shores of the lakes and streams, and are 
considerably scattered. Small spruce and tamarac are the only kinds of 
timber found in the muskegs. 

There is also a large quantity of poplar and white birch in this township, 
but is on higher land, and around the shores of some of the lakes and streams, 
and is also scattered. 

The tamarac is the same as I found last season, being all half alive, or 
dead, the reason of its dying, I learned from an old timer of the country, who 
says that this result was caused by a small insect. 

The balsam is nearly all of small dimensions, the largest being found 
along the streams and lakes. 



106 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



There is not much balm of Gilead found in this township. 

With respect to the reserving of any section for lumbering, I am of the 
belief that it is not necessary, as the good timber of large dimensions is scat- 
tered over the whole area, and not much in any one place, but all the timber 
is suitable for pulp wood. 

We saw considerable game in this township, but principally moose and 
partridge. We fished in most of the small lakes, but were not very success- 
ful. The water in some of the lakes is clear and bright, and there is very 
little lime in it, as the water is quite soft. The lakes having the clearest 
water are those having no inlet or outlet. The water in the other lakes is 
more or less colored from the streams emptying into them. 

Under the head of "Soil" I beg leave to report that I found it to be prin- 
cipally clay and clay loam.. On the lower levels there is a heavy growth of 
moss, then from four to eighteen inches of black muck, and then the clay. 
The black muck holds the water. Clay loam is found in the higher land, 
where there is not so much moss. In the muskegs, where the timber is small, 
I found a thin layer of moss, then a few inches of muck, then the clay. The 
muskegs have all clay bottoms. There is only one wet muskeg in this town- 
ship, being parts of lots eight and nine, concessions three and four. The 
land in this part of the Province can be easily cleared, as the roots of the trees 
do not penetrate the clay, out seem to run along between the clay and the 
muck, and when the land becomes burnt over and drained, the stumps can 
easily be moved. The country, although generally flat and level, can easily 
be drained, a^ the stream beds are sufficiently low to afford good drainage. 
The land around some of the lakes is rolling. 

Under the head of "Minerals" I beg leave to report that I found no rock 
any place, but I found a large boulder on the east side of the lake, on lot six, 
concession four, but was of no value. I broke off a few specimens and 
examined them under a glass. I also found some boulders on lot ten, conces- 
sion six, samples of which I am forwarding to your Department. 

The magnetic variation of the compass was very irregular, sometimes 
changing two degrees in ten chains. I found the greatest irregularity_cros8- 
ing lots eight and nine, concessions five and six. The variation on lot nine 
was twenty-three degrees west. The variation on side line between lots eight 
and nine, concession six, at sixty chainage, was twenty-seven degrees and 
thirty minutes west. 

The wet weather greatly impeded our work; one week we remained in 
camp five days. In the month of July, rain fell on twenty-four days. In the 
month of August rain fell on twenty-five days, and in the month of September 
rain fell on twenty days and snow on two days. In October up to the 10th 
day rain and snow fell on seven daj^s. There was frost at McDougall's Chute 
on July 2nd. The next frost we had on August 26th. 

"With regard to the opening up and development of this township, would 
say that the Temiskaming and Northern Ontario Railway location runs north 
through the township of St. John and the Grand Trunk Pacific location runs 
east and west through the township to the north, so that this point will be 
within a few miles of the junction of the two, and when these lines are built 
the lands will -be easy of access, and should become settled within the next 
few years. 

I have the honor to be. 
Sir, _ 
Your obedient servant, 

(Signed) E. D. Bolton, 
The Honorable, ^^ Ontario Land Surveyor. 

The Minister of Lands, Forests and Mine's, 
Toronto, Ont. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 107 

{Appendix No. 35.) 
Township of Staunton, District of Algoma, 

Delta, Ont., November 28tli, 1907. 

Sir, — I have the honor to report that in accordance with your instruc- 
tions dated the sixth day of May, 190T, I have completed the survey of the 
township of Staunton, in the District of Algoma. 

I left Missanaibi Station on the Canadian Pacific Railway June 11th, 
with a party of fourteen men all told, crossing Dog Lake, Crooked Lake 
and Missanaibi Lake, I went down the Missanaibi river to the south boundary 
of this township, finding this route fairly good in high water with capable 
men in the canoes. 

The east and south boundaries of this township were opened by Ontario 
Land Surveyor Niven in 1906, the west boundary and six miles of the north 
boundary were opened by Ontario Land Surveyor Speight in 1906, the other 
three miles of the north boundary were opened by Ontario Land Surveyor 
Niven in 1900. Using Ontario Land Surveyor Niven's notes as a guide 
for the south boundary and calculating the positions of the side lines between 
lots six and seven and twelve and thirteen with reference to the mile posts, 
I began the work of making all lots twenty-five chains and twenty-five links 
wide with the exception of six, twelve and twenty-eight, on the south bound- 
ary, making lot six twenty-five chains and forty-two links wide. In lot 
twelve we found a small lake and after leaving a road allowance about the 
same this gave lot twelve a width of thirteen chains and twenty-seven links. 

Lot twenty-eight was made thirty-four chains and thirty-five links wide 
on the south boundary. 

A width of fifty links was allowed within this township on each bound- 
ary as one-half the width of a road allowance, and within the township a 
width of one chain along each side line and concession line allowed for road 
purposes. Guide posts being planted in the south boundary marked "R" 
on the north side with the lot numbers, on the east and west sides excepting at 
starting points of centre lines of side road allowance, where posts were 
marked "R" on the east, north and west sides. The lot posts were planted 
in their proper positions at the corners of the respective lots one-half chain 
north and marked in accordance with instructions. 

Meridians were run north astronomically from posts established at start- 
ing points of the centre lines of road allowances between lots six and seven, 
twelve and thirteen, eighteen and nineteen and twenty-four and twenty-five. 
Chords of latitude were run in the centre of the road allowance between the 
alternate concessions on which guide posts were planted marked "R" on 
the north and south and lot numbers on the east and west sides from which 
the lot posts were carefully located by means of perpendicular offsets and 
marked "R" on the side facing the road allowance, concession number on 
the opposite side and lot numbers on the east and west side. At the inter- 
section of these chords of latitude with the centre line of side road allowance 
posts were planted marked "R" on the four sides, and posts planted at corners 
of adjoining lots marked "R" on side facing road allowance, the' lot num- 
ber on the east and west side and the concession number on the north or south 
side as concession demanded. 

Road allowances one chain in perpendicular width were left on each 
side of the Missanaibi river, at the intersection of centre lines with the 
stream we planted posts one chain from the water mark, and on either side 
planted posts fifty links perpendicular from the centre line and one chain 



108 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



perpendicular from the water line. Where lot corners were broken the lot 
posts were established by means of offsets and guide posts planted at the 
shore. Posts were made of the durable wood available and firmly planted 
where possible, frost interfering at the beginning of the work. Bearing 
trees were taken and recorded in the field notes for all lot posts. 

I found an iron post one and seven-eighth inches in diameter at the 
southeast angle of the townships marked "Barker" on the northeast and 
"Staunton" on the northwest and on the southwest, northwest and northeast 
corners I found similar bars marked in a similar way. At the intersection of 
the centre lines at the following places iron bars one and one-quarter inches 
in diameter were planted alongside the wooden posts marked as stated. 
On the south boundary at centre of road allowance between lots 
twelve and thirteen and marked "Con." 1 "R" on the north, "XII" "E" 
on the east side, and "XIII." "R" on the west side. 

At the intersection of centre line of road allowance between concession 
six and seven with the east boundary marked "Con. VII." "R" on the north 
side and "Lot I." "R" on the west side, and "Con. VI." "R" on the south 
side, and at its intersection with the centre line of road allowance between lots 
twelve and thirteen and marked "R" on the north, south, east and west, and 
at its intersection with the west boundary marked "Con. VII." on the north. 
"Con. VI." "R" on the south and "R" on the east side. At the north 
boundary at the intersection of the centre of road allowance between lots 
twelve and thirteen marked "XII." "R" on the east, "XIII." "R" on the 
west and "R" "Con. XII." on the south side. 

Frequent observations for azimuth were taken, and magnetic variations 
noted to vary from six to seven and a half degrees to the west, a fair average, 
I consider, to be six and three-quarters west of the true meridian. 

The Missinaibi river is a swift stream from five to eight chains in width 
and from four to twenty feet deep in high water. There are a number of 
small rapids through the township, but the most important for water power 
purposes and most dangerous to canoe men are the Beaver and Glassy falls, 
the former has a broken fall of twenty feet or more, the latter a clear drop 
of seventeen feet in high water time. This stream is a very swift, dangerous 
one throughout this township and should not be attempted by inexperienced 
canoe men under any circumstances. There are several small creeks drain- 
ing the adjacent land to the river that appear to me to offer good outlets for 
any drainage work contemplated in the future. Along the river is a roll- 
ing or hilly country timbered with spruce and poplar from four to fourteen 
inches in diameter. Back from the river we find mostly a fairly level spruce 
country, there being occasional patches of dense alders with poplar and 
spruce ridges. The tamaracs of this country are mostly dry and those green 
iamaracs found were small and of no value as tie timber. 

No traces of economic deposit were noticeable and the only bit of rock 
seen in the township being along the river. In the swamps is a heavy mus- 
keg or moss from five inches to two feet in depth which holds the frost and 
does not allow the heat to get to the clay soil beneath. This clay would be 
a good agricultural producer in my opinion and will no doubt yet be a valu- 
able asset to Ontario after proper drainage and clearing of the land. The 
absence of the summer frost was quite noticeable, and at the Northern Trans- 
continental Railway cache the keeper had an abundant garden of vegetables 
grown by himself and this cache is some two miles north of our northern 
boundary. 

There are indications which lead me to believe that this township has 
been entirely burnt over some seventy-five or one hundred years ago, and the 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 109 



slow growth of timber does not leave that product of much value for lumber, 
but will be excellent for pulp. The poplars ranging four to fourteen inches 
and the spruce from three to nine inches. 

Game does not appear to be over plentiful, no wolves were heard through 
the entire work, fish in the river are not plentiful, speckled trout and pickerel 
being caught around the falls and pike being picked up along the stream, 
the absence of Indian camps and nets led us to the opinion that it was not 
considered a good fish stream. 

Accompanying this report is a general plan, timber plan, traverse sheet, 
and field notes, with the usual affidavits. 

I have the honor to be. 
Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

(Signed) Walter Beattt, 
The Honorable, O. L. S. 

The Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, 
Toronto. 



{Appendix No. 36). 
Township of Strathearn, District of Algoma. 

Toronto, March 1st, 1907. 

Sir, — In accordance with instructions dated the 15th day of May, 
1906, having completed the survey of the township of Gallagher, I pro- 
ceeded to the southeast corner of the township of Strathearn, where I found 
an iron bar along side a wooden post marked "XXXIII" on the northeast 
side, "XXXIY" on the northwest, "XXXII" on the southwest and 
"XXXI" on the southeast sides; here I planted a new wooden post and an 
iron bar one and seven-eighths inches in diameter, marked "Con. I" on 
the north side, "Strathearn" on the northwest side and "one" on the west 
side, and ran a chord of latitude due west astronomically for the south 
boundary and a meridian due north astronomically for the east boundary, 
the former being run a distance of five miles, sixty-nine chains and eighty- 
one links to its intersection with a line run due south astronomically from 
O.L.S. McAree's posts planted at the northwest corner of this township 
The east boundary was run to its intersection with the southeasterly shore 
of Lake Como, posts being planted every eighty chains for the respective 
concessions, and the north boundary was run east astronomically from 
McAree's posts above referred to, to its intersection with the northwesterly 
shore of liake Como, the northeast corner of the township being in the lake. 
Posts were planted on the south boundary at a distance of forty chains apart 
for each of the lots up to and including lot eleven, except when lot corners 
come in water. Lot twelve was found to be twenty-nine chains and eighty- 
one links wide. 

'khe subdivision of the township was proceeded with in accorcYance to 
general instructions, meridians being run due north astronomically from the 
proper posts on the south boundary and the concession lines being run due 
west astronomically from the different posts on the east boundary, suitable 
wooden posts being planted on the concession lines at all lot corners, except- 
ing where these were broken by lakes, in which cases the posts were planted 
in accordance with instructions. 

Iron bars one and seven-eighths inches in diameter, properly marked, 
were planted at the following places : At the intersection of the east boundary 
with southeasterly shore of Lake Como, marked "Con. YI" on the north 



110 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



side, "Strathearn" on southwest, and "I" on west side, at the southwest 
corner of the township marked 'Ton. I" on the north pide, "Strathearn" 
on northeast, and "XII" on east sides at the northwest corner of the town- 
ship marked "Con. VI" on south side, "Strathearn" on southeast, and 
"XII" on east side, and at the intersection of the north boundary with 
northwesterly shore of Lake Como marked "Con. VI" on south side and 
''Strathearn" on southwest sides. 

Iron bars one and one-quarter inches in diameter were planted at the 
following places : On the south boundary at its intersection with westerly 
shore of small island in lake on lots si? and seven, marked "Con. I" on 
Jiorth side, at the intersection of line between concessions three and four 
with line between lots six and seven marked "VI" on east, "Con. IV" on 
north, "VII" on west and "Con. Ill" on south, at the intersection of line 
between lots six and seven, with the north boundary of township, marked 
" \ I" on east, "Con. VI" on south, and "VII" on west sides, on the east 
boundary at the commencement of line between concessions three and four 
marked "Con. IV" on north, "I" on west and "Con. Ill" on south side, 
and at the intersection of line between concessions three and four with the 
west boundary, marked "Con. VIII" on south, "XII" on east, and "Con. IV" 
on north sides. 

A settler named Picard has a clearing on lot six, concession four, on both 
sides of the Canadian Pacific Railway, of about eighty acres, has four small 
log houses occupied by his hired men, a good barn and a small wharf on Lake 
Como. The cleared land is a good sandy loam and when I saw the farm 
last in August, the crop, hay, 9ats, potatoes and garden stuff was looking 
well, hay and oats harvested. 

The south part of this township is rolling and in some places with hills 
as high as. one hundred feet or more. The soil is generally light and stony 
but some very good patches of loam, both sandy and clay, especially on the 
east shore of Lake Como and the west shore on concession four, (Picard 
settlement) ; Lake Como extends from near the centre of the township to 
and out of the northeast corner, with a width of about a mile and a half, 
and is well stocked with salmon trout, white fish and pike. This lake, no 
doubt, in the near future will become a popular summer resort from its 
easy access by rail. The timber in the township is principally poplar, 
white birch, and jack pine on the high land, and spruce, cedar and tama- 
rac in swamps. There are patches of burnt country in the northeast quarter 
of the township. There were no economic minerals found, the rock forma- 
tion is Laurentian. 

The islands in the different lakes were carefully surveyed and prominent 
trees marked with respective numbers of the islands, these are set forth on 
the traverse sheet. 

The Canadian Pacific Railway runs through this township crossing the 
east boundary about the centre of concession one, and crossing the west 
boundary about the centre of the sixth concession, the width of the right- 
of-way being two hundred feet throughout the township. 

Accompanying this report are a general plan, timber plan, field notes 
and traverse sheet. 

I have the honor to be 
. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

(Sgd.) Walter Beatty, 
The Honorable, Ontario Land Surveyor. 

The Minister Lands, Forests and Mines, 
Toronto, Ont. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. Ill 



(Appendix No. 37.) 
Township of Gallagher, District of Algoma. 

Delta, Ontario, March 1st, 1907. 

Sir, — I have the honour to report that in accordance with instructions, 
dated the 15th day of May, 1906, I have surveyed the township of Gallagher. 

I commenced my survey at the southwesterly corner of the township, 
because it was more easily reached than the southeasterly corner, and ran a 
chord of latitude due east astronomically to intersection with westerly 
boundary of the township of McNaught produced southerly, making lots 12 
to 2 inclusive, the uniform width of 40 chains, and lot one being 39 chains 
and 82 links wide. The* west boundary was run due north astronomically 
to its intersection with the south boundary of the township of Cochrane, 
concessions one to five being made 80 chains deep. The subdivision was then 
proceeded with, by running the side lines due north astronomically from the 
proper points on the south boundary, and the concession lines being run due 
«ast astronomically from the west boundary. Suitable wooden posts were 
planted at the lot corners on the concession lines excepting where corners 
came in water, in which cases posts were planted in accordance with instruc- 
tions. Iron bars 1 7-8 inches in diameter are planted at the four corners of 
the township, the one I planted was the southeast corner, being marked ''!" 
on west, "Gallagher" on northwest and "Con. I" on north side, the one at 
the northeast corner of the township is marked "I" on west, "Gallagher" 
on southwest, "Con. YI" on south, "McNaught" on southeast and "XII" 
on east side, the one at the southwest corner is marked "XII" on east side, 
"Gallagher" on northeast, "Con. I" on north, "Chapleau" on northwest 
and "I" on west side, and the one at the northwest corner of the township 
is marked "Con. YI" on south, "Gallagher" on southeast, "XII" on east, 
"I" on west and "Chapleau" on southwest side. 

Iron bars one and one-fourth inches in diameter were planted at the 
following places and marked as hereafter stated. On the south boundary 
line between lot six and seven, marked "YI" on west, "Con. I" on north, 
and "YI" on the east side; at the intersection of line between lots six and 
seven with line between concessions three and four marked "Con. Ill" on 
south, "YI" on east, "Con. lY" on north and "YII" on west side; on the 
west boundary at line between cons, three and four marked "Con. Ill" on 
south, "XII" on east, and "Con. lY" on north side; and at the intersection 
of line between concessions three and four with the east boundary, marked 
"Con. Ill" on south, "I" on west and "Con. lY" on north side. 

Frequent observations for azimuth were taken, the variation of the 
magnetic needle being fairly constant at 3-i° west of the true north. 

This township is much broken by lakes taking up in all about 15 per 
cent, of the total area. Loon Lake extends from the northeast corner of 
lot eleven, concession one, to and across the north boundary of the town- 
ship, and has a large number of islands, many of which are suitable for 
camping purposes, and as this lake abounds with pike and salmon trout, 
it will probably become a favorite summer resort. All of the islands were 
carefully surveyed and a prominent tree marked on each as shown on the 
traverse sheet. The land is mostly sandy and stony, the southwesterly^ por- 
tion is rolling and broken, rocky ridges showing in places. The remainder 
is fairly level, but is not suitable for agricultural purposes. All of the town- 
ship, excepting the northeasterly quarter is brule of about fifteen years' date 
with scattered patches of green timber, the northeasterly quarter is covered 



112 REPORT OF THE No. H 



with mixed timber, white birch, poplar, balsam, spruce and banksian pine 
from four to twelve inches in diameter, with small scattered groves of red 
and white pine. 

No indications of economic minerals were noted and there are no water 
powers in this township. 

Accompanying this report are a general plan, timber plan, traverse 
sheet and field notes. 

I have the honour to be, 
Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

(Sgd.) Walter Beatty, 

Ontario Land Surveyor. 
The Honorable, 

The Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, 
Toronto. 



{Appendix No. 38.) 

TOW^NSHIP OF DeVITT, DISTRICT OF AlGOMA. 

Delta, Ontario, December 18th, 1907. 

Sir, — I have the honor to submit the following report on the survey of 
the township of Devitt in the district of Algoma, performed under instruc- 
tions from your department, dated May 6th, 1907. 

This township is bounded on the south by the township of Staunton, 
which was subdivided by me this year, on the east by the township of Eilber, 
and on the north and west by unsurveyed lands of the crown. At present, 
access to it is most easily obtained by means of the canoe route from Mis- 
''.anabi Station on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, through 
Dog Lake, Crooked Lake, Missanabi Lake and down the river of the same 
name which passes through the southeast corner of the township. 

I commenced my survey by chaining and posting the south boundary 
from the southeast corner, westerly, the posts being planted in accordance 
with instructions, leaving a road allowance, one chain wide between lots six 
and seven, twelve and thirteen, eighteen and nineteen and twenty-four and 
twenty-five, and projecting meridians north astronomically in the centre of 
these road allowances. A road allowance, one chain wide was left between 
the alternate concessions, the centre lines of which were run ^ue east and 
west astronomically. Suitable wooden posts of the most durable material 
available, and properly marked, were planted along the concession lines and 
^long the road allowances adjoining lakes and streams in accordance with 
instructions, the necessary information being recorded in the field notes. 

In addition to this, iron bars, one and one-quarter inches in diameter, 
were planted on the side line between lots twelve and thirteen at its inter- 
section with the south boundary marked "W on north, south, east and west 
sides, and "Con, I" on north, at its intersection with line between conces- 
sions six and seven, marked with four **E,'s" and at its intersection with 
the north boundary marked *'E," on east, south and west sides, also on line 
between concessions six and seven at its intersection with road allowance 
around lake on lot one, marked "R" on south, east and north sides, and 
"'I" on west, and at its intersection with west boundary marked "B" on 
north, east, and south sides. 



1<)07 DEPARTMENT OE LANDS, EORESTS AND MINES. 113 



The one and seven-eighths inch iron bars are marked at the southeast 
( urner oT tne lowusnip "AUIA. iVl., "Uevitt ' on nortliwest, "ijarker'^ on 
southeast, "Eilber" on northeast, and "Staunton" on southwest sides; at 
the southwest corner, "CVIIIM." on east side, "Staunton" on southeast, 
and "Devitt" on northeast sides; at the northeast corner, "Devitt" on south- 
west, "Eilber" on southeast, "IXM" on south, and "R" on west and south 
sides; and at the northwest corner "Devitt" on southeast, "IXM. + 08 links" 
on south and "R" on south and east sides. 

The field notes were systematically kept with a view to showing all 
rhainages, posts and bearing trees, size and quality of timber, character of 
soil, creeks and other information acquired through the progress of the 
survey. 

Frequent observations on Polaris at elongation were taken for azimuth 
and the magnetic variation was found to be fairly constant at six degrees 
and thirty minutes west. 

The surface of this township is of a flat or gently undulating character, 
fully eighty per cenT;. being swampy and few outcrops of rock were met 
with, these being of small area. 

The soil appears to be of excellent quality, being clay and clay loam, 
and is generally covered with a light deposit of black mould. As is usual 
in ihis country, the soil in the low lands is covered with a thick growth of 
moss, and will require drainage before it can be cultivated to advantage. 

The main drainage channel is formed by Six Mile Creek, which flows 
diagonally through the township and empties into the Missanabi river. 
The flow of this stream is retarded at intervals by natural dams of boulders, 
forming small rapids which, if removed, would greatly increase its carrying 
capacity. One fair sized lake and three small ponds only were seen, but the 
township is well watered, small creeks containing fair drinking water beiijg 
scattered throughout. 

Spruce is by far the most abundant timber, with poplar, white birch, 
tamarac, balsam and cedar following in order and seldom exceedii^g ten 
inches in diameter. This timber is of little commercial value, except for 
puplwood and fuel, but it is very plentiful. The bush is generally thick, 
and in places is filled with underbrush. 

Moose were seen occasionally through the summer, and the presence of 
numerous "dead falls" show that fur-bearing animals such as martin, fisher, 
otter, etc., are not wanting. 

Wild strawberries were found on the fourteenth of August, and a few 
raspberries were seen in the windfalls. No traces of economic minerals were 
noticed. 

The National Transcontinental Railway will, when constructed, pass 
through this township, but at present the exact location has not been 
decided. 

Accompanying this report are a general plan, timber and field notes. 

I have the honor to be, 
Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

(Sgd.) Walter Beatty, 

Ontario Land Surveyor. 
The Honorable, 

The Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, 
Toronto. 



114 REPORT OF THE No. 3 

(Appendix No. 39.) 
Township of Bowyeh, District of Nipissing. 

Little Cukrent, October 19tli, 1907. 

Sir, — I have the honor to submit to you the following report on the 
survey of the township of Bowyer, in the District of Nipissing, under instruc- 
tions from your department dated June 11th, 1906. 

On account of the Ontario and Quebec boundary survey occupying nearly 
the whole season. I did not attempt to subdivide the township last year. 

I left here on July 2nd and travelled by way of McDougall's Chute and 
Black and Abitibi rivers, and arrived on the ground on the 11th July. On 
the following day, I commenced the survey at O.L.S. Galbraith's 42 mile + 
9 chains post, where his base line intersects Abitibi Lake, and which forms 
the southeast angle of the township of Bowyer. His base line forms the south 
boundary of this township. Lots 40 chains in width were laid out along 
this boundary, and our lines were run from Galbraith's mile posts on it. 
The township of Galna lies to the south of Bowyer. The north boundary 
was run due east from O.L.S. Newman's posts at the northeast angle of 
Marathon, and the east boundary was run due north from O.L.S. Gal- 
braith's 42 mile post on the base referred to 9 chains west from the shore of 
Abitibi Lake. 

Lot "A," concession I. is bounded by this line run due north and Abitibi 
Lake. 

Regular lots 40 chains in width and 80 chains in depth or thereabouts 
were laid out throughout the township. All lines were run east and west, 
and north and south astronomically. A 6 inch Burt's solar compass was 
used to obtain the meridian. 

Six inch posts, except in a few places where the timber was small, were 
planted at the corners of lots, and the proper lot numbers cut thereon. The 
lot numbers and the name Bowyer were cut on the wooden and iron posts 
already planted at the southeast, southwest and northwest corners of the 
township. 

At the northeast angle, an iron post 1| inches in diameter was planted 
beside the wooden one, with the name of township and lot numbers cut on it 
in the usual way. Iron posts 1\ inches in diameter were also planted where 
the line between concessions 3 and 4 intersects the east and west boundaries, 
also where the line between lots 6 and 7 intersects the north boundary and 
the line between concessions 3 and 4, this being the centre of the township. 
Where the line between lots 6 and 7 intersects the south boundary, one had 
been planted by O.L.S. Galbraith. 

The survey lines on the Transcontinental Kailway were intersected in a 
great many places by our lines, but I have shown on the plan where it is 
said by their engineers the line will probably be located. Near the confluence 
of the Circle and Low Bush rivers, a start had been made just before we 
left the vicinity, about the end of September, to cut the right of way. 

On the Low Bush river in lot 7, concession 5, there is a water power 
from a 6 foot fall. I have calculated the power at about 630 h.p. at average 
low water (see p. 23 in field notes). As there are banks rising to about 30 
feet on either side of the fall, it is possible that a considerable power might 
be developed. 

I took very great precaution against forest fires by instilling into every 
one of the party the necessity of being careful about fire, and seeing that 
no fire was left at any place. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 115 



Nearly every daj- in the week it rained during nearly the whole time 
we were engaged, and one or two days or more in the week the rain was 
heavy enough to compel us to quit work. This, no doubt, owing to the great 
tracts of wet country and unbroken forest, is peculiar to the country. 

The lines were well cut out and blazed. 

The township for farming purposes may be called very good. The land 
is nearly all clay, and has a large percentage dry enough on nearly every 
lot to enable a settler to clear and produce a crop in a short time. On lot 
8, concession' 2, there are about 40 acres of rock which probably is all there 
is. in the township, except at the rapids along the Low Bush river. 

In concessions 3, 4 and 5 near the west boundary there are about 2,000 
acres of very wet muskeg, in which there is very little timber. There is a 
very small percentage of muskeg in the balance of the township. The town- 
ship is fairly level. 

The Low Bush, Circle and Dokis rivers, which flow through a great 
portion of the township are fine streams, and make the country most attrac- 
tive. With the exception of some rapids near the north side of the town- 
ship on the Low Bush river, the rivers flow with a gentle current, and have 
a good depth, 't'hey empty into Abitibi Lake near the east boundary. The 
Dokis river is from one to two chains wide, the others average nearly three 
chains wide. 

The timber is black spruce, poplar, birch, balsam, balm of Gilead and 
jack pine, also dry tamarac. With the exception of the jack pine, the tim- 
ber is pretty evenly distributed, and attains in places a considerable 
size, the black spruce up to 13 inches in diameter and the jack pine 15 inches, 
the poplar to 20 inches. 

The jack pine is principally in the 5fh and 6th concessions. 

On the line between concessions 3 and 4, across parts of lots 4 and 5, 
there is a distinqt path of a cyclone about 1,000 feet wide in a southeasterly 
course. 

Small game is very scarce. There were tracks of moose and red deer 
and bear. Some pike and pickerel were caught in the rivers. 

Small clearing on lot 1, con. 3, also small clearings and houses on lots 
6 and 7, con. 4, are shewn in notes and plan. In the returns is enclosed a 
schedule regarding them. 

Wild currants, skunk berries, high bush and swamp cranberries are the 
principal small fruits. 

The measurements on the traverse of the waters were made with a 
Stadia. 

No minerals were found. 

The west boundary was not measured. The lengths of the lots are 
deduced from the closing of the concession lines with O.L.S. Newman's posts, 
and the notes from his notes of survey of Marathon. 

I have the honor to be. 
Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

(Sgd.) T. J. Patten, 

Ontario Land Surveyor. 
The Honorable, 

The Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, 
Toronto. 



lit) REPORT Ol- THE No. ;} 



(Appendix No. 40.) 
Part of the Township of Coleman, District of Nipissing. 

Toronto, May lltli, 1907. 

Sir, — I have the honor to submit the following report on that part of 
the township of Coleman surveyed by me under instructions from your 
department, dated the 16th day of March, 1907. 

This orea lies to the west of that portion surveyed by Ontario Land 
Surveyor W. J. Blair in 1905, and is bounded on the west by the Montreal 
River and the old Gillies timber limit line run by Ontario Land Surveyor 
J'. F. Whitson in 1903, and on the south by the Gillies timber limit line 
run by Provincial Land Surveyor William Bell in 1877. 

I proceeded to the work on the 20th day of March and after the pre- 
liminary work of getting camp in order and taking an observation on polaris 
for meridian commenced the survey by running due west from the cedar 
post planted by Ontario Land Surveyor W. J. Blair at the southwest angle 
of lot 18, in the 6th concession, using this line as a base to run the various 
side lines north and south therefrom and in like manner using the side line 
between lots twenty-two and twenty-three as a base to run the various con- 
cession lines east and west therefrom to the waters of Bay Lake and the limit 
line or the mining location boundaries respectively. 

Wooden posts were planted at the proper lot angles, and the distances 
and bearing to the various bearing trees carefully noted. Iron posts ono 
and seven-eighths inches in diameter were planted beside the wooden posts 
and marked at the following points : — 

1st. At the intersection of the north boundary of the township with 
the west shore of Bay Lake, marked "Coleman" on the southeast side. 

2nd. At the intersection of the south boundary of the township with the 
west shore of Bay Lake, marked "Coleman, Con. I." oft the north side, 
"XIX." on the west side. ^, 

3rd. At the southwest angle of the township, marked "Coleman on the 
northeast side, "Con. A." on the north side, "XXII." on the east side. 

4th At the intersection of the north limit of the township with the east 
shore of Trout Lake, marked "Coleman" on the southeast side. 

That portion of the township to the north of Montreal river and Portage 
bay is well timbered with banksian, white and red pine, birch, spruce and 
poplar, varying in size from twelve inches in diameter down. Lot twenty- 
two, concession *'A" is well timbered with birch, cedar, spruce and pine 
from twenty inches in diameter down. The balance of the township is 
covered with second growth pine, birch, poplar and spruce from two to six 
inches in diameter. 

Owing to the activity in mining development in that section of the 
country several mining camps and other buildings were noted. These may 
be described as follows : — 

1st. On the north part of lot twenty, concession six, and east of McLaren 
lake, three new buildings were in the course of erection by the Cobalt Con- 
solidated Mining Company. 

2nd. On the southerly point of lot twenty-two, concession five,^ at the 
entrance to .Portage bay, is sHuated an old Hudson Bay Company's trad- 
ing post consisting of three buildings. 

3rd. On lot twenty-four, concession five, north shore of Montreal river, 
one Thomas O'Xeil has about three acres chopped and a small cabin erected. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 117 



4th. On lot twenty-six, concession five, there is a small unoccupied house 
and about ten acres chopped and partially burnt over, on the north side of 
the Montreal river. 

5th. On lot twenty-six, concession six, at the foot of Pork Ilapids, on 
the Montreal river, William Morrison has erected a store and dwelling 
house, and C. H. Burk a dwelling house. 

6th. On the north part of lot twenty, concession one, and close to Bay 
lake, there is a small miner's hut, unoccupied. 

7th. On lot twenty-two, concession two, one Timothy Crowley has built 
a mining camp and is doing development work. The buildings and improve- 
ments on the mining location within the limits of the township were not 
noted. 

Accompanying this report are plan and field notes of the survey. 

I have the honor to be, 
Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

(Sgd.) L. Y. RoRKE, 

Ontario Land Surveyor. 
The Honorable, 

The Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, 
Toronto. 



(Appendix No. 41.) 
Township of Glackmeyer, District of Nipissing. 

Alvinston, Ont., December 12th, 1907. 

Sir, — I have the honor to submit the following report of the survey of 
the township of Glackmeyer, in the District of Nipissing, on the Abitibi 
river, made under instructions dated May 6th, 1907, to survey the same 
into lots of 150 acres each. 

I left Alvinston July 9th, and after arranging for supplies, canoes, men, 
etc., I proceeded from McDougall's Falls down Black river and Abitibi 
river to the Buck Deer Rapids, where Thomas Fletcher and myself were 
unfortunately capsized and he drowned. After searching for his body and 
arranging for further search our party proceeded on the way down and com- 
menced the survey much disheartened. 

Commencing at the ninth mile post planted by Ontario Land Surveyor 
T. B. Speight, on the base line run east astronomically from the one hundred 
and sixty-second mile post on the Algoma-Nipissing boundary, I ran north 
astronomically by turning off the proper angle and at the Abitibi river 
obtained an observation by polaris and found the line correct. I ran north 
nine miles from the base line and turned west and ran nine miles to the 
district boundary and struck this line eight links south of the one hundred 
and seventy-first mile post planted on the boundary by A. Niven, Ontario 
Land Surveyor. 

During the progress of the above survey of the boundaries I laid off the 
lots in the usual way and proceeded with the survey as shown on the plan. 

Owing to the continued rainy and cloudy weather it was sometimes very 
difficult to obtain observations, but a sufficient number were made, as shown 
m the field notes. 



118 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



The survey was made with transit and the lines have been well opened 
out and attention was paid to planting durable posts, and in only a few cases 
were posts other than spruce, cedar or tamarac used. They were marked 
with a scribe and well driven in. 

The following iron posts were planted in Glackmeyer, one and seven- 
eighths inch iron post at the northeast angle, marked on the north, south; 
east and west sides with the letter "E" ; on the south "Con. XII."; on the 
west ''Lot I." One and seven-eighths inches iron post at the northwest 
angle marked on the north, south, east and west sides "R" ; on the south 
"Con. XII."; on the east, "Lot XXVIII.," and on the southeast "Glack- 
meyer." 

One and one-quarter inch iron post at the intersection of the centre 
lines of the east boundary and the road allowance between the sixth and 
seventh concessions, marked on the north, south, east and west sides "R" ; 
on the north, "Con. YII."; on the south, "Con. YI."; on the east "Lot I.'' 

One and one-quarter inch iron post at the intersection of the centre 
of the road allowances between concessions six and seven, and lots twelve 
and thirteen, marked on the north, south, east and west sides "R" ; on the 
north "Con. YII."; on the south "Con. YI."; on the east "Lot XII."; on 
the west "Lot XIII." 

One and one-quarter inch iron post at the intersection of the centre of the 
road allowance between concessions six and seven, and the west boundary 
marked on the north, south, east and west sides "R" ; on the north "Con. 
YII."; on the south "Con. YI."; on the west "Lot XXYIII." 

One and one-quarter inch iron post at the intersection of the centre 
of the road allowance between lots twelve and thirteen, and the south boun- 
dary marked on the north, south, east and west sides "R" ; on the north 
"Con. I." ; on the east "Lot XII." ; on the west "Lot XIII." 

One and one-quarter inch iron post at the intersection of the centre of 
of the road allowance between lots twelve and thirteen, and the south boun- 
dary marked on the north, south, east and west sides "R" ; on the south 
"Con. XII."; on the east "Lot XII."; on the west "Lot XIII." 

The one and seven-eighths inch iron post found at the southwest angle 
was marked, additionally on^ the northeast side "Glackmeyer" ; on the north 
"Con. I."; on the east "Lot XXYIII." 

The one and seven-eighths inch iron post found at the southeast angle 
was marked on the northwest "Glackmeyer"; on the west "Lot I"; on the 
north "Con. I." 

General Features. 

The township) is generally level or gently undulating and fairly dry 
with portions east of the Abitibi river and along the north boundary some- 
what higher than in the body of the township west of the river. 

Two lakes occur and a few large ponds. The Abitibi river flows through 
the eastern portion of the township. 

The land can be easily drained, for the general fall is good, and the 
presence of small gullies, and two fairly large creeks, will afford a good 
outlet. 

The land is covered with a heavy moss at present, which when cleared 
off, will leave the land much drier, naturally than it is to-day. 

There is a very little muskeg, and nearly ninety per cent, of the town- 
ship will be good agricultural land. 



1907 DP:PARTMENT of lands, forests and mines. 119 



A glance at the timber map will give a good idea of the elevation of 
the land in general, the higher land having the heavier timber. 

The muskegs are not deep and are underlaid at a depth of eighteen or 
twenty-four inches with a clay subsoil. 

Soil. 

In general the soil consists of a clay covered with a loam, say from four to 
ten inches, or in the lower ground with a muck from six to twelve inches. 

This clay contains a slight admixture of sand which will render it easily 
workable, though there does not appear to be as much sandy admixture as 
in the townships to the west and to the south of Glackmeyer. 

Timber. 

The township is timbered with a growth of spruce, dead tamarac, poplar, 
birch, balsam, with a few balm of Gilead, and in places some cedar. Alders 
grow everywhere. 

It is generally mixed. The sizes run, in the southern portion four 
inches to seven inches average, in the central portion west of the Abitibi 
river, from four inches to eighteen inches, while along the east and north 
boundaries the sizes run from four inches to twenty-four inches. 

The tamarac, though killed some time ago by the insect pest which 
passed over this country some years ago, is still sound and will make good 
railway ties. 

The general timber is large enough for building purposes, and the runs 
of spruce in this township will be valuable for pulpwood. 

Mineral. 

There are only one or two exposures of rock in this township, and these 
are of a Huronian origin, and of a grey slaty nature. In lots twenty-four 
and twenty-five in concession ten a few granitic stones are to be found, but 
no minerals were noticed during the survey. 

Waters. 

The Abitibi river flows through the eastern portion of the township 
and is about five or six chains wide. The current is good probably on 
account of being only a few miles above the Long Sault. 

A small rapid occurs on lot three and four in the sixth concession with 
a fall of about three feet in fifteen chains, but it cannot be considered a 
water power, though a dam might develop enough power for a small mill. 

The water in the Abitibi is impregnated with the clay from the lands 
through which it passes. 

Two lakes occur and a number of large ponds (generally in muskeg). 
Two large creeks drain the land west of the river. 

Fish and Qame. 

Game is scarce iu this township, owing, no doubt, to work going on on 
the Transcontinental Railway. A few signs of moose and bear were seen 
but the smaller game with the exception perhaps of beaver has been pretty 
well exhausted by the Indians. 

9 L.M. 



120 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



Maskinonge may be caught in the river with the net, and in the lakes 
large pike and pickerel may be caught with the troll. 

Variation of the Magnetic Needle. — The Magnetic Variation is fairly 
constant and is about eight and two-thirds degrees west, though in places 
this varies slightly. 

I submit with this report field notes and traverse notes, a general plan 
and a timber map. 

I have the honor to be, 
Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 
(Sgd.) A. S. Code, 



The Honorable, 

The Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, 
Toronto, Ontario. 



Ontario Land Suveyor. 



(Appendix No. 42.) 
Township of Hanna, District of Nipissing. 

LiSTowEL, Ontario, December 11th, 1907. 

Sir, — In pursuance with instructions dated May 6th, 1907, from the 
Honorable the Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, I beg leave to report 
the following : I had the same difficulty in securing suitable canoes for my 
trip this year. I had canoes ordered from the Peterborough firm, and just 
when ready to start for my work, I received word that my canoes could not 
be shipped. However, I was fortunate in getting canoes in Orillia and 
North Bay after a delay of two weeks. I left. Toronto on June 25th, and 
reached Englehart on the Temiskaming and Northern Ontario Railway, on 
June 27th. This point is one hundred and thirty-eight miles north of North 
Bay, and was at that time as far north as the regular trains were running. 
From Englehart, we travelled north on the construction train to McDougall's 
Chute, a distance of sixty-five miles. The steel on the railway was laid to 
this point on July 2nd. McDougall's Chute is situated on the Black river. 
We left McDougall's Chute on July 2nd, with seven canoes, fourteen men, 
camp outfit and provisions, and got as far as the junction of the Black and 
Abitibi rivers that night, a distance of fourteen miles; the next day wte 
travelled down the Abitibi river to the boundary line between the town- 
ships of Pyne and St. John, on line between concessions two and three, a 
distance of 19 miles. In this distance there are three small portages, one at 
Iroquois Falls about five miles below the Black river, and the other two 
at. the Buck Deer Rapids, ten miles below the falls. At these rapids we 
took our canoes down with a light load and portaged the rest of our out- 
fit. This rapid is not a bad one to run, but one has to be careful. We ran 
down on the left side for the upper part of the rapid, and took the right 
side for the lower part. 

The current in the Black river is very slow, but in the Abitibi it is 
rapid. The water in both these streams was very high, as the season was a 
late one. 

From this point on the Abitibi river I proceeded west along the line 
between concessions two and three in St. John township to the east boundary 
of the township of Hanna, a distance of six miles, 

9a L. M. 



iy07 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 121 



It rained nearly every day on our way in to the work, so that we made 
very slow progress. I commenced on July 17th, the survey of the town- 
ship of Hanna, at the southeast angle, running north from Ontario Land 
Surveyor, W. Galbraith's base line, and west from the west boundary of the 
township of St. John. During the survey of this township the weather 
was decidedlv wet, the prevailing winds being southwesterly. I may say 
that I read the Act for the Preservation of forests against fire once, but- 
had no occasion to read it again. 

The iron post furnished me by your Department, I planted and marked 
as follows : — 

The iron post one and one-quarter inches in diameter and three feet long, 
planted alongside a wooden post, on the east boundary of the township 
between concessions three and four is marked "Con. III." on the south side, 
"Con. lY." on the north side, and "I." on the west sidei. The wooden post is 
similarly marked. 

The iron post one and one-quarter inches in diameter planted along- 
side a wooden post, on the south boundary of the township, on the side line 
between lots six and seven, is marked, "Con. I." on the north side, "VI." 
on the east side, and "VII." on the west side. The wooden post is similarly 
marked. 

The iron post one and a quarter inches in diameter planted alongside 
a wooden post, on the north boundary, where the side line between lots 6 
and T intersects it, is marked "Con. VI." on the south side, "yi-"^ on the 
east side, and "VII." on the west side. The wooden post is similarly 
marked. 

The iron post one and one-quarter inches in diameter, planted alongside 
a wooden post, on the west boundary, between concessions three and four 
is marked, "Con. II." on the south side, "Con. IV," on the north, and "XII." 
on the east side. The wooden post is similarly marked. 

The iron post one and one-quarter inches in diameter planted alongside 
a wooden post, at the centre of the township where the side line between 
lots 6 and T intersects the line between concessions three and four, is marked, 
"Con. III." on the south side, "Con. IV." on the north side, "VI.'; on the 
east side, and "VII." on the west side. Th0 wooden post is similarly 
marked. 

The iron post one and seven-eighths inches in diameter, planted along- 
side a wooden post, at the northeast angle of the township is marked "Con. 
VI." on the'south side, "St. John" on the southeast, "Hanna" on the south- 
west, "XII." on the east side, and "I." on the west side. The wooden 
post is similarly marked. 

The iron post one and seven-eighths inches in diameter planted along- 
side a wooden post at the southeast angle of the township is marked "Con. 
I." on the north side, "XII." on the east side, "I." on the west side, "St. 
John" on the northeast, and "Hanna" on the northwest side. The wooden 
post is similarly marked. 

The iron post one and seven-eighths inches in diameter^ planted along- 
side a wooden post at the southwest angle of the township is marked "C*bn. 
I." on the north side, "XII." on the east and "I." on the west, "Hanna" 
on the northeast, and "Reaume" on the northwest. This post is also marked 
"C.L.M." and is on the boundary . line between the districts of Nipissing 
and Algoma. The wooden post is similarly marked. 

The iron post one and seven-eighths inches in diameter, planted along- 
side a wooden post at the northwest angle of the township is marked "Con. 
VI." on the south side, "XII." on the east side, "Hanna" on the south- 



122 REPORT OF THE No. 



east side, and "Lamarclie" on tlie northeast side. The wooden post is simi- 
larly marked. This post is also marked "C.L.V.I.M.," and is on the boun- 
dary line between the districts of Algoma and Nipissing. 

Under the head of timber I beg leave to report the following : 

The kinds of timber fonnd in this township are, in order to their relative 
;:lmndance, spruce, poplar, tumarac, white birch, balsam, balm of Gilead, 
white spruce and cedar. The only place where I found white spruce and 
( edar was along the rivers and lakes and small streams. The underbrush 
consists of moose, male, alder, hardback, cedar and mountain ash, the black 
spruce is the prevailing timber in this township, and the largest is found 
along the rivers and lakes, and is consequently scattered, small spruce and 
tamarac are the only kinds of timber found in the muskegs. There is also 
a large quantity of poplar and white birch in this township, and is found on 
higher land. The best of it being scattered, but it is all of sufficient size 
for pulpwood, and the largest is suitable for lumber. The tamarac is the 
same as I found last season, being all half dead or dead. The reason of its 
dying, I learned from an old timer of the country, who says that the result 
was caused by a small insect. The balsam is nearly all of small dimensions, 
the largest of it being found along the lakes and rivers. With regard to 
cedar and white spruce, I beg to say that the best is found along the rivers 
and lakes, but there is only a small quantity of it in the township. The 
largest and best timber is found along the banks of the Frederick House 
river, and is composed of all kinds, and I would recommend that one mile 
back, from each side of the river for the whole length of the township, be 
reserved for lumbering. 

There are no rapids or water-falls on the river in this township. The 
current will average from 1^ to 2 miles per hour. 

The water in the river remained at about the same level until the first 
week in October. The banks of the river are, for the most part, low, and 
there are no high cut banks in this township. 

We saw considerable game, principally moose, also numerous partridge, 
hut no rabbits. We fished in all the small lakes with troll, and hook and 
line, and caught considerable pike in Warrick Lake. 

Under the head of "Soil," I beg leave to report that I found it to be clay 
and clay loam. In the lower level there is a heavy growth of moss, then 
from 4 inches to 18 inches of black muck and then the clay. This black 
muck holds the water. All the water in this township is good. Clay loam 
was found on the higher land where there was very little moss. In the mus- 
kegs where the timber is small, I found a thin layer of moss, then a few inches 
of muck and then the clay. The muskegs have all clay bottoms. The land 
in this part of the Province can be easily cleared, as the roots of the trees 
do not penetrate the clay, but seem to run along between the clay and the 
muck, and when the land becomes burnt over and drained the stumps can 
easily be moved. The country, although flat and level, can easily be drained, 
as the river and stream beds are sufficiently low to afford good drainage. 
The land along the banks of the river is rolling in places, but for the most 
part is level. 

Under the head of "Minerals," I beg to report that I foivud no outcropping 
of rock, nor any wstony land or boulders, and consequently found no trace of 
minerals. 

The magnetic variation of the compass was very irregular, changing 
two degrees some places in a distance of ten chains. I foxmd the average 
variation to be 8 degrees west. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 123 



The wet weather greatly impeded our work. One week we were in 
camp five days. In the month of July, rain fell 24 days. In the.month of 
August, rain fell on 25 days. In the month of September, rain fell on 20 
days. Snow fell on two days. In October, up to the 10th, rain and snow- 
fell on 7 days. We had frost at McDongall's Chute on July 2nd, The 
next frost was on August 26th. 

With regard to the opening up and development of this township, I would 
say that the Temiskaming and Northern Ontario Railway location runs north 
through the township of St. John, and the Grand Trunk Pacific location runs 
east and west through the township to the north, so that this part will be 
within a few miles of the junction of the two, and when these lines are built 
the land will be easy of access, and should become settled within the next 
few years. 

Respectfully submitted by 

(Sgd.) E. D. Bolton, 

Ontario Land Surveyor. 
The Honorable, 

The Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, 
Toronto, 



(Appendi,t No. 43.) 
Township of Kennedy, District of Nipissing. 

ToBONTO, Ontario, December 21st, 1907. 

Sir, — I have surveyed the township of Kennedy, in the district of Nipis- 
sing, according to instructions dated May 15, 1907, and beg to report as 
follows : — 

I arrived at the township on August 1st, and owing to the incessant 
rain and cloudy skies I was unabJe to obtain astronomic observation of any 
description until August 22nd.- Accordingly, I ran the line between con- 
cessions two and three, the line between concessions four and five, and the 
line between concessions six and seven, also the side lines up to concession 
five by turning angles from Ontario Land Surveyor Speight's base and meri- 
dian lines. On August twenty-second, I succeeded in obtaining an observa- 
tion on side line between lots eleven and twelve. On August twenty-sixth, 
and September sixth, I took observations on the east boundary. From this 
time on, I used these lines as bases, turning angles from them. In running 
the north boundary I was only able to get one observation on September 
seventeenth. On the whole, I found it very difficult to do accurate work oij 
account of the rain which fell on an average of five days a week. 

This township is surveyed on the new method of survey approved by 
Orderrin-€ouncil, dated April twenty-fourth, nineteen hundred and six, 
[c consists of twelve concessions, each of which has a depth of approximately 
fifty-nine chains, fifty links. In each concession, there are twenty-eight 
lots. Lot number one at the eastern end of concessions is a narrow lot, 
and lot number twenty-eight is a wide lot. All other lots being twenty-five 
chains, twenty-five Hnks in width, except adjoining side roads as shown on 
plan. The lines are run in the centres of the road allowance between every 
socond concession and between every sixth and seventh lots. At the front 
angles of the lots, at right angles from the centre line of the concession. 



124 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



road allowance posts (mostly of spruce) were planted fifty links on each side, 
north and^ south of the centre line of the concession road allowance. The 
lot numbers are marked on the east and west sides of the posts. The con- 
cession numbers are marked on the side of the posts facing the concessions, 
while on the other side, facing the road allowance, the letter "R" is marked. 
Posts are also planted on the centre lines marked on the east and west sides 
with the lot numbers, and on the north and south sides with the letter "R." 

At the intersection of the centre lines of the diiferent concession road 
allowances with the centre line of the side road allowances posts are planted, 
marked "R" on all four sides, also posts are planted at the four lot corners 
formed by the intersection of the road allowances. These posts are marked 
"R" on the two sides facing the road allowance, having the lot numbers on 
the side facing the lots and the concession numbers on the sides facing the 
concessions. Nearly all the posts planted are four inch square spruce posts. 
Those at the end of the concessions are five inches square, and those at the 
corners of the township are six inches square. 

I planted an iron post one and one-quarter inch in diameter at the inter- 
section of the south boundary with the centre line of road allowance between 
lots numbers twelve and thirteen, marked "Con. I., Kennedy" on the north 
side, "Lot 13" on the west side, "12" on east side, and "R" on south side, 
also planted an iron post one and one-quarter inch in diameter at the inter- 
section of road allowance between concessions six and seven with the east 
boundary, marked "Kennedy" on west side, "Con. VI." on south side, 
"Con. VII." on north side, "R" on four sides, also a similar post at the 
intersection of this line with the west boundary marked "VI." on south side, 
"VII." on north side, "Kennedy" on east side. I also planted an iron post 
one and one-quarter inch in diameter at the intersection of the centre lines 
of the concession road allowance between concessions six and seven and the 
side road allowance between lots numbers twelve and thirteen, marked six 
on south side, seven on north side, twelve on east side and thirteen on west 
side. On the north boundary, at its intersection with the east boundary, 
I planted an iron post, one and seven-eighths inch in diameter, marked 
"Kennedy" on the southwest side and "R" on north, south, east and west sides, 
also a similar post at its intersection with the west boundary marked "R" 
on east, west, north and south sides, and "Kennedy" on southeast side. Where 
the north boundary is intersected by the centre line of road allowance between 
lots numbers twelve and thirteen I planted an iron post one and one-fourth 
inch in diameter marked "Kennedy" on south side, "12" on east side, "13" 
on west side. I marked the word "Kennedy" on the northeast side of the 
one and seven-eighth inch iron post planted by Ontario Land Surveyor 
Speight and marked "IX. Miles" which marks the southwest corner of 
Kennedy township. I also marked "Kennedj" on the northwest side of the 
one and seven-eighth inch iron post, planted by Ontario Land Surveyor 
Speight, marked "XVIII. Miles," which marks the southeast corner of 
Kennedy township, 

I made a traverse survey (by stadia) of the Abitibi river, a plan of 
which accompanies my field notes. 

Timber. 

The greater part of the township is timbered with small spruce averag- 
ing from four to eight inches in diameter. On the higher land, there are 
about equal quantities of spruce, white birch, poplar and balsam, averag- 
ing from four to fourteen inches in diameter. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 125 



Soil. 

The soil is chiefly a light colored solid clay, which is almost entirely 
covered by moss varying from six inches in depth on the high land, to 
unknown depths in the muskeg, the greater part averaging two feet in depth. 
On some of the ridges the clay is covered by a layer of loam from six to 
twelve inches in depth. While I was in the township the lana was very wet, 
but on two or three occasions when the rain stopped for a few days the water 
lowered so rapidly that I was led to believe that in an ordinarily dry season 
the land would be fairly dry with few swamps. There are ridges of high 
land along each side of the rivers, running through the township. These 
rivers have many long shallow rapids, making them almost useless for canoe- 
ing purposes, even in high water. The lakes in the township were caused 
by beaver dams and are evidently shallow. The banks are low and swampy, 
making it difficult to determine high water mark with any degree of accuracy. 

Minerals. 

I saw no signs of any economic minerals, the only rock visible being 
in the rapids of the rivers. There is also a small area of rock "graphite" 
covered by moss running across the east boundary on concession eight and 
across the line between concessions eight and nine in lot number one. 

I have the honor to be, 
Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

(Sgd. A. F. Wells, 

Ontario Land Surveyor. 
The Honorable, 

The Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, 
Toronto. 



{Appendix No. 44.) 

Tow^NSHip OF Bayly, District of Nipissing. 

Sault Ste. Marie, Ont., September 26th, 1907. 

Sir, — I have the honor to submit the following report on the survey of 
the township of Bayly, in the District of Nipissing, performed under instruc- 
tions from your Department, dated May 6th, 1907. 

As instructed, I commenced the survey at the southeast angle of the 
township of Marter, and the southwest angle of the township of Bayly, from 
which point I chained north along the east boundary of Martyr one mile, 
where I found a post marking the first and second concessions of that town- 
ship, from which point after taking an observation of polaris, I ran east 
astronomically six miles, giving the lots a uniform width of forty chains, 
I also chained the north boundary of Ingram, which I found correct except 
lot 12. I found a If inch iron post at the northeast angle of Ingram and 
the northwest angle of Pense, I then ran alternate side lines, as well as the 
east boundary, north astronomically from the proper points, laying off the 
various concession lines as instructed. 

As I found a good wagon road running north and south at the south- 
west corner of the township, I planted a If inch iron post 50 links east and 
50 links north of the true southwest angle of the township, marked on the 
northeast "Bayly," on the east "No. 1," on the north "Con. 1." I planted 



126 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



a 1| inch iron post on the west boundary at the line between concessions thr.ee 
and four, marked on the east side "Bayly, Lot I.," on the north side "Con. 
VI.," on the west side "Marter," and on the south side "Con. III." At 
the northwest angle I found a 1| inch iron post marked on the northwest 
"Catharine," on the southwest "Marter, Co. YI.," on the west "No. I." 
I marked on the southeast "Bayly," on the south "Con. IV.," on the east 
lot I at which point took an observation of polaris and ran the north bound- 
ary east astronomically six miles, planting wooden posts at each mile, marked 
in accordance with instructions, and a 1^ inch iron post with wooden post 
between lots 6 and 7, both marked on the south "Bayly Con. VI.," on the 
east "Lot 7," on the north "Skead," on the west "Lot 6." 

At the northeast angle of the township I planted a 1|- inch iron post 
with a wooden post, both marked on the southwest "Bayly," on the south 
"Con. VI.," on the southeast "Mulligan," on the east "No. 1," on the north- 
east "Eattray," on the northwest "Skead." 

Iron posts one and one-quarter inches in diameter and three feet long 
were also planted as follows : — One at the intersection of side lines 6 and 
7 with the south boundary, marked "Bayly, Con. I." on the north side; "Lot 
VI." on the west side, and "Lot VII." on the east side; one at the inter- 
section of side line VI. and VII with concession line III and IV. marked 
"Con. IV." on the north side, "Con. III." on the south, "Lot VI." on the 
west, and "Lot 7" on the east side; one at the intersection of side line VI. 
and VII. with the north boundary, marked "Con. VI." on the south side, 
"Lot VI." on the west and "Lot VII." on the east side; one at the intersection 
of concession line III. and IV. with the west boundary, marked on the north 
side "Con. IV." on the south side "Con. III.," on the west "Marter," on 
the east Bayly Lot I. One at the intersection of con. line III. and IV. with 
the east boundary, marked on the north side "Con. IV.," on the south side 
*^Con. III.," on the west "Bayly Lot XII." In all cases a wooden post was 
planted alongside of the iron post and marked the same as the iron posts. 
The other posts of the township are of wood and marked as shewn on the 
field notes. 

The township of Bayly is generally rough and rocky, with a few small 
tracts of good clay land along part of the south boundary and a few small 
tracts of sandy loam soil along con. line V. and VI., and, on the whole, offers 
little inducement for settlers for agricultural purposes. 

The township is well watered by numerous lakes and streams. 

The rock exposures are of Huronian formation, schist, slate and shale, 
while occasional outcrops of granalite as distinguished from granite. I 
found no valuable mineral. 

Game. 

I found moose in great numbers, but no trace of red deer or caribou. 
Fish, pike and pickerel. 

I found no settlers but did find a few small clearings on the clay belt 
along part of the south boundary. 

I have the honor to be, 
Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

(Sgd.) Thos. Byrne, 

Ontario Land Surveyor. 
The Honorable, 

The Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, 
Toronto. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 127 



(Appendix No. 45.) 
TowNSHipoF Prnvis, District of Nipissixg. 

Little Current, Ontario, October 23rd, 190T. 

Sir, — I have the honor to submit to you the following report of the 
township of Purvis, in the district of Nipissing, in accordance with instruc- 
tions from your Department, dated June 14th, 1907, 

After completing the survey of the township of Bowyer this season, 
the account of my trip into the country will be found in my report of that 
township. I commenced the survey of Purvis at the iron post, one and 
seven-eighths inches in diameter beside the wooden one which I had planted 
at the northeast angle of Bowyer, and ran the north boundary east astrono- 
mically a total distance of four hundred and eighty chains and twenty-four 
links. 

From the northeast angle of Purvis, I ran the east boundary, south 
astronomically three hundred and twenty-six chains and eighty-four links 
to the north shore of Lake Abitibi. 

Regular lots were laid out forty chains in width and eighty chains in 
depth, or thereabouts, throughout the township. 

Wooden posts, six inches in diameter, sometimes larger and in some 
cases where the timber was small a little smaller^ were planted at the lot 
corners with the lot numbers plainly cut on them. Two bearing trees were 
marked at each corner, and the bearing and distance from the corner post 
entered in the field notes. 

At the northwest angle as already mentioned, an iron post, one and 
seven-eighths inches in diameter, had been planted to mark the northeast 
angle of Bowyer, the name ''Purvis," and lot numbers were cut on it, also 
on the wooden one. At the northeast angle a similar post was planted 
beside the wooden one, and similarly marked. 

Iron posts one and one-fourth inches in diameter with the lot numbers 
cut thereon, were planted beside the wooden ones at the intersection of the 
line between lots six and seven, with the north boundary, and also where 
it intersects the line between concessions three and four, also where the line 
between concessions three and four intersects the east boundary. Where this 
concession line intersects the west boundary one had already been planted 
in the survey of Bowyer. 

No iron post was planted where the west boundary intersects Abitibi 
Lnke, where the east boundary intersects the lake there was also no iron 
post planted, but a cairn of boulders five feet at the base and thirtv inches 
high was built around a tamarac post seven inches in diameter with the name 
"Purvis" and the lot numbers cut thereon. Iron posts were marked similar 
to wooden ones, that is the lot and concession numbers were cut on them. 
Those at township corners have the name of the township cut on the side 
facing the township. 

Finding during the progress of the survey, that the number of iron posts 
required was short, I reserved a sufficient number for the base line. Tust how 
the number came to be short it is hard to say. I found after some delay 
and trouble, that the iron Dosts sent to New Liskeard for me last June, had 
been delivered to a hardware merchant in that town, and possibly they were 
not all recovered. 

Special attention was given to the correct marking of the one-half mile 
posts on the concession line. 



128 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



All lines were well cut out and blazed. A six inch Burt's solar com- 
pass was used to find the meridian. 

The magnetic variation was nine degrees, forty-five minutes, west and 
fairly steady. 

The concession lines of Bowyer are produced into Purvis without any 
jog. 

The timber consists of black spruce, poplar, jack pine, balsam, birch 
and balm of Gilead. ^ Some cedar and ash was found along the shores of 
Abitibi Lake. A few white spruce were seen. The black spruce is found 
up to about thirteen inches, the poplar to about twenty inches. Jack pine 
to fifteen inches and balsam and birch to about twelve inches. There is con- 
siderable amount of dry tamarac, some of which is large enough for railroad 
ties. 

The soil is principally clay, and nearly all fit for farming. There is 
sand and gravel on some of the hills, on a belt about a mile to one and one- 
half miles wide, which extends from the most southerly point of lot four^ 
concession one, northerly to the south limit of lot five, in concession four, 
at the east bank of the Kaminisinokwa River. It is also found on the east 
boundary in concession five and six, also on the north boundary on lot nine 
along Joe's Creek. The only rock exposures are along Abitibi Lake from lot 
one to lot five. 

Some muskeg was found on the line between concessions four and five, 
lots one, two, three and four. There is also some on lots four and five on 
the north boundary. The head of the bay, lots nine and ten, concossion 
four, is also low lying country. The remainder of the township is fairly 
dry and level. Concessions one and two, on the point in the southeast are 
somewhat rolling. It will no doubt be a desirable township for settlers owing 
to its proximity to the railway, and Lake Abitibi. 

The rainfall this season was excessive. There was more or less rain 
nearly every day, and one or more days in the week it rained hard enough ta 
compel us to quit work. 

A good pack trail was cut from the east bank of the Kaminisinokwa 
River, at the line between concessions three and four northeasterly to the 
line between lots four and five. Then along that line to about ten chains 
from the north boundary, then northeasterly to the north boundary and fol- 
lowing it to the northeast angle. 

The survey lines of the Transcontinental Railway were intersected in 
a great many places. I found from the engineers that the line will pro- 
bably be located where I have shewn it on the plan. 

On lot seven, concession three, on the north shore of Abitibi Lake, the 
Transcontinental Railway Survey has erected a log dwelling and storehouse.' 
Mr. Quillish, the caretaker very kindly watched our supplies which we left 
there all season in a tent. 

An Indian named Louis McDougall has built two dwellings and a stable 
on the shore of the lake on lot two', concession one. He has also a small clear- 
ing with a few potatoes. 

The Kaminisinokwa River is navigable for canoes only to the line between 
concessions three and four. 

Joe's Creek is navigable for canoes from its confluence with the Circle 
River, about half a mile north of the township to near its intersection with' 
the north boundary in lot seven. 

The stream emptying into Ijake Abitibi in lot eight, concession four, is 
navigable for canoes to near the line bet^Jveen concessions four and five. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 129 



Accompanying this report *l have forwarded plan, field notes, timber 
plan, account, etc. 

The measurements in the traverse of the waters were made with a Stadia. 

I have the honor to be, 
Sir, 
YouT obedient servant, 

(Sgd.) T. J. Patten. 

Ontario Land Surveyor. 
The Honorable, 

The Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, 
Toronto. 



(Appendix No. 46.) 

Town Plot of Smyth, District of Nipissing. 

New Liskeahd, Ontario, December 2nd, 1907. 

Sir,— I beg to report the following classification of lots as surveyed by 
me in the town plot of Smyth, district of Nipissing, as requested by your 
department on November 28th, 1907. 
Class No. 1. Lots 83, 84 and 85. 

Class No. 1. A. Lots No. 16, 17, 86-93 inclusive, 96, 98, 105 and 106. 
Class No. 2. Lots A.B. 8, 9, 18, 25, 26, 41, 42, 57, 58, 72, 73„ 94, 95, 
121, 122, 140 and 141. 

Class No. 3. Lots No. C. D. E. 1-7 inclusive, 10-15 inclusive. 19- 
24 inclusive, 27-40 inclusive, 43-56 inclusive, 59-65 inclusive, 68-72 
inclusive, 74, 75, 76, 78, 79, 80, 81, 99-104 inclusive, 107-120 inclusive, 123- 
139 inclusive, 142-150 inclusive. 

Class No. 3. A. Lots No. 66, 67, 77, 82. 

I have the honor to be. 

Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

(Sgd.) James H. Smith, 

Ontario Land Surveyor. 
The Honorable, 

The Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, 
Toronto, Ontario. 



(Appendir No. 47.) 
Town Plot of Smyth, District of Nipissing. 

New Liskeard, Ontario, December 2nd, 1907. 

Sir,— In accordance with instructions received from your department 
dated October 21st, 1907, to subdivide part of broken lot six in the fifth con- 
cession of the township of James in the Temagami Forest Reserve, in the 
district of Nipissiner, into town lots, I beg to report as follows: 

On the 26th of October, 1907, I hired two experienced axiemen, one 
chainman, and one assistant, purchased axes and other necessaries, and on 
Sunday evening at 7.30,' we left for Latchford by the Temiskaming Northern 



130 REPORT OF THE 



Ontario Railway, where we remained all night, and took the early boat on 
Monday morning up Bay Lake which connects with otlier boats up the Mont- 
real River by which we arrived at vSmyth town plot in the evening. 

The survey was commenced the following morning by first locating the 
line l>etween lots 5 and 6, concession 4, township of Tames. This was done 
by re+racing the line between lots 4 and 5, concession 4, and running the line 
parallel to a line joining the limits of said line between lots 4 and 5 from a 
post planted by Ontario Land Surveyor, Alexander Baird in 1903, on the 
concession line between concessions 3 and 4, for lots 5 and 6, to its intersec- 
tion with the southerly shore of Elk Lake (Montreal River), from which 
point a traverse was then run northwesterly along the southerly shore of 
Elk Lake to the probable westerly limit of the town plot. 

The above mentioned work was then plotted, and a projected plan made 
of the subdivision by laying off lots at right angles in the general course 
to the lake front, as is shown on the finished plan, and leaving a road allow- 
ance of one chain in perpendicular width along said lake. 

The subdivision was then commenced, by first running and chaining the 
southerly limit of Second Street from the easterly limit of the lot to the 
westerly limit of the subdivision. The easterly limit of Spruce Street was 
then run at right angles to it northerly to the southerly shore of Elk Lake, 
and southerly to the northerly shore of Bear River. These lines were used 
as base lines from which all the remaining lines were run. The points of 
commencement of the remaininsr street lines were then laid off on the above 
mentioned base lines, and said lines were run and chained. All lines cross- 
ing Bear River were made continuous and parallel to each other. The chain- 
ages at the intersection of these lines with Bear River, Elk Lake, and the 
other subdivision limits were noted, and the above mentioned projected plan 
was completed, leaving a road allowance of one chain in perpendicular width 
alonsr Bear river, and the lots numbered as shown on the completed plan. 

The lots were then posted bv chaining from the intersection of the above 
mentioned street lines, noting the chainage in width and length of all lots 
posted. The back lines of the lot were then run and posted as shown on the 
plan and field notes. The fronts of broken lots uIouq- TVatf^r Street, River 
Street east, and River Street west, were then run and posted. 

The posts along the street lines were all marked with a scribe or scrib- 
ing iron showing the adjoining lot numbers and "R" on the side facing the 
street. Iron posts (tubes), one and one-fourth inches in diameter, and three 
feet long, forged nt the top, and painted red, were similarly marked with n 
cold chisel and planted at the following points. At the northerly angle of 
lot "A" at the northeasterly and southeasterly angles of lot eight, at th(> 
southwesterly angle of lot one, at the northeasterlv angle of lot sixteen, at 
the southeaster! V angle of lot seventeen, at the southwesterly angle of lot 
thirty-four, at the southeasterly angle of lot forty-two, at the southeasterly 
ann-le of lot forty-eight, at the southwesterly angle of lot sixty-six, at the 
soi'theasterly angle of lot seventy-two. at the southeasterly angle of lot 
seventy-six, at the southerly angle of lot eighty-one, at the northwesterly 
and southwesterly angles of lot eighty-three, at the northeasterly and south- 
easterly engles of lot eighty-five, at the northeasterly angle of lot ninety- 
six, at the easterly angle of lot ninetv-eiorht, at the westerly anorle of lot 
ninety-nine at the southwesterly angle of lot ninety-three, at the northwesterly 
angle of lot one hundred f^nd twenty-one, at the north and easterly angle 
of lot one hundred and thirteen, at the southwesterly angle of lot one him- 
dred and thirty, at the southwesterly angle of lot one hundred and forty- 
one, and at the southeasterly angle of lot one hundred and fifty. 



I«m7 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 131 



The wooden posts were all made of good cedar except a few which were 
pine, and were all from two to three inches square and two feet in length. 

They were all driven into the ground, leaving about ten inches above the 
surface. 

The lines were all well cut out and blazed. 

The survey which was connected to the westerly limit of the lot by 
retracing and chaining the said westerly limit from the southerly shore of 
Elk Lake, southerly to its intersection with the northerly shore of Bear 
River, and running and chaining a line to it from the southwesterly angle 
of lot sixty-five as shown on the completed plan and field notes. 

The chainages of the intersection of my lines with the easterly limit of 
the lot are noted in the field notes and on the plan. I endeavoured to observe 
from Azimuth but was unable to on account of the cloudy weather. The 
astronomic bearings were obtained from an observation taken in October, 
1907, by J. H. Shaw, Ontario Land Surveyor, on the line between lots five 
and six. concession four, on the north side of Elk Lake. 

The part west of Bear Iliver is well timbered with spruce, poplar, 
birch, pine and a few cedar. The part on the east side of Bear River is 
timbered similarly but it was mostly burnt over last year. 

The land is fairly high and level and good drainage could be obtained 
from all parts of it There is practically no low land in the whole town 
plot. 

Accompanying this report are two general plans and field notes of the 
entire survey. 

T have the honour to be. 
Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

(Sgd.) James H. Smith, 

Ontario Land Surveyor. 
The Hcmourable, 

The Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines. 
Toronto. 



(Appendia: No. 48.) 
Township of Redditt, Distkict of Rainy River. 

Kenora, 18th April, 1907. 

Sir, — I have the honor to report that in accordance with your instruc- 
tions, dated the sixth day of July, 1906, I have completed the survey and 
subdivision of the township of Redditt, in the District of Rainy River. 

Leaving the town of Kenora, on the 10th day of August, 1906, I pro- 
ceeded by wagon over the Melick and Jaffray road north to the Black 
Sturgeon Lake, thence by canoes easterly across the Lake to the mouth of 
Rice Creek following up this creek in a northeasterly direction and making 
two small portages, we arrived at Deacon Lake and made our first camp. 

I commenced my survey at the southeast corner of the township, taking 
for my startng point the iron and wooden posts planted by O.L..S Deacon 
in the east boundary of Melick, near the shore of Deacon Lake, the north- 
east corner of Melick being in the water of Deacon Lake. After taking an 
observation, I ran the east boundary north astronomically to the fourth 
concession, I then opened up the north boundary of Melick, which is also 



132 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



the south boundary of Eedditt, and planted posts forty chains apart as far 
as lot thirteen of Melick, making careful notes of difference in chaining, 
if any, with that of Deacon's survey which is shown in field notes. I then 
ran the north and south lines between lots two and three, four and five, 
etc., and the west boundary north astronomically, taking observations as 
often as the weather permitted and correcting my bearings whenever any 
appreciable error was discovered ; the details of these observations are 
entered in the field notes. The magnetic variation averaged about eight 
degrees, thirty minutes east, but varied bejtween six degrees and ten degrees 
east, probably caused by decomposd iron pyrites in the granite. 

I planted posts on the fronts of concessions and on the north boundary 
where these were intersected by the east and west boundaries and by the 
side lines between two and three, four and five, six and seven, etc., and also 
on the fronts of concessions at the corners between lots one and two, three 
and four, five and six, etc. These lots are marked with the number of the 
lots, and concessions which they are intended to govern, that is on the east 
and west side with the numbers of the adjoining lots and on the north side 
with the number of the concession of which they mark the front. The 
posts on the east and west boundaries, and on the lines between lots two 
and three, four and five, six and seven, etc., were marked on the south side 
also with the number of the concessions of which they mark the rear. 

At the southeast, northeast, northwest and southwest corners of the 
township I planted, in addition to the wooden post, iron posts one and 
seven-eighths inches in diameter, that near the southeast corner being 
placed at the intersection of the north shore of Deacon Lake with the east 
boundary, the name of the township "Redditt" was cut on the side fac- 
ing inwards in addition to the numbers of the lots and concessions with a 
cold chisel, also an iron post one and one-quarter inches in diameter in 
the centre of the township at the intersection of line between concessions 
three and four, and side lines between lots six and seven, and also on the 
south boundary between lots six and seven, and on the east boundary 
between concessions three and four, on the north boundary between lots 
six and seven and on the west boundary between concessions three and 
four. The general surface of the township is of a rolling rocky nature, with 
a few valleys running through it of good arable land showing a good growth 
of alders, willows and wild hay with scattered tamarac, suitable for wood 
and ties, and in some places the tamarac is long, large and straight and 
would make good piles; the first concession adjoining Melick is well tim- 
bered, with the exception of lots one, two and three, with mixed timber,, 
jack pine, tamarac, spruce, balsam, poplar and white birch, and an odd 
red pine here and there. 

The eastern portion of the township is practically all rocky rolling 
country, covered with a second growth of jack pine, poplar, and birch, with 
the exception of a patch around the intersection of the line between conces- 
sions three and four and the eastern boundary, which has missed the fire of 
ten or twelve years ago, and contains a few thousand ties and timber suitable 
for cordwood. There is no red or white pine to speak off, except a small 
grove of red pine on the eastern shore of Norway Lake on the north bound- 
ary, which contains approximately two hundred thousand feet, the trees run- 
ning from nine to sixteen inches in diameter. 

The western portion, and especially the northwestern, contains some 
good patches of land, well watered by lakes and streams, the soil being a 
rich dark clay loam with a clay subsoil which in patches is mixed with sand 
or sandy loam ; there is excellent pasture all thrcugh this portion, the low 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 133 



land being covered with wild hay and the high with a thick growth of wild 
pea vine that all stock thrive upon and prefer to any grass. There are a 
number of small lakes all through the township as the map shows, there 
being over thirty in all. Corn, Talbot and Kramer being the largest, in 
many of the lakes, especially Talbot, the water is very clear and pure, and 
no doubt pickerel, pike, and white ;fish will be found in them. Talbot and 
Beach Lakes have some lovely sand beaches, and are well suited for summer 
resort purposes. 

Indications of moose, cariboo and red deer are abundant. This town- 
ship lying l/ctween the valleys of the Black Sturgeon, and Black or McFar- 
lane E-iver (which is composed of a chain of lakes and connection streams), 
commencing at the Winnipeg River, and joined by a river which is navi- 
gable for canoes in high water with a few short portages to Bluff Lake, being 
the next lake northeasterly from Grindstone Lake, the water sheds both 
ways to the south into Black Sturgeon Lake, and to the north into the 
McFarlane River, through the valley of which the Transcontinental Rail- 
way runs, winding its way around the lakes to keep in the low-land of this 
valley. 

The right of way is now all cut out through here and rock work and 
grading is being pushed as fast as possible. 

The principal route of transportation to this part of the Transconti- 
nental from Kenora and Keewatin is via the Winnipeg River in summer, and 
via the Melick and Jaffray Colonization Road to all that part of the Trans- 
continental through Redditt and two miles west of Redditt, to the crossing 
of the Winnipeg River, and all contiguous parts east and west is from 
Keewatin across locations S. 406, Middle Lake S. 407, S. 408 and lot 5 in 
the fourth, fifth, and sixth concessions in Pellatt via Skiff Lake to Locke 
Bay, Winnipeg River, across the bay and thence to the crossing, and as a 
divisional point will probably be located in Redditt, the Colonization Road 
and its extension north to the Transcontinental will be of special import- 
ance as a connecting link and as a means of opening up all the arable land 
for colonization, already two squatters are located in the northwest part, 
close to the railway, namely, Adam Blondin on the south half of lot twelve, 
in the sixth concession, Paul Lavoie on the north half of lot twelve, in the 
fifth concession, and others are enquiring regarding the requirements and 
terms of settlement. The two settlers mentioned have each a small cabin 
built, and a couple of acres brushed and partly chopped round their cabins. 
On the north side of Corn Lake, in the sixth concession, while there are 
some large ranges of rock, there are several hundred acres of good land, 
and as it slopes to the south, the soil is warm and loose and should grow 
almost any kind of crap, and the new railway will furnish an excellent 
market. While the winters are long, the snow is seldom over two feet 
deep, this being an exceptional winter. From my observations and know- 
ledge of the township of Melick, adjoining, which will practically be the 
same, the settlers are raising all kinds of vegetables, hay, oats, fall wheat, 
etc., successfully, and with the advent of competition of the new railway and 
a little more permanent road-making, every foot of arable land will be taken 
up in the near future. 

I found no mineral of economical value, the rock over the whole town- 
ship being granatiid gneiss. 

The western portion of the township will average about fifty per cent, 
of good land, while the eastern portion will not exceed twenty five per cent. 
About the middle of the work, I was taken ill with congestion and had to 
quit work for two weeks, and about the 1st of November, I was attacked by 



184 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



la grippe which delayed the work until I could not use canoes, nor walk 
on the ice, so I waited to traverse the lakes until the ice was well formed, 
and thick ; some fairly good roads might be made by following the valleys ; 
straight roads cannot be got. 

I have the honor to be, 
Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

(Sgd.) Edmund Seager, 

Ontario Land Surveyor. 

The Honorable, 

The ^linister of Lands, Forests and Mines, 
Toronto. 



(Appendix No. 49.) 

Morpeth P.O., January 11th, 1908. 

To the Honourable the Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit this my report, for the year 190S, as 
Ranger and Caretaker of the Rondeau Provincial Park. 

There has been considerable work done on the Park tbis season, the chief of 
which was the building of the new stone crib dock, the repairing of the govern- 
ment road leading into the park, and the construction in part of a fine buse-ball 
diauiond. The work of levelling the ground for the diamond was begun rather 
late in the season, and the frost set in and prevented completion of the levelling 
until the ground thaws out again, then it is intended to cover the diamond with 
clay to a depth of 3 to 5 inches. A good base ball ground will be a great acqui- 
sition to the park, as there are a number of good games played here during the 
season. The stone cribs and other timber portions of the new dock were about 
completed, but on account of the contractors, Messrs Blight & Fielder, not being 
able to make satisfactory arrangements to secure a dredge, the balance of the 
work was left undone but will be completed in the spring of 1908. I hope 
further use will be made of the dredge when here in cleaning out the unsightly 
rushes and weeds along the shore of the Park directly in front of the pavilion, 
the new refectory and the summer cottages. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 135 



I would again draw attention to the great lack of accommodation for the 
visiting public. Some definite steps should be taken at once to have a public 
house of some description built — club-house, hotel, boarding-house or some good 
respectable building that will accommodate from two to four hundred guests. 
The government road lending to the Park was repaired this fall and is being 
kept in excellent condition. To make one of the most beautiful drives in the 
Province and one which would also assist very materially in looking after and 
protecting the interests of the Park, this road should continue through the Park 
forest to the southern end and connect with the old lake shore drive-road at the 
bar. An estimate was forwarded to the Department recently showing the cost 
of enclosing 15 to 20 acres more of the bush land for the deer in captivity. 
All the shrubbery, weeds, etc., in fact everything but the natural grass (the red 
tops) and the trees, is killed in the old enclosure (14 acres) by the deer con- 
tinually browsing them down. By picking up and burning the debris on the 
14 acres, it would make a great addition to the picnic grounds, and the deer 
would be greatly benefitted by the green bushes and undergrowth in the new 
enclosure. 

According to instructions from the Department, notice was given to the 
public that they would be allowed to take small pine poles, from three to five 
inches in diameter, from the Park forest for such purposes as curing tobacco, etc. 
I directed small trees to be taken only from where they were growing the 
thickest, using a thinning process, which leaves the bush in a better state of 
preservation. Some 797 poles were taken by 18 farmers at 10 cents per pole, 
amounting to $70.70. They were allowed to take these poles during April and 
May. This privilege was very much appreciated, I was also instructed to 
allow a few poor families to take firewood from the tops of the trees that were 
cut and taken for timber for the new dock, and they were very thankful for the 
privilege. We are looking forward to having the new dock, base-ball grounds 
and other improvements completed and in good condition before the picnic 
season begins in 1908. The deer, game and fancy birds are looking fine and are 
in excellent condition. The attendance at the Park is increasing each year, and 
if the electric railway reaches here, as we expect it will in a short time, the 
number of visitors will increase more rapidly, hence the necessity for more and 
better accommodation. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

Isaac Gardiner. 



10 L. .M. 



136 REPORT OF THE No. 3 

APPENDIX No. so. 

Algonquin Park, January loth, 1908. 
To the Honourable the Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines : 

Honourable Sir, — I beg to hand you a report on the Algonquin National 
Park for 1907. Our staff has con.sisted of- fourteen men as follows: Superin- 
tendent, Chief Ranger and twelve rangers. These men have been in charge of 
seven sections, which they are supposed to patrol — two on each — and I feel 
confident they have done so to the best of their ability. There has, no doubt; 
been some poaching, it being utterly impossible for the number of men employed 
to travel as they should the area that necessarily falls to every two men. It 
would require, at least, a man to each township. I hope you will see your way 
clear to considerably increase the staff so that, it may be impossible for poachers, 
with safety, to attempt trapping within the Park. 

We have done a great deal of work during the past yeir in cleaning out 
por|.ages, building and repairing shelter houses. Six new shelter houses have 
been built as follows : One on Tea lake, one on Ma'ple lake, one on Nipissing, one 
on Otter slide, one at Opeongo and one at Oiam's. These are all good buildings 
with cedar foundations, hewn logs and good floors, roofs, windows, etc. They 
are built 14 x 16 feet, or 16 x 18, inside. 

We have had a great number of visitors in the Park during the past year, 
and I am pleased to be able to say there has not been a single complaint of any 
kind, the Park regulations ha^'ingbeen strictly ob-erved. The game in the Park 
is very noticeably on the increase, beaver and otter especially. These are iu 
evidence wherever you turn. The deer are here simply in thousands, and can be 
seen in numbers where ver you go. They are becoming so tame, owing to the 
sense of security, that they scarcely move when you approach them. 

Wolves, I regret to say, are also very much on the increase, and can be heard 
at night from headquarters howling all around. This I attribute largely to the 
increase of the deer in the Park, which, of course, is an inducement for the wolf 
to seek the same section. Every effort should be made to rid the woods of this 
pest that annually destroys more deer than the sportsman's rifle. This is putting 
it at a very low figure. 

Fishing has been exceedingly god in the Park during the past year, and 
there is no reason to fear that the fish are on the decrease. Souie large salmon 
trout have been caught, the largest measuring 37 inches and weighing 20 
pounds. 

Lumbering in the Park is being carried on very extensively, and a great 
number of men are employed in the wo;)(ls. I feel that the staff have had the 
co-operation of the limit-holders to a greater ext- nt each year, the lumbermen's 
instructions to each and every foreman being at once to discharge any man found 
bieaking the law. Fires, I am glad to report, have done very little damage in 
the Park during the past year. 

I would respectfully submit for your consideration the advisability of 
having the eastern boundary surveyed by a Provincial Land Surveyor and 
properly cut out. This has not been done since the new section has been added 
to the Park, and it is impossible for hunters to tell when they cross the line. 

I am, Sir, 

Yours respectfully, 

G. W. Bartlett. 
1 Oa L M. 



1907 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 



137 



Appendix No. 51. 

List of persons holding Cullers' Licenses, issued under the Ontario Cullers Act, up to 31st 

December, 1907. 




Anderson, M. M 

Allan, James D 

Appleton, Erwin B 

Albert, Andrew 

Adams, J. Q 

Anderson, Patrick J 

Anderson, J. C 

Allan, Alfred 

Allen, R. A 

Aikens, Geo. M 

Appleby, Ridley 

Adams, James M 

Aylward, James 

Archibald, John L 

Austin, Wm. G 

Anderson, Charles 

Anderson, John 

Adair, Thomas Albert 

Anderson, J. G 

Alexander, Samuel 

Adams, Wm 

Arkle, George 

Armstrong, Jas. Theodore . . 

Armstrong, Thos. J 

Acheson, Ira M 

Albert, Alfred E 

Alma, John E 

Adams, George A 

Ansley, Jf hn Albert 

Ansley, John Jenkins 

Ainslie, Alexander 

Apleton, E. A 

Arnill, William. 

Brophy, Michael Patrick . . . 

Boland. Abraham 

Brown, Singleton 

Barry, Thomas James 

Blanchet, Paul Frederick. . . 

Bird, W. S 

Bayley, James T 

Bell, Henry 

Beach, Herbert Mahlom 

Barrv, Thomas 

Beatty, W. R 

Brooks, Frederick William . 

Brown, Robert D 

Breed, Arthur G 

Barnes, Thomas George Lee. 

Buchanan, Robert 

Beck, Jacob Frederick 

Bird, Joseph Manlv 

Boyd, John F * 

Brandin, Martin W 

Bell, John C 

Bartlett, George W 

Brown, Silas 

Boland, W. G 



Almonte. 

Bracebridge. 

Bracebridge. 

Ottawa. 

Fjongford Mills. 

Campbell ford. 

Gravenhurst. 

Ottawa. 

Bannockburn. 

French River. 

Katrine. 

Sault Ste. Marie . 

Peterborough. 

JCeewatin. 

Renfrew. 

Little Current. 

Cartier. 

Gananoque. 

Alpena, Mich. 

Arden. 

Westmeath. 

Kenora. 

vicKellar. 

Arnprior. 

Westmeath. 

Ottawa. 

Hawkesbury. 

Longford. 

Thessalon. 

Theesalon. 

Spanish. 

Kenora. 

Iron Bridge. 

Massey Station. 

Cartier. 

Bracebridge. 

Hastings. 

Ottawa. 

Parry Sound. 

Gravenhurst. 

Ottawa. 

Ottawa. 

Millbridge. 

Parry Sound. 

Mackay's Station 

Port Sidney. 

Penetang'ishene. 

Muskoka Mills. 

Cold water. 

Penetang' ishene. 

Muskoka Mills. 

Thessalon. 

Peterborough. 

Peterborough. 

Warren. 

Klock's Mills. 

Eganville. 



Baulke, George R 

Bouchey, Arthur 

Buchanan, Mark 

Barrett, W. J 

Bromley, Thomas 

Bremner, John L 

Breen, Bernard 

Buie, Dougal 

Baker, Thomas 

Blais, Felix 

Balsdon, George 

Bromley, W. H 

Bowers, Isaac 

Brown, Thomas 

Bass, Walter R 

Bates, Robert 

Binnie, Thomas 

Blair, William 

Bick, Thomas 

Burke, John Thomas 

Buchan, Sterling 

Brown, Joseph A 

Baird, PC 

Brill, J. W 

Beattie, Arthur W 

Brock, H. S 

Benson, John Bird 

Brennan, Richard Lawrence 

Brown, Hugh Risside 

Bryan Frank 

Bennett, Edward Clinton. . . 

Blaine, Harvie Thomas 

Borrett, Thomas 

Bickell, James Manuel 

Buisson, William 

Borrett, James A 

Bliss, C. Lidden 

Bray, James 

Bremner, Geo 

Bromley, Samuel 

Brown, A. C 

Berlinquet, Julius 

Blastora, Fred. L 

Burns, CHfton H 

Beaumont, Ernest 

Beattie, Alex 

Brennan, Reginald , 

Boyd, Geo 

Biesell, Geo. Thomas 

Baxter, Richard 

Breeaugh, Edward , 

Boyd, Geo. A 

Buchan, Frederick 

Barrett, Patrick 

Brundage, Alfred W 

Brougham, Thomas 

Blair, Robert I 

Benson, John W 



Aylmer, Que. 

Massey. 

Trout Mills. 

Thessalon. 

Pembroke. 

Admaston . 

Garden River. 

Providence Bay. 

Blind River. 

Hull, Que. 

Keewatin. 

Pembroke . 

Little Current. 

Barrie. 

W. Huntingdon. 

Kenora. 

Port Arthur. 

Keewatin. 

Bobcaygeon. 

Midland. 

L'Orignal. 

Spanish . 

Rainy River. 

Mine Centre. 

Arnprior. 

Ottawa. 

Midland. 

Peterborough. 

Huntsville. 

Keewatin. 

Ahmic Harbor. 

Orillia. 

Barrie. 

Sault. Ste. Marie. 

Sudbury. 

Sault Ste. Marie. 

Sudbury. 

Kinmount. 

Arnprior. 

Pembroke. 

Fitzroy Harbor. 

Opimicon, Que. 

Harwood. 

Little Current. 

Parry Sound. 

Whitney. 

Gravenhurst. 

Gravenhurst. 

Trenton. 

Deseronto. 

Deseronto. 

Thessalon. 

Arnprior. 

Arnprior. 

Pembroke. 

Eganville. 

Arnprior. 

Sturgeon Bay. 



138 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Afpet dix No. 51. — Continued. 




Beck, Chas. M. 

Beatty, W. J 

Burns, C. W., Jr 

Bell, John Henry 

Berry, Harold 

Black, George 

Bettes, John Hiram .... 

Brady, John 

Brown, James 

Brooks, W. J 

Bertrand, Allan 

Brinkman, Alex. B 

Black, Jacob 

Beattie, W. J 

Bromley, William 

Bissell, Harlie . . 

Brown, Robert 

Beaton, Hugh 

Bailey, Arthur 

Burd, James Henry 

Bailey, Samuel James . . 

Burton, Tins wood 

Boyes, James 

Brown, John 

Brennan, Edward Scott. 

Bell, John Arguey 

Bromley, Edw. H 

Bliss, Lawrence E 

Buee, Neil 

Brazziel, Leonard 

Bowie, James 

Barrie, Nicholas J 

Burke, J. D 

Bowen, Thomas 

Brown, James F 

Blastorah, Bernard 



Campbell, Robert John. 

Carpenter, John A 

Campbell, Alex. J 

Carson, James 

Campbell, J. M 

Campbell, Robert 

Clairmont, Joseph . 

Clarkson, Robert ^J 

Carruthers, Aaron 

Calder, Wm. J 

Chew, Joseph 

Cole, James Colin 

Cameron, Wm , 

Cain, Robert , 

Crawford, Stephen W. , 

Cochrane, George 

Cobam, John 

Crowe, Nathaniel 

Cameron, Alexander . . 
Chrysler, Frank R. L. . 
Callaghan, Thos., Jr. . . 

Carson, Hugh 

Calder, George 

Callaghan, Dennis 



P enetanguishene 
Coldwater. 
South River. 
Burk's Falls. 
Label le, Q. 
Barwick. 
Muskoka Mills. 
Renfrew. 
Buckingham, Q. 
Blind River. 
Nairn Centre. 
Sault Ste. Marie. 
Barwick. 
Arnprior. 
Westmeath. 
Trenton. 
Starrat. 

Waubaushene. 
Parry Sound. 
Parrv Sound. 
Orillia. 
Renfrew . 
Huntsville. 
Rockdale. 
Sundridge. 
Klock's Mills. 
Pembroke. 
Byng Inlet. 
Spanish Station. 
Spanish Station. 
Bryson, Que. 
Ottawa. 
Kenora. 
Deseronto. 
Baysville. 
Harwood. 

Flinton. 

Arnprior. 

Trenton. 

Bracebridge. 

Bracebridge. 

Bracebridge. 

Campbellford. 

Parry Sound. 

Hintonburg. 

Burk Lake 

Gravenhurst. 

Ottawa. 

Collin's Inlet, 

Midland. 

Thessalon. 

Peterboro. 

Lindsay . 

Bobcaygeon. 

Norman. 

Webb wood. 

Campbellford. 

Kenora. 

Woodville. 

Campbellford. 



Corigan, Robt. T 

Cameron, John H 

Carson, Melvin 

Cameron, John K , 

Cassidy, William 

Coons, Geo. Washington . . . 
Chisholm, Geo. Leopold . . . 

Clark, Wm. J 

Carr, Herbert E 

Cochrane, Alfred L 

Campbell, George 

Chalmers, George James. . . 
Caverly, David Charles. . . . 

Campbell, Archibald J 

Close, John L 

Carmichael, Donald 

Carty, John 

Cleary, Patrick M 

Caldwell, Jas. M 

Gushing, John J 

Crebo, William 

Cullen, Michael J 

Cuthbertson, William 

Carss, Percy 

Coghlan, Michael 

Cameron, Alexander Gordon 

Cassaday , W. W 

Carter, Robert E 

Coleman, Jos 

Cardiff, George McDougall. . . 

Cameron, W. D 

Crandall, F 

Campbell, James R 

Campbell, John A 

Caillier, Hyacinth 

Chamberlain, Thomas 

Cooper, David Allan 

Cox, Henry 

Currie, James 

Clarkson, A. E 

Clairmont, E 

Cameron, W. F 

Connolly, David 

Campbell, P. C 

Cadenhead, Alexander 

Carpenter, R. J 

Christie, William Pringle 

Campbell, C. V 

Clegg, Samuel 

Clairmont, William L 

Cook, Sidney P. W 

Corrigan, John 

Chalmers, Alexander M 

I Charlton, George A 

Cahill, Thomas 

Chew, Manley 

Cooper, James Eddly 

Cook, Reinhardt 

Crowe, Cecil 

Callaghan, Dennis 

Collins, James 



Emo. 
Kenora. 
Little Current. 
Spanish River. 
Little Current. 
Peterboro . 
Sault Ste. Marie. 
Birkendale. 
North Bay. 
Muldoon, Que. 
Fort Frances . 
Peterboro . 
Parry Sound . 
Little Current . 
Arnprior. 
Arnprior. 
Arnprior. 
Arnprior. 
Callander . 
Davidson, Que. 
Thessalon. L 
Massey Station . 
Arnprior. 
Thessalon . 
Chapeau, Que. 
Beauchene, Que. 
Emo. 
Fesserton . 
Baysville . 
Sudbury . 
Kenora. 
Port Arthur. 
Eganville. 
Galetta. 
Arnprior . 
Bobcaygeon . 
Millbrook. 
Ballerica, Que. 
Ottawa . 
Midland . 
Gravenhurst. 
Sturgeon Bay . 
Gravenhurst. 
Sault Ste. Marie. 
Midland. 
Arnprior. 
Severn Bridge. 
Sault Ste. Marie . 
Peterboro . 
Gravenhurst. 
Spanish Station. 
Baysville . 
Peterboro . 
Collingwood . 
Nosbonsing. 
Midland . 
Saurin . 
South River . 
Bobcaygeon . 
Trenton . 
Barry ville . 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 



139 



Appendix No. 51. — Continued. 




Campbell, Daniel N Buckingh'm,Que 

Canniff , R. W Kenora. 

Cassidy, S . C Dunehurch. 

Charleson, John Baptiste Ottawa . 

Comer, Billa F Tweed . 

Carter, George Sundridge . 

Corrigan, Robt. T Emo. 

Caswell, Grant Cold water. 

Caswell, Geo Coldwater. 

Cheiair, David A Pembroke. 

Clairmont, Philadelp L Gravenhuret. 

Crowe, Edgerton Bobcaygeon . 

Castonquay, A. C Chelmsford . 

Clark, Donald Allan Port Arthur. 

Charette, Herbert Devlin. 

Christie, Uriah W Fort Frances . 

Clark, Joseph C Fort Frances . 

Crowe, Leslie Bobcaygeon. 

Campbell, Duncan W Stewartville. 

Callahan, Thoma,s N | Arnprior. 

Clements, Albert James iBent River. 

Carney, Albert jSault tiJte. Marie. 

Collins, Arthur iMassey Station. 

Carter George Laval lee. Que 

Chitty, Alfred E Kenora 



Didier, Hector 

Doran, Frank 

Dunning, E. Percival 

Duff, R. J 

Durrill, John W 

Dickson, John 

Dickson, Jas. L 

Dobie, Harry 

Deacon, Charles 

Danter, R. W 

Doyle, T. J 

Dobie, Alexander R 

Darling J. M 

Dillon John 

Durrell, Jos, Nelson 

Durrell, John 

Donally, Richard S 

Devine William 

Durrill, William 

Draper, Patrick 

Davis, J. P 

Dale, John Alexander 

Dinsmore, Chas. L 

Drum, Patrick 

Durham, Edgar S 

Duquette, Chas 

Davis, William Albert 

Dickson, Robert Alexander. 

Dawkins, John 

Doxsee, James E . . 

Didier, L. P 

Devine, Patrick J 

Dinsmore, Richard 

Dunn, Percy E 

Duval Chas 

Donlevy, .lames 



.Vfattawa. 

Barryvale. 

Parry Sound. 

Arnprior. 

Ottawa. 

Sundridge. 

Mich i pic' ten H'r 

Sault 8te. Marie. 

Sault Ste. Marie. 

Parry Sound. 

Eau Clair. 

Blind River. 

Wisawasa. 

Calabogie. 

P'rt'geduF'rt, Q 

Callander. 

Sunbury. 

Cook's Mills. 

Nosbonsing. 

Quyon, Que. 

Bobcaygeon. 

Birkendale. 

Huntsville. 

Belleville. 

Rosseau. 

Webb wood. 

Bobcaygeon 

Keene. 

Gravenhurst. 

Gravenhurst. 

Aylmer, Que. 

Sheenboro, Que. 

Huntsville. 

Longford Mills. 

Halfway. 

Calabogie. 



Doris, Patrick 

Doris, John 

Donahoe, Michael 

Doran, W 

Dickson, Robert R 

Donlevy, Wm. C 

Duff, Chas. A 

Dean, James C 

Duff, Peter A 

Duncan, Downey 

Dougherty, J. M 

Dunn, John F 

Dyke,. Morris F 

Devitt, Frank 

Dickie, David 

Enlaw, Oliver 

Ebert, Andrew P 

Ellis, Alexander 

Ellis, John 

Errington, Joseph 

Eddington, Henry John 

Enright, Daniel 

P^ager, James 

Elliott, Porter P 

Elliott, William 

Edgar, J. E 

Elliott, George E 

Fraser, John A 

Ferguson, Wm. H 

Forbes, Christopher McKay 

Fitzgerald, E. Clair 

Farrell, W. H 

French, Lewis William 

Fraser, William A 

Finnerty, Patrick 

Farnand, Frank 

Fulton, Philips 

Fitzgerald, Ullyot C 

Fenn, George 

Fortune, Owen 

Fraser, David 

France, John 

Ferguson, Ernest A 

Ferguson, Alpheu 

Ford, John Williain B 

Ford, Charles 

Findlay, J. H 

Fraser, James 

Fairen, Francis 

Faulkner, Jos 

Fraser, Alexander, Jr 

Fairbairn, William 

Fraser, Wm. A 

Fraser, Foster 

Fraser, Wm 

Fraser, Hugh Alexander 

Flaherty, John 

Fisher, "Wm 

Fox, Thomas 

Fallis, James W 



Peterborough. 

Peterborough. 

Erinsville. 

Belleville. 

Kippewa, Que. 

Rockcliffe. 

Stewartville. 

Kenora. 

Claybank. 

Rainy River. 

Fort Frances. 

Spanish Mills. 

Blind River. 

Dinorwic. 

Port Arthur. 

Campbell ford. 
Pembroke. 
Arnprior. 
Westmeath. 
Sundridge. 
Parry Sound. 
Port Arthur. 
Parry Sound. 
Mine Centre. 
Cache Bay. 
Rat Portage. 
Peterborough. 

Kenora. 

Red Bay. 

McLean's Depot. 

Parry Sound. 

Ironside, Que. 

Byng Inlet. 

Mattawa. 

Rochfort. 

Diamond. 

Spanish Station. 

Parry Sound. 

Bracebridge. 

Trenton. 

Norman. 

Collin's Inlet. 

Baysville. 

Mattawa. 

P'r'tgeduF'rt, Q 

Wahnapitae. 

Braeside. 

Renfrew. 

Peterborough. 

Fesserton. 

Westmeath. 

Calabogie. 

Pembroke. 

Pembroke. 

Little Current. 

Pembroke. 

Lindsay. 

Trenton . 

Deseronto. 

Sturgeon Bay. 



140 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Appendix No. 51. — Continued. 




Fai rbairn, N. H 

Friel, John 

Fox, Charles 

Featlierstonhangh, Wm. H'y 

Friar, Schuyler 

Farreii, Joel 

Fraser, Duncan 

Freestone, VV^alter 

Fraeer, John 

Fitzgerald, D. C 

Foster, Wm. C 

Frazer, Jas. C 

Fremlin, H.P 

Foster Ed. G 

Farrel, Peter M 

Fairhall, Edward 

Eraser, Levi 

Fiddes, James 

Frawley, Frank 

Fisher, George . . . . 

Filiatrault J. A 

Farrier, John William 

Finney, Benjamin B , 



Griffith Geo. F 

Graham, John 

Golden, Jno 

Gunter, Henry M 

Goltz, Ernest 

Green, Forman A 

Green, Samuel E 

Grant, John 

Green, Arthur 

Green, Norman McL 

Gillis, John J , 

George R 

Gardiner, John , 

Golden, Frank J 

Garson, Robert 

Gropp, August 

Grozelle, Antoine D 

Goulais, James 

Grayson, Charles 

Gladstone, Harry E 

Guertin, Oliver 

Gelinas, Frank 

Gwynne, John 

Gray, Frederick M 

Graham, Edward G 

Griffin, James 

Gordon, Alexander B 

Gareau, Noah J 

Gillies, D. A 

Gilligan, Edward 

Gladman, Charles 

Garrow, John D 

German, William Burton. 

Gordon, Robert W 

Guertin, Nelson . 

Gardener. John 

Gunter, Peter M 

Glennie, William 



Webbwood. 

Trenton. 

Trenton. 

Penetanguishene 

Westmeath. 

Savanne. 

Big Forks. 

Burk's Falls. 

Bancroft. 

Spanish Station. 

Search mont. 

Spanish Mills. 

Richards Land'g. 

Sault Ste. Marie . 

Whitefish. 

Whiteside. 

Bracebridge. 

Rainy River. 

Orillia. 

Sault Ste . Marie. 

Blind River. 

Chapleau. 

Fort Frances. 

Pembroke. 

Am prior. 

Gilmour. 

Trenton. 

Bardsville. 

Gilmour. 

Parry Sound. 

Flinton. 

Ottawa. 

Bancroft . 

Whitefish. 

Parry Sound. 

Parry Sound. 

Trenton. 

Thesealon. 

Penetanguish ene 

Muskoka Mills. 

Peterborough . 

Keewatin. 

Cook's Mills. 

Biscotasing. 

Hull, Que. I 

Hawkesbury. 

Brule Lake. j 

Wahnapitae. 

Spanish River, i 

Pembroke. I 

Pen broke. | 

Carleton Place, j 

Mattawa. 

Parry Sound. 

Ottawa. ! 

Wahnapitae. 

Pembroke. 

Petawawa. 

Kenora. 

Gilmour. 

Millbridge. 



German, Maurice J 

Gillies, John A 

Goddin, Edward 

Grant, Joseph 

Gilmour, James B. ...... . 

Gorman, Joseph P 

Gordon, Thomas A 

Gray, Albert H 

Gad way, John 

Garrow, Edward 

Golding, William 

Gillies, Harry 

Gordon, Herbert C 

Gillespie, M. H 

Griffin, William 

Ganton, David 

Graham , George L 

Graham, Frederick S 

Gill, Cuthbert 

Graham, James Robert. . . 
Graham, Thomas Jordan. 
Gaudaur, Antoine Daniel. 

Gorman, Patrick 

Guy, Charles'. 

Graham, George H 

Greer, George P 

Gill, Charles 



Hurd, Cyrus 

Henderson, Albert E 

Hale, John B 

Hickerson, Melvin T 

Howey, George H 

Hartt, James 

Hayes, James 

Humphrey, T. W 

Huckson, A. H 

Handley, Robert 

Howe, Alexander 

Hurd, Edwin 

Huff, J. S. Morris 

Halliday, Robert J 

Hutton, John 

Hutchinson, Wm. E 

Hogarth, Joseph Rowan 

Humphrey, John 

Hill, Joshua 

Hall, David 

Hartley, Charles 

Hawkins, Henry Charles 

Hines, Philip Wallace 

Hudson, John Lewis 

Hurdman, William H 

Hughes, John 

Howie, R. G 

Helferty, Dennis 

Hamilton, Robert 

Hoppins, Abiram 

Hoppins, Densmore 

Haystead, John 

Henderson, John Irwin 

Hartley, William 



Fenelon Falls. 

Braeside . 

Griffith. 

Eganville. 

Braeside. 

Sault Ste. Marie. 

Hall's Bridge. 

Biscotasing. 

Parry Sound. 

Webbwood. 

Dorset. 

White Lake. 

Nelson. 

Cook's Mills. 

Huntsville. 

Trout Creek. 

Arnprior. 

Arnprior. 

Orillia. 

Kenora. 

Byng Inlet. 

Orillia. 

Eganville. 

Fort Frances. 

Gillies Depot. 

Port Arthur. 

Fort Frances. 

Parry Sound. 

Bur ford. 

Sault Ste. Marie. 

Fort Frances. 

Fort Frances. 

Gilmour. 

Enterprise. 

Gravenhurst. 

French River. 

Douglas. 

Queensborough. 

Hurdville. 

Arnprior. 

Lindsay. 

Hutton House. 

Huntsville. 

Pembroke. 

Gravenhurst. 

.Midland. 

Lovering. 

Peterborough . 

Blind River. 

Huntsville. 

Combermere. 

Ottawa. 

North Bay. 

New Liskeard. 

Eganville. 

Kenora. 

Kingston. 

Kingston. 

Parry Sound. 

Bobcaygeon . 

Millbridge. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 



]4l 



Appendix No. 51. — Continued. 




Higgins, John C 

Harrison, John, Jr. . . . 

Hawkins, E 

Henderson, Charles . . . 

Halliday, Frank 

Hammond, \V 

Hall, Charles Asa 

Hearl, John 

Howe, Isaac 

Halliday, James 

Hurdman, J. A 

Hawkins, Stonewall J. 
Hinchcliffe, William. . . 
Henderson, Arthur. . . . 

Hillis, James M 

Harris, William, Jr 

Hogg, W. J 

Hoxie, E. P 

Hawkins, Walter 

Howard, James 

Howard, William . 

Hogan, Enos W 

Home, John T 

Hamilton, Chas. E . . . 
Henderson, Leonard. . 

Hunter, Thos 

Hamilton, Robert J . . 
Hawkins, William A . 
Herring, Edward C .. . 

Hatch, J. W 

Hoard, Wm. Paris 



Irving, Thos. H. . . 

Irwin, Eli. 

Irving, Edward C. 



Johnston, Ralph E 

Johns, Frank A 

Jackson, Robert 

Johnson, Finlay 

Jones, Albert 

Johnson, Thomas 

Johnston, Archibald M. 

Julien, Charles 

Junkin, Henry 

Johns, Frank 

Jessup, Edward D 

Johnson, Frank N 

Johnston, John 

JoTinson, S. M 

Jones, Frederick James . 
Johnston, William A. . . 

Jervis, Henry 

Jones, William 

James, Martin 

Johnston, James 

Johns, Alexander 

Jackson, John A 



Kintree. Stuart 

Kerby, John 

Kennedy, Robert 

Kirby, Louis Russell Ottawa. 



Peterborough. 

Pembroke . 

Le Breton Flats. 

Bracebridge. 

Parry Sound . 

Orillia. 

Penetanguishene 

Callander. 

Fort Frances. 

Springtown. 

Ottawa . 

Meldrum Bay . 

Gunter. 

Bavsville. 

Sutton West. 

Day Mills. 

North Bay. 

Katrine. 

Pembroke . 

Eganville. 

Bayaville. 

Savanne. 

Fort William. 

Kenora. 

Baysville. 

Callander. 

Ottawa . 

Pembroke . 

Sebright. 

Dryden . 

Emo. 

Parry Sound . 

Kenora. 

Kenoia. 

Port Arthur. 

Toronto. 

Brechin . 

Bracebridge. 

Victoria Harbor. 

Bobcaygeon. 

Norman. 

Trenton. 

Marmora. 

N i pissi n gj un ct' n 

Cache Bay. 

Ottawa. 

Peninsular Lake. 

Arnprior. 

Flinton. 

Castleford. 

Wisawasa. 

Fenelon Falls. 

The Flats. 

Fort Frances. 

Callander. 

Barwick. 

Little Rapids. 

Belleville. 

Marmora. 



Kennedy, Timothy 

Kirk, Heniy 

Knox. Milton 

Kinsella, Michael Pierce.. 

Kitchen, D 

Kelly, Jeremiah 

Kelly, Ferdinand 

Kennedy, T. J 

Kenning, Henry 

Kirby, D. F 

Kirkpatrick, David 

Kean, John F 

Kellett, Fred 

Kelly, Michael J 

Kirk, William James 

Kerr, E. G 

King, Napoleon 

Kean, B. F 

Kemp, Orval Wesley 

Kirk, Charles Barron 

Kingsland, W. P 



Enterprise. 

Trenton. 

Ottawa. 

Trenton. 

French River. 

Sudbury. 

Mattawa. 

Arnprior. 

Pembroke. 

Belleville. 

Lindsay. 

Orillia. 

Keewatin. 

Baysville. 

Webbwood. 

Thessalon. 

Mattawa. 

Orillia. 

Trenton. 

Queensbo rough. 

Ottawa. 



Kerr, John B I Arnprior. 



Kennedy, Walter 

Kennedy, John 

;Knox, Wm. M 

[Kingston, Robert 

I Kearnan, Edward 

Kearney, Michael John. 

Kendrick, John 

Kendrick, John L 

Kennedy, John W 

Kelly, James F 

Kauffman, Julias 

Kennedy, Sylvester 

Kernahan, George A 

Kehoe, Martin 



Leannoth , Francis. . . 

Lee, James 

Lloyd, Alfred 

Lawrie, Frank A 

Latimer, Jas 

Lemyre, Middey 

Lutz, Jacob 

Luby, John E 

Law, Wm. J 

Lummis, Daniel 

Lowe, W. C 

Londry, S. C 

Lochnan, James 

Link, Henry W 

Ladarotte, John .... 

Lochnan, John 

Lozo, John 

Loughrin, Lawrence 

Linton, J. H 

Ludgate, James 

Lee, Robert 

Langford, Mark 

Letherby, Edwin 

Leahy, Francis M. . . 
Langford, Henry .... 
Lessard, Philip 



Arnprior. 
Pembroke. 
Fesserton. 
Wisawasa. 
Blind River. 
Buckingham, Qu. 
Rurk's Falls. 
Burk's Falls. 
Ottawa. 
Trout Creek. 
Blind River, 
Brule Lake. 
Barwick. 
Huntsville. 

Arnprior. 

Warren. 

Severn Bridge. 

Parry Sound. 

Frank's Bay. 

Campbellford. 

Parry Sound. 

Ottawa. 

Markstay. 

Glanmire. 

Port Arthur. 

Sault Ste. Marie. 

Ottawa. 

Ottawa. 

Arnprior. 

Aylmer, Que. 

Trenton, 

Pembroke. 

Parry Sound. 

Peterborough. 

Huntsville. 

Baysville. 

Midland. 

Chapeau, Que. 

Baysville. 

Kenora. 



142 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Appendix No 51. — Continued. 



Name. 




Levering, William James .... 

Lane, Maurice 

Lenton, George 

Lowe, Thos. A 

Livingston, Robert M 

Londry, William E 

Labelle, James 

Labelle, Eli 

Ladurante, J. D 

Ludgate, Theodore 

Lucas, Frank 

Lunam, Duncan 

Lott, George 

Lawrie, John D 

Lovering, George Francis 

Lucas, R. G 

LeBlanc, Edmund C.Chapleau 

Lavigne, John 

Landell, Charles S 

Long, Henry Elisha 

Lynch, W. H 

Laplante, Francis 

Lindsay, Jas 

Labelle, Michael 

Legree, John 

Legree, James L 

Leigh, John Chas 

Lloyd, Edward B 

Lemyre, Bruno 

Lavelle, Charles H 

Lyons, James 

Led wood, Chas 

Levelle, Emery 

Little, Theo 

Lehman, Joseph 

Lafare, Mark 

Leach, George 

Lott, Angus M 



Malloy, Mark 

Martin, Hugh 

Miller, R. O 

Morrison, James 

Murray, Frederick .... 

Menzies, Archibald 

Manning, James 

Martin, Philip 

Malone, Wm . Pat 

Marsh, Esli Terril 

Millar, John W 

Mutchinbacker, Asa 

Morris, George F 

Murray, George Jr 

Maughan, Joseph 

Margach, Wm . .1 

Murray, George Sr 

Maniece, Wm 

Murray, Wm 

Morgan, Richard, J . . . . 
Magee, Thomas Arthur. 

Murdoch, James 

Mulvahil, Wm 

Murphy, Arthur 

Mayhew, Jacob 



Coldwater . 
Bobcaygeon. 
Peterborough. 
Renfrew. 
Huntsville. 
Sault Ste. Marie, 
Waltham, Que. 
Waltham, Que. 
Ottawa. 
Peterborough. 
Sault Ste. Marie. 
Collfield, Que. 
Trenton . 
Parry Sound. 
Coldwater. 
Christina. 
Chapleau. 
Aylmer, Que. 
Huntsville. 
Mattawa. 
Collingwood . 
Byng Inlet. 
Arnprior . 
Am prior. 
Dacre. 
Calabogie . 
Gravenhurst . 
King. 

Gravenhurst . 
Canoe' Lake. 
Waltham Sta.,Q. 
Ottawa. 

Waltham Sta.,Q. 
Kenora. 

Stratton Station. 
Cache Bay. 
Vermilion Bay. 
Spanish Mills. 

Baysville . 
Sault St. Marie. 
Gravenhurst . 
Toronto . 
Huntsville. 
Burk's Falls.. 
Trenton . 
Stoco . 
Ottawa . 
Trenton . 
Huntsville . 
Rosseau Fallt^. 
French Bay . 
Waubaushene . 
Fort William. 
Port Arthur. 
Waubaushene . 
Peterborough . 
Kenora. 
Kenora. 
Kenora. 
Cook's Mills. 
Arnprior . 
Ottawa. 
Northcote. 



Molyneaux, George 

Milway, Joseph 

Mackie, Nathan 

Milne, Archie 

Murray, James 

Moore, James A . E 

Merkley, William A 

Murphy, Hugh R 

Murphy, W. J 

Murray, William 

Macfarlane, Robert L 

Martin, Fdgerton 

Mathieson, Archie 

Moore, Henry R 

Mickle, Charles S 

Mullen, James 

Morley, A. W 

Macdonald, James M 

Money, Harry 

Mather, Allan 

Menzies, Alexander 

Munroe, Peter P 

Mason Benjamin 

Monaghan, John B 

Monaghan, M. J 

Mulvihill, John 

Moran, Andrew 

Mulvihill, Michael 

Mann, John 

Marrigan, Richard 

Monaghan, John Dorland. . 

Matheson, Wm 

Munro, Alex. G 

Murphy, Oliver A 

Mellor Charles 

Millions, Harrv 

MacDonell, R.'D 

Milne, Fred 

Miller, P. H 

Munro, Philip 

Mangan, Patrick 

Marcil, Peter 

Main, Samuel 

Morley, Charles 

Moore, David Henry 

Murphy, John 

Mathieson, Daniel 

Milne, Wm 

Mangan, Charles 

Mooney, Lincoln 

Mangan, John 

Mooney, Thomas 

Mason, Robt. T 

Moore, Wm . John 

Morrison, Donald 

Moore, Wm 

Mutchenbacker, Herman . . 

Moore, Norman 

Morley, John R ; 

Mackay, J . A 

Miller, Robt 



McCaw, Joseph E . 



Parry Sound . 

Fort William. 

Port Arthur. 

Arnpri'^r. 

Peterborough. 

Lakefield. 

Ottawa. 

Ottawa East. 

Arnprior. 

Markstay. 

Warren. 

Markstay . 

Fort Frances . 

Lakefield. 

Gravenhurst. 

Webbwood. 

Winnipeg. 

North Bay. 

Haileybury. 

Keewatin. 

Sault Ste. Marie . 

Commanda. 

Westmeath. 

Arnprior. 

Arnprior. 

Arnprior. 

Rockingham. 

Arnprior. 

Manitowaning. 

Deseronto. 

Deseronto. 

Chelmsford. 

Braeside. 

Marksville. 

Port Arthur. 

Gillies Depot. 

Bisc tasing. 

Trout Mills. 

Blind River. 

Braeside. 

Arnprior. 

Ottawa. 

Spanish Station. 

Huntsville. 

Peterborough . 

Arnprior . 

Chelmsford . 

Ethel. 

Burk'e Falls. 

Orillia. 

Arnprior. 

Kingston 

Rocheeterville. 

Gravenhurst. 

Reay. 

Bobcaygeon. 

Rosseau Falls. 

Arnprior. 

Kenora. 

Big Forks. 

Montreal. 

Tweed. 



1907 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 



143 



Appeftdix No. 5/. — Continued. 



Name. 


P. 0. Address. 


Name. 


P. 0. Address. 


McLaren, Peter 


Kenora. 

Kenora. 

Kenora. 

Bracebridge. 

Goulais Bay. 

Spanish Mills. 

Ansonia . 

Arnprior. 

Orillia. 

North Bay. 

Sudbury. 

Whitestone 

Whitby. 

Arnprior. 

Peterborough. 

Trenton. 

Fenelon Falls. 

Campbellford. 

Fessertoh. 

Spragge. 

Bnrnstown. 

Quyon, Que. 

Arnprior. 

Westmeath. 

Calabogie . 

Spragge . 

Fort Frances . 

Kenora. 

Callander . 

Arnprior. 

Curran . 

Rama. 

Toronto . 

Parry Sound . 

Cache Bay . 

Pembroke . 

Pembroke. 

Arnprior . 

Bryson . 

North Bay. 

Gravenhurst . 

Blind River. 

Arnprior. 

Byng Inlet. 

A.rnprior. 

Arnprior. 

Ottawa. 

Gravenhurst W. 

Gravenhurst. 

Parry Sound. 

Campbellford. 

Orillia. 

Madoc . 

Parry Sound . 

Ottawa . 

Carleton Place. 

Bracebridge. 

Bracebridge. 

Bracebridge. 

Bracebridge. 

Baysville. 

Parry Sound . 

Longford . 


McDonald, James P 


French River. 


McGregor Colin F ' . . . . 


McFarlane, Jos. C 


Port Severn. 


McKenzie, Robert 


McNabb, Alexander 


Thessalon . 


McFadven, A. J. . 

McCauiay, Thos. J 


McGillivray, Archibald 

McGrane, Edward 

McLeod, Donald, Jr 


Port Arthur. 
Lindsay . 


McDonald John C 


Keewatin. 


McKenzie, Alex. E 


McDonald, Hector, R 

McDougall, Duncan 


Thessalon. 


Mclntyre, John 


Bracebridge. 


McDermott, Thos 


McNabb, Alexander D 

McCormack, John C ... 

McNamara, John 


Warren. 


McDermott, Jas. E 


Sudbury. 
Byng Inlet. 
Algoma Mills . 


McCrindle, Jas 


McGhie, Chas. S 


McGillivray, Duncan D 

Mclntyre, Daniel A 


McGenigal John H . . 


Klock'e Mills. 


McCart, Patrick 


McNamara, Lewis 


Klock's Mills. 


McGrath, Thos. B 


McDonald, Sydney C 

McGurn, Jno .J 


Mattawa . 


McCormick James J 


Buckingham, Que 
Port Arthur. 


McCarthy, Wm 


McKeown, Jno. Joseph 

McNeei, David 


McAvo\ , Owen 


Sault Ste . Marie. 


McConnell Lewis 


McEwan, Andrew 


Thessalon. 


McMuUen, George 


McCool, Christopher L 

McCollum, Donald 

McDowell, Wm 


Cartier. 


McNab, Angus 


Arnprior . 


McColgan, C. H 


Cache Bay . 
Huntsville. 


McCallum, Webster 


McConnachie, Roy Stewart... 
McDonell, J. K 


McCagherty, Robert E 

McNab, Archie 


Rat Portage . 
Vermilion Bav. 


McDonald, Alex . J 


McDonald, Malcolm 


McKay, D . A 


Rainy Bay. 
Kenora. 


Mclvor, J. A 


McMillan, James 


McCnlloch, M 


McPhee, Ronald 


Bracebridge . 


McDonagh, Rod 


McKay, George Donner 

McWilliams, Maxwell 

Theodore 


Dorset. 


McMan^is, James 




McKinley, J. H 


Peterborough. 
Keewatin. 


McPhereon, Jas. S. . 


McLeod, John 


McKinley, Edward C 

McClelland, John 


McPherson, George 


Keewatin. 


McDougall, John D 


Kenora. 


McFarlane, J. W 


McGregor, Duncan 


Burnstown . 


McDonald, Roderick 


McLean, Peter W^ 


Sand Point. 


McCormack, Wm 


McNichol, John 


Sudbury . 


McCreary, William. . 


Mclnnis, D. E 


Cache Bav. 


McCuaig, James C 


McLaughlin, Samuel 

McCollman, John . 


Waubaushene. 


McColman, Peter 


North Bay. 


McLeod, James D 


McManus, John C 


Arnprior. 
Blind River. 


McCrimmon, N. K 


McLean, John 


McCreary, James, Jr 

McPhee, Hugh 


McLeod, Norman 


Garden River. 


McLean, James 


Blind River. 


McCudden, James 


McNally, J. H 


Desbarats. 


McLachlin, J. A 


McNabb, Alexander 


Arnprior . 
Renfrew. 


Macpherson, John 


McFarlane, Alexander 

McFarlane, J, D 


McEachren, John A 


Stewartsville . 


McLeod, Dugald 


McFarlane, Duncan 


Renfrew . 


McClelland, R. H 


McKendry, Wm. B 

McPhee, Hugh 


Arnprior. 
Renfrew. 


McEvov, Frank 


McDermott, Peter 


McPhee, John 


Arnprior. 
Arnprior. 
Arnprior . 
Arnprior. 
Trenton. 


Mcllroy, John 


McLdchlin, Peter 


McNab, Robert J 


McLachlin, Alexander 

Mackey, Edward 


McFadden, James 


Mcintosh, James G 


McEwan, Henrv 


Mclnnis, Hector D 


McDonald, Alfred 


Peterborough . 

Sundridge. 

Gilmour, 


McKinnon, Malcolm 


McGeary, John J 


McLean, Daniel 


McDonald, Archibald W 

McCaw, John Gillen 

McCauley, Barney 


McKinnon, Archie J 

McKay, D. C 


Queensborough. 
Trenton . 


McDonald, James 


McDougall, James T 

Mclnerdy, Thomas 


Klock's Mills. 


McPherson, Allan 


Quebec, Que. 



144 



REPORT OF THE 



No. S 



Appendix No. 5/. — Continued. 



Name. 



Mc Bride, Archibald 

McFarlane, Robert L 

McGowan, Wtn , 

McLachlin, Norman 

McDonald, Laughlin 

Mclvor, William J 

McKee, John P 

McGowan, Thomas 

McDermot, Patrick 

McKay, Angus 

McDonald, A. J 

Mclnnis, Angus D 

McKendry, Alexander 

McGuire, Timothy 

McGrath, John 

McWilliams, John Bannon 

McCagherty, Patrick , 

McKendry, Daniel 

MacDonald, D. F 

McManus, Thomas J 

Macfarlane, David R 

McColgan, Edward 

McKay, John 

McKinnon, William 

McKittrick, Frank R. F. . . 

McMichael, Charles 

Mcllroy, Thomas Davis 

McDonald, Wm . Henry . . . 

McGaw, Wm. Thomas 

McMillan, L 

McDermott, John L 

. McDonald, Chas. M 

McPhee, Benjamin 

McGee, John Edward 

Macfarlane, Mack 

MacCallum, Alexander 

McRae, Farquhar 

MacCallum, Albert 

McGonigal, John 

McConachie, John 

McKay, D. G 

McDonald, James 

McCulloch, John L 

McConnel], James 

Mclntyre, William John . . 

McDonald, Allen 

McLay, Albert 

McQuarrie, Daniel 

McNaughton, Daniel 

McCagnerty, William E . . . 

McDonald, John D 

McCagherty, Joseph T. . . . 

McAdam, Arch. H 

Mc Murphy, Dugald, Jr 

McCall, Alfred 

McRitchie, William 

McRitchie, Malcolm 

Nescott, George 

Newton, Frank 

Newburn, Wm 

Niblett, James 

Niblett, Robert 



P. 0. Address. 



Arnprior. 
Am prior. 
Parry Sound. 
Arnprior. 
Pendleton. 
Collins Inlet. 
Sturgeon Falls. 
Parry Sound . 
South River. 
South River. 
Longford. 
Gravenhurst. 
Waubauehene. 
North Bay . 
Peterborough, 
Peterborough . 
Westmeath. 
Arnprior. 
Parry Sound. 
Renfrew . 
Ottawa . 
Quyon, Que. 
Emo. 
Kenora . 
Kenora. 
North Seguin. 
Madoc . 
Trenton . 
Callander. 
Callander . 
Orillia. 
Pembroke . 
Pembroke . 
Parry Sound . 
Arnprior . 
Braeside . 
Kenora . 
Arnprior . 
Arnprior. 
Hunts ville. 
Kenora. 
Peterborough . 
Lonsdale. 
Mine Centre. 
Port Arthur. 
Big Forks . 
Devlin. 
Fort Frances. 
Bracebridge. 
Westmeath. 
Mattawa. 
Westmeath. 
Quyon, Que. 
Kenora. 
Kenora. 
Kenora. • 
Kenora . 

Kenora. 
Gravenhurst. 
Parry Sound. 
Arnprior. 
Osceola. 




Newall, John H 

Nolan, John 

Newton, Charles W, 

Nent, Charles 

Needham, John G. . 



Oullette, Joseph P. . . . 

O'Neil, Thomas 

O'Neill, Daniel H. H. 
O'Leary, Patrick J . . . 

Oliver, Charles R 

Overend, George J . . . 

O'Brien, Andrew 

O'Brien, Frank G.... 

Oliver, J. A 

Owen, W. J 

O'Connor, John 

Oliver, Darcy 

O'Connor, VVm 

O'Neill, James W.... 

O'Donnell, Wm 

Owens, Richard 

O'Reilly, Patrick 

O'Neill, Mark 

Orrill, John 

O'Neill, Patrick 

Orde, Francis W 

O'DriscoU, Joseph 



Pigott, John 

Paul, Charles A 

Pattinson, Thos 

Price, A. E 

Presley, J. F 

Power, James 

Patzel, Adolph 

Plaunt, William B 

Plaunt, Joseph 

Porter, Charles C 

Preston, R. E 

Petrie, George A 

Pomeroy, Peter 

Perry, Pringle K 

Purcall, W. G 

Purvis, John 

Porter, James 

Pearson, John James 

Penney, Chas. G 

Pennock, James P 

Purdy, John A 

Playfair, R. J : 

Paterson, John 

Paterson, Alexander 

Parke, James 

Parquette, Oliver 

Palmateer, Sherman 

Paget, George 

1 'ounder, Joseph 

Pell, Richard D 

Perry, Frederick 

Paget, Charles Edward 

Porter, Thomas Robert Mark 
Ponntey, E. J 



P. O. Address. 



Parry Harbor. 
Gravenhurst. 
Victoria Harbor. 
Vermilion Bay, 
Pakenham. 

Cutler. 

Bancroft. 

Arnprior. 

Orillia. 

Fesserton. 

Longford Mills. 

Ottawa. 

Arnprior. 

Fort William. 

Wabigoon. 

Hintonburg. 

Wahnapitae. 

Nosbonsing. 

North Bay. 

Penetanguishene 

Basin Depot. 

Cartier. 

Renfrew 

Trenton. 

Bancroft. 

Kenora. 

Sault Ste, Marie. 

Fitzroy Harbor. 

Sault Ste. Marie. 

Bracebidge. 

Arnprior. 

Ashton. 

Bobcaygeon. 

Arnprior. 

Egan ville. 

Egan ville. 

Longford. 

Kenora. 

Fergus. 

Trenton. 

Bying Inlet, N'th 

Ottawa. 

Parry Sound. 

Uphill. 

Lindsay. 

Cache Bay. 

Hardwood Lake. 

Uxbridge. 

Blind River. 

Wahnapitae. 

Orillia. 

Gravenhurst. 

Webbwood. 

Gravenhurst. 

Huntsville. 

Westmeath. 

Arnprior. 

Port Arthur. 

Novar. 

Dorset. 

Arnprior. 



1907 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 



145 



Appendix No. 5/. — Continued. 



Name. 




Pyburn, David J 

Purdy, Geo 

Playfair, Andrew Wm 

Pipe, Taylor 

Pipher, George E 

Pendee, David 

Piper, A. J 

Quinn, William 

Quigley, Hugh . 

Quirk, Thomas J 

Robertson, D 

Richardson, Frederick George 

Richards, Richard 

Riddell, Geo. Alexander 

Robertson, Lewis McLean . . . 

Robinson, Wm. F 

Reamsbottom, Wm 

Richey, fevan 

Randall, Lewis G 

Richardson, Charles Marvyn . 

Rochester, Daniel Baillie 

Riddell, James 

Rice, Asa A 

Roberts, T. A 

Ross, Andrew 

Rose, Donald M 

Rawson, Charles Edgar 

Ross, George 

Roberts, Percy T 

Ritchie, Wm. D 

Ramsay, Robert 

Ritchie, J. F 

Ritter, Samuel G 

Rothera, Charles F 

Ryan, Alfred 

Rogers, Fred 

Reid, George William 

Robertson, John A 

Robinson, Wm 

Reid, Joseph B 

Ross, Walter M 

Rattle, H. A 

Richards, Benedict 

Regan, John 

Russel, Wm 

Ramgay, Charles 

Russell, Gorsan L 

Richards, Henry 

Ryan, Wm 

Reid, John P 

Ridlev, Robert 

Riley,' Charles ^V 

Raymond, Morris T 

Rooney, Wm. H 

Revell, J. 

Rankin, Anthony 

Ross, Angus 

Robinson, Albert E 

Robinson, Edward 

Robinson, Thomas G 



Dorset. 
Hintonburg. 
Sault Ste. Marie. 
Haileybury. 
Mowat. 
Parry Sound. 
Blind River. 

Peterborough. 

Penetang. 

Petewawa. 

Kenora. 

Trenton. 

Tarn worth. 

Rochesterville. 

Dunchurch. 

Bobcaygeon. 

Mattawa. 

Brentwood. 

French River. 

Trenton. 

Ottawa. 

Ottawa. 

Hull, Que. 

Huntsville. 

Longford Mills. 

Kenora . 

Cold water. 

Waubaushene. 

Keewatin. 

Little Current. 

Arnprior. 

Arnprior. 

Ahmic Harbour 

Sturgeon Falls. 

Byng Inlet. 

Sault Ste. Marie. 

Fort Frances. 

Kenora. 

Bobcaygeon. 

Lindsay. 

Ottawa. 

Carleton Place. 

Ottawa. 

Orillia. 

Pembroke. 

Sudburj'. 

Pembroke. 

Dacre. 

Killaloe. 

Spanish Mills. 

Hew Liskeard. 

Hutton House. 

Spanish Mills. 

Campbellford. 

Dryden. 

Cache Bay. 

Orrville. 

Washago. 

Washago. 

Washago. 



Raycroft, William T... 

Roberts, Ivor M 

Revell, Lionel Oliver. . 
Regan, Judd Patrick . . 
Robins, Etna, Rosedale 

Regan, John Jr 

Ryan, James 

Rusk, Oscar W 

Robinson, Thos. Geo.. 

Rooksbv, Wm 

Ramesbottom, Robt. . . 

Roy, I-iCwis 

Riddell, Horace, A . . . . 

Rowan, A . L 

Ritchie, James A 

Smith, M. D 

Scanlan, William 

Sutherland, D. H 

Spanner, John 

Shier, James D 

Spooner, W. R 

Simpson, Alfred E . . . . 

Souliere, John B 

Shields, James A 

Spargo, George 

Smyth, W. H 

Salmon, R. H 

Salmon, Alexander C. . 

Stremer, A 

Shields, Frank A 

Stapleton, John J 

Sloan, William H 

Smyth, Job E 

Sage, Nelson 

Seymour, Edward 

Shaw, Thomas B 

Swanston, James 

Simpson, William 

Sadler, Thomas 

Smith, Patrick Albert . 

Snaith, Wm. J. . . . 

Sinn, William F 

Sheppard, Wm. Joseph 

Spears, Milton B 

Stevenson, Arthur 

Stein, Paul 

Shaw, Alfred 

Sequin, Napoleon 

Scrim, Robert 

Sharp, James A 

Shaneav, Harry S 

Smith, Wm. .; 

Stewinrt, Daniel 

Sheehan, Michael H. . . 

Smith, Sydney H 

Stewart, James A 

Sproule, Newton H . . . . 

Simmons, Alex . 

Scott, Thomas 

Smith, Lawrence 

Shea, Stewart 



P. 0. Address. 



Sarnia. 

Garden River. 

W. Gravenhurst. 

Orillia. 

Orillia. 

Orillia. 

Savanne . 

Cache Bay. 

Bracebridge. 

Campbellford. 

Byng Inlet. 

Arnprior. 

Galetta . 

Sault Ste. Marie. 

Spragge. 

Fort William. 

Enterprise. 

Gravenhurst. 

Huntsville. 

Bracebridge. 

Katrine. 

Wakefield. 

Ottawa. 

Caiieton Place. 

Ottawa. 

Byng Inlet North 

Baysville. 

Baysville. 

Ottawa. 

Parry Sound. 

Ogidakie. 

Fort Frances. 

Cache Bay. 

Muskoka Mills. 

Whitefish. 

Waubaushene. 

Peterborough. 

Hall's Bridge. 

Lindsay. 

Norman. 

Mattawa. 

Arnprior. 

Waubaushene. 

Barry's Bay 

Peterborough. 

Sault Ste . Marie. 

Thessalon. 

Spanish Station. 

Arriprior. 

Sudbury. 

Cook's Mills. 

Ottawa. 

Braeside. 

Waubaushene. 

Bracebridge. 

Pembroke. 

Schomberg. 

Port Arthur. 

Parry Sound. 

W.Saginaw, Mich 

Campiaellford. 



146 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Appendix No. 5/. — Continued. 




Sullivan, John 

Sinclair, Finlay 

Shiele, Henry F 

Smith, Gideon Ousley 

Smith, John Wallis. .'. 

Smith, Henry G 

Story, John A 

Sweezy, Benjamin 

Sheppard, Charles H . i . . . . 

Sinclair, Arnon D 

Smith, Sidney E 

Sleeman, Wm 

Sheeman, Peter F 

Sleeman, Geo 

Sims, William K 

Skahill, William 

Shaw, George 

Sarsfield, George Francis.. 

Standish, William H 

Simpson, William A 

Scollard, Wm 

Shuttleworth, Alma 

Shanacy, Wm . J 

Seely, George 

Stewart, Alex. W 

Soreny, William 

Schneder, Frederick 

Smith, James D 

Sullivan, Jae 

Scully, Cornelius 

Savoy, Futrope 

Smith, Walter J 

Seymour, John J . . . 

Smith, Alex. R. C 

Stewart, Richard M 

Souliere, John H 

Smith, Abraim G 

Swallow, C. H 

Strave, A. M 

Stewart, John. ... 

Sullivan, George L 

Short, James 

Taylor, Fred L 

Thomas, Griff J 

Thomson, R. D 

Tait, Thomas B 

Taylor, C. M 

Thornton, W. D 

Trussler, Gilbert 

Thompson, Geo. S 

Thompson, Frederick A. H 
Thompson, Francis Henry. 

Train, A. C 

Turgeon George 

Thayer, William 

Thompson, Alexander "W . . 

Taylor, Thomas G 

Trowse, A 

Tucker, Louis A 

Thompson, Daniel 

Thompson, Richard 



Sault Ste. Marie. 
Sudbury . 
Cartier. 
Burk's Falls. 
Thedford. 
Arnprior. 
Ottawa. 
Mapsey. 
Cold water. 
Arnprior. 
Ottawa . 
Rapid River. 
Loring . 
Rapid River. 
Sault St. Marie. 
Blind River. 
Thessalon. 
Sault Ste. Marie. 
Batchawiniiig 
Lakefield. [Bay. 
Young's Point. 
Trout Creek. 
Spragge. 
Arnprior. 
Lanark. 
Braeside. 
Cache Bay. 
Rat Portage. 
Alymer, Que. 
Whitney. 
North Bay. 
Campbell ford. 
Whitefish. 
Burk's Falls. 
Chelsea, Que. 
Canoe Lake. 
Quyon, Que. 
Day Mills. 
Mine Centre. 
Fort Frances. 
Rainy River. 
Kenora . 

Parry Sound. 
Thessalon . 
Bificotasing. 
Burk's Falls. 
Gravenhurst. 
Longford Mills . 
Trout Creek. 
Lindsay . 
Callander. 
Nosbonsing . 
Rowan Millg. 
Cook's Mills. 
Sault Ste. Marie . 
Arnprior. 
Gravenhurst . 
Arnprior. 
Fort Frances. 
P'rt'geduF'rt.Q. 
Kenora. 



Thompson, Joseph H. 

Taylor, Edward A 

Tait, Ralph 

Train, William 

Turner, Garvin F . . . . 

Tilson, Joseph. 

Tuffy, John 

Thorpe, Thos 

Taylor, Chas. E 

Tench, Arthur 

Tulloch, William A. . . 

Taylor, Alex. M 

Toner, J. A 

Thrasher, Henry G. . . 
Tooke, Frank 



Udy, Dean 

Urquhart, Elias 

Urquhart, Andrew. 



Vigrass, Percy J 

Vincent, Joseph 

Vollin, Samuel 

Yannier, Nelson Joseph. 

Vincent, James 

Vincent, Henry T 

Vanderburg, Norman . . 
Valois, Armand 



White, Thomas S 

White, A. Thomson 

Watt, R. A 

Wilkins, Hughes 

Wallace, T. William. . . . 

White, Joseph W 

Watson, Wm 

Webb, Geo. W 

Wilcox, Thomas 

Wheeler, J. A. McL.... 

Widdifield, C. H 

Whitmore, Edgar 

Wright, L. B 

Ward, .Joseph W 

Wilkinson, W ....... . 

Waldie, John E 

Wige, Thomas G 

Wall, Patrick B 

Welle, John R 

Whiteside, John 

Watt, Wm 

Wilson, George 

White, Thomas 

Wood, William D 

Watts, John J 

Webster, George F 

Wright, Percy 

Watts, William B 

Watson, Wm 

Wagner, Fred 

Wainwright, Edward C. 
Wilson, Wm. James .... 
Weston, Frank R 



Bracebridge. 

Westmeath . 

Arnprior. 

Burk's Falls. 

North Bay. 

Burk's Falls. 

Cartier . 

Pembroke. 

Gravenhurst. 

Hekkla. 

Sault Ste. Marie . 

Burnstown. 

P'rt'geduFrt,Q. 

Pembroke. 

Bala. 

French River. 
Gravenhurst. 
Barrie. . 

Dufferin Bridge. 

Warren. 

Nosbonsing. 

Bobcaygeon. 

Fesserton. 

Port Sidney. 

Wisawasa. 

Mattawa. 

Bracebridge. 
Pembroke. 
Spanish. 
Blind River. 
Blind River. 
Bracebridge. 
Huntsville. 
Parry Sound. 
Parry Sound. • 
Tamworth. 
Pine Orchard. 
Rosseau Falls. 
Sault Ste. Marie. 
Ottawa. 
French River. 
Victoria Harbor. 
Thessalon. 
Cheboygan, Mich 
Little Current. 
Huntsville. 
Peterborough. 
Lindsay. 
Parry Sonnd. 
Sault Ste. Marie. 
Fort Frances . 
Fort Frances . 
Fort Frances . 
Fort Frances . 
North Ba}'. 
Kenora. 
Huntsville. 
Deseronto . 
Midland. 



1907 Db:PARTMENT OF LANDS, i-ORESTS AND MINES. 



147 



Appendix No. 51 — Concluded. 



Name. 


P.O. Address. 


White, James B 

Warren, Robt. M 

Wilson, Geo . A 


Manitowaning. 
Cache Bay. 
Balsam Hill . 
Milberta. 
Webbwood. 
Antrim. 

Victoria Harbor. 
Roach's Point. 
Huntsville. 
Bracebridge. 
Pembroke . 
Trout Creek. 
Blessington . 
Cloyne. 
Deseronto . 
McDougall . 
Ottawa. 

Sault Ste. Marie. 
Muskoka Falls. 
Powassan . 
Little Current. 
Kenora. 
Thessalon . 
Baysville. 
Webbwood. 


Welch, Harold 


Wilson, James A., Jr 

Woods, John R 


Warden, Ernest C. S 

Woods, Joseph F 


Whaley, Thomas 


Webster, Wm. Alfred 

Wornsdorf, Frederick Gutlep. 
Warrell, Wm 


Wims, Peter 


Wickware, Philip Almonte . . 

Wilson, Edward 

Whelan, P. J 


Whyte, John Thomas Goth. . 
Watterworth, J. A 


White, Wm. James 

.Warrell, George 


Wells, George W 


Wilson, Frederick Gould. . . . 

Wallace, John Thomas 

Wilkins, George N 

Wylie, Byron M 





Name. 



P.O. Address. 



White, Allan I Pembroke. 

Warner, Franklin H Fort Frances. 

Watts, George Fort Frances. 



Wood, Thos 
White, William., 

Woods, A. L 

White, JohnB... 
Whelan, Peter M . 



Yonnge, Harvey D. 

Young, R. H 

Yuill, John Albert. 

Young, Wm 

Young, A. J 

Young, Samuel 

Young, Patrick P . . . 
Young, Francis G. 

Yuill, Thomas 

Yuill, A. D 

Young, C. T 

Yuill, John Alex. . . 
Yuill, Archibald. . . . 

Yuill, Wm 

Total 1264. 



Parry Sound. 
Peterborough. 
Kenora. 
Kippewa, Que. 
Renfrew. 

Fort Frances. 
Fort Frances. 
Braeside. 
Severn Bridge. 
Cache Bay . 
Coldwater. 
Young's Point. 
Young's Point. 
Arnprior. 
Braeside. 
Harvey . 
Arnprior . 
Bracebridge. 
Braeside. 



AUBREY WHITE, 

Deputy Minister. 



148 REPORT Ol^^ THE No. .'J 



A HISTORY OF CEOWN TIMBER REGULATIONS. 



From tlie date of the French Occupation to the Present Time. 



Compiled with the Assistance of Mr. Aubrey White, 
Deputy Minister of Lands and Forests. 

Reprinted from the Annual Report of the Clerk of Forestry, for the Province 

of Ontario, 1899. 



The French Regime . — The Seigniors. 

The Ontario system of dealing with the timber upon Crown Lands, as it 
exists to-day, is far in advance of any other system of regulating the dis- 
posal of public timber resources on this Continent. Those in charge of it 
from time to time have made greater efforts to preserve for public uses as 
large a measure as possible of the country's natural wealth than have been 
attempted elsewhere. Though, owing to the difference of local conditions, 
we are, as yet, far from the perfected forestry system of Europe, the result 
of the increased attention bestowed upon the question of forest preservation 
has been a gradual development in the direction of modified forestry methods, 
calculated to secure the perpetuation of the woodlands with the least pos- 
sible disturbance of existing interests. The latest legislation providing for 
the establishment of forest reserves is a further step to the same end. 
d*esigned not onjly to secure for the people the largest possible present 
return from the timbered area of the Crown domain, but to secure thai 
revenue in perpetuity. In order to a thorough understanding of the present 
system as it has been evolved by means of numerous modifications and 
advances from the point of beginning, with a view to possible suggestions 
for such alterations as may more efficiently subserve the ends in view, it is 
necessary to study its growth and development from the earliest days of 
Canadian colonization to the present time. Moreover, to obtain a complete 
grasp of the subject in all its bearings it is requisite to consider it in con- 
nection with the various systems of Crown Land management which have 
from time to time prevailed. The two branches of administration are so 
intimately connected that it is hardly possible to treat intelligently of one of 
them without largely adverting to the other. In fact, during the French 
Regime the timber resources were regarded as of comparatively little import- 
ance and furnished siich a small part of the commerce, or the interests of the 
oolonv, that they were treated merely as incidental to the general land policy 
of the Government, and the relations between the Crown, the Seignior and 
thp habitant under the feudal tenure which then prevailed. Apart from the 
adjustment of the respective rights and privileges of these parties in the 
timber upon the lands granted for settlement, there can hardly be said to 
have been any system of timber regulations in existence. The aim of the 
French in colonizing the banks of the St. Lawrence was to reproduce, as 
far as possible, in spirit and in form the political and social institutions of 
France in their New "World Empire. They faithfully copied those sur- 
vivals of the feudal system, based upon the needs and conditions of a bygone 
age, which, already out of harmony with the growing spirii^ of industrial 
and commercial development at home, were doubly unsuited to the environ- 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 149 



ments of a new country. The principal characteristic of the system was 
the broad and clear-cut distinction between classes recognized by law and 
embodied in the system under which the lands of the colony were distri- 
buted and held. Large areas were allotted to the Seigniors, who were the 
^nly class to hold their titles directly from the Crown, and received their 
grants on the express condition of subdividing them among tenants or 
censitaires. The conditions upbn which the latter obtained their lands not 
only involved the payment of rents, but the performance of a number of 
other duties and obligations, not always exactly defined, and numerous 
•reservations and conditions affecting the land, some of which were in accord- 
ance with the terms of the original grant, while others appear to have been 
arbitrary or in accord with ancient feudal custom. The Seignior was 
invested with privileges of a much more extensive character than appertain 
to the landlord under the British law, among others the authority- of 
administering justice among his dependents. 

A Seignorial Grant, 

The following extract from a grant made in 1683 by the Governoi and 
Intendant of Quebec embodies the conditions upon which the Seigniories 
were usually granted. 

Oah Timber Reserved. 

"We, in virtue of the power intrusted to us by His Majesty, and in 
toonsideration of the different settlements which the said Sieur de la Valliere 
and the Sieur de la Poterie, his father, have long since made in this coun- 
try, and in order to afford him the means of augmenting them, have to the 
said Sieur de la Yalliere given, granted, and conceded and by these pre- 
sents do give, grant and concede the above described tract of land; to have 
and to hold the same himself, his heirs and assigns forever, under the title 
of fief, vSeigniory, high, middle and low justice {haut, moyen, et basse jus- 
tice), and also the right of hunting and fishing throughout the extent of 
the said tract of land; subject to the condition of fealty and homage (foi et 
hommage) which the said Sieur de la Yalliere, his said heirs and assigns, 
shal] be held to perform at the Castle of St. Louis in Quebec, of which he 
shall hold under the customary rights and dues agreeably to the custom of 
Paris, which shall be followed in this respect provisionally and until other- 
wise ordained by His Majesty; and that the appeals from the judge of the 
said place shall lie before the Lieutenant-General of Three Rivers; and also 
'that he shall keep house and home (feu et lieu) and cause the same to be 
kept by his tenants on the concessions which he may grant them, in default 
whereof he shall re-enter plevo jure into the possession of the said lands, 
that the said Sieur de la Valliere shall preserve and cause to be preserved 
by his tenants within the limits of the said tract of land, the oak timber fit 
for the building of vessels: and that he shall erive immediate notice to the 
King or to us, of the mines, ores, or minerals, if anv be found therein; that 
he shall leave and cause to be left all necessary roadwavs and passages; that 
he shall cause the said tract of land to be cleared and inhabited, and fur- 
nished with buildings and cattle within two years from this date, in default 
whereof the present concession shall be null and void; the whole under the 
pleasure of His Majesty, by whom he shall be held to have these presents 
confirmed." 

It will be seen that this document comprises a reservation of the oak 
t'imber on the domain adapted for shipbuildinq*. Thi<? condition was jren- 
eral if not universal, in all the grants made bv the Fre^nch Crown. The 



rSO REPORT OF THE No. 3 



only aspect of the question in whichi the GovBmment took any concern was 
the maintenance of an ample supply of timber for the Royal Navy. Some 
later grants, in addition to oak, reserved timber for masts and spars, pre- 
sumably pine. Apart from this object, the disposal made of those pine 
f(»rests, which in modern estimation form so important a feature of national 
wealth, by either Seijsrnior or habitant, seems to have been regarded with 
indifference, and no idea was apparently entertained of holding them as a 
source of revenue, or a valuable possession of the Government, irrespective 
of the land. The old records show that the reservation of oak timber in the 
grants of Seigniories was by no means a dead letter. In 1731 a" permission 
was issued to cut oak timber for a war vessel in the following terms : 

Permit to cut Oah. 

"It is permitted to Sieur Abbe le Page to cut in the seigniories of 
Berthier and Dautray two thousand cubic feet of oak wood, following the 
plans and models which we have caused to be forwarded to serve for the con- 
struction of war vessels of five hundred tons, which the King designs to 
have constructed in Quebec, which timber he shall conduct in rafts {cageux) 
in the River St. Charles before the palace of this city to be there received 
and inspected in the customary manner. 

"The present permission is given in conformity to the reservation which 
His Majesty has made of this wood for his service in the concession of lands 
and seigniories in this colony. 

"We command the Seigniories, the captains and coast officials and all 
other to whom it may appertain, to aid, and cause to be aided, if it is neces- 
sary, the said Sieur le Page in the said exploitation, in return for reason- 
able wages to those whom he shall employ in the aforesaid exploitation. 

"Done at Quebec, the 5th of October, 1731. 

"Note. — Similar permission has been extended to Sieur de Bleury, in 
the Seigniory of liongueuil which abuts on, the said Seigniorv of Chambly, 
and for three leagues extending along the River of Sorel on both sides past 
the said Seigniory of Chambly and descending the «aid River nf Sore), 

(Signed) HOCQUART. 

In 1740 the Governor, having been informed that a considerable quan- 
tity of oak suitable for the construction of the King's vessels had been found 
at Isle Jesus in the Seigniories of the Lake of Two Mountains, and in Isle 
Bizard, issued an- ordinance expressly forbidding the proprietors "of what- 
ever quality or conditions they may be" cutting any oak until it had been 
inspected and such of the" trees that were found adapted for naval construc- 
tion marked and retained. The penalty of any contravention of this ordin- 
ance was to be confiscation oP the timber and a fine of ten livres for each tree 
destroyed. 

Early Settler a* Grievances. — The property of the Crown. 

The reservation of all oah trees, as in the case of the present reservation 
of white pine in patents granted to settlers, sometimes created difficulties in 
regard to the clearance of the land. Obviously if the reserved trees grew 
in any considerable number on the habitant's grant he could not fulfil siniul- 
taneously his undertaking to clear the land and the stipulations as to pre- 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 161 



serving the timber. A case arising out of a dilemma of this sort in 1722 is 
on record, when Michael Laliberte, habitant of Isles Bouchard, appealed to 
the Ijovernor against his feudal superior, Sieur Desjordy. Laliberte in ex- 
tending his clearing cut down some oa.ks, and instead of following what 
appears to have been the usual practice of burning them on the land, had 
them sawn into boards. This the Seignior claimed that he had no right to 
dc under his title deed, whereby oaks were expressly reserved, and by way 
of penalty confiscated «36 minots of wheat due to Laliberte under an agree- 
ment whereby the latter was cultivating land of Desjordy's on shares. The 
Governor decided that as the reservation of oaks in the deed to Laliberte was 
made in consequence of a clause in the original deed of the Seigniory oblig- 
ing the proprietor to cause his tenants to reserve the oak timber for the 
royal navy, the timber could not in any case belong to the Seignior; fur- 
thermore, that as it was desirable that the land should be improved, which 
could not be done without cutting down the trees it was for the public 
benefit that valuable timber so cut down should be made into boards or 
cordwood, rather than burned on the spot, as the money so realized would 
help the inhabitants to establish themselves. Accordingly Sieur Desjordy 
was prohibited from further troubling his tenants when getting out and 
disposing of oak timber in future in the process of extending their clearings. 
In cases where the party cut the timber down solely to sell it without after- 
wards clearing the land, he was permitted to seize the timber and bring 
the case before the Governor. It appears from this decision that even at 
that comparatively early date the powers of a Seignior, however extensive 
in theory, were nevertheless in course of being very considerably modified 
in practice. 

Trespass. 

Complaints as to the trespasses made by the habitants in cutting wood 
upon ungranted lands or property not belonging to them were of frequent 
occurrence, and numerous ordinances were issued from time to time in pro- 
hibition of the practice. The following ordinance indicates the difficulties 
experienced by the authorities at an early date in dealing with such cases : 

"Upon the complaints which have been made to us by many inhabitants 
of this city, proprietors of the lands of Cote Saint Jean and neighborhood, 
that some individuals away from the said lands cut down and carrv away, 
daily, wood for burning, against and in spite of the prohibitions which have 
been made by many ordinances heretofore given, by which it is forbidden as 
well to the said inhabitants of this city as to those of the said quarter, to 
cut down or take away any wood upon the lands of the other inhabitants on 
penalty of fifty livres fine, and of confiscation of the trucks and horses which 
shall be found laden with the said wood, which it is necessary to consider 
in reiterating the said prohibitions. " 

"We most expressly prohibit and forbid all persons to cut down or 
carry away any wood on the lands of which they are not proprietors, without 
previously having obtained the permission of those to whom they belong, 
on penalty against each of those contravening of fifty livres fine, and of 
confiscation of the trucks and horses which shall have served to transport 
the said wood, the said confiscation and fine to be applicable half to the 
proprietor of the lands upon which the wood shall be taken and the other 
half to the Hotel Dieu of this City. 

"And the present ordinance shall be read, published and affixed at the 
close of the grand mass of this said city, and of that of the parish of Notre 

11 L. M. 



152 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



Dame de Foy, to the end that the inhabitants of this said city and those of 
the neighborhood shall not be able to pretend cause of ignorance of it, 
"We command, etc. "(Signed) Michael Begon. 

"Done at Quebec, the 27th of December, 1713." 

A similar prohibition was issued in 1747 at the suit of the Ursuline 
Nuns of Quebec, proprietors of the Seigniory of Sainte Croix, whose inhab- 
itants were charged with cutting wood upon lands not included in their 
grants, "which is a considerable injury to them, because the said lands 
being impoverished no habitant wishes to take them to establish himself 
there.'' A penalty of ten livre& was accordingly proclaimed for all contra- 
ventions of the ordinance, to go to the Fabrique of the parish. 

Local Improvevient Laws. 

Another question which arose at an early day in the history of the 
province concerned the furnishing of supplies of timber for bridge building. 
The following ordinance dealing with the subject seems to embody the germs 
of our modern much criticized local improvement system : 

"Michael Begon, Intendant of Justice, police and finances in Canada. 
Acadia, the Island of Newfoundland and other northern French countries. 

''It being necessary to prevent the disputes which may arise on the sub- 
ject of furnishing the timber necessary for the construction of the bridges 
over the rivers which pass through the main roads, we ordain that all the 
timber necessary for the construction of the said bridges shall be taken from 
the lands nearest th^ said rivers, considering that the proprietors of these 
lands receiving the accommodation of these bridges and these rivers ought 
also to sustain the expense of them. 

"We enjoin upon all the inhabitants of the parish where the said 
bridges shall be made to labor in cutting down all the timber wKich shall 
be necessary for this work, and to deliver it upon the spot. 

"We command the captain of the district to attend to it. 

"(Signed) "Begon. 

"Done at Quebec, 6th March, 1713." 

OaTc Reserved for ISavy Only. 

There appears to have been no reservation of timber in the old grants 
for military purposes, or any other public use than naval construction. By 
an ordinance of the Superior Council, dated 10th July, 1664, compensation 
is directed to be made by the Government to Sieur Poyrier for timber taken 
from his Seigniory for the construction of casemates, for which he was 
ordered to be paid the sum of twenty-five livres, tournois. But during the 
later years of the French regime the tendency was to extend the restrictions 
under which land was granted, with a view to providing for other 
public requirements from the timber existing on the grants with- 
out having to make compensation. A comprehensive report on 
the subject of the Seigniorial tenures was made to the Legislative 
Council of Quebec by Hon. J. Williams, Solicitor-General of 
the Province, on the 5th October, 1790. He enumerates the reserves 
and conditions customary in the ordinary grants, the only one relating to 
timber being that already referred to, viz. : "That the grantee should con- 
serve all the oak timber growing on his domain, and cause all the oak timber 
suitable for the construction of the King's ships to be preserved by his 

11a L.M. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 153 



feudatories and tenants." The more modem grants, the report goes on to 
say, comprise the same reserves and conditions, but contain yet other stipula- 
tions. One of these is as follows : 

Army Reserves 

"That provided the King has need of any part of the lands granted for 
the Construction of forts, batteries, armouries, magazines or other public 
works, he shall have the liberty to take such portion, together with the neces- 
sary trees and timber, and fuel for the supply of the garrison in the area 
of the granted lands without being held or obliged to make any compensa- 
tion for it to the grantee. In many of the later grants the King reserves 
to himself the right to take oak timber, masts and yards, and all other tim- 
ber fit for the construction and equipment of his vessels without making any 
compensation for it. And in one grant the King reserves for himself the red 
pine to make mouldings (du godron)." 

Lmidlord and Tenant. 

The Seigniors, acting no doubt under the influence of Old World tradi- 
tions, such as frequently maintain themselves longer in an isolated colony 
than in their original birthplace, appear tc have exacted from their tenants 
many conditions which were not strictly legal. They inserted extensive 
reservations in the title deeds which were not warranted by the conditions 
on which they were held from the Crown. The relations between the 
Seigniors and their tenants, as the system fell into desuetude, continued to 
be a vexed question in Lower Canada long after the cession of Canada to 
the British, and were not finally settled until the passing of the Seigniorial 
Act of 1854," which provided for ^he extinguishment by compensation of 
the somewhat shadowy and indeterminate vestiges of the Seigniorial title to 
lands, the occupants of which had practically become the owners. By this 
enactment a special court was constituted to ascertain, as far as possible, 
in just what particulars the claim of the Seigniors for compensation for the 
relinquishment of all their privileges was legally valid. Among the num- 
erous questions submitted to this tribunal by Hon. Lewis Thomas Drum- 
mond, Attorney-General for Lower Canada, in order to arrive at a basis for 
fixing the amount of compensation to be awarded, was the following relat- 
ing among other matters to reservations of timber made in the grants by 
Seigniors to inhabitants other than those specified in the -original grants 
from the Crown. 

Seignorial Tenure. 

"In A^arious deeds of grant of lands held en roture, covenants are found 
tending to establish in favor of the Seignior, reservations similar or analogous 
to the following : — 

1. A reservation of the timber for the building of the manor-house, mill 
and churches without indemnity. 

2. A reservation of firewood for the use of the Seignior. 

3. A reservation of .all marketable timber. 

Were these reservations, or any, and which of them, legally made, 
and do they give the Seignior a right to be indemnified for the suppression 
of them to be effected by the said Seignorial Act? " 

The summary of the judgment of the Court upon these points was as 
follows : — 



154 REPORT OF THE No. S 



"All reserves must be held to be legal the object of which was the obliga- 
tion upon the tenant (censitaire) to allow the accomplishment by the 
Seignior on his part, of the obligations of that nature stipulated by the King 
in the grant of the fief. 

Illegal Reservations. 

"That the following reservations or others, analogous to them,' were 
illegal and do not give to the Seignior a right to indemnity by reason of 
their suppression. Art. 1 — A reservation of firewood for the use of the Seig- 
nior. Art. 2 — A reservation of all marketable timber. * * » * 

"The reservation of timber for the construction of churches without 
indemnity, and the reservation of the right of fishing and hunting on the 
lands conceded are illegal and give no right to indemnity. 

"The question being put 'is the reservation of timber for the building 
of the manor-house and mills without indemnity legal, and does it give to 
the Seignior a right to indemnity for its suppression?' the Court is equally 
divided." 

Briefly then, the main features of the system of timber administration 
at the close of the period of French rule in Canada were the reservation by 
the Government of timber adapted for naval and military purposes, and the 
further customary but not strictly legal, reservations by the Seigniors, of 
timber for various purposes out of the forest products of the holdings leased 
to their habitants, with frequent interventions on the part of the authorities 
to prevent the unauthorized stripping of lands of their timber by those not 
entitled to it,, without any attempt to make the timber resources tributary 
tu the public revenue. 



THE BRITISH OCCUPATION. 

When the British took possession of the colony in 1763 very elaborate 
instructions were furnished to the first Governor, James Murray, as to his 
administration of the new acquisition. The first thought of the Home Gov- 
ernment in relation to the forests of Canada was the necessity of preserving 
the timber for the same purposes which were regarded as of such paramount 
importance by the French. They appear to have contemplated a more gen- 
eral and systematic method of accomplishing this object than the mere 
reservation of the timber in the deeds, as will be seen from the following 
extracts from Governor Murray's instructions dated Dec. 7th, 1763. 

"You are therefore to lay out town shTps of convenient size and extent 
in such places as you, in your discretion, shall judge most proper; and it 
is our will and pleasure, that each township do consist of about 20,000 
acres, having, as far as may be, natural boundaries extending up into the 
country and comprehending a necessary part of the river St. Lawrence where 
it can conviently be had. 

The First Forest Reserves. 

"And you are also to reserve to us proper quantities of land in each 
township for the following purposes, viz. : For erecting fortifications and 
barracks where necessary, or other military or naval services, and more 
particularly for the growth and production of naval timber if there are any 
woodlands fit for that purpose. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 155 



Strict Regulations. 

"And whereas, it has been further represented to us that a great part of 
the country in the neighborhood of Lake Champ] ain, and between Lake 
Champlain and the Eiver St. Lawrence abounds with woods, producing trees 
fit for masting for our Royal Navy and other useful and necessary timber 
for our navy constructions; you are therefore expressly directed and 
required to cause such parts of the said country, or any other within your 
government that shall appear on survey to abound with such trees and 
shall be convenient for water carriage, to be reserved to us and to use your 
utmost endeavor to prevent any waste being committed upon the said tracts 
by punishing in due course of law any persons who shall cut down or destroy 
any trees growing thereon, and you are to consider and advise with our 
council whether some regulation that shall prevent any sawmills whatever 
from being erected within your government without a license from you 
or the Commander-in-Chief of our said province for the time being, may 
not be a means of preventing all waste and destruction in such tracts of land 
as shall be reserved to us for the purposes aforesaid," 

It is to be regretted that these instructions as regards the maintenance 
of the timber reserves were not carried into effect, the new rulers no doubt 
finding many matters of a more urgent character on their hands, and pos- 
sibly concluding as observation revealed the vastness of the supply, that 
solicitude for the future was superfluous. Had the far-sighted policy out- 
lined by the British Government been followed, and a timber reserve main- 
tained in each township in addition to such extensive reservations of pine- 
growing lands as are indicated in this document, with the adoption of pre- 
cautionary measures against waste and destruction, the agricultural fertil- 
ity of large overcleared tracts now suffering from srreatly diminished pro- 
ductivpnpsq would have been retain<^d, and extensive areas now rendered 
unproductive by being denuded of their timber, would still contribute to 
our national prosperity. 

Pine Lands Reserved 

Twelve years afterward in 1775 the same views were still entertained 
by the British authorities. Again, the setting apart of pine-bearing lands 
was enjoined, Guy Carleton, "Captain General and Governor-in-Chief of 
the Province of Quebec and all territories dependent thereon," receiving 
among other instructions, the following in relation to pine bearing lands. 

"It is our will and pleasure, however, that no grant be made of any 
lands on which there is any considerable growth of white pines fit for mast- 
ing for our Royal Navy, and which lie convenient for water carriage, but 
that vou do cause all such lands to be set apart for our use, and proper 
Regulations made, and Penalties inflicted to prevent trespasses on such 
tracts, and the cutting down and destroying the trees growing thereon." 

The Rules and Regulations for the conduct of the Land Office Depart- 
ment, issued in Quebec under date of February 17th, 1789, were based upon 
the same principle of preserving in the hands of the Crown, any tracts of 
land of a specially valuable character either by reason of their location or 
their natural products, and confining the grants made to individuals to 
ordinary agricultural lands. The following is the text of the regulations 
dealing with the subject: — 



156 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



Minerals and Water Powers Reserved. 

"And to prevent individuals from monopolizing such spots as contain 
min-es, minerals, fossils, and conveniences for mills and other singular 
advantages of a common and public nature, to the prejudice of the general 
interest of the settlers, the Surveyor General and his agents or Deputy 
Surveyors in the different districts, shall confine themselves in the locations 
to be made by them upon certificates of the respective boards to such lands 
only as are fit for the common purposes of husbandry, and they shall reserve 
all other spots aforementioned together with all such as may be fit and use- 
ful for ports and harbors or works of defence, or such as contain valuable 
timber for shipbuilding or other purposes, conveniently situated for water 
carriage, in the hands of the Crown." 

No approach was made to a license system, nor any arrangement made 
by which the public could receive any return for the privilege of cutting 
timber on the Crown domain for other purposes, than naval construction, 
until a considerably later date. 

Naval Contract Abused. 

Licenses to cut timber in the Canadian forests were granted by the 
Home Government to the contractors for the Eoyal Dockyards, who in addi- 
tion to filling theip contracts, took advantage of the privileges afforded them 
for that purpose, to do a general business in supplying the British markets. 
They carried on this profitable enterprise by issuing licenses to merchants 
and lumbermen in Canada who operated as their agents, as they were legally 
authorized to do. The Upper Canada Gazette contains the fallowing notice 
of a Royal Warrant vesting in a firm of navy contractors the right to cut 
trees reserved to the Crown in Upper and Lower Canada, together with the 
appointment of a Canadian Mercantile house as their agents, which illus- 
trates the working of the system. 

An Extensive Timber Limit. 

Council Chamber, 23 January, 1808. 

Notice is hereby given by His Excellency, the Lieutenant-Governor-in- 
Council, to all whom it may concern, that His Majesty has been pleased to 
issue His Royal Warrant in the words following : George R. 

''Whereas, a Contract has been entered into by the principal Officers 
of His Majesty's Navy, with Messrs. Scott, Idles & Co., supplying His 
Majesty's dockyards in England and the West Indies, with Canada Masts 
and Oak Timber, and it being stipulated in the said contract that no Masts 
or Bowsprits which are cut in His Majesty's Colonies shall be delivered at 
the Dockyards unless they are cut by License from His Majesty's Surveyor 
of the Woods in North America, and also if it should be required, under 
the inspection of this Officer. Upon the representation of the matter to Us 
by the Commissioner for executing the Office of High Admiral of Our United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, We have thought fit to give Leave, 
License and Permission unto the said Messrs. Scott, Idles & Co., their agents 
and workmen, to travel into and search Our Woods in Our Provinces of 
Upper and Lower Canada, where We have reserved to Us the property in 
any Woods or Trees, and the right of cutting them, and there to fell and 
cut so many good and sound trees as may answer the number and dimen- 
sions mentioned in the said contract (a copy whereof subscribed by one of 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 157 



Our Principal Secretaries of State is hereunto annexed) and to carry tlie 
said trees througli our said Woods to the water-side in order to tlie trans- 
porting and bringing them into our own stores without incurring any penalty 
01 forfeiture by reason thereof. 

"And lastly; We do hereby require as* well as Our Governor or Lieuten 
ant-Governor of Our said Colonies as you and all Our Officers, Ministers 
and Loving Subjects, whom it may concern, to be aiding and assisting to 
tliem, their Agents and Workmen, in whatever may relate to the due ■exe- 
cution of this service, pursuant to the Contract above mentioned. And for 
so doing this shall be your warrant. 

''Given at Our Court of St. James, the second day of October, 1807, in 
the forty-seventh year of Our reign. 

"By His Majesty's Command, 

^Signed) "Castlereagu. 

"To our Truly and Well Beloved Sir John Wentworth, Baronet, Sur- 
veyor General of Our Woods on the Continent of America, or to his Deputy 
or Deputies, or to the said Surveyor General of Our said Woods, his Deputy 
or Deputies, for the time being, and all others whom it may concern." 

Transfer of License. 

"We, the undersigned contractors named in His Majesty's Gracious 
Warrant, do hereby appoint Messrs. Muir & Joliffe our agents at Quebec, for 
the purposes within mentioned. 

(Signed) Scott, Idles & Co. 

London, 9th October, 1807. 

"His Excellency further gives notice, that a Contract has been made 
under the authority of the ?aid Warrant with Messrs. Scott, Idles & Co., 
Merchants in London, who have appointed Messrs. Muir and Joliffe, 
Merchants at Quebec, to be their agents for the purposes therein mentioned, 
and that no irregularity may take place on the part of the said Contractors, 
their Agents or Workmen, His Excellency has thought proper to order the 
Deputy Surveyor General of the Woods to mark such White Pine Trees as 
come within His Majesty's orders expressed in the above Warrant. 

By His Excellency's Command, 

John Small, 

Clerk of the Executive Council." 
Colonial Protection. 

A great impetus was imparted to the development of the Canadian 
lumber industry by the financial policy of the Mother Country during the 
first quarter of a century. The imposition of heavy duties on foreign tim- 
ber, levied in the first instance as a revenue measure to provide for the 
expenses of the French war, but afterwards retained with the avowed object 
of affording protection to colonial trade, caused a sudden and rapid expan- 
sion of the volume of timber importations from British North America. 

Preferential Duties. 

In the year 1787, when the trade was in its infancy, a general con- 
solidation of the duties took place, the impost on foreign timber being fixed 
at 6s. 8d.. per load of 50 cubic feet brought in by a British vessel, with an 



158 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



addition of 2d. in case tlie shipment was made in a foreign vessel. In 1795 
the financial strain, caused by the war, occasioned a substantial increase, 
and a series of additions took place during the following years, the details 
of which it is needless to specify, until in 1810, which marks the commence- 
ment of the protective era, the timber duty was placed at £21.4.8 per load 
in a British ship, and 2s. 8d. extra in a foreign vessel. The culmination was 
reached in 1813, when an addition of 25 per cent, all round on customs 
duties was imposed, making the timber duty £3.4.11, with an additional 
3s. 2d. when carried under a foreign flag. A very slight re-adjustment took 
place in 1819, when the war duties, originally designed to be merely tem- 
porary, were consolidated with the permanent imposts. The system was 
again revised in 1821, and a considerable reduction was made; the duty on 
foreign timber being fixed at £2 15s. per load, with the addition of 2s. 9d. 
for the protection of the British carrying trade. Then for the first time a 
substantial duty, amounting to 10s, per load was imposed on colonial tim- 
ber, which up to that time had been virtually free, and which still was 
accorded the protection of 45 shillings per load, as against the European 
product. 

The effects of this policy were soon manifested in the falling off of 
importations from the Baltic and other European ports, which in the begin- 
ning of the century furnished nearly the whole of the timber shipped to 
Britain, and the corresponding increase of colonial production and exporta- 
tion. 

A Colonial Timber Bootti. 

An elaborate statistical table, showing the amount of timber con- 
sumed in the United Kingdom in each year between 1788 and 1833, with 
the quantities imported from the North American colonies and Europe 
respectively, was furnished to a Select Committee of the British House of 
Commons, appointed in 1835 to consider the question of timber duties. An 
analysis of these figures shows conclusively the effect of the policy of the 
Imperial Government in encouraging the development of the Colonial tim- 
ber industry, which had increased by leaps and bounds. During earlier 
stages of the period covered by this table, comparatively little change is 
noticeable in the relative volumes of the European and British North Ameri- 
can traffic — ^the increase in duty not being sufficient to overcome the strong 
prejudice then widely entertained against Canadian as compared with Bal- 
tic timber, and to counterbalance the lower freight from European ports. 
The first noteworthy increase in the volume of the colonial importation was 
in 1803, when the number of loads brought in from British North America 
increased from 5,143 the figure at which it had stood the year previous to 
12,133. The European importations for the same year amounted to 280,550 
loads. The proportion of colonial timber steadily increased for some years, 
until in 1807 it reached 26,651 loads, as against 213,636 loads of the foreign 
product. The next year it had more than doubled, and in 1809 exceeded for 
the first time the European consignments, the figures being 90,829 and 
54,2B0 loads r<*spectively. 

In 1811 the United Kingdom received timber shipments to the amount 
of 154,282 loads from British North America, and 124,765 loads from 
European ports. The war of 1812 caused a depression in the colonial trade, 
during which the foreign article took the lead until 1816, when the colonies 
supplied nearly twice the quantity furnished by Europe. The volume of 
British American importation rose from 153,707 loads in that year to 
248,669 in 1818. The figures of the trade at this period, and some years 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 159 



following, show not merely a large increase in the Canadian trade at the 
expense of the Baltic exporters, but a very steady and considerable augmenta- 
tion in the total volume of timber consumption. In the five years, from 
1819 to 1823 inclusive, the average annual importation from all sources 
was 452,158 loads, of which 166,600 came from Europe, and 335,556 from 
the colonies. 

Heavy Exports. 

The five years following, 1824 to 1828, average as follows : — Total im- 
portations of timber, 602,793 loads; European product, 191,890; colonies, 
410,903. Notwithstanding that the duty on foreign timber had been reduced, 
and a small duty on the colonial product imposed in 1821, the expansion of 
the traffic continued unchecked, showing that very substantial differentia- 
tion of 45 shillings per load in favour of British America was sufficient 
vantage ground as against foreign competition, with cheaper freight rates. 

Prejudice Overcome . 

» 

The British American trade had to make headway against the general 
but wholly unfounded prejudice, which for a long time prevailed in Bri- 
tain with respect to the quality of the colonial growth. The evidence taken 
in the course of an enquiry into the timber trade by a Select Committee of 
the House of Lords in 1820, which resulted in the changes of duty effected 
the year following, brought out some strong expressions of opinion by tim- 
ber experts as to the inferior grade and undesirable qualities of Canadian 
timber as regards strength and durability, which to-day would only excite 
ridicule on the part of any one conversant with the subject. Some of these 
utterances are worth while giving, as showing the inveteracy of prejudices 
born of ignorance and dislike of innovation, and the difficulties with which 
t])0se who seek to divert trade into unaccustomed channels have to contend. 

• Exploded Theories. 

Alexander Copland, a timber merchant and builder, when asked his 
opinion of the comparative qualities of timber employed, testified as follows : 
''The timber of the Baltic in general, speaking of Norway, Swedish. Rus- 
sian and Prussian timber, is of very superior quality to that imported from 
America; the bulk of that is very inferior in quality, much softer in its 
nature, not so durable and very liable to dry rot; indeed, it is not allowed 
by any professional man under Government to be used, nor is it ever used 
in the best buildings in London. It is only speculators that are induced to 
use it, from the price of it being much lower than the Baltic timber; and if 
you were to lay two planks of American timber upon each other, in the 
course of a twelve month they would have the dry rot almost invariably to 
a certain extent; if you were to lav two Christiana deals in the spme mnnTier 
for ten years, there would not be the same appearance of it, so that th^re is 
something in its quality 'favorable to the dry rot. which prevents it being 
used in buildings except where there is a thorouerh air all around it." He 
went on to say in reply to other questions, that if the duties were reduced 
so that the Baltic timber could be sold for the same price as the American 
product, the latter would never be used except for some temporary purpose. 

•Tohn White, another experienced timber merchant, gave evid'^Tioe as 
regards the supposed liability of American timber to dry rot. "Of the 
American timber," he said, "we have generally estimated the red pine to 



160 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



be tlie preferable, but I have had experience of it lately that induces 
me to form a very unfavorable opinion; where it has been put into green 
walls it has universally decayed. The soft or yellow pine timber (white 
pine) which has not apparently so good a character, when exposed to the 
air lasts very well; enclosed it is subject to rot. The pitch-pine timber, 
but which comes from the United States, as, indeed, does the red pine, is 
subject to decay from dry rot, if enclosed, and that very rapidly." 

Many other expressions of opinion to the same effect could be quoted 
from the testimony taken during this investigation, showing how general 
at that time was the prejudice against American timber, on the ground of 
its supposed liability to decay more rapidly than the product of Northern 
Europe. Despite this general impression as to the inferiority of Canadian 
timber, the volume of importation, as the figures above quoted show, con- 
tinued to increase enormously, its cheapness, as compared with the heavily 
taxed import from the Baltic region, being a strong incentive to its use. 
When once accorded fair trial, experience quickly proved its merits, and 
enquiry demonstrated that the notion of its unfitness for building purposes, 
owing ta its special liability to dry rot, was partly due to incidental and 
preventable causes and partly to the fact that inferior grades of the colonial 
product had been taken as the standard of comparison with the best of the 
European timber. These points were clearly brought out in the lengthy 
and exhaustive investigation held by a Select Committee of the Imperial 
House of Commons in 1835, when the tone of the testimony given was much 
more favorable to British-American timber than that recorded fifteen years 
previously. 

Baltic vts. Canadian. 

One of the principal witnesses of the investigation of 1835 was Joseph 
R. Hume of the Board of Trade, who stated that a good deal of very cheap 
and inferior timber came in from the colonies, which was brought over by 
"seeking ships," and sold at very low prices. The high protective duty on 
the Baltic timber kept out the lower and cheaper grades, as it would not 
pay them to import them, and consequently the British consumer was only 
acquainted with the better qualities of European timber. A few extracts 
from the evidence of John Miller, ship-owner and timber importer of Live- 
pool, given on this occasion, will illustrate the change of opinion in Bri- 
tain as to the qualities of Canadian pine. 

Q. "Is it not the price of different articles which governs the consump- 
tion of the consumer.^ 

A. Not so much as the quality of the article. 

Q. Do you mean to say that there would not be a different balance 
between the two articles [Colonial and Baltic timber], supposing there was 
no difference in the duties? 

A. I mean to say that, for a particular description of American pine, 
1 could get 3d. to 4d. a foot more than for any Baltic, but that is but a 
small proportion of the import. 

Q. For certain purposes, even though there were no duty on either tim- 
ber, you think that certain better descriptions of American timber would 
continue to be imported? 

A. I know it for a fact. I know that now for the very timber of which 
I speak, as received in very small quantities, I can get a higher price than 
T can for any Baltic. 

Q. When you spoke of a change of taste rather inclining in favor of 
the North American timber, did you not speak rather with reference to 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 161 



your experience of the manufacturing district in your own neighborhood 
than to the whole country? 

A. I spoke more decidedly with reference to my own neighborhood, 
hut I believe it to be applicable also to the port of London. I refer to the 
prices current, and the import of the port and consumption of the different 
articles, and I find that the consumption of colonial timber is growing very 
much upon that of the Baltic. 

Q. Have you reason to believe from your intercourse with the leading 
builders in Lancashire, that the estimation of American timber is much 
increasing? , 

A. No doubt of it. 

Q. Can you state any facts upon the subject'? 

A. I can state the opinions I know to be entertained by other people. 
I know that Mr. Bellhouse, who is the largest dealer in Manchester, has 
changed the views he formerly entertained as to the comparative merits of 
the two timbers, and that he now gives a decided preference to the timber 
from the Colonies. 

Q. For all purposes? 

Red and White Pine. 

A. For all purposes. He, in building large warehouses, has latterly 
consumed Canadian yellow pine in preference to Canadian red, Dantzic or 
Memel. He states, I think, that he consumes about 50 cargoes a year, and 
even when he can get lengths of Canadian red timber or Memel timber to 
suit the purpose, he uses in preference Canada yellow pine, and he states 
his reason that, for the last 15 years he has been a close observer of the 
different qualities of timber and the different effects produced upon it by 
exposure to the air and influence of atmosphere, and he finds that when 
you introduce the yellow pine of Canada into brick and mortar the ends are 
little liable to decay, and that the ends of either of the red pine timber 
from C^anada, or of Memel and Dantzic timber, are more liable to decay. 

Q. Does that extend to out-door window frames and such things? 

A. "We have long used the red pine timber from Canada for that pur- 
pose. 

Q. Is it more durable when exposed to change of atmosphere? 

A. In this country we have not a very great variation of climate, and 
I apprehend that either timber, if sufficiently exposed to the air will prove 
durable. 

Q. Is not this opinion of Mr. Bellhouse the result of long experience, 
and is it not a change from his former opinion? 

A. Decidedly; and in Glasgow where I know at first thev us^d, for 
building purposes nothing but Baltic timber, this year, I wrote to Glasgow 
to a correspondent of my own, a large dealer in timber, to give me a state- 
ment of the proportion of each sort in consumption there, and he told me 
that the whole consumption in Glasgow of Baltic timber last year was not 
200 loads " "" 

Speaking of the views of timber exiierts given before the House of 
Lords Committee in 1820 Mr. Miller added: ''I think they were under a 
mh.'^ake >which time and further experience have rectified. I know the 
nature of the evidence adduced at that time and, so far as mv own experi- 
ence sroes. almost every opinion there stated has proved to be wrong." 

In short the history of the growth of progress of the Canadian timber 
export trade to Great Britain is simply a repetition of the familiar storv of 
iinreasonino- and prejudiced opposition to every new departure from the 



162 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



old establislied channels 6i commerce and industry, yielding, gradually 
but surely, as tlie innovation succeeds in justifying itself by the test of 
practical experience. Sooner or later, the timber resources of Canada 
would have found a market in Britain under any circumstances, but there 
is no doubt that the financial policy, which, by imposing higher duties on 
the Baltic timber, gave the colonial product such great advantage in cheap- 
• ness to the consumers, greatly hastened the period of its introduction for 
building purposes. Once established firmly in popular appreciation it main- 
tained its ground in spite of the changes in fiscal policy, which deprived it 
of these factitious advantages. 

Duty Reduced. 

In 1842 the duty was reduced to 26s. per load on foreign, and Is. on 
colonial timber, ,'witho.ut resull^ing in any permanent diminution in the 
volume of importations from British North America. The great Free Trade 
movement which resulted in the repeal of the corn laws in 1846 witnessed 
a further reduction in the foreign timber duties and the total abrogation of 
the hardly more than nominal impost on the Canadian product. 

Gladstone. 

In a despatch sent by the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, then Colonial 
Secretary, under date of March 3rd, 1846, to Earl Cathcart, Governor of 
Canada, announcing the change of policy, the following references to the 
timber trade of the colonies with Britain occur: — "I have much sntisfac- 
tion in drawing your Lordship's attention to the fact, that the colonial tim- 
ber trade prospers under the operation of these chaneres in the laws which 
were enacted in 1842, and which had taken full effect before the end of 

1843 The increased facilities of internal transit in this 

country, independently of the very great temporary demand connected with 
the construction of the railways, that are to effect this great improvement, 
promise a considerable and permanent extension of the market for foreign 
woods, an extension likelv to be accelerated, unless it be as to Scotland, by 
the proe-ressive diminution of the home growth of timber throujyh the 
United "Kinsrdom. 

''The description of wood which is supplied by the British North 
American colonies, the yellow pine, is not chiefly to be regarded as com- 
peting with the wood of the Baltic, but rather as available for different 
though concurrent uses. For example, the increase of Baltic timber, tend- 
ing to encourage the construction of new buildings by supplying the best 
materials for particular portions of them, has an effect not in limitinq- but 
in extending the demand for Canadian timber, as furnishing the cheanesfc 
and most convenient material for other portions, namely, the inward 
fittings of the very same fabrics. 

Duty to Equalize Freights. 

**Her Majesty's Government are -not indeed prepared to assert that- the 
question of the relation between the duty on foreisrn timber and the colonial 
wood trade oufirht to be adjusted with reference to this consideration alone, 
and you will perceive that they propose to retain a dntv of 15s. per load 
upon foreign timber, which I apprehend may be considered as. upon +he 
average, nearly coverinsr the difference between freic-hts from tho Baltic 
«nd those from British North America to the United Kingdom. Not only 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 168 



are they free from the apprehension that the proposed remission of 10s, per 
Joad on foreign timber and 12s. on foreign deals, will cause a contraction 
of the trade from British North America; but they are sanguine in the 
anticipation that that trade will continue, notwithstanding the proposed 
change, to extend itself." 

Trade with U. S. 

Mr. Gladstone's forecast proved correct and the importation of timber 
from the British North American colonies continued to increase in volume 
after the last vestige of protection had disappeared, notwithstanding the 
advantage enjoyed by the Baltic shippers in proximity to the British 
market and consequent low freight rates. According to the Canadian trade 
and navigation returns, the exports of forest products of all descriptions to 
Great Britain for 1850 amounted in value to £971,375 Canadian currency. 
Four years later this figure was more than doubled, and in 1857 it stood at 
£2,044,178. This steady augmentation of the timber shipments to the 
mother country was moreover proceeding simultaneously with the rapid 
development of the trade in fojest products with the United States, stimul- 
ated by the settlement of the scantily timbered or treeless areas of the West- 
em States. In the year preceding Confederation, that ending June 30th, 
1867, the American demand stood as nearly as may be on a par with that of 
the British Islands, the value of forest produce shipped over the boundary 
line being |6, 831, 252, as compared with exports valued at |6, 889,783 which 
found a market in Britain. 

In order to present a clear and connected view of the rise and progress 
of the timber trade with Great Britain, it has been requisite to note the 
consecutive phases of British Legislation which contributed so largely to 
its growth, somewhat out of their chronological order in relation to Can- 
adian development, to which it is now necessary to revert. 

First Canadian Timber Laws. 

The earliest enactment of a Canadian Legislature bearing on the tim- 
ber trade was adopted in Lower Canada in 1805, with the object of prevent- 
ing accidents in navigating the formidable rapids of the St. Lawrence, 
which owing to the increased quantities of lumber and timber forwarded to 
Montreal by this route had become frequent. As it formed the precedent 
for much subsequent legislation dealing with the same question it may be 
well to present it in extenso. 

"An Act for the appointment of an Inspector and Measurers of Scows 
and Rafts, and for regulating the pilots and conductors thereof between 
Chateauguay and the City of Montreal. (25th March, 1805.) 

First Timber Measurer. 

"Whereas, many accidents and considerable loss of property have 
arisen in the rapids of the River St. Lawrence above the City of Montreal 
partly by the ignorance or negligence of persons undertaking to pilot and 
ccnduct scows, loaded with flour and other provisions, also, oak, timber, 
staves, and other lumber coming from Upper Canada, and firewood from 
different parts of this Province, above the said rapids, and it being neces- 
sary that the regulations be made to guard as much as possible asrainst 
such accidents and losses, in future. Be it therefore enacted by the King's 
most Excellent Majesty, by and with the consent of the Legislative Coun- 



164 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



cil and Assembly of the Province of Lower Canada, constituted and assem- 
bled by virtue of and under tbe authority of an Act passed in the Parlia- 
ment of Great Britain, entitled "An Act to repeal certain parts of an Act 
passed in the Fourteenth Year of His Majesty's reign intituled : 'An Act for 
making more effectual provision for the Government of the Province of 
Quebec in North America,' and to make further provision for the Govern- 
ment of the said Province," and it is hereby enacted by the authority of the 
same, that it shall and may be lawful for the Governor, or Lieutenant- 
Governor, or person administering the Government for the time being, by 
nn instrument under his hand and seal at arms to nominate and appoint 
one discreet and intelligent person resident in the Parish of Chateauguay, to 
be Inspector, and two others so residing to be Measurers of scows and rafts of 
timber and lumber, as also of firewood, and from time to time the said 
Inspector and Measurers, or either of them, to remove, and also in case of 
death and resignation, another, or others being resident in the said Parish 
of Chateauguay, to nominate and appoint in his or their place and stead. 

2. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that it shall be 
the duty of the Inspector and Measurers to keep themselves informed of the 
state of the water in the rapids between Chateauguay and Montreal, and 
in consequence from time to time, as often as in their judgment need be to 
determine what depth of water scows and rafts respectively may draw, to 
pass through the said rapids in safety, of which depth the said Inspector 
shall at every such time make a record in a book to be kept by him for that 
purpose, and the applicant for the measurement of scows and rafts, shall 
have access thereto, without fee ; and the said Inspector upon application to 
him shall proceed himself, or send one of the Measurers, to take the depth 
of water which each scow or raft then intended to be conveyed through the 
rapids draws, and shall brand such draught of water thereupon . Pro- 
vided that, before any scow or raft shall be so branded, it shall be lightened 
(if exceeding the same) to the draught of water so determined upon, as the 
measure of safety, and if the said Inspector and Measurer, or one of them, 
shall not in a reasonable time proceed to measure any scow or raft, as to 
the depth of water it draws when applied to for that purpose, or shall refuse 
or omit to brand the same, when drawing or lightened to draw a depth of 
water, not exceeding that upon record for the time, or shall brand a scow 
or raft which exceeds such depth upon record, the Inspector or Measurer so 
offending, shall forfeit and pay for every such offence, a sum not exceeding 
forty shillings current money of this Province. 

Licensed Pilots. 

3. And for the greater safety of property which may be committed to 
the care of Pilots undertaking for hire to conduct scows and rafts from 
Chateauguay to Montreal : be it further enacted that every person intend- 
ing to act as a Pilot in any such case shall annually take out a license to 
authorize him to practice for hire the piloting and conducting of scows and 
rafts from Chateauguay to Montreal, aforesaid which license the Justices 
of Peace for the District of Montreal, in their weekly sittings, or any special 
session to be held in the said city, are hereby authorized and re<]uired, on 
Ihe recommendation of the Inspector, or any one of the Measurers (if no 
crood reason be showm to the contrary) to grant to the person applying for 
the same on paying to the Clerk for such license, two shillings and sixpence 
currency, and no more : and the said Clerk is hereby required to keep a 
register of the names of the persons who shall be so licensed. Provided always 
that if any person applying for such a recommendation shall be refused the 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 165 



same, such person shall be allowed to adduce before such Justices, proof 
of his capacity to discharge the duties of a Pilot, upon which and after hear- 
ing the Inspector or a Measurer, in support of the reasons for such refusal, 
the said Justices shall grant or withhold a license as they shall see most 
conducive to the purposes of this Act. 

4. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that if any 
Pilot having charge of any scow or raft, shall leave Chateauguay to pro- 
ceed through the rapids to Montreal, before the same shall have been 
measured as to the depth of water which such scow or raft then draws, and 
branded as hereinbefore directed, every such Pilot shall for every such 
oftence forfeit and pay a sum not exceeding forty shillings current money 
of this Province. 

5. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that if any 
person not being a Licensed Pilot as aforesaid, shall, for hire or payment 
of any wages, undertake to conduct or pilot through the rapids from 
Chateauguay to Montreal, any scow, loaded in part or in whole, or any raft 
of oak timber or staves, or other lumber or firewood, every person so offend- 
ing shall for every such offence, forfeit and pay a fine not exceeding forty 
shillings current money of this Province. 

Owner may Act as Pilot. 

6. Provided, always, and be it further enacted by the authority afore- 
said that nothing in this Act contained, shall extend, or be construed to 
extend, to prevent any person or persons from conducting and piloting from 
Chateauguay to Montreal any raft or rafts of firewood, which is or are his 
or their property, but this shall not exempt any such proprietor from first 
causing such raft or rafts of firewood to be measured and branded as by this 
Act is directed; and in default of being so measured and branded, every such 
proprietor shall forfeit and pay a sum not exceeding ten shillings current 
money of this Province. 

Pilots Fees. 

7. And it being necessary to fix the hire or wages of Pilots licensed as 
by this Act is directed. Be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, 
that from the Qpening of the navigation until the first day of October, 
annually, there shall be paid to the licensed Pilots in lieu of all wages, 
provisions and ferriage for piloting from Chateauguay to Montreal the fol- 
lowing hire or wages, that is to say : For every scow loaded in part or in 
whole, thirty shillings, currency. For every raft of staves, timber or other 
lumber consisting of two cribs, and not exceeding eighty feet in length, 
twelve shillings and sixpence, currency. For a single crib of staves, tim- 
ber or other lumber, if the proprietor shall require it to be piloted singly, 
twelve shillings and sixpence, currency. For every raft of firewood, ten 
shillings, currency. And from and after the first day of October, inclu- 
sive, annually until the close of navigation there shall be allowed and paid 
over and above the before mentioned rates an addition of one-fifth part. 

In Case of Accidents. 

8. And, whereas, accidents may happen to scows and rafts in their pas- 
sage from Chateauguay to Montreal. Be it further enacted by the authority 
aforesaid that it shall be the duty of the pilot having charge of any scow 
or raft, which shall meet with an accident, to give every assistance in his 
power, not only to clear the rapids from the impediments which such 



160 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



accident may occasion, but further to the best of his skill and abilities, to 
assist in endeavoring to save from loss, the loading of any such scow or raft 
so meeting with an accident, nor shall he depart or leave the same until dis- 
charged by the owner thereof or his agent, under the penalty of the loss of 
his wages; and, further, a fine not exceeding twenty shillings currency 
for every such offence. Provided always that over and above the allow- 
ance for pilotage to such Pilots as hereinbefore established, there shall be 
paid to him, for every day that he shall be detained in so clearing the 
rapids, or in assisting to save the property committed to his charge, the 
wages following, that is to say : from the opening of navigation until the 
first day of October, five shillings currency per day, and from the first day 
of October inclusive, until the close of the navigation, one-fifth more, and 
in both cases of such detention provisions whilst so employed. 

9. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that it shall 
be the duty of a Licensed Pilot upon being thereunto required by the 
Inspector, or either of the Measurers to take charge of any scow or raft, 
which shall have been gauged and branded, and if any such Pilot shall 
after such requisition refuse or neglect to take charge thereof, and shall a 
second time after a like requisition, the same not being made the same day, 
and the Pilot so required not being then actually engaged to conduct any 
other scow or raft, nor being incapable from sickness to do his duty, still 
refuse or neglect to take charge of a scow or raft so gauged and branded, 
every such pilot so refusing and neglecting a second time shall, upon con- 
viction thereof, forfeit and pay a sum not exceeding twenty shillings cur- 
rency, and be deprived of his license for the remainder of that season; and 
if any Pilot so convicted shall nevertheless afterwards presume to pilot any 
scow or raft, during that season, he shall forfeit and pay a sum not exceed- 
ing forty shillings currency. 

Inspector' s Fees. 

10. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that for the 
trouble of inspecting, measuring and branding of every scow, crib, or raft, 
as hereinbefore directed, there shall be paid into the hands of the Inspector 
the following rates and allowances, that is to say : For every scow loaden in 
part or in whole, six shillings curency. For every crib of. staves, timber 
or other lumber, two shillings and sixpence currency. For every raft of 
firewood, one shilling and three pence currency. And for every crib or raft 
with wheat, flour or other provisions, or pot or pearl ashes thereon, two 
shillings and sixpence currency. And the monies so received by the 
Inspector shall be divided and paid as follows, that is to say : two-fifth 
parts to be retained for himself, and the other three-fifths to the Measurers 
bj equal portions. 

Penalty for Non~Payme<nt. 

11. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that all fines 
and pf^nalties by this Act inflicted, unless otherwise provided for, be sued 
for within three calendar months after an offence committed, and not after- 
wards, before any one or more Justices of the Peace in the District, who is 
and are hereby authorized to hear and determine the same, and on convic- 
tion of the offender, by his or her confession, or by the oath of one or more 
credible witness or witnesses, being other than the prosecutor, the same shall 
br levied with costs of suit, by warrant of distress, under the hand and seal 
of such Justice or Justices of the Peace, of the goods and chattels of the per- 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 167 



son so convicted- and one-half of such fines and penalties shall be paid to 
the prosecutor, and the other half shall be paid into the hands of His 
Majesty's Eeceiver General of this Province, to be applied to the public 
uses thereof; and the same shall be accounted for to His Majesty, his Heirs 
and Successors, through the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury, 
in such manner and form as His Majesty, his heirs and successors shall 
direct. 

12. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that if any 
suit be brought against any person for anything done or executed, by virtue 
of and in pursuance of this Act, such suit shall be commenced within three 
months after the matter or thing done, and not afterwards ; and the defendant 
or defendants may plead the general issue, and give this Act and the spe- 
cial matter in evidence, on any trial to be had thereon, and that the same 
was done in pursuance of and under the authority of this Act, and if judg- 
ment shall be given for the defendant or defendants, or the plaintiff or 
plaintiffs shall become non-suited, or shall discontinue his, her or their 
prosecution, after the defendant or defendants shall have appeared, then 
such defendant or defendants may and shall recover treble costs, and have 
the like remedy for the same as any defendant or defendants hath or have 
to recover costs in cases at law. 

13. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, that this Act 
shall continue and be in force until the first of January, one thousand eight 
hundred and eight, and from thence to the end of the then next session of 
the Provincial Parliament and no longer." 

In 1808 the Act, having been found beneficial in its effects, was made 
j>erpetual with some amendments. Scows were exempted from its opera- 
tions and those in charge of such vessels allowed to make their own arrange- 
ments with licensed pilots in place of being subject to a fixed tariff of fees. 

Timber Returns. 

Persons in charge of rafts or cribs of timber were authorized to employ 
such licensed pilots as they saw fit, the latter, in case of refusal or neglect 
of duty, being liable to the same penalties as though engaged by the Inspec- 
tor or Measurer. The Inspector's duties were somewhat extended and he was 
required to make an annual return to the Commissioner of Inland Navigation 
of the number and as far as possible the contents of the scows, rafts and cribs 
passing during the season. 

Improvemerit Tax. 

By another Act passed the same year entitled "An Act to provide a 
permanent Fund for the Improvement of the Inland Navigation of the 
River St. Lawrence," rates were levied upon all scows, rafts and cribs pass- 
ing through the rapids between Chateauguay and Montreal, to be paid to 
the Inspector of scows and rafts at Chateauguay and applied to the improve- 
ment of inland navigation. The rates were as follows: Every scow, fif- 
teen shillings; every crib containing lumber, 7 shillings and sixpence. A 
more important measure as affecting the timber industry, also adopted in 
1808, was the "Act for the better Eegulation of the Lumber Trade." "Where- 
as," it begins, "lumber is become an article of importance in the export 
trade of this Province, and it would tend to increase its growing reputation 
to the great advantage of trade, if the quality and measurement thereof 
were properly ascertained." It was provided that no lumber of the descrip- 
tion specified in the Act should be exported until it had been culled, 

12 L. M. 



168 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



measured and certified as to quality. The Governor was authorized to 
appoint persons at the ports of Quebec and Montreal as Master Cullers and 
measurers of board and plank, staves, timber, masts and spars respectively, 
as well as at other places in the Province if it should be thought desirable. 

Lumber Cullers. 

The same person may be appointed Master Culler of more than one of the 
descriptions of lumber specified. The duty of these officials was personally 
or by deputy to ascertain the quality and dimensions of the article submitted 
to their inspection, to reject such as were in any respect defective according 
to the definitions laid down in the Act, and give a true and faithful account 
in writing of the number-, quality and dimensions of the articles found to 
be merchantable, which was to be final and conclusive between buyer and 
seller. Those engaged in the lumber trade were authorized to retain in 
their exclusive service master cullers and measurers specially licensed, but 
in such case those delivering lumber to them had the right to object to the 
culler and insist upon inspection by a public official. 

The Act proceeded to define the standard which should determine the 
mercantile quality of lumber in the absence of any specific agreement 
between buyer and seller. Those relating to some of the more important 
staples were as follows : 

Tiviber Standards. 

"Square oak timber shall not be less than twenty feet in length and 
ten inches square for measurement, and shall be free from rot, rings, shakes 
and other defects, properly squared and butted. Square pine timber shall 
not be less than twenty feet in length, and not less than twelve inches square 
for measurement, and shall be free from rot, bad knots, shakes, and other 
defects, and properly squared and butted; Pine boards shall not be less than 
ten feet in length, and not less than eight inches in breadth, equally broad 
from end to end, edged by the saw or neatly trimmed by a straight line, free 
from rot, sap stains, bad knots, rents and shakes, and of an equal thickness on 
both sides from end to end. Pine plank shall not be less than ten feet 
long, nor less than six inches in breadth, equally broad from end to end, 
edged by the saw or neatly trimmed by a straight line, free from rot, sap 
stains, bad knots, rents, and shakes, and an equal thickness on both sides 
from end to end." 

Timber Brands. 

Provision was made for the stamping of all timber and lumber inspected 
and found up to the standard of merchantable articles, with the letter "M." 
Persons shipping timber of any description for exportation which had not 
previously been culled and measured were liable to a penalty not exceeding 
£100 and not less than £10, and Justices of the Peaca were authorized to 
issue warrants for the seizure of such lumber on the information of any 
culler or measurer or any other person. 

Seconds. 

The Act appears to be somewhat loosely drawn, and to be encumbered 
with provisoes, which must greatly have interfered with its effectiveness. 
The first section comprises the following : '^Provided also that iiothing con- 
tained in this Act shall be construed to prevent the shipment of any article 

12a LM. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 169 



of lumber, nowithstanding such articles may not be of the dimensions here- 
inafter provided, if the same be of sound and good quality, and marked or 
certified as such, by one of the Inspectors, to be appointed by virtue of this 
Act. Provided further, that whereas pine timber, pine plank, pine boards 
of an inferior or second quality were heretofore imported from the countries 
bordering on the Baltic into Great Britain and Ireland, and continue to be 
saleable and useful for particular purposes; nothing in this Act contained 
shall extend or be construed to extend or prohibit the exportation from tMs 
Province of any such pine timber, or pine boards of an inferior or second 
quality." 

It is not at all clear whether the cullers or measurers were required to 
apply any standard whatever to this second quality lumber, excepting such 
as might be demanded by the contract between buyer and seller, by which 
they were in all cases to be governed when such existed. The standards for 
■'merchantable" timber were only to be applied "in all cases where there 
is no specific agreement between the buyer and seller." 

It may fairly be concluded, therefore, that all the Act did, or was 
intended to do, was to provide a safeguard for those purchasers who desired 
a superior grade, while practically placing little or no check upon the 
exportation of lumber of a poor quality provided that it were distinguish- 
able as such. 

The Act contains some further provisions as to the salvage of timber 
adrift in the rivers, and imposing penalties upon tliose appropriating such 
timber to their own use, or wilfully setting timber adrift, into the details of 
which it is unnecessary to enter. 

Cullers not to Trade. 

This Act, which was to remain in force for only two years, was re- 
enacted in 1811 with some changes. The section authorizing dealers to 
retain licensed cullers in their exclusive service was abrogated, and an 
amendment adopted prohibiting Master Cullers and Measurers from trad- 
ing in timber under penalty of dismissal from office and a heavy fine. This 
Act, like the former, was to remain in effect only for two years. Con- 
tinuing legislation was enacted from time to time until 1819, when the 
existing enactments were repealed and a new Act adopted, based upon the 
original law in most of its details, but somewhat more stringent and com- 
prehensive in its provisions. All existing licenses to cullers and measurers 
were cancelled, and it was provided that no persons other than those who 
had previously held licenses should be commissioned to act in that capacity 
thereafter, without having passed_an examination as to their qualifications 
before a Board to be appointed by the Governor. The standard for merchant- 
able lumber was raised by a more detailed specification of the defects to be 
considered as disqualifications, and the list of descriptions of lumber sub- 
ject to inspection was considerably amplified. 

Cullers and measurers, as before, were to be governed by the contract 
between the buyer and seller as regards the dimensions and descriptions of 
the article submitted to their inspection, and the very elaborate and ricrid 
definitions of what constituted "merchantable" timber were only applicable 
where no specific agreement between the parties existed. The measure in 
fact presents the same problem of confusing and contradictory provisions as 
characterized the first legislation on the subject. As in the Act of 1808, 
the section prohibiting the exportation of any lumber not culled, measured 
and certified to possess th(» requisite qualities of excellence specified, was 



170 REPORT OF THE No. ;{ 



modified by tiie proviso that nothing should be construed to prevent 'the 
exportation of timber, plank and boards "of any inferior oi second qual- 
ity," with the addition of ' the clause — "provided the quality thereof be 
declared in the cocket and manifest accompanying the same by the ships." 

Ineffectual Legislation. 

At the same time the provision for the seizure of lumber shipped for 
exportation without having been culled, stamped and marked, was included 
in the Act of 1819, and another section rendered it penal for the Master 
or Owner of a vessel to receive on board unstamped lumber. As there is 
no mention of any intermediate grading **or provision for other branding 
than as "merchantable" or "rejected" the duties of the cullers, as regards 
inferior qualities of lumber, appear to have been left very badly defined, 
and the_ whole question as to the rights and liabilities of exporters in the 
matter in an extremely chaotic condition so far as the wording of the Act' 
wag concerned, though no doubt the custom of the trade furnished a work- 
ing basis for the system despite these apparent incongruities. 

The Act of 1819 was kept in force until 1823, when some amendments 
were made, and renewed again in 1825, expiring two years later. In 1829 
a fresh enactment was made by the Legislature of Lower Canada, much 
along the lines of the previous laws, but more explicit in its terms, as the 
whole matter was placed beyond question upon a voluntary or permissive 
basis. 

All the prohibitions as to the shipment of uninspected lumber were 
omitted, and it was distinctly provided that "nothing contained in this Act 
shall prevent or be construed to prevent,. tKe shipping or the exportation 
of any lumber or timber of an inferior quality or size, or without inspection 
where or when the shipper or exporter shall think proper, to ship or export 
any such lumber or timber." After being renewed in 1832 it was permitted 
to expire by the lapse of the term for which it was revived in 1834. 

Supervisor of Cullers. 

There was no further legislation affecting the lumber trade by the 
Province of Lower Canada, but after the union of the Provinces in 1840 the 
Parliament of Canada undertook to deal with the subject. A measure was 
passed in 1842, bv which the Mayor of Quebec was authorized to appoini a 
Supervisor of Cullers, and the Board of Trade of the same city to appoint a 
Board of Examiners, by whom all cullers' licenses were to be granted. . . 
The inspection of lumber for home consumption was left entirely optional. 
As regards exportation, the Act provided that no person, being the ownei 
of mills at which deals were manufactured, should be required to cause 
such deals to be measured, if exported by such manufacturer on his own 
account, but with that exception, no lumber should be exported without 
being measured, under a penalty of one penny currency for each cubic foot, 
or one shilling for each separate piece of lumber so shipped. Thp Act was 
to remain in force until the year 1847, but in 1843 it was repealed as being 
insufficient to accomplish the object in view, and a more strinsrent measure 
enacted in its place. The appointment of the Supervisor of Cullers was 
taken out of the hands of the Mayor of Quebec and vested in the Governor, 
that of the Board of Examiners being entrusted to the Council of the Quebec 
Board of Trade. Cullers' licenses were to be issued by the Government on 
the presentation of a certificate of fitness from the Board of Examiners. Fol- 
lowing the principle laid down in several previous Acts, the culler was 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 171 



rt quired to mark the dimensions of ail square timber, and, if requested by 
tlie seller or buyer, to stamp every piece of lumber according to quality, the 
letter "M" indicating what was merchantable, "U" what was sound and of 
good quality, but under merchantable size, and "R" rejected and unmer- 
chantable. 

This measure was repealed in 1845 when the enactment which replaced 
it established for the first time the system of grading timber in accordance 
with its quality. Second and third quality standards were adopted both for 
timber and deals. ^ 

The standards for merchantable timber were set out with greater pre- 
cision and fullness of detail than before. 

It was provided that square timber should be measured in accordance 
with some one of the following modes : — 

1. In the raft or otherwise, giving the full cubic contents without any 
allowance or deduction. 

2. In shipping order, which should mean sound, fairly made timbei, 

or, . • , 

3. Culled or measured in a merchantable state in accord with the 
standards prescribed. 

The position of the export trade with respect to culling and measuring 
was thus, defined: — "Nothing in this Act contained shall be held or con- 
strued to make it compulsory for any article of timber to be measured, culled 
or assorted, under the provisions of this Act, provided that such lumber be 
shipped for exportation by sea for account (in good faith) of the actual alicl 
bona fide producer or manufacturer thereof; but all other lumber shipped 
for exportation by sea shall be either culled, measured or counted (at the 
option of parties) by a licensed culler, under the control and superintendence 
of the Supervisor, under a penalty equal to the market value of any article 
of lumber so illegally shipped." It was provided that the Act should not 
extend to any place below the eastern end of the Island of Orleans. 

U'pper Canada Customs Duties. 

There was no similar legislation in Upper Canada, or any measure on 
the Statute Books of that Province directly bearing upon the lumber indus- 
try until 1819, when duties were imposed upon a number of specified articles 
imported from the United States. Forest products were not included in the 
list, but it was provided by a general clause that upon all unenumerated 
goods, the growth, produce or manufacture of the United < States, an ad 
rnlorem duty of 5 per cent, should be levied, with certain specific excep- 
tions, which included staves and headings. A further clause provided "that 
nothing in this Act contained shall extend or be construed to extend to pro- 
hibit the admission of flour, oak, pine, and fir timber into this Province free 
of duty, for exportation only." At this time a good deal of lumber was 
imported into the Provinces from the United States, and reshipped from 
Quebec to the British market, so as to obtain the advantage of the preferen- 
tial tariff in favor of the Colonies. The extent of this trade attracted the 
attention of the British Authorities who evidently had no intention that 
the privileges granted to the Canadian exporter should cover the timber 
supplies brought into Canada from the United States. In 1820 an official 
enquiry was instituted. An official statement, made as a return to an address 
of the House of Commons, showed that the timber imported into Lower Can- 
ada from Lake Champlain via the Port of St. John's, from the year 1800 
to 1820, included 10,997,580 feet of red and white pine timber, 3,935,443 
feet of oak timber, 34,573,853 feet of pine plank, and 9,213,827 feet of pine 



172 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



boards. ' The result was th&t in 1822 an Imperial Act was passed to regulate 
the trade of the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, by which duties 
were imposed upon lumber and timber imported from the United States, as 
follows : — • 

Imperial DuUes. 

Sterling. 
Every 1,000 shingles not more than 12 inches in length. £0 7 
Every 1,000 shingles more than 12 inches in length.... 14 

Every 1,000 red oak staves 1 I 'J 

Every 1,000 white oak staves or headings 15 

Every 1,000 feet white or yellow pine lumber of one- 
inch thick 1 1 

Every 1,000 feet of pitch pine lumber 110 

Other kinds of wood and lumber per 1,000 feet 1 8 

Every 1,000 wood hoops 5 3 

By a subsequent Act three years later this tarifit was continued with 
some important changes. 

The policy of the Imperial Government with regard to the maintenance 
of permanent timber reserves, which was laid down in the instructions given 
to the earlier Governors of Quebec, from which extracts have been given,, 
was steadily kept in view after the separation of the Provinces. The elabor- 
ate instructions received by the Duke of Richmond, Governor-in-Chief of 
the Province of Upper Canada, dated May 9th, 1818, comprise the following 
directions as to the system to pursue in surveying and granting land, with 
the object of retaining in the hands of the Crown the more valuable timber 
producing tracts. 

Reserv-^s. Pine Lmids not to be Sold. 

35. "Whereas the reserving of such bodies of land within Our Province 
of Upper Canada, where there are considerable growths of timber fit for the 
use of Our Uoyal Ndvy is a matter of the utmost importance to Our Service ; 
it is Our Will and pleasure that no grant whatever be made in lands in an^ 
district or tract of Our said Province of Upper Canada until our Surveyor 
General or his Deputy, lawfully appointed, shall have surveyed the same 
and marked out as reservations to Us, Our heirs and successors, such parts 
thereof as shall be found to contain any considerable growth of masting or 
other timber fit for the use of our Royal Navy, and more especially on the 
rivers; and you are hereby instructed to direct Our Surveyor General of 
Lands in Our said Province, from time to time with all due diligence to 
complete the surveys and mark out the reservations as aforesaid, in the 
most convenient parts of Our said Province; and you are from time to time 
to report the manner, extent and situation of such reservations; and you 
are further directed to direct Our Surveyor General not to certify any plots 
of ground ordered and surveyed for any person or persons in order that 
grants may be made out for the same, until it shall appear to him by certi- 
ficate under the hand of Our Surveyor General of Woods, or his deputy, 
that the land so to be granted is not part of nor included in, any district 
marked out as a reservation for Us, Our heirs, and successors, as aforesaid 
for the purpose hereinbefore mentioned ; and in order to prevent any deceit 
or fraud being committed by the persons applying for land in this respect, 
it is Our will and pleasure that in all grants to be hereafter made for lands 
within Our said Province of Upper Canada, the following proviso and excep- 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 178 



tions be inserted — that is to say — "And provided also that no part of the 
'parcel or tract of land hereby granted to the said and his 

heirs, be within any reservation heretofore made and marked out for Us, 
Our heirs and successors by Our Surveyor General of Woods, or his lawful 
deputy, in which case this Our grant for such part of land hereby given and 
granted to the said and his heirs forever as aforesaid, and which 

shall, upon a survey thereof being made, be found within any such reserva- 
tion, shall be null and void and of none efi'ect, anything herein contained to, 
the contrary notwithstanding." 

PEOVINCIAL EEYENUE FEOM FORESTS. 

The earliest step towards making the forest resources of the Province a 
source of revenue and so securing to the public a share of the wealth drawn 
from the public domain was taken in 1826. Previous to this date, as has 
already been mentioned, the only persons authorized to cut timber on the 
public lands were the contractors for the Royal Navy, or those holding 
licenses from them. It is hardly surprising that this monopoly, from which 
the people derived no benefit, was continually infringed upon by unlicensed 
lumbermen, who pursued a very active and profitable illicit trade, despite 
all attempts of the officials to suppress it. The manifest unfairness of the 
system, b^th to the general public and to the persons desiring to engage in 
lumbering, but debarred from doing bo in a legitimate manner, led to the 
termination of the contractors' monopoly, and the inauguration of a system 
under which any one was at liberty to cut timber on the ungranted lands of 
the Ottawa lumber region, on 'payment of a fixed scale of rates to the Crown. 
The following Proclamation, issued by Sir Peregrine Maitland, Lieutenant- 
Governor of Upper Canada, announced this important change: — 

Upplk Canada. 
P. Maitland, 

Lieutenant-Governor. 

George the Fourth by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom ol 

Great Britain and Ireland, King, Defencler of the Faitli. 



To all to whom these presents shall come Greeting : 



Whereas for the more effectually preventing the recurrence of sucn 
abuses as have heretofore prevailed in the prosecution of the trade in tim- 
ber in the parts of this Province, bordering on the River Ottawa, and to 
the end that the public interest may be more certainly advanced, the com- 
merce in that important article of exportation the better regulated, and more 
equal justice observed with regard to all our subjects desirous of participat- 
ing in the said trade; 

We have thought fit to order and direct that, until our pleasure herein 
be further made known it shall and may be lawful for all our subjects 
inhabiting our Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, freely to enter into 
our woods and forests in such parts of our said Province of Upper Canada, 
situated along the banks of the River Ottawa, or upon the banks of the 
waters running into the said river, and a convenient distance from the same, 
as shall not have been surveyed and divided into concessions aiid lots, and 
to cut and carry away such oak and pine timber as may be fit for the''purpose 
of exportation. 



174 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



Timber Dues. 

Provided always nevertheless, that in the consideration of the authority 
and permission hereby given, the several rates and duties hereinafter spe- 
cified, shall be paid to Us, our Heirs and Successors, (that is to say) upon 
e%ery thousand feet of oak timber, the sum of six pounds and five shillings, 
being at the rate of one penny, half penny per foot. Upon every thousand 
feet of red pine timber, four pounds three shillings and four-pence, being at 
the rate of one penny per foot. Upon every thou^nd feet of yellow pine 
timber two pounds one shilling and eightpence being at the rate of half 
penny per foot. Upon saw logs of the proper length to be cut into deals, 
twopence upon each log. And upon every thousand of standard staves, 
lour pounds one shilling and eightpence, which duties are to be paid in law- 
ful money of our said Province of Upper Canada, and to be levied and 
received by such persons as We shall for that purpose appoint by Commis- 
sion under the Great Seal of Our said Province ; and at such place or places 
en the said River Ottawa as we shall declare through our officer to be 
appointed as aforesaid to be most fitting and convenient. 

Diameter Limit. 

Provided always, that for the better preventing the said timber being 
cut before it has attained a suitable growth, double the amount of duty 
herein specified shall be charged upon all such timber as shall not square 
more than eight inches. And it is further our Will and Pleasure that all 
such timber or wood which shall have been cut as aforesaid upon our uncon- 
ceded lands in Upper Canada, upon which the duties shall not be paid, when 
exacted by Our Officer so to be appointed as aforesaid, shall be seized and 
detained to Our use as forfeited. 

Old Licenses Exeinpt. 

Provided always, nevertheless, that all persons properly authorized 
by or junder Our license granted in manner heretofore used to cut timber 
in Our said Province, shall be permitted to carry away and export the same, 
to such extent as their licenses may specify, without the exaction of any 
rote hereby imposed, and that all such timber as may have been heretofore 
cut upon Our unconceded lands as aforesaid, without Our express license, 
may upon payment of the duties hereby specified, be suffered to pass 
through Our said Province of Upper Canada. 

In testimony whereof. We have caused these Our letters to be made 
patent, and the Great Seal of Our said Province to be herein affixed. Wit- 
ness Our trusty and well beloved Sir Peregrine Maitland, K.C.B., Lieuten- 
ant-Governor of Our said Province, and Major General commanding Our 
forces therein at York, this third day of May in the year of Our Lord on© 
thousand eight hundred and twenty-six, and in the seventh year of Our 
Reign. 

P.M. 

By His Excellency's Command, 
J. B. Robinson, Attorney-General. 
D. Cameron, Secretary. 

The following year Peter Robinson was appointed by the Royal Com- 
mission Surveyor General of Woods and Forests in the Province of Upper 
Canada, and received detailed instructions from the Commissioners of the 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 175 



Treasury as to the course to be pursued in dealing with the timber on the 
Crown Lands. 

He was directed to make a survey of the woods and forests of the Pro- 
vince in order to ascertain in what districts there might be any considerable 
growth of masting or other timber fit for use of the navy ; and also in what 
districts there might be any considerable quantity of other descriptions of 
timber. Evidently the Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury, in cut- 
ting out Mr. Eobinson's work on this extensive scale, had but a hazy idea 
of the Canada of 1827. After further instructing the Surveyor General to 
issue certificates whenever required by the Governor General or Commissioner 
of Crown Lands stating whether any lot or lots proposed to be sold contained 
any considerable timber fit either for naval or other purposes, the following 
directions as to the granting of timber licenses were given. 

Provincial Timber Licenses. 

"And, whereas, much of the timber standing and growing on the waste 
and ungranted lands within the said Province may not be fit and proper for 
the use of His Majesty's Navy, and it may be expedient that permission 
should be granted to His Majesty's subjects to fell the same : We do there- 
fore require and enjoin you that you do in the month of May, in each year, 
make a report to the Governor or Officer administering the Government, 
stating the districts in which it may appear to you advisable that Licenses 
should be granted to such of His Majesty's subjects as may be desirous of 
cutting timber not fit for His Majesty's Navy, specifying the quantities 
which, in your judgment, may be fit to cut in each district, and the quan- 
tities for which you would recommend that licenses should be granted in 
the then ensuing season." 

Upon the Governor signifying his approval of the granting of licenses 
in the districts indicated by the Surveyor General the licenses were to be 
disposed of by public auction after due notice by advertisement in the York 
Gazette and some other newspaper circulating in the Province. Each 
license was to be for a quantity not exceeding 2,000 feet with upset prices 
s follows : 

Oak, per 1,000 feet £4 3 4 

Ash, elm, beech, per 1,000 feet 2 10 

Red pine, per 1,000 feet 3 

White pine, per 1,000 feet 1 10 

Staves, per standard 1,000 1 

Handspikes, standard 1,000 1 

West Indian staves and other timber, per 1,000 ft. 1 

Time Limit. 

The conditions of these licenses were such that the timber should be cut 
within nine months, otherwise the license to be void. Purchasers were 
required to pay for the timber cut within fifteen months from the date of 
license and one or more measurers of timber were to be appointed in each 
district to certify as to the quantity of timber cut. The Surveyor Gen- 
eral was authorized to incur contingent expenses on the following modest 
.scale : — 

£ 8. d. 

"Wages to measurers, net 12 6 per day. 

Rent of an office 25 perannum. 

For fuel 10 

Messenger 25 " 



176 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



Cost of Collecting Revenue. 

Pay of clerks, assistants, etc., as may be necessary and as tlie Governor or 
officer administering the Government, may deem reasonable, provided that 
the whole of such expenses do not in any year exceed one-sixth part of the 
net amount which may in such year be paid to the Receiver General of the 
Province in respect of such licenses." 

Mr, Robinson, simultaneously with his appointment as Surveyor General 
of Woods and Forests, on the .19th July, 1827, was also appointed Commis- 
sioner of Crown Lands. The system so elaborately framed by the British 
Treasury Commissioners for his guidance was never carried out or even 
attempted to be put into effect. 

Imperial Instruction's Ignored. 

On arriving in Canada, Mr. Robinson found Mr. Robert Shireif acting 
as Collector of Timber Dues on the Ottawa River. Mr. Shireff was a pioneer 
of the Ottawa lumber trade and was originally appointed Collector of Crown 
dues on timber by Lord Dalhousie, in Lower Canada, and afterwards, on his 
Lordship's recommendation, received the appointment for the Upper Pro- 
vince. His son, Charles Shireff, acted conjointly with him without receiving 
any formal appointment. Mr. Robinson fell in with the system adopted by 
the Shireffs, who no doubt, as practical lumbermen, adopted a plan more 
workable in its details than the method outlined by the Treasury Commis- 
sioners. 

The Surveyor General, as Mr. Robert Shireff stated, "found my son and 
myself acting under an arrangement made directly by the Government and 
he did not feel called upon to interfere with it further than to give each of 
us as his agents, authority to seize any timber that might be found cut with- 
out license, and giving us also from time to time such instructions as appeared 
to be necessary." 

First Receipts. 

The first receipts by the Government of Upper Canada from timber 
licenses were in 1827, when the sum of |360 was realized from this source. 
In 1828 the proceeds of timber licenses was |3,134 and in 1829, |2,237. 

Hon. Robert Baldwin Sullivan, in a statement as to the management 
of the office of the Surveyor General of Woods and Forests, made in 1840 
in connection with the investigation into the business of the Public depart- 
ments undertaken at that time, says, respecting the system of licenses and 
collection of dues as managed by the Messrs. Shireff: — 

"In the summer or autumn of one year the persons wishing to engage 
in lumbering applied for a license to cut timber, stating the quantity pro- 
posed to be cut, upon which a license issued in the form hereto annexed, 
marked 'B,' the lumberers paid to the Collector 25 per cent, as an advance 
upon the Crown dues, and entered into a bond, a printed copy of w^lch 
will be found in the appendix 'C 

"In the ensuing summer the timber (having been cut and got out in 
the winter) arrived in the Chaudiere Falls at Bytown, where it was measured 
and an account taken of the contents of the several rafts, which then pro- 
ceeded to Quebec. 

License for Quantity. 

"The parties cutting the timber were not required strictly to confine 
themselves to the quantity specified in the license, and therefore as it was 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 177 



plainly their interest to advance as little money as possible on taking tlie 
license out, tlie quantity cut greatly exceeded that for which the licenses 
were given. 

"This was productive of no actual loss to the Government as the whole 
of the timber was paid for at Quebec. 

"When the timber arrived at Quebec, Mr. Charles Shireff was in the 
habit of proceeding thither to collect the Crown dues, and upon his own 
authority, introduced a system of taking mercantile bills in lieu of the 
bonds originally given. 

"The purchasers of the timber being generally wealthy merchants, the 
personal security for the payment of the duties was increased rather than 
diminished by substitution of the security of the Lower Canada merchants 
for that of the lumbermen, and although strictly speaking money ought to 
have been insisted upon, I am not aware of any very material loss which 
has occurred from the system of taking bills, at the same time it must have 
been a great convenience to the merchants not to be called upon for money 
until they had an opportunity of shipping the timber and drawing on London 
against the proceeds." 

Lax Methods 

The outcome of the system was unfortunate and entailed a consider- 
able loss to the Province. The Shireifs, being left to manage the collection 
of dues practically in their own way without any regular or efl&cient Gov- 
ernment supervision, in the year 1831 appointed Jones, Murray & Co., 
Quebec, a branch of the Montreal house of Horatio Gates & Co., reputed to 
be the most wealthy merchants in Canada, as their agents to make collec- 
tions. By the failure of these firms after they had been some years acting 
in this capacity, and other irregularities arising from the business com- 
plications in which the Shireffs were involved, a shortage of several thousand 
pounds in the ret\irns of money collected for timber dues was occasioned. 

The laxity of administration which rendered such a condition of 
affairs possible in the management of the Woods and Forests Department 
was typical of the entire executive system of the period. The abuses of 
the Government were specially noticeable in connection with the disposal 
of the Crown domain. 

In defiance of both the letter and the spirit of the official instructions 
repeatedly issued by .the Home Government and of all sound principles of 
national economy, a system of reckless, and profuse alienation- of the public 
resources had come into vogue, which seriously retarded the settlement and 
development of the country, discouraged productive enterprise, and by the 
impoverishment and discontent which resulted, contributed much to swell 
the volume of popular disaffection towards the local governing class, which 
culminated in the Rebellion of 1837. The exhaustive investigation made 
by Lord Durham into the causes which led to that ill-fated outbreak, fully 
exposed the extent of the mis-government and corruption which had pre- 
vailed for many years, and the prodigal manner in which the natural 
resources of both Provinces had been wasted by the officials entrusted with 
their management. The abuses obtaining in connection with the disposal 
of public lands have so intimate a relation to the question of lumbering 
regulations and the general conditions of the lumber industry during the 
ante-Rebellion era, that many of the facts detailed in the evidence appended 
to Lord Durham's celebrated report, as well as some of the conclusions 
embodied in that epoch-making document, are directly pertinent to the 
matter in hand. 



178 REPORT OF THE No 3 



Public Lands Administration. 



Hon. Charles Buller, Commissioner of Crown Lands for Lower Canada, 
who was commissioned by Lord Durham to investigate the manner in which 
Crown Lands had been disposed of, thus speaks of the systematic disregard 
of the instructions issued by the British Government officials. 

"It is true that while in name the property of the Crown was under 
the control of an English Minister, these lands have been in effect adminis- 
tered by colonial authorities for purely colonial purposes. It was indeed 
impossible that it should be otherwise. The execTition of the instructions 
from time to time issued by successive Secretaries of State, or Lords of the 
Treasury, has been of necessity entrusted to those who in the colonies were 
th© peculiar representatives of the English Crown; the Governor acting 
with the advice of his Executive Council. But the power nominally given 
to the Governor vested in effect entirely in his Council ; and the members 
of that Council being resident in the colony, having interests of their own 
to promote, or friends whom they desired to benefit, or it may be enemies 
whom they were willing to injure, have uniformly exercised their power for 
local or personal objects, unchecked by a control which in this respect could 
only be nominal." 

Land Grants. 

The main abuse from which the country suffered during the period of 
maladministration was the granting of wild lands in large tracts, under 
one pretext or another, to individuals or companies, who had no intention 
of settling on or improving them, but simply held them for the rise in value 
which they anticipated as the result of opening up the country. 

The system of granting wild lands was so frequently altered, and the 
conditions as to settlement or payment of fees so various owing to the differ- 
ent classes of claimants, that it would be a piDfitless undertaking to attempt 
to follow the numerous changes in the regulations in Upper Canada and 
Lower Canada, more especially as varying methods were often in opera- 
tion at the same time. But under whatever regulations were in force, and 
despite occasional attempts to restrict the tendency to the lavish granting 
of large areas without guarantees for their improvement, the practice was 
continued under one pretext or another. 

When the country fell into the hands of the British, extensive grants 
were made, some in free and common soccage, according to the English land 
tenure and others in fief and seigniory in the same manner as those made 
by the French prior to the conquest. The influx of U. E. Loyalists at the 
close of thef American war of Independence was followed by an increased 
number of land grants principally in the part of the Province which sub- 
sequently became Upper Canada. After the separation of the Provinces in 
1791, fresh instructions were issued by the Home Government, the chief 
object of which was to provide against the evils resulting from excessive 
grants to individuals, which established 200 acres as the limit of a grant. 
Certain duties of settlement were attached to every grant, in default of 
which the land granted was to revert to the Crown. The Governor, how- 
ever, possessed the power to make an exceptional addition to the grant, and 
this power appears to have been so freely and frequently exercised as prac- 
tically to nullify the restriction as to the area to be granted. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 179 



Leaders and Associates. 

In Lower Canada a method by which the law was ingeniously evaded 
and influential persons enabled to secure the title to very extensive areas 
speedily came into operation. It was known as the system of leaders and 
associates. The individual who was to reap the benefit of the transaction 
undertook the settlement of a township or smaller area. As leader he secured 
the signature of a number of other applicants for land, termed associates, 
who were supposed to be desirous of settling in a body upon the land. 
Each name represented 1,200 acres of land and when a sufficient number of 
names had been obtained, the requisite official formalities were complied 
with and the patents issued. The associates then for a trifling money con- 
sideration conveyed their lots to the leader. The latter usually took care 
to assure this by having each associate sign an agreement, simultaneously 
with the petition for a grant, binding himself to convey to the leader from 
1,000 to 1,100 acres in consideration of the trouble and expense of procur- 
ing the survey and grant. The remaining 100 to 200 acres was afterwards 
conveyed by the associates for one or two guineas as the case might be, 
which was the real consideration for the use of their names. The system 
was so open and generally recognized that blank forms of such agreements 
were printed and publicly sold by the Quebec law stationers. 

Mr. Buller states that during the administration of one Governor, Sir 
R. S. Milne, and under the same six members of the Executive Council who 
constituted the Land Board, 1,425,000 acres were granted to about 60 
individuals. 

Lavish Grants. 

"The profusion of this land granting Board was rewarded by the Duke 
of Portland by grants of nearly 120,000 acres of land, rather less than 
48,000 being granted to the Governor, and rather less than 12,000 acres to 
cash of the Executive Councillors of which it was composed. 

Several of the Executive Councillors themselves figure in the list of 
"leaders" of townships. 

The system was introduced into Upper Canada, but never fairly estab- 
lished. Some ten townships were granted in this manner, but the rush of 
applications was so great that the Council was induced, not only to abandon 
the system, but to rescind the grants maHe, giving each leader who 
attempted to fulfil the conditions of the grant 1,200 acres. Mr. William 
Berczy, to \fhom the township of Markham had Keen assigned, and who 
had acted in good faith in actually settling a body of immigrants on the 
land, was ruined by the action of the Council in rescinding the arrange- 
ment. 

Grants of 1,200 acres each were made to individuals of favored classes, 
including magistrates, barristers, and executive and legislative councillors 
who received as much as 5,000 acres each, with additional grants of 1,200 
each to their children. From 1791 to 1804 these grants were altogether 
gratuitous, with the exception of fees sufficient to compensate the officials 
concerned in passing the grant for their trouble. 

In the course of the latter year a scale of fees, proportioned to the 
extent of the grant, was introduced by the order of the Governor-in-Council, 
upon the payment of which almost anyone was at liberty to obtain a grant. 
Privileged persons, such as U. E. Loyalists, militiamen, etc., were exempt 
from any payment. In 1818, in addition to fees, the performance of set- 



180 REPORT OF THE ^ No. U 



tlement duties was required. Changes in the system were made from time 
to time, generally in accordance with regulations or instructions issued by 
the Home Government, with the object of checking the prevailing laxity, 
and securing some substantial return for the lands granted. 

When Hon. Peter Robinson was appointed Commissioner of Crown 
Lands in Upper Canada in 1827, he was instructed by the Lords of the 
Treasury that all public lands were to be sold by auction, and to be paid 
f')r by instalments without interest. 

The Canada Coinyany. 

This system was slightly modified in 1833 by requiring the payment of 
interest on unpaid portions of the purchase money. The ill success of the 
Government land policy as a means of "promoting settlement induced them 
in two conspicuous instances to delegate to others the disposal of large areas 
of the Crown Domain. An extensive tract in the western portion of the 
Province was placed under the entire control of Colonel Talbot, and the 
whole of the Crown reserves, and 1,100,000 acres in one block were sold to 
the Canada Company. 

Clergy Reserves. 

The evils resulting from allowing vast areas to fall into the hands of 
speculators who ma-de no improvement was further aggravated by the policy 
of setting apart Crown and clergy reserves, the latter constituting nominally 
one-seventh of the entire area, but frequently in practice amounting to a 
much larger proportion. The result was to discourage the settler from mak- 
ing a home in the wilderness on account of the large tracts held for specula- 
tion, and where the improvements dependent upon co-operative labor could 
not be undertaken. The Government policy, while it entailed unnecessary 
hardships and inconveniences upon the settlers, did not in the end benefit 
the favored classes who were permitted to monopolize extensive areas of land 
with an eye to ultimate profit. The conditions of occupancy had been made 
so onerous that there was no sale for the property they had regarded as an 
easily-acquired source of wealth. On this point, Mr. Buller says: — 

''Even during the period, however, within which thes^e grants were 
made, the grantees began to discover that the very great facility with which 
land could be acquired rendered its possession well nigh valueless. To settle 
their grants was impossible without a large immediate outlay, for the pur- 
poses of affording settlers the means of communicating with each other and 
with a market. This work, however, could be undertaken by no one 
individual with effect, unless the other grantees, across whose lands the 
road must pass, joined in the work, and even had this been done the prac- 
tice of making Crown and clergy reserves, and thus withholding from set- 
, tlement two-sevenths of every township, imposed upon the proprietor of 
the remaining land so much additional expense for which he could never 
expect any return. The grants, too, were so utterly disiJroportioned to the 
population and wealth of the Province, tliat even if all the grantees had 
set to work in good faith to settle their lands according to the terms of the 
grant, they must have been stopped by their inability to obtain settlers." 

This was written more especially with reference to thf land practically 
locked up from settlement in Lower Canada by the operation ol the system 
of leaders and associates, but it was equally true of the results obtained in 
Tfpper Canada by the practice of profuse and indiscriminate land granting. 
Concerning the extent to which the land of the latter province had been 
parted with by the Government in excess of the demands for settlement, 
the same writer savs : — 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 181 



''Perhaps, however, the most striking proof of the early improvidence 
of the Government in its disposal of the waste lands in the Province, is to 
be found in the fact, that from 1763 to 1825, during which period the popula- 
tion had slowly grown up to 150,000 souls, the quantity granted or engaged 
to be granted by the Crown was upwards of 13,000,000 acres, while during 
the thirteen subsequent years, in which the population increased from 
150,000 to 400,000, the quantity disposed of, including the sale of the Clergy 
Peserves, is under 600,000 acres. A fact such as this needs no comment." 

Timbered Land Grants. 

The bearing of this condition of affairs upon the lumber trade, and the 
management of the forests remaining in the hands of the Crown as a source 
of revenue, can be very easily appreciated. The land alienated in such 
extensive areas, far beyond any possible demand for settlement for many 
years, was in many instances covered with valuable timber. Those engaged 
i.i lumbering operatiijns speedily discovered that in many cases it was a 
good deal more profitable to buy wooded land than to pay even the moder- 
ate price charged for timber licenses. 

The quantity of cheap unimproved land in the market and the readi- 
ness with which grants were obtained, seriously diminished the revenue 
from licenses, induced reckless and improvident methods of lumbering, and 
made it profitable to buy land for the sake of stripping it of the growing 
timber and leaving it waste and unproductive. The principle embodied in 
repeatedly issued instructions from the Home Government of setting aside 
•permanent forest reserves and confining grants for settlement to such lands 
as were adapted for agriculture, having been disregarded, much of the 
area covered by the extensive grants made was capable of producing noth- 
ing but timber to advantage and once denuded became practically value- 
less, until the slow processes of nature should have renewed the forest 
vegetation. 

A few extracts from the evidence taken before the Assistant Commis- 
sioners of Crown Lands and Immigration in 1838 .which furnished the basis 
for the Hon. Charles Puller's report, indicates how injuriously the abuse 
of the land granting system affected the public interests, both in reference 
to the revenue from timber licenses and the preservation of the forests. 
They also comprise much valuable information as to the g-eneral condition 
and prospects of the lumber trade at that period. The evidence is given in 
the form of question and answer, the following being taken from the testi- 
mony of .John Davidson, one of the Commissioners of Crown Lands for 
Lower Canada, in relation to matters in that Province. 

Lavd Cheaper than Timber. 

Q. "According fto the price required for timber licenses under thJe 
Treasury instructions may it not be cheaper to purchase land for the sake 
(;f the timber merely, than to pay for a license?" 

A. "It may be so, and an instance came to my knowledge of an 
attempt of the kind in the newly surveyed township of Wakefield, which I 
however defeated by directing the agent not to accept bids, unless from per- 
sons whom he believed to be intending settlers." 

Q. "Have you then the power of rejecting an offer made to purchase 
land made at a public auction? 

A. "Under the conditions of sale publicly read by the agent no 
sale is valid until confirmed by the Commissioner of Crown Lands." 



182 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



Q. **Do you imagine any land has been purchased with this inten- 
tion?" 

A. "I could not say that no land has been purchased with this view, 
but no sales have been made in surveyed townships. I cannot bring myself 
to believe that they have been made to any great extent." 

Q. "Have you not reason to suppose that the large purchase of 90,000 
acres to which you have referred in Gaspe, was made with this view?" 

A. "It was avowedly so, I was myself informed so by the purchasers."- 

Q. "What was the price at which this land was sold? 

A. "Varying from Is. 8d. to 4s. per acre." 

James Hastings Kerr, a land agent, gave very explicit evidence as to 
prevalence of the practice of buying land solely for lumbering purposes. 
Some of the more striking portions of his testimony are here reproduced. 

Q. "Have you had an opportunity of acquiring information as to the 
disposal of timber in the Province (Lower Canada) by the Crown?" 

A. "I have." 

Q. "Does the system appear to you to be a good one?" 

A Bad System. 

A. "It does not. It does not yield that revenue to the Crown which it 
ought in fairness to do, and which I believe might without injury to the 
dealer in timber be easily derived from it. The practice within these three 
years has been for the Crown to dispose of licenses to cut timber at public 
sale by tender and overbid. The upset prices on timber are determined by 
the Governor, upon the recommendation of the Commissioner of Crown 
Lands, and were until last year as follows: — White pine square timber, 
^d. per foot; red pine. Id. per foot; white pine logs of 12 ft., for deals, 4d. 
each; spruce pine logs of 12 ft. for deals, 2d. each; red pine logs, 7|d. 
each. At the sales of last year the price of white pine logs was increased to 
6d. and^ spruce to 2|d. This price is eveji now much less than the Govern- 
ment might fairly ask not only in proportion to the selling price of that tim- 
ber in England, but also to its value in the Northern Continent of America. 
At a very early period it is certain that there must be a great demand in the 
United States for Canadian pine and spruce timber." 

Q. "But thrf prices you have named are only the upset prices for the 
tender?" 

A. "I know of no case where an overbid was made upon the tender, 
except in one instance, and that was only by mistake." 

Q. "Then in point of fact there is no competition at the sale?" 

No Competition for Timber Limits. 

A. "None. There is a perfect understanding among the buyers that 
none of them shall bid more than the upset price." 

Q, "So that in reality the prices called upset prices are fixed prices?" 
' A. "They are." 

Q. "And are in your opinion too low, having reference to the value 
of the timber in the markets, of Canada, Britain and the United States?" 

A. "Decidedly so." 

Q. "You believe that there will occur soon in the United States a great 
demand for Canada timber; upon what grounds do you form that opinion?" 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 183 



U. S. Timber Supplies. 

A. "I visited the United States in 1836 for the express purpose of ascer- 
taining at the ports of New York and Boston, what encouragement there 
might be for the importation of manufactured Canada timber, and also 
with a view to ascertain what supply of pine and spruce timber might yet 
remain in the United States. With the exception of the State of Maine 
to the North upon our own border, and of Georgia to the South, at a great 
distance from us, which latter produces an article of very inferior quality, 
I became satisfied from very careful inquiry that very little timber of that 
sort remains in the States generally, and that even with the two exceptions 
I have named, the supply will be exhausted in a few years, provided that 
the demand continues to increase as it has done for many^years past, along 
with the progressive prosperity of the Americans." 

Q. "Is the quantity of the best kind of pine, spruce, and oak timber, 
the property of the Crown of this Province, very considerable?" 

A. "I believe it to be so, particularly in the country bordering on the 
Ottawa, the northern shore of the St. Lawrence, a great distance on the 
shore of the Saguenay and its tributaries, on the north shore below Quebec, 
and in the district of Gaspe ; sufficient in fact to supply the demand of the 
United States for many years to come, and if not sold under prices such as 
might easily be obtained, if better communication was opened with the 
United States, as to produce a very large revenue." 

Q. "Even at the present low rate of timber licenses, is it not often 
more advantageous to purchase the land where the timber is growing, than 
to purchase a license to cut the timber upon it?" 

License vs. Purchase. 

A. It is so decidedly upon well-timbered tracts. I have been employed 
myself to purchase land with this view. It may be conceived that this is 
the case" when in the districts where land is purchased with this object, the 
price of a license would amount on the average to about 6s. 8d. per acre, 
and the average price of land is only about 3s. 2d. per acre. You therefore 
get your timber at less than half price, and have the land remaining when 
the timber is cut. For example, last year a saw-mill proprietor had cut 
timber upon a 200 acre lot in which I was interested, in one of the town- 
ships south of St. Lawrence. I seized the timber which he had cut, and 
entered into an agreement with him, by which I received fully 10s. an acre 
for the trespass upon the timber, allowing him to take all he had actually 
felled." 

Q. "What is the upset price of Crown Land in that township?" 

A. "Four shillings. I bought for myself and others all the Clergy 
lieserves then open for sale in that township in 1836, amounting to about 
1,800 acres, at an upset price of 4s. an acre." 

Q. "If such be the case, however, any such rise as you appear to con- 
template in the price of timber licenses, ought to be accompanied by a cor- 
responding rise in the price of the wild land of the Crown?" 

A. "Undoubtedly so." 

These utterances, like those which follow, are alike interesting from the 
historical point of view and significant in their bearing upon the existing 
situation, as showing how even at that comparatively early date, the Ameri- 
can demand for the product of Canadian forests had become a prominent 
factor in determining the value of our natural resources. When the neair 

13 L.M. 



184 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



exhaustion of the American timber supply is spoken of, it must be borne in 
mind that the march of Western settlement an4 the development of methods 
of transportation had not proceeded far enough to render the pine forests of 
Michigan and the other wooded areas of the American Northwest available 
as a source of supply . It is none the less instructive to note, that far-see- 
ing and experienced practical men were beginning to realize that the neces- 
sarily increasing timber and lumber requirements of the Eastern States, with 
their rapidly growing population, should be taken into account in fixing the 
price of timber-bearing lands so as to secure the increment to the public. 

Thos. Allen Stayner, Deputy Postmaster-General for British North 
America and a large landed proprietor in both Provinces, replied as follows 
to the question as to what value should be placed on the wild lands of 
Lower Canada : — 

"Besides the price of lands in the United States I must, in answering 
this question, have regard to the large quantities of land in the Province 
held in private hands, much of which is choice land, and in locations most 
favorable for settlement. There are, perhaps, a million and a half acres 
of wild land in the possession of individuals, many of whom would be will- 
ing to sell at what would be called a low rate for cash, say from 4s. to 7s. 
6d. currency an acre. While so much land is wild in this way, it will 
.naturally influence any arrangement for the disposal of the waste lands of 
the Crown. 

"Wild lands vary in value very materially as well as from the quality 
itself, as from its situation ; but there is also another circumstance con- 
nected with the question of fixing the value upon waste lands of the Govern- 
ment, which it may be well to bear in mind, that is the timber upon it. 

American Investors. 

"Until very recently, the timber as an article of commerce was not 
taken into consideration, either by Government or private holders, but it 
is now otherwise. Our American neighbors have discovered, to their 
astonishment, that their own resources for pine timber are nearly exhausted, 
and they are looking with great interest to the lands in Lower Canada and 
New Brunswick, which possess that valuable article. In the year 1835 
speculators from the States of Maine and New York came into the Province 
and purchased about a million acres of land said to be wooded with pine or 
spruce; and there is no doubt but for the financial difficulties which befel 
the whole of the United States at the close of the year 1835 and commence- 
ment of 1836, much more extensive acquisitions of pine and spruce lands 
would have been made by the Americans; the disposition to acquire those 
lands is only temporarily suspended, and it is quite probable that in four 
or five, years more the passion will return as strongly as ever. 

"Now, according to the scale by which the Americans estimate such 
lands, they may be considered as worth from two to six dollars an acre, 
merely for the timber. The question may therefore be, whether this con- 
sideration is to constitute an element in the scheme to be devised, and if so 
to what extent? It should be borne in mind also, that the land most valu- 
able for the timber is seldom of great value for agricultural purposes. 
Setting aside for the moment the pine and spruce lands, I do not think that 
a higher rate than 7s. 6d. currency an acre can be put upon the waste lands 
of the Crown." 

The evidence of Charles Shireff, the former agent for the collection of 
the timber dues on the Ottawa, corroborated the testimony above cited as 

13a L. M. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 185 



to the prevalence of the practice of buying timbered lands instead of tak- 
ing out licenses, and the resultant loss to the revenue. 

Q. "Does not the present facility of obtaining large blocks of land, 
and at low prices tend to diminish the amount of this revenue by making it 
more advantageous to individuals to purchase land for the sake of the tim- 
ber only, than to pay for licenses? 

A. "I should say so. Cases have occurred in which land has been 
bought merely for the timber, upon a calculation, of course, that by this 
means the timber would be obtainable at a cheaper rate than if it had been 
cut under license. I can mention that of a company of Americans, who 
purchased from private individilals some thousands of acres in the township 
of Onslow, at the rate of, I think, 10s. per acre, which I do not conceive 
could bear any proportion to the value of the timber. Many similar cases, 
though to a smaller amount, have occurred within my knowledge; and the 
temptation to do this was very great, because wh^n the purchaser had paid 
the first instalment and obtained his location ticket, he could proceed to 
cut the timber, and the only penalty for not paying the other instalments 
was the resumption of the land, about which he was very indifferent. This 
was unfair to those who cut timber under the licenses." 

Present License System, Advised. 

Q. "Has any method occurred to you to prevent the practice?" 

A. "The only method that has occurred to me is that Government 
should hold these lands which are generally unfit for settlement and merely 
sell the timber upon them." 

According to a statement made at this investigation by Richard Hill 
Thornhill, Chief Clerk of the Crown Lands Office for Upper Canada, the 
gross amount received by the Government of the Province in timber duties 
from the appointment of the Surveyor General of Woods and Forests in 1827, 
up to January 30th, 1838 — a period of about ten years and a half — was 
£58,086, 4s. lid. exclusive of defalcations amounting to upwards of nine 
thousand pounds. Hon. Charles Buller's report on the Public Lands and 
Emigration, published as an appendix to Lord Durham's report, presents the 
following conclusions based upon the large volume of evidence presented 
during the investigation, the general tenor of which may be gathered from 
the excerpts above quoted. 

After briefly reviewing the timber policy of the earlier days of the Pro- 
vince, and the then recent attempts to derive a revenue from the issue of 
licenses to cut timber, Mr. BuUer goes on to say regarding the forests : 

"I was unable to obtain any accurate information as to the probable 
value of this property. From the evidence, however, of Mr. Kerr and of 
Mr. Shireff, it appears that the quantity of timber upon the waste lands 
of the Province is practically unlimited, and that, independently of the 
consumption of this article in England, there exists at present a demand 
for pine timber in the Northern and Western States of the Union, which 
may be expected to experience a very rapid increase, and which can only 
be supplied from the British North American colonies. 

"From the evidence of Mr. Kerr and Mr. Davidson and others, it 
appears that the revenue which, under a wise and careful system of man- 
agement, might have been derived from this property, has been needlessly 
sacrificed by the practices adopted in the disposal of public lands. The 
value of the timber upon an acre of land at the price of government licenses, 
is frequently more than ten times .greater than the amount required to be 
paid, in order to obtain possession of the land upon which the timber is grow- 



186 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



ing. Payment of tlie first instalment of the purchase money is alone neces- 
sary for this purpose, and before the second instalment is due or any 
measures are adopted to enforce payment, the timber may be cut down and 
the land abandoned. To what extent this has been the case it is difficult 
to determine; but there is no doubt that very large tracts have been pur- 
chased for the sake of the timber merely; because the whole purchase money 
if paid, has been very far less than the price of timber licenses, and because 
the land would remain in the possession of the purchaser after the timber 
had been cut. Besides this cause of defalcation in the revenue that might 
liave been derived from this source, there has been no proper inspection on 
the spot, so that the quantity of timber cut has been very far greater than 
that for which a license has been obtained. 

Land Sales for Cash Only, 

"The plan which I have proposed of selling the land at a fixed uniform 
price, and requiring the payment of the whole purchase money at the time 
of the sale, will prevent to a very considerable extent, the purchase of land 
for the mere sake of the timber. As the land upon which the most valuable 
timber grows, is generally of an inferior quality of soil and of no value for 
agricultural purposes, it may be expected that but little of it will be pur- 
chased, and that the whole timber fund will be derived from the sale of 
licenses. It will therefore be expedient to establish an efiicient system of 
supervision in all the timber districts and by comparing the returns made 
by the district inspectors of the quantity of timber cut, with the entries at 
the Custom House of the quantity of timber shipped, some security may be 
obtained against the frauds which are now practised in respect of this pro- 
perty. 

"It is suggested by Mr. Kerr, that the present price of timber licenses 
is too low, having regard not merely to the value of the timber in the Eng- 
lish market, but also to its price in the United States. Although Tlisposed 
to concur in this opinion, 1 do not feel myself warranted in recommending 
any advance in that price at present upon the only information I now possess, 
and especially considering the uncertainty which is felt to be attached to 
the continuance of the present timber duties in England. This is one of 
the matters which must be left to the special authority which I shall subse- 
quently recommend, to determine from further and more accurate inquiries. 

"The present average annual amount produced by the sale of timber 
licenses in all the colonies appears to be about £24,000, but there seems no 
reason to doubt that under an improved system of inspection and manage- 
ment the amount might be greatly increased." 

Disposal of Revenue. 

The amounts received by the Government as timber dues as well as the 
considerably larger sums accruing from the sale of public lands were 
regarded as entirely at the disposal of the Crown, that is to say, the adminis- 
tration of the day without responsibility to Parliament as to their expendi- 
ture. They were classed with some other items as "casual and territorial 
revenue," and kept entirely apart from the funds under control of the 
Legislature. The introduction of the system of payment for timber licenses 
almost simultaneously with that of the sale of the land, very greatly 
increased the revenue of the province and at the same time aroused strong 
political feeling by reason of the questions involved as to the management 
and expenditure of this fund. The abuses which speedily arose from the 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. ' 187 



irresponsibility of the executive in the handling of the casual and territorial 
revenues did much to intensify the popular irritation which found vent in 
the outbreak of 1837. The principal causes of complaint in connection 
with the administration of this fund were set out with considerable fulness 
of detail in a series of resolutions passed by the Upper Canadian House of 
Assembly on March, 18th, 1829, some of which are reproduced. 

''Resolved, that the possession of llevenue by the Executive to defray 
all expenses of the Civil Government, independent of Parliament, is inconsis- 
tent with public liberty, 

"Resolved, that it appears from the message of His Excellency that 
the whole of the Estimate for the Civil List can, this year, be defrayed from 
the Crown Revenue and that the expenditure of about £10,000 per annum, 
which was defrayed till the year 1827 by grants of the Imperial Parliament, 
is now also transferred to what is called the Territorial revenue of the Crown, 
arising from the Canada Company Agreement, over the appropriation of 
which monies it is denied that the House has any superintendence or con- 
trol. 

"Resolved, that from the accounts in detail of the appropriation of the 
sum of £10,825 as furnished this House by His Excellency, a copy whereof 
is annexed, it appears that by far the greater part of that sum has been 
improvidently misapplied, because independent of the pretensions to a 
monopoly of the Clergy Reserves the large sum of £2,800 is allotted to the 
Clergy of the Protestant Episcopal Church, although that church forms a 
comparatively small proportion of the Christians in' this Province, and 
because there are various pensions and allowances to persons who ought not 
to be burdens on this struggling Province; a salary to a naval officer as a 
sinecure, a salary to an agent in England, utterly unknown by name, char- 
acter, duty, service or usefulness to this House or to the country, and other 
salaries and allowances improvidently paid (with the exception of the 
Lieutenant-Governor and Judges) to public officers for whom has been pro- 
vided by this House of Assembly, independent of these extra allowances, 
such ample salaries and contingencies in years of past extravagance that 
ihey ought, in justice to the condition of the province, to be greatly reduced. 

"Resolved, that the Provincial Executive have heretofore, in the appro- 
priation and expenditure of public monies, violated that economy which, is 
in justice due to the people from whom they are raised, have abused the 
application of the fund improvidently granted by the 56th Geo. III., chap. 
26, in aid of the Civil Government; have granted pensions and multiplied 
offices at the public expense without consent of Parliament, and have incur- 
red and continued wasteful charges and annually increasing expenses in 
the administration of Justice and in the other departments, under an inveter- 
ate system of Executive patronage at the sacrifice of public economy; all 
which evils have heretofore existed from injuriously infusing into the coun- 
try and even into the Legislature a spirit of subserviency incompatible 
with the liberties and interests of the people." 

The law of England exempting the subject from all taxes not imposed 
with the consent of Parliament and securing Parliamentary control over all 
expenditures, was declared to be the "ancient, common and fundamental 
law issuing from the first frame and constitution of the kingdom," and it 
was claimed that as the Provincial Legislature had adopted the laws of 
England as the rule for decision in all controversies relative to civil rights, 
that corresponding powers and duties to those inherent in the British Par- 
liament appertained to the provincial body. 

This clear and forcible presentation of the case produced little if any 
Immediate effect. The evils complained of were continued despite all 



188 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



remonstrances. In 1835 a select committee of the House of Assembly on 
grievances, of wliicli William Lyon Mackenzie was chairman, presented a 
report setting forth The administrative abuses of which the public com- 
plained, the following paragraph of which indicates how the absolute con- 
trol of the executive over the expenditure of a large and increasing portion 
of the public revenue rendered the Government completely independent of 
the people's representatives : 

"The almost unlimited extent of the patronage of the Crown, or rather 
oi the Colonial Minister for the time being and his advisers here, together 
with the abuse of that patronage are the chief sources of colonial discon- 
tent. Such is the patronage of the Colonial Office that the granting or 
withholding of supplies is of no political importance unless as an indication 
of the opinion of the country concerning the character of the Government, 
which is conducted upon a system that admits its officers to take and apply 
the funds of the Colonists without any legislative vote whatever." 

An agitation on similar lines was meanwhile going forward in Low'er 
Canada and obtained such headway that in 183'5 the Earl of Gosford, Sir 
Charles Edward Grey and Sir George Gipps were appointed as commission- 
ers for the investigation of grievances in Lower Canada. Among the list of 
complaints presented to this body the question of the control of the revenue 
occupied a foremost place. The demands made by the House of Assembly 
of Lower Canada were thus summarized in the instructions forwarded by 
Lord Glenelg to the commissioners under date of July 17th, 1835. 

"After the several gradations through which this question has passed, 
it has at length assumed the following shape : 

The Claims of the Legislature. 

"As representatives of the people of Lower Canada the House of Assem- 
bly claims the right of appropriating to the public service, according to 
their own discretion, the whole of the revenues of the Crown accruing within 
the Province. The claim extends to the proceeds of all parliamentary and 
provincial statutes, whatever may have been the original conditions of these 
grants; to the funds drawn from the sale of timber and of the waste lands 
of the Crown; to all fines and forfeitures, and to the income derived from 
the Seigniorial rights inherited by the King from his royal predecessors. 
In fine the authority of the Local Legislature over the income and expendi- 
ture of the Province is declared to be so extensive, as to embrace everv part 
of that receipt and outlay, and so inalienable as to supersede even the con- 
cessions deliberately made in preceding times by the former representatives 
of the Canadian people." 

On January 30th, 1836, Sir Francis Bond Hend. who had a short time 
before assumed the Lieutenant-Governorship of Upper Canada, laid before the 
House of Assembly the instructions received on his appointment, embody- 
ing the answer of the Home Government to the representations made by 
the House as to the grievances requiring redress. This document in refer- 
ence to the question of the control of territorial and casual revenues stated 
that claims precisely identical had been preferred by the Assembly of Lower 
Canada, and that in the instructions to the Commissioners of Enquiry who 
visited that Province the views of the Home Government had been already 
set forth. 

The instructions to the Commissioners were therefore appended to the 
despatch as outlining a basis for the settlement of the question in both Pro- 
vinces. In this paper the whole subject is treated very fully, the position 
taken by the Colonial Office being that it was necessary to secure the inde- 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 189 



pondence of the judiciary and the principal officers of the Local Government, 
aud that to this end official incomes should be paid, "not at the pleasure of 
the popular branch of the Legislature, but from adequate funds to be irre- 
vocably pledged for that purpose." 

Claims of the Crown. 

It was urged that alterations on the subject of the emoluments of the 
chief officers of the Crown, and especially of the Governor, would be deroga- 
tory to their character. "The tendency of such controversies would 
unavoidably be to introduce a disesteem for those functionaries by exhibit- 
ing them in the light of pensioners on the reluctant bounty of the repre- 
sentatives of the people." The officials of the Local Government, it was 
contended, having frequently unpopular duties to perform, and being called 
upon to oppose the passions and emotions of the day, should be raised 
above all influence, and suspicion of influence, of unworthy fear or favor. 
They should not be looking for their subsistence to the favor of a body 
which necessarily reflected most of the fluctiiating movements of the public 
mind. "Such are the principal motives," wrote the Colonial Secretary, 
"which induced me to conclude that the King could not consistently with 
the interests of his Canadian subjects relinquish, except in return for an 
adequate Civil List, the control which His Majesty at present exercises 
over the hereditary and territorial revenue. * • * ^ temporary cession 
of the revenue in return for a provision for the chief public officers of the 
Province for a corresponding period, would be the most satisfactory arrange- 
ment." 

The despatch took strong ground against transferring from the Execu- 
tive to the popular branch of the Legislature, the management of the 
uncleared territory. "His Majesty's confidential advisers," says the writer, 
"regard as conclusive and unanswerable the objections which are made to 
confiding the management of the uncleared territory of Lower Canada to 
either or both of the Houses of General Assembly, or to persons appointed 
by them and subject to their control. In the distribution of the different 
powers of the State the office of settling and alienating the uncleared terri- 
tory properly belongs to the Executive Government." Any expectations 

1837. 

which might have been entertained of a satisfactory settlement of the dif- 
ficulty on the basis laid down in the Lieutenant-Governor's instructions were 
speedily dissipated by the bitter controversies which shortly afterwards arose 
between Sir Francis Bond Head and the dominant party in the Legislature. 
The popular feeling of irritation was further inflamed by the arbitrary 
course pursued by Lieutenant-Governor Head, and culminated the follow- 
ing year in the quickly suppressed outbreak led by "William Lyon Macken- 
zie, which, though an utter failure considered as a military enterprise, did 
much to arouse the nttention of the Government and people of Great Bri- 
tain to the real condition of affairs in Canada and bring about responsible 
Government. 

In the year 1838 the Committee on Finance of the House of Assembly 
brought in a report on casual and territorial revenue, submitting a draft of 
a bill appropriating this branch of the revenue, accompanied by a series of 
resolutions respecting the appropriations to be made therefrom, in accord- 
ance with the plan of settlement proposed by the Colonial Office. ThiB 
measure passed the Assembly but failed to become law, as it did not obtain 



190 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



the concurrence of the Legislative Council. Tlie following year, however, 
the subject was brought before a Joint Committee of the two Houses, and a 
bill to appropriate the casual and territorial revenues passed in both 
branches of the Legislature. The royal assent to the measure was, However, 
refused, but it was intimated that the objections entertained to it were such 
as could easily be removed. 

Meanwhile the greater question of the union of the Provinces began to 
engross public attention. In> the discussion of the subject the surrender 
of the casual and territorial revenues in return for the granting of an ade- 
quate civil list was one of the points insisted on by the Upper Canada Assem- 
bly. The Act of Union adopted by the British Parliament in- 1840 in con- 
ferring responsible government upon the people of Canada, placed in the 
control of the Legislature all territorial and other revenues at the disposal 
of the Crown, subject to certain charges, the principal of which was the civil 
list for the payment of the salaries of the Governor, Judges ancl other 
officials amounting to £75,000. 

UNDER THE UNION. 

The system of disposing of licenses to cut timber on the Crown domain, 
which, as has been shown, was managed with great laxity, under the Gov- 
ei'nment of Upper Canada^ yielding a mere fraction of the sum which it 
might have contributed to the revenue under proper regulations, engaged 
the attention of the administration of the United Provinces at an early 
date. On the 30th of March, 1842, instructions as to the granting of licens^ 
were issued by the Hon. John Davidson, Commissioner of Crown Lands, to 
James Stevenson, Collector at By town, as Ottawa was then named, with 
the object of ensuring greater strictness and introducing the principle of 
competition among lumbermen. The following are some of the more 
important rules laid down : 

"The Licenses to be granted during the present year are to contain 
the same conditions as heretofore, as it respects the prices for the timber, 
the terms of payment, and the manner in which the timber is to be 
measured. 

"All Licenses are to be granted for a fixed period from the date of 
License, after which the right of any person over the limit which it 
describes is to cease and determine : 

To Irvduce Competition. 

"When application is made by an individual, other than the party who 
occupied the limit djiring the preceding year, and where there is no reason 
or order to withhold a renewal of license in favor of the person who 
occupied it during the preceding year, such application shall be suspended 
until the first of August, unless the person who had the license the preceU- 
ing year shall, in the meantime, come forward and request a renewal; then 
it shall be at your discretion either to dismiss the first application, or 
within ten days after the application of the person who worked the limit, 
offer it at public sale and adjudge it to the highest bidder (the party who 
held the license the preceding year being entitled to bid first at the upset 
price), with the condition that the party to whom the limit may be adjudged 
shall pay the auctioneer's fees, deposit one-fourth of the purchase money, 
and give sufficient security for the remaining three-fourths before four 
o'clock of the day of the sale ; and in the event of his failing to do so, the 
limit to be assigned to the next highest bidder who can comply with the con- 
ditions of sale. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 191 



By Public Sale. 



"If two or more applications be received on tLe same day for a limit 
not worked upon the preceding year, or not worked upon accordinp: to the 
true spirit and meaning of the license granted, the limit shall be offered at 
public sale within ten days after the applications are received, on the con- 
ditions stated in the previous paragraph as to auction fees, deposit and 
security. 

"When sufficient information is laid before you to assume that the 
terms and conditions of the license, granted for a particular limit, have 
not been strictly complied with, or that the party is charged with having 
trespassed on the limits of others, it is at your discretion to refuse, to the 
party complained of, license to cut timber; but, at the request and expense 
of the party, you may name a D.P.S. to examine into the complaint, and 
if his report shall rebut the charge, the License may be renewed or one 
issued for some other limit. 

Amount to he Cut. 

"The quantity of timber to be inserted in the License, and which the 
parties bind themselves to take out, is to be estimated at 5,000 feet for every 
mile in length, and no greater extent of limit than 10 miles is to be licensed 
to any individual on any one place." 

Wilful trespass by license holders upon Crown property not included 
within their limits was declared to be punishable by the cancellation of the 
License and the seizure of the timber so cut. District agents in surveyed 
townships were charged with the duty of protecting from trespass the 
Crown property within their agencies, the Bytown collector being instructed 
to furnish them with every assistance to prosecute trespassers. 

The provisions above quoted for the disposal of licenses, in certain 
cases, by sale to the highest bidder, seem to be the earliest practical recog- 
nition of the advantages of the auction system, afterwards extended from 
time to time, and finally adopted altogether with such satisfactory results 
both to the lumber trade and the public interest, securing to the Treasury 
the full value of lumbering privileges, while affording exact and even- 
handed justice to all applicants. 

The receipts of the old Province of Upper Canada for timber sales for 
the year 1839 were £8,244, and for the period commencing January 1st, 
1840, and ending 9th February, 1841, £18,8Sl, a difference probably due 
to irregularity in the methods of collection rather than fluctuations in the 
trade. 

The timber receipts for Canada under the new regime were £37,572 in 
1842, £46,301 in 1843, and £28,828 in 1844. 

While, as has been shown, the British statesmen who in the early days 
of the colony directed, or rather endeavored to direct, the course of the 
Colonial Executive, fully realized the importance of maintaining timber 
reserves, there is little in the proceedings of the rulers of Canada under the 
system of responsible government to show that they appreciated, to any 
extent, the desirability of preserving the forests as a source of future supply. 
Such, in fact, was the general prevalence of the idea that the timber 
resources of the country were practically inexhaustible, coupled with ignor- 
ance as to the possibility of at the same time realizing a periodical crop 
and preserving the productiveness of the area from which is was taken unim- 
paired; that even had more enlightened views been held by those charged 
with the administration of affairs, Ihey would .have mot with popular oppo^i- 



192 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



tion and ridicule. Those who possessed some vague ideas that the work of 
deforestation was proceeding too thoroughly, and that it might be advis- 
able to call a halt, were not sufficiently practical to effect any good result. 
One of the earliest, perhaps the very first public remonstrance against defor- 
estation may be found in the Journals of the Legislative Assembly under 
the date of May 11th, 1846, in the following paragraph : 

"On motion of Hon. Mr. Laterriere, seconded by Mr. Tache. ilesolved, 
that this House will on Wednesday next resolve itself into a committee of 
the whole House to consider whether it would not be exp^edient to prevent 
the sale of timber from off the Public Lands." All that is recorded of th© 
discussion is the curt official entry for the following 3rd day of June to the 
effect that "the House accordingly resolved itself into the said committee. 
Mr. Hall took the chair of the committee and after some time spent therein 
Mr. Speaker resumed the chair." In the absence of Hansard, or even the 
briefest mention of the matter in the newspaper reports of the period, it 
may be doing Mr. Laterriere an Injustice to class him with the well-meaning 
but unpractical people who, in the earlier days of the forestry movement, 
sought to "save the forests" by prohibiting all use of the axe within the 
limits of the area to be preserved. But the wording of the resolution cer- 
tainly bears this construction. 

New regulations were issued during 1846 when the following notices 
to applicants for timber licenses appeared in the Canada Gazette. 

Crow^n Lands Department, 

Montreal, 24th June, 1846. 

Notice is hereby given that application for Licenses to cut Timber on 
the River Ottawa and its tributaries will be received by James Stevenson, 
Esquire, at Bytown until the fifteenth day of August next. 

1st. No new limits will be granted exceeding 5 miles in front by five 
miles in depth, or half way to the next river. 

2nd. Present holders of licenses will be allowed to renew them for the 
ensuing and two more seasons without alteration of limits, but after the Ist 
May, 1849, all timber berths will be curtailed to the above mentioned sizes; 
the present occupant having the choice of the part of his present limits 
which he will be permitted to retain. The surplus will be disposed of as 
may hereafter be determined upon, of which due notice will be given. 

3rd. Licenses are not to be transferable and any subsequent attempt to 
infringe or evade this regulation will subject the party concerned to iHie 
forfeiture of his license and of all moneys paid on account of the same. 
Appliofents to state whether their applications are made for themselves 
individually or as concerned with others or on behalf of other parties. 

4th. All timber berths for which no application for renewal shall have 
been made by the present owners, or in regard to which the applicant shall 
have neglected to comply with the conditions of renewal on or before the 
15th of August, shall be put up to public sale without further notice on the 
1st September next, together with all other Timber Berths for which more 
than one application shall have been filed, to be adjudged in cases of com- 
I)etition to the party bidding the highest premium for the same, to be paid 
down at the time of adjudication. 

5th. The quantity of Timber to be inserted in the License and which 
the parties will bind themselves to take out, is to be estimated at 1,000 feet 
per square mile, upon the price of which a deposit of one-fourth will be 
required before 4 o'clock on the day of sale; if not then paid the Berth to 
be adjudged to the next highest bidder or next applicant. Bonds as now 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 193 



practised to be given for the remaining three-fourths, signed by the prin- 
cipal and two sufficient sureties within eight days after; failing which two- 
fifths of the deposit and license to be forfeited. 

1,000 feet 'per Mile. 

6th. It is to be understood that licentiates are to manufacture at least 
1,000 feet of timber per square mile granted (if to be had within the limits), 
should a less quantity be made a proportionate amount of the deposit will 
be forfeited and the limits curtailed accordingly. 

7th. After the 1st September all .vacant timber berths will be granted 
to the first applicant on his complying with the conditions of sale. 

8th. Parties applying for timber limits on unexplored rivers will be 
expected to furnish a sketch of the same by a sworn surveyor, connected 
with some surveyed or known point, and describing distinctly the point at 
which the limits are to commence. Should the sketches so furnished subse- 
quently prove to be incorrect all licenses based upon them will become null 
and void. 

9th. Limits hereafter declared forfeited for non-fulfilment of the condi- 
tions stipulated, to be adjudged to the party giving the information and 
proving the fact to the satisfaction of the department, or if not required 
by him to the next applicant. 

Department of Crown Lands, 

Montreal, August 14th, 1846. 

Notice is hereby given that (with the exceptions mentioned at foof) 
applications will be received until Thursday, the first day of October next, 
and Licenses granted by the various District Agents of this Department to 
cut Timbe^ on the vacant Surveyed and Unsurveyed Lands of the Crown 
within their respective agencies. 

Five Mile Limits. 

1st. No new License will be granted exceeding five miles in front by 
five miles in depth, or half way to the next river. 

2nd. Holders of Licenses will be permitted to retain their present limits 
until the 1st of May, 1849, on complying with the conditions of renewal, 
but after that period, their limits if larger will be reduced to the above 
mentioned sizes. 

3rd. Licenses are not to be transferable without the sanction of the 
Department, and any attempt to infringe or evade thip regulation will sub- 
ject the party concerned to the forfeiture of his License and of all monies 
paid on account of the same. Applicants are to state whether their applica- 
tions are made for themselves individually, or as roncerDerl with others, 
or on behalf of other parties. 

AucfAons. 

All Timber Berths not covered by Licenses, or for which no applica- 
tions for renewal shall have been made, will be sold to applicants on the 
said 1st of October, and in case of competition be adjudged to the party 
bidding the highest premium to be paid down at the time of sale. 

The quantity of Timber to be inserted in the License, and which the 
parties will bind themselves to take out is to be estimated at 1,000 feet per 



194 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



square mile, upon tlie price of which a deposit of one-fourth will be required 
before 4 o'clock on the day of sale; if not then paid, the Berth to be 
adjudged to the next highest bidder or next applicant. Bonds as now 
practised to be given for the remaining three-fourths, signed by the prin- 
cipal and two sufficient sureties within eight days after, failing which two- 
fifths of the deposit and license to be forfeited. 

Should a less quantity of Timber be made, than specified in the license, 
a proportionate amount of the deposit will be liable to -forfeiture, and the 
limits to be curtailed accordingly. 

Parties applying for Timber Limits on unexplored rivers will be 
expected to furnish sketches of the same by a sworn Surveyor, connected 
with some surveyed or known points, and describing distinctly the points 
at which the limits are to commence. Should the sketches so furnished 
subsequently prove to be incorrect, all Licenses based upon them will 
become null and void. 

Limits hereafter declared forfeited for non-fulfilment of the conditions 
stipulated, to be adjudged to the party giving the information and prov- 
ing the fact to the satisfaction of the Department, or if not required by 
him to the next applicant. 

Aifter the 1st of October next, all vacant Timber Berths or Tracts will 
be granted to the first applicant on his complying with the conditions of 
sale. 

Districts Reserved. 

The Districts excepted from the above regulations are in Upper Can- 
ada, the Bathurst and Dalhousie Districts, and that part of the Midland 
District lying beyond the Northerly outlines of the Townships of Sheffield, 
Hincjiinbrooke and Bedford. 

In Lower Canada all the easterly side of the River Ottawa above the 
Chaudiere Falls, commencing with the Townships of Hull and Wakefield, 
which will remain as heretofore under the management of James Stevenson, 
Esquire, at Bytown, to whom application to cut timber, in any of the last 
mentioned Districts or Tracts must be addressed. 

Quantity Reduced. 

N.B. In consequence of the present depressed state of the Timber 
Trade, the quantity of timber to be cut per square mile has been reduced for 
Ihe season from 1,000 to 500 feet — upon which latter amount only the deposit 
will be required. 

It will be observed that while the first of these notices, which applies 
only to the Ottawa region, absolutely prohibits the transfer of licenses; the 
second of a later date, which is more general in its scope and excepts the 
Ottawa section from its provisions, modifies this provision by requiring 
the sanction of the Department to all transfers. Presumably the condition 
was similarly relaxed in the territory covered by the first notice also, and 
it is also probable that the reduction of the quantity of timber to be cut 
per square mile was generally applicable. 

The year 1845 was an exceedingly prosperous one for the lumber trade. 
There was a heavy demand at that time for our timber in the British 
market and prices were very remunerative. The quantity of timber brought 
to market at Quebec that vear was 27,702,344 feet, of which the quantity 
exported was 24,223,000 feet. The temporarily favorable conditions of 
the trade resulted in a considerable over-production in 1846 and the year 
following which, coupled with a falling off in the British demand, created 
a serious depression in the industry. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 195 



The regulations tlien in force in the Crown Lands Department con- 
tributed not a little to unduly stimulate production by requiring the manu- 
facture of a large- quantity of timber on every limit, regardless of the 
requirements of the market or the convenience of the operator, upon pen- 
alty of forfeiture of the limit. At the same time the timber prodXiction of 
New Brunswick was very greatly increased, coming into competition with 
the Canadian output, while the general commercial depression in Britain 
caused a great falling off in consumption. 

Lumber Trade CoTninission. 

On January 30th, 1849, the Legislative Assembly appointed a Select 
Committee, composed of Mr. Scott, of Bytown; Hon. Mr. La Terriere and 
Messrs. Egan, Johnson, Bell, Hall, Flint and Holmes "to enquire into and 
report upon the state of the Lumber Trade, the cause of its present depres- 
sion, the protection of the forests from unnecessary destruction, and upon 
all other matters connected with the lumbering interest of this Province." 

The evidence taken before this committee threw a good deal of light 
on the condition of the trade and the particulars in which a reform of the 
license system was urgently required. 

Over Production. 

W. W. Dawson, a leading lumberman of Bytown, gave the following 
testimony: — "The first great blow then, which the trade received in 1846, 
was caused by over-production, for had the supply been in the proportion 
to the demand there is no reason to believe that prices would have ruled 
one fraction lower than they did in the previous year, nay, it is probable that 
they would have ruled higher, as, notwithstanding* the high prices the 
British merchants paid for Canadian timber in 1845, they had found their 
dealings therein sufficiently satisfactory to induce them to increase their 
demand for it in 1846. 

"In the two succeeding seasons, 1847 and 1848, although other causes 
entered into combination with it, the over-production of 1846, hanging like 
a dead weight on the market, still operated as a principal depressing 
influence. Thus in 1847, including the quantity brought to market and 
the stock on hand, there was a total supply of 44,927,253 feet of square 
timber to meet a demand for 19,060,880, and in 1848 there was in like man- 
ner a total supply of 39,447,776 feet, to meet a demand for 17,402,360. The 
other causes which have combined to depress the trade in the two latter 
years, resolve themselves, so far as we are concerned, into one, viz., a 
decreased demand. The causes which have led to the decreased demand 
we have no control over, and I shall briefly advert only to what seem to be 
the most apparent. In the first place our own large export of 1845 and 
1846 may have tended in some measure to overstock the British market; in 
the next place it would appear that an enormous supply has been thrown 
upon the market in these latter years from the Province of New Brunswick, 
quite unprecedented at any former period. What influence the Baltic trade 
may have had I am not very clearly aware, as it does not appear thnt at 
least of square timber, there has been any great increase of the quantity 
thrown upon the market from that quarter. The greatest and most appar- 
ent cause of all, however, is to be found in the diminished consumption 
arising from the depressed state of commerce in general in Great Britain 
and throughout the whole of Europe. 



iiitj REPORT OF THE No. a 



"It is therefore clear tliat the depressed state of trade was solely owing 
to over-producuon lu 164b, and to iliat primary cause combined with, a 
decreased demand in 1847 and 1648. 

Objections to the System. 

"I believe that there were other causes arising out of the pernicious 
influence exercised over the government of the trade by the absurd policy 
sometimes pursued by the Crown Lands Department (as it was then con- 
ducted), the particulars of which, as far as they relate to this question, may 
bij classed under three heads, viz. : — 

1. The order to manufacture a certain large quantity of timber upon 
every limit, under penalty of forfeiture. 

2. The threatened subdivision of the limits, and 

3. The want of any equitable or decisive action on the part of the 
Department with respect to disputed boundaries, etc. 

"The first of these speaks for itself and needs no explanation, as it 
is evident that those who considered their limits valuable, or had invested 
large sums in their improvements would rather risk the remote and at that 
time unforeseen consequence' of overdoing the trade, than yield any just 
title they possessed. It is at all events impossible to deny some influence 
to this cause, when we find these two facts staring us in the face — first fact, 
the Government ordered the trade to be overdone— second fact, the trade 
was overdone. 

"With regard to the second, the subdivision of the limits, there were 
indeed some who made light of or laughed at it, knowing that it would 
either be rescinded before it came into force, or that they could evade it, 
but a greater number were carried away by the idea that, as after a stated 
period they^would have to give up a part of their limits, they ought to 
make the most of them while they had them, especially as the times were 
then good. It thus afforded an excuse for some and added stimulus to 
others, to increase their business; very few in the lumbering fever of that 
period, pausing to consider the ultimate consequence. 

The Right of Might. 

"The third of these causes may appear a strange one, but it is easily 
explained. There were cases of disputed boundaries which for want of any 
decisive action on the part of the Government, even when applied to by 
all the parties, resulted in appeals to physical force. This, of course, 
induced the parties who struggled for a physical superiority in these remote 
parts entirely beyond the reach, of law, to double, treble, or quadruple the 
number of men they would otherwise have employed, and as such a force, 
when on the ground, would of course be used to the most advantage, they 
would thus double, treble, or quadruple the quantity they would otherwise 
have manufactured. That this has been the case to somei considjprab'le 
extent I am positively aware, as I could point to one instance in which 
certain parties who would not otherwise have got out but a limited quan- 
tity, but who were by this means forced into a business of half a million 
feet or upwards. While, therefore, the rage for lumbering consequent upon 
the large profits of 1844 and 1845, must be allowed to have been the main 
cause of the over-production, these other causes aided very materially in 
producing that result." 

In reply to the question — "Do you conceive that there is any danger 
of a monopoly of licenses to cut timber on the waste lands of the Crown. 
What means can be taken to prevent it?" Mr. Dawson said: — 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 197 



Right to Renewal. 

"There is no danger of a monopoly of the waste lands of the Crown on 
the Ottawa, the extent being too great to permit of the possibility of such 
a thing, but there is danger of monopolj^ occurring, as it has already 
'occurred in particular instances. The. remedy is easily applied as it only 
requires that the title to the renewal of license should depend upon actual 
occupation. This has hitherto been the rule, but the standard of occupa- 
tion has been too high, thereby injuring the trade materially while in par- 
ticular instances the object has been defeated by making special cases in 
which the rule was not enforced. I think that this question might be 
favorably affected by a change in the present system of deposits, which 
would at the same time afford a very considerable degree of relief to those 
engaged in the trade. 

Ground Rent Proposed. 

"At present a deposit of one-fourth of the duty on the quantity required 
to be taken out, is exacted on the issuing of every license for the season's 
operations, the amount being remitted the next year upon the collection of 
the duty on the actual quantity which may have been cut. Instead of this 
I would propose that a ground rent of 2s. 6d. per square mile, as a final 
payment should be levied annually for every limit upon issuing the license 
for that year's business; as a preventive of monopoly I would then double 
the ground rent in case of non-occupation, and continue doubling it every 
year the limit remains unoccupied. I would scarcely venture in the pre- 
sent state of trade to propose the ground rent system, if it were to con- 
stitute an additional impost upon the trade, but if a corresponding degree 
of relief could be afforded in any other way it would be most satisfactory 
and efficient." 

With regard to the size of the timber limits Mr. Dawson, referring to 
a notice published in the Official Gazette in 1846, that after the 1st of 
May, 1849, all limits of a larger extent than five miles should be so sub- 
divided that none should exceed that size, expressed himself as follows r^— 

"The object of reducing the size of all limits to five miles, I believe 
to have been pretty much the same as that of the clause requiring the manu- 
facture of a large quantity, viz., to make every space of five miles for which 
license should issue produce a raft of timber annually, a theory which, I 
should hope, has been sufficiently exploded by its bitter effects. When the 
trade is in a prosperous condition, the profits are sometimes very large, and 
this naturally gives rise to an excessive spirit of speculation, which speed- 
ily brings ruin upon all concerned. A wise policy, therefore, would rather 
supply some check upon, than add a stimulus to, this speculative spirit, by 
discouraging instead of facilitating and urging on an over production, 
especially as it is hardly possible to conceive of any danger to the opposite 
extreme, as the facilities will always be such in spite of any discouragement, 
as to keep the supply in excess of the demand." 

Speaking of the system then in vogue of estimating and collecting tim- 
ber dues Mr. Dawson said : 

Unfair Measurements. 

"Anything more unjust in its principles and application or more expen- 
sive in its operation could scarcely be invented." He proceeded to give" a 
striking illustration of its unfairness, selecting the duties upon red pine, 
the principle, as he remarked, being the same as regards all kinds of tim- 



19b REPORT OF THE No. 3 



ber. The amount of duty levied on red pine was one penny per culbic foot, 
the timber not being measured but only counted, and the amount made up 
from a fixed and arbitrary average of 38 feet per stick. 

''The real average of the red pine rafts taken to Quebec varied from 
26 feet or under to 50 feet or upwards per stick, the large being charged 
precisely as much duty as the small. In one instance a raft of the largest 
sized red pine ever seen there averaged 68 feet per stick. • One of the rafts 
of small timber the previous season averaged 26 feet per stick. 

"The owner of the large raft, assuming the duty to be a penny per 
foot, had exactly thirty feet in every stick for which he had to pay noth- 
ing, while the owner of the small raft had to pay for twelve feet more on 
every stick than it actually contained." Considering the duty as a charge 
ad valorem he went on to show that as the large raft was sold for Is. 3fd. 
per foot, and the small raft for 5d. per foot, the owner of the former paid 
about 3^ per cent, of the whole proceeds of his timber to the Government, 
while the proprietor of the small timber was taxed something over 29 per 
cent, on its value. This was admittedly an extreme case, but the principle 
which rendered such a discrepancy possible operated throughout — Mr. Daw- 
son went on to say : 

"The remedy for this, as far as making the burden fall more equally 
upon those paying Crown dues for their timber, is very simple, and would 
consist in collecting the amount according to the actual number of feet 
instead of on the number of pieces as now practised. . . . There is, 
however a more important measure in view which should supersede all the 
abuses of the present system, and at the same time afford a great degree 
of relief to the trade at large. This measure is the same as that now in 
force and which has been found to work so well in New Brunswick, and 
should consist in imposing a small duty on all timber clearing at the Cus- 
tom House, which with the proposed ground rent, would stand in lieu of 
all present charges. One shilling per ton in this way would produce a 
much larger revenue than that now derived from timber." 

Nearly all the lumbermen examined, including John Porter and Joseph 
Aumond, of By town, Peter Aylen of Aylmer, and Huggles Wright of Hull, 
agreed in advocating a ground rent on timber limits in order to prevent 
monopoly, some favoring five shillings per square mile, while others were 
disposed to consider 2s. 6d. sufficient. They were practically unanimous 
as regards the injustice of the system in vogue, and the facilities it pre- 
sented for fraud, while as to the size of the limits there appeared to be 
much difference of opinion. 

William Harris, of Bytown, pointed Out how the system of levying dues 
entailed a loss to the revenue and encouraged wasteful methods of lumber- 
ing. 

Square Timber and Fires. 

"After all the large timber is cut off a limit, so many trees, blocks, 
chips, etc., are down on the ground, that pine woods are subject to and 
are frequently destroyed by fire; thus young and small timber reserved in 
the woods is totally destroyed; whereas had the lumberman been induced 
to cut i"t in the first place by an ad valorem duty, he would avail himself 
of his opportunity, of his advantage to do so, for railroad framing, lath- 
wood and other purposes where small lumber can be employed. Under the 
existing system an immense revenue is lost to the Crown, and a serious draw- 
back is inflicted on the lumberman. Under this system, as large dues are 
exacted for the smallest tree as the largest — a tree of 12 or 14 feet would 
be as expensive to cut as one of 60, which amounts to prohibition of cutting 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 199 



small timber. Were an ad valorem duty imposed instead of the present 
dues, a considerable amount of duty for masts and spars, over the amount 
collected would be obtained. Instead of paying 3s. 2d, for a stick avail- 
able for masts worth say £20, one-eighth per cent, should be obtained, 
and for a red pine spar worth £10 a like per centage, which would make a 
material difference in favor of revenue derivable from this source. Spruce, 
black birch, hackmatack for sleepers for railroads, and other small tim- 
bers would be taken also, which are now rotting in the woods. Spruce 
would do for booms, birch for cabinet work, and very large quantities of 
this species of timber is to be met with very far north on the Ottawa, 

Suggested Changes. 

hitherto untouched. * * * Under the present system, dealers in square 
timber pay 2s. lid. for every tree — the dealer in sawed lumber Is. 3d., 
making a difference in the revenue of Is. 8d. to the tree, and frequently 
more, as all trees do not produce three standard logs — a loss arises to the 
revenue by counting logs instead of measuring them; the square timber 
manufacturer takes the whole of the tree, the deal manufacturer nothing 
but the clearest stuff, leaving all trees and parts of trees having the slight- 
est appearance of knot or flaw in the wood abandoned to rot or fire. An 
advantage over the square timber maker should be had by the deal maker, 
inasmuch as he spends in his business in the country, more capital than 
the square timber maker, but not to the unfair extent now existent." 

The first Report presented by the Select Committee on the Lumber 
Trade, considered the question of the establishment of a boom or depot at 
Quebec for the reception or safe-keeping of rafts on their arrival at that 
port, recommending such a step on the ground that the existing booms or 
depots were in the hands of parties interested in the shipping trade, who 
took advantage of their position in compelling the payment of such dues 
as they thought proper, and having an understanding with each other injur- 
ious to the manufacturer and restrictive of trade. 

The Second Report, in which the broader question in connection with 
the regulations of the Lumber Trade and the cutting of timber on the pub- 
lic domain are dealt with, is as follows: 

Committee Room, 18th April, 1849. 

Your Committee, in the prosecution of their inquiries, have taken con- 
siderable pains to ascertain the state of the lumber tnide, and the causes 
which have tended to its present ruinous condition. The general depres- 
sion of all commercial matters, both in this Province and in Europe, has 
of course operated injuriously upon the trade, but Tour Committee con- 
ceive that much might have been done by a more judicious management 
of the waste lands of the Crown (from which a large proportion of the tim- 
ber taken to market is obtained) by wholesome regulations for the granting 
of licenses, by a more equitable exaction of duty, and by less o]>pressive 
duties upon articles imported for the exclusive use of the trade. 

Importont Re/port. — Uvcerfain Tenure. 

From the evidonoe adduced it apnears to Your Committee that the 
present depression of trade has been caused by the over-production of 1846, 
to the extent of 13,000,000 feet: in the fall of 1847 the surplus remaining 
in Quebec was still greater; in 1848 it had Kut slightly diminished, and it 
18 likely for the next year, and probably longer, to have an injurious effect 

1 A T \T 



200 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



upon the trade ; this great increase of manufacture, no doubt, was induced 
by the enormous profit of 1845, and the supposition that large quantities 
of our timber would be required in the construction of railroads then pro- 
jected in Great Britain and other parts of Europe. Another cause of 
increase in the manufacture, which however would apply chiefly to the 
Ottawa country, was a regulation of the Crown Lands Department requir- 
ing the manufacture of a certain quantity of timber on each "limit" whether 
or not it suited the occupier, under penalty of forfeiture. The tenure of 
the "limits" was also of so uncertain a nature that many of the holders were 
induced to manufacture as much as possible with a view of deriving the 
full advantage from their improvement so that they might, before for- 
feiture or change of system, have manufactured all the timber fit to be 
taken to market, and thus have defeated propositions then mooted for the 
division and re-granting of all limits held under Crown licenses from year 
to year; both of the above regulations have been suspended for the last two 
years, but not until the consequences had been severly felt, and the effects 
of which are still apparent in the large stock of timber on hand, and which 
has been a dead weight on the trade since 1846. 

Your Committee can suggest no remedy to prevent over-production : the 
ease with which the quantity of timber can be increased, resulting from 
the unlimited extent of the lumbering country, and the fact that little or 
no mechanical skill is required in its manufacture, renders its production 
commensurate only with the means of the manufacturer and some few 
natural causes, such as the fall of snow, spring floods, etc., etc. 

Ground Rent and Export Duty. 

Your Committee are, however, of the opinion that the plans suggested 
\)x several witnesses examined before them, of abolishing the present sys- 
tem of granting licenses, having due regard to the rights of the present 
occupants, and the issue upon the terms of a ground rent, as proposed by 
Messrs. Aumond, Porter, Dawson, Russell and others, and the adoption 
of an export duty in lieu of the present charges, as now in use in the Pro- 
vince of New Brunswick, would have the effect of relieving the manufac- 
turer from the oppressive burden of deposits on the issue of licenses and 
the payment of the duty on the timber reaching the market or soon after, 
without having any or much effect upon the revenue or the rights of private 
parties owning timbered lands. 

In the event of this plan being considered impracticable, Your Com- 
mittee begs leave to suggest an alteration in the collection of duty, by the 
substitution of actual measurement instead of the system now in use, of the 
payment of so much per stick, without reference to its size ; this would have 
the effect of equalizing the duty on all sizes of timber, whereas at present 
the stick containing one hundred feet or more pays no more to the revenue 
than the one containing twenty feet or less, although the laro^e stick Is 
often one-third more valuable per foot than the small one; an increase in 
the revenue would thus be gained, and an impetus be given to the manu- 
facture of the smaller sizes of timber for railroad and other purposes, which 
cannot at present be profitably manufactured, and which leads to the destruc- 
tion of the larger sizes of timber for uses for which' the smaller kind would 
suit as well, and which the present system prevents being manuf ?,ctureH ; 
nor would the manufacture of small timber have the effect of destroying 
forests from which supplies of large timber might be drawn, as it is a fact 
that in many situations there are large tracts of country covered with small 

1 4a L M. ■ 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 201 



timber, wliicJb. lias arrived at its full growth, and migHt be a source of 
wealth to the lumberman and revenue to the Province, if its manufacture 
was not virtually prohibited. 

Your Committee would also suggest the reduction of the present c-stab- 
]ishment for the collection of timber duties, and the management of Slides 
upon the Ottawa, and the remodelling of the various offices, as suggested 
by the evidence of the parties above referred to, by which a saving to the 
Province of upwards of £1,000 per annum might be effected. 

All of w^hich is respectfully submitted. 

John Scott, 

Chairman 

THE FIRST CROWN TIMBER ACT. 

The immediate outcome of the action of the Select Committee was the 
adoption, during the same session, of the first Canadian Degislative enact- 
ment on the subject of timber licenses, which, with the regulations of the 
Crown Lands Department, issued in accordance with its provisions, prac- 
tically forms the point of departure from which our present system has 
been developed. It has, therefore, been considered advisable to present both 
in full, together with the form of license appended to the regulations. 

An Act for the Sale and Betterment of Timber upon the Public 
Lands : — 

Regulations Subject to Change. — For One Year Only. 

''Whereas it is deemed expedient and proper to provide by law, as 
well for the sale of the Timber growing on the Public Lands of the Province, 
as for the protection of the said timber against the frequent and extensive 
depredations committed upon it in various parts of the Province : Be it 
therefore enacted by the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the 
advice of the Legislative Council and of the Legislative Assernbly of the 
Province of Canada, constituted and assembled by virtue of and under the 
authority of an Act passed in the Parliaments of the Province of Upper and 
Lower Canada, and for the Government of Canada, and it is hereby enacted 
by the authority of the same : That it shall and may be lawful for the Com- 
missioner of Crown Lands, or any officer or agent under him, duly 
authorized to that effect, to grant licenses to cut timber on the ungranted 
lands of the Province at such rates and subject to such conditions, regula- 
tions and restrictions as may from time to timeT)e established by the Gover- 
nor of the Province, by and with the advice of the Executive Council, and 
ff which due notice shall be given in the Canada Gazette. Provided 
always that no license shall be so granted for a longer period than twelve 
months from the date thereof: And provided further that if in consequence 
of any incorrectness of survey, or other error or cause whatsoever, a license 
shall be found to cover grounds already included in a license of a prior 
date, the license last granted shall become null and void in so far as it may 
interfere with the one previously issued, and the holder or proprietor of 
the license so rendered null and void shall have no claim whatsoever upon 
the Government for indemnity or compensation by reason of such cancella- 
tion. 

2. And be it enacted. That the licenses so granted shall describe as 
accurately as circumstancps will permit the ground or grounds upon which 
the Timber shall be cut and shall be held to confer, for the time being, on 
the nominee, the right to talce pud keep possession of the premises descri^bed 
to the exclusion of a^l other parties, subject to such regulations and restric- 



20ii REPORT OF THE No. ,*{ 



tions as may be established ; and such licenses shall have the effect of vest- 
ing in the holders or possessors thereof all rights of property whatsoever 
in all such trees, timber and lumber as shall or may be cut upon or within 
the limits of any such license during the term thereof, whether such trees, 
timber and lumber shall have been cut by or under the authority of the 
holder or proprietor of such license, or by any other person, with or with- 
out his consent, and such licenses shall be deemed sufficient authority to 
entitle the holders or proprietors thereof to seize or cause to be seized by 
way of re-vendication, saisie re-vendication, or otherwise, such trees, tim- 
ber or lumber, where the same shall be found in Canada in the possession 
of any unauthorized person, and shall be deemed sufficient authority to 
institute any action or suit at law or equity against any wrongful possessor 
or trespassers, as well as to prosecute all trespassers and other offenders to 
punishment, and to sue for and recover damages if any shall have been 
sustained, and all proceedings pending at the expiration of any such license 
shall or may be continued and carried to final termination in the same man- 
ner as if said license had not expired. 

3. And be it enacted, That all persons obtaining licenses shall, at the 
expiration of said license, make to the officer or agent granting the same, 
or to the Commissioner of Crown Lands, a return of the number and kinds 
of trees cut, and of the quantity and description of sawlogs, or of the num^ 
ber and description of sticks of square timber he has manufactured and 
carried away under such license, which statement shall be sworn to by the 
proprietor of the license, or his agent, or by his foreman or principal man, 
before one of the justices of the peace, who are hereby authorized to adminis- 
ter all oaths required by this Act; and persons refusing or neglecting to 
(furnish such statement, or evading or attempting to evade any regulation 
hereafter to be established by Order-in-Council, shall be held to have cut 
without authority, and the timber made shall be dealt with accordingly. 

Subject to Seizure. 

4. And be it enacted, That all timber cut under licenses granted shall 
be held liable for the payment of the dues established thereon, so long as 
and wheresoever the said timber, or any part of it, may be found within the 
limits of the Province, whether in the original logs or manufactured into 
deals, boards, or other stuff, and it shall be lawful for all officers or agents 
entrusted with the collection of such dues to follow all such timber and 
seize and detain the same wherever it may be found until the dues are paid 
nr satisfactorily secured. 

5. And be it enacted, That bonds or promissory notes, which may be 
taken for the amount of dues either before or after the cutting of the tim- 
ber, as collateral security or to facilitate collection, shall not in any way 
'affect, or invalidate the lien of the Crown on any part of the timber, but the 
lien shall subsist in full force until the dues are actually discharged. 

6. And be it enacted, That if any timber so seized and detained for non- 
payment of dues, shall remain more than twelve months in custody of the 
agent or person appointed to guard the same, without the dues and expenses 
being paid, then it shall be lawful for the Commissioner of Crown Lands, 
with the previous and special sanction of the Governor-in-Council to that 
effect, to order a sale of the said timber to be made after sufficient notice, 
and the balance of the proceeds of such sales, after retaining the amount of 
dues, and costs incurred, shall be handed over to the owner or claimant of 
«iich timbei. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 203 



I'respass. 

7. And be it enacted, Tliat euch and every person who without corn* 
petent authority shall cut, or who may employ or induce any other person 
or persons to cut, or who shall assist in cutting any timber of any kind what- 
soever, on any of the Crown, Clergy, School or other Public Lands of the 
Province, or who shall remove or carry away any Merchantable timber 
of any kind so cut from any of the Public Lands aforesaid, shall not acquire 
any right to the timber so cut, or claim to any remuneration for cutting, 
or preparing the same for market, or for conveying the same to or towards 
the market, but he shall in addition to the loss of his labor and disburse- 
ments, forfeit a sum of fifteen shillings for each and every tree, rafting 
stuff excepted, which shall be proved he cut or caused to be cut or carried 
away, which shall be recoverable wdth costs, at the suit, and in the name of 
the Commissioner of Crown Lands or resident agent, in any Court having 
•jurisdiction in civil matters to the amount of the penalty; and that in all 
cases under this Act, it shall be incumbent on the party charged to prove 
license or authority to cut and the averment of the party seizing or prose- 
cuting that he is duly employed under the authority of this Act, shall be 
deemed sufficient proof thereof, unless the defendant shall prove to the con- 
trary; provided always that the penalty of fifteen shillings per tree shall 
only be recoverable when the timber or saw logs made have been removed 
out of the reach of the officers of the Crown Lands Department or it shall 
otherwise be found impossible to seize the same. 

8. And be it enacted, That whenever satisfactory information supported 
by the affidavit of one or more persons, made before a Justice of the Peace 
or before any other competent party, shall be received by the Commissioner 
of Crown Lands or any other officer or agent of the Crown Lands Depart- 
ment, that any timber or quantity of iimber has been cut without authority 
on Crown. Clergy, School, or other Public Lands and describing where the 
said timber may be found, it shall and may be lawful for the said Commis- 
sioner, officer or agent, or any one of them, to seize, or cause to be seized, 
in Her Majesty's name, the timber so reported to be cut without authority, 
wherever it may be found within the limits of the Province, and to secure 
and place the same under proper custody, until such time as a decision can 
be had in the matter from competent authority ; Provided always that where- 
over the timber so reported to have been cut without authority on the public 
Lands aforesaid, without license, has been made up with other timber into 
a crib, dam or raft, or in any other manner has been so mixed up at the 
mills or elsewhere, as to render it impossible or very difficult to distinguish 
the timber so cut on the lands aforesaid without license, from other timber 
with which it may be mixed up, the whole of the said timber shall be held 
as having been cut without authority on Public Lands, and be liable to 
sei^urie and forfeiture accordingly until satisfactorily separated by the 
holder. 

9. And be it enacted, That it shall and may be lawful for any such 
officer in the discharge of his duty to call in such lawful aid and assistance 
in the name of the Queen as may be necessary for securing and protecting 
the timber so seized : and if any person or persons whatsoever, shall, under 
any pretence, either by actual assault, force or violence, or by threat of 
such assault, force or violence, in any way resist, oppose, molest or obstruct 
any officer, or person acting in his aid or assistance, in the discharge of his 
or their duty, under the authority of this Act, such person or persons being 
convicted thereof shall be adjudged guilty of felony and shall be punish- 
able accordingly. 



204. REPORT OF THE No. 3 



10. And be it enacted, That if any person or persons whatsoever, 
wlietlier pretending to be the owner or not, shall either secretly or openly, 
and whether with or without force or violence, take or carry away, or cause 
to be taken and carried away, any timber which shall have been seized and 
detained as subject to forfeiture under this Act, before the same shall have 
been declared by competent authority to have been seized without due cause, 
or without permission of the officer or person having seized the same, or of 
some competent authority, such person or persons shall be deemed to have 
stolen such timber, being the property of Her Majesty, and to be guilty 
of felony, and liable to punishment accordingly; And that whenever any 
timber shall be seized for non-payment of duties^ or for any other cause of 
forfeiture, or any prosecution shall be brought for any penalty or forfeiture 
under this Act, and any question shall arise whether the dues have been 
paid on such timber, or whether the said timber has been cut on other than 
any of the Public Lands aforesaid, the burden of proving payment, or on 
what land the said timber has been cut, shall lie on the owner or claimant of 
such timber, and not on the officer who shall seize and stop the same or the 
party bringing such prosecution. 

11. And be it enacted. That all timber seized under this Act shall be 
deemed and taken to be condemned, unless the person from whom it was 
seized, or the owner thereof, shall, within one calendar month from the 
day of the seizure, give notice to the seizing officer, or nearest officer or 
agent of the Crown Lands Office, that they claim or intend to claim the 
same; failing such notice the officer, or agent seizing or causing to be seized 
shall report the circumstances to the Commissioner of Crown Lands, who 
shall or may order the sale of the said timber by the said officer or agent, 
after a notice on the spot of at least thirty days; Provided always that it 
shall and may be lawful for any Judge having competent jurisdiction, 
whenever he may deem it proper to try and determine such seizures, and to 
order the delivery thereof to the alleged owner on receiving security by bond 
with two good and sufficient sureties, to be first approved by said agent, to 
pay double value in case of condemnation, which bond shall be taken to 
Her Majesty's use in the name of the Commissioner of Crown Lands, and 
shall be delivered up to and kept by such Commissioner, and, in case such 
seized timber shall be condemned, the value thereof shall be forthwith paid 
to the Commissioner of Crown Lands, or agent, and the bond cancelled; 
otherwise the penalty of such bond shall be enforced and recovered. 

12. And be it enacted, That if any wilful false oath be made in any 
case where, by this Act, an oath is required or authorized, the party wil- 
fully making the same shall be guilty of wilful and corrupt perjury, and 
be liable to the punishment provided for that offence; and any persons 
availing themselves of any false statement or oath to evade the payment of 
duties shall forfeit the timber on which duty is attempted to be evaded. 

13. And be it enacted, That parties maliciously cutting or loosening 
Booms, or breaking up or cutting loose Eafts or Cribs, shall be guilty of 
a misdemeanor, punishable with fine and imprisonment of not less than six 
months. 

14. Provided always and be it enacted. That nothing in this Act con- 
tained shall be construed as in any way invalidating or affecting licenses 
already granted or any obligation contracted for payment of dues under such 
licenses, or to invalidate or affect the lien of the Crown on any timber cut 
upon Public Lands now within the limits of the Province, and ^pon which 
the dues heretofore exacted have not been paid, notwithstanding any bond 
or promissory note which have been taken for the amount of such dues. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 205 



REGULATIONS. 



Department of Crown Lands, 

Montreal, 5tli September, 1849. 

Notice is hereby given that from and after the First of October next 
Licenses agreeable to the accompanying form will be granted, at all sea- 
sons, to cut timber on the vacant lands of the Crown, subject to the follow- 
ing conditions and regulations, sanctioned by His Excellency the Gover- 
nor General in Council, in addition to the requirements of the Act, 12 
Vict., Cap. 30: 

1st. For the River Ottawa and its tributaries above Bytown, including 
the districts of Bathurst, Dalhousie and that part of the Midland District 
lying north of the townships of Bedford, Hinchinbrooke, Kennebec and 
Kaladar, applications are to be made in writing to James Stevenson, Esquire, 
Crown Timber OiEce, Bytown, and for other parts of the Province to the 
respective Crown Land Agents, distinctly describing the space or limits 
for which the license is required, and furnishing sketches when required, 
connecting with known points, and drawn to scale. 

Size of Berths. 

2nd. No timber berth or location will be licensed in unsurveyed lands 
exceeding 10 miles in length by 5 miles in depth, or exceeding an area of 
50 square miles, and half that size in surveyed townships ; in the latter 
case, the lots and concessions required will have to be specified, limits to 
be confined to one side of rivers wherever practicable. All licenses to 
expire on the 30th April following the date thereof. Consecutive limits 
may be held by the same individual. 

3rd. The timber cut shall be paid for at the following rates : 

Crown Dues. 

White pine square timber ^d. per foot. 

Red pine square timber Id. " 

Basswood and cedar ^d. per foot 

.Oak l^d. 

Elm, birch and ash Id. " 

Ccrdwood (hard) 8d. percord. 

Cordwood (soft) 4d. " 

Red pine logs, 12 feet long 7d. per log. 

White pine logs, 12 feet long Sd*. " 

Spruce 2|d. " 

P^ach stick of white pine to be reckoned as containing 70 cubic feet. 

Red pine 38 ** 

Oak 34 << 

Elm, ash and birch 34 ** 

Cedar and basswood 34 *• 

Railway timber will be taken at actual measurement, provided it does 
not average more than half the regular size, or on the party exhibiting a 
contract and specifications for such timber corresponding to the timber in 
his raft. 



206 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



All square timber, logs, deals, boards or other stuff made up into rafts 
or cribs, or leaving the district in any other form, to be submitted to count- 
ing or actual measurement whenever it may be deemed advisable. 

Statements under oath to be furnished of the kinds and quantities of tim- 
ber and logs cut and carried away. 

Amount to be Cut. 

4th. Applicants for license will be required to make a deposit of one- 
fourth of the duty on the quantity of timber to be made, which is to be 
estimated at the rate of 500 feet per square mile, or on the quantity pro- 
posed to be made, if greater, giving bonds with security for the remainder. 
No license to be estimated for less than 2,000 feet of timber. Saw log lim- 
i*^s to be estimated as square pine timber. 

Applicants neglecting to comply with this condition within the period 
of three months in the Bytown Timber Office, and one month in any other 
agency, from the date of the receipt of their application, will lose the 
claim to the limits, which will fall to the next applicant. Deposits will in 
no case be returned, and only allowed in reduction of dues the first or second 
season after the date of the License, and not afterwards. Licenses granted 
on erroneous descriptions or sketches furnished by applicants may be 
declared null and void by the office, whenever deemed necessary, and 
parties carrying on operations under such licenses after being required to 
desist will be considered as trespassers and subject to the penalties of the 
Timber Act. 

Transfers. 

5th. Transfers of limits to be in writing and if not found objectionable 
b> the Crown Lands Department or Timber Agent, to be valid from the 
date on which they may be deposited in the hands of the latter, but no 
transfer to be valid until after one year's actual occupation by the parties 
transferring them. It being however well understood that in granting Tim- 
ber Licenses the Government contract no other obligation than that of 
allowing the party concerned to -cut and carry away the quantity of timber 
mentioned in the license if found within its limits. 

Squatters. 

6th. Squatters or other occupants of land without authority cutting 
timber or saw-logs thereon without License (except for the necessary build- 
ing or clearing and fencing) or others doing so by their permission, will 
be subject to the penalties established by law for cutting timber without 
a license. Timber cut on land being purchased, but not all paid for, to be 
collected by Government in part payment of the land. 

7th. Persons refusing or evading the payment of slide dues or duties on 
their Timber, or the final settlement of bonds for the same before giving it 
away, or in any default with the office ; — also persons taking violent posses- 
sion of disputed grounds before obtaining a decision in their favor, and 
parties refusing to comply with the decisions of Courts or of Arbitrators or 
the regulations of this Office — or who forcibly interrupt surveyors, shall be 
refused further licenses and their limits become disposable to others on the 
expiration of their licenses. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 207 



Claims to Renewal. 

8th. Licentiates who shall have duly occupied their limits, and who 
shall have strictly complied with all the requirements of the office, will be 
considered as having a claim to the renewal of their license in preference to 
all others, on their making application to that effect in writing, on or before 
the 31st May, and depositing the money and bonds required on or before 
the 30th September (excepting that for this season they will be received 
rntil the 31st December) failing which the limits to be considered vacant, 
and to be disposable by Public Sale on the 10th day of October following, 
or subsequently to the first applicant. 

Proof of Occupation. 

9th. Unless in seasons excepted by special notice, limits upon which 
the holder will make less than an average of 500 feet of timber, or 20 saw 
logs per square mile, or upon the entire extent of which (if less than four 
superficial miles) he will make less than 2,000 feet of timber, or less than 
100 saw logs, shall be considered as not having been duly occupied, and 
will, after the former owner has had an opportunity of being heard in 
opposition, be granted to the first applicant pleading such non-occupation, 
on or before the Slst May, and proving same by the Certificate of a sworn 
surveyor on or before the 31st July following. Should the statement on 
oath required by the Timber Act not be made when required, or should it 
show that the limits have not been duly occupied, a surveyor's certificate 
will not be required. Provided, however, 'that if 250 feet of timber or 10 
saw logs are proved to have been made per square mile, the holder of tbe 
said limit shall be entitled to retain one-half of the same, which shall then 
be divided under the directions of the office at the expense of the former 
holder, into two equal halves of which the said holder shall have his choice, 
leaving the remainder to the new applicant. 

10th. Parties having rivers to clear or other improvements to make to 
render their berths available, will be considered as having duly occupied 
the same, if they establish to the satisfaction of the office, having laid out 
in such improvements during the season a sum* averaging at least £6 per 
square mile, and provided that the entire amount be not less than £24. 
even for the smallest limit. 

Licenses to he Renewed 

N. B. — Present holders of timber berths under license will be entitled 
oa the foregoing conditions to renew their licenses for the same, on sub- 
dividing such as may exceed the extent sanctioned by the present regula- 
tions,, and making their applications on or before the 31st of May next; but 
a)l renewals of licenses shall be subject to such modifications as may be 
found necessary to settle or obviate disputes. 

Form of License. 

By authority of the Hon. the Commissioner of Crown Lands for the 
Province of Canada, and for and in consideration of the payments made and 
to be made to Her Majesty as secured by a bond of this date; I do hereby 
give unto and unto Agents and Workmen full 

power and license to cut upon this Location described on 

the back hereof by and to hold and occupy the said liocation 



208 REPORT OF THE No. '^ 



to the exclusion of all others, except as hereinafter mentioned from 

to 30th April, 18 , and no longer, with the right of conveying away said 

timber through any ungranted or waste lands of the Crown. 

And by virtue of this License, the said Licentiate has a right by the 
Provincial Statute 12th Vic. Cap. XXX, to all timber cut by others in 
trespass on the ground hereby assigned, with full power to seize and recover 
the same anywhere within this Province aforesaid. But this license is sub- 
ject to the following conditions, viz. : — 

That any person or persons may at all times make and use roads and 
travel over the. ground hereby licensed, and cut and take therefrom any 
trees necessary to make floats, traverses, oars and withes for use in rafting. 

That nothing herein shall prevent any person or persons from U-king 
standing timber of any kind to be used in making Roads or Bridges or for 
Public Works. 

And that persons settling under lawful authority -r title within the 
location, hereby licensed, shall not in any way be interrupted by the said 
Licentiate or any one acting for or by permission. 

And further, under condition that the said Licentiate or 
rbpresentatives shall comply with all Regulations that are or may be estab- 
lished by Otder in Council, and shall submit all the timber cut 
under this License to be counted or measured and settle for the duties charge- . 
able thereon when required by me or any Officer thereunto authorized, 
otherwise the said timber will be forfeited to the Crown, and the said Licen- 
tiate be subject to such other penalty as the Act provides. 

Given under my hand at , this dav of , 

iu the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred ir.d 

(Signed) 

Collector of Crown Timber Duty. 

It will be seen that the new regulations, while retaining the provision 
requiring the manufacture of a certain quantity of timber each year on 
every limit, did much to rectify abuses and prevent over-production by 
practically giving the license-holder a preferential claim to the renewal 
of his license, upon compliance with, the conditions, and making the taking 
forcible possession of disputed territory and refusal to comply with the 
decision of courts or arbitrators punishable by the refusal of license. An 
attempt to remedy the unfairness of the mode of levying dues, by which the 
smaller-sized timber paid so much more in proportion than the larger sticks, 
is indicated by the somewhat elastic provisions of the third clause of the 
regulations providing for the counting or actual measurement whenever it 
may be deemed advisable. The provision calling for the manufacture of 
500 feet of timber per square mile as a condition of occupancy, while 
theoretically objectionable, was hardly likely to work much practical injury 
to the trade, modified as it was by the saving clause under which it might 
be dispensed with for any season by special notice. The fact of it having 
been so suspended for two years previous to the adoption of the Act, in con- 
sequence of an over-stocked condition of the market, and that attention had 
been fully directed to its possible injurious effects if maintained during 
periods of business depression, rendered it comparatively innocuous for the 
future. 

The essentially characteristic and valuable feature of this legislation 
was, however, the greater stability and permanence attaching to the lum- 
berman's business and interest in the limit secured. By rendering him 
practically assured of a renewal of his license so long as he chose to comply 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 209 



with the regulations laid down from time to time, and equally secure in 
the possession and working of his limit, without having to maintain his 
claim by physical force against his rivals, it lessened the temptation to 
reckless over-production and unsystematic, wasteful methods of operation. 

In 1851 a conspicuous advance was made by the issuing of new regula- 
tions, which, while framed on the same general lines as those of 1849, con- 
tained several new provisions of importance, aimed at some of the abuses 
that had been indicated by the investigation which preceded the Act of 1849. 

The following are the regulations in full : 

Province of Canada. 
CROWN LANDS DEPARTMENT, 

Toronto, 8th August, 1851. 

NOTICE is hereby given, that from and after the date hereof, 
LICENSES agreeably to the accompanying form, will be granted, at all 
seasons, to cut timber, on the Vacant Lands of the Crown, subject to the 
following conditions and Regulations, sanctioned by His Excellency the 
Governor General in Council, by Order dated the Seventh instant, in 
addition to the requirements of the Act 12th Vic, Cap. 30. And the 
Regulations of the 5th September, 1849, and 15th March, 1850, are hereby 
superseded. 

1st. Applications for Licenses to cut timber on the vacant Lands of 
the Crown on the River Ottawa and its tributaries from the Gatineau, and 
the Townships of Hull and Wakefield inclusively, upwards ; and the 
Counties of Lanark, Renfrew and Carleton, and that part of the Counties of 
Frontenac, Lennox and Addington north of the Townships of Bedford, 
Hinchinbrooke, Kennebec and Kaladar — are to be made to A. J. Russell, 
Surveyor of Crown Timber Licenses, Bytown; and in other parts of the Pro- 
vince to the respective Crown Land Agents. 

2nd. Applications must be in writing, distinctly describing the space 
or stating the lots of land for which license is required, the applicants 
furnishing sketches of the limits asked when required, connected with 
known points, and drawn to scale. No timber berth shall be licensed in 
nnsurveyed lands, exceeding ten miles in length, by five miles in depth, 
nor exceeding an area of fifty square miles, and half that size in surveyed 
townships, in the latter case the lots and ranges to be stated — berths to be 
confined to one side of rivers, wherever practicable. All licenses to expire 
on the 30th of April following the date thereof. Consecutive berths maj" 
be held by the same individual. 

3rd. The timber cut shall be paid for at the following rates, viz. : 

Oak and Walnut per cubic foot I|d 

Red Pine, Elm, Birch, Ash and Tamarac Id 

White Pine, Basswood, Cedar, Spruce, etc 0|d 

Rod Pine Saw Logs, 12 feet long, per log 7d 

While Pine do do , 5d» 

Spruce do do 2^ 

Cord Wood, (hard) and Lath Wood per cord 8d 

do (soft) per cord 4d 

Each stick of White Pine to be reckoned as containing 70 cubic feet. 

Each stick of Red Pine to be reckoned as containing 38 cubic feel. 

All other kinds of wood as containing 34 cubic feet. 



210 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



Railroad timber to he taken at actual measurement, provided it does 
not average more tlian liall tlie regular size, or on the party exhibiting a 
contract and specification corresponding with the timber in his raft. 

All Saw Logs cut in future upon Public Lands, if exported from the 
Province, shall be paid for at double the rates mentioned above respectively. 

4th. All Square timber, Logs, Deals, Boards or other Stuff leaving the 
Agency in whiph it is cut in any form, must be submitted to counting or 
actual measurement whenever required and statements under oath must 
be furnished of the kinds and quantities of timber and logs cut under each 
license, when required by the Agent for the granting of licenses, or other 
authorized person. 

5th. Parties cutting timber on Public Lands, before moving any raft or 
parcel of timber (whether cut on Public or Private lands) from the Agency 
in which they held license, shall make report thereof to the Collector of 
Crown Timber Dues or Agent; making, if required, declaration upon oath 
as to the number of pieces of each kind of wood in each raft or parcel, and 
the number of cribs; whereupon they shall obtain clearances from the Col- 
lector or Agent, stating the number of pieces in each raft--how many, if 
any, have been satisfactorily proved to be from Private Lands, and on how 
many, if any, the duties have previously or then been paid ; and on the arrival 
of any such raft or parcel of timber at Quebec, or at any intermediate place or 
other port, for sale or shipment, the owner or holder of it shall make 
report thereof within forty-eight hours to the iuspecior of llafth, Deputy 
Supervisor of Cullers, or other appointed officer, and in addition to tho 
quantity shewn by the clearance as subject to duty, any surplus timber 
})eyond the number of pieces stated herein, on being ascertained by the 
Inspector of Rafts, Deputy Supervisor of Cullers, or other authorized officer, 
shall be held as having been cut upon Crown Lands, and be subject to the 
payment of duties accordingly. 

Gth. Parties omitting to report the departure of their rafts or otlu'i 
timber from the Agency in which they held license, or the arrival thereof 
at Quebec, or other port or place for sale or shipment within the Province, 
as before mentioned, shall be refused further license, and be subject to th(^ 
forfeiture of the timber for evasion of regulations, as provided in Section 
3rd of 12th Vic, Cap. XXX. 

7th. Hereafter on the issue of License to cut timber on Public Lands, 
a Ground Pent of Two Shillings and Sixpence for every superficial mile 
licensed, shall be exacted in addition to the established duties ; and the 
deposit on account hitherto levied shall be discontinued. The Ground Rent 
shall be computed on the nearest approximation to the real areas of the 
timber berths, but on no license shall it be less than One Pound currency ; 
and no claim for reimbursement of ground rent over calculated will be enter- 
tained after the issue of license. 

8th. The ground rent to be exacted on the renewal of license shall be 
double that of the previous year if the berth has not been duly worked upon 
— increasing annually in that proportion while unoccupied, (excepting the 
year succeeding that in which the license has been first issued, if not in a 
surveyed township) ; reverting to the original rate on the berth being duly 
occupied; and the making ol 500 feet of square timber or 100 saw logs per 
square mile shall be considered as due occupation. 

9th. No timber berth shall be forfeited for the non-occupation of it, 
provided the increased ground rent on that account be duly paid ; but berths 
on which any increased ground rent is evaded by false statements as to occu- 
pation shall, (after the former holder has had an opportunity of being heard 
in opposition) be granted to the first applicant pleading such evasion and 
non-occupation on or before the 31st May, and proving the same by the 



1907 liEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 211 



certificate of a sworn Surveyor, on or before 31st July following. If half 
occupation only be proved, the former bolder may retain one-half of the 
berth after it has been equitably divided in the opinion of the Agent. 

10th. Vacant berths are to be granted to the first applicants and bo 
described in the licenses as — "not to interfere with prior licenses existing, 
or to be renewed in virtue of Regulations," but applicants for vacant berths 
must call for license and pay the required Ground Rent (giving satisfactory 
security for the payment of all duties that may accrue under the license) 
within three months of the receipt of their applications in the Bytown Tim- 
ber District, and all other parts of the Province where the lands are not 
laid out into Townships or otherwise surveyed for settlement, and within 
one month in those portions of other agencies where the lands are surveyed 
or otherwise laid out for settlement ; otherwise their applications will be 
void and the berths be grantable to the next applicants in succession. 
Ground Rent received to be returned to the applicant, should it be found 
that the berth asked cannot be made good to him. 

11th. Licentiates who have complied with all the regulations, will be 
entitled to renewal of the licenses for their berths in preference to other 
applicants for them, if they apply in writing for such renewal before the 
Ist of June next ensuing their previous license, and comply with the condi- 
tions mentioned in last clause before the 1st November following; failing 
which, the berths they held will then become vacant and will be offered for 
sale on 10th November following to the highest bidder making immediate 
payment, and if not then sold, will be granted to the first applicant there- 
after as usual. 

12th, When two or more applications are received at the same time 
for the same ground, it shall be divided between the parties by lot, — should 
any of them wish it to be so, otherwise the right to the whole is to be deter- 
mined by lot. But on Rivers, where the cost incurred for surveys or other 
causes may render it suitable, the preference to license for timber berths 
may be disposed of at such upset price as the Commissioner of Crown Lands 
may direct, and be awarded in whole, or in part, to the highest bidder at 
Auction 'making immediate payment, in case of clashing applications of 
equal right. 

13th. In the Bytown Timber District, and all other parts of the Pro- 
vince where the lands are not laid out into Townships or otherwise sur- 
veyed for settlement, when an applicant has been obstructed for a month or 
more by a prior application — (for the same ground) — that has become void, 
he is to be allowed one month in addition to the stated period to take out 
license, provided he applies in writing for such extension of time, within 
three months after the receipt of his application for license, and in those 
localities where, by the 10th clause of these Regulations, one month is the 
period for which an application is held good, ten days only shall be allowed 
in addition, in case of ten days or more of obstruction. 

14th. When an application cannot be decided upon till the result of 
some pending survey be known, or till it be projected, the applicant is to 
be allowed three months in the Bytown Timber District, and all other parts 
of the Province where the lands are not laid out into Townships, or other- 
wise surveyed for settlement, and one month elsewhere, to take out license, 
after the notification of the result, if in his favor, has been sent to his address ; 
and when the explorations necessary for the preparation of the sketches 
required by these Regulations cannot without serious loss be effected with- 
out an extension of time, it may, on written application, be granted. 
Licenses granted on erroneous descriptions or sketches furnished by appli- 
cants, are to be subordinate to subsequent accurately described licenses. 



212 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



and may be cancelled in whole, or in part, whenever deemed necessary; 
parties persisting in working under such licenses, after being required to 
desist, will be trespassers and subject to penalties as such. 

15th. The Surveyor of Licenses, and the other Crown Timber Agents, 
shall keep registers of all applications for berths, licenses granted, and 
transfers thereof, which, with their plans of licensed limits and vacant 
ground, shall be open for public inspection ; but no applicants shall be 
entitled to explanation as to applications subsequent to his own, for the 
same ground, 

16th. The Surveyor of Licenses at Bytown and Officers thereunto author- 
ized elsewhere, shall, at the written request of any party interested, issue 
instructions stating how the boundaries of timber berths should be run, to 
be in conformity with existing licenses. The surveys are to be performed at 
the expense of the parties requiring them, but the plans, reports and field 
notes thereof will be paid for and kept of record by the Surveyor of Licenses 
or Agent on their being examined and approved by him. 

17th. In all cases of contestation as to the right to berths or the posi- 
tion of bounds, the opinion of the Surveyer of Licenses at Bytown, or Agent 
for granting licenses elsewhere, is to be binding on the parties, unless and 
until reversed by arbitration, within three months after notification of such 
opinion has been communicated to the parties (or their representatives on 
the premises, or sent to their address) or by decision. of Court. 

18th. To prevent delay and disputes as to arbitrators, it shall only be 
necessary for the party thinking himself aggrieved by such opinion, to 
notify in writing to the officer who has given it, his dissent, and the arbitra- 
tor he has appointed ; it shall then be the duty of the Surveyor of Licenses, 
or other authorized officer, to take the place of the arbitrator on the other 
part, and in the case of their not agreeing to an umpire, should one be 
required, the Commissioner of Crown Lands shall appoint one, at the joint 
expense of the parties, on the request of either of them, or either of the 
arbitrators. 

19th. Transfers of berths to be in writing, and if not found objection- 
able by the Crown Lands Department or agent for granting of license, to 
be valid from the date on which they may be deposited in the hands of the 
latter; but no transfer to be valid till after one seasons actual occupation 
by the party transferring them. 

20th. Squatters or other occupants of land without authority, cutting 
timber or saw logs thereon without license (except for clearing, building 
or fencing thereon) or others doing so by their permission, will be subject 
to the penalties established by law for cutting timber without license. 

21st. Persons refusing or evading the payment of Slide Dues or duties 
on their timber, or the final settlement of bonds for the same before giving 
it away, or in any default with the Crown Timber Officer or Agent; also 
persons taking violent possession of disputed grounds before obtaining a 
decision in their favor, and parties refusing to comply with the decisions of 
Courts, or of Arbitrators, or the regulations established by Order in Coun- 
cil, or who forcibly interrupt surveyors, shall be refused further licenses, 
and their berths become disposable to others on the expiration of their 
licenses. 

22nd. The Collector of Crown Timber Dues or the officer in charge of 
the Bytown Timber District, may authorize any of the local Crown Land 
Agents to collect the duties on any timber or saw logs cut under license for 
local consumption or that may be sent to market, otherwise than by Bytown ; 
and air such Agents whose Agencies, or any part of them, may be within or 
adjoining the Bytown Timber District, are authorized to seize any timber 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 213 



or saw logs cut without license within or passing through their Agencies, 
on the proceeds of which they shall receive their usual percentage for col- 
lection. 

23rd. Licenses are to be granted on the annexed form. The clause at 
the foot thereof must be signed by Licentiate's Securities in place of the 
bonds formerly taken, and the description of the berth is to be written on 
the back of the license. 

Form of License. 

By authority of the Provincial Statute 12th Victoria, Chapter 30, and 
Regulations dated Eighth of August, 1851, and for and in consideration of 
the payments made, and to be made to Her Majesty : — 1 do hereby give 
UNTO and unto Agents and Workmen full 

power and license to cut upon the location described on the 

back hereof by and to hold and occupy the said 

location to the exclusion of all others, except as hereinafter mentioned : — 
from to Thirtieth April, 18 , and no longer; with the right 

of conveying away the said timber through any 

ungranted or waste Lands of the Crown : 

And by virtue of this License the said Licentiate has right by the said 
Provincial Statute to all timber cut by others in trespass on the ground 
hereby assigned, with full power to seize and recover the same anywhere 
within this Province aforesaid. 

But this License is subject to the following conditions, viz. : 

That any person or persons may at all times make and use roads upon, 
and travel over the ground hereby licensed, and cut and take therefrom any 
trees necessary to make Floats, Traverses, Oars and Withes for his or their 
use in rafting. 

That nothing herein shall prevent any person or persons from taking 
standing timber of any kind to be used for the making of roads or bridges, 
or for public works. 

And that persons settling under lawful authority or title within the 
location hereby licensed shall not in any way be interrupted by the said 
Licentiate, or any one acting for or by 

And further, under condition that the said Licentiate or 
representatives shall comply with all regulations that are or may be estab- 
lished by Order in Council, and shall submit all the timber cut under this 
license to be counted or measured, and settle for the duties chargeable 
thereon, when required by me or any other officer thereunto authorized, 
otherwise the said timber will be forfeited to the Crown, and the said Licen- 
tiate be subject to such other penalty as the Act provides. 

Given under my hand at this day of 

in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and 

Ground Rent £ 

Mm- We have read and comprehend the nature of the obligations con- 
tained in this License, and we bind ourselves jointly and severally, and 
each of our Heirs, Executors, Curators and Administrators, to pay all duties 
that may become due and payable to Her Majesty, Her Heirs or Successors, 
on any timber cut or acquired by virtue of this License in the event of the 
above named Licentiate failing or refusing to pay the same, or to give satis- 
factory^ bonds for the payment thereof. 



214 REPORT OF THE No. H 



Penalty for not Working. 

The principal change in the system created by the regulations was the 
imposition of a ground rent, a measure almost universally favored by prac- 
tical lumbermen as the best means of preventing the monopolization of 
unworked limits. The deposit on account of dues was discontinued, and 
in case the comparatively small ground rent should be insufficient to prevent 
licensees holding their limits from year to year unoccupied, as might easily 
be the case should the limits be specially valuable and the market dull, it 
was provided that the ground rent should be doubled for every year that 
the- limits remained unworked. The general principle of disposing of tim- 
ber berths by grant to the first applicant, giving previous occupants who 
had complied with the regulations the preference, was left undisturbed. 

Auction System Extended. 

But a particularly significant modification was introduced by the 12th 
clause, providing that upon rivers where the cost of surveys rendered' it 
advisable, preferences for licenses might be disposed of at an upset price 
fixed by the Commissioner of Crown Lands, and in the case of competition 
awarded to the highest bidder at auction. This is an important extension 
of the principle adopted in 1842, and an advance towards the adoption of 
the auction system as it now exists. 

To Preverit the Export of Saw Logs. 

Another noteworthy change in the law, interesting in view of the 
importance attaching to the same question in the course of recent legisla- 
tion and diplomacy, was the provision that all saw logs cut upon public 
lands, if exported from the Province, should be paid for at double the 
ordinary rate. This subject had been brought to the attention of Parlia- 
ment during the session of 1851, when on the 22nd of May petitions from 
TT. McKinnon and other lumbermen and mill-owners of Bayham and sur- 
rounding townships, and from the municipality of Bayham were presented, 
asking for an export duty on unmanufactured pine logs and timber designed 
for foreign markets. The county of Middlesex also petitioned for measures 
to prevent the exportation of pine logs. On the 2nd of June the Hon. Mr. 
Sherwood brought the matter up by an inquiry of the Government as to 
whether they intended to propose such a duty, or to take any other steps to 
protect the timber manufacturers of the Province against the injurious 
practice, on the part of American citizens, of securing Crown Lands at a 
low rate for the purpose of cutting timber to be manufactured in their own 
country. Hon. Mr. Hincks' reply was to the effect that it was not the inten- 
tion ^of the Government to propose an export duty on saw logs, but that steps 
had been taken to prevent the destruction of timber on the Crown Lands. 
The embodiment in the regulations of the clause respecting the double duty 
on saw logs cut for export was no doubt the result of this agitation, which 
appears to have excited very little public interest beyond the circle of those 
immediately concerned in the trade. 

Tnicreased Revenues . — Red Pine Values. 

The beneficial effects of the more stringent policy inaugurated by the 
new resrulations, were not long in manifesting themselves. There was an 
immediate and considerable increase in the revenue from timber licenses. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 215 



The proceeds of timber dues were £22,270 in 1848; £24,198 in 1849; £24,728 
in 1850, and £30,318 in 1851. In 1852, tlie first year in which the new 
regulations were in operation, the total receipts from timber licenses and 
duties went up to £53,013, of which £7,656 represented ground rents. 
This increase, moreover, accrued in spite of the reduction by one-half of 
the rate which had previously been levied on red pine. The trade in that 
article had for some years been declining in volume, and the timber decreas- 
ing in price, while the white pine, formerly considered as of secondary 
importance, had met with increasing appreciation in the British market. 
Under these circumstances the distinction made by the tariff of rates, which 
fixed the duty on red pine timber at one penny per foot, while white pine 
only paid one half -penny, was felt to be an injustice and an anomaly. Peti- 
tions from the corporation of Bytown and the municipal council of Carleton 
County, among others were forwarded to the Government, praying for a 
reduction of the Red Pine duty. Hon. John Rolph, the Commissioner of 
Crown Lands, in a report on the subject, dated July 24th, 1852, dealt fully 
with the changed conditions of the lumber export trade and the causes 
resulting in the supremacy of Canadian white pine as our staple forest pro- 
duct. His presentation of the matter is of general interest, apart from the 
immediate ob3ect of the inquiry, in its relation to the new phase entered 
upon by the lumber industry in response to the altered demands of the 
British market. After noting the representations of the petitioners that 
from time to time, when the Imperial differential duty was reduced below 
24s. per loaa, the export of Canadian red pine began to diminish and their 
apprehensions, that the continued decline in the trade threatened its utter 
extinction unless the heavy charges to which it was subject were reduced by 
equalizing the duty with that on white pine, the report continued: — "It 
appears that the rates levied upon the respective kinds of timber were 
adopted under circumstances very, different from what now exist. At a 
period not very remote, white pine, the staple product of the forests of 
Canada, did not bear a very high character in the British markets. On 
the other hand, red pine, which is the staple product of the forests of Northern 
Europe, was highly esteemed. The result was that the heavy duty on 
foreign timber enhanced the price of that article, of which the supply was 
obtained mainly from the Baltic, and while the greater quantity obtained 
from thence regulated the price, the limited supply obtained from Canada 
was favored by a difference at one time of more than Is., and until lately 
of more than 6d. per foot, even the latter being much more than the differ- 
ence in freight. 

White Pin^ in Favor. 

"Of late years, however, the White Pine of Canada has been found, for 
many purposes, a better article than red, and has acquired a higher charac- 
ter than it formerly bore, the result of which has been that while the export 
value of the Red Pine in Quebec has been diminished by the withdrawal of 
the artificial price formerly created for it, the value of White Pine has 
become gradually enhanced by a better appreciation of its qualities. 

"It is indeed to be hoped that Canada will, upon the whole, be a gainer 
by the changed aspect of the trade. It may seem strange that a higher value 
should be attached to a highly taxed article, merely, as it were, by reason of 
its extra price, but it is a remarkable fact that, as the price of a highly taxed 
and highly priced article was lowered by the removal of the unjust impost 
upon the consumer, the comparatively untaxed article, till then cheap, 
became better appreciated as it became subject to a more equitable and 

15 L.M. 



•ice (40 


feet average) 


s. d. 




1 


per foot. 


1 




111 




9 




8i 




8 




8 





216 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



fair competition. When the colonial timber trade was 'protected,' the 
species of timber which Canada and New Brunswick only could supply in 
abundance was cheap, and in proportion to its price was considered of little 
value, but when left to fair competition, it has risen in the estimation of 
the consumer to an extent equivalent to the loss sustained upon that species 
of timber which had really been enhanced in value by the dilierential duty." 

The report refers to the statistics presented in the memorial of the 
County of Carleton as evidencing the serious and permanent character of 
the depression in the export of red pine, which are as follows : — 

Export. 

1844 4,699,149 

1845 5,182,320 

1846 5,206,040 

1847 4,466,520 

1848 4,365,440 

1849 4,070,600 

1850 3,586,844 

1851 3,482,400 8 

White versus Red. 

The report went on to point out that the then existing rates of duty 
levied upon red and white pine, apparently established in 1829, has been 
maintained through all the mutations of the trade since that period with- 
out modification. Though no statistics were available to show the relative 
value of red' pine at that period, yet at a much more recent date the average 
market value was at least double the value of white pine and therefore justly 
subject to the higher duty. It still bore a higher value in Quebec market 
than white pine, but it also cost more to bring it to market, considering 
which it was doubtful whether red pine bore even as high a value as white 
when growing in its natural state. It was of much smaller average size and 
consequently required a greater amount of labor to produce in a marketable 
state an equal quantity of cubic feet. The red pine producing country lay 
at a greater average distance from the market, increasing the cost of trans- 
portation, and the average level of the red pine country was higher than 
where the white pine was principally produced, consequently there were 
greater obstacles and more expenses incurred for slides, dams and other 
improvements to enable it to be floated. The heavier charges to which the 
production of red pine was subject, were therefore regarded as fully equiv- 
alent to any difference in the market price in its favor and reducing its value 
as a standing timber to a par with the white pine. 

The Commissioner estimated the loss to the revenue for the current sea- 
son by the proposed reduction at £4,166 13s., but stated that the amount 
would be more than made up by the stricter enforcement of the law, and 
the prevention of frauds by which timber had escaped the payment of duties 
under the false pretence of being from private lands. The report concluded 
with the recommendation that in consideration of existing circumstances of 
the trade the prayer of the petitioners be granted and the duty on red pine 
be reduced to one half-penny per cubic foot. An Order in Council to this 
effect was accordingly issued on the 14th of September following. 

15a L. M. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 217 



Exjports. 

In connection with tliis subject the following figures from a return *of 
the quantity of timber measured through the Supervisor of Culler's office at 
Quebec for the years 1845-52 are of interest as showing the relative import- 
ance of white and red pine at that period: — 

Year. White Pine. Red Pine. 

Feet. Feet. 

1845 19,141,982 4,444,515 

1846 24,662,815 5,183,307 

1847 12,074,708 0,516,922 

1848 7,132,127 4,223,952 

1849 11,924,198 3,797,584 

1850 14,388,593 2,121,316 

1851 •.. 15,487,180 3,189,657 

1852 to Sept. 30 26,364,464 1,857,333 

During the session of 1854-55 Mr. Carter, introduced a bill to protect 
the forest and to prevent the setting of fire to the woods with the view of 
clearing lands. The measure was however dropped before reaching a 
second reading, probably in consequence of the appointment of a Committee 
of the House to investigate the whole subject of the management of pub- 
lic lands. On the 16th October, 1854, the House of Commons adopted the 
following resolution : — 

"Resolved, that a select committee composed of Mr. Gait, the Hon. 
Mr. Morin, the Hon. John Sandfield Macdonald, the Hon. Mr. Hincks, the 
Hon. Mr. Rolph, Mr. Lemieux, Mr. Jean Baptiste Eric Dorion, Mr. Lang- 
ton, Mr. Ferguson, Mr. Fortier, Mr. Egan, the Hon. Mr. Merritt, and Mr. 
Cauchon, be appointed to examine and report upon the present system of 
management of the Public Lands and the various dues arising therefrom, 
together with the present mode of selling, leasing and otherwise disposing 
of the same, to report thereon with all convenient speed, with power to send 
for persons, papers and records." 

The evidence taken by this committee covers a great number of points 
in relation to the lumber trade and forest management. The tenor of many 
of the answers received to the questions submitted by the committee are 
full of suggestion regarding the problem as it presents itself to-day, and 
show that the various phases of the question were at that time becoming 
better understood and receiving more intelligent consideration than in the 
earlier days of the trade. 

Loss of Timber Dues Through Squatters . 

One of the most conspicuous abuses of the system to which frequent 
reference has been made, was the cutting of timber by settlers and squatters, 
either under the colorable title of purchase or otherwise. As has been seen 
the profuse granting of land far in excess of the requirements of settlement, 
prior to the outbreak of 1837, and the consequent low price of land for some 
time afterwards, brought about a state of affairs under which it was fre- 
quently cheaper to buy timbered areas outright for lumbering purposes than 
*to pay the Government dues. 

In later years the conditions of sale remained so exceedingly liberal 
that advantage was frequently taken of them to obtain possession of the 
land by payment of a small instalment of the purchase money for the sole 



218 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



purpose of exploiting the timber. . Under the regulations for the sale of 
public lands which prevailed at the time of the enquiry, the price varied, 
according to location and character, from three to ten shillings per acre. 
In the case of the higher priced lands in Western Upper Canada the money 
could be paid by instalments covering a period of ten years, only one-tenth 
being demanded in cash. Although the regulations strictly prohibited the 
cutting of timber, except where necessary for building, fencing and clear- 
ing, they were in many cases set at defiance. 

William Spragge, of the Crown Lands Department, in a letter to the 
committee, after recommending that all ordinary Public Lands in Upper 
Canada should be placed at a uniform rate of five shillings per acre, thus 
refers to the timber difficulty : — 

"Of the purchase money it is desirable that a sufficient proportion shall 
be paid down, to guard against the land being plundered of its timber and 
then abandoned, which there is reason to believe is the course often pur- 
sued under the present system of. one-tenth payments. Accordingly I 
would substitute payments of two-fifths, relieving the settlers from any fur- 
ther payment until the expiration of three years, by which term it may be 
assumed that from the produce of his land he would then be in a condition 
to pay a further instalment of another one-fifth. 

Settlement Dificulties. 

"Before concluding this letter it becomes advisable to refer generally 
to the privilege of cutting and disposing of timber and other merchantable 
wood, previously to the land being paid for in full. For the reason that the 
present system of one -tenth instalment conveys by a payment to that extent 
a species of right to the land, or a claim, the weight of which others not 
concerned do not choose to dispute, and under cover of which it is under- 
stood parties in many cases despoil the land of its timber, notwithstanding 
the prohibition to the contrary, and having accomplished their object will, 
in those cases where the land is not of superior quality, probably make no 
further payments. It is suggested that a permit to cut timber and merchant- 
able wood be given to purchasers, under the system proposed, upon their 
depositing with the local agent, upon obtaining such permit, the amount of 
duty in advance upon the quantity of timber to be specified therein; as 
authorized to be cut and removed, the amount so deposited to remain avail- 
able towards the purchase in the event of the required quantity of land 
being duly cleared in the proportion and within the time prescribed and 
the conditions of the occupation fulfilled. But the amount to be forfeited 
if compliance with the terms of settlement be not rendered, and also any 
fraud or mis-statement as to the quantity actually cut to render void the 
permit and have the effect of cancelling the purchase, forfeiting such sums 
as may have been paid in on account of it, and rendering liable to seizure 
all timber and wood, particularly in the permit, or assumed to have been 
cut under its authority and which can be attached. 

'Tor the prevention and punishment of fraud, it is often found advis- 
able to fence in by strongest regulations the public rights, and probably 
there is no description of property which requires to be so carefully guarded 
as the Public Lands and timber " 

A. T. Gait. 

Hon. Alexander T. Gait, who in his capacity as manager of the British 
American Land Company, addressed a letter to the committee, expressed 
himself in favor of the American system of selling the Public Lands at a 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 219 



low price for casli only. He regarded the denial of the right of the bona 
iide settler to sell timber as a hardship. "The plan adopted in my own 
management," he wrote, "and which I think might be followed with advan- 
tage, is to require the party purchasing the timber to account for it at the 
usual rate of stumpage, and the amount is thereupon passed to the credit of 
the purchaser of the land." 

The Reciprocity Treaty. 

Further observations made in this communication deal with a question, 
which was assuming prominence in connection with lumbering operations 
in consequence of the existing and prospective development of the export 
trade to the United States on a large scale. The adoption of the Reciprocity 
Treaty in 1854 securing <he free exchange of the natural products between 
Canada and the United States, including "timber and lumber of all kinds, 
round, hewed and sawed, manufactured in whole or in part," stimulated 
considerably the growing demand in the United States for Canadian lumber. 
In proportion as the market for sawn lumb-er developed, the cutting of 
square timberj for long the leading branch of the industry, declined in 
importance and became less essential to the prosperity of the lumbering 
interest. The disadvantages of the square timber trade as compared with 
that of sa^n lumber, more especially its wastefulness and the greater danger 
of forest fires involved by the debris and litter left in the woods, began to 
attract attention. Hon. A. T. Gait's remarks on the question in the letter 
before mentioned are as follows : 

Square Timber Wasteful. 

"Timber trade of Canada until the development of the American market, 
was almost confined to the export of square timber and deals. Apart from 
the indirect advantages of thus, employing a large number of ships giving 
cheap passage to emigrants, I have always regarded the export of square 
timber as a. profligate waste of one of the greatest sources of Provincial 
wealth. I believe it is at this day entirely unnecessary to enter into any 
argument to prove that the value of our forests to the country is precisely 
in proportion to the amount of labor expended in preparing the timber for 
market, and that therefore the more crude and raw stat« in which it is 
exported the less value the trade is to the Province. 

"It must be conceded that it is most desirable to adopt such a policy as 
will cause capital, skill and labor to be most generally embarked in the 
trade, and this can o^ly be done by holding out in the disposal of the timber^ 
greater inducements to manufacture it into sawn lumber than into square 
timber, which latter wastes the finest portion of the wood, and represents 
th^ smallest amount of fixed capital and labor in its preparation. 

"The importance of this distinction it appears to me, has never been 
sufiiciently realized in the conditions under which timber limits have been 
disposed of. And I would strongly urge the consideration of it on the Com- 
mittee with the view of their recommending such rates as may have a 
tendency to induce the export of timT)er in a manufactured state. One of 
two things must at present arise, either an inadequate rate must continue 
to be charged for saw logs, or an absolute bonus must be given to encour- 
age the manufacture of that class of timber which is least valuable to the 
Province, 



220 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



Rates of Dues too Low. 

"I regard the present rates charged by the Crown for timber, us gen- 
erally much too low, and believing that an increase would fall, not on the 
trade, but on the consumer, I suggest an immediate and considerable 
advance, which, if it should have the effect of causing greater attention to 
be given to the manufacture of sawn lumber, would tend to the more rapid 
settlement and prosperity of the great Ottawa Valley. Undoubtedly the 
increase of our lumber trade with the United States will be in the direc- 
tion of sawn lumber, and it fully justifies the Government in seeking to 
obtain a price commensurate with the increased value of the timber." 

An Ojjicial View. 

Mr. Spragge, Chief Clerk of the Crown Lands Department, in a state- 
ment prepared for the committee, as to the cost of managing the public 
domain, with suggestions for changes in the direction of efficiency . and 
economy, thus dealt with the question : 

''There is yet a subject to which I will take leave to allude, entitled, I 
think, to special attention. Those who have taken a real interest in the 
timber and lumber trade of Canada will be in a position, provided they have 
given due attention to the subject, to weigh the relative advantages of 
shipping the products of our forests in the form of squared timber, or in the 
more valuable and prepared form of deals and other sawed stuff. In per- 
ambulating land where timber has been made, as the expression goes, it 
is impossible to be otherwise than struck with the enormous amount of 
valuable wood which the axeman separates from the stick of timber, which, 
by the process of squaring, he is fitting for exportation, and which remains 
where it was detached from the square piece, and in process of time uselessly 
rots upon the ground. A bend in the tree or any small defect some distance 
up the trunk consigns all abovie one or the other to the same useless destiny 
of rotting upon the ground, which befalls the blocks which the axeman 
cleaves off, in reducing the round trunk to a square, and all but the superior 
trees and those which will make a piece of timber of a given length and 
square, remain unused. 

"In cutting the short saw logs intended to be worked into deals, and 
other stuff manufactured in a saw mill, it is evident that the proportion 
of each tree, which can be converted into an article of export, may be estim- 
ated at fully three-fourths more than could be rendered available for market 
by making the tree into hewn timber, and many trees rejected as unfit lor 
timber, would cut up into saw logs, were the land divested of its timber 
trees for that purpose, instead of the other, — and I think it may be reason- 
ably computed that an acre of white pine would bring back to the Province, 
when converted into deals and other sawed stuff, a return three-fold greater 
than if exported as hewn timber. With this of course the superior value of 
the cubic foot of sawn timber would have something to do. And again, it 
should be kept In view, the more extended employment conferred upon the 
laboring population in preparing for the foreign market the cargo of the 
ship freighted with sawn stuff, beyond that expended upon the freight of 
the timber-laden ship. Add to this the employment that mills afford to 
artizans, and the advantage to the farmer resulting from the greater home 
consumption of produce, induced by one system of export rather than the 
other; and sound reasons deducible from the various circumstances com- 
bined, will be found for fostering and encouraging the shipment of the pro- 



11H)7 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 221 



duce of our forests, when prepared for exportation as deals or other sawn 
stuff in preference to their being sent from the Province in the shape of 
timber. 

Drawhach Proposal. 

"There is one way, which occurs to me, in which this seemingly desir- 
able encouragement could be afforded, that is, by allowing a drawback to 
the shipper equal to one-third of the duty leviable. When it is taken into 
account that the duty paid by the lumber merchant upon what he takes off 
from every acre (using up everything which he can prepare for export) is pro- 
bably more than three-fold greater than would be paid by the timber 
merchant were he to make timber upon the same piece of land; from the 
circumstance that of necessity he rejects or wastes what the other had no 
difficulty in working up ; the lumber merchant appears^ to have a species of 
right oh his side to the mark of consideration for his branch of trade, which 
the allowance of a drawback would indicate. 

"It is unfortunately too much a matter of certainty that what used to 
be designated our inexhaustible supplies of timber are rapidly disappear- 
ing, and sound policy would suggest that inducements should be offered for 
economizing that which still stands in the forest ; and in addition to those 
which I have already named for the following among other reasons : The 
British capital invested in our railways, and in Provincial and Municipal 
loans, must ere long lead to an annual drain in very considerable sums in 
the way of interest and profit, and the large amounts hitherto yearly brought 
into the country and expended for military purposes being about to cease 
will, both the one and the other, tend to render it more difficult than ever 
to balance our accounts satisfactorily with Europe. To export all our pro- 
ducts in a shape and form such as to increase their intrinsic value cannot 
but be a matter of the greatest moment; and I believe that in recommend- 
ing the allowance of a drawback on deals and other sawn stuff I am advocat- 
ing a measure worthy of serious consideration." 

The System in United States. 

The differences between the Canadian and American systems of dispos- 
ing of the timber were thoroughly discussed during the course of the investi- 
gation. The exposition of the methods pursued in the United States ren- 
dered it abundantly evident that whatever defects might exist in the Can- 
adian system it was much superior to that of the United States in the matter 
of preventing the monopoly of natural resources by comparatively few 
individuals and securing to the public treasury returns in some measure 
proportionate to the value of the privileges granted. 

Jonathan R. White of the State of Michigan, explained to the com- 
mittee the system adopted in the United States for the sale of public lands 
and timber as follows : 

"The land districts, which are established by Act of Congress, having 
been surveyed, measures are taken for the sale of the lands by the appoint- 
ment of a Registrar and a Receiver. The Registrar is supplied with all 
necessary information respecting the lands. He receives the applications 
and issues his certificates of application, but receives no money. The 
Receiver receives the money for lands, transmits it immediately to Wash- 
ington with name of purchaser, in whose favor the patent at Washington is 
then transmitted to the Registrar of the land district for delivery. On the 



222 REPORT OF THE No. 3 

appointmeiit of the Registrar and Receiver the lands are declared by pro- 
clamation of the President as open for sale, and a public auction is adver- 
tised to take place at the Registrar's office in the land district at the uniform, 
fixed upset price for all the public lands in the United States of one dollar 

No Limit to Quantity. 

and twenty-five cents per acre. Such lands as are not sold at auction are 
therefore open for sale to any applicant at the upset price. Neither at the 
first auction sale nor afterwards is there any limitation as to quantity that 
may be bought. The lands are all sold for cash. By Act of Congress of 
last year a graduated scale of prices has been fixed, whereby lands remain- 
ing unsold for a certain number of years may be disposed of at lower rates 
than one dollar and twenty-five cents. A party desirous of purchasing 
makes application in writing to the Registrar, who, in the absence of other 
claimants, issues a certificate in his favor, with which he proceeds to the 
Receiver and pays the purchase money." 

The following answers made by Mr. "White to questions submitted by 
the Committee explain the working of the system as it affected the lumber 
industry. 

"Will you state the mode in which timber is disposed of?" "The Gov- 
ernment do not permit the sale of timber on public lands, and agents are 
expressly appointed to prevent depredation. The purchase of the land is 
the only mode in which timber can be obtained." 

"Do you consider this a good plan?" "I do. It aids the sale of the 
lands, making them subject to taxation and encouraging the settlement 
of the country, also promotes the saving of the timber, which, under the 
stumpage system, will always be more or less wasted. The lands are gen- 
erally fit for settlement after the timber is removed." 

"Supposing the land to be of little value for agricultural purposes, 
would you still consider it expedient to sell the land and not the timber by 
stumpage?" "I would not. If the land be of little value except for the 
timber, it is the greater reason for selling it, especially as if sold the tim- 
ber will be more economically applied." 

Objection to American Plan. 

The Canadian lumbermen and Crown Lands officials who gave evidence 
clearly pointed out the defects of the American svstem as set forth by Mr. 
White. 

"I have read Mr. White's evidence," said David Roblin, an experienced 
lumberman," and am decidedly of the opinion that the plan he proposes 
would at once place in the hands of the rich and opulent capitalist all the 
good lands of the Crown, or would lead to the formation of private companies 
for the purpose of purchasing the whole of them; once in the hands of 
wealthy individuals or companies they would immediately ask a large advance 
upon the cost and sell them on time to those that actually cultivate and 
improve the lands, and who have no other resource but to submit and to pay 
such fines as were demanded or seek elsewhere for more favorable terms to 
obtain a living for themselves and families, * * * With reference to Mr. 
White's remarks respecting the disposal of timber on the public lands," it is 
quite evident that he knows very little of the subject upon which 
he speaks or of the amount of duties paid on timber here. He says 
it is even better to sell lands that are not fit for agricultural purposes than 
to sell the timber. Now take the plan which he proposes, viz., selling the 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 223 



land iu the United States at 6s. 3d. per acre, and suppose these lands were 
timbered, it would take 150 feet of pine timber at ^d. per cubic foot (the 
Government duties) to paj for an acre of land, about two trees to the acre 
of a very ordinary size, being only 75 feet average. Now it will be observed 
that if the Government onlv get duties on two trees to the acre they get this 
price with the land left, which is certainly worth something even should 
it be given to an actual settler. But the fact is one acre of good timbered 
land will afford on the average at least about five times the quantity above 
mentioned. His remarks on this score may be quite applicable to prairie 
lands, where little or no timber is to be found, but can never apply to lands 
where there are to be found 150 feet on an acre, and the price according to 
his estimate. I may add that I have only taken pine timber in the above 
calculation, which pays a much less duty than other descriptions such as 
oak, elm, etc." 

Andrew J. Russell, Crown Lands agent at Bytown, urged that past 
experience was strongly against the uncontrolled acquisition of land in 
blocks. "Were such a blight," he said, "to fall on the lands fit for settle- 
ment on the Ottawa it would check the consolidation of the Province as an 
inhabited country, and be injurious to its unity and strength. For there, 
as the chief value of the land is in its timber forests, we know it would be 
for that it would be purchased by speculators ; the soil would be little thought 
of. The lumbering which is causelessly complained of now would then 
certainly be the governing interest and settlement be entirely at its mercy. 
Government would have lost all control of the land which it now retains and 
the immediate interest of the speculator would overrule the interest of the 
Province. * * * '\^\^q unconditional sale of lands could not possibly 
forward settlement more than the present system — would be advantageous 
to the speculators but fatally injurious to the revenue and might, by checking 
settlement, be injurious to the welfare of the Province." 

Private Ownership. 

How well-founded these objections to the American system were has 
been amply shown by the experience of later years. The alienation of exten- 
sive tracts of the public domain of the United States has not promoted econ- 
omical methods of lumbering with an eye to maintaining the productiveness 
of the forests for the benefit of future generations. On the contrary it has 
resulted in large regions adapted by nature for tree-bearing, but otherwise 
unproductive, being stripped entirely of their vegetation with the object of 
realizing immediate profit and turned into barren wastes, while the fact 
that the ownership of the soil remains vested in private hands is a serious 
obstacle to such comprehensive plans of reforestation as in the light of the 
increased knowledge of the subject and the urgent necessities of the case 
might otherwise be undertaken. In those instances where it is sought to 
accomplish something in the direction of setting aside forest reserves, the 
State governments either find their schemes confined within narrow limits 
or rendered abortive by the conflict with vested rights which should never 
have been accorded, or find themselves compelled to repurchase at a heavy 
cost the lands necessary for their purpose. 

Early Forestry Advocates. — Bogus Settlers. 

The evidence of several of those who testified before the committ<'e 
shows that practical men at that time realized the desirability of maintain- 
ing permanently in timber the non-agricultural regions and understood tliat 



224 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



tlie principal danger to tlie stability and permanency of the lumbering iut(;r-. 
est was the opening up for settlement, or the toleration of squatters i pon 
the lands ee.pecially adapted for forest reserves. Criticizing an observation 
made by Mr. Sprague, Mr. A. J. Russell said "he is also mistaken in saying 
that the lumber trade is but a temporary branch of trade of which a few 
years more will probably see the end. In the region of which he speaks the 
quantity of arable land is comparatively small, much must forever remain 
a forest country, of which its timber will continue a staple all the more 
valuable for its becoming scarce elsewhere and will continue to give an 
mf-reaseu value to farm produce there. * * * It is not desirable to 
have forest tracts wholly unfit for settlement surveyed into subdivided town- 
ships. The expense is lost to the public and the subdivision otters facilities 
for the plundering of timber from the adjoining Crown Land under the 
preteia'p of settlement on the lots purchased by them (unless duties be levied 
as I propose on all timber from lands in future sold). It also oifers some 
temptation for settlers to occupy inferior lands where they cannot after- 
wnrds prosper, for the temporary profit of the timber, and where the fires 
they occasion in burning choppings at unsuitable seasons c^T-tainly increase 
the destruction of the standing forests. As to the protection of the public 
domain from fire, I am afraid but little can be done. The sale of forests 
to private individuals would have but little effect that way, for the license 
holders have now already as great an interest in preserving the timber as if 
they were proprietors. The only practicable measures I can think of are, 
to enforce the law against burning brushwood during the season when 
danger is greatest from fire, making the offence a misdemeanor punishable 
by fine and imprisonment and giving a reward to informers. The injury 
to settlements as well as to the public forests on the Ottawa would justify 

Forest Lands to he Surveyed. 

additional rigor. And the discouragement of the practice of squatting in 
the timber forests, which would be best effected by surveying and throwing 
open for settlement at a low price such tracts of land only as are really fit 
for cultivation. Especially endeavoring to draw settlers of all kinds back 
into the hardwood country on the headwaters of the western tributaries of 
the Ottawa, by the opening of practicable roads and a survey of a sufficient 
quantity of land there for settlement. Giving no encouragement to settle- 
ment in the timber tracts, except where necessary for the maintenance of 
roads unavoidably leading through them to a better land." 

William Hamilton, lumberman, in reply to a question as to the pre- 
valence of forest fires and the best method of preventing them, said : 

"The most certain way of preventing the destruction of timber by fire 
is that Government should put a stop to squatters entering into the land of 
the Crown (either surveyed or unsurveyed) without the consent of either the 
nearest local agent or that of the Government, as there is sufficient land of 
equal, if not better, quality unoccupied in the front townships. The only 
cause of destruction of timber has arisen from such settlers and I am satis- 
fied that there is annually destroyed as much, if not more, timber by fire by 
such settlers tJian arrives in the Quebec market yearly." 

The following extract from the evidence of James Henry Burke of 
Bytown, sets forth Tery clearly the mutually advantageous relations exist- 
ing between the lumbering and the agricultural interests, and also 
emphasizes the view more positively and comprehensively brought out dur- 
ing the course of this investigation than in any previous treatment of the 
subject, that a radical and essential difference in the administrative system 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 225 



in dealing witii agricultural lands and non-agricultural lands respectively, 
was not merely warranted, but necessitated to insure justice to both these 
interests. The weakness of the American method, or any system that 
approximates to it, in including non-cultivatable forest-covered land in the 
same category as soil capable of profitable tillage, is that in treating the 
timber as a mere appendage to the land, instead of a feature giving a dis- 
tinct and specific character to the region producing it, the interests of the 
public and posterity are almost certain to be sacrificed to the immediate 
profit of the purchaser. 

Lumhering — An Aid to Settlement. 

To the question, "What effect has the present system on the preserva- 
tion of the forest, and on the settlement of the waste lands of the Crown?" 
Mr. Burke replied : "I tliink the present system has a tendency to conserve 
the pine timber, to spread a local market for the produce of the backwoods 
settler over the longest space of time, without which the settlement of several 
hundred square miles of your best territory can scarcely be made. We have 
an immense fertile territory stretching westward from Bytown to Lake 
Huron, and north-westward from Nipissing to Lake of the Woods, which, 
as a whole, is no way inferior to an equal area of some of the Eastern States 
of the Union. But our territory is a wilderness. In the centre of the coun- 
try named lies the timber fields of the Ottawa, at present yielding their first 
crop, which goes to build up the cities of the east and west. Nature has so 
arranged it, that this pine-producing territory does not possess a fertile 
soil. Were it such, the axe of the settler would destroy the timber required 
to make the western prairies inhabitable, or to spread the comforts of civil- 
ized life over the forestless isles and continent of Europe. This pine ter- 
ritory has its allotted end, and will subserve; perchance beneath those far- 
stretching forests repose rich mines of metal to tempt man's arm to delve 
the earth when the dark green canopy, which shuts out sunlight, has dis- 
appeared. 

'*But mark this coincidence; surrounding this pine territory and con- 
tiguous to the great lumber fields, is the large area to which we have 
alluded, possessing a fertile soil and timbered with hardwood. This timber 
has not the commercial value of pine, and its destruction is not a national 
loss. This land is destined to sustain a large body of agriculturists in close 
proximity to the great timber making centres. It enables us to raise iiie 
grain, fodder and provisions, consumed in timber making, from eighty to 
ninety miles nearer the ground of consumption than we now do. While 
the lumber trade flourishes in pristine vigor population should be intro- 
duced, but let us not be understood to encourage the wanton, foolish and 
insane policy of the Crown Lands Department in surveying, a township 
where nothing but pine and rock exist, or where to get a thousand acres of 
habitable land, settlers may be thrown in to spread fire and havoc through 
the pine forests; we go for keeping a fair line of separation between the 
lumbering and agricultural regions, as nature has laid it down. The whole 
bulk of the produce consumed in lumbering above Bytown is moved a dis- 
tance of one hundred and two miles, we can shorten this distance materially. 
The moving of these supplies costs nearly fifty thousand poimds per annum 
— it is so much thrown away. Were the lumber market cut off from the 
people who now command it, immediately after our railways now in hand 
are completed, the country would be no loser. When good communication 
with the eastern seaboard exists and the Reciprocity Treaty secures our 



226 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



equality with, the Americans in their own markets, we can ali'ord to leave 
the lumber market to an interior population. The sooner that market is 
supplied by the soil west of the seventy-seventh degree of longtitude, the 
better for the country. All grain grown east of that will find as profitable 
an outlet to the eastward. To arrive at such a state of things we want a 
population of eighty or one hundred thousand additional souls laboring the 
productive soil of the interior, and to have this we must encourage immigra- 
tion." 

To Prevent Fires. 

"What means would you suggest for the preservation of the forest from 
fire?" "Survey no townships on which the soil fit for farming purposes 
does not bear a certain proportion to the pine-covered soil, which in most 
cases is unfit for settlement, permit no isolated scattered settlers to locate 
amidst the pine forests, and forbid by general law, or municipal regula- 
tions, the burning of brush, etc., between the 4th of June and 4th of Sep- 
tember." 

The report of the Select Committee was made on the 18th of May, 1855, 
the two first paragraphs of which are as follows : ^ 

"That owing to the varied and extensive character of the subject 
referred to your committee, and the very important interests liable to be 
affected by such changes as might be recommended, it has not been possible 
to obtain sufficient evidence to warrant your committee in arriving at a 
definite conclusion and general report on the matters referred to them. They 
are, therefore, obliged to report the evidence obtained to your Honorable 
House, accompanied by the unanimous expression of their opinion, that 
important modifications of the present system are imperatively required, 
and they, therefore, recommend that the subject with the evidence here- 
with submitted, be again referred to a Select Committee of your Honorable 
House at the next meeting of Parliament. 

"With reference to the disposal of timber on the public domain, your 
committee strongly recommend, that no change whatever be made in the 
terms upon which present limits are held, pending the final decision of 
your Honorable House in reference to this most important question, as it 
is their unanimous opinion that, until the system is determined upon and 
regulated by Act of Parliament, a change of the present regulations would 
be detrimental to the public interests." 

Ground Rent. 

The ground rent system adopted under the Timber regulations of 
August 8th, 1851, was modified by an Order-in-Council of the 20th of 
August, 1855, providing "That the extreme amount of ground rent payable 
as a penalty, over and above the single rent in any case of non-occupation 
shall not exceed the minimum amount the berth would produce in duties 
(on square timber) if duly occupied according to regulations ; but this limita- 
tion not to affect timber berths acquired since the ground rent system was 
in force by competition thereon, or other special regulation and not to imply 
but what the Government may raise the rents or increase the duties, as the 
future circumstances of the trade mav render expedient." 

The terms of this Order-in-Council clearly indicate the determination 
of the Government to guard against any assumption that the purchase of 
timber limits subject to a ground rent conveyed such a vested right, either 
moral or legal as would preclude the imposition of new conditions or 
increased payments whenever it might be deemed advisable. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 227 



Regulations Subject to Change. 

From the very outset the settled policy of the Crown in dealing with 
the holders of the timber licenses has been to maintain unimpaired the right 
of Government to vary at will the terms upon which the limits were held 
from year to year, the claim of the licensee extending no further than the 
working of his limit under whatever regulations might be imposed. The 
continuous enjoyment of any franchise or privilege has always the tendency 
to create a vested right, unless the interests of the public are jealously safe- 
guarded against such an implication, and it is fortunate that the position 
taken by Canadian administrations on this question has been sufficiently 
clear and positive to prevent the conditional usufruct of the lumberman 
gradually lapsing into practical ownership. 

Up to this time there had been no regular official reports for the inform- 
ation of Parliament and the country as to the operations of the Crown Lands 
Department, details as to the proceedings of this very important branch of 
the public service being principally obtained in the form of special returns. 
On the 5th of May, 1856, on motion of Hon. A. T. Gait, the House of Com- 
mons adopted the following resolution : 

Annual Reports. 

"Resolved, that it is the opinion of this House, that the Commissioner 
of Crown Lands should submit to this House an annual report upon the 
Department of Public Lands, made up to the 31st of December of each 
year; to be presented on the 15th of February following if the House be 
ihen in session or at the meeting of Parliament succeeding." 

From the first annual report of the Commissioner- issued in accordance 
with this resolution, for the year 1857, it appears that an Order-in-Council 
adopted in that year effected a change in the system of collecting ground 
rents, postponing the payment until the 30th of April. 

The subject of the adequate protection of timber growing on private 
lands froni spoliation or damage engaged the attention of Parliament dur- 
ing the session of 1860, resulting in the passage of "an Act for the further 
protection of growing timber," the main clauses of which are as follows: 

Protection of Timber. 

1. "If any person steals or cuts, breaks, roots up, or otherwise destroys, 
or damages, with intent to steal or unlawfully carry away, or procures any 
person or persons to steal or to cut, break, root up, or otherwise destroy or 
damage with intent to steal or unlawfully carry away, any tree or sapling, 
standing, growing or being on the lands of any other, the injury done to 
such other person thereby being in amount more than ten dollars, every 
such offender being convicted thereof shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and 
shall be punished at the discretion of the Court by fine, not exceeding the 
sum of one hundred dollars, or by imprisonment in any common gaol for a 
term not exceeding six months, or by both; and the said fine or any portion 
thereof, the Court may in its discretion award to the person injured. 

2. "If any person receives or purchases any tree or sapling, trees or 
saplings, or any timber made therefrom, exceeding in value the sum of 
ten dollars, knowing the same to have been stolen, or unlawfully cut or 
carried away, such receiver or purchaser shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, 
and may be indicted and convicted thereof; whether the prncipal offender 



228 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



has or kas not been convicted, or be or be not amenable to justice and shall 
be liable to the same punishment as the principal offender." 

The remaining sections provide that the Act shall not affect any civil 
proceeding against the offender, or prevent the adoption of other criminal 
proceedings. 

A more stringent measure was adopted, applicable to Lower Canada 
only, by which it was provided that any person found in a forest reserved 
for firewood, sugar-making or other purposes, or on any road in its vicinity, 
with any tree or part of a tree in his possession, might be taken before a 
justice of the peace and, in case of failing to satisfy the latter that he came 
lawfully by the property, fined not more than eight dollars over and above 
its value. 

Increasing Revenue. 

The report of the Hon. P. M. Vankoughnet, Commissioner of Crown 
Lands for the year 1859, presented in 1860, contains some interesting details 
as to the development of the system and the expansion of the lumber indus- 
try. The amounts accruing due for ground rents, timber dues, and slide 
dues for four years were as follows:— 1856, |262,872; 185T, |289,839; 1858, 
1232,624, and 1859, |316,656, indicating a steady increase in the volume 
of the output. The Commissioner said concerning the adoption of the auc- 
tion system : — 

Auction Sale Residts. 

'Whenever there has been any demand for timber berths, and it was 
at all likely that any competition for them existed or would be excited, 
recourse has been had to the plan of disposing of them by public auction. 
This method has been attended with the best results in the St. Maurice ter- 
ritory where a sale was made last fall. Fourteen berths, containing an 
area of 572 square miles, were sold, realizing the sum of $2,569 for bonus 
and ground rent, besides the sum of 1457.50 payable to the St. Maurice 
Road Fund. The bonus varied from |5 to |1,200. The berths were dis- 
posed of to practical lumberers, who are all working them this winter, thus 
restoring to the St. Maurice a trade which had departed almost entirely 
from it. This sale was made under regulations, different from those which 
had been previously in force in that section; a simple bonus, payable at the 
time of sale, in addition to the ordinary ground rent being called for as the 
measure of competition." 

Land Sales to Speculators Cancelled. 

The fraudulent cutting of timber by squatters and pretended settlers 
continued to be a source of trouble to the administration in spite of all 
efforts to repress the practice. On this point the report. said: — 

* 'While every means at the disposal of the Government is employed to 
facilitate settlement, strong measures have been adopted, as the occasion 
presented itself, to check the inroads of individual speculators upon par- 
ticular localities, under pretence of settlement, when in reality their only 
object has been to despoil the land of the timber. The Department has 
not hesitated to cancel sales thus obtained when the facts have been estab- 
lished. The holders of timber limits are often subjected to attacks of this 
description by parties who enter upon their limits, select the best timbered 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 229 



lots, and effect purchases of them, subject to conditions of settlement which 
they have no intention of fulfilling. This, though illegal, can no more be 
prevented, when parties are determined to infringe the law, than can 
stealing." 

Setter's Timber to Apply on Purchase. 

The same abuse received a good deal of attention at the hands of the 
Department during the year 1860, when energetic measures were taken by 
the Commissioner to abate the evil. Previous regulations for the sale of 
public land had somewhat contributed to foster the abuse, for while the 
settler was permitted to cut down and burn any timber in the course of 
clearing the land, if he sold any of it he became liable to be treated as a 
trespasser. The evident absurdity of such a regulation, coupled with the 
difficulty in enforcing it, naturally led to its being set at defiance and 
encouraged a spirit of lawlessness and antagonism to the authorities, which 
led to other inroads upon the forests. New regulations were issued under 
which the settler was allowed to cut and sell the timber growing on the 
lot purchased by him, provided the value of the timber was applied in pay- 
ment of the purchase money due the Crown, and that conditions of settle- 
ment, including the building of a dwelling 16 by 20 feet, the clearance of 
five out of every hundred acres and actual residence for six months had been 
fully fulfilled. He was also required to take out a license and pay a fee of 
|4. In his report for 1860 Hon. Mr. Yankoughnet thus refers to the extent 
to which plundering of the public domain was still carried on : — 

Trespassers. 

"As a further step towards legitimizing the lumber trade, I have found 
it necessary to put in force the existing laws of the country against tres- 
passers in the public forests. Hitherto these forests have been treated in 
some sections of the Province as if they were public commons where every- 
body might enter and cut and slash as he pleased. When seasons of par- 
tial prosperity in the lumber trade arrived, a great rush into the manufac- 
ture of lumber, and particularly of hewed lumber, generally followed, 
nearly always resulting in over-production and in over-production too of 
a badly manufactured article. Instances have come to my knowledge this 
season of individuals of one section of the trade endeavoring to encourage 
this over-production by entering into contracts for the delivery next sum- 
mer of from 75,000 to 100,000 feet of timber, notwithstanding that the party 
who undertook to furnish it had no timber berth of his own, and relied only 
on trespassing in the public forest, or in fraudulently obtaining timbered 
iots out of a lumberer's license to enable him to fulfill his contract. To 
allow this trespassing to continue would be injurious to the general interests 
of the trade and of the country ; it would also be unfair towards the licensed 
lumberman who conforms to the law, and under its protection embarks his 
capital in making the many improvements necessary to enable him to get 
his lumber to market with advantage." 

After referring to the antagonism arising between settlers and lumber- 
men, the latter complaining of the inroads of settlers upon the best timbered 
lots within their limits, while the settlers advanced as a grievance that 
lumbered-over lots came into their hands depreciated in value, the report 
pointed out the obvious remedy against this continued clashing of interests : 



230 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



Proper Surveys. 

"When any case of fraud on the part of a pretending settler has been 
established the Department has cancelled the sale and seized the timber 
cut on the land. In order, however, by more general action to do away as 
far as possible with the complaints alluded to, and to afford legitimate pro- 
tection to both the interests mentioned, I have been endeavoring to effect 
discriminating and descriptive surveys with a view of ascertaining what 
lands are suitable for settlement, and what are not suitable, and what 
sections of the country may be reserved and advantageously laid off in 
timber berths." 

Another abuse which Mr. Yankoughnet undertook to reform was the 
delay in the paytnent of timber dues, which resulted in a considerable 
accumulation of indebtedness, and in some instances in fraud, on the 
Department. To put 'a stop to the practice the 30th November of each year 
was fixed as the day for the payment of all timber dues. All amounts then 
unpaid were charged with six per cent, interest, and it was provided that 
if not paid before the following 1st of July the license held by the defaulter 
was to be forfeited. No lumber of any kind was to be exported before the 
dues thereon were paid. To prevent the practice of shipping lumber cut 
by trespassers on the public domain to the United States, which was exten- 
sively pursued, the co-operation of the Finance Department was obtained. 
Previous to obtaining clearances all vessels having lumber on board intended 
for the TJnited States were obliged to furnish the Collector of Customs at 
the port of shipment with a certificate from the Local Crown Timber Agent 
that the claim of the Crown on the lumber had been settled. 

Another Cormnission. 

During the session of 1863 the lumber trade was again the subject of 
a Parliamentary enquiry. On the 15th of April the House of Commons 
adopted the following resolution : "Resolved, that a Select Committee com- 
posed of Mr. Dawson, Mr. Dunsford, Mr. McLachlin, Mr. Desanlniers, Mr. 
Haultain, Mr. Robitaille, Mr. McCann, Mr. Hooper and Mr. Scott be 
appointed to enquire into the state of the lumber trade in Canada, in rela- 
tion to the settlement of the country, and the action of the Government 'a 
dealing with these interests respectively ; to report thereon with all con- 
venient speed, with power to send for persons, papers and records." 

The time at the disposal of the committee was too short to enable them 
to go thoroughly into the subject, but they examined a number of witnesses 
and submitted some valuable evidence with a view to a continuance of the 
enquiry next session. 

One point clearly brought out was the unsatisfactory working cf the 
regulation permitting settlers to cut timber for sale on their lots, which 
operated as an inducement to settle upon land which was mainly valuable 
for its timber and not adapted for farming. The following conclusions were 
embodied in the report of the committee: — 

"First in importance appears the fact that the existing law, under 
which the lumber trade of the Province in general is governed, has for 
several years back been continuously and systematically violated in the 
Crown Lands DeT)artment and an uncertain and ever varying action sub- 
stituted for the fixed and definite provisions of law under the Statute. 

"A former committee of this House, of which the Hon. A. T. Gait was 
chairman, in 1855, having had the subject under consideration reported as 
follows: — 'With reference to the disposal of timber on the public domain. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 231 



your committee strongly recommend that no change whatever be made in 
the terms upon which limits are held, pending the final decision of your 
Honorable House, in reference to this most important question, as it is 
their unanimous opinion that until the system be determined upon and 
regulated by Act of Parliament a change of the present regulation would be 
detrimental to the public interests.' 

"Your Committee entirely concur in the above and would further 
recommend that whenever eveji any minor change in the regulations may 
be thought advisable, it should be published for at least three months before 
anv Order-in-Council be passed to give effect to it, so that the trade may 
have an opportunity of being consulted in regard to the change contem- 
plated. 

"With regard to the supposed difficulties between the lumber merchants 
and the settlers it appears by the evidence that no diversity of interest exists, 
but that the trade complains, not of the actual settler, but of those who 
make a pretence of settlement to break up their limits and secure the timber 
to which the outlay of their capital has given value. 

"The actual bona fide settler in like manner, finds the operations of 
the lumber merchant to his advantage, by reason of the roads constructed 
and the market for his produce thereby afforded. Your Committee are of 
the opinion that where such a complete community of interest exists, there 
need be no difficulty in arranging a system to the mutual satisfaction of 
both parties. And here again your Committee find that the want of any 
definite rule is the cause of misunderstanding. The Crown Land Depart- 
ment should divest itself of the power of dealing specially with cases as 
they arise, and provide and enforce a general system alike intelligible to 
them all. 

"It appears from the evidence that settlement has been unreasonably 
pushed in some localities quite unfit to become the permanent residence of 
an agricultural population. Especially has this been the case on some of 
the Free Grant roads and adjacent country, lying between the waters of 
the Ottawa and Lake Ontario Your Committee would refer to the evidence 
and recommend that 'he Government should, in all cases,, ascertain posi- 
tively the character of the country before throwing open any tract of land 
for settlement, so that such lands that are really not fit for profitable cul- 
tivation, may not be thrown upon the market. There being considerable 
diversity of opinion among the witnesses in regard to some of the localities 
adverted to, it seems to the committee that the Government should have an 
examination made by some thoroughly competent and reliable officer, whose 
report would be available in any further consideration of this subject. 

Tenure of Limits. 

"Your Committee M'ould further suggest to your Honourable House, that 
it would be advisable, for the protection of the public forests of the Pro- 
vince, the commercial value of which is of such vast interest to the country, 
that a character of greater stability be given to the tenure of timber limits, 
providing of course against its being made any barrier to the actual settler 
on lands adapted for cultivation." 

^ During the session of 1864 an attempt was made to complete the work 
of investigation begun by Mr. Dawson's committee in accordance with the 
suggestion embodied in the report. On the 17th of March in that year the 
House adopted a resolution appointing a Select Committee composed of 
eighteen members, with Hon. Mr. Cauchon as chairman, *'to enouire into 
the causes of the rapid destruction of our forests, and the means to be 
16 L.M. 



232 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



adopted to prevent it, to consider the expediency of reserving as forests the 
extensive tracts of land which abound in exportable timber, but are unsuit- 
able for cultivation; of enacting a Forest Lave, and to suggest that system 
which in its opinion is best adapted to the requirements and conditions of 
the country." No report was ever made by this committee, the approach 
of the era of political storm and stress which immediately preceded Confed- 
eration, and the pressure of more immediate and exigent issues doubtless 
absorbing all the attention of the legislators. 

In 1865 a change in the fiscal year came into operation, in accordance 
with which the Crown Lands and other departmental reports presented in 
1866 covered the period from the 1st July, 1864, to 30th June, 1865, instead 
of coinciding with the calendar year. Hon. Alexander Campbell, Commis- 
sioner of Crown Lands, in his report for that year showed himself to be 
thoroughly alive to the necessity of an advanced forestry policy on the line 
of a strict discrimination between cultivatable and non-agricultural lands, 
and the setting apart of the latter as permanent timber reserves. The fol- 
lowing paragraph sets forth his views on the subject : 

Reserves Advocated. 

''The value of a very large area of our remaining public lands, as a 
pine country, is well understood and has not been exaggerated. The 
exports of the products of the Canadian forests for the seven years termin- 
ating 31st December, 1863, deducting timber imported, were valued at 
173,004,312 ; the value of the products of agriculture consumed in the coun- 
try I have no means of ascertaining, but the exports of such products dur- 
ing the same period, with a similar deduction, were valued at $49,951,961. 
Though much of it has been denuded of its valuable timber, it is the opinion 
of the best informed that a large area remains untouched; happily for the 
interests of the country, the pine exists on lands for the most part unfit for 
settlement. It needs a careful discrimination between pine lands exclusively 
and lands fit for settlement, to place it in the power of the Government to 
conserve this valuable source of national wealth. Should the whole of our 
uncultivatable lands be set apart, as I think should be done, as a pine region, 
and no sales made there, the land would, if the trees were cut under a sys- 
tem of rotation such as is now adopted in Norway and Sweden and in many 
of the German states, recuperate their growth of merchantable pine in cycles 
of 30 and 40 years, and pine growing might be continued and preserved 
for ages to come. In view of the future requirements of this continent and 
of Europe, and of the singular advantages Canada enjoys as a pine-pro- 
ducing country, I humbly submit that it is of the utmost importance that 
we should now take steps in this direction." 

One result of the continued discussion of the subject and the incon- 
veniences arising from growing scarcity of wood in the older settled por- 
tions of Lower Canada, was the passage of the following Act, applicable to 
that Province alone, which received the Royal assent on the 17th day of Sep- 
tember, 1865. 

The Act of 1865. 

An Act to provide for the preservation of standing timber. 

''Whereas in most of the old counties of Canada the inhabitants experi- 
ence serious difficulty in obtaining wood for fuel and building purposes, 
and whereas it is advisable to profit by past experience, and to adopt 
measures while there is yet time, to prevent the inhabitants of new town- 

1 6a L. M. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 233 



ships from being subjected to similar inconveniences; Therefore Her Majesty, 
by and with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council and Assembly 
of Canada, enacts as follows : 

Township Reserves. 

1. Whenever it shall be expedient to erect into a township any certain 
extent of the waste lands of the Crown in this Province, it shall be the duty 
cf the Commissioner of Crown Lands to set apart, in such township, a reserve 
of wood land, which shall form not more than one-tenth or less than one- 
twentieth of the superficial area of such township, and the limits thereof 
shall be fixed and defined at the time of the erection of such township, and 
the Commissioner shall, whenever he deems it expedient, make a reserve 
for a like purpose in all townships already erected and in which the Crown 
owns a sufficiency of wood land. 

2. Such reserves may be in a single lot, or divided into several lots, 
according to circumstances. 

3. And to provide for the difficulties which might arise respecting the 
rights and duties as between neighbors {droits de voisinage, decouverts, 
fences, ditches and all others) which the inhabitants residing on lots con- 
tiguous to such reserve might claim, the patents of the lots so situated 
shall contain a condition binding the proprietors, tenants and occupants 
of such lots, to renounce for ever any claim to all rights and duties as 
between neighbors (droits de voisinage) , and a reduction may be made in the 
selling price of such lots in consideration of the disadvantages which might 
result from the preceding provision, if the Commissioner of Crown Lands 
deems it advisable. 

4. The Governor in Council may transfer the control and management 
of every such reserve to such municipal or other authorities willing to under- 
take the same, as he shall think proper to select, and under such conditions 
as he shall impose. 

5. Nothing in this Act contained shall have the effect of restricting in 
any way whatsoever, the rights, powers and privileges conferred by Chapter 
twenty-five of the Consolidated Statutes of Canada. 

Lower Canada Only. 

6. This Act shall apply only to Lower Canada." 

This Act was allowed to remain a dead letter, and no timber reserves 
were ever set aside under its provisions. Here it may perhaps be advisable 
to depart from the chronological sequence of events relating to timber 
regulations and management in Canada, and follow up the course of legis- 
lation in regard to timber reserves in Quebec under Confederation. A short 
Act passed bv the Quebec Legislature in 1875 provided that : — 

Quebec Regulation. 

"It shall and may be lawful for the Lieutenant-Governor in Council 
upon the recommendation of the Commissioner of Crown Lands, to set aside 
certain portions of the forest lands of the Crown, vacant at the time, to 
remain forest. 

"The territories so set apart shall be reserved for the production and 
culture of timber, and shall be worked and managed and the timber thereon 
be cut, as shall be ordered from time to time by regulations made by the 
Lieutenant-Governor in Council. 



234 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



"The timber cut from and upon sucli reserves shall be sold at public 
auction." 

No action was, ever taken under this Act as at first adopted, but in 1883 
it was amended by the addition of several sections. The new legislation 
gave the Lieutenant-Governor in Council authority to set apart as a Forest 
-Reserve "all the ungranted lands of the Crown now held under licenses to 
cut timber, except such parts of such licensed lands on which no merchant- 
able pine or spruce timber grows, and which are fit for settlement, and 
also such other portions of the ungranted lands of the Crown as the Lieuten- 
ant-Governor in Council, on the recommendation of the Commissioner of 
Crown Lands, may think fit to set apart." No land so set apart was to be 
sold or appropriated for settlement purposes until after the expiration of 
at least ten years, and not then until it was established to the satisfaction 
of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council that the whole or any part of such 
territory could be thrown open with advantage. It was provided that in 
the renewals of licenses after a forest reserve had been created all land pre- 
viously under license in the locality and not included in the reserve should 
be excluded. 

Under the provisions of this measure a very large area in the western 
portion of the Province of Quebec running north to the Height of Land 
was by Order in Council dated September 10th, 1883, set apart as a forest 
reserve, with the exception of all lots situated in a number of townships 
included "which hereafter may be found (from inspection made by com- 
petent and authorized persons) fit for settlement and destitute of merchant-, 
able timber." 

This action of the Government excited a great deal of opposition, espe- 
cially on the part of promoters of Colonization Societies, and the objections 
raised to the operation of the system were so strong that in 1888 the legis- 
lation authorizing the setting apart of timber reserves was repealed and 
the following substituted : 

"In future a timber reserve of twenty per cent, of each lot sold shall 
be made at the time of the granting of the location ticket or permit of 
occupation for public lands. 

"The Commissioner of Crown Lands may determine, through hia 
agent, the locality where the reserve shall be situated. 

"The Lieutenant-Governor in Council may make all regulations not 
incompatible with this Act for the right to cut timber upon the reserve 
indicated ; but the proprietor or the occupant of the lot upon which it exists 
shall, together wih his assigns, remain the perpetual usufructary of such 
land, with all the rights he may have as such." 

This measure proved no more effective or satisfactory than previous 
attempts to solve the problem, as it altogether lost sight of the principle of 
distinguishing between agricultural and non-cultivable lands, and apply- 
ing radically different methods of management. Its repeal in 1889 closes 
the chapter of Quebec's forest reserve legislation. 

Regulations of 1S66. 

New Regulations for granting licenses to cut timber were issued on 
13th of June, 1866, by which some important alterations were made as 
will, be seen by a comparison of the following with the text of those issued 
io 1851. 



\\H)-t DKPARTiMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 235 



Crown Timber Regulations, 1866. 

1. Licenses for such vacant berths as the Commissioner of Crown Lands 
may see fit, together with all vacant forfeited timber licenses, shall be 
offered for sale at public auctions to be held half yearly in each Timber 
Agency, on the 10th of July and the 10th of January, (or on such other 
dates as the Commissioner of Crown Lands may fix by public notice) at an 
upset price of Four Dollars a square mile or such other rate as he may fix 
by such notice, and shall be awarded to the highest bidder making immedi- 
ate payment at the time of sale ; and if not then sold shall be granted to the 
first applicant thereafter making immediate payment of the upset price and 
ground rent. But in case of two or more applications for any such berth 
being received at the same time, it shall be immediately again offered for 
sale by public auction. Unissued Licenses already awarded, however, and 
such as may be awarded by the Commissioner of Crown Lands on existing 
grantable applications, under Eegulations of 8th August, 1851, shall be 
granted on the terms upon which they have been or may be awarded. In 
the intervals between sales, licenses for new Timber Berths for which 
applications may be made to the Commissioner of Crown Lands, or Crown 
Timber Agent for the territory in which they lie, may be granted to the 
first applicants paying in with their applications the upset price and ground 
rent above mentioned. Not more than one berth to each applicant — ^the 
bonus to be returned should the berth be relinquished as valueless within six 
months without cutting timber on it. 

2. Applications must be in writing and the spaces asked in them must 
be distinctly . described in connection with known points established by sur- 
vey or boundaries already defined, or if in surveyed townships the lots and 
ranges must be stated. 

3. No timber Berth shall be licensed in unsurveyed lands exceeding 
ten miles in length by five miles in breadth or fifty superficial miles in area 
and half that size in surveyed townships, the area to be estimated by the 
Crown timber agent or other authorized ofiicer. 

4. All timber licenses are to expire on the 30th April following the 
date thereof. 

5. Newly granted Licenses, and renewals of licenses that have been 
duly occupied, shall be subject to a yearly Ground Rent of fifty cents each 
superficial mile of area included within their limits,, estimated as before 
mentioned ; but in computing the ground rent no license shall be charged at 
less than eight miles of area. 

6. The Ground Rent to be exacted on the renewal of any license shall 
be double that of the preceding year if the berth licensed has not been duly 
occupied, increasing annually in that proportion while the berth continues 
unoccupied (exceptinar the year succeeding that in which the license has 
been first granted, if not in a surveyed township); but the so increasing 
ground rent shall not exceed the rate of twenty-three shillings and four 
pence a mile, (being equal to the lowest amount of duties on square timber 
the ground would yield if duly occupied, added to the rate of fifty cents 
first mentioned) reverting to the original rate on the berth being duly 
occupied. The making of an average of five hundred feet of square timber 
or 20 saw logs to the mile, to be considered as due occupation. No claim for 
reimbursement of ground rent over calculated to be entertained after the 
issue of license. 

7. No timber berth shall be forfeited for the non-occupation of it, pro- 
vided the increased ground rent on that account be duly paid; but any 
berth on which the increased ground rent is evaded by false statements as 



23b REPORT OF THE No. 3 



to occupation, shall (after the holder of it has had an opportunity of being 
heard in opposition) be granted to the first applicant pleading such evasion 
before the first day of November and proving the same by the affidavit of 
a commissioned Surveyor before the first day of December following the 
date of the false statement made. If half occupation only be proved, the 
holder of the license may retain one-half the berth after it has been equit- 
ably divided by the Crown Timber Agent. 

8. License holders who shall have duly complied with all existing 
Regulations shall be entitled to renewals of their licenses, provided they 
shall have made and delivered to the Crown Timber Agent of the locality, 
before the thirtieth day of September, or such prior date in any locality 
as the Commissioner may fix, sworn statements of the number and descrip- 
tion of pieces of timber and saw logs cut by themselves or by others to their 
knowledge upon each of the berths held by them during the previous sea- 
son : and shall have paid to the Crown, on or before the fifth day of Decem- 
ber following, the ground rent payable for renewal of their licenses for the 
ensuing season; but should they fail to comply with these conditions in 
respect to any berths held by them, such berths shall thereby become vacant 
and the right to license therefor forfeited and they shall be sold at public 
auction or be otherwise disposed of as before mentioned, excepting that if 
double the ground rent otherwise chargeable be paid for omitting to furnish 
the statement above mentioned, and payment be made before the day of sale 
with ten per cent, in addiion for each month of the delay in payment, the 
berth may be re-licensed to the former holder. 

9. License holders desirous of obtaining renewal of license must make 
application for such renewal to the Crown Timber Agent of the locality 
before the 1st of July in each year, stating what berths have been duly 
occupied, failing which such berths shall be charged with the rate of ground 
rent payable on non-occupation. 

10. Crown Timber Agents shall keep registers of all licenses granted or 
renewed by them and transfers thereof, which, together with their plans 
of licensed berths and vacant ground, shall be open for public inspection. 

11. Transfers of timber berths to be in writing, and if not found objec- 
tionable bv the Crown Lands Department, or agent for the granting of 
licenses, to be valid from the date on which they may be deposited in the 
hands of the latter; but no transfer to be accepted while the party trans- 
ferring is in default for non-payment of dues on timber to the Crown. 

12. Timber berths are to be described in new licenses as "not to inter- 
fere with prior licenses existing or to be renewed in virtue of Regulatons" 
on the date of their first being issued. Where licenses clash, the one of 
more recent origin is to give way to that of prior date, computing back to 
the season it was last acquired at auction, or by grant from the Crown. And 
should any license, by error or defect in its description, be found evidently 
incompatible with the intention or regulations under which it was granted, 
the Commissioner of Crown Lands may cause it to be cancelled or amended. 

13. The Inspector of Crown Timber Agencies at Ottawa, and any officer 
thereunto authorized elsewhere, shall, at the written request of any person 
interested, issue instructions stating how the boundaries of timber berths 
should be run to be in conformity with existing licenses. The surveys are 
to be performed at the expense of the parties requiring them, who must 
cause copies of the -^lans and field notes of the surveys to be delivered to 
the officer giving the instructions, subject to his examination and approval, 
to be paid for by him and kept on record by the Crown Timber Agent of 
the locality. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 237 



• 14. In cases of contestation as to the right to berths or the position of 
bounds, the decision of the Crown Timber Agent of the locality or the 
Inspector of Crown Timber Agencies, or other officer authorized by the Com- 
missioner of Crown Lands, shall on notification thereof being given to the 
parties or their representatives on their premises, or sent to their address, 
be binding upon the parties unless reversed by arbitration commenced within 
three months of such notification. 

15. To prevent delay or disputes as to arbitrators it shall only be neces- 
sary for the party thinking himself aggrieved by such decision to notify in 
writing to the officer who has given it, his dissent and the arbitrator he has 
appointed. It shall then be the duty of the officer who has given the deci- 
sion to take the place of arbitrator on the other part, and in case of their 
not agreeing as to an umpire, should one be required, the Commissioner 
of Crown Lands shall appoint one, on request of either of the parties or 
either of the arbitrators — such arbitrators may receive evidence obtained 
subsequent to the decision and each of them and the umpire are to be paid 
five dollars for each day they are engaged on such arbitration, by the parties 
jointly. 

16. Timber cut under license shall be paid for at the following rates, 
viz. : 

8. d. 

Oak and Walnut, per cubic foot 1^ 

Elm, Ash and Tamarac 1 

Red and White Pine, Birch, Basswood, Cedar, Spruce, etc. 0| 

Pine Saw Logs, each, 13| feet long 6 

or, ten cents per standard log of 13| feet, 20 inches in least diameter. 

Unmeasured culls to be charged at average of the lot they are in. 

Spruce Saw Logs, each 13^ feet long 2^ 

Staves, Pipe, per mile 32 6 

Staves, W. Indian 10 

Cordwood (hard) per cord 8 

Soft Wood, per cord 4 

Railway Timber, Knees, etc., 10 per cent, ad valorem. 

To be charged upon the quantities shewn by measurement under the 
direction of the Supervisor of Cullers, or Deputy Supervisor, at Quebec, or 
Montreal, or other place of sale or shipment, or by other reliable measure- 
ment, where that cannot be obtained, otherwise each stick of White Pine 
may be estimated as containing 70 cubic feet. 

Red Pine as containing 38 cubic feet. 

Other kinds of wood 34 cubic feet. 
And when any license holder is in default for, or has evaded the payment 
of dues to the Crown on any part of his timber, they may be levied on any 
other timber of his, cut under license, together with the dues thereon. 

17. AH square timber, logs, deals, boards, or other stuff leaving the 
Agency in which it has been cut in any form, must be submitted to count- 
ing or actual measurenient, and statements under oath must be furnished 
as to the quantities of timber and logs cut under license whenever required. 
Owners or lessees of Saw-Mills cutting under license must show by such 
sworn statements the total number of each kind and length of logs cut or 
acquired by them, and taken to their mills, or where left, each season, giv- 
ing the number in standards also, and must prove by satisfactory affidavits 
on what lots, and how many on each lot, such as are from private lands, 
l>uve been cut; clearances to be refused in case of non-compliance. 



238 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



18. Before moving any raft or parcel of timber, lumber or saw Icf^s 
from the agency in wbicb it bas been cut, the owner or person in charge 
thereof shall make report thereof to the Crown Timber Agent, making, if 
required, declaration upon oath as to the number of pieces of each kind of 
wood contained therein, and the number of cribs; and to exempt timber 
from private land, if any, from dues as Crown timber, — must furnish satis- 
factory afl&davit stating what lots it was cut upon and how much on each 
lot, — whereupon he shall obtain a clearance from the Crown Timber^ Agent, 
stating the number of pieces in the raft or parcel, how many, if any, have 
been satisfactorily proved to be from private lands, and on how many, if 
any, the dues have been previously or then paid. On the arrival of any 
such raft or parcel at Quebec, or any intermediate place, or other port, for 
sale or shipment, the owner or holder of it shall make report thereof to the 
Collector of Crown Timber Dues, or Deputy Supervisor of Cullers, or other 
appointed officer, within forty-eight hours, and in addition to the quantity 
shewn by the clearance as subject to dues, any surplus timber beyond the 
number of pieces stated therein, on being ascertained by the Collector of 
Crown Timber Dues, Deputy Supervisor of Cullers or other authorized 
officer, if not satisfactorily accounted for, shall be held as having been cut 
upon Crown Lands and be subject to the payment of dues accordingly. 

19. Parties omitting to report the departure of their rafts or other 
timber from the Agency in which they held license, or the arrival thereof 
at Quebec or Montreal or other port or place, for sale or shipment, within 
th^ Province as before mentioned, may be refused further license — and be 
subject to forfeiture of the timber for evasion of Regulations as provided in 
section 3rd of Cap. 23, of the Consolidated Statutes of Canada. 

20. Occupants, grantees or purchasers of Public Lands who have not 
completed all conditions of sale, or grant, cutting timber without license 
(except for clearing, building or fencing thereon) or others doing so by 
their permission, shall be subjected to the penalties established by law for 
cutting timber without authority. 

21. Persons evading or refusing the payment of timber or slide dues, 
or the final settlement of bonds or promissory notes, given for the same, or 
in default with the Crown Timber Office or Agent, also persons taking 
violent possession of disputed ground before obtaining decision in their 
favor, and persons refusing to comply with the decision of arbitrators or 
with Regulations estaV »''ied by Orders in Council, or who forcibly inter- 
rupt Surveyors, shall 1 . refused further licenses, and their berths become 
disposable to others on the expiration of their licenses. 

22. Licenses are to be granted on the annexed form in duplicate, the 
clause at the foot thereof must in the duplicates be signed by two securities 
and the description of each berth is to be written on the back thereof. The 
duplicates to be kept of record by the Crown Timber Agent. 

23. Dues of all kinds on timber cut under license remaining unpaid on 
30th November following the season in which it was cut, to be subject to 
interest from that date, out without prejudice to the power of the Crown 
to enforce payment of such outstanding dues. 

The most noteworthy changes were the provision for regularly held 
and systematic auction sales for vacant timber berths, and the fixing of an 
upset price in all cases, upon the berths to be offered. The new regula- 
tions, moreover, were a good deal more stringent in the provisions designed 
for the prevention of fraud in evading the payment of timber dues. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 239 



Export Duties After Reciprocity . 

The Reciprocity Treaty witli the United States, under which, as will 
be hereafter shown, the exportation of forest products, more especially sawn 
lumber, had greatly increased, expired on the 17th March, 1866. By the 
new tariff, which came into force on the 27th of June, export duties were 
imposed on saw logs and shingle bolts shipped from Canada, excepting to 
■any of the British North American Provinces, at the rate of |1.00 on every 
thousand feet, board measure, for pine, and 50 cents for every thousand 
feet, board measure, for spruce. The first tariff adopted under Confedera- 
tion during the session of 1868, imposed additional export duties on timber 
from the 1st of October in that year, as follows : — 

Shingle bolts, per cord of 128 cubic feet |1 00 

Stave bolts, per cord of 128 cubic feet 1 00 

Oak logs, per M • 2 00 

Spruce logs, per M ,. 1 00 

Pine logs, pe^r M. ... 1 00 

Confederation. 

By the Confederation of the British North American Provinces, consum- 
mated by the establishment of the Dominion of Canada on July 1st, lS67, 
the management of public lands and timber was relegated to the several 
Provincial administrations. The British North America Act, 1867, in defin- 
ing the respective powers of the Dominion and Provincial Governments 
includes, among the subjects coming exclusively within the scope of the 
Provincial legislators, "The management and sale of the public lands 
belonging to the Province, and of the timber and wood thereon." As will 
have been noted, from the frequent references to legislative action and quo- 
tations of official utterances during the few years which preceded the union 
of the Provinces, a very considerable advance had been made in public 
opinicta on the subject of forestry. The question was being intelligently 
studied in all its bearings by those charged with the responsibilities of legis- 
lation. Men were beginning to understand the true remedy for evils which 
had been developed, not so much bv any positive neglect or misconduct on 
the part of those in charge of affairs, but rather as the result of crude, 
unscientific methods under which the distinction between the two classes 
of public land requiring essentially different systems of management "svas 
largely ignored. Public, or at least legislative and influential sentiment, 
appeared to be seriously aroused to the danger to the practical interests of 
the country to be entailed by the rapid disappearance of the forests cover- 
ing the non-agricultural region and forming its only possible source of pro- 
ductiveness, and to be fast crystallizing in the direction of a system of 
scientific forest management, as distinct from methods of mere sale and 
exploitation. 

Provincial Jurisdiction. — Agricultural avid Forest/ Lands. 

But with the. advent of the larger and more agitating questions involv- 
ing the rise and fall of parties, and culminating in the union of the pre- 
viously isolated provinces, opening broader vistas for Canadian aspirations 
and enterprises, and introducing a host of additional responsibilities and 
fresh problems, it is not surprising that the matter of forest preservation was 
thrust into the background, and for many years thereafter received but 



240 REPORT OF THE No, 3 



little attention. But it is certainly a curious illustration of the ebb and 
flow of public opinion, and the manner in which movements for the abate- 
ment of public evils or the promotion of needed reforms frequently subside 
after having attained a considerable headway, only to spring into activity 
again many years afterwards, when their former influence has been well 
nigh forgotten. 

Revenues in 1866. 

Some details showing the extent and principal characteristics of the 
timber industry at the time of Confederation may appropriately be pre- 
sented. The report of the Crown Lands Department of Canada for 1866 
gives the amount collected during that year for timber dues and ground 
rents as |338,302, and for slide dues |63.483. The total exports of forest 
products for the year ending June 30, 1867, are valued by the Trade and 
Navigation returns at |13,948,648, as compared with total exports of agri- 
cultural products of a value of |16, 765,981. 

Exports to United States. 

Nearly all the exported forest products found a market either in Great 
Britain or the United States, the proportion consigned to each of these coun- 
tries being nearly equal, as Britain received shipments to the value of 
16,889,783, while those sent across the border were valued at |6, 831,252. 
These figures indicate a very considerable change in the conditions of the 
trade during the course of the decade immediately preceding Confedera- 
tion, at the beginning of which the British demand was double that of the 
Americans. The total exports of forest products to Great Britain for the 
three years 1854-5-6 amounted in value to |18,288,702, while the aggregate 
shipments to the United States for the same period were valued at |8, 894,218. 
It will be seen therefore that at the time of Confederation the American 
demand for Canadian timber and lumber had more than doubled, while 
that of Britain remained comparatively stationary. The principal increase 
in the volume of the growing American trade was in sawn lumber. While 
"plank and boards" to the value of |1, 866, 712 were exported from Canada 
to the United States in the year ending Jan. 5th, 1854, the same item figures 
in returns for 1867 to the extent of |5, 043, 367. This development of the 
sawn lumber trade with the United vStates, while to a certain extent fostered 
under the favorable conditions of the Eeciprocity Treaty, was no doubt in 
the main due to the rapid growth of population in the Eastern States, coin- 
cident with a gradual diminution in their home sources of supply, rendering 
it necessary for them to look to Canada for their requirements. 

Export of Hemlock Baric. 

In 1868 the Dominion House of Commons set on foot an enquiry into the 
best means of protecting hemlock timber from the destruction caused by the 
demand for hemlock bark for tanning purposes. A select committee was 
appointed on April 1st, composed of Mr. Pope, Hon. Mr. Dunkin, Hon. Mr. 
Wood, Hon. Mr. Huntington, Mr. Brown, Mr. Masson of Soulanges, Mr. 
Joly, Hon. Mr. Beaubien, Mr. Senecal and Mr. Burpee ''to enquire into 
and report upon the best means of protecting hemlock timber from destruc- 
tion caused by those manufacturing the extract of hemlock bark and the 
exportation thereof from Canada." The report of the Committee, based 
on answers to questions submitted to a number of those having special inter- 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 241 



est in the question or facilities for information in different parts of the 
country, presents some considerations which have a wider significance than 
their bearing upon the specific subject of the investigation, and are of 
general applicability to the problem of utilizing forest products with the 
minimum of waste and to the greatest advantage. 

Extract of Baric. 

The Committee concluded that the bark consumed in local tanneries 
was applied to a legitimate use, benefitting both the settler and the country 
at large; the settler was enabled to defray the cost of clearing the land by 
the sale of the bark and at the same time had opportunity to dispose of the 
timber to advantage, as the work of clearing gradually proceeded. The 
export of bark and the manufacture of "Extract of Bark" they regarded in 
a very different light. The quantity of bark exported annually from Can- 
ada to the United States was estimated at not less than 100,000 cords, which, 
at ten cords to an acre, represented 10,000 acres annually stripped for the 
supply of American tanneries. This process resulted in the wholesale 
destruction of timber, the trees being generally left to rot on the ground, 
largely increasing the danger of forest fires. The rate of consumption was, 
however, liable to be indefinitely increased by the establishment of works 
for the manufacture of "extract," capable of being transferred from place 
to place so long as a supply of the raw material was obtainable anywhere, 
which was likely to have a much more serious effect upon the hemlock for- 
ests, as the extract thus made could be sent to any part of the world, whereas 
the exportation of the bark was, by the cost of transport, limited to a com- 
paratively small radius. It was argued on behalf of the manufacture that 
it furnished employment, distributed large sums in wages, and gave an 
impetus to other industries, etc., but while admitting the force of this con- 
tention the Committee regarded these benefits as more than counterbalanced 
by the wasteful and destructive nature of the industry. "One of these 
factories," says the report, "upon a basis of calculation afforded by those 
concerned in them, will consume all the bark available within a radius of 
about ten miles, at the present rate of consumption, within a period of 
from ten to twelve years, when it must be moved to a new field of operations. 
The injurious effect of its removal from the neighborhood will be such as 
t' far m9re than counter balance any temporary advantage that may have 
been derived from a spasmodic and short-lived activity and enterprise; 
and the bark that would have sufficed to supply for an indefinite period, a 
tannery giving employment to the population, will have disappeared alto- 
gether. The loss to the country at large will also be serious. At' present 
we have an ample siipply of material for our tanneries, enabling us to com- 
pete successfully with other countries in the manufacture of leather; but if 
for the sake of encouraging the manufacture of the extract we suffer our- 

A Transient Industry. 

pelves to be deprived of this advantage we sacrifice a permanent and most 
important manufacturing interest for one that, at the best, is but transient, 
and of slight comparative importance. 

To Prevent Export. 

The report concludes as follows; — "After a most careful consideration 
of the question, your committee can only come to the conclusion that unless 
some steps are speedily taken to check the wasteful and extravagant rate 



242 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



of consumption now going- on, that is really for the benefit of 
foreign countries at the expense of Canada, many years will not have elapsed 
before our own tanneries will be seriously crippled, if not closed altogether, 
for lack of that which we are now so freely giving away to others, we shall 
be no longer able to compete successfully with other countries in the manu- 
facture of leather; and a large portion of our forest land will not only be 
denuded of that which constitutes its chief value, but will be rendered 
practically unfit for settlement. Under these circumstances, your committee 
feel it their duty to press upon the Government the necessity of adopting 
such measures as may be calculated to check the evil complained of." 

The particular method favored by the Committee for dealing with the 
matter had been previously indicated in a brief preliminary report pre- 
sented to the House on the 4th of May, which reads as follows : — 

"Your Committee have made a careful enquiry as to the extent of the 
Hemlock forests in different parts of the country and the rate at which the 
consumption of bark is proceeding in connection with the tanneries, etc. 
They find that a very large proportion of the bark annually taken from the 
forest is exported to the United States, threatening in a very short time to 
diminish materially the supply for home consumption. 

Export Duty Recommended. 

"Your Committee, therefore, feel it their duty to urge upon the Govern- 
ment the expediency of imposing an export duty of one dollar per cord 
upon Hemlock Bark, with a view of checking the wholesale destruction of 
our Hemlock forests now going on." 

No action was taken by the Government in the matter. The proposal 
met with the active opposition of the interests affected and a number of 
petitions against the imposition of an export duty from those engaged in 
the industry, and the farmers in the respective neighborhoods where it was 
carried on were presented, and as no counter agitation re-inforced the Com- 
mittee's recommendation the subject was dropped. 

Bearing on Present Problems . 

The conditions disclosed by this investigation and the considerations 
influencing the conclusion reached by the Committee have been presented 
somewhat more fully than is warranted by the intrinsic importance of the 
enquiry, on account of their bearing upon similar questions of an inter- 
national character, affecting the management of our natural resources, 
which are likely to arise with increasing frequency in the future. The 
case of the exportation of hemlock bark and extract presents a striking 
analogy to the question of the shipment of saw logs in an unmanufactured 
state — and the forcible presentation in the report above quoted of the injury 
sometimes involved to the permanent and substantial interests of the coun- 
try by the toleration of a lucrative though temporary and wasteful exploita- 
tion of raw material to be manufactured abroad, is full of significance in 
its application to the existing situation. 

UNDER CONFEDERATION. 

The report of Hon. Stephen Richards, the first Commissioner of Crown 
Lands for Ontario, for the year 1868, contains the following paragraph 
relating to the Woods and Forests Branch. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. US 



First Provincial Timber Sale. 

"The timber dues, ground rent and bonus accrued during the year 
amount to |190,237. Tbe total timber revenue collected on account of sucb 
accruals, and of the arrears of previous years, is |234,209. Of this amount 
the sum of |14,446 was received as bonus on the south half of the Town- 
ship of Sherbourne, sold in two timber berths by public auction at Peter- 
boro on the 23rd of December, 1868, Berth No. 1, covering an area of 20| 
square miles (and which had previously suffered from fire and trespass) was 
sold at a bonus of |249 per square mile. For Berth No. 2, covering an 
area" of 18 square miles, a bonus was obtained of |519 per square mile, 
being by far the largest bonus ever received by the Crown on a sale of 
timber limits in this Province." 

The question of saw logs exportation, which has since assumed such 
prominence, cropped up during the first session of the Provincial Legisla- 
ture, when on February 26th, 1868, on motion of Mr. Christie, a Select 
Committee was appointed to enquire into the nature of and extent of the 
exportation of saw logs, shingle bolts and stave bolts cut in this Province 
and exported from the Dominion as follows: — Hon, Mr. Richards, Messrs. 
McDougall, Paxton, Hooper, Cockburn and Christie. No report appears" 
to have been made by the committee. 

Increasing Revenues. 

On January 9th of the same year, Mr. Rykert moved for returns show- 
ing details as to the number of timber licenses granted since 1860, and 
among the particulars asked for was, "so far as practicable what portions 
of said lands are fit for agricultural purposes?" The returns were brought 
down in due course, but no attempt was made to furnish any information 
as to how much of the area under license was of a cultivable character. 
Meanwhile the timber revenue of the Province was increasing by leaps 
and bounds. The report of the Commissioner of Crown Lands for 1869 
stated that a more careful supervision over lumbering operations was 
inaugurated than was believed to have previously existed. Heference was 
made to the issue of new Crown Timber Regulations in April, 1869, by 
which the dues were raised fifty per cent, in excess of the former rates, and 
a uniform rate of ground rent fixed. The regulations also provided for the 
more satisfactory accounting for the timber and saw logs cut upon public 
lands. The accruals from timber dues, ground rents and bonuses during 
the year amounted to $508,561, and the collections were $435,397. This 
very substantial increase in the revenue was emphasized by a comparison 
between the results of Crown Lands management under the ante-Confeder- 
ation Canadian administration, and under the new Ontario regime respec- 
tively, as shown by the following table : — 

1 . Timber revenue derived from the whole Province of Canada : — 

The largest revenue for any one of the 10 years end- 
ing 31st December, 1866, was .' |386,656 

The average yearly revenue during the 10 years was 295,409 

2. Timber revenue derived from Upper Canada alone : — 

The largest revenue for anv one of the 10 years end- 
ing December 31st, 1866, was .' 197.093 

The average yearly revenue during the 10 years was. 150,935 



244 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



The timber revenue for the year ending December 

31st, 1867, was 152,266 

The timber revenue for the year ending December 

31st, 1868, was 234,209 

For the year ending December 31st, 1869 435,397 

''In round numbers," concludes the Commissioner in a tone of justifiable 
exultation, "the timber revenue from the Upper Canada woods and forests 
is during the present year |238,000, or say 120 per cent, in excess of iihe 
highest amount it ever reached in any one year previous to the 1st of Jan- 
uary, 1867 ; and is |48,000, or say 121^ per cent, in excess of the highest 
amount ever received from the whole of the Province of Canada in any year 
previous to the last mentioned date." 

The new Crown Timber Regulations above referred to are as follows : — 

Regulations of 1869. 

1. The Commissioner of Crown Lands may, at his discretion, cause the 
limit lines of any timber berth under license, which have not been already 
surveyed, to be properly surveyed and run, the costs of such survey to be 
paid by the holder of the license, and where two or more licensees are inter- 
ested in the survey, the Commissioner shall determine what portion of the 
costs of survey shalj be paid by each, and such costs of survey shall be a 
charge upon the Timber Berth, to be paid with the ground rent before 
renewal of the License. 

2. The Commissioner of Crown Lands, before granting any licenses 
for new Timber Berths in the unsurveyed territory, shall, as far as prac- 
ticable, cause the section of country where it is intended to allot such 
Berths, to be run into Townships, and each Township when so surveyed 
shall constitute a Timber Berth, but the Commissioner of Crown Lands 
may cause such Townships to be subdivided into as many Timber Berths 
as he may think proper. 

3. The Berths or limits when so surveyed and set off, and all new 
berths or limits in surveyed territory, shall be explored and valued and 
then offered for sale by public auction at the upset price fixed by such 
valuation, at such time and place, and on such conditions, and by such 
officer, as the Commissioner of Crown Lands shall direct by public notice 
for that purpose, and shall be sold to the highest bidder for cash at the 
time of sale. 

4. All forfeited Timber Berths may be offered for sale on the second 
Tuesday in August in each year, by public auction, at such upset price 
and at such place as the Commissioner of Crown Lands may fix and appoint 
by public notice, or at such other rate as he may fix by such notice, and 
shall be awarded to the highest bidder, making payment at the time of 
sale, but should the said Timber Berth not be then sold, the same may be 
granted to any applicant willing to pay the said upset price and ground 
rent, or on such other terms as the Commissioner of Crown Lands may 
direct. 

5. License holders who shall have complied with all existing regula- 
tions, shall be entitled to have their licenses renewed on application to the 
Commissioner of Crown Lands, or to such local agent as he may appoint for 
that purpose. 

6. The Commissioner of Crown Lands shall keep a Register of all 
licenses granted or renewed and of all transfers of such licenses; and a 
copy of such reeristers, with a plan of the licensed limits, shall be kept by 
the Crown Timber Agent of the locality, and open to public inspection. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 245 



7. All transfers of Timber Berths shall be made in writing, but shall 
be subject to the approval of the Commissioner of Crown Lands, to whom 
they shall be transmitted for approval or rejection, and they shall be valid 
only from the time of such approval, to be expressed in writing. 

8. Timber Berths are to be described in new licenses as "not to inter- 
fere with prior licenses existing or to be renewed in virtue of regulations." 
When the description of any berth or boundary, as given by any license, 
clashes with the description of any other licensed berth or territory, the 
license of more recent origin (tracing back only to the time when such 
license or any previous license, of which it is a renewal, was first granted) 
shall give way, and 'the Commissioner may amend or cancel such license 
wholly or in part, and substitute another in place thereof, so as to correct 
the description of the berth or limit intended to be licensed ; and in all cases 
where any license has issued in error or mistake, or is found to be incon- 
sistent with any other license, or inconsistent or incompatible with the 
regulations under which it was granted, the Commissioner of Crown Lands 
may cause it to be cancelled or amended, or he may refer all matters in 
dispute, with reference to the boundaries and position of Timber Limits, to 
arbitration, each of the contending parties to choose one Arbitrator, and the 
Commissioner of Crown Lands shall appoint an Umpire, naming a day on 
or before which the award of such Arbitrators or of such Umpire ^hall be 
made and delivered to the parties, and such award shall be binding on 
them. 

9. Timber cut on limits for which license has been suspended or held 
in abeyance, shall be considered as having been cut without authority, and 
treated accordingly. 

10. Occupants, locatees or purchasers of Public Lands, who have not 
completed all the conditions of sale or location, shall not, unless under 
Settlers' license or for clearing, building or fencing purposes on the said 
land, be permitted to cut timber or logs thereon, or to dispose of it to others. 
Persons found doing so shall be subject to the penalties established by law 
for cutting timber on the public lands without authority. 

11. All Timber Licenses are to expire on the 30th April next, after 
the date thereof, and all renewals are to be applied for and issued before 
the 1st July following the expiration of the last preceding license, in 
default whereof the right to renewal shall cease and the Berth or Berths 
shall be treated as forfeited. 

12. No renewal of any license shall be granted unless or until the 
Ground Rent, and all costs of survey, and all dues to the Crown on timber, 
saw logs, or other lumber cut under and by virtue of any license, other 
than the last preceding shall have been first paid. 

13. All Timber Berths or limits shall be subject to an annual Ground 
Rent of |2 per square mile, payable in advance before the issuing of any 
original license or renewal. 

14. All timber, saw logs, wood or other lumber cut under any License 
now in force or under any License which may be hereafter granted, shall 
be subject to the payment of the following Crown dues, that is to say: — 

Black Walnut and Oak, per cubic foot |0 03 

Elm, Ash, Tamarac and Maple, per cubic, foot 02 

Red and White P'ne, Birch, Basswood, Cedar, Button- 
wood and Cottonwood, and all Boom Timber, per 

cubic foot OIJ 

All other woods 01 

/ 



246 REPORT OF THK No. 3 



Red and White Pine, Basswood, Buttonwood and Cotton- 
wood saw logs, per standard of 200 feet board measure 15 
Walnut, Oak and Maple saw logs, per standard of 200 feet 

board measure 25 

Hemlock, Spruce and other woods, per standard of 200 

feet board measure 10 

All unmeasured cull saw logs to be taken at the average of 
the lot, and to be charged for at same rate. 

Stave, Pipe, per mille 7 00 

Staves, West India, per mille 2 25 

Cordwood (hard) per cord •. 20 

Cordwood (soft) per cord , 12| 

Hemlock Tan Bark, per cord 30 

Railway Timber, Knees, etc., to be charged 15 per cent, ad valorem. 

15. The duties on timber shall be charged upon the quantities shown 
by the specification of measurement at the office of the Supervisor of Cul- 
lers at Quebec, or that of the Deputy Supervisor of Cullers at Sorel or 
Montreal, or by other reliable measurement, but where such actual measure- 
ment cannot be obtained, each stick of white pine timber shall be estimated 
as containing 70 cubic feet, Red Pine as containing 38 cubic feet, Oak 50 
feet, and Elm 45 feet, and all other wood as containing 34 cubic feet. 

16. All Licensees or occupants of Timber Berths shall furnish through 
themselves, their agents, cullers and foremen, to such agent or agents as 
the Commissioner of Crown Lands may appoint for that purpose, and at 
such time and place as such agent or agents may require, satisfactory proof 
upon oath as to the exact locality where all the Timber, Saw Logs, and 
other Lumber in his or their possession were cut, giving the number of 
pieces, and description of Timber, Saw Logs, and other Lumber cut by 
themselves and others to their knowledge upon each of the Timber Berths 
held or occupied by him or them respectively, designating what quantity, 
if any, had been cut on settlers' lands, giving the names of such settlers, 
the name of the Township, and the number of each lot and concession, 
exhibiting at the same time for the inspection of such agent or agents, the 
Books of count and measurement of such Timber, Saw Logs, and other 
Lumber under his or their control respectively; and shall, moreover, furnish 
such Agent or Agents all required information and facilities to enable him 
or them to arrive at a satisfactory determination as to the quantity and 
description of timber, saw logs, and other lumber made by them or him, or 
held in his or their possession respectively, on which the Government dues 
are chargeable ; and in the event of such Agent or Agents deeming it expedi- 
ent to cause such timber, saw logs, and other lumber to be counted or 
measured, the said Licensee or occupier of such timber berth and his or 
their Agents, cullers and foremen shall aid and assist in such count or 
measurement, but should such Licensee or occupier, or his or their Agents, 
fail to complv with these conditions, such Licensee shall forfeit all right 
to renewal of his License, and the berth or limit shall become vacant. And 
to enable persons who sell their timber under settlers' License to obtain 
their refund of dues, and timber cut on Patented Lands to pass duty free, 
it will be necessary for the parties interested to prove, on oath, taken before 
such Asrent or Agents, and to his or their satisfaction, the number of pieces 
and description of timber and saw logs cut on each lot respectively. And 
in the event of such proof being deemed unsatisfactory, the said Agent or 
Agents, may determine the same by causing a strict count of the stumps to 
be made and then certifying according to such count. 



VM>1 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 247 



17. The Commissioner of Crown Lands or any authorized Agent, shall 
at all times have free access to and be permitted to examine the books and 
memoranda kept by any Licensee shewing the quantity of lumber in board 
measure sawn by him from logs cut on his timber berth or berths, and fail- 
ing to produce such books and memoranda when required to do so, will sub- 
ject such Licensee to a forfeiture of his right to a renewal of his License. 

18. When any License-holder is in default for, or has evaded the pay- 
ment of dues to the Crown on any part of his timber or saw logs, such dues 
may be levied on any other timber or saw logs belonging to such defaulter 
cut under license, together with the dues thereon. 

19. Before moving any raft, or parcel of timber, lumber or saw logs 
from the Agency in which it has been cut, the owner or person in charge 
thereof, shall report the same to the Crown Timber Agent making, if 
required, declaration upon oath, as to where the said Timber was cut, the 
number of pieces and description of each kind of wood contained in such 
raft or parcel of timber, and the number of cribs, stating at the same time^ 
the number and description of pieces cut on private lands, also on lands 
under Settlers' License, giving the names of the owners or Licensees of 
such land, with the name of the Township, and number of each lot, and 
concession, and should such Crown Timber Agent not be satisfied with the 
correctness of such report, he shall cause a strict count to be made of the 
timber in such raft; and on being satisfied of the correctness of such report 
or count, the said Crown Timber Agent may grant a clearance, in due form, 
for such raft, stating the number of pieces and description of timber con- 
tained therein, distinguishing the timber cut on private lands and under 
Settlers' License, from that cut on the Crown Domain. 

20. The owner or holder of any such raft or parcel of timber shall, 
within twenty-four hours after the same shall have arrived at its destina- 
tion at Quebec, Sorel, Montreal or other port of sale or shipment, report the 
arrival of such raft to the Collector of Crown Timber Dues, or if at Sorel 
or Montreal to the Deputy Supervisor of Cullers, and should the said raft 
be found by the specification of measurement to contain a greater number 
of pieces of timber than is noted in the clearance, the surplus number of 
pieces, if not satisfactorily explained, shall be held as having been cut on 
Crown Lands without authority, and subject to the payment of dues accord- 
ingly. 

21. Parties omitting to obtain their clearance at such agency, or 
omitting to report the arrival of such raft at its destination as above men- 
tioned, may be refused further license, and may be subject to forfeiture 
of the timber for evasion of regulations, as provided in Cap. 23 of the Con- 
solidated Statutes of Canada. 

22. Persons evading or refusing the payment of timber dues, or the 
final settlement of bonds or promissory notes for the payment of such dues, 
or in default with the Crown Timber office or agent; also persons taking 
fcrcible possession of disputed ground before obtaining decision in their 
favor, and persons refusing to comply with the decision of arbitrators or 
of the umpire, as provided by the 8th section of these Eegulations, or with 
the Regulations established by Order in Council, or who forcibly inteir- 
rupt surveyors in the discharge of their duty, shall be refused further 
licenses, and their berths shall be forfeited at the expiration of the then 
existing license. 

23. Dues of all kinds on timber cut under license remaining unpaid 
on the 30th November following the season in which it was cut, shall be 
subject to interest from that date, but without prejudice to the power of 

17 L.:,i 



248 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



the Crown to enforce payraent of such outstanding dues at any time the 
Commissioner of Crown Lands may think proper. 

These regulations were amended by Order in Council dated the 18th of 
May, 1899, by the substitution for Sec. 10, as given above, of the following 
provision : 

10th. Occupants, locatees or purchasers of public lands shall not unless 
under settlers' licenses or for clearing, fencing or building purposes on the 
said land, be permitted to cut any description of timber or logs thereon, or 
to dispose of it to others until they have gone into the actual hona -fide 
occupation of the said land, have built a habitable house thereon 16x20 
feet at least, have resided thereon actually continuously for at least six 
months, and cleared and put under cultivation two acres at least of the 
said land. Persons contravening this regulation shall- be subject to the 
penalties established by law for cutting timber on the Public Lands with- 
out authority. This regulation shall not be construed as in any way affect- 
ing the regulations respecting pine and cedar trees of the 27th day of May, 
1869, and the 3rd April, 1880. 

Timber Marks. 

A measure of some importance to the lumber trade was passed by the 
Dominion Parliament during the session 1870. "An Act Respecting the 
Marking of Timber" provided that every person engaged in the business 
of lumbering or getting out timber and floating and rafting the same on 
the inland waters within the Province of Ontario or Quebec, should be 
subject to a penalty of fifty dollars for failure or neglect to select a mark 
or marks to be put in a conspicuous place on each log or piece of timber 
floated or rafted. A timber mark register was to be kept in the office of the 
Minister of Agriculture, where all marks were to be registered, giving the 
party registering the same the exclusive right to use such mark. Provision 
was made against the duplication of marks, or the adoption by one lumber- 
man of any mark bearing such a close resemblance to another previously 
registered as to cause confusion, and a penalty of not less than $20 or more 
than $100 was imposed for the use of any registered mark by any other 
person than the proprietor. 

Stream Pollution. 

The practice of throwing sawdust and other mill refuse into navigable 
^streams a!tid rivers was at this time very general among the owners of saw 
mills, with the frequent result of obstructing navigation by the accumula- 
tion of debris, as well as of destroying the fish in water where they formerly 
abounded. On February 20th, 1871, Mr. Cartwright introduced a bill for 
the better protection of navigable streams and rivers, into the House of 
Commons, by which this practice was prohibited. It was referred to the 
Committee on Banking and Commerce, who reported the bill back to the 
House on the ground that they were entirely without evidence as to the neces- 
sity of such legislation and recommended the subject to the consideration 
of the Government with a view to enquiry by Commission or otherwise. A 
Commission was accordingly appointed consisting of Hon. Hamilton H. 
Killaly of Toronto, John Mather of Chelsea, and R. W. Shephard of Mon- 
treal. Their report strongly favoured the proposed legislation, the need of 
which was plainly indicated by the testimony adduced, showing the serious 
impediments to navigation which in many instances had resulted from throw- 
ing saw mill refuse intp the water. The measure when introduced in 1873 
became law. Its principal clause provides that — 

17a L. M. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 249 



"From and after the passing of this Act no owner nor tenant of any 
saw mill nor any workman therein, nor other person or persons, whoso- 
ever, shall throw or cause to be thrown, or suffer or permit to be thrown, 
any sawdust, edgings, slabs, bark or rubbish of any description whatsover, 
into any navigable stream or river, either above or below the point at which 
such stream or river ceases to be navigable." A fine of not less than twenty 
dollars was imposed for the first offence, the penalty for subsequent infrac- 
tions of the law being not less than fifty dollars. It was made the duty of 
the fishery officers to examine and report on the condition of navigable 
streams and rivers from time to time and to prosecute offenders. The Gov- 
ernor-in-Council was given power to exempt any stream or river or any part 
thereof from the operation of the Act, on its being shown to his satisfaction 
that the public interest would not be injuriously affected thereby. 

Export Duty on Saw Logs. 

The question of the maintenance of an export duty on saw logs came 
up in the Dominion Parliament again during the Session of 1874. On the 
9th of April a Select Committee composed of Messrs. Charlton, Currier, 
McDougall (Eenfrew), McCallum, Scriver, Colby, and Stuart were ap- 
pointed to enquire into and report on the working of the Act Cap. 44 of 
31 Yic, so far as it relates to imposing an Export duty upon saw logs, 
shingle bolts, and stave bolts. The report of the Committee, presented on 
the 30th of April, was as follows: — 

**That the Export Duty on saw logs, shingle bolts and stave bolts, 
imposed under Schedule F. of the Tariff Act of 1868, Cap. 44 of 31 Yic, 
is a tax upon settlers and owners of timber, who are prevented by its opera- 
tion from obtaining the full advantage afforded by the best markets. 

"That the Export Duty while reducing the market value of logs and 
bolts for the benefit of mill owners does not promote the manufacture of 
lumber, shingles, and staves at the principal Lake Erie Ports, and at many 
other points in Canada. 

''That a large proportion of the export of pine and oak logs is long 
timber, entering into the same class of consumption as does the square oak 
export of Canada. 

"That exporters of round pine and oak from Lake Erie ports compete 
in American markets with Michigan timber dealers, to whom the Canadian 
export duty afford a considerable protection. 

"That since the imposition of the Export Duty, a large amount of 
capital embarked in the round timber trade has been withdrawn from 
Canada and invested in Michigan. 

Hard on Settlers. 

"That the saw mill interest of Canada has in the opinion of your Com- 
mittee, been slightly benefited by the Export Duty; and that whatever 
benefit the Export Duty has conferred upon the saw mill interest, has been 
given at the direct expense of the settlers and owners of timber. 

"That the Export Duty reduced to an ad valorem rate, would be on the 
average 40 per cent, on stave bolts; 30 per cent, on oak logs;''20 per cent, 
en pine logs; 25 per cent, on spruce logs, and 25 per cent, on shingle bolts. 

"That the Export Duty is an extreme protective measure and partially 
at least inoperative as such, and that the burdens imposed by it are unequally 
distributed, falling as they do entirely upon settlers and other owners of 
timber." 



250 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



An Act abolisliing the Export Duty on stave bolts and oak logs was 
passed in 1875. 

Export Duty Increased. 

In 1886 the remaining export duties were altered, that on shingle bolts 
being fixed at $1.50 per cord, spruce logs |1 per thousand feet, and pine 
logs |2 per thousand feet. Tbe Govemor^in-Council was autborized to 
increase the export duty on pine logs to |3 per thousand feet. By an Act 
passed in 1888 tbe Governor-General was empowered either to reduce or 
remove these duties whenever it should appear desirable in the public inter- 
est to do so. By an Order-in-Council of the 13th November in the same 
year the export duty on saw logs was increased from |2 to $3 per thousand 
feet; but on July 5th, 1889, the former rate was restored, in view of a pro- 
bable understanding being reached with the United States for more favor- 
able duties upon our manufactured lumber. Tbe negotiations progressed 
satisfactorily, and in 1890 Sir John Macdonald promised the removal of 
the export duty on pine and spruce logs in the event of the United States 
Congress reducing the import duty on sawn lumber to |1 per thousand 

Abolished in 1890. 

feet. This reduction took place, and on October 11th, 1890, the Canadian 
Government by Order-in-Council abolished the export duty. 

With the accession to power in the United States of the Democratic 
Party the duty of |1 per M. on sawn lumber was removed, and free trade 
in lumber and logs followed between Canada and the States. General busi- 
ness was good on both sides of the line, and in 1892 the timber trade was 
very prosperous. 

Trade Depression. 

The prosperous condition of the market which obtained in 1892 did 
not long continue. The prolonged period of financial stringency and busi- 
ness depression which set in during the following year in the United States, 
followed by the imposition of a duty of |2 per thousand upon sawn lumber, 
largely destroyed the market for the coarser grades of lumber. Meanwhile 
large quantities of saw logs were being cut for exportation into the United 
States in order to furnish American mill owners with the raw material to 
enable them to meet the demand formerly supplied by Canadian shipments 
of the manufactured article. 

Defensive measures were demanded by the lumber trade, and the 
Dominion Government was urged to reimpose the export duty of |2.00 
per M. on saw logs, abolished in 1890. As the United States tariff legisla- 
tion imposing the import duty of |2.00 per M. on sawn lumber also pro- 
vided that this duty should be increased by the amount of export duty on 
logs that might be imposed by any other country, the Dominion Govern- 
ment was naturally reluctant to act. Western Ontario lumbermen who 
were mainly affected by the competition of their own logs sawn in Michi- 
gan, applied for relief to the Provincial Government, and in the session of 
1898, at the instance of the Government, regulations requiring that all logs 
cut on Crown Lands should be manufactured in the Province, were approved 
by the Legislature. Michigan holders of Ontario timber limits, whose mills 
had been supplied with logs from them, claimed that this legislation con- 
stituted a breach of contract on the part of the Crown, that by the payment 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 251 



of the bonus at the time they acquired the limits they were entitled to cut 
the pine timber thereon and dispose of it as they saw fit, and that this action 
by lessening the value of the timber to them was to that extent confiscation. 

The authors of the legislation held that when the holders acquired 
these limits they obtained a license to cut for one year only; that they under- 
stood when acquiring them that if they obtained a renewal of their license 
the following year it must be subject to such regulations as the Government 
saw fit in the interest of the Province to impose; that the new regulations 
applied to Canadian holders of limits as well, and was desirable in the 
interests of the Province. 

The American limit holders also claimed that this regulation was ultra 
vires of the Provincial Legislature, being an interference with the "Trade 
angi Commerce" which lay within the jurisdiction of the Dominion Gov- 
ernment. The legislation was, however, allowed by the Dominion Parlia- 
ment, and in 1899, by consent of the Attorney General of the Province, the 
case of the validity of the regulation was brought before the courts. Jus- 
tice Steele, before whom the case was heard, gave judgment in favor of the 
Province, and at this writing no appeal has been taken from this decision. 



TIMBER SALES. 

In 1871 the area of timber land under license in Ontario was consider- 
ably increased, and the revenue largely augmented by the sale of extensive 

Extensive Sales. 

timber limits in the districts of Muskoka and Parry Sound. These areas 
had been thrown open for settlement by the "Free Grants and Homestead 
Act of 1868," but by a report dated September 26th, 1871, the Commissioner 
of Crown Lands recommended that the lands remaining unsold and unlo- 
cated should be offered for sale as timber limits in berths not to exceed 
twenty square miles in area, under the following conditions. Each limit 
at its estimated area to be adjudged to the party bidding the highest amount 
of bonus. The bonus and first season's ground rent at the rate of |2 per 
square mile to be paid immediately after the limit is adjudged. License 
to issue to the successful competitor within one month from the day of sale. 
All red and white pine timber or saw logs cut upon the said limits to be 
subject to the following special rate of timber dues. White and red pine 
timber, per cubic foot, 2Jc. ; white and red pine saw logs, per standard of 
200 feet board measure, 30c. So much of the Crown Timber Regulations 
a? conflicted with this order to be' suspended for the purposes of this sale, 
but in all other respects to apply to the licenses to be issued. The Commis- 
sioner also recommended that the Department recognize the right of all 
purchasers or locatees of Free Grant Lands to sell or dispose of pine trees 
on their lots subject to the payment of the above duties. 

Diameter Limit for Cutting. •• 

These recommendations were approved of on the 4th of October, 1871. 
By a subsequent Order-in-Council on 22nd of November an important addi- 
tional condition was imposed in connection with these sales, the pur- 
chasers being prohibited from cutting any trees of less size than thirteen 
inches in diameter at the butt, all pine timljer under that size being reserved. 
At the same time the duty of 30 cents per standard saw log on lands located 
tc settlers, being considered too high was reduced to 15 cents. 



252 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



The timber berths in the Muskoka and Parry Sound districts disposed 
of under these conditions on November 23rd, 1871, comprising an area of 
487 miles, realized |117,672 in bonuses. 

Sale of 1872. — Local Sato Mills. 

The year 1872 is notable for a still more extensive sale of timber limits 
en the north shore of Lake Huron held on the 15th and 16th of October, 
when 5,301 square miles were disposed of, realizing as bonus |592,601, and 
ground rent |10,064, making a total of |602,665. More than three-fifths of 
this area had previously been under license, but with the exception of 300 
square miles, the licenses granted in this locality in former years had been 
allowed to lapse. Some little difficulty arose in connection with these sales 
by reason of the- claims of saw mill owners who had been operating in a small 
way on the North Shore for some twenty years previous, manufacturing 
lumber mainly for local use. At first these mills were largely supplied with 
timber taken from Crown Lands without license or the payment of dues 
unless in exceptional cases. Afterwards applications were maxle for licenses 
by the owners, and in some instances small spaces of territory were assigned 
to the applicants, who, however, made considerably more extensive demands 
than appeared reasonable to the department. The settlers in some districts 
complained that the supply of lumber for local consumption was insufficient. 
To meet the case the following Order-in-Council was adopted on the 19th 
of April, 1872. 

"The Committee of Council have had under consideration the Report 
of the Commissioner of Crown Lands, dated April 9th, 1872, wherein the 
Commissioner states that, with the view of promoting settlement on lands 
at present remote from the centres of traffic and to contribute to the com- 
fort and well-being of those already settled in such localities, a supply of 
sawn lumber for the erection of dwellings, barns, etc., is an absolute neces- 
sity, and the means at the disposal of the Department of furnishing a sup- 
ply of timber for saw mills to meet such necessity being limited, he con- 
siders it expedient, in order to supplement such means, that recourse for a 
supply of timber should be had to lands held under license. The Com- 
mittee advise that the Commissioner be authorized to withdraw, at any 
time, from any timber license hereafter issued or renewed, any lot or lots or 
portion of land, he may deem necessary for the purpose of enabling him to 
furnish lumber for the supply of saw mills, erected or to be erected, for the 
manufacture of sawn lumber for local consumption." 

In order to obviate any misunderstanding and prevent any possible 
abuse of this privilege by the export of lumber taken from lands set apart 
for the supply of lumber for the settlers, and further as a reasonable 
guarantee to license holders that their interests would not be necessarily 
interfered with, the following clause was adopted on December 17th, 1872, 
a« an addendum to the previous Order-in-Council : 

"The timber from lands set apart for the supply of saw mills manufac- 
turing lumber for local consumption, is to be cut and manufactured 
exclusively for such local demand and so disposed of, that any infraction 
of this condition, directly or indirectly may be followed in each case by 
cancellation of authority to cut timber or trees on the lands so set apart 
for the purpose above mentioned, and may be restored to the license from 
which the same were withdrawn." 

The annual report of Hon. R. W. Scott, Commissioner of Crown Lands, 
for 1872, has the following explanation of the policy pursued by the Pro- 
vincial Government with! regard to the Crown domain: "The policy of 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 253 



placing under license the area disposed of at the late sale has been questioned 
on the ground that it was virtually locking up the country from settlement, 
and handing over absolutely to licentiates the timber which should have 
been retained as a permanent source of revenue to the Province ; the fallacy 
of such objections must be apparent in the face of the following facts, viz., 
that the lands will be as open for sale after being covered by license as they 
were before the existence of such license, and that the timber which has 
hitherto yielded no appreciable contribution to the Provincial Treasury' 
will now, as the result of the territory being placed under license, be a prolific 
source of revenue, permanent as the existence of the material from which 
it is derived. 

An Aid to Settlement. 

''It was fairly assumed also, that placing the lands under license was 
the only means of settling the country, and it is gratifying to know that 
all the settlers in the Algoma district approve of the sale, and believe it was 
the one thing necessary to stimulate the growth and development of that 
neglected part of Ontario." 

The Commissioner then referred to previous efforts to settle the territory 
which had resulted in failure. Seven townships had been laid out in the 
most desirable sections upwards of ten years before, and land offered to 
settlers at 20c. per acre, but the average annual sales during that period 
had only amounted to 498 acres, and the greater part of the land sold was 
subsequently abandoned as imfit for cultivation. It therefore became evi- 
dent that the only means of opening up the country for settlement was 
through lumbering enterprise. The report continued: — 

"In view of the exceptional condition of the country, the timber being 
open to wholesale plunder along an uninhabited frontier, where every facil- 
ity exists for easy transport of logs by towage to the shores of the United 
States, to prevent which would entail on the Department a large amount of 
outlay; the recurrent destruction of the valuable staple by fires, the facts 
ac given with respect to the sale of lands, showing clearly that in the absence 
of some auxiliary inducement, it would be vain to expect them to be taken 
up for actual settlement, the adoption of such steps as would meet the 
exigency in its several phases became absolutely necessary. 

"The only action open to the Department under the circumstances was 
(o offer the Timber Berths for sale at public competition by which the ter- 
ritory would' be placed in such a position that its resources could be properly 
and advantageously controlled, and hundreds of millions of feet of valu- 
able lumber saved to the Province, which would otherwise be destroyed by 
fire or plundered and carried away." 

LaJ:e Superior Lands. 

In order to supply the local demand for lumber on the North Shore of 
Lake Superior, owners of patented lands and purchasers of lands in that 
territory, were granted by Order-in-Council passed June 29th, 1872, the 
right to acquire the pine trees on their lands on making the additional pay- 
ment of 50c. per acre. It was provided that in case thev declined to pur- 
chase the pine trees upon their lands the Crown Lands Department might 
dispose of them at the same rate to other persons, or in case of their being 
more than one applicant, to the one paying the highest additional sum per 
Tcre for the pine. 



254 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



SETTLER'S EIGHTS TO PINE TIMBER. 

LuTnhering and Settlement. — The Land Act of 1841. 

One inevitable consequence of the failure to discriminate between 
agricultural and non-cultivable lands in tbe past, has been the frequent 
clashing of interests between the settler and the lumberman. The former 
having taken up land in a district covered by timber license found that 
after he had acquired full ownership in all other respects, the pine growing 
nn his lot could be cut and carried away by the lumberman at his pleasure. 
The latter on his part complained that the value of his limit was continually 
being impaired by the inroads of settlers, who took advantage of the con- 
ditions of the land-granting system to obtain title of occupancy to lots with 
the object of clearing the land of its timber. In the earlier days of settle- 
ment the difficulties arising from this source were not serious, the incom- 
ing agricultural population naturally sought the most fertile and accessible 
areas, the operations of the lumbermen being largely confined to a region 
loo distant and sterile to attract those in search of homesteads. Under the 
system then prevailing the lumberman explored the country until he found 
a heavily timbered area and then applied for a license, which he usually 
got on terms which involved a very trifling return to the public in propor- 
tion to the value of the privileges granted. When the Government began 
t(i realize the worth of the timber resources of this country, and to endeavor 
(o secure for the public treasury a larger share of their value, they adopted 
a policy of as far as possible disposing of the pine before throwing the land 
open for settlement, and in laying out timber limits, included large tracts 
of agricultural land with the non-cultivable districts which formed the 
principal pine-producing area. Moreover, the operations of the lumber- 
men, continued for a series of years, tended of themselves to attract settle- 
ment in and around the pine woods. The men employed in the lumber 
camps often squatted in the neighborhood, made small clearings and raised 
a little produce during the summer, looking to employment in the shanties 
in the winter time as their main source of subsistence. Thus small settle- 
ments grew up, and as population throughout the Province increased and 
it became necessary for those seeking homes to look farther afield, the demands 
of those engaged in the lumber trade and the opening up of the country 
through their operations attracted many to the debateable ground. Some 
who took up land in the lumbering region no doubt had an eye to the value 
of the timber on their locations as affording the means of eking out a 
livelihood during their first years of occupancy, while in other cases the 
conditions of settlement were abused by those who merely wished to acquire 
a colorable title in order to strip the land of its timber without intending 
to establish themselves permanently as settlers. A survey of the legislation 
respecting the disposal of public land shows that it was many years after 
the union of the Provinces before the difficulties arising out of the con- 
flicting interests of lumbermen and settlers became sufficiently pronounced 
to render it necessary to define their respective rights by legal enactment. 
"An Act for the Disposal of Public Lands" passed immediately after the 
union in 1841 prohibited the abuses which had prevailed to so grave an 
extent before the era of Responsible Government, in the indiscriminate 
granting of large tracts of land under various pretexts, by limiting free 
grants of land to fifty acres to be made only to actual settlers. Neither in 
this Act nor in an amending enactment passed in 1849 to remove doubts as 
to wh,"ether under the provisions of the former measure the Crown had 
power to release escheats and otherwise modify the law is there any mention 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 255 



made of the settler's rights in the timber growing upon his land. In 1853 
further legislation extended the area of lots under the free grant system to 
100 acres, and among the provisions of the Act was one authorizing the Com- 
missioner of Crown Lands to issue licenses of occupation to those intending 
to purchase and settle on public lands, giving them the right to occupy 
and maintain possession against trespassers as fully as they could do under 
patent. There is no reference in this Act to the right to cut timber, or any 
definition of the respective interests of the settler and lumberman. "An 
Act respecting the Sale and Management of Public Lands," adopted in 
I860, however, contained the following substitute clause in regard to 
licenses of occupation: — 

License of Occupation, 

"The Commissioner of Crown Lands may issue under his hand and seal, 
to any person who has purchased or may purchase, or is permitted to occupy 
or who has been entrusted with the care or protection of any public land 
or who has received or been located on any public land as a free grant, an 
instrument in the form of a License of Occupation, and such person or the 
assignee, by an instrument registered under this or any former Act pro- 
viding for registration in such cases, may take possession of and occupy the 
land therein comprised, subject to the conditions of such license and may 
thereunder, unless the same shall have been revoked or cancelled, main- 
tain suits in law or equity against any wrongdoer or trespasser, as effec- 
tually as he could do under a patent from the Crown; and such License of 
Occupation shall be prima facie evidence for the purpose of possession by 
such person, or the assignee under an instrument registered as aforesaid in 
any such suit; but the same shall have no force against a License to cut 
timber existing at the time of the granting thereof." 

This is the first enactment bearing on the respective claims of the 
license holder and the settler, and clearly determined to question so far 
at all events as the position of the latter was concerned prior to the issue of 
his patent. It was followed up by an Order-in-Council dated May 27, 1869, 
which defined the rights of the parties somewhat more closely as follows : — 

Settler's Right to Cut Timber. 

"All Pine Trees growing on or being upon any Public Land hereafter 
to be sold, and which at the time of such sale, or previously, was included 
'^ v^7 Timber License, shall be considered as reserved from such sale, and 
such land shall be subject to any Timber License, covering or including such 
land, in force at the time of sale; and such trees may be cut and removed 
from such land, under the authority of any such Timber License, while law- 
fully m force, but the purchaser at such sale or those claiming under him or 
her, may cut and use such trees as may be necessary for the purpose of build- 
ing, fencing, and fuel on the land so purchased, and may also cut and dis- 
pose of all trees required to be removed in actually clearing said land for 
cultivation, but no pine trees except for the necessary building fencing and 
fuel as aforesaid shall be cut beyond the limit of such actual clearing before 
the issuing of the patent for such land, and all pine trees so cut and dis- 
posed of (except for the necessary building, fencing and fuel as aforesaid) 
shall be subject to the payment of the same dues as are at the time payable 
by the holders of licenses to cut timber or saw logs. • 

"All trees remaining on the land at the time the Patent issues shaU 
pass to the Patentee. 



256 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



"Provided however, that this order shall not apply to any land to be 
sold as mining land under "The General Mining Act of 1869," nor to land 
to be sold to any Free Grant Locatee under the Regulation or Order-in- 
Council bearing date this day." 

Free Grants Act of 1868. 

The "Free Grants and Homesteads Act of 1868," providing for the 
setting apart of land for Free Grants to actual settlers expressly reserved 
to the Crown all pine trees upon such locations, with the customary excep- 
tion of timber for building, fencing, and fuel and those trees necessarily 
removed in clearing the land. All other pine trees cut before the issue of 
the patent were to be subject to timber dues. Trees remaining on the land 
at the time the patent issued were to pass to the patentee. An Order-in- 
Council issued May 27th, 1869, provided that all pine trees on land located 
or sold under the Free Grants and Homesteads Act of 1868 should be sub- 
ject to any timber license in force at the time of location or sale, or granted 
within five years subsequently and might at any time before the issue of 
the patent be cut and removed. 

Licenses covering Free Grants. 

Doubts arose as to the construction of the Free Grants and Homesteads 
Act of 1868, which rendered uncertain the right of the Commissioner of 
Crown Lands to issue licenses to cut timber upon lands located or sold to 
Free Grant Settlers and some litigation resulted. This necessitated the 
passage of an explanatory act in 1877, by which the authority of the Com- 
missioner to grant licenses including such lots was clearly laid down, and 
existing licenses covering Free Grant territory continued subject to any 
conditions and regulations specially applicable to such territory. 

Further amendments of the Free Grants and Homesteads Act were made 
in 1880 by a provision under which the patents for land located under the 
Act should contain a reservation of all pine trees on the land, and allow- 
ing the license-holder within whose limits the lot was included to enter the 
uncleared portion of the land, and cut and remove trees at any time during 

Lumbermen^ s Dues to Settlers. 

the continuance of his license. The patentee of land located or sold under 
the Act, was to be paid on all pine trees cut on his land, on which dues had 
been collected by the Crown, the sum of 25 cents per thousand feet board 
measure, for saw logs, and |3 on each thousand cubic feet of square or 
waney timber. In 1890 the rate of payment was increased to 33 cents per 
thousand feet for saw logs and |4 per thousand for square or waney timber. 

Furtlier Restrictions in 1899. 

By an Order-in-Council dated the 18th day of May, 1899, it was pro- 
vided that occupants, locatees, or purchasers of public lands, should not, 
unless under settlers' licenses or for clearing, fencing or building purposes 
be permitted to cut or dispose of timber until they had gone into actual 
hono fide occupation of the land, built a habitable house of at least 16 by 
20 feet, continuously resided there for six months and cleared and put under 
cultivation at least two acres. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 257 



THE SQUARE TIMBER TRADE. 

A resolution adopted by tiie Legislative Assembly on February Sib, 
1878, called for returns sbowing tbe quantity of saw logs, square and 
waney pine timber cut on public and private lands for each of tbe years 
from 1868 to 1877 inclusive. Tbe jfigures are cbiefly of interest as indicat- 
ing tbe great fluctuations of trade during tbis period, resulting mainly 
from tbe unsatisfactory condition of tbe*!Britisb market. Tbe totals for tbe 
years specified in feet, board measure, are as follows : 

1868 177,390,000 1873 589,178,742 

1869 ...375,620,200 1874 406,185,320 

1870 300,900,850 1875 396,681,522 

1871 358,096,400 1876 294,729,327 

1872 669,569,542 1877 270,260,979 

Gvat Waste. 

Tbe report of Hon. T. B. Pardee, Commissioner of Crown Lands for tbe 
year 1879, dealt at some lengtb witb tbe waste of valuable material involved 
in tbe manufacture of square and waney pine timber for sbipment to Eng- 
land. Estimating tbat in squaring timber one-fourtb of tbe wood was 
destroyed, tbe Commissioner calculated on tbe basis of tbe returns sbowing 
tbe production of square pine for tbe ten years 1868-1877, tbat a direct loss 
to tbe Province of $3,577,500 for tbis period bad been sustained or an annual 
loss of $357,750. In addition, tbe loss owing to tbe destruction of timber 
by fires, wbicb migbt bave been confined to a limited area, and possibly 
extinguished before great damage bad been done, bad tbey not been fed by 
tbe debris of trees left to rot and dry, was incalculable. **It is time," con- 
tinued tbe report, "tbat tbe Canadian lumberman engaged in the square pine 
business should open his eyes to tbe alarming waste of a material, tbe valve 
of wbicb is increasing every year, (tbat in fact bie is stripping his limits and 
disposing of bis timber frequently at a loss, or at best during several years 
past, at a rate which seldom pays more than tbe cost of cutting down, squar- 
ino-. drawing and taking to market, while at the same time be leaves in tbe 
woods as useless one-fourth of each tree be levels to tbe ground, one-half 
of tbe timber so left being tbe most valuable part of tbe tree) ; and see tbe 
necessity of turning his attention to saw milling operations as a more econ- 
omical mode of manufacturing his timber, by which be would not only 
benefit himself by turning to profitable account what is now so wantonly 
wasted, but the Province generally by increasing the field of labor for its 
people, while the Provincial Treasury would derive additional revenue from 
tbe material saved and utilized. * * ♦ 

"It is to be hoped that those who bold timber limits and have confined 
their operations to the manufacture of square pine, will see tbe propriety 
and necessity of speedily reducing the production to tbe smallest possible 
extent, witb the object of wholly withdrawing from tbe trade at an early 
day." 

RIVERS AND STREAMS. 

Tbe use of all streams and rivers upon tbe waters of wbicb timber could 
be floated to its destination, has from the outset of the timber trade been a 
most important consideration to the lumberman. Debarred of this means 
of getting out his annual cut, the possession of limits at a distance from the 
main water highways would be of little value to bim.^ The right of the 



258 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



licensee to use all such watercourses contiguous to his property, whether 
originally adapted for floating timber or capable of being made so by the 
construction of slides, the removal of obstacles to navigation or other 
improvements, is in fact essential to the utilization of the timber growing 
on the higher and more remote areas, and its refusal would render lumber- 
ing over a large proportion of the public Domain an unprofitable pursuit. 

Caldwell vs. McLaren. 

In the year 1881 a question of vital interest to the lumber trade was 
raised in connection with the right of one lumberman to use floatable streams 
which had been improved by another, who regarded them as his private 
property. Peter McLaren, who had made improvements on two streams, 
tributaries of the Mississippi river in Lanark county, refused to permit 
W. C. Caldwell, another lumberman, to run his logs over the improvements. 
The matter came before the courts and streams were held to be private pro- 
perty. As no fewer than 234 streams in the Province were in the same cate- 
gory, this decision, if allowed to stand, would have had a paralyzing effect 
upon the lumber trade, as the berths upon the upper waters of these streams 
could at any time be cut off from access to navigable waters at the will of 
the riparian owners below them. In the public interest, the Ontario Legis- 
lature, at the session of 1881, passed an Act settling the question, by giving 
every one the right to float logs and timber down rivers, streams and creeks, 
but providing for the payment of reasonable tolls for the use of improve- 
ments. Before giving the text of this notable and fiercely contested measure, 
which for some years constituted one of the principal issues in Ontario 
politics, it may be well to glance at previous legislation on the same subject. 

The earliest Act dealing with the floating of lumber on streams is "an 
act to provide for the construction of aprons to mill dams over certain 
streams in this Province," passed in 1828, After reciting that ''whereas 
it is expedient and found necessary to afford facility to the inhabitants of 
this Province engaged in the lumber trade, in conveying their rafts to 
market as well as for the ascent of fish in various streams now obstructed by 
mill dams, for the accommodation of those residing at a distance from the 
mouths thereof," it enacts as follows: 

"That from and after the first day of May in the year of our Lord, one 
thousand eight hundred and twenty-nine, every owner or occupier or owners 
or occupiers of any mill dam which is, or may be legally erected, or where 
timber is usually brought down the stream on which such mill dam is 
erected, or where salmon or pickerel abound therein in this Province, who 
shall neglect to construct or erect a good and sufficient apron to his or their 
dam as hereinafter set forth, shall for such offence, yearly and every year, 
forfeit and pay the sum of twenty-five pounds of current money of this 
Province, one moiety thereof to His Majesty, his heirs and successors for the 
public uses of the said Province, and the support of the Government thereof, 
and the other moiety of the said sum to any person who shall sue for the 
Fame in any of His Majesty's courts of record within this Province. 

Improvements to Darns. 

"And be 'it further enaic'ted by the authority aforesaid — that every 
such apron shall be erected and constructed in the following manner, that 
is to say : such apron shall not be less than eighteen feet wide, by an inclined 
plane of twenty-foiHr feet eight inches, to a perpendicular of six feet, and 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 269 



so in proportion to the height, where, the width of the stream will admit of 
it, and where such stream or dam is less than fifteen feet wide, the whole 
dam shall be aproned in a like manner, with the same inclined plane." 

This Act was amended by an Act of the Canadian Parliament in 1849, 
The most important section of this later measure is the following, defining 
the right of the public to use streams for floating timber : 

Floatable Streams Common to all. 

"And be it enacted, that it shall be lawful for all persons to float saw 
Jogs and other Timber, Rafts and Craft down all streams in Upper Canada, 
during the Spring, Summer and Autumn freshets, and that no person shall 
by felling trees or placing any other obstruction in or across such stream 
prevent the passage thereof. Provided always that no person using such 
stream, in manner and for the purposes aforesaid, shall alter, injure or 
destroy, any Dam or other useful erection in or upon the bed of or across 
any such stream, or to do any unnecessary damage thereto or on the Banks 
of such Stream. Provided there shall be a convenient Apron, Slides, Gate, 
Lock, or opening in any such Dam or other structure, made for the passage 
of all Saw logs and other Timber, Rafts and Crafts authorized to be floated 
down such streams as aforesaid." 

The Act of 1849 was sufficiently clear as to the right of the public to 
use "floatable" streams, but left untouched the point as to whether streams 
which required improvements to make them available for floating timber 
could be used for that purpose by anyone other than the owner, and if so, 
on what terms. The "Act for Protecting the Public Interest in Rivers, 
Streams and Creeks," first adopted in 1881 as the outcome of the McLaren 
vs. Caldwell controversy, reads as follows : 

The Streams Bill of 1881, 

1. So far as the Legislature of Ontario has authority, all persons shall, 
subject to the provisions of this Act contained, have, and are hereby declared 
always to have had, during the spring, summer and autumn freshets, tfie 
right to and may float and transmit saw logs and all other timber of every 
kind, and all rafts and crafts, down all rivers,- creeks and streams in resDect 
of which the Legislature of Ontario has authority to give this power and 
in case it may be necessary to remove any obstruction from such river, 
creek or stream, or construct any apron, dam, slide, gate-lock, boom, or 
other work therein or thereon, necessary to facilitate the floating and trans- 
mitting such saw logs and other timber, rafts or crafts, then it shall be law- 
ful for the person requiring so to float and transmit such saw logs and other 
timber, rafts and crafts, and it is hereby declared always to have been 
lawful, to remove such obstruction, and to construct such apron, dam, !?lid&, 
gate-lock, boom or other work necessary for the purposes aforesaid, d3ing 
no unnecessary damage to the said river, creek or stream, or to the banks 
thereof. 

2. In case any person shall construct in or upon such river, creek, or 
stream, any apron, dam, slide, gate-lock, boom or other work, necessary 
to facilitate the floating or transmission of saw logs or other timber, rafts, 
or crafts, down any such river, creek or stream, which was not navigable 
or floatable before such improvements were made, or shall blast rocks, or 
remove shoals or other impediments, or otherwise improve the floatability 
of such river, creek or stream, such person shall not have the exclusive 
right to the use of such river, creek or stream, or to such constructions and 



260 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



improvements; but all persons shall have, during the spring, summer aod 
autumn freshets, the right to float and transmit saw logs and other timber, 
rafts or crafts, down all such rivers, creeks or streams, and through and 
over such constructions and improvements, doing no unnecessary damage 
to the said constructions and improvements, or to the banks of the said 
rivers, creeks or streams, subject to the payment to the person who has 
made such constructions and improvements, of reasonable tolls. 

3. The foregoing sections, and all the rights therein given, and all the 
provisions therein made and contained, shall extend and apply to all river"?, 
creeks and streams, mentioned in the first section of this Act, and to all con- 
structions and improvement made therein or thereon, whether the bed of 
such river, creek or stream, or the land through which the same runs, has 
been granted by the Crown or not, and if granted by the Crown, shall be 
binding upon such grantees, their heirs, executors, administrators and 
assigns. 

4. The Lieutenant-Governor in Council may fix the amounts which any 
person entitled to tolls under this Act shall be at liberty to charge on the 
saw logs and different kinds of timber, rafts or crafts, and may from time 
to time vary the same; and the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, in fixing 
such tolls, shall have regard to and take into consideration the original cost 
of such constructions and improvements, the amount required to maintain 
the same, and to cover interest upon the original cost, as well as such other 
matters as Under all circumstances may, to the Lieutenant-Governor in 
Council, seem just and equitable. 

5. The foregoing provisions of this Act shall apply to all such construc- 
tions and improvements as may hitherto have been made, as well as to such 
as may be in course of construction, or shall hereafter be constructed. 

6. Every person entitled to tolls under this Act shall have a lien upon 
the saw logs or other timber passing through or over such constructions or 
improvements, for the amount of such tolls, such lien to rank next after 
the lien (if any) which the Crown has for dues in respect to such logs or 
timber, and if such tolls are not paid, any Justice of the Peace having jur- 
isdiction within or adjoining the locality in which such constructions or 
improvements are, shall, upon the oath of the owner of such constructions 
or improvements, or upon the oath of his agent, that the just tolls have not 
been paid, issue a warrant for the seizure of such logs or timber, or so much 
thereof as will be sufficient to satisfy the tolls, which warrant shall be 
directed to any constable, or any person sworn in as a special constable for 
that purpose, at the discretion of the magistrate, and shall authorize the 
person to whom it is directed, if the tolls are not paid within fourteen days 
from the date thereof, to sell, subject to the lien of the Crown (if any) for 
dues, the said logs or timber, and out of the proceeds to pay such tolls, 
together with the costs of the warrant and sale, rendering the surplus on 
demand to the owner : Provided always that the authority to issue such 
warrant by such Justice of the Peace shall not exist after the expiration 
of one month from the time of passage of such logs or timber through or 
o^e^ any of such constructions or improvements. 

7. Nothing in this Act contained shall be construed as interfering with 
the powers or rights of any company formed under the Act respecting Joint 
Stock Companies, for the construction of works to facilitate the transmis- 
sion of timber down rivers and streams, being chapter one hundred and 
fifty-three of the Revised Statutes of Ontario, or with mill-dams, or the 
right to erect and maintain mill dams on streams; and the law respecting 
mills and mill-dams being chapter one hundred and thirteen of the Revised 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 261 



Statutes of Ontario, and any other law conferring rights in mill-dams shall 
remain the same as if this Act had not been passed. 

8. All persons driving saw logs, or other timber rafts, or crafts, down 
any such river, creek, or stream, shall have the right to go along the banks 
of any such river, creek, or stream, and to assist the passage of the timber 
over the same by all means usual among lumbermen, doing no unnecessary 
damage to the Ijanks of the said river, creek or stream. 

9. Every person entitled to tolls under this Act may make rules and 
regulations for the purpose of regulating the safe and orderly transmission 
of saw-logs, timber, rafts or crafts over or through such constructions or 
improvements, but no such rules or regulations .shall have any force or effect 
until approved of by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, and the Lieuten- 
ant-Governor in Council may revoke and cancel such rules and regulations 
so made and approved, and from time to time approve of new rules and 
regulations, which the person so entitled to tolls, as aforesaid, shall have 
the power to make. 

10. If any suit is now pending the result of which will be changed by 
the passage of this Act, the court or any judge of such courts, having author- 
ity over such suit, or over the costs, may order the costs of the suit, or any 
part thereof, to be paid by the party who would have been required to pay 
such costs if this Act had not been passed. 

Act Disallowed. 

The Act was disallowed by the Dominion Government which had taken 
Mr. McLaren's side in the controversy. The Ontario Legislature re-enacted 
the measure in 1882 and 1883, on each of which occasions the Dominion Gov- 
ernment repeated its action. Simultaneously with the political struggle 
a legal conflict between the private contestants was going on in the Courts. 
When it reached the Privy Council the question was finally settled in favor 
of Caldwell. This legal victory decided the fate of the Act. When re-en- 
acted for the fourth time in the year 1884 the Dominion Government yielded 
and allowed it to become law. 

Slides and Dams. 

Extensive provincial works have from time to time been undertaken in 
the construction of slides and the removal of obstacles to the floating of 
timber. The amount of public money expended on slides, etc., on the 
Ottawa River and its tributary streams up to the 1st of January, 1845, was 
£24,682. An Act passed in that year made provision for levying tolls in 
connection with Public Works of this character, in accordance with which 
a schedule of slidage rates as authorized by the Governor in Council, was 
published in the Canada Gazette of May 3rd, 1845. The receipts for slidage 
dues on the Ottawa slides for 1846 were £946. The revenue from this 
source steadily increased with the growth of the lumber trade, until in 1866 
the total receipts for slidage dues amounted to |63,483. Since Confedera- 
tion these dues have formed part of the revenue of the Dominion. 

Timber Slide Companies , 

The amount expended by private enterprise on improvements to 
facilitate the descent of timber down rivers and streams has considerably 
exceeded the public expenditure for that purpose. According to a returia 
made on May 28th, 1853, by A. J. Russell, Surveyor of Crown Timber 
Licenses at Bytown, to an address of the Legislative Assembly, the 



262 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



approximate outlay by private individuals for this purpose on the Ottawa 
and its tributaries amounted to £151,847. In the same year an act was 
passed to authorize the formation in Upper Canada of Joint Stock Com- 
panies "for the purpose of acquiring or constructing and maintaining any 
dam or dams, slide or slides, pier or piers, boom or booms, or other work 
or works necessary to facilitate the transmission of timber down any river 
or stream in Upper Canada, and for the purpose of blasting rocks, or dredg- 
ing or removing shoals, or other impediments or otherwise of improving 
the navigation of such streams for the said purpose." 

They were authorized to levy tolls upon timber passing downwards on 
a basis of 10 per cent, on the amount invested and the cost of maintaining 
and superintending the works. 

In 1855 the Act was extended to Lower Canada and some amendments 
made, the proportionate rate on saw logs being reduced to one-twelfth in 
place of one-eighth of the amount charged on sticks of pine timber. 

The powers of Timber Slide Companies have been considerably extended 
by subsequent legislation, and the regulations governing their proceedings 
assimilated to those of Joint Stock Companies generally. The Timber Slide 
Companies Act of 1881 provides that Companies incorporated under the 
Ontario Joint Stock Companies Letters Patent Act may be granted by the 
Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council the powers authorized by the Revised 
Statutes respecting Joint Stock Companies for the construction of works to 
facilitate the transmission of Timber down Rivers and Streams. The rate 
of dividend may be fixed in the letters patent at not more than 15 per cent., 
and in such case the Commissioner of Public Works in considering the tolls 
to be allowed, shall have regard to such rate, but no such rate shall be so 
fixed for a longer period than 10 years. The existence of any company may 
be limited to a fixed term of years by the letters patent and upon the expira- 
tion of this period all the dams, slides, piers, booms and other works con- 
structed by the Company become the property of the Crown without com- 
pensation to the Company or the shareholders. 

The driving of saw logs and the confusion and trouble arising from 
jams of logs in the water causing delay to the floating operations of other 
lumbermen and the mixing of logs belonging to different proprietors, was 
a frequent source of disputes and disagreements among lumbermen using 
the same stream. In 1887 the following Act was adopted by the Legislature 
to regulate the driving of saw logs and define the respective rights and 
liabilities of the parties concerned. 

Act to Regulate Log Driving. 

(1) The following words wherever used in this Act have the following 
meaning, viz. : — 

"Logs" mean and include saw logs timber, posts, ties, cordwood, 
and other things being parts of trees. 

"Water" means and includes lakes, ponds, rivers, creeks and streams, 
streams. 

(2) Any person putting, or causing to be put, into any water in this 
Province, logs, for the purpose of floating the same in, upon or down such 
water, shall make adequate provisions and put on a sufficient force of men 
to break, and shall make all reasonable endeavours to break jams of such 
logs and clear the same from the banks and shores of such water with rea- 
sonable despatch, and run and drive the same so as not to unnecessarily 
delay or hinder the removal, floating, running or driving of other logs, or 
■unnecessarily obstruct the floating or navigation of such water. 



1967 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 263 



3. In case of the neglect of any person to comply with the provisions 
of the preceding section, it shall be lawful for any other person or persons 
desiring to float, run or drive logs in, upon or down such water, and whose 
logs would be thereby obstructed^ to cause such jams to be broken and 
such logs to be cleared from the banks and shores of such water, and to be 
floated, run and driven in, upon and down such water. 

4. The person or persons causing such jams to be broken or such logs 
to be cleared, floated, run or driven, pursuant to the last preceding section, 
shall do the same with reasonable economy and despatch, and shall take 
reasonable care not to leave logs on the banks or shores, and shall have a 
lien upon the logs in the jam or so cleared, floated, run or driven for the 
reasonable charges and expenses of breaking the jams and the clearing, 
floating, driving, running, booming and keeping possession of such logs, 
and may take and keep possession of such logs or so much thereof as may 
be reasonably necessary to satisfy the amount of such charges and expenses, 
pending the decision by arbitration as hereinafter provided for. The per- 
son taking possession of logs under this section shall use all reasonable 
care not to take such logs beyond the place of their original destination, 
if known, but may securely boom and keep possession of the same at or 
above such place. The owner or person controlling such logs, if known, 
shall be forthwith notified of their whereabouts, and if satisfactory security 
be given for the amount of such charges and expenses, possession of the 
logs shall be given up. 

5. When the logs of any person upon or in any water in this Province, 
or the banks or shores of such water, are so intermixed with logs of another 
person or persons, that the same cannot be conveniently separated for the 
purpose of being floated in, upon, or down, such water, then the several 
persons owning or controlling the intermixed logs, shall respectively make 
adequate provisions, and put on a fair proportion of the men required to 
break jams of such intermixed logs, and to clear the same from the banks 
and shores of such water with reasonable despatch, and to float, run and drive 
the same in, upon and down such water, and the costs and expenses thereof 
shall be borne by the parties in such proportions as they may agree upon, 
and in default of agreement as may be determined by arbitration as here- 
inafter provided for. 

6. In case of neglect of any person to comply with the provisions of the 
last preceding section, it shall be lawful for any other person or persons 
whose logs are intermixed, to put on a suflicient number of men to supply 
ihe deficiency and break jams of such intermixed logs, and to clear the 
same from the banks and shores of such water, and to float, run and drive 
all such intermixed logs in, upon and down such water. 

7. The person or persons supplying such deficiency and causing such 
jams to be broken, or such intermixed logs to be cleared, floated, run or 
driven pursuant to the last preceding section, shall do the same with rea- 
sonable economy and despatch, and shall take reasonable care not to leave 
legs on the banks or shores, and shall have a lien upon the logs owned or 
controlled by the person guilty of such neglect, for a fair proportion of the 
charges and expenses of breaking the jams, and the clearin<r, floatinor, run- 
ning, driving, booming and keeping possession of such intermixed logs; 
and may take and keep possession of such logs, or so much thereof, as may 
be reasonably necessary to satisfy the amount of such fair proportion of 
charges and expenses pending the decision by arbitration as hereinafter 
provided for. The person taking possession of logs under this section shall 
nse all reasonable care not to take such logs beyond the place of their original 
destination, if known, but may securely boom and keep possession of the 
same at or above such place. The owner or person controlling such logs, 

18 L. M. 



264 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



if known, shall be forthwith notified of their whereabouts, and if satisfac- 
tory security be given for the amount of such proportion of charges and 
expenses, possession of the logs shall be given up. 

8. When logs of any person, upon or in any water in this Province, or 
the banks or shores of such water, are intermixed with logs of another per- 
son or persons, then any of the persons whose logs are intermixed, may at 
any time during the drive require his logs to be separated from the other 
logs at some suitable and convenient place, and after such separation he 
shall secure the same at his own cost and expense, m such manner as to 
allow free passage for such other logs; provided that when any logs so 
intermixed reach their places of original destination, if known, the same 
shall be separated from the other logs and after such separation the owner 
shall secure the same at his own cost and expense. 

9. The several persons owning or controlling the intermixed logs shall 
respectively make adequate provisions and put on a fair proportion of men 
required to make the separation, the cost and expense of such separation 
shall be borne by the parties in such proportions as they may agree upon, 
and in default of agreement, as may be determined by arbitration as here- 
inafter provided. 

10. In case of neglect of any person to comply with the provisions of 
the last preceding section, it shall be lawful for any other person or per- 
sons, whose logs are intermixed, to put on a sufficient number of men to 
supply the deficiency, and the logs owned by or controlled by the person 
guilty of such neglect shall be subject to a lien in favor of the person or 
persons supplying the deficiency, for a fair proportion of the charges and 
expenses of making the separation, and for the reasonable charges and 
expenses of booming and keeping possession, and such person or persons 
may take and keep possession of such logs or so much thereof as may be 
reasonably necessary to satisfy the amount of such fair proportion of 
charges and expenses pending the decision by arbitration as hereinafter 
provided for. The person taking possession of logs under this section shall 
use all reasonable care not to take such logs beyond the place of their 
original destination, if known, but may securely boom and keep possession 
of the same at or above such place. The owner or person controlling such 
logs, shall be forthwith notified of their whereabouts, and if satisfactory 
security be given for the amount of such proportion of charges and expenses, 
possesion of the logs shall be given up. 

11. The security referred to in sections 4, 7 and 10 may be by bond in 
form A in the schedule hereto, or by deposit of money, or in such other 
way as the parties may agree upon. 

12. If it be determined by arbitration as hereinafter provided for, that 
any person acting under the assumed authority of this Act, has without 
just cause taken possession of or detained or caused to be taken possession 
o* or detained logs of another person, or has after offer of security which 
the arbitrators may think should have been accepted detained such logs, or 
has through want of reasonable care left logs of another person on the banks 
or shores or has taken logs of another person beyond the place of their 
original destination, contrary to the provisions of sections 4, 7 or 10, then 
such first mentioned person shall pay to such last mentioned person such 
damages as the arbitrators may determine. 

13. The lien given by sections 4, 7 and 10 of this Act shall be subject 
to the lien (if any) of any person or corporation for tolls or dues for the use 
of any works or improvements made use of in running or driving such logs. 

14. Nothing in this Act shall affect the liens or rights of the Crown 
upon or in respect of any logs. 

1 8a L M 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. Udo 



15. All claims, disputes and differences arising under this Act shall 
be determined by arbitration as hereinafter provided for and not by action 
or suit at law or in equity. 

16. The person claiming that another person has not complied with 
the provisions of this Act, or claiming payment of any charges or expenses 
under this Act, or claiming a lien upon any logs, or claiming damages under 
section 12, shall give to such other person, notice in writing, stating the 
substance of the claims made, and appointing an arbitrator and calling 
upon such other person to appoint an arbitrator within ten days after the 
service of such notice; if such other person does not, within such ten days, 
appoint an arbitrator, the Judge of the County or District Court of the 
county or district, or the Stipendiary Magistrate of the provisional county 
or the district, as the case may be, in which the logs in connection with 
which the claim or part of the claim is made, or the major portion of such 
logs are situate at the time of the service of such notice, shall, on the appli- 
cation of the nerson giving such notice, appoint a second arbitrator; the 
two arbitrators so appointed shall, within ten days after the appointment 
of the said second arbitrator, appoint a third, if such two arbitrators do 
not within such ten days appoint a third, the said Judgfe or Stipendiary 
Magistrate shall, on the application of either party, appoint such third 
arbitrator. 

17. If any arbitrator refuses to act or becomes incapable of acting, or 
dies, and the parties do not concur in appointing a new arbitrator, the said 
Judge or Stipendiary Magistrate shall, on the application of either party, 
appoint such new arbitrator. 

18. The parties may agree that the arbitration shall be by one arbitrator 
instead of by three, and they may either agree upon the arbitrator or may 
apply to the said Judge or Stipendiary Magistrate to appoint one. 

19. The person on whom a claim is made and notice of arbitration 
served, may at any time before the arbitration is entered upon or with 
leave of the arbitrators during the arbitration, give the claimant notice in 
writing by way of counterclaim, stating the substance of any claim arising 
under this Act, which such person may have against the claimant, and 
such counterclaim, unless barred under section 26, shall be determined in 
the arbitration and an award made with respect thereto. 

20. The three arbitrators or the sole arbitrator, as the case may be, 
shall proceed with the arbitration with due despatch, and shall make their 
or his award in writing, under their or his hand within thirty days from 
the date of the appointment of such arbitrator, or the last of such three 
arbitrators, as the case may be. The parties may, bv consent in writinsr, 
from time to time enlarge the time for making said award, or the said 
Judge or Stipendiary Magistrate may from time to time, either before or 
after the expiration of said time, enlarge the time for making said award. 

21. The arbitrators or arbitrator may require the personal attendance 
and examination upon oath of the parties and their witnesses, and the pro- 
duction of all books and documents relatiner to the matters in question, and 
may determine by whom the expense of the arbitration, and the costs of 
the rtarties shall be paid, and the amount thereof: any costs or expenses 
pavable to a person having a lien upon logs, by virtue of this Act shall be 
added to +he amount of such lien. 

22. Chapter 64 of the Revised Statutes of Ontario intituled an Act 
respectino- the cost of Arbitrations applies to arbitrations under this Act. 

23. The person or persons having a lien upon loj?s by virtue of this Act 
mav sell the same in order to realize the amount of such lien, and of the 
costs, charges and expenses connected with the sale. The arbitrators, or 
arbitrator, shall determine either by their award, or by separate document, 



266 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



the time, place and manner of such sale, and may, from time to time, give 
directions, in writing, respecting such sale, and the realization of such lien, 
and of the costs, charges and expenses connected therewith. 

24. The award and directions in writing of any two of the three 
arbitrators, or of the sole arbitrator, as the case may be, shall be final and 
binding upon, and shall be obeyed by the parties, and shall be valid, not- 
withstanding any want or defect of form, or other technical objection. 

25. The said Judge or Stipendiary Magistrate, as the case may be, 
may, on the application of either party, grant an order to compel any per- 
son or persons to attend and give evidence upon the arbitration, and to pro- 
duce all books and documents relating to the matters in dispute, and obedi- 
ence to such order may be enforced in the same way as obedience to any 
order of such Judge or Stipendiary Magistrate made in a cause or matter 
pending before him in court may be enforced, arid the person neglecting or 
refusing, without lawful excuse, to obey such order shall be liable to an 
action by any person aggrieved by such neglect or refusal for the damages 
sustained by him thereby. 

26. All claims arising under this Act shall be made by notice in writ- 
ing under section 16, within one year after the same have arisen, otherwise 
they shall be barred. 

27. The Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council may, from time to time by 
proclamation published in the Ontario Gazette, declare that any portion or 
portions of this Province, or any water therein shall, until further proclama- 
tion, be exempt from the operation of this Act, and thereupon the same 
shall be exempt accordingly. 

28. Any portion or portions of the Province, or any water therein 
exempted by proclamation from the operation of this Act, may by proclama- 
tion published in the Ontario Gazette, be again brought within its opera- 
tion until further proclamation, and so on from time to time. 

29. This Act mav be cited and known as The Saw Logs Driving Act, 
1887. 

Timber Dues Increased. 

In 1887 some important changes in the tariff of timber dues were made. 
Standing timber had considerably increased in value since the rates then 
in operation were fixed, and the public interest required that the Province 
should receive a share in the increased value. Accordingly the rate of dues 
upon saw logs was advanced from 75 cents per thousand feet to fl.OO, or 
33^ per cent., and upon square and waney timber from 1|^ cent per cubic 
foot to 2 cents. At the same time the ground rent was increased from $2 
per mile to $3, the changes taking effect on May 1st. An extensive sale 
of timber limits was held in 1887, certain territory on the Muskoka and 
Petewawa waters having become dangerously exposed to fire owing to the 
advance of settlement. An area of 459 square miles was disposed of, the 
prices being considerably in advance of those obtained at any previous sale. 
A sum of 11.313,755 was realized, being an average of $2,859 per mile. 

Licenses to Cut Pine Only. 

In 1892 a radical departure in the methods of disposing of timber 
limits was effected by restricting the rights conferred by new licenses to 
the cutting of red and white pine only. All licenses issued previous to 
this date had included all kinds of timber, but it was pretty generally 
understood that the lumbermen in estimating the value of limits only took 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 267 



the pine into account, regarding the .small quantities of hemlock, spruce 
and cedar which might be available as so much to the good, and attaching 
no value to the various hardwoods. The Department therefore, — anticipat- 
ing that in future these kinds of timber, which, under the old system were 
practically thrown in with the pine for nothing, might prove a valuable 
asset, which might be retained in their hands without lessening the revenue 
derivable from the pine timber — put up for sale under licenses, including 
the pine only, timber berths situated in the Nipissing, Algoma, Thunder 
Bay and Rainy River districts, aggregating 633 square miles, on which the 
dues were increased one-fourth, viz. : on saw logs, from |1 to 1.26 per 
thousand feet, board meaure, and on square timber from |20 to |25 thousand 
feet cubic. The high prices received notwithstanding this increase, which 
exceeded by a large amount those of any previous sale, afforded sufficient 
evidence of the correctness of the position assumed. The total amount 
received was |2,315,000, an average of |3,657.18 per square mile. The 
highest figure obtained at any former sale was in 1887, when the heaviest 
individual bonus paid was |6,300, and the average for all the berths dis- 
posed of at that time was |2,859. 

Algonquin Park Timber. 

A. portion of the territory disposed of in 1892 for which the highest 
price was paid was included m the boundaries of Algonquin Park. Much 
of the area of this reserve, which had been previously sold, was under the 
old conditions of license, giving the limit-holder the right to cut all kinds of 
timber. Being apprehensive of danger to the Park as a game and timber pre- 
serve, should the lumbermen claim their full privileges under the old form of 
license, the Government, under the power contained in all licenses, reserv- 
ing the authority to alter the regulations, in 1898 withdrew the right to 
cut other woods than pine, in connection with all licenses for limits included 
within the area of the Park. Naturally there was some dissatisfaction 
among the limit owners, as the birch and spruce timber was beginnnig to 
be valuable, but as these trees were not of much marketable value at the 
time that the original purchase was made, the change was not felt to be 
a verj' great hardship and the regulation remains. As regards other 
licenses for berths sold previous to 1892 conveying the right to cut all kinds 
of timber, outside of Algonquin Park no change has been made as yet, and 
the yearlv renewal for these limits is without restriction. 



ONTARIO CULLERS ACT. 

An Act providing for the licensing of Cullers in Ontario was adopted 
in 1890. Under its provisions it was made incumbent upon all persons 
cutting saw logs on Crown Lands to cause to be kept such records and books 
as required by the Crown Lands Department, to be open at all times to 
inspection by any Crown Timber Agent, Crown Timber ranger, or other 
officer of the Department, and to be attested under oath at the end of the 
season by the person who has made the entries therein and handed over to 
the officer of the Department authorized to receive the same. The Lieuten- 
ant-Governor in Council was authorized to appoint a board or boards of 
examiners each consisting of three persons, to test the ability and knowledge 
of all applicants desiring to be licensed to cull and measure saw logs cut 
on Crown Lands. A license may be issued to any person reported by a board 



268 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



of examiners as competent to perform the duties of culler. After the 
passing of the act no person other than a licensed culler was to make measure- 
ment of saw logs cut on Crown Lands for the purposes of a return to the 
Crown Lands Department unless in cases where the services of a licensed 
culler were not procurable, when the Commissioner of Crown Lands was 
authorizedl to issue a temporary permit, to any trustworthy and skilled 
person to act as culler. The duties of cullers were thus defined by the 
Act: 

"It shall be the duty of every culler to measure fairly and correctly 
to the best of his skill, knowledge and ability, all saw-logs which he may be 
employed to measure, making only such deductions as are necessary to allow 
for the rots or other defects, and to enter in his book of record, for the pur- 
pose of return to the Crown Lands Department, what he believes to be the 
proper contents of the log, noting also the number of saw logs rejected as 
worthless, commonly called culls. 

''Upon all logs culled or rejected as wholly worthless he shall write the 
word "cull" in plain letters, but he shall not mark "cull" upon any log 
which is intended to be hauled to ,any river, lake or stream for the purpose of 
being driven to a mill." 

All licensed cullers were required to submit their books and records of 
measurement for the inspection of Crown Lands agents or other officials of 
the Department when called upon to do so, to- give all information asked for 
if in their power, and furnish statements as required by the Department or 
its agents. At the end of the season every culler was required to make a 
sworn statement to the Department, showing the number of pieces measured 
and accepted and their dimensions, and also the number of pieces rejected 
as worthless. The penalty for neglect or refusal to carry out the provisions 
of the act was cancellation of the culler's license. Improper measurements 
or the making of false returns were similarly punishable with an additional 
penalty of a fine of not less than f20 or more than |100. The section for- 
bidding unlicensed persons to make measurements of saw logs for the pur- 
poses of returns to the Crown Lands Department were not applicable to the 
operations of any lumber company, person or firm whose gross annual out- 
put was under 250,000 feet, board measure. 

The Act was brought into force on January 1st, 1891, by a proclama- 
tion by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council. 



WOODMAN'S LIEN FOE WAGES. 

By "The Woodman's Lien for Wages Act," enacted at the session of 
1891, laborers engaged in lumbering in some districts were accorded similar 
rights to those extended to mechanics by existing legislation, by giving them 
a lien on the produce of their labor for the amount due as wages. The 3rd 
section of this measure provides that : 

"Any person performing any labor, service or services in connection 
with any logs or timber in the districts of Algoma, Thunder Bay and Rainy 
River, shall have a lien thereon for the amount due for such labor, service 
or services, and the same shall be deemed a first lien or charge on such 
logs or timber, and shall have precedence of all other claims or liens thereon, 
except any lien or claim which the Crown may have upon such logs or tim- 
ber for or in respect of any dues or charges, or which any timber slide com- 
pany or owner of slides and booms may have thereon for or in respect of 
tolls." ^ . 

^ The Act provides for the issue of an attachment, on an affidavit by the 
claimant that he has good reason to believe that the logs or timber are 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 269 



ubout being removed from the Province, or tkat the person indebted to him 
has absconded with intent to defraud his creditors, or that the saw logs or 
timber are about being cut into lumber so that they cannot be identified. 
In case the claim is established on a hearing before a Judge, the logs or 
timber so in default of payment are to be sold in the same manner as goods 
taken in execution for the satisfaction of the judgment. Any number of 
lien-holders may join in taking proceedings under the Act. 

By an amendment adopted in 1894, the provisions of the Act were 
extended to the districts of Muskoka and Parry Sound. 



FOREST PROTECTION AND REFORESTRATION. 
FiEE Protection. 

The great danger to the forests is the ravages of fire, which becomes 
largely increased with the advance of settlement, the extension of the rail- 
way system and the j>resence during the summer season of large numbers of 
persons in the woods. Great inroads have been made upon our woodland 
resources by devastating forest fires and with the increasing value of timber, 
the necessity of taking some action to check this cause of destruction, early 
forced itself upon the attention of the Government. 

In 1859, Mr. P. M. Partridge, Superintendent of Woods and Forests, 
appears to have referred to the question of fire protection in a general report 
made to the Commissioner of Ciown Lands. This report, which was not 
printed, does not seem to have been productive of any legislation on the 
subject, and in 1867, the matter having become urgent because of the greater 
activity among mining prospectors in the Hastings and Ottawa districts, 
Mr. Partridge again addressed the Commissioner of Crown Lands as fol- 
lows : — 

Memorandum for the Hon. The Commissioner of Crown Lands. 

The undersigned respectfully submits the accompanying extract from 
his General Report of 24th March, 1859. "On the necessity of taking some 
immediate action for the preservation of the Forests of the country from 
fires." 

As it is probable that very extensive prospecting operations for gold 
will be carried on next summer in parts of the territories of Messrs. Way 
and Russell and that the numerous camps and other fires which the pros- 
pectors will undoubtedly make use of, will be additional sources of danger 
to our Forests, the undersigned would suggest that it is desirable that such 
precautionary measures be taken as the present laws admit of, and the inter- 
ests of the lumber trade and the country require. 

If a Gold Mining Division is organized, and an Inspector appointed, 
he might be clothed with such powers as the laws allow. The powers men- 
tioned in Section 3 of the Gold Mining Act (27-28 Vict. Cap. 9^) taken in 
connection with sections 25 and 28 of Cap. 93, Con. Stats., Canada, might 
perhaps be made applicable in the premises. A cautionary clause might 
be inserted in all Gold Mining Licenses for the future. 

(Sgd.) P. M. Partridge, 

Supt. Woods and Forests. 

Ottawa, 21st February, 1867. 
Woods and Forests, 

P- S. — The undersigned had intended to add that the Law Officers of 
the Crown might be consulted as to what steps should be taken. 

P. M. P. 



270 REPORY of the No. 3 



TJie powers referred to in the Gold Mining Act of 27-28 Vict., were 
those vesting the Inspectors in Mining Districts with magisterial powers 
charged with the enforcement of the law, and sections 25 and 28 of Cap. 
93 Consolidated Statutes of Canada refer to the punishment for arson by 
which any one doing malicious damages to trees or shrubs on private grounds 
or elsewhere to the extent of twenty cents were liable to fine or imprison- 
ment. 

This memorandum appeared to meet with the approval of the Com- 
missioner, Hon. A. Campbell, who added to it the following instructions: — 

(1) Create a gold mining division to embrace the townships. 

(2) Prepare a form to be used as an appendix to such license, making 
provision as far as possible against danger from fires. 

(3) Instruct Inspector to serve and give him reference to the sections 
of the 93 chap. Consolidated Stat, quoted by Mr. Partridge. 

(4) In townships where no municipal organization exists, persons may 
be selected as suggested by Mr, Partridge for the duty he proposes (persons 
liBft by lumbermen in charge of their farms would probably be found very 
suitable men.) 

(Sgd.) A. C. 

23rd Feb., '67. 

No action appears to have been taken at this time, perhaps owing to 
the pressure of business consequent upon the Confederation of the Provinces 
consummated on July 1st of that year, (1867) when the Government of 
Upper Canada was permanently moved to Toronto. 

Prevention of Forest Fires. 

During the session of 1878 there was enacted the first legislation look- 
ing to the suppression, or rather, the prevention of forest fires. This was 
entitled, "An Act to Preserve the Forests from destruction by fire." 
ma^procMm 1- T^ie Lieutenaut-Govemor may, by proclamation made by him 
a fire district, from time to time, issued by and with the advice and consent of 
the Executive Council, declare any portion or part of the Province 
of Ontario to be a fire district. 
Kirtrkr^ 2. Every proclamation under this Act shall be published in the 
Ontario Gazette, and such portion or part of the Province as is 
mentioned and declared to be a fire district in and by the said pro- 
clamation,' shall, from and after the said publication, become a fire 
district within the meaning and for the purposes of this Act. 
Revocation. 3. Every such portion or part of the Province mentioned in such 

proclamation shall cease to be a fire district upon the revocation by 
the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council of the proclamation by which 
it was created. 
fterted eLcep^* 4. It shall not be lawful for any person to set out, or cause to be 
**u ^^s'sand ^^^ ^^^ °^ started, any fire in or near the woods within any fire 
In certain district between the first day of April and the first day of Novem- 
penods. -^^^ -^^ ^^^ year, cxccpt for the purposes of clearing land, cooking, 

obtaining warmth, or for some industrial purposes, the obligations 
and precautions imposed by the following sections shall be 
observed. 
betekeninUse ^- ^very persou who shall, between the first day of April and 
of clearing the first day of November, make or start a fire within such fire dis- 
trict for the purpose of clearing land shall exercise and observe 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 271 



every reasonable care and precaution in the making and starting 
of such fire, and in the managing of and caring for the same after 
it has been made and started, in order to prevent such fire from 
spreading or burning up the timber and forests surrounding the 
place where it has been so made and started. 

6. Every person who shall between the first day of April and the jn^eo? oook- 
first day of November, make or start within such fire district a i"&> etc. 

fire in the forest, or at a distance of less than half a mile therefrom, 
or upon any island for cooking, obtaining warmth, or for any 
industrial purpose, shall — 

(1) Select a locality in the neighborhood in which there is the 
smallest quantity of vegetable matter, dead wood, branches, brush- 
wood, dry leaves, or resinous trees; 

(2) Clear the place in which he is about to light the fire by remov- 
ing all vegetable matter, dead trees, branches, brushwood and dry 
leaves from the soil within a radius of ten feet from the fire ; 

(3) Exercise and observe every reasonable care and precaution to 
prevent such fire from spreading, and carefully extinguish the 
same before quitting the place. 

7. Any person who shall throw or drop any burning match, ashes I'recautionBin 
of a pipe, lighted cigar, or any other burning substance, or who matches, bum- 
shall discharge fire-arms within such fire district, shall be subject stfnces," etc. 
to the pains and penalties imposed by this Act, if he neglect com- 
pletely to extinguish before leaving the spot the fire of such match, 

ashes of a pipe, cigar, wadding of the fire-arm, or other burning 
substance. 

8. Every person in charge of any drive of timber, survey or ^^^t u) be read 
exploring party or of any other party requiring camp-fires, for by heads of 
cooking or other purposes within such fire district, shall provide berers^%U'.""' 
himself with a copy of this Act, and shall call his men together and 

cause said Act to be read in their hearing, and explained to them 
at least once in each week during the continuance of such work or 
service. 

9. All locomotive engines used on any railway which passes ^J^^y^°^^ 
through any such fire district or any part of it, shall, by the com-fhre«. ^°^^' 
pany using the same, be provided with and have in use all the most 
approved and efficient means used to prevent the escape of fire from 

the furnace or ash-pan of such engines, a^d that the smoke stack 
of each locomotive engine so used shall be provided with a bonnet 
or screen of iron or steel wire netting, the size of the wire used in 
making the netting to be not less than number nineteen of the 
Birmingham wire gauge, or three sixty-fourths parts of an inch in 
diameter, and shall contain in each inch square at lea&t eleven wires 
each way at right angles to each other, that is in all twenty-two 
wires to the inch square. 

10. It shall be the duty of every engine driver in charge of a Dutr of 
locomotive engine passing over any such railway within the limits ^°^°^ ^^'^^''' 
of any such fire district, to see that all such appliances as above- 
mentioned are properly used and applied so as to prevent the 
unnecessary escape of fire from any such engine as far as it is rea- 
sonably possible to do so. 

11; Whosoever imlawfuUy neglects or refuses to comply with the penalty for 
requirements of this Act in any manner whatsoever, shall be liable °^^e*'wTt^""this 
upon a conviction before any justice of the peace to a penalty not Act. 
exceeding fifty dollars over and above the costs of prosecution, and 



272 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



in default of payment of such fine and costs, tlie offender shall be 
imprisoned in the common gaol for a period not exceeding three 
calendar months; and any railway company permitting any loco- 
motive engine to be run in violation of the provisions of the ninth 
section of this Act shall be liable to a penalty of one hundred dol- 
lars for each offence, to be recovered with costs in any court of 
competent jurisdiction. 
bringhig 12. Every suit for any contravention of this Act shall be corn- 

action, menced within three calendar months immediately following such 

contravention. 
finls"^*^ ^^ ^^' ^^^ fines and penalties imposed and collected under this Act 

shall be paid one-half to the complainant or prosecutor and the 
other half to Her Majesty for the public use of the Province, 
agentTto%n- 14. It shall be the special duty of every Crown Land agent, 
force this Act. Woods and Forest agent, Free Grant agent, and bush ranger, to 
enforce the provisions and requirements of this Act, and in all cases 
coming within the knowledge of any such agent or bush ranger to 
prosecute every person guilty of a breach of any of the provisions 
and requirements of the same. 
iiuerifere'^with 15. Nothing in this Act contained shall be held to limit or inter- 
fM^daiiages*" ^^i"® ^'^^^ the right of any party to bring and maintain a civil action 
occasioned for damages occasioned by fire, and such right shall remain and 
^ '^'^' exist as though this Act had not been passed. 

Under this Act the following "Fire Districts" were created. 

Description of "Fire Districts" Under Cap. 23 of the Statutes of 

Ontario. 

District No. 1. — Commencing at a point on the north shore of Lake Huron 
where Provincial Land Surveyor Albert P. Salter's meridian line between 
ranges numbers twenty-one and twenty-two west intersects the water's edge, 
said point being the southwest angle of the Township of Plummer; thence 
easterly, following the turnings and windings of the shore along the 
water's edge of Lake Huron and the Georgian Bay to the mouth of French 
River; thence southeasterly, along the easterly shore of the Georgian Bay, 
and taking in Parry Island, to the northwest angle of the Township of 
Matchedash : thence southeasterly along the westerly boundaries of the Town- 
ships of Matchedash and North Orillia to the southwest angle of North 
Orillia; thence northeasterly along the southerly boundary of North Orillia 
to the waters of Lake Couchiching; thence easterly across said lake to the 
southwest angle of the Township of Rama; thence easterly along the south 
boundaries of the Townships of Rama, Dalton, Digby and Lutterworth to 
the northwest angle of the Township of Galway ; thence southerly along the 
westerly boundaries of the Townships of Galway and Harvey to the south- 
west angle of Harvey; thence easterly along the south boundaries of the 
Townships of Harvev, Burleiorh, Methuen, Lake and Tudor, to the north- 
west angle of the Township of Elzevir; thence southerly along the west 
boundary of Elzevir to the southwest angle of said township; thence 
easterly along the south boundaries of the Townships of Elzevir, Kaladar, 
KennelDec, Olden, Oso and South Sherbrooke, to the southeast angle of the 
Township of South Sherbrooke; thence northwesterly along the easterly 
boundaries of the Townships of South and North Sherbrooke to the south- 
erly boundary of the Township of Lavant; thence northeasterly along the 
southerly boundaries of the Townships of Lavant and Darling, to the south- 
easterly angle of the Township of Darling; thence northwesterly along the 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 273 



easterly boundaries of the Townships of Darling and Bagot to the north- 
easterly angle of the Township of Bagot; thence southwesterly along the 
northerly boundaries of the Townships of Bagot and Blithfield, to the 
easterly boundary of the Township of Brougham; thence northwesterly 
along the easterly boundaries of the Townships of Brougham, Grattan, Wil- 
berf orce and Alice, to the waters of the Upper Allumette Lake ; thence north- 
westerly, following the water's edge of said lake and the Ottawa River to 
the head of Lake Temiscamingue ; thence due north along the boundary, 
between the Province of Ontario and Quebec to the northern boundary of 
the Province of Ontario ; thence westerly along the said northern boundary 
to its intersection with the production northerly of Provincial Land Sur- 
veyor Albert P. Salter's meridian line between the said ranges numbers 
twenty-one and twenty-two west, and thence southerly along said meridian 
line produced to the place of beginning. 

District No. 2. — All that part of the said Province lying west of Pro- 
vincial Land Surveyor Albert P. Salter's meridian line between ranges 
twenty-one and twenty-two west, near Bruce Mines, in the District of 
Algoma, and west of the said meridian line produced to the northern 
boundary of the Province, the said meridian line being the western boundary 
of the Fire District established by the Proclamation of March 27th, 1878. 

It will be observed that this Act applies only to settled districts and 
portions of the Province under process of settlement, while no provision 
was made for protection of timber limits not under municipal government, 
where the losses from fire were frequent and heavy, particularly after lum- 
bering operations and the consequent inflammable debris covering the forest 
floor. 

Fire Ranging System Proposed. 

In 1884 the great loss from fire becoming increasingly apparent, Mr. 
Aubrey White, then chief clerk of the Woods and Forests Branch of the 
Crown Lands Department, addressed the following memorandum to the Com- 
missioner of Crown Lands. 

Toronto, March 30th, 1885 

Sir, — I take the liberty of drawing your attention to the great destruc- 
tion of the timber wealth of this Province, which is caused mainly by the 
careless setting out of fire at dangerous points in the forest during the heat 
01 summer by settlers, lumbermen, hunters, explorers and others, which, 
though of apparently small amount when started, have often become vast 
conflagrations, laying waste miles of the forest, and destrojang untold mil- 
lions worth of public property. 

I am well aware that this matter has for some time been a cause of 
much anxious consideration to you, and it is not to dwell upon the necessity 
for taking some action — as that is universally admitted — that I now address 
you, but to submit for your consideration a plan or system under which 
much may be done to prevent such numerous and extensive fires as we have 
"witnessed in the past, by exercising some supervision over the public domain, 
whereby, as far as possible, the starting of fires — ^except in cases of neces- 
sity — may be prevented, and fires which are assuming dangerous propor- 
tions may be controlled or extinguished, and generally taking such action 
as will, with a reasonable expenditure of money, reduce to a minimum the 
loss of timber by bush fires. 

The period of the year during which this supervision would be required 
—which may be called the dangerous period— is included between the 1st 
day of Mav and the Ist day of October, as between these dates the bu^h, as 
-i rule, is dry and inflammable, and fire runs with great celerity — while dur- 



274 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



iug the rest of the year, extending from October to May, the ground is 
covered with snow, or the moisture in the Lush is such as to render any 
extensive fire impossible. 

I would, therefore, suggest that during the dangerous period of each 
year, a certain number of men, to be called Fire Rangers, shall be stationed 
at points in the licensed and unlicensed lands of the Province, where from 
settlement, railway construction, lumbering or any other cause, fire is so 
frequently used as to be a source of danger. 

There is great difficulty in arriving at an accurate estimate of the num- 
ber of men required to protect a section of country, let alone the whole Pro- 
vince, as some limits, owing to the nature of the bush, prevalence of lakes, 
streams and swamps, sparse settlements, etc., will not require as close 
supervision as others, therefore it would be well nigh impossible for me 
here to state the number of men which would be adequate to make the ser- 
vice effective. When we come to place the men, the licensees — who are 
quite familiar with the topography, etc., of their limits — will be able to 
give us a fairly correct idea of how many men will be necessary on each 
limit; thus we will be able to deal satisfactorily with the licensed area — 
leaving the unlicensed, unsettled, and consequently less exposed parts of 
the Province to be dealt with by the Department as necessity may arise. 
I would therefore recommend that each licensee should be notified that 
these men would be appointed, and invited to state how many men would 
be required to properly guard his limits, the Department having the right, 
after consultation with ;the license-holder affected, either to decrease or 
increase the number suggested, should it be thought expedient to do so. 

The next point, and a most important one, is the selection of the men, 
as unless we get active, energetic men, of cool temper and good judgment, 
we shall not make the scheme a success; but in addition to the possession 
of the above qualities, they must have a thorough bush training, and be 
quite familiar with the limit on which they are stationed. Such men will 
know the various settlers upon a limit, their residences, habits — whether 
careless or the reverse — the parts of the limits which are most exposed or 
inflammable and need the closest watching, and above all, they will have 
practical ideas as to the proper steps to take in order to control or suppress 
a bush fire. Bearing all this in mind, and the necessity of having some 
further and more direct supervision over the men — scattered over an 
immense area as they will be — than could be exercised by the Department, 
1 think the selection of them should also be left with the various licensees, 
as they will most certainly know the men best qualified to fulfill the duties 
of the position, the Department, of course, reserving the right to reject or 
remove any man considered unfit for the position, either from incapacity or 
through harassing of settlers, for where settlement and lumbering are 
going hand in hand, as they must do in this Province, it is of the utmost 
importance that no friction should arise between the settler and licensee, as 
should ill blood between the two classes be created, the whole system would 
prove unsuccessful, nor could any be devised which would preserve the forest 
if settlers were moved by malice to destroy it. The whole system presumes 
a good understanding between settler and licensee, and as I know that lum- 
bermen now fully appreciate the folly and danger of quarrelling with 
settlers, I see no objection to allowing them to select the men, and what is of 
great importance is this, that these men feeling they owe their appoint- 
ments to the licensee, and being under his supervision, there is every rea- 
son to believe that they will be more watchful and diligent than if they 
were only supervised by and responsible to the Department of Crown Lands. 



1907 DEPARTMENT QF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 275 



The next point is the expense of the system and how it should be borne. 
It seems to me that the interests of the Government and the licensee should 
be regarded as equal in this matter, and that the whole thing being in the 
nature of an experiment, each, for the present, should bear half of the 
expenses not only of the Rangers but of suppression of fires and costs of 
prosecution under the Fire Act. The men should receive the following 
rates of pay, subject to reduction or increase as experience is gained : 
Ranger in charge of limit, three dollars per day; assistants, two dollars per 
day, which amount should be understood to cover board and all expenses, 
except such as are caused by special emergencies or enforcement of the Fire 
Act; they should be paid as their necessities required, which payments, and 
all expenses incurred, should be made upon application, forwarded through 
and recommended by the licensee. At the close of the season they should 
send in a proper account, upon a form supplied from here, and duly attested 
by affidavit, showing the number of days on duty and any special expenses 
incurred, with voucJ^rs for the same, forwarding this account through the 
licensee, who should recommend it for payment. The licensee should then 
be debited with half the total expense, which should remain a charge on 
the limit, payable before renewal of license. 

The clothing of the men with authority is the next consideration. This 
can be done by appointing them Bush and Fire Rangers and instructing 
them from here as such, which will make them ex-officio officers to enforce 
the provisions of the Fire Act, under section 14 of the said Act. This will 
arm them with all necessary authority, and lend official prestige to them 
which will be found a valuable factor in dealing with settlers. This com- 
pletes the scheme so far as its creation and organization is concerned, and 
we will now discuss their action in the field. 

In instructing them from here it is not possible to frame rules which 
shall meet every emergency, and as they are presumed to be practical men 
it will be well to leave them plenty of latitude to deal with each case in such 
manner as their knowledge and presence on the spot may suggest; at the 
same time it will be only proper that I should indicate briefly some of the 
more important of the duties which I think would devolve upon them. 

. Upon the ranger in charge of the limit will devolve the responsibility 
for any action taken in preventing or suppressing fires, and the expenses 
incurred in connection therewith. He will be furnished with a diary, in 
which he must enter the movements of himself and assistants, anything of 
interest or importance occurring on the limit, the the nature of the country 
and timber where they travel, etc., so that the Department and licensee may 
be fully informed about the limit ; its topography and the timbered por- 
tions of it. This diary must be sent in at the end of the season, and should 
be accompanied with any report or recommendation in the direction of 
improving the scheme, which experience may suggest. Having been sud- 
plied with a number of posters of the Fire Act, they will, on reaching the 
scene of their duties, proceed to post them up in public and conspicuous 
places, and being also supplied with copies of the Act in pamphlet for^i, 
they will distribute these among settlers, residents or frequenters of the 
limit, explaining to them the provisions of the Act, calling particular atten- 
tion to the penalty for the inf motion thereof, and they will endeavor +o 
inculcate a spirit of care and caution in setting out and preventing the 
spread of fires, informing them of their headquarters, inviting their co- 
operation and assistance to punish those who wilfully or carelessly disrecrnrd 
The Act, and doing everything, in short, to secure the sympathy, confide'T^e 
and support of the settlers. By doing these thin£?s, and keeping continuallv 
on the move, thev will impart a thorough knowledge of the Fire Act. and 
keep alive an active interest in its enforcement. 



276 REPORT (3F THE No. 3 



In travelling through a limit where the country is broken or circum- 
stances will permit, an elevated position should occasionally be sought, so 
that a view of the surrounding country can be obtained, by which they will 
ascertain the locality of any fire, and in the event of such being discovered 
where there is not a settler, or if it should be assuming proportions which 
would indicate danger, they should proceed at once to the spot and take 
steps to extinguish or control it. 

Where settlers are living in a pine country, and require to bum their 
fallows or choppings during a dry period, the Rangers should impress upon- 
them the necessity of choosing a calm evening to set out fire, and if the sur- 
roundings are dangerous, he should ask to be notified of the time, so that he 
might be on the spot and prepared to call in assistance if the fire should be 
spreading. 

In the event of an emergency arising, that is to say, should a fire assume 
such proportions as to be beyond control of the Hanger and his assistants, or 
should the springing up of a wind render it advisable that a fire should be 
promptly extinguished, the superintending Ranger should be instructed that 
he may engage such outside assistance as will enable him to accomplish 
this object, paying the men employed reasonable wages, such as ordinarily 
prevail in the locality. He should also at once advise the licensee and the 
Crown Lands Department, by telegraph, if possible, so that some one to 
represent one or both should be sent, if thought desirable. On suppression 
of the fire the Ranger in charge should report all the facts to the Depart- 
ment, accompanying his report with pay list of the men employed, shewing 
number of days, names and rates paid. These should be sent through the 
licensee, who should recommend them for payment, if reasonable, the 
Department then paying the expense and debiting half to the licensee. 

The foregoing is a sketch of the organization, rates of pay and duties 
of the Fire Ranging force proposed to be created, which can be modified 
or iniproved as experience is gained. I have not thought it necessary to 
describe minutely the various modes of combating bush fires, as the neces- 
sary steps depend largely upon the extent of the fire, state of the weather, 
nature of the localities and timber, and the persons on the ground who .will 
be familiar with these points can best be left' to deal with each fire as it occurs. 
What I desire is to obtain your approval of the principle of establishing some 
body to prevent the fearful destruction that has been going on, and T think 
I may fairly claim that the scheme I have now suggested is simple, will 
be far-reaching and effective, and comparatively inexpensive. You are 
aware that last year we tried the experiment of sending one of our ordinary 
Ranging staff on Mr. McLaren's limits, and another on McLachlin Brothers, 
keeping them there during the summer, and that these gentlemen have 
written testifying to the good eft'ect, thanking the Department, and send- 
insr their cheques for half the expense. 

In conclusron, I would suggest that an appropriation of five thousand 
dollars be taken for this service this season, and I am well satisfied that 
once the scheme is piit in practical operation, and its good effects are seen 
and understood, all criticism will be disarmed and no exception will be taken 
to a much larger appropriation next year. 

I have the honor to be. 
Sir, 

Tour obedient servant, 

AITBRET WHITE. 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 277 



Circular to Limit-Holders 

The course recommended by Mr. White was approved by the Commis- 
sioner, Hon. T. B. Pardee, and the same year the following circular was 
sent to limit-holders throughout the Province. 

The Commissioner of Crown Lands, feeling the importance of creating 
some better organization for preventing the destruction of the forest by fire, 
has approved of a scheme, the principal points of which are herein stated 
to you, so 'that you may, should the position of your limits, make it desir- 
able, avail yourself of its advantages. 

It is proposed that during the dangerous period, say from the first day 
of May to the first day of October in each year, there shall be placed on 
such limits as are exposed to danger a man or men who will be empowered 
and instructed to use every endeavor to prevent and suppress fires in every 
way possible, and the ranger who is placed in charge of a limit will be 
authorized to engage whatever help may be necessary to cope with a danger- 
ous fire where prompt action is necessary ; these men will be supplied with 
copies of the "Fire Act," and instructed to post them up in public and con- 
spicuous places, to visit each person resident on the limit and give them, if 
thought advisable, a copy of the Act, explaining to them its provisions, 
penalty for its infraction, etc., and to endeavor to enlist their assistance 
and sympathy to make the Act effective. 

The Department will leave the limit-holder to suggest the number of 
men who should be placed on his limit, and as it is of all things necessary 
that practical bushmen of good judgment and well acquainted with the limit 
should be selected, he, the limit-holder, will nominate the man to be placed 
in charge of the limit and his subordinates, if any, the Department reserv- 
ing the right to limit the number of men to be employed on any limit and 
also to reject or remove any man whom, it finds unfitted to discharge the 
duties of the position. 

It is hoped that limit-holders will recognize the necessity for recom- 
mending men of good judgment and cool temper, who, while fully discharg- 
ing their duties, will not harass or annoy settlers or others, as, if an animus 
is created in the breasts of the settlers the scheme will undoubtedly fail to 
effect the result expected. Limit-holders will be expected to exercise super- 
vision over these men and see that they thoroughly and effectually perform 
their duties. 

With respect to remuneration, the Department thinks that the man in 
charge of a limit should be paid three dollars a day, which should cover 
board and ordinary expenses, and where subordinates are required, that 
suitable men can be obtained at two dollars per day, which should also 
cover board and ordinary expensfis; the men will be appointed bush and 
fire rangers and instructed from here so as to clothe them with authority 
under section 14 of the Fire Act, and a copy of the instructions will be 
furnished each limit-holder. 

As the limit-holder is reaping a large proportion of the benefit, it^ is 
intended that he should bear one-half of the cost of men and expenses which 
may be incurred under this scheme. 

The Department will pay wages and expenses and charge to each limit- 
holder his proportion, which will be made a charge upon the limit, and an 
account will be rendered at the close of the season, when prompt payment 
must be made. 

Should you desire to avail yourself of this scheme you will at once 
address a letter to the Department to that effect, stating the limits you wish 



278 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



protected, the number of your license for current season, tlie number of men 
you would recommend to be employed, and submit a list of those you would 
recommend for appointment on your limits. 

THOS. H. JOHNSTON, 

Assistant Commissioner. 
Department of Crown Lands, 

(Woods and Forests Branch,) April, 1885. 

. Results of Fire Ranging. 

The results of this action were highly satisfactory to all concerned, as 
appears from the annual report of the Commissioner of Crown Lands for 
1885, which contains the following with regard to the first season's experi- 
ence of the fire ranging system. 

"Under instructions from the Department thirty-seven men were placed 
in the field and kept on duty between the 1st day of May and the 1st day of 
October, 

"The effect of their presence has been excellent. Fires were suppressed 
which otherwise might have become vast conflagrations, causing incalcul- 
able losses. Persons wantonly violating the provisions of the 'Fire Act' 
were promptly brought to justice and fined, and a general and strong inter- 
est in the direction of preventing the starting and spread of bush fires was 
created and kept alive. 

"At the close of the season the licensees expressed their great satisfac- 
tion at the benefits resulting from the experiment, and urged its continuance 
and extension. 

"The total cost of the service for 1885 was $7,911, of which sum one- 
half has been refunded bv the licensees, leaving the net cost of this service 
to the Department to be |3,955,50." 

The system once adopted was speedily extended. In 1886, 45 men were 
employed as rangers, in 1887 the number was increased to 55, in addition 
to about 100 who were called on to give temporary assistance in fighting 
fire. The season was an exceptionally dry and dangerous one, so that the 
efficiency of the system in checking the spread of fires, which would other- 
wise have covered a much wider extent of territory, was thoroughly tested. 
The report of the Commissioner of Crown Lands for that year thus refers 
to the working of the system : — 

"There is no doubt that the presence of the Rangers, and the prompt 
and active measures taken by them, materially prevented, and substantially 
reduced the losses — ^not only so but the Licensees were supplied with reliable 
information as to the quantity of timber damaged, its situation, and the 
force necessary to handle it this season before the grubs had time to seriously 
damage it, by which an enormous sum was saved to the Province and the 
Licensees." 

Cost of the Service. 

The number of fire rangers employed and the cost of service has con- 
tinued steadily on the increase as a larger proportion of the limit-holders have 
realized the benefits of the system and availed themselves of its operation. 
In 1891 the number of rangers on duty had increased to 98 and the total 
cost of the service to |20,053. In 1896 sixty license-holders took advantage 
of the system, employing 160 rangers, the total expenditure being |31,396 
which included |1,969 for fire-ranging on Crown Lands not under license, 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 279 

/ 
it having been found necessary to put the system in force over a large area 
of Crown territory overrun with gold mining prospectors. The number of 
license-holders who made application to have rangers put on duty upon 
their limits in 1897 was 69, in which season 179 rangers were employed on 
timber limits, in addition to 12 detailed for service upon Crown property. 
During the season of 1898, 195 rangers were on duty on licensed lands, with 
the result that notwithstanding the long continued drought which prevailed, 
the losses by fire on the territory under their supervision were insignificant. 
Eleven fire rangers were also employed on the Crown domain, whose services 
proved equally effective, as no extensive fires occurred in the area thus pro- 
tected. 

Tree Planting on Highways. 

The Ontario Legislature in 1871 passed ''An Act to encourage the plant- 
ing of trees upon the highways in this Province and to give a right of pro- 
perty in such trees to the owners of the soil adjacent to such highways" 
which forms the basis of the existing law on the subject. The principal 
clauses are as follows : 

1. "For the purposes of this Act, every shade tree, shrub and sapling 
now gowing on either side of any highway in this Province, shall upon, 
from and after the passing of this Act, be deemed to be the property of the 
owner of the land adjacent to such highway opposite to which such tree, 
shrub or sapling is. 

Ownership in Trees. 

2. Any person owning land adjacent to any highway may plant trees, 
shrubs or saplings on the portion thereof contiguous to his land; but no 
tree, shrub or sapling so planted shall be so planted that the same may be 
or become a nuisance in the highway, or obstruct the fair and reasonable 
use of the same, every tree, shrub or sapling so planted in the highway shall 
for the purposes of this Act be deemed to be the property of the owner for 
the time being of the land whose owner planted the same." 

Municipal Control. 

Municipal councils were given control over the removal of trees, where 
it became necessary, and a penalty of |25 was imposed for the injury or 
destruction of roadside trees. Power was given to municipal councils to 
expend money in the planting of shade and ornamental trees, or to make 
money grants to individuals or associations for the same purpose. It was 
provided that the first two sections of the Act given above should not apply 
to incorporated cities, towns and villages, unless the council should first 
pass a by-law making them applicable thereto. 

Bonus for Tree PlanfAng. 

This Act was superseded by the Ontario Tree Planting Act of 1883, 
which, in addition to vesting the ownership of trees planted or growing on 
the highway in the proprietor of the adjacent land, provided for the pay- 
ment out of municipal and Provincial funds of bonuses for tree-planting. 
It enacted that the council of any municipality might pass a by-law for 
paying out of municipal funds a bonus or premium not exceeding twenty- 
five cents for each ash, basswood, beech, birch, butternut, cedar, cherry, 

20 L. M 



280 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



chestnut, elm, hickory, maple, oak, pine, sassafras, spruce, walnut or white- 
wood tree planted on the highway, or on any boundary line between farms 
or within six feet of such boundary. The municipality was entitled to be 
recouped by the Provincial Treasurer to the amount of one-half the bonus 
paid on such trees as at the expiration of three years remained alive, healthy, 
and of good form, a sum of $50,000 being appropriated by the Act and set 
apart as a fund for that purpose. 

This measure remained in force until 1896, when it was repealed as a 
result of an investigation made by the Bureau of Forestry as to its opera- 
tion. It was found that very few of the municipalities of the Province had 
availed themselves of its provisions, so that after it had been for nine years 
in full operation, only |4,308.78, or less than one-tenth of the fund appro- 
priated had been expended, and that for various reasons it had failed to 
commend itself to the public in most of the localities where a trial had been 
made. This shortcoming combined with the fact that under any circum- 
stances, the planting of trees in isolated lines, while contributing to tbe 
beauty of the landscape, secures none of those practical advantages attained 
by their growth in masses as in the original forest, induced the Legislature 
to effect another change in the law. The measure substituted for the Act 
of 1883 retained and extended the principle of vesting the ownership of 
roadside trees in adjoining lot owners, making it applicable to all muni- 
cipalities, without its adoption bj* special by-law being necessary in the 

Provincial Bonus Abolished. 

case of urban municipalities. While the Government bonus on tree plant- 
ing was abolished, the municipalities were authorized to grant municipal 
bonuses in encouragement of tree planting, provided they saw fit to do so. 
The following is the full text of the Act : — 

1. A person owning land adjacent to any highway, public street, lane, 
alley, place or square in this Province may plant trees on the portion thereof 
contiguous to his land, but no tree shall be so planted that the same is or 
may become a nuisance in the highway, or other public thoroughfare, or 
obstruct the fair and reasonable use of the same. 

2. Any owner of a farm lot may, with the consent of the owner or own- 
ers of adjoining lands, plant trees on the boundaries of the adjoining lot. 

3. Every tree so planted on such highway, street, lane, alley, place, or 
square, shall be deemed to be the property of the owner of the lands adjacent 
to such highway, street, lane, alley, place or square, and nearest to such 
tree, and every such tree so planted on a boundary line aforesaid shall be 
deemed to be the common property of the owners of the adjoining farms or 
lots. 

4. Every growing tree, shrub or sapling whatsoever, planted or left 
standing on either side of a highway for the purposes of shade or ornament 
shall be deemed the property of the owner of the land adjacent to the high- 
way and nearest to such tree, shrub or sapling. B. S. 0., 1887, c. 201, s. 3. 

3. — (1) The council of any municipality may pass a by-law for paying 
out of municipal funds a bonus or premium not exceeding twenty-five cents 
for each and every ash, basswood, beech, birch, butternut, cedar, cherry, 
chestnut, elm, hickory, maple, oak, pine, sassafras, spruce, walnut, or 
whitewood tree, which shall, under the provisions of this Act be planted 
within such municipality on any highway, or on any boundary line of 
farms as aforesaid, or within six feet of such boundary. 

(2) Such by-law may further provide for the appointment of an inspector 
of trees so planted; for their due protection against injury and against 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 281 



removal by any person or persons, including the owner, excepting as author- 
ity may be given therefor by special resolution of the council; for the con- 
ditions on which bonuses may be paid; and generally for such regulations 
as are authorized by subsections 20 and 20a of section 479 of The Con- 
solidated MuniciparAct, 1892. R.S.O., 1889, c. 201, s. 4. 

4. The inspector shall make to the council one report for each year, if 
required to do so, giving the names of all persons entitled to any bonus or 
premium under the by-law, the number of trees of each species planted, and 
the amount of bonus or premium to which each person is entitled, and cer- 
tifying that the trees have been planted for a period of three years, and 
that they are alive, healthy and of good form; and upon the adoption of 
such report the bonuses or premiums shall be paid ; provided that in no 
case shall the council be liable to pay a larger sum in respect of trees planted 
uncVer this Act than would be payable if the same had been planted at a 
distance of thirty feet apart, and in no case shall a bonus be granted where 
the 1rees are less than fifteen feet apart. R.S.O. 1887, c. 201, s. 5 ; 53 Vic. 
c. 60, 8. 1. 

5. "Where a municipality has prior to the passing of this Act passed a 
by-law under the authority of section 4 of The Ontario Tree Planting Act 
for granting bonuses for tree planting and has paid or has become liable 
under the said by-law for the payment of any premiums or bonuses with 
respect to trees planted prior to the passing of this Act, the Treasurer of the 
Province, out of any sum which may be voted by the Legislature" for that 
purpose, upon receiving a copy of the inspector's report, certified by the 
reeve and clerk, may recoup to the treasurer of the municipality one-half 
of the sum paid by the municipality under the said by-law, the said report 
to be forwarded to the Treasurer on or before the first day of November in 
each year. 

6. — (1) Any person who ties or fastens any animal to or injures or 
destroys a tree planted and growing upon any road or highway, or upon any 
public street, lane, alley, ])lace or square in this Province (or upon any 
boundary line of farms, if any such boniis or premium as aforesaid has been 
paid therefor), or suffers or permits any animal in his charge to injure or 
destroy, or who cuts down or removes any such tree without having first 
obtained permission so to do by special resolution of the council of the muni- 
cipality, shall, upon conviction thereof before a justice of the peace, forfeit 
and pay such sum of money, not exceeding $25 besides costs, as such justice 
may award, and in default of payment, the same may be levied on the goods 
and chattels of the person offending, or such person may be imprisoned in 
the common gaol of the county within which the municipality is situate, for 
a period not exceeding thirty days. 

(2) One-half of such fine shall go to the person laying the information, 
and the other half to the municipality within which such tree was growing. 
B.S.O., 1887, c. 210, s. 8. 

7. Any person who ties or fastens any animal to, or injures or destroys 
any tree growing for the purposes of shade or ornament upon any boundary 
line between farms or lots, or who suffers or permits any animal in his charge 
to injure or destroy, or who cuts down or removes any such tree, without the 
consent of the owner or owners of such tree, shall be subject to the like pen- 
alties and liable to be proceeded against and dealt with as provided in the 
preceding section. R.S.O. , 1887, c. 201, s. 9. 

8. The council of every municipality may pass by-laws : 

(1) To regulate the planting of trees upon the public highways; 

(2) To prohibit the planting upon the public highways of any species 
of trees which they may deem unsuited for that purpose ; 



282 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



(3) To provide for the removal of trees which, may be planted on the 
public highway contrary to the provisions of any such by-law. R.S.O., 
1887, c. 201, s. 10. 

9. The Ontario Tree Planting Act and the Act passed in the 53rd year 
of Her Majesty's reign, chaptered 60, are repealed. 

Forest Ee serves. 

The undue extent to which deforestation has been carried in the 
frontier counties of Ontario, and the prospect of the extension of similar 
conditions to the Northern regions, renders the problem of forest preser- 
vation one of increasing urgency. The idea that a considerable proportion 
of the land, including especially the non-arable tracts, should be maintained 
in perpetual forest, yielding its periodical harvest of timber as an essential 
economic factor of national prosperity, had its advocates from time to time 
among our public men. But the liability of the woods to destruction by 
fire with the advance of settlement, and the general though unfounded 
belief that only one crop of pine could be secured from the lands, for some 
time strongly militated against any comprehensive action in the direction 
of forest preservation. The scientific aspects of the question, however, were 
beginning to be studied and understood by a few people, and appreciating 
the growing importance of the subject and the need of popular education as 
to the value of maintaining a due proportion of woodland, the Ontario 
Government in 1883 appointed Robert W. Phipps to the position of Clerk of 
Forestry. 

Bureau of Forestry. 

As originally laid down, and for some years afterwards, the work was 
almost purely of an educational character, the publications issued being 
principally intended to rectify conditions in the cleared and cultivated por- 
tions of the province, where the remaining portions of the original forest 
are in private hands, and to show the need and desirability of replanting. 
At the same time the larger aspect of the question was not overlooked. 

The office was at first attached to the Department of Agriculture, but 
after Mr. Phipps' death, and on the appointment of the present incumbent, 
a change was made in 1895 bv which its scope was considerably extended. 
It was transferred from the Department of Agriculture to that of Crown 
Lands, and connected more directly with the work of administration. The 
Bureau of Forestry, as thus reconstituted, in place of devoting its main 
efforts to the dissemination of information among farmers and the forma- 
tion of public opinion with respect to reforestation on private lands, has 
been entrusted with the preliminary investigations in connection with the 
forestry policy now undertaken in the management of considerable tracts 
of the Crown domain. 

Algonquin National Parh. 

The first step in the direction of a policy of establishing permanent 
timber reservations was taken by the Ontario Government in 1893, in the 
setting apart of the Algonquin National Park. The first suggestion of the 
project was offered by Alexander Kirkwood of the Crown Lands Depart- 
ment, who, in a memo dated December 21st, 1885, addressed to the Hon. 
T. B. Pardee, Commissioner of Crown Lands, strongly urged the setting 
aside of such a reservation embracing the head waters of the Muskoka, 
Madawaska, Petewawa, and other streams. The matter was considered and 



1907 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 283 



preliminary investigations set on foot to ascertain the suitability of the 
territory indicated for park purposes. Some delay was caused by the ill- 
health; of the Commissioner, which resulted in his death in 1889. Hon. A. 
S. Hardy who succeeded to the position, appointed a Commission compris- 
ing Aubrey White, Assistant Commissioner of Crown Lands, Archibald 
Blue, Director, of Mines, Alex Kirkwood, Senior Officer of Lands Branch, 
Department of Crown Lands; James Dickson, Inspector of Surveys, and 
Robert W. Phipps, Clerk of Forestry, to enquire into the fitness of the ter- 
ritory under consideration for the purpose of a forest reservation and 
national park. The report of the Commissioners was presented to the Legis- 
lature during the session of 1893, recommending the setting apart of a com- 
pact tract of land in the district of Nipissihg, south of the Mattawa River 
and Georgian Bay, almost a parallelogram in shape and comprising eighteen 
townships. An Act embodying the recommendations of the Commissioners, 
withdrawing this area from sale or settlement and constituting it a national 
park and forest reservation was adopted. The following year a considerable 
addition was made to the original area, bringing the total extent of the 
park up to 1,109,383 acres. The whole district is under timber license but 
as the Act setting it apart provides that only pine shall be cut, the operations 
of the limit-holders cannot seriously detract from its forest character. 

Forestry CoTnmission. 

In June, 1897, at the instance of the Clerk of Forestry, a Royal Com- 
mission consisting of E. W. Rathbun, President of the Rathbun Company, 
Deseronto, lumberman; John Bertram, President of the Collins Inlet Lum- 
ber Company, Toronto, lumberman; J. B. McWilliams, Peterborough, Sup- 
erintendent of Forest Rangers; Alex Kirkwood, Chief Clerk of Lands 
Branch, Crown Lands Department, and Thomas Southworth, Clerk of For- 
estry, were appointed to investigate and report on the subject of restoring 
and preserving the growth of white pine and other timber trees upon lands 
in the Province, which are not adapted for agricultural purposes or for set- 
tlement. After personally investigating considerable tracts of country and 
familiarizing themselves with the conditions prevailing in many lumbered 
over and fire swept areas of non-agricultural land they presented a pre- 
liminary report on the 10th of December, 1897, which offered the following 
recommendations : 

1. That the present system of fire ranging inaugurated by the Govern- 
ment in 1886 be extended so as to be compulsory on all the holders of timber 
berths and that all unlicensed timber land contiguous thereto be also pro- 
tected by rangers employed by the Government. That all fire rangers be 
subject to the inspection and control of the Department of Crown Lands. 

2. That the officials of the Hudson's Bay Company be asked to co-oper- 
ate with the Government in preparing and printing fire proclamations in the 
language of the Indians of the Northern Districts to be posted along the 
canoe routes throughout the territory. 

3. That for all unworked limits on which the ground rent shall be two 
years in default on the termination of the present license year, the license 
shall not be renewed, but that the berths be held by the Crown as fore.lt 
reserves. 

4. That the license-holders be not allowed to cut any trees for logs 
smaller than will measure twelve inches across the stump two feet from the 
ground unless under special forest conditions with the sanction and under 
the supervision of the district forest ranger. 

5. That the Government take power by Order-in-Council to withdraw 
from sale or location and set aside to be kept in permanent Crown forest 



284 REPORT OF DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES. 



reserve, such areas of territory as are generally unsuitable for settlement 
and yet valuable for growing timber. 

In accordance with these recommendations, the following Act enabling 
the Government to set apart permanent Forest Reserves, from time to time, 
was passed by the Legislature in 1898 : — 

Forest Reserves Act. 

1. The Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council shall have power to set apart 
from time to time such portions of the public domain as may be deemed 
advisable for the purposes of future timber supplies, but subject to such 
regulations as may be adopted under the provisions of section 4 of this Act. 

2. Such tracts of land so reserved shall, by proclamation in "The On- 
vtario Gazette," be declared to be permanent Crown Forest Reserves. 

3. From and after the date of such proclamation no lands within the 
boundaries of such reserves shall be sold, leased or otherwise disposed of, 
and no person shall locate, settle upon, use or occupy such lands, or hunt, 
fish, shoot, trap or spear or carry or use firearms or explosives within or 
upon such reserves. 

4. Such reserves shall be under the control and management of the 
Department of Crown Lands, and the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council shall 
liave power to frame regulations for the protection, care and management 
of the said Crown Forest Reserves. 

5. Such regulations shall be published for four consecutive weeks in 
"The Ontario Gazette" and shall immediately thereafter have the force of 
law as if herein enacted, and shall be laid before the Legislative Assembly 
within fifteen days after its first meeting thereafter. 

6. Any violation of any provisions of this Act or of any regulation 
made thereunder shall subject the offender, in addition to any other remedy, 
to a penalty of not more than fifty dollars and costs, and in default of pay- 
ment thereof to imprisonment for a period of not exceeding six months, with 
or without hard labor, unless the said penalty and costs (if costs are imposed) 
are sooner paid, and the offender shall be liable for all damages resulting 
from any such violation to be recovered in any court of competent jurisdic- 
tion. 

7. Any prosecution for a violation of this Act or any regulation made 
thereunder may be had under "The Ontario Summary Convictions Act" 
before any justice or justices of the peace having jurisdiction where the 
offence was committed. 

8. This Act may be cited as "The Forest Reserves Act." 

Under this legislation, the following Forest Reserves have been set 
apart, and an adequate staff of rangers to protect the timber has been placed 
in each : 

Temagami 5,900 square miles. 

Mississaga 3,000 

Nepigon 7,300 

Eastern 100 

. Sibley Township 100 



REPORT 



OF THE 



Minister of Lands, Forces 
and Mines 



OF THE 



PROVINCE OF ONTARIO 
For the Year 

1908 



PRINTED BY ORDER OF 
THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY OF ONTARIO 




TORONTO : 
Prinled and Published by L.K. CAMERON, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty 

1909. 



WARWICK BRO'S & RUTTER, Limited, Printers 
TORONTO. 



la L.M. 



CONTENTS. 



Appendices 
No. 1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

o. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
]0. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 

29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 
36. 
37. 
38. 

39. 

40. 
41. 

42. 

43. 
44. 
45. 
46. 



Statement of Officers and Clerks in the Department 

" Crown Lands Agents and Homestead Inspectors .. 

" Lands Sold and Leased and Collections 

* ' G ross Revenue 

" Receipts considered as Special Funds 

" Gross Disbursements 

" Expenditure on Account of various services 

" Revenue from Woods and Forests 

" Patents, etc., issued 

" Timber cut and amounts accruing for dues, etc. 

" Work done in Military Branch 

" Letters received and mailed 

" Locations, etc., under Free Grants Act 

" Municipal Surveys ordered 

" " confirmed 

" Crown Surveys in progress 

" " completed , 

Surveyor's Report. Township of Haggart 

" " Kinasmill 



PAGE. 
2 

4 
6 
7 
8 
9 to 43 
44 
45 
45 
46 
48 
48 
49 
54 
56 
57 
53 
61 
64 
66 
69 
72 
75 



" " Laidlaw 

" " Jessop 

" " Mountjoy 

" " Godfrey 

" " Mabee 77 

" " Maisonville 79 

" " Benoit (part 80 

" Gillies' Timber Berth 81 

" Township Outlines in the vicinity of Night Hawk 

Lake, Districts of Sudbury and Nipissing ... 84 

" Addition to Town Plot of Smyth 86 

" Town Plot in Township of Brower 87 

" Township of Bonis 87 

" " Berry 89 

Steele 91 

" Township Outlines in Temagami Forest Reserve... 93 

" Base and Meridian Lines, District of Algoma ... 95 

" Base and Meridian Lines, District of Algoma ... 97 

" Township of Eilber 101 

" Base and Meridian Lines, Districts of Algoma and 

Thunder Bay 102 

" Township Line, Morley and Pattullo, District of 

Rainy River 106 

" Township of Temple 110 

" Blocks V and VI, Grand Trunk Pacific Railway 

Grant, District of Thunder Bay 112 

" Blook VIT, Grand Trunk Pacific Railway Grant, 

Districts of Thunder Bay and Rainy River ... 113 

Report of Superintendent of Rondeau Provincial Park 114 

" " Algonquin National Park 116 

List of Licensed Cullers 119 

The Forest Resources of Ontario 130 

[iii.l 



REPORT 



OF THE 



Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines 



OF THE 



PROVINCE OF ONTARIO 



FOR THE YEAR 



1908 



To His Honour The Honourable J, M. Gibson, 

Lieutenant- Oovernor of the Province of Ontario. 

May it Please Your Honour : 

As required by law, I submit for the information of your Honour and 
the Legislative Assembly, a report for the year ending on the 31st December, 
1908, of the management of the Crown Lands of the Province. 

Clergy Lands. 

The area of Clergy lands sold during the year was 109 acres, aggregating 
in value $60. The collection on account of these and former sales amounted 
to 11,642.05. (See Appendix No. 3, page 6.) 

Common School Lands. 

The area of Common School lands sold during the year was 107 acres 
for $766.80. The collection, on account of these and sales of former years 
was $5,890.96. (See Appendix No. 3, page 6.) 

Grammar School Lands. 

The area of these lands sold during the year was 50 acres for $40. The 
collection on account of these land sales in former years was $433.65. (See 
Appendix No. 3, page 6.) 

[v.] 



vi. REPORT OF THE No. ii 



University Lands. 

The area of these lands sold during the year was 3,109i acres, for 
11,594.87. The collection on account of these and sales of former years was 
11,015.78. (See Appendix No. 3, page 6.) 

Crown Lands. 

There have been sold for agricultural purposes during the year 74,911 1 
acres, for $62,656.43. The collection on account of these and former sales 
was SS59,360.14. There were sold for mining purposes 7,559 acres, for 
118,842.90, and collected on account of mining sales, $23,445.30. 

There were leased for. mining purposes 4,917 acres, for $4,877.57. 
There was collected on account of m^iing leases, |20,611.81. There were 
3,865 acres of Crown Lands leased for other than mining purposes. The 
collection on account of these and former leases was |6,165.56. The total 
area of land disposed of during the year was 94,628 4/5 acres. The total 
collection on ax^count of lands sold and leased during the year was $118,- 
565.25. (See Appendix No. 3, page 6.) 

During the past few years settlement has flowed into what is called the 
"Temiskaming Region," that is the country lying north and west of Lake 
Temiskaming, and there are now a number of prosperous settlements through 
that country. Ever since the exploration of 1900 public attention has been 
from time to time called to what has been described as the "Clay Belt," 
which is an area of some sixteen millions of acres of good farming land, 
reported by the exploration parties as lying on the Hudson Bay slope. Owing 
to the distance of this land from the settled parts of the Province and want 
of communication, no settlement had gone in there, and by some even the 
existence of this large area of good land was regarded as mythical. The 
Department, in order to satisfy itself as to the character of the country, has 
been running base and meridian lines through the "Clay Belt" region, and 
the result of these surveys having demonstrated that the land is as good 
as reported, the Department has surveyed one hundred and twenty townships, 
containing 2,625,000 acres, in what is known as the "Clay Belt." In addi- 
tion to subdividing these townships, it has by survey blocked out in nine mile 
townships one and a half millons of acres additional. These surveys were 
made so that the country might be opened for settlement promptly, as soon 
as circumstances warranted that action. The reports of the surveyors who 
ran the base and meridian lines and blocked out the townships, shows the 
land in that region to be even better , in quality than the reports of the 
explorers led us to expect. 

For some years the Temiskaming & Northern Ontario Railway has been 
extending in the direction of this "Belt" with the ultimate idea of tapping 
it in a few years. The immediate construction of the Transcontinental Rail- 
way, which it was found would traverse the "Clay Belt" from east to west, 
a distance of some four hundred miles, and which gave assurance of great 
development and enormous traffic, caused the immediate construction of 
the Temiskaming and Northern Ontario Railway to become a necessity, so 
that settlement might flow in from the older parts o"f the Province, and that 
the population of that region should have easy communication with the 
Seat of Government of Ontario. So much energy was displayed by the Tem- 
iskaming and Northern Ontario Railway Commission that last autiimn the 
Province's railwaj' was constructed to the town of Cochrane, which is its 
junction point with the Transcontinental. The Railway Commission also 



1<)(!8 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS' AND MINES vii. 



laid out a townsite at the junction point, and offered lots for sale A great 
many lots were purchased by parties for business purposes, and it is expected 
that a town of considerable importance will immediately spring up there. 
The building of the Temiskaming & Northern Ontario Railway, the construc- 
tion of the Transcontinental and the creation of a townplot there, caused 
population to flow in, and it became necessary to provide for those who 
desired to settle. This was done by opening a number of townships along 
side the lines of the Temiskaming & Northern Ontario Railway and the 
Transcontinental, and the establishment of Crown Lands Agencies at the 
towns of Matheson and Cochrane. The nucleus of a strong settlement has 
already been formed at Cochrane, and with the large population that will 
flow in for railway construction purposes good markets will be created for 
everything that can be grown, and the success of those who engage in farm- 
ing pursuits there would seem to be assured. When the whole "Clay Belt" 
is opened from east to west by the construction of the Transcontinental and 
other railways, there is every reason to believe that that region will become 
one of. the best agricultural regions of the Province. The townships open 
for sale in that locality now are Lamarche, Brower, Clute, and Glackmeyer, 
which are attached to the Cochrane Agency, and the townships of Bowman, 
Hislop, Benoit and "Walker, which are attached to the Matheson Agency. 
Other townships will be added to these Agencies from time to time as neces- 
sity arises. 

Free Grants. 

The following townships were added to the Free Grant list during the 
past year : Airy and Murchison, in the District of Nipissing ; Mutrie, in the 
Rainy River District; Burns, in the County of Renfrew; Capreol, in the 
District of Sudbury, and Aberdeen, Galbraith and Lefroy in the District of 
Algoma. 2,110 persons were located for 297,543 acres of land, and 384 
people purchased 14,480 acres under the Free Grant Regulations. 1,089 
patents were issued for locations on which the settlement duties had been 
completed. The number of locations is the largest in the history of the 
Department since Confederation, except one year when there were five more 
locations only than have been made this year. There are now 231 townships 
on the Free Grant list. The Department has been endeavoring to see that 
only land suitable for farming purposes is sold or located. It has established 
a system of inspection of all lots applied for, so as to.be satisfied that there 
is a sufficient proportion of good land to warrant the belief that the lots 
ore being taken for farming purposes. Tender the legislation of last Ses- 
sion, inspections have ben made as applied for, and, if the circumstances 
warranted it, the minerals have been released, and also small quantities of 
pine timber, where the lands were not covered by timber license. 

Military Grants. 

Four hundred and eight ]\rilitarv Certificates were issued during the 
vear. This brings the total number of certificates granted under 1 Ed. VIT., 
Cap. 6, to 13,958. Location certificates issued previous to this year were 
confirmed to the extent of 350. Altogether, 1,100 new locations were made 
during the year, bringing the number of -locations under the Act up to 
fi.845. 625 Military Certificates have been surrendered to the Crown for the 
$50 each commutation money, making a total of 3,050 disposed of in this wav. 
Patents have been issued for TOO military grants, making a total of 2,005 
patents issued to date. Where military grants have been taken subject to 



viii. REPORT OF THE No. 3 

settlement duties, it has been considered proper to call upon the locatees to 
file evidence showing that they are in actual occupation and the nature of 
the duties they have performed. 

Mining Industry. 

There was much activity in the raising of ores and minerals in Ontario 
in 1908, and the total value of the output of mines and mineral works was 
again the largest yet recorded. The aggregate production amounted to 
125,616,795, as compared with |25,019,373 in 1907. Silver and nickel were 
the principal items in the list of metals, the yield of the former being 
19,401,021 ounces, — practically all from the mines of the Cobalt camp — and 
of the latter, 10,175 tons, by far the larger proportion of which came from 
the deposits of the Sudbury region. The low prices which prevailed through- 
out the year depressed the value of the silver production, which was returned 
at 19,116,008. It may be pointed out that Ontario now occupies a leading 
place among the silver-producing countries of the world, having contributed 
about one-ninth of the entire reported production in 1908. There was raised 
and shipped from the mines of Cobalt last year 24,453 tons of ore (including 
concentrates), which was considerably more than the total production up to 
the end of 1907. The average contents of the shipments for 1908 was 793 
ounces of silver per ton, compared with 806 ounces up to 31st December, 
1907. The principal producing mines were largely the same as before, viz. : 
Nipissing, La Rose, O'Brien, Kerr Lake, Coniagas, Temiskaming and Hud- 
son Bav. Temiscamingue, Buffalo, Tretheway Drummond, McKinley-Dar- 
ragh-Savage, Cobalt Silver Queen, City of Cobalt, Standard Cobalt, Eight 
of Way, Silver Leaf. The Crown Reserve mine, situated in the bed of Kerr 
Lake, began production in 1908, and was a heavy shipper of rich ore. A 
considerable proportion of the ore produced at Cobalt, especially of the richer 
grades, is now treated in the Province, in refineries situated at Copper Cliff, 
Deloro, Thorold and Trout Lake. 

Development work was carried on in the silver districts of South Lor- 
rain, James Township, Elk Lake and elsewhere in the Montreal River region, 
but owing largely to the greater distance of these camps from transportation 
facilities as compared with Cobalt, progress is at a slower rate. The latest 
discoveries of silver were on the west shore of Lake Gowganda, where some 
rich finds were made during the year, and where there will undoubtedly be 
much development in 1909. Exploration has been pushed on into the 
country adjoining Welcome, Burwash and Shining Tree Lakes. 

The production of nickel in 1908 was valued at |1, 866, 059, and of cop- 
per 11,071,140, the bulk of these metals being contained in the mattes made 
in the furnaces of the Canadian Copper Company and the Mond Nickel Com- 
pany. The iron mines of Ontario yielded 216,177 tons of ore last year, worth 
1574,839, and there was made at the blast furnaces 271,656 tons of pig iron, 
valued at |4,390,839. 

The mining industry is dealt with more fully in the Eighteenth Report 
of the Bureau of Mines. 

Collections. 

The total collections of the Department from all sources was |2,430,- 
429.39. Of this amount |23,445.30 was derived from mining lands; $218,- 
071.96 from royalties; $1,786,338.99 from woods and forests ; $125,078.06 
from supplementary revenue; $71,721.39 from mining licenses, and $66,008.- 
71 from recording fees. (See Appendix No. 4, page 7.) 



1908 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS' AND MINES ix. 



Disbursements . 

The gross expentliture of the Department for all services during the year 
was 1637,293.30. The principal services were : Agents' salaries and disburse- 
ments, $48,942.24; forest ranging, |53,823.28; fire ranging, |119,734.26; 
forest reserves, |46,970.97; mines and mining |21,375.12; exploration and 
investigations, |14,924.24; mining recorders, |8,349.21; surveys, |146,370.- 
92; veterans' commutation, |29,995.83; provincial mines, $30,648.16; refunds, 
119,145.89; parks, |17,113.89; contingencies. |42,230.99. (See Appendix 
Nos. 6 and 7, pages 9 to 44.) 

Woods and Forests. 

The total revenue from woods and forests was $1,786,338.99, consisting 
of bonus, $100,879.39; timber dues, $1,618,242.58; ground rent, $65,150.87, 
transfer fees, $2,066.15. (See Appendix No. 4, page 7.) 

The revenue from timber dues was the largest in the history of the Pro- 
vince. Of this amount, however, $496,000 accrued during 1907, but owing to 
financial stringency, payment was not enforced during that year. The collec- 
tions proper for 1908 were $1,224,243, and we carried forward into 1909 
$235,368, owing to inability of lumbermen to pay. In the history of the 
Department it has never been the practice to insist upon payments being 
made if the parties were shown to be in circumstances where the enforcement 
would ruin them. They were extended every leniency if the security was 
sufficient, interest at the rate of six per cent, per annum being charged on 
all balances unpaid at the end of the year. The situation of the lumber trade 
has slowly improved during the past year, and the recent stringency would 
seem to be passing away. One effect of the stringency of last year has been 
the curtailment of the output of the present winter, as from reports received 
the output of this year will be very much below that of last. 

Fire Ranging. 

The fire ranging system at present in operation in Ontario was organized 
in 1885. Prior to that, though the Act to preserve the forest from destruction 
by fire was on the Statute Book, very few people knew anything about it, 
as those who travel in the forest are not usually in possession of the Statutes 
of Ontario. In the year 1885 it was thought that if a number of men of 
good judgment were placed on duty during the summer months as fire rangers 
they would be useful in bringing a knowledge of the law to all who travel 
m the forest, and in other ways bring about a better state of affairs than then 
existed, and so the present system of fire ranging was inaugurated in that 
year. 

In establishing the system, the first consideration was the selection of the 
men, as unless all-round, good men were obtained, the system would certainly 
prove a failure. The timber licensees, having a large interest in the preser- 
vation of the timber on their licensed limits, it was laid down as a sine qua 
non that they should pay one-half of the wages and expenses of the men who 
might be selected, and as they had in their employment men who were 
familiar with their limits, knew the danger points and the class of people 
resident upon or frequenting them, it was thought it would be wisdom to let 
the licensees select the men for their own limits, thus making them respons- 
ible for the character of the men they selected, and for keeping more or less 
surveillance of them while they were in the field. In order to clothe them 



REPORT OF THE No. 3 



with autliority under the law, the Department appointed these rangers "Bush 
and Fire Rangers," the Statute providing that such officers should be 
ex-officio officers to enforce the provisions of the "Act to Preserve the Forest 
from destruction by Fire." 

The rangers were instructed by the Department as to how they were to 
perform their duties. They were also supplied with diaries in which they 
had to enter their movements from day to day, and anything of importance 
occurring on the territory under their charge. They were supplied with 
large poster copies of the Fire Act printed on linen, which they had to post 
up on roads, portages and other places where there was travel passing. They 
were also supplied with small pamphlet copies of the Act, which they were 
instructed to hand to all parties or persons with whom they came in contact, 
such as surveyors, foremen of river drives, prospectors, explorers, hunters, 
summer tourists, etc., etc. By these means, it was thought that a knowledge 
of the law would become general, and that it would cease to be the dead 
letter it had been from its passage through Legislature. The rangers were 
instructed to take the names and addresses of all those with whom they came 
in contact, and in addition to handing them a copy of the Act, to impress 
upon them the necessity for being careful in the use of fire, and its exting- 
uishment, when it had served its purposes, particularly when they were 
moving camp, or coci^ing meals en route. They were cautioned to be concil- 
iatory in their manner and not to be over-bearing or abusive to settlers or 
others, it being recognized that a great deal could be done by moral suasion, 
and the enlistment of the sympathy and good-will of those using fire in 
travelling through the forest. In addition to the foregoing, instructions 
were given them as to the course to pursue in the event of a fire breaking 
out, by which they were required to report at once to the licensee and the 
Department the extent of the damage done, the locality in which the fire 
occurred, the expenditure in extinguishing it, and the nature and quantity 
of the timber damaged, so that steps might be taken to himber it before it 
became a loss. 

The system was started in 1885 as an experiment with few men and a 
small appropriation ; it worked so well that immediately, with few excep- 
tions, the licensees all took advantage of it, and so the territory under 
license was guarded in the summer time. At the end of the season, each 
ranger had to report the fires which had occurred on the territory, the 
locality in which they took place, the cause thereof, if it could be ascertained, 
and the loss of timber which ensued. The timber licensees were asked to 
report on the service ; if in their opinion it had been efficient or had served 
its object, and where they thought it weak, and they were also invited to 
suggest how it might be strengthened and made more effective. The system 
has been in operation for nearly twenty-five years in the Province of Ontario. 
From time to time improvements have been made, and it has been strength- 
ened at various points. It is not too much to say that it has been successful, 
and has met the approval of those most interested and most familiar with 
its working. One of the improvements has been, that power was taken to 
appoint fire rangers on lands where the licensee had failed to do so, charging 
the expense of same against the licensee. This action was taken because it 
was not considered fair that the man who paid for rangers on his own terri- 
tory to protect it, should be exposed to the danger from fire running in from 
an adjoining limit, the owner of which was either too parsimonious or too 
careless to put on the necessary rangers. Then it was thought that it would 
be w:ell to get a closer grasp of the work as performed in the field, and the 
licensed territory was accordingly divided into districts and a supervising 



1908 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS' AND MINES xi. 



fire ranger appointed over each, whose duty it was to visit every fire ranger 
as often as possible for the purpose of seeing that he was performing his 
duty effectively and not engaged in any other work except fire ranging. 
The Department is always pleased to receive suggestions as to the improve- 
ment of this service, and to give consideration to whatever appears desirable 
for that purpose. The only recent suggestions of any importance have been 
tliat the ilumber of men should be increased, and that their pay should be 
added to. The Department considers that the territory is pretty well guarded 
now, except perhaps in a few dangerous localities, as to which special action 
can be taken, and as to the increased remuneration, the Department feels that 
it should be undertaken by the parties receiving the largest proportion of 
benefit from the service, that is the timber licensees. 

Later on, when settlement had extended further back and railway con- 
struction had assumed larger proportions and the discoveries of minerals 
had sent an army of prospectors into the forest, it became expedient to. 
appoint fire rangers on the unsold territory of the Crown. The railways we 
found were the cause of great losses of timber by fire. In some instances, 
the survey parties were careless and allowed fires to remain unextinguished 
when moving, which spread and did serious damage. Then the disregard 
of the Fire Act as to the proper appliance to be fixed to locomotives created 
an additional danger. The Department tried the experiment of putting 
rangers along a line of railway, which was under construction through a 
densely timbered region, and became satisfied by that experiment that fires 
need not occur in railway construction if proper care was exercised. So 
legislation was obtained w^liich enabled the Department to put rangers .along 
lines of railway through the back country wherever it deemed the same were 
necessary, and to make the railway company pay the cost of the protection. 
Even in districts where construction was completed and the railway was 
runniu"- through a densely timbered region, the Department took the pre- 
caution of placing rangers, supplying them with railway velocipedes so that 
they could follow the trains from one section to another and so on, so that 
if, a fire started from sparks or the dropping of coals by the locomotive, it 
might be put out before it assumed large proportions. 

Of course, forest fires have occurred in spite of all the care and efforts 
we have made to prevent them. It is impossible to watch every one. of the 
thousands of people who are wandering through, the forest during the dry 
period, many of them reckless and careless as to the danger of leaving fires 
burning when they move camp, etc., etc. The ideal state would be to 
keep every body out of the forest, allowing no burning by settlers for clear- 
ing land during the summer months, etc., and that is what some people 
think should be done. Practically, this cannot be done; in the very nature 
of things, it would stop the clearing up of the lands for farming, create bad 
feeling and lead to the setting out of fires with malice, which can be easily 
done without discovery in an immense forest area. The ideal state being 
unattainable, practical efforts have been made to improve the situation, and 
the belief of the Department is that a sound public opinion has been created 
upon this question among the denizens of the forests, that consequentlv 
forest fires are neither so frequent nor so disastrous as they used to be, and 
that the situation is yearly improving. As before said, the system has never 
been regarded as perfect, and we are consequently frequently inquiring of 
those experienced in such matters as to suggestions whereby the system can 
be made more effective. Last year we had some serious fires, but no great 
losses took place; where the timber was damaged we were able to offer it for 
sale before it became a loss. The report? we have received from timber 



xii. REPORT OF THE No. 3 



licensees do not show any serious loss on licensed lands, and where the 
damage has occurred, they too, having prompt reports from the fire rangers, 
were able to arrange to cut the damaged timber before it went to waste. 

On licensed territory we had last year 376 men, at a cost of |46,621.45; 
on railways, 147 men, at a cost of |53,236.71 ; on lands of the Crown, 58 
rangers, at a cost of $17,398.52. Then, the licensees paid an equal amount 
to ours for rangers on licensed lands, viz. ; $46,621.45. On Forest Reserves 
we had 111 men, costing $45,805.18, so that there were on duty as fire 
rangers in the forest during the summer months, 692 men, at a cost of 
$209,682.29. 

Parks and Reserves. 

In recent years the desire of the Department has been to separate areas 
valuable for their pine timber into forest reserves and close them against set- 
tlement, etc. We have also created one or two parks, partly for this, and 
partly for other reasons. 

The first park established in the Province was the Algonquin Park. At 
the time it was established, the territory covered by it was all under timber 
license, part of it for the cutting of all kinds of timber and part of it for the 
cutting of pine timber only. A careful inspection was made of this territory, 
and finding it was unsuitable for agricultural purposes, contained a network 
of rivers and lakes, covered the head waters of seven or eight important 
streams, it was felt that it would be a public benefit to withdraw it from 
settlement, put a staff of rangers in it in order to protect it from trespass 
and fire, as well as to preserve the game, and as far as possible keep it in a 
state of nature. This park is to-day one of the most beautiful parks to be 
found anywhere, containing miles of beautiful lakes and rivers, on which 
the lover of the forest may roam through what has been well called a "Lacus- 
trine Paradise." The game has been preserved, indeed the forest is alive 
with game, moose being plentiful, and that most interesting of all Canadian 
wild animals, the beaver, is to be found surrounded by his family, as 
industrious in hydraulics as he ever was. If the people of this Province 
generally knew what a marvellously lovely spot this park is, and so easy of 
access, they would certainly take advantage of the opportunity of spending 
their summer holidays in this quiet locality, surrounded by a typical Can- 
adian forest. In this park we have a chief ranger with a staff of rangers 
under him to prevent fire and trespass, enforce the game and fishery laws 
and cut out portage roads from one lake to the other. These rangers are 
always courteous and obliging to visitors and endeavor to give them all infor- 
mation, which shall enable them to visit different parts of the park. The 
area of this park is 1,216,000 acres. 

Rondeau Park : This is a small park containing about 5,000 acres. It 
is situated in one of the garden counties of Ontario, the County of Kent, 
on the shores of Lake Erie. Here is to be found specimens of all the ancient 
forest trees of Ontario, which it is almost impossible to find in any other 
locality. It is a favourable resort for picnic parties from the surrounding 
neighborhood, and is an ideal spot for such outings. There is a Superin- 
tendent in charge, and small lots are leased at a moderate rental by the 
Department for cottage sites. 

The Temagami Forest Reserve, the most important in the Province, con- 
tains a large quantity of pine timber, which has been estimated at from three 
to four billions of feet. The pine timber is of good quality, and easily lum- 
bered, part of it can be driven down to Ottawa City, and also to the Georgian 
Bay of Lake Huron. It is being blocked out by surveys, and the quantity 



1908 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS" AND MINES xiii. 



of timber on these blocks is being estimated from year to year for tke purpose 
of ascertaining with closeness the actual quantity of timber there is in the 
reserve. There is a chief ranger in charge of this reserve, who had under 
him last year a staff of seventy rangers, at a cost of |30,000. There were 
no serious fires in the reserve although in the vicinity of Gowganda Lake, 
there was a fire that did some damage. The quantity of timber was estimated 
and offered for sale and was sold for $18 a thousand bonus, in addition to 
the Crown dues of |2. This reserve has been carefully protected, but it is 
the subject of a good deal of anxiety just now. The pine timber is growing 
on the surface, and beneath it there are silver mines. Thousands of pro- 
spectors have gone in there, which will render a large increase in the ranging 
staff necessary. The area of this reserve is 3,563,600 acres. 

The Nepigon Reserve has an area of 4,670, 080 acres. There is a con- 
siderable body of pine in this reserve, but it was to protect the spruce and 
pulpwood growing on this area and to preserve the game and fish that it was 
primarily set apart. Here there is a" chief ranger with a staff under him. 
Owing to the construction of the Transcontinental Railway, there is a con- 
tinual stream of travel through this reserve, as the line of construction runs 
through the north end of it. There have been some fires during the year, 
but none have done any serious damage. Twenty-two rangers were on duty 
there last year at a cost of about |9,000. 

Thunder Cape Reserve is a small reserve, eighty miles in extent, which 
was set apart to protect the timber on the promontory called Thunder Cape. 
The Crown Timber Agent at Port Arthur is in charge of this reserve. 

The Mississaga Reserve is situated on the tributary to the Mississaga 
River, which flows into the Georgian Bay of Lake Huron. This reserve 
contains 1,920,000 acres. The quantity of pine timber on this reserve is 
estimated at from three to four billions of feet. There is no .settlement or 
mining in this vicinity, and therefore it is reasonably safe from fire. The 
Department is also blocking this reserve out by survey and estimating the 
blocks so as to get an accurate idea of the quantity of pine timber in it. We 
had a supervising ranger and staff of twenty-two rangers under him on duty 
in this reserve last year at a cost of about .|7,600. 

There is a large block of timber lying on the Quetico River, in the Rainy 
River District, which it is under contemplation to create into a forest reserve. 
The estimated quantity of timber on this area is about one and a half 
billions of feet. 

Cullers' Examinations. 

Cullers' examinations were held at North Bay, Kenora, Arnprior and 
Sprague. 47 candidates were successful at these examinations and were 
granted certificates authorizing them to act as Cullers. (Tor list of Cullers 
see Appendix No. 45, page 119.) 

Crown Surveys. 

The following Crown surveys have been undertaken this year : — 
Instructions for subdivision of thirteen townships were issued. The 
names of these townships and the respective districts in which they are 
situate are as follows : — 

District of Nipissing : — Part of Maisonville and Benoit, townships of 
Skead, Bonis, Berry, Steele. District of Sudbury: — Townships of Haggart 
and Kingsmill. District of Algoma : — ^townships of Fleck and Sankey. Dis- 
trict of Thunder Bay: — township of Fraleigh. District of Rainy River: — 
townships of Morson and TJmbach. 



xiv. REPORT OF THE No. 3 



Instructions also issued for a number of base and meridian lines which 
were run out during the year. In the Mississaga Forest Reserve, District 
of Algoma, 319 miles were run. In the Temagami Forest Reserve, in the 
District of Nipissing, 140 miles were run. In the District of Algoma and 
Thunder Bay, 153 miles were run. In the District of Sudbury, 27 miles were 
run. 

The outlines of Block No. 7, in the Thunder Bay and Rainy River Dis- 
tricts, set apart in accordance with the provisions of Statutes of Ontario, 4 
Edward VII., Chapter 18, along the Thunder Bay Branch of the Grand 
Trunk Pacific Railway, was also defined upon the ground, 48 miles having 
been run. 

The Gillies Timber Limit, in the District of Nipissing, was also sub- 
divided into blocks of the normal area of 640 acres each. 

A number of timber berths in the Districts of Algoma, Nipissing, Rainy 
River, have been surveyed during the year. 

The town sites of Brower, Smyth and addition to Smyth, both in the 
District of Nipissing, have also been surveyed. 

Several other minor survey's have been performed. 

The reports of the surveyors of the base and meridian lines in the Clay 
Belt in Northern Ontario confirm the favorable impression of former reports 
as to the adaptability and fertility of the soil for agricultural purposes. 

The surveyors' reports so far as received and examined will be found 
in Appendices 18 to 42 inclusive, pages 61 to 113, inclusive. 

Municipal Surveys. 

I 

On the petitions of the municipal councils of the City of Port Arthur, 
County of Waterloo, County of Wellington, Township of Barton, Township 
of East Oxford, Township of Ross, Township of Houghton, United Counties 
of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, Township of East Luther, instructions 
have issued to survey certain streets in the City of Port Arthur, to survey 
part of the line between the Township of Waterloo and the Township of 
Guelph, to survey the original allowance for road between broken front and 
1st concession of Barton, to survey a portion of road allowances between the 
3rd and 4th concessions of the Township of East Oxford, to survey a portion 
of the road allowance between the 7th and 8th concessions in the Township 
of Ross, to survey the road allowance between lots 7 and 8 east of the North 
Road, Towiiship of Houghton, to survey the boundary road allowance 
between the Townships of Osnabruck and Cornwall, to survey certain lots 
in the 14th concession of the Township of East Luther. 

The following municipal surveys have been confirmed under the pro- 
visions of the Revised Statutes of Ontario, 1897, Chapter 181, sections 14 
and 15, such surveys being final and conclusive. The allowance for road 
forming the boundary between the Townships of Osgoode and Mountain. 
Certain block of land in the Town of Blind River, District of Algoma. Cer- 
tain line in the Township of Hinchinbrooke, in the County of Frontenac. 

Particulars relating to these surveys will be found in Appendices No. 
14 and 15, pages 54 to 56, inclusive. 

Mining and other Surveys. 

The Mining Act of Ontario requires that applicants to purchase or lease 
mining lands in unsurveyed territory shall file in the Department, survey- 
or's plans (in triplicate) of their proposed mining claims with field notes 



l%h DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS' AND MINES ' xv. 



and description by metes and bounds, before any sale or lease can be carried 
out, and under Orders-in-Council, dated February 26th, 1906, 2nd October, 
1907, Tth November, 1907 applicants to purchase islands, or locations for 
pleasure and summer resorts or for agricultural purposes in unsurveyed ter- 
ritory, are required to file surveyor's plans (in triplicate) of their islands or 
locations as the case may be, with field notes and descriptions by metes and 
bounds, together with the necessary affidavits as to there being no adverse 
claim by occupation or improvement, etc. 

Under the above Act, Orders-in-Council and Eegulations in the Districts 
of Parry Sound, Nipissing, Sudbury, Algoma, Thunder Bay, Rainy River, 
an area of 10,708.98 acres has been sold and patented during the year for 
which the sum of |38,077.89 has been received, and an area of 404J acres 
has been leased at |1 per acre for the first year's rental. 

F. Cochrane, 

Minister. 
Department of Lands, Forests and Mines, 
Toronto, December 31st, 1908. 



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REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Appendix No. 3. 

Statement of Lands Sold and Leased. Amount of Sales and Leasee and Amount of Collections 

for the year 1908. 



Service 



Crown Lands: 

Agricultural 

Mining 

Clergy Lands 

Common School Lands 
Grammar do do 
University Lands 

Leases: 

Mining 

Crown 



Acres sold 

and 

leased 



74,911 1 

7,559 

109 

107 

50 

3,109i 

4,917A% 
S,864A% 



94,6284 



Amount of 

sales and 

leases 



62,656 43 

18,842 90 

60 00 

7«6 80 

40 00 

1,594 87 

4,877 57 
311 50 



89,150 07 



Collections 
on sales 
and leases 



$ c. 

59,360 14 

23,445 30 

1,642 06 

5,890 96 

433 65 

1,016 78 

20,611 81 
6,165 56 



118,565 25 



D. GEO. ROSS, 

Accountant. 



AUBREY WHITE, 

Deputy Minister Lands and Forests. 



1908 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS' AND MINES 



Appendix Ko. 4. 
Statement of the Revenue of the Department of Lands, Forests and Mines for the year 1908. 



Service 



Land Collkctions. 



('rown Lands: 
Agricultural 
Mining 



Clergy Lands 

Common School Lands 
Grammar do do 
University Lands 



Bent: 



Mining Leases. 
Crown Leases. . 



Mining Licenses. 
Recording Fees , 



Royalties 

Provincial Mines. 



Suppkmentary Revenue: 

Acreage Tax 

Profit Tax 

Gas Tax 



Woods and Forests. 



Bonus 

Timber Dues. 
Ground Rent. 
Transfer Fees 



Provincial Assay Fees. 

Casual Fees. . 

Cullers' Fees , 



Rondeau Park . . 
Algonquin Park . 
Forest Reserves. 



Rbfunds. 



Diamond Drill 

Temagami Timber Cutting 

Fire flanging ' 

Surveys 

Wood Ranging 

Agents Salaries 

Estimation of Timber Berths . . . 
Explorations and Investigations 
Inspection Fees 



$ c. 



59,360 14 
23,445 30 

1,642 05 

5,890 96 

433 65 

1,015 78 



20,611 81 
6,165 56 



71,721 39 
66,008 71 



218,071 96 
12,592 90 



9,502 47 

100,538 57 

15,037 02 



362 60 
778 72 
384 00 

335 25 

581 90 

1,181 77 



82,805 44 

8,982 44 

26,777 37 
137,730 10 
230,664 86 

125,078 06 



100,879 39 

1,618,242 58 

65.150 87 

2,063 15 



1,525 32 



2.098 92 



11,286 11 

172 00 

16,177 63 

121 00 

311 54 

244 87 

5 24 

104 50 

5 00 



612,038 27 



1,786,338 99 



3,624 24 



28,427 89 



2,430,429 39 



D. GEO. ROSS, 

Accountant. 



AUBREY WHITE, 
Deputy Minister Lands and Forests 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Appendix No. 5. 

Statement of Receipts of the Department of Lands, Forests and Mines for the year 1908, 
which are considered as Special Funds. 



Service. 



Clergy Lands. 

Principal 

Interest , 

Common School Lands. 

Principal 

Interest 

Grammar School Lands. 

Principal 

Interest .... 

University Lands. 

Principal 

Interest 



I c. 



702 73 
939 32 



2,488 50 
3,402 46 



255 00 

178 65 



875 25 
140 53 



1,642 05 



5,890 96 



433 65 



1,015 78 



8,982 44 



D. GEO. ROSS, 

Accountant. 



AUBREY WHITE, 
Deputy Minister Lands and Forests. 



1908 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS' AND MINES 



9 



Appendix No. 6. 
Statement of Disbursements of the Department of Land, Forests and Mines for the year 1908 



Service . 



Agents' Salaries. 

Land. 

Anderson, John H 

Baker, R. H 

Belvea, C. W 

Both, Chas 

Brown, J. B 

Buchanan, Thos '. 

Byers, R. J 

Campbell, Wm 

Deacon, J. M 

Eastland, T. G 

Freeborn, Dr. J. S 

Grills, J. J 

Handy, E 

Hollands, C. J 

Hugh, Williams 

Jenks, J 

Jenkin, Wm 

Keefer, Harold A 

Lemieux, J . A 

McFayden, Alex 

MacLennan, J. K 

Parsons, W. J 

Philion, J. A 

Powell, Fred R 

Prince, Adam 

Pronger, R . H 

Scarlett, J. S 

Tait, J. R 

Warren, D. B 

Whybourne, W. E 

Wilson, James 

Woollings, Joseph 

Wright, E. A 

Young, H. N 

Timber . 

Christie, W. P 

Hawkins, S. J 

Henderson, Chas 

Howie, R. G 

Johnson, S. M 

McDonald, Hector. , 

McDougail, Tas. T 

Margach, AVm 

Maughan, Joseph 

Stevenson, A 

Oliver, J . A 

Homtstead Insjjectors. 

Barr, James 

Burnes, C. W 

Chester, Thos , 

Carried forward 



$ c. $ c. 



300 00 
350 00 
300 00 
100 00 
900 00 
300 00 
500 00 
300 00 
125 00 

300 00 
500 00 
500 00 

301 29 
300 00 
447 60 
375 00 
198 71 
500 00 
200 00 
300 00 
500 00 
363 79 
500 00 
500 00 
500 00 
300 00 
500 00 
500 00 
300 00 
200 00 
150 00 
235 57 
500 00 
300 00 



1,600 00 
1,400 00 
1,600 00 
1,200 00 
1,600 00 
1,400 00 
1,610 00 
1,600 00 
1,400 00 
1,400 00 
1,400 00 



1,200 00 

900 00 

1,200 00 



$ c. 



3,300 00 



12,446 96 



16,210 00 



28,656 96 



10 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Appendix No. 6. — Continued. 



Service. 



Brought forward 

Agents' Salaries — Concluded. 

Tim her. — Con eluded. 

Groulx, R. J ■. . 

Hunt, Jas . McK 

Hughes, Thos 

Quenneville, Isadore 

Wateon, T. P 

Dean, Thos 

Agents* Disburskments. 



Land. 



Baker, R. H 

Belyea, C. W 

Brown, J. B 

Ruchanan, Thos. .. 

Byers, R. J 

Campbell, Wm 

Deacon, J. M 

Freeborn, Dr. J. S. 

Grills, J. J 

Handy, E 

Hugh, Williams — 

Jenks, J 

Jenkin, Wm 

Keefer, -H . A ..... . 

McFayden, Alex. . . 

Parsons, W. J 

Philion, J. A 

Powell, F. R 

Pronger, R. H 

Scarlett, H. S 

Tait, J. R 

Warren, D. B 

Whybourne, W. E. 
Woollings, Joseph. 
Toung, H. N 



Timber. 



Christie, W. P . . . . 

Hawkins, S. J . . . . 

Henderson, Chas . 
Howie, R. G. . . . . . 

Johnson, S. M. . .". 
McDonald, Hector. 
McDougall, Jas. T. 
Margach, Wm. . . . 

Maughan, Jos 

Stevenson, A 

Oliver, J A 



Carried forward 42,979 71 



$ c. 



3,300 00 



600 00 
350 00 
150 00 
tiOO 00 
915 00 
248 08 



5 44 
789 05 
111 41 

17 72 
12 24 
34 45 

4 93 
17 45 
58 21 
20 39 
15 00 
17 21 

96 
19 50 
67 28 
22 55 
22 67 

19 00 
67 47 

6 74 

15 00 

5 18 
2 92 

20 25 

16 55 



382 20 
431 08 
367 11 
367 35 
199 25 
556 80 
506 37 
2,241 00 
548 78 
420 33 
749 83 



$ c. 



28,f156 96 



6,163 08 



1,389 57 



6,770 10 



1908 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS' AND MINES 



11 



Appendix No. 6. — Continued. 



Service. 



Brought Forward. 



Agents' Disbursements. — Concluded. 
Homestead Inspector. 



Barr, Jas 

Burnes. C. VV 

Chester, Thos 

Dean, Tlios 

Groulx, R. J 

Hunt, J. McK 

Hughes, Thos 

Quenneville, Isadore. 
Watson, T. P 



Miscellaneous. 

Ames, D. H., Caretaker Islands in Dog and Lough- 
borough Lakes 

Archibald, John, Inspection lots St, Joseph's Island. . . 

Bilton, Geo., Caretaker Islands Mud and Loon Lakes. . 

Campbell, J. A. H., Examining water lota in Detroit 
River 

Code, R. G., Inspection Lot 16, Baird St., Ottawa 

Coyne, P . ,• Inspection Carr and Tavlor 

Ellis, John, " Ops '. 

Fitzgerald. E. C, Inspection Merritt 

Fulton, Louis, Inspection Townsites Larder Lake, Elk 
I^ake and Smyth 

McDonald, A., Inspection Burns 

Beckie, Albert, Inspection Wilson 

Watts, Geo., Services 

' ' Disbursements 



$ c. 



442 60 


697 


87 


267 


18 


60 


15 


228 06 


109 


39 


197 


47 


168 65 


311 


65 



Ottawa. 

Darby, E. J., Agent 

' ' Special service . . . 



Larose, S.C, Clerk 

Rent 

Disbursements . 



Quebec. 



Nicholson, Byron, Agent. 
Harney, Thos., Caretaker 
Hayden, J., " 



Rent. 



Disbursements . 



Carried forward 



20 00 

4 00 
27 00 

50 00 
10 55 
75 00 

5 00 
131 45 

716 63 
150 00 
100 00 
1,570 00 
619 89 



1,500 00 
200 00 



500 00 
69 36 



1,500 00 

112 50 

37 50 

125 00 
316 05 



$ c. 



42,979 71 



2,483 01 



3,479 52 



1,700 00 
1,000 00 



569 36 



1,650 00 



441 05 



$ c. 



48,942 24 



3,269 36 



2,091 05 
54,302 65 



12 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Appendix No. Q.— Continued. 



Service. 



Brought forward ■ 



Wood Ranging. 



Allen, R. A 

Ansley, J. J 

Ansley, W. E 

Arnill, Wm 

Barrett, Thos 

Diebursements. 



I c. $ c. 



Blair, W. A 

Bliss, L. E 

Binnie, Thos 

Caetonguay, A. C. 

Chenier, I) 

Clarke, R. H 

Coburn, Jno 

Corrigan, R. T.... 

Dodds, Thos 

Doyle, T. J 

Dugaii, J. K 

Durrill, Wm 

Ewan, John 

Fisher, Geo 

Fitzgerald, E. C... 

Foster, E. G 

Eraser, Wm 

Gorman, P 

Gorman, James P. 
Graham, Fred S . . . 

Hartley, Chas 

Hatch, J. W 

Disbursements 



1,300 00 
7 23 



Hawkins, S.J 

Henderson, Chas 

Herring, E. C 

Hickerson, M. T. . .- 1 iM) 

do 1908 



111 00 
13 25 



Hill, H 1906 

Huckson, A. H '. ... : 

Hutton, John 

Hurdman, "W. H 

Irving, John 

Jervis, Henry 

Lee, James B 

Londry, "W . E , 

Lucas, R. G 

Manice, Wm 

Margach, J. A 

Margach, Wm., disbursements 

Maughan, Joseph 

Macdonell, R. D 

Matheson, Wm 

Menaies, A 



210 00 
100 00 



Carried forward 



1,130 00 

1,020 00 

328 00 

394 00 



1,307 23 

450 00 

970 00 

96 00 

175 00 

1,310 00 
150 00 
390 00 
930 00 
75 00 
344 00 
158 00 

1,750 00 
75 00 
620 00 
115 00 
798 47 
240 00 
900 00 
468 46 
225 00 
985 00 



124 25 

33 00 

199 35 

1,155 00 



310 00 

13 50 

1.245 00 

960 00 

560 00 

390 00 

1,285 00 

1,055 00 

194 62 

290 00 

1.465 00 

210 00 

61 53 

10 00 

100 00 

1.290 00 

1,345 00 



27,700 41 



$ c. 



54,302 65 



54,302 65 



1908 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS' AND MINES 



13 



Ajypendix A'o. 6. — Continued. 



Service 



Brought Fot'ward. 



Wood Ranging. — Concluded. 



Milway, James .... 
Disbursements 



Morlev, J. R. 
do 



.1907 
.1908 



Murray, Wm 

Murray, Geo 

McCaw, J. G 

McCreight, John.. 
Disbursements 



McDonald, Hector, disbursements 1907 

do do 1908 



1,068 00 
5 60 



202 50 
699 85 



808 30 
113 88 



5 00 
58 00 



McDonald, Angus.. 

McDonald, A. W . 

Disbursements 

McDonald, A. J. . 
Disbursements 



McDonald, Thos 

McLean, John 

McNab, Alex 

McNamara, John 

McPherson, James S. 
Nevvburn, William.. 

Oliver, J. A 

Paul, Charles 

Playfair, R. W 

Purdy, John A 

Ridley, Robert 

Ritchie, James 

Rogers, Fred. W 

Sharpe, James A . . . . 

Shaw, George 

Shaw, Alfred 

Smith, J. D. C 

Disbursementa. . 



Thompson, George S. 

Urquhart, A 

Vincent, H. T 

Wagner, Fred 

VVat^ts, George 

Disbursements. . . 



Weston, Frank R. 
Whelan, P. J... 
White, T. J. G... 
Wilkins, George. . 
Wood, W. D 



Carried Forward , 



210 00 
135 45 

596 00 
14 48 



1,010 00 
28 40 



395 00 
320 60 



27,700 41 



1,073 60 



902 35 

1,635 00 

830 00 

860 00 



922 18 



63 00 
314 00 



345 45 



610 48 
32 00 

1.175 00 
720 00 
590 00 

1,285 00 
595 00 
74 65 
635 00 
710 00 
580 00 
950 00 
9S0 00 
487 31 
5 00 
800 00 
430 00 



1,038 40 

225 00 

1,105 00 

1,130 00 

100 00 



•715 60 
780 00 
1,560 00 
625 00 
860 00 
378 85 



$ c. 



54,302 66 



53,823 28 



108,125 93 



14 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Appendix No. 6. — Continued. 



Service. 



Brought forward. 



Exploration and Estimation of Timber Berths. 



Kennedy, W. C, services. 
Disbursements 



Margach, William, disbursements 

Milligan, R. W., salary and disbursements. 

McCreight, John, services 

Disbursements 



Fire Ranging. 



Adams, Alex 

Disbursements 



Adams, M . J 

Adams, Arthur 

Algoma Central Railway Co 

Algoma Central and Hudson Bay Co. 

Algoma Commercial Co 

Allen, C.G 

Disbursements 



Alison, M. B 

Disbursements . 



Almon, John E. 
Ambrose, A. W. 
Ainslee, Alex. . . 



Angus, Robert 

Disbursements 



Archer, George 

Armstrong, J . T 

Armstrong. J. C 

Arnott, Wm 

Aeselin, Cyrile 

Atkinson, Thomas S ; 

Aubin, Geo 

Austin, H. G 1907 

Aylward, James 

Ayotte, L 

Disbursements 



Baechler Lumber Co . 

Baker, Edward 

Disbursements . . . 



Banning, Edgar 

Barthiaume, Jos 

Barrett, W. J 

Beaudrey, Samuel 

Beck, C. Manufacturing Co. 

Carried forward . 



301 00 
315 54 



581 00 
876 89 



360 00 
10 85 



342 50 
12 90 

185 00 
16 15 



345 00 
7 55 



225 00 

1 10 



330 00 
30 85 



c. i $ c. 



616 54 
616 11 
896 31 



1,457 89 



370 85 

292 50 

131 00 

23 56 

9 63 

7 49 



355 40 



201 15 

132 00 

81 GO 

131 00 



352 55 
131 00 
240 00 
118 50 

130 00 

131 00 
139 00 
131 00 

80 00 
85 00 



226 10 
86 50 



360 85 
123 00 

99 0(1 

5 25 

131 00 

15 00 



108,125 93 



3,586 85 



4,320 33 



111,712 78 



1908 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS' AND MINES 



15 



Appendix No. 6. — Continued. 



Service 


$ c. 


$ 0. 


$ c. 




■ 


4,320 33 

140 00 
131 00 

374 20 
152 00 
131 00 

361 40 

112 00 

376 20 

750 80 
82 00 

1,130 60 

364 10 

300 95 
105 00 

262 00 

1,329 49 
5 00 

113 00 

374 85 
182 00 
40 00 
350 00 
131 00 
135 00 

285 95 
131 00 
131 00 

261 90 
320 00 

362 00 


111,712 78 


FiBK Ranging — Continued. 

Begin Antoine 




Bellefeville, Oliver 


1907 






Bennett, G . A 


355 00 
19 20 




Disbursements - 










Beaton, Wm 






Benson, J . B 






Bertrand, Paul 


357 50 
3 90 




Disbursements 










Bertrand, Isaac 




- 


Bingham, A. P 


360 00 
16 20 




Disbursements 










Bissaillon, Jno 


520 00 
230 80 




Disbursements 










Black, Edward 






Bliss, L. E 


820 00 
310 60 














Bolt, Adolph 


340 00 
24 10 




Disbursements 


• 




Bolton, A. F 


275 00 
25 95 














BoisVert, Jno. D 






Borron, E. B 

do 


1907 

1908 

1907 

.... 1908 


131 00 
131 00 




Booth, J. R 

do 


30 00 
1,299 49 




Booth and Ostrom 












Bowins, J no 


350 00 
24 85 




Disbursements 










Boyd, David 






Brown, Henry 

Brown, Thos 


1907 






Brown, Jno 












Brink, G. C 


255 00 
30 95 




Disbursements 






1907 










Brooks. T. W 






Brunet, A 


247 50 
14 40 




Disbursements 










Buchanan, Robert 








345 00- 
17 00 




Disbursements 
















Carried forward 


13,195 77 


111,712 78 



16 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Appendix A'o. 6. — Continued. 



Service. 



Brought forward , 

FiRK RANGiNG.^Con<tnu«d. 



Bury, F. J 

Burns, VVm 

Burrow, Ernest . . . 

Culhane, A 

Callahan, Art 

Disbursements 



Campbell, J. L. . . . 
Disbursements 

Campbell, Duncan 
Disbursements 



Campbell, F. S 

Campbell, Bruce 

Campbell, R. A 

Campbell, Henderson 

Cameron & Co 

Cameron, A 

Canadian Copper Co. . 

Carling, I. T 

Disbursements . . . 



Carney Lumber Co. 
Carswell & McKay. 

Caron Vital 

Cassiday, Jas 

Disbursements . 



Cavendish Lumber Co 

Chamberlain, B. E 

Chartrand, Theophile 1907 

Charron Jos 

Cheeman, Wm 

Christie, W. P . , Disbursements 

Clarke, Frank 

Disbursements 



Clute, "George 

Clysdale, Alex 

Coghlan, Thos 

Cole, J. J 

JDisbursemente , 



Collins, Herbert. . . 
Disbursements 



Collins, James 

Collins, Chas 

Conger Bark, Ltd . . 
Conger Lumber Co . 

Colway, G. H 

Conboy, Timothy . , 
Conway, Richard . , 



Carried forward 20,539 68 



362 50 
26 75 


830 00 
510 55 


262 50 
7 00 



350 00 
17 30 



267 50 I 
13 80 



302 50 
25 70 



355 00 
20 60 



287 50 
32 25 



13,195 77 



280 00 
131 00 
131 00 
113 00 



889 25 



1,340 55 



269 50 
292 50 
126 00 

36 00 
133 00 

24 75 
131 00 

81 20 



367 30 

142 50 

48 00 

133 00 



281 30 
33 25 
105 00 
125 00 
127 00 
]31 00 
203 21 



328 20 
132 00 
131 00 
155 00 



375 60 



319 75 
60 00 

131 00 
19 00 

159 05 
96 00 

131 00 

131 00 



$ c. 



111,712 78 



111,712 78 



1908 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS' AND MINES 



17 



Appendix No. 6. — Continued. 



Service. 



Brought forward . 



FiRK Ranging. — Coniinucd. 



Constantine, E. . . . 

Cooney, .Tas. C 

Cooney, Patrick. . . 

Corrigan, M. B 

Cottenham, Wm.. 
Coughlin, Edward 

Coulter, Chas 

Disbursements 



Cousins, Jas 

Cousineau, A 

Disbursements 



Cowan, Jno 

Cox, .lames 

Crawford, Clarence. 
Disbursements . 



Crawford, J, E 

Cripeau, J. A 

Croteau, E 

Crowe, R. C 

Cruise, W 

Disbursements. 

Culhane, D 

Cullin, M. T 

Cunningham, Jos. 

Curtin, David 

Curtis, Wm 

Disbursements. 



Curtis, Arthur 

Disbursements. 



Curry, L 

Cuthbertson. Wm. 



Dale, R. T 

Disbursements. 



Dale, Jno. A 

Daley, Jno 

Dane, Alfred 

Davidson, Ira 

Disbursements. 



Davis, N. B 

Disbursements. 



Davis, M . J 

Davey, E 

Disbursements. 



Carried jar ward 



255 00 

28 90 



335 00 
3 30 



337 50 
21 90 



287 50 
21 15 



330 00 

40 50 

337 50 
26 20 



345 00 
14 70 



360 00 
24 00 

337 50 
20 10 



85 00 
38 00 



20,539 68 



131 00 
128 00 
134 00 

131 00 

132 00 
131 00 



283 90 
131 00 



338 30 

18 00 

154 00 



359 40 
282 50 
109 00 
131 00 
123 00 



308 65 
138 00 
120 00 

130 00 

131 00 



370 50 



363 70 
131 00 
131 00 



359 70 
131 00 
107 00 
131 00 



384 00 



357 60 
76 00 



123 00 



26,749 93 



111,712 78 



111,712 78 



3 L.M. 



18 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Appendix No. 6. — Continued. 



Service. 



Brought forward 

Fire Ranging. — Continued. 



Dean, Thos. N 

DiBbursements. 

Dedine, Joel 

Disbursements. 



Denieon, H. J 

Desantils, Noe 

Desloges, J. E 

Dickson, Lowery 1907 

do 1908 

Didier, L. P 

Dillon, Pat 

Dixon, John 

Disbursements 



Dixon, L. A 

Disbursements 



Doherty, John 

Dolman, E 

Disbursements 



Dowling, C 

Disbursements 



Doyle, T. J 

Draycott, E. A 

Draycott, F. W 1907 

do 1908 



Dreany, Alex 

Disbursements 



Driver, James 

Driver, Wilbert 

Driver, Joseph. . . . 

Dubeau, John 

Ducharme, F 

Disbursements 



Dufond, Ignace . . . 
Duncan, Ed. J. . . . 

Duval, C. A 

Disbursements 



Eades, James H 

Eadv, Robt. S 

Edwards, E. D 1907 

do 1908 



Eilber, Geo 

Disbursements 



Carried forwavd. 
3a L.M. 



255 00 
28 90 



362 50 
8 00 



131 00 
130 00 



305 00 
18 70 

345 00 
6 35 



260 00 
36 15 



377 50 
25 50 



56 00 
106 00 



265 00 
2 40 



187 50 
18 30 



337 50 
13 80 



133 00 
142 00 

362 50 

19 50 



26,749 93 



283 90 



370 50 

144 00 

46 00 

117 00 



261 00 
131 00 
117 00 



318 70 



351 .85 
131 00 



296 15 



403 00 
131 00 
130 00 



162 00 



267 40 
131 00 
38 00 
135 00 
135 00 



205 80 
180 00 
131 00 



351 80 

130 00 
99 00 



275 00 
382 00 



32,564 03 



111,712 78 



111,712 78 



1008 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS" AND MINES 



19 



Appendix No. 6. — Continued. 



Service. 



Brovght forward 

Fire Ranging.— Continwad. 



ii:iiiott, J 

Disbursements 



Enright Thos 

Disbursements 



Erwin, Thos 

Ethier, A 

Evelyn, Wm 1907 

Fairi^airn, N. H 

Fautin, Jos 

Ferguson, D 1907 

Ferguson, W. P 

Disbursements 



$ c. 



305 00 
26 00 



360 00 
14 90 



Fergufcon, Wni. . 
Disbursements 



Ferguson, J. H 

Fillator, James 

Filshe, Edward 

Finlayson, J. H 

Finlv, Bert 

Firstbrook, W. H 

Fitzgerald, Jas 

Fitzhenry, John 

Fisher, Geo 

Fisk, P. W • 

Flanagan, Peter 

Flaherty, Jno 

Flett, C 

Foisey, M 

Forest Archie 1907 

Fortier, Jos 

Foster, Robt. S - 

Fraser, W. E 

Disbursements 



Gagne, Ferdinand. 
Disbursements 



Gagnon, Felix 

Gagnon, Noe 

Gagnon, James 

Gale, W. T 

Disbursements . 



Gallagher, James. . . 
Garceau, Adolphe.. 

Garvin, Morgan 

Disbursements. 



Gaudette, Phillip 
Gaudette, Chas . . 



Carried forward . 



325 00 
20 00 



.335 00 
2 40 



380 00 
68 80 



790 00 
134 00 



360 00 
10 85 



360 00 
2 00 



$ c. 



32,564 03 



331 00 



374 90 
129 00 

37 00 
131 00 

96 00 
131 00 
131 00 



346 00 



337 40 
131 00 

122 00 
131 00 
131 00 

68 00 

123 00 
131 00 
131 00 
532 00 
112 50 
360 00 
158 00 

58 00 

78 75 

131 00 

122 00 

131 00 



448 80 



924 00 
lis 00 
153 00 
105 00 



370 85 
155 00 
131 00 



362 00 
131 00 
118 00 



t c. 



111,712 78 



40,260 23 I 111,712 78 



20 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 



Appendix No. 6. — Continued. 



Service . 



Bvought forward 

Fire Kanging. Coniinued. 



Geddes, James 

Disbursements. 

Gemmill, John . . . , 

Gemmill, A 

Disbursements 



Georgian Bay Lumber Co. 

Gillies, J. R 

Gill and Fortune 

Gillies Bros 

Gordon, Geo. & Co 

Gordon, Geo 

Gorman, J. P 

Gorman, M, 

Gongeon, A 

Gonn, James 

Grant, James 

Granton, James 

Disbursements 



Gravelle, John 

Grawberger, Thos 

Graves, Bigwood & Co 1907 

Gray, Albert 

Green, P. J 

Greer, Wm 

Griffin, James 1907 

Griffith, Wm 

Groulx, Arthur 

Guertin, Oliver 

Gunter, P. M 

Guthrie, Wm 

Disbursements 



Haig, Geo 

Hall, M. E 

Disbursements 



Hall, Thoa 

Disbursements. 



Haley, Edward . . . 

Hale and Bell 

Hampshire, A 

Disbureements 



Hamel, Peter 

Hand, Thos 

Hambly, W. R. ... 
Disbursements. 



Harrison, John 1907 

Harrison, John and Sons 



Carried forward . 



202 50 
32 00 



375 00 
56 85 



357 50 
17 70 



347 50 
6 40 



340 00 
23 05 



347 50 
16 30 



230 00 
2 20 



360 00 
19 50 



40,260 23 



234 50 
548 00 



431 85 
475 00 

56 25 

35 00 
147 05 

51 00 
117 00 
120 00 
131 00 
152 00 
115 00 

27 00 



375 20 
131 00 
131 00 

20 00 
131 00 

37 00 
131 00 

71 00 
118 00 
131 00 
131 00 
158 00 



353 90 
352 50 



363 05 



363 80 

133 00 

29 00 



232 20 
131 00 
540 00 



379 50 
111 00 
103 23 

47,558 26 



111,712 7i 



111,712 78 



1908 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS' AND MINES 



21 



Appendix No. 6. — Continued. 



Service. 



Brought forward 

Fire Ranging — Continued. 



Hart, S. A 

Disbursements . 



Hart, Ronald 

Disbursements 



Harper, Thos 

Hartley, Mark 

Hawley, James 1907 

Hawkins, Walter 

Hawkesbury Lumber Co 

Haskins, W ra 

Hay ward, Thos 

Disbursements 



Healey, Fred 

Disbursements 



Healey, A 

Herbert, Louis 

Disbursements. 



Henderson, E 

Disbursements , 



Henderson, John . . 

Henderson, C. B. . 

Disbursements . 



Henders, C W.. . 
Disbursements . 



Hennessey, J. W... 
Hennessey, C. F. . 

Hill, Wm 

Disbursements. 



Hill man, John 

Hickey, J. L 

Herlihy, Daniel. . . 
Disbursements. 



Holdsworth, John 1907 

do 1908 



Holt, Geo 

Hodgins, Thos. 

Disbursements 



Hope Lumber Co. . 

Horn, J. A 

Hooey, G. A 

Disbursements. 



Carried forward . 



330 00 
30 00 

332 50 
23 65 



232 50 
3 00 



155 00 
57 85 



330 00 
2 80 



220 00 
15 00 



195 00 
23 65 



290 00 
26 90 



360 00 
10 10 



350 00 
20 05 



126 00 
121 00 



245 00 
12 40 



250 00 
24 50 



$ c. 



47,558 26 



360 00 



356 15 
131 00 
128 00 
131 00 
30 00 
1,871 50 
131 00 



335 50 



212 85 
30 00 



332 80 



235 00 
121 00 



218 65 



316 90 

9 00 

17 00 



370 10 

130 00 

131 00 



370 05 



247 00 
5 00 



267 40 

144 32 

27 50 



274 50 



54,382 48 



$ c. 



111,712 78 



111,712 78 



22 



REPORT OF THE 



No. a 



Apj)endix No. 6. — Continued. 



Service. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


% c. 


Brought forward 






54,382 48 

15 00 

429 70 
13;i 00 

126 00 
131 00 
292 50 

29 00 

327 70 

08 00 

349 50 

347 70 

55 10 

92 00 

292 50 

353 45 

248 00 
68 00 

127 95 
141 00 
133 00 
131 00 

321 15 

117 00 

53 00 

264 00 

272 50 
158 00 

341 65 
131 00 
126 00 
131 00 

372 20 


111,712 78 


Fire 'Ravqiv(q— Continued. 
Howie, R. G 






Hubert, Jos 


372 50 
57 20 




Disbursements 










Hughes, Wm 






Hunt, J. W 






Hunter, Lome 






Isherwood, W. B 






Jackson, Geo 






Jardine, Alex 

Disbursements 


305 00 
22 70 






1907 




Jewell, Harry 

Jewell, James 






342 50 

7 00 




Disbursements - 










Jennings, C 


340 00 

7 70 




Disbursements ; 










Johnston, Chas 


52 50 
2 60 




Disbursements 










Johnson, H . C 






Joyce, E. X 






Keith, R. M 


300 00 
53 45 




Disbursements 






1907 

1908 




Kellar, James 

do 


117 00 
131 00 




Kenned)', Robert 






Kennedy, A. W 


107 50 
20 45 




Disbursements 










Kelly, John , 






Kerr. A. W 






Kerr, Oliver 






Kerr, J. H 


295 00 
26 15 




Disbursements - - 










Kerby John 






Kidd, G. W 


1907 

1907 

1908 






Kilby, H •. 

do 

Lafleche, E 


133 00 
131 00 




Lafleur, Wm 






Lalonde, R. H 


292 50 
49 15 




Disbursements 




Lambert, Robt 




Lambert, Henry 






Lamarch, Jno 






Lamb, W. J 


335 00 
37 20 




Disbursements 










Carried forioard 


60,591 08 


111,712 78 



IIHIS DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS' AND MINES 



23 



Appendix No. 6. — Continued. 



Service, 



Brought forward 

Fire Ranging — Continued. 



Lauthier, Isadore . 

Law, Wm, J 

Laweon, David .... 

Lawson, Elmer. . . . 

Disbursements 



Larkins, Ed 

Larocque, P , 

Lavois, E 

Laying, Hy 

Disbursements 



362 50 
19 20 



Leblanc, Oliver 

Leclaire, H 

Learoyd, J. H 

Led ward. Thos. H. . 

Lee, Jas. B 

Disbursements. 



Lemyre, M 

Lemyre, B 

Levack, Leander. . , 

Levering, J . E 

Disbursements 



Lorenz, Fred 

Lorenz, Chas . 

Longlad, O , 

Loveland & Stone. 

Lougheed, Robt. . . 

Disbursements 



Lynch, M. D 

Maddigan, Wm . J 1907 

do 1908 



330 00 
18 90 



760 00 
201 84 



302 50 
6 80 



357 50 
23 30 



Macfarlane, R. L . . 

Mackie, Thos 

Maguire, T. C 

Disl'ursements 



Mallory, M 

Manes, Jno 

Major, Hermidas.. 

Martin M 

Martin, Jos 

Disbursements 



Marion, Isadore 

Marshall, Jos 

Margach, Wm., disbursements 

Matte, Jos 

Disbursements '. . . . 



131 00 
131 00 



255 00 
22 80 



322 50 
2 90 



357 50 
6 10 



Carried forward. 



60,591 08 



112 00 
131 00 
115 00 



381 70 
131 00 
126 00 
131 00 



348 90 

131 00 

132 00 
105 00 
134 00 



961 84 
134 00 
145 00 
150 00 



309 30 
131 00 
160 00 
131 00 
48 50 



380 80 
122 00 



262 00 
131 00 
365 00 



277 80 
79 00 
131 00 
131 00 
140 00 



325 40 

127 00 

105 00 

93 00 



363 60 



67,773 92 



111,712 78 



111,712 78 



24 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Appendix No. 6. — Continued. 



Service. 



Brought forward • . . . . 

Fire Ranging. — Continued. 



Marey, Wm 

Disbursements 



352 50 
24 45 



May, Albert 

Merchant, John 

Merchant, H ". 

Mercer, Whitefield. .• 

Mercier, Pat 

Mickle & Dyment 1907 

do 1908 



Millar, James 

Miller & McCool 1907 

do 1908 



Miller, Wm 

Mills, Alex 

Milligan, Gordon . . 
Disbursements , 

Mitchell, James 

Disbursements. 



Mitchell, F. W.... 

Mitchell, W 

Minor, James 

Morand, Louis .... 
Disbursements , 

Morrison, H . L 

Disbursement's 

Morley, J. R 

Disbursements 



Morgan Lumber Co 

Moriarity, M 1907 

do 1908 



Morris, Jno . T. G . . 
Disbursements. 



Molyneaux, H 

Molyneaux, Geo . . . 
Montgomery, Wm . 

Mongeon, Alex 

Montroy, J . J , 

Mond-Nickel ('o . . . 
Mounsteven, John. 

Moyer, Fred C 

Disbursements 



MuUin, Henry 

Munro and Cochrane. 
Munro, Robt 



Carmed forward 74,064 63 



175 98 
287 50 



84 00 
27 00 



300 00 
22 70 

290 00 
16 20 



320 00 
10 50 



312 50 
19 50 



48 00 
3 25 



131 00 
131 00 



357 50 
17 45 



307 50 
14 90 



67,773 92 



376 95 
131 00 
432 00 
270 00 
123 00 
131 00 



463 48 
104 00 



111 00 
131 00 
133 00 



322 70. 



306 20 

53 00 

54 00 
127 00 



330 50 



332 00 



51 25 
9 00 



262 00 



374 95 
138 00 
18 50 
131 00 
131 00 
131 00 
306 38 
101 00 



322 40 

131 00 

132 40 
119 00 



111,712 7! 



111,712 78 



1908 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS' AND MINES 



25 



Appendix No. 6. — Continued. 



Service . ^ 


$ c. 


* c. 


$ c. 


Brought forward 




74,064 63 

133 00 

166 00 

2 50 

382 80 
131 00 

130 00 
112 00 

275 80 
62 00 
158 00 
492 00 
158 00 
119 00 

131 00 
122 00 

32 60 

290 80 

407 40 

105 00 

79 00 

133 00 

• 

374 90 

286 30 

269 47 

309 70 

98 55 

48 30 
24 00 
131 00 
674 52 
131 00 
131 00 
152 00 
131 00 
105 00 


111,712 78 


FiKE Ranging— Confirmed. 
Murphv, Jno 




Murphv, Chas 






Muskoka Mills and Lumber Co 






MacDonald, R 


340 00 
42 80 




Disbursements 








McAdams, Wm 






McBain, Roderick 






McCann, W. S 






McCann, Sam 


265 00 
10 80 




Disbursements 








McCallum, Frank 






McCaw, Jas 






McCaw, J . (4 






McColl, Archie 






McCoy, Paul 






McComb, Alex 






McClelland, Robt 






McClure, A 








255 00 
35 80 

382 50 
24 90 




Disbursements 




McCullough, David 




Disbureements 














McDonald, Alex 












McDonald, Chas 


346 00 
29 90 




Disbursements 








McDonald, D.N 


275 00 
11 30 




Disbursements 








McDonald, A. D 


252 50 
16 97 














305 00 
4 70 




Disbursements 








McDonald, Alex 


87 50 
11 05 




Disbursements 










36 00 
12 30 




Disbursements 




McDonald, A. , Estate of 










McDougall, James T., Disbursements 












McFadden, Ed 












McGuev, Denis 


















C\irried forward 


80,554 27 


111,712 78 



26 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Appendix No. Q.— Continued. 



Service. 



Brought forward 

Fire Ranging — Coniinued. 



McGhie, Chas 

McHale, Michael . . , 

Mclvor, Hugh 

Disbursements 



Mclntyre, Frank... 

McKay, Angus 

McKay, Hugh 

Disbursements . 



McKay, Murdoch 

McKenzie, Wilbert 1907 

McKensey, Joseph 

McKinley, Percy 1907 

McKinnon, H 

Disbursements 



McLean, James 

Disbursements . 

McLean, John 

Disbursements . 



360 00 
31 00 



357 50 
31 30 



297 50 
26 05 



257 50 
49 35 



McLelan, Gregory , 
Disbursements. 

McLelland, James . 
Disbursements . 



McLachlin, Jno ....*. 

McLachlin, Bros., Limited. 

McLeish, Thos 

McLeish, Wm. J 

M cLeod, Dougald 

McMillan, Jos 

McMillan, D 

Disbursements 



McMullen, Alex... 

McNivens, R 

McNab, Duncan 

McNab, David 

McPhee, Hugh . . . . 

McPhee, Donald . . . 

Disbursements . 

McGuire, A. & Co. 

McQuod, A. N 

Disbersements. 



McQuay, B 

McRae, Wm 

Nadon, Telesphor. . 
Disbursements . 



Newburn, Wm 

Carried forward. 



235 00 
36 10 



350 00 

30 90 

277 50 

31 10 



227 50 
14 15 



287 50 
35 70 



300 00 
33 50 



357 50 
6 10 



80,554 27 



131 00 
104 00 



391 00 
131 00 
105 00 



388 80 

79 00 

131 00 

126 00 

87 00 



323 55 



306 85 



271 10 



380 90 



308 60 

131 00 

27 75 

149 00 

127 00 

60 00 

93 00 



241 65 
156 00 
172 50 
95 00 
102 00 
131 00 



323 20 

26 10 



333 50 
115 00 
106 00 



363 60 
672 00 



111,712 78 



87.244 37 



111,712 78 



1908 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS' AND MINES 



27 



Appendix ?so, 6. — Continued. 



Service. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


Brought forward 




87,244 37 

47 00 

394 50 

350 30 
131 00 
108 00 
131 00 
131 00 
16 50 
131 00 
102 00 
169 00 
294 99 

245 70 

67 00 

38 63 

128 00 

133 00 

131 00 

82 05 

844 OS 

130 00 

356 80 

367 85 

131 00 
21 00 
59 00 

131 00 

78 75 
131 00 

342 65 

227 00 
133 00 

362 40 

373 05 


111,712 78 


FiBB Ranging — Continued. 
Newman, R. J 1907 






Newell, H. H 


367 50 
27 00 

315 00 
35 30 




Diebureements 

Newton, K. S 




Disbursements 








Nevin, Nicholas 1907 






Nicholson, Alex 






Norton, R. D 






Nolan, Chas 






Northern Timber Co 




- 


Noiseau, Fred 






O'Brien, Philip 






0' Brien Martin 






Oliver, J. A., disbursements 






Olmstead, R 


225 00 
20 70 




Disbursements 








O'Neil, P. F 












Owens, Richard 












Patterson, Wm 












Paul, H. S 


490 00 
354 03 




Disbursements 








Paquette, Oliver, 1907 

Pearson, Pete 






322 50 
34 30 












Peck, W. E 


345 00 
22 85 




Disbursements 








Perault, Alfred 




, 








Pigott, W. D 












Playfair & White, 1907 

do 1908 


42 00 
36 75 










Porte, A. H 


317 50 
25 15 














220 00 
7 00 




Disbureempnts .' 








Preston, Harry, 1907 

Pratt, H. L 






330 00 
32 40 




Disbursements 








Price, H. S 


350 00 
23 05 


















Carried forward. 


93,754 57 


111,712 78 



28 



REPORT OF THE 



No. :{ 



Appendix No. 6, — Continued. 



Name. 



$ c. 



Brought forward 

Fire Ranging — Continued. 



Price, R. S 

Disbursements 

Price, C. A 

Disbursements 



Pringle, Alex 

Disbursements , 



Primrose, G. W. . . 

Proud, W. A 

Disbursements 

Purcell, Wm 

Disbursements 



Purdy, Geo 

Quilty, John 

Disbursements 



Raby, John 

Railton, L. W 

Disbursements 



Ranger, Antoine . . 

Rathbun Co 

Raymond, Jos 

Readman, R 

Regan, John 

Reid, J. A 

Disbursements 



Reynolds, James . . . 

Richardson, Samuel 

Disbursements . , 



Ridley, Root 

Ritchie, R. & T. . . . 

Roche, Henry 

Disbursements . 



Ross, H. E 

Disbursements . 

Ross, Geo 

Disbursements 



Ross, A. C ': 

Rose, Geo 1907 

Rothera, C. F 

Ryan, Robt 

Ryan, John 

Sandow, Peter 

Saunders, R. P 

Disbursements 



Carried forward. 



260 00 
27 10 

297 50 
29 50 



275 00 
31 50 



322 50 
21 15 



187 50 
33 90 



302 50 
27 80 



352 50 
25 65 



287 50 
36 55 



362 50 
11 70 



195 00 
22 35 



325 00 
13 70 



245 00 
26 30 



282 50 
51 55 



$ c. 



93,754 57 


111,712 78 


287 10 




327 00 




306 50 
72 50 




343 65 




221 40 
72 00 




330 30 
100 00 




378 15 
272 50 
295 16 
71 00 
292 50 
133 00 




324 45 

131 00 




374 20 
160 00 
366 00 




217 35 




338 70 




271 30 
137 00 
131 00 

133 00 
131 00 
131 00 

134 00 




334 05 




100,571 38 


111,712 78 



1908 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS' AND MINES 



29 



Appendix No. 6. — Continued. 



Name. 



Brought forward. 



FiKE Ranging— Continued. 

Savard, Thoe 1907 

Savard, Joe 

Disbursements 



Sawyer, Nicholas 1907 

Saucier, Ovid 

Secord, Frank 

Scantlin, James 

Scott, Robt 

Scott, W . B 

Scheich, John 

Shannon, R. M 

Sheppard & Morse 

Sheehan. John 

Shields, Thos 

Shields, Geo 

Shier, J. D. Lumber Co 

Shirley, A. J 

Disbursements 



Shouldice, Edw 

Simpson, Alex 

Simmons, Geo 

Smith, A. L 

Disbursements . 



Smith, Jos ,. .. 

Smith, Chas 

Smith, D. H 

Smith, Wm 

Smith, J. D. C 

Spanish River Lumber Co. 

Spence, Lr-ith 

Disbursements 



430 00 
8 75 



340 00 
24 15 



357 50 
17 15 



Spence, W. H 

Spread borouerh, N : 

St . Amour, John 

Standring, Chris 

Stevens, A. W 

Stevens, Arthur 1907 

Stevenson, Wm 

Stevenson, W . O 

Disbursements 



Stewart, Jacob 

Disbursements 



Stewart, D. R.. 
St. Eloi, J. C. 
Storey, S. F... 
Strain, John . . . 
Strang, Philip. . 
Stranger, John . 



Carried forward. 



322 50 
53 45 



227 50 
54 65 



327 50 
57 50 



100,571 38 



131 00 



438 75 

87 00 

131 00 

131 00 

132 00 
532 00 
131 00 
134 00 
131 00 
864 50 
114 63 
105 00 
105 00 

99 00 



364 15 

105 00 

136 00 

52 00 



374 65 
131 00 
131 00 
131 00 
131 00 
124 00 
155 50 



375 95 
131 00 
129 00 
144 00 
136 00 
113 00 
98 00 
50 00 



282 15 



385 00 
96 00 
123 00 
122 00 
220 00 
131 00 
143 00 



108,352 66 



111,712 78 



111,712 78 



30 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Appendix No. 6. — Continued. 



Name. 



Brought forward . 



FiBE Kanging— Continued. 



Streight, Samuel . . 
Disbursements 



Stockdale, W. G... 
Disbursements 



Tang, John , 

Disbursements , 



Taylor, C. N 

Disbursements 



Temugami Lumber Co . 
Thessalon Lumber Co. 

Thibert, Philippe 

Disbursements 



Thomas, James 1907 

Tho:npeon, Gordon 1907 

Thompson, F . L 

Disbursements 



Thomson, R. D 

Thompson, Geo. S. 
Thompson, Chris. . . 

Timmons, Ed 

Tobin, W. J 

Torrance, T. E 

Disbursements. 



Todd, C. C 

Towers, Ephraim 

Tower, Orastus 1907 

Trudeau, 

Trusler, W . L 

Disbursements 



Trussler Bros 

Turner, H 

Disbursements. 



Turner Lumber Co . 

Turner, Peter D 

Tyson, Thos 

Tyson, Wm 

Urquhart, A 

Vaellant, Godfrey. . 

Vallentine, David . . 

Vanwyck, Herman. 

Disbursements. 



Varcoe, F. P 

Disbursements 



• Carried Forward 



170 00 
31 35 

372 50 
12 30 

355 00 
9 50 

305 00 
3 00 



320 00 
1 90 



290 00 
53 10 



297 50 
50 95 



108,352 66 



332 50 
14 25 



377 50 
47 90 



312 50 
25 15 



300 00 
60 90 



201 35 
384 80 
364 50 



308 00 
79 00 
57 25 



111,712 78 



321 90 




106 00 




74 00 




343 10 




131 00 




131 00 




129 00 




131 00 




131 00 




348 45 




282 50 




87 00 




118 00 




57 00 




346 75 




18 00 




425 40 




76 89 




128 00 




124 00 




125 00 




532 00 




158 00 




152 00 




337 65 




360 90 




921 10 


111,712 78 



1908 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS' AND MINES 



31 



Appendix No. 6. — Continued. 



Service. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


BTought foTwuvd 




114,921 10 

83 00 
43 00 
86 50 
342 60 
24 00 

68 00 
131 00 

65 00 

263 00 
131 00 
118 56 
86 00 
144 00 

69 00 
49 00 
38 00 

366 76 
488 00 

260 00 
204 00 
131 00 
217 60 
136 00 
4 00 

378 65 

314 80 

386 90 

66 00 
131 00 

125 76 
337 55 
370 05 


Ill 712 78 


Fire Ranging — Concluded. 
Varmette, John 


1907 






Victoria Harbor Lumber Co 






Villiers, Claud 






Viverais, M . . . . » 






Waldie Bros 






Wallace, Edw 






Wallace, Geo 






Wallace, Sam 






Walker, James L 

do 


1907 

1908 


132 00 
131 00 




Walsh, James 






Watts, Geo. — Disbursements 






Weigold, John 


1907 






Welton, Wm 






White, J. H - 






Wilson, J. H 


1907 

1907 






Wilson, Frances 






Wilson, W. H 


300 00 
66 76 




Disbursements 










Wilkins, Geo 






Williams, Wm 

do 


1907 

1908 


130 00 
130 00 










Winters, J. W 












Woollings, John 




Wood, J. B 






Wray, Jos 


352 50 
26 15 




Disbursements 










Wright, CM 


302 60 
12 30 




Disbursements 










Wright, Colin 


360 00 
25 90 




Disbursements 










Youmans, James 






Youmans, D. H 






Temagami Reserve. 


116 00 
10 76 

320 00 
17 66 


119,734 26 


Disbursements 




Anderson, G . W 














Baker, H. W 


362 60 
17 55 




Disbursements 


















833 35 


231,447 04 



32 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Apfendix No. 6. — Continued. 



Service 


$ c. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


brought jorxcard , 




833 35 

380 05 
271 27 
155 20 
341 65 

361 10 
379 30 
372 55 
418 50 
371 80 
349 30 
360 05 

601 20 
. 227 55 
179 70 
423 50 
423 50 


231,447 04 


Forest Reserve —Continned. 

Temagami Reserve. — Continued. 
Baylise, J. W 


362 50 
17 55 


Disbursements 








Bell, A.McK 


262 50 

8 77 




DisbursementB 








Birch, J. F 


140 00 
15 20 




Disbursements 








Cauldwell, N. S 


325 00 
16 65 




Disbursements 








Cruckshank, H 


342 50 

18 60 

362 50 

16 80 

355 00 

17 55 

412 50 

6 00 

355 00 
16 80 

332 50 

16 80 

342 50 

17 55 

172 50 

3 70 

425 00 

210 00 
17 55 

172 50 

7 20 




Disbursements 




Curry, D 




Disbursements 




Deacon, W. A 




Disbursements 




Delbec, Trifle 




Disbursements 

Duncan, Lewis 








Ellis, L. McI 




Disbursements 




Evans, R. 11 








Ferris, R., 1007 




Disbursements 




Ferris, R, 1908 








Disbursements : 

Hammond, W. J 




Disbursements 










417 50 
6 00 




Disbursements 








James, C 


417 50 
6 00 




Disbursements 














Carried forward 


6,449 57 


231,447 04 







1908 



DEPARTiMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES 



33 



Appendix No. 6. — Continued. 



Service. 



Brought forward 

Forest Reserve — Continued. 
Temagami Reserve . — Continued. 



Johnson, Fred. G. 
Disbursements. 

Keys, A 

Disbursements. 



Lamarche, A 

Disbursements. 



Lavigne, L 

Loucks, R. W. E.. 
Disbursements. 



Lunney, J. W 

Disbursements. 



MacdonaM, S. C. . 
Disbursements. 



Markle, G. A 

Disbursements. 



McCammon, J. G. 
Disbursements. 



McCormick, Victor. 
Disbursements. , 



McDougall, E. G. . 
Disbursements. 



McGregor, Peter.., 
Disbursements. 



McQuestun, G 

Disbursements. 



Milligan, Frank 

Disbursements. 



Montgomery, Alex. 
Disbursements. 



Niddery, A 

Disbursements. 



O'Connor, J 

Disbursements. 



Petrant, Wm 

Prudholme, Adolph. 
Disbursements. . 



Carried fonoard 



4 L.M. 



335 00 
17 55 



375 00 
16 30 



932 50 

4 35 



345 00 
23 10 



367 50 
15 40 



1,300 00 
1,418 06 



170 00 
15 30 



410 00 
24 20 



252 50 
21 75 



375 00 
14 05 



480 00 
17 40 



142 50 
3 60 



365 00 
16 80 



435 00 
20 50 



237 50 

10 85 



417 50 
6 00 



415 00 
35 90 



6,449 57 



352 55 
391 30 



936 85 
225 00 



368 10 
382 90 
2,718 06 
185 30 
434 20 
274 25 
889 05 
497 40 
146 10 
381 80 
455 50 
248 35 



423 50 
422 50 



450 90 
16,133 18 



231,447 04 



231,447 04 



34 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Appendix No. 6. — Continued. 



Service. 


$ c. 


t c. 


1 c. 


Brought forward 




16,133 18 

330 15 

426 70 

414 80 

387 30 

891 85 

283 30 

332 00 

500 30 

384 25 
680 00 
172 50 

364 30 
325 00 

386 75 

381 80 

342 55 

358 20 
818 40 

336 65 


231,447 04 


FoBEST Reserve. — Continued. 

Temagami Reaerve Ooncl\idtd. 

Quirt, A 


« 

325 00 

5 15 


Disbursements 








Ranger, T 


417 50 
9 20 




Disbureements 








Reed, W. J 


400 00 
14 80 




Disbursements 








Robinson, G. C 


372 50 
14 80 




Disbursements 








Roelion, Jos 


887 50 
4 35 




Disbursements 








Rodden, J. J 


280 00 
3 30 




Disbursements 








Shortt, Wm 


317 50 
14 50 

492 50 

7 80 




Disbursements 




Simpson, Philip 














365 00 
19 25 




Disbursements 








Turner, Joseph 












Tytler, Norman 


347 50 
16 80 












Vivaris, D 






Wellman, A. L 


365 00 
21 75 

362 50 
20 30 

325 00 
17 55 








Disbursements 

Wodehouse, R. P 








Metagami Reserve. 
Bruce, Geo 


335 00 
23 20 














650 00 
168 40 




Disbursements 




Butler, A. J 


320 00 
16 65 














Carried forward 


24,250 98 


231,447 04 



4a L.M. 



1908 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS' AND MINES 



36 



Appendix No. 6. — Continued. 



Service . 


% c. 


$ c. 


( c. 


brought forward 




24,250 98 

371 66 

410 65 
315 00 

277 16 

364 55 

393 50 

395 05 

378 45 

342 55 

344 55 

410 55 

374 65 

397 66 

422 00 
257 55 . 
280 45 
320 55 


231,447 04 


Forest Reserve. — Concluded. 

Metagami Reserve . — Concluded. 
Clark, C. S 


352 50 
19 15 


Disbursements 








Duff, Alex 


887 50 
23 05 




Disbursements 




Eveline, A. E 






Hodgins, Lyall 


255 00 
22 15 




Disbursements 








Kersey, R. R 


345 00 
19 55 




Disbursements 








Lennox, T . C 


367 50 
26 00 




Disbursements 




Lewis, Richard 


372 50 
22 65 




Disbursements 




Luten, W. F ^ 


352 50 
25 95 




Disbursements 








Lyons, H. W • 

Disbursements 


322 60 
20 05 

322 50 
22 05 




Robertson, A. D 

Disbursements 








Ryerson, E. E 

Disbursements 

Stark, W. B 


387 50 
23 05 

355 00 
19 55 

• 380 00 
17 55 




Tate, Jos 

Disbursements 




Disbursements 


402 50 
19 50 




Bridgen, Charles 


252 50 
5,05 








Burroughs, H. C 


265 00 
15 45 

300 00 
20 55 




Disbursements 




Carruthers, R. A 














Carried forward 


30,307 18 


231,447 04 



36 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Appendix No. 6. — Continued. 



Service. 


$ c. 


S c. 


$ c. 


Brought forward 




30,307 18 

377 05 

290 77 

382 25 

365 00 
295 00 

960 32 
392 55 
370 95 
389 70 
327 05 
359 55 
350 05 
379 05 

378 75 
377 05 
108 80 

442 75 


231,447 04 


Forest Reserve.— Continued. 
Missmaga. — Con eluded. 
Clark, Karl A 


357 50 
19 55 


Disbursements 








Cotton, Dean 


280 00 
" 10 77 

360 00 
22 25 




Disbursements 




Fyfe, H. D '. 




Disbursements . - 








Goldie, R. T 


345 00 
20 00 




Disbursements 








Hallock, James 






Kinney, Wm 


720 00 
240 32 


. 


Disbursements 








Kroll, Victor 


375 00 
17 55 




Disbursements 








Meriam, W. 


350 00 
20 95 




Disbursements 










357 50 
32 20 




Disbursements 








Orr, Wm. A 


307 50 
19 55 




Disbursements 










340 00 
19 55 

332 50 
17 55 




Disbursements 




Rogers, N. W 




Disbursements 










357 50 
21 55 

355 00 

23 75 




Disbursements 




Stewart, John A 




Disbursements 










355 00 
22 05 




Disbursements 








Whalev, T. R 


85 00 
23 80 




Disbursements 








Nepigon. 
Armstrong, W. H 


382 50 
60 25 


















Carried forward 


36,853 82 


231,447 04 



1908 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS' AND MINES 



37 



Appendix No. 6. — Continued. 



Service. 


1 c. 


$ c. 


$ < . 


Brought forward 

Forest Reserve — Continued. 

Nffjigon Reserve. — Continued. 

Deschamps, D 


392 50 
40 00 


36,853 82 

432 50 

395 10 

395 15 

179 00 

412 85 

429 00 

1,292 25 

296 50 

169 75 

278 35 

460 00 
390 00 

416 85 

331 85 

429 00 

326 70 

346 00 

434 50 


231,447 04 


Disbursements 








Dobson, John V 


340 00 
55 10 

345 00 
50 15 




Disbursements 




Duff, J 




Disbursements 








Gri filer, W 


177 50 
1 50 




Disbursements 








Haig, D. W 


360 00 
52 85 




Disbursements 








Hallidav, W 


410 00 
19 00 




Disbursements 








Leitch, P. A 


1,050 00 
242 25 




Disbursements 








LeSueur, N. L 


255 00 
41 50 




Disbursements 








Mills, Frank 


140 00 
29 75 




Disbursements 








Mills, Percy E 


235 00 
43 35 

410 00 
40 00 


^ 


Disbursements 




McDonald, Jos 




Disbursements 








McKechnie, W . A 






McNeil, E. H 


360 00 
56 85 

275 00 
56 85 




Disbursements 








Disbursements 








iVewhouse, Alex 

Disbursements 


422 50 
6 50 








Ross, 0. W 

. Disbursements 


302 50 
24 20 








Scott, H.J 


327 50 
17 50 




Disbursements / 








Walker, H 


416 00 

19 50 




Disbursements 














Carried forward 


44,258 17 


231,447 04 



38 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Appendix No. 6. — Continued. 



Service. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


Brotighi forward 




44,258 17 

$56 90 
390 90 
401 00 

545 00 
347 50 

771 50 
100 00 


231,447 04 


Forest Rbsbrvb — Concluded. 

Nepigon— Concluded. 

Watson, W. V 

Disbursements 




300 00 
56 90 


Widdifield, R 

Disbursements 


342 50 

48 40 




Williams, Frank 

Digbursements 


357 60 
43 50 




Eastern. 
Godkin, Jacob A 






McGregor, Chas 






Tapping, Thos 

Disbursements 




400 00 
371 50 




Sibley. 
Oliver, J. A 








. . services 

. . services 

. . services 

. . services 

. . services 

. . services 
. . services 


4,250 00 
760 40 

1,600 00 
411 37 

500 00 
851 13 


46,970 97 


Mines and Mining. 

Miller, G. W 

Disbursements 

Knight, C. W 

Disbursements 

Coleman, A . P 

Disbursements 


5.010 40 

2.011 37 
1,351 13 
4,329 40 
3,035 13 

5,637 69 


Mickle, G. R 

Disbursements 

Corkill, E. T 

Disbursements 


3,667 00 
662 40 

2,000 00 
1,035 13 




Price, S 

Dance, R. W 

Disbursements 


3,200 00 

740 00 

1,697 69 








21,375 12 






Carried forward 


299,793 13 



1908 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS' AND MINES 



39 



Appendix No. 6. — Continued. 



Service. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


• 
Sfought foTWttvd 






299,793 13 


Explorations and Invbstigations. 
Baker, M. B 


628 85 
343 19 


972 04 

1,483 70 

95 00 
356 54 

250 00 

1,953 79 

211 76 

80 00 

250 00 

85 00 

2,313 68 

60 00 

1,444 44 

2,712 60 

689 SO 

880 60 

842 75 




Disbursements ; 








Bartlett, James 


1,250 00 
233 70 




Disbursements '. 








Battersby, William F 






Bowen, N L 






Bruce, E. L 






Burrows, A. G 


1,600 00 
353 79 




Disbursements 








Clemow, Thomas 


124 00 
87 75 




Disbursements 








Foster, James r 






King, Shirley 






Lloyd, G. H 






Mackenzie, G. C 


1,509 39 
804 29 




Disbursements 




McPherson, W. B 




Moore, E. S 


475 96 
968 48 




Disbursements 








Robinson, A. H. A 


2,000 00 
712 60 




Disbursements 








Rogers, W. R 


303 84 
385 46 




Disbursements 








Scott, John 


600 00 
280 60 




Disbursements 








Toyne, John .- 


600 00 
242 75 




Disbursements 














Carried forward 


14,681 19 


299,793 13 



40 



REPORT OF THE 



iNO. 4 



Appendix No. 6. — Continued. 



Service. 



Brought forward. 



Explorations and Investigations — Concluded. 



Buchanan, Norman, disborBements 

Empire Lumber Co 

Farwell, C. F., fees 

Lyman Bros. & Co ." 

Printing and stationery 

Tarling, C. & Co. , maps 

Express .• 



Mining Recokders. 



Belyea, C. W., recorder 
Disbursements 



Bowker, S. T., recorder. 
Disbursements 



Hough, J. A., recorder. 

Browning, A. J., clerk. 

Disbursements 



Lemieux, F. F., recorder. 
Disbursements 



Morgan, J. W., recorder. 
Disbursements 



McArthur, T. A., recorder . . . 

McLaren, Kate, stenographer. 

Disbursements 



McQuire, H. F,, recorder 
Disbursements 



Torrance, Thos H., recorder. 
Williamson, Wallace, clerk... 

Knapp, A. E , clerk 

Disbursements 



Carried forward 11,452 18 314,717 37 



% c. 



6 75 




34 85 




10 00 




58 32 




73 23 




50 50 




9 40 






243 05 





500 00 
38 30 



804 49 
190 15 



1,200 00 
900 00 
366 50 



750 00 
111 00 



600 00 
355 91 



1,200 00 
480 00 
490 00 



$ c. 



14,681 19 



500 00 
180 35 



1,200 00 
770 00 
150 7.7 
664 71 



538 30 



994 64 



2,466 50 



861 00 



955 91 



2,170 00 



680 35 



2,785 48 



$ c. 



299,793 13 



14,924 24 



1908 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS' AND MINES 



41 



Appendix No. 6. — Continue^. 



Service. 



Proughl forward 

Mining Recorders — Concluded. 



Smith, Geo. T., recorder 

McAuley, N. J., assistant recorder. 

Bruce, A. E.D., clerk 

Meagher, T. J. clerk 

Ferguson, R. A., clerk 

Munroe, Eva L., stenographer 

Smith, Miss M. H., stenographer . . 
Disbursements 



Miscellaneous. 



Canadian E.Ypress Co 

Dominion Express Co. . . 

King's Printer 

Warwick Bros. & Rutter 



Provincial Assay Office. 



Turner, N. L., 
Barlow, H. C. 



Roth well, T. E 

Disbursements 



Supplies 

Disbursements 
Equipment 



Cullers' Act, 



Close, John L., services 

Currie, D. H., services 

Johnson, S. M., disburpements . 

MacDonald, J. H., services 

Disbursements 



ip c. 



2.100 00 
1,200 00 
1,137 70 
780 00 
390 00 
720 00 
480 00 
1,541 51 



3 29 
151 66 
494 60 
125 80 



1,000 00 
308 00 


576 91 
6 40 



446 35 
564 42 
395 62 



8 00 
1 55 



C/xtried forward. 



11,452 18 



8,349 21 



775 35 



1,308 00 



583 31 



1,406 39 



12 00 
4 00 
2 00 



9 55 



$ c. 



314,717 37 



20,576 74 



3,297 70 



27 55 i 338,591 81 



42 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Apj)endix No. 6. — Continued. 



Service. 



Brought forviard . 



Cullers' Act. — Concluded. 



McDougall, James T., disbursements. 
Oliver, J. A., disbureemente 



Surveys 

Board of Survkyors 

Provincial Mines 

Experimental Treatment of Ores. 

Unfouseen 

Refunds 



Contingencies. 



Deparimental. 



Printing and binding. 
Stationary 



Postage . 
Express . 



Telegraphing 

Telephone messages. 

Telephone rent 

Cab hire 

Car fare 



Subscriptions. 
^Advertising . . 



Typewriter, rents and repairs 

Johnston H. E., travelling expenses. . . 
White Aubrey " " 

Whitson, J. F. 
Greenwood & Vester, funeral expenses . 



Extra clerks 

Burroughs adding machine. 
Sundries 



Bureau of Mines. 



Printing and binding . 
Stationery and papers 



$ c. 



Carried forward. 



2,893 00 
6,769 02 

2,050 54 
359 79 



666 64 

11 80 

30 00 

6 00 

60 00 



227 20 
2,522 44 



142 50 
161 45 
38 75 
376 35 
201 98 



401 60 
75 23 



1,447 90 
2,276 91 



27 55 



23 95 
3 75 



9,662 02 
2,410 33 

774 44 
2,749 64 



921 03 
9,239 39 

476 83 



3,724 81 



338,591 81 



55 25 

146,370 92 

200 00 

30,648 16 

1,281 35 

500 00 

19,145 89 



26,233 68 



3,724 81 I 563,027 06 



1908 DEPARTxMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS' AND MINES 



43 



Appendix No. 6. — Continued. 



Service. 



Brought forward. 



Bureau of Mines — Concluded. 



Postage 

Telegraphing 

Express and cartage. 

Advertising 

Subscriptions 

Maps 



Gibson, Thos. W., travelling expenses. 
Johnson, H. E., " " 



Typewriter repairs, etc. •. 

Canadian Telephone Supply Co. , appliances. 

Ellis, P, W. & Co., cabinet of ore 

Patterson, C' T., adding machine 

Bell Telephone Co., messages 



Extra clerks 

Nicholas, Frank, preparing index 

Masten, Starr & Spence, legal expense. 
Sundries 



$ c. 



399 56 
147 53 
154 40 

1,280 00 
131 39 

3,408 77 



135 05 
161 45 

138 05 
10 00 
78 85 
50 00 
15 30 



1,250 00 

275 00 

86 72 



$ c. 



3,724 81 



4,820 16 
296 50 



292 20 
4,550 43 



1,611 72 



$ c. 



563,027 06 



15,997 31 



$579,024 37 



D. GEO. ROSS, 

Acccountant. 



AUBREY WHITE, 

Deputy Minister Lands and Forests. 



44 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Appendix No. 7. 

Statement of Expenses on account of various services under the direction of the Department 
of Lands, Forests and Mines for the year 1908. 



Service. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


Diamond Drill. 
MacVicar, J. A 


1.800 00 
576 56 


2,376 56 
1,785 10 
6,315 16 

6,125 53 




Disbursements 








Eoche, E. K 


1,737 10 
48 00 




Disbursements . 




Labor 


5,547 45 
767 71 




Freight, Express &c 








Supplies 


2,156 22 

3,681 31 

288 00 




Carbons 




Drill Furnishings * 












16,602 35 
9,981 13 


Algonquin Park 




Tkmagami Timber Cuiting 






3,758 39 


•RuNDEAU Park 






7,132 76 








798 47 


Vktekan's Commutation 






29,995 83 










' 


68,268 93 



D. GEO. ROSS, 

Accountant. 



AUBREY WHITE, 
Deputy Minister Lands and Forests. 



1908 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES 



45 



Appendix No. 8. 

WOODS AND FORESTS BRANCH. 

Statement of Reveaue collected during year ending December Slst, 1908. 



Amount of western collections at Department, 
do do Quebec — 

do of Belleville collections 

do of Ottawa collections 



1,474,243 68 

49,871 06 

37,591 13 

224,633 12 



1,786,338 99 



J. A. G. CROZIER, 

Chief Clerk in Charge. 



AUBREY WHITE, 

Deputy Minister. 



Appendix No. 9. 

PATENTS BRANCH. 

Statement of Patents, etc., issued by the Patents Branch during the year 1908. 

Crown Lands 615 

School do 27 

Mining do 225 

Public do (Late Clergy Reserves) 14 

Free Grant Lands ( A. A. ) 95 

do (Under Act of 1880) 598 

Rainy River Lands (Mining and Crown) 1 75 

Mining Leases 33 

Licenses of Occupation 16 

Rondeau Harbor Leases 6 

Crown Leases 13 

Crown Lands (University) Patents 10 

Mining do do ., 1 

Free Grant, Act of 1901 (Veterans) 654 

Temagami Islands, Leases ; 2 

Total 2,484 



CHARLES S. 



JONES, 
Chief Clerk. 



AUBREY WHITE, 

Deputy Minister. 



46 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Appendix 

Woods and 

Statement of Timber and Amounts accrued from Timber Dues, Ground 





Area 
covered 

timber 
license 


Quantity and 


Agencies. 


Saw logs. 


Boom and Dimen 




Pine. 


Other. 


Pine. 




Square 
miles. 


Pieces. 


FeetB.M. 


Pieces. 


Feet B.M. 


Pieces. 


Feet B.M. 


Western Timber 
District 

Belleville Timber 
District 

Ottawa Timber 
District 


11,664 
1,065| 
6,201 1 


10,914,224 

254,838 

1,536,587 


453,463,208 
15,898,274 
112,953,864 


2,009,397 
205,033 
405,839 


67,535,616 

7,227,060 

11,625,169 


1 

267,764 33,908,424 

3,838 636,703 

22,866 3,294,705 




18,93U 


12,705,649 


582,315,346 


2,620,269 


86,387,845 


294,468 37,839,832 



General Statement 





6 


Cordwood. 


1 


CD 

H 


i 


a, ■ 
Ml 


to 
M 


Agencies. 


Hard. 


Soft. 


o 




Lineal 
feet. 


Cords. 


Cords. 


Cords. 


Pieces. 


Cords. 


Pieces. 


Pieces 


Western Timber 
District 

Belleville Timber 
District 


24,125 


38,712 

230 

3,110 


11,338 


15,726 
222 
480 


4,342,072 

1,097 

10,758 


560 

389 

60 


4,228 
2,184 
2,945 


8,195 


Ottawa Timber 
District 




3,138 












24,125 


42,052 


14,476 


16,428 


4,353,927 


1,009 9,357 


8,196 



J. A. G. CROZIER, 

Chief Clerk in Charge. 



1908 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS' AND MINES 



47 



No. 10. 
Forests. 
Rent and Bonus during the year ending Slst December, 1908. 



Description of Timber. 



eion timber. 


Square timber. 


Piles. 

Lineal 
feet. 


Pile timber. 


Other. 


Pine. 


Ash. 


Pieces. 


Feet B. M. 


Pieces. 


Cubic feet. 


Pieces. 


Cubic 
feet. 


Pieces. 


Feet B. M. 


37,949 

2,474 


6,468,918 
1,095,993 
1,104,182 
8,669,093 


18,528 


850,162 


12 


407 


183,136 


2,033 


203,909 


10,682 


I 




























51,105 


18,528 


850,162 


12 


407 


183,136 


2,033 


203,909 

• 



of Timber. — Continued. 



IS 

"o 
oq 

1 

CO 


'6 

8 

a. 


Amounts Accrued. 


Cords 


Cords 


Transfer 
bonus. 


Interest. Trespass. 


Timber 
dues. 


Bonus. 


Ground 
rent. 


Total. 


3,751 


88,370 


$ c. 
1,269 15 

123 00 

674 00 


$ c. 

9,408 74 

272 80 
1,054 28 


% c. 
66,430 25 

1.409 21 

1,598 83 


$ c. 
1,238,534 75 

21,819 42 

139,545 68 


$ 0. 

132,290 91 


% c. 
42,455 00 

3,978 00 

18,582 00 


$ c. 
1,490,388 80 

27,602 43 




8,660 




161,4S4 79 








3,751 


97,030 


1,066 16 


10,735 82 


69,438 29 


1,399,899 85 


132,290 91 


65,015 00 


1,679,446 02 














AUBR 


EY WHIT 
Deputy 


E, 
Minister. 



48 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Appendix No. 11. 

Statement of the work done in the Military Branch of the Department of Lands, 
Forests and Mines, during the year 1908. 



Letters received 8,500 

" written 7,700 

Certificates issued , 408 

Maps supplied to Veterans 3,000 



Forms issued 

Location certificates issued 

Locations made 

Surrenders 

References for patents issued 

Letters to Military Settlers and Assignees of Veterans 



500 
350 
750 
625 
700 
204 



R. H. BROWNE, 

Chief Clerk in Charge. 



AUBREY WHITE, 

Deputy Minister. 



Appendix No. 12. 

Statement of the number of Letters received and mailed by the Department 
in 1906, 1907 and 1908. 







Letters received. 










52 
















*o 


£ 
















e-d 














TJ 


C 


E 


03 01 . 




(C 










V 


3 






Year. 


PI 




TS 






n3 


O 

Q 


^ 


irci 
ma 
nei 






aj 
t 


§1 

•73 u 
O O 

OtL4 


a 


3 


.S 

'i 


.s 


a 

a 


Letters, c 
rejjorts 
Departi 




03 

CO 


p 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 


O 


« 


1906.... 


21,525 


11,490 


9,620 


7,702 


50,337 


59,250 


262 


80 


60,000 


1907.... 


24,871 


13,463 


9,218 


10,060 


57,612 


63,120 


284 


92 


66,000 


1908.... 


22,478 


11,263 


9,386 


9,183 


62,310 


58,900 


243 


84 


70,000 



FRANK YEIGH, 

Registrar. 



AUBREY WHITE, 

Deputy Minister. 



1908 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES 



49 



Appendix No. 13. 



Statement showing the number of Locatees and of acres located, of purchasers and of acres 
sold ; of lots resumed for non-performance of the settlement duties ; and of patents issued 
under "The Free Grants and Homesteads Act " during the year 1908. 



Township. 



District or 
county. 



Agent. 












s 




s 


OTJ 


i 


o 


rt (V 


•"-?, 


^T^ 


o1 


bSi 


Co 


• o 


. 


. ^ 


0-5 


o Pu 


o 


z; 


^ 


[z; 



CO '^ 

SB 

O on 



O CD 

o 

!2i 



Baxter 

Brunei 

Card well . . . 
Chaffey .... 

Draper 

Franklin . . . 
Macaulay . . 

Medora 

Monck 

Morrison . . 
Muskoka . . . 

McLean 

Oakley 

Ridout 

Ryde 

Sherborne . . 
Sinclair . . . . 
Stephenson . 

Stisted 

Watt 

Wood 

Carling 

Christie 

Conger 

Cowper . . . . 
Ferguson . . . 

Foley 

Hagerman . 
Humphrey . 
McConkey . 
McDougall . 
McKellar .. 
McKenzie .. 
Monteith . . 
Sbawanaga . 
Wilson .... 

Chapman . . . 

Croft 

Ferrie . 

Gurd 

Lount 

Machar 

Mills ...... 

Pringle 

Ryerson . . . 

Spence 

Strong 

5 L.M. 



Muskoka 



Haliburton 
Muskoka . 



Parry Sound. 



Parry Sound 



J. B. Brown, Bracebridge 



F. R. Powell, Parry Sound 



Dr. J. S. Freeborn, 

Magnetawan 



704 

484 

1,540 

902 



475 



904 



844 



1,184 
1,426 
1,053 
100 
271 
500 
100 
100 
431 
947 

1,834 
1,841 
1,619^ 



200 

492 

98 

■448 

364 

863 

1,430 

1,217 

1,985 

208 

78 



1,927 

1,501 

283 

1,474 

400 

999 

477 

1,609 

1,000 

802 

400 



8 


182 


1 


100 


1 


1 



65J 



129i 
12 

H 
2 



102 



17 
66 



1 
31 
U 

44J 



45 



40 

17 



145 
400 



31 

8 
46^ 

6 
70 



10 
8 
5 
1 

"'2 

1 
1 
2 



9 

10 

1 

i 
3 



50 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Appendix No. 13. — Continued. 



Township. 



District or 

county. 



Agent. 



. o 

O— ' 



S3 



a> 



. o 

O— ' 

12; 






. O 



c 

O — 



Armour 

Bethune 

Joly 

McMurrich . . . 

Perry 

Proud foot 

Hardy 

Himsworth . . 

Laurier 

Nipissing 

Patterson 

Bonfield 

Boulter 

Chisholm 

Ferris 

Anson 

Glamorgan . . . 

Hindon 

Lutterworth . . 

Minden 

Snowdon . . . . 
Stanhope 

Anstruther . . . 
Burleigh, N.D. 
Burleigh, S.D. 

Chandos 

Methuen 

Cavendish 

Galway 

Cardiff 

Monmouth 

Bangor 

McClure 

Wicklow 

Carlow 

Cashel 

Dungannon . . . 

Faraday 

Herschel 

Limerick 

Mayo 

Monteagle . . . . 
Wollaston 

Algona, S 

Brougham 

Brudenell . . . . 

Burns 

G rattan 

Griffith ...... 

5a L M. 



Parry Sound . . 


W. Jenkin, Emsdale 

If II 


K 


(1 II 


(< 


II II 


(( 


II II 


Parry Sound . . 


J. S. Scarlett, Powassan 

<i If 


(( 


II II 


II 


II 


II 


If II 


Nipissing 

II 


W. J. Parsons, North Bay 
Ii II 


i< 


II II 


(1 


If II 


Haliburton . . . 

II 


R. H. Baker, Minden 

1. II 


II 


If II 


II 


If f 1 


II 


f f f 1 


II 


If If 


II 


• II II 


Peterboro' 

11 


T. G. Eastland, Apsley 


II 


If If 


II 


II II 


! t 


If II 


II 


Jas. Wilson, Kinmount 
II II 


Haliburton . . . 








Hastings 

<i 




II 

Hastipgs 

II 


J. R. Tait, L'Amable 

fi II 


II 
II 


If f f 
ft II 


ii 


If (1 


II 


If II 


II 


If II 


II 


If II 


II ■ 


If II 


Renfrew 

II 


Adam Prince, Wilno 

II II 


11 


II II 


II 


If If 


II 


If If 


II 


II (f 



395 
1,254 

860 
1,051 

495 

847 

1,597 

5,556 

1,394 

1,826} 

1,056 

995 



2,112 
6,703 

101 
1,424 



330 

972 

2,369 

3181 

831 



235 
100 
500 

201 

'1,565 

1,203 
2,378 
590 
1,566 
1,096^ 

93 

284 
753* 
l,639i 
759 
121 
462 
554 
203 

100 
497 
449J 
5,863 
937^ 



1 
21 



21 

106 

22 

197 

6 

256 



13 
12 



25 

3 
11 

3J 



25 



12 
112 



ioj 



7 

2 

16 



4 
5 
3 
3 

1 5 

26 7 

7; 4 

10 11 



7 
34 



1 
1 
1 

1 
25 

7 

13 

1 

3 



4 

11 

3 

"'3 
4 
1 

1 

6 

'4 



1908 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS' AND MINES 



51 



Appendix No. 13.- — Continued. 



Township. 



Hagarty 

Jones 

Lyell 

Lyndoch 

Matawatchan.. 

Radcliffe 

Raglan 

Richards 

Sebaetopol .... 
Sherwood .... 

Algona, N. . . . 

Alice 

Buchanan (pt) 

Fraser 

Head 

Maria 

McKay (pt)... 
Petawawa .... 

Rolph 

Wi 1 be r force . . 
Wylie (pt).... 

Calvin 

Cameron (pt) . 

Lauder 

Mattawan 

Papineau 

Korah 

Parke 

Prince 

Aberdeen 

Galbraith . . . . 

Lefroy 

Plummer 

do .add. 

St. Joseph Is'd 

Merritt 

Blake 

Coninee 

Crooks 

Dawson Road. 

Dorion 

Gillies 

Gorham 

Lybster 

>Iark8 

Mclntyre 

McGregor .... 

O'Connor 

Oliver 



District 

or 
Countv. 



Renfrew . 

Nipissing 
Renfrew. 



Renfrew 



Nipissing 



Algonia 



Thunder Bay. 



Agent. 



Adam Prince, Wilno 



D. B. Warren, Pembroke 



Jas. Jenks, Mattawa 



B. J. Rothwell, Sault Ste. 
Marie 



Thos. Buchanan, Thessalon 



W. E. Whybourne, 

Marksville 



R. J. Byers, Massey. 



H . A . Keefer, Port Arthur 



2^ 



•M '^ 



2 

4 
11 
1 
7 
9 
10 
2 
7 

• 2 
5 
5 
2 



-I 

o 
12; 



24 



854 
217 
495 

1,286 
163 
939 
952 

1,384 
242 
968 

298 
501 
582 
300 



204 
2^0 
100 



497 
200 
409 
559 
2,242 



160 

240 

2,129 



993 

6I3i 

254 



•2,652 



1,421 
5,769 
990 
835} 
1,755 
1,604 
2,620} 
1,904} 
1,875} 
1,094 
160 
1,460} 
2,482| 



Ok 



d 

S5 



95 
1^ 






97 
11 



46 
57 



14 



81 



2 
61 



114 

164} 
3 



102J 



160 



163 

40 

278} 

180} 



285} 
16 



z; 



2 
II 



2 
13 



22 



6 
11 

2 
6 
13 
8 
18 
14 
10 
13 



5 
14 



52 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Appendix No. 13. — Continued. 



Township . 



District 

or 
Countv. 



Agent. 



d 
o 

OD 
>-i • 



o — 

!2i 



>T5 



e 


•xj 




o 


» 


CD 


1 


03 


a. 




MH 


O 


O 






O 


o 


55 






•^ '-ts O 



Paipoonge.NR 
SR 

Pardee 

Pearson 

Scoble 

Strange 

Atwood 

Blue 

Curran 

Dewart 

Dilke 

Morley 

McCrosson. , . . 

Nelles 

PattuUo 

Pratt 

Rosebery 

Shenston . ... 

Spohn 

Sutherland . . . 

Sifton 

Tait 

Tovell 

Worthington. . 

Aylesworth . . . 

Barwick 

Burriss 

Carpenter 

Crozier 

Dance 

Devlin 

Dobie 

Fleming 

Kingsford 

Lash 

Mather 

Miscampbell . . 

Potts 

Richardson . . . 

Roddick 

Woodyatt 

Aubrey 

Eton 

Langton 

Mutrie 

Rugby 

Sanford 

Vanhorne 

Wainwright. . . 
Zealand 

Melick 

Pellatt 



Thunder Bay 



Rainy River 



Rainy Rivftr . 



H. A. Keefer, Port Arthur. 



Wm. Campbell, Stratton. 



Alex. McFayden, Emo 



R. H. Pronger, Dryden 



|C. W. Belyea, Kenora 



14 



300 

1,806 



2,795 
1,005 
3.778 



1,893J^ 



2,678i 
82 
405 
2,713 
1.775 
i;439 
2,582| 



241 
2,298 
5,620 
3, 5301 
1,192 
5,115 



147 



1,634 
740J 
1,259 
4,106i 
488 
1,170 
674 
3,421 
1,120 
1,700 
2,733^ 
2,4IU 



473 

l,473f 
2, 862 J 

205 
4,62U 

160 
1,354 

869 
3,192f 
1,9981 

10,802 
10,714^ 



1 93 

i! ieo 



165J 



103J 



lllf 

145^ 

123i 

40i 



101 
179J 
1191^ 
613 

53 
253^ 

27 



87 
61 
54 
360i 
88 
80J 



146 

44 

197J 

19U 



82 



55 



1,704 J 

34 

94 

120 

206 

29 

1,196 
632J 



5 

5 

27 



3 

1 

4 

14 

11 

13 

5 



9 
26 

17 
23 



1 
1 

11 
4 
5 

11 
3 
7 



19 

6 

12 

14 

6 

3 

2 

2 
2 



1908 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS' AND MINES 



53 



Appendix No. 13. — Concluded. 



Township. 



District 

or 
County. 



Agent. 



e-a 



O o 






P-ri 
S5 



Blezard. 

Capreol 

Hanmer 



Balfour . . 
Broder . . . 
Chapleau 
Garson . . 
Neelon . . 
Rayside. . 



Appleby 

Casimir 

Dunnet 

Hagar 

Jennings 

Kirkpatrick . 
Ratter 



Sudbury . 



Algoma 
Sudbury. 



J. A. Lemieux, Sudbury 



J. K. MacLennan, Sudbury 



E. A. Wright, Warren 



Ni pissing. 
Sudbury . , 



Nipiesing 

Sudbury. 



Caldwell . 

Cosby 

Grant jNipissing 

Macphereon . 

Martland 

Springer 



J. A. Philion, Sturgeon Falls 



Abinger 



Clarendon (pt 
Denbigh 



Canonto, S 

" N.... 
Miller (pt).... 
Pal merston(pt) 



Airy 

Finlayson 

March ison 

Sabine 



Sudbury. , 
Ni pissing. 



Lennox and 
Addington 

) Frontenac 

Lennox and 
Addington 

Frontenac . . . . 



Nipissing. 



Chas. Both, Denbigh 



Unattached 



2,110 



l,969i 
2,297 

4,576i 

1,873 
2,994^ 

165 
2,422 
l,505i 

602 

3,882 

1,630 

3,181 

3,553 

1,2741 

3,597i 

3,042J 

2,912* 
2,041 
308 
5,677i 
3,083 
1,905 



400 
316 

498 



299 
197 

1,424 
379 
910 

1,092 



297,543 



383 



36 

57 

254 
1 



10 
218| 



205} 



21| 
164 



22} 
6 

400 

4 

280 

21 

324 



30 

9 

2 

140J 



14480 



7 

8 

22 

13 
5 



8 
8 
6 

14 

9 

18 

7 

7 

22 

11 

15 
10 
6 
27 
16 
47 



1 
2 
3 

10 
1 
4 

8 



977 



1089 



W. C. CAIN, 

Clerk in Charge. 



AUBREY WHITE, 

Deputy Minister. 



54 



REPORT OF THE 



No. ;j 



Appendix No. 14. 



Statement of Municipal Surveys for which instructions issued during the year 1908. 



No. 



Name of Sur- 
veyor. 



No. 



Date of Instruc- 
tions. 



Description of Survey. 



A. L. Russell. 



C. D. Bowman . 



E. G. Barrow 



W. H. Fairehild 



H. J. Beatty. 



663 



Jan. 28, 1908 



664 



Feb. 5, 1908. 



665 



May 2, 1908. 



666 



May 2, 1908. 



W. H. Fairehild 



667 Sept. 21, 1908. 



Nov. 6, 1908. 



To survey certain streets in the city of Port Arthur, 
in the district of Thunder Bay, including North 
and South Water Streets, Cumberland Street, 
Court Street and Algoma Street, and all inter- 
secting Streets between John Street and Mc Vicar 
Street, and to have the corners of the streets 
marked by iron bars duly planted thereat. 

To survey part of the line between the township of 
Waterloo in the county of Waterloo and the 
township of Guelph in the county of Wellington, 
from the north easterly angle of the township of 
Waterloo, southerly along the easterly limits of 
lots 97, 98, 99 and 100 of the German Company 
tract of Waterloo, and to mark by stone or other 
permanent monuments at the several corners in 
the easterly limit of the said township of Water- 
loo, and also at each end of the several conces- 
sion lines of the township of Guelph abutting on 
said boundary between the said points. 

To survey the limits of the original allowance for 
road between the broken front and the first con- 
cession of the township of Barton, in the county 
of Wentworth, known as the base line, and now 
within the limits of the City of Hamilton, said 
survey to be made from the intersection of the 
said base line with the allowance for road 
between lots Nos. 4 and 5 in the said township of 
Barton, known as Ottawa Street, to the westerly 
terminus of such base line, and that durable 
monuments be placed marking the limits of the 
original allowance for road between the above 
points. 

To survey the road allowance between the 3rd and 
4th concessions of the township of East Oxford, 
in the county of Oxford, across lots Nos. 16 to 18 
inclusive, or as much farther on either side as 
may be necessary to find an original monument, 
and to mark the road allowance across lots Nos. 
16 to 18 inclusive, with permanent monuments 
on each side of said road allowance. 

To survey the portion of the road allowance be- 
tween the 7th and 8th concessions of the town- 
ship of Ross, in the county of Renfrew, extend- 
ing from lot No. 22, or as near thereto as the 
original post can be found to the town line be- 
tween Ross and Horton, and to establish the 
same by planting permanent monuments on 
either side of the .'•aid allowance for road. 

To survey the road allowance between lots Nos. 
7 and 8, east of the North Road, in the township 
of Houghton, in the county of Norfolk, and to 
establish the same by planting permanent monu- 
ments on either side of said road allowance. 



1908 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS" AND MINES 



55 



Appendix No. 14. — Concluded. 



Statement of Municipal Surveys for whirh instructions issued during the year 1908. 



No. 


Name of Sur- 
veyor. 


No. 


Date of Instruc- 
tions. 


Description of Survey. 


7 
8 


Geo. L. Brown . 
Istiac Traynor, . . 


669 
670 


Dec. 21, 1908 ... 
Dec. 31,1908.... 


To survey the boundary road allowance "between 
the townships of Osnabruck and Cornwall, and 
to have the said boundary marked by permanent 
stone or iron monuments at the expense of the 
municipality of the township of Osnabruck, in 
the county of Stormont. 

To survey lots Nos. 28 to 32 inclusive, in the 14th 
concession of the township of East Luther, and 
also the side road between lots 30 and 31, in the 
said 14th concession, and to plant permanent 
monuments at the angles of the said lots on each 
of the said side road allowance. 



GEORGE B. KIRKPATRICK, 

Director of Surveys. 



AUBREY WHITE, 
Deputy Minister of Lands and Forests. 



56 



REPORT OF THK 



No. 3 



Appendix No 15. 
Statement of Municipal Surveys Confirmed During the Year 1908. 



No. 



Name of 
Surveyor. 



John H. Moore. 



ThoB. Byrne. 



E. T. Wilkie., 



No. 



653 



661 



662 



Date of 
Instructions. 



October 14, 
1904 



September 24, 
1907 



October 3. 1907 



Description of Surveys. 



Date when con- 
firmed under R. 
S.O., 1897, Chap. 

181, sees. 10 to 
15, inclusive. 



To survey the allowance for road 
forming the boundary between 
the Township of Oegoode in the 
County of Carleton, and the 
Township of Mountain in the 
County of Dundae, and to mark 
the limits of the laid original 
road allowance by permanent 
stone or iron monuments on each 
side of the said original road 
allowance. 

To survey the Block of land situate 
in the Town of Blind River 
bounded by Michigan Avenue, 
Hanes Avenue, Lakeside Avenue 
and Centre Street, and to define 
the same by permanent monu- 
ments planted at the angles of 
the said Block as well as else- 
where along the lines of said 
Block as may be necessary . 

To survey the line between lots 5 
and 6, concession 3, in the Town- 
ship of Hinchinbrooke, in the 
County of Frontenac, and to 
■plant permanent monuments at 
the front and rear angles of said 
line. 



June 19, 1908. 



March 16, 1908. 



October 21, 1908. 



GEORGE B. KIRKPATRICK, 

Director of Surveys. 



AUBREY WHITE, 

Deputy Minister of Lands and Forests. 



1908 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS' AND MINES 



57 



Appendix No. 16. 
Statement of Crown Surveys in projjress during the year 1908, 



No. 



Date of 
instructions. 



Name of 
surveyor. 



May 28, 1908. 
May 27, 1908. 
Apr. 28, 1908. 
Oct. 31, 1908. 

May 29, 1908. 
May 29, 1908. 
Feby. 1, 1908. 

May 27, 1908. 



T. D. Green 

T. Byrne 

W . Murdoch 

De Morest, Stull & 
Low 

J. Hutcheon 

J- Hutcheon 

Speight & Van 
Nostrand 

Jaa. Dobie 



Description of survey. 



Survey of township of Umbach, District of 
Rainy River 

Survey of township of Skead, District of 
Nipissing 

Survey of township of Morson, District of 
Rainy River ; 

Survey of burnt territory east of Mozhaboug 
Lake, Sudbury 

Survey of township of Sankey, District of 
Algoma 

Survey of township of Fleck, District of 
Algoma 

Survey of Abitibi Lakes and Islands, District 
of Nipissing 

Survey of certain Base and Meridian Lines 
in Mississaga Forest Reserve 

Total 



Amount 
paid. 



2,400 00 
1,600 00 
2,800 00 

200 00 
5,000 00 
6,000 00 

3,500 00 
7,000 00 



28,500 00 



GEORGE B. KIRKPATRICK, 
Director of Surveys. 



AUBREY WHITE, 
Deputy Minister of Lands and Forebts. 



58 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Appendix No. 17, 
Statement of Crown Lands Surveyed, completed and closed during the year 1908. 



No. 



Date of 
Instructions. 



May 31st, 1906 



July 10th, 
July 10th, 
May 6tli, 
May 6th, 
May 6th, 
May 6th, 
May 30th, 



1907 
1907 
1907 
1907 
1907 
1907 
1907 



May 26th, 1907 



May 20th, 
May 30th, 
May 20th, 
May 20th, 
May 6th, 
June 16th, 
June 16th, 
May 6th, 



1907 
1907 
1907 
1907 
1907 
1907 
1907 
1907 



Name of 
Surveyor. 



J. J. Francis. 



J. H. Burd . . 
J. H. Burd . . 
T. Byrne .... 
W. Beatty... 
W. Beatty... 
E. D. Bolton 
J. S. Dobie . . 



T. Fawcett. 



W. Galbraith., 
J. J. Dal ton . . . 
T. H. Dunn.... 
T. H. Dunn . . . . 

A . Niven 

T. D. Green . . . 
T. D, Green . . . 
Jas. Hutcheon. 



Discription of Survey. 



Survey of township of Temple, Dis- 
trict of Rainy River 

Otto Kellberg, for services with J.J. 
Francis 

Frank Kellberg, for services with 
J. J. Francis 

W. B. Edge, for services with J. J. 
Francis 

J. H. Lacourse, for services with 
J. J. Francis 

Frank Lewin, for services with J. J. 
Francis 

J. H. Reed & Co., for supplies fur- 
nished J. J. Francis 

J. P. Hayes, for supplies furnished 
J. J. Francis 

Cassidy and Son, supplies furnished 
J. J. Francis 

Biggar & McBrayne, for J. H. Ryck- 
man, services 

Franklin S. Wiley, for wages 

E. G. Spreng, for services with J. J. 
Francis 

William Hanscombe, services with 

J.J. Francis 

urvey of township of Jamieson, 
District of Sudbury 

Survey of township of Jessop, Dis- 
trict of Sudbury ^ . 

Survey of township of Bayly, Dis- 
trict of Nipissing 

Survey of township of Devitt, Dis- 
trict of Algoma 

Survey of township of Staunton, 
District of Algoma 

Survey of township of Reaume, Dis- 
trict of Sudbury 

Survev of 3 blocks, Thunder Bav 
Branch G. T. P. Ry., District of 
Rainy River 

Survey of 4 blocks, Thunder Bav 
Branch G. T. P. Ry., District of 
Thunder Bay 

Survey of township of Leitch, Dis- 
trict of Sudbury 

Survey of 3 blocks. Thunder Bav 
Branch G. T. P. Ry., Rainy RiveV 

Survey of township of Mabee, Dis 
trict of Sudbury 

Survey of township of Laidlaw, Dis- 
trict of Sudbury 

Survey of boundary between Algoma 
and Thunder Bay 

Survey of township of Mountjoy, 
District of Sudbury '. . 

Survey of the township of Godfrey, 
District of Sudbury 

Survey of the township of Barker, 
District of Algoma 



Amount 
Paid. 



$ c. 

640 79 
50 00 
50 00 
20 00 
20 00 
40 00 
81 80 
87 13 

548 28 

275 00 

100 00 

40 00 
65 00 
1,470 60 
1,475 32 
770 00 
1,378 00 
1,385 30 
1,533 72 

1,141 47 

2,845 00 
1,176 00 
2,445 00 

874 90 
1,535 68 
5,625 00 

779 52 
1,995 34 
2,375 90 



No. of 
Acres, 



49,780 



23,004 
23,038 
22,900 
51.780 
51,853 
23,098 



51,760 

23,035 
23,112 

23,068 
23,181 
51,759 



1«}0S DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS AND MINES 



59 



Appendix No. 17. — Continued. 



No. 

18 
19 

20 

21 
22 
23 
24 

25 



Date of 
Instructions. 



.May 6th, 1907 
May 27th, 1907 

Dec. 9th, 1906 

Oct. 21 et, 1907 
Apr. 28th, 1907 
May 15th, 1907 
May 2l8t, 1908 

June 2nd, 1908 



Name of 
Surveyor. 



Description of Survey. 



Jas. Hutcheon. 
L. Y. Rorke... 



Survey of township of Eilber, Die 
trict of Algoma 

Survey of township outlines west 
of Montreal River, District of 
Nipissing 



26; Mar 7th, 1908 

27 June 8th, 1908 

28 May 29th, 1908 

29 May 23rd, 1908 
May 23rd, 1908 
May 20th, 1908 
July 27th, 1908 
June 1st, 1908 
May 27th, 1908 
May 21st, 1908 



E. Seager.., 
A. F. Wells.. 
W. W. StuU. 



36 
37 

38 



Joseph Cozens iSurvey of boundary Timber Berth 

22, range 10, north of Curtis, Dis- 

I trict of Algoma 

J. H. Smith I Survey of town site of Smyth, Dis- 
trict of Nipissing 

Survey of Timber Berths in Rainy 
River Disiricts 

Survey of township of Kennedy, 
District of Nipissing 

Survey of Timber Berth W.D. 5 . 
South of Windermere Lake, 
Algoma 

Survey of parts of townships Maison- 
ville, Benoit, District of Nipissing. 

Survey of Permit No. 5, Black River, 
District of Rainy River 

Survey of Base and Meridian Lines, 
Mississaga Reserve, Algoma 

Survey of township of Steele, Dis- 
trict of Nipissing 

Survey of township of Bonis, Dis- 
trict of Nipissing 

Survey of township of Berry, Dis- 
trict of Nipissing 

Survey of township of Kingsmill, 
District of Sudbury 

Survey of town site in Brower, Dis- 
trict of Nipissing. 

Survey of part of township of Fra- 
leigii, District of Thunder Bay. 

Survey of outlines of townships in 
Temagami Forest Reserve 



C. H . Fullerton . . 

D. J. Gillon 

J. H. Burd 

H. J. Beatty 

W. Beatty 

W. Beatty 

T. H. Dunn 

C. H. Fullerton. 
F. W. Paulin.... 
L. V. Rorke 



Amount 
paid. 



Speight and Van 
Nostrand 



June 2nd, 1908 
May 27th, 1908 



39 June 2nd, 1908 
40 



41 



42 



Aug. 5th, 1908 
May 30th, 1907 
July 20th, 1908 



J. H. Smith. 
T. J. Patten. 



Jos. Cozens 

J. W. Fitzgerald.. 
W. Fitzgerald.. 

J. J. Dalton 



43 Oct 5th, 1908 



L. O. Clark 

C. H. F'lllerton. 



Survey of base and meridian lines, 
Districts of Algoma and Thunder 
Bay 

Survey of Gillies Limit, District of 
Nipissing 

Survey of base and meridian lines, 
Mississaga Forest Reserve, Dis- 
trict of Algoma 

Hospital expenses as per Supple- 
mentary Estimates 

Survey of township of Haggart, Dis- 
trict of Sudbury 

Survey of outlines of townships south 
of Night Hawk Lake, Districts of 
Nipissing and Sudbury 

Survey of Grand Trunk Pacific Block 
V^IL, Districts of Rainy River and 
Thunder Bay 

Survey of timber berth east of 
Lockhort, District of Nipissing.. . 

Survey of addition to town plot of 
Smyth, District of Nipissing 



I c. 

2,365 50 

7,349 09 

47 45 

69 31 

629 74 

1,578 00 

562 58 
1,985 90 
60 00 
5,063 27 
6,107 68 
3,489 06 
2,861 87 
3,522 52 
1,874 80 
1,062 30 
7,718 12 

11,522 10 
5,708 50 

5,618 41 



402 00 


5,212 10 


2,068 63 


2,640 00 


249 14 


909 45 



No. of 
acres 



51,655 



51,780 



19,859 



37,005 
22,779 
16,683 
23,018 

7,323 



57.085 



52,121 



60 



REPORT OF THE 



No. 3 



Appendix No. 17. — Concluded. 



No. 


Date of 
Instructions. 


Name of 
Surveyor. 


Description of Survey. 


Amount 
paid. 


No. of 
Acres. 


44 


Sept. 9th, 1908 


D. J. Gillon 


Survey of lines in townships of 
Morley and PattuUo, District of 
Rainy River 


$ c. 

• 170 95 

4,091 25 
348 00 
968 55 

22 50 

78 50 

61 50 

401 80 
95 00 

19 75 

34 85 

25 00 

61 00 






E. Harcourt & Co.., lithographing 
Maps 






Art Metropole, blue print machine. . 
C Tarling & Co., mounting maps. . 
Steinberger, Hendry Co., 5 copies 

of maps of Ontario 

The Map Specialty Co., 2,500 maps 

of Watten 'Township 






The Map Specialty Co., 1,503 maps 
of Widdifield Township 






Rice Lewis & Son, iron posts 

Rice Lewis & Son, iron posts 

G. W. Fullerton, inspection of lots 
in Redditt Township 






G. W. Fullerton, inspection of land 
crossing, Winnipeg River 

C. W. Belyea, 2 maps of islands in 
Gun and Sandy Lakes 






William Margach, Permit No. 5, 
Black River, Rainy River 






117,870 92 


780,676 



GEORGE B. KIRKPATRICK, 

Director of Surveys. 



AUBREY WHITE, 

Deputy Minister of Lands and Forests 



1908 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS' AND MINES ' 61 

Appendix No 18. 

Township of Haggart, District of Sudbury. 

t 

Peterborough, Ont., November 25, 1908. 

Sir, — I have the honour to report the completion of the survey of the 
township of Haggart, in the District of Sudbury, performed under instruc- 
tions from your Department, dated June 2nd of this year. I beg to submit 
also the field notes and plans of the township, all of which I trust will be 
found complete and satisfactory. 

As instructed I commenced the survey at the southwest angle of the 
township of Kendrey, from this point I chained northerly along the east 
boundary of the township making the first two concessions fifty-nine chains 
and fifty links each in depth. Owing to the line in the centre of the road 
allowance between concessions four and five having been previously surveyed 
by the Messrs. Patten & Speight, concessions three and four have a depth of 
sixty chains and four links each on the east boundary, concession five and 
six were given a depth of fifty-nine chains and fifty links on this line. From 
the points thus established I ran the lines in the centre of the road allow- 
ances between concessions two and three and six and seven due west astron- 
omically to the west boundary; the various side lines were run north and 
south astronomically to the north and south boundaries respectively from 
the base line previously established by Messrs. Patten & Speight. The north 
lx)undary I ran due west astronomically from the northwest angle of the 
township of Kendrey. The lines in the centre of the road allowance?* 
between concessions eight and nine and ten and eleven were run east and west 
astronomically from side road line between lots twelve and thirteen. 

As will be seen by the plan, I did not run the side line in the centre of 
the road allowance between lots eighteen and nineteen through concessions 
five and six, as I thought it better to leave lot eighteen extend to the road 
allowance along Departure Lake. 

To all the regular lots I gave a uniform width of twenty-five chains and 
twenty-five links allowing a side road allowance of one chain in width 
between lots six and seven, twelve and thirteen, eighteen and nineteen, and 
twenty-four and twenty-five; also a half road allowance of fifty links along 
the west side of the east boundary and along the east side of the west bound- 
ary. A road allowance of one chain in width was also allowed for between 
each alternate concession ; namely, between concessions two and three, four and 
five, six and seven, eight and nine, and ten and eleven. A half road allow- 
ance of fifty links was also allowed for along the north side of the south 
boundary and along the south side of the north boundary. 

Good posts made of the most durable wood to be had in the vicinity 
were planted along the various concession lines between the lots, one on the 
line itself as a guide post with the numbers of the lots cut on the east and 
west sides and the letter "R" cut on the north and south sides, one fifty 
links north of the guide post; and one fifty links south of 
the guide post with the numbers of the lots cut on the east 
and west sides and the number of the concessions or "R" cut on the north 
or south sides as the case might be. At the intersection of the centre lines 
of the different side rOad allowances with the centre line of the different con- 
cession road allowances, good posts were also planted with the letter "R" cut 
on the north, south, east and west sides. Good posts were also planted at tfie 



62 REPORT OF THE ' No. 3 



angle of each of the four adjoining lots, with the number of the concession 
cut on the north or south side as the case might he, and the number of the 
lot cut on the east or west side as the case might he, and the letter "H" cut 
on the two sides facing the concession' and side road allowances, these posts 
were planted at a distance of fifty links from the centre of the side road 
allowances and fifty links from the centre of the concession road allowance. 

Where the front angle of a lot fell in a lake or in the Poplar Eapids 
or Muskego River, the posts were projected to the proper points on the north 
or south, or on the north and south shores thereof, these points were planted 
at a perpendicular distance of one chain from high water mark. Witness 
posts with the number of the lots marked on the east and west sides were 
also placed at high water mark, and where they were to be had several trees 
in the vicinity were blazed in a conspicuous manner. A road allowance of 
one chain in perpendicular width is allowed for along each side of the 
Muskego and Poplar Rapids Rivers, also around all large lakes and around 
all lakes cut by the concession and side road allowances. All these road 
allowances are marked by good durable posts planted on the lines of survey, 
with the letter "R" cut on the side facing the road allowance. 

To all posts with the exception of the guide posts, the witness posts, and 
the posts defining a road allowance, suitable bearing trees were taken, full 
descriptions of which will be found in the field notes. 

In order to make the survey more permanent in case of the destruction 
of the wooden posts by fire, iron posts of the following dimensions and 
marked with a cold chisel were placed at the following points : — 

An iron post one and seven-eighths inches in diameter and three feet 
long at the northwest angle of the township with the name "Haggart" cut 
on the southeast side, "Con. XII." on the south side, "Lot XXVIII." on 
the east side, and "R" on the north, south, east and west sides. 

An iron post one and one-quarter inches in diameter and three feet long 
at the intersection of the line in the centre of the road allowance between 
concessions six and seven with the west boundary line marked ''Con. VII." 
on the north side. Con. VI." on the south side, "Lot XXVIII." on the east 
side, and the letter "R' on the north, south, east and west sides. 

An iron post one and one-quarter inches in diameter and three feet long 
on the north boundary line at its intersection with the line in the centre 
of the road allowance between lots twelve and thirteen marked "Con. XII." 
on the south side, "Lot XII." on the east side, "Lot XIII." on the west 
side, and the latter "R" on the north, south, east and west sides. 

An iron post one and one-quarter inches in diameter and three feet long 
at the intersection of the line in the centre of the road allowance between 
concessions six and seven, with the line in the centre of the road allowance 
between lots twelve and thirteen marked "Con. VII." on the north side, 
"Con. VI." on the south side, "Lot XII." on the east side, "Lot XIII." on 
the west' side, and the letter "R" on the north, south, east and west sides. 

An iron post one and one-quarter inches in diameter and three feet long 
on the south boundary line at its intersection with the line in the centre 
of the road allowance between lots twelve and thirteen marked "Con. I." on 
the north side, "Lot XII.." on the east side, "Lot XIII." on the west side 
and the letter "R" on the north, south, east and west sides. 

An iron post one and one-quarter inches in diameter and three feet 
long on the east boundary line at its intersection with the line in the centre 
of the road allowance between concessions six and seven marked "Con. 
VII." on the north side, "Con. VI." on the south side, "Lot I." on the 
west side and the letter "R" on the north, south, east and west sides. 



1908 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS' AND MINES 63 



On the iron posts one and seven-eightlis inches in diameter and three feet 
long planted at the northwest angle of the township of Kendrey (northeast 
angle of the township of Haggart) I marked "Haggart" on the southwest 
side, "Lot I." on the west side, "Con. XII." and the four "R's" had already 
been marked on the proper sides. 

On the iron post one and seven-eighths inches in diameter and three 
feet long planted at the southwest angle of the township of Kendrey (south- 
east angle of the township of Haggart) I marked "Haggart" o-n the north- 
west side; Lot I. on the west side; Con. I. and the four "R's" had already 
been marked on the proper sides. 

On the post one and seven-eighths inches in diameter and three feet 
long planted at the northwest angle of the township of Sydere (south- 
west angle of the township of Haggart) I marked "Haggart" oh the north- 
east side, "Con. I." on the north side, the other sides had already been 
properly marked. 

The township of Haggart is well watered by the Muskego and Poplar 
Rapids Rivers, the latter which enters the township on lot twenty-eight, 
concession one, has an average width of one chain and depth of from one to 
five feet. This river after flowing in a northwesterly direction for about 
three miles expands into a beautiful sheet of water known as Departure 
Lake. This lake, which is about three miles long and having an average 
width of twenty-five chains is the largest in the township, on the lake are 
five small islands, full descriptions of which will be found in the traverse 
notes. The river north of Departure Lake has an average width of about 
ninety links and depth running from a few inches up to six and eight feet, 
on the river in concessions eleven and twelve is a lake having an area of 
about one hundred acres, several small rapids are met with, but no water 
power worthy of note. 

The Muskego River which enters the township from the south on lot 
four, concession one, has an average width of one chain and depth of from 
two to five feet, this river flows northerly through the first six concessions, 
then turning easterly leaves the township at concession six, a few small 
falls and rapids are also met with on this river, but I did not consider them 
of sufficient importance to make any reservation for water power develop- 
ment. 

Besides these rivers there are a number of small lakes in various parts 
of the township, the water in these lakes and rivers is of the very best and 
clearest, and they contain the usual kinds of fish common to this section of 
the Province. 

The whole township of Haggart may be described as a more or less 
rolling country timbered with spruce up to eighteen inches in diameter, 
balm of gilead up to twenty-five inches in diameter, poplar, white birch, 
balsam and cedar of an average size and quality. The undergrowth con- 
sists for the most part of willow and alder while here and there considerable 
windfall is met with. 

Interspersed throughout are swamps covered with sBruce and dead 
tamarack and as a rule grown up with a dense growth of alder, none of these 
swamps, however, are of any great extent and as their elevation above the 
waterways is considerable they will admit of very easy drainage. 

On the uplands, generally speaking, the soil is of a rich, black loam of 
from eight to twelve inches in depth, entirely free from stone, with a sub- 
soil of clay. 

A few outcroppings of rock (Huronian) are met with, particularly on 
the Muskego River at the various rapids. 



64 REPORT OF THE No. 3 



I found no traces of mineral whatever. 

The average magnetic variation is about eight degrees and thirty minutes 
west of north. 

I would consider about fifty-five per cent, of this township suitable for 
immediate settlement, and there can be no doubt that by a proper drainage 
of the swamps nearly all the remainder can be made suitable for agri- 
culture. 

Several trial lines of the Grand Trunk Pacific Eailway (Transconti- 
nental) cross the township, I have shown as nearly as I possibly can the 
final location, and with the railway built here and the township open to 
settlers, I would look for a speedy opening up of this section. 

Game and fur of the usual kinds, particularly moose, are to be seen in 
abundance. 

Wild fruit, such as strawberries, raspberries, etc., were plentiful. 

Observations for azimuth were taken as often as possible during the pro- 
gress of the work. 

I have the honour to be. 
Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

(Signed) J. W. Fitzgerald, 

Ontario Land Surveyor. 

The Honourable, the Minister of Lands, Forests and Mines, 
Toronto. 



Ay-pendix No. 19. 
Township of Kingsmill, District of Sudbury. 

Winchester, Ont., 23rd Septeraber, 1908. 

Sir, — On the 20th day of May, 1908, I was instructed by the Deputy 
Minister of Lands and Forests to make a survey of the Township of Kings- 
mill in the District of Sudbury and to prepare a plan and field notes of my 
survey for transmission to your Department. 

I beg to report that pursuant to these instructions I mad© preparations 
for an early departure and proceeded northward by canoes from Metagama 
Station over the Mettagami route. 

We arrived in the Township of Kingsmill on Saturday July 4th, 1908, 
and commenced work at the southeast corner of ihe township on Monday, 
July 6th, where I found the wooden post described in the field notes of 0. 
L. S. Speight. From this point I ran my south boundary due west astro- 
nomically, planting a wooden post every forty chains for a distance of six 
miles. 

I then ran my west boundary due north astronomically from my six 
mile post until it intersected the south boundary of the Township of-Mabee, 
which it did at a point fifty-four links east of the southeast angle of Mabee. 

I then divided the township into sections of 640 acres as near as possible, 
as shown in the accompanying field notes and planted a wooden post, prop- 



1908 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS' AND MINES 65 



erly marked, at each intersection. These sections I further sub-divided by- 
planting half-mile wooden posts between the intersections along all the con- 
cession lines. 

I planted an iron post one and one-quarter inches in diameter on the 
side line between lots six and seven at its intersection with the north and 
south boundaries and the third concession line and also an iron post of the 
same size at the intersection of the third concession line with the east and 
west boundaries. 

I planted an iron post one and seven-eighths inches in diameter at the 
southwest and northwest angles of the township of Kingsmill. 

In addition to the regular wooden posts I planted on the south boundary 
between lots six and seven a one and one-quarter inch iron post marked on 
the east side, "VI.," on the north side "Con. I.," and on the west side 
"VII." 

On the line between lots six and seven at its intersection with the third 
concession line, a one and one-quarter inch iron post marked on the south 
side "Con. III.," on the east side "VI.," on the north side "Con. IV.," 
and on the west side "VII." 

On the north boundary between lots six and seven a one and one-quarter 
inch iron post marked on the south side "Con. VI.," on the east side "VI.," 
and on the west side "VII." 

On the east boundary between concessions three and four a one and 
one-quarter inch iron post marked on the south side "Con. III.," on the 
north side "Con. IV.," and on the west side "I." 

On the west boundary between concessions three and four a one and one- 
quarter inch iron post marked on the south side "Con. III.," on the east 
side "XII.," aifd on the north side "Con.IV." 

At