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Full text of "Report of the proceedings of the third entomological meeting : held at Pusa on the 3rd to 15th February 1919"

ejiurt of the Proceedi^igs 




of t^ 



Third Entomological Meeting 



Held at Pitsa, 3rd to ISth February 1919 



1. 



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REPORT 



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OF THE 



€Hi^roceedings of the ^hird Entomological 

^M^eeting 

Held at Pusa on the 3rd to 15th February 1919 

In Three Volumes 



Edited by 
T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, r.n., f.l.s., f.e.s., f.z.s.. 



> • 



Imperial Entomologist 



VOLUME I 




■'^^^y 



''^•AR 23 1921 ^. 



^**i, 



Oiia! jklase 



:^-^ ' 



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PREFACE. 

THE following Report contains an account of the Proceedings of the 
Third Entomological Meeting, held at Pusa on 3rd to 15th February 
1919. As in the case of the Report of the Proceedings of the Second 
Entomological Meeting, every endeavour has been made to provide as 
full and complete a record as possible. A mere abstract is of very little 
use to those workers who require to refer to the record for references 
on particular points. The cordial reception accorded to the preceding 
Report has indicated clearly the general appreciation of a detailed record 
of the Proceedings of a Meeting of this kind. 

Notes on the discussions which took place were taken at the time by 
Messrs. M. Afzal Husain and G. R. Dutt, who acted as Joint-Secretaries, 
and to whom I am indebted for their assistance. These notes were again 
gone over and rewritten by myself. 

This Report contains a record of ninety- two original papers read at 
the Meeting, exhibitions and discussions, covering various aspects of 
Indian Entomology. It will, I hope, be found useful by all interested 
in Entomology, both in and outside of India. That such Meetings are 
of interest and use to all entomological workers in India will, I think, 
be self-evident from this Report. 

It will perhaps save correspondence if I state here that no Report 
was published of the First Entomological Meeting held in 1915. The 
Report of the Second Meeting, held in 1917, is still available. 

T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, 

Pusa, Imperial Entomologist. 

-28th June 1919, 



ni 



List of those who attended the Third Entomological 

Meeting held at Pusa on 3rd to 

15th February 1919. 

Members. 

1. E. A. Andrews, B.A., Entomologist to the Indian Tea Association. 

2. T. V. Ramakrishna Ayyar, B.A., F E.S., F.Z S.. Acting G!ov- 

ernment Entcmologi&t, (V)inibatore. 

3. C. F. C. Beeson, M.A., I.F.S., Forest Zoologist to the Government 

of India. 

4. Dr. C. a. Bentley, Sanitary Commissioner to the Government of 

Bengal. 

5. A. N. Bose, Assistant to the Imperial Agricultural Bacteriologist, 

Pusa. 

6. B. C. Burt, B.Sc, F.C.S., M.B.E., Deputy Director of Agriculture, 

United Provinces. 

7. P. C. Chaudhuri, Superintendent of Sericulture, Berhampore. 

8. E. A. d'ABREU, F.Z.S., Curator of the Central Museum, Nagpur. 

9. E. S. David, Entomological Assistant, United Provinces. 

10. M. N. De, Sericultural Assistant, Pusa. 

11. Captain Froilano de Mello, Director of the Bacteriological Labo- 

ratory, Goa. 

12. V. G. Deshpande, B.A., Entomological Assistant, Bombay. 

13. H. L. Dutt, M.S. a., Officiating Economic Botanist, Bihar and Orissa. 

14. G. R. Dutt, B.A., Entomological Assistant, Pusa {Jomt Secrclary). 

15. T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S., Imperial 

Entomologist to the Government of India {Chairman). 

16. C. C. Ghosh, B.A., Entomological Assistant, Pusa. 

17. L. H. GouGH, Ph.D., F.E.S., Director of the Entomological Service, 

Egypt. 

18. H. S. GoviND Eao, Student, Agricultural Bacteriological Section, 

Pusa. 

19. S. Gupta, L. Ag., Entomological Assistant, Assam. 

20. Abdul Haq, Fieldman, Entomological Section, Pusa. 

21. Harihar Prasad, Assistant, Agricultural Bacteriological Section, 

Pusa. V 

22. S. HiGGiNBOTTOM, Director of Agriculture, Gwalior. 

23. M. Afzal Husain, M.Sc, Supernumerary Entomologist, Pusa 

{Joint Secretary). 

( V ) 
vol. I A 



( vi ) 

24. C. M. Hutchinson, B.A., Imperial Agricultural Bacteriologist to 

the Government of India. 

25. C. M. Inglis, M.B.O.U., Laheria Serai. 

26. P. Isaac, B.A., Entomological Assistant, Madras. 

27. T. N. Jhaveri, L. Ag., Entomological Assistant, Bombay. 

28. Ramrao S. Kasergode, L. Ag., Assistant Professor of Entomology, 

Poona. 

29. J. L. KiiARE, L. Ag., Lecturer in Entomolegy, Nagpur. 

30. K. KuNHi Kannan, M.A., F.E.S., Senior Entomological Assistant, 

Mysore. 

31. J. Mackenna, CLE., M.A., I.C.S., Agricultural Adviser to the 

Government of India. 

32. C. S. Misra, B.A., First Assistant, Entomological Section, Pusa. 

33. Ahmad Mujtaba, Head Fieldman, Entomological Section, Pusa. 

34. D. NowROJi, B.A., Entomological Assistant, Pusa. 

35. G. D. Ojha, Eieklman, Entomological Section, Pusa. 

36. C. U. Patel, Entomological Assistant, Baroda. 

37. R. Madhavan Pillai, D. Ag., Entomological Assistant, Travancore. 

38. Y. Ramachandra Rao, M.A., F.E.S., Entomological Assistant, 

Pusa. 

39. Ram Saran, Fieldman, Entomological Section, Pusa. 

40. W. Robertson Brown, Agricultural Officer, North-West Frontier 

Province. 
4L P. C. Sen, Entomological Collector, Bengal. 

42. R. Senior-White, F.E.S., Matale, Ceylon. 

43. Dwarka Prasad Singh, Fieldman, Entomological Section, Pusa. 

44. Harchand Singh, L. Ag., Agricultural Officer, Patiala. 

4b. G.,E. C. Wakefield, O.B.E., Director-General of Industries, Agri- 
culture and. Commerce, Hyderabad (Deccan). 

46. M. Zaharuddin, Forest Officer, Bhopal. 

The following, tvho did not attend the Meeting, took j'iart by the contribution 

of papers. 

47. R. D. Anstead, M.A., Deputy Director of Agriculture, Planting 

Districts, South India. 

48. Professor C. T. Brues, Harvard University, United States of America. 

49. Major F. C. Eraser,. I.M.S., Bombay. 

50. D. T. FuLLAWAY, Entomologist to Board of Commissioners of Agri- 

culture and Forestr)^ Hawaii. 

51. E. H. Hankin, M.A., Sc.D., Chemical Examiner, Agra. 

52. E. Meyrick, B.A.. F.R.S., Marlborough, England. 



( Vll ) . 

53. W. Ormiston, I^.E.S., Haldummulla, Ceylon. 

54. Professor E. B, Poulton, D.Sc, F.K.S., Oxford University. 

55. Baini Prasad, D.Sc, Oiiiciating Director of Fisheries, Bengal, 

Bihar and Orissa. 

56. David Sharp, F.R.S., Brockenhurst, England. 

57. T. Shiraki, D.Sc, F.E.S., Government Entomologist, Formosa. 

58. T. V. Subramaniam, Entomological Assistant, Madras. 

59. K. D. Shroff, B.A., Entomological Assistant, Burma, 
GO. A. W. Slater, Calcutta. 

61. J. Henry Watson, F.E.S. , Manchester, England. 

62. F. C. WiLLCOCKS, F.E.S., Entomologist to tlie Sultanic Agricultural 

Society, Cairo, Egypt. 



CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Preface ...... . . . . iii 

List of those who attended the Meeting . . . . . . v 

Opening Address by the Agricultural Advisor . . . 1 

Chairman's Opening Address .......... 2 

Committees ............. 22 



Paqjers read at the Meeting. 

- 1. Insect control, by E. A. Andrews ........ 23 

2. Annotated list of Indian Crop-pcsts, by T. Bainbriggo Fletcher ... 33 

3. Some Insects recently noted as injurious in South India, by T. V. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar ............ 314 

4. Note on the more important Insect Pests of Planting Districts of South India 

and the methods of control used, by R. D. Anstcad . ... . . 328 

o. A list of Lepidoptcra noted to attack cultivated plants in Ceylon, by R. Senior- 
White 332 

6. A list of plants with their Lepidoptcrous Pests in Ceylon by R. Senior-White . 337 

7. A list of the Pests of Cereals in Burma, by K. D. Shroti . . . .311 

8. A list of the Pests of Pulses in Burma, by K. D. Shroff 343 

9. A list of the Pests of Oil-seed plants in Burma, by K. D. Shroff . . . 347 

10. A list of the Pests of Tobacco in Burma, by K. D. Shroff .... 349 

11. A list of the Pests of Vegetables in Burma, b\^ K. D. Shroff .... 349 

12. Notes on miscellaneous Pests in Burma, by K. D. Shroff .... 352 

13. A list of the Pests of Sugarcane in Burma, by K. D. Shroff .... 354 

14. Borers in Sugarcane, Rice, etc., by T. Bainbriggo Fletcher and C. C. Ghosh . 354 



\ ix ) 



LIST OF PLATES. 



Plate 1. Group of Tliird Entomological Meeting 

2. Larva of 0^//«w7;///?/.r .9P/-ice(';)e»«is on walnut at Shillong ; Sphingid 

{Langia zenzeroide-^) larva on apple at Shillong . . . 

„ 3. Ijavvh oi Acdas sclene ; lawn oi AiiUiercca roylei . . . . 

„ 4. Notodontid larva on apple at Shillong ; Boarmiane (No. 2) larva on 
apple at Shillong ......... 

„ 5. Belippa larva on apple at Shillong ; Liraacodid larvre on apple at 



Shillong ........ 

6. Stages of Dysce.rus jldcheri on apple fruits at Shillong 

7. Dyscervs vialignus in fruits of Prunus 7iepalefi>^is at Shillong. 

fruits attacked by grubs of Dysccms malignus at Shillong 

8. Linda nigro-fattntn, girdling apple twigs at Shillong 

9. South Indian Insects ....... 

10. ,,,,,, ........ 

11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 

15. 

16. 

17. 

18. 

19. 

20. 

21. 

22. 

23. 

21. 

25. 

26. 

27. 

28. 



Apple 



Phikaithns ramnlcrishncv, Alcides pictus. 

Jak Weevil ; Rubber Scolytid ; Rubber Platypodid 

Alcides bubo (Coloured) ...... 

Shot-hole Borer [Xyleborus Jornicatns) of Castor stem at Bangalore 

\ Cirphis albistigma (Coloured) ..... 

Org y ia postica (Coloured) ...... 

Bitter-gourd-vine Gall-fly ...... 

Purolnia sp.; Woolly Aphid on bamboo 

Pancluttothrips indicus on a,vvov{-voot\Q^'vcs .. 

A Burmese fishing basket {Dalu) ..... 

Gryllotalpa africana ....... 

Diagrammatic figure to show how mole-crickets feed 
Anomaln biharensis (C. S. 1744) ..... 

Adoretus caliginosus (C. S. 1793) ..... 

Autoserica sp. (C. S. 1654) ; Dra-steriu,i sp. 
Diagrammatic figure to show how Melolonthid grubs feed 
Weekly rainfall, mean temperature and mean humidity at Pusa 
during 1918 ....•.•• 

29. Anthomyiad Fly (C. S. 1807) in Juar shoot . 

30. Pachydiplosis oryzce (Coloured) ..... 

31. Stktuspis ceratitinn ; C. S. 1814 larva ; Annual life-cycle of Lamiad 

Borer(C. S. 1814) . 

32. (C. S. 1814) Lamiad Borer Beetle ■ 

33. WecvilBorerinrr/r7/ishoot(C. S. 1778) -^ 

,, „ in motha stem (C. S. 1397) j ' ' * 

34. Purple Zcuzcrid larva boring in Kanra ; Annual life-cycle of purple 

Zeuzerid .......... 

35. Borer in Saccharum sjwnhnieum stem (C. S. 1696) ; Annual life- 

cycle of Borer in Saccharum spontamum (C. S. 1696) . 

( xi ) 



Page. 
I 

98 

99 

101 

105 
210 

211 
216 
315 
318 
319 
320 
321 
322 

323 

324 
324 

325 
327 
353 
359 
359 
361 
361 
361 
361 

370 
370 
371 

371 
372 

372 

373 
374 



xu 



LIST OF PLATES. 



Page. 



Plate 36, 

» 37. 

„ 38 

.. 39. 

„.• 40. 

„ 41. 

„ 42. 

„ 43. 

„ 44. 

„ 45, 

-„ 46. 

.. 47. 

„ 48. 

• „ 49. 



50. 
51. 
52. 
53. 

54. 
55. 
56. 
57. 
58. 
S9. 
60. 

61. 
62. 

63. 
64. 

65. 
60. 
67. 
68. 
69. 



Sesamia inferens (Coloured) ........ 

Sesamia inferens and Sesamia vniformis ; posterior extremity of 

pupso ........... 

Borer in Sacchnrum tpontancum (C. S. 16G0) ; Borer in knnra root 

(C. S. 1771) 

Borax in Eleu sine coracana {C. ^. 1837); annual life-cycle of Emma- 

locera depressclla ......... 

Emtnalocera depressella (Coloured) . . . ... 

Scirpophaga xanOiofjafitrdla (anrijlva) (Coloured) .... 

Annual liiG-cycle oi Scirpophaga xanthognsirella ; S. monostigmn; annual 



375 

377 

378 
379 
3S1 



liic-cyo\e oi ScJioenobiiis bipiinct if er ...... 

Schoenoblus bipundifer (Coloured) ...... 

RapJiimetopus ablutcUa in sugarcane (C. S. 1801) ; Annual life-cycle 

of Chilo simplex. ......... 

Egg-cluster of Chilo simplex (C. S. 1819) ; and Chilo simplex larva . 
Chilo simplex larva (C. 8. 1580) ; C. simplex pupa (C. S. 1561) . 
Chilo simplex moths (C. S. 1551) ....... 

Diatrcea miricilia larva (C. S. 1574) ; D. auricilia pupa (C. S. 1560) 
Egg-eluster of Diainca auricilia (C. S. 1787) ; egg-cluster of 7). 

venosatd ; annual life-cycle of D. venosata ; annual life-cycle of 

D. auricilia . . . . ... . ... 

Dialrcea venosata larva, (C. S. IQ35) ; D, venosata pupa (C S. 1607) . 
Diatrcea venosata moths ........ 

Argyriat^imidicostalis,la.x\aan^'p\\T[)a, ....... 

Argyria lumidicostalis larva ; annual life-6ycle of Diatrcea sp. (C. S. 

1674) 

Argyria tumid icostcdis, moths ....... 

? Diatrcea sp. in^sugarcane at Dacca, larva and pupa 

» » >. » moths 

Rice Chilo (C. S. 1677) ; larva and pupa . . . . . 

Rice Chilo (C. S. 1677) moths ; annual life-cycle of .same . 
Borer in A'rt«A7 stem (C. S. 1769) ; larva and moth . . . . 

„ „ „ ; pupa ; Borer in ikri stem (C. S. 

1795) pupa and moth ........ 

Borer in wr/ri (C. S. 1831) ; larva and jjupa ..... 

Borer in rarhi (C. S. 1831), moths; Borer in Saccharumfuscum,, 

moth (C. S. 1835) ..... 
Borer in ikri (C. S. 1835) ; larva and pupa 
Pyralid larva boring in SacCharum spontaneum ; 

ikri stem, larva ..... 
Ramila ruficostcdis ; Argyroploce paragramma 
IJeliothis obsoleta (iirmigera) (Coloured) . 
Dasyses rugosellns, larva and moth . . . 

Effect of borer attack on growth of cane 
Plan of two e.vperimcntal plots under cane 



(F. 18), Borer in 



382 
383 

385 
386 
386 
386 
387 



387 
388 
388 
389 

389 
389 
390 
390 
390 
390 
391 

391 
392 

392 
.392 

393 
394 
394 
395 
396 
408 



Proceedings of the Third Entomological Meeting 

VOLUME I 



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PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 



Third Entomological Meeting 



The Third Entomological Meeting was held at Pusa from 3rd to 
15th February 1919, both days inclusive. The Proceedings were opened 
in a short speech of welcome to the delegates by Mr. J. Mackenna, CLE., 
I.C.S., Agricultural Adviser to the Government of India, who was followed 
by the Chairman, Mr. T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., 
F.Z.S., in an Address to the Meeting, after which the business before the 
Meeting was proceeded with, as is detailed in the following account of 
the Proceedings. - 

Opekixg Speech by the Ac4Ricultural Adviser to the Goverkment 

OF India. 

Mr. Fletcher and Gentlemen. I desire to extend to you a very cordial Mr. Mackenna. 
welcome to Pusa. And in particular I wish, on behalf of myself and of 
the Government of India, heartily to greet representatives from the 
Portuguese Government in the person of Captain de Mello and from Egyjt 
as represented by Dr. Gough. From all parts of the Indian Empire and 
from great distances you have come to attend these meetings and I trust 
that, on their conclusion, you will agree that the time and the efiort 
involved, has been well worth it. I have much pleasure, Gentlemen- 
in welcoming you all. 

Sectional Meetings of the Board of Agriculture are now a recognized 
part of our departmental activities. But. before the adoption of this 
formal scheme by the Government of India, Mr. Bainbrigge Fletcher was 
in the habit of holding, at regular intervals, informal meetings of workers 
on Entomology at which many important and valuable discussions took 
place. These meetings are now official and will be convened by the 
Government of India, but I hope that their value will not be diminished 
but rather enhanced by their change from informality to formality. 
It has been most gratifying to me, as I am sure it must be to you. to have 
heard from many sources appreciations of the value of your last published 
Proceedings. They were so recorded as to avoid entirely the ofticial 



b2 



2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

style and were invested with a personal tone which gave them a very 
live interest. 

The experiences of the last few years have turned men's thoughts 
more to the practical aspects of life and this is bound to be reflected in 
our views on education. I think one result of the war will be that educa- 
tion will take on a much more live aspect, and that the study of living 
phenomena will be greatly increased. And I venture to predict that a 
new era is arising as regards the study of biological questions. Entomo- 
logy is bound to come into greater prominence in the future. 
Already on the medical side men are talking of the next gre'at war as the 
war of man against insects. 

On the side of Agricultural Entomology with which we are more 
particularly concerned the war being waged by you against the depre- 
dators of our agricultural crops is no less important. It is of little avail 
that improved agricultural methods should give us higher yielding crops, 
if annually the ravages of insects can be calculated in millions of pounds 
sterling. In time of war the mobihsation of our food supplies is almost 
as important as the mobilisation of our fighting men and any efforts of 
science which will assist in ensuring to us the full fruits of the earth or 
their preservation, when garnered, are of incalculable value to the nation. 
To the creation of such a position of security the labours of our Entomo- 
logical workers contribute. It is quiet, inconspicuous work, in which, 
I fear, the public as a whole take little interest. But it is none the less 
valuable that it is unobtrusive and unpretentious, and all honour is due 
to the small body of zealous and earnest workers, who are content to 
make its pursuit their life work. " Science is * * * like virtue 
its own exceeding Qveat re^\ard." 

I cannot, however, but feel that the time is coming when there will 
be an awakening to the vast importance of the subject in India. The 
popularity of these small conferences indicates that there is an increasing 
interest. Much has been done by Mr. Bainbrigge Fletcher to impress 
on Government the importance of the subject and his views on the expan- 
sion and centralization of Entomological work in India ha^^e been cordially 
endorsed by the Indian Industrial Commission. The future therefore 
seems full of promise. 

I trust that the results of your labours will be to your own profit 
and advantage and to the benefit of the agriculture of this vast Empire. 



Address by the Chairman. 
I am sure that we are all much indebted to Mr. Mackenna for coming 
here today and opening our Proceedings, and that we all appreciate the 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 3 

kindly words lie lias used regarding onr past Meetings and this present 
one. 

It is once again my privilege, on belialf of the Staff of the Entomologi- 
cal Section of this Institute, to welcome to Pusa the many delegates who 
have come here from all parts of India, and even on this occasion from 
Ceylon and Egypt. AVe have at this Meeting a larger and more represen- 
tative gathering than at either of our previous Meetings. Assam, Bengal, 
Bihar and Orissa, the United Provinces, the North-West Frontier Pro- 
vince, Bombay, the Central Provinces and Madras have all sent one 
or more delegates of the Agricultural Service and only the Punjab and 
Burma are unrepresented, although Mr. K. D. Shroff has contributed 
a long list of papers on Burmese insect and other pests. Hyderabad, 
which has not been represented before at our Meetings, has sent Mr. 
"Wakefield, the Director-General of Industries, Agriculture and Commerce. 
Baroda is also represented by Mr. Patel ; Central India by Mr. S. 
Higmnbottom, Director of Aa;riculture, Gwalior, and Mr. M. Zahar- 
uddin, Forest Officer ; Patiala by Mr. Harchand Singh, Superin- 
tendent of Dairy Farms, and Mysore and Travancore have each sent 
an entomological delegate. From the Forest Department w^e have Mr. 
C. Beeson, the Forest Zoologist, who has promised us several papers, 
amongst which we shall all look forward to hearing that on some 
problems in forest insect control. Mr, Osmaston, Director of the Forest 
Research Institute at Dehra Dun, had also intended to have been present 
here to-day, but was unfortunately prevented at the last moment. 
The Indian Tea Association has very kindly permitted the attend- 
ance of their Entomologist, Mr. E. A. Andrews, who has promised us 
two papers on Tea Pests and another on the control of iiisect pests. 
The Bengal Government have also permitted the attendance of Dr. 
C. A. Bentley, their Sanitary Commissioner, and of Dr. Baini Prasad, 
who will not be able to attend this meeting but has promised to 
send us a paper about aquatic insects as destroyers of fish in 
India. Portuguese India has sent a delegate in the person of Captain 
Froilano de Mello who has contributed a paper descriptive of those 
curious protozoal parasites, the Trichonymphids, found in extraordinary 
numbers in some species of Termites. Portugal, I may remind you, 
is a very old ally of ours and we therefore welcome Captain Froilano 
•de Mello to our Meeting because he is present not only in his scientific 
capacity, since his presence is a mark of the amity existing between the 
British and Portuguese nations. Dr. Lewis H. Gough, Director of the 
Entomological Section, has been sent all the way from Egypt especially 
to represent his Government at this Meeting. The problems of entomo- 
logical research in Egypt are in many ways similar to those which we 



4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

have in India and we therefore appreciate all the more the delegation of 
a special representative of the Government of Egypt. Dr. Gough has 
brought with him a most interesting paper on Pink Bollworm in Egypt, 
into which country it was introduced from India, and I am sure that we 
shall all look forward to hearing it next week. The Government of 
Cevlon were asked to send their Government Entomologist but unfor- 
tunately were unable to send a delegate to this Meeting although they 
intimated that they hoped to be able to do so in future. Ceylon, however, 
is not left unrepresented, as Mr. R. Senior- White has been sufficiently 
interested to come all the way from Ceylon to Pusa in order to give us 
all the information he can about tile insect pests of Ceylon, most of 
which, I need scarcely add, are identical with ours in India, of which 
Ceylon is, entomogeographically speaking, only a part. Mr. C. M. 
Inglis, from Laheria Serai, is also taking part in this Meeting and has 
sent his collection of wild Indian silkmoths for exhibition. 

On behalf of the Entomological Section of this Institute, I welcome 
all these delegates to our Meeting and hope that their visit to Pusa may 
be a pleasant one in every way so that they may carry away pleasant 
recollections as well as any items of information they may pick up. At 
the same time, I trust that they will leave us the richer for all the new 
information concerning insects which they have doubtless brought with 
them. 

We are to-day commencing the third of our Entomological Meetings, 
,of which the first was held here in 1915 and the second in 1917, but the 
present Meeting differs from the former ones in three respects : — 

(1) It is intended to last for a fortnight instead of only a week and, 
unless we become seriously pressed for time, we shall hold meetings in 
the morning only, leaving the afternoons free for the visitors to consult 
collections and records and to gather any information and to see the 
place generally. In order that you may do this last I have arranged with 
the other Heads of Sections at Pusa for convenient dates and times for 
you to visit their Sections if you care to do so. At the end of this 
Meeting we shall be able to see whether the one-week or two-week 
arrangement is preferable and arrange accordingly for future Meetings. 

(2) This Meeting differs from the former two in being of a more official 
character. The First Meeting in 1915 was arranged on my own initiative 
in order primarily to get the provincial workers in closer touch with one 
another and with our work at Pusa and also to link up the work done 
in the Agricultural Department with that being done by other entomo- 
logical workers in India, whether their results were applied to agriculture 
or not. Much the same remarks apply to our Second Meeting. Since 
then, however, the Tenth Meeting of the Board of Agriculture was held 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD E>'TOMOLOGICAL MEETING 5 

at Poona in December 1917 and, among other subjects discussed, was this 
question of Sectional Meetings, regarding which the Board passed the 
following Resolution : — 

" That meetings of the entomological. .... .sections be 

held in years in which there is no meeting of the Board of 
Agriculture, and that these should not be confined to members 
of the agricultural department but others interested in these 
subjects be invited to^ attend." 
This Resolution of the Board has been approved by the Government 
of India and the present Meeting is the result of definite orders that such 
conferences are to be held henceforth at fairly definite intervals. The 
Resolution which I have just read, as you see, states definitely that they 
are to be " held in years in which there is no meeting of the Board of 
Agriculture." Now, the Board of Agriculture meets every second year, 
sometime in the cold weather between November and February inclusive, 
so this Resolution, if strictly interpreted, indicates that Entomological 
Meetings also are to be biennial events in future. Their order of fre- 
cjuency, however, is perhaps a matter which we can settle for ourselves 
if we desire to do so and go about it in a formal manner. I use the word 
" formal " deliberately, because, as I said just now, this Meeting is on a 
more official basis than previous ones and because I think there will be 
certain advantages if we adopt slightly more formality in this and subse- 
quent Meetings. I do not wish for a moment to imply that there is any 
idea of stifling discussion at these Meetings. We are all met here with 
the very object of mutual discussion. But there are a few things which 
we might perhaps do more formally, partly with the idea of saving time 
at the general meetings and partly with the idea of giving more force 
to our collective opinion on any subject. I propose therefore to appoint 
Committees to report on any subjects which may be usefully considered 
in this way in order that they may draw up and present to the Meeting 
reports which may form useful bases for discussion. I also propose, 
in cases where a subject is of sufficient importance and there is a clear 
j)reponderance of considered opinion after discussion regarding it, 
that such subject may form matter for a Resolution of the Meeting 
regarding it. If for example there is a consensus of opinion regarding 
the order of frequency of our Meetings, the best way to give it expression 
would be by a formal Resolution, which would doubtless be duly consi- 
dered by Government. You might consider this during the Meeting and 
at its close give your views regarding the next meeting, its duration, 
the date and place at which it should be held. As you know, the Board 
of Agriculture is a peripatetic body, meeting biennially, alternately at 
Pusa and in one of the Provinces. Hitherto, we have met at Pusa 



6 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

because the collections and records are centralized at Pusa so far as 
the Agricultural Department is concerned. But these Meetings are not 
confined to the Agricultural Department, and it may be that it might 
be advantageous for our Meetings to be held elsewhere, at least 
occasionally. I merely throw out the suggestion, which is for you 
to consider in order that you in your turn may be able to make any 
suggestions you think proper, at the close of this Meeting, regarding any 
subsequent ones. 

(3) You have been asked to bring with you to this Meeting written 
papers or notes on any subjects regarding which you have information 
to lay before the Meeting. The object of this is to facilitate securing a 
proper record of the Proceedings. At the 1915 Meeting the record kept 
proved so incomplete that it was not worth publication. At the 1917 
Meeting notes were taken as far as possible and these were worked up 
afterwards to form the Proceedings which were published and circulated 
to all of you. I may tell you that it took a great deal of hard work 
to go over the mass of notes taken and to rewrite, as far as possible in 
their own words, what everyone had to say about every subject. I 
leave it to you to say how far we succeeded. We at least rest content 
in the knowledge that we did our best. 

At the present Meeting the papers submitted will be read either in 
whole or in part or in abstract or merely by title — according to their 
general interest. After each paper is read, it will be open for general 
discussion. 

Since our last Meeting the War has caused us to mourn the loss of a 
valued colleague who attended our First Meeting here four years ago. 
Edward John Woodhouse died of wounds received in action in France 
on 18th December 1917 at the age of 33. At the outbreak of war he was 
a Captain in the Bihar Light Horse and in 1915 he joined the Indian 
Army Reserve of Ofiicers, being subsequently attached to a Cavalry 
regiment. 

I first met Mr. Woodhouse in December 1910 when he came to Pusa 
to consult regarding the Agrotis ypsilon campaign at Mokameh. The 
use of poisoned bran baits, which had been recommended by Mr. Lefroy, 
had ]5roved a failure, as the baits had dried up without being touched 
by the caterpillars, and it was not evident what was the next step to 
take. Just previous to this we had received some circulars about their 
traps from the Andres-Maire Company at Alexandria and, knowing 
from pre\nous experience of sugaring in England that Agrotis 
moths were attracted to sweet baits, I suggested a trial of these traps, 
and it was arranged that one should be got out for Pusa and another 
one for Sabour. The result of the trial was completely successful and 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIED EXTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 7 

these traps have been used for control of Agrotis yfsilon to a considerable 
extent since then, as Mr. Woodhouse told lis himself in this very room 
just four years ago. Subsequently I met Mr. Woodhouse many times 
and had considerable correspondence with him regarding entomological 
matters, in which he took a keen interest, although he was of course a 
Botanist. His untimely death has deprived us of a valued colleague, 
whose place will be hard to fill. 

Another whose death has occurred since our last Meeting is Mr. 
Charles William Mason, who was the first Supernumerary Entomologist 
at Pusa and who will be remembered by many of you, although he left 
India just before my arrival so that I never met him personally. He 
came out to Pusa in December 1906 and during the next three years was 
stationed here, being chiefly occupied in an investigation of the food of 
birds, especially in relation to the value of birds to agriculture by their 
destruction of insect pests, and the third volume of Entomological 
Memoirs of this Department is wholly devoted to a record of this work. 

After his return to England in 1910 he studied for some time at the 
South-Eastern Agricultural College at Wye, and afterwards went to 
America as a Carnegie student to undergo further training in Entomology. 
Subsequently he was appointed to succeed Mr. E. Ballard as Government 
Entomologist in Nyasaland, v\'here he died of black-water fever on 28th 
November 1917 at the Government Farm at Namiwawa. In his Annual 
Eeport for the year ended 31st March 1918, the Director of Agriculture 
in Nyasaland says : — " Mr. Mason was an exceptionally able and popular 
ofiicer. his enthusiasm and care produced work of a very high standard, 
his researches in connection with tobacco and cotton pests conferred a 
lasting benefit on the planting community, and his demise in the prime 
of young manhood is not only a loss to the Department and his fellow 
workers but to Tropical Agriculture in Africa." 

That is, I am sure, a statement which you will desire to endorse and 
I therefore propose to place the followng Resolution before you : — 

The Entomological Workers assembled at this Meeting- desire to Resolution r 
express their sense of the loss to Entomological Science sustained by the 
untimely deaths of their former co-workers in India, the late Edward 
John Woodhouse and Charles V/illiam Mason. 

\Tliis Resolution was 'passed in silence, all standing.'] 
Before coming to a consideration of the subjects on our programme, 
there are one or two other points which I should like to put before you, 
although they are not perhaps suitable for discussion at the full Meeting. 
It has been suggested, from more than one direction, that we might 
form an Entomological Society in India and thus hnk together all the 
various workers on entomology in India, Burma and Ceylon. In this 



"8 rROCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENIOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

V 

connection I may draw your attention to Appendix H to the Report of 
ttie Indian Industrial Commission in wliich they say : — 

" We desire to attract attention to the ahiiost complete absence of 
scientific and technical societies in India. So long as the majority of 
the men in this country from whom such societies would naturally draw 
their members belonged to Government executive services, the subordi- 
nation essential to discipline was unfavourable to their inception and 
growth ; but this phase is gradually passing away, owing to the much 
wider difiusion of scientific knowledge, to the rapid expansion of organized 
industries, and to the greatly increased number of scientific and technical 
experts in private employment." 



" It is unnecessary for us to dwell at any length upon the advantages 
which arise from a free interchange of ideas betw^een men working in the 
same field of scientific investigation, and the stimulating effect of 
instructed criticism on men engaged in technical pursuits. 

" We are of opinion that the interests of India demand the establish- 
ment of Indian institutes, societies and associations analogous to the 
Institution of Civil Engineers, the Chemical Society, and the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science. Action in this direction 
is urgently required to provide for the growing needs of Indians. It is 
true that they have free access to the Enghsh societies on the same terms 
as any other subjects of the Empire, and they are also freely admitted 
to American societies ; but beyond the prestige attaching to membership 
and the periodic receipt of copies of pubUcations, they derive little or no 
benefit from such distant associations, and they are altogether deprived 
of the advantages which arise from personal intercourse between the 
members. In matters connected with administration, the value of 
personal discussion has been recognized by Government, and every year 
an increasing number of conferences and committees meet to discuss 
specific problems. Men are convoked from all parts of India to exchange 
views, and experience shows that such meetings are well worth the 
time devoted to them and the expense incurred in bringing the officers 
together. But something more than this is necessary, and the movement 
in favour of it has found expression in the estabhshment of the Indian 
Science Congress, which was started' four years ago and holds annual 
meetings in the month of January in one or other of the capital cities of 
India." 

rf: 4: ^ !¥ ^ * 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE TIIIKD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 9 

" There would be advantages arising from a strong central society 
covering the whole of India, as membership thereof would confer a much 
greater prestige. Apart from the reading and discussion of professional 
papers, such a society would inevitably interest itself in many problems 
with which the State has to deal, and in which it would be advantageous 
to obtain the considered opinion of such a representative body." 
* * * * * * 

" Such an institution should be an entirely independent body, to 
which Government can very well give an annual grant or subsidy in 
return for the indirect advantages which the country would enjoy in 
consequence of its estabhshment. We have in view an institution 
■whose activities would be mainly devoted to professional and technical 
questions ; its existence therefore would be of great value in establishing 
a standard of professional conduct and efficiency." 

The above extracts refer more particularly to a- Society of Engineers 
but as regards general scientific work in India they will show you what 
the Commission had in mind and I have no doubt that Government 
would view with sympathy any real desire on the part of scientific workers 
of any kind in India to form such societies and would perhaps assist 
to some extent. I do not know, however, to what extent the formation 
of an Entomological Society would meet the wishes and requirements 
of entomologists in India, nor, I must confess, do I qmte see what would 
be the functions of such a Society. If my scheme for centralization of 
entomological work in India eventuates, such a Central Institute and 
Service would fulfil all the ends of a Society as regards such items as 
publications, collections, references and assistance generally to other 
workers. Even as it is, our periodical Meetings provide ample oppor- 
tunity for discussion of any problems and it is difficult to see how more 
frequent or better attended meetings could be arranged in such a vast 
country as India, nor is there any lack at present of facihties for publi- 
cation in tliis country. If, however, any of you have any definite ideas 
on this subject, we might discuss it informally one afternoon or evening 
whilst we are all here and then, if any general agreement is reached, 
it might be brought forward more formally during the Meeting. 

Another subject which might perhaps be discussed informally at 
first is my scheme for the expansion of entomological work in India, 
which you will find pubhshed in Appendix K of the Industrial Commis- 
sion's Report. Copies of this Report are laid on the table for your perusal 
and when vou have had time to go over it we might discuss that also one 
afternoon or evening. 

Our former Meetings were both held under the shadow of the (Jreat 
War which has now happily come to a close and which has affected our 



10 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD EXTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

work in so many ways. One of the obvious results of the war has been 
the great difficulty in obtaining apparatus. Another has been the set- 
back to our work owing to the difficulty in obtaining identifications of 
specimens, practically all of our younger specialists having gone to the 
front. Another and more serious result has been the loss of parcels of 
specimens owing to the piratical action of the Germans in sinking merchant 
vessels indiscriminately. We at Pusa lost a large collection of Braconid 
parasites of Earias fabia and E. insulana, which means a loss of several 
years' work, and I understand that the Forest Research Institute and the 
Zoological Survey have also sustained similar losses. Our losses in India 
have of course been infinitesimal in comparison to the damage and 
wanton destruction in Europe of collections in various branches of natural 
history. Some of the finest entomological collections in the world were 
in Russia, in Belgium and in Rumania. The dehberate destruction of 
irreplaceable objects of science and art, such as has taken place during 
this war, stamps the German people as an uncivihzed face of a very low 
type. It is sincerely to be hoped that in the future all entomological 
workers in India will mark their disapprobation of such misdeeds by 
dechning to have any dealings with all Germans, that they will refuse 
to work with apparatus of any kind " made in Germany," that they 
will refuse to send any more collections for identification to Germany 
and thereby avoid having any more Indian insects described in a most 
barbarous language, and that they will as far as possible ignore all German 
literature pubhshed since August 1914. 

This last point, even if we are all agreed on it, will be difficult to enforce 
unless we can obtain universal agreement, but this might possibly be 
obtained, as many others must be of the same way of thinking at the 
present time. In his recent revision of the Hypsotropinse, for example, 
Sir George Hampson says, " No Cjuotations from German authors pub- 
hshed since 1st August 1914 are inserted. ' Hosfes Immani generis'.'' 

The International Entomological Congress, which met at Brussels 
in 1910 and at Oxford in 1912, was to have held its Third Session at 
Vienna in 1915. I have not heard any particulars regarding the third 
session, which was postponed indefinitely, but it is possible that it may 
be held at some date before our next Meeting and, if so, it would lend 
weight to our views if we could lay before the Congress our collective 
opinion on the subject of the treatment to be accorded to German workers 
and German entomological literature in the future. 

My own view, which I have held for a long time, is that the whole 
question of scientific publications requires overhauhng and that pubhshed 
scientific work (in entomology at all events), to ensure proper recogni- 
tion, should be restricted as regards both the media and the languages 



PEOCEEDIKGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING U 

in which it appears. Separata pubUcations (for example, books ; althou»h 
nothing should be considered as a book unless it contains a minimum 
number of pages) cannot easily be legislated for but there seems to be 
no end to the various serial publications in which entomological work 
appears now-a-days. Some time ago the Imperial Bureau of Entomology 
gave an incomplete census of present-day periodicals in wliich entomo- 
logical articles are pubhshed, and this list, so far as I remember, came to 
over- seventeen hundred. It is absolutely impossible to see all these, 
even in the best libraries anywhere, and even a useful abstract hke the 
"Zoological Record" is not really complete. Many important papers 
are published in Transactions of Societies, etc., which to the entomoloo-ical 
world contain little else of importance and no private worker and few 
public libraries can take in complete sets of such Transactions merely 
for the sake of an occasional paper which otherwise is overlooked or not 
accessible when required for reference. To take the case of India only, 
we have entomological papers appearing in the Memoirs, Bulletins and 
Annual Eeports of the Agricultural and Forest Departments, the Memoirs 
and Records of th^ Indian Museum, the Asiatic Society's Journal, the 
Bombay Natural History Society's Journal, the Indian Journal of Medical 
Research, the Journal of the Indian Tea Association, the Planters' Chro- 
nicle, Spoha Zeylanica, and half a hundred other Bulletins, Reports, 
Annuals and what-not issued by various GTOvernment Departments, 
Native States and others, although hardly one of these pubUcations 
is devoted entirely to Entomology. I have dealt with this in my pro- 
posals for expansion and centralization of entomological work in India 
and only wish to draw your attention now to the large mass of current 
literature already in existence in India. But India is a comparatively 
small contributor to entomological literature and we require a world- 
wide scheme to centralize work as much as possible. 

My idea, roughly, is this, that the leading entomological (or zoological) 
societies or workers in every civihzed country should consider the hterary 
output of their own country and compile a hmited list of pubhcations 
which would be considered official from the point of view of scientific 
worth. For example, in England a dozen to twenty (at the outside) 
publications — such as the Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal, 
Linnean, Zoological, and Entomological Societies, the Entomologist, the 
Entomologists' Monthly Magazine, the Entomologists' Record and a few 
other leading publications in pure and applied entomology, including a 
few provincial publications — should suffice for all scientific work. If 
anyone wished to pubhsh in non-official publications they could do so, 
and their papers would of course be on record but would possess no 
.scientific value. The effect of this would be that the amateur and casual 



12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

workers would still be able to publish in their local Societies' Transac- 
tions and so on, but the serious worker would only have to consider 
a comparatively hmited output of literature — limited, that is to say, for 
any one country but of pretty wide extent (probably 150 to 200 publi- 
cations) for the whole world. It would be better to have separate hsts 
for entomological and zoological (non-entomological) papers, although the 
lists might overlap in many cases. A permanent Committee in each 
country could consider apphcations for admission to the list of recognized 
publications but no new publications should be admitted unless a clear 
want for additional publication-space was proved and in any case such 
admission should not be retrospective in effect. The hsts approved by 
each local committee to. be scrutinized and finally passed by an 
international committee (for example, at the International Zoological 
and Entomological Congresses). 

I quite see that there would be difficulties in starting such a scheme 
but, once started, I think it would work. And, unless something of this 
sort be done, it is not easy to imagine how entomological workers will 
get on, say a hundred years hence, if publications multiply at the present 
rate. It would, of course, only be possible to make such a scheme pros- 
pective from a definite date, of which due notice would be given. 

Another thing is the question of languages. It is not only the German 
language which is concerned but the whole matter is becoming one of 
general convenience. It is impossible for any ordinary man to be con- 
versant, even as far as mere reading goes, with English, French, Latin, 
German, Dutch, Eussian, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and Japanese, 
in all of which languages important papers are appearing now-a-days — 
to say nothing of more or less occasional important papers in such langu- 
ages as Magyar. So far no original entomological papers of any peim.a- 
nent value have appeared in any Indian vernacular, but I know of 
nothing under the present rules governing publication of scientific work to 
prevent anyone publishing a paper in (say) Bengali or Malayalam and, 
although quite unintelligible to more than ninety-nine per cent, of the 
entomological world, such a publication would be recognized and secure 
priority under the present rules. Indeed, I know of no rule which would 
prevent my publishing a description of a new insect in an Indian 
vernacular in some obscure local daily paper. 

The present state of affairs is ridiculous and requires amending, 
not only by limiting the number of publications, but also by some limi- 
tation of the languages in which original scientific work should be allowed 
to appear and be recognized. I should restrict these languages to English. 
French, and perhaps Latin. In any case German should be absolutely 
barred in future. The local pubhcation-committee in each country- 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIHD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 13 

should recommend in what language each proposed "recognized " publi- 
cation would be issued and the international committee should then go 
over these local lists and decide finally. There would probably be a 
considerable amount of disagreement over this language question, but, 
as feelings are after this War, the Allies would probably secure a pre-- 
ponderance at any international meeting in the near future, and it would 
be as well to take advantage of this before public opinion on the subject 
becomes blunted. 

The war has at least brought home the importance of a knowledge of 
entomology to many people whose previous idea of entomologists pictured 
them as useless, albeit harmless, cranks whose main object in life was the 
pursuit of butterflies by means of large green nets. The health of our 
troops in all the areas of the war has, however, required a vast deal of 
entomological work in controlling the various flies, mosquitos, lice and 
other insects which are carriers of disease, especially when large bodies 
of men are kept together in small areas under crowded and often neces- 
sarily insanitary conditions. Never before in such a short time has such 
a large number of entomological workers been employed on practical 
work of this nature and never before has entomology so proved its value 
in this particular section of its sphere of usefulness. In the South African 
War the British Army lost nearly twice as many men from preventible 
diseases, chiefly typhoid fever, as it. did from casualties in action. In 
the Spanish-American war one-sixth of the American troops was attacked 
by typhoid. Truly was it said that " Disease, not battle, digs the soldier's 
grave.-' But we have changed all that now-a-days to a very large extent 
and the preventible losses by disease during the recent war have been 
reduced to a comparatively trifling proportion, thanks to the adoption 
of scientific method, amongst which entomological investigations must 
be included. The transport and storage of the immense quantities of 
food-stuffs required for our forces during the war has also called forcible 
attention to the damage dor.e to such food-stuffs by the numerous insect 
pests which attack stored produce. And the present world shortage 
of food and raw vegetable material is considerably aggravated by the 
losses caused by insect pests. It is not. easily realized what these losses 
amount to in the aggregate. Taking only the case of agricultural crops 
grown in India, we may say that on an average ten per cent, of the total 
produce is destroyed by insect pests. In some cases it is more and in 
others less. The Director of Agriculture in Assam told me recentlv 
tliat, as the result of crop-cutting experiments in some districts in Assam, 
it was found that ninety per cent, of the paddy crop was destroyed 
nj insect pests and this is apparently a normal figure. Of course, we 
often find oases even of total destruction, but they are sporadic as a rule. 



14 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Taking, however, ten per cent, as an average and calculating the total 
amount of loss annually in India we shall arrive at a figure w^hich at the 
lowest cannot be placed at less than about Es. 5,00,000,000. We have a 
lonof way to go yet in India before we can make people understand the 
magnitude of this loss due to insect pests and to take Entomology really 
seriously, but the war will have had at least one good result if it helps 
to open people's eyes to these facts. 

The war has been responsible for the introduction of the word 
"" camouflage," and you have probably all seen pictures of disguised 
gun-positions, and of tanks and ships painted in weird combinations 
of colours. But concealing colouration was not an invention of the war. 
It was adopted by the animal world long ago and the insect world parti- 
cularly can show innumerable examples of things being not what they 
-seem to be. Later on, I shall show you an excellent example of this. 
I might also call your attention to an article by Mr. J. C. Mottram in the 
Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 1916 (pp. 383-419) which deals 
■with Indian butterflies and analyses their colour-patterns, showing 
exactly how the various effects are produced. This is essentially the 
'• camouflage " principle, as evolved during the war. 

Insects have in fact anticipated many of man's present-day inven- 
tions. Our newspapers, which have brought us day by day the latest 
news of the happenings during the great struggle, are printed oil paper 
which is almost wholly made from wood-pulp and for years past the 
pine forests of the north temperate zone in Europe and North America 
have been ruthlessly destroyed at the rate of something like thirty 
million tons of timber per annum to satisfy the world's insatiable desire 
for paper. But few of those who read their daily paper know that the 
first suggestion that wood-fibre might be used for paper-making was 
made by an entomologist, Reaumur, who some two hundred years ago 
observed the structure of wasps' nests and how they are made of a paper- 
like material produced by these insects by the mastication of wood fibres. 
His observation seems trivial but its after-effects afford only one of the 
many instances of the foundation of a great industry upon results ob- 
tained in scientific investigation. As Professor Silvanus P. Thompson 
has well put it : — " The seemingly useless or trivial observation made by 
one worker leads on to a useful observation by another ; and so science 
advances, ' creeping on from point to point.' " It is impossible to 
foresee what will be the ultimate practical outcome of even the smallest 
observation in matters scientific, provided that the observation is accurate, 
but we may be sure that sooner or later it will fit in with other equally 
small and seemingly useless facts to form a coherent whole. When we 
see the extensive uses of magneto-electricity now-a-days we are apt to 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 15 

forget the seemingly trivial observation which led to this. In one of 
his experiments at the Royal Institution in London Faraday showed 
that when a magnet is brought suddenly near a coil of wire a slight 
electric current is induced in the coil. The experiment does not appear 
very impressive and a lady in the audience probably expressed the general 
sentiment when she asked afterwards, " But, Professor Faraday, even 
if the effect you explained is produced, what is the use of it ?" To which 
Faraday repKed, " Madam, will you tell me the use of a new-born 
child ?" 

Nearly all the great inventions of our modern world, wireless tele- 
graphy, the telephone, the aeroplane, radium, anaesthetics and anti- 
toxins, spectrum analysis and X-rays, all had their foundations in purely 
scientific work and were not the result of deliberate intention to make 
something of service to humanity. Scientific subjects do not progress 
necessarily on the lines of direct usefulness. Their applied side may 
come many years after the actual discoveries themselves. Applying 
this to economic work in Entomology, as I said just now, provided that 
our work is accurate and honest, every smallest observation will ulti- 
mately prove to be of use whether in the immediate future it seems 
likely to be practically useful or not. As Aristotle said, " Let us first 
understand the facts, and then we may seek the cause." 

I am inclined to think that the control of insect pests in the future 
will be based on the dictum that " prevention is better than cure," and 
that such prevention will be attained by an exact knowledge of each 
insect concerned, knowledge so exact that it will be known exactly under 
what conditions trouble is likely to occur, so that preventive measures 
can be taken before any actual damage has been done. This is not the 
case at present, as most of our so-called control measures are mere palli- 
atives, aiming only at minimizing damage which is already being done. 
I think that the control methods of the future will be based on fore- 
casts of the increase to destructive numbers of the particular insect 
concerned and that such forecasts will be based on an intensive study 
of a large number of exact records of occurrence of such insect. Why, 
for instance, does Xylotrechus quadripes, the Coffee Borer, appear in 
some years in swarms, whilst in other years this beetle is by no means 
plentiful ? Why do locust swarms invade India in some years and not 
regularly every year ? I think that, when we have accumulated exact 
records of such visitations and compare them with weather statistics and 
other records, we may find some correlation between them and, if so, 
we shall then be able to make insect-pest forecasts which can be used 
to nip the impending increase in the bud. But we shall only be able 
to do this when we have accumulated sufficient exact records of the 

Vol. I 



16 PROCEEDINGS OJ THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

occurrence of insect pests and for this reason all exact records at the 
present day are of importance. 

Entomology especially is such a vast science, with so many inter- 
related and interdependent branches, that progress in any one branch 
is necessarily dependent on progress in other branches as well. Economic 
work depends on progress in systematics, in the natural history (in its 
largest sense) of the insects concerned, and in control methods as applied 
to insects generally, as well as on some knowledge of the particular 
subject (agriculture, forestry, etc.) with which any particular insect is 
concerned, and all of these branches must be taken together if the best 
results are to be secured. The economic entomologist who thinks, 
for example, that he can get on quite well without bothering about the 
systematic side is on a par with the systematist who only pays attention 
to adult characters of insects and despises all information regarding their 
early stages and habits ; nor is the work of either likely to stand the test 
of time. 

But, although we cannot afiord to neglect any aspect of Entomology 
as a whole, it has become quite impossible for any one man to be j^rofi- 
cient in, or even conversant wdth, the whole of such a vast subject as is 
Entomology now-a-days. We have, each of us, to do what we can in 
our little corner and to look to others for information on other subjects. 
Entomological research has become extremely specialized and tends to 
become more so in the future. There are no general entomologists 
now-a-days. The man who really know^s his subject is a specialist in a 
comparatively small group of insects or in some other branch of entomo- 
logy. And so it is more and more coming to pass that we must rely on 
other's work for our own information, and this means that progress is 
only possible, in more than a very limited area at least, by mutual help. 
The specialist in one subject must be ready to help others in his speciality 
and must himself apply to others for help outside of his own special 
group. As Laplace put it, " Nature is so varied in* her manifestations 
and phenomena and the difficulty of elucidating their causes is so great, 
that many must unite their knowledge and efforts in order to compre- 
hend her and force her to reveal her laws." A Meeting of this sort 
provides an excellent opportunity for the exercise of that mutual confi- 
dence and mutual aid, of w4iich I spoke at our last Meeting, and I hope 
that we shall all acquire at least a mutual knowledge of one another's 
information on the various subjects for discussion at this Meeting. 

Turning to the programme before us, you will see that a very large 
number of papers has been promised. The j^rogramme has been divided 
into twelve sections, purely for convenience in arranging the papers on 
various subjects. A paper may fall under more than one section. A 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 17 

paper on a crop-pest, lor example, might be placed under Agricultural 
Entomology or may deal with its hfe-history or systematics in which 
■cases it could equally well be placed under these other sections. 

The first Section includes especially papers on Agricultural Entomo- 
logy and we commence with an annotated list of general crop-pests 
followed by a paper on fruit-pests, both of which might be taken to- 
gether to save time. There are two ways of discussing crop-pests, 
one by taking each crop separately and going over its pests, the 
other by taking the insects themselves one by one in systematic order 
and going over their distribution, occurrence on various foodplants and 
control. At our last Meeting we went over our pest-hst by crops. At 
this Meeting we will do it the other way and consider each insect sepa- 
xately. We have prepared lists of these insects in systematic order and 
liave simimarized our information up to date. We shall thus indicate 
briefly what is known about each insect and you will be able to tell us 
any further facts. To facilitate matters I have had a series of the insects 
concerned put together so that if there is any doubt regarding the insect 
-referred to you can refer to the specimens exhibited to make sure what 
is meant. I must say, however, that I am quite unable to define what is 
a crop or what is a pest. Many plants, regarded as useless in some 
districts, are in others prized or even cultivated for their products. Ber 
■{Zizyphus jujuba) is one. In most parts of the Plains it grows wild, but 
in some districts it is used extensively for growing lac or is cultivated for 
its fruits, and in such cases any insect attacking it and reducing its 
vigour must be looked on as a pest. Again, some insects are pests in 
some districts and not in others. Margaronia coesalis is a case in point. 
In Southern India and Assam it is a pest of jak {Aftocarpus integrifolia), 
but here at Pusa, where there are many jak trees and it occurs, it has 
never been noted to attack jak at all. Then there are the potential 
pests, to which I called your attention at the last Meeting, ([noting 
Prays citri as an example. Another example is Dacus olece, the destruc- 
tive Ohve Fruit- fly of the Mediten anean Region ; we know that it 
occurs in Noith-Westein India and that it is hkely to prove a serious 
menace to the budding ohve-growing industry in Kashmir and the North- 
West Frontier Province, although we do not as yet know of its having 
attacked cultivated oUves. Yet another class of insects which would ba 
refused admission to the pest-hst by some people are those which have 
never actually been reported as doing damage. But it must be remem- 
bered that, in a country hke India, it is comparatively rarely 
that any damage by insect pests is reported. Serious damage may be 
done for years without ever corning to the notice of the entomological 
. staffs. Gracillaria zachrysa, for example, occurs throughout the North- 

c 2 



18 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

West Frontier Province from Parachinar to Abbottabad and also in? 
Assam at Shillong and probably all along the Himalayas and does serious^ 
damage to young apple leaves ; yet it has never been reported. Similarly, 
apple fruits in Shillong are badly bored by two species of weevils, yet 
this has never been reported and we might have waited a long time for 
any knowledge of these pests if I had not happened to inquire into the 
subject of fruit-pests at Shillong last year. I think, therefore, that so 
far as pests are concerned it is better to be inclusive than exclusive 
when we come to list them. It does no harm to include a doubtful case 
in the list even if it ultimately turns out not to be a pest, but if we ex- 
clude it and it subsequently does do damage there is a danger that earlier 
information about it may be overlooked and not be available when 
required. If it is on the list as a possible pest it is, so to speak, in our 
mind's eye and we are more likely to collect further information about 
it. At the same time it must be clearly understood that no Ust of pests 
can be looked on as anything like complete. We cannot foretell what 
insects, or even what groups, may turn out to be inimical. No one, 
for example, in any part of the world has ever looked on the PerUdse as 
of any economic importance except that they serve as bait for anglers. 
Nevertheless, a species has lately been found to damage orchard foUage 
in the United States, and quite possibly some of our Indian species may 
do the same. Every year, every month, new pests come to Hght and 
our knowledge of the old ones is increased, and it will not be in our time 
that anything in the way of finahty is achieved. However, we shall 
help on this end by accumulating as many facts as we can, taking care 
only to prepare a firm foundation of accurate facts on which our suc- 
cessors may build securely. 

Most of the other papers in this Section are sufficiently explained by 
their titles and call for few remarks at this stage. 

Mr. Andrews, Entomologist to the Indian Tea Association, is giving 
us a paper on the control of insect pests. This subject has of course - 
been discussed generally at previous Meetings as regards particular 
points, but not as a separate entity by itself. It will therefore be useful 
to have a paper on this subject. You will find a general resume, so far 
as crop-pests are concerned, in my book on South Indian Insects (Chapter 
XI) and I do not think that there is very much to add to that so far as 
the ordinary Plains crops are concerned. In the case of tea, the condi- 
tions are considerably different. In any case, we shall all be glad to hear 
what Mr. Andrews has to say. 

I have already referred to Dr. Gough's paper on the Pink BoUworm 
in Egypt ; this will be giren as an evening lecture illustrated by lantern 
slides. Mr. F. G. Willcocks, Entomologist to the Sultanic Agricultural; 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 19 

'Society in Egypt, has also sent a most interesting paper on his experi- 
ments on the survival of resting stage larvae of the Fink Bollworm in 
cotton-bolls buried at different depths and under different conditions m 
the ground. In my Address to the Second Meeting, two years ago, I 
referred to Mr. Willcocks' illuminating experiments on the length of time 
during which Pink Bollworm larvae were found to be able to rest in cotton- 
seed in Egypt, and the present experiments show how these larvae are 
able to survive in cotton-bolls buried in the soil even when an irrigated 
crop has been grown in the ground beneath which these bolls were buried. 
At ou'-' last Meeting also I referred to the visit paid to India by Mr. 
D. T. Fullaway especially to collect parasites of Chatodacus cucurbitce, 
our common Cucurbit Fruit-fly, for importation into Hawaii, and Mr. 
Fullaway has very kindly sent us a paper describing his visit to India 
and the success achieved in Hawaii by the parasite, Opius fletcheri, which 
he was successful in transporting from India to Honolulu. 

Section II, Forest Entomology, only contains one paper, on some 
problems in forest insect control, by Mr. Beeson, the Forest Zoologist. 
In many cases the insects which attack forest trees are similar to, or even 
identical with, those which attack agricultural crops, whilst in other 
cases they are widely different from any we have to deal with. In any 
case, we shall all be very interested to hear about them, whether they 
are old friends or new ones. 

Section III was intended for Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 
and in the prehminary provisional programme which I circulated last 
October it was presumed that this subject would be arranged by the 
Imperial Pathological Entomologist. It has now been decided to omit 
this subject from the present conference. 

Section IV deals with Household and Store Pests, and we have a few 
papers on these. The subject of household and store pests is one that 
badly requires working on in India and might perhaps be taken up more 
fully at the next Meeting. 

Sections V (Bee-keeping) and VI (Lac) will not detain us for very 
long. I do not think there is much new to say about either. Regarding 
Bee-keeping, however, I should like to warn any of you, who may think 
of doing so, against importing European bees at present, owing to the 
grave danger of introducing bee diseases, particularly Isle of Wight 
disease, into India. It may be necessary to restrict the importation of 
bees and foundation-comb, as is done in South Africa. 

Under Subject VII (Silk) Mr. De will tell you something of what we 
have been doing in the way of attempts to improve the multivoltine 
races of silkworms, and will also give a paper on the methods of combat- 
ing pebrine. Mr. C, M. Hutchinson, the Imperial Agricultural Bacterio- 



20 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

legist; has also very kindly promised to tell us something about his work 
on pebrine, and his paper will be given in the form of an evening lecture. 

Subject VIII (Life-histories and Bionomics) calls for Uttle remark, as 
the titles of the papers are self-explanatory, and the same apphes to 
Subject IX (Collection and Preservation of Specimens). Under the 
latter subject we have one paper which was received too late for inclusion 
in the printed programme and that is one by Dr. David Sharp, F.R.S., 
on the importance of collecting insects. Dr. Sharp's name is well known 
to all of you as the author of the two volumes on Insects in the " Cam- 
bridge Natural Histoiy " and we are greatly indebted to him for con- 
tributing this paper to our Meeting. 

Subject X (Systematic Entomology) has brought us several interest- 
ing papers, amongst which I shall call your special attention to the one 
by Mr. E. Meyrick, F.R.S., on our present knowledge of Indian Micro- 
lepidoptera. Mr. Meyrick, as you know, has been working on our species 
for the last fifteen years, during which he has described over two thousand 
novelties from India, and we are greatly indebted to him for sending us a 
very valuable and interesting note on his special subject. 

Captain de Mello is giving us a paper on some Trichonymphid para- 
sites of Indian Termites. This is a subject which hes, strictly speaking, 
beyond the borderland of Entomology but which is yet of considerable 
interest to us from an entomological point of view. These curious 
protozoan parasites which infest the interior economy of some (but by 
no means all) termites seem to be restricted to those termites belonging 
to the more primitive groups. Why this is so, it is difficult to say, but 
it is possible that further investigation of these Trichonymphid parasites 
may throw some hght on the past history and relationships of their 
hosts. Captain de Mello is describing a new species of Nyctotherns also 
found in an Indian termite. Now, it is quite interesting, as Dobell has 
pointed out in the case of Nyctothervs termitis (found in Calotermes 
militaris at Peradeniya), to note that the only other known host of a 
Nyctothervs is a cockroach, Stylopyga cyrientalis, and as we know on 
other grounds that the termites and cockroaches are groups not remotely^ 
allied to one another it is decidedly a matter of entomological interest 
for us to hear something about these parasites and to see how a small 
fact of this nature fits into its natural place in our knowledge of the 
relationships of their insect hosts. It is only one more example of the 
fact that an accurate observation apparently trivial in itself so long as 
it is isolated, when added to other similar observations, joins up with 
them to build up a coherent whole. 

The question of preparing and "issuing a general Catalogue of all 
known Indian insects also comes under this Section. The need for such 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING ' 21 

a Catalogue is very great, as I think that you will all admit, and it 
remains to be seen whether we are in a position to meet our requirements 
in this matter. 

Under Subject XI (Publications) we have a paper by Mr, Slater on 
the preparation and reproduction of scientific illustrations. The making 
of drawings from which blocks are to be made for purposes of illustration- 
work is not quite the same thing as the making of drawings which are to 
be looked at as originals. This is a point which is often overlooked, 
and I thought it would be useful if we had a paper on the subject and 
on the methods by which prints are made and accordingly asked Mr. 
Slater if he could give us a paper, which he has very kindly done. 

Subject XII (Miscellaneous) is meant to include any subjects not 
fitting into the other Sections. I have prepared a note on Plant Imports, 
showing what has been done to keep pests out of India on plants imported 
from overseas. Entomological Education in Agricultural Colleges has 
also been included as I thought it would be a good thing if the teachers 
in the various Agricultural Colleges discussed, amongst themselves at 
first and afterwards at the full Meeting, any points about the courses 
in Entomology at some Colleges which might be interesting or useful 
to others. I have also asked each teacher to bring a syllabus of his 
course, any diagrams or models used for class- work and a rough estimate 
of the number of coloured plates required annually. The question of 
the organization and expansion of entomological work in India will 
also be discussed, at first in Committee. 

I doubt whether it will be possible to make, or adhere to, a daily 
programme. The first week will mostly be taken up with discussions on 
crop-pests but papers on cognate subjects (for example, fife-histories) 
will be taken at the time the insect conrerned is under discussion. Mr. 
Burt will be here only from 12th to 15th and especially wishes to be 
present at discussions on cotton-pests, so we will probably take bollworm 
papers on 13th. If any delegates wish to have any particular papers, 
taken on particular days, I will try to fit these in as far as possible. 
It is really immaterial in what order papers are read or discussed, as 
they can be placed in proper order afterwards when the Proceedings are 
made up. 

As indicated in my Address, I propose to appoint Committees to Mi'. Fletcher, 
consider three subjects, namely, the proposed Catalogue of Indian Insects, 
Entomological Education in the Agricultural Colleges in the Provinces, 
and the Organization of Entomological Work in India. The Committees 
will consider these subjects and draw up short reports which will be 
circulated and then discussed at the General Meeting. The terms of 



22 PHOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

reference and membership of the Committees will be as follows, and, if 
anyone else feels that he can usefully serve on a Committee or has any 
suggestions to make, I shall be glad if he will say so now. 

Committees. 

(1) Catalogue of Indian Insects. 

Terms of reference. To consider the desirability and practicality of 
the preparation and publication of a general Catalogue of all described 
Indian insects and to formulate proposals : — 

C. Beeson. 

E. A. Andrews. 

T. V. Kamakrishna Ayyar. 

R. Senior- White. 

T. Bainbrigge Fletcher (Chairman). 

(2) Entomological Education in Agricultural Colleges. 

Terms of reference. To consider the methods adopted in Provincial 
Agricultural Colleges in India for teaching Entomology to the Agricul. 
tural Students and to make any recommendations : — 

H. L. Dutt. 

Ramrao S. Kasergode. 

J. L. Khare. 

T. V. Ramakrishna Ayyar. 

K. Kunhi Kannan. 

S. Higginbottom (Chairman). 

C. Beeson. 

C. S. Misra. 

T. Bainbrigge Fletcher. 

(3) Organization of Entomological Work in India. 

Terms of reference. To consider the scheme put forward by Mr. 
Bainbrigge Fletcher (Appendix K of the Indian Industrial Commission's 
Report) and any alternative proposals, and to make any recommend- 
ations : — 

E. A. Andrews. 
C. Beeson. 
L. H. Gough. 
* C. A. Bentley (Chairman). 

* These delegates did not serve on the Committee as they were unable to be 
present at the Meeting during a sufficiently long period. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 23 

S. Higginbottom. 

T. V. Ramakrishna Ayyar. 
*B. C. Burt. 

C. S. Misra. 

T. Bainbiigge Fletcher. 

Y. Ramachandra Rao. 
t K. Kunhi Kannan. 

The first paper which we will take is that by Mr. E. A. Andrews on Mr. Fletcher. 
Insect Control. As we shall have to deal with various methods of 
control when we take the next paper on crop-pests, it will be better 
to take Mr. Andrews' paper first in order to save time later on when 
we come to deal with these control methods. Mr. Andrews, as you 
know, is the Entomologist to the Indian Tea Association and requires 
little introduction from me, ♦ 



1.— INSECT CONTROL. 

By E. A. Andrews, B.A., Entomologist to the Indian Tea Association. 

At the previous meeting we discussed under each insect control or 
preventive measures tried against that insect. This method of dealing 
with the subject, while excellent in that it gave to any one 
interested in one insect an opportunity of ascertaining which remedies 
could be used against it, yet had this drawback that it left one with a 
rather vague idea as to the respective values of different methods of 
insect control in India. Were one to prepare a catalogue of the various 
methods for dealing with insect pests which have been put forward from 
time to time such a catalogue w^ould be very extensive. Many of these 
methods are of value, others of no value, while some are effective under 
certain circumstances, but not under others, and my idea in suggesting 
that insect control be treated as a special subject was to ascertain if 
possible what methods had been found to be of practical value in India 
so far and what methods have been found to be of very little value. 
This is a side of the work which interests me to a very great extent, 
I am especially concerned with one serious pest. The serious nature of 
this pest you can never reaHze until you travel all round the tea districts 
and see it for yourselves. Now the community by whom I am employed 
are not greatly interested in the investigation of minor pests, but anxi- 

♦ These delegates did not serve on the Committee as they were unable to be present 
at the Meeting during a sufficiently long period. 

•j- Added to the Committee at the request of the delegates from Native States. 



24 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING ~ 

ously desire a cure for the tea mosquito. I cannot therefore give much 
time to the investigation of the life-histories of the various pests of tea, 
but must confine my energies to the search for a cure for one particular 
pest, and, as you all know, though there are difficulties in the investi- 
gation of insect life-histories, the search for a cure presents greater diffi- 
culties still. I believe that I have had opportunities which many of you 
have not had of going into the question of insect control from a parti- 
cular point of view, and I think it would be of interest to the meeting 
for me to give some of my experiences in this matter, and to give you 
an idea both of methods which I have found to be of value and of those 
that I have found to be of no value, under the conditions prevailing in 
tea, and I think that if other gentlemen would give an account of their 
experiences when working on the question of insect control it might 
lead to an exceedingly helpful discussion. Now the first point I want 
to emphasize with regard to insect control is this, that you must know 
your insect — and you must know it inside out. It is not enough to 
know its species ; it is not enough to be able to recognize the various 
stages ; you must know everything about it. It pays in my opinion to 
sit down amongst the bushes and watch every peculiarity of its behaviour, 
no matter how trivial it seems at the time, for the more you know of the 
insect's peculiarities the more likely are you to be successful in finding a 
remedy. Until we possess an intimate acquaintance with every phase of 
the economy of an insect we cannot hope to get very much further in the 
control of that insect and I think Mr. Fletcher is quite right when he 
says that we must get all the information we can about these insects 
before we can hope to devise adequate means of control. Another point 
I wish to emphasize is that if you are going to deal with an insect pest 
of any particular crop you must know all about the crop too. The 
methods of propagation, cultivation, and so on must be at your fingers' 
ends. You must be thoroughly conversant with the factors affecting 
the growth of the plant and of their respective effects before you can 
expect to form an accurate opinion with regard to the factors governing 
the attack by the insect. These are the two points which, in my opinion, 
should be borne in mind by all engaged in the investigation of problems 
in insect control. Before going further I may say that the title of this 
paper is rather misleading. I do not intend to go fully into the principles 
of insect control as they apply to all insect pests. That is a very broad 
subject with which I am not qualified to deal because my sphere has 
been limited to the investigation of the pests of a single plant. You will 
find adequate discussions of the subject in Mr. Fletcher's book on South 
Indian Insects and in other publications. I propose to discuss some of 
the work that I have been doing and to give you some of my experiences 



PrvOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



25- 



on insect control in India. Insect control, as we all know, is effected 
in various ways— there are natural means and there are artificial mean& 
of control. Insect pests are likewise controlled also by many natural 
factors— the climate, the nature of the plant attacked, the environment, 
the presence or absence of parasites, and so on. Now. in dealing witli 
an insect all these factors have to be taken into consideration and you 
must be thoroughly conversant with the effect of these on the insect in 
all stages before you can hope to estimate the value of your control 
methods and, in view of the practical difficulties which may be experi- 
enced in applying recognized remedial measures under different circum- 
stances, it seems to me that general methods of control are very far 
away and that successful control is a question of adopting a method 
adapted to each particular instance. • 

Take the case of insecticides. It does not follow that an insecticide 
which has once been successful will always be so, nor does it follow, 
because an application of insecticide is ' once ' ineffective, that it may 
not be used effectively under proper conditions. A case of this kmd 
can be instanced in connection with the tea mosquito, and it shows the 
imperative necessity for close observation of the habits of the pest. 
The tea mosquito can be killed by soap solution or by lime-sulphur if it 
is kept in them for a sufficient time, but this time is too great to render 
the substances of much value as an insecticidal application in the ordinary 
way. Now the tea mosquito has the following habit. It feeds on 
the young shoots of the bushes in all stages, sitting on the leaves and 
sucking them. When the bush is disturbed the adults apparently drop 
to the ground. They do not, as a rule, however, drop quite to the- 
ground, but drop almost to the ground and then fly away into another 
bush. The young forms, which cannot fly, run down the stems of the 
bushes and conceal themselves at the nodes where the leaves or branches 
come off from the stem. The bush is sprayed, the insects being thereby 
disturbed. The adults drop and fly away elsewhere and escape the 
spray ; the young forms run down the stems and branches to the nodes. 
The fluid falls on to the leaf, runs down the stems and collects m drops 
at the nodes, and the young insect is caught in a drop of fluid which is 
too big for him to be able to break through, and is held m the liquid for 
a sufficient period to allow of his being killed. Therefore, if the insecti- 
cide is appHed when the bulk of the insects are in the young stages one 
may have great success with it, and if applied when the majority are in 
the adult form no success. The result is that of tea planters to whom 
recommendations of this nature have been made, some say it is no good, 
while others say that it had excellent results. The fact of the matter is 
that whereas the substances cannot be recommended for general use 



26 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

against the pest, they can be made to give good results by one thoroughly 
conversant with the habits of the insect. 

Another difficulty arises in connection with the treatment of this 
insect — a difficulty which is only apparent after close observation of the 
habits of the insect. The efficacy of insecticidal treatment depends, 
amongst other things, upon two factors — the killing power of the in- 
secticide and the efficiency with which it can be applied. HelopeUis can 
only be treated by means of contact insecticides, which must be applied 
to the insect. This is in itself a difficulty except in the case of young 
■forms, as described above. But supposing this difficulty be overcome, 
and that the adult tea mosquito be covered with a drop of the insecticide, 
and a drop of such a size that it would take considerable time to evapo- 
late. One might-, suppose that that would kill him, but it does not, 
for the reason that he cleans it all off, just as a cat if covered with treacle 
would clean itself. For this reason any insecticide which has not suffi- 
cient penetrating power, even though properly applied to the insect, 
does very little good, and since insecticides with a sufficient corrosive 
power burn the young shoots spraying to kill the adults presents in- 
superable difficulties. Spraying against the tea mosquito therefore boils 
down to this, that until a substance is discovered which exerts a powerful 
penetrating action on the insect and at the same time is harmless to the 
young shoots, we must confine ourselves to applying spray fluids with a 
high surf-ace tension at a time when the bulk of the insects are in the 
young stages, and the spraying should consist of a thorough soaking of 
the bush, to ensure that it will run down the branches and form drops 
at all the nodes. Otherwise no beneficial results can be anticipated. 

We have another case — based on rather different lines. This is a 
case too where an intimate knowledge of the behaviour of the insect 
was necessary. The red spider of tea {Tetranychus bioculatus W. — M.) 
in North-East India lives for the most part on the upper surface of the 
leave's of the plant. Many sprays have been applied with the hope of 
dealing with red spider without success. The reason for their non- 
success was in many cases due to the fact that the red spider lives under 
a web, which is very fine and almost invisible, but which is nevertheless 
of considerable strength. It is very close to the leaf, but at the same 
time the dimensions of the red spider are so small that nothing above 
the net or web will touch it, and I found that after spraying for red 
spider the insecticide rested in drops above this net while the insects 
ran about happily underneath. In treating red spider it is 
therefore necessary to break down this web, and we find that lime- 
sulphur, which generally contains much suspended matter, will break 
down this web, and in many cases differences in the action of different 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 2T 

lime-sulphurs can be traced to the presence or absence of suspended 
matter. Thus in spraying for red spider with lime-sulphur it is not 
advisable to filter away all the suspended matter, and the lime-sulphur 
concentrates on the market will therefore sometimes fail when a home- 
made mixture will succeed. This is again a question of detail, which 
may make all the difference between success and failure, and which 
could be easily overlooked by one not thoroughly conversant with the 
behaviour of the pest. There was one other case in which spraying was 
effective, but I cannot tell you much about that because it was a pro- 
prietary insecticide made in Switzerland and I never knew the composi- 
tion of it. This was an insecticide which we used against Thrips {Physo- 
thrips setiventris, Bagn., and Haploihrips temnpennis, Bagn.) in 
Darjiling. Spraying is often said to be useless in Darjiling because- 
of the amount of rain, but we found that Thrips could be sprayed' 
with this substance during fine periods with success. 

Tea is grown mainly for the young shoots, and we find that in the 
case of most of our insect pests the young shoots are damaged by the 
insecticide at a weaker concentration than is necessary to kill the insect,, 
which, of course, puts spraying out of the question, and here the import- 
ance of knowing all about the plant comes in. 

Spraying is of course one of the mechanical methods of control. The 
methods of control which have given the best results in my experience 
are cultural methods of control. You all know what I mean by cultural 
methods of control. They consist of adaptations of existing agricultural 
practices to meet the necessities which are brought into existence by 
the presence of the insect pest. You yourselves advocate such methods 
in the case of many pests, as for instance digging up the stumps of plants 
after the crop has been removed, in the case of cane-borers, etc., and 
such recommendations come under cultural methods of control. Now 
in tea we have had successes by the application of these methods, much 
more success in fact than in any other way, but if such methods are to ■ 
be successfully worked out the investigator must possess not only an 
intimate knowledge of the insect he is dealing with, but also an intimate 
knowledge of the plant that is being dealt with, of all practices followed 
in connection with its cultivation, etc., and of the way in which the plant 
responds to different treatments. 

Termites occur all over the tea-districts, and do a great deal of 
damage to tea. We have tried fumigation, we have tried insecticides 
in the soil, we have tried deterrents of one sort or another, and all with- 
out success. Sometime ago I spent a short time in South Sylhet m- 
vestigating white ants and their behaviour in tea. I found, after examin- 
ing a large number of bushes, that the white ants always get into the 



28 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

bush above ground and that they do not as a rule go below the collar of 
the bush. In that part of the world there is a system of pruning by 
which the plants are cut at 12 inches and plucked somewhere above 
that. This results in the formation of a high central stump in which 
the termites can find lodgment. By working there they can cut off the 
supply of sap to the upper portions of the bush, and can only be eradi- 
cated by cutting away the whole bush. We advocated collar-pruning, 
i.e., pruning the bushes to the ground. By this means a bush is formed 
which consists of a circle of branches arising directly from the collar of 
the bush. There is no central stump to afford a lodging to the Termites, 
and as they do not work below the collar they cannot affect the several 
branches until after some years, when they are becoming moribund. 
When this occurs a number of the branches can be cut back in successive 
years — an operation which must be carried out in any case in order to 
get leaf, and the bushes thus consist always of strongly-growing branches 
which are not attacked by termites. This method of prevention has 
proved entirely successful. There is another case in which methods of 
cultural control are successful and that is in dealing with Melolonthid 
and other beetles. These beetles invariably attack new tea wherever 
jungle land is cleared and freshly planted. When the jungle is cleared, 
and the tea plantsd, the grub is still there, and the beetles attack the 
bushes, but in four years' time practically no damage can be seen. 
Continued hoeing and forking, given year after year, five or six 
times during the year, gradually kills out the insects, until they are 
present in such stoall numbers as to be incapable of doing any 
appreciable damage. We have another instance, which I gave you last 
year, in which such methods have been successful in the case of the 
looper caterpillar. 

Another question which must be considered is that of the relation 
between the insect and the plant plia; the relation of the plant to its 
environment, and this is a line of inquiry which I think must always 
be followed. I can give you an instance of this in the case of red spider. 
There are certain places in which tea is always attacked by red spider, 
others in which it is never attacked. Of two gardens adjoining one 
another red spider may be serious in the one, and none may occur in 
the other, although, so far as the insect itself is concerned, the condi- 
tions are exactly similar. Vv'^hat causes the difference ? Probably it is 
in the nature of the bushes. If that is so, then if we can by any means 
alter the condition of the bushes which are attacked and bring it into 
line with the condition of the others which are not being attacked, we 
may reasonably hope for success in control. We find that in the case 
•of red spider drainage has considerable effect. We know that bad 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 29 

'drainage causes weakening of the bushes, we know that weakening of 
the bushes may cause red spider. By improving the drainage we have 
been able to get rid of the red spider. I can give you one instance, 
which perhaps takes us outside the realm of entomology, but which, 
since it is a case in which control of a pest was efifected, is important. 
I was once called into a garden in South Sylhet where they had put out 
some young tea, and for some reason it was badly attacked by red 
spider. Now, there was no red spider on the bushes round it, and yet 
there was no apparent reason why the pest should have chosen this area 
in preference to the surrounding areas. During this particular season 
■there had been very wet weather, and an excessive rainfall for that part 
of the world. Now. when rain falls on to the ground it washes the fine 
particles down into the soil, the result being that a layer of fine particles 
is formed which holds up moisture, and produces a temporary condition 
of bad drainage. Such a layer is known as a pan. There was a paii 
about 6 inches down, which would be probably 4 inches above the bottom 
of the lowest of the roots of tea of that age. This means that the roots 
were in a layer of soil from which water could not get away. We there- 
fore trench-hoed the area to a depfh of 9 inches, to break this jDan and 
allow the excess moisture to get away through the soil, and the result 
was entirely successful. By this means we had removed the cause of 
the susceptibility of the bushes to attack, and the red spider, which 
had resisted all attempts to remove it by insecticides, was thrown off. 
Occasionally red spider reappears on this area. When this occurs the 
manager of the estate puts in a shallow trench-hoe instead in place of 
an ordinary round of light hoeing, and the pest is thrown off. 

My paper has consisted of a series of disconnected instances, rather 
than a discussion of the principles of insect control as a whole, because 
'my activities have been restricted to a small sphere, but I wish to em- 
phasize that I do not think that one can expect to devise effective means 
of control except by a thorough acquaintance, not only with the life- 
history of the insect, but with its relation to the plant attacked in all 
circumstances, and of the behaviour of the plant under different methods 
of cultivation, and the nature of its response to environmental condi- 
tions, and to modifications of existing agricultural practices. 

I should like to thank Mr. Andrews on behalf of the Meetin" for his ^r. Fletcher; 
very interesting paper which he has given us. I may say that I quite 
agree with all that he has said. It is an undoubted fact that, before 
taking up the application of control measures, it is essential to know 
every single thing we can know about the insect concerned and the crop 
which it damages. There is one point in the paper about which I should 
like some further information. Mr. Andrews said that, by giving several 



30 



PllOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Andrews. 



Fletcher. 
Andrews. 



Fletcher. 



Andrews. 
Fletcher, 

Andrews. 
Senior- White. 

Andrews. 



Senior-White. 
Andrews. 



Inglis. 



hoeings, the tea gardens are cleared of Melolonthid grubs, I should like 
to know how far that is true. 

Ordinarily tea is not very badly attacked but, when forest areas are 
cleared and new bushes of tea are planted, these grubs come up 'and the 
beetles that emerge from them eventually attack the bushes. 

Do they feed on the tea-bushes ? 

The adult beetles riddle the leaves during the first two or three 
years, but later on no serious damage is done as all the grubs in the soil . 
are killed off by the frequent hoeings that are given. 

In the case of fruit gardens in Shillong, the areas around the trees 
are constantly hoed and Melolonthid grubs are collected in very large 
numbers, and the beetles also are collected by hand from the leaves of 
the fruit-trees in the evening, but constant collecting of the grubs and 
beetles seems to exercise little permanent effect on the numbers of the 
insects, which undoubtedly breed and come in from surrounding areas, 
so I am rather doubtful whether constant hoeing by itself would have 
such a permanent effect as is described. 

In the case of fruit gardens, the conditions are perhaps rather different, 
as the fruit and flowers are disturbing factors. 

It is, therefore, another case in which a thorough knowledge of the 
crop is essential. 

Quite so. 

You have said nothing about the control of insect pests by means of 
their parasites. We in Ceylon have, for instance, a parasite on the Tea 
Tortricid [Homona coffearia, Nietn.] which keeps it down. 

We have a parasite on the Tea Looper [Biston suppressoria] which 
was bred in cages and liberated in enormous numbers, but it did not 
keep the pest under control. Similarly there is a parasite of the Tea 
Mosquito [Helopeltis iJieivora] but this parasite is already existing all 
over the Tea Districts, so there is no question of introducing it ; but 
something appears to keep this parasite down, as only about one per 
cent, of the bugs are found to be parasitized. Parasite distribution 
requires skilled men to carry it out. 

Were you not able to find any hyperparasites that were keeping this 
parasite down ? 

No ; but we have not studied the question seriously. In the case of 
some Tea Insects the percentage of parasitization may be quite large. 
In the case of Gelatine Grubs [Belip2)a sp.] for example, as many as 
eighty per cent, of the larvse are found parasitized. 

• With regard to collar-pruning, could this be done on a large scale ? 



PROCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 31 

Yes ; it is done to a large extent. If the tea has been properly collar- Mr. Andrews 
pruned once, you can cut out one branch at a time afterwards and get 
a new bush in a few years without any serious loss of crop. Tea is 
collar-pruned in the best practice. Sometimes cases occur where tea is 
not collar-pruned although the manager knows that it should be done. 
The immediate effect of a first collar-pruning is a loss of crop to a con- 
siderable extent, and when it is a case of losing crop for the benefit of 
his successor a manager who has been out some time may often leave 
tea up which ought to come down. In the case of tea owned by big 
Companies a certain percentage is cut down every year without reference 
to white ants, etc. In Sylhet collar-pruning was found to give no useful 
results, so it was not done there, but we did it. 

We are very thankful to Mr. Andrews for his interesting paper. Mr. Eamakrishoa 
He is in a very good position, as he has to deal with only one crop and Ayyar. 
has got intelligent men to carry out his instructions. In our work, on 
the other hand, we have to find out in the case of each crop what it will 
be advantageous to do and often we get information regarding the appear- 
ance of a pest too late to be able to do anything at all. We realize the 
truth of all that Mr. Andrews has said, that knowledge both of the insect 
pests and of the crops is essential. We have to consider local conditions 
also. As a rule we do not deal with crops of such a high value as tea, 
coffee and rubber, but with staple crops which do not allow of very high 
profits. Next we have to take into consideration the point of view of 
the raiijat. Spraying with insecticides can only be applied to paying 
crops such as fruit-trees, cotton, etc., but with regard to staple crops 
I feel that spraying cannot be done for some time to come. Our hope 
lies in the direction of finding out different baits and working on the 
physiological aspect of insect-life. Then we shall be able to deal with 
pests of such crops as paddy, sorghum and wheat. 

In Madras we tried spraying against Mango Hopper [Idiocerus spp.]. 
We succeeded in checking it and the people became interested in this 
method of control, but we could not get the right sort of sprayers nor 
could we get the insecticides at the time we wanted them and the prices 
also went high just at the time when we could have demonstrated with 

some success. 

Regarding parasites, to which a previous speaker referred, we know 
very little about parasites. We want to know their original home. 
There is some danger in working with parasites especially in the case of 
their introduction from other countries. We must first know what 
parasites we have already got in this country and their hosts. 

We are thankful to Mr. Andrews for his interesting paper. He has Mr. Miara. 
struck out a line of his own and lays great stress on cultural methods. 

VOL. I ^ 



32 



mOCEEDINGS OF THE THIKD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



We at Pusa have been working on Cotton Bollworm, Earias fabia and 
E. insulana. and find that cultural methods surely go a long way in pro- 
tecting the plant. One year [1911] our plants were attacked by "Red 
Spider " ; we sprayed with crude oil emulsion and, as Mr. Andrews has 
pointed out, we had no success. Then we sent around boys with brooms 
to rub the webbing off the plants. Next we tried spraying with a force- 
pump so that the liquid might reach the underside of the leaves. Next 
year we increased the distance between the plants to be three feet apart 
so that the plants got plenty of light and air. Thus cultural methods 
were found useful. We also found that inter-cultured plants were able 
to throw off the attack. There is scope for work along the lines suggested 
by Mr. Andrews. 

Chilomenes sex-maculatus eats the Red Spider. 

Mr. Andrews has said that termites attack tea-bushes at the collar. 
Here at Pusa they attack the roots of trees also. In Assam it may be 
the specialized habit of those termites not to go below the collar. 

I have had some experience with sugarcane in which the setts were 
put down six inches below the soil. When we cut out the dead-hearts 
we find that the setts are attacked by termites. This shows that the 
termites of Assam have a special habit of not going down below the 
soil. 

It merely shows, what I have pointed out before, that different species 
of termites have very different habits. 

If there are no further remarks on Mr. Andrews' paper, we will go 
on to the Annotated List of Indian Crop-pests, with which we will take 
the paper on Indian Fruit-pests in order to save time, as many general 
crop-pests attack fruit-trees also and there will be no object in dealing 
with such insects twice over. We have been through the list of our 
insect pests on previous occasions. Four years ago we dealt with them 
according to the Orders and Families of the insects concerned. Two 
years ago we went over them according to the crops which they attack, 
and the whole information up to then is on record in the Report of the 
Proceedings of our Second Meeting, and there is therefore little need to, 
go into too great detail ; so at this Meeting we will give only a summarized 
account of these insects, adding especially any new information which 
we have been able to obtain about them during the last two years, and, 
instead of discussing the whole papers after they have been read, I will 
ask you to give any further remarks on each insect as we deal with it. 
AVe will now run briefly through these insect pests, taking them in sys- 
tematic order and commencing with the Hymenoptera. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIED E^STOMOLOGICAL MEETIiNO 33 

2.— ANNOTATED LIST OF INDIAN CROP-PESTS. 

£y T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S., Imperial 

Entomologist. 



HYMENOPTERA. 

FORMICID.^. 

The Formicid^ coiTiprise the Ants, of which comparatively few species Mr. Fletcher, 
clo damage directly to cultivated plants although numerous species do 
indirect damage by protecting Scale-insects and other noxious Rhynchota 
which suck plant-juices and exude honey-dew, and also other insects 
.such as Lycsenid laivas. 



(Ecophylla smaragdina, Fb. 

F. I., Hym. II., 311, f. 93. 

Occurs throughout the whole of the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon, 
■wherever trees grow, and is often a source of considerable annoyance 
to fruit-gatherers, especially in the case of mango trees. It is also a 
decided pest by its habit of protecting noxious scale-insects. On the 
other hand, it is extensively insectivorous and does some good by des- 
troying large numbers of caterpillars, beetles, etc. On the whole it 
seems to do more harm than good and must certainly be included here 
-as a pest. The nests may be burnt off the trees but it is very difficult 
to reduce their numbers permanently. 



Holcamyrmex scahriceps, Mayr. 

F. I., Hym. II., 282-283, f. 84. 

This species occurs irregularly throughout the Plains of India (except 
Assam), but is not recorded from Burma or Ceylon. We have speci- 
mens from Pusa, Lyallpur, Peshawar, Gujranwala, Lahore, Kasur, 
Chakwal, Shahpur, Zafiarwal Tehsil (Punjab), Hangu (N.-W. F. P.), 
Chakradharpur and Coimbatore. 

This is the common Harvesting Ant of India and in some wheat- 
growing districts it does a certain amount of damage by carrying off 
ripe grains and storing these in its nest below ground. Indeed, in such 
areas, in times of famine, it is usual to dig out these nests and to recover 
the grain, which is stored away in som.e quantity. i 

d2 



u 



PROCEKDlNCiS f>F Tlir, TltlUD K.NTOMOLOGIC'AL MEETING 



MeranopJvs bicolor, Guer. 

F. I., Hym. II., 1G8-169, f. 6G. 

Occurs throughout the Plains of India (except in hot, dry districts); 
Burma and Ceylon. 

In the Pusa collection we have specimens from Pusa, Bihar ; Tran- 
quebar, Madras ; Minbu, Lower Burma ; Ranchi (Kankey Farm). 

At Padu Farm, in Burma, this ant was noted as biting holes in leaves of 
Cajamis indicus. Otherwise, we do not know it as a pest. 



Seaicr-White. 

Fletcher. 

Seiiior-White. 



Fletcheic. 



Solenopsis geminata, Fb. 

F. I., Hymi II., 158-159, f. G4. 

Occurs throughout the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon. We- 
have specimens from Calcutta, Chakradharpur, Madura, Coimbatore, 
Mandalay and Tat k on. 

At Calcutta the workers have been found destroying brinjal seed- 
lings, and at Mandalay, biting holes into the leaves of Cajanus indicus. 

We have tried with success the banding of plants with a rag and tar 
just at the collar. 

Can you do this in the case of young plants, such as brinjal seedlings, 
for instance ? 
Yes. 

Cremastogaster^hodgsoni, Forel. 

F. I., Hym. II., 131-132. 

At Pusa this is a distinct pest on Citrus trees by protecting Icerya 
wgyptiaca and other Rhynchota. In the " Fauna " volume it is only 
recorded from Burma but our specimens appear to be Iwdgsoni. 



Myrmicaria brunnea, Saunders. 

F. I., Hyn>: II., 118-119, f. 55. 

Occurs almost everywhere in the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon,, 
except in dry areas. We have males from Chapra and Peradeniya, 
and workers from Belgaum, Trichinopob^ Tanjore, Sidapur (Coorg) 
and Pegu. 

At Bangalore this ant was found attacking garden plants of Arctoiis. 
grandis and doing some damage by biting the leaves. 



rPvOCEEEINGS OP TUE TRIED E^JTOMOLOGICAL MEETING S5 

Dorylus orientalis, Westw. 

F. I.,Hym.II.,i3p. .1-5, fi". (3-7. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma ami Ceylon in the Plains, and 
frequently does damage by attacking the underground portions of plants. 
At Pusa it damages roots and undergrou)id parts of plants such as potato, 
cabbage, cauliflower and vegetables generally. At Cawnpur also it has 
been found damaging potato. At Shahabad, in the United Provinces, 
it has been noted as damaging early-sown groundnuts and at Gadag 
Farm it was found to eat out groundnut kernels when the nuts were 
lying in a heap after harvest. In Ceylon, both at Peradeniya and 
Dikoya, the workers have been observed to be destructive to the roots ^nUievis. 
of potato and other vegetables. ^^- ^^eteher. 

It may be controlled by the use of crude oil enuilsion applied to the 
«oil around the plants. It is usually only young plants that are attacked. 

Have you tried lime ? 

No ; we have not tried lime at Pusa as there is already an excess of 
lime in the soil here. A few years ago we had a bad attack of this ant 
on young cabbages and I tvied various repellents, including apterite, 
naphthaline, and phenyle, and found that crude oil emulsion was the 
most successful. 

Dorylus labiatus, Shuck. 

F. I., Hym. II., pp. 2-3, fit. 1-3. 

Occurs throughout India, but not known from Ceylon, Assam or 
Burma. Is apparently carnivorous as a rule, attacking ants {Pheidole). 
Has only once been sent in as a pest, when it was attacking potato tubers 
^underground at Sidapur, Coorg. 



Apid^. 

Megachile onthracina, Smith. 

F. I., Hym. I., 473-474, f. 157. 

Occurs throughout the Plains of Northern India and Bengal. We 
have it from Pusa, Chapra and Cawnpur. 

It is a leaf cutting bee ; at Pusa it cuts leaves from tur {Cajanus indicus) 
and rose plants. It has been noticed taking leaves from a ber tree also 
and from Cassia. 

It is scarcely a pest but sometimes disfigures rose-plants by cutting 
circular patches out of the leaves. 



36 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Megaclnh disjimcfa, Fabr. 

F. I., Hym. I., 480. 

Occurs throughout India and Burma, We have it from Pusa,. 
Chapra, Jagi Eoad (x4.ssam), Belgaum and Lower Burma. 

This is also a leaf-cutting bee, and removes leaves from tur and rose^ 
plants, in the same way as M. anthracina. 

Vespidje. 

Vespa basalis, Smith. 

F. I., Hym. I., 403-404. 

Widely distributed in India, Burma and Ceylon. 
We have had this species sent in to us from Dehra Dun, where this 
hornet was noticed removing the bark of young Eucalyptus stuartiana 
trees growing in the Cantonment of Dehra Dun. The bark was removed 
clean to the wood, the thickness of the bark being \ to | inch and the 
width of the eaten part about the same. 

Do they damage the trees very high above the ground ? 
I cannot say. The specimens were sent in to us and we have only 
received this one report about this insect. 

At Dehra Dun I have noticed ants removing the bark from these 
trees. 

Possibly the trees were dead. It seems rather unlikely that these 
hornets should strip living bark from Ei(calyptus trees. I included this 
insect in the list because it was sent in to us as doing damage and possibly 
someone else might be able to corroborate damage to living trees by 
hornets. 



Chalcidtd^. 

( Uniden tified Eurytom me.) 

This is the insect which damages apricots at Haripur Hazara in the 
North-West Frontier Province, by ovipositing in the young fruit. The 
grub bores into the kernel mside the stone, the result being that the 
fruit shrivels and falls olT the tree before it is fully developed. The larva 
lives inside the fallen stone until the next spring, when it pupates and 
emerges as an adult. It is probable that in some cases it may lie over 
for more than one year. 

Collection and destruction of the fallen fuiits and stones is the obvicus- 
remedy for control. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEE1I>G 



37 



{Undetermined Eurytomine.) 
Another species of Eurytomine, as yet undetermined, has been fciTxd 
to attack dhaincha pods at Pusa. We referred to this in our Annual 
Report for 1917-18 and have figured the various stages [fgvres 
exhibited]. Mr. Ghosh, will you tell us something about it ? 

The eggs are laid in the pods and the seeds are attacked. In each Mr. Ghosh, 
seed attacked there is one grub which eats the cotyledons and then pupates 
in the seed, the adult wasp gnawing its way out through the shell of the 
seed and then through the wall of the pod. There is one grub in each 
seed and each adult wasp gnaws a hole of exit for itself. The only satis- 
factory method of control is the destruction of the affected pods. We 
tried spraying the plants with crude oil emulsion to deter the adults 
from ovipositing, but this did not keep them away. Picking out the 
dried pods reduces the number of the wasps. 

Eiirytoma indi. 
This Eurytomine has been found at Coimbatore, the larva boring Mr. Fletcher. , 
and eating seeds inside agathi and dhaincha pods. It is apparently 
distinct from our species in dhaincha at Pusa but works in a similar way. 

Megastigwus indi. 

This also occurs at Coimbatore in agathi and dhaincha pods. 

I have nothing new to add about these two Eurytomines from Coim- Mr. Ratnakrishna 

batore. 

Tenthredinid^. 

Athalia proxiina, Klug. 
Athalia proxima is widely distributed in the Plains of India and is Mr. Fletcher, 
usually a minor pest, sporadically bad, on cruciferous plants. We have 
records from the following localities and food-plants :— 



Chakwal (Jhelum District) . 
Lyallpur . . . • 

Throughout United Provinces 



Jamalpur . 

Surat 

Mahim (Bombay) 

Poena 

Baroda 

Nagpur 

Bababudin Hill:^ 

Shevaroy Hills . 

Pusa 

Dacca 
Assam 



Cabbage, cauliflower. 

Turnip, cress. 

Appears in the beginning of cold weather 

on cruciferous plants. 
Mustard. 
Radish. 
Mustard. 

Cabbage, mustard, radish. 
C'rucifene generally. 
Radish, turnip, cabbage. 
Turnip. 
Turnip. 
Radisli, turnip, mustard, candytuft and 

cress {Lepidiiim safivtirii). 
Mustard, radish. 
Mustard. 



Ramakiislma 
yar. 

. H. L. Dutt. 

Ramrao. 

Ramaclia'jdra 
) 
Fletcher. 

Samrao. 

Gupta. 

Fletciier. 

Misra. 

Kunhi Kannan. 

Gupta. 

Fletcher. 

Ghosh. 
Fletcher. 



38 PKOCEEDI-NGS OF THE TH1E13 E>"rOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

We find it at Coimbatore also. 

This year it was bad in Bihar. 

We find Atlialia lyroxima [at Poena] all through the summer and 
monsoon months. 

I found it in July in Bellary. 

At Pusa it appears active only during the winter and rests throughout 
the summer, from about April to October inclusive. 

At Poona it is bad on cruciferous plants in the middle of the monsoon 
[about August]. 

It is a bad pest in Assam. 

Has anyone any control measures to suggest ? 

We usually dust the attacked plants with lead arsenate, road-dust 
and kerosinized ashes. 

We shake the plants and the larvae fall oli and they are either swept 
away along the rows or squashed. 

At Jorhat we sprinkle lime mixed with soil on to the plants, but this 
is not possible over large areas. 

Has anyone tried turning chickens into the affected fields to eat up 
the caterpillars 1 

No. 

It would seem worth while trying. 



Atlialia leucostoma, Cam. 

We only know this insect from Hangu,in the North- West Frontier 
Province, where it was found on mustard. It probably replaces A. 
froxima in the North- West. 

{Unidentified Tenthredinid.) 

This sawfly occurs commonly at Shillong between May and October 
and often completely defoliates cultivated rose trees. The eggs are 
deposited in a long slit cut by the female through the bark of a young 
stem and, on the larvae hatching out, this slit expands until its sides are 
flattened and lie parallel with the surface through which the slit was 
originally made, causing a characteristic malformation of the stem. 
The larvse feed on the leaves, at first gregariously but later on, as they 
become nearly full-fed, they tend to become solitary. The attacked 
rose trees are often completely defoliated. Pupation takes place in a 
rough silken cocoon, which is probably formed on or beneath the surface 
of the soil, but cocoons have not been noticed under natural conditions. 
There seem to be four or five broods during the season, but adult flies 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEL'ilNii 39 

and young and full-grown larvae can usually be found at any time, so 
that the broods are not clearly defined. 

Control is easy. The adult females may be caught as they are ovi- 
positing, or the positions where eggs have been laid may be seen and the 
eggs destroyed, or the larvae may be hand-picked. 

The life-history and damage done are shown in a coloured plate 
lexliibi^ed], 

( Unidentified Tenthredin id) . 

This species is distinct from the Shillong rose sawfly, having a reddish 
thorax (black in the Shillong species) but acts in an exactly similar 
manner, the eggs being thrust into tender stems of cultivated rose, 
whose leaves are defoliated by the larvae. This species is common at 
Dehra Dun, and at Ramgaih (Kumaon District) in August 1918 I found 
a rose-twig which had had eggs deposited in it in the manner charac- 
teristic of these species, so that the Dehra Dun species probably occurs 
along the central Himalayas generally. 

In Dehra Dun this sawfly is scarcely a pest, as we have to cut Mr. Beesoa. 
back the rose-bushes periodically. 

It certaimy seemed to occur in large numbers when I was at Dehra Dun Mr. Fletcher. 
last August. In the case of the Shillong species, whose habits seam 
exactly similar, certainly every leaf on a rose-bush may be eaten and 
the Vv'hole bush left leat^ess. 

DIPTERA. 

MUSCID.E. 

Pycnosoma flaviceps, Macq. 

S. I. I., pp. 348-349, f. 208. 

This fly, as noted in the reference given, has occurred in South Kanara 
and Malabar as a pest of toddy, spoiling the juice. 

Anthomyiad.e. 

{CJiolum Fly). 
Fletcher, S. Ind. Ins., pp. 356-357, ff. 215, i^ [nee f. 215 i] (191 1). 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 178, 188, 202 (1917). 

This species has been recorded from Nagpur, larva in juar stem, 
and from Coimbatore, larva in juar, wheat, varagu {Paspalum scrobi- 
culatum), Panicum frmnentaceum, maize and broom corn (a kind of 
cholam). 



40 



PROCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD EXTOMOLOGlCAL MEETING 



. Ramakrishna 

?ar. 

. Fletcher. 



Senior-White. 



Fielcher. 



This was discussed at our last Meeting and I do not think there is^ 
anything new to add. 

{CumhuFhj.) 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 178, 202, (1917). 

This fly also occurs at Coimbatore, the larva boring in ciimbu and 
Panicum miliaceiim. 

To me this seems to be the same as the Cholam Fly. 

Mr. Ballard studied these Anthomyiads and concluded that the 
cholam and.cwnbn flies were distinct. 

{Undetermined? Anthomyiad.) 

We have an undertermined fly which was sent in to us from Toong 
in the Darjiling District by the Manager of Margaret's Hope Tea Co. 
(letter of 27th August 1915) ; the larvse were reported to be boring into 
healthy lime and orange fruits. Probably the same fly is also found 
boring into orange fruits in the Nilgiris. 

This is probably the same as the " Tomato fly " referred to Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 178 (1917), as attacking rotting fruits and 
vegetable matter generally. 

In Ceylon I have also bred an Anthomyiad from brinjal. 

Trypaneid^. 

Dacus (Leptoxyda) longistylus, Wied. 

' Bezzi, Bull. Ent. Res., VII, 101 (Oct. 191G). 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 137 (1917). 

Occurs at Coimbatore, Nagpur, Bellary and Puri, and probably 
throughout the Plains of India, the larva boring in the fruit of Calotropis 
and damaging the floss. 



Dacus brevistylus, Bezzi (1908). 

Bezzi, Bull. Ent. Res., YII, 101 (Oct. 1916). 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 243, 304. 

Recorded by Bezzi from Hagari, Cuddapah, and Coimbatore. Attacks 
melons, water-melons and cultivated Cucurbits. We have this species 
from Triplicane, Madras, larva in bitter gourd fruit ; Siddhout, Cuddapah, 
larva in melons ; Nagpur, larva in Lagenaria vidgaris. 

Control may be attained by picking and destroying the early attacked 
fruits. 



PROCEED [jS'GS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 4i 

Dacus olece, Fb. 

This well-known serious pest of cultivated olives in Southern Europe 
is known to occur in wild olives at Cherat, North-West Frontier Province, 
and probably throughout North-West India. So far as we know, ifc 
has not yet been noted to attack cultivated olives in India but the olive 
industry is as yet a very young one and there is little doubt but tha,t we 
shall have trouble with this olive fruitfly. 

Ch cefodacusferrvgin eiisferrvgin ew5, Fb . (1791). 

Bezzi, Bull. Ent. Res., VII, 104 (Oct. 1916). 

Recorded by Bezzi from Peradeniya, Katihar, Pusa, fruits of guava 
(Psidium gmjava) and loquat {Eriobofrya jajjonica). Also known from 
Mandalay, on mango ; Myitkyina, larva in peach and pomelo ; Maymyo, 
larva in mango. 

CluE'todaciis femigineiis dorsalis, Hendl. (1912). 

Bezzi, Bull. Ent. Res. VII, 104-105 (Oct. 1916). 

This species is known from the following localities and food-plants : — 

Peradeniya. 

Pusa ; in loquat {Eriobofrya japotuca). 

Coimbatore ; on mango. 

Taru ; larva in peach. 

Mandalay ; larva in mango and chilly {Capsicum friitescens). 

Myitkyina ; larva in pomelo and guava. 

_, ,, ' >• larva in SoJammi verbascifoUmn fruits. 
Tatkon ; ) '' 

Maymyo ; larva in American chillies {Capsicum sp.), pear {Pyrus 
communis) and peach {Primus per sica). 
At Ma tale, in Ceylon, I have reared it from larvae in Solatium melon- Mr. Se:iicr.Wliit 
gena. 

That is new record, but hardly unexpected as we already have it Mr. Fletcher 
recorded from a wild Solanv.m. 

Chcetodacus fernigineus incisus, Wlk. (1860). 

Bezzi, Bull. Ent. Res. VII, 105 (Oct. 1916). 

This fruitfly is known from the following locahties and food-plants : — 

Kumaon ; Pollibetta, larva in jak {Artocarpus integrijolia) ; 
Santikoppa, larva in fruit of Careya arborea ; Bangalore 



BeDJor-WbJte. 



42 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

adult on mango leaves, larva in guava fruits ; Coimbatore, 
larva in mango fruits ; Tatkon and Lashio, larva in Solanum 
verhascijolium fruits ; Taung-gyi (adult). 

ChcBtodacus ferrugineus versicolor, Bezzi (1916). 

Bull. Ent. Res., VII, 105 (Oct. 1916). 

We have the following records : — 

Peradeniya ; Pusa, larva in guava and Achras sapota fruits ; 
^ Coimbatore, larva in mango fruits. 
At Matale, in Ceylon, I have reared it from mango fruits. 

Chcetodacus zonatus, Saunders (1841). 
Dacus squalidus, Wlk. (1860). 

,, persicce, Bigot (1889). 

,, mangiferw. Cotes (1893). 
Bactrocera niangifercv, Bezzi (1913). 
Chcetodacus. zonatus, Bezzi, Bull. Ent. Ptes. VII, 105-106 (Oct. 

1916). 
Chcetodacus zonatus, Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 216, 226, 

241, 249, 307 (1917). 
In his paper in Bull. Ent. Res. Bezzi gives the following records : — 

Ranchi, " Ranchi peach pest." 

Pusa, larva in peach, fig. {Ficus sp., cultivated), Achras sapota, 

ripe bael fruit. 
Santikoppa, larva in Careya arhorea fruits. 
Amroha, Moradabad, larva in mango fruits. 
Pachmarhi, larva in peach fruits. 
Nagpur, in bottle gourd {Lagenaria vulgaris) VIII, 1913, 

Ratiram. [?] 
Taru, larva in peach VIII-IX. 1914. 

The Pusa collection also contains specimens from Coimbatore and 
Tranquebar. 

At Poona it is bad on mango, fifty per cent, of the fruit being attacked. 
It has a number of parasites but they do not seem to check it. 
At any rate, we should like to see some of those parasites. 

Chcetodacus tuberculatus, Bezzi, 

Bull. Ent. Res. VII, 106-107 (Oct. 1906). 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 241. 

This is known from Taung-gyi (adults), and Myitkyina (larvaD in 
peach, May- June). 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD EXTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 43 

Chcptodacns correctus, Bezzi. 

Bull. Ent. Res. VII, 107 (Oct. 1916). 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 22G, 241, (1917). . 
Bactrocera zonata, Bezzi {nee Saunders), Mem. Ind. Mus. 
Ill, 94, t. 8, f. 4 (1913). 

We have records of this from Pusa, larva in peach ; Coirabatore, on 
mango ; Guindy, adults attracted to opened termitarium, and Hagari, 
adults. 



Chcetodacns diipUcatns, Bezzi (191G). 

Bull. Ent. Res. VII, 107-108, (Oct. 1916). 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 241. 

This species seems to be known only fiom Pachmarhi, where speci- 
mens were bred from larvse in peach fruits by Ratiram in May 1909. 



Chcptodacus diversus, Coq. (1904). 

Dacus sp., Howlett, Ind. Ins. Life, t. 66, f. 2 (1909). 

Bactrocera diversa, Bezzi, Mem. Ind. Mus. Ill, 94, t. 8, if. 2-3 

(1913). 
Cluetodacm diversvs, Bezzi, Bull. Ent. Res. VII, 108-109 (Oct. 

1916). 
Chaiodacvs diversiis, Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 213, 307 

(1917). 

This species was original'y bred from oranges {Citrus aiiranthim).. 
In his paper Bezzi gives the following records : — 

Pusa, adults ; Bangalore, adult ; Machavaram, Godavari Distric. ; 
Coimbatore ; Nagpur, larva in bottle-gourd ; Dehra Dun. 

The Pusa collection contains specimens reared at Peradeniya fioni 
larvee in mango and at Mandalay from larvse in plantain. 

The females are attracted by the smell of soursop {Anona muruata). Mr. SjQicf-Wiiica. 

That is a useful observation. The male-; of many of these fi uit flies Mr. Fie tcliar. 
are readily attracted to smells, but that provides no means of control as 
it is the females which do the damage. If we can attract the females, 
the ca.-e becomes different. 



4i FROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

ChcBiodacus cucurbitce, Coq. (1899). 

Dacus cucurbitce, Coq. 

Howlett, Ind. Ins. Life, p. 633, f. 418 (1909). 
Bactrocera cucurbitce, Bezzi, Mem. Ind. Mus. Ill, p. 96, t. 8, 

f. 7 (1913). 
Dacus cucurbitce, F'etcher, S. Ind. Ins. p. 354, t. 16. 
Chcetodacus cucurbitce, Bezzi, Bull. Ent. Res. VII, 109-110, 

(Oct. 1916). 
Chcetodacus cucurbitcE, Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 11, 304, 

305, 307 (1917). 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. 

The Pusa collection contains specimens from the following localities 
and food-plants :^ 

Peradeniya, pumpkins ; Coimbatore, cucumber, pampkin, melons *> 
Attur, water-melon ; Pusa, Litffa (pgyptia:a, pumpkins, cucum- 
ber, Tricliosanthes dioica fruits, Cephalandra indica stem (making 
galls), in wild small fruits and cultivated large fruits of Cucumis 
trigonus, Momordica charantia fruits, Trichosanthes anguina 
fruits, galls of Vitis trifolia ; Peshawar, melon shoots ; Maymyo, 
Luffa oegyptiaca ; Tatkon, Trichosanthes cucumerina. 

We discussed this species (as well as those other fruitflies also) at the 
last Meeting and I need only call your attention now to Mr. Fullaway's 
paper on the control of this fruitfly in Hawaii by means of a parasite. 
[See page 625.] 

Hamakiisbra We have bred paiasites from it [at Coimbatore]. 

rar. 

Chcetodacui caudatus, Fb. (1805). 

Bactro era caudata, Bezzi, Mem. Ind. Mus. Ill, 97, t. 8, f. 8 

(1913). 
Chatodacus caudatus, Bezzi, Bull. Ent. Res., VII, 110 (Oct. 

1916). 
Chcetodacus caudatus, Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 213 (1917). 

In his paper, Bezzi gives the following localities and food-plants : — 

Dehra Dun ; Shevaroys ; Coimbatore, on snake gourd ; Baba- 
budins ; Lashio ; Tatkon, larva on fruits of Trichosanthes pal- 
mata ; Myitkyina, on pomelo ; Taung-gyL 

The Pusa collection contains specimens reared at Peradeniya from 
pumpkins, and adults taken at Jeolikote, on mulberry fruit, and at 
Taung-gyi. 



PHOCEEDIMGS OF TliE THIKD LNTOMOLOGICAL MEETING ^5 

[Chatodacus hageni ? 
At Matale, in Ceylon, I have reared from larvae in CilruUus fruits Mr. Senior While, 
a fly which I believe to be C. hageni.] 

Mellesis eumenoides, Bezzi (1916). 

Bull. Ent. lies. VII, 119 (Oct. 1916). 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 307 (1917). 
This species is so far only kno^\^l from Burma, where it has been reared 
at Tatkon from larvce in TricJiosanthes cucumerina fruits and at ;Myitkyina 
irom larvae in cucumber. 

Mj/ ioparda lis ca rpa I in a . 
Cleghorn, Agl. Jour. Ind. IX, 124-140, t. 13-15 (April 1914). 
Pioc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 306. 
This fruitfly is well-kno\vn in Baluchistan as attacking melons and a 
long account of it was given by the late Mr. .J. Cleghorn in the Agricul- 
tural Journal of India. So far as we know it has never been reported 
from the Plains of India, but in August 1915 we reared it at Pusa in some 
numbers fromlaivee found in fruits of Cucumis trigonus. 

Carpomyia vesuviana. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 11, 254 (1917). 
This species has been reared from her {Zizyflius jujuba) fmit at 
■Coimbatore, Hadagalli (Bellary District), Pusa, Poona and Baroda. 

At Poona last year it was very bad on ber. The pest was so bad that Mr. Ramrao. 
no fruit could be had during the monsoon. 

It is parasitized extensively at Pusa by Biostercs carpcmijice, Silv., Mr. Fletcher. 
and Bracon fletcheri, Silv. If these do not occur at Poona you might 
perhaps try mtroducing them there. 

Sticiaspis ceratitina, Bezzi. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 204 (1917). 
This species is common at Pusa, the larva boring into bamboo shoots 
during the rains. It seems probable that it does a great deal more 
damage to young shoots than is generally realized. 

Sticiaspis striata, Frogg. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 204 (1917). 
This species has sim.ilarly been bred at Peradeniya from larv« 
attacking shoots of giant bamboo {Dendrocalamus stridus) but has not 
been found in India so far as I know. 



?];OCEEDIXGS OF TPIE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



. Gough, 



[Ceratitis capitata. 

Fletcher. The Mediterranean Fniitfly, Ceratitis capitata, has not yet been found 

in India, but it is very widely distributed now and it is quite possible- 
that it may be introduced some time, so perhaps Dr. Gough will tell us 
something about it from his experience in Egypt. 

It is very bad in Egypt in gardens where several kinds of fruit are 
grown, such as oranges, guava, apricot and peach. In such cases it has 
the chance of passing through a generation in each of these fruits. If 
there is only one kind of fruit, for example, if only oranges are present, 
there is not much damage done. We have also taken it from dates. 
At present nothing is done to control it and no parasites are known. 
Have you any other fruitflies in Egypt besides Ceratitis ? 
No ; Ceratitis capitata is the only fruitfly so far known to attack 
cultivated plants in Egypt. 

You ought to be careful not to get Chcctodacus cucnrbitce introduced 
from India. It might easily be carried from Bombay or other ports in 
the larval state in vegetables or as an adult on board ship. 

We ought to be quite safe, because we have twenty miles of desert 
in the Suez Canal region and Port Said is also separated from Cairo by a~ 
belt of desert. 

The adult fly is very long-lived provided it can obtain food. It can 
live for two or three hundred days or more under favourable conditions. 
Whilst I was in Bombay I had some oranges which were probably 
Egyptian oranges ; so, if these oranges are imported, there is danger of 
,the introduction of Ceratitis capitata from Egypt into India. It v/ill 
pay the Indian Government to stop the importation of Egyptian fruit 
altogether. It is not much of a trade. Quarantine is of no avail ; entire 
prohibition is needed. 
Fletcher. There certainly have been importations of oranges from Egypt into 

Bombay in the past. We are indebted to Dr. Gough for calling our 
attention to the danger of importation of Ceratitis capitata into India 
by this means.] 



Fletcher. 
Gough. 

'. Fletcher. 



. Gough. 

, Fletcher. 
Gough. 



PSILID^. 



(Til-Root Fly.) 

? PsiJa sp., Howlett, Ind. Ins. Life, p. G29, f. 415 (1909). 
? Psila sp., Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 85 (1917). 

^ This fly, which is supposed to be a species of Psila, bores in the larval 
state in the roots of Sesamiim indicmn. It is said to.be a serious pest, 
at Hoshangabad and has been noticed at Nagpur and Pusa. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 47 

MlCROPEZID^. 

Calobata sp. 

Fletcher, S. Ind. Ins., p. 355, f. 213. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 294, 295, (1917). 

This species occurs throughout the Plains of India, the larva boring 
into the rhizomes of turmeric and ginger, but it is not definitely known 
whether it is a real pest or merely attacks rotting rhizomes. It has 
been noted at Coimbatore, Samalkota and Hopin (Upper Burma). 

Nerius sp. 

This is an undescribed species, which will be described by Mr. Brunetti 
in his second volume on Diptera in the Fauna of India Series. We have 
it from Pollibetta in South Coorg, from Lashio in the Northern Shan 
States, and from Myitkyina (Upper Burma) where the adults were found 
in numbers on stored potatoes and on rotten potatoes which had been 
thrown away. Like the Calobata, it is doubtfully a pest ancTmay only 
breed in rotten vegetable matter ; on the other hand, it may attack 
sound tubers or may assist decay by carrying spores of rot-diseases from 
rotten to healthy tubers. 

I have bred it from hrinjal also at Matale. Mr. Senior-WhUe. 

It seems definitely attached to Solanaceae. -^^ Fletcher. 

Chloropid^. 

Oscinis thew. 

. ' Indian Insect Life, p. 626, f. 412. 

This species has been reported as mining in tea-leaves, but is not 
a pest so far as we know. 

(Cruciferous leaf-miner.) 

Indian Insect Life, p. 623, fig. 411. 

This is another species of which we know nothing regarding its statue 
as a pest. 

Agromyzid.e. 

(Red-gram Agromyza.) 

S. I. Ins., p. 357, f. 216. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 44. 

Andrews, Q. J. Ind. Tea Assoc. 1918, 34. [Tur-pod Fly.] 

This species has been bred from Cajajws indicus at Coimbatore and 
in Bombay and the Central Provinces, and at Tocklai and Borbhetta 
/Assam) the larva was found feeding on seeds of Cajaniis indicus in April. 

VOL. 1 E 



48 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

As regards control, the only method that can be suggested is the' 
selection of resistant varieties. 



Agromyza sp. 

" Cowpea Agromyza ", S. Ind. Ins., p. 358, f. 217, (1914). 
Agromyza sp., Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 52, 56, 59, (1917). 

We now come to one or more species of Agromyza, one of which may 
possibly be A. phaseoli, which bore into the stems of pulse crops. In 
Ceylon and at Nagpur the larvae have been found in the stems of French 
beans and considerable damage may be done. At Koilpatti, Coimbatore 
and Tinnevelly the larva? bore into the stems of young plants of cowpea, 
lablab and green gram, the plants withering as the result of attack, and 
pupation taking place in the larval burrow. At Pusa we have a species 
referred to on pages 62 and 65 of the Proceedings of the Second Entomolo- 
gical Meeting and possibly distinct from the foregoing, whose larva bores 
in the stems of peas and exotic field-beans. 

It is quite possible that several distinct species may be concerned. 
Certainly there seem to be differences of food-plant .and habit. At Pusa, 
for example, the larvse in peas occur near or below soil-levelj whikt at 
Sabour they have been noted high up in cowpea stems. So it looks as 
if we have several species mixed up here but I cannot undertake to 
differentiate them. 



{Bakla Stem-fiy). 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 62, (1917). 

A fly, which may be an Agromyzid, has been reported by Ratiram 
as attacking stems of Viciafaba in the larval stage in the Chanda District 
of the Central Provinces, but I have seen no specimens and know no 
more about it. 



{China stem- fly). 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 202, (1917). 

This is another unidentified species found at Pusa, the larva attacking 
the stem of China {Paspalum miliaceum) before the ear ripens. The 
effect of attack is like a borer, the ear drying without forming any grain. 
The affected plants are easily spotted in the field. This fly was first 
noticed at Pusa in September 1916. 



PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 49 

(Unidentified Agromyzid.?) 

This fly was found at Pusa in March and April 1918, the larva boring 
into lucerne stems in small numbers. It has not been noted as a pest 
but might become so. 

CECIDOMYIADiE. 

Pachydiplosis oryzce, Wood-Mason. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 169-170, tab. (1917). 

This Cecidomyiad occurs commonly in Madras, Orissa and Bengal 
but does not seem to have been noticed elsewhere so far. It attacks 
the r!ce-plant, the larva causing the formation of a long white gall which 
has earned the name of " elephants tusk disease " in some districts. 
We went into this insect fairly fully at the last Meeting. Has anyone 
anything new to say about it ? 

It is still very bad in Madras. Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar, 
■ The flies are attracted to light. Mc Senior-White, 

The flies are attracted to light in fairly large numbers. The speci- Mr. Ramachandra 
mens were sent to Dr. Felt, who has confirmed the identification. ^^o- 

Light-traps are of little use as a control measure because, by the time Mr. Fletcher, 
the adult flies emerge, the damage has been done. 

It is very bad in Ratnagiri district, but on the monsoon crop only. Mr. Deshpande. 
It is not found on summer or winter rice. 

We have not had it reported from Bombay before. Mr. Fletcher. 

AspJiondijlia sesami, Felt. 

" Gingelly Gall-fly ", S. Ind. Ins. p. 364, ff. 224, 225, (1914). 
Asphondylia sesami, Felt, Canad. Entom. (1916). 

„ Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 84, (1917). 

This species has been found at Coimbatore, the larva'in buds of Sesa- 
mum indicum, and at Nadiad and Surat, the larva in immature pods of 
Sesamimi indicum. 

At Coimbatore it has also been reported as attacking flowers of 
cluster bean {Cymnopsis psoralioides) [Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 
60-61] but it seems doubtful whether this is the same species. 

Dasyneiira gossypii. Felt. 

Confarinia sp., S. I. Ins., pp. 363-364, f. 223, (1914). 
Dasynema gossypii. Felt, Canad. Entom. 1916, pp. 29-30, (1916). 

Proc. Second Intl. Meeting, p. 103, (1917). 

This species was found in 1913 at Coimbatore, the larva boring into 
cotton buds, pupation taking place in the withered bud. It was then a 

E 2 



50 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Kunbi Eannan, 
Mr. Fletcher. 

Dr. Gough. 



Mr. Ramrao. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



minor pest but does not seem to have been noticed since then, so is prob- 
ably only sporadic. In Mysore the larva has also been found in cotton 
buds, but there also it is sporadic, although considerable damage was 
done one year in a small area. 

In Mysore it is doing damage but not over a large area. 

Dr. Gough, have you found any Cecidomyiad attacking cotton buds 
in Egypt ? 

No, we have never noticed any in Egypt. 

{Cholani Cecidomyiad.) 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 183, (1917). 

This is an unidentified Cecidomyiad which has been found attacking 
cholam at Coimbatore and Udumalpet in Madras. The egg is thrust 
in under the glumes when the seeds are about half- ripe and the larva 
bores in the seeds of plants in the field. Damage may be considerable. 
It has also been noticed in Mysore, where the damage done was consider- 
able in one year. 

(Juar Cecidomyiad.) 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 183, (1917). 

This Cecidomyiad was found attacking juar at Poona in December 
1916. The larva destroys the ovary of the flower of Andropogon sorgJiu7n, 
pupating inside, so that no grain is developed. This fly is extensively 
parasitized by a Chalcidid. 

Have you found this Cecidomyiad again, Mr. Ramrao ? 

It was not found this year although I made several searches for it. 

Most of these Cecidomyiads seem rather erratic in their occurrence. 

{Cumhu Cecidomyiad.) 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 188, (1917). 

This species has been found at Coimbatore and Mettupalaiyam, 
where the larva bores in seeds of cumhu {Pennisetum typhoideum) plants 
in the field, the eggs being laid at night. During the day the flies hide 
away among the sheathing leaves at ground-level. The damage may be 
very considerable. 

{Mango-leaf Cecidomyiad.) 

At Pusa we have a Cecidomyiad which makes numerous globular 
galls on mango-leaves. It is as yet unidentified although specimens were 
sent to Dr. Felt three years ago. We do not look on it as a pest, but 
last year I had a letter from the Government Entomologist in Mauritius, 
saying that this insect had been introduced with mango plants imported 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 51 

from India and was becoming a bad pest in Mauritius, and asking for 
help in procuring parasites to check it. So, if any of you come across 
this Cecidomyiad and can get parasites, you might remember that Mr. 
d'Emmerez de Charmoy would be glad to have some. 

In Mysore we have one species making galls on mango leaves. Mr. Kunhi Kannan. 

TlPULID^. 

Conosia irrorata, Wied. 

Brunetti, F. I., Nemat. pp. 497-499, f. 43, t. 10, f. 5, (1912). 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 175. 

Conosia irrorata occurs throughout the whole Oriental Region and is ^^- Fletcher, 
commonly found in rice areas in India and Burma. We know nothing 
about its early stages but I shall not be surprised to find that the larva 
may feed at the roots of paddy. 

INCERT.E SEDIS. 

The following Diptera, which have been reported as pests, cannot be 
placed in their Families. 

(Safflower Stem-fly.) 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 97, (1917). 

This has been reported by Ratiram from Mandla, in the Central 
Provinces, the larva boring in the stems of Safflower and killing the 
plants. 

{Safflower Shoot-fly.) 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 97, (1917). 

This fly has been reported by K. D. Shroff as attacking shoots of 
saflBower at Mandalay. 

{Safflower Seed-fly.) 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 97, (1917). 

The larva of this fly has been reported by Ratiram as attacking 
safflower seeds, when on the plants, in the Central Provinces. 

{Juar Stem-fly.) 

Larvge of this fly were found at Pusa in August 1917 by Ram Saran, 
boring in young juar stems. This is not the same as the Anthomyiad 
found in juar, but has not been definitely named as yet. 



52 PJaOCEEDIJ^GS OP THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

LEPIDOPTEKA. 

Amatid^ (Syntomid^). 

Euchromia polymena, Linn. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 227, f. 143, Cat. I, 297-299, f. 137 ; I. I. L., 

p. 434, t. 34, f. 6 ; Entl. Note 61 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 

p. 291. 

This species has been leported by the Entomological Assistant, 

Travancore, as an occasional minor pest of sweet potato, destroying the 

leaves. It was also found by Green at Peradeniya in January 1903 

defoliating various garden varieties of IpomcBa. 

It is widely distributed within our limits. We have it froiQ Bassein 
Fort (Bombay), Dacca, Eangpur, and Coimbatore. 
Mr. Pillay. The eggs are laid on the leaf and the whole life-history is passed 

on the leaf. It is not so common on the cultivated sweet potato as on 
the wild variety, but it does do some damage. 

[Amata jmssalis, Fb.] 

Syntomis passalis, Hmpsn., F. I. Moths, I, 219, Cat. Phal. I, 86. 
Amata passalis, Hmpsn., Cat. Phal. Suppl. I, 13. 

Mr. Pillay. In Travancore we found Syntomis jjossalis this year on Vigna catjang- 

There were only two or three caterpillars on each plant. 
Syntomis passalis is common in Quilon, Travancore. 

On the 31st of August at about 7-30 a.m. a female adult was found 
resting on the stem of a coconut palm at a height of say 3 feet above 
the ground-level. There were a few male moths flying about this 
female probably for mating. At 8 a.m. one of the males mated with 
this female. Mating was done end to end. While these were in cop. 
another male came and attempted to mate the female under observation. 
Finding it is impossible he also left the place. At 2 p.m. the male severed 
its connection. At about 5 p.m. on 31st of August the moth commenced 
to lay eggs and the major portion of the eggs was laid by the next morning. 
This female continued to lay eggs till the 3rd of September. 

The eggs were laid on the sides and bottom of the cage in 2 layers 
one over the other. The egg is soft and round without any ornamenta- 
tions. The colour of the egg is white when newly laid. The total number 
of eggs laid by this single female was 258. The first lot of eggs laid on 
the 31st of August changed colour to dark and at about 11-30 a.m. on 
6th September 1918, eggs hatched and the young larvae commenced to 
come out. The top portion of the eggs before hatching became darker 
still. The young larvae came out of the lids on the top portion of the eggs. 



PROCEEDI>fGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 53 

The larva measures nearly 8 mm. in length, a few hours after emersfence 
and is dull white ; head round and shiny ; body is thinly hairy with dark 
hairs.- As the larvae are growing the bodily colour is changed to brown. 
The caterpillar when full-grown measures little more than 25 mm. in 
length and is deep brown in colour. 

The insect feeds openly on Cowpea ( Vigna ca(jang) and is a very slow 
eater. They destroy the leaves. It is only a very minor pest. The 
full-grown larvae could be found in nature wandering in the fields. 
When disturbed the larva falls down from the foodplant and curves 
itself. A few larvae were found dead in the cage, and it was observed 
that other larvae were eatmg the dead body of their own species. 
The larva in nature is as a rule found isolated and not in groups. 

The insect commenced pupation on the 2nd of October. The newly- 
formed pupa is .very soft and pink in colour and towards the close of the 
pupal period the colour became more pinkish. Abdominal spiracles 
and wing pads are very black. Pupa measures about 12 mm, in length 
and 35 mm. across the body. 

The insect makes a slight cocoon with silken threads and remnants 
of the foodplant. It makes its cocoon on the foodplants in nature. 

The moths commenced to come out from 16th October and continued 
for 2 days more. 

Eggs laid on olst August 1918. 
Eggs hatched on 6th September 1918. 
Pupated on 2nd October 1918. 
Moths emerged on 16th October 1918. 

The adult is found throughout the year. 

[Amata passalis is widely distributed throughout India (except the Mr. Fletcher. 
North) and Ceylon, but we have not had it noted before as attacking any 
cultivated crop.] 

Arctiad^. 

Celama inter nella, Wlk. 
Hmpsn., Cat. II, 13-14, f. 6. 

Has been reared at Pusa from larvae eating grains of bajra (Peviniselum 
typhoideum) and at Mandalay on Cajanus indicus. 

We have it from Pusa, Chapra, Dhamai (Bengal), Bassein Fort 
(Bombay), Bellahunisi(Bellary District), Mandalay and Meiktila (Upper 
Burma). 

Not a pest. 



54 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING- 

Celama squalida, Stdgr. 

Hmpsn., Cat. IL 24-25 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 71. 

Reared at Pusa in December 1914 from larvse found on pods of sann 
hemp {Crotalaria juncea), but only found in small numbers. It has also- 
been reared at Pusa from fallen fruits of Ficus glomerata and from larv£& 
on flowers of Bombax malaharicum: We also have it from Peshawar. 

Diacrisia nigrifrons, Wlk. (?) 

Hmpsn., F. I. II., 12, Cat. Ill, 263. 

Reared in January 1908 at Poona on cotton. 
Not known to be a pest. 

Diacrisia ohliqua, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 7, Cat. Ill, 289-291 ; I. I. L., pp. 437-438, 
t. 35 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 47, 51, 54, 58, 61, 
64,65,83,86,89,91,95, 101, 126, 127, 129, 132, 237, 263, 
270,274,283,291,294,295. 

A common and destructive pest in most parts of India with the excep- 
tion of North- Western India. Our specimens are from the following 
localities and foodplants : — 

Poona ..... Chrysanthemum, mulberry, groundnut and 

Sesamum indicum. 

Central Provinces . . . Sesamum indicum and castor. 

United Provinces . . . Sesamum indicum (not common). 

Saharanpur .... Sunflower. 

Pusa ..... Groundnut, cauliflower, cabbage, lettuce, 

mangold wurzel, lucerne, jute, bean, 
Phaseolus radiatus, cotton, Abutilon 
indicum, tobacco, turmeric, sunflower, 
Jerusalem artichoke, mustard, sweet- 
potato, soybean and castor. 

Shillong. 

Darjiling. 

Bhagalpur .... Phaseolus radiatus. 

Nadia District .... Jute. 

Control : — Hand-picking of larvae in early stages when clustered. 

[r. Ramakrishna In Madras it is found on sweet-potato, Lantana and a number of hill 

^yya^- plants. 

[r. Kunhi Kannan. In Mysore it is very serious on castor, ragi, etc. It occurs there in the 
cold weather from October to January, but is not a regular visitor. We 
control it by hand-picking the caterpillars in the early stages when they 
are feeding gregariously on leaves. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 55 

It was bad [at Pusa] on white nettle, but not for the last four years. Mr. Misw. 

There is one peculiarity that we have noticed about this insect in Mr. Kunhi Kannan. 
Mysore. It lays eggs on the more shady crops first and then moves on 
to the others. It attacks castor by preference. 

When it occurs in large numbers we find eggs on all sorts of plants Mr. Ghosh, 
and in all places whether shady or otherwise. 

That may be so in Pusa, but in Mysore we first find it on castor. Mr. Kunhi Kannan. 

Diacrisia monfana, Guer. [suffnsa, Wlk.). 

Hmpsn., Cat. Ill, 302. 

Has been reported (I, M. N. II, 47) as defoliating plantain and (I. M. 
N., I. 54-55) on jute. Probably an error for D. obliqiia. 

? Diacrisia sp. 

Bred from larvae found feeding on rice-leaves at Ranchi in Septem- 
ber 1915. 

The moth is a small, stoutly-built, immaculate, ochreous species, 
which has not yet been identified. 

Estigmene Jactinea, Cram. 

S. I. I., p. 368, f. 230 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 28, 57, 
96, 101, 187, 189, 199, 291. 

A common and widely-distributed species throughout India (except 
extreme North) and Lower Burma. Its incidence as a pest appears 
to vary largely according to locality ; in Baroda, for example, it is stated * 

to be a serious pest every year, whilst in the Central Provinces it is not 
common. In most districts it seems to be sporadic and scarcely a pest 
as a rule. 

Piepers and Snellen have described the larva on numerous plants in 
Java {Tijds. voorEnf. XLVIII, 187-188 (1905)) and figure it (t. 7, ff. 1-3). 
At Pusa it has been found on sunflower, jute, castor, sann hemp, Abufilon 
sp., maize, sweet potato and Phaseohis mvngo, and in Southern India on 
cumbu, ragi, coffee, horse-gram, etc. 

Amsacla lineola, Fb. 

Hmpsn. Cat. Ill, 324-325 ; Hmpsn., F. I., II, 28 {Creatonotm 
emiftens, Wlk.) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 96. 

Common and widely-distributed throughout India and Burma, the 
larva occurring on most low-growing crops, especially on Graminese,, 



56 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

but not a pest as a rule. In Baroda it is stated to occur on all growing 
crops, and the Pusa collection contains examples reared at Balaghat 
(Central Provinces) on rice, at Pusa on tobacco, at Rancbi on rice, and at 
Palur (Madras) on varagu {Paspalum scrobiculutam). 



Amsada moor ei, But]. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 27, Cat. Ill, 329 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 47, 53-55, 68, 83, 87, 91, 99, 179, 187, 189, 199, 203. 

Occurs, together with A. albistriga, in Mysore and Madras, principally 
in the South Arcot district, on all low-growing crops. Also recorded 
from SindbyHampson. 



Amsacta moorei sara, Swinh. 

This form, sara, occurs in Bombay, where the larvae attack maize 
at Dohad, and in the Punjab, where it has been reared from larvae on 
Phaseolus radiatus at Jagadhri. A few of the specimens from Dohad 
have the abdomen yellow. We have reared this at Pusa from Bombay 
material and have prepared a coloured plate showing the life-history 
[exhibited]. I am inclined to think that sara is a good species, distinct 
from moorei, although I cannot give any morphological distinctions 
but the male genitalia have not been compared. ; 

Mr. .Jhaveri. We find it on the Bombay side also. We have used light-traps and 

caught a large number of moths. We, however, still got a large number 
of caterpillars attacking plants. We also found Tachinid and Hymenop- 
terous parasites on these caterpillars. 

Mr. Kunhi Kannan. Did you find out the proportion of males and females attracted to 
the light- traps ? 

Mr. Jhaveri. Yes ; we did count these. The following are the details : — In the year 

1917, 7,581 moths were caught and out of these 3,336 were females 
loaded with eggs and 4,245 were males. For the greater attraction of the 
moths powerful lights, like Kitson lamps, were also used. In this way 
a large number of moths was caught before they could lay eggs, and as 
a result of this measure very much fewer caterpillars were found later 
on in our experimental fields than in the cultivator's areas. During 
the season 1918 we caught 3.192 moths by means of light-traps and of 
these 1,227 were females and 1,965 were males. 

Mr. Fletcher. The difference in attraction to light in this Bombay form and in that 

found in Southern India seems to indicate that we are really dealing with 
different species. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 57 

Amsacta albistriga, Wlk. 

S. I. I., p. 369, t. 17 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 55, 91, 
179, 187, 199. 

Occurs in Southern India, especially in tlie South Arcot and Salem 
districts in Madras and in Mysore, as a serious and destructive pest of 
almost all local crops, e.g., cholam, cumbu, groundnut, pulses, castor, etc. 
Also stated to occur iij Baroda, but I have not seen specimens, and the 
species concerned here will j)robably turn out to be ^. lineola. 

For control measures see South Indian Insects, pages 85, 135, and 
369. 

In the Mysore Agricultural Calendar for the year 1915, the life- Mr. Kunhi Kannan, 
history and simple method of controlling Amsacta albistriga was described. 
It was stated there that Kumblihulas are the offspring of a kind of moth 
with white wings and golden banded body, which comes out in the field 
during the rains and lies helpless until nightfall, when it begins to fly 
about. As each female lays about 1,000 eggs it was explained that, 
if the few thousands of moths that emerge in a village are hand-picked 
and killed, their offspring (the Kumblihulas) will not appear and the crops 
will be saved from devastation. The value of the remedy has been 
repeatedly demonstrated in several villages where its adoption by the 
raiyats has yielded very satisfactory results. Nevertheless there are a 
few raiyats in every village who refuse to co-operate with the rest in 
picking work. From this want of co-operation the whole village suffers 
for the moths are prolific and it is enough that a few moths are left un- 
picked for Kumblihulas to arise in large numbers and these will be the 
cause of the pest the following year, whereas if all the moths are picked 
regularly for three or four years then the chances are that the village 
should be rid of the pest for a very long time. A whole village is there- 
fore made to suffer for the neglect of a few. 

To avoid this possibility a Pest Act was passed in 1917 and it was 
applied last year to two Hoblis, viz., Santebennur in Chennagiri Taluq 
and Burmanayakandrug Hobli in Holalkere Taluq. The following regu- 
lations were drawn up under the Act : — 

(1) As soon as the earliest mungar rains have fallen a diligent search 
is to be made daily in the morning or evening for the Kum- 
blihula moths which are to be picked and placed in a vessel 
containing water with a small quantity of kerosine floating 
on the surface. All moths so collected will be handed over 
to the headman of village for inspection by the fieldman 
in charge of operations in the village. 



58 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

(2) Each raiyat or landholder must arrange for a daily collection 

of moths on his own lands. 

(3) The work in each village will be under the charge of a fieldman 

of the Agricultural Department who will keep a record of 
work done on each holding and of the number of moths 
picked. 

(4) In cases where raiyats or landholders neglect to carry out the 

above operations a report will be made to the Amildar unless 
delay is likely to prejudice the operations in which case the 
fieldman in charge of operations in the village will make the 
necessary arrangements to pick the moths and intimate the 
cost to the Amildar. The Amildar will arrange to get the 
work done by the raiyaf concerned but if he fails this may be 
done by Government Agency and the expenses incurred 
will be charged to the raiyats or landholders concerned and 
collected as arrears of land revenue. 

(5) Payments will be made for the moths picked at rates fixed by 

the Director of Agriculture but the total amount paid for 
picking work in any one village shall not exceed Rs. 20. 

(6) Picking will continue for 45 days or until such time as in the 

opinion of the officer in charge there is no danger of further 
emergence of the moths. 

(7) Villages in these koblis which are in the opinion of the Director 

of Agriculture not likely to suffer from the pest will be excluded 
from the operation of the Regulation. 

(8) Copies of a circular giving full information with regard to the 

pest and the measures to be taken against it will be distri- 
buted to the raiyats of the villages concerned not later than 
the 10th May 1918. 

(9) The officer in charge of the operations will be stationed at a 

central place (Sasalu) throughout the period during which 
combative measures against the pest have to be continued. 
He will visit the villages and will explain to the raiyats in 
detail the requirements for effectively dealing with the pest, 
the labour required, the period during which operations will 
have to be carried on and all other information necessary 
for the efficient control of the pest. 

Work has already been done in previous years, in several of the villages 
in these two hoblis so that raiyats were familiar with the operations. 
Nevertheless, well in advance of the picking season, circulars on the 
pest and the regulations were printed in Kannada and circulated in all 
the villages. What the Department proposed to do and what help was 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 59 

€xpected was further explained by offieers of the Department. Tem- 
porary fieldmen were appointed and put in charge of the picking work 
in the various villages and two officers were stationed— one at Sasalu 
and the other at Santebennur to organise and supervise the whole work. 
In spite of these elaborate preliminaries it was some time before the 
raiyats realised fully the intentions of the Government and the extent of 
the powers vested in them by the Act. The almost complete failure 
of the early rains was another obstacle, for it indisposed them to exertions 
against a pest which they said would die out of itself from the want of 
crops to feed on. There was however no active opposition and no 
penalties were imposed on any one even though the cases deserving of 
these were not a few. In all about 10.000 moths were collected re- 
presenting nearly five million caterpillars. But for the Pest Act it is 
certain no picking work would have been done even in villages in the 
hoblis where work had been done previously and where the raiyats knew 
very well the advantages of the remedy. 

Creatonotus gangis, Linn. 

S. 1. 1., pp. 369-370, f. 231 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 28, 
91, 133,206. 

A minor, polyphagous pest, occurring throughout India and Burma. Mr. Fletcher. 
Piepers and Snellen have described {Tijds. voor Ent. XLVIII, 188-189 
(1905)) the larva from various wild plants in Java. In Southern India 
it has been found on coffee, groundnut, lucerne, etc., and we have speci- 
mens reared at Pusa on mama, grasses, and Mimulus gracilis, at Lyallpur 
on sweet potato, maize, arid and lucerne, and at Mandalay on seedling 
paddy. 

Pericallia rkini, Fb. 

S. I. I., pp. 370-371, f. 232 ; P oc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 75, 
84, 86, 101, 237, 267, 298, 299, 303. 

As is implied by its specific name, this insect is usually found on 
castor, but it is polyphagous and has been noted in Madras on plantain, 
pumpkin, gingelly {Sesamum indicmn), cotton, agatlii, Calotropis, Moringa, 
oleander, and Colocasia. The Pusa collection contains specimens reared 
at Coimbatore on plantain, at Tynampet (Madras) on castor, at Calcutta 
on sweet potato, at Howrah on Cucurbifa pepo, at Pusa on castor and 
Commelina, and at Nagpur on brinjal. AVe have no examples from 
Burma or from India north of the United Provinces. 

A minor pest of castor and of garden crops. The larvae may be 
hand-picked. This species is attacked by a Tachinid parasite. 



60 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Utetheisa pulchella, Linn. 

S. I. I., pp. 371-372, f. 233 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 66 

(tab), 71. 

Occurs commonly everywhere as a serious pest of Sann Hemp {Crota- 

laria juncea), the larvae eating the leaves and contents of pods. It has 

also been reared on a wild Crotalaria and at Pusa on Heliotropium indicum. 



Dr. Gough. 
Mr. P. C. Sen. 

Mr. Robertson- 
Brown. 



NOCTUID^. 

Heliothis {Chloridea) obsoleta, Fb. 

S. 1. 1., pp. 373-374, f. 235 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 44, 
49 (tab), 56, 58, 71, 80, 88, 90, 91, 96, 97, 115, 124, 188, 191, 
206, 212, 265, 272, 273, 274, 289. 

This species is the cotton boUworm of America but is rarely found 
on cotton in India, where, however, it is a serious pest, principally of 
gram. Its range of foodplants is very wide. It has been reared at 
Pusa on gram, tur {Cajanus indicus), oats, indigo, lucerne, Malachra 
capitata, rose-leaves, cotton-bud, cotton-boll, maize cob, saff lower, bajra 
pod, marua ear, tobacco, tomato, carrot flowers, onion flowers, mangold, 
castor leaves and capsules, val and sunflower. We have also examples 
reared at Coimbatore on safilower, at Madras on Indian hemp, at Surat 
on gram, at Khandesh and Dhulia on cotton-buds, at Anand on tobacco, 
at Hoshangabad on wheat ears, at Nagpur on gooseberry 
[probably Cape gooseberry], cotton boll, tur and gram, at Patna on 
gram, in the United Provinces on poppy heads, at Lyallpur on Kusumba 
{Carthamustindorius) and on ])ea.--pods, at Peshawar from larva boring 
young orange fruit, and at Hangu, in the Kohat Valley, North- West 
Frontier Province, from larvae boring into rose-buds. 

Control is difficult, owing to the wide range of foodplants and to the 
larval habit of eating into the pods of gram, which is the crop most 
seriously attacked — so much so that in some districts gram cannot be 
grown on account of this insect. In the case of young gram plants, 
bagging with a bag-net may be tried. Spraying is hardly practicable 
on a field-scale and is of little use when gram-pods are formed and are 
being attacked. Fields which have been badly infested with larvae 
should be ploughed immediately after harvest to destroy the pupae in 
the soil and prevent the resulting moths from ovipositing on other crops. 

We get it occasionally in Egypt, but very rarely on cotton. 

It occurs on ganja at Nowgaon in the Rajshahi district. Hand- 
picking is done to check this pest. 

In the North- West Frontier Province it is impossible to grow gram 
on irrigated land on account of this pest. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 61 

Heliothis (Chloridea) assulta, Guen. 

S. I. I., p. 374, f. 236 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 270 
(tab), 271. 

Widely distributed in India (except extreme North) and Burma. 
A minor (occasional major) pest of tobacco, the larvae eating holes in the 
leaves. We have specimens reared on tobacco at Pusa, Nadiad (Bombay), 
Anand, Madras, and Amarapur (Burma). It has also been reared at 
Pusa from larvae on tur pods, Physalis minima, and on a wild Physalis. 

In Ceylon also the larva attacks Physalis peruviana and is found Mr. Senior- White, 
inside the calyx. 

In the case of tobacco, the larvae are fairly easily found and hand- Mr. Fletcher, 
picked. 

Adisura afkinsoni, Moore. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 173-174, f. 113, Cat. IV, 120, f. 39 ; Proc- 
Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 54, 56. 

Has been reared at Pusa from larva on Blumea sp. and at Coimbatore 
in January and February from larvae boring lah lab pods, on red gram 
{Cajanus ndicus) and on field beans. 

A sporadic local pest of pulses. The pupal period is a long one and 
cultural methods at this time offer the best chance of checking it. 

Euxoa spinifera, Hb. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 182 [biconica], Cat. IV, 177-179, f. 60 ; Lefroy, 
Ent. Mem. I, 253-257, t. 14, f. 10 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting 
pp. 203, 273. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, the larva usually 
feeding at roots of grasses, especially diibh grass. It was also reared at 
Pusa in February 1915 from a larva found on leaves of sweet potato 
and has been sent in from Gujrat (Punjab) as attacking young cotton 
plants. Usually a very minor pest, it occurs sporadically in enormous 
numbers at roots of grass. 

Euxoa segetum, Schiff. 

S. I. I., p. 375, f. 237 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 29,. 

208, 280, 284. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, more commonly in 
the Hill Districts, in which it is a major pest of garden crops. We have 
examples from Mysore reared from larvae destroying coffee seedlings in 
the Coffee Districts, from Ootacamund reared from larvae injuring garden. 



ft' 



62 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

and vegetable crops, from the Shevaroy Hills where the larvae were very 
destructive to potato in 1912, and from Gulmarg (Kashmir) from larvae 
attacking potato tubers ; at Pusa this species has also been reared from 
larvse found on sugarcane roots and on gram, at Rangpur on tobacco, 
at Nagpur on clover, and at Lyallpur on beetroot and gram. 

A serious pest of potato in the Hills. Control is difficult, the best 
remedy being to grub up the larvse which lie hidden by day in the earth 
around attacked plants. Spraying is not effective in the case of potato 
as the larvae prefer to feed on the roots and tubers below ground-level. 
Mr. Ramakrishna At our suggestion one European planter in the Shevaroys tried sliced 

^^^^^- potatoes covered with a mixture of Paris Green and sugar as a bait, 

but it did not prove successful. 

Agroiis jjpsilon, Rott. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 182, Cat. IV, 368-369, f. 71 ; Lefroy, Ent. 
Mem. I, 259-274, t. 14, ff. 1-8 ; A. J. I., VIII, 343-354, VIII, 
372-389 ; Bengal Qrly. Agrl. Jl., IV, No. 4 ; Bihar Agrl. Jl.. 
I, 1-19, 78-104, II, 16-35, III, 1-14, ; Proc. Second Entl. 

Meeting, pp. 8, 48 (tab), 80, 90, 206, 269, 273, 279, 282, 
284, 297. 

• Occurs throughout Northern India and mostly in a belt of about one 

hundred miles wide and parallel with the Himalayas, stragghng as far as 
Nagpur and Jessore. Also in Ceylon. Not known in Western or 
Southern India. 

We have examples reared at Pusa on gram, tobacco, groundnut, 
sweet-potato, celery, cauliflower, cabbage, lucerne and wheat leaves ; 
at Lyallpur on beetroot, at Shahabad on opium poppy, at Nagpur on 
clover, at Jabbalpur on potato, at Gaya on gram, at Rangpur on tobacco, 
and at Jessore on mustard and linseed. 

It occurs regularly every year on the tal lands at Mokameh and has 
been effectively controlled there by the use of Andres-Maire traps. (See 
literature cited above.) 
Mr. H L Dutt ■'■ ^^^^ ^ ^^^ more details to add to the account given at the last 

Meeting. We have found four or five parasites f)f which two or three 
are Tachinids and two are Braconids. One Braconid is very promising. 
It appears along with the pest but the parasitization percentage is about 
five per cent, in the beginning and later it rises to thirty-two per cent. 
In 1918 it rose so high as seventy-four per cent. The parasitic grub 
aestivates from March to September. By the middle of September or 
early in October cocoons kept in the insectary dry up and we cannot get 
the parasites out of these. Those that remain in the field get submerged 
during flood time and remain under water in some cases for a couple of 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 63 

months, the result being that we get very few parasites when the pest 

appears in the field at the beginning of the rabi [cold weather] season. 

If the parasite could got a good start in the beginning of the season, we 

might succeed in controlling the pest. Agrotis is found in the Hills and 

we might be able to get parasites from there in September. 

Do you find any difficulty in breeding these parasites ? Mr. FiatcUar 

We breed this Braconid quite well in the insectary up to a certain Mr. H. L. Dutt. 

time. 

To have it in sufficient numbers when required, in September, it would Mr. Fistclior. 

seem necessary to have a regular Hill Station to breed it. 

When doe- the parasitic grub commence to sestivate ? Dr. Gou^h. 

In March or April. - Mr. H. L. Dutt, 

The Andres-Maire trap has given very good results in India. It Mr. Fletcher. 

seems strange that it did not succeed in Egypt. 

The Andres-Maire trap was tried and discredited in Egypt. In Egypt Dr. Gough. 
Agrotis ypsilon is found also on wheat, grass and bersim, but chiefly on 
wheat. It is found in the basin area. It's habits in Egypt are exactly 
the same as in India. 

[See also page 622]. 



Agrotis c-nigrum, Linn. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 188, Cat. IV, 389-391, f. 7G ; I. I. L., t. 34 
ff. 10, 11 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. -284. 

Occurs at Jabbalpur, usually annually, as a pest of potato. Recorded 
by Hampson from the Himalayas and Nilgiris. 
Control : — Hand-picking of larvae. 



Agrotis fammatra, SchifE. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 189, Cat. IV, 393-394 ; Lefroy, Ent. Mem. I, 
258-259 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 48, 03, 94, 122. 

Occurs throughout Northern India, Pusa being apparently its most 
southern limt as far as records go. As a pest it is very minor and sporadic 
in most localities but it is stated to be a very serious pest of almost all 
low-growing plants (tobacco, gram, etc.) in the spring at Lyallpur and 
throughout the Punjab. 

The Pusa Collection contains examples reared from larvse on gram 
and tobacco at Pusa, on gram and piazi {Asphodelus fistulosi(s) at 
Lyallpur and on poppy at Gondra (Oudh) in March 1890. 

VOL. I . F 



64 J'ROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

[Agrotis sp. 

Mr, Pv C. Sen. [An Agrotis was found doing considerable damage to ganja plants 

inNowgaon (Rajshahi D' strict) last year. Irrigation and hand-picking 
were found useful in its contol. I cannot say definitely what species 
it was.] 

Polia ccnsanguis, Gn. 

Hmpsn., Cat. Lep. Phal. V, 102-103, f. 23. 

Recorded by Hampson from Sultanpur, Simla, Dharmsala, Sikkim, 
Nilgris, Ceylon. ' 

At Pusa it has been reared in some numbers on Graminese. (C. S. 
1366andC. S. 1527). 

Tiracola fagia'a, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., Cat. Lep. Phal. V, 258-259, f. 51. 

Recorded by Hampson from Sikkim, Bombay, Kanara and Ceylon. 
It is a common species at Darjiling. 

At Shillong in 1918 one larva was found on apple, eating leaves. 
It pupated on 11-12 July and emerged on 2nd August. This species has 
also been found on tea in Assam, but is not known to be a pest. 

^ Brithys crini, Fb. 

Ghttula dominica, Cr. ; I. I. L., p. 445. 

Brithys crini, Hmpsn., Cat. V, 448, f. 125 ; Piepers and Snellen, 

Tijds. voor Ent. XLIX 37 (1906) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 

pp. 266, 268 (1917). 

Occurs throughout India and Burma and is an occasional pest of 
cultivated lilies. We have specimens reared on lilies at Pusa, Shillong, 
Daltonganj and Mandalay. Piepers and Snellen describe (Z. c.) the larva, 
found on Crinum and Cro us in Java. 

It has the habit of boring into the plants attacked. 
Bttr. Senior- Whit?. I have not noticed that in cases where I have come across the larvae. 

Mr. Fletcher. They were feeding much like those of Polytela glorioscE. 

Poly t la gloriosce, Fb. 

S. 1. 1., pp. 375-376, f. 238 ; Proc. Second En^l. Meeting, pp. 266, 
268. 

D stributed widely throughout the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon. 
The black'j^h white spotted larva feeds on Gloriosa superba and on li'ies 
(Amar/Uidacese), often occurring in large numbers and proving a pest 



rivOCEEDIMGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOtilCAL ML^TING 65 

in gardens. They are easily hand-picked in the early morning and 



*ven ng. 



Cirphis inularis. Butl. 

Hmpsn., Cat. V, 486-487, t. 91, f. 22, F. I., II, 280 [Lea:ama 
irro aia partj ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 162. 

Has been bred at Pusa from larvae on Dubh grass and in some numbers 
from larvse foimd on rice leaves but has never been recorded as a pest. 

Cirphis Jorr/ji, Diip. 

PImpsn., F. I., II, 274-275 [Leucania loreyi], Cat. Y, 492, f. 153 ; 
Piepers and Snellen, Tijds. vojr En!. XLIX, 38-39 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 49, 162 (tab.),179, 189, 195, 198. 

Occurs throughout India as an occasional pest of most Gramineae, 
•often occurring together with C. unipuncta and hence liable to be over- 
looked. We have (or I have seen) examples reared at Coimbatore on 
■cholam, at Kirkee (Poona) on juar, at Jalalpur (Bombay) on sugarcane, 
;at Surat on maize, at Jabbalpur on gram leaves, at Cawnpur on wheat 
leaves, at Peshawar on wheat and oats, and at Pusa on bajri {Pennisetum 
typhoideum), maize, rice, kauni {Selaria italica), sugarcane and guinea- 
.;grass. 

We had a few Cirphis loreyi attracted to af Andres-Maire trap at Mr. Misra. 
Pusa. At least, they appeared to be C. loreyi ; it is difficult to identify 
insects that fall into this trap. We were using ethyl acetate. 

Country liquor and molasses makes just as good a bait. Mr. H. L, Dutt. 

Cirphis compta, Mo. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 272 [Leucania cmnpta], Cat. V, 531-532 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 163. 

The larva is said to have been found on paddy in Southern India 
(Coimbatore, Madras), but does little damage. It may be a sporadic 
local pest. There are no specimens of this species in the Pusa or Coim- 
batore collections except one from Kandy and one worn and doubtful 
example found as an imago on a paddy-stem at Melrosepuram, Madras, 
in October 1907. 

Cirphis alhisLgma, Mo. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 275 [Leucania loreyi, part]. Cat. V, 543-544, 
t. 93, f. 23 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 162. 
Has occurred at Manganallur (Tanjore District) on paddy just ripe 
lor harvest, the larvse cutting off the ear-heads ; it was in large numbers 

f2 



m 



PHO'JEEDINGS OF THE I'LlLltU KXTOMOt/JGlCAL MtiETING 



Ayyax', 



and did considerable damage. This species has also been bred at Pu ;af 
irom a larva on rice leaves and on Graminese [species not specified]. 
We also have moths collected in the Shevaroy Hills and at Pusa. 

It did not appear in 1918. I have had a coloured plate oE this done-. 
[(xhibited]. 

Cir'phis frag His, But I. 

Hmpin., F. I.. II, 275 [Leucania fragilis]. Cat. V, 5iG, t. 93„ 
f. 26 ; I. I. L., p. 44G : Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 195. 

The larva is said by Hampson to do '' much damage to wheat ii> 
Chhindwara District, Central Provinces," but it is not Icnown to haver 
occurred as a pest of late years. It is probably a sporadic local pest. 



M.:, .P. C. Son. 



Mr. Khare. 

Mr. a. L. Du(X. 

Mi;. Fletcher, 



Cir'phis unipuncta, Haw. 

S. I. I.,, p. 37G, t. 18 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. IGl, 179,, 
189, 195, 198, 202. 

Occurs commonly throughout India as a major pest of Gramineae,. 
espec'mllj jtuir and rice. We have examples from the following locaUties. 
and food plants : — 



Paliir (Madras) 

Dharwar . 

Poona 

Manjari (Bombay) 

Sural 

Peshawar . 

Pusa 

Sadar Khas, Chittagong 

Mymensingh 

Lakhimpur, Goalpara 

Dibrugarh 

Kamrup (Assam) 



Cholam. 

Jtiar. 

Juar, maize, rice. 

Juar. 

Juar. 

Wheat, oats, juar. 

Maize, j^tar, wheat, rice. 

Rice. 

Rice. 

Rice. 

Sali dkan (paddy). 

Rice. 



It is a very bad sporadic pest of rice in Bengal, cutting the ripening 
ears by night. It was reported from several districts last year. The 
period of activity of the caterpillars is not long. Reports are usually 
received only after the outbreak has subsided. 

Does this species come in to the Andies-Maire trap ? 

Yes. 

It is not attracted in sufficient numbers to hope for any control by 
this means. At Peshawar the caterpillars of this and allied species of 
Cirphis are extensively preyed on by the larvae and adults of Calosoma 
indica, a large Carabid beetle, which frequents the places where the- 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE T3J1ED ENTOMOLO(;]CAI, MEETING 



G7 



Cirphis^]&Tvse hide away by day. 1 do not think wc have much to 
add to what was said at the last Meeting regarding control of this insect. 

I Borolia venalba, Mo. 

Hrapsn., F. I., II, 279 [Leucania venalba], Cat. V, 067, t. 94, 
f. 32 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 163. 

Widely distributed and an occasio.nal pest of rice, especially in 
Sonthern India. Has been fowid feedinc; on rice at Pusa, Mang-anallur 
(Tanjore District) and Puraswakam (Madras). In Madras it seems to 
occur chiefly in May and October. In July 19^32 it was ^ound de^truct've 
•to rice at Tangalla, Ceylon. 

Perigea ca-pcmis. <»n. 

S. I. I., pp. 370-377, f. 239 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 95, 
96 (Tab.), 134. 

Widely distributed throughout India as a sporadic destructive pest 
■of SafSower. We have examples reared on safflower {Carthamus tinc- 
torius) at Coimbatore, Nagpur and Pusa and at Pusa it has also been 
reared on jute, Niger-seed, Coreopsis, Artemisia and Bbimea balsamijera. 



Prodsnia lit lira. Fb. 

S. I. I., pp. 377-378. t, 19; Proc. Second Eutl. ' Meeting, 
pp. 49,51,53,59,64,75,80,86,89,91,127,133,179, 189, 303, 
206, 237, 264, 271, 273, 280, 283, 289, 291, 298. 

Occurs commonly throughout India, Burma and Ceyon. The larva 
is remarkably polyphagous but this species is especially a major pest of 
tobacco and castor. The Pusa collection contains examples from the 
iollowing localities and reared on the foodplants specified : — 



Travancore ") 

Coimbatore ) 

Bangalore 

Mysore 

Dharwar . 

Kirkee (Poona) 

Eadiad 

Anand District 

Surat 

Nagpiir 

Ciittack 

Daltonganj 

Kot Chandpur (Jessore) 

Ratigpni . 



Plantain (very minor post). 

Castor. 

Ro^^c[? bred). 
Laalana. 
J uar. 
Tobacco. 
Tobacco. 
Tobacco. 
Kesar. 

Dhaincha (Sesbanin ucultala). 
Maize, Rice. 
Linseed. 
tSesbania, tobacco. 



(58 



PROCEEDINGS Of THB THIRD EiVTOM(jL<)Uic'Ali WEEIl>0 



South Bihar 
Bankipur . 
Muzaffarpur 
Piisa 



Ghazipur (United Provinces) 
Kumaon .... 



Rabi crops on chars. ' 

Cauliflower. 

Tobacco, cabbage, cauUflower. 

Cabbage, potato leaves, castor leaves^ 
sunflower, rice leaves, jute, radish leaves,, 
sweet potato, vrid [Phaseohis radiatus),. 
lucerne, Jasmintim, groundnut, sugar- 
cane, Cofev-9, tobacco, cotton (very 
rarely), tvr (C'ajanvs indicvs), Panicvnp- 
sp., rose, celery. 

Opium-poppy leaves. 

Apple. 



Mr. Aadrews.-^ 

Mr. i" c makrishna 
Ay3''ar. 

Mr. Fletcher. 
Dr. Gfough. 



Mr. Senior -Wh:te. 
Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. G. R. Dutt 

Mr, Kunhi Kannan. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



The moth is attracted to Andres-Maire traps. 

It did extensive damage to tea in 1918 in the Eastern Diiars. 

In Madras we find it on onions also. 

We find it very rarely on cotton in India, but I understand that it is. 
a regular cotton pest in Egypt. 

In Egypt it occurs mainly on cotton and bersim, but from Asiatic 
records we find that it is rarely found on cotton in Asia. In Egypt it 
occurs on bersim for the first two broods and, if we can arrange that 
the bershn is not watered, then the subsequent attack on cotton is less- 
ened. We find it also boring into potato tubers underground ; it is also 
found on tomato fruits and it is very bad on lucerne. It is not found 
on castor in Egypt. As regards attraction to the Andres-Maire traps, 
we find that the female moths only go to the traps after depositing; 
their eggs, so that this is useless as a means of control. 

In Ceylon it is also found on Hibiscus. 

Have any parasites been reared ? 

We have bred a Braconid and a Tachinid. 

We have a Tachinid in Mysore also. 

The differences in foodplants exhibited by Prodenia litura in India- 
and Egypt raise a suspicion that different species are really implicated. 
It would be interesting to compare the male genitalia of Indian and 
Egyptian specimens. 



Spodoptera pecien, Gn. 

Hmpsn., F. I, II, 264 [Caradnna j>ectinatal Cat. VIII, 252-253, f. 63. 

Has been reared at Pusa from larvae on dubh and other grasses and 
from a larva found on maize leaves. We have also moths from Peshawar, 
Comilla and Lashio (Upper Burma), so that it is widely distributed 
and likely to be found anywhere on cereal crops. Hitherto, however., 
it has not been reported as a pest. 



rROCKEDIJN'CiS OF THE THIRD EXTOIIOLOGICAI. irLKTlKC; 



GO 



Spodoptera abyssinia, Gn. 

Hmpsn., F. I, II, 259-260 [cilium], Cat. VIII, 254-255, f. 64 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 163. 

Larvae were found attacking paddy at Coimbatore in August 1916- 
The Pusa collection contains moths from Peshawar, Pusa and Coimba- 
tore, and the species occurs throughout Peninsular Ind'a. Has also 
been reared on Cyperus rotundus leaves at Pusa. 



Spodoptera manritia, Boisd. 

S. I. I, p. 378, t. 20 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 153, 
179, 194, 199, 203. 

Widely distributed throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, the larva 
feeding on various Graminese and often a serious pest, especially of 
seedUng rice-plants. The following Iccalit es and food-plants will indi- 
cate its range in India : — 



Ootacamund 

Western Ghats near Belgaum 

Nagpur .... 

C'lihindwara, Central Provinces 

Betul .... 

Jabbalpur 

Pusa . . 



Shantipur (Bengal) 

Daltonganj 

Darjiling 

Chittagong 

Shillong 

Pegu 



Barley (doing damage). 

Sugarcane (occasionally). 

Rice, jiiar. 

Rice. 

Kodon, KutH and Suwan (small millets). 

Rice, grasses, and Kodon (millet). 

Rice, grass, sugarcane, wheat seedlings, 
wheat leaves, cowpea leaves, Paspalum 
scrobicxdatmn leaves. 

Rice. 

Rice, maize. 



Arnan padd}-. 



In addition to the control methods indicated in Soidli Indian Insects 
ploughing should, if possible, be done immediately after any outbieak 
of larvse, to destroy the pupse. Trenches may also be provided with 
pots of oil and water sunk level with the floor of the tiench. 

Spodojjteio nam lit ia is a very serious pest in Travancore, where it Mr. Pilla". 
occurs annually, but it is only in some years that it is very bad. Treat- 
ing the fields with kerosine oil, when the caterpillar is in its early stage, 
has been found useful as a means of control. We pour kerosine on to 
the water at the rate of four bottles to an acre. Amhallus spinidens 
has been found predaceous on these caterpillars. 

In Ceylon it is bad in rice-fieids when the crop is half-grown. Mr. Seaior-White. 

We have caught the moths in the Andies-Maire trap. Mr. Misra. 



70 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. H. L. Dutt. 



Kt. Fletcher. 



We had a Imge swarm in 1918 but only on grass and the caterpillars 
did not attack the cultivated crops. 

As I have said before, it will be very useful to accumulate exact 
records of these outbreaks, as, by correlating these, we may be able to 
discover some underlying cause. 



Laphygma exigua, Hb. 

S. I. I., pp. 378-379, f. 240 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 
59, 75, 80, 84, 89, 97, 98, 132, 189, 206, 208, 209, 283, 287, 
290, 296, 297. 

Occurs everywhere throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, the larvae 
often joining swarms of larvae of Spodoptera mauritia. The life-history 
is very short so that large broods are built up rapidly under favourable 
conditions and considerable damage may be done, especially to lucerne 
and occasionally to indigo. In Egypt this species has been noted as a 
cotton pest, but has not been found to attack cotton in India. The 
Pusa collection indicates the following range of localities and food- 
plants : — 



Coimbatpre 

Poona 

Surat 

Central Provinces 

Cawnpur . . 

Lyallpur . 

Abbottabad 

Peshawar . 

Saharanpur 

Bhagalpur 

Bogra (Bengal) 

Pusa 



Brinjal. 

Lucerne. 

Maize leaver, radish, hhindi, Bimada. 

Linseed, safflower, pea. 

Gram. 

Gram. jute. 



Mr. Ramakrisbna 

Ayyar. 

Mi. J ha veil. 



Shajtal, brr-sim. 
Lucerne. 
Lentil. 
Jute. 

Lucerne, indigo, Mdllotus parviflora, mung 
{Phaseolus mnngo). gram leaves, Cehia 
coromandcUana, ambadi {Hibiscus can- 
nabinus), Amaranthus gangitus, Amaran- 
tkus bicolor. castor, jute, maize ears. 
young sugarcane, cauliflower, mangold. 

Control "s d ificult, owing to rapid increase and range of foodplants. 
In the case of crops such as lucerne, shaftal, hersim and indigo, cutting 
may be adjusted to check damage, precautions being taken to prevent 
swarming into adjacent areas. At Mokameh and Pusa this species 
has been found attracted to the Andres-Maire traps put out for Agroiis 
ypsilon. 

We have found it on coriander in Madras. 

It occurs on ma^ze in Sura^. 



PROCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGIC.iL MEETING 71 

Once it was found bad on young jute plants on the Dacca Farm. Mr. P. C. Sen. 
Handpicking was commenced but fortunately there was a heavy shower 
of rain soon afterwards, and this cleared of? the pest. 

AVe got a number of moths attracted to the Andres-Maire trap. Mr. Misra. 

In Egypt it feeds on cotton and hershn. ^^- ®o-^s^« 

With us it feeds freely on hersim where this crop is grown, but, is ^^' Fletcher, 
not known to occur on cotton at all in India. This is another case of 
a pronounced difference of habit between what is supposed to be the same 
insect in India and Egypt. It is possible that we may be dealing with 
two or more insects which are really distinct although they may look 
alike. In this connection I may call your attention to a recent paper 
by Colonel Swinhoe in the Annals and Maga:ine of Natural Hisior>/ in 
which he shows that the moths hitherto known as Antphijvjra pyramidea 
and supposed to occur in Euiope, North India and Japan, really com- 
prise no less than four species, the true j^ydr'^'midea from Europe being 
replaced in the Punjab by magna and in Japan by two distinct species, 
surnia and yama, these distinctions being based on differences in the 
male genitalia. These four moths all look much alike and can only be 
distinguished by making microscopic preparations of the male genitalia. 
This shows us, I think, that we must not be too ready to assume that 
the species we are dealing wuth are necessarily identical v^ith others 
apparently similar, especially when we get differences of habit as v;e 
have already seen in the case of Amsada moorei and sara, and in Pro- 
denia litura and LapJiygma exigua in Egypt and India. I shall be glad 
to give Dr. Gough some Indian male specimens of our Prodenia litura 
and LapJiygma exigua and it would be interesting if he would compare 
their genitalia with those of Egyptian specimens and let us know the 
result. 

I shall be very glad to do so. 2)r. Gorg 



Mudaria ccrnijrons, Mo. 

Mooje. Ir.d. Mu^. Notes, III, G9 figs. ; Hmpsn., F. 1., II, 245, 
f. lo6, Cat. IX, 22G, f. 87 ; I. I. L., p. 447, f. 307 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 131. 

Larva} are common at Pusa in Maieh-April in pods of Silk-cotton ^- Fletctcr. 
{Bcmhax ma^ala icum), devouring the seeds and spoil ng the lint. A 
minor pes^t in ca.'es wlieie the pods are collected for the cotton. 



72 



rWvOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Sesamia infer ens, Wlk. 

S. I. I., pp. 379-380, t. 21 ; Entl. Note, 62 ; Proc. Second Entl- 
Meeting, pp. 145, 152, 174, 182, 187, 191, 196, 200, 204. 

Widely distributed in the Plains of India and an important pest of 
cultivated Graminese, the larva boring in the stem and, in the case of 
paddy, sometimes deep into the roots. We have specimens reared in the 
following Iccalities from the fcodplants specified :^- 



Coimbatore 

Hagari (Bellary) 
Navsari (Bombay) 
Bassein (Bombay) 
Surat . . ,. 

Seoai (Central Provinces) 
Nagpur 
Bankipur . 
Pusa 



Bag! (Elevsine coracana), sorghum- stem 
tenai {Setaria italica). 

Paddy stem. 

Maize. 

Sugarcane. 

Maize, juar, wheat. 

Wheat. 

Wheat, j«ar, maize, caue. 

Rice stem. 

Rice stem, rice stubble, maize, sugarcane, 
Guinea grass stem. 



Sesamia uniformis, Ddgn. 

Dudgeon, B. J. XVI, 402 [Nonagria] ; Hinpsn., Cat. IX, 332, 
t. 144, f. 25; I. I. L., t. 37, f. 7; Ent. Note" 62 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 145, 191. 

Apparently not very common' in India. We have examples reared 
at Lyallpur from sugarcane and maize, and at Pusa from maize and 
young sugarcane. Attacked canes show only one hole, plugged with 
frass. 

Lefroy apparently interchanged this species and the more common 
S. inferens {Indian Insect Life, p. 448). The differences are indicated, 
in the case of the moths, in my " First Hundred Notes," and the pupoe 
a:e easily distinguishable by the spines on anal abdominal segments. 

Have any parasites been found on the eggs ? In Java and Mauritius 
Sesamia yionagrioides is attacked by a Proctotrypid parasite that keeps 
it in check. [There would seem to be some error in this last observa- 
tion. Hampson {Cat. Lep. Phal. IX 324-325) records S. vuteria {nomi,- 
grioide'^) from Europe and Africa, including Madagascar and Bourbon, 
so that this species presumably occurs in Mauritius, but not in Java. 
Editor.] 

Mr. Kunhl KaEana. Do these Sesamia larvae attack the plant in all stages of growth ? 

Mr. Gkosh. Yes. 

Mr. KuQlii Kaanan. What is the percentage of plants attacked ? 

Mr. GiiosJi. I Less than one per cent. At Pusa Sesamia. inferens occurs more 

commonly in rice than in any other crop. 



Mr. Senior-White. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD EXTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 73 

Enhlemma dimidialis, Fb. 

PhaJcena dimidialis, Fb., Ent. Syst. Ill, ii, 224 (1794) ; Hmpsn., 

Cat. X, 797 [EubJemma]. 
Anthophila secfa, Guen., Noct. II, 249 (1852) ; Hmpsn., Cat. 

X, 77, f. 35 [Eublemma]. 
Micra hemirhoda, Wlk., Cat. XXVIII, 799 (1865) ; Hmpsn., 

F. I., II, 342 [Eiible7)wm] ; Fletcher, Kept. Impl. Entom., 

1917-18, p. 104, t. 20 [EubJemma]. 

We have two specimens labelled " Coimbatore ; on cholam " and Mr. Fletclier. 
one from Travancore labelled " on cowpea,'' but it is not apparent 
that these examples were bred. Specimens from Paliir, S. Arcot, were 
noted as " flying in numbers in the groundnut fields " on 24th April 
1907. The moth is common at Pusa and has been bred from larvae 
eating mimg flowers. We have it also from Gauhati, 

Eublemma olivacea, Wlk. 

S. I. L, pp. 380-381, f. 241 ; Froe. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 287 (tab.). 

Occurs .throughout India as a pest of brinjal. Our specimens are 
from Pusa and Dharwar, and I have seen it from Lyallpur. It is usually 
a minor pest, occasionally very destructive. The larva rolls brinjal 
leaves ; it does not " bore in the green shoots " as stated {Indian, Insect 
Life, p. 451) by Lefroy, who has apparently described the larva of this 
species under the name PJotheia nephelotis (/. c, p. 449). 

Eublemma silicula, Swinh. 

Swinhoe, A. M. N. H. (6) XIX, 167 (1897) ; Hmpsn., Cat. X, 
128-129, t. 152, f. 19 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 222. 

Reared at Pusa from larvee in flowers of Nyctanthes arbortristis and 

from mango buds and inflorescence, from castor fiuit and from larvae 

eating grains in hajra heads, at Nagpu ■ from mango flowers and from 

larvae in juar heads, and at Coimba*^ore from larvoe in choJam earheads. 

It is found also on Lantana camara. Mr. Ramacbaudra 

Rao, 

Cretonia vegeta, Swinh. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 325, f. 175 [Swinhoa], Cat. X, 388-389, f. 123. 

Widely distributed throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Has Mc, fletclier. 
been reared at Pusa from a larva found on rice leaves, but is not 
known to be a pest. 



74 PE,OC'EEDl]SGS OF THE TillED E-NTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Amyna octo, Gn. 

Hmpsn., F; I., II, 251, f. 142, Cat. X, 468-470, f. 132 ; I. I. L., 

p. 448 ; Proc. Second Eiitl. Meeting, p. 68. 

Occurs commonly througliout India, Burma and Ceylon. Has been 
reared at Dharwar from a larva found boring potato [stem or tuber not 
stated] in the field, at Palur, S. Arcot, from larvae on sann-hemp, and at 
Pusa from larvae on indigo and lucerne leaves, on jatadhari leaves {Celo- 
sia cristata), on Phaseolus aconitifolius (boring pods), on leaves of sann- 
hemp. 

Usually a very minor and occasional pest of the crops indicated, but 
sporadically in large numbers on indigo. Lefroy stated that the larva 
has been reared on sweet potato also. 



Amyna j^'-incium, Fb. 

Hmpsn., Cat. X, 472-474, f. 133. 

Amyna selenampha, Guen. ; Hmpsn., F. I., 11, 250 ; I. I. L., 
p. 448. 
The larva is described by Hampson (Cat. X.. 474) as feeding on Croton 
iiglium (Croton cdl plant) and C. aromaticiim in Ceylon, sometimes a 
serious pest of the former (Green). Not noticed as a pest in India, 
but the species is abundant almost everywhere and the moths often 
occur in swarms, especially in the Hills. 



Liihacodia signifera, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 304 [Hyelopsis], Cat. X, 504-505 ; I. I. L., 
p. 455 [Hyelopsis]. 
Widely distributed throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Has 
once been bred at Pusa from a larva on leaves of a millet {Panicum, sp.) 
and once from a laiva on rice-leaves. Not known to be a pest. 



Naranga diffusa, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 333-334, f. 177, Cat. X, 631-632, f. 167 ; 
I. I. L., p. 456. 
Has been bred at Pusa on two occasions from larvae found feeding on 
leaves of rice, but is not known to be a pest in India. It has been 
recorded as found on paddy in Formosa by Shiraki, who figures the life- 
history. The female moths come to light freely, but the males rarely. 



PUOCEEDINGS i»l' THt: THILtD I-.MOMOLOGIC AL MEETING Tf. 

Tarache mormoralis, Fb. 

Hinp.=-n., Cat. X. 747-749, f. 209. 

Tmache tropica, Guer. ; Hmpsn., F. I., 11, 314, f. 170 ; I. T. L.„ 
p. 45G. t. 37. ff. 1-4. 

Has been reaied at Pusa on leaves of bariar {Sida rhombifolia). May 
occasionally attack malvaceous crops but not yet noted as a pest. 

Tarache crocata, Guen. 

Hmpsn., F. I.. II, 314-315, Cat. X, 754-755, t. 172, fF. 15, IG ; 
Pioc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 133. 

'Widely distributed throughout the Plains of India, Burma and 
Ceylon. The larva is sometimes found on jute but is scarcely a pest. 

A female, captured in a jute-field at Samalkota on 17tli June 1909, 
is noted by Y. Ramachand a Rao as having laid 220 eggs. 

Tarache nitidula, Fb. 

S. I. I., pp. 381-382, f. 243 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 101. 

Occurs commonly throughout the P'ains of India and is an occasionaT 
minor pe?t of cotton. 

Tarache opalinoides, Guen, 

S. I. I , p. 382, f. 244 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 101, 129. 

Occurs in Central and Southern India as a very minor pe:;t of cotton. 
Also on Abutiion indicnm. at Pusa, (C. 584.) 

Tarache notabilis, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I.. II. 311, Cat. X, 783-784, t. 173, f. 24; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 101. 

Occurs throughout the Plains of India as a very mine: pest of .cotton. 
Has al-o been reared on brinjal at Nagpur. 

Bombo'elia jocosatrix, Guen. 

S. 1. 1., pp. 382-383, f. 245 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 218. 

We have specimens from Chandragiri, Koilpatti and Coimbato e 
in Madias, from Poona and Pusa, reared from larvce on mango leaves. 
A sporadic minor pest of mango. 



76 



PEOCEEDIA'GS OF THE THIED EMOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Bombotelia sp. 

Larvae were found at Pusa, feeding on tender mango leaves in some 
numbers in May 1917. 

This species is very close to B. jocosatrix but is distinct and is appa- 
rently undescribed. 

Chlumetia transversa, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 376, f. 207, Cat. XI, 68, f. 25 ; I. I. L., 
p. 450 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 220. 

A minor pest of mango, the larva boring the shoots and sometimes 
feeding on the leaves and inflorescence. Stated to be a bad pest of 
young grafted mangoes at Poona, boring the shoots. Occasionally on 
litchi also. Our specimens are from : — 



Travancore 

Coimbatore 

Chandragiri (Madras) 

Poona 

Bombay . 

Pusa 

Noakhali (Bengal) 



Mango shoot. 

Mango. 

Mango leaves. 

Mango shoots. 

Mango shoots. 

Mango shoots 
leaves. 

(Moth only). 



and inflorescence, litchi 



Mr R3,mrao. Chlumetia transversa is a bad pest of mango in Poona. The cater- 

pillars bore into the shoots and the attacked shoot does not flower the 
next season even if the larva is extracted. The method of cutting back 
to 1he point of injury does not seem helpful. We have reared parasites 
from this species but they do not check it effectually. The younger 
grafted plants suffer seriously from the a'tack ; the older plants need 
not be taken into account as the damage in their case is negligible. 

Symitha nolalello, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., Cat. Lep. Phal., XI, 244, f. 86. 

Ml. Fletcher. Hampson gives the distribution of this species as, Calcu /.a, Kaiwar, 

Ceylon, Java. At Pusa the larvae were found in numbers defoliating 
Lagerstrcbmia flosregina in August 1917. 

* Nanaguna breviuscula, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., Cat. XI, pp. 252-253, f. 90. 

Cletthara valida, Wlk. ; Hmpsn., F. I., II, 384. 

Bred at Mandalay in January 1910 from larvae on Cajanus indicus 
and at Pusa in April 1916 and May 1917 from larvae on mango inflores- 



PROCEEDINGS OE THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 77 

•cence. We have also a specimen from Peradeniya and the species is 
widely distributed throughout India, from Kashmir to Sikkim and in 
"Southern India and Ceylon. 

Giaura septica, Swinh. 

Hmpsn., Cat. XI, 283 ; I. I. L., p. 4.50 [Cletthara] ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 47. 

Has been reared at Pusa and Surat from larvae on velvet bean and 
soy bean, of which it is a sporadic minor pest. Also at Pusa from larva 
on Bntea frondosa flower. Widely distributed throughout India, Bui ma, 
Ceylon and the Andamans. 

Sekpa celtis, Mo. 

Hmpsn., Cat. XI, 298, f. 105 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 

pp. 218, 229, 246, 264. 
Plotheia celtis, Hmpsn., F. I., II, 370 ; I. I. L., p. 449, f. 308. 

The Pusa collection contains reared examples from Coimbatore on 
Odina wodier and from Pusa on litchi leaves, mango leaves and buds, 
rose leaves, Terminalia catappa leaves and Lorantlius leaves. Other 
recorded foodplants are Fkut, glomerata and Gmelina arhorea. 

The species occurs throughout India and Burma as a spora'dic pest 
(f^ometimes serious) of the plants and trees mentioned. 

Plotheia nephelotis, Meyr. MS. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 287. 

A minor pest of brinjal, on which it has been reared in Travancore 
and at Calicut, Coimbatore, Tiruvallur and Melrosepuram (Madras), 
Nagpur, Lyallpur and Pusa ; also at Hagari (Bellary District) on a wild 
f-olanaceous plant. 

The larva attributed to this species by Lefioy {Indian Insect Life, 
p. 449) is probably the larva of Euhlemyna olivacea. 

Tne specific name nephelotis is an unpublished manuscript name. 

Brinjal Sanothrlpine. 

S. I. I., p. .383, f. 246. 

Has been reared at Coimbatore and in Malabar on brinjal and at 
Hagari on Solanum xanthocarpum. This is probably the same as the 
preceding. 



Dr. Gougli. 



78 PROCEEDIXGS OI-' THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Eligma narcissus, Cr/ 

S. 1. 1., pp. 383-384, ff. 247-248 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 263. 
Occurs throughout Southern India on AilantJnis, which is sometimes 
complerely defoliated by the larvae. 

Farias insuJana, Boisd. 

S. I. I., pp. 384-385, t. 22; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp, 

104, 122, 123. 127, 129, 130. 

Occurs throughout the Plains of India and Burma a> a serious pesf 

o: cotton. Also attacks hliindi {Hibiscus esculentus) and has been 

reared at Pusa fiom buds and flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and on 

kangJiani {Abutilon indicum). 

Farias insulana has become are in Egypt since 1912. We ascribe 
th's to the plant legislation against Pink BoUworm. Farias was a 
maj(ir pest at one time ; but now it does not trouble us. 



rir. Seaior-Wliits. 



Mr. Fletclec 



3r. Gougli. 
Mr. P, C. Gen 



Farias cupreoviridis, Wlk. 

Xanthoptera cupreoviridis, Wlk., T. E. S. (3) I, 92 (1862). 
Farias cupreoviridis, Hmpsn., Cat. XI, 505-506 ; S. I. I., t. 22,. 

f. 7 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 127, 135. 
Farias chomataria ; Hmpsn., F. I., II, 133 ; I. I. L., p. 456. 
Occurs in most parts of the Plains of India. Our specimens are from 
Hazaia District, Bassein Fort (Bombay), Nagpur, Pusa, Chapra, Cuttack 
and Dacca. Has been reared at Pusa on bariar {Sida cordifolia) and at 
Na^ypur on wild malvaceous plants. At Cuttack also the larva has. 
been found bor'ng into jute capsules as a very minor pest. 
In Ceylon it occurs on garden hollyhocks. 

Farias fabia, Stoll. 

S. I. I., p. 385, t. 23 : Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 104, 
122, 123, 127, 129, 130. 
Occurs throughout the Plains of India and Ceylon as a serious pest of 
cotton, boring the young shoots and bolls and sometimes feeding on the 
flowers. Also on bh'ndi, boring the pods, and has also been reared at 
Pusa on Hibiscus a^.ehnoschus and fiom flower bud of H. rosa-sinensis. 
Farias fabia does not occur in Egypt. We only get F. iiisulana. 
Last year Farias fabia was found bad on shoots and bolls of cotton 
grown on the Dacca Farm. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 79 

We shall defer discussion on these Cotton Bollworms until we take Mr. Fletchen. 
the papers dealing specifically with Cotton Pests. 

Carea subtilis, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 422, Cat. XI, 542-543, f. 208. 

Has been reared at Coimbatoie on Ficus and Eugenia jamholana. 
Not known to be a pest. 

I have found Carea subtilis commonly on Eugenia jambolana at Coim- Mr. Ramakrishna 
batore. Ayyar. 

Beara dichromeVa, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 428, Cat. XI, 581-582, f. 227. 

Widely distributed in India and Ceylon. Has been reared at Pusa jyij.. Fletcher, 
from larvae on leaves of Trema sp. and ber {Zizyphus jujuba), but is not 
a pest. 

Acontia transversa, Guen. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 323, f. 173, Cat. XI, 654-655, f. 268 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 123. 

Has been reared from larvae on bkimli leaves at Surat, Nagpur and 
Pusa, but is scarcely a pest. We have it also from Rangoon. 

Acontia transversa occurs on hollyhock in Ceylon. jjj.^ Seni-r-White. 

Acontia intersepta, Guen. 

Hmpsn.. F. I., II, 323, Cat. XI, 656-657, f. 270 ; I. I. L., t. 37, 
f. 9 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 101, 123. 

Has been reared at Nagpur on bhindi and at Pusa on Sida, but is not Mr. Fletcher, 
known to be a pest. Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. 



Acontia malvcB, Esper. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 322, Cat. XI, 658-659, f. 271 ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, pp. 101, 123, 129. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Has been reared 
from bhindi at Surat and Nagpur and on Abutilon indicum at Nagpur, 
but is scarcely a pest. We also have it from Serai Salah (Hazara) and 
Myingyan (Lower Burma). 

VOL. I o 



80 



PROCEEDINGS CF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Acontia graellsi, Feisth. 

S. 1. 1., pp. 385-386, f. 249 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 101. 
We have reared examples from the following localities : — 



Coimbatore 

Kadambokani (Madras) 

Surat 

Akola (Central Provinces) 

Nagpur 

Shripur (Bengal) 

Lyallpur . 



Cambodia cotton, gogu. 

Bhindi. 

Bhindi. 

Bhindi. 

Ahutilon indicum. 

Cotton flower. 

Bhimli. 



It is a minor pest of cotton and bhindi. 

Anna coronala, Fb. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 502-503 [Ophiusa], Cat. XII, 427-428, f. 101. 

The larva is found commonly on Quisqualis and may be a minor 
garden pest. We have it from Pusa, Chapra and Darjiling, Insein and 
Minbu, and the moth is widely distributed in India, Burma and Ceylon. 



Mr. Senior-White. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Misra. 



Achcea Janata, Linn. {= Ophiusa melicerta, Drury). 

S. I. I., pp. 386-387, f. 250 ; Entl. Note 63 ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, pp. 86, 232, 235, 265. 

Occurs throughout India and Ceylon as a serious pest of castor. 
Has also been reared at Pusa on rose and dudhi {Euphorbia pilulifera) 
and at Nagpur on rose. 

Achcea jana'.a is a bad pest of rose in Ceylon. 

In India it occurs occasionally on rose but has never been noted as a 
pest. With us it is a major pest of castor and we always have trouble 
with it every year at Pusa on the castor grown for the eri silkworms. 
It is controlled by hand-picking. 

There is a parasite which attacks it, but this appears late in the 
season. 



Parallelia analis, Guen. 
Hmpsn., F. I., II, 501 [Ophiusa], Cat. XII, 586, t. 221, f. 1. 

Was sent in in October 1913 from Mow Bazidpur, Darbhanga Dis- 
trict, Bihar, as defoliating Phyllanthus emblica. Widely distributed 
throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, but not otherwise known as a 
pest. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 81 

Parallelia algira, Linn. 

Hmpsn., F. I., 11, 500-501, f. 280 [Oj)Musa\, Cat. XII, 596-598, f. 133. 

Occasionally found feeding on castor together with AchcBa Janata. 
We have a specimen bred from a larva found on castor at Cuttack and 
it was recorded as defoliating castor at Peradeniya in July 1903 and is 
likely to occur as a sporadic pest on castor throughout the Plains of 
India, Burma and Ceylon. 

Grammodes geouie'rica, Fb. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 531, f. 296, Cat. XIII, 18-20, f. 4 ; I. I. L., p. 451. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. The larva is stated 
{Indian Insect Life, p. 451) to feed on rice and we have a specimen from 
Balaghat (Central Provinces) labelled " on rice," but it is doubtful 
whether this was actually bred. Stated to feed on grasses at Nagpur. 
Hampson gives Polygonum j^ersicaria and Cistus salvifolia as the food- 
plants in Europe. The larva is figured by Hofmann (Raiipen, t. 36, 
f. 24). 

Grammodes stolida, Fb. 

S. I. I., pp. 387-388, f. 251 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 89. 

Widely distributed throughout India and Burma and is an occasional 
minor pest of linseed in Madras. 

Chalciope hyppasia, Cr. 

Hmpsn., Cat. XIII, 27-29 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 80, 206. 
Trigonodes hyppasia, Hmpsn., F. I., II, 527 ; I. I. L., p. 451, f. 311. 

Common throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, but not. known as 
•a pest except on one occasion when it was found defoliating indigo at 
Champaran on 1st April 1901 ; the Pusa Collection contains one of these 
moth^ reared on indigo and the identification is certain. It also feeds 
on lucerne. 

Pe'.amia Jrugalis, Fb. 

Hmpsn., Cat. XIII, 87-89, f. 23 ; S. I. I., pp. 388-389, f. 253 [Remigia]. 

Occurs abundantly throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. The 
larva feeds a; a rule on wild grasses but occasionally invade ^ cultivated 
areas as a minor pest of Graminea). It has been reared at Kannapuram 
(N. Malabar) on paddy, at Nagpur on juar and grasses, and at Pusa on 
paddy, sugarcane, Qypzrus rotundus and Phaseolus mungo radiatus. 

In Ceylon it attacks Guinea-grass. Mr. Senior- White. 

g2 



82 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEIiTING 

Pelamia unda*a, Fb. 

S. I. I., p. 388, f. 252 [Remigia] ; Hmpsn., Cat. XIII, 91-93, 
f. 25 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 80, 102. 

Remigia archesia, Cram. ; Hmpsn., F. I., II, 526, f. 293 ; 
I. M. N., V, 159 ; I. I. L., pp. 450 451, f. 309. 

Mr. Fletcher. Occurs abundantly throughout India, Burma and Ceylon and is a 

m^nor pest ot pulses as a rule, feeding mostly on the lower leaves, but is 
sometimes extremely abundant on indigo. The Pusa Collection con- 
tains examples from the following localities and reared on the food- 
plants noted : — 

Palur (South Arcot) . . . Indigo. 

Dharwar (Bombay) . . . Boring into potatoes in the field. 

Na»pur ..... Cotton (very minor pest). 

Pusa ..... Vrid, cowpea, arhar. 

Pericyma glaucinans, Guen. 

S. I. I., p. 389, f. 255 [Homoptera] ; Hmpsn., Cat. XIII, 303-304, f. 76. 
A minor pest of Sesbania spp. We have it from Rangpur on Ses- 
bania, from Cuttack on Dhaincha {Sesbania aculeata), and from Coim- 
batore on Sesbania cegijpiaca. 

Plusia ni, Hb. 

Hmpsn., Cat. XIII, 468-470, f. 121 [Phytometra] ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 282. 

Occurs throughout India. We have it from Pusa and Lahore on 
cauliflower and from Surat and Kumbharia (Bombay) on cabbage. 
Other larval foodplants include safEower, nettle and Solanum, and in 
the United Provinces and Gujarat it is said to occur on opium poppy 
also. It is scarcely a pest. 

Plusia limbirena, Guen. 

Hmpsn., Cat. XIII, 472 [Phytometra] F. I., II, 568 ; I. M. N.,. 

V, 162 ; I. I. L., p. 452 ; Ent. Mo. Mag. 1900, 127 ; Proc. 

Second Entl. Meeting, p. 80. 

Has been recorded as feeding upon indigo in Bihar. Possibly the 

identification is incorrect, as this species is recorded only from the Nil- 

giris and Ceylon in Hampson's Catalogue. 



PllOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 83 

Plusia daub 31 Boisd. 

Hmpsn., Cat. XIII, 477-478 [Phjtmnetra] ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 50. 

Has been reared at Pusa from larvae on mint leaves and from piipas 
found on cress, but is not a pest. Occurs throughout India. 

Plusia chalcijfes, Fb. 

Hmpsn., Cat. XIII, 484-486, f. 122 [Phytometra] ; Proc. Second 

Entl. Meeting, pp. 51, 53, 68, 306. 
Plusia eriosoma, Doubl. ; Hmpsn., F. I., II, 509-570, f. 321. 

Occurs throughout India and Ceylon. The larva is polyphagous 
and is a minor pest of various crops. The Puf^a Collection contains 
specimens from the following localities and foodplants :■ — . 

Palur (South Arcot) . .' . Groundnut, sann hemp. 

Kumbliaria (Bombay) . . Cabbage. 

Nagpur ..... Jute. 

Pusa ..... Clitoria ternatca, mint, hicerne, senj'i, 

sann hemp, mama leaves, urid leaves, 
titoth leaves {Phaseolus aconitifolius), 
pea, Coleus sp., Icadu leaves (bottle 
gourd, Lageiiaria vulgaris). 

It has also been recorded on indigo in Champaran in September 1901 
and at Kotagala (Ceylon) as defoliating tomato plants in January 1905. 

In Ceylon we get it on onion and brinjal. Mr. Senior- White, 

Plusia signata, Fb. 

S. I. I., pp. 392-393, f. 259 ; Hmp^n., Cat. XIII, 491, t. 237, 
f. 24, [Phytometra] ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 68, 91, 
271, 282. 

Recorded on cabbage, as an occasional pest in Bihar (Lefroy), on Mr. Fletcher, 
tobacco, groundnut, green gram and sann-hemp in Southern India. 
There is, however, some doubt regarding identification. (See also 
P. chalcytes). 

Plusia albosfriata, Brem. aiul Grey. 

Hmpsn., Cat. XIII, 496, t. 237, f. 29 [Phytometra]. 
Plusia oxygramma, Hmpsn., F. I., II, 575. 

Found in August 1913 in some number on cultivated asters at Hebbal 
Jarm, Bangalore. Also occurs at Pusa but not bred there. 



84 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Plusia nigrisigna, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 570, Cat. XIII, 536-537 [Phytomefra] ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 49, 271. 

Occurs throughout India and is a sporadic minor pest, chiefly of 
gram. We have examples from : — 



Peshawar . 
Lyallpur . 
Cawnpur . 
Kaira (Bombay) 
Pusa 



Bersim. 

Gram, foria (rape ; Brassica campestris). 

Gram. 

Lettuce. 

Gram, mint, tobacco, pea, lucerne. 



Plusia peponis, Fb. 



S. I. I., p. 394, f. 261 ; Hmpsn., Cat. XIII, 573-574 [Phyto- 
metra] ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 50, 303, 307. 

Plusia agramma, Guen. ; Hmpsn., F. I., II, 574 ; I. I. L. 
p. 452, t. 37, f. 11. 

Occurs throughout India, Ceylon and the Andamans and is a minor 
pest of gourds. We have it from Pusa on bottle gourd and from Pu?a 
and Coimbatore on snake gourd. 

Plusia orichalcea, Fb. 

S. I. I., pp. 393-394, f. 260 ; Hmpsn., Cat. XIII, 580-581 
\Phyl07netya] ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 47, 59, 63, 

80, 89, 95, 280, 282, 283, 285, 298. 

Occurs throughout India and Ceylon : apparently not recorded from 
Burma, although it occurs in Assam and probably in Burma also. The 
larva is polyphagous and is a minor pest of garden crops especially. 
Our examples are from : — 



Palur (South Arcot) 

Poona 

Nagpur 

Jallandhar 

Lyallpur . 

Patna 

Muzaffarpur 

North Bihar 

Pusa 



Parachinar 
Peshawar . 



Indigo. 

Cabbage. 

Cabbage, radish. 

Cauliflower. 

Turnip. 
. Pea. 

. Brassica sp. 
. Flax. 

Pea leaves, linseed, carrot, senji, lucerne- 
salad [probably lettuce], celerj', potato, 
cabbage, sarson (Brassica campestris), 
cauliflower, gram, Carthamus tinctoriusy 
Nigerseed, wild ajivain plant. 

Hclianthtts tuberosa leaves. 

Bersim 



PROCEEDIIN'GS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 85 

Plusia orichalcea is one of the few insects that feed on umbelliferous Mr. Senior- White, 
plants, such as carrots and aniseed. It is highly parasitized. 

Rivula bioculalis, Mo. 
Hmpsn., F. I., 11, 334-335, f. 178. 

Widely distributed throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. The Mr. Fletcher. 
larva has been found at Pusa on leaves of rice and Panicum, but it is not 
known as a pest. 

Cosmophila fulvida, Guen. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 409-410, f. 226 ; 1. 1. L., p. 453 ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 129. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Has been reared at 
Pusa on Abutilon indicum and Sida sp., and Hamp.-on gives Walfheria 
indica as a food-|!]ant. Not yet noted on cultivated plants but may be 
expected to be found on Malvaceae (cotton, hollyhock, etc.). 

Cosmophila sabulijera, Guen. 

S. I. I., pp. 390-391, f. 256 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 133. 

Occurs in all jute-growing districts as a major pest of jute. It is 
known from South Arcot, Godavari District, Samalkota, Dharwar, 
Belgaum, Poona, Nadiad, Nagpur, Pusa, Dacca and throughout Bengal. 

If the plants are sufficiently young and water is standing in the 
field, control may be effected by running a film of kerosine over the 
water and disturbing the plants, when the larvae drop. 

Cosmophila sabulijera is a regular bad pest of jute in Bengal du ing Mr. P. C. Sen. 
the rainy season. As far as remedial measures are concerned, on the 
Dacca Farm hand-picking is done although it is tedious. Dragging a 
rope shghtly moistened"^ with kerosine so that it may not injure the 
plants was also tried but was not found to be of much use, as the cater- 
pillars, which fall down at the time of operation, crawl up the plants 
again and feed on the leaves. This, of course, disturbs them when 
feeding. 

Cosmophila indica, Gn. 

S. I. I., p. 391, f. 257 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 100, 
123, 125, 126. [C. erosa, nee Hb.]. 

Occurs throughout India as a sporadic pest of cotton. We have Mr. Fletclier. 
examples reared on cotton from Dharwar, Poona, Jalgaon (Khandesh) 



86 



PROCEEDINGS OP THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Senior- White. 



Mr. Pillay. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Bassein Fort (Bombay), Surat, Ajmer, Narsingpur, Cawnpur and Pusa. 
It has also been found on hhindi {Hibiscus esculentus) at Lyallpur, Pusa 
and Surat, and at Pusa on ambadi {Hibiscus cannabinus), bariar {Sida 
cordifoUa), hollyhock, urid and Bombax malaharicum. 

The larvae are best controlled by hand-picking. 

In Ceylon it occurs in the North-East but not in the South- West. 
It breeds in October. 

In Travancore it occurs on Hibiscus. 

Lyncestis amphix, Cram. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 479, f. 267 ; I. I. L., p. 447, f. 306 [Euscotia sp.]. 

Has been found at Pusa feeding on Ocimum sanctum and 0. canum 
but is scarcely a pest. 



Mr. Ramrao. 



Catephia inqu-ieta, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 484 ; I. I. L., p. 454, t. 28, ff. 4, 5 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 291. 

A minor sporadic pest of sweet potato in North Bihar. Also reared 
at Pusa on young sugarcane. We have also moths from Myingyan 
(Upper Burma) and from Coimbatore and Siruguppa (Bellary). 

Azazia rubricans, Boisd. 

S. I. I., p. 389, f. 254 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 51, 59. 

A minor and sporadic pest of pulses in Bihar and Madras. Has 
been reared at Pusa on cowpea, wid, guar, and moth {Phaseolus aioniti- 
jolius). 

Ophideres fullonica, Linn. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 560-561, f. 317 ; Entl. Note 64 ; Tryon, 
Queensland Agricl. Journ. II, pt. 4, t. 18, 20, 21, 22''^ (April 
1898) [Otkreis] ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 212, 235. 

The moths have been recorded {Indian Museum Notes, V, 118) as 
piercing pomelo fruits at Tardeo, Bombay, causing a loss of 25 to 33 per 
cent, of the fruits, which drop off the trees. Also stated to damage 
orange fruits around Poona and at Nagpur, and to suck grape-fruit 
in the Punjab. The species is widely distributed throughout India and 
is undoubtedly a pest in all fruit-growing districts. 

At Poona I have not been able to find the larvae although the adults 
come in large numbers and puncture the fruits at night. We burn the 
moths off by means of torches and collect them by means of a small 



PHOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 87 

"hand-net by the light of a lantern. I have tried to trap the moths with 
fermented toddy but only caught one specimen in fifteen days. 

.^.^^^The early stages were described and figured in Moore's monograph of Mr. Fletcher, 
the Ophiderinse of the Indian Eegion in the Transaction'^ of the Zoological 
Society and also by H. Tryon in the Queensland Agricultural Journal, 
Vol. II, t. 18, 20, 21, 22' (April 1898) ; Tryon states that the larvae 
feed on several distinct species of Menispermacea3. 

How did you try the trapping of the moths ? 

I placed the fermented toddy in narrow-mouthed earthen vessels, Mr. Ramrao. 
•one jar to every five trees. 

What is the percentage of loss to oranges at Poona ? Mr. Fletcher. 

I have calculated that on an aveiage, taking one season with another, Mr. Ramrao. 
from twenty to forty per cent, of the fruits drop off when nearly ripe. 
Punctures are made by these moths and only occasionally fruit-flies lay 
eggs in the wounds so caused. Fruit-flies do not harm oranges in Poona 
to any extent, as out of several hundred fruits examined only a few were 
found to contain fly maggots. 

Perhaps oil of bergamot might be used to attract these moths. Dr. Gough. 

At Nagpui' we tried spraying the trees with phenyle as a deterrent Mr. Khare. 

but I am not sanguine of the results. 

What is the nature of the iniurv caused? Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 

The moths probably inoculate some bacillus whilst sucking the fruit Mr. Ramrao. 
and this sets up fermentation from the point of puncture and this extends 
right up to the stalk, so that the fruit drops down within three days of 
the puncture. 

Uninjured fruits also drop down. There is some relation between Mr. Kunhi Kannan. 
the watering of the orange plants and the falling of the fruits. 

I have not been able to find the caterpillars so that I do not know Mr. Ramrao. 
where the moths come from. 

The caterpillar feeds on jungle creepers and is not easy to find, as a Mr. Fletcher, 
rule. I doubt whether much can be done"to check it in the larval stage. 

Similar fruit-piercing moths have been noted in South Africa. Did 
you ever come across any when you were in South Africa, Dr. Gough ? 

No ; I never heard of any there. Dr. Gough. 

Calpe ophideroides, Guen. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 564, Entl. Note 04 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 240-250. 

Has been recoi'ded as a destructive pest of nectarines and peaches Mr. Fletcher, 
in the Kumaon Government Gardens, the moths piercing and sucking 
the fruit in exactly the same way as in the case of O.fullonica. 



88 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Raparna nebuhsa, Mo. 

Hmpsn., F. I., Ill, 25 ; I. I. L., p. 457 ; Proc. Second EntL 
Meeting, p. 80. 

Recorded by de Niceville as found abundantly on indigo in Cham- 
paran during the rains, but not noted of late years. Perhaps a sporadic 
pest. 

Simplicia robustalis, Guen. 

Hmpsn., F. I., Ill, 36, f. 16 ; S. I. I., p. 395, f. 262. 

Widely distributed throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Not a 
pest of growing crops, the larva feeding on dry vegetable matter, but 
it occasionally does some damage to house-thatching and may also attack 
crops (e.g., cholam) if stacked after harve'st. Has been reared at Pusa 
on rice and on dry leaves of sissu {Dalbergia sissu), at Coimbatore on 
roof -thatching, and at Baddagama (Ceylon) on dry tea-prunings. 

Nodaria externalis, Guen. 

Hmpsn., F. I., Ill, 56. 
Has been reared at Pusa from larvae on rice leaves. Not a pest. 

HyhlcBci piiera, Cram. 

S. I. I., p. 392, f. 258. 

A serious pest oi teak {Tectona grandis) in all teak-growing districts. 
Has also been i eared on Millingtonia at Bombay and Kodanur (Kurnul 
District, Madras). 

Lymantriad^. 

Orgijia postica, Wlk. 

S. I. I., pp. 395-396, f. 263 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 77, 87. 

Occurs throughout India except the North- West. The larva is poly- 
phagous and has been found at Coimbatore on castor and Enjihrina 
indica and at Pollibetta (Coorg) on Erythrina lithosperma and geranium. 
Also recorded on rose (B. J. XIII, 412). A sporadic minor pest of the 
plants mentioned. 

Mr. Ramakrishna It damages castor at Coimbatore. We have done a coloured plate 

^yyar. showing its life history [exhibited]. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 89 

LceJia devestifa, Wlk, 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 441. 

Has been reared at Pusa in small numbers from larvae found on Mr. Fletcter. 
sugarcane and Guinea-grass. Not a pest. 

Thiacidas postica, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 445-446, f. 307 ; 1. 1. L., p. 459, f. 313 ; B. J. 
XVI, 199 [laiva] ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 253. 

Occurs throughout India and Burma. The larva is common on 
Zkyphus but is scarcely a pest. Our examples are from Pusa, Bilaspur 
and Coimbatore. 

Dasychira horsfieldi, Saund. 

Hmpsn., F. I. I, 448, f. 309 ; B. J., XIII, 414 [larva]. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. The larva feeds on 
tea and sometimes becomes a pest in the Tea Districts. One specimen 
reared from apple leaf (without locality). 

Dasychira mendosa, Hb. 

S. I. I., p. 396, f. 264 ; Proc. Second Entl, Meeting, pp. 21, 28, 87. 

Widely distributed throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. The 
larva is polyphagous. Our records shovr the following localities and 
foodplants : — 



Pusa 
Sibpur 


Ficus rjlomerata, 
mango leaves, 
. Potato leaves. 


jute leaves, sann hemp 
peach leaves. 


Nagpur 


Hollyhock. 




Poona 
Surat 


Ganja. 
. Linseed. 




Hagari (Bellary) 
Colombo . 


. Castor. 
. Cinnamon. 




Mandalay 


. Cajamis indicvs. 





Also recorded from coffee in Southern India and on Tennina^ia 
catajypa by de Niceville. 

A minor pest, of Uttle importance, as a rule. The larva can be hand- 
picked. 

In this case probably at least four species are mixed up under the Mr. Senior- White, 
name mendosa. The foodplants and larvae differ in the various forms. 

That is quite possibly the case. There may be several species mixed Mr. Fletcher, 
up under tnendosa. 



90 



PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Pil'ay. 



Mr. rietcher. 



Dasychira securis, Hb. 

S. I. I., p. 397, f. 265 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 148, 
163 (tab.), 179, 195, 199, 204. 

Occurs througliout India and Burma as a minor pest of cereals and 
sugarcane. Kobus has also recorded it as a pest of sugarcane in Java 
and described and figured the life history {Tijds. voor Entom. XXXIX, 
121-125, t. 4, ff. 1-7 (1896) ). The Pusa Collection contains examples 
from the following localities and foodplants : — 



Peshawar . 

Lyallpur . 

Nagpur . . 

Pusa 

Manickganj 

Gauhati 

Samalkota 

Shoranore (Malabar) 

Shillong . 

Mandalay 



(Moths only). 

Rice. 

Wheat. 

Rice, sugarcane, dahJii grass, gram, wheat. 

Rice leaves. 

Rice leaves. 

Paddy. 

Rice. 

(:\Ioth only). 

Wheat, rice. 



Mr. Ramrao. 



The larvse may be hand-picked. 

In Travancore D. securis has been reared on gram. 

■ 

Dasychira sp. 

This is an unidentified species which was reared from larvae found on 
apple leaves at Jeolikote by Mr. N. Gill. I do not know how far it 's a 
pest. 

Lymantria ohfuscata, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 400-461. 

Specimens (in poor condition but probably of this species) were 
received in July 1916 from the Director of Agriculture, Kashmir, the 
larvae being stated to damage apple, apricot, poplar and willow. The 
larvae rest during the day time in cracks and holes in the trunks of the 
trees on which they are feeding and may be sought out and killed off. 
Artificial hiding places may also be provided by placing bands of sacking, 
etc., on the trees affected 

Lymantria beatrix, Stoll. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 463-464 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 218. 

Occurs throughout India and Ceylon. The larva has been found 
feeding on mango at Poona and Pusa, but cannot be considered a pest. 
At Poona I have found the larvae feeding on mango flowers. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



91 



Lymanfria concolor. 

We have moths from Turzum and Shillong. It is probably this Mr. Fletcher, 
species whose larvae occur on apple at Shillong. The larvae are at present 
under rearing, January 1919, from eggs laid by a female caught at 
Shillong. 

Euproctis latifascia, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 472. 

The larva has been recorded as found on tea (B. J, XIII, 420). The 
species occurs all along the Himalayan region, from Kashmir to Manipur. 

Euproctis subfasciata, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 472. 

Has been reared at Pusa in small numbers from larvae found on castor 
leaves ; also once from a larva on Tropceolum. Not yet noted in des- 
tructive numbers. 



Euproctis lunata, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 472-473 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 218. 
Occurs throughout India and Ceylon. Our records show the follow- 
ing locahties and foodplants : — 



Lyalljiur .... 
Dharwar .... 
Mysore .... 

Coimbatore 

Usually a very minor pest. 



Castor, bcr {Zizi/phiis). 

Cotton. 

Defoliating mango and other trees in 
June 1902. 

Mulberry. 



Euproctis fraferna, Mo. 

S. I. I., pp. 398-399, ff. 266, 267 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 87, 102, 232. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. The Pusa Collection 
contains examples from the following localities and foodplants : — 



Peshawar . 


. Pear. 


Lyallpur . 


. Castor, cotton, rose. 


Poona 


. Rose, cotton. 


Dharwar . 


. Castor. 


Coimbatore 


. Tylophora asthmatica 



A sporadic major pest of castor. 



92 



riiOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Senior-White. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Pillay. 



Mr. Senior- White. 



We have had a coloured plate done showing the life-history. [Ex- 
Jiibited.] 

In Ceylon it is found on Eutacese and does some damage to various 
species of Citrus, but it prefers Feronia elepJiantum. 

We have not found it on Citrus in India. This seems to be another 
case of a difference in locality meaning a difference in food, with the 
implication that we may not really be dealing with the same species of 
insect. 

In Travancore we find it on sunflower, castor, plantain, croton, and 
Vigna cafjang. 

With us the larvae prefer Feronia and, if these trees be planted in 
orange gardens, damage to oranges will be reduced. 



Eu'proctis scintillans, Wlk. 

S. I. I., p. 399, f. 268 Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 68, 87, 
90, 126, 221 ; Andrews, Q. J. Ind. Tea Assocn., 1918, pp. 
31-32. 

Mr. Fletcher. Occurs throughout India. Burma and Ceylon as a sporadic minor 

pest of linseed. The larva is, however, polyphagous and has been 
reared at Pusa on linseed, castor leaves, Loranthus leaves, cov/pea leaves, 
til {Sesamiim indicum) leaves, pumpkin leaves, pomegranate and Ficus 
hengalensis ; at Jerruck (Sind) on habid {Acacia arabica) ; at Nagpur on 
linseed ; on leaves of Cassia fistula at Tocklai (Assam) in June ; at 
Poona on cJiavli {Vigna catjang) and bajri ; at Saidapet on mango, 
at Shillong on apple, and at Coimbatore on jute. 
The larvae may be hand-picked. 

Mr. Ramrao. It is found throughout the Ratnagiri district feeding on mango 

flowers. 
Mr. Jhaveri. It is found on castor on Gujarat. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Porthesia xanthorrJiwa, Koll. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 485, f. 322 ; I. I. L., pp. 460-461 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 204. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, and in Java. It is 
often abundant but does not seem to do much damage as a rule. Has 
been reared at Nagpur on castor and cholai, and at Pusa on castor. Sor- 
ghum, grass, and marua {Eleusine coracana) ear-head. Lefroy also gives 
sugarcane, bajra. juar and Guinea-grass as foodplants. 



PROCEEDIi\GS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 93 

Perina niida, Fb. 

Hmpsn., F. I.. I., 486, f. 323 ; I. M. N., IV, U [larva] ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 251. 

Occurs throughout India and Ceylon, and in China. The larva is 
sometimes found in small numbers on leaves of mango, Ficus and Arto- 
carpus integrijolia but is scarcely a pest. 

HypsiDiE. 
Hijpsa coni'plana, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 500-501. 

Has been reared at Coimbatore from larvae on Ficus glomerata and 
may occasionally be a pest of other species of Ficus. We have it from 
Kotmalie (Ceylon), Chapra and Darjiling. It occurs throughout India 
(except North- West), Burma and Ceylon. 

Hyiisa alci'pliron, Cram. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 502-503 ; I. I. L., t. 39, ff. 3, 4. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, the larvse feeding on 
various species of Ficus. A minor pest of Ficus carica in Bihar and has 
been reared at Pusa on F. hengalensis and F. glomerata and at Abbot- 
tabad on wild fig leaves. 

Hypsa ficus, Fb. 

S. I. I., p. 400, f. 269. 

Occurs throughout India and Ceylon. The larva feeds on Ficus sip-p. 
and may sometimes strip even large fig-trees (see South Indian Insects, 
fig. 57). Not yet noted as a pest of cultivated figs but is likely 
to occur thereon. Our records are from : — 

Trichinopoly .... Banyan {Ficvs religiosa). 

Nagpur ..... Castor [probably error of food-plant]. 

Pusa ..... Ficus infecforia. F. carica, F. glomerata. 

Lyallpur'^. .... Banyan (JF". religiosa). 

The moth^is attracted to Andres-Maire traps. 



94 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Argina argus, KoU. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 51 ; I. I. L., p. 463, t. 39, ff. 8, 9 ; Proc. 
Entl. Meeting, p. 68 ; Andrews, Q. J. Ind. Tea Assocn., 
1918, 30-31. 

Occurs throughout Inda and Ceylon. The larva is occasionally 
found on pods of sann-hemp {Crotalaria jiincea) but is scarcely a pest. 
Also boring in pods of Crotalaria sericea in April and on leaves on 6*. 
striata and C. sp. in May-June at Tocklai (Assam). 



Mr. Ramrao. 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Argina syringa, Cram. 

S. I. I., p. 401, f. 271 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 68. 

Occurs principally in Southern India and Bombay as a minor pest 
of sann-hemp, occasionally abundant. Stated to be a serious pest every 
year around Poona where sann-hemp is grown as a green-manure crop. 

Argina syringa is a serious pest of sann-hemp in the Deccan, where 
it takes the place of Utetheisa pulchella. We also find A. cribraria on 
sann-hemp, but our worst pest is A. syringa. 

In Madra-; we get all the three species of Argina but none of these 
approaches Utetheisa in the extent of the damage done. 

We do not get S. syringa at all at Pusa and our collection is very poor 
in material of this species. Perhaps some of you may remember that 
when you next find it abundantly. 



Mr. Ghosh. 
Mr. P. C. Sen. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Argina cribraria, Clerck. 

S. I. I., pp. 400-401, f. 270 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 
67, 71 ; Andrews, Q. J. Ind. Tea Assocn., 1918, 31. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon as a serious pest of 
sann-hemp, the larva devouring the pods and leaves. W"e have it from 
Coimbatore, Poona, Bassein Fort (Bombay), Surat, Balaghat (C. P.), 
Gorakhpur and Pusa — in all cases reared on sann-hemp. Attacking 
leaves of Crotalaria sericea at Tocklai (Assam). 

At Pusa Argina cribraria is a pest of sann-hemp, but inferior to 
Utetheisa jndcliella. 

It was found bad on ataslii {Croialaria sp.) grown for seed last year. 
Hand-picking was found useful to check it. 

The life-history has been worked out at Pusa and is shown on a 
coloured plate [exhibit^J]. 



/ 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



95 



Sphingid^. 

Herse convolvuli, Linn. 

S. I. I., pp. 401-402, f. 272 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 
51, 291 (tab.) ; Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, pp. 11-15. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. A minor pest as a 

rule, occasionally in large numbers on sweet potato and pulses. Our 

records include the following localities and foodplants : — 

Samalkota .... Green gram. 

Kendrapara (Orissa) . . . Urid leaves. 

Bhagalpur (Bihar) . . . 8oy bean. 

Pusa . . . . . . Sweet potato, sunflower, groundnut, Cli ■ 

torea ternatea, Quamodit plnnata, Jeru- 
salem artichoke. 
. (Moths). 



Darjiling 
Shillong 



(Moths; 



Acherontia lachesis, Fb. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 67-68 ; Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, pp. 
17-18 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 77. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, but more common 
in the Hills where it tends to replace A. siyx. The moth is sometimes 
found in bee-hives, robbing honey. 

The larva may be a pest of Erijthrina where this is grown for green- 
manure or shade (as amongst tea and cof?ee). In such cases the larvae 
may be hand-picked. 

Acherontia styx, Westw. 

S. I. I., p. 402, t. 24 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 55, 84, 
287 ; Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, pp. 21-23. 

Occurs throughout the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon. The 
moth is often found in bee-hives, robbing honey and disturbing the 
bees. The larva is a minor pest of Sesanium indicum {til ; gingelly), 
brinjal and labJah. The Pusa Collection contains examples from the 
following localities and foodplants : — 

Peshawar .... (Moths only). 



Gujarat 


Sesamum indicum. 


Poona 


' ' ?5 


Nagpur 


• ?J 


Bhagalpur 


. Potato. 


Pusa 
Coimbatore 


. Sesamwm indicum, brinjal, cowpea, Jas 

milium sp., bhant (Anisomdes ovata). 
, Brinjal. 


Minbu (Lower Burma) 


Sesamum indicum. 



•The larvaj may usually be hand-picked. 

•VOL. I 



H 



96 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Oxijamhulyx sericeipennis, Butl. (Plate 2, fig. 1.) 

Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, pp. 195-196, t. 9, f. 2. 

At Shillong the larva occurs in July on walnut (cultivated) in some 
numbers, but each larva defoliates considerably, so that the damage 
may be fairly considerable in the case of young trees. 

The larva is shown in the accompanying photographs and the larva, 
pupa and moth on a coloured plate [exhibited]. 

Leucophlebia lineata, Westw. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 74-75, f. 46 ; Entl. Note 65 ; Proc. Secondi 
Entl. Meeting, p. 149 ; Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, 
pp. 230-231. 

Occurs in the Plains of Southern and North-Eastern India, Burma 
and Ceylon. The larva has been reared on sugarcane but has not 
been noted to do any damage in India. 

Pohiptychus dentatus, Cr. 

Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, pp. 240-241. 

Recorded by Rothschild and Jordan from Ceylon and South India, 
as far north as Karachi and Calcutta ; the larva on Cordia sebistena. 

At Coimbatore the larvae have been found on Cordia subcorda'a. 

[Mr. T. V. Ramakribhna Ayyar read a paper on this species, which is 
printed separately.] 

Cephonodes picus, Cram. 

Hmpsn., B. J. XV, 645 ; Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, 
pp. 469-470. 

Apparently confined to Ceylon and Southern India. The larva 
occurs on coffee but is not a pest. 

We have examples from Ceylon (Trincomali and Diyatalawa), Coim- 
batore, Nellikuppam, and Bilaspur. 

Deilephila nerii, Linn. 

S. I. I., pp. 403-404, ff. 273, 274 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
p. 267; Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, pp. 507-509. 

Occurs throughout India and Ceylon as a minor pest of ornamental; 
oleanders. Also reared at Nagpur on Jasminum sambac and at Pusa on 
TaberncBmontana wallichii. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 97 

Deilephila hypofJious, Cr. 

Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, pp. 509-510. 

Occurs throughout India and Ceylon. The larva sometimes does 
considerable damage to Cmchona, stripping the leaves. 
We have specimens from Darjiling. 

Hippotion celerio, Linn. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 87 ; Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, pp. 
751-753 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 235, 297. 

A minor pest of the grape-vine in most parts of India. Has also been - 
reared at Pusa on a wild Vitis and on Beta vulgaris, and at Poona was 
found in October 1916 feeding on the leaves of Rumex V3-icarius (a vege- 
table grown extensively for the Bombay markets). 

In Egypt it is a minor pes: of cotton. Dr. Gough. 

In India we do not know it on cotton at all. jUIr, Fletchec 

Hippotion echeclus, Boisd. 

Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, pp. 754-755. 
Chcerocampa eson ; Hmpsn., F. I., I, 85 ; B. J. XVI, 142. 

Stated to be found on til {Sesarmim indicum) as a minor pest in the 
Central Provinces. Not otherwise known as a pest in India. 

Theretra gnoma, Fb. 

Hmpsn., B. J. XVI, 145 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 298 ; 
Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, p. 770. 

Has been reared at Pusa and Poona on leaves of ' Elephant's foot,' 
to which it is stated to do considerable damage at Poona. Also found 
on grape-vine at Pusa and Jeolikote, and is a regular feeder on vine. 

Theretra alecto, Linn. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 85, B. J. XVI, 145; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 335 ; Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, pp. 776- 
778 ; Scott, B. J., XXVI, 299-300 (1918) [Early stages]. 

Has been reared at Pusa on grape-vine, a wild Vitis, and on Boer- 
haavia, but is not known to be a pest. 

Eggs and larvae were found on cultivated vine at Rae BareH (United 
Provinces) at the end of October and in November 1917 by Captain 
F. B. Scott. (B. J., XXVI 299-300.) 

h2 



Mr. Senior-White. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



98 rROCEEDIlSGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Theretra oldenlandioe, Fb. 

Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, pp. 781-783 ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 268. 

Has been reared at Pusa on balsam, a wild Yitis, sweet potato and 
bansal {Ariesema tortuosmn). A pest of Balsamifera impatiens in Bihar. 
We have it from Abbottabad, Pusa, Darjiling. 

Theretra pallicosta, Wlk. 

R. and J., Rev. Sphing, p. 788. 

Recorded from Ceylon to Burma and Hongkong by Rothschild and 
Jordan. 

Major F. C. Fraser informs me that this species is common in every 
vineyard in Sind, the larva feeding on leaves of grape-vine, of which 
it is a decided pest. 

It has, however, never been reported as a pest. 

Rhyncolaba acteus, Cram. 

Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, pp. 789-790 ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 298. Theretra actcea ; Hmpsn., F. I., I, 
100, B. J. XVI, 147. 

The larva is recorded {B. J . XI, 415) to feed on Colocasia but is not 
known as a pest of cultivated plants. We have it from Pusa, bred 
from larvae on Chakirt, Cofnmelina bengalensis and Pythonessa wallichii. 

In Ceylon the larva attacks varieties of Caladium and unfortunately 
prefers the best kinds. It is parasitized by a Tachinid. 

Rhagastis albomarginatiis, R. & J. 

Roths, and Jordan, Rev. Sphing, p. 798, t. 14, f. 8. 

At Shillong the larva is a serious pest of Hydrangea, often completely 
defoliating the plants. Pupation in a slight cell of net-like silk threads. 
There seem to be two broods of larvae, in June-July and September- 
October. 

We also have a moth in the Pusa Collection from Turzum, Darjiling. 

[Undetermined Sphingid.]* (Plate 2, fig. 2). 

At Shillong, the larva is a serious pest of apple, and to a less extent 
of pear, about the end of June. It does considerable damage, as the 
larvae are not easy to see in spite of their size, and one larva will strip 

* This species has since been determined as Langia zemeroides, Mo. — Editor. 



Page 98. 



\ 



PLATE 2. 

1 




^ 




JSW 




M 





^ 



Fig. 1.— Larva of (jxyambuiyx seviceipenms on walnut at Snillong. 







/ 



Fig. 2 — Sphingid {Larifjia zenxeroiclesj larva on apple at Shillong. 



Page 99. 



PLATE 3. 




Fig. 1.— Larva of Aetiffs sclene. 




Fig. 2.— Laiva ot Anthcnxa loi/ki. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 99 

a whole branch of leaves. Pupation probably takes place under dead 
leaves in natural conditions ; no cocoon is formed and larvae refused to 
enter soil. There is only one brood annually, the pupse hibernating. 
Larvee (in spirit) have been sent in as infesting apple at Kulu also. 
The moth has not been reared out as yet. 

EUPTEROTID^. 

Eupterote mollifera, Wlk. 
S. I. I., pp. 404-405, f. 275 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 299. 
A pest of Moringa ptenjgosperma at Coimbatore and Chingleput. 
The laivse may be burnt off when clustered on the tree-trunk during the 

day time. 

Eupterote geminata, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 60 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 163. 
The larvse occurred in destructive numbers on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis 
at Peradeniya in March 1902. It has been reared at Coimbatore 

on Moringa leaves. 

At Matale it is bad on Cajanus indicus and also on young leaves of Mr. Senior-White. 

cacao. 

Nisaga simplex, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I., 63, f. 36, B. J. XV, 630 ; I. I. L., p. 471. 
Occurs in most grassy areas in Western and Central India. Our Mr. Fletcher, 
examples are from Belgaum, Poona, Pachmarhi, Ranchi and Pusa. 
The larvse are found on wild grasses and sometimes occur hterally in 
milhons, but seem to do little harm to crops. Occasionally they have 
been knowm to invade paddy areas and to do a Ktt'e damage. 

Saturniad^. 

Actias selene, Hb. (Plate 3, fig. 1). 
S. I. I., p. 405, f. 276. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, more especially in 
submontane districts, but it is not very common as a rule. The larva 
feeds on various shrubby plants and small trees. It is recorded on " wild 
cherry " {B. J., XI, 242) and has occurred as a pest defoliating Odina 
wodier at Coimbatore [B. J., XXIII, 792-793) ; also found on Mormga 
pterygosperma. At Shillong it occurs on Betula ahwides, apple, pear, 
walnut, etc. It is a decided pest of apple in the Khasi Hills and Kumaon. 

It occurs regularly every year on Odina wodier at Coimbatore. We Mr. Ramakrishna 
have shown the stages on a coloured plate [exhihited]. Ayyar. 



ilr. Fletcher. 



yir. Ghcsh, 



Mr. Fletcher. 



100 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD EXTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Anfhercea roylei. (Plate 3, fig. 2.) 

Hmpsn., F. I. Moths, I, 18 ; B. J., XI, 243. 

Hampson records this from Masuri, Kangra, Sikkim, and Khasis ; 
larva on " Mahowah, " oak and birch. 

At Shillong the larva feeds on Betula ahioides and less commonly on 
apple and pear, when it does some damage by defoliating branches. 

Cricula trifenestrata, Heifer. 

S. I. I., pp. 405-406, f. 277 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 218, 255. 

Occurs throughout Southern and North-Eastern India and in Burma, 
usually on mango but also on various wild trees {Terminalia, etc.). In 
Assam it occasionally strays onto tea. In Eastern Bengal it is a serious 
pest of mango. 

The hairs of this caterpillar cause irritation. Hand-picking is conse- 
quently out of the question. In Eastern Bengal the people light a 
bundle of straw and hold it below the leaves on which the caterpillars 
are feeding gregariously. The caterpillars are crushed when they fall 
down. 

BOMBYCID^. 

Ocinara varians, Wlk. 

S. I. I., p. 407, f. 278 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 251. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma, and Ceylon as a minor pest of 
figs {Ficus spp.) of various sorts, sometimes repeatedly stripping every 
leaf in the case of young trees and so stunting growth. 

Andraca bipunctata, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I. 40 f. 23 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 21. 

Occurs in Assam, Cachar and Sylhet as a serious pest of tea. There 
are two broods, in January-February and in April-May. The whole 
of the tea-leaves may be eaten off. The larvae cluster conspicuously 
and are easily hand-collected. 

NOTODONTID^. 

Dinar a combusta, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I. lib [Anticyra]. 

Has been reared at Pusa in small numbers on maize but is not known 
to be a pest. In Java the larva is common on sugarcane and the life 



Paac ioi. 



TLATt 4. 




Fig. 1.— Notodontid larva on apple at Shiifong. 



Page 10 1(1) ■ 



PLATE 4. 




^ 



Fig. 2. Boarmianc (No. 2) larva on apple at Shiilcng. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



101 



history has been described and figured by Kobus {Tijds. voor Ent. 
XXXIX 125-129 1. 5 ff. 1-5 (1896)). 

Siauropus altemus, Wlk. 

S. I. I., p. 408 ff. 279, 280 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 

*pp. 18, 42, 257, 264. 

Occurs throughout India and Ceylon, but is rather scarce as a rule, 

odd examples of larvee being found on Cajanus indicus, tamarind, Trewia 

nudiflora, tea, rose, etc. It has once occurred in Ceylon on tea in alarming 

profusion ; in Assam only odd specimens are found on tea. 

We look on it as a curiosity in Assam. Mr. Andrews. 

{Undetermined Notodontid.) (Plate 4, fig. 1.) 

The larvee are found at Shillong on apple in small numbers at the Mr. Fletcher, 
end of June. Pupation takes place in a slight cocoon in which hiber- 
nation occurs in pupal state. The larvte eat the leaves from one side 
and are very difficult to detect, as their coloration is highly procryptic, 
resembling a withered edge of the leaf attacked. 

The caterpillar is shown in the photographs and coloured sketch 
[exhibited], but the moth has not emerged as yet. 

Geometrid.^. 
{Undetermined Boarmiane.) 
The larv^ of this feed on apple leaves at Shillong in June. They 
occur in small numbers and this species is scarcely a pest. The moth has 
not yet been determined but seems to be allied to Hyperythra. 

{Undetermined Boarmiane, No. 2.) (Plate 4, fig. 2). 
Another undetermined Boarmiane was found at Shillong, the larva 
feeding on apple in small numbers, but it does a good deal of damage, 
as the larvee are stick-like and large and not easy to see. 

Biston suppressaria, Guen. 
S. 1. 1., p. 409 f. 281 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 18. 
Occurs in the Tea Districts of Assam, South India and Ceylon, usually 
as a minor pest of tea and Cassia auriculata. In Assam it is sometimes 
a serious pest of tea, three broods occurring ; the control-method usually 
employed is to hand-fork around the base of the bushes in the cold weather 
to collect the pupse, and this is stated to be quite successful. 



102 



PROCEEDIIN'GS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Andrews. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramrao. 
Mr. H. L. Dutt. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



The moths are killed in Assam as they sit on the bark of trees.i 
Children go round with a long stick and tap the moths and kill them. 
It is becoming quite a rarity with us now. 

Sferrha sacraria, Linn. 

Hampsn., F. I. Ill, 424, f. 199 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 297. 

Occurs commonly throughout the Plains of India. In October 1916 
the larvae were found feeding in large numbers on and destroying the 
leaves of Rumex vesicarius (a leafy vegetable grown extensively for the 
Bombay markets) at Poona, 

Craspedia defamataria , Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I. Ill, 435 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 207. 

Occurred at Pusa on lucerne in some numbers in 1906. Not known 
otherwise as a pest. 

Thalassodes quadraria, Guen. 

Hmpsn., F. I. Moths III 507, f. 225. 

The larva occurs, usually in small numbers, on mango and Polyaltliia 
longifolia at Pusa. 

It occurs on mango at Poona. 

I found it in numbers last year on mango at Sabour. 

Thalassodes veraria, Gn. 

Hmpsn. F. I. Moths. Ill, 508. 

Lefroy, 1. 1. L., p. 475, f. 325, t. 41, f. 7 [quadraria, nee Gn.] 

The larva occurs usually in small numbers on mango, Utchi, rose, and 
Lagerstrcemia flos-regince at Pusa, where in January 1909 it occurred in 
large numbers on mango. 

This species has hitherto been confused with quadraria, which is the 
scarcer species of the two at Pusa. They may be distinguished by the 
colour of the frons, which is green in veraria and red in quadraria. 

Lasiocampid^. 
Taragama siva, Lef. 

Hmp?n., F. I., I. 405-406 ; 1. 1. L., p. 497, t. 41 ff. 8-11. 

Occurs throughout the Plains of India and is a sporadic pest of various 
trees It has been reared at Coimbatore on mahogany, when it did. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING lOS 

slight damage to young trees, and at Pusa on Acacia arahica, rose 
Zizyphus jvjifba, Poh/althia longijolia, and Tamarix gallica. 

Melanastria hyrtaca, Cram. 

S. I. I., pp. 409-410, f. 282 ; Entl. Note 66 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 38, 249. 

Occurs throughout the Plains of India (except in North-West). The 
larva is polyphagous and is scarcely a pest as a rule, but occasionally 
occurs in large numbers, when it strips even large trees. The Pusa 
Collection contains examples from the following localities and food- 
plants : — 

Travancore .... Eugenia jambolana. 
Calcutta ..... Acacia arahica, Mimusofs. 
Pusa ..... Albizzia stipulata, Mimuso-ps elengi, Sapota 

(in some numbers, June 1916). 

Raj pur (Champaran District) . Kadam {Anfhocephalus cadamba). 

The larva has also been recorded on Schima wallichii {B. J. XIII 
407). 

TrabaJa vishnu, Lef. 

Hmpsn., F. I., 1. 421-422, f. 293 ; I. M. N., V. 107 ; 1. 1. L., p. 498 
t. 46 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 87, 246. 

Occurs throughout India and Burma as a sporadic pest of castor. 
The larva also feeds on Eugenia jambolana and Tarminalia catappa and 
has been reared at Pusa on Quisqualis and at Shillong on rose, gera- 
nium, and other garden plants. 

The egg-clusters and larvae may be hand-picked. 

LlMACODID^. 

Nafada nararia, Mo. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I. 381-382. 

Occurs in Southern India and Ceylon. Recorded by Rutherford 
on tea in Ceylon {Trop. Agric, July 1914) and at Coimbatore has occurred 
as a pest on Sideroxylon subsiJatum and Pithecolobium dulce. Spraying 
with Lead Arsenate was found successful at Coimbatore. 

Natada velutina, KoU. 

1. 1. L., p. 500 f. 335 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 218. 
The larva sometimes occurs on mango but is not a pest. 



"V 



104 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING- 

Coniheyla rotunda, Hmpsn. . 
Hmpsn., B. J. XVI, 196 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 20, 259. 

This species, originally described from Kanara, occurred as a pest 
of coconut in S. Malabar in February and March 1916, the larvae 
damaging the fohage and sometimes the flower-shoots and rinds of young 
nuts. When full-fed, the larva pupates in a small, oval, hard, shell-like 
cocoon, numbers of which are found on badly attacked tree-fronds. 
Spraying with Lead Arsenate was tried but found impracticable, and 
the preventive measures of cutting off first-attacked fronds and the 
destruction of the shell-like cocoons found on the trees before an outbreak 
raiyats were suggested and taken up by the raiyats (Madras Monthly 
Report for March 1916). 

It has also recently been reported as doing some damage to tea in the 
W5maad. 

Parasa lepida, Crani. 

S. I. I., pp. 410-411, ff. 283, 284 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 19, 28, 87, 217, 232, 234, 258, 262, 299. 

Occurs throughout India (except North- West) and Ceylon asa sporadic 
major pest of mango, Ficiis spp., coconut, rose, plantain and various 
other plantg. The young larvae are gregarious and may be destroyed 
en masse ; later on, they scatter and feed solitarily. The round shell- 
like cocoons are often seen clustered in large numbers on tree-trunks 
and the enclosed larvae and pupae may be destroyed by crushing. Unless 
the hands and body are covered whilst doing this, an irritation is caused. 
The larval spines are highly poisonous and the larvae should not be 
handled. 

Pkycita dentilinella was found predaceous on this insect at Coimbatore. 

Our records include the following locahties and foodplants : — 



Peradeniya 

Kumbalengna (Cocliin)< 
Coimbatore 
Poona 

Bankura (Bengal) 



Defoliating rose, January 1902. 
Defoliating coconut. 
Ficus benjamini. 

Flacourtia. mango (especially on young 

plants, doing damage). 
Mango leaves. 



Mr. Ramakiisbna 
Ayyar. 



Parasa lepida is pretty bad on young mango trees in Madras, 
have done a coloured plate of it [exhibited]. 



We 



Mr. Fletcher 



AltJia nivea, Wlk. 

S. 1. 1., pp. 411-412, f. 285 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meetmg, p. 87. 
Occurs throughout India as a very minor pest of castor. 



PaQe ids. 



PLAtE 5. 




Fig. A.—IieUpiKf larva on apple at Shillong. 




Fig. 2. -Limacodid larva; on apple at Shillong. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 105 

Belippa laleana, Mo. (Plate 5, fig. 1.) 

1. 1. L., p. 501, t. 28, f. M ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 28. 

The fat slug-like, pale-green, yellow-dotted larva is common on ,-- 
eofiee in Soutli Coorg, but is scarcely a pest. Also occurs on apple, pear, 
walnut and other fruit-trees at Shillong and does shght damage by 
feeding on the leaves. 

In Assam about eighty per cent, of the larvae are parasitized. Mr. Andrews. 

{Unidentified Limacodid.) (Plate 5, fig. 2.) 

At Shillong in June 1918 the larvae occurred on apple in some numbers, Mr. Fletcher, 
but the moth could not be reared out. 

Several different species of Limacodids attack apple and other fruit- 
trees in Shillong. 

Nymphalid.1;. ^ 

Mijcalesis perseus, Fb. 

Bingham, F. I.. I. 57-58, f. 17 B ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 163. 

The larva is sometimes found in small numbers on rice at Pusa, but 
is not a pest. 

Mycalesis mineus, Linn. 

Bingham, F. I., I. 58-59, f. 17-A, t. 2, f. 8 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 163. 

Pupae have been found at Gauhati on rice-leaves. Not known to be 
a pest of rice. 

Melanitis ismene, Cram. 

S. I. I., p. 412, t. 50, ff. 7-9 ; Entl. Mem. V, 3-7, t. 1 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 163, 180. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon and is a minor pest of 
rice. The larvae are also less commonly found on juar and mania ; also 
on various wild grasses. 

In Java the larva is noted, under the name Cyllo leda, by Kobus as 
found on sugarcane {Tijds. voor. Ent. XXXIX, 129-130, t. 6 ff. 1-5 

;,{1896). 

Elymias undularis, Dr. 

Moore.Lep.Ind.il, 145-148, 1. 133 ff. 1 (larva), 1 A.C ; Bingham, 
F. I. Butt. I., 171-172. 

This species occurs along the Himalayas from Masuri to Bhutan in 
Assam, Lower Bengal, C. India, Burma to Malaya. 



106 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

The larva feeds on palms, often doing some damage to ornamental; 
specimens. It is usually extensively parasitized. 

Euihalia garuda, Mo. 

Bingham, F. I., I. 282-283 ; I. I. L., p. 411, t. 30 ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 218. 

Occurs throughout India and Burma. We have it from Dehra Dun, 

Pusa, Rajapatti, Burdwan, Insein and Myitkyina. The larva feeds on 

leaves of mango, at times in some numbers, but does little damage and 

cannot be considered a pest. 

Mr. Pillay In Travancore the larva occurs on mango leaves but it is not a pest. 

Jimonia lemonias, Linn. 

Bingham, F. I., I. 357-358 ; I. I. L., p. 413, f. 283. 

Mr. Fletcher. Occurs commonly throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. The larva- 

has been found at Pusa on Sida rhomhifolia and at Nagpuron jute, but 
has not yet been noted as a pest. 

Junonia orithyia, Linn. 

Bingham, F. I., I. 358-359. 

The larva has been found on sweet po\ato on two occasions at Pusa 
and also at Coimbatore. Also reared on Justicia at Pusa. Not a 
pest. 

Junonia almana, Linn. 

Bingham, F. I., I. 361-362 ; 1. 1. L., p. 413, f. 282 ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 163. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Has been reared from 
larvae found on rice and on Mimulus gracilis. 

Scarcely a pest of paddy as a rule but has been found in large numbers 
destroying rice-fields together with larvae of Spodoptera mauritia. 

Kallima inachus, Boisd. 

Bingham, F. I., I. 395-397, t. 10, f. 76 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 244. 

The butterfly is said to suck peach fruits at Pachmarhi, Central. 
Provinces, but the record seems doubtful. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 107 

Argynnis hyperbius, Johannsen. 

Bingham, F. I., Butt. I., 438-440, t. 5, f. 36 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 268. 

Occurs throughout N. India (replaced in S. India by castetsi). 

Larva on violet and pansy, sometimes doing considerable defoliation 
to cultivated plants. Found in numbers at Shillong in October 1918, 
and at Pusa in February 1919 defoliating Viola odora. 

Ergolis merione, Cram. 

Bingham, F. I., I. 462-463 ; 1. 1. L., p. 415, t. 31 ; Entl. Mem. V, 
8-15, t. 2 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 87. 

The typical form merione occurs throughout the Northern half of 
India, in Assam and Burma. The larva feeds on castor and as a 
rule is of very minor importance as a crop-pest, but is often found on 
isolated self-sown plants which may be almost completely defohated. 

In Southern India and Ceylon it is replaced by the form taprobana, 
Westw., which has not been noted as a pest of castor. 

Telckinia violce, Fb. 

Bingham, F. I., I. 471-472, f. 85 ; I. I. L., p. 415 ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 126. 

The larva has been found on Hibiscus cannabinus in Bihar as an 
occasional minor pest. It also feeds on wild Passion-flower {Modecca 
palmata) and has been reared at Cuttack on mustapat {H. cannabinus). 

Papilionid.^. 

Papilio machaon, Linn. 

Bingham, F. I., II, 36-38 f. 6. 

The larvae were found in small numbers on cultivated fennel at Han»u, 
Kohat District, North-West Frontier Province, in May 1916. Not a 

pest. 

Papilio demoleus, Linn, {erit/ionius, Cram.). 

S. I. I., pp. 412-413, t. 25 ; Entl. Mem. V, 33-48, t. 6 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 210, 216. 

Occurs throughout the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon. The 
larva feeds on various species of Citrus and is sonitetimes a serious pest, 
stripping the leaves. It has been reared at Pusa on lime, orange, bael 



108 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE XniRD E\TOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Senior- White. 

Mr. Robertson- 
Brown. 



{Mgle marmelos) Psoraha corylijolia and Murraya Koenigi. The eggs 
and larvae may be hand-picked and in small areas catching the butter- 
flies in hand-nets has been found practicable. 

The larva of Papilio demoleus prefers Feronia elephantum to species of 

Papilio demoleus is found to attack Malta orange rather than other 
varieties in the North-West Frontier Province. Hand-netting of the 
butterflies has not been found effective at Peshawar. 



Mr, Fletcher. 



Mr. Pillay. 

Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 



Papilio helenus, Linn, 

Bingham, F. I., II. 41-43, f. 8 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 210. 

The race daksha, Hmpsn,, which is confined to the Hill Districts of 
Southern India, is sometimes a serious pest of orange trees in South 
Coorg (fde Hannyngton). The typical form helenus is also a minor pest 
of orange at Shillong. 

Davidson and Aitken give XantJioxylon rJietsa as a foodplant. 

Papilio memnon, Linn. 

Bingham, F. I.. II, 47-49, f. 9 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 210. 

Butterflies were observed to be ovipositing on cultivated pomelo 
trees at Myitkyina, Upper Burma, in September 1914. Probably a very 
minor pest of Citrus. 

Papilio polymnestor, Cram. 

Bingham, F. I., II, 50-51, 1. 12, f. 85 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 210. 

The larva is sometimes a serious pest of orange in South Coorg (Me 
Hannyngton). 

Davidson and Aitken give Atalantia sp. and Garcinia xanthochrymus 
as wild foodplants, but it may be noted that Moore quotes Citrus decu- 
mana as the food of the Sinhalese form parinda, Mo. 

At Quilon Travancore, Papilio polymnestor occurg on orange and 
Murraya koenigi. 

We have found Papilio polymnestor and P. helenus on wild Citrus 
trees on the Western Ghats. 



Mr. Senior- White. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Papilio agamemnon. 

In Ceylon Papilio agamemnon occurs on Anona muricata. 

The larva is figured by Kershaw {Butt. Hongkong, p. 114 t. 4a ff. 10) 
who says that in Hongkong it feeds on Uvaria inicrocarpa and Unona 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD INTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 109 

discolor (Anonacese), Michelia cJiampaca and th,e custard apple (4 wowa 
reticulata). We have however, no record of its having damaged any 
cultivated plant in India.] 

Papilio polytes, Linn. 

Bmgham, F. I.. II, 61-63, f. 13 ; Entl. Mem. V, 33-42, 48-52. 
t. 7 [pammon] ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 210, 216. 

Occurs throughout the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon. The 
larva feeds on various species of Citrus (orange, lemon, etc.) and is occa- 
sionally a minor pest of cultivated Citrus. It has also been reared at 
Pusa on Murraya kcenigi. 



PlERID^. 

Pieris hrassicce, Linn. 

Bmgham, F. I., II, 170-171, f. 43 ; I. I. L., p. 418 ; Agr. Jl. Ind. 
Jan. 1912, t. 1 ; Entl. Mem. V, 20-26, t. 4 ; Entl. Note 68 \. 
- Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 9, 269, 279, 282, 284. 

Found all along the Himalayan Region from Chitral to Bhutan and 
Assam, penetrating into the Plains in the winter months in an area about 
one hundred miles wide and parallel with the Hills, straggling as far 
South as Cuttack. At Pusa adults appear regularly about 1st February 
and two or three broods occur in February and March, the butterflies 
all disappearing by the end of April. At Peshawar the butterflies 
appear in October and are on the wing and breed until about the end of 
May. 

Our specimens are from Bhagalpur, Pusa, Lyallpur, Akalgarh 
(Punjab), Peshawar, Abbottabad, and Shilloug. 

Larva on cabbage, cauliflower, mustard, TropcBolum (nasturtium) 
and other Cruciferse. A serious pest of cabbage and cauUflower. 

Control : — Hand-picking of the yellow egg-masses and of the young 
larvee whilst these are still gregarious. 

This year I saw P. hrassicce at Laheria Serai on 8th and 9th January Mr. Inglis,. 
1919. 

Pieris canidia, Sparrman. 

Bingham, F. I., II, 172-173 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 279. 
Occurs commonly in the Hills (Himalayan Region, Southern India, Mr- FletcLei. 
Assam, Upper Burma). We have it from Peshawar, Simla, Ootacamund, 
Shillong, and Lashio (N. Shan States). 



no 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



The lan'^a is said to damage cabbages at Maymyo, Upper Burma, 
but the record seems doubtful. 



Mi. Andrews. 



Mr. Ramakiishna 
Ayyar. 



-Mr. Fletcher. 



Catopsilia pyranthe, Linn. 

S. I. I., p. 413, f. 286 ; Entl. Mem. V, 29-32, t. 5, ff. 7-11 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 72, 75, 76. 

Occurs throughout India, Assam and Burma, mostly in the Plains. 
The larva feeds on Cassia fistula. C. tora and C. occidentalis and has been 
found at Pusa on Sesbania [sp.] flowers. 

Scarcely a pest as a rule but may do damage to species of Sesbania 
and Cassia when these are grown as ornamental or shade trees. 

In Assam Catopsilia pijranthe sometimes does considerable damage to 
Cassia fistula trees, which are planted along roadsides for shade pur- 
poses. 

We find it in Madras damaging dhaincha which is grown for green- 
manure, 

Colias hyale, Linn. 

Bingham, F. I., II, 234-235 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 208. 

Said to be an occasional minor pest of clovers {Trifolium spp.) at 
Peshawar, but there seems to be no exact record. 

Colias croceus, Fourcroy, race fieldi, Men. 

Bingham, F. I., II, 243-244, t. 15, f. 103 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 208. 

Said to have occurred as an occasional minor pest of clovers {Trifolium 
■spp.) at Peshawar, where the butterfly is common in April. The butter- 
fly penetrates into Bihar in the cold weather but is a scarce visitor as 
XI rule. 

Terias Jiecabe, Linn. 

S. I. I., p. 414, f. 287 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 72, 
(tab), 75, 76, 79. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Larva on dhaincha^ 
agathi and various species of Sesbania and Cassia. Our records 
include — 



Poona 


. Common on Sesbatiia. 


Coimbatore 


Dhaincha. 


Cuttack 


. Dhaincha 


Pusa 


, Cassia tora. 


Rangpur . 


. /Sesbania aculeata. 


Duars 


. Sesbania^B^. (in large numbers in 1912) 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 111 

Sometimes in large numbers on species of Sesbania when grown for 
green manure, 

Terias sUhetana, Wallace. 

Bingham, F. I.. II, 257-258, ff. 65, 6G ; Proc. Second Entl- 
Meeting, pp. 72, 75, 79. 

Occurs in Sikkim, Assam, Burma, and Central and Southern India. 

In November 1915 I found the larvae defoliating Sesbania grown for 
green-manure amongst coffee in Coorg. The gregarious larvae are green, 
with a black head. Pupa blackish ; pupation in a cluster on stem. 
(In T. hecabe larva has green head, pupa greenish, not clustered gre- 
gariously). 

Lyo^nid^. 

Zizera lysimon Hb. 

Bingham, F. I., II, 357-358 ; 1. 1. L., p. 426 [Z. karsandra.] 

"Breeds frequently on lucerne {Medkago saliva) in the Plains where 

this is grown Davidson and Bell reared it on a vetch, Zornia 

diphylla " (Lefroy, I.e.). Not known to be a pest. 

Chilades laius, Cram. 

Bingham, F. I., II, 365-367, t. 19, f. 135 ; 1. 1. L., p. 426 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 210. 

Occurs practically throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Larva 
on orange, lemon, lime, pomelo. Has been reared at Pusa on several 
occasions from larvge on topshoots of orange, but is scarcely a pest. 

In the Godavari district we once had it very bad on orange shoots. Mr. Ramakriihna 

Ayyar. 

Chilades trochilus putU, Freyer. 

Bingham, F. I., II, 367-368 ; 1. 1. L., p. 426 ; Moore, Lep. Ceylon. 
I, 77, t. 35, ff. 4, 4a 10. [putli] ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
p. 80. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, mostly in the Plains. Mr. Fletcher. 
The foodplants include HeUotropium strigosum, Zornia diphylla and 
indigo. 

It has been reared on several occasions from larvse found on indigo 
leaves in North Bihar, but can scarcely be considered a pest. Also reared 
at Pusa from larvge boring pea pods. 

VOL. I T 



112 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Lyccenesthes e?nolus, Godt. 

Bingham, F. I., II, 373-374. 

Occurs in Sikkim, Assam, Burma, Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Nortli 
Kanara. 

De Niceville gives the foodplants in Calcutta as Nephelium litchi, 
Cassia fistula and Heynea trijuga. It has been reared in small numbers 
at Pusa from larvae' feeding on mango leaves, but is not a pest. 

Lampides elpis, Godt. 

Bingham, F. I., II, 407-408 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 37. 

Occurs throughout the Hills of Southern India, Ceylon and Burma. 

The larva feeds on the flowers and fruits of the cultivated cardamom 
and also on those of Kaempjceria pandurata ; pupa in the fruit or in 
cluster of dead flowers above the fruit. 

A decided pest of cardamoms in districts where these are grown. 



Mr. Andrews. 



Euchrysops cnejus, Fb. 

S.I. I., pp. 414-415, t.26 ; Entl. Mem. V, 59-66, t. 8 [Catochry- 
sopsl ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 44, 52, 56, 58, 60, 
65. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. The larva has been 
found at Pusa on tur {Cajanus indicus), mung, urid, moth, Yigna catjang 
and Sword-bean {Ganavalia ensiformis). It may occur on practically 
any pulses and when in numbers (as it often is) may do serious damage, 
the contents of the pods being eaten out. 

At Jorhat I found it on Phaseolus radia'us. 



Catochrysops pandava, Horsf . 

Bingham, F. I., II, 413-415 ; Rutherf., Trop. Agric, Sept. 1914 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 266. 

Mr Fletcher. Occurs in most parts of the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon. 

The larva feeds on Cycads. De Niceville found it on Cycas revoluta 
in Calcutta and it has been sent to us from Bombay as damaging Cyeas 
circinalis, and Rutherford found it as a pest of Cycads at Peradeniya. 
It disfigures ornamental Cycads but is otherwise scarcely a pest. 
[See also pages 897-898.] 



TEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 113 

Polyonimalus boeticus, Liini. 

S. 1. 1., pp. 415416, f. 288 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 44, 
56, 58, 64, 71 ; Andrews, Q. J., Ind. Tea Assocn., 1918, 29-30. 

Occurs abundantly thioughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Larva 
■on Crotalaria striata, Dolichos lahlab. Cajanus indicus, Pisum and other 
Leguminosae. It has been reared at Coimbatore from larvse on pods of 
Cajanus indicus and flowers of Bnlea frondosa. It may be a serious pest 
of Crotalaria Avhen this is grown for seed. 

In Assam we had it on gram last year and the attack was rather bad. Mr, Andrews. 

I have had a request from Java for egg-parasites of P. hocticus ; so, Mr, Fletcher. 
if anyone comes across any Trichogramma or other parasite of the eggs, 
I shall be glad to be informed. 



Tarucustlieophrastus, Fb. 

Bingham, F. I., II, 417-419, t. 20, f. 151 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 253. 

Occurs practically throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. The larva 
feeds on the young leaves and buds of Zizyphus jiijuba. It is scarcely 
a pest as a rule but is stated to be a minor pest of grafted ber-tvees in 
the Central Province ^ 



Deudorix epijarbas, Mo. 

Lep. Indica IX, 33-34, t. 711, ff. 3, 3 a-c, Ihoc. Second Ent!. 
Meeting, p. 233. 

The larvae are destructive to pomegranate fruit in Kumaon in June 
and July, so that " in some years scarcely a pomegranate escapes their 
attacks " (Hannyngton, B. J. XX, 369-370). 

It is common as a borer of pomegranate fruits in the Dehra Dua Mr. Beesoa. 
district. 

Virachola isocrates, Fb. 

S. 1. 1., p. 416, f. 289 ; Lep. Indica IX, 64-69, t. 719, ff. 3, 3a-6 ; 
Bell, B. J. XXIV, 184 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 213, 
231, 232, (tab.) 234, 245, 250, 257. 

Occurs throughout the Plains of India {'I except northwards of United Mr. Fleicber. 
Provinces). Not noted in Burma. 

i2 



114 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

A major pest of pomegranate, the fruit being bored by the larva,, 
which also occasionally attacks guava, orange and other fruit'. Our 
records include the following localities and foodplants : — ■ 

Coimbatorc .... Pomegranate, wood-apple, orange. 

Bangalore .... Apple (boring in fruit). 

Surat ..... Pomegranate. 

Puaa ..... Pomegranate, guava fruit, plums (alu bo- 

khara) {Primus communis), peach fruit. 

Nagpur ..... Orange, dekamali fruit {Gardenia gummi- 

fera. 

Also attacks tamarind fruits and Bell gives fruits of Gardenia and 
Randia and Strychnos nux-vomica . 
jUj._ (gg^ In Bengal it is a very common pest of pomegranate. The cater- 

pillars are found on guava also, but in very small numbers. 

Hesperiad^. 

Parata alexis, Fb. 

Lep. Indica IX, 253-255, t. 752, ff. 3, 3a-d. 

iflr. Fletcher. Widely distributed in the Plains. 

Has been reared at Coimbatore and Chepauk from larvge on leaves 
of Pongamia glat^ra and also on castor and at Nagpur from larvae oa 
" Kanji." 

Not known to be a pe-t. 

Spialia galba, Fb. 

Lep.. Indica X, 99-101, t. 781, ff. 1, la-c. 

Widely distributed throughout the Plains. 

Has been reared at Pusa from larvae on Sida rhombifolia, on hollyhock 
leaves, and on soybean {Glycine hispida). Davidson, Bell and Aitken. 
bred it fiom Waltheria indica. 

Not a pest. 

Ampittia d'oscorides, Fb. 

Hesperla dioscorides, Fb., Ent. Syst. Ill, 329, (1793); Swmh., 
Lep. Indica X, 125-126, t. 780, ff. 1, \a-d [Ampittia] ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 164. 

Eesperia maro, Fb., Ent. Syst. Suppl. p. 432, (1798). 

Occurs in Sikkim, Burma, South India and Ceylon. 
It was reared by Davidson, Bell and Aitken from larvae on rice and 
grasses and has been reared on paddy at Coimbatore and Samalkota,- 
Probably a veiy minor pest of rice. 



rEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 115 

Suastu! gremiu>, Fb. 

S. I. I., pp. 418-419, f. 293 ; Lep. Indica X, 152-154, t. 793, 
ff. 1, la-c; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 258, 262. 

Widely distributed in the Plains, the larva feeding on various palms, 
mostly on palmyra, also on coconut and date. 

A minor pest, sometimes occurring in considerable numbers. 

Gangara thyrsis, Mo. 

S. I. I., p. 417, ff. 290-291 ; Lep. Indica X, 161-163, t. 795, 
ff. 1, la-c ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 258. 

A common species throughout the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon; 

We have this from Coimbatore and South Coorg. The larva feeds 
on palms of various kinds and may do some damage to ornamental plants 
and in nurseries of young coco-palms, etc. 

Gangara thyrsis is a pretty bad pest of nurseries of young coconut- Mr. Ramakrishqa 
palms in South Kanara. Ayyar. 

Matapa aria, Mo. 

I. M. N. V, 115 ; 1. 1. L. p. 431 ; Lep. Indica X, 171-172, t. 797, 
ff. 1, la-c; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 204. 

A common species in most parts of India, Burma and Ceylon. It '^^' Fletcher, 
occurs commonly at Pusa, the larva rolling bamboo leaves, but is scarcely 
a pest. 

It is found at Coimbatore also. Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 

Udaspesfolus, Cram. 

S. 1. 1., p. 420, f. 295 ; Lep. Indica X, 205-207, t. 805, ff. 1, la-c ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 294, 295. 

Widely distributed in the Plains — we have it from Pu^a, Raugpur, Mr. Fletcher. 
Nepal, Hopin (Upper Burma), the Northern Circars of Madras, and 
Coimbatore ; not common as a rule but sporadically abundant, when 
it may be a serious pest of turmeric and ginger. Davidson. Bell and 
Aitken found the larva on Curcuma aromafica. 

In Travancore it is a very minor pest of ginger. Mr. Pillay. 

The caterpillars are generally parasitized. - Mr. Ramakrishna 

As a rule it is of no importance, but occasionally it occurs in very ]^^y^*Q{«j,g- 
large numbers and does a good deal of damage to ginger and turmeric. 



116 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Telicofa augias, Linn. 

S. I. I., pp. 419-420, f. 294 ; Lep. Indica X, 246-247, t. 813, 
ff. 2, 2a-c ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 149, 164, 204. 

Common throughout the Plains of India. We have it from Pusa, 
Cuttack, Palur and Coimbatore, in all cases reared from sugarcane. 

The larva feeds commonly on cane-leaves, and is also said to feed on 
bamboos and rice rarely, but is scarcely a pest. 

Calforis colaca, Mo. 

S. I. I., p. 413, f. 292, [Pamara] ; Lep. Indica 316-317, t. 831^ 
ff. 1, la-c ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 164. 

Common throughout the Plains. Our specimens are from Pusa 
(lar\''a on rice), Chingleput (larva on paddy) and Bassein Fort, Bombay 
(larva on grasses). 

Scarcely a pest of paddy. 

Caltoris bevani, Mo. 

Lep. Indica X, 318 1. 831, ff. 2, 2a-b ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 164. 

Occurs throughout the Plains of India (except South) and Burma. 
We have examples reared from larvae found on rice leaves at Pusa and 
Samalkota. 

Not known as a pest. 

Chapra mafhias, Fb. 

S. I. I., pp. 417-418, t. 27 [Pamara] ; Lep. Indica X, 320-321, 
t. 831, ff. 3, 3a-c ; Entl. Mem. V, 67-72, t. 9 ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, pp. 164, 180. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. We have butter- 
flies from Peshawar, Bassein Fort, Pollibetta, Coimbatore, Ootacamund, 
the Anamalai Hills, Mandalay, Maymyo, and Mptkyina, as well as 
examples bred from laivao on rice at Nagpur, Pusa, Daltonganj, Poona 
and Thana District. It has also been reared at Pusa on juar and once 
on sann-hemp leaves (collected on sann-herap in field). 

A minor pest of paddy as a rule, and sporadically bad in most districts. 

BIr. Ghosh. X found one caterpillar on a leaf of sann-hemp. 

Mr. Fletcher. Sann-hemp is a very unusual food-plant. Possibly it had wandered 

ofi grass. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 117 

Parnara bada, Mo. 

Lep. Indica X, 329-330, t. 834, ff. 1, la-c ; Proc. Second Entl. 

Meeting, p. 164. 

Common throughout the Plains of Southern India, Burma and Ceylon. 

We have this from Pusa, Ootaeamund, Bassein Fort and Maymyo, and 

also examples bred from larvse on rice leaves at Ranchi, Daltonganj 

and Karwar. 

Not hitherto recorded as a pest of paddy, but often occurs on this 
crop in large numbers ; probably overlooked and confused with other 

species. 

That brings us to the end of the butterflies, unless anyone has any Mr. Fletcher. 

more butterflies to bring forward ? 

[Delias aglea. 

There is a wild mistletoe, a species of Loranthus, which is a pest on Mr.' Andrews, 
tea, in so far as it checks its growth. It is especially bad on tea-bushes 
reserved for seed and planters have to spend a lot of money in cutting 
this out. The larva of Delias aglea eats this parasite right down and 
as such it is a beneficial insect. 

At Pusa we have Delias eucharis which feeds on Loranthus in a similar Mr. Fletcher. ' 
way, but I am afraid it does not check the Loranthus very much. Indeed, 
I have never seen so much Loranthus as there is here just at present on 
the mango and Sissu trees.] 



* Pyralid^. 

Trachylepidia fructicassiella, Rag. 

Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 4, f. 2. 
The larva bores commonly in pods of Cassia fistula at Pusa. 

Stenachroia elongella, Hmpsn. 

Hmpsn., B. J. XII, 94 fig. ; S. 1. 1., p. 421, f. 296 ; Picc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 183. 
Has been reared in Madras from larvse on cholam ear-heads at Coim- 
batore and Hagari and at Pusa from larvae on Sorghum ear-heads and 
stems, maize cobs and marua ear-heads. A sporadic pest of these crops 
in Madras and Bihar. Apparently not known in Western or Northern 
India. 



118 



TROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ramakrisbna 
Ayyar. 



Tiratliaha sp. nov. 



Annl. Rept. 1917-18, p. 98, t. U, ff. 2 (1918). 

Larvae were found at Pusa boring young coconut fruits in the bunch 
■on the tree and causing the young fruits to drop ofi. 

Tirathaha (Wlk., Cat. XXX, 961) is the Mucialla of the Fauna volume 
(IV, 5). 

A very similar species of this genus has been recorded to attack young 
coconut fruits in Fiji in a similar way and it is probable that this Indian 
species is widely distributed in India and does more damage than is at 
present suspected. Here at Pusa we are not in a coconut-growing 
district, and have only a few odd coconut palms here at all ; so we have 
little opportunity of going into this question. But those of you who work 
in coconut districts might look to see whether this insect is not present. 

Mr. Sampson was telling me some time ago about an injury to very 
tender coconuts which was very similar to that described just now. The 
young fruits had punctures in them and all such punctured fruits 
dropped down. This insect may have been responsible for the damage. 



Mi. Retcher. 



Biatrcea saccharalis, Fb.* 

Hmpsn.,B.J.,XII,306fig. 

Recorded by Hampson from Ceylon. This is the species notorious 
as a cane-pest in America and the West Indies. It seems very doubtful 
whether it really occurs in India. 



Diatraea venosata, Wlk. 

Diatraea venosata Wlk., Cat. XXVII, 144 ; Hmpsn., P. Z. S. 

1895, 954 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 142 ; Annl. Rept. 

1917-18, pp. 90-93, t. 5. 
Diatraea striatalis, Snell., Tijds. voor Ent. XXXIV, 349, t. 19, 

ff. 1-4. 

Probably occurs everywhere in the Plains of India, the larva boring 
in sugarcane and less commonly in cereals such Sbsjuar, maize and rice. 

We have specimens of the true D. venosata from Pasoeroean, Java, 
and these appear very similar to Indian examples reared at Pusa from 
sugarcane and less commonly from maize and juar stems, at Ramnad 
from sugarcane, at Jalalpur (Bombay) from sugarcane and juar stems, 
at Surat from sugarcane and maize, and at Cawnpur from juar. 



* Note. — The discussion on this and the following species of cane-borers will be found 
on pages 387 et seq. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 119 

The nomenclature of this species is doubtful. It is perhaps sacchari- 
]}hagiis, Bojer, described from Mauritiu'^ (whither it was imported from 
Ceylon) ; if so, Bojer's name antedates those of Walker and Snellen 
(assuming that these two belong to the same species, which is also doubt- 
ful). 

Diatrcea sp. (C. S. 1610).* 

Annl. Kept. 1917-18, pp. 90-92, t. 6. 

We have this from Sylhet, Dacca and Pabna. It is injurious to cane 
at Dacca and was sent in August 1911 from Pabna (cane). 

Diafma sp. (C. S. 1674). 

Annl. Kept. 1917-18, p. 90-92, t. 7. 

Annl. Kept. 1917-18, p. 90 [? Chilo in rice (C. S. 1768).] 

Dacca. — Injuriously prevalent in cane in July 1917. 
Pusa. — Larva in rice-stem (C. S. 1768), once only. 

DiatrcBa auricilia, Dudgeon. 

CJiilo auricilia, Ddgn., B. J. X\T[, 405. 
Diatrcea auricilia, Annl. Kept. 1917-18, pp. 90-92, t. 4 
Biatrcea suppressalis, nee Wlk.,' Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
p. 142. 

Pusa. — The larva boring cane. This is probably the commonest 
species at Pusa and we have numerous examples from other localities 
which are probably the same but requiap further study before venturing 
an opinion. 

Diatrcea sp. (C. S. 1769). 

Annl. Kept. 1917-18, p. 90. 

Pusa. — Larva in SaccJiarum aru7i(linacemn, moth emerged 29, III, 
18 ; only a single specimen reared so far. 

? Diatrwa sp. (C. S. 1835). 

Pusa. — Larvse in Saccharum fuscum, moths emerged 25, VIII. — 
3, IX, 1918. 

Pupa with strong row of spines on all abdominal segments. 

* Since described as Argyria tumidicostalis, Hmps. 



120 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Ramakrisbna 
Ayyar. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Chilo simplex, Butl. 

S. I. I., pp. 422-424, ff. 299, 300 ; Proc. Sepond Entl Meeting, 
pp. 143, 174, 181 (tab.), 187, 191, 200 ; Ann. Rept. 1917-18, 
pp. 90-92, t. 3. . 

Occurs everywhere throughout the Plains as a major pest of maize 
and juar, less commonly in rice and sugarcane, the larvse boring in the 
stems. 

In Western India, where seed is sown in excess and thinning practised,, 
the first-attacked plants may be thinned out. 

Chilo oryzce, n. sp. (M. S.). 

Ann. Eept. 1917-18, pp. 88-89, 90-92, t. 8 [" Rice Chilo "]. 
The larva occurs in rice at Pusa, boring stem. 

? Chilo sp. (C. S. 1795). 

[? Chilo suppressalis, Wlk.] 

Pusa ; larva in Saccharum fuscum, moth emerged 29, IV, 18 ; only 
one bred so far. 

? Chilo sp. (C. S. 1831). 

Pusa ; larvse in Saccharum spontaneum stem ; moths emerged 21, 
VIII~18, IX, 18. 

Ancylolomia chrysographella, Koll. 

S. I. I., pp. 424-425, f. 301 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 165. 

Occurs throughout India and Ceylon as a minor pest of paddy, the 
larvse living in silken tubes usually constructed at about ground-level. 
Has been reared on paddy at Pusa, Nagpur, and in North Malabar, 
and at Pusa also on dabhi grass. The life-history has been worked out 
at Pusa and sho\ATL on a coloured plate [exhibited]. 

Specimens of moths from the Hills of Southern India and from Ceylon 
usually have the hindwings dark fuscous (form taprohancnsis, Z.). 

Have you found it again in Madras ? 

No ; we had trouble from it only once. 

Scirpophaga xanthogastrella, Wlk. {=.auriflua, Z.). 

S. I. I., pp. 425-426, f. 302 ; Entl. Note 69 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 144. 

Occurs in most parts of the Plains of India as a pest of sugarcane, 
the larvse boring the stems. Also in shoots of Saccharum arundinaceum. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD EXTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 121 

Usually not very serious but a major pest of cane at Sindewahi, Central 
Provinces. Apparently unknown in Bombay, Our specimens are from 
Cawnpur, Saran, Chapra, Dumraon, Pusa, Sindewahi, and Hagari 
(Madras). 

Control methods include prompt cutting out of dead-hearts and collec- 
tion of egg- masses. In the Central Provinces early planting of setts 
in October-November, instead of in February-March, has been found 
effective in mitigating attack. 

Scir-pophaga monosfigma, Z. 

S. 1. 1., p. 426, f . 30.3 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 144. 

Widely distributed in the Plains and is occasionally a minor pest of 
sugarcane but not common as a rule. Our specimens are from Pusa 
and Saran in Bihar. 

Scirpophaga gilviberbis, Z. 

Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 46 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 174. 

Found very commonly in paddy areas in Lower Burma where it 
will probably prove to be a specific pest of paddy. 
Specimens also from Pusa, Bengal and Assam. 

Schccnohius immeri talis, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., lY, 47 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 174. 

Reared at Trivandrum, Travancore, from larvse boring in rice-plants. 
Tliis species does not seem to have been bred otherwise. It is widely 
distributed and may prove to be a minor pest of paddy. 

Schcenobius bipunctifer, Wlk. 

S. I. I., pp. 426-427, t. 29 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 171-174. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon as a major pest of paddy, 
the larva boring in the stem. 

This is the most important insect pest of paddy in India and Burma, 
usually destroying about ten per cent, of the total crop and doing damage 
totalling hundreds of millions of rupees annually. The female moths 
are attracted to light in large numbers but systematic trials of Hght- 
traps have shown the inefficacy of this method as a means of control. 
The hand-picking of egg-masses and first attacked shoots is not practi- 
cable on a large scale over extensive areas, and hardly feasible in small 
plots. In districts where this can be done the growing of pulses or 



122 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ghosh. 



Mr. Deshpande. 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



shaftal under irrigation over the rice stubble helps to check this pest 
by rotting the rice stubble. The destruction of stubble by fire after 
harvest is probably the most efficacious control-measure that can be 
recommended at present and this should be combined with the control 
of wild grasses on field-bunds and areas adjacent to paddy lands ; this 
last measure will also be effective against Lejjfocorisa. 

Our experience is that Schcenobius and other borers of rice occur 
in large numbers at the time when the plants come into ear. All the 
borers put together damage rice in this district to the extent of about 
four per cent. 

At Ratnagiri our chief pest of rice is ScJioenobms and the damage 
done by this insect is about seventy-five per cent, of the crop. 

In Madras Schcenobius is our chief rice-borer and the damage during 
its worst attacks is as much as ninety per cent. 

The damage done around Pusa is certainly very low but then this is 
not much of a rice-growing district. Taking the Indian Empire as a 
whole I should certainly say that Schcenobius destroys ten per cent, of 
the whole rice-crop on a general average. I consider it is far and away 
the worst pest we have so far as loss to the country is concerned. The 
loss caused by this one insect must run into several hundreds of milhons 
of rupees annually. I might also draw your attention to the interesting 
monograph on this species by Dr. T. Shiraki, issued since our last Meeting. 



^ Rayhimetofiis ablutella, Z. 

Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 56 ; I. I. L., p. 512, t. 47, ff. 8, 11 ; Proc. 

Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 146 [Anerastia]. 
Hmpsn., P. Z. S., 1918, 78. 
Has been recorded as a cane-pest in North Bihar but is probably 
sporadic and does not seem to be known as a pest in normal years. 

Only once bred at Pusa from larva boring cane shoots (C. S. 1801). 
Old records probably refer to E. depressella. Said to have been reared 
from Cyperus rotundus. 



Saluria inficita, Wlk. 

S. 1. 1., pp. 427-428, f. 304 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 200, 201. 
Occurs commonly in ragi-stems at Coimbatore about August, the 
larvse boring low down in the stem, near the roots. Probably widely 
distributed but not yet noticed elsewhere. Also bores into tenai. 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 123 

Emmalocera depressella, Swinh. 

Polyocha depressella ; Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 63, B. J. XXI, 1251. 
Polyocho saccharello, Ddgn., B. J. XVI, 405 ; I. I. L., p. 512, 

t. 47 ff. 7, 12, 19. 
Papua deinessella ; Entl. Note 70 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 

pp. 141, 145, 182. 
Emmalocera depressella, Hmpsn., P. Z. S., 1918, 128. 

Widely distributed in Northern India. We have specimens from 
Pusa, Saran, Tharsa. Jehanabad (Bengal), Cawnpur, and Lyallpur, 
in all cases bred from borers in sugarcane roots ; from Lyallpur also in 
Sorghum and maize. 

A very minor pest of sugarcane as a rule, chiefly found in roots of 
ratoon cane. Occasionally, as at Pusa in 1916 and subsequent years, 
boring into new shoots of young cane and doing considerable damage. 



Heterogrophis bengalella, Rag. 

Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 70, B. J. XII, 313 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 257. 

Recorded from Bhutan and Calcutta. 

The larva tunnels into fruits of Custard Apple {Anona squamosa) 
and occurs at Pusa about September-October, but is not common as a 
rule and can scarcely be called a pest. 

At Dacca it is a pest of custard-apple and bullock's-heart. Mr. P. C. Sen. 



Enzopliera perticella, Rag. 

S. 1. 1., p. 428, t. 30, ff. 1-4 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 289, 290. 

Occurs commonly throughout the Plains of India and Ceylon. We Mr. Fletcher, 
have examples from Pusa, Penukonda (Anantapur District), Bellary, 
Coimbatore, Dharwar, Poona, Surat, Baroda and Peshawar, all bred 
from larvse boring stems of brinjal ; also from Pusa and Coimbatore, 
boring in stems of Chilh plants ; and it has also been found boring 
potato tubers at Coimbatore and Ranchi, in stems of a wild Physalis 
at Pusa, and in tomato at Surat. 

A common pest of brinjal, often doing serious damage. 

Destruction of afiected plants or attacked portions, easily recognizable 
by the wilted appearance caused by the larva boring inside, is the only 
remedy. 



124 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Senior- White. 



Ml: Fletcher. 



Mr Senior-White. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Euzophera punicceella, Mo. 

Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 73; I. M. N., II, 28. 

Recorded as boring fruits of pomegranate in Baluchistan. Apparently 
not known elsewhere. No specimens in the Pusa Collection. 

Evzophera 'plumbeifasciella, Hmpsn. 

Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 73. 

Bred commonly at Pusa from bael fruits {.-Egle marmelos) and at 
Coimbatore from fruits of Wood-apple. Scarcely a pest. 
In Ceylon we find a species of Euzophera in Wood-apple. 

'N eplioflenjx eugraphclla, Rag. 

Hmpsn., F. I., moths, IV, 77. 
Recorded by Hampson from Punjab and Calcutta, larva on cured 
tobacco [?] and Mimusops elengi. 

Pusa. — Reared in numbers on Achras sapota leaves and once on 

Mimusops. 

NepJiopieryx minutella, Rag. 

Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 81-82 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 288. 

Recorded from South India, Burma and Ceylon. 
We have specimens reared at Pusa from larvae on brinjal leaves ; 
it was bred in small numbers in August and September 1912. 
Not a pest. 
In Ceylon the larva webs together the topshoots of brinjal. 

Nephopteryx semiruhella, Scop. 

Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 84-85. 
We have specimens reared at Pusa on Sij leaves {Eupliorhia sp.), 
on Jatropha and on the green bark of Pedilanthus tithymaloides, from 
Nagpur on " raubatam," from Surat on maize leaves, and from Mandalay 
on Jatropha fjlanduUfera. According to Hampson, the larva feeds on 
Lotus, Hippocrepis, Trifolium, etc. 
Not a pest. 

Myelois pectinicornella , Hmpsn. 

Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 88-89, f. 55, B. J. XV, 29. 
Originally described from Bhutan but since found in Ceylon, where 
the larva bores in cacao pods after attack by squirrels. Also bred by 



TEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 125 

Green from pods of sword-bean {Canacalia ensijormis) at Peradeniya 
in July 1903. 

Plvjcita infusella, Meyr. 

S. I. I., pp. 428-429, t. 31 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 100, 125, 126. 

Probably occurs throughout the Plains of India. The Pusa Collec- 
tion contains examples bred at Pusa, Surat and Lyallpur on cotton 
and at Pusa on top-shoots of Malvastrum tricrepidatum. Also reared in 
Madras on Hibiscus spp. 

A minor pest of cotton, the larvae sometimes doing appreciable 
damage to young shoots, especially in the Surat District. 

The affected shoots should be picked ofi and destroyed. 

At Surat we find it every year as a serious pest. Mr. jhaveri. 

At Pusa it is controlled by an unidentified parasite. Mr. Misra. 



PJiycita clienfella, Z. 
Hmpsn., F. L, IV, 94 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 288. 

Recorded from Calcutta, Bombay and Ceylon. We have specimens Mr. Fletcher, 
reared at Pusa and Hagari (Bellary District) from castor fruits and at 
Pusa from larvae rolhng brinjal leaves. 

Scarcely a pest. 

Rhodophcea heriyigi. Rag. 

Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 99, f. 58. 

Recorded from the Nilgiris and Ceylon, in which island the larva has 
been found destructive to fohage of ErythrGxylon coca at Matale. We have 
specimens from Gammaduwa, Ceylon. 



Cryptohlahes ephestialis, Hmpsn. 

Hmpsn., B. J. XV, 32. 

Originally described from Matale in Ceylon. It has also been bred 
by Green from larvae in fruit-capsules of castor at Peradeniya and is 
likely to be found under similar circumstances in India. 



126 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Etiella zinckenella, Tr. 

S. I. I., p. 429, i 305; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 44, 
(tab.); 57, 58, 60, 64, 71. 
Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, and is a destructive 
pest of sann-hemp and pulses, the larvae boring in the pods and 
devouring the seeds. Our records include : — 



Coimbatore 

Hagari 

Virar (Bombay) 

Jalalpur (Bombay) 

Mirpurkhas (Sind) 

Saharanpur 

Pusa 

Bankura . 
Amarapura (Burma) 



Horse-gram, cow-pea, red-gram and sann- 
hemp pods. 
Horse -gram pods. 

Lablab pods. 

Sann-hemp pods. 

Saidi beans. 

Pea -pods. 

Sann-hemp, kulthi, tur, pea, khesari 
{Lathyrus satlvus), sweet-pea. 

Khesari pods. 

Lablab pods. 



Macalla moncusalis, Wlk. 

S. I. I., pp. 429-430, f. 306 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 218. 

The larva has been found webbing mango leaves and shoots and des- 
troying the young leaves at Coimbatore, Salem, Madras and Samalkota, 
also said to occur on sal in the United Provinces. It has been bred 
at Pusa on Lager sir cemia f.os-regincB and we have it from Nagpur also. 

A minor pest of mango. 

The webs are conspicuous and the enclosed caterpillars easily collected- 
and destroyed. 

Nymphula flvctuosalis, Z. 

Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 193-194, f. 115 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 165. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, but has apparently 
only been bred at Taliparamba, Malabar, when it was reared from a 
pupa found on paddy. 

It is perhaps a pest of paddy, together withA^ depunctalis, but has 
not been definitely recorded. 

Nyni'phula depunctalis, Guen. 
S. I. I., pp. 430-431, t. 32 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 164. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, usually as a minor 
pest of paddy, sometimes serious. Said to have been bred in the 
Central Provinces from larva on leaves of garari {Lehidiero^ms 
mbicularis). 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 127 

The larvae may be controlled in some cases by spreading a film of 
kerosine oil over the water in the paddy-fields and dragging a rope or 
bamboo over the crop. 

In Mysore we have tried the kerosine treatment with success. Plants Mr. Kunhi Kannan, 
should not touch the kerosinized water. 

Hymenia fascialis, Cram. 

S. T. I., pp. 431-4,32, f. 307; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 296. 

Occurs commonly throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. We have Mr. Fletcher. 

examples reared on AmaranfJws at Pusa, Cuttack, Surat and Trivandrum ; 

at Coimbatore on Trianthyna monogyna and Silver Beet ; at Pusa on 

mangold wurzel leaves, on mung, on Coku.s and on jatadhari (Celosia 

cristata) leaves ; at Poona on beet ; and at Mandalay on White Beet. 

Usually a minor pest of Amaranthus, sporadically serious in gardens. 

Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, Guen. 
S. I. I., p. 432, f. 308 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 166. 

Occurs commonly throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. We have 
examples reared on paddy from Pusa, Poona, Surat, Belgaum, Palur 
and Parlakimedi (Ganjam District). 

A minor pest of paddy, sporadically ratlier serious. 

Marasmia venilialis, AVlk. 

. • Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 276, f. 167. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Has been reared at 
pusa from larvae rolling Guinea-grass leaves and on Panicum sp. 
Scarcely a pest. Probably feeds on wild grasses normally. 

Marasmia bilinealis, Hmpsn. 

Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 277. 

Occurs in Assam, the Nilgiris and Ceylon. It was bred at Peradeniya 
from larvse on rice-plants in November 1902. Not noted in India but, 
likely to be found on paddy. 

Marasmia ira'pezalis, Guen. 

S. I. I., pp. 432-433, t. 33 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 149, 
180, 187, 190, 199. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, the larva rolhng and 
feeding upon leaves of various Graminese. 

VOL. I • ' K 



128 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



The Pusa Collection contains examples fromPusa, on maize, saivai^ 
juar, bajra and hauni {Setaria italica), from Nagpur on jiiar, from Surat 
on maize, and from Coimbatore on sugarcane. 

A minor pest as a rule, sporadically serious. Picking of rolled leaves 
is the only practicable means of control. 

Pilocrocis barcalis, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., Moths IV, 313 [Nacoleia]. 

Bred at Pusa in some numbers from larvae rolling Cassia fistula 
leaves. 

Occurs throughout India and Ceylon. 

Caprinia conchylalis, Guen. 

Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 295, f. 174. 

Distributed throughout India (except North-West), Burma and 
Ceylon. In Ceylon the larva has been found by Green at Peradeniya 
defohating Kicksia africana (Kickxia rubber), Porilandia grandifiora 
and Funtumia. 

Dichocrocis punctiferah's, Guen. 

S. I. I., p. 433, t. 34 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 37, 88, 
221, 231, 240, 294, 295. 

Occurs commonly throughout the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon. 
The larva is polyphagous, boring into various fruits, but is a specific 
pest of castor, often serious. Our records include the following localities 
and foodplants : — 



Peradeniya 

North Malabar . 

Taliparamba (Malabar) 

Coimbatore 

Saidapet (Madras) 

Bangalore 

Poona 

Surat 

Nagpur 

Pusa 



Mr. Senior- White. 



Hopin (Upper Burma) 
In Ceylon it attacks Sorghum heads. 



Cacao pods, castor seed-capsules. 

Arrow-root. 

Ginger stem. 

Turmeric stem, guava fruit. 

Castor seed-capsules,. 

Mulberry fruit. 

Boring pomegranate fruits. 

Castor seed -capsules. 

Castor capsules, mango flowers, jttar ear- 
l.ead. 

Castor seeds and seed-capsules and boring 
in castor stem, in mango flower buds, in 
ripe peach fruit, in pomegranate fruit, 
in sunflower, in alu bokhara {Prmms 
communis), in guava fruit, and eating 
grains in juar heads. 

In wild turmeric stems. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING l29 

Lamprosema indicata, Fb. 

S. I. I., pp. 433-434, f. 309 [Nacoleia] ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 51, 57, 207 [Nacoleia]. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon as a minor pest of various Mr. Fletcher 
pulses, etc. We have it from Saidapet on horse-gram leaves, from 
Nagpur on Chrysanthemum leaves, and from Pusa on imd leaves, bean 
leaves, soy-bean, moth leaves, lucerne (rolHng top-leaves), groundnut 
(pupa on leaf), snake-gourd, sann-hemp, Justicia, and Florida Beggar- 
weed (rolling leaves). 

Lamprosema diemenalis, Guen. 
S. I. I., f. 310. 

Occurs probably throughout the Plains of Central and Southern 
India, in Burma and Ceylon. It has been reared at Pusa from larvge 
rolling Florida Beggar-weed, arJiar and wid leaves, on soy-bean leaves 
and on " chimri,'' but is not known as a pest. 



Sijlepta derogata Fb. 

S. I. I., pp. 434-435, t. 35 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 100, 
123, 125, 130. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon as a minor pest (some- 
times serious) of cotton and other Mahacece. We have examples from 
practically all districts, bred from cotton and bhindi, and it has also 
been reared at Pusa on hollyhock, Sida sp., Hibiscus farvijormis, Ahvtilon 
indicwn, Corchorvs leaves, Urina lohata and jafadhari [Cclosia crisfafa). 
The larva) roll the leaves and may be hand-picked. 

Whenever cotton is introduced into Travancore, it is badly attacked Mr. Pillay. 
by Sylepta. 

At Dacca it was very bad on cotton last year. Hand-picking was Mr. P. C. Sen. 
done and this kept the pest in great check. It is found on bhindi also. 

In Cawnpur it is bad, so much so that we cannot experiment with Mr. David. 
American cottons. Even netted plants do not escape injury. 

It is bad in Bombay too, but in Khandesh it is controlled by para- Mr. Jhaveri. 
sites. 

It is fairly easily controlled by picking off the rolled leaves or even Mr. Fletcher, 
by squashing the larvse inside the rolled leaves. 

K i 



130 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Sylepta lunalis, Guen. 

' ■ Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 339 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 235. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Our examples are 
from Pusa and Shripur, Bihar, bred from larvae on grape-vine leaves and 
from Bassein Fort (moths). It also occurs on grape-vine at Coimbatore. 

A minor pest of grape-vine, the larva rolling the leaves into a funnel 
and dropping to the ground on the least disturbance. 

Margaronia negatalis, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 347 [Glyfliodes]. 

Found throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. The larva feeds on 
various species of Ficus but is not known to be a pest. 

Margaronia marginafa, Hmpsn. 

Hmpsn., F. I. IV, 348-349 [Glyphodes]. 
Hmpsn., B. J., XV, 216 [Larva]. 

Occurs throughout North-Eastern and Southern India and Ceylon. 
Has been bred at Pusa from larvae on leaves of Bombax malabaricum, 
from larvae boring galls on leaves of chatwan {Alstonia scliolaris). 

Not known to be a pest. 

Margaronia vertwmmlis, Guen. 

Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 349 [Ghjphodes]. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Our records include 
the following localities and foodplants : — 

Pusa ..... Gardenia forida, Tabernamontana wallichii 

and on an Apocynaceous plant. 
Sabour ..... Tabernamontana sp» 
Mandalay .... Taberneemontana cretsm. 

Not known to be a pest. 

Margaronia sfolalis, Guen. 

Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 354 [Ghjphodes]. 

Found throughout India (? except North-West), Burma and Ceylon. 
The larva rolls leaves of various species of Ficus, but is not known to be 
a pest. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD EXTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 131 t 

Margaronia bivitralis, Guen. 

Gh/phodes bivitralis; Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 355. 
GhjfJwdes alitalis, Hulst, Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. XIII, 158. 

Has been reared at Pusa in February 1915 from larvae on pods of 
arhar {Cajanvs indiciis), but is not known to be a pest. We have speci- • 

mens also from Peradeniya, Chapra and Lumding. Hampson describes 
the larva and gives Ficvs oppositifolia as a foodplant. 

In Ceylon it is bad on species of Ficiis. Mr. Senior-White. 

Margaronia ccesalis, Wlk. 

S. I. I., p. 435. f. 311 [GlypJiodes]; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 252. 

Occurs throughout India (except North- West), Burma and Ceylon- Mr. Fletclier. 
The larva bores in the flower-buds and young fruits of jak and feeds on 
the leaves also. 

A minor pest of jak in Southern India and Assam. 



Margaronia cantlmsalis, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 357. 

Common throughout India (except North- West). We have it from 
Pusa and Chapra in Bihar, and from Coimbatore where it was bred from 
larvse on Ficus religiosa. 

Not known to be a pest, but likely to occur on Ficiis spj). 



Margaronia indica, Sauncl. 

S. I. I., pp. 435-430, f. 312 [Glyjjhodes] ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 303 (tab), 307. 

Occurs abundantly everywhere in the Plains of India, Burma and 
Ceylon. The larva feeds on various cucurbitaceous plants and is a 
minor pest of such. The Pusa Collection contains examples from the 
following localities and foodplants : — 



Coimbatore 


. Snake-gourd. 


Surat 


. Cucumber, pumpkin leaves, turia {Lvffa 
wgyjdiaca) leaf. 


Pusa 


. Cucumber leaves {-khira leaves), boring 
Lvffa fruits. 


Howrah . 


Cvcurbita fcpo. 


Lyallpur . 


Kaddu. 



132 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Leucinodes orbonalis, Guen. 

S. I. I., p. 436, t. 30, ff. 5-9 ; Entl. Note 71 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 286, 288. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon and is- a pest (sometimes 
serious) of brinjal, the larva boring in the growing topshoots, causing 
them to wilt, and in fruits. At Poona and Dharwar the larva was also 
found boring in potato shoots and at Coimbatore it was reared on Solanum 
nigrum and S. xanthocarpum. 



Crocidolomia binotalis, Z. 

S. I. I., p. 437, f. 313 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 276 
(tab), 277, 280, 282, 284. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, usually as a minor pest 
(sometimes serious) of cruciferous crops. It may be a serious pest of 
mustard, the larvse webbing and destroying the flowers and leaves of the 
whole plant and boring the pods and eating the green seeds. Our records 
include the following localities and foodplants : — 



Peradeniya 

Coimbatore 

Saidapet 

Dharwar 

Poona 

Surat 

Pusa 

Lyallpur 
Mandalay 



Cabbage. 
Radish (boring). 
Radish. 

Cabbage loaves. 
Cabbage (a serious pest). 
Mustard. 

Cabbage leaves, radish leaves, mustard' 
turnip, cress (halim ; Lepidium sativum)- 
Mustard. 

Turnip. 



Mr. Senior- White. In Ceylon I had an extraordinary experience once when chilU plants, 

on being transplanted, were attacked by this pest. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Helhda imdalis, Fb. 

S. I. I., pp. 437-438, f . 314 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 276 
(tab), 280, 282, 283. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon as a minor pest of 
cruciferous crops. We have examples from : — 



Coimbatore 
Nagpur 
Cuttack 
Pusa 



Mandalay 



Cabbage (boring bud), radish (boring). 

Knol-kohl. 

Cabbage stem and leaf. • 

Cabbage, beet, cauliflower (buds and leaves), 

radish (leaves and boring) knol-kohl 

(leaves and boring). 

Cabbage, radish. 



PKOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOeilCAL MEETING 133 

In Egypt Helhda undalis is common with us on young cabbages. Dr. Gough. 
When the damage is noticed it is too late to take any control measures. 

With us it comes late in the season on cabbage. Mr. Ghosh. 

They have a boring habit. I have seen them boring riglit throug"h Mr. Ramrao. 
the heads of cabbages and it is very difficult to reach them. 

Terastia meticulosalis, Cuen. 

S. I. I., pp. 438-439, f. 315 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 77. 

Recorded from Ceylon. The larva is cojnraon at Coimbatore, boring Mr. Fletcher, 
shoots of Erythrina indica, and may be a bad pest, checking new growth. 
Probably throughout South India. Also occurs at Poona. 

At Poona it is found damaging the shoots. Mr. Ramrao. 

Terastia egialealis, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., Moths. IV, 381. 
Andrews, Q. J. I. T. A., 1918, 33-34. 

Hampson gives the distribution as Dharmsala, Sikkim, Java. Mr. Fletcher. 

The larva bores into young stems and shoots of Erythrina indica in 
January at Tocklai (Assam). 

Omphisa anastomosalis, Guen. 

S. I. I., pp. 439-440, f. 316 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 292. 

Recorded from Sikkim, Khasis, Burma, Andamans, Nilgiris and 
Ceylon. Bred at Coimbatore from larva in stem of Ipomoea and has 
occasionally occurred as a pest of sweet potato, boring the main stem. 

Crocidophora ptyophora, Hmpsn, 

Hmpsn., F. I., Moths, IV, 389, f. 210. 

Pusa. — Has been reared in small numbers from larvae rolhng leaves 
of bamboo. 

Maruca tesfulalis, Geyer. 

S. I. I., p. '440, t. 36 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 44, 52, 56, 60, 65. 

Occurs throughout Incha, Burma and Ceylon as a pest of pulses of 
various kinds. Not noted in Bombay. In Assam the larvae have been 
found on pods of sword-bean, and at Pusa they have been bred from 
dhaincha flowers, soy-bean, velvet-bean, tur {Cajanus indicus) buds, 
flowers and pods,' mung pods, Vigna catjang pods and cowpea pods. 
On cowpea it is sporadically a serious pest. 



134 PROCEEDIIS-GS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Mr. Senior-White. It is sporadically bad in Ceylon. 

Mr. Pillay. I have bred a hymenopterous parasite from it. 

Mr. Fletcher. Collection and destruction of affected pods effects the most practi- 

cable means of control. 

Psara bi/punctalis, Fb. 

Pachyzancla bipunctalis, Fb. ; Hmpsn., P. Z. S., 1899, 204; 
Entl. Note 72 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 288. 
Pacliyzancla cegrotalis, Z., S. I. I., pp. 440-441, f. 317. 

Occurs throughout India (except North-West) and Ceylon. Has. 

been bred at Pusa on AUernanthera sessilis and on croton, and at Coim- 

batore on brinjal and in brinjal shoots. It does not seem to have been. 

noted as attacking any crop-plant except in Southern India. 

Mr. Senior-White. ^^ Ceylon it is found on brinjal, but prefers the wild Solanmn indicmn. 



( TJ n determined Pyraustine.) 

Mr, Fletcher. Reared at Pusa in numbers from larvse rolling AmarantJms leaves. 

This was placed in the collection under Psara bipunctalis, but is distinct. 

Loxosiege massaUs, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 408, f. 221 [Plilydcenodes]. 

Occurs throughout the Plains of India and Ceylon. The larvse have 
been found at Pusa feeding on tender top-leaves of maize, but this species, 
is not known to be a pest. 

Antigastra catalaunalis, Uup. 

S. I. I., p. 441, t. 37 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeeting, p. 84. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon as a regular minor 
and occasional major pest of Sesamum, indicmn {til ; gingelly), the larva 
rolling and webbing the leaves and boring in the shoots and pods. We 
have it, reared on Sesamvm, from practically all districts. 

Noorda blitealis, Wlk. 

S. I. I., pp. 441-442, f. 318 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 229. 

Occurs throughout the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon as a very 
minor pest of Moringa, the larva attacking the leaves, shoots and small 
pods. We have it from Hagari (Bellary District) on Moringa, from 
Nagpur on " Munga " [probably intended for Moringa], and moths- 
from Puasa nd from Myingyan, Upper Burma. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 135 

Mefosia coniofalis, Hmpsn. 

Hmpsn., B. J., XV, 220 ; I. I. L., p. 520, t. 52, ff. 1-4 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 293. 

Eecorded from Tibet, Kashmir, Simla, Ferozepur and Pusa. At 
Pusa it was found as a pest in March 1907, the larvse boring into sweet- 
potato tubers underground. It has not since been noted to do damage 
although moths occurred in July 1910 and March 1915. 

Hcqialia ferrugalis, Hb. 

Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 422-423, f. 234 [Pionea]. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Reared at Pusa from 
larvse on cabbage, violet, and hihaiinda {Blvmea balsmnifera). 
Not a pest. 

Pyravsfa macharalis, Wlk. 

S. I. I., pp. 442-443, f. 319. 

Occurs commonly throughout the Plains as a pest of teak. We have 
it from Darjiling, Pusa and Nagpur on teak and it has also been reared 
at Pusa on Plvmeria acutijolia. 

Pyravsta nvbilalis, Hb. 

Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 435. 

This species is recorded from the North- West Himalayas, Sikkim, 
Khasis and Manipur. In Russia it has been recorded {Rome Bull., Dec. 
1912, pp. 27G7-2768), under the name sllacealis, Hb. (quoted as a synonym 
of nnhihlis in the " Fauna " volume), as very injurious to maize, hemp 
and millet. It may therefore be expected to occur as a pest of cereals 
in the montane districts of Northern India, but has not yet been recorded 
as a pest in India. 

Pyrausta mtbilalis occurs in Egypt, but we do not know it as a pest Dr. Gough. 
there. 

Pyrausta codesalis, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 441, f. 235. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon as a minor pest of 
bamboo, the larva rolling the leaves. We have it, reared from larvae 
on bamboo, from Coimbatore, Poona, Nagpur and Pusa, and at Pusa 
it has also been reared on sugarcane. 



136 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Pyrausta bambucivora, Mo. 

Hmpsn., F. L, IV, 442. 

Recorded from the Khasis, Jubbiilpur and Ceylon. The larva " lives 
in rolled-up leaves of bamboo " (Hampson). 
Not known to be a pest. 

[{Undetermined Pyralid.) 
Mr. Ramakrishna There is another Pyralid which is very bad on cultivated chrysan- 

^^^^* themums in the Madura district. 

Mr. Fletcher. Possibly it is Hapalia ferrugalis.] 



Pterophorid^. 

Diacrotricha fasciola, Z. 

Pusa. — Larva, AverrJioa carambola. Bores into flowers and destroys 
them. 

Galle. — Larva, Averrhoa bilimbi. Bores into flowers and destroys 
them. 

SpTienarcTies cajfer, Z. 

S. L L, pp. 443-444, f. 320 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 44, 
56, 306 (tab.). 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon as a minor pest of cucur- 
bits and pulses. The larva is polyphagous and feeds on various wild 
plants, e.g., BiopJiytmn sensitivum. The Pusa Collection contains 
examples from the following localities and foodplants : — 



Coimbatore 

Surat 

Pusa 

Allahabad 
Cawnpur . 
Lyallpur . 



Lablab [also on bottle -gourd]. 

White gourd. 

Kaddu (bottle gourd) leaves, Cajanus 
indicus pods.. Hibiscus mvtahilis petals. 

Luffa buds. 

Kaddu. 

Kaddu. 



Ur. Senior- White. 



Has also been reared at Galle from larvae on flowers of Averrhoa 
bilimbi. 

At Matale I have reared it from larvae on young shoots of cacao and 
on cultivated Geranium flowers. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Oxyptilus laducce, Fletcher MS. 

Reared in small numbers on lettuce at Dehra Dun by Mr. Ollenbach 
in October 1906. 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 137 

Exelastis atomosa, Wlsm. 

S. 1. 1., pp. 444-445, t. 38 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 44, 56. 

Occurs throughout Madras, Bombay, Baroda, the Central Provinces 
and Bihar. I have not seen any specimens from Northern India, Assam, 
Burma or Ceylon (previous records from Ceylon probably all refer to 
E. plihjctoenias, Meyr.). 

An important pest of Cajamis indiciis and Dolichos lahlab, the larva 
eating the flower- buds and flowers and boring into the pods and devouring 
the seeds. 

In the Sholapur District control is practised by shaking the plants 
over baskets and a small proportion of larvae and pupse is collected in 
this way. 

PteropJwnis lienigianus, Z. 

S. I. I., p. 445, f. 322 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 288. . 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Has been reared 
on brinjal at Coimbatore and in the Godavari District but is scarcely 
a pest. We have moths also from Ootacamund, Peshawar, Maymyo, 
Shillong, and Bankipur, and it has been reared at Pusa on leaves of 
" Khagra." [" Khagra " is given in Watt's Dictionary as Saccharum 
sponianeum, but this seems unhkely.] 

PSYCHID.^. 

Maliasena graminivora, Hmpsn. 

Hmpsn., T. E. S., 1895, 286; F. I., IV, 472-473 ; I. M. N., IV, 
18-19,t.3,ff.la-c. 

~ Originally described from Calcutta as destructive to thatching grass. 
Occasionally occurs on paddy in some numbers as a minor pest in Bihar, 
Orissa and Bengal. We have it, reared from larvae on Saccharum sponta- 
neiim, from Pusa and Mukhtapur in North Bihar. 

Mahasena theivora, Ddgn. 

Acanthopsyche (Metisa) theivora, Ddgn., B. J., XVI, 400 fig. 
Mahasena theivora, Hmpsn., B. J., XX, 96-97. 

Occurs in Sikkim, the larva on tea in a case composed of fragments 
and whole leaves attached to a rather soft case. Apparently not a 

pest. 



138 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Clania crameri, Westwd. 

S. I. I., p. 448, f. 325; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 19, 87, 274. 

Occurs commonly in the Plains of India, usually on Acacia arabica 
and sometimes on castor. Dudgeon (B. J. XII, 643) records the larva 
on tea and it is said to be a destructive pest of tea in Assam, where it is 
controlled by hand-picking. 

Clania destructor, Ddgn. 

Mahasena destructor, Ddgn., B. J., XVI, 401 fig. 
Clania destructor, Hmpsn., B. J., XX, 95. 

Dudgeon states that this is the most destructive tea Psychid in the- 
Darjiling and Terai Districts, often confounded with C. crameri but 
distinguished " by the fore wing wanting red markings and by the posi- 
tion of the elongate pale marginal or submarginal spot, a conspicuous 
one filling the the whole fork between veins 4 and 5 in crameri, whereas 
destructor has the largest conspicuous pale spot between veins 3 and 4 
and has only a marginal speck between veins 4 and 5." Also a pest of 
tea in Chittagong. Known to occur in Sikkim, Bhutan, Chittagong andJ 
Borneo. 

Clania antrami, Hmpsn. 

Hmpsn., B. J., XX, 96. 
Recorded from Cachar. Larva on tea, in a case covered with frag- 
ments of dry leaves. 

Acanthofsyche hilars, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 293, f. 202. 

The larva has been recorded as a tea-pest in Sikkim {B. J., XII, 6M)". 
Also known from Bombay. Also found jceding on apple leaves at 
Shillong. 

AcantJwpsyche {Brachycyttarus) subteralbata, Hmpsn. 

Hmpsn., 111. Het. IX, t. 159, f. 23 (male), t. 176, f. 12 (case), 
F. I., I, 295, B. J.. XI, 284. 
The larva has been recorded as destructive to tea in Chittagong.. 
Originally described from Colombo. 

Psyche vitrea, Hmpsn. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 299. 

We have a single specimen reared on mango leaves at Bakerganj in- 
February 1906. Probably not a pest at all, but most Psychids are Hable 



% 



PROCEEDI^'GS OF THE THIKD E>TOM0L0GICAL MEETING 139 

to occur sporadically in large numbers and to do damage when they 
feed on leaves. 

Manathascotopepla,HvLV^^n. 

Hmpsn., B. J., XX, 96. 

Has been recorded from Cacliar, the larva on tea in a case covered 
with scales of bark. 

(Psychid — on Palms.) 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 263. 

We have specimens of an unnamed Psychid reared from larvse sent 
in June 1910, as destructive to palms in Calcutta. Larvae were also 
noticed as destructive to ornamental palms in Calcutta in September 
1916. 

In the case of small ornamental plants, the larval cases are easily 
seen and picked off. In the case of large trees, spraying with a stomach- 
poison, such as Lead Arsenate, may be done. 

(Psijclnd — on Orange.) 

A second unnamed Psychid was reared at Pusa in April 1913 from 
larvae feeding on orange twigs. Scarcely a pest as a rule. 

(Psychid — on Rose.) 

. Sent in by Superintendent of the Gardens, Fyzabad, as feeding on 
Tose in 1918. 

[ ( Undeterm ined Psycli ids. ) 

We get two more Psychids, one on Acliras sapota and the other on Mr. Ramakrishna 
castor. The former is very bad but the latter appears only sporadically.] Ayyar. 

ZYG-^NIDiE. 

Heterusia magnijica, Butl. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 261 ; B. J. XVIII, 431 tab.; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, pp. 19-20. 

A sporadic pest of tea in the Duars and Assam. Infested patches of Mr. Fletcl:er. 
bushes may be isolated by means of lines of fresh wood-ashes, which 
the larvae will not cross ; but of course in wet weather this method is 
ineffective. 



140 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Heterusia edocla, Doubl. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 261, B. J., XII, 298. 

The larva occurs on tea, as a sporadic pest, in Assam, Sikkitn and 
Cacliar. 

Antram (B. J., XVIII, 431) suggests that this species is identical 
with magnifica. 

Heterusia virescens, Butl. 

S. 1. 1., pp. 448-449, f. 326 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 19-20. 
A sporadic pest of tea in the Nilgiris and Wynaad. 

Soritia leptalina, KoU. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 252, f. 168. 

The larva occurs on rose, tea, etc., in Sylhet {B. J. XII, 296). We 
have specimens from Dungagah (Hazara District), Masuri, Darjiling, 
Khasis and Maymyo and also one specimen labelled " Pusa " [probably 
by error]. Also on apple at Shillong in some numbers. 

Zeuzerid^. 

Zemera coffew, Nietn. 

S. I. I., p. 446, f. 323 ; Proa Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 21, 34, 121. 
Occurs in most parts of India and has been recorded from Sikkim,. 
the Naga Hills, Kangoon, Nilgiris and Ceylon. In Assam the larva is 
said to be a bad pest of tea, boring the stems and branches, and is con- 
trolled by cutting back the affected parts. In Southern India the larva 
attacks tea and coffee bushes and seems to be not uncommon in coffee 
bushes. In Burma the larva has been found boring cotton plants. 

Fhragmatwcia sp. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 152. 
Has been reared at Pusa from larvae bormg in stems of Saccharum 
spontaneum. Not known to be a pest. 

Azygoflileps scalaris, Fb. 

S. 1. 1., pp. 446-447, f. 324 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 73, 75, 76. 

Occurs in the Plains of Southern India and Burma as a pest of agathi 
{Seshania grcmdijlora), dhaincha {S. acideata), and chithagathi {S. 



rEOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD EXTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 141 

cegypiiaca). We have examples reared from agathi at Hagari and 
Nandyal, and from J/iamc/i« at Palur, Cuttack, Pusa and Mandalay. 



Teeagrid.e = Arbelid.^. 

" Arhela " tetraonis, Mo. 

S. I. I., pp. 453454, t. 41 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 211, 
227, 230, 231, 244, 252, 254. 

Widely distributed in the Plains, the larva boring into various trees 
and feeding on the bark under cover of a gallery composed of silk and 
fragments of wood. Our records include the following localities and 
foodplants : — 

Coimbatore .... Ilorivga. 

Bangalore .... Orange-, rose. 

Poona ..... Citrus. 

Nagpur ..... Orange, [a !<erious pest ; perhaps really 

quadrinotata.] 

I'usa ..... Mango, Zizijphus jujuba, Eugenia jambo- 

lana, Pliyllanthus emblica, litchi. 

Note. — The closely allied A. quadrlnotata (F. I., I, 31o, f. 215) has been recorded as 
tunnelling in the angles of cacao branches in Cej'lon and it is probable that some of the 
Indian records also refer to quadrlnotata. We have quadrlnotata from Dharwar and from 
Coimbatore, where it bores in stems of the Rain Tree (Pithccolobinm saman). 

In one garden we poured petrol in the galleries and found this treat- jyjj, g^are 
ment Cjuite successful. 

At Poona we tried spraying with Paris Green, using twice the usual ^^^- Ranirao. 
strength after removmg the webbing. We noticed that several cater- 
pillars died when they came out at night to feed on the bark. The trees 
treated were those of Bassia latijolia on the roadside and the treatment 

was ciuite successful. 

■iiTi, 4. X- f 4-1, J J 9 Mr. Ramakrishna 

What time oi the day do you spray ? Ayyar 

You can spray at any time. The larva comes out at night, feeds on Mr. Ramrao. 
the bark and dies. 

How high do you find the larvae in the trees ? Mr. Fletcher. 

Whole stems up to twenty feet from the ground were covered Mr. Ramrao. 
with webbing. This webbing was brushed off before spraying. 



" Arhela " dea, Swinh. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 315 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 22. 
The larva has been recorded as eating tea bark in Sylhet and Cachar. 



142 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

" Arhela " theivora, Hmpsn. 

Hmpsn., B. J. XX, 97, t. G. f. 1. 

Occurs in Assam. The " larva bores in the bark of tea and the smaller 
branches of mango, feeding under a web." 

CossiD^. 

Cossus cadamhw, Mo. 

.Hmpsn., F. I., I, .306, f. 209. 

Described from Calcutta. Fairly common in Bihar, the larva boring 
in stems of Ficus spp. (? and mango), usually in old trees and probably 
doing little damage. 

Duomitus ceramicus, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 307. 

Said to attack Fig trees of many species in Western India {B. J. 
XXIII, 765), but this is probably an error for leuconotus. Stebbing 
{Indian Forest Insects, Coleoptera, p. 14) says that the larva feeds on the 
bast of teak, tunnelling into the wood to pupate and thus ruining it for 
timber purposes. 

We have no specimens in the Pusa Collection, and it is probably 
confined to Burma. 

Duomitus leuconotus, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 308, f. 216. 

Recorded from Simla, Sikkim, Calcutta and Ceylon. We have this 
from Belgaum and Belgachia. The larva bores in various trees and may 
do considerable damage. It was found boring Cassia fistula at Rangoon. 

Duomitus mineus, Cram. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 309. 

Widely distributed in India and recorded from Sikkim, Sylhet, Calcutta 
andGanjam. We have moths from Pusa and Chapra, in North Bihar, but 
this insect does not seem to be common. The larva does not appear to 
have been noted but will probably turn out to be a pest owing to its 
large size. 

[Duomitus sp. 
Mr. Ramakrislina We have a caterpillar of a species of Duomitus which damages the 

^^^^' main stem of Cassia in the Nilgiris.] 



proceedix&s of the third entomological meeting 143 

Carposinid^. 

Meridarchis scyrodes, Meyr. 

Meyr. Exot. Micr. II, 30 (1916) ; Entl. Note 74; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 254. 

The larva has been found at Pusa, Surat, Nagpur and Coimbatore Mr. Fletcher, 
boring the fruits of her {Zizyjjhvs jujuba). 
Status doubtful ; probably scarcely a pest. 

Meridarchis reprobata, Meyr. 

Reared at Nagpur and Surat in fruits of Eugenia jamholana. It has 
also been sent in to us from Kashmir as boring and damaging cultivated 
olive fruits. 



/ 



Phaloniad.e. 

Clysia ambigueUa, Hb. 

This insect is well-known in Europe as an injurious pest of the grape- 
vine, the larva feeding in the flower-buds. It occurs in the Hills of 
Assam and Burma, but has not been recorded as a pest in India, although 
it will probably prove to be so as cultivation extends in these Hill tracts, 

TORTRICID-^. 

Capua invalidana, Wlk. 

Wlk., Cat. XXVIII, 327 (1863) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 300. 

Bred at Nagpur in December 1915 from larvae on leaves of Piper 
betle {J. L. Khare). 

May be a local minor pest. Also occurs in Ceylon. 

Homoyia coffearia, Nietn. 

S. I. I., pp. 452-453, f. 330 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 20-28. 

Said to occur in the Tea Districts of Southern India,* but the only 
specimens I have actually seen were collected by myself at Polhb«4tta, 
in South Coorg, amongst coffee, and reared on Laniana by Y. Ra- 
chandra Rao at Kallar and Sidapur. It is, of course, a well-known pest 
of tea in Ceylon. Also said to occur in the Assam Tea-districts, but I 
have seen no specimens from Assam. 

* See also Laspeyresia leucostoma (page 147). 
VOL. I . L 



144 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Senior- White, 



Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. Andrews. 
Mr. penior- White. 
Mr. Andrews. 



It is a bad pest of tea in Ceylon, so mucTi so tliat one of our entomolo- 
gists, Mr. Jardine, Las been working especially on tbis insect and has 
recently issued a Bulletin on it. 

No Bulletin on Homona coffearia has been received at Pusa as yet. 

Have you noticed any effect on three years' pruning ? 

None. There seem to be three species concerned in the attack. 

Homona coffearia occurs occasionally in Assam and almost invariably 
on the new flush which comes up after the plants have been cut back. 

CaccBcia micaceana, Wlk. 
Wlk., Cat. XXVIII, 314 (1863). 

Bred at Mandalay in January 1909 by K. D. Shroff, from larvae found 
on broad bean and on guava. We have also moths from Minbu, in 
Lower Burma, and from Peshawar. 

Not known to be a pest. 

Cacoecia eficyrta. Meyr. 

We have specimens from the following localities and foodplants : — 

Madulsima (Ceylon). 

Coimbatore, larva on green chillies, Dwanta shoots, webbing 

Lanfana flowers. 
Shevaroys, larva on Lanfana flowers. 
Palnis. 

Bangalore, larva on Lanfana. 
Sidapur. larva on Lanfana fruits. 
Solan, larva on orange leaf. 
Pusa, larva boring guava fruit. 
Darjihng. 

EUCOSMID^. 

Sfilonofa rhofhia, Meyr. 

Meyr., T. E. S., 1910, 368. 

' Probably widely distributed in the Plains of India. The larva rolls 
young leaves of guava, Engenia jamholana and mango, but is not a pest. 
We have it from Pusa on guava and Evgenia, from Koilpatti* (Madras) 
on tender mango leaves, and from Coimbatore. 

Ancylis hdescens, Mew. 

Meyr., Exot. Micr. I, 32 (1912). 

The larva rolls tender leaves of Zizyphts jujvba fairly commonly 
at Pusa and has once been found boring in the fruit. Scarcely a pest. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 145 

Evcosma critica, Meyr. 

Eucelis critica, S. I. I., p. 450, t. 39 ; Proc. Second Meeting, 

pp. 12, 42. 
Eucosma ludicra, Meyr., B. J., XXI, 867, Exot. Micr. II, 19 

(1916). 
Eucosma tricJiocrossa, Meyr., Exot. ]Micr. I, 563-564 ; Entl. 

Note 76, [Laspeyresia.] 

Originally described from specimens reared from larvae in spun-np 
shoots of Cajanus indicus at Siirat. Said to occur at Poona as a minor 
pest and in the Central Provinces on young plants. The larvse have been 
found at Pusa boring the pods and eating the seeds of arhar (Cajanus 
indicus) in April and May and also on the flower-buds and top-leaves. 
Also at Coimbatore on Cajanus indicus. 

Removal of afiected top-shoots should provide control. 

Eucosma melanaula, Meyr. 

Meyr., Exot. Micr. II, 17-18 (1916). 

Bred at Coimbatore, 3rd March 1915, from a larva on green-gram 
pods. Also reared a': Pusa, 4th March 1913, from flower of Cajanus 
indicus ; 11th October 1907, from top-shoots of urid ; 30th June 1911, 
from mnng pod. Since found at Pusa in numbers boring top-shoots 
of Phaseolus aconitifolius and Florida Begger-weed and in mung flowers 
and pods. We have also moths collected at Pusa in January-March, 
and it is also known from the Khasi Hills. 

Probably widely distributed but hitherto mixed up with Eucosma 
critica. 

Eucosma zelota, Meyr. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 264. 

Has been found at Abbottabad, where the larvae spin and bunch 
together young rose leaves. A garden pest. 

Lobesia ceolopa, Meyr. 

Meyr., B. J., XVII, 976. 

This species has been bred in Ceylon from Cajanus indicus. It is 
commonly and widely distributed in India and Burma and has been 
reared in India from Lantana flower heads and from castor. Also recorded 
from Reunion and Cape Colony. 

Not known as a pest. 

l2 ' 



^46 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOCflCAL MEETING 

Argyroploce illepida, Butl. 

S. 1. 1., pp. 449-450, f. 327 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 230,234,*'257. 

Widely distributed in the Plains of India and Ceylon, the larva boring 
in various fruits and seeds. Our records include the following localities 
and foodplants : — 1^ ^| 

Coimbatore .... Agafhi pods, Acacia arabica seeds. 

Surat ..... Fleshy substance of wood-apple. 

Pusa ..... Bael fruit, Cassia fistula pod, litcki fruits 

and seeds, dhaincha pods. 



Argyroploce aprobola, Meyr. 

Meyr., T. E. S. 1886. 275 [Eccopsis] ; Proc. Second Entl.. 
Meeting, pp. 219, 230, 267. 

Widely distributed throughout the Plains. The larva is a very minor 
pest of mango and litchi, rolhng the leaves, but is polyphagons. It 
has been reared at Coimbatore from larva boring rose-bud, at Poona; 
and Bassein Fort on mango, at Pusa on mango, rose, and litchi leaves, 
rose flower. Cassia tora and Polyaltliia longifolia leaves, and at Kallar 
on Lantana. It is also said to have been reared on Dahha at Nagpur,. 
but this record reouires confirmation. 



Argyroploce erotias, Meyr, 

Meyr., B. J. XVI 584-585 (1905) [Platypeplus] ; Entl. Note 75 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting p. 219. 

The larva has been found at Pusa rolling tender mango leaves and 
feeding on them ; also reared in Bombay from larva boring in mango 
shoots. At Pusa it has also been reared from larva rolling Loranthus 
leaves [probably on mango] and from a larva webbing Cynoglossum 
leaves. Also occurs in Ceylon. 



Argyroploce leucaspis, Meyr. 

Meyr., Gardiner's Fauna Geogr. Maldives I 126 (1902)' 
[Eucosma] ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 229. 

Has been bred at Pusa in some numbers from larvae rolling litchi 
leaves but is scarcely a pest. Also reared at Nagpur from larva on 
" kafiji " (? Malva sylvesiris) [perhaps erior in labelling]. We also- 
have moths from Kandy and the Khasi Hills. 



TROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 147 

Argyroploce paragramma, Meyr. ( /j >^ X /X h^ ^^ 

Report of Impl. Entom. 1917-18, p. 102, t. 17 ff. 1 a-d (1918). 

Tlie larvse are common at Piisa in July and August boring into 
new shoots of bamboo, completely hidden under the protection of the 
leaf- sheaths. They seem to damage the young shoots to some extent. 

I took a moth at Gauhati in May 1918, so that this species is pro- 
bably widely distributed in the Plains. 

Laspeyresia hemidoxa, Meyr. 

Meyr.. B. J. X\^TI 145; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 300. 

A single specimen was reared on 2ik1 August 1909 from a larv^a 
found boring in pepper-vine shoots at Taliparamba, Malabar. 
The species is otherwise only known from the Khasi Hills. 



Laspeyresia leucostoma, Meyr. 

Meyr., B. J. XXI 876 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 20. 

Larvae were found at Hillgrove, Nilgiris, in May 1915, in some num- 
bers, rolling tea leaves. Also from Munaar rolling tea leaves. 

The species is also known from Ceylon (Maskeliya), the Palnis and 
Khasis, and occurs in Assam. , 



Laspeyresia fr {centra, Meyr. 

S. I. i. p. 451 t. 40 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 70. 

The Pusa C^ollection contains moths from Surat, Bassein Fort and 
the Shevaroy Hills. Also reared at Coimbatore from larvae in cow-pea 
pods. This species apparently accompanies L. pseudonectis as a pest 
of Crotalaria in Western (and Southern ?) India. 

Laspeijresia pseudonectis, Meyr. 

Meyr., B. J. XVIII 146-1—7; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 69. 

Widely distributed in the Plains of India as a pest of sann-hemp 
{Crotalaria juncea), the larva tunnelling in the stem and webbing top- 
shoots. Originally recorded from Surat. We have examples, bred 
from larvae in sann-hemp stems, from Pusa and Coimbatore. Also 
moths from Peshawar. 



/ 



148 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIED EXTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Laspeijresia torodelta, Meyr. 

S. 1. 1, p. 451, f. 329 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 56. 

Apparently confined to Southern India, where it is a minor pest of 
Dolichos lablab, the larva boring into the shoots, especially of young, 
plants. The affected top-shoots may be picked o£E. 



Dr. Gough. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Dr. Gough. 

Mr. Senior- White. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Dr. Gough 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Laspeyresia pomonella, Linn. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 249. 

This insect, the notorious Codling moth of Europe, North America 
and Australia, has been recorded from Dras Ladak (7,000 feet) in Kashmir, 
but I have as yet been unable to obtain any evidence of its occurrence- 
in any apple-growing districts in India. 

I have found this insect in Syria and the Greek islands and also in 
South Africa. These places are worth guarding against in India. But 
we do not find it in Egypt. 

It occurs also in Australia and there is some importation of Australian 
apples into India and I think, Ceylon also. There is some danger of 
the importation of this insect with fruit but it is probably very sUght 
as there is little chance of this infected fruit being sent to any of our 
apple-grcwmg districts. 

It might be brought in from the Levant. 

Is it a specific pest of apples ? If it has any alternative foodplant, 
it may crop up in Ceylon. 

It occurs principally in apples and pears but attacks many other 
fruits also. It is a very bad pest in apple-growmg districts. In America 
it causes a loss of two to three million sterling a year, what with damage 
and control. We do not want to get it in India. 

Does it occur in quince ? 

In America it has been found in fruits of j)each, prune, plum, cherry, 
quince and apricot. 

[ Unidentified Torlricid.] 

Whilst discussing Lasjyeyresia pommiella, I may mention that when 
I was in Kumaon last year I found a Tortricid larva boring into apple 
fiuits. It was said to be common at Ramgarh in one orchard but I 
was only able to secure one larva, which was brought back to Pusa but 
which we were unable to rear out. I cannot therefore say definitely 
what this is, but I had a drawing made of the larva and the arrange- 
ment of the tubercles is dift'erent to that found in pomonella and so we 
may presume that it is not pomoneUa although the type of damage done 
is almost exactly similar. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 149 

Laspeyresia 'ptychora, Meyr. 

Meyr., B. J. XVIII 147. 

Reared at Coimbatore in February 1915 from larva on pods of 
Cajantis indicus. Also Icnown fi'o.m North Coorg, Queensland and 
South Africa ; in Rhodesia it has been reared from larvae feedinsr in 
pods of Vigna sinensis. 

COSMOPTERYGID.^:. 

Anatmchyntis simplex, Wlsm. {coriacella, Snell.) 

S. I. I. pp. 458-459 f. 334 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 114. 

Occurs throughout the Plains of India and Burma. Has been 
reared in some numbers from cotton-bolls at Pusa, Coimbatore, Chidam- 
baram (Madras), Shibpur Farm (Bengal) and Surat, and more occasion- 
ally from cotton-leaves at Pusa, from maize cobs and stem of Capparis 
dicersifolia at Coimbatore, from mango inflorescence at Pusa, from 
])alas lac in Berar, from a rotten pomegranate at Gobichettipalayam 
(Madras), fi'om rotten bamboo stalk (Pusa), juar ear-heads (Pusa), dry 
Vigna catjang pods (Pusa). 

It seems rather doubtful how far this is a pest of cotton bolls and 
seeds. Perhaps it occurs only on dried-up bolls and leaves. At present 
it appears to be a general feeder on dry vegetable refuse and hardly a 
pest. 

Anatrachyntis falcatella, Stt. 

Gmcilaria ? falcatella, Stainton, T. E. S. (n.s.) V 121 (1859). 
Pyroderces spodochtha, Meyr., B. J. XVI 607 (1905). 
Anatrachyntis falcatella, Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 114. 

Has been bred in small numbers at Pusa from larvae on cotton shoots 
" on Dactylopius on cotton " [probably eating the dried dead scales], 
and from a rotten pomegranate at Gobichettipalayam (Madras). Has 
also been bred from lac. 

Probably a rubbish-feeder and not a pest. 

Anataractis plumigera, Meyr. 

Meyr., Exot., Micr. I. 565-566 ; Entl. Note 83 ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 81. 

Reared at Pusa and Coimbatore from larvae feeding in galls produced 
in stem of Indigojera. 

Not known to be a pest. 



150 rEOCEEOINOS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Pyroderces semicoccinea, Stt. 

Cosmopteryx ? semicoccinea, Stainton, T. E. S. (n. s.) V, 123 (1859). 

Bred at Pusa from galls in stems of fur (Cajanus indicus), but other 
moths, including Phycitines, were also bred from these stems,. and this 
species was perhaps only a scavenger. 

Pyroderces albilineella, van Dev. 

Has been reared at Coimbatore from indigo pods in some numbers. 
Also from Virajpet (S. Coorg). 

Pyroderces promacJia, Meyr. 

Pyroderces promacJia, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc, N. S. W. 1897. 351. 

Said by Lefroy {Indian Insect Lije, p. 536) to have be6n " reared 
from a leaf-mining larva found in Phaseolus mungo ; the orange larva 
pupates in a thin cocoon of white silk." This is probably an error, the 
leaf-miner being perhaps CyphosticJia coerulea. P. promacha seems to be 
a rubbish-feeder and is not a pest, so far as is known. We have it from 
Pusa, Coimbatore and Peshawar. 

Cosmopteryx bambuscc, Meyr. 

The larva mines blotches in bamboo leaves at Pusa. It is scarcely 
a pest. 

Cosmopteryx phceogastra, Meyr. 

Has been reared at Pusa in some numbers from larvae mining bean 
leaves, but is not a pest. 

Gelechiad^. 

Sitotroga cerealella, Oliv. 

S. L I. p. 456, f. 331 ; Entl. Note 79 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 183. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Usually a pest of 
stored grains but also occurs in the field on ripe ears of paddy, choJam, 
etc. 

Phthorimcca Jieliopa, Low. 

S. I. I. pp. 454-455 t. 43 [Gnorimoschema] ; Entl. Note 81 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 272. 

Occurs throughout the Plains of India (except North- West) and 
Ceylon as a minor (major in some districts) pest of tobacco, the larva 
boring in the stems. We have records from Hanguranketa (Ceylon), 



PPOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 151 

Ooimbatore, Shevaroy Hills, Ha"gari, Penukonda (Anantapur District), 
TLarsa, Gujarat, Anaiid Districtr, Pusa and Rangpur. 

Control is best effected by removal and burning of all attacked plants 
in nurseries and by careful cleaning up of all stumps and stray plants 
after harvest. Slitting the galls with a knife is useless as a rule as it is 
only by chance that the larva is killed in this way. 

It is an important pest in some districts of the Madras Presidency. Mr. Ramakrishna 

It is a bad pest in Gujarat also. Mr. Jhaveri. 

In the lanl-as [islands in the Godavari delta] there is a lot of tobacco Mr. Ramakrishna 
cultivation. This pest occurs chiefly in the seed beds. The cultivators Ayyar. 
recognize the attacked plants and these are not transplanted but are 
collected and destroyed. 

How are these young attacked plants recognized ? Mr. Fletcher. 

The leaves fade and the characteristic swelling is seen on the tender Mr. Ramakrishna 
stem. Ayyar. 

Do not these islands go under water in flood time ? , Mr. Fletcher. 

Tobacco is grown only during the cold weather and the land is then Mr. Ramakrishna 
irrigated. These islands go under water very rarely and then silt is Ayyar. 
deposited and makes the soil very fertile. 

We have tried making slits in the affected plants to kill the cater- Mr. Jhaveri. 

pillars but it has not been found successful as there may be several 

caterpillars in one plant. We find the pest present right up to the 

harvesting-time and then it remains in the stubble. The removal and 

destruction of the stubble has been found very useful. 

We also find it in the stubble. Has it been found in any other plant ? Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 
It is only known from tobacco so far. Mr. Fletcher. 

It is a regular pest of tobacco, but is not found in the nurseries at Mr. Misra. 
Pusa. 

The cultivators reject the seedlings if they find a swelling on the Mr. Ghosh, 
stem. 

Tobacco is a very thin crop and if at the time of transplanting a Mr. Misra. 
swelling comes up, the cultivator takes out the grub and kills it. 

Very probably they reject the seedlings. Mr. Ghosh. 

In Gujarat also they reject the affected seedlings. Mr, Jhaveri. 

The ste}n is also used for smoking and therefore it is not thrown Mr. Misra. 
away. 

As far as my experience goes the swelling stunts the growth of the Mr. Ramrao. 
plant and, if once the swelling comes up, the plant is useless, whether 
you cut open the swelling and kill the grub or not. 

The plant is-useless, but not quite so. Mr. Misra. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramakrisbua 
Ayyar. 



152 PROCEEDINGS "OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Phthorimcea blapsigona, Meyr. 

Meyr., Exot. Micr. I, 569 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 288. 

Has been reared at Coimbatore, Saidapet and Nagpur from larvae 
boring and feeding in flower-buds of brinjal. Probably widely distributed 
in the Plains as a minor pest of brinjal. 

Five per cent, of brinjal buds are attacked by this insect. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Dr. Gough, 



Mr. Ramrao. 



Mr. Kunhi Kannan 
Mr. Ramrao. 



Phthorimcea operculeUa, Z. 

S. 1. 1, p. 455, t. 44 ; Entl. Note 77 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 286, 288. 

Introduced with potatoes into Bombay, this moth has spread until 
it is now found in practically all parts of India. It is a serious pest 
of stored potatoes and the larvae w^ere found at Dharwar mining leaves 
of brinjal. It is likely to be found as a leaf-miner in tobacco plants. 

In Egypt it was introduced by the military authorities, but with us 
it remained restricted to the plants in the field. We store no potatoes 
in summer, so it died out again. 

We find it attacking the crop whilst it is still standing in the field. 
The larvae work as leaf-miners to begin with and later on attack the 
tubers. 

It is very rare in the tubers in Mysore. 

When there is a break in the monsoon, the soil cracks and the larvae 
get down into the cracks and attack the tubers. 

(See also page 763.) 



Kt Fietcner. 



Phthorimcea ergasima, Meyr. 

Meyr. Exot. Micr. I. 568-569 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 288. 

The larvae mine brinjal leaves at Pusa in February and March. 
Probably widely distributed in the Plains as a minor pesr. 



Stomojiteryx nerteria, Meyr. 

S. I. I. pp. 457-158 f. 333 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 43, 47, 92. 

[Ajyrocerema.] 

Widely distributed in most parts of the Plains of India but apparently 
not kno-wn in Bombay. Well known in Madras, under the name Surul- 
fuchi, as a serious pest of groundnut ; also occurs on Cajanus indicus^ 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



153 



soy-bean, and Psoralea corylijolia. Our records include the following 
localities and foodplants : — 



Peradeni\'a 




. Groundnut (Destructive in February 1905)j 


Coimbatoro 




. Groundnut. 


Hagari 




. Groundnut top-leaves. 'j 


SiinHarlinns 






Nagpur 




. Soy-bean, Psoralea oyrylifolia. 


Pusa 




, Psoralea coryllfolia. Soy-bean (rolling 
leaves). 


Peshawar . 




. (Moths only). 


Mandalay 




. Groundnut. 



This moth comes to light in large numbers. 
At Pusa we have not found it on groundnut. 

Platyedra gossypiella, Saund. 



Mr. Ramakrisbna 

Ayyar. 

Mr. Ghosh. 



S. I. I. p. 454. t. 42, Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 10, 111- 
114, 127, 129, 130 [GelecJiia]. 

Occurs throughout the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon as a pest Mr. Fletcher, 
of cotton, serious in most localities, especially so in the United Provinces. 
In all districts exotic varieties seem to be most subject to attack. The 
larva bores into the bolls, feeding on the seeds and spoihng the hnt, 
and also does some damage to buds and flowers. 

As regards control it is important to sow uninfested seed. The 
seeds should be fumigated or spread in a thin layer in the sun to drive 
out or kill any larvae contained in them. 

(See also pages 472 et seq.) ' 

Bradimia arotrcea, Meyr. 

Meyr., T. E. S. 1894. 15 (Cladodes) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meetmg, p. 1G4. 

Bred in small numbers from larvae on rice leaves at Pusa and Kaiui 
(Central Provinces). We have it also from Cuttack and Palamau. 
Also occurs in Burma and Ceylon. 

Not a pest. 

Bmchmia idiastis, Meyr, 

Meyr., Exot. Micr. I. 577 (1916). 

Bred at Pusa from larvae feeding on leaves of Panicum in June. 
Not a pest. 

Bmchmia insulsa, Meyr. 

A very common species at Pusa. Has been reared from larvae found 
at the base of juar shoots. Also from Peshawar. 



154 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Brachmia engrapta, Meyr. 

Has been reared at Lahore from larvae on sweet potato. Not known 
to be a pest. 

Brachmia effera, Meyr. 

Has been reared at Coimbatore from larvae on sweet potato leaves. 
Not known to be a pest. 



Helcystogramma liihisci, Stt. 

Gelechia hibisci, Stainton, T. E. S. (n. s.) V 117 (1859). 
Brachnia hibisci ; 1. 1. L. p. 533. 

Helcystograynma hibisci, Proc. Second Entl. Meeting pp. 123, 
265. 

Has been reared at Pusa from larvae on leaves of bhindi {Hibiscus 
esculentus), at Nagpur on rose, and at Pollibetta (S. Coorg) the moths 
were found associated with Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. We also have it from 
Shillong. 

Not a pest. 

Paraspisfes paljiigera, Wlsm. 

Originally described from S. Africa. 

We have it from Puttalam, Pollibetta, Coimbatore and Bhamo. 

At Coimbatore it has been reared from pods of indigo, Cassia flora 
and C. corymbosa. 

Also on lablab at Coimbatore. Also at Manganalliir, reared on 
wild indigo. 

Dichomeris ianthes, i\Ieyr. 

S. I. I. pp. 456-457, f. 332; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 61, 80 (tab), 207. 

Occurs throughout the Plains of Ceylon, Madras, Bombay and Bihar 
— probably throughout India. We have examples reared on indigo 
from Palur (S. Arcot), Champaran, Muhammadpur, Pusa, Gondra and 
Dalsing Serai in North Bihar. Also reared at Pusa on lucerne and 
■guar bean {Cyamopsis psoralioides). 

A sporadic pest of indigo and lucerne. 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 155- 

Anarsia ephippias, Meyr. 

1. 1. L. p. 534, t. 56 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 51, 53, 91. 

Occurs probably tliroughout the Plains of India as a very minor 
pest of pulses. AVe have it from the following localities and food 
plants : — • 



Coiinbatore 
Virajpet (Coorg) 
Nagpur 
Gondra (Bihar) 
Pusa 



Red-gram {Cajanus indicus). 

Wild Acacia flowers. 

Vrid. 

Indigo. 

C4roundnut leaves and top-shoots, moth 
leaves and top-shoots, tirid top-shoots,. 
Dolichos biflorus, soy-bean, mu7ig (boring, 
flowers and pods). 



Control : — Hand-picking of spun-up leaves and shoots. 

Anarsia acerata, Meyr. 

Meyr., B. J. XXII, 169 (1913). 

Bred at Saidapet in October 1906 from larva on Red-gram {Cajanus 
indicus). Not a pest. 

Anarsia melanoflecta, Meyr. 

Meyr., B. J. XXII 774 (1914) ; I. I. L. p. 534 ; Entl. Note 78; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 221. 

At Pusa the larva burrows in young mango shoots but it is not 
common as a rule and scarcely a pest. Also reared at Nagpur from 
mango flowers [? from twigs in cage with the flowers]. 

Anarsia omoptila, Meyr. MS. 

Bred at Coiinbatore in October 1908 from larva folding leaves of 
Red-gram {Cajanus inclicus). Not known to be a pest. 

Anarsia exallacta, Meyr. MS. 

Bred at Pusa, 7 October 1912, from larva in top-leaves of Cajanus 

indicus. 

Anarsia sagittaria, Meyr. 

Meyr., B. J. XXII, 774-775 (1914). 

Bred at Pusa in June- August from larvee in top-shoots of ber 
Zizyphus jujuha). Not a pest. 



156 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETINO 

Chelaria spathota, Meyr. 

Meyr., B. J. XXII, 165 (1913) ; Entl. Note 82 ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 219. 
The larva has been found eating tender mango leaves at Pusa and 
Koilpatti. It is not common, however, and not yet noted as a pest, 

Chelaria rhicnoia, Meyr. 

Meyr., Exot. Micr. I. 580-581. 

Bred from larva in mango flowers at Panapakam, Chittur District' 
in February, 1914. Also recorded from the Shevaroy Hills. Not known 
to be a pest. 

CECOPHORID^. 

• Tonica niviferana, Wlk. 

Binsitia niviferana, Wlk., Cat. XXIX 832 ; I. I. L. p. 535 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 131 (tab). 

Has been reared fairly common at Pusa and Chapra from larvae 
boring young shoots of Bombax malabaricum, of which tree it is a very 
minor pest. Probably widely distributed in the Plains, but overlooked. 
I have seen a moth from Nagpur. 



Mr Ramrao. 



Tonica zizyphi, Stt. 

S. 1. 1, p. 459, f. 335 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 211. 

Occurs throughout the Plains of India as a minor pest of orange 
and lemon, the larva rolling the young leaves. It also feeds on Mtirraya 
koenigi. We have it from Coimbatore, Nagpur, Pusa, Chapra and 
Peshawar. 

At Poona it occurs on orange in large numbers rolling the young 
leaves. We find the caterpillars particularly on young trees when 
they are putting out new leaves. 



Mr. Fletcber. 



PortJimologa 'paradina, Meyr. 

Meyr., Exot. Micr. I. 261 (1914). 
Has been reared at Pusa from larvae rolling leavea'and boring shoost 
of ber {Zizyphus jujuha). Not a pest. 



peoceedixgs of the thied entomological meeting 157 

Xyloryctid.^. 

Procometis trocJiala, Meyr. 

Pusa. The larvae usually feed on dry sugarcane stems, dry arliar 
Btalks, etc. Once bred at Pusa (C. S. 1708) from a larva found boring 
into stem of sugarcane. 

Probably not a pest. 

Nephantis serinopa, Meyr. 

S. I. I. p. 460, f. 336 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 259, 262. 

Occurs throughout the Plains of Ceylon, Southern India, Bengal and 
Burma as a pest of palms, often serious, especially on coconut and 
palmyra. 

In Travancore it was very bad last year on coconut palms. Nearly Mr. Pillay. 
5.000 tre:s were attacked. It spreads very rapidly and completes its 
whole hfehistory on the leaf. Cutting and burning the affected branches 
has been found very effective. We engaged a teipporary fieldman and 
treated the whole lot in this way. 

Ptochoryctis smihleuta, Meyr. 

Meyr., B. J. XVIII 150-151 ; I. I. L. p. 535 {Metatlirinca:\. 
Recorded from Gazepore (Assam). The brick-red larva feeds, beneath Mr. Fletcher, 
a web covered wath refuse and pieces of bark, on bark of tea-shoots, 
eating right through the c ambium and thus killing the branch or plant. 

Stenomid.e. 

Bynclialara rhombofa, Meyr. 

Meyr., B. J. XVII 982 [Agriophara]. 

Occurs in the Khasis, Silchar, and Assam Tea Districts. The larva 
is yellowish-red, sides yellow-orange, subdorsal stripe broad, blackish, 
head and prothoracic segment black ; it feeds between spun leaves of 
tea and, when foliage is stripped, will attack the bark, doing great 
damage (Antram). 

Control consists in leaving leaves on the bushes when pruning. All 
prunings should be buried or burnt immediately. 

For the last three years we have had no trouble from this insect. Mr. Andrews. 
It can be controlled by collecting the pupa. 



158 pkoceedings of the thied entomological meeting 

Blastobasid^. 

Blastohasis crassifica, Meyr. 

Meyr., Exot. Micr. I 595-596. 

Mr. Fletcher. Bred at Pusa in March from pods of Crotalaria juncea. Probably a 

refuse-feeder, eating dried seeds rather than attacking the crop in the 
field. Not noted as a pest. Also occurs at Coimbatore. 

Prosintis florivora, Meyr. 

Meyr., Exot. Micr. I. 598. 

Bred at Pusa in June and August from larvae feeding on mango in- 
florescence. Not noted as a pest. 



Heliodinid^. 

Slathmopoda theoris, Meyr. 

Meyr., B. J. XVII, 410-411 (1906) [Moloscelis] ; I. I. L. p. 537 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 96. 

Reared at Pusa from sunflower-heads. The larvse are probably 
merely rubbish-feeders, eating the dried remains of the flowers and not- 
the seeds. Also reared at Coimbatore from palm-fibre chewed by 
Oryctes grub, from rubbish, and from cholam heads. 

Not a pest. 

Stathmo'poda sycastis, Meyr. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 251. 

The larva of this species occurs in cultivated figs in the Peshawar 
Valley in May and June, the moth emerging in July. The larva? are 
well-known locally, so much so that the country-folk are chary of eating 
the fruit on account of the presence of the larvae. 



Eretmocera imfactella, Wlk. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting p. 296. 

Occurs throughout the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon. 
In Bihar the larva webs up Amaranthus plants, especially single 
plants, sometimes badiy, and eats back the tops. 



PltOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 159 

^GERIAD^. 

/Egeria ommaticeformis, Mo. 

Trochilium ommaticBJorme Moore, I.M.N. II. 16, figs. (1891) ; 
Hmpsn., Moths. Ind. I. 189 , fig. (1893). 

This species has been recorded as doing extensive damage by boring 
willow trees in Baluchistan. 

Melittia eurytion, Westw. 

Hmpsn.. F. I. I. 203, f. 131. 

Bred at Pusa in small numbers from stems of snake-gourd {Tri- 
chosanthes anguina) in which the larva bores and forms an elongate 
gall. Also bred from stems of Cephalandra indicu. 

Scarcely a pest. 

Glyphipterygid.^. 

Hilarographa caminodes, Meyr. 

S. I. I. p. 464 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 37. 

Occurs in Ceylon as a pest of cardamoms, the larva boring in the 
bulbs. Likely to occur in Southern India also, although not hitherto 
noted. 

Phycodes minor. Mo. 

« 

Moore, P. Z. S. 1881. 378 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 251. 

Apparently widely distributed in the Plains of India and Burma. 
We have examples from Lahore, Pusa, Gauhati, Nowgong, and Minbu 
(L. Burma). The larva rolls and spins up leaves of various species of 
Ficus. It occurs as a rule on wild species but may attack cultivated 
varieties, especially in the Punjab, in which case it is decidedly a pest. 

Phycodes radiata, Ochs. 

S. 1. I. p. 463, f. 339 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 251. 

Occurs probably throughout India. Our examples are from Pesha- 
war, Kulu, Gurdaspur, Pusa, Gauhati, Nagpur and Hagari. Has been 
reared at Pusa on wild figs {Ficus religiosa, F. glomerata, etc.), at 
Gauhati on Ficus indica and at Hagari on Ficus tisela. It also occurs 
on cultivated fig {F. carica), the larva rolUng the leaf, and is sometime* 
a serious pest of young fig-trees. 

VOL. I M 



IGO 



FEOCEEDINGS Or THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



H YPONOMEUTID^ . 

Prays citri, Mill. 

Entl. Note 89 fig. ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 17, 212. 

A well-known pest of various species of Citrus, the larva devouring 
the flowers, boring in the shoots and tunnelling in the rind of fruits. 
Has been recorded as a pest in S. Europe, E. Austraha and the Philip- 
pines. It occurs in Ceylon and Coorg and at Pusa, but has not yet 
been noted as a pest in India, although it probably is so. 

Atteva fabriciella., Swed. 

S. I. I. pp. 461-463, f. 338 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 263. 

A common pest of Ailanthus at Coimbatore, the larvae hving in a 
common web. Also reared at Nagpur on salai (Bostvellia serrata). 
Also from Ahmadabad on Ailmiihus. 



AUeva mveigutfa, Wlk. 

Wlk., Cat. II 526-527 (1854) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 263. 

The larva has been recorded as webbing and defoliating Ailanthus 
in Bikkim and Svlhet. 



Mr. Pillay. 

Mr. Fletcher, 
Mr. PUlay. 



.Ether astis circulnta, Meyr. 

Bred at Trivandrum. Travancore, in May 1914 from larvae found 
making galleries on the bark of Eugenia jamholana. Not known to be 
a pest. 

The caterpillars are found feeding on the bark of Eugenia making 
galleries on the stem. , 

Do you find them in any numbers ? 

Yes, I have found in some numbers. 



Comocriiis jiieria, Meyr. 

Meyr., B. J. XVII, 416 (1906). • 

Kr. Fletcher. Recorded from Ceylon and Assam, the larva in galleries on bark 

of Para Rubber [Hevea hrasiliensis). Its status as a pest seems doubt- 
ful. [See also Mr. Senior-White's paper on this species (No. 53 of 
these Proceedings. )] 



s'roceeding^ of the thikd extomological meeting 161 

Gracillariad^. 

Lithocolletis friarcha, Meyr. 

Meyr., B. J. XVIII 811 (1908) ; I. I. L. p. 537 ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 102. 

The larva mines leaves of cotton (not only tree-cotton as might be 
implied from the statement in Indian Insect Life). Not common and 
-not yet seen in sufficient numbers to do damage. AVe have examples 
from Pusa only. 

Lithocolletis ganodes, Meyr. 

This has been found at Parachinar where it was reared from apple 
leaves collected on 17th September 1917. 
It is not known how far it is a pest. 

Phrixosceles plexigrapha, Meyr. 

Meyr., Exot. Micr. I. 623. 

Bred at Coimbatore in March 1915 from red-gram {Cajanus indicus) 
-pods. Also occurs at Pusa. 
Not known to be a pest. 

Acrocercops ordinatella, Meyr. 

Entl. Note 85 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 38. 

Occurs in Ceylon. Mysore, Coorg and Burma, the larva mining leaves 
of camphor and sometimes a considerable pest. 

Acrocercops supplex, Meyr. 
At Pusa the larva mines Terminalia catappa leaves in small numbers. 

Acrocercops prosacfa, Meyr. 

At Pusa the larva has been found mining leaves of Ipomoea batatas 
in small numbers. 

Acrocercops phceospora, Meyr. " 

At Pusa the larva has been found mining Eugenia jambohna leaves. 

Acrocercops terminalicp, Stt. 

Stainton, T. E. S. (3) I 298-299, t. 10, f. 8 (1862) [Gracilarial 

Reared at Calcutta from leaf- miner on Country Almond (Termi- 
nalia catappa) but not known as a pest. 

m2 



162 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Acrocercops cathedrcea, Meyr. 

Entl. Note. 84. 

Probably widely distributed in the Plains. We have it from Coim- 
batore, Pusa and Rajshahi. The larva mines mango leaves but is 
scarcely a pest. Also reared from larvae mining leaves of " chichri " 
{Achyranthes aspera). 

Acrocercops gemoniella, Stainton. 
Has been reared at Pusa from larva mining Achras sapota leaf. Not 
a pest. 

Acrocercops hierocosma, Meyr. 

Entl. Note 86. 

Reared at Pusa in September and October from larvae mining leaves 
of NepheUum litchi. Described from Queensland, so that the species 
is probably widely distributed in India. 

Acrocercops auricilla, Stn. 

Bred in September 1915 from leaf-miners received from Belgachia 
where they were doing considerable damage to leaves of mahogany. 
Also at Pusa from miners in Swietenia mahogani leaves. 

Acrocercops telestis, Meyr. 

Entl. Note 87. 

Reared at Pusa from larvae mining leaves of Eiigenia jambolana and 
Gmelina arbor ea. Also reared at Coimbatore from larvae on Trewia. 
We also have it from Moulmein. 

Acrocercaps syngramma, Meyr. 

•Entl. Note 84. 

Reared at Pusa. Saidapet, Coimbatore and Chittur from larvae 
mining young mango leaves. We also have it from Bankipur. Scarcely 
a pest. 

Acrocercops isonoma, Meyr. 

Meyr., Exot. Micr. I 625 ; Entl. Note 84. 

Once reared at Pusa in May from larvae mining mango leaves. Not 
known as a pest. 



TBOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD E^'TOMOLOGICAL MEETING 163 

Liocrobyla paraschista, Meyr. 

Meyr., Exot. Micr. 11 5 (1916). 

Reared at Pusa in February 1916 from leaf-mining larvse on ftir 
'[Cajawts indicus). Not a pest. Also reared from Desmodivm gangeti- 
cum. 

Cyphosticha ccerulea, Meyr. 

Meyr., Exot. Micr. I. 26 (1912) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 42, 56. 

Bred at Coimbatore from larvae mining leaves of DoUchos lablab 
and at Pusa from leaf miners on cowpea, nmng, sem. Dolichos lablab, 
Cajanus indicus and Vicia faba. 

May at times be a minor pest of pulses. Probably widely distributed 
in the Plains, but overlooked. 

Gracillaria zachrysa, Meyr. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 248 [Apple Gracilariad]. 

A decided pest of apple, the larva at first mining in young leaves 
and afterwards tying up the leaves, fastening the edges together and 
living inside, g.iawing the green substance on the upper side of the leaf. 
Sometimes practically all young leaves may be destroyed in this way. 

Has been found at Parachinar, Abbottabad and Peshawar and also 
at Shillong, so that it is probably widely distributed along the Hill "^ 

districts of Northern India. 

Gracillaria theivora, Wlsm. 

I. M. N. II 49 ; Meyr., B. J. XVIII 829. 

Common in the tea Districts of Ceylon but apparently scarcely a 
pest. We have an example from Lebong, Darjihng District. The 
larva mines and rolls leaves of tea. 

Have you come across this as a pest of tea ? Mr. Fletcher. 

I have never had it from tea gardens except those situated near Mr. Andrews. 
Dehra Dun and from these it has t^vice been sent in to me as doing 
damage. 

Gracillaria, soyella, van Dev. 

Entl. Note 88 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 42. 

Has been reared commonly at Pusa and Coimbatore from larvse 
rolling leaves of Cajanus indicus and at Pusa also on Phaseohis nwngo. 
It may also be expected to occur on soy-bean in India. 



164 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Plutellid^e. 

Plutella 7naculipennis, Curt. 

S. I. I. p. 464, f. 340 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 276" 
277, 280, 282, 283. 

Occurs everywhere, both in the Plains and Hills, throughout India, 
Burma and Ceylon. The larva gnaws holes in leaves of cabbage, cauli- 
flower, radish, mustard, turnip and other Cruciferse. 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar, 



Lyonetiad^. 

Ph'yUocnistis toparcha, Meyr. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 235. 

The larva mines leaves of grape-vine at Coimbatore, where it is a- 
minor pest. 

It was found at Coimbatore in grape-vine leaves. Although not in 
large numbers, yet it may be put down as a minor pest. 



Phyllocnistis citrella, Stt. 

S. I. I. p. 465, f. 341 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 209, 210, 216. 

Mr. Fletcher. Occurs in every locality where species of Citrus are cultivated in 

India. We have no specimens from Burma. The larvse may occur 
in large numbers, especially in young plants, mining the leaves and the 
epidermis of green shoots, and doing considerable damage. 

Also bred from larvse mining leaves of bael {Mgle marmelos) at Pusa 
and Sibpur, and on Murraya koenigi. 

Control — spray of Crude Oil Emulsion mixed with tobacco extract. 

Mr. Khare. ^^ the Central Provinces we get it, but it is never bad. 

Mr. Fletcher. ^^ some districts it may be quite a bad pest, especially of young 

plants. I have seen young plants with every leaf badly mined and 
containing foiu: or five or more larvse. 



Bucciilatrix loxoptih, Meyr. 

Meyr. Exot, Micr. I 209 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 102. 

Reared at Attur, Madras Presidency, in June 1907 from larvse found 
eating small holes in leaves of Caravonica cotton. Not otherwise known 
in India as yet, but hkely to prove a pest. Originally described from 
Zanzibar, where the larva \Nas found damaging cotton. 



/ 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRO ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 1C5 

Petasobathra S'tn>2«,Meyr. 

Meyr., Exot. Micr. I 355 ; Entl. Note 91. 

Found on indigo at Gorakhpvir and Dalsing Serai. N. Bihar, in Sep- 
tember, the larva webbing the top-shoots and nibbling the leaves. A 
very minor pest so far as is known. 

TlNEID^. 

Dasyses rugosellns. Stt. 

Stainton, T. E. S. (n. s.) V 113-114 (1859) [Cerosioma]; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 257. 
Reared at Pusa and Coimbatore from larvae in stems of Papaya 
carica. The larva usually feeds on dead wood but may bore in below 
the bark of old living stems ; the direct damage done is shght but the 
indirect damage, by admission of disease, may be more serious. The 
larval workings are easily seen and can be cut out and the wound tarred. 

TlSCHERIAD^. 

Tischeria ptarmica, Meyr. 
Meyr. Rec. Ind. Mus. II 399 ; 1. 1. L. p. 540. 

Found mining leaves of ber {Zizyphus jufuba) in Orissa. May occur 
in very large numbers constituting a minor pest. 

Hepialid^. 

Phassus malabancus, Mo. 
S. I. I. pp. 467-468, f. 344 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 22. 
Reared at Ootacamund from a pupa found in tea-stem. Also known 
from Bangalore In the Bombay Presidency the larva sometimes does 
much damage by boring in roots of Trema arientaUs {B. J. XXIII 765). 

It is only occasionally found on tea in Assam. Mr Andrews. 

It occurs in Burma, probably on teak. Mr. Beesoa. 

COLEOPTERA. 

MELOLONTHlDiE. 

Autoserica sp.* 
Ann. Rept. Impl. Entom. 1917-18, p. 93, t. 12, f. 1 (1918). 
This species has been reared in small numbers at Pusa from larvaa Mr. Fletcher, 
at roots of lemon and sugarcane. It is probably a minor pest. 

♦This has since bean identified as A. in>anabilid, Brenske. 



166 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Serica assamensis, Brsk. 

I. M. N. IV 176 (1899), V 14-15 ; Stebb., Ind. Forest Insects, pp. 74-75. 

Recorded by Stebbing as seriously defoliating tea in the Duars tea 
gardens close to the Bhutan Hills, larva also at roots of tea. Larva 
also at roots of sal trees in Bengal Duars. 

We have this from the Duars, but have no further information 
regarding it. 

Serica marginella, Hope. 

We have this from Gauhati and from Shillong, where it was found 
on cherry in May 1905. 

Serica maculosa, Brenske. 
This species was also found at Shillong on. cherry in May 1905. 

Serica clypeata, Brenske. 
This species was also found at Shillong in May 1905 on cherry. 

Serica, calcuttce, Brenske. 

I. M. N., IV 176 t. 13, f. 3 ; IV 243 ; V 130. 

Recorded from Calcutta, the adult beetles eating rose-leaves in the 
Indian Museum compound. 

Serica nilgiriensis, Shp. 

This species occurs at Ootacamund in the beginning of April. It 

occurs on Cinchona leaves to which it does a little damage. 

Mr. Ramakrishna It is found on Cinchona leaves. Probably there are two species 

^^^^'- concerned. 

Mr. Fletcher. Does it do much damage ? 

Mr. Ramakrishna >;[o ; it does not do much damage. 

Ayyar. 

Serica filula, Shp. 

Mr. Fletcher. This species occurs in numbers at Ootacamund in the beginning of 

April. It is not definitely known to do damage but may be assumed 
to be at least a minor pest. 

Serica prninosa, Burm. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 29. 

We have this from Devikulam (5,000-6,000 feet), Travancore, where 
it is reported to have done a considerable amount of damage by defolia. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 167 

ting coifee bushes. (7. M. N. Ill, iii, p. 117 (1892)). Stebbing {Ind. 
For. Ins. p. 75, f. 40) also refers to the above record and records it from 
Trevandnim also. 

Melaserica barberi, Shp. 

This is one of the small cockchafers occurring at Ootacamund in 
numbers in April. The beetles occur on Cinchona there in small numbers. 

Brahmina coriacea, Hope. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 234, 245, 247, 248. 

This species has been sent in to us from Chavai, Kulu District, where 
it was defoliating apple and pear trees by night in August 1915 ; from 
Jeolikote, where it was attacking vine and fig leaves by night in June 
1910 and vine, apple, pear and plum in July 1912 ; we also have a speci- 
men taken on pear at Jeolikote on 3rd May 1915. This species occurs 
at Pusa also, and has been found attracted to the Andres-Maire traps 
There. 

Afoqonia proxima, Waterh. 

We have this from Calcutta, Chapra and Pusa. At Pusa the adults 
are found in very large numbers on Ficus religiosa leaves in July, eating 
the leaves in the evening. A pupa and many adults have also been 
found at Pusa amongst roots of Saccharvm sfontaneum. It is not defi- 
nitely known to be a pest but probably feeds on cane roots during the 
larval stage. 

Afogonia jermginea, Fb. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 131. 

We have this from Pusa, and from Hopin and Tatkon in Upper 
Burma. It is very abundant in the adult stage at Pusa in June and 
July, resting in the evening on leaves of Bombox and Ficus spp., which 
they damage considerably. 



Holotrichia coHferta, Shp. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 29. 

We have this from Pykara and Ootacamund in the Nilgiris, from 
Coorg and Santikoppa (N. Coorg). Said to damage coffee roots in the 
larval state. The adult beetles appear diu-ing the first half of April. 



168 



PllOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Fletcher, 



Mr. Beeson. 



Mr. Fletcher, 



Mr Ramakrishna 
Ayyar 

Mr. Ramiao. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Holotfichia repetita, Shp. 

This cockchafer beetle appears in large numbers at Ootacamund in 
April. This insect damages cinchona to some extent. 
It is found on cinchona in small numbers. 

( Unidentified Melolonthid) . * 

This cockchafer was sent in to us from Ranchi, the adult damaging 
rose leaves, in swarms at night, 6 July 1916. {Mrs. Maude.) 

{Unidentified Melolonthid). 

Sent in from Upper Shilloug, 29 September 1904, the adult beetles 
found on fruit-trees, 

{Unidentified Melolonthid). 
The adults swarm at dusk in May in Shillong and eat Enbus leaves. 

{Unidentified Melolonthid). / 

A second species found at Shillong in May 1918, the adult beetles 
swarming at dusk and destroying leaves of Ruhvs spp. 

The habits of all these Melolonthids are almost similar. The beetles 
all hide away in the day-time and come out at night just at dusk, and 
feed upon leaves. Individual specimens probably do comparatively 
little damage, but if many species appear together m large numbers 
(as they usually do), considerable damage may be caused. The ordinary 
remedy is to collect the adult beetles by hand or by light- traps. 

Is there any method of preventing the beetles from ovipositing in 
cultivated areas 1 

It is not possible to do so. In cultivated areas hoeing provides a 
good remedy because it brings the grubs to light and is also good for 
cultivation. 

Light-traps are elective. The life-cycle of these beetles is one 
year. 

Spraying with Bordeaux mixture may be tried. We found that, 
in a garden where the grape-vines were attacked by a fungal disease 
for which Bordeaux spray was given, a particular patch was left un- 
sprayed by mistake and this plot was found to be very badly attacked 
by cockchafers whilst the treated vines were qmte untouched. 

In most districts spraying is impracticable because of the area to 
be covered and because of the occurrence of rain. The cockchafers 



* This lias since been identified a < .'>^''7(/ro»vf''« roficolh-^. T. We have it also from. 
Pusa. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 169 

generally hatch out with the first rains, about June in most parts of 
India. 

In the case of cinchona in the Nilgiris, thousands of grubs are collect- Mr. Ramakrisbas^ 
ed by hand. Coolies are offered money for their collection. Ayyar. 

In Shilloug a fungus attacks the beetles, which are seen fixed on to Mr, Ramachandra 
leaves, dead. K^'O- 

The fungus that attacks these beetles is not effective as a check Mr, Fletcher. 
because it apparently only attacks them when their activities are almost 
over, and the beetles must occur in very large numbers for this fungus 
to be of any use. 

We have some trouble with cockchafers in the forest areas. Seedhng Mr. Beesoa. 
trees are attacked. The total damage to seedlings is sixty per cent., 
of which nearly a half is due to cockchafer grubs and the remainder to 
root-borers. I would like to know whether the method of collecting 
and kiUing them whilst hoeing is based on the knowledge of their Ufe- 
history or is only an empirical method. ^ 

It is only empirical. But it is practical, as it fits in with the cultiva- Mr. Fletcher, 
tion methods, and it is successful to some extent. 

How does the migration of the grubs take place in relation to the ^j. Beesoa. 
season ; that is to say, how do they come to the surface i 

We know very little about them but, as far as I know, they spend Mr. Fletcher, 
their whole Hfe-cycle fairly near the surface. Certainly, they are not 
found at any great depth when hoeing. 

RUTELID.^. 

Popillia cupricollis, Hope. 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel. pp. 73-74 ; Enti. Note 25. 

We have this from Kumaon (I. R. b51 of 4th September 1909), 
Gopaldhara (Sikkim) Turzum, Lebong, Masuri. Lansdowne, Simla, and 
Shillong. Arrow also records it from Kangra Valley, Naini Tal, Nepal, 
Sikkim. At Shillong in September 1917 the adults were f-jund destroy- 
ing flowers of rose, Dahlia, and garden plants generally. 

Popillia fece, Kraatz. 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel. p. 80 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 240. 

We have this from Maymyo, where the adult beetles were found on 
peach trees in May 1909 by K. D. Shroff, Arrow also records it from 
Nepal, Sikkim, Sadiya, Sylhet, Karen Hills, Ruby Mines, MerguJ, Siam 
and Malacca. 



170 



PHOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



At. Ramakrishna 
Myyar. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Popillia clilorion, Newm. 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel. p. 82 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 300. 

This species is common at Ootacamund at the beginning of April. 
We have a single specimen from Coimbatore recorded as having been 
found on betel leaves ; but it is probably mis-labelled. 

Tt is doubtful whether it occurs at Coimbatore. 

PofiUia histeroidea , Gyll. 

Entl. Note 24 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 240. 

Adult beetles were found on peach {Pnmvs fersica) leaves at Maymyo 
in May 1909 by K. D. Shroff. 



Anomala dorsalis, Fb. 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel. pp. 136-137, f. 32. 
The Pusa Collection contains examples from the f oUo'^ving localities : — 



Coimbatore 




Chapra 
Pusa 


. Adults abundant in June and attracted to 
Andres-Maire trap. 


Ambala 


. Adult on hJiindi flower. July 1906. 


Dehra Dun 


. September 1906. 


Igatpuri . 
Lyallpur . 
Surat 


. .July 1904. 

. 28 July 1912. 

. June 1904. adult at light. 



Arrow also records it from Bangalore, Khandesh, Nagpur, Calcutta, 
Chota Nagpur, Sikkim, Sibsagar, Andamans, Simla, Secunderabad, 
Khulna, Gwalior. 

This is a common and widely-distributed cockchafer, not yet defi; 
nitely noted as a pest, but likely to be so. 



Anomala transversa, Burm. 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel. pp. 142-143, f. 33 ; Entl. Note 13 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 250. 
Found at Shillong in May 1905 in numbers on cherry leaves, also 
on white flowers, roses. Spiraeas, etc. In May 1918 at Shillong in large 
numbers inside lily flowers in daytime, devouring pollen and petals. 
Also occurs at Gauhati in May. 

Arrow also records it from Ruby Mines, Tharrawaddy, Maymyo 
and Tonkin. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD EXTOMO LOGICAL MEETING 171 

Anornala bengalensis, Bl. 

Arrow. F. I. Riitel. p. 113, f. 31 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
p. U(j ; Annual Report 1917-18, pp. 93-94. 

Hitherto mixed with polita. This is one of the three species hitherto 
mixed up luider the name varians ; it is distinguishable by the incised 
clypeus. 

It has been reared at Pusa from larva3 found in leaf-mould and at 
Pusa and Dacca from lai-vse gnawing sugarcane stems below ground. 
At Pusa the adult beetles have been taken at light and are also freely 
attracted to the Andres- Maire trap, in larger numbers than those of 
polita. 

Also recorded by Arrow from Calcutta, Chota Nagpur, Malda, 
Murshidabad, Golconda (Vizagapatam), Bangalore, Coimbatore and 
Mandalay. 

This species is undoubtedly a pest although we have as yet few records 
of it as actually doing damage. 

Anomala olivieri, Sbp. 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel. p. U4. 

We have this from Xaduvatum (Nilgiris), May 19Ul, and from 
Ootacamund (9 April 1901 ; C. A. Barber) where it occurs in numbers. 
Arrow also records it from Cochin. 

It is not common as a rule. Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 

Anomala elata, Fb. 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel. p. 145, f. 35. 

This species apparently represents polita in the South Indian Hills. Mr. Fletcher. 
The hind tibia and tarsus are dark and the latter very thick (in polita 
slender and not very dark). 

It is represented in the Pusa Collection from Pollibetta and Sidapur 
in Coorg and from the Bababudin Hills. 

Anomala polita, Blanch. 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel. pp. 14G-147, t. 2, f. 24 ; Proc. Second Ent!. 
Meeting, pp. 146, 174, 192, 245. 

This is one of the species hitherto mixed up under the name varians ; 
it resembles bengalensis closely but has the clypeus straight (incised 
in bengalensis). 



• 172 rKOCEEBIlvGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

At Pusa the larva, "has been found in leaf-mould and also at the roots 
of rice and grass. At Muzaf!arpur and Nadia the larvae have also been 
found at the roots of rice-plants. At Jeolikote (Kumaon) the adult 
beetles were found damaging apricot shoo's and on apricot tree, and at 
Zhob (Baluchistan) the beetles were attacking g-esngage fruits in July 
1918. The Pusa Collection also contains examples from Coimbato-e, 
Xanara. Baroda and Kashmir, and Arrow also records it from Agra, 
Dehra Dun. Khandesh, Belgaum. N. Kanara, Jaintia Hills. 

' Anoynala varicdlor, Gyll. 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel. pp. 152-153, f. 41. 

At Pusa the adult beetles are attracted to the Andres-Maire trap 
in numbers in May and June ; the larva has been reared from Saccharum 
sponianeum (under C. S. 1744 ; biharensis). and the pupa has been found 
at roots of oats (C. S. 1209). At Dacca the beetles have been found in 
small numbers attacking mango blossoms, and at Jeolikote (Kumaon) 
the beetle was found damaging plum leaves on 20th May 1915 by H. H. 
Prasad. We also have it from the Buxar Duars and from Peradeniya, 
and Arrow also records it fi'om Gopaldhara, Sarda (Bengal), Parlakimedi 
(Oaniam District). Bangalore, South Arcot, and the Palnis. 

Mr. P. C. Sen, At Dacca the adults occur on mango blossoms at night. 

Mr. Fletcher. Do they do any damage ? 

Mr. P. C. SeD. I found them only in small numbers and have not observed them 

doing any appreciable damage. 

Anomala variivestis, Arr. 

F. I. Rutel. p. 156, t. 3, ff. 20, 21. 

This species was found at Shillong, 23-26 June 1918, defoliating 
fruit trees (apple principally) at night. Arrow also records it from 
Manipur and Maymyo. » 

Anomala biharensifi. 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel., pp. 166-167 ; Ann. Rept. Impl. Entom. 
1917-18, p. 93, t. 10, ff. a-d. 
This species has been reared at Pusa from larvae found at roots of 
sugarcane and roots of Saccharum spontaneum. Larvse and adults have 
also been iound around roots of gular and banyan trees. 
It is apparently not a very common species. 



I'KIKr.EDlVv.S OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 173 

Anomnla antiqua, Gyll, 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel. ]ip. 167-168. 

This is a large dark green Anomala which has been found at Tatkou, 
Burma, on maize and Sesammn by K. D. Shroff. We also have speci- 
mens from Minbu, Sale, Mandalay, Myingyan and Tharrawaddy. Arrow 
also records it from Nepal, Hainan, Hongkong, Siam to Borneo and 
N. Australia. 

Anomala ignicollis, Blanch. 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel. p. 178. 

This species occurs at high elevations (7,000 feet and over) in the 
Nilgiris. It is one of the abundant species found at Ootacamund in 
the beginning of April and we also have it from Naduvatam (7,000 feet) 
in May 1904 and from Pykara (7,000 feet). 

Anmnala aurora, Arr. 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel. p. 185 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 240. 

This species was found by K. D. Shroff at Maymyo on peach leaves 
in May. Arrow also records it from the Ruby Mines. 

Anomala paUidospila, Arr. 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel. p. 195, f. 48 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 240. 
Also found by K. D. Shroff at Maymyo on peach leaves in May. 

Anomala lineatopennis, Blanch. 

• Arrow, F. I. Rutel., pp. 212-213 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 245. 

This is a dark-green species with yellowish-brown elytra. The 
beetles were found at Jeolikote (Kumarn) attacking plum leaves on 
20th May 1915 by H. H. Prasad, and we also have it from Buxar Duars. 
Arrow also records it from Dehra Dun, Masuri, Ramgarh, Ranikhet, 
Naini Tal, Kulu, Simla, Bhutan and Nepal. 

Anomala chcorata, Kirsch. 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel. p. 216 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 240. 

This is a shining brown species with chestnut markings on the elytra. 
It has been found on peach at Maymyo and Arrow also records it from 
Perak. 



17 i 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEEJING 



Anomala dimidiata, Hope. 



Arrow, F. I. Rutel, pp. 232-233. 

This is a large bright-green species, which is coinniou at Pusa at 
Ught and has also been taken in the Andres-Maire trap. At Chawai^ 
in the Kangra District, it appears during June and July every year 
and is found abundantly on berberry trees in sunny places, completely 
defoliating the trees, and by night it attacks apple and pear, damaging 
the fruits chiefly. At Zhob (Baluchistan) the beetles were found attack- 
ing greengage fruits in July 1918. At Daltonganj it has been found 
on Butea frondosa. At Darbhanga the beetles were reported to be 
damaging garden plants in the Rajbagh in the beginning of July 1906. 
Arrow also records it from Nepal, Campbellpur (North- West Frontier 
Province), Kulu, Simla, Naini Tal, Malda, Ranikhet, Sikkim, Shillong 
and Manipur. 



Mr. Senior- White. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Pillay. 



Anomala dussumieri, Bl. 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel., p. 2^3, t. 2, ff. 9, 10 ; Proc. Second EntL 
Meeting, p. 219. 

This is a very large shining green species which has been found in 
the adult state as a minor pest of mango leaves and sweet-potato stems 
in Travancore. We also have it from Helem (Assam) and Peradeniya. 
Arrow also records it from Colombo, Cochin, and S. Kanara, and states 
that it is said to be destructive to leaves of Cinchona succirubra in 
Ceylon. 

I have seen it in the centre of a rose flower in Ceylon. It was only 
chewing the petals. 

There is a specimen which was found on the stem of sweet-potato 
at Trivandrum. What was it doing, Mr. Pillay ? 

I found it in very small numbers. It is a very minor pest. 



Anomala rufiventris, Redt. 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel, pp. 236-237 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 254. 

Mr. Fletcher. This is a large shining blackish-green species which was sent in 

to us in August 1915 from Chawai (Kulu) as attacking apples and pears, 
defoliating the trees, no trace being found of it in the daytime but 
emerging by night and doing a great deal of damage. We also have 
it from Simla (July 1909), Lansdo^vne (October 1909), Masuri (August 
1906) and Nagri Spur (Darjiling District). Also recorded by Arrow 
fi-om Ranikhet, Manipur, Khasis, Jaintias, and Bhutan. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 175 

Anomala regina, Newman. 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel., p. 252, t. 3, ff. 37, 38. 

This species occurs in both light-green and dark-blue forms. It 
occurs at Ootacamund in numbers at the beginning of April and we also 
have it from Neduvatam (Nilgiris ) in May 1904 and from Coimbatore 
(3 October 1917). 

Adoretus lobice'ps, Arrow. 

F. I. Rutel., pp. 303-304, f. 67. 

We have this from Surat, Jabalpur and Nagpur, where the beetles 
were found on rose-trees in June by Mr. D'Abreu, 

Adoretus bicmidatus, Arr. 

F. I. Rutel., pp. 310-311, f. 68, t. 5, ff. 15, 16 ; Entl. Note 17 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 264. 

We have this from Fenchuganj (C. Presley coll.) where it was found 
damaging rose-leaves and other garden trees. Also known from Sun- 
darbans, Dacca, Berhampur, Trincomali, and Nirodhumunai (Ceylon). 
At Dacca it was found on bark of a mango tree (Arrow). 

Adoretus ovalis, Bl. 

F. I. Rutel., p. 338, t. 5, f. 28 ; Entl. Note 16. 

This species is only known from Ootacamund, where it occurs in 
numbers at the beginning of April. The statement in South libdian 
Insects that this species was found in other locahties damaging grape- 
vine and mango, is based on a misidentification and the figure given 
represents A. lasiopygiis. 

Adoretus duvauceli, Bl. 

F. I. Rutel., pp. 343-344, t. 5, f . 43 ; Entl. Note 21 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 234, 251. 
This species was sent in from Jeohkote (Kumaon) in June 1910 as 
damaging vine and fig leaves by night and again in July 1912 as damag- 
ing vine, apple, pear and plum leaves. It was received from Begum 
Serai in July 1904 as damaging vines by eating the leaves and in Calcutta 
Dr. Gravely has found the adults damaging leaves of Lagerstrosmia and 
Cassia. We also have it from Chapra and from Pusa, where the adults 
occur from June to September. 

VOL. I ' N 



176 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Adoretus Jiorticola, Arr. 

F. I. Kutel, p. 344, t. 5, f. 34 ; Entl. Note 22 ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, pp. 234, 245, 247, 248, 251. 
This species was sent in to us from Jeolikote (Kumaon) in June 
1910 as damaging leaves of vine and fig by night and again in July 
1912 as damaging leaves of vine, apple, pear and plum by night. 

Adoretus bicolor, Brenske. 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel., p. 347. 

Recorded by Arrow from Kurseong, Sarda (Bengal), Calcutta, Pusa, 
Jabalpur, Surat, Berhampur (Ganjam), Bangalore, Coimbatore, Kodumor, 
and Kurnul. 

At Bangalore it was found attacking rose-bushes. (/. M. N., V. 2, 

p. 38(1900)). 

Adoretus lasiopygus, Burm. 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel., 348-349, t. v. f. 36 ; Entl. Note 18 ; Proc. 

Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 234, 264. 
Adoretus ovalis (part), Fletcher, S. Ind. Ins. p. 287, f. 127. 

This species was sent in from Begum Serai in July 1904 as damaging 
grape-vines. This is also the species referred to in South Indian Insects 
as ovalis as damaging grape-vine and mango in Southern India. We 
have it also from Pusa, where the beetles occur from June to September, 
from Calcutta, Rewari (Punjab) on 4th October 1905, from Jorhat 
(29th June 1907) and from Palamau in September 1906, and Arrow 
also records it from Allahabad, Sikkim, Tejpur, various locaUties in 
Bengal, Ranchi, Coimbatore, S. Arcot, Godavari, Trichinopoli, and 
Anuradhapura. 

Mr. Pillay. In Travancore it damages coconut seedling one-and-a-half year's 

old and three to four feet high. It completely defoliates the plants. 

Mr. Fletcher. On a big scale ? 

Mr. Piilay. More than one hundred plants were destroyed. The leaf blades 

V, ere eaten and only the mid-ribs left. 

Adoretus vsrsulus, Har. 

F. I. Rutel. pp. 350-351, ff. 73, 74 ; Entl. Note 23 ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, pp. 234, 245, 247, 248, 251, 264. 

Mr. Fletcher. A. versutus was sent in to us from JeoUkote (Kumaon) in June 1910 

as lacerating leaves of vine and fig, and again in July 1912 as damaging 
leaves of vine, pear, apple and plum, whilst on 20ih May 1915 H. H. 



PilOCEEDINGS OF VHli THIKD EMOMOLOGICAL MEETING 177 

Tiasad found it at Jeolikote on apple seedlings and on a loquat tree. 
The adult beetle has a partiality for rose leaves and has been noted 
specially on rose at Eangalore, whilst in Calcutta it also attacks leaves 
of Lagtrsircemia and Cannas. In Samoa the adult is a pest of cacao and 
the larva feeds on roots of grasses, etc. At Pusa the larva was found 
at roots of oats and the adult beetle reared out emerged on 1st May 
1915 ; a pupa was also found at Pusa underground in an indigo field 
and from this the adult emerged on 4th September 1917. The Pusa 
Collection also contains examples from Murshidabad, Buxar Duars, 
Sylhet, Tejpur (Assam), Coimbatore and the Nilgiris. It is a very 
widely distributed species. 

Adoreius caliginosus, Burm. 

P. I., Rutel. pp. 355-356 ; Entl. Note 19 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 264 ; Ann. Kept. Impl. Entom. 1917-1918, p. 93," 
t. ll,ff. a-d(1918). 

This species has been reared at Pusa from larvse found at roots of 
grasses, rice, sugarcane and Saccharum sfontaneum, the adult beetles 
emerging at the end of April. We have it also from Surat (5th May 
1904), Bababudin Hills (March to April), Santikoppa (N. Coorg ; 4th- 
10th May 1914), Jorhat (29th June 1907) and Tharrawaddy. 

Arrow also records it from Kangra Valley, Sikkim, Sarda (Bengal), 
Belgaiun, Bandra, Nilgiris (3^500 feet) and Rangoon. 

Cetoniad^. 

Heterrorhina elegans, Fb. 

.Arrow, P. I. Ceton. pp. 93-94 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 182. 

This is a large metallic green or blue species which occurs on cholam 

flower-heads in small numbers at Coimbatore, eating the pollen, but t 

is not looked on as a pest. We also have it from Chapra and Arrow 

.also records it from Malda, Chota Nagpur, Mysore, Trichinopoly, Nilgiris 

and Ceylon. 

I teats the pollen but does not do appreciable damage as it does Mr. Ranrtl-'iGhca 
not occur in large numbers. Ayj^ar. 

AnfhracophGra crucifera, 0]\v.{=atromacuhta, Fb.) 

Arrow, F. I. Ceton. pp. 110-111 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeticg. p. 182. 

This species has been found at Coimbatore on cholam and Lantniui Mr, Flelcbor. 
ihwt is not looked on as a pe.st. It is widely distributed and the Pu>a 

^ n2 



178 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD EXTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

collection contains specimens from Dehra Dun, Pusa, Chapra, Igatpuri.. 
Surat, Betul, Trivandrum, Pollibetta and Sidapur in S. Coorg, and 
from S. Kanara, whilst Arrow also records it from Saliibganj (Bengal).. 
Purneah District, Bangalore and Ceylon. 



Anatona stiUata, Newm. 

Arrow, F. I. Ceton. pp. 114-115 ; S. I. I. p. 282, f. 122 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 182, 188, 200, 201. 

This species seems to be confined practically to the Western Ghats. 
and Deccan and surrounding tracts and has been recorded from Khan- 
desh, Poona, Nagpur, Bellary and Bangalore. In Bellary and Bangalore 
it occurs on cholam and ragi and at Poona it occurs on bajra earheads, 
feeding on the pollen and vmripe grains. It occurs at Poona every 
year but was particularly bad in 1918. At Poona control by means of 
light-traps has been tried, but these were found to be useless. The-. 
Pusa collection contains one poor specimen. 



Protcelia fiisca, Hbst. 

Arrow, F. I. Cet. pp. 154-155, f. 34. 

We have this from Insein and from Pusa, where it was bred from' 
larvae found in farmyard manure. 

Also known from Calcutta, Chapra, Cachar, Bhamo, Mandalay, 
Rangoon and ranges through Tenasserim and Siam to S. China, the-. 
Malay Peninsula and Archipelago, Polynesia, N. Queensland and 
Mauritius (Arrow). 

Ridley says that at Singapore the larvae are very injurious to Cannaa. 
and other cultivated plants, on whose roots they feed. In Queensland 
the adult beetle attacks nests of a Trigona, probably for the sake of the- 
stored honey (Arrow). 



Frotcviia alboguftata , Vig. 

Arrow, F. I. Ceton. p. 162-163 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 182. 

At Coimbatore and Bangalore the adult has been found on earheads-. 
of cholam to which a little damage is done. At Pusa the adult beetle 
has been found at roots of Panicum. We also have it from Kanara. 
Belgaum, Mysore, Surat, Chapra and Dehra Dun and Arrow also records, 
it from Ranchi and Kandy. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 179 

Oxycelonia versicolor, Fb. 

Arrow, F. I. Ceton. pp. 164-166, ff. 35, 36 ; S. 1. 1, p. 284, f. 123 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 90, 123, 182. 

This species has been reared at Pusa from larvse in farm yard manure. 
The adult beetle has been found in South India on flowers and shoots 
of groundnut, doing some damage at times, also eating flowers of bhindi 
and cotton in West Khandesh, and attacking flower-heads of cliohru 
in South India. It is a widely distributed species which we have from 
Chapra, Pusa, Murbhanj and Kanti in Bengal, Bombay, Andheri, Nasik, 
W. Khandesh, Bangalore, Coimbatore and Palur. 

Oxycetonia albopimclata, Fb. 

Arrow, F. I. Ceton. p. 166-167 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 123, 212. 

This species has also been reared at Pusa from larvae in farmyard 
manure. The adult beetles appear at Pusa from the end of July to the 
beginning of November and feed in numbers on bajro, maize, juar and 
rice ears and have also been noted as feeding on cotton [? flowers], 
H'ibiscus mutabilis flowers, and lemon flowers. At Coimbatore it has 
also been found on cholam. We have it also from Kanara, Chapra, 
Dehra Dun, Lebong, the Khasi Hills and Helem (Assam). 

Lefroy reports the adult as feeding on pollen of cotton flowers, and • 
also found on rice, jute, cane and other crops (Arrow) and Mr. C. il. 
Inglis reports the adults as damaging Lager strcemia at Laheria Serai. 
^r I found this on heads of wheat. In Ceylon we carried on wheat- ^^- SeEioi-Wbite* 
growing experiments but this beetle gave us much trouble by damaging 
the earheads, 

Ckiloloba acuta, Wied. 

Arrow, F. I. Ceton. p. 172, t. 2, f. 4 ; S. I. I. p. 284, f. 124 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 178, 183, 188, 264-265, 
278, 281. 

At Pachmarhi the larva has been reported to damage seedhngs of 
cabbage, cauliflower, artichoke, etc. The beetles often occur in large 
numbers and have been reported to damage rice flowers at Cuttack 
and NagpuT. At Virajpet, in S. Coorg, the beetles were found on paddy 
and on a wild grass {Pennisetum alopecurus). At Nagpur the beetle 
has also been found on juar heads and at Pusa on rose leaves and flowers. 
In Kashmir the adult was noted in very large numbers on flowers of 
bhang {Cannabis saliva) on the road to Srinagar, and Mr. E. A. Andrews 
reports it as having occurred on tea in the Bengal Duars in considerable 



180 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

numbers, eating the young leaves and doing considerable damage. . 
We also have it from the Punjab (on bajra), Garhwal, Dehra Dun, Nasik, 
the Shevaroy Hills and Maymyo. Lefroy has also reported it as injurious 
to juar and h(tki [Panicvm miliare ; a small millet], whose flowers it 
damages (Arrow). 

TVTr. Tiaglis. j have found it on flowers of thatching grass. 

Mr. Aadcews. j^^ ^j^g Bengal Duars the adults were eating the leaves of young- 

tea-bushes and doing considerable damage. This tea was planted on 
new land which had just been cleared of jungle. 

Eficometis sqvcdida, Linn. 

Arrow. F. I. Ceton. p. 174, f. 40 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 268. 

This has been sent in to us from Quetta, the adult beetles occurring 
on hyacinth, crocus, violet, and narcissus and destroying [the flowers 1] 
in April 1910. It also occurs in W. Asia, Europe, N. Africa, where it 
injures peach blossoms by destroying the stamens and in Greece, Corsica, 
Algeria and other vine-growing countries damages buds of growing- 
vines. 

The larva is said to bred in manure (Arrow). 

Agesfrafa orichalcea, Linn. 

Arrow, F. I. Ceton pp. 192-194, f. 2. 

Occurs in Ceylon, Travancore, Bombay, Sylhet, Tenasserim, Anda- 
mans. Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, China, etc. 

The larva bores into Pandanns, the woody stem being tunnelled 
tlirough just below the point of origin of the branches, causing them 
to die off. At Singapore it is very destructive to ornamental Pandanus 
growing in tubs. The larva is preyed on by Scolia fuhig'mosa, Fb. (Arrow). 
This has not yet been noted as a pest in India but is Ukely to.be found 
damaging ornamental Pandaniis. 

Sfilofhonis creiosm, Hope. 

Arrow, F. I. Ceton, pp. 201-202, f. 45. 

We have specimens from Coimbatore, where it was found on cumhu 
on 21st September 1909 and on Cordia suhcordata, from Chapra, and from 
Malegaum in Bombay where the adult beetle was found in a nest of 
Cremasfogaster sp. Also known from Malda, Berhampore, and Western 
Province of Ceylon (Arrow). 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD EXTOMOLOGICAL MEETING ISL 

Macroma melanopiis, Sch. 

Arrow, F. I. Ceton, p. 219. 

Adult beetles were found at Shillong in May and the beginning of 
June 1918 on Rubifs spp., usually on wald Rubvs but also attacking 
cultivated species. Damage slight. 

Arrow also records it from Manipur, Sylhet, Jaintias, N. Kyen Hills 
(Burma) and Siam. 

Dynastid.^:. 

Xylotrvpes gkJeon, Linn. 

Arrow, F. I. Dyn., pp. 262-265, ff. 59. 

, Recorded from Calcutta, Kurseong, Shillong, Sibsagar, Cachar, 
Bombay, Travancore, Ceylon (Arrow). 

The Pusa Collection contains specimens from Dehra Dun, Meroara 
(Coorg), Dacca, Tezpur, Khasi Hills (1,000-3,000 feet), Shillong, Helera 
(Assam), and the Philippines. At Tezpur the adult beetles were found 
damaging seed indigo plants by gnawing and stripping the bark. 

[Evpaforvs hardtvickei, Hope. 

Arrow, F. I. Dyn., pp. 268-269. 

While staying with Mr. J. R. P. Gent of the Forest Service in the Mr. Inglis. 
Kurseong Division (elevation 6,000 feet) he brought in one of each of 
Etipatonis hardivickei and E. hardivickei cantori which he found stripping 
the bark from an Alder {Almis neiKilensis). As far as I remember, he 
said the beetles were working vertically and doing a good deal of damage 
by stripping off about four feet of the bark all round the tree.] 

Oryctes nasicornis, L. 

Arrow, F. I. Dynast., pp. 275-276 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 262. 

We have specimens from Quetta and had for determination from ]y[r, Fletcher. 
Mr. Milne one specimen captured by him at Dalhousie. 

Recorded from Baluchistan, Kashmir, S. W. Asia, S. & S. E. Europe 
(Arrow). 

This species is not definitely known as a pest but probably attacks 
date-palms in North-West India. 



182 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Fletche". 

Mr. David. 
Mr. Kbare. 



Mr Haiuakrislina 
Ayyar. 



Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Ramakrisbna 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Kunbi Eannan 
Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Ramakrisbna 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Senior-White. 



Orycles rhinoceros, L. 

Arrow, F. I. Dynast., pp. 278-281, ff. 6, 63 ; S. I. I. p. 285, 
t. 3 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 135, 145, 259, 262. 

Throughout Southern India and Ceylon as far north as Pusa and 
Bandra, apparently not found in the United Provinces and we have 
no records from the Central Provinces. The larva occurs in farmyard 
manure, cofiee pulp, rotting aloe stems and decaying vegetation generally, 
the adult beetle boring into crowns of palm trees, occasionally into 
sugarcane. It has been found in sugarcane at Coimbatore, and in 
Travancore is said to occur rarely in cane when 3-4 feet high. 

The Pusa Collection contains specimens from Pusa, Bangalore, 
Kanara, N. Coorg (larva in rotten cofiee pulp), Virajpet in S. Coorg 
(damaging coco palms) and Trichinopoly. 

The northern limit of the distribution of Orydes rhinoceros in India 
does not seem to be definitely known. We have no records from the 
United Provinces and no specimens from the Central Provinces. 

It is not found at Cawnpur. 

In the Central Provinces we find it breeding in manure heaps. It 
is found throughout the Central Provinces. 

A new control method has been tried in Travancore. A powdered 
oil-cake is prepared from a plant called marrali (? Hydrocafpus sp.) 
and placed in the crowns of the palms. This has a strong smell and a 
bitter taste and probably acts as a repellent. 

How far is it actually practical ? 

I do not know. I have only heard of it. 

Fermented ragi water was tried in Mysore and found to attract the 
beetles in large numbers. 

Do the people keep pigs in these coconut-growing districts in Southern 
India ? 

No ; but they make pits filled with rubbish and when the beetles 
have collected they are killed ofi. 

In Ceylon, in the low-country at an altitude of about 400 feet, the 
Singhalese keep pigs and, so far as I know, they do not have much 
trouble with Oryctes. 



Heteronychus sacchari, Arrow. 

Arrow, F. I. Dyn., p. 297, f. 69. 

Recorded by Arrow from Rangpur (Bengal) and " reported as causing 
considerable injury to sugarcane." 
No specimens in Pusa Collection. 



PROCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 183 

Allissonoium piceiwi, Fb. 

Arrow, F. I. Dynast., p. 299 ; Ann. Eept. Impl. Entom, 1917-18, p. 93. 

Eecorded from Darjiling, Sundarbans, Dacca, Malabar, Ceylon 
(Arrow). 

The Piisa Collection contains specimens from Dacca, Chapra, and 
Pusa, where the larva was found boring into sugarcane shoots, 6nd 
the adults occur at roots of Saccharum sfontaneuin in some numbers 
from July to September. 

Alissonotum simile, Arrow. 

F. I. Dynast., p. 300-301 ; Ann. Kept. Impl. Entom. 1917-18, p. 93. 

Recorded from Assam (Dilkoosha), Sylhet and Pusa (Arrow). 

The Pusa Collection only contains examples from Pusa, where the 
adults occur at light in June and Jvily, and the larva has once been found 
in a sugarcane field in May. The larva probably eats roots in the same 
way as .4. 'jnceum. 

Pentodon bispinifrons, Reitter. 

Arrow, F. I. Dyn , p. 303 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 146. 

Recorded from Bannu, Baluchistan, Karachi, Persia and Turkestan 
(Arrow). The Pusa Collection contains specimens from Lyallpur, 
Baroda (adult, labelled " sugarcane " 17 August 1907), Pusa (adults at 
light), Simla (adult, July 1909), and Chapra. 

This species probably bores into cane in the same way as P. benga- 
lense. 

Pentodon bengaJense, Arr. 

Arrow, F. I. Dyn., p. 304, f. 71 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 146. 

Recorded by Arrow from Pusa and Rajmahal. The Pusa Collection 
contains specimens from Chapra, Pusa (larva at roots of sugarcane) 
and Peshawar, where the adult has been found destroying sugarcane 
shoots by burrowing in below ground. 

PJn/Uognathus dionysius, Fb. 

Arrow, F. I. Dynast., pp. 307-308, f. 73 ; Ent. Mem. 11, 139- 
143, t. 13 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 174. 

The Pusa Collection contains specimens from Simla, Dehra Dun, 
Pusa, Chapra, Hoshangabad, Seoni, Igatpuri, Belgaum, S. Kanara and 
Coimbatore, whilst Arrow also records it from Kurseong, Purnea District, 



184 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ramakiishna 
Ayyar, 

Mr. Senior- White. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Senic:-Wtite. 



Mr. Jhaveri. 



Chota Nagpur, Calcutta, Mysore and Ceylon. The adult beetle was- 
found in S. Kanara cutting stems of young rice-plants on one occasion, 
and the larvae were found in numbers at roots of rice-plants at Belgaum.. 
It is apparently a sporadic pest of paddy. 

LuCANIDiE. 

Lucam/s lunifer, Hope, 

Stebbing, Ind. For. Ins. Col., pp. 70-72. ff. 37, 38. 

This species occurs throughout the Himalayan region, the larva- 
feeding in rotten wood. We have it from Dehra Dun and Ramgarh. 

At Ramgarh, Kumaon District, two male specimens were given me 
in August 1918 by Mr. N. Gill as having been found boring into peach 
fruits about the middle of July. The beetles are said to do considerable 
damage in this way and to bore into sound ripe fruits. 

SCOLYTID.5:. 

Xylebonis fornicatus, Eich. 

This Scolytid is the well-known and destructive " shot-hole borer " 
of Ceylon and has been reported as found in Travancore also, but this 
latter record appears to be uncertain. At Bangalore it has been reared 
from bored castor stems. 

Plants over a year old were attacked. The whole stem was bored. 
All stages were found in the stem — eggs, grubs and beetles. 

Mr. Speyer states that castor is the normal food of this insect. He 
came to this conclusion by a comparison of the galleries in castor and 
tea. He believes that it comes into tea as an overflow when its numbers 
have increased too much on castor. In the Tea districts of Ceylon 
the planting of castor has been prohibited. It is extending its range 
in Ceylon. 

It is strange that it is such a bad pest of tea in Ceylon but not in 
South India. 

]Mr. Speyer is now recommending fish-oil paints on the tea-bushes. 
His Bulletin on the subject is expected shortly and will contain all the 
information. 

[Xylebonis sp. 

Another species of Xylehorm was found in and around Surat damag- 
ing date and coconut palms. This appears to be a new pest in this 
locality and has been noticed to spread gradually into the surrounding 
gardens at Surat. This insect was found to damage the tree by making 
very small holes of the size of the head of an ordinary pin. The damage 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 185 

commences from a foot or two above ground-level and goes upwards. 
It appears to be a serious pest in this limited area. 

See also the Scolytid on coconut in Madras. Possibly both speciea 
are identical. — Editor.] 

( Undetermined Scolytid.) 

S. I. I., pp. 344-345, fig. 203 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 37. 

This Scolytid occurred very abundantly in cardomom capsules in Mr. Fletcher. 
Coorg in 1913 and damaged a large percentage of the crop, but has not 
been reported again. 

(Undetermined Scolytid.) 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 261. 

An imdetermined Scolytid has been reported to bore in the stems of 
coconut palms at Negapatam and in the Clodavari district, killing the 
attacked trees. It is also reported to be a bad pest of coconut in N. 
Kanara, but very little seems to be known about this insect. 

( Undetermined Scolytid.) 

Another undetermined Scolytid has been reported as damaging 
Hevea rubber trees, by boring the bark, on the Moopli Valley Estate. 
It is said to attack healthy trees. 

Platypodid^. 

[? Crossotarsus, sp. 

A Platypodid has been reported as attacking Hevea rubber trees in Mr. Ramakrishna 
Travancore also.] Ayyar. 

OURCULIONID^. 

Blosyrus asellus, Linn, 

Mshll., F. I. Cure, I. p. 33 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 292. 

The Pusa Collection contains specimens from Simla, Chapra, Muzaff- Mr, Fletclier 
arpur and Pusa and Marshall also records it from Bengal, Assam, 
Burma, Andamans, Cambodia, Malacca, Sumatra, Borneo and the 
Philippines. 

At Pusa the adults have been found on cotton and on sweet-potato 
in small numbers, but it is probably not a pest. 



186 PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Blosyrus incequalis, Boh. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure, I, pp. 35-36 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 61, 81. 

This species seems to be restricted to Southern India. We have 
it from Yemmiganur, Adoni and Hadagalli (all in Bellary), Coimbatore, 
and Nellikuppam (S. Arcot) and Marshall also records it from Sampgaon, 
Belgaum, Mysore, Bangalore, Pondicherry, Nagodi (S. Kanara), N. 
Coorg, and Anuradhapura. 

At Adoni the adults were found on gingelly, at Hadagalli on cluster 
beans, and at Nellikuppam in August 1912 on indigo in some numbers. 

Tanymecus sciurus, Oliv. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure. I, pp. 76-78, f. 24^ ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 149. 

We have this from Eastern Bengal and Assam (I. R. 357-V of 1 
August 1907), Chapra and Pusa, and Marshall also records it from Chota 
Nagpur and Patna. At Pusa it has been found on sugarcane on two 
occasions and in small numbers on cotton. 
Mr. P. C. Sea. I found it doing a certain amount of damage to sugarcane at Rangpur. 

It eats the soft leaves of the young shoots. 

Tanymecus princeps, Fst. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure, I, 97, f. 2il ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 103. 

Mr. Fletcher. ^^ have this from Surat, where it was found " on cotton leaves," 

from Hoshangabad, and from Palamau, where D. P. Singh found it 
commonly in October 1906. It is also recorded by Marshall from Nag- 
pur, Belgaum, and N. Kanara. At Belgaum it was found on beans or 
other plants bordering rice-fields (Marshall). 

Tanymecus hispidus, Mshll. 

F. I. Cure. I. 98, f. 2U ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 103, 
149, 168, 190, 207, 254. 
The larva has been found at Pusa in sugarcane fields. The Pusa 
Collection contains specimens from Rohtak (Punjab), found on cotton, 
from Pusa, Dholi and Cooch Behar, and Marshall also records it from 
Rampurchaka, Bijnor District, United Provinces, and Jallandhur. It 
is of very minor importance as a rule, occurring at Pusa on maize, rice, 
sugarcane, lucerne and leaves of DaWergia sissu and Zizyphus jujuha, 
but at Dholi [near Pusa] in June 1909 it was reported to be attacking 
maize and in March 1918 it was sent in to us by Messrs. Turner, Morrison 
& Co. as found in fairly large numbers on a sugarcane plantation in 
Cooch Behar. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 187 

Tanymecus indicus, Fst. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure, pp. 99-100, f. 32 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
. pp. 69, 81, 96, 97, 134, 168, 180, 186, 190, 193, 273, 283. 

Our records include the following localities and foodplants : — 



Lahore 




. On wheat. 


Lyallpiir . 




• 


Jheluni 




. On wheat. 


Burhapur, U. P. 




. On poppy (opium). 


Pusa 




. On maize, indigo, sann-hcmp. sunflowei 
rice, jute, jMor, at Sacchannn sp. roots. 


Muzaffarpur 




. 


Chapra 




On rice. 


Nagpur 




Safflower. 


Fyzabad, U. P. . 




. Damaging poppy seedlings. 



It is an occasional bad pest of young wheat (when 5-6 inches high) 
in the Punjab and once occuired in numbers on beetroot at Pusa. SpUt 
pumpkins, placed at dusk and examined before sunrise, may be used 
as traps for the beetles. Marshall also records it as a pest of gram and 
barley, and at Surat the adults attack juar seedlings and do some damage. 

I found it a serious pest of juar seedlings at Surat last year. A Mr. Jhaveri. 

bait of cut pumpkins and heaps of uprooted weeds, put in the rows, 

attracted large numbers of beetles. It is also found on cotton. 

In Madras it is found on cotton. Mr. Ramakrislina. 

Ayyar. 

Atmetonychus peregrinvs, Oliv. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure, I. pp. 112-113, f. 37 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 123, 253, 273, 285. 

We have this from Amballa, Fyzabad, Chapra, Pusa, Cuttack and Mr. Fletcher.. 
Eastern Bengal and Assam. At Pusa the adults have been found on 
jute and on two occasions on ber, at Amballa on bhindi. at Cuttack on 
potato leaves, whilst at Fyzabad it was reported on opium poppy on 
16th December 1904 and again as damaging poppy seedUngs on 14th 
January 1918, 

Hypomeces sqitamosus, F. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure, I. pp. 116-117, f. 39 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 128, 296. 

This species is apparently common in Burma and we have it from 
Myitkyina, Mandalay, Tagmiding, Minbu and Moulmein. At Myitkyina 
the adults occurred on orange and on Hibiscus rosasinensis, and at 
Mandalay K. D. Shroff found it on Amaranthus. 

In South India and Assam it defoHates teak, etc. Mr. Beeson. 



188 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Dereodus pollinosus, Pedt. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure, I. 121 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 136, 248. 
Mr. Fletcher. Marshall records this from Kumaon, Nepal, Kashmir and Baluchistan, 

and we have it from Masuri, Simla, Kulu, Amritsar, and Dera Ghazi 
Khan (I. R. 86-V, 12 May 1908). 

At Amritsar it was found on Calotropis and at Kulu it was found 
attacking and defoliating wild apples. 



Mr. Misra 
Mr. Ghosh 



Astycus lateralis, Fb. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure, I. pp. 139-140 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 42, 61, 103, 149. 

Marshall records this as widely distributed in India, Burma, Siam 
and Malay Peninsula, and in Ind. Mus. Notes, IV, 184 (1899) it was 
reported as attackmg tea plants in Assam and defoliating mulberry 
bushes at Rangoon. 

Our specimens show the following localities and records : — 

Pusa, on cluster bean, jute, mama, sugarcane, hhindi, juar, and 
Erythrina indica leaves. It occurs mostly during the Rains 
and is sporadically abundant on cotton ; 

Cawnpur, on cotton ; 

Dehra Dun ; 

Chapra ; 

Tatkon, on sugarcane ; 

Lashio ; 

Maymyo ; . 

Insein ; 

Myitkyina, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves ; 

Nagpur, does a little damage to cotton and tur ; 

Khasis ; 

Travancore, on Amarantliui ; 

Mercara ; 

Multan ; 

Belgachia ; 

Narayanganj ; 

Cuttack. ~ 

Sporadically it occurs in large numbers on cotton, particularly in 
the rains. 

It is quite common on sann-hemp also. 



mOCEEDIAGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 189 

Tylopholis haUardi, Mshll. 

r. I. Cure. I. 157-158, f. 50 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 50. 
This species was found in the Bellary District, at Yemmiganur, Mr. Fletcher, 
-attacking stems of Bengal gram, I have no further information about 
It. 

Sipnpiezomias j rater , Mshll. 

F. I. Cure. I. 164 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 29. 

Recorded by Marshall from the Nilgiris, Balur, Yereaud, and Coorg. 
At Yereaud, in April-May 1913, it occurred on coffee in some numbers, 
but is probably only a very minor pest ; it was also taken by C. W. 
Mason on coffee in the Shevaroys, in August 1907. We also have speci- 
mens from Sidapur (May 1914) and Pollibetta (September 1903). 

Sympiezomias cretaceus, Fst. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure. I. 167 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 29, 255. 

This species has been found on mulberry at Bangalore on 26th August 
1913, and on coffee at Hillgrove (Nilgiris) on 3rd September 1908. We 
also have it from Bailur Forests, Coimbatore District, on 23rd Novem- 
ber 1913, and from the Nilgiris. It is doubtful how far it is a pest. 

Sf/mpiezomias decipiens, Mshll. 

F. I. Cure. I. 167 ; Proc. Second Ent. Meeting, p. 37. ^ 

This species was reported in May 1913 as injuring young Java Ledger 
Cinchona in the Kukal Orange Valley, Nilgiris, by eating the leaves. 
The leaves sent were seriously injured. It is recorded by Marshall as 
occurring in the Nilgiris (1,000-6,000 feet) and in Pirmaad, Travancore. 

Episomus lacerta, Fb. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure, I. 223-225, f. 66^- ; S. I. I. pp. 327-328, f. 
184 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 42, 56, 77, 121, 187. 

This is a South Indian species, which we have from Surat, Cuttack, 
Samalkota, Bellary, South Arcot, Coimbatore, Pollibetta and Mercara. 
At Surat it was found on bajra, at Samalkota on tur, and in Bellary, 
S. Arcot and Coimbatore on pulses. At Coimbatore it has been found 
eating field bean leaves in numbers. Throughout Coorg it is common 
on Erytlirina, eating the leaves. 

It is recorded by Lefroy {hid. Ins. Life, p. 384) as eating cotton 
,bark, but this is perhaps an error of determination. 



190 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ramakrisbna 
Ayyaf. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



It is very common in Southern India, especially on leguminous, 
crops, 

Emperorrhinus defoliator, Mshll. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure., I. 286-287 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 240, 245, 247, 248, 250. 

This species occurs in Kulu, Kurseong, Darjiling and the Khasi 
Hills. At Kulu it appears first on Alnus nitida, and then attacks peach, 
then apricot and pear, apple being touched last. It is a serious local 
pest of fruit-trees in Kulu. 



Mr. Ramakrishaa 
Ayyar. 



Myllocerus viridanus, Fb. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure, I. 301-303, f. 93 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 81, 88, 92, 123, 134, 231. 

This small greyish or pale-greenish weevil seems to be confined to 
South India and Ceylon. We have it from Madura, on castor ; Tanjore ; 
Manaparai ; Palur, on guava leaves and in numbers on groundnut \ 
Coimbatore, on castor ; Chepauk, on groundnut ; Shoranur (Malabar), 
on hhindi ; Kumbakonam, on jute ; NelUkuppam, on indigo ; and Tri- 
chinopoly, on groundnut in numbers in August 1908. 

It is sometimes a bad pest of groundnut in Southern India, 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Myllocerus setuSfer, Desb, 

Ind, Mus, Notes, IV, p. 111, t, 8, f, 2 (1899) ; Mshll., F, I. 
Cure, I. 312-313, 

This species has been recorded from Dehra Dun where the adults 
v/ere found damaging rose flowers in the Forest School Garden. The 
Pusa Collection contains no specimens. 



Myllocerus dorsatus, Fb. 
Mshll., F, I. Cure, I, 320-321 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 65, 92. 

We have this from the following localities and foodplants : — Kum- 
bakonam (Madras), sword-bean leaves ; Trichinopoly, on Margosa [Melia 
azadirachta] leaves ; Tranquebar ; Yillupuram (Madras), on groundnut ; 
and Manaparai. Marshall also records it from the Nilgiris, Pondicherry, 
Bangalore, Belgaum, Nagpur, Calcutta and Pusa. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 191 

Myllocerus blandus, Fst. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure, I. 333-334, f. 101 ; Proc. Second Entl 
Meeting, pp. 69, 9G, 123, 141, 168, 180, 190, 195, 256, 287. 

Marshall gives the distribution of this species as Godavari District, 
Pusa, Dacca, Siripur, Sarda, Prome, Mandalay and Yenangyaung. 
The Pusa Collection contains specimens from : — • 
Pusa, on bhiruli, sunflower, rice, cane, carrot, strawberry plant, 
sissu, sann-hemp, maize, wheat leaves, Tamarix, cucumber leaves, 
eating guava and pumpkin leaves, pupa underground in indigo field ; 
Sirsiah (N. Bihar) ; Lyallpur, on brinjal ; and Fyzabad, damaging 
poppy seedUngs. 

Myllocerus sabidosus, Mshll. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure. I. 336-337 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 102, 219, 231, 254, 292. 

Marshall records this from Chota Nagpur, Purneah, Ranchi, Dehra 
Dun and Madras. The only specimens that we have are from Pusa, 
where it has been found in some numbers on Zizijylms jujuha, on cotton 
and sweet-potato and devouring young mango leaves. 

Myllocenis transmarinus, Hbst. 

Mshll, F. I. Cure. I. 337-338, f. 102 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 102, 254. 

Marshall records this from the Punjab, United Provinces, Calcutta, 
Chota Nagpur, Central Provinces, and along the Western Ghats to 
Bellary. 

We have it from Chapra and Pusa. At Pusa it occurs mostly on 
Zizyphus jiijuba and has also been found on cotton and eating young 
leaves of Dalbergia sissu. It is not a pest as a rule. 

Myllocerus subfasciatus, Guer. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure. I. 345-346 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 285, 287. 

This species occurs in Madras, S. Bombay, Central Provinces, Burma 
and Ceylon. We have it from the Nilgiris, Ootacamund, Saidapet 
(Madras), Coimbatore and Virajpet (S. Coorg). At Saidapet and Coim- 
batore it has been found eating brinjal leaves and at Ootacamund on 
potato leaves, and it is sometimes a bad pest of these crops. 

In Ceylon it does some damage to brinjal, attacking the flowers and Mr. Senior- White, 
buds. 

VOL, I o 



192 rROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Myllocerus dentifer, F. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure. I. 347-348; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 

pp. 92, 168, 201. 

Mr. Fletcher. This species occurs in Ceylon (low country), throughout Madras 

and Orissa to Palamau and Chota Nagpur. We have it from Colombo ; 

Palamau ; Shoranur (Malabar), on paddy ; and Palur (S. Arcot) on 

groundnut and tenai. 

It is probably quite a minor pest, often found intermixed with other 
species of Myllocerus. 

Myllocerus discolor. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure. I. 348-350, f. 106 ; Proc. Second Entl. 

Meeting, pp. 92, 102, 126, 134, 141, 146, 168, 192, 195, 216, 

219, 231, 250, 254. 

M. discolor has been reared at Pusa from larvae found at roots of 

sugarcane and maize. It is a widely-distributed species, which we 

have from the following localities and foodplants : — Simla ; Patiala ; 

Pusa, adults on Eribotrtja japonica (loquat), lucerne, guava, sugarcane, 

wheat, ber {Zizyphns jujuba), young mango leaves, jute, rice, bael, and 

cotton ; Kanti (Bengal), on cotton ; Jamalpur (Bengal), on grass and 

her ; Comilla ; Cuttack ; E. Bengal and Assam ; Bangalore ; Coimbatore, 

adults on wheat and Hibiscus cannabinus, larva at roots of tenai {Setaria 

italica) ; and Palur, on groundnut. 

It is a common species, often occurring in sufficient numbers to 
constitute it at least a minor pest. 
Mr. Misra. It is found on every crop but is not serious to any as a rule. In one 

year, however, it was a pest. 

Myllocerus 11 — pustulatus, Fst. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure. I. 350-352. [Includes vars. pistor, maculosus 

and marmoratus] ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 42, 72, 

96, 102 (tab), 121, 123, 126, 141, 180, 187, 190, 192, 200, 

202, 219, 231, 232, 248, 254, 256. 

This Myllocerus is a common and widely-distributed species and a 

general feeder on almost all plants. It has been reared at Pusa from 

larvae found at roots of cotton and maize. The Pusa Collection contains 

the following records of adults : — Multan ; Amritsar, on cotton ; Lyall- 

pur, on cotton ; Lahore, on cotton and bajra ; Dehra Dun ; Cawnpur, 

on cotton ; Baktiarpur, on tender mango leaves ; Pusa, on cotton, 

maize, sunflower, her, tur, bhindi, mango, sugarcane, pomegranate, 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 193 

guava, strawberry, Panicum frumentacemn, tnarua, and amhadi ; 
Dacca ; Kanti (Bengal), on cotton ; Manjri (Bombay), on cotton ; Surat, 
on maize ; Poona, on ambadi, bhindi, cotton, maize and millets ; Banga- 
lore, on apple shoots and branches ; and Coimbatore, on cholam. Es- 
pecially a pest of cotton, but often of other plants also. 

Has any one any remarks to offer on the control of these species of Mr. Fletcher. 
Myllocerus generally i 

We tried dusting the attacked plants with lead arsenate and a number Mr. Ramakrishna 
of beetles were killed ; but this is a measure which we should not Ayyar. 
advise on any large scale to the raiyats. 

Sitones crinitus, Ohv. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 81, 207, 208. 

This species has been found in Champaran and at Dalsing Serai 
(N. Bihar) on indigo and at Pusa on lucerne in some numbers and also 
-on senji, cabbage, wheat-ear, jute and ber. It is not a pest as a rule. 

It can be controlled by shaking it off with brushes made of twigs, j^jj. nnsia. 

Peliotrachelus piibes, Fst. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 211. 

We have this from Gorakhpur, Pusa, Cuttack, the Nilgiris and the 
Shevaroys. In the Shevaroy Hills it occurred on orange and is a minor 
pest. At Pusa it has been found on Zizyphus jujuba in small numbers, 
whilst the specimens from Cuttack were found in Termites' nests [!]. 

Platymycterus sjostedti, Mshll. 

We have this from Dehra Dun, Chapra, Pusa and Daltonganj. At 
Pusa it has been found on grass, Dalbergia sissu, tender mango leaves, 
sann hemp and jute, and at Daltonganj on ber. It usually occurs in 
small numbers and has not yet been noted as a pest. 

Phytoscaphus triangularis, 01. 

We have this from Pusa, on bamboo, pear, cotton leaf, sann hemp, 
ber, rice, cane leaves, indigo, jute, sweet potato, dhainchd, tur, and maize ; 
from Cawnpur, on groundnut ; Pratapganj (Bengal) ; and from Dalton- 
ganj. 

It occurs as a rule in small numbers and has not been noted as a pest. 

o2 



194 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Phytoscafhus dissimilis, Mshll. 

Bull. Ent. Res. V. iv fig. ; Entl. Note 26 ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 21. 
This species has been found in Assam, nibbUng young tea-shoots. 

Amblynhinus foricollis, Boh. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 219. 
This has been found at Pusa, on tender mango leaves, hael, Albizzia 
lehheh, sissu leaves, litchi, and mango inflorescence ; at Cuttack, on ber ; 
at Pithapuram (Godavari), on country almond leaves (Terminalm) ; 
and at Hagari, on agatJiL 

Hyper a medicaginis, Mshl. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 207 (tab.), 208. 
This has been reared at Pusa from larvse on lucerne, pea, senji (Meli- 
lotus alba), Lathyms hirsuta, and a weed locally called akta. It is a 
sporadic minor pest of these plants when cultivated. 
Mr. Misra. The pupse are prominent on the leaves and may be picked ofi. 

Spraying is out of the question. 



M.r. Fletcher. 



Hypera variabilis, Hbst. 

We have this from Tarnab and Charsada in the North- West Frontier 
Province ; Lyallpur, on lucerne leaves ; Jallandhar ; Lahore, on senji ; 
and from Pusa, larvae on lucerne. It is a sporadic minor pest of trefoils. 

Xanthotrachelus f annus, Oliv. 

Entl. Note 27 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 96, 253. 
We have this from Chapra, Pusa, Khandala, Cuttack and Maymyo. 
At Pusa the adults occur commonly on ber and have been found attacking 
sun-flower heads, whilst a few have also been taken on rice and grass. 

Xantliotrachelus perlahis, Fb. 

Entl. Note 27 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 96. 
We have this from Masuri, Dehra Dun, Lahore, Muzaffarpur, Pusa 
and Daltonganj. At Pusa the adults were found attacking newly-formed 
sun-flower heads and a few have also been taken on castor and cotton. 
At Daltonganj this weevil was found on Bntea frondosa. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 195 

Xanthotrachelus swperciliosus, Gyll. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 96. 

We have this from Belgaum, Chapra, Pusa and Tharrawaddy. At 
Pusa it has been found on her and a few adults were also found attacking 
sunflower heads in company with the two preceding species. 

Atadogasier finUimus, Fst. 

S. I. I., p. 333, f. 191 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 98, 102. 

We have this from Nathampatti (Ramnad) and Koilpatti, where the 
adults were found devouring young cotton plants. In Ind. Museum 
Notes (Vol. IV, pt. Ill, p. 112 (1899)) this species is also recorded as 
damaging young cotton and gram shoots at Tinnevelly. 

During the last two or three years we have found it in small numbers. Mr. Ramakrishna 

Have you found it at Coimbatore ? ^^.^ Fletcher. 

It is found, but not as a pest. ^r^ Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 

Lixus brachyrrhinus, Boh. -a 

S. I. I., pp. 331-332, f. 189 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 296 (tab.). 

Lixus brachjrrhitots is a widely distributed species, contained in the Mr. Fletcher. 
Pusa Collection from : — Lahore, on Amaranihus ; Cawnpur, on Niger 
seed ; Nagpur ; Balaghat (Central Provinces) ; Igatpuii ; Surat ; Poena ; 
Bangalore ; Coimbatore, on Amaranihus ; Erode, on Amaranthus : Trichi- 
nopoly ; Manaparai ; Chingleput, on Amaranthus ; Cuttack ; Chapra ; 
Pusa, on indigo, larva on Amaranthus ; Daltonganj, on ber leaves; ■ 
Mandalay, on Amaranthus and ber ; Meiktila (Upper Burma) ; and 
Minbu (Lower Burma). 

It is a specific pest of Amaranthus, the larva boring in the stem and 
causing a gall-like swelhng, but the attack usually takes place at a 
time when the plant is past the period for consumption. 

Paramecops farinosus, Wied. 

S. 1. 1., pp. 332-333, f. 190 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 136, 137. 

We have this from Taru (North- West Frontier Province), on Calo- 
tropis ; Lyallpur, on Cahtropis ; Lahore ; Igatpuri ; Bor Ghat ; 
Coimbatore, on Cahtropis ; and Pusa, on Cahtropis. 

It is a specific pest of Cahtropis, although adults have been taken 
on rice at Pusa on two occasions. 



196 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Ayoderus (ranqvebaricus, F. 

S. 1. 1., pp. 335-336, f. 193 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 219, 246. 

We have this from Saidapet, Chepauk, Chittur, and South Arcot. 
It occurs on country almond {Tertninalia catap'pa) and less commonly 
on mango, twisting the leaves, but it is scarcely a pest. 



Mr. Ghosh. 

Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Misra. 
Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. Misra. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Cylos formicarivs, Fb. 

S. Ind. Ins. pp. 334-335, t. 12 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 293. 

This weevil occurs abundantly in all districts south of the United 
Provinces and is a very serious pest of sweet potato. We discussed this 
fairly fully at the last Meeting and I do not think there is much to add. 
The best preventive method that we can recommend at present is early 
harvesting. 

At Pusa it only damages the July crop and not the winter crop. The 
only possible remedy is the use of early harvesting varieties. 

In the winter there are no beetles about at Pusa and so there is no 
damage. 

Deep-rooting varieties are not so badly attacked. 

But later on the beetles get down even into deep-rooting varieties. 

Is it recorded that the beetles are attracted to light ? 

They come in to light commonly but not in large enough numbers 
to use that as a means of control. 

Has anyone reared any parasites from this species ? If anyone comes 
across any effective parasite, we should like to know about it. 



Mr. Ramrao. 

Mr. Ghosh. 
Mr. Fletcher, 
Mr. Ramrao. 



Balaninvs c-albnm, Fb. 

Ann. Kept. Imp). Entom. 1917-18, p. 102, t. 18, f. 1 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 247. 

We have this from Pusa and Eastern Bengal and Assam (probably 
Dacca). It also occurs at Poona. The life-history, damage, and control 
were treated of in my last Annual Report and we have no more to add 
to that. 

It was reared in Poona from seeds of Eugenia jamholana. In our 
district most of the fruits are attacked. Is there any remedy ? 

The collection and destruction of the seeds is the only measure that 
is possible. 

Has the life-history been worked out in Bombay and, if so, is it the 
same as at Pusa ? 

It is the same as at Pusa. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 197 

[Balaninus sp. 

In 1917 a large number of jamiin fruits which had a pitted or distorted Mr. Khare. 
appearance were examined. It was thought first of all that each of the 
pits might have been a passage through which the egg was deposited. 
The pulp of the fruit was carefully examined, but no trace of any insect 
could be got. When the entire pulp was scraped off some brownish scars 
were noticed on the skin which was peeled off and the scars were noticed 
deep in the seed. On cutting open the seed, a whitish grub was found 
either in the centre of the seed or in the deep scars. Usually one grub 
is found in each seed, but sometimes more than one may be got. The 
pits on the fruits must have been made by the adult bv thrusting their 
proboscis to feed on, which ultimately never heal up. The grubs remain 
inside, eat up, make the seed hollow and fill up with excreta, etc. These 
do not come out of themselves by biting a way through, but wait till 
the fruits drop on the ground. The fruits drop in large numbers on the 
ground and rot. The upper skin and pulp are all removed and the seeds 
are exposed. The seeds of Jmmm fruits germinate very quickly and in 
such process the two cotyledons spHt up and liberate the encased grub. 
The grubs later on get into the moist soil, prepare several small earthen 
chambers, many of which are found lumped up together. If these 
chambers are periodically opened, one sees the grub lying inside. This 
shows that aestivation of the grub takes place in the soil, till the following 
April or May when they pupate and emerge as weevils, but in some cases 
weevils emerged in August, i.e., within three months. This weevil is 
of the same shape and size as the one described in the report of the Imperial 
Entomologist of 1917-18, p. 102, but in colour it is uniformly brown and 
does not possess the whitish lines on the elytra. Mr. Naoroji kindly 
identified the specimens and put them under the genus Balaninus.'] 



Eugnamftus marginatus, Pasc. 

S. I. I., pp. 329-331, ff. 18G-187 ; Ann. Kept. 1917-18, p. 99, 
t. 16, f. 1 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 219. 

Our records include the following localities and foodplants : — Dehra Mr. Fletchtr. 
Dun, adults defoliating Butea frondosa ; Poona, mango leaves ; Nagpur, 
young mango leaves ; Pusa, mango leaves, the young leaves being com- 
pletely eaten at times ; Sabour, mango leaves ; Maymyo, tender mango 
leaves. 

The life-history has already been described and figured. 

At Dehra Dun it defoliates Butea frondosa. Mr. Beeson. 

At Dacca it does slight damage by cutting the soft leaves of mango. Mr. P. C. Sen. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. P. C. Sen. 



'^T. Misra. 



198 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Apion sp. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 134. 

This species occurs tkrougliout the jiite-growing districts of Bengal 
and Bihar as a minor pest of jute, sporadically serious. The larva bores 
just at the junction of the leaf-petiole with the stem and cuts through a 
good many of the fibres. The attacked leaf withers and droops and 
this indicates the presence of the grub. No control measures can be 
suggested at present. 

It was found doing considerable damage to jute plants grown in pots 
[at Dacca]. Though it is common in jute fields, it has not been found 
doing much damage. "When it attacks the tops of young plants, it does 
considerable damage, but when it attacks side-shoots of old plants the 
damage is not appreciable. Generally the young affected plants, which 
are not too many, are uprooted at the time of weeding and thinning. 
In the pot-culture house the affected shoots were removed and the grubs 
destroyed. 

Once I found it very bad on jute at Munshiganj. The plants were 
riddled and the fibre unfit for use. It is not known to occur every year. 
No remedy has been tried. 



{Jute Apion.) 
S. I. I., p. 331, f. 188 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 134. 
Mr. Fletcher. This occurs in Godavari and Bellary, in May and June, the larva 

boring stems and shoots of jute. It may be identical with the preceding, 
but we have no specimens in the Pusa collection for comparison. 

Apion sp. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 45. 

This species attacks Cajanus indicus in Burma, but we have no 
further information about it.^ 



Alcides bubo, Fb. 

S. I. I., pp. 337-338, f. 96 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 61,73, 75, 81. 

We have this from Bhor Ghat, " on grass (Dixon)"; Chapra ; Cuttack, 
dhaincha stem ; Pollibetta (South Coorg) ; Podanur, on agathi ; Madura ; 
Saidapet, agathi stem ; Palur, on indigo ; Villapuram and South Kanara, 
on cluster-bean. It is especially a pest of species of Sesbania, the larva 
boring in the stem and causing a gall-like swelling. Cutting off the 
bored stems, when these are in the top-shoots, seems the only practicable 
remedy. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 199 

Alcides coUaris, Pasc. 

S. I. I., p. 337, f. 195 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 46, 52, 56. 

We have this from Sarai Saleh (Hazara district), Chapra, Pusa, 
Dharwar, and Hadagalli (Bellary District). At Dharwar it was reared 
from a pupa found in roots of Cajanus indicus and at Hadagalli adults 
were found on green-gram. It is apparently a minor pest of pulses. 

Green-gram and lablab are attacked in Madras. A swelling in the Mr. Ramachandra 
stem is produced and the stem breaks down. It is only a minor pest. ^^°- 

Alcides fabricii, Fb. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 57,121. 

We have this from Abbottabad ; Dehra Dun ; Bulsara (Bombay) ; Mr. Fletcher. 
Nagpur, on cotton ; Eauchi ; Bankura ; Coimbatore, on maize ; 
Hadagalli, on horse-gram ; Hagari, on paddy ; Calicut ; and 
Saiclapet. 

It is doubtful whether it is a pest. 

Alcides leojjardus, Ohv. -j 

S. I. I., p. 338-399, f. 127 [? affaber] ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 121, 125, 126. 

We have this from Pusa, Muzaffarpur and South Malabar. At 
Pusa the adults have been found on cotton, Cajanus indicus, sann hemp, 
and on sun-flower heads, the larva has been found boring in shoots and 
stems of cotton, and the pupa has been found in a bored stem of Cyno- 
glossiim lanceolatmn. In South Malabar the larva was found in a wild 
malvaceous plant. It is apparently a sporadic minor pest of cotton. 

I found it breeding in malvaceous plants in South Malabar. mj.^ Ramakrishna 

A vvfli* 

. Any cotton near by I ^^ Fletcher. 

^^- Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 
At Pusa we get it on cotton but it is not bad. We found parasites jyir. Misra. 

which were sent to Dr. Howard for examination. 

Alcides affaher. Est. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 121, 126. 

This species occurs at Coimbatore in December-January, the larva Mr. Fletcher, 
boring into the stems of cotton, bhindi, and gogii. It is distinctly a pest. 

The account given of Alcides leopardus in South Indian Insects prob- 
ably refers wholly or in part to this insect. 



200 



PKOCEEDINGS OF THE TIIIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Ramachandra 
Rao. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. P. C. Sen. 



Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. P. C. Sen. 
Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. P. C. Sen. 

Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. P. C. Sen. 
Mr. Ghosh. 

Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. P. C. Sen. 
Mr. Ghosh. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



It damages cotton in the same way as A. leopardus. It is distinctly 
a pest of Hibiscus cannabinus but not a serious pest of cotton. 
At Palur and Saidapet tree-cottons were attacked. 

Alcides frenatus, Fst. 

Entl. Note, 28 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 221 ; Ann. 
Report, Impl. Entm. 1917-18, p. 103, t. 19, f. la-g (1918). 

This species occurs at Dacca in July as a decided pest of mango, 
the larva boring the top-shoots. Eggs are deposited in the shoots which 
are tunnelled by the larva, whose pellets of excrement are thrown out 
through small holes gnawed at the base of the tunnel. Pupation takes 
place inside the larval burrow, the adult weevil gnawing its way out 
through a large hole of exit. The adult weevils are found freely pairing 
and ovipositing on the shoots. 

It is a regular pest of grafted mangoes in the Botanical Garden at 
Dacca. It occurs every year and does much damage. The eggs and 
grubs are very commonly to be seen in the affected shoots. 

Can you give us some idea of the percentage of damage ? 

As many as seventy-five per cent, of new shoots are damaged. 
. Have you tried picking off the affected shoots ? 

We have tried picking the affected shoots with the eggs and grubs 
in them and also the beetles which are seen on the shoots. 

Were any effects noticeable the next year ? 

Next year it was not so bad. 

It is possible to pick off the affected shoots, but the influence of picking 
on future years is not definitely known. 

Do you know its life-history throughout the year ? 

I have not studied it. 

The seasonal life-history is not known. At Pusa we had pupae in 
September. The beetles are only seen in July. 

Probably it hibernates as an adult until the new shoots come out.* 



Alcides mali, Mshll. MS.* 

This species has been found at Shillong, the larva boring shoots of 
apple, causing a gall-like swelling. The adult weevil makes several, 
usually four, holes with its snout in a row in a tender shoot of apple and 
in one of these holes, and only in one, it deposits an egg. The larvae 
tunnel in the stem, which becomes swollen in consequence. Pupation 
takes place in the larval tunnel. The life-history is sho^vn on the coloured 
plate [exhibited]. Control is practised by collecting the adult beetles as 



Since described in Bull. Entom Res. IX, pp. 276-277, t. 17 f. 3 (July 1919). 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 201 

they rest on the twigs and by cutting off the twigs which show the punc- 
tures or the swelling caused by the enclosed larva. 

Mefiahna balsamince. Mots. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 268. 

We have this from Pusa, Matheran and Poona, The larvae bore in 
the stem of garden Balsams which show a characteristic gall-like swelling 
and ultimately droop. Choice imported varieties seem more subject 
to attack. Specimens which may belong to this species have also been 
reared at Pusa from larvae in stems of Amsomeles ovata, but the identity 
of the weevil is not certain, 31. halsamince is scarcely a pest as a rule, 
except of choice varieties of Balsams. 

On the Bombay side the balsam plants are attacked and at the place Mr. Ramrao. 
where the grubs are situated the growth is stunted and the stem becomes 
weak ; the slightest wind then breaks off the plants. 

Do you get many complaints about it around Poona ? Mr. Fletcher. 

Yes, we get many complaints. Mr. Ramrao. 

Have you anything to say about it, Mr. Ghosh ? Mr. Fletcher. 

At Pusa we get it, but the effect of attack takes place late in the Mr. Ghosh, 
season. 

In 1917, I got some seed of especially good varieties of balsam from ^^' ^^®*^^®'^' 
Poona and, when the plants came up, they attracted more weevils than 
the local varieties and were very badly attacked. 

White-stemmed balsams are more attractive than red-stemmed, ^^' R3,mrao. 
probably because the white-stemmed varieties are softer. 

Does it attack wild balsams ? Mr. Robertson- 

Brown. 

We do not know of its occurrence in any but cultivated balsams. Mr, Fletcher. 
I may say that swellings on the plants do not always contain a grub. Mr. Ghosh. 

Pachytychius mungonis, Mshll. 
S. Ind. Ins. p. 336, f. 194 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 52, 60, 73. 

This species is at present only known from Southern India where it ^^- Fletcher. 
. has been found to attack pods of mung (green-gram), cowpea, and 
dhaincha. 

Ceuthorrhynchus asperulus, Fst. 

S. Ind. Ins. pp. 328-329, f. 185 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 43. 

This small weevil has been found in flowers of Cajanus indicus, in 
both larval and adult states, at Nagpur, in Gujarat, at Poona, Coimbatore, 
and in the Godavari district. I do not think there is more to add to 
what has already been said about it. 



202 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ramrao. I found it in Poona doing damage to the tur flowers which drop down 

with the grubs in them. The beetle wanders in unopened flowers, punc- 
tures them and lays eggs inside. The grubs eat the pollen and stigma, 
and, before the ovary develops, the flower falls ofi. 

Mr. Fletcher. What is the proportion of damage done ? 

Mr. Ramrao. A very large number of flowers is destroyed. It is not possible to 

state the exact amount of damage done. A very large number of weevils 
is found if the plant is shaken ; they drop to the ground and afterwards 
climb up again. 

Mr. Fletcher. We have not found this weevil at Pusa hitherto. 

Mr. Jhaveri. It is also found i-n Gujarat and was a very serious pest last year. 

Mr. Fletcher. Are any control measures practised ? 

Mr. Ramrao. The only method to apply is the collection of the beetles ; but it is 

difficult to check them under field conditions. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Wiynchcenus mangijeroe, Mshll. 

S. Ind. Lis., p. 334, f. 192 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 220. 

This species occurs as far north as Pusa, where it is not common, but 
in Southern India it is sometimes a bad pest of mango, whose tender 
leaves are damaged by the mining of the larvae. It has been noted at 
Pusa, Peddavadlapudi (Guntur), Coimbatore, and in Mysore, and is 
probably widely distributed, although overlooked on account of its 
small size. 

WiynchcBnus mangifercB is bad in Mysore and we have not done any- 
thing for it. 

We bred it here. We do not find it every year and, when it does 
occur, it is found only in small numbers. 

Probably Pusa is at the extreme northern hmit of its distribution 
and the conditions here do not suit it very well, and so it does not 
do much damage. 
Mr. Kunhi Kannan. The adults feed gregariously on the leaves in Mysore, and the leaves 

assume an appearance like tissue-paper. 
Mr. Fletcher. If you get them in numbers together like that, you might be able to 

control them. 



Mr. KuQbi Kannan. 



Mr. Ghosh. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Pemplieres qffinis, Est. 

S. Ind. Ins., p. 339, ff. 198, 199 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 
120, 125, 126, 274. 

This species has been reared at Pusa from larvae in stems of cotton, 
bhindi, Cannabis [? Hibiscus cannabinus] and Triumjetla sp. It is also 
common in cotton and gogu at Coimbatore and has been recorded from 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 203 

Cuddapah. The distribution seems curious, as it is difficult to see how 
a pest of this kind could have been overlooked in the areas from which 
it is not known. The larva bores in the stem and produces a gall-like 
swelling at or usually just above ground-level ; the plant is weakened 
and, especially in the case of Cambodia cotton, may be broken off bv the 
wind. Rigid elimination of all attacked plants seems to be the only 
practicable means of control. 

Pempheres qffinis is not found in Bombay. Mr. Ramrao. 

There is no record of it in the Central Provinces. Mr. Khare. 

In Madras we find that its distribution is extending. It is the Cam- Mr. Ramakrishna 
bodia cotton which is generally attacked and, as the cultivation of this Ayy3,r. 
cotton is spreading, the insect is also getting into new localities. 

Is it already present in these districts or is it going with the Cambodia Mr. Fletcher, 
cotton ? 

It is already present and probably breeding on some wild plant, Mr. Ramakrishna 
as it is found where there is no cotton. • Ayyar. 

At Pusa it has been found on a species of Trivmfetta. Mr. Ghosh. 

We have worked out the life-history and we are trying to get it pub- Mr. Ramakrishna 
lished in Madras. Ayyar. 

What is the effect of the destruction of affected plants ? ' Mr. Fletcher. 

Some good would result only if all the people do it. Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 
But has the complete removal of all the attacked plants had any Mr. Fletcher. 

effect on the Farm at Coimbatore ? 

No appreciable difference has been noticed ; but, if all do it, it might air. Ramakrish* a 
have some effect. - Ayyar. 

I understood that the regular removal of affected plants on the Mr. Fletcher. 
Coimbatore Farm had had some effect on lessening the incidence of 
attack over a term of years. But whether this was due to any lessening ' 
of the numbers of beetles present or to the gradual evolution of a more 
resistant variety of plant, by continual selection from the non-attacked 
ones, is another Cjuestion. It seems to me that a possible solution of 
the difficulty with regard to Cambodia cotton may be attained by getting 
a resistant race. 

The worst of it is that this Cambodia cotton is kept on in the fields Mr. Ramakrishna 
for two or three years, so it is difficult to get rid of this beetle. That is ^^y^^^- 
because the insect breeds throughout the year and the cotton is there 
for it to breed in. If there were an arrangement to uproot all cotton 
plants before a certain date, it might prove useful. 

Is any variety of cotton more affected ? Tree cotton was tried at Mr. Misra. 
Pusa but was not immune. 

That was before my time. What height was the tree cotton when it Mr. Fletcher. 
was attacked ? 



204 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Misra. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Four or five feet. The majority of the plants all fell down. In our 
experiments it was very bad, so much so that in one plot not a single 
plant was left. 

Adees cribratus, Gyl. 

This was found at Shillong in June-July 1918, the larva boring into 
the main stem of Ficus carica, doing considerable damage. 

The adult beetles occurred on the stems by day, and could be collected 
by hand, although they readily drop to the ground when disturbed. 

Specimens were sent to Dr. Marshall who informs me that it is a 
variety of Adees cribratus, Gyl. 



Cryptorrhyndius mangifercB, Fb. 

S. I. I., p. 341, f. 200 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 225. 

This species seems to be confined to Southern India so far as its actual 

, breeding-area is concerned. We have records from Trivandrum, Travan- 

core, Naduvatam (Nilgiris), Coimbatore, Palur (South Arcot), Lahore 

and Rangoon. The Lahore specimen is definitely noted as " in imported 

mango." 

In some years ninety per cent, of the mango-stones may contain this 
insect in some stage, but the adults usually emerge after the fruit is ripe 
and so do comparatively little damage. 
Mr. Kunhi Kannan. At Bangalore I had adult weevils which remained alive in the stones 
until the following July and they never left the stones. 



Cryptorrhyndius gravis, Fb. 

Ann. Rept., 1917-18, pp. 100-101 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 225. 

Mr. Fletcher. This species seems to be confined to Bengal, Assam and Burma. 

We have specimens from Pusa (on Bombax stem), Dacca, Rangpur, Silchar, 
and Maymyo. The Pusa record is of a single adult individual which 
almost certainly came from a mango fruit imported from Bengal, as it 
is not known to occur naturally in the Pusa district. 

Unlike C. mangijercB, the larva of C. gravis bores in the pulp of the 
mango fruit so that the fruit is badly damaged and in some districts 
the damage done may be very serious, a large proportion of the crop 
being destroyed. We have prepared a coloured plate [exhibited] showing 
the life-history of this insect but, as it does not occur at Pusa, we have 
not been able to follow the life-cycle throughout the whole year. It is 
probable that the insect hibernates as an adult in Bengal, but this requires 
local investigation. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 205 

Can you tell us something more about it, Mr. Sen ? 

Cryptorrhynchus gravis does great damage to mango fruits in Bengal, jjj^ p^ q^ gg^^ 
The grub bores into the fruit and makes it useless, eating its way through 
the pulp. In some trees all the fruits are attacked. It is a regular 
pest attacking the same tree every year. The early maturing varieties 
of mango are more attacked than the late ones. 

Life-history. — Early in April the female weevil lays small white eggs 
(about 0"5 mm. long) on the surface of the fruit when it has attained 
nearly half its size. The egg is covered by a coating of black hard sub- 
stance giving the appearance of a black spot which is about 1 mm. long. 
From the egg hatches out a tiny white legless grub in a week or so which 
bores into the fruit and feeds within. The black coating then falls off and 
the wound also heals up to such an extent as not to be easily detected. 
The grub has 11 body segments. It continues to feed within till it 
is fijllgrown in about a month. It then pupates inside and subsequently 
the weevil emerges by cutting its way out of the fruit. The life-history 
occupies about a month and a half. It has only one brood in the year. 
Immediately after the mango season and during the rains it has been 
found to hibernate in the bark of the affected tree either in its natural 
cracks or amongst the roots of epiphytes growing on them. 

It is a very bad pest in Eastern Bengal and Assam," but does not Mr. Ghosh, 
occur in Western Bengal although fruits from Eastern Bengal are carried 
all over the country. I brought some infected fruits to Pusa and found 
that the grubs did not live here after September. 

It is peculiar that, although these fruits are exported in such quantities, Mr. Fletcher, 
this weevil does not spread into adjacent mango-growing areas. 

It is believed in Sylhet that the same trees are attacked year after Mr. Ghosh, 
year and that neighbouring trees are not affected. But that is not a 
fact, for all trees are attacked indiscrimmately. I found wild mango 
trees growing isolated in the jungle and these trees bore very small fruits, 
but even in these the weevils were present. This is an insect which 
requires working out. 

It is a bad pest throughout Assam. Mr. Gupta. 



Cryptorrhynchus poricollis, Fst. 

Entl. Note 28 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 225. 

Specimens of this weevil were found under bark at Dacca on 27th Mr. Fletcher. 
July 1911 by Mr. Nowroji who was sent to investigate the damage done 
by C. gravis. It has also been found underground in the adult state by 
Mr. Sen at Dacca. It is not definitely known that this species attacks 
mango. 



206 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. P. C. Sen. 

Mr. Nowroji. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. luglis. 



I have found them in numbers underground around the trunks of 
mango trees but have never found them breeding. 
I found it at Dacca under the bark of a mango tree. 

Pachyonyx quadridens, Chevr. 
At our First Meeting, in February 1915, this species was reported 
as found on Butea frondosa in the Northern Circle of the Central Provinces 
and was said to kill the trees. We have adults from Khandesh and from 
Banga (Punjab) ; these latter were taken on Butea frondosa on 19th 
September 1905. We have no further information about it, but it would 
appear that this weevil is a pest of Butea which, I may remind you, is an 
important host-tree of lac in many districts. _ 

Desmdofhorus hebes, Fb. 

Ind. Mus. Notes I 58, II vi 151, III i 23 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 128, 131. 

We have this from Dehra Dun, Pusa, Darbhanga, and Nongpoh 
(Khasi Hills). 

In Indian Museum Notes this species is recorded as attacking young 
Hibiscus plants in the Rajbagh, Darbhanga, eating the youiig stems and 
in some cases causing the young plants to die. On 9th July 1906 the 
Superintendent of the Rajbagh sent us further specimens and wrote : — 
" they have been damaging plants a,nd are particularly fond of eating 
the new tops and chewing the lower parts of almost all the shoots. I get 
them caught by hundreds every morning and evening." 

This species was also sent in to us, the adult beetles damaging Bomhax 
seedUngs, defoliating those of one to two years old ; these beetles appeared 
in the third week of April 1904 in the Tista Forest Division. 

It has not been noted as a pest at Pusa. 

I have only seen this in one year when this weevil appeared in millions 
in one local area and attacked the garden Hibiscus and did much damage. 



Acythopeus citrulli, Blshll. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 306. 

Mr. Fletcher. This species was reported from Hagari (Bellary) as a bad pest of 

water-melons in April 1908, the grubs boring into the side in contact 
with the ground ; the larva tunnels in the fruit, filUng its passage with 
excrement, and causes decomposition. It apparently occurs regularly 
in Bellary as a pest of water-melon, and is also known from Tinnevelly. 
We have also one specimen from Nagpur labelled " fruit of Kakandu, 
IX, 1915." 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 207 

Cyrtoirachelus dux, Boh. 

Stebbing, Ind. Forest Ins. Col., p. 443 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 204. 

We have this from Nongpoh (Khasi Hills). Stebbing records it from 
Darjiling. The larva bores in bamboo shoots and does some damage 
at times. 

Cyrtotrachelus longii^s, Fb. 

Stebbing. Ind. Forest Ins. Col, pp. 440-443, t. 38 ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 204. 

We have this from Lebong (Darjiling). As in the case of C. dux, 
the larva of C. longipes bores in the growing shoots of bamboos and does 
some damage at times. 



Poly t us mellerborgii. Boh. 

We have this from Pusa where it was reared from rotten plantain 
rhizome and found '' boring plantain root, 9th May 1907." We do not 
know this as a pest in India as yet, but in the Philippines it has been 
found to do damage by boring into plantains and it is probable that it 
is a pest in India also. The adult is a small black weevil, about the 
size of Calandra oryzce, with a strongly punctured thorax and striated • 
elytra , 

Rhyncho'phorus ferrugineus, Fb. 

S. 1. 1., p. 343, t. 14 ; Entl. Mem. 11, pt. 10 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 259, 261, 262. 

This species occurs throughout the palm-growing districts of India, 
and also in Sumatra, the Philippines, etc. In India it attacks coconut, 
date, palmyra, areca and practically all palms. We discussed this fairly 
fully at the last Meeting and I do not think there is much to add. It 
can be controlled by regular destruction of all attacked, dying and 
dead palm-trees. 

I have found Rhyncho'phorus ferrugineus attacking trees which bad Mr. Pillay. 
neither been tapped nor attacked by Orycfes. 

It does serious damage to date palms in Surat. Mr. Jhaveri. 

Do the weevils vary in colour ? Mr. Ramrac. 

Yes, the colour and markings vary considerably. Mr. Fletcher, 

Palms are also attacked in Ceylon. Mr. Senior-White. 

VOL. I P 



208 



rROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Odoiforvs longicollis, 01. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 238 (tab.). 

We have this from Pusa, Munshiganj, Buxar- Duars and Jorhat, 
and the form planipenms, Gyll., from Munshiganj, Buxar Duars, Helem 
(Assam) and Maymyo. The larva bores into the stem of plantain and 
kills the tree. Destruction of the attacked and wilting stems is the only 
practicable measure ; in any case, the plant will be destroyed by the 
beetle grubs, which occur in numbers. The adult beetle is very long- 
hved and may live for one or two years. 



Mr. Ramrao. 



Mr. Senior- White. 



Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 

Ml'. Fletcher. 



Cosmopolites sordidus, Germ. 

S. I. I., pp. 342-343, f. 201 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 238. 

We have this from Mahim (Bombay), Poona, Tellicherry and Mayanad, 
and doubtfully from Baroma (Assam). The larva bores in plantain 
stems, low down and in the roots. It is a decided pest and may be 
introduced in planting setts. It does not occur at Pusa and we have 
nothing new to add to what was said at the last Meeting. 

I have found eggs laid in leaf-sheaths. They are cyhndrical. They 
have not been found before. No wound is made, but the eggs are simply 
pushed under the sheath. 

In Ceylon, when a fruit-bearing stump is cut away, the stool is simply 
riddled by the weevils ; but, when you thin a clump and remove the 
stumps that have not yet borne fruit, you find them quite healthy. 

Has anyone found any parasites of this weevil ? 

No. 

We should like to know of any parasites if anyone should find any, 
especially as we have not this weevil at Pusa. It has been introduced 
with plantain setts into several other parts of the world and has proved 
a bad pest, notably in Fiji, so that other countries are keenly interested 
in knowing about anything that will check it. 



Calandra stigtnaticollis, Gyll. 

Annl. Kept. Impl. Entom. 1917-18, pp. 98-99, t. 15, f. 1. 

We have this from Malvan (Ratnagiri) and Tamarasseri (Malabar), 
where it was found"in both cases boring stems of coconut in the larval 
stage. Specimens were reared at Pusa from a sample of attacked wood 
from Ratnagiri and we found that they were able to breed in sugarcane 
under insectary conditions. 

It is a very bad pest in the Ratnagiri district. 



PBOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETIIsG 209 

What percentage of trees is damaged ? Blr. Fletcher. 

Two trees in every one hundred to five hundred are damaged every Mr. Deshpande. 
year. 

The proportion does not seem very high but it soon mounts up in the Mr. Fletcher. 
course of a few years in the case of a permanent crop hke coconut. 

The larvae tunnel under the bark and the stem bleeds. Mr. Ramachaodia 

Rao. 

Is the attack associated with any fungal disease ? Mr. Fletcher. 

That is not known. It is very widely spread. No remedial measures Mr. Deshpande. 
have been adopted. An attacked tree is bored and riddled from top to 
bottom. 

It also bores into the leaf-petioles at the top of the tree. Mr. Ramrao. 

Only a few trees were found attacked in a coconut garden on the Mr. Ramachandra 
Malabar coast, and these trees were scattered about. Rao. 

Did you get any idea as to why particular trees were attacked ? Mr. Fletcher. 

Probably those trees were unhealthy. A single tree may harbour ^j, Ramacbandra 
1,000 grubs but the number of attacked trees is not great. Rao. 

If the attacked trees are scattered about and not near one another, Mr Fletcher. 
it looks as if the weevil attacked sickly trees. 

Deiradolcus (n. g. MshU. MS.) n. sp. 

This weevil was found at Shillong in June-July 1918, the adults on 
mulberry, apple, pear and fruit trees generally, nibbhng holes in leaves 
and doing considerable damage, being present in very large numbers. 

In the case of fruit trees, control was practised by collection by hand 
of the adult beetles. 



{Undetermined Curcidionid.) 

The adults were found at Dohad on maize leaves in numbers on 16th 
August 1917. It is apparently a minor pest. 

( Undetermined Curculionid.) 

This weevil was reported from Poona in August 1915 by Eamrao 
S. Kasargode, the larva boring in fruits of Zizyj)hus jujuha of a variety 
called Ahmedabad her. They change the shape of the fruits. The 
natural shape of the fruit is long, but attacked fruits are always round 
berry-hke. 

There were about half-a-dozen trees in the Ganeshkhind Gardens Mr. Ramrao. 
at Poona and this weevil attacked the fruits very badly. This, however^ 
is not a generally distributed pest. 

p2 



210 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETlSrG 

( Undetermined CurcuUomd.) 

Mr. Fletcher. This weevil was found at Pusa, the larva boring in sann-hemp stems. 

in the field, loth August 1916, the adults emerging in the middle of Sep- 
tember 1916. 

The larva bores the central part of the stem and when full-grown 
forms a sort of pupal cell at the end of its burrow just below the bark 
of the stem. It is doubtful how far it is a pest. 

(Undetermined Curcidionid.) 

The weevil was found at Abbottabad, at the beginning of June 191G'. 
The adults occurred in numbers on apple, rose, Eubns spp. and thistles, 
eating the leaves. 

Dyscerus fletcheri, Ushll MS.* (Plate 6.) 

This weevil was found at Shillong, the larva boring into apple fruits, 
in June 1918. It is a reddish-brown species with scattered patches or 
d(»ts of greyish scales. It is rather larger than the next species but- 
attacks apple fruits in exactly the same way, but pupation seems to take 
place sometimes outside of the fruit. The egg is about 1 mm. in diameter 
and rather dull-brown in colour. The larva seems quite similar to that 
of the next species. The adults seem long-lived, as an individual caught 
at Shillong alDOut 1.5th June, and brought to Pusa, Uved in the insectary 
until 15th October. 

Dr. Marshall has identified this as a new species of Dyscems. 

Dyscerus maligmis, Mshll. MS.f (Plate 7.) 

This weevil was found at Shillong in June 1918. It is brownish- 
black with a conspicuous grey patch on posterior portion of elytra. The 
adult weevils feed on apple fruits, eating small patches into them, and 
oviposit in excavations along the edge of such patches. The eggs are 
large for the size of the insect, about 1-25 mm. in diameter and pearl- 
white in colour. The grub bores about in the interior of the fruit and 
damages it considerably. Pupation takes place inside the attacked 
fruits which in the initial stages of attack are externally scarcely dis- 
tinguishable from healthy fruits, but the invariable presence of a number 
of small whitish dots on the surface of the infested fruits marks these as, 
attacked. These small dots are really holes through which the tunnels- 
of the grubs communicate with the open air, and as a rule these 
tunnels originate at the apical end of the fruit, somewhere near the 
flower soar, whence they ramify throughout the interior, branches being 

* Since described in Bull. Entom. Res. IX, pp. 274-275 t. 17 f. I (July 1919), wher& 
it is also recorded from Almora. 

t Since described in Bull. Entom. Res. IX, pp. 275-270 t. 17 f. 4 (July 1019). 



PaQP -210. 



PLATE 6. 





/'I 



^ 





^a^ 



Stages of I>!jsr( I iis flctrficri in apple fruits at Shillong. 



Page 221. 



PLATE 7. 




Fi». 1. -]>f/s('ei'us malhjnns in fruits of Primus ucpaUnsis at Shillcn^. 



Page. 211{1). 



PLATE 7. 




H 



Fig. 2.— Apple fruits attacked by grubs of Jltjscerus molif/nus at Shiflong. 



PROCEEDINGS OF TliE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 211 

•given oft" at intervals towards the surface where their termination is 
marked by the small dots mentioned above. In the later stages of 
attack, these holes become much larger and often exude a frothy Hquid 
wiiich attracts Sarcophagid flies. 

This weevil was also found breeding in the fruits of Prunus nepalensis, 
a wild indigenous plum whose fruits are edible when ripe. 

Dr. Marshall has identified this as a new species of Dijscerus. 

Corigetus bidentidus, Mshll. 

Entl. Note 26 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 21. 

This species occurs in Assam as a serious pest of tea. It has also 
been found in Upper Burma. 

[{Unideniified CurcuUonid.) 

In September last year I happened to examine several stems of sann- Mr. Khare. 
hemp which were stunted and had small curled up leaves. In all cases 
I found some indications of an insect attack, i.e., a meagre passage cut 
through between the pith and wood quite a long way up and down the 
stem. In the passage at intervals very small whitish grubs were found 
embedded in the pith — a little. Similar grubs were found in the healthy 
stems as well, so that peculiar leaf growth could not be attributed to this 
insect. On examining the stem from outside some black scars were 
noticed in the axil of the leaves from about 12 to 18 inches to about 3 feet 
above ground. If the outer bark is scraped off then distinct injury to 
the wood is seen, thus showing that the grubs enter at such places and 
that the eggs must have been laid in the axil. (The eggs of the weevil 
are not found.) The height where the black scars are noticed suggests 
that the weevils appear some time in July and remain active, depositing 
eggs up to September. 

The grubs are about 3 mm. long, 0-5 mm. broad, whitish, fleshy, 
tunnel between the pith and the wood, but never go right into the root. 
The tunnelled portion is filled loosely with the frass or pellets excepting 
a little portion above the pupal chamber wdiich is stuffed closely. The 
grub on attaining full growth prepares a small oval chamber by cutting 
into the wood, thus the pupal chamber is not straight along the stem, 
but a little transverse, exteiidiiio; both in the ])ith and wood as well. 
The grub bores a small round hole before pupating, for the emergence 
of the weevil ; this I was led to conclude from the fact that a number 
of small holes were found outside on the bark and", on cutting open, 
weevils freshly come out of the pupae, were seen. 

The weevil is very small, brown, about 1-5 mm. long and has a fairly 
long snout and long antennae ; when touched, it curls up with the snout 



212 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING- 



and antemi£e bent inward and, like several other weevils, shams 
death. 

In two cases I found hymenopterous grubs attached to the weevil 
grubs and some parasitic pupae in the pupal chamber of the weevils, 
I could get only one adult parasite and it is shown with the weevil. I 
could not yet work out exact life-history of this weevil but so far as I have 
observed this weevil begins to emerge from September to November. 
In the month of December I cut open several dried stems of sann-hemp, 
but could not find a single one. Alternative food plant is no,t yet known. 
This weevil practically does no harm to the plant and thus cannot be 
included as a crop pest.] 



Ivlr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Senior- White. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Beeson. 

Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Robertson- 
Brown. 

Mr. Inglis. 

Mr. Senior- White 



Lamiad^. 

Bafocera ruhus, Linn. 

S. Ind. Ins. p. 324, f. 129 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 36, 
131, 227, 251, 299. 

We have this from the following localities and foodplants ; — Peshawar, 
adult eating shoots of Ficvs carica and larva boring into stems of F\ 
carica ; Laksar (Gwalior), (IR. 912 of r2th October 1912) ; Dehra Dun ; 
Muzaffarpur district, larva boring into mango roots, March 1915 ; Pusa, 
larva in rotten papaya stem, boring sissu wood, in 5owe&«a; stem, and 
boring Erythrina indica stem ; Khasi Hills ; Western Ghats, in Para 
rubber stump ; Kanara and Madura. It is widely distributed and is 
often a pest of cultivated fig. 

As regards control, collection of the adults and injection of a mixture* 
of chloroform and creosote into the larval galleries have been found 
successful. 

In Ceylon I have found the larva boring into a live stem of Ficiis 
religiosa some way above ground-level. 

At Pusa it is a common species and probably lives mostly in the various 
species of wild figs. We have reared -it and found that there is only one 
generation in the year here. 

It attacks dead trees. 

Certainly not always. It is often a bad pe,<t of cultivated fig-trees. 

Some time ago all the fig-trees in the Peshawar district were bored. 
Nothing was done and the pest has quite abated now. 

I have found it boring in a living tree of Fims religiosa. 

It has not been seen in living rubber trees but attacks dead rubber 
trees. Of course, it may work below ground-level in the case of living, 
trees. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 213 

This is another species about whose parasites we know nothing but Mr. Fletcher, 
would hke to have some information. It has been introduced into the 
West Indies and is doing a lot of damage there and I have been appealed 
to for parasites to help them ; but we do not know of any parasites in 

India. 

I have bred a laige number and found an absolute absence of para- Mr. seeson. 

sites. 

They lay a very large number of eggs. In the Insectary more than Mr. Ghosh. 
200 eggs have been laid. The female goes on laying eggs for fourteen 

days. 

Then what keeps it in check 'i Mr. Fle.cher. 

Probably desiccation of the wood as a result of the egglaying and Mr. Beeson. 
working of the grubs is an important check. 

What about those larva3 that are boring in living wood ? - Mr. Fletcher. 

There is no check on those. Mr. Beeson. 

Do wood-peckers help at all to check them % Mr. Fletcher. 

The larvse have enormous vitality. Young larvee are probably Mr. Beeson. 
killed off by cannibaUsm. 

We have not noticed any cannibalism. . Mr Ghosh, 

Afriona germari, Hope. 

Stebbing, Ind. For. Ins. Col., pp. 371, 372, 374, f. 249 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 255. 
This species has been recorded from Shahdera (near Lahore), the Mr. Fletcher, 
larva boring into mulberry, into the main trunk, and doing considerable 

damage. 

We have no specimens of this at Pusa. 

It is a shoot-girdler of mulberry and Ficus. Mr. Beeson 

Ayriona cinerea, Chev. 

Stebbing, For. Ins. Col., p. 374 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 255. 

Stebbing records this from Dehra Dun, the adult beetles stripping Mr. Fletcher, 
ofi the bark off the leading shoots and young twigs of 3Iorys indica. 

The Pusa collection contains specimens, identified as A. cinerea with 
gome doubt, from Jammu, larva boring mulberry stem ; Kumaon Hills, 
larva boring fig tree ; and Jeolikote (m..306 ; 29. MI, 12). 

? AjJi'iona sp. 
We have this from Chandinagar (Sylhet), where the larva, was found 
boring stems of jak ; the adult emerged at Pusa, 6th August 1918. 



2U 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ghosh. 



Mi. Gupta. 



Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Ramrao. 

Mr. Ghosh. 

Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Fletche^ 
Mr. Ghosh. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Beeson. 
Mr. Ghosh.' 



Both young and old trees are attacked. Young trees are hollowed 
out from top to bottom. The grub throws out dust from its galleries. 
We tried to probe a gallery but the probe went upwards. Kerosine 
does not kill the grub ; we gave one grub three dippings in kerosine and 
yet it survived and pupated. In one locality there are 3,000 jak trees 
and all are affected by this beetle. 

I have found it spreading throughout the valley in some parts of 
Sylhet. The older trees can withstand the attack but the young trees 
do not grow. We find fifty per cent, of the trees attacked. The trees 
are not killed but are damaged severely. The tunnels of the grubs are 
very peculiar. I tried the effect of carbon bisulphide on five trees and 
it was very satisfactory. I closed the side holes with mud and injected 
the carbon bisulphide through one hole. This remedy, however, cannot 
be adopted by the cultivators. Kerosine is not effective. 

Kerosine is not sufficiently volatile. You might try benzine, as 
that is more volatile and it is readily obtainable from Digboi. 

I tried phenol and carbon bisulphide in the case of a borer in lime. 

One could use a White Ant Exterminator and pump in the gas. 

Or you could use chloroform and creosote and inject it with a long 
nozzled syringe. 

Any volatile liquid of that kind should be effective. 

With a White Ant Exterminator we can inject fumes of sulphur 
and arsenic and then see where the gas comes out and close the holes and 
then pump more gas in. 

I do not think the White Ant Exterminator would be a practical 
proposition. For one thing the gas must be injected hot or it will all 
condense without doing any good. 

What girth are the trees attacked ? 

Various girths. The grub bores down the stem and in big tree^s the 
young branches are attacked and the grub works its way do^vn. The 
grub comes to maturity after two years. 



Coelosterna sp. 

Mr. Fletcher. This insect was reported to us from Manipur State, where considerable 

damage was done to mulberry on one plantation. " A quantity of 
wood-dust accumulated around the roots. Holes appeared here and 
there in the stem. Now when the tree is cut down it is found to be hollow 
and to contain these beetles and larvae." (Letter from Vice-President, 
Manipur State Darbar, Imphal ; 27th April 1914.) No specimen, however, 
is traceable. 

An unnamed CoeJosfema is also referred to in Ind. Mus. Notes. V, 
iv, 213 as doing much damage to mulberry at Shahdera, near Lahore. 



rROCEEDIXGS OF THE TIUED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 215 

Coelosterna scabrator, Fb. 

South Ind. Ins., pp. 325-326, f. 181 ; Stebbing, Ind. Forest 
Ins. Col., pp. 358-362, t. 25 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 22, 121, 248, 254, 265, 275 [scabrator and sjnnator]. 

We have this from Peshawar, Bhangaon Forest (Berar), Poona, 
Charodi (Bombay), Belgaum, the Shevaroy Hills and Shembaganur 
(Madura). At Peshawar the adult was found gnawing the bark of a 
branch of Tamarix imlica on 21st October 1914 ; in the Bhangaon Forest 
it was reported as " doing very serious damage to sowings of babul, the 
larva boring into the stem and the adult eating the bark, often completely 
ringing the shoot " (letter from Conservator of Forests, Berar Circle, 
14th September 1910) ; at Poona, the adult was found on Zizyphus, 
1st June 1910 ; and at Charodi " on cotton," 

Stebbing states that it attacks Acacia arabica and Shorea robusta 
in Berar, Casuarina equisetifolia in Oudh, and that it occurs also at 
"■ Kandiduppa, Madras." 

Watt and Mann include it as a pest of tea in Assam, but I have never Mr. Andrews, 
known it on tea. 

Aristobia approximator, Thoms. 

We have this from Nongpoh (Khasi Hills), and from Paungde, Taung- Mr. Fletcher, 
gyi and Lashio in Burma. At Taunggyi the larva was found by 
K. D. Shroff boring the stems and branches of cherramoya. 

It girdles forest trees. Mr, Beeson. 

Epepeofes uncinatus, Gahan. 

Adult beetles were found at Shillong in July 1918 resting on the Mr. Fletcher, 
twigs of Ficus carica and the larva probably bores into this tree as this 
beetle belongs to a group which is usually attached to species of Ficus 
and a young longicorn larva was found boring in the stem of one of 
these trees. 

Monohammus nivosus, Wh. 
Stebbing, Ins. For. Ins. Col., pp. 357-358, f. 243. 

Stebbing gives its distribution as the Sub-Himalayan tract from 
Ganges to Nepal, Central and South India ; Burma ; Ceylon. 

The larva bores in stems of Calotropis gigantea. 

We have sj^ecimens from Pusa, bred from larvae in Calotropis, and 
from Poona labelled " Woodfordia, I2th June 1910." It is apparently 
a very minor pest of Calotropis. 



216 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETINC? 



Moyiohammus versteegi, Kits. 

This species occurs in Assam, where the larva bores in the pith of 
young stems of orange trees, the result of the attack being that the leaves 
turn yellow and the branch withers. We have specimens from Khowang 
and Haflong, in both cases reared from larvee boring orange stems, and 
also from Nougpoh. 

Mr. Gupta. It is found in some districts of the Surma Valley. There are three 

borers of orange, one in the shoots and two in the stem. The two latter 
differ in the nature of the damage they do to the stem. 

Mr. Ghosh. One of these is M. versteegi and the other is a Buprestid. The eggs 

are laid just above the ground and the places of deposition may be seen 
by the slits made in the bark. 

Mr. Fletcher. If 'iti6 eggs are always deposited near the base of the stem it should be 

possible to protect this portion by smearing on some repellent or applying 
some mechanical preventive such as by tacking on oiled paper. 



Mr, Senior- White. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



[Bihammv.s fisfulator, Germ. 

At Matale a rubber tree nine years old came down in a wind and from 
above five feet upw^ards the trunk was hollowed out by this beetle. It is 
said to be a pest of cacao also. 

Under the name Monohammus fistidator Mr. Froggatt has recently 
described [Agricl. Gaz. N. S. Wales XXX, pp. 37-38, tab. (2nd January 
1919)] this species as damaging passion-fruit vines in New South Wales 
and states that he has also found it boring in stems of cultivated fig- 
trees at Sydney. It is widely distributed in India, Ceylon, the Malay 
Archipelago, Java, Queensland, Victoria, New South Wales and South 
Africa, but we do not have any record of its being a pest in India.] 



Linda nigroscutata, Fairm. (Plate 8.) 

This species was found in 1918 at Shillong, where the adults occurred 
fairly commonly on apple trees in June and July and were generally 
found resting on the shoots or leaves and occasionaljy feeding on the 
latter. In captivity the beetles fed on the leaves and also on the bark 
of apple twigs, but did not oviposit. Under natural conditions, however, 
the beetle girdles the twig more or less (usually rather less) completely, 
makes a slit at right angles to the girdling and above it, slightly detaches 
the bark on one side of this slit and thrusts in an egg under this loosened 
bark. The larva on hatching bores upv\'ards into the twig and thrusts 
its longish pellets of frass out through holes cut in the twig, which of 
course dies off and shrivels up. This is a serious pest, doing considerable 
damage. The only control method possible is hand-collection of the 



Page 2lG. 



PLATE 8, 





Sf-Wjo. 






>*• 





Zv/iK/rt nif/roscutata, girdling apple twigs at Shillcng. 



PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETIXG 217 

beetles and cutting out of attacked twigs. No alternative foodpiant 
is known as yet. 

The adult beetles can easily be hand-picked and the places where the Mr. Ramacaandra 
eggs have been deposited can also be spotted easily and these branches ^^°' 
cut off and destroyed. 

Sthenias grisator, Fb. 

S. I. I., p. 326, f. 182 ; Stebbing, Ind. For. Ins. Col., pp. 377-378, 
f. 252 ; Froc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 77. 235, 255, 265, 
267, 268. 

We have this from PaKtana State, on grape-vines, oleander and other Mr. Fletcher. 
flowering plants ; Nasik, on grape-vines ; Bangalore, adults girdling " 
rose-bushes ; Pollibetta (South C'oorg), adults girdling Enjtlirina ; and 
Coimbatore, adults girdling mulberry and Bougainvillea. Stebbing also 
records it as girdling TaherncBmoniana alba in Kurnul. 

AYe discussed this fairly fully at the last Meeting and I do not think 
there is much to add. 

At Coimbatore it is a serious pest of mulberry. The stages have been Mr. Ramakrishna 
drawn on a plate [exhibited], but the length of the life cycle is not Imown. ■^yy^r. 

In Mysore it is not serious on mulberry. Mr. Kunhi Kanaan 

At Poona it is very bad on grape-vine, girdling branches as thick as Mr. Ramrao. 
one's thumb. 

« 

Apomeojna jjertigera, Thoms. 
S. I. I., p. 327, t. 11 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 303, 307. 

This has been reared at Pusa from larvae in Luffa stem, bottle-gourd, Mr. Fletcher, 
snake-gourd, and pumpkin stem, and the adult beetles have also been 
found eating cucumber fruits. At Mandalay it has been noted to 
bore pumpkins, and we also have it from Chapra, Jorhat and Coimbatore, 
It is a minor pest of cucurbits, the larva boring the stems and the adults 
eating the young fruits. It may be controlled by destruction of affected 
stems and collection of the adult beetles. 

Ajjcmecyna histrio, Fb. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 304, 307. 

This has been reared at Pusa from larvae in stems of Lujfa, Cephakmdra 

SLYid giirmch{Ti)ios2)oracordifolia). We have it also from Chapra and 

Laheria Serai. It is a pest much in the same way as is A. perligem but 

does not seem to be so widely distributed. 



218 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Ml. Gbosb. 



Ml. Hamakrisbna 
Ayyar. 



Mi. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Pillay. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



It hardly occurs in young plants but tlie adult beetles may gnaw young 
shoots. The larvas occur late in the season at Pusa. It is difficult to 
say whether it is a pest. 

The grub kills the plants which it attacks. 

Apomecyna perotteti. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 304, 307. 

This species is apparently confined to Southern India. We have it 
from Kanara, Madura and Pollibetta (South Coorg). The life-history 
is not known but is likely to be the same as in ^4. pertigera and A. liisirio 
and the Pollibetta specimens were collected by myself around cultivated 
cucurbits. 

Olenecmn'ptus biJobus, Fb. 

Stebbing, Ind. For. Ins. Col., p. 375, f. 250 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 251. 

This is a widely-distributed species attached to fig-trees. At Trivan- 
drum, Travancore, it has been found in banyan, and at Surat, Coimbatore, 
Salem, and in the Krishna district it has been found damaging Ficus 
carica, the larva boring into the solid wood. At Pusa it does riot seem to 
have been bred, but probably breeds in the wild fig-trees ; our Pusa 
examples were all taken as adults on gular {Ficus glomerata), teak and 
jak trees, or at light. In Java and Sumatra it ha« been recorded by 
Dammerman as boring in Ficus elastica. In India it seems to be mainly 
a pest of cultivated fig in Southern India. 

In Madras it does a good deal of damage to cultivated figs. The 
larvae are found right inside the wood of the stem. 

Have you tried an)'- treatment in the case of affected trees ? 

We cut out the old stem and affected branches. That is the only 
thijig that can be done. 

The adult beetles are attracted to light. 

Yes ; they come in to light sometimes at Pusa. 

Nupserha bicolor, Thorns. 

Dutt, Bihar Agricl. Journal ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
p. 47, 70 ; Ann. Kept. Impl. Entom. 1917-18, p. 98, t. 14, 
ff. la-d (1913). 

This species is apparently only known so far from Bihar, where it 
has been reared at Sabour on soy-bean and Fann-hemp and at Pusa froin 
soy-bean, sann-hemp, Vigna catjang, Phaseolus aconitifolius and Ph- 
radiatus. 



PllOCr.EDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 219 

Tte eggs are laid on young shoots, which have previously been girdled 
by the adult beetle. The larva bores down to the root and goes from one 
branch to another, killing the plant. Hibernation takes place in the 
larval stage in the stumps. The larvse occur in the rains and the beetles 
emerge at Pusa in August (mainly) and September. A Chalcidid para- 
site has been reared. At Pusa the " bermeli '" variety of soy-bean (from 
Sabour) was attacked especially, other varieties growing alongside this 
escaping attack almost wholly. It may be controlled by destroying the 
affected tips, which droop, and by burning the stumps after harvest. 

Oberea sesami. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 85. 

This species only seems to be known in Baroda. The egg is laid on 
the midrib of a leaf of Sesamujii indicmn, and the larva bores into the 
midrib and stem, and then down into the roots and pupates in the roots. 
Hibernation takes place in the larval stage. Ten to twelve days elapse 
before the larva bores into the stem and yellow blotches appear on the 
attacked leaves which may be collected at this stage of the attack. It is 
usually a minor pest of young Sesamum plants, but does very serious 
damage sporadically. ^ 

In Bellary I once found a very few Sesamum plants attacked in this Mr. Ramachandra 
way but I cannot say whether this was due to Oberea sesami. ^^°* 

It is a regular pest in Baroda. Plants in the early stages of growth jyij., VsA^l. 
are killed but grown-up plants do not suffer so much. 

It has not been found in Surat. Mr. Jhaveri. 



Oberea sp. 

This species was found at Pusa. the larva boring Phaseolus aconitifoUvs Mr. Fletcter. 
[molh] (C. S. 428). The eggs were laid at the end of September 1906, 
and hatched after 5 days, the larva pupated at the end of June, and the 
adult beetle emerged after twelve days (in the beginning of Julv). The 
eggs were laid in the stems within a portion enclosed by two girdhngs. 
The larva feeds on the pith and payt of the woody tissues. The affected 
girdled stems droop and are easily seen. The larva feeds until November, 
then rests in the larval state until the end of June. Larvae often emersed 
from stems before hibernation and attempted to go into earth. There 
is only one cycle annually. 

. Specimens were sent to Dr. Gahan some years ago, but no identifica- 
tion has yet been received. 

There is an Oberea in Travancore which attacks Vigna catjang. Mr. piiiay. 



220 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

( Unidentified Lamiad.) 

This was foimd in tlie adult stage at Moulmein in September 1914 
on sweet-potato and had apparently been breeding on this plant. 

{Unidentified Lamiad.) 

Ann. Kept. Impl. Entom., pp. 17-18, f. 99, t. 15, ff. 2a-c (1918). 

This species was sent to us from Latu (Sylhet) by S. R. Gupta, the 
larva boring and killing orange shoots. The larva3 bore into the new 
shoots which appear in spring and cause them to wither. The beetles 
emerged at Pusa in March and April. We have an apparently similar 
specimen taken in the Buxar Duars in May 1907. 

Mr. Gupta. I found it common in the Surma and Assam Valleys. The grub 

bores in young orange shoots which wither. The tree is never killed 
but it bears less fruit. I have found this borer wherever I have searched 
for it. We have cut out the withered shoots, but the pest was found 
again. The orange-garden at Latu is isolated from other orange gardens 
but is alongside a big forest and very probably this pest comes in from 
the forest plants ; but this is not known definitely. In one plot we cut 
off almost all the withered shoots but the insect was still present after 
• a time. 

Mr. Andrews. It is difficult to grow orange trees in Assam. This insect is known 

to do damage in a garden where there are only a few orange trees. 

{Unidentified Lamiad.) 

Mr Fle.'cier. This was sent in to us from Bengal by D. N. Pal with the information 

that it was reared on 12th September 1907 from a larva in jute stem and 
that it is said to do damage. We have no further information about 
it. 

Cerambycid^. 

Lophosfermis hugelii, Redt. 

Gahan, F. I. Ceramb., pp. 11-12 ; Stebb., Ind. For. Ins. Col., 
pp. 274-275, t. 17 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 248. 

We have this from Simla, Dehra Dun and Chaubattia (Kumaon). 
At Chaubattia the larva was found attacking roots and trunks of apple 
trees. 

Gahan gives the distribution of this species as Kashmir, the North- 
West Frontier Provinces, Punjab and Assam. Stebbing states that the 
larva feeds on Quercus incana and probably Q. dilatat'u 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE TIllKT ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 221 , 

Xystocera (jlobosa, Oliv. 

Gahan, F. I. Ceramb., pp. 106-107, f. 42 ; S. I. I., p. 321, f. 174 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 79. 

We have this from Coimbatore, Nagpur and Tatkon (Upper Burma). 
It has not yet been noted as a pest in India but in Cairo it has proved 
a serious pest of AJbizzia lebheh when grown as shade-trees and it is 
apparently associated with A. lebbeJc in India also so that it may be 
expected to prove a pest of this tree. 

In Egypt it is a pest of old Albizzia lebbek trees. Dr. Gough. 

In India it damages Albizzia fracera. Mr. Eeeson. 

Was it introduced into Egypt ? Mr. Fletcher. 

I do not know. Dr. Gough. 

GnatJiolea eburifera, Thoms. 

Gahan. F. I. Ceramb., p. Ill ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 211. 

This has been noted by K. D. Shroff at Moulmein boring orange Mr. Fletcher. 
stem and at Kya-in, Karen Hills, as boring stem and branches of orange, 
the adult emerging on 4th January 1908. 

Stromatium barbatum, Fb. 

Gahan. F. I. Ceramb. pp. 114-115, fig. 45 ; S. I. I., pp. 321-322, 
f. 175 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 205, 211, 275 ; Khare, 
B. J. XXIY. 610-612. 

We have this from Dehra Dun ; Arrah, larva in dry wood of a case of 
cutler}^ ; Chapra ; Pusa, larva boring in sissu wood, bamboo, furniture, 
on one occasion boring a sissu-wood table for three years, the adult 
emerging in July 1909 ; Calcutta, larva in piano wood (Entl. Note 32) ; 
Nagpur, larva boring dead parts of orange trees, especially parts affected 
by '' Arbela "; Poona, on Acacia arabica ; Kanara ; North Coorg ; and 
Hagari (Bellary), larva boring in dry bamboo. 

It is a common household pest, the larva boring into Avooden furni- 
ture, picture-frames and so on ; and Mr. Khare says that he has found it 
boring into Citrus trees in the Central Provinces. It seems doubtful, 
however, how far it may really be regarded as a pest of hving trees, 
although there is no doubt that it bores into many trees that are dead 
or perhaps dying from other causes. 

In Patiala this beetle does a lot of damage to living orange and Malta Harchand Singh. 
orange trees. 

In the Central Provinces I found orange trees in a garden very badly mt. Misra. 
.affected by " Arbela "' and these trees were afterwards attacked by 
Stromal ium. 



222 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

[Ploccedents pedestris, White. 

Gahan, F. I. Ceramb. p. 123. 

Mr. Sen. Ploccederus fedestris is found boring into mango trees in Dacca. Last 

year in February grubs, pupse and beetles were found in numbers in a 
dead tree. As regards its habits, the grub feeds on the portion between 
the bark and the wood and goes upwards or downwards. When full- 
grown, it makes a big slanting hole in the wood and pupates in a yellowish- 
white hard cocoon inside the hole. The hfe-history has not been studied 
in detail. 

Mr. Fletcher. We have P. pedestris from Pusa,.but it is not common here and it 

is not recorded from anywhere East of this by Gahan. The Dacca 
species is more likely to be P. ohesus, Gahan, but it is impossible to say 
without seeing the specimens.] 

Molesthes holosericea, Fb. 

Gahan, F. I. Ceramb., pp. 127-128 ; Stebbing, Ind. For. Ins. 
Col, pp. 301-305, ff. 208-210, t. 19. 

Gahan gives the distribution as North-West India, Bombay,. 
Nilo-iris, Ceylon, Assam, Tenasserim, Andamans, Nicobars, Siam and 
Malay Peninsula. 

We have it from Khedut (Baroda) [labelled Poona on specimen] 
reared from a larva in guava stem, the adult emerging on 4th April 1907. 
This stem was also infected with Belionota frasina, and it is doubtful 
how far M. holosericea is a pest of living trees so far as non-forest trees 
are concerned. 

? Rhytidodera rohusta. 

Gahan, F. I. Ceramb., p. 147, f, 59. 
This was reared by K. D. Shroff on 4th April lyCS from a larva boring 
Ficiis carica at Mandalay, and has also been noted at Thaton in mango. 
The identification of this species is uncertain. 

Chloridolum cdcmene, Thorns. 

Gahan, F. I. Ceramb., pp. 199-200 ; S. Ind. Ins, p. 323, f. 177 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 211. 
We have specimens from Pollibetta and Virajpet, in South Coorg. 
This insect occurs in the orange-growing tracts in the South Indian Hills 
and does serious damage to Citms trees by its larva boring in the stems 
and large branches. It seems to be rather sporadic in its appearance, 
and has only been noted as a pest in Coorg. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD EXTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 223 

In Coorg I collected beetles from lemon and Citrus trees. They were Mr. Rairactandra 
resting on the leaves and, when disturbed, they fly about actively. Rao. 

Chelidonivm cincticm, Guer. 

■ Gahan, F. I. Ceramb., p. 210. 

This was sent in to us in 1918 from Bangalore by Mr. Anstead who Mr. Fletcher, 
found the larva boring into orange branches. Mr. Anstead states that 
the eggs are deposited in June in the axils of young hving twigs and never 
on dead wood or old branches. The eggs are covered with a sort of yellow 
transparent varnish. As soon as the eggs hatch the young larva bores 
into the twig and works upward for about half-an-inch to an-inch-and-a- 
half and then makes two tiny holes about the size of a pin's head. It 
then turns back and bores down the twig, occasionally making small 
openings. Finally it gets into the main branches where it makes tunnels 
a quarter-of-an inch in diameter. The young twigs that are bored at 
once die and turn black so that they are conspicuous and they can be 
cut of? with the larvae inside them. By doing this and by hand-collec- 
tion of the adult beetles the attack can be controlled to a large extent. 
The eggs appear to take about two weeks to hatch out. 

Xyhtrechus quadri'pes, Chevr. 

Gahan, F. I. Ceramb., pp. 245-24C, f. 90 ; S. Ind. Ins., pp. 323- 
324, f. 178 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 30-34. 

We have this from North and South Coorg and the Nilgiris. It is 
the well-known " Coffee-borer " of South India, which was discussed 
fully at the last Meeting in 1917. Since then I have not visited the Coffee 
Districts and have therefore no more to add. 

The length of the hfe-history is one year but it may vary. The lyjp gunhi Kannan. 
bushes may be infected with eggs laid by the April brood. The method 
of egg-laying is very interesting. The egg is always laid in a crevice ; 
if it is laid anywhere else, the grub fails to penetrate into the wood. 
Scrubbing the plants is successful to prevent egg-laying and to destroy 
the eggs when laid. The eggs are never laid loose on the tree. The 
larvse take from two to two-and-a-half months to eat into the wood. 
To check them in this stage Brunohneum has been used. The larval 
excrement in the tunnels is not very compact so that the fumes enter the 
gallery and kill the larva. This chemical nn'ght be tried on all sorts of 
borers in fruit-trees. It is not known exactly what it is but it is perhaps 
a tar distillate. 

What does it cost ? Mr. Fletcher. 

VOL. I o 



>Ir. Fletcher. 
Mr. Senior- White 



22-4 PIIOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Mr. Kunhi Kannan. One Rupee per gallon. Even when used at full strength, one gallon 
will treat 200 trees. But now the price has gone up, so we are using an 
emulsion with soap. 

It might be worth trying an emulsion of soap and creosote. 

There is some description of this Brunolineum in a Bulletin lately 
issued by the Ceylon Agricultural Department. Just before I left Ceylon, 
about 25th January, the beetles emerged in large numbers. I have 
found a predaceous Carabid grub which follows up the track of the boring 
larva and kills it. Another interesting fact is that the attack depends 
on the weather conditions. Probably these influence emergence and 
oviposition, rainfall records and the number of trees taken out bearing 
a close relation to one another. There are two or three species of para- 
sites. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Chrysomelid^. 

Sagra nigrita, Ohv. 

Jacoby, F. I. Chrysom., p. 5; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 56. 

This species was reared by Mr. E. Ernest Green at Peradeniya, 
where the larva was found boring in stems of Dolichos lablab, causing 
large gall-hke sweUings in the stems. It occurred abundantly and did 
considerable damage. We have not noted it in India as a pest as yet, 
but it is quite likely to occur. 



Sagra femorata. 

This was found in some numbers by Y. Ramachandra Rao " on bean 
creeper " at Sidapur, South Coorg. I do not know how far it was 
damaging any cultivated crop, but, in view of the record of S. nigrita on 
Dolichos lablab, it seems better to include it for the present. 



Leitia downesi, Baly. 

Jacoby, F. I. Chrysom., p. 43. 

At Pusa the eggs have been found laid singly or in rows, usually on 
the upper surface of leaves of Panicum sp., the larva eating one epidermis 
and the mesophyll substance of the leaf, and leaving the other epidermis 
intact. Pupation takes place in soil in a shght cocoon. The hfe-cycle 
from egg to adult is about 17 days at the end of August. One female 
laid 227 eggs between 19th and 30th August and was then lost. We 
have it also from Chapra. 

This species is not known as a pest, but might easily be one. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 225 

Miopristis bimaculata, Jac. 

Jacoby, F. I. Clirysom., pp. 99-100, fig. 21. 
The adult beetles have been found at Pusa in small numbers eating 
flowers of rice on 8th October 1917, and have also been found on cotton 
leaf and on grass. We have it also from Ohapra. It is probably not 
common enough to do any real damage. 



Diapro)))orpha niclanopiis, Lac. 

Jacoby, F. 1. Chrysom., pp. 168-169, fig. G4. 

In Indian Museum Notes, I, ii. p. 106 (1889) this species is recorded 
as received in 1885 from iSibsagar from 8. E. Peal who noticed it as 
"" eating the stems of tea-shoots so that they wither and droop." 

The Pusa Collection contains specimens from the Khasis (1000-3000), 
and Shillong, Buxar Duars. Maymyo. Lebong. Palamau, Chapra, Munshi- 
ganj and Pusa. At Pusa the adult has been taken on Bombax mala- 
baricum, but we do not know it as a pest here. 

In Assam it occurs every year as a very important pest of tea all Mr. Andrews, 
over the tea districts, especially along the edges of jungles. It bites 
half-way through the stem which droops and withers. Every planter 
knows it and it is destroyed by hand-picking. 

In Assam this insect is apparently called the Orange Beetle on account Mr. Fletcher, 
of its colour, and it is so referred to in Watt and Mann's " Pests and 
Bhghts of the Tea Plant." As you know, before the appointment of 
any regular Government Entomologists in India, information about 
insect pests, along with various other matters, was dealt with under a 
scissors-and-paste method in the office of the Reporter on Economic 
Products and these files on insect pests were finally transferred to Pusa. 
On looking up the file on this insect I find that the name " Orange Beetle " 
proved too much for the Office Staff of the Reporter on Economic Pro- 
ducts, with the result, *hat this beetle was solemnly filed under the 
heading " Pests of Citrus trees." 



Cryptocephah.is dodccaspilns, Sulf. 

Jacoby, F. I. Chrysom., pp. 252-253, fig. 97 ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 264. 
The adult beetles were found in some numbers damaging rose-leaves 
at Abbottabad on 10th June 1916. We also have it from Maymyo, 
taken in June 1910. 

<i2 



226 PROCEEDIXGS OF TH]C THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING- 

Noilina ni fifes, Jac. 

Jac, F. T. Chrysom., p. 293. 

We have this from Moulmein and also from Maymyo, where K. D. 
Shroff foimd the adults on Pnimift fersica on 18th May 1909. Jacoby 
records it from Momeit. 

Nodosloma siibcosfaivm, Jac. 

Jac, F. I. Chrysom, p. 334 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 237. 

This occurs at Pusa as a regular pest of plantain, the beetles feeding 
on the leaves and fruits, eating patches which spoil the appearance of the 
fruits and it is also said to spoil the flavour of the fruits. In October 
1917 the adult beetles were also found at Pusa eating and damaging 
grape-vine leaves. The larva has been found underground, near roots 
of grasses. Control may be attained by spraying or by collecting the 
adults by hand. 

It is curious that this beetle has never been noted as a pest except 
in Pusa, although Jacoby records it from Assam and Burma. It only 
shows how very little we know as yet regarding even our commonest 
insect-pests. h 

Pagria signata, Mots. 

Jac, F. I. Chrysom. pp. 356-357, f. 125. 

Jacoby records this from South India, Nilgiris, Burma, Ceylon, China, 
and Japan, and the Pusa Collection contains specimens from the Nilgiris, 
Pusa and Jorhat. 

At Jorhat at the end of September 1913, it did great damage to cow- 
peas in the field, completely destroying a crop sown for seed in about. 
4 bighas of land and also invaded a " mashkolai " [Phaseolns mungo 
roxburghii] crop adjacent. The " Mashkolai " was sprayed twice with 
kerosine emulsion and the insects then disappeared. (Farm Superin- 
tendent, Jorhat, letter of 9th December 1913.) 

Scelodonfa sfrigicoIJis, Mots. 

Jac, F. I. Chrysom., p. 386 ; South Ind. Ins., p. 309, f. 158 ; 
• Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 234-235. 

We have this from the following localities and foodplants : — Peshawar, 
adults on grape-vine ; Jeolikote (Kumaon), adults on grape-vine ; Poona, 
adults on grape-vine ; Nasik, adults on grape-vine ; Nagpur, on grape- 
vines ; Pusa, adults on mango inflorescence ; Coimbatore ; Dacca ; 
Tharrawaddy ; and Minbu (Lower Burma), adults on wild Vitis. 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 227 

It is at times a serious pest of grape-vine, especially around Peshawar 
and Poona, the adults destroying the tender shoots of the vines. Collec- 
tion of tlie adults, either by tapping the bushes or by means of the plan- 
tain brooms used at Nasik, is the best method of control and this should 
be supplemented by leaving three or four buds, instead of only one or 
two, when pruning and by removal of all loose bark. The life-history 
is as yet unknown. 

' At Peshaw^ar we shake them ofl' the vines into kerosinized water. Mr, Robertson- 
The beetles are not found in very large numbers. Brown 

Colasposoma semicofstatvm, Jac. 

Jac, F. I. Chrys., p. 443 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 212. 

Jacoby records this from Sikkini, Mungphu, and Cachar, and the Pusa jij, Fletcher, 
Collection contains specimens from Chapra and the Khasi Hills. In the 
Ivhasis the adult beetles destroyed flowers and leaves of orange trees in 
March and April 1916 at Ramdait " Alakha." The leaves were eaten 
near the stalks. It is said to have done considerable damage to oranges 
during the preceding three years, appearing in March and April and 
then disappearing again. (S. R. Gupta's letter of 12th May 1916.) 

It is very bad on oranges and eats away the flowers. Mr. Gupta. 

Is it found in any other part of Assam ? Mr, Fletcher. 

I have not seen it anywhere else. Mr. Gupta. 

Pachnejjhoms bretinghami, Baly. 

Jac, F. I. Chrysom., pp. 460-461 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 140, 180, 294. 

We have this from Pusa, Narayanganj and the Nigiris, so that it is Mr Fletcher, 
widely distributed. At Pusa the adult has been found on artichoke. 
It has also been recorded on sugarcane and jiiar. It probably does 
damage in the same way as P. impressus but does not seem to have 
actually been noted as a pest. 

Pnchnepliorua impressus, Rosenh. 

Jac, F. I. Chrysom., p. 461, f. 15 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 83, 122, 140, 180, 192 ; Entl. Note 33. 

Jacoby gives the distribution of this species as Europe, Africa, India, 
Bengal, Philippines and Macassar. The Pusa Collectio)i contains speci- 
mens from Peshawar, adults on sugarcane ; Pusa ; Kalyan ; Hoshanga- 
bad, adults on Sessammn indicum ; Coimbatore ; and Taunggoo (Burma). 
At Peshawar the beetles occur in numbers ^and eat small holes in the 



228 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



leaves of young sugarcane. At Pusa the larva has been found amongst 
maize roots and the adults have been noted on young bhindi. At 
Hoshangabad it is said to be a bad pest of til, eating the leaves and 
pods. Collection of the adults seems to be the simplest remedy. 



Mr. Andrews. 



Phcedmi hrassicw, Baly. 

In Indian Museum Notes, III, v, p. 44 (1896) it was reported under 
date of 28th December 1893 by the Sub-Divisional Officer, Golaghat, 
that the mustard crop in part of the Sub-Division was infested by Ph. 
brassiccB and the beetles were identified by Jacoby who records it alsa 
from China and Japan. It has not been reported again as a pest, but 
it is said to be common throughout Assam and presumably does some 
damage. 

In Assam it comes to light but I have never noticed it in large numbers. 



Mr. Fletcher . 



( Unidentified' Chrysomelid. ) 

This species was found at Mandalay by K. D. Shroff on 12 th May 
1909, the adult beetles occurring on guava. 



Mr. Ramakrisbna 
Ay jar 



Oides qffinis, Jac. 

South Ind. Ins., p. 313, f. 164 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 168. 

This species was found in large numbers on rice-plants at Shoranur 
(Malabar) on 31st July 19o7 and we have it also from Tahparamba 
(Malabar), where it was found on grass, and from the Nilgiris. It is 
very doubtful how far it is a pest. At any rate, it seems to be 
sporadic and local. 

We have not found it again. On the one occasion when we did find 
it, it was in numbers, nibbling the plants. 



Mr Fletcher. 



Aulacophora stevensi, Baly. 

South Ind. Ins., pp. 312-313, f. 163 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 303-307. 

This species occurs on cucurbits generally and has been noted on 
snake-gourd, bottle-gourd and bitter-gourd, the adult beetles being 
especially destructive to the flowers. It does not seem to occur in North 
India, but is abundant in Southern India and Burma. Our specimens 
are from Ceylon, Trichinopoly, Saidapet, Kistna district and Tatkon 
(Burma) and it is also recorded from Coimbatore, Chingleput and Goda- 
vari. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 229 

Auhcophora atripennis, Fb. 

South Ind. Ins., p. 312, f. 162 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 303-307. 

Aulacophora atripennis {excavafa), a ferruginous species with blue- 
black elytra, is common in most parts of India except the extreme North 
and occurs on all cucubitaceous plants but is hardly a pest as a rule. 
We have it from Dehra Dun ; Chapra ; Pusa ; Buxar Duars ; Jorhat ; 
Silchar ; Mandalay ; Hopin (Upper Burma) ; Pyinmana ; Moulmein, 
on cucumber ; Surat ; Poona, on gourd leaves ; Pollibetta (South Coorg) ; 
Manganallur ; and Peradeniya, on cucumber. 

Aulacophora abdominalis, Fb. 

South Ind. Ins., p. 311, f. IGl ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 207, 302 (tab.), 306, 307. 

Aulacophora abdominalis (Joveicollis) occurs abundantly throughout 
India and Burma as a bad pest of all cultivated cucurbits, and it feeds 
on wild species also. We have it from Kohat, Peshawar, Haripur Hazara, 
Lyallpur, Zaffarwal Tahsil (Punjab), Jallandhar, Gwalior, Bilaspur, 
Balaghat (Central Provinces), Belgaum, Kanara, Coimbatore, Samalkota, 
Pusa, Dacca, Jorhat, Manikganj (Assam), Tharrawaddy and Meiktila 
(Burma). 

At Pusa it has been noted especially on bottle-gourd, at Lyallpur on 
pumpkin and in Gwalior the adult beetles were eating holes in cucumber 
leaves. At Jallandhar both larvae and adults were found boring into 
the underside of melon fruits lying on the ground and at Peshawar I 
found it doing serious damage to melons in the larval stage in May by 
boring into the roots. 

Control was discussed at the last Meeting and there is nothing to 
add. 

Do the grubs usually breed in roots ? Mr. Ramrao. 

They are not found inside the roots but underground feeding on roots. Mr. Ghosh. 

At Peshawar I found them actually boring inside melon roots. Mr. Hetcher. 

I cannot find the larva, although I have tried. Mr. Ramrao. 

At Pusa it took us five years to discover the early stages. Mr. Fletcher. 

Galerucella singhara, Lefroy. 

Entl. Mem. II, pp. M 6-1 19, t. 15 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 254. 

This species occurs principally in the United and Central Provinces 
where it is a bad pest of water-nut {Trapa bispinosa). We have it from 
Cawnpur, Shakartala and Bhadra (Central Provinces), Muzaf?arpur and 



Mr. David. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



230 mOCEEDIiSiGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETIKLG 

Pusa. At Pusa the adult beetles have been taken at light. As regards 
control, collection by hand and crushing the insect in all stages is the 
only satisfactory remedy. 

It is a bad pest in the United Provinces, where we control it by 
collection in handnets. 

Galerucella sp. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 250. 

This species was found on loquat {Eriohotrya japonica) by K. D. 
Shroff at Maymyo on 17th May 1909. 



Mimastra cyanea, Hope, 

Ind. Museum Notes IV, iv, 217 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 247. 

The Pusa collection contains specimens with the following data : — 

Jeohkote, adults on apricot fruit, chestnut, apple fruit ; Solan, 

adults defohating pear trees, 29th May 1916 (H. P. J. Peake) ; 

Dehra Dun ; Abbottabad ; Hills near Simla, adults defoliating 

mulberry and apple (inlcludng wild Pyrus Pashia), occurring 

annually at end of May, flying in morning and late afternoon, 

resting at midday (I. H. Burkill, letter of 28th May 1906) ; Sambli 

(near Murree Hills) 4,000 feet, adult beetles in enormous numbers 

in June 1918 defoliating pear, apricot and grape-vine. 

It has also been recorded as injurioiis to Greivia asiatica in the Dun 

Forest {Ind. Mus. Notes, I.e.). 



Monolepta signata, Oliv. 

South Ind. Ins., p. 310, f. 159 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 42, 64, 81, 190, 195, 200, 207, 280, 282, 283, 290, 298 ; 
Ann. Kept. Impl. Entom., 1917-18, p. 93, t. 12, ff. 2a-c (1918). 

This is a common and v\'idely distributed insect with a very wide 
range of foodplants. The Pusa Collection contains examples from Pusa 
on grass, Polygonum, lucerne, indigo, arhar, maize, cabbage ; Chapra ; 
Jeohkote (Kumaon), on grape-vine leaf ; Tharsa Farm (Central Provinces) 
on maize, 3rd January 1913 ; Patna district, on pea ; Poona ; Coimbatore, 
on ragi, grass, wheat, and vegetables ; Nilgiris ; Samalkota ; Dacca ; 
Raniganj (Bengal) ; Buxar Duars ; Jorhat ; Minbu (Lower Burma) ; 
Tharawaddy ; Myitkina ; and Maymyo. In Burma it is a minor pest 
of tur. In India it seems to be scarcely a pest as a rule although it is 
sufficiently common at times, especially on maize, to do a small amount 
of damage. It has been reared at Pusa from larvae found feeding at the 



.HOCEEDI^.S or lUE THIED ENIOMOEOOICA. MEETING 231 

.oots Of sugarcane but it is probable t'-t tbe ^- are genera, feeders 
on roots of Gramineae and do some harm m this stage. 

{Undetermined Gakmcine.) 
This was found in the Shevaroy Hills (4,000 feet) on mustard by 
y. Ramachandra Rao on 26th August 1907. 

(Undetermined Galerucine.) 

and completely ruin leaves of ^-^^^^^J':'^^^ ,^,^ and also attacks 

It also attacks rose leaves, completely ruming tnem, ana 
rose flowers, both when in full bloom and m bud. 

{Undetermined Galerucine.) 
■ . oQ+h ^Tarrh 1907 bv Mr. J. Harold Mitchell, 

T'U^c. -nTjc cpnt m tOUSOUiiytn iUdrCIl IDUi iJJ ^ . r -J. 

..om'SrrrAsslt the adults attackmg leaves and unr.pe fru.t on 
plum trees in large numbers. 

Nisotra madurensis, Jac. 

T ':nn '^^11 f 160- Proc. Second Bntl. 

South Indian Ins., pp. 310-311, t. idu , no 

Meeting, pp. 126, 134. „ , tz \ 

nt I nt7p2o. ,ut: a^rn'Lona, m.or pest of /M.o«. c„««- 

biniis. 

Psijlliodes tenebrosus, Jac. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 278, 281. 

This species was sent m to us from ^^^^^^Xr'i::TZ 
,.at damage to -»^- ^tt I lZ:':^^o.. m a letter, 
TT ; M M ::hl91 tha Seetles " have devastated my garden 

.T tt four days They have practically cleared cverythmg except 
m the last tour days, mey f j mustard 

peas, which they have not touched They se6m p 



seed." 



232 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Clitea picfa, Baly. 

Proe. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 215. 

We have this from Tharrawaddy (Burma) and Pusa. At Pusa it 
is a decided pest of bael {^gle mnrmelos), the larva boring into the leaf- 
petioles and shoots and the adult beetles eating the leaves so that they 
are riddled with small holes in June and July. 



Haltica cyanea. 

This was sent in on 14th December 1911 by the Superintendent of 
the Victoria Gardens, Bombay, as very badly infesting Ruellia amcena 
and R.Jormosa and CupJiea ignea. It has been reared at Pusa from larvae 
on Amnumia sp.; pupation took place in earthern chambers in the soil. 

At Taru the adult beetles were found in numbers in May 1916 on 
cauli-fiowers, cabbage, lettuce, sugar beet (especially on flower-heads) 
and also spread on to shaftal and hersim. 

The Pusa Collection contains specimens from Pusa (abundant) ; 
Nainpur (Central Provinces) ; Balaghat (Central Provinces) ; Surat ; 
Nuwara Eliya ; Tranquebar ; Coimbatore ; Samalkot ; Munshiganj ; 
Cuttack ; and Nepal, 

• 
Chalcenosoma metalUcum, Jac. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 267. 

This is a medium-sized, globular, bright metallic green and blue 
Halticine which was found in numbers injuring garden hlies at Ootaca- 
mund in December 1912 and 1913. The beetles may be collected by 
hand. 

Phyllotreta vittata, Fb. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 280, 282. 

This species was found by K. D. ShrofT on cabbage at Kaltha (Burma) 
on 2nd February 1907. 



Phyllotreta chotaniea, Duviv. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 280, 282. 

This species was found in small numbers on cabbage at Pusa, on 
4th March 1916 and we also have it from Mandalav (13th December 
1910). 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 233 

ChcBtocnema basalis, Baly. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 08. 

We have this from Eanchi, Dharwar and Tharrawaddy. At Dharwar 
it was found in February 1913 at the roots of withering rice plants. 
There are also old records on cards of the occurrence of adult beetles on 
sann hemp at Pusa in April 1906 (on stray plants), and in August 1905 
(" some "), at Raipur in August 1907 (" a good deal "), at Jallandhar 
in September 1905 and at Surat in September 1904 ; but we have no 
specimens with these data and it is very doubtful whether these records 
really belong to C. basalis at all — more probably they belong to the 
unidentified Halticine dealt with later on. 

Podotitia li-'punctata, Linn. 

We have this from the Khasi Hills, Helem (Assam), Jalpaiguri, and 
Bassein (Burma). It has been noted to attack fruit-trees at Jalpaiguri 
and, in his letter of 29th August 1908, Mr. I. H. Burkill reports that 
these beetles " have almost defoliated some imported fruit trees in the 
Jalpaiguri District." 

{Unidentified Halticine.) 

This species was found at Cawnpur on 15th October 1905 by Mr, C. S. 
Misra, the adults attacking groundnut and sweet potato. 

{Unidentified Halticine.) 

This species occurs at Pusa on sann hemp, generally in July on young 
plants, often in large numbers, eating the leaves into holes. On 15th 
December 1915 it was found on sann hemp at Pusa by Tahl Ram. 

It is often a bad pest of young sann hemp and the records on sann 
hemp quoted under Chcetocnema basalis {supra) probably belong to this 
species, which is distinct from C. basalis. 

In the case of young plants, the beetles can be caught in bag-nets 
swept over the plants or may be dealt with by spraying the plants. 

The larvae feed on roots of sann hemp but we have not been able to Mr. Ghosh, 
trace it through all its stages. 

At Coimbatore we also have a flea-beetle which is very bad on sann Mr. Ramakrishna 
hemp, biit I do not know whether it is the same species. Ayyar. 

It is not safe to assume that it is the same species because it feeds on Mr. Fletcher, 
the same plant. There are so many of these small fllea- beetles and their 
identification is hopeless at present. There is a very wide field in the 
Halticinse for anyone who wishes to take up systematic work. 



234 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



h Ramrao. 



•ti. Fletcher. 



{Unidentified HaUicme.) 

This was found on sann hemp at Mandalay by K. D. Shroff on 10th 
May 1909. It is apparently distinct from the preceding species ; it is 
larger and more stoutly built and rather redder in colour. 

( Unidentified HaUicine.) 

The adult beetles have been found at Pusa, on brinjal leaves in August 
1912 and on sweet-potato leaves in September 1915, eating small holes 
in the leaves. 

The beetles were also found nibbling the surface of brinjal seedling 
leaves in the seed-bed on 25th August 1915, producing yellowish markings 
all over the leaves. In many cases the entire tissue of the leaf is eaten 
and holes are produced. The beetles are a pest of the seedlings, eating 
both the upper and lower surfaces of the leaves. Adult beetles were 
also found at Muzafl'arpur on brinjal, 10-20th January 1905. 

{Unidentified HaUicine.) 

This species was reported byT. N. Jhaveri, in his letter of 7th February 
1913, as occurring at Dhulia, East Khandesh, and attacking a young 
germinating crop of rahijuar. 

Aspidomorpha miliaris, Fb. 

Ind. Mus. Notes III, i, 24 (1893) [Aspid. militaris] ; South Ind. 
Ins. pp. 316-317, f. 168 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 291. 

This is a widely distributed species which we have from Bassein 
Fort ; Poona, on Gmelina ; Kanara ; Hunsur (Mysore), on wild Ipomoea ; 
Coimbatore, on sweet-potato ; Madura ; and Ceylon. It is an occasional 
very minor pest of sweet-potato, the larva feeding on the leaves. 

We find this around Poona but it is not a pest. 

A spidomorphafoveata, Thnbg. 

We have this from Tharrawaddy and Moulmein, where it was found 
on sweet-potato. 

Aspidomorpha indica, Boh. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 292. 

We have this from Chapra, Pusa, Betul, Khasi Hills (1,000-3,000 
feet), the Anamalai Hills and Tatkon (Burma). At Betul it was found 
" on salad, 9th December 1915," at Tatkon the adults occurred on 
Trichosanthes cucumerina, and at Pusa it has been reared from the egg on 
sweet-potato leaves. 



PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 235 

It is perhaps an occasional pest of sweet-potato, but as a rule the 
damage clone is negligible. 

From a long series reared from the egg, it would appear that indica,. 
Boh., and foveata, Thnbg., are identical ; at least, I fail to see any dis- 
tinction. 

PiJemostoma trilineata, Hope. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 292. 

V\'e have this from Masuri, Chapra, Pusa, Lebong (Darjihng), and 
Tat ken (Burma). At Tatkon the adults were found on Trichosanthes 
C2icv?nenna and at Pusa the larvse have been found on sweet-potato 
leaves. It is scarcely a pest of sweet-potato, bat may do a little damage 
at times. 

Metriona circmndata, Hbst. 

Metriona sp., S. 1. 1., p. 318, f. 170 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 292. 

We have this from Surat, Chapra, Pusa and Dacca. At Pusa it has 
been reared from larvae on sweet-potato and in South Arcot and Tinnevelly . 
it has also been found on sweet-potato, of which it is scarcely a pest. 

( Un iden tified Cassid ine. ) 

This was found on sweet-potato at Moulmein in September 1914^ 
the adults occurring in small numbers. 

Leptispa pygmcea, Baly. 

South Ind. Ins., pp. 313-3U, f. 165 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
p. 168 (tab.). 

This species seems to be restricted in its distribution tcr Southern 
India, occurring as far North as Londa in Bombay and Godavari in 
Madras. We have it from Bassein Fort (Bombay) ; Alibagh (North of 
Bombay) ; Hassan (Mysore) ; Mercara (Coorg), on paddy, 17th November 
1915 ; Ottapalam, Malabar ; South Malabar, on rice, 23rd October 1911 ; 
and Travancore. 

It is a serious pest of paddy in Southern India, especially in districts 
with a heavy rainfall. 

We find it in Bombay, especially near the coast. Mr. Ramrao. 

How far north do you get it ? Mr. Fletcher. 

From Ratnagiri to Surat ; but in the Upper Konkan {i.e., in Thana Mr. Ramrao. 
and Alibagh Districts) we have only Hi spa, and in the Lower Konkan 
{i.e., Ratnagiri and Karwar) we have Leptispa. 

We do not find it at all at Pusa. Mr. Fletcher. 



236 



PllOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Pillay. 
Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. Pillay. 
Mr. 'haveri. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



It is a serious pest in Travancore. 

Do you do anything against it ? 

Nothing. 

We have found the grubs parasitized at Surat. 

The parasite is probably not very successful. 

( Un identified His fine . ) 

This species was found by K. D. Shroff on 7th September 1908 at 
Hmawbi (Lower Burma) boring into plantain stems. 

Wallacea sp. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 262. 

This species has been found at Pusa, the adult on top-leaves and the 
larva on top-shoots of the date palm {Phoenix sylvestris). The larvae 
and adults eat the epidermis of young leaflets. 

( Unidentified Hi spine . ) 

This species has been found in some numbers at Pusa on Saccharum 
arundinaceum. On 21st June 1918 the larvae were found living gregari- 
ously inside rolled leaves, nibbUng the epidermis, and on 10th July 1918 
the adults were found in the field nibbhng the leaves. The larvae collected 
in June emerged on 25th July 1918. 

Oncocephala tuberculata, Ohv. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 292. 

We have this from Bulsar (Bombay), in numbers on 20th May 1904 ; 
from Coimbatore, on sweet-potato ; and from Moulmein, adults on sweet- 
potato. It is not known to be a pest. 

Oncocephala sp. 

This was reared at Pusa from larvae found in September 1915 on sweet- 
potato leaves, mining them, September 1915. It is not known to be a 
j3est. 

Plalypria andrewesi, Weise. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 253. 

This species occurs on ber {Zizyphus jujuha), the larva damaging the 
leaves to a small extent. We have it from the Punjab, Surat, Pusa, 
Sripur, and Coimbatore. 



TROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 237 

Phtyjjria echidna, Guer. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 77. 

We have this from Matheran, Belgaum, the Nilgiris, and PoUibetta 
(South Coorg). It hves on Erythnna litJiosferma and is a minor pest of 
this, the leaves sometimes being damaged to a considerable extent. 

Platifprai hystrix, Fb. ' , 

South Ind. Ins., p. 316, f. 167 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 56, 74, 77. 

We have this from Cahcut and Tanjore. It occi' throughout 
Southern India as a local and minor pest of lablab, rujathi J:.rythrina. 

Hi spa armigera. 

South Ind. Ins., pp. 315-316, t. 10 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 167. 

Hispa armigera {ainescens) occurs in practically all rice-growing 
areas in Southern and Eastern India as a serious pest of rice, usually 
on young rice plants. North Bihar seems about its northern hmit, 
and at Pusa it is sometimes a pest of nurseries. Our records include the 
following data : — Champaran, on rice ; Pusa, usually in small numbers, 
occasionally destructive to seedling rice-plants ; Kidderpur ; Midnapur ; 
NoakhaU, on rice, 11th September 1913 ; Harra (Bankura), breeding 
in aus paddy leaves, July 1917 ; Bakerganj (Bengal), on paddy in numbers, 
September 1905 ; Sylhet, on paddy, 10th June 1912 ; Cuttack, occasionally 
serious ; Ellore ; Salem, on paddy ; South Kanara, on paddy ; Lonavla 
(Bombay), on rice. 

The life-history ie known and the main difficulty in control is the 
sporadic manner in which this pest usually appears in destructive numbers. 
Collection of the beetles in hand-nets has been found useful in Madras, 
and perhaps oiUng of the water and dipping the plants by dragging a 
rope over them might be useful in the case of seed-beds. 

Can anyone give us an account of practical experience in control 
measures ? 

Cutting off the tips of the plants is effective. W^hen the pest appears Mr. Ramrao. 
in large numbers, cutting the tips off the plants reduces the pest con- 
siderably, but this must be done before the flowering shoot comes up. 

In Madras it is the custom to bundle the seedUngs together and to Mr. Ramakrishna 
cut off the tops whether the beetles are present or not. We tried this Ayyar. 
and found it successful. 

In Travancore we tried hand-netting. If this is done twice or thrice Mr. Pillay. 
after the rains it is successful. Rain is essential for hand-netting, because 



238 



PKOf'EEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Pillay. 
Mr. P. C. Sen. 

Mr. Gupta. 

Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Pillay. 

Mr. Gupta. 

Mr. Pillay. 

Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Pillay. 
Mr. Ghosh. 

Mr. Pillay. 
Mr. Ghosh. 



the mire in the fields gets sticky and the beetles that fall in get stuck 
there. 

We find this pest very bad in cases where fields are irrigated from 
tanks. 

It does not occur until forty-five days after transplantation. 

It is bad in flooded areas in Bengal and nothing can be done there to 
check it. When it attacks aus paddy, bagging is possible. 

'In Assam there is no hope of checking the pest by bagging or netting. 

Will Mr. Pillay say whether it was a bag- net or a hand-net that he 
tried ? 

Hand-netting. 

We did bagging, but it was no good. 

The fields must be muddy and then the insects fall into the mire. 

Paddy is grown under swampy conditions, and bagging or netting 
seem impossible. 

We do netting two or three times. 

Do you get the beetles by bagging ? They seem to sit tight on the 
leaves. 

The insect occurs in patches where the paddy is about two feet high. 

Some varieties of paddy are more affected than others and work might 
be done on the selection of resistant varieties. 



Phidodonta modesta, Wied. 

South Ind. Ins., p. 315, t. 9 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 149, 
152, 180, 199. 
Kt. Fletcher. Our specimens are from Chapra ; Pusa, on sugarcane, Saccharnm 

sfontaneum, jiiar, oats and rice ; Surat, on sugarcane and jiiar ; and 
Pyinmana (Burma)' on sugarcane. It is a widely distributed species 
throughout the Plains of India and Burma and is a minor pest of sugar- 
cane and juar. The larva mines the leaf and the beetle also eats the leaf. 
The mined leaves and adult beetles may be collected and destroyed. 

It is uncertain whether we have one or more species on sugarcane 
under the name Ph. modesta. The Pusa specimens (as is shown in the 
•oloured plate given in Indian Insect Life, tab. 23, and in South Indian 
Insects, tab. 9) have five pairs bi thoracic spines, the first and second 
and the third and fourth connate, the fifth free. In the Surat specimens 
the first and second spines are connate, the rest separate at origin. The 
Burma form, as represented by a single specimen from Pyinmana, has 
the third and fourth thoracic spines on a distinct stalk and the elytra 
with accentuated colourless patches in rows between the spines. One 
Pusa specimen has the fifth thoracic spine double on the left side only. 



PECCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 239 

The original description of Ph. modesta applies to the Surat form, whilst 
our coloured plate is taken from the Pusa form. 

It is not a pest at Pusa. Mr. Misra. 

Lariad^ (Bruchid^). 

This family includes a number of species which attack pulses. Most Mr. Fletcher, 
of them are pests of stored pulses, but a few attack the seeds in the field. 
The various species concerned are as yet very imperfectly known in India 
and further investigation will doubtless bring to light many more species 
which attack crops in the field. Besides those mentioned here we have 
various unidentified species from Seshania and Crotalaria seeds. 

Bruchus affinis, Frol. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 64, 65, 308 ; Ann. Rept. Impl. 
Entom., 1917-18, p. 105. 

This species has been found at Pusa and Poona attacking Pisum 
sativum seeds in the field. We have it also from Kanara. 

We find it breeding in the field to a considerable extent. It has one Mr. Ramrao. 
brood in the year and cannot breed in the dry seeds later on. 

Bruchus theobromce, Linn. 

This species has been found at Poona, breeding in Pismn sativum Mr. Fletcher, 
seeds in the field. 

We also have it from Belgaum, Matheran and Coimbatore, but it has 
not been found at Pusa. 

Pachymenis chinensis, Linn. 

S. I. I., pp. 306-307, f. 155 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 45, 
57, 60, 64, 308 (Bruchm) ; Ann. Rept. Impl. Entom. 1917-18, 
p. 105. 

Pachymenis {Bruchus) chinensis breeds both in the field and in stored 
pulses. At Pusa it is mainly a pest of stored seeds, but has been found 
to breed in the field in pods of cowpea {Vicjna catjang). We have speci- 
mens from the following localities and foodplants, but not all of these 
latter are from growing plants : — Nagpur, larva in pea-seeds and Vkjmi 
catjang pods ; Gaya, on Cajanus indicus ; Pusa, eggs on pea-pods, larva) 
in Vigna catjang pods in fields, seeds of DoUchos bifloni.<', arhar seeds, 
lentils in store ; Mysore and Coimbatore, on Cajanvs indicus. 

The fact that these seeds may be infested in the field emphasizes the 
necessity for proper treatment before storage. 

VOL. I R 



240 proceedings of the third entomological meeting 

Meloid^ (Cantharid.^). 

Ejncauta hirticornis hadgleyi, Wellm. MS. 

This species was sent in by Dr. H. H. Mann in June 1907 as damaging 
vegetable gardens in Assam and also seriously attacking Seshania acukata 
{dhaincha) plants introduced for green manure on Tea Gardens. It. was 
also sent in on 21st September 1907 by the Head-Master of the Dacca 
Training School as destroying leaves of dhaincha plants. 

The Pusa Collection also contains specimens from Buxar Duars, 
Gauhati and Nongpoh. 

Eficauta sp. 

S. S. I., p. 306, f. 154. 
This species was found at Puttur, South Kanara, on paddy. 3rd 
October 1909. 

It is a local pest of paddy, eating the flowers and also attacking the 

ripe ear-heads. 

Epicauta sp. 

Adult beetles were sent in to us on 17th June 1914 from Simla by 
Kishen Singh as " working havoc on all the potato and cabbage crops, 
and it swarms like locusts, eating up all the leaves, even of walnut and 
other trees." 

Zonabris phalerata, Pall. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 128. 

Specimens were sent in to us by Messrs. Mitchell and Company on 
23rd June 1915 from Garhi, Kashmir (3,000 feet) and were stated to be 
eating and destroying the olive fruits on the trees. 

At Pusa the adults occur in November every year and destroy Hibiscus 
rosa-sinensis flowers. 

We also have specimens of this species (identified by Dr. Creighton 
Wellman) from Helem (Assam), Belgaum, Shevaroys, Masuri, Surat, 
Berar (Central Provinces), Hoshangabad, Saran (Bihar) and Cuttack, 
Mr. Robertson- It has not been noticed on olives in the North- West Frontier Province. 

Brown. 

Zonabris fustulata, Thunb. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 43, 60, 128, 201. 

Mr. Fle'.cier. We have two or three specimens named as pustulata by Dr. Creighton 

Wellman but I cannot distinguish these from phalerata, which seems to 
be the commoner form. 



TEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 241 

The name pustulata has generally been applied to the common large 
black red-banded species which is frequently destructive to Cajanus 
indicus, cowpea, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and tenai. 

Ly((a tenuicollis, Pall. 

S. I. I., p. 302, f. 148 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 178, 
183, 188, 201. 

We have this from Chapra ; Pusa ; Belgachia ; Palamau ; Bhandara 
(Central Provinces), on rice ; Hoshangabad ; Surat, on bajra and jttar ; 
Nadiad ; Hagari (Bellary), on cholam ear-heads and paddy ; Bezwada ; 
and Coimbatore. In Southern India this species does considerable 
damage to ear-heads of cholam, cimihu, etc. 

As in the case of all these Meloid beetles, the adults are easily 
collected by liand or in nets. 

Lytta jiicta, Cast. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 207. 

This has been found at Gurgaon (Punjab), the beetles eating bajra 
{Pennisefum typhoideum) flowers, 4th September 1906. Mr. T. N. 
Jhaveri has also found the beetles eating lucerne leaves in North Gujarat. 

Lytta nificollis, Oliv. 

S. I. I., p. 305, f. 153 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 201 {Cantharis). 

This species seems to be confined to Southern India. It has been 
found in Coimbatore, Bellary, Kurnul, Tanjore, and TinneVelly ; the 
adult beetles damage cumbu, cholam and tenai ear-heads. 



Lytta actcBon, Cast. 

Entl. Note 35 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 149, 202, 207 
(Cantharis). 

We have this from Kasur (Punjab), Cawnpur, Surat, Khandesh, 

Pusa and Cuttack. At Pusa the adult beetles were found on rice-plants 

on 8th August 1905, on grass on 10th June 1907, eating lucerne on 2nd 

August 1913, on Seiaria and Panicvm miliacevm in large numbers on 17th 

July 1915, and also appeared in the beginning of July 1916. At Cuttack 

the adults were found on aus paddy on 20th August 1907. 

,x. £ J ,, . • nj^ •, , Mr. Ramakrishna 

VVe rind tms in Madras also. Ayyar 

R 2 



242 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Gnathos'pastoides rouxi, Cast. 

South Ind. Ins., p. 302, f. 147 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 51, 201. 

Mr. FJetcter. This is a widely-distributed species which we have from Fyzabad 

(United Provinces), Pusa, Seoni, Bhandra (Central Provinces), Hoshang- 
abad, Surat, Dharwar, Kanara, Bezwada, Samalkota, Devanakonda 
(Kurnul), BeeravalU (Bellary) and Yemmiganur (Bellary). At Pusa it 
has been found on urid leaves. At Bhandara the adult beetles were 
found in a field of Kiitki [Panicvm miliare] ; they " ate up nearly two- 
thirds of the whole crop, selecting the seeds which were just ripening and 
leaving those that were dry and perfectly mature." At Seoni on 7th 
September 1904 the adult was noted to attack the ear of young plants 
of Kutki. At Dharwar on 21st September 1908 the beetles were found 
on juar ear-heads ; " sweet " and " dwarf Milo " varieties of juar were 
attacked, whilst the " Sundhia " variety, grown close to the others, 
was quite free from attack. At Devanakonda the beetles occurred on 
cholam at the end of August 1913. At BeeravalU and Yemmiganur the 
adults appeared at the end of August 1913. 



Tenebrionid^. 

Hopatroides seriatoforus, Pairm. 

Specimens of adult beetles were sent to us on 29th July 1910 by the 
Superintendent of the Agricultural Station, Dharwar, who stated that 
they were " found in the surface of the soil and had done a lot of damage 
by cutting the tenderupshoots of potatoes, castors and groundnuts." 
Injured stems were sent for inspection. No attack of these beetles had 
hitherto been observed nor has it been reported subsequently. 



Gonoce'phalmn brachelytra , Gebien. 

We have this only from Pusa, where it is abundant. On 18th January 
1919 adult beetles were found in large numbers in recently transplanted 
beds of poppies, petunias, etc., in a garden, feeding on the plants. They 
were collected by hand and excluded from the floAver-beds by a border 
of ashes mixed with kerosine. The larva has been found underground 
at Pusa in a gram field, where it was eating gram roots ; in confinement 
it fed on fresh indigo leaves and decomposing leaves. The larva and pupa 
have been found on 18th May 1914 underground in a field of paJical 
{Tricliosanthes dioica). 



TROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 243 

Gonocephalum defressum, Fb. » 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 46, 50, 284. 

This is a widely-distributed species which we have from Peshawar, 
Masuri, Cawnpur, Bundhilkhand (Central India), Pusa, Lebong 
(Darjiling District), Buxar Duars, Khasi Hills, Mandalay, Belgaum, 
Bangalore, Kanara, Trichinopoly, lyerpadi (South India), Coimbatore, 
and Valparai (Anamalai Hills). In Bundhilkhand it was found at roots 
of gram and at Bangalore in March 1910, the beetles were noted by 
T. V. Ramakrishna Ayyar to damage grape-vines by nibbling the tender 
roots and scraping the fruits. Larvae were sent in from Orai, near 
Cawnpur, by Mr. B. C. Burt and stated to be damaging gram roots in 
January 1909 ; " the larva remains underground, first eating the hairs 
of the roots, sometimes cutting roots through four or five inches below 
ground. Individual plants are attacked here and there ; they yellow 
and dry up." 

Gonocephalum hofmannseggi, Steven. 

South Ind. Ins., p. 299, f. 143 ; Mysore Entl. Bull, No. 5 (1918). 

We have this from Dehra Dun. Bangalore, Nilgiris, Kanara, CaUcut, 
Coimbatore, Anamalais and Tinnevelly. It has been noted at Bangalore 
to do occasional damage to grape-vines, potatoes, etc., and in their recent 
Bulletin Messrs. Coleman and Kunhi Kannan record it definitely as a 
pest of potato and ragi {Eleusine coracana), and recommend control by 
attracting the adult beetles to bundles of weeds pulled out with their 
roots and laid down on the field bunds. 

We have recently issued a Bulletin on G. Jiofmannseggi and G. depres- mj, Kanhi Canioai 
sum and remedial measures have been suggested there. This species 
attacks ragi seedUngs and potato tubers in Mysore. 

Gonocephalum elongatum, Fairm. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 46, 50, 94. 

This is also a widely-distributed species and we have it from Cawnpur, Mr. Fletclier. 
Chapra, Pusa, Comilla, Buxar Duars, Lashio (Upper Burma), Nongpoh 
(Khasis), Chitrakote and Lalitpur (Central Provinces), and Belgaum. 
At Cawnpur the adult beetles have been found on groundnut and at Pusa 
on 18th January 1919 they were abundant in newly-transplanted beds of 
seedlings (poppies, petunias, etc.), in a garden, pairing, and apparently 
breeding and feeding on the plants. At Pusa the larva was found eating 
roots of gram in May 1915 and the insect has also been reared from the 
egg on dry indigo leaves. Like the preceding species, it probably feeds 
normally in the larval stage at the roots of grass but may do considerable 



244 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Senior- White. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 

Mr, Fletcher. 



Mr. Beeson. 

Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



damage to cultivated plants at times and the beetles also attack culti- 
vated plants, especially any tliat are at all sickly. 
The beetles are gregarious in habit. 

Gonocephalum sp. 
The larvse were found at Pusa in a gram field, and in confinement 
ate gram roots and also decaying leaves. 

Gonocephalutn sp. 
The adult beetles were found in numbers at Moulmein in September 
1914 on sweet-potato which certainly seemed to have been attacked by 
them, many plants being dying or dead and their stems eaten into. 

Elateeid^e. 

Dr aster ius sp. 

Elaterid grubs found at Pusa on 10th November 1914 were supposed 
to be damaging newly-grown wheat. The larvae were suppUed with 
roots but it could not be determined that they were eaten ; they were 
probably predaceous, and it is doubtful whether they were actually 
doing damage. 

We have found this species actually eating potato- tubers underground. 
We find it chiefly in the Hilly tracts. 

All the Elaterids that we have reared have been predaceous in the 
larval stage. 

They live in wood in large numbers. 

The grubs were fed on potato -tubers in our insectary. 

BUPRESTID.?:. 

Sfhenoftera gossypii, Kerr. 

South Ind. Ins., p. 298, t. 8 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 119, 124. 
This species is widely distributed in India and we have it from Hissar 
(Punjab), Pusa, Nagpur, Anand, Surat, Baroda, and the Nilgiris. As a 
pest of cottons, however, its activities seem localized. In the Punjab* 
and at Pusa it is scarce. In Berar it used to be a bad pest but the practice 
of removing and burning all attacked plants has apparently reduced the 
damage to insignificant proportions. In the Surat District it is still very 
serious, especially in young cotton plants. In Baroda it is reported to 
occur especially on areas of black soil. In the Bellary district and the 
adjacent territories in Mysore it is an occasional pest of cotton. It is 
occasionally found in bhindi also throughout its area of occurrence. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 245 

It is easily controlled by systematic destruction of all attacked plants. 

In Bellary we found it in Egyptian cotton. Mr. Ramakrishna 

, . . Ayyar. 

It is not found in cotton in Egypt. What chances are there of its Dr. Gough. 

importation into Egypt from India ? 

The chances are very small since the insect is not found in the seeds Mr. Fletche?, 

at all. 

In Baroda it is bad in areas of black cotton soil. ^^- P**®!* 

The same statement is true in Surat. With us it is controlled by Mr. Jhaveri. 

a parasite. 

Sphenoptera arachidis, Lefroy MS. 

South Ind. Ins., pp. 298-299, ff. 141, 142 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 46, 48, 56, 57, 60, 70, 75, 93, 208. 

We have this from Palur (S. Arcot) and Hagari (Bellary), reared Mr. Fletcher, 
from groundnut, of which this insect is a sporadic pest, and it has also 
been reported to occur at Nagpur on groundnut and soy-bean and in 
Baroda on tur. We have also specimens in the Pusa collection, placed 
under gossypii but which more probably belong to arachidis, from Nagpur, 
on soy-bean, from Hagari, on groundnut, and from Pusa on sann-hemp 
and iur. S. arachidis has also been noted in lucerne at Bellary, in 
lablab at Nadiad, in horsegram in Madras, in cowpea, and in agathi 
in Madras ; but it is possible that some these records do not really refer 
to this species. 

In Madras it is a sporadic pest which has never been serious, at least Mr. Ramakrishna 
not for the last two or three years. ^^^^' 

Psiloptera fastuosa, Fb. 

Stebbing, In. For. Ins. Col., pp. 199-200, t. XI ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 275. 

This species seems to occur chiefly in Southern India, our specimens Mr. Fletcter. 
being from Bassein Fort (Bombay), Malabar, Trichinopoly, Manaparai, 
Saidapet, Kurnul, Yemmiganur and Beeravalli (Bellary). In Malabar 
it has been recorded on teak and at Saidapet the adult beetle was found 
on castor stems. The beetle is also recorded as stripping the bark off 
young stems of Acacia arabica. It seems doubtful whether it is a pest 
to any cultivated crop. 

Belionota prasina, Thunb. 

Stebbing, Ind. Forest Ins. Col., pp. 217-218, fig; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, pp. 227-231 ; Ann. Rept. Impl. Entom. 
1917-18, p. 103, t. 18, ff. 2 a-d. 

We have this from the Khasi Hills, Pusa, Baroda, Surat, Poona 
and Kanara. At Pusa the adults occur in August and September. At 



246 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING^ 



Poena it has been found boring into guava stems and at Surat tlie larvse 
were found in August 1917 in numbers in a mango stem which had 
apparently been killed by them. Stebbing also records it in mango 
at Chicacole, and it may be looked on as a sporadic pest of mango. 



Mr. P. C Sen. 



Julodis atkinsoni, Kerr. 

Ind. Mus. Notes IV, ii, 48-49, fig. (1896). 

Reported as very destructive in June 1895 to the cotton and melon 
crops in the Lieah Tahsil of Dehra Ismail Khan. 

There are no specimens in Pusa Collection and it has not since been 
reported as a pest. 

Trachys sp. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 134. 

This species occurs as a pest of jute chiefly in Bengal and the adja- 
cent parts of Bihar, the larva mining the leaves. At Pusa it is not 
common, whilst at Dacca jute plants left for seed have been noted to 
have been riddled with holes. It has also been noted on jute at Rang- 
pur and Purnea but it is usually regarded as only a minor pest of jute. 

It is only a minor pest of jute, for which no remedy is necessary. 



Mr Fletcher. 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 



Trachys bicolor. 

The larvae of this species have been found mining Butea frondosa 
leaves in South Malabar. 

It is found as a bad pest of Butea frondosa in the Walayar Forest, 
in South Malabar. The leaves appear bHstered when attacked. 



{Unidentified Buprestid.) 

Mr. Fletcl er. This species was sent to us from Simla by Messrs. W. M. Cotton 

& Co., as boring cherry trees in the larval stage. These cherry 
trees had been imported and were five years old. The larva apparently 
hatched between the bark and the wood, and the pupa was embedded 
in the hard wood. The outside bark was riddled with oval holes as 
large as the head of a match, but these did not contain hving insects. 



Mr. Senior-White. 



[Chrysochroa sp. 

This is an occasional pest of cultivated roses at Matale, the beetles 
getting into the middle of the flowers and eating out the flowers.] 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 247 

[Agrilus acutus. 

In 1918 in the observation plots at the Nagpur Experimental Farm, Mr. Khare. 
some ambadi {Hibiscus cannabinus) plants were growing. These plants 
looked quite healthy, till the month of October, but later on put on a 
sickly appearance, so much so that in November many plants died 
and had to be uprooted : all the dead plants were examined, and found 
harbouring more than one grub of a Buprestid beetle. I first of all 
took that to be a Sphenoptera grub, but later on when the beetles emerged, 
those were no longer Sphenoptera but Agrilus acutus. The stems of 
amhadi apparently were all right excepting a few cuts on the bark here 
and there. The root system too was quite sound, unlike in cotton when 
the main root is hollowed by the Sphenoptera gossypii grub, and, when 
the plants are pulled up, always break at that point. The grub, when 
it enters the stem, makes its way up spirally by cutting the wood a 
little deep, behind the bark. When the grub is fully developed it cuts 
a chamber in the wood and remains doubled up in a resting condition. 
I have kept quite a large number of the affected stems in a cage. I 
got a couple of beetles emerged in December last, but the majority of 
the grubs are lying inactive in the stems. It is possible that these 
may emerge next May or June. 

I could not find any reference to this beetle in any of the books 
like South Indian Insects, Indian Insect Lije, or Indian Museum Notes. 
I think it worth recording that this beetle may turn out a serious pest 
of ambadi.] 

Melyrid^. 

Idgia melanura, Koll and Redt. 

This species occurs commonly at light at Pusa in July-September, Mr. Fletcher, 
and in August-September 1905, the adults were found on maize in small 
numbers and in September 1908 on juar. We also have it from Chapra, 
Masuri, Lebong (Darjiling), Khandesh, Belgaum and Coimbatore (at 
light), so that it is widely distributed in India. It may be looked on 
as a potential pest of cereals. 

Idgia cardoni. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 188. 

This species is very similar to melanura but the femora are unicolorous 
testaceous, whereas in melanura the apices of femora are blackish. We 
have it from Lahore, Helem (Assam), Coimbatore, the Anamalai Hills, 
and Peradeniya. At Lahore it was found on one occasion in destructive 
numbers on bajra flowers and it may be looked on as a sporadic pest 
of cereals. 



Mr. Ramakrisbna 
Ayyar. 



248 



TROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



[Idgia belli. 

Idgia belli was found in enormous numbers in October in the Wynaad, 
the adults attacking flowers of wild and thatching grass but not any 
cultivated crop. They occur in such enormous numbers that three or 
four baskets-full could be collected in a couple of hours by one man.] 



Hajmlochrus jasciatus, Fb. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 168, 207. 

Mr. Fletcter. This species has been found on rice at Chapra, and at Pusa on rice 

in small numbers in July 1915, on grass and on lucerne. We have it 
also from Kasara (Bombay). It is not known as a pest. 



Harcband Singh. 



COCCINELLID^. 

Epilachna dodecastigma, Muls. 

South Ind. Ins., p. 292, t. 6 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 59, 285, 287, 289, 302, 307. 

We have this in the Pusa Collection from Igatpuri, Pusa, Nilgiris, 
Tatkon, Jorhat, Chapra, Cheniot (Punjab) and Coimbatore. 

At Pusa it occurs on leaves of Ltiffa cvgyj)tiaca, potato, brinjal, tomato 
and cucumber in all stages. At Tatkon the adults were found on Tri- 
chosanthes cucumerina. At Coimbatore it was reared on Solaniim sp. 

It also occurs less commonly on cowpea. 

It is a decided pest of brinjal, potato and cucurbits, both the larva? 
and adults feeding on the leaves. It may be collected in all stages or ^ 
treated by spraying. 

Epilachna 28-punctata, Fb. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 59, 285, 287, 289, 302, 307. 

This species occurs commonly throughout the Plains and we have 
it in the Pusa collection from Belgaum, Jalpaiguri, Palur, Pusa, Baroma, 
(Assam), Jorhat, Nongpoh, Chapra, Tatkon. 

At Pusa and in the Philippines it occurs on potato, brinjal, Cepha- 
landra indica, and it is regular pest of brinjal, potato and cucubits when- 
ever it occurs. Life-history and control as in E. dodecastigma. 

This beetle did enormous damage to desi varieties of potatoes at 
Solan and Kanda Ghat, near Simla. Scotch varieties, which were 
put down nearby, were untouched. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 249 

EROTYLIDiE. 

Languria sp. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 201. 

This species has been found at Coimbatore, where it bores into ienai 
{Setaria italica). The egg is laid in a hole cut by the adult in a stem, 
inside which the larva bores and pupates. This is at present only- 
known from Coimbatore and the Pusa Collection contains no specimens. 

Have you found it anywhere outside of Coimbatore ? Mr. Fletcher 

We have not found it anywhere outside of Coimbatore. Mr. Isaac. 

[See also papers Nos. 3 and 65 of these Proceedings.] 

CiCINDELIDJE. 

CoUyris sp. 

Fowler, F. I. Cicind, p. 515. 

The larva of a species of CoUyris has been noticed to bore into branches Mr. Fletcher, 
of tea in the Nilgiris, It is not sufficiently conunon to do much damage, 

HEMIPTERA (RHYNCHOTA). 

Pentatomid^. 
Brachyplatys pauper, Voll. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 9-10. 

This species was found in large numbers on hemp at Rangpur on 
21st July 1905 and was said to have done some damage. It is scarcely 
a pest as a rule. 

Brachyplatys subaeneus, Westwd. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 11. 

This species was also found in large numbers on hemp at Rangpur 
on 21st July 1905, but is scarcely a pest as a rule. '-■ 

Coptosoma cribraria, Fabr. 

South Ind. Ins., pp. 469-470, fig. 345; F. I. Rhyn. I. 22-23, 
fig. 11 ; Ind. Ins. Life, p. 612 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 51,57, 76. 

We have this from Seoni (Bhandara), on beans, 26th April 1912 ;, 
Poona, on Cajanns indicus on 15th December 1908, and on val ; Cuttack ; 



250 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Travancore, on cluster beans ; Yercaud (Shevaroys) ; Coimbatore ; 
Pusa, on beans ; Surat ; MuzafEarpur ; Eanchi ; Nadiad ; Mahim ; Jalal- 
pore ; and Jallandhar. 

In Southern India it bas been recorded as found on Dolichos lablab, 
Phaseolus mungo, Cyamopsis, agathi {Sesbania grandiflora), Legumi- 
nosse and Compositse. It is generally a minor pest of lablab and agathi. 
Control by catching in hand-nets. 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar, 

Mr. Andrews. 



[Coptosoma nazirce, Atk. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 33. 

This species occurs in large numbers on brinjal, cluster-bean, etc., 
in South Kanara. It occurs on mango shoots also. 

We have found it in enormous numbers in Assam, but have not 
noticed that it did any damage.] 



Coptosoma sp. 

Mr. Fletcher. This was found at Mandalay in August 1914 on Sesbania and Cajanus 

indicus, in some numbers. 

Coptosoma sp. 

This species was found in August 1914 at Mandalay on Sesbania 
aculeata, in some numbers. 

Coptosoma sp. 
This species has been found at Palur (S. Arcot) on Butea frondosa. 



Pcecilocoris latus, Dall. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 44, f. 19 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 23. 

This species occurs throughout Assam on tea. The bug pierces into 
the heart of unripe tea seed, and thus facilitates the entrance of fungus 
spores. 
Mr. Andrews. ^^ regards control, we still rely on catching it by hand. 

Scutellera nobilis, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 51-52 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 236. 

Mr. Fletcher. We have this from Poona, on cotton and PhgUanthus ; Pusa, on 

castor ; and Garhwal. It was recorded in Indian Museum Notes V, 
iii, 119 as attacking grape fruits at Siripur Farm, Hutwa. 



PBOCEEDlJfGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 251 

Ochrophara montana, Dist. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 147 ; Anstead, Planters' Chronicle, Vol. 
XII, No. 47, 24 Nov. 1917, p. 594. 

We have this from Aijal (Liishai Hills) on paddy ; Sallebile Estate 
(Mysore), on GreviUea robusta, a shade tree to coffee; Hallery Estate, 
^antikoppa, N. Coorg ; and Pollibetta, S. Coorg. 

This species apparently lives normally on bamboo seeds, and when 
the bamboos have flowered over a large area, the bugs increase enormous- 
ly so that they sometimes do damage to shade trees on coffee estates 
by breaking off the branches owing to the weight of the vast number 
of bugs congregated on the trees. They also occur on coffee in large 
numbers at such times but have not been noticed to attack coffee at all. 

Cappcea taprohanensis, Dall. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 149, f. 88 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 213. 

We have this from the Shevaroys, Coonoor, Bababudins and Malabar, 
in all cases found on orange trees. 

It has also been found gregariously in Ceylon on the bark and trunk 
of orange trees (Distant). It is apparently a minor pest of Citrus trees. 

Codophila macidicollis, Dall. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I, 158-159, f. 95. 
We have this from Poona, on Solanum xanthocarpum. 

Dolycoris indiais, Stal. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 160, f. 96 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 82, 96, 97, 184, 198, 201. 

We have this from Poona, on wheat ; Lahore ; Berhampore ; 
Aska (Ganjam), aniseed ; Chapra ; Pusa, Cajanus indiais pods, indigo, 
wheat, lucerne, tobacco plants, sugarcane, cotton ; Jalkndhar ; Gojra 
(Punjab). In Southern India it has been recorded as found on cliohm, 
Pennisetum typhoideum, Setaria italica, safflower, sun-flower. It is a 
minor pest of the various crops attacked. ' 

Eusarcocoris ventralis, Westwd. 

Dist., F. 1. 1, 167 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 85. 

This species has been found at Ganjam on gingelly, and we also have 
it from Pusa, Khasi Hills, Chapra, Raniganj, and Bangalore. 



252 TKOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING- 

Eusarcocoris guttiger, Thunb. 

Dist., F. I. Ryn, I. 165-166; S. Ind. Ins. p. 471, f. 348. 

We have this from Surat, Belgaum, Bassein Fort, Pusa, and 

Chapra. 

In the Plains of South India, it is a minor pest of Pennisetum iyphoi- 

deum. 

Aniestia cruciata, Fb. 

Dist., F. 1. Rhyn., I. 185 ; S. Ind. Ins.. p. 472,- f. 350 ; Proc. 

Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 36, 222 ; Planters' Chronicle, 

VIII, 37. 

We have this from Nagpur, on lemon 16th June 1906, and Iw 

i3th July 1906 ; Poona, on coffee 21st May 1910 ; Chindwara, on mango 

inflorescence (said to be damaged) ; Kullakamby, on coffee ; Calcutta, 

on Acanthus; KasauU, on peach, apricot; Seoni (C. P.), on mango, 

peaches — sucks the juice of fruits which fall down. 

It attacks young berries of coffee in Ceylon [Distant]. In the Nil- 
giris it has been found in large numbers sucking coffee berries and may 
be looked on as a sporadic pest of coffee in South India. 

Afines concinna, Dall. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. pp. 186-187, fig. 111. 
Distant gives the distribution, Hardwar, Bombay, '" reported as 
attacking Rabi (winter) crops in the North Western Provinces {Ind. 
Mks. Notes, Vol. II, p. 165)." Otherwise we do not know this as a 
pest. 

Agonoscelis niihila, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 189 ; South Ind. Ins. pp. 472-473, fig. 
351 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 184, 298, 301. 
Our specimens are from Jabbalpur, on tobacco, 14th March 1906 ; 
Poona, on lucerne, 21st October 1909 ; C. P., carrot flowers ; Pusa, on 
sunflower. Hibiscus sabdarifja, ber, Leucas sp. ; Dacca ; Naduvatum ; 
Cuttack ; Sitamarlii (N. Bihar) ; Munshiganj ; Balaghat (C. P.) ; Jorhat 
(Assam) ; Khasi Hills ; Tatkon (Upper Burma), on cotton (K. D. Shroff) ; 
Shoranur (Malabar), paddy. 

" At Bombay, generally found on Dolichos lablab ; R. M. Dixon " 
(Distant). In the Central Provinces it is reported on carrot flowers 
and in South India it has been recorded on cholam, cumbu {Pennisetum 
typhoideitm), wheat, various pulses, and aniseed. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 253 

\ 

Bagrada incta, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 193-194, f. IIG ; South Ind. Ins., p. 473, 
t. 2, f. 10; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 277 (tab.), 281, 
282, 283. 

We have this from Nagpur, on cabbage in December 1909 ; Poona 
on mustard, 18th September 1909 ; Coimbatore ; Ootacamund, on 
turnips ; Simla, on cabbage, cauhfiower, radish, cress ; Saharanpur. 
on Cruciferae ; Bhim Tal (Kumaon). did considerable damage to potato 
crop, 30th May 1907 ; Naini Tal (Kumaon). cabbage- — did considerable 
damage ; Ramgarh (Kumaon), on cruciferous plants ; Pusa, on sugar- 
cane, rice [{], mustard, cabbage ; Kasauli (Punjab) ; Surat, on mustard ; 
Bombay, on radish ; and Chapra. 

At Dalsing Serai it was found attacking Natal indigo by de Nicevile 
(Distant). It is a pest of Cruciferae generally throughout India, occur- 
ring in very large numbers in some years. As a rule, it occurs late in 
the season. 

Rhynchocoris hunteralis, Thnb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 212-213, f. 133 ; Entl. Note 94 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 214. 

We have this from Myitkyina (Upper Burma), on orange at end of 
August 1904 ; Jeohkote (Kumaon), on orange, did considerable damage ; 
and the Buxar Duars. It is a minor pest of orange. 

We find a bug, which is probably this one, in large numbers on Mr. Gupta, 
orange fruits in Assam. The small green oranges drop off the trees 
when attacked. We control these bugs by applying the milky juice 
of the jak fruit to the end of a long stick and touching the bugs with 
this sticky end. 

Can the bugs be seen easily 1 Mr. Fletcher. 

Yes ; c^uite easily. Mr. Gupta. 

RhyncJiocoris plagiatus, Wlk. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 213 ; Entl. Note 95. 

This species was found in numbers on Coca {Erythroxylon coca) at Mr. Petcher. 
Peradeniya in April 1914. 

[Vitellus orientalis, Dist. 

Dist. F. I. Rhyn., I. 214-215, f. 134. 

It punctures the ripe fruits of oranges, particularly the sweet varie- Mr. Isaac. 
ties. The area around the puncture sinks down and the size of the 



254 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



pit thus formed may be as large as a fom--anna piece. Probably this 
condition is brought about by a fungus which follows the puncture.] 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mi. Isaac. 
Dr. Gough. 
Mr. Ghosh. 



Nezara viridida, L. 

Dist. F. I. Ehyn. I. 220, f. 139; S. Ind. Ins., pp.. 473-474' 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 52, 71, 89 (tab.), 130, 184, 
^187, 198, 200, 285. 

This species has been reported from Akola (Berar), on Maghai Telli, 
24th December 1909 ; Poona, on cotton (18th November and 19th 
December 1909), tur (15th October 1907) ; Pusa, on mung {Phaseolus 
mungo), potato leaves (in large numbers), cotton, millets, sun flower ; 
Simla ; Ging (Darjiling) ; Bassein Fort ; Ganjam, on ragi ; Coimbatore, 
on wheat ; Shevaroys (Yercaud), bad pest of potatoes ; Hubh (Dbarwar), 
on castor ; Gadag, on Sesanmm ; Tinnevelly, reported bad on cumhu ; 
Bangalore, on potato ; Dharwar, on til pods ; Poona, on Cajantis mdicus ; 
Minbu (Lower Burma) ; and Kajshahi. 

It is a regular minor pest of castor and the other crops named above 
and is sometimes serious on potato in the Hills. It is best controlled 
by hand-picking. 

It is a bad pest of potato in the Shevaroys. 

In Egypt it is a pest of cotton and a bad pest of potato. 

It is found on pulses also. 



Mx. Eetclier. 



Nezara graminea, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 221. 
This species has been found at Dharwar, 



on juar. 



Piezodorus nihrofasciafus, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 224-225, f. 142 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 474, 
f. 353 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 39, 184. 

We have this from Pusa, Bilaspur, Katni, Surat, Bassein Fort, 
Nadiad, Burdwan, Cuttack (on dhaincha), Mysore, and Godavari Dis- 
trict. 

In South India it is a minor pest of cholam, pulses and low growing 
plants. It has also been found on Lantana camara. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 255^ 

Menida histrio, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 228 ; S. Ind. Ins.. pp. 474-475, f. 354 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 175, 184. 

We have this from Pusa, Chapra, Cuttack (on potato), Dacca, Rani- 
ganj, Trevandrum (on rice), Suri (Bengal) on rice, Peniikonda (Madras) 
on paddv, and Kezanathum (Tinnevelly). 

In South India it has been noted on paddy, wheat, cholam and pulses. 
It is scarcely a pest. 

Asofiis malaharicns, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 255, f. 162. 

This species has been found in the Central Provinces on cotton and 
we also have it from Pusa. It is not known as a pest. 

Tessaratoma quadrata, Dist. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyi). I. 258, f. 104; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 230, 247, 249. 

This species was reported from Kalimpong in 1914 as damaging 
pears, apples and htchis. We have it also from the Buxar Duars and 
the Khasi Hills. 

Cyclo'pelta siccifolia, Westw. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 280-281, f. 178 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 476, f. 
357 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 45, 78, 299, 300. 

We have this from Surat ; Belgaum ; Tellicherry, on Erythrina ', 
Manjri, on Cyamopsis fsoraloides ; and Poona, on Seshania wgyptiaca. 
and Moringa pierygosperma. 

In South India it is a pest of Cajanus indicus, Erythrina indica, E. 
lithosperma, and Piper belle, and at Poona it has been reported as infest- 
ing Erythrina spp. and Leguminosee. 

The bugs are easily hand-picked. 

Aspongopus janus, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 281-282, f. 179 ; S. Ind. Ins., pp. 476-477, 
f. 358 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 289, 304, 307. 

We have this from Chakwal (Punjab) ; Poona, on Ahutilon muticvm ; 
MuzafEarpur, on Cucurbita3 ; Pusa, on pumpkin and bottle gourd ; Adoni 
and Salem, on pumpkin ; and Travancore, on bottle gourd {Lagenaria). 

VOL. I • s 



Tflr. Ghosh. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



256 PROCEEDINGS OF THE TIIIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

In South India it has been noted on brinjal, kiblab, pumpkins, most 
low-growing plants, and it is a sporadic pest of cucurbits in most parts 
of India. The bugs may be hand-picked. 

Aspongopiis brumieits, Thunb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 283-284 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 304, 307. 

We have this from Siripur, Pusa (on pumpkin), Rangpur, Balur, 
and Myitkyina (Upper Burma). At Pusa it has occurred as a sporadic 
serious pest on pumpkin. 

It occurs mostly in the Rains but the adults can be seen throughout 
the year. They sometimes kill the plants attacked. 

Tetroda histeroides, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyu. I. 199, f. 191 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 477, f. 359 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 175. 

This species has occurred at Coimbatore and Salem as a sporadic 
minor pest of paddy. 

COREID^. 

Anoflocnemis fhasiana, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. pp. 346-347, f. 210 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 477, 
f. 8 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 45, 52, 76, 82, 184, 
289. 

This species has been found in South India on brinjal, redgram, 
greengram, cholam, Erythrina and lablab. We have it from Shripur 
(Bihar) ; Chapra ; Kanara ; Coimbatore, on Odina wodier ; and Pusa, 
on Sesbania cegyptiaca. 

This species is often a bad pest of Erythrina and is less commonly 
found on the other plants mentioned. Control, by hand-picking, is 
easy. 

Bracliytes sp. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., p. 353. 

This insect was sent in to us from Solan, (near Simla), Punjab, attack- 
ing Asparagus plants. 

Ochrochira sp. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., pp. 342-344. 

This has been sent in to us from Jeolikote (Kumaon), where it attacks 
young growths of apple and cherry. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 257 

Leptoglossus memhrayiaceus, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 382-383, f. 224 ; Green, Trop. Agric. 
XXXVIII, No. 6 (1912) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 307. 

We-have this from Tatkon (Burma) v/here it was found in some 
■numbers on Trichosantlies cucumerina. It has riot been noted as a pest 
in India but in Ceylon it has occurred sporadically on orange, tree 
tomato, passion fruit, peav, plum, cape gooseberry, beans, peas, and 
vegetable marrow. 

Ph/jsomerns sp. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn.. p. 383. 

This insect was sent in to us from Cooch Behar (Bengal) as found in 
large numbers on sugarcane, but we do not know how far it is a real 
pest. 

Clavigralla gibbosa, Spin. 

Dist. F. I. Rhyn., pp. 401-402, f. 235 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 478, 
f. 361 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 45, 57. 

We have this from Pusa, January to May, on fur and cowpea ; Surat, 
December to April ; Nagpur, on tur ; Bilaspur, February 1907, on tur ; 
Purulia, November 190G ; Katni, February 1907 ; Lebong, September 
1908 ; Buxar Duars. 

It is a minor pest of tur, especially bad around Poona. Control by 
•collection of the bugs. 

Clavigralla horrens, Dohrn. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 402 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 479, f. 362 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 45, 118. 

We have this from Nagpur, on tur, 11th December 1905 ; and Coim- 
batore, on tur pods. 

It is a minor pest of tur {Cajanus indicus), said to be a serious pest 
around Poona. Shaking the plants over vessels of oil and water or 
(Over oily cloths seems the most practical remedy. 

Leptocorisa varicornis, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 409-410, f. 241 ; S. Ind. Ins., pp. 479-480, 
f. 363 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 175, 184, 192, 200, 
201, 202. 

We have this from Pusa, on rice, grasses, millets, sugarcane (odd 
rSpecimens) ; Dacca, on rice ; Bankura, on rice ; Rangpur, on rice ; Comilla, 

s 2 



258 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. PUlay. 



Mr. Gupta. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Jhaveri. 
Mr. Andrews. 

Mr. Jhaveri. 



Mr" Fletcher. 



on rice; Siripur, on rice; Manickganj, on rice; Nagpur, on rice ; 
Bhandara, on rice; Balaghat, on rice; Mayorbhanj, on rice; Trincomali, 
on rice ; Partabgarh, on rice ; Benipur (Bihar), on rice ; Jhansi ; Cawn- 
pur ; Khunti ; Bihta ; and Lakhimpur. It is a serious pest of rice, 
especially in Assam, sucking the developing grain so that it is not 
formed. Control by keeping bunds and other areas adjacent to paddy 
fields clear of wild grasses and by use of hand-nets. 

We get it generally on the borders of the paddy fields and we use 
hand-nets with advantage. Ten, twenty or thirty acres can be treated 
in this way. It usually occurs mostly along the margins of the fields 
and, when netting or bagging is done, there is a likehhood of its going 
right into the field. Tlie cultivators are beginning to take up this 
method of control. 

It is very bad in Assam and bagging- has been found to be very 
difficult. The bug is attracted to rotting flesh. We discovered a number 
of bugs clustering around a squashed frog, not only on the dead body 
but also on the juice which was oozing out. Both nymphs and adults 
were found on it. We tried frogs and found that decomj)osing frogs 
do attract the bugs. 

At Pusa we found that the squashed bugs attracted, a small fly in , 
large numbers. 

Le]3tocorisa acuta, Thnbg. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 410. 

We have specimens, supposed to be L. acuta, from Chapra, on rice ; 
Kurseong ; Khasis ;■ Phoobsering (Darjihng) ; Bassein Fort ; and Tatkon, 
on sugarcane. 

In its habits it seems exactly similar to varicornis and I cannot 
distinguish it as distinct. • 

I found this insect clustering on guava leaves between 9 and 10 a.m. 
at several places and on several occasions. 

I have seen L. varicornis swarming at noon- time during the heat of 
the day, leaving the rice-fields then and flying about amongst gram. 
Mr. Jhaveri's case may be the same. 

There were no rice-fields nearby. 

Riftortus 'pedestris, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 414, f. 244 ; S. Ind. Ins., pp. 480-481, f. 
364 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 45, 48, 52, 57, 60, 307. 

We have this from Pusa, on tnr, cowpea, val {DolicJios lablab), 
P. miingo, P. radiatiis ; Lebong ; Manikganj ; and Coimbatore. It is 
a minor pest of pulses. 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 259 

Ripfortus juscus, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 414-115 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 45, 57, 60. 

We have this from Pusa, on Doliclios lablab, cowpea, and PJiaseolus 
sp. ; Cuttack ; Lebong (Darjiling) ; Manikganj ; Bassein Fort ; and 
Coimbatore. 

It is a minor pest of pulses. 

Riptortus linearis, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 415 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 45, 

48, 57, 60. 

We have this from Pusa, on sweet potato, Guinea grass ; Bassein, 
October 1909 ; and Ganjam, on cJiolam. 

Corizus rubicundus, Sign. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., p. 417, f. 245. 

This species occurs at Pusa in numbers on Abutilon imlicum and some- 
times also on hollyhock. 

SerinetJia abdoyninalis, Fabr. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 419, f. 246. 

We have this from Bankura, Burdwan and Yercaud. At Yercau<? 
it was found in numbers on cofTee but it is not known to be a pest. 

" SerinetJia augur, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 420 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 118. 

We have this from Pusa, on cotton ; Poona, on cotton ; Dacca ; and 
Coimbatore, on Treiveia in large numbers. 
It is scarcely a pest. 

Berytid^. 

Metacanthus pulchellus, Dall. 
Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 423, f. 248 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 306. 
This species was sent in to us in March 1913 as damaging bottle- 
gourds at Baroda by puncturing the young fruits. At Pusa it has been 
.found on pumpkin, bottle-gourd, and tobacco. It is widely distributed 
in India but does not seem to be a serious pest as a rule. 



Mr. Andrews. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



2G0 TEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD E^'TOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

I have found it on tea in the Duars. It was sent in along witb 
Helo'peltis. 

LygcBUs 'pandurus, Scop. {=militaris, Fb.) 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., II. 6 [militaris] ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 481, f. 365 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 118, 137, 184, 290. 

We have this from Pusa, on cotton, tur ; Igatpuri ; Bilaspur ; 
Banlaira ; Surat ; Lyallpur, on cotton ; PuruUa ; Bhor Ghat, on Ccilo- 
tropis gigantea ; Chetput (Madras) ; and Coimbatore. 

It occurs at times in some numbers on cotton and Calotropis, but 
is hardly a pest. 

LygcEiis hospes, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., II, 6-7, f. 3. 

This occurs throughout India. We have it from Peshawar, on 
Calotropis ; and Lyallpur, on cotton. 

At times it occurs in numbers, but it is scarcely a pest as a rule. 



Graptostethus servus, Fb. • 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., II. -8-9, f. 4 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 482, f. 366; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 46, 134, 294. 

We have this from Pusa, on sun flower, cotton ; Samalkota, on red- 
gram : Bilaspur ; Surat ; Chapra ; Tatkon, on sugarcane ; Chepauk, on: 
cotton ; and Moulmein, on sweet potato. 

It is a very minor pest of the plants attacked. 



NysiKS inconspicinis, Dist. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., II. 18-19 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting,, 
pp. 84, 272. ' 

We have this from Pusa, on tobacco and grasses, and from Kasar- 
gode (S. Kanara) on gingelly. At Pusa the bugs have been found 
clustered in thousands on tobacco capsules and it is at times a decided 
pest. It may be controlled by tapping the bugs into pans of oil and 
water. 

It may be observed that the identification of this insect is doubtfuL 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 2'o\ 

Macropes excavofus, Dist. (? raja, Dist.) 

Macropes eorcavatus, Dist., F. I. Rhyn., II, 25 [Shillong]. 
Macropes raja, Dist., A. M. N. H. (8) III. 323 (1909), F. L 
Rhyn., V. 19 [Calcutta]. 
We have specimens from Piisa, on sugarcane, grasses ; and from the 
Naga Hills, on rice, Job's-tears. 

At Pusa this insect appears occasionally in some numbers on cane, 
but is scarcely a pest. 

The identification seems doubtful. The specimens in the Pusa 
Collection standing under the name of M. excavatus do not seem to have 
been named authoritatively. They differ from Macropes in pilosity 
and the fore femora not being spined. If it is a Macropes, it is probably 

M. raja. 

Blissus gihbiis, Fb. 

Dist.. F. I. Rhyn. II, 28-29, f. 20. 
Distant, on the authority of de Niceville, records the immature 
stages as having done " much damage to sugarcane at Cawnpur." 
This species has not been reported as a pest during recent years. 

Chauliops fallax, Scott. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., II. 36, f. 24. 

This species was sent in to us on 22nd August 1913 from the Govern- 
ment Garden at JeoUkote (Kumaon) as attacking soy bean. 

It is recorded from Ceylon and Japan. In Ceylon it punctures the 
foliage of Dolichos ungniculata and completely checks the growth of the 
plant ; E. E. Green (Distant). 

Oxycarenus Icetus, Kby. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., II, 43, f. 31 ; S. Ind. Ins. pp. 482-483, f. 367 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 116 (tab), 124, 126, 127, 129, 
130. 
We have this from Pusa, on cotton. Hibiscus escidentits, H. abel- 
moschus, Abvtilon indicum, hollyhock, Thespesia popvlnea; Gojra 
(Punjab), on cotton ; Belgaum, on cotton ; Coimbatore, on cotton ; 
Lyallpur, on cotton ; Surat, on cotton ; Saidapet, on cotton ; Coimba- 
tore, on cotton. 

The bugs attack the seeds, especially of over-ripe bolls left on the 
plant, and probably have some effect on the vitality of the seed. They 
also do some damage by staining the Hnt when crushed. 



262 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Control was discussed at the Second Entomological Meeting. 



Oxycarenus lugubris, Mots. 



Mr. Ramakrisbna 
Ayyar. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Dist., F. I. Rhyn., II, 44. 
We have this from Peradeniya where it occiirred in April 1914 on 
Hibiscus sabdariffa in numbers, 
in Ceylon. 



Distant states that it attacks cotton 



Aphanus sordidus, Fb. 



368 



Dist., F. I. Rhyn., II, 79-80, f. 62 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 483; f. 
Proc. Second Eutl. Meeting, pp. 85, 93. 

We have this from Jallandhar, on tobacco, bonga [?] ; Palamau ; 
Pusa ; Ranchi ; Belgaum ; Palur, on threshing floor (groundnut) ; Surat ; 
Poona, on groundnut, Sesamum indicum ; Taungtha (Burma), stored 
Sesamum and groundnut ; and Bezwada, on cumbu seeds (threshing 
floor). 

This insect is sometimes a serious pest of Sesamum and groundnut 
by carrying off the seeds in large numbers from the threshing-floor. 
It hardly seems to be a pest in the field, although it has been noted to 
feed on groundnut pods on the ground when the soil is cracked. The 
bugs are easily swept up and destroyed. 

I have found these bugs on Cambodia cotton seed on the threshing 
floor after harvest. 

Pyrrhocorid^. 

Dysdercus cingulatus, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., II, 118-119, f. 87 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 484, t. 46 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 115, 124, 126-130, 132. 

This species occurs abundantly throughout the Plains of India, 
Burma, and Ceylon on cotton. Hibiscus esculentus, H. cannabinus, 
H. abelmoschus, H. rosa-sinensis, hollyhock, Abutilon indicum, Bombax 
malabaricum, Thespesia populnea, etc. At times it occurs in masses 
of individuals and at such times the bugs are sometimes predaceous 
on one another, newly-moulted individuals being attacked and sucked 
by the others. It is a bad pest when it occurs on plants in any numbers. 
It may be controlled by collection by hand or in bags provided with 
tin funnels or by attraction to heaps of moistened cotton-seed placed 
amongst the plants or hung up on the bushes. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 263 

TlNGIDID^. 

Recareclus sp, 

Dist., F. I. Hhyn., V, 104-105 (1910) ; Dutt, Bihar Agncl 
Journ. I, 139-141, tab. (October 1913). - 

This species occurs in North Bihar (Bettiah) as a pest of stored 
potatoes. 

Galeatus retiarius, Dist. 

Cadmilos retiarius, Dist., Ann. S. B. Belg. liii, 114 (1909), 

F. I. Khyn., V, 107-108, f. 53 (1910). 
Galeatus, Horvath, Ann. Mus. Hung. IX, 337 [Cadmilos is 

synonym]. 

This species was sent in to us from Allahabad by the Superintendent 
or the Government Gardens, on 12th June 1916, as attacking Chrysan- 
themum plants in May and June, disappearing during the Rains and 
giving no further trouble until next hot weather. It was found on 
plants in considerable numbers in the early morning, disappearing later 
on in the day. It has also been noted as common on chrysanthemums 
at Lahore. 

StepJianitis typicus, Dist. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., II, 132, [Cadamustus] ; Entl. Note 96, f. 20 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 37, 239, 260, 295. 

We have this from Pusa, on plantain leaf ; Coimbatore, on plantain 
leaf ; and Colombo. 

It is a minor pest of plantain and turmeric, and has been recorded 
to puncture leaves of cardamom, Hedychium and allied Scytamineous 
plants in Ceylon. 

Stephanitis sp. 

This vv^as found at Coimbatore, on the underside of young coconut 
leaves in small numbers. It is perhaps the same as the preceding. 

Urentius echinus, Dist. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., II, 134, f. 97 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 485, f. 370 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 289. 

We have this from Surat, Dharwar and Belgaum, in all cases on 
brinjal leaves. At Dharwar and in Travancore it is stated to be bad 
on brinjal, and in August 1915 it was reported to be damaging brinjal 
plants at Lyallpur. It is sometimes a serious pest of brinjal. It may 



264 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

be controlled by spraying and by picking off the affected leaves, which 
turn yellow and ultimately dry up and fall off the plant in any case. 

Tingis hijstricellus, Richter (18G9) seems to be a prior name of this 
species (see Dist., F. I. Rhijn. II, 141, f. 104). 

Monanthia globidifera, Wlk. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., II, 144, f. 107 ; S. Ind. Ins.. pp. 485-486, 
f. 371 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 97, 267. 

We have this from Pusa, on croton, Ocimum hasUicuum, mint ; and 
Yemmigannur, on Ocimum. 

It has also been noted on mint in Travancore and on heliotrops in 
Madras and occurs in Ceylon also. Occasionally it occurs on safRower. 
Generally it is a minor pest of tulsi {Ocimum sanctum), causmg the leaves 
to turn yellow. 

{Unidentified Tingidid.) 

Ann. Kept. 1917-18, p. 113. 

This species has been found at Bankura, where it did severe damage 
to Jasminum sambac. Spraying with soap was effective. 

Probably the same species has been found at Pusa and Lyallpur in 
large numbers on Jasminum sambac damaging the leaves, especially in 
company with Dialeurodes citri. 

Capsibje. 

Megacodum stramineum, Wlk. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., II, 428 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 184, 187, 192.. 

This species is recorded by Distant from N. Bengal, Kangra Valley 
and Pundaluoya. At Coimbatore it is associated with Calocoris atigus- 
tatus, laying its eggs in the surviving seeds of cholam after Calocoris 
has destroyed a certain proportion. 

It has been found at Pusa on lucerne, peas, hnseed and grass, but 
has not been noted on juar. It is probably widely distributed in India 
as a pest of cereals, but has been overlooked. 

Apollodotus jprcefectus, Dist. 

Dist., F. I., Rhyn. V, 247-248, f. 135 [II, 438]. 

This species is recorded by Distant from Eppawela (Ceylon), and 
has been found at Pusa on plantain leaves. It is not known to be a, 
pest. 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 265 

HelopeJtis antonii, Sign. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn, II, 440, f. 285 ; S. Iiid. Ins.. p. 488, f. 374 ; 

Agr. Journ. Ind. X, 412-416 (October 1915) ; Proc. Second 

Entl. Meeting, pp. 23, 26, 37, 255. 
We have this from Kudua Kamam Estate, on tea on 13th September 
1913, and from Pirmaad, on tea on 11th August 1913. In the South 
Indian Hills it is a pest of tea and cinchona and in Ceylon of cacao. 
In Coimbatore, and probably throughout the Plains of Madras, it attacks 
nim {Melia azadirachfa), as described by Y. Ramachandra Rao in the 
Agriculhiml Journal of India, and in North Malabar, South Kanara 
and Bangalore it attacks shoots of cashew {Ahacardium occidentale). 
It has also been recorded on annatto {Bixa orellana). We seem to 
know remarkably little about it as a pest of tea and cinchona in South 
India. 

Has anyone found this on mm shoots ? Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 

Yes ; I have seen this insect on roadside mm trees, the topshoots Mr. Ramchandra 
of which get withered as the result of their attack. Rao. 

I have been examining these shoots for some time. I cannot find Mr. Ramakrishna 
the insect and have some doubts as to whether the damage done is due Ayyar. 
to an insect or to a fungus attack. 

I investigated this subject some years ago and published an account Mr. Ramchandra- 
of it in the Agricultural Journal. I found the eggs as well as the nymphs ^^^' 
on the new shoots. The reason why the insect is not seen on the damaged 
shoots is because it attains the adult stage and flies away before the 
damage becomes apparent. 

Helopeltis theivora, Waterh. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. II, 440-441 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 23, 26, 37! 

We have this from Lower Ging (Darjiling District ; October 1908) Mr. Fletcher., 
and from the Buxar Duars in May 1907. It occurs from Darjiling to 
Chittagong as a serious pest of tea. 

[See also pp. 669-671]. 

Disphinctus humeralis, Wlk; 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. II, 444, f. 286 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 23. 

This species has been reported to occur on tea in Assam in much 
the same way as Helopeltis and on cinchona in Sikkim. 



266 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Andrews, 



Mr. Fletcher. 



It has been found in the Mangaldai district doing damage to tea 
in exactly the same way as Helopeltis iheivora. The damage done by 
this bug is quite as much as by Helopeltis in districts where the latter 
does not occur. 

Disphinctus politus, Wlk. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. II, 444-445 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 489, f. 375 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 300. 

We have this from Talegaon ; Amraoti (Berar), on betel- vine leaves, 
11th October 1907 ; Kasargode (S. Kanara), on betel-vines, 3rd October 
1913 ; Bassein Fort, on betel-vine leaves, 21st July 1903 ; Dharwar, 
on betel-vine leaves, 4th October 1903 ; Kirkee, on betel-vine. 

It is also reported from Belgaum and Ahmednagar. It is a pest of 
betel leaves {Piper hetle) chiefly in Madras, Kanara and Bombay and 
is especially noted as a bad pest in Berar. 

In Ceylon Green gives its host-plants as Cuphea jorullensis (abun- 
dant, young shoots punctured and wilted), Solanum sp., young leaves 
and shoots of Peperonia sp., young leaves of Psidium guyava, and of 
Acalyplia (Distant). 

Hand-collection and crushing of the nymphs and adult bugs where 
these are accessible, combined with catching the adults in hand-nets and 
spraying of the immature stages, appear to be the best methods of 
control. 

Calocoris angustalus, Leth. 

• Dist., F. I. Rhyn. II, 452 ; Bulletin No. 58 ; S. Ind. Ins. p. 490, 
f. 376 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 184, 187, 192. 

We have this from Coimbatore and Yemmiganur (Bellary). In 
Madras it is a major pest of cJiolam, cumbu and maize, the damage done 
being usually associated with that done by Megaccelum stramineum. 
Mr. Ballard has worked especially on this insect and has given 
all the available information in a Bulletin. No effective means of 
control can be suggested at present. 

Gallobelicus crassicomis, Dist. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. II, 478, f. 310 ; S. Ind. Ins. pp. 490-491, 
f. 377 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 272. 

We have this from Pusa and Coimbatore, in both cases found on 
tobacco leaves and seed capsules, and Distant records it also from Bhor 
Ghat and Tenasserim, so that it is very widely distributed. It seems 
to be a minor pest of tobacco, sometimes found abundantly on tender 
shoots, flower-heads and seed- capsules. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 207 

The adults are fairly active and are probably best dealt with by 
catching in hand-nets and shaking the plants over pans of oil and water. 



Jtagmiis imfrntunitas, Dist. 

F. I. Rhyn. V, 288-289, f. 159 ; South Ind. Ins., p. 491, f. 378 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 71. 

We have this from Pusa, Nagpur, Samalkota and Palur (South 
Arcot), in all cases on sann-hemp, of which it is sporadically a serious 
pest, especially on young plants, whose leaves curl up and become pale- 
yellow and finally drop off in bad cases. 

In Ceylon it has been noted by Mr. E. Ernest Green to puncture 
leaves of Crotalaria verrucosa and C. incarna [Distant]. 

As it is chiefly a pest of young plants, it may be controlled by bagnets 
or handnets. 

Halticus minntus, Rent. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. II, 480, f. 312 ; Ind. Ins. Life, p. 707, f. 479 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 269, 286, 294. 

We have this from Pusa and also from Moulmein, where it was found 
in September 1914 in numbers on svreet-potato. It is sometimes a pest 
of tobacco seedhngs and brinjal seedUngs, and Distant records it as 
found on an Ipomoea at Peradeniya. 

It may be collected in handnets when sufficiently abundant. 



FULGORID^. 

Eunjhrachys tomentosa, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. Ill, 222-223 ; S. Ind. Ins. p. 492, f. 379 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 78, 118, 124, 136. 

We have this from Surat (Athwa Farm), 5th December 1903 ; 
Surat, on cotton in 1903 ; Dhuha, 28th October 1908 ; Nagpur, 27th June 
1905, on Zizyphus jujuha ; Godarwada (C. P.), 15th October 1910 ; 
Madras, 28th September 1906 ; Penukonda, 30th March 1907, on Hibis- 
cus esculentus ; Nagpur, on bhindi — imagines on flowers and tender shoots ; 
Aurangabad, on bhindi tender shoots ; PoUibetta, on Erythrina lithos- 
ferma. 

This species occurs commonly in the Central Provinces, Bombay 
and Southern India on Calotropis and Erythrina and less commonly on 
bhindi and cotton. It is scarcely a pest of cultivated plants. 



268 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING - 

Dictj/opJiora pallida, Don. 

Dist., F. I. Khyn. Ill, 243-244. 

Distant gives a record from Indian Museum Notes, V, 43 [destructive 
to cane in N. Arcot], evidently a mistake for a species of Pyrilla, pro- 
bably P. perpusilla. We have one of the specimens collected by Atkinson 
at Eaniganj and identified as D. pallida by Distant. D. pallida is not 
a pest so far as we know. 

Oliarus sp. 

Dist., F. I. Ehyn., III. p. 256. 

This was found on rice at Pusa on 10th November 1914. It is 
scarcely a pest, so far as we know. 

Assamia mcesta, Westw. 

Dist., F. I. Khyn., Ill, 296-297, f. 142 [PJmiice] ; South Ind. 

Ins. p. 493, f. 380; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 150, 

184, 192. 

We have this from Pardi (Bombay), 23rd September 1904 ; Muzaffar- 

pur, 15th October 1904 ; Pusa, on ber, Draccena, maize, Sorghum, Setaria 

italica, sugarcane ; Coimbatore, 15th January 1913, on sugarcane, 

grasses, cholani, palms ; Tatkon (Upper Burma), 7th September 1914, on 

sugarcane. 

This species is common in the Plains and the adults are often found 
in numbers on sugarcane and cereals, on which it does not seem to 
breed, however. It has not definitely been noted as doing any damage, 
but it often occurs in such numbers on cultivated plants that we may 
well remain suspicious of its doings pending further evidence. 

Elasmoscelis platijpoda, Kirby. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., Ill, 318-319, f. 155. 

We have this from Laksam (Bengal), on 26th January 1906 ; Pyin- 
mana (Upper Burma), on sugarcane, 7th September 1914 ; and Distant 
also records it from Ceylon. This may turn out to be a minor pest of 
sugarcane but we know very httle about it as yet. 

Jivatma sp. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., Ill, 328. 

This insect was found at Pyinmana (Upper Burma), on sugarcane 
on 9th September 1914. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 269 

Ricania sp. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., Ill, 375. 

This insect was also found at Pyinmana (Upper Burma) on sugar- 
cane on 9th September 1914. 



Pyrilla aherrans, Kby. ^ 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., Ill, 326-327, f. 161 [Zamilal VI, 85 ; Entl. 
Note 97 ; Entoml. Mem. V, 73-136, t. 10-15, figs. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 150, 185, 192. 

We have this from Alcola, on sugarcane ; Cawnpur, on cane, 16th 
October 1905 ; Kasandra (Ahmedabad), on sugarcane, 6th January 
1915 ; Bassein Fort (Bombay), in October 1909 ; and Pusa, on Saccharum 
syontaneum, 13th September 1906, Pennisetuni typhoideiim, 18th Sep- 
tember 1906, grasses 20tli September 1906, sugarcane, jnar, wheat, 
oats and Setaria iialica ; and Distant has recorded it from Chikkaballa- 
pura (Mysore). 

All the available information on this and the other two species of 
Pi/rilla has recently been given in Mr. Misra's Memoir. 



Pyrilla fusana, Dist. 

A. M. N. H. (8), XIV, 326 (1914), F. I. Rhyn., VI, 84 ; Entl. 
Mem., V, pp. 76-78 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 150. 

We have this from Akola (Berar), on sugarcane, in December 1909 ; 
Talodi (Chanda District), on sugarcane, 9th October 1914 ; Pusa. on 
sugarcane, juar, and grasses; and Chapra. Distant also records this 
from Upper Burma. 

In habits it is practically identical with P. aherrans. 



Pyrilla 'perpusilla, Wlk. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., Ill, 327 [Zamilal VI, 85 ; South Ind. Ins., 
pp. 493-494, f. 381; Entl. Mem., V, p. 78; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, pp. 150, 185, 192. 

We have this from Pusa, on sugarcane in March and April ; CawnjDur, 
on cane and jvmt ; Coimbatore, on sugarcane, maize and cJwlam and 
Palur. It is a common pest of sugarcane and cereals, occurring more 
especially in Southern India. * 



270 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Pundalvoya simplicia, Dist. 



Dist., F. I., Ill, 468-469, f. 255, VI, 134 ; South Ind. Ins, p. 
494, f. 382 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 185, 193. 

We have this from Pusa, on maize, and from Coimbatore, on cholam 
and maize. It occurs probably throughout the Plains, but has been" 
little noted, although it is a bad pest of sorghum and maize. The 
attack is usually localized in patches, the attacked plants assuming an 
unhealthy yellow appearance and producing practically no grain. 

Control is very difficult, as the bugs live protected inside the leaf- 
sheaths, where it is practically impossible to get at them. They are 
usually attended by ants and one line of attack might deal with these 
ants' nests. Beyond that the only method is by cutting the attacked 
plants and using them for fodder. 



Mf. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 



{Unidentified Fulgcnid). 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 216. 

This insect has been found at Coimbatore in all stages in swarms on 
shoots of Murraya koenigi, arresting the growth of the shoots. 

In South Kanara we find this small Fulgorid in large numbers on 
Murraya koenigi, and it does some damage to the leaves. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Sogata pitsana, Dist. 

Dist., A. M. N. H. (8), IX, 191 (1912) ; Dist., F. I. Rhyn., YI, 
139-140, f. 100 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 177. ' 

This insect has been found on rice-plants at Pusa, Bilaspur and 
Sambalpur, and has also been recorded from Calcutta, Berhampur, 
and Chikkaballapura (Mysore). It appears to be a minor pest of rice. 



Sogata distincta, Dist. 

Dist., A. M. N. H. (8), IX, 191 (1912) ; F. I. Rhyn., VI, 140; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 177. 

This species has been found on rice at Pusa and has also been recorded 
from Chikkaballapura (Mysore) and Peradeniya. It occurs, together 
with S. piisana, as a minor pest of rice. 

[Since this paper was read, Mr. F. Muir has stated ifianad. Entom. W, p. 8 ; 
January 1919) that S. distincta is the same species as Megamelus furctfera, Horv. — 
Editor.] 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 271 

, Sogata pallescens, Dist. 

Dist., A. M. N. H. (8) IX, 192 (1912) ; F. I. Rhyn., VI, 140 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 177. 

This species has been recorded from Galle ; Chapra ; Madhupur 
District ; Calcutta ; Pusa, on rice ; and Janjgri (Bilaspur district), on 
rice. 

It occurs, together with the two preceding species, as a minor pest 

of rice. 

[Note. — Since this paper was read, Mr. F. Muir has stated (Canad. Entom. LT, p. 8 
January 1919) that the type of 8. pallescethf, Dist., is really Megamelus fiircijera, Horv.— 
Editor]. 

Liburnia sp. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., Ill, 480-481 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 177. 

This species has been found at Pusa, Burdwan, Hooghly, BomcM 
(Hooglily), Ahpur, Kandi (Murshidabad), Nadiad ; in all cases on rice- 
plants. It is reported to be an occasional serious pest of paddy in 
Bengal, but very little is known about it. Specimens have been sent 
to Mr. Distant, but the identification has not yet been received. 

Liburnia fsijUoides, Leth. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., Ill, 484-485. 

This insect has been reported as a pest but it is probably in mistake 
for Pundaluoya simplicia. We have no specimens of L. fsylloides. 



Membracid.^. 
Oxyrhachis tarandus, Fabr. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., IV, 4-5, f. 1 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 275. 

We have this from Sitamarhi (MuzafEarpur), on tur [Cajanus indicus) ; 
Pusa, on tur, Cassia fistula, and Acacia arabica ; Bombay, on Acacia 
rich a. 

It is common in the Plains and is a minor pest of Acacia arabica, 
occurring sometimes in some numbers on Cajatms indicus also. 

VOL. I T 



272 proceedings of the third entomological meeting 

Cercopid^. 

Machcerofa 'planiiiw, Dist. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., IV, 84 ; Ind. Ins. Life, p. 733, t. 79 ; Proc, 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 118. 

This species occurs abundantly on cotton at Pusa and checks new 
growth. It is a serious pest at times. 
[See also pages 556-559.] 

Machcerota sp. 

This species occurs at Pusa on Phyllanthus emblica in some numbers,, 
the nymphal cases being attached to the twigs. It has also been noticed 
at Lucknow and is probably widely distributed in the Plains. 

Machcerota sp. 

The tubes of this species occur at Pusa on jEgle marmelos shoots^ 
which are sometimes considerably stunted. 

Callifettix versicolor, Fabr. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., IV, 113, f. 86 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 150. 

We have this from Wahjain and Nongpoh (Khasi Hills, 1,000 to 
3,000 feet) and Tatkon in Upper Burma. At Tatkon it was found in 
numbers on sugarcane on 7th September 1914, but it is not known how 
far it is a pest of cane. 

Abidama producta, Wlk. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., IV, 114, f. 87. 

We have this from Nongpoh (Khasi Hills), Shripur (Bihar), Pusa, 
Buxar Duars, and Pyinmana (Burma). At Pyinmana it was found 
on sugarcane on 7th September 1914, but it is not known how far it is 
a pest of cane. 

Phymatostetha deschampsi, Leth. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., IV, 128, f. 94. 

We have this from Paruthur (Malabar), 15th November 1913, on 
plantain ; Trithala (Malabar), 12th November 1913, on plantain ; Somesh- 
war (S. Kanara, 2,000 feet)-, 24th September 1913, on plantain ; 
and Taliuaramba (Malabar), 30th September 1913, on plantain. 

It occurs on plantain in some niunbers along the Malabar coast but 
is scarcely a pest. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETIN(? 273 

Cosmoscarta relata, Dist. 

Dist., F. I. Eliyn., IV, 143 ; South Ind. Ins. p. 495, f. 383 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 252. 

This species occurs in South Mysore and in Coorg as a serious pest 
of jak, sucking the young shoots. 

Cosmoscarta juneralis , Butl. 

Dist., F. I. Ehyn., IV, 154. 

We have this from Lebong (Darjihng), Nongpoh (Khasi Hills ; 1,800 
feet) and Myitkyina (Upper Burma). At Myitkyina it was found on 
orange but it is doubtful how far it is a pest. 

Jassid^, 

Idiocerus niveosparsus, Leth, 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. IV, 185, f. 121 ; South Ind. Ins., pp. 495- 
496, f. 384 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 222-224. 

We have this from Saharanpur, Pusa, Bangalore, and Coimbatore, 
in all cases on mango, and it is a serious pest of mango throughout the 
Plains. 

It can only be controlled by spraying, w^hich should start before 
the flowers open, as the eggs may be laid on the young leaves which 
appear before the flowers, and should^be continued until the fruits are 
well set. 

Idiocerus afkinsoni, Leth. 

Dist.; F. I. Rhyn., IV, 186 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 222-224. 

We have this from Pusa, 3rd May 1906, on mango bark and leaves ; 
Bombay, October 1905, on mango bark ; Pratapganj, 18th June 1907 ; 
Jamalpur, 12th December 1905 ; Manickganj, 26th October 1906, on 
mango ; Saidapet, 16th March 1907, on mango leaves ; Baliganj, Calcutta, 
mango ; Bankipur, mango ; Thar and Parkar (Sind), mango. 

It is common together with I. niveosparsus and the same remark 
applies to both species. 

Idiocerus clypealis, Leth. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., IV, 187, f. 122 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 222-224. 

We have this from Pusa, Coimbatore (27th May 1913), Shiliong, 
Bombay, Alwar (Rajputana), in all cases on mango. It occurs together 
with the two preceding species and the same remarks apply to all. 

T 2 



274 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Eunbi 

Kannan. 

Mr. Ramakrisbna 

Ayyar. 



Mr. Kunhi 
Kannan. 

Mr. Ramakrisbna 
Ayyar. 



Mr. Andrews. 



Mr. Senior-Wbite. 



Mr. Fletcber. 



I have found an egg-parasite on Idiocerus spp. on mango. 

There are some important mango-growing tracts around Salem, 
Chittur, and Vizagapatam. These gardens contain trees from fifteen 
to twenty years old. 

Spraying with fishoil soap has been found effective against this 
insect. The cost of spraying works out at eight to twelve annas per 
tree, may be a rupee, but it pays because a tree after treatment yields 
fruit worth fifteen to twenty rupees. 

It is very important to know when the young nymphs appear, be- 
cause it is very essential to know the right time to commence spraying. 
Once we know the time of the emergence of the nymphs we can reduce 
the number of sprayings to be given to the trees. Spraying is quite 
effective on yomig trees but is not so on old ones. Our present difficulty 
is to secure the spraying machinery. 

The cost you have given seems much too low. Does this include 
labour charges and hire of machinery ? 

No ; those items are not included. As was explained by me at the 
last Meeting, the labour is suppHed by the watchmen who are maintained 
by the owners of the gardens to look after the gardens. I have not 
included cost of the spraying machines either. 

In view of the difficulty experienced by entomologists in India in 
obtaining sprayers, I may mention that Messrs. Shaw Wallace & Co. 
are putting on the market sprayers manufactured on the lines of Auto- 
sprayers. These sprayers are quite good ones, better than the Auto- 
sprayers, with all the modern improvements, and are quite cheap — 
thirty rupees or so. 

Mr. Speyer is also getting machines made in Colombo. 

Idiocerus sp. 
This insect was found at Yercaud on orange. It is not known how 
far it is a pest. 

Tettigoniella spectra, Dist. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., IV, 211-212, f. 137 ; South Ind. Ins., pp. 
49G-497, f. 385 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 177. 
We have this from Pusa, 5th May 1914, on Saccharum spontaneum, 
paddy ; Penukonda, 27th March 1907, on paddy ; Gangajhari (Bhandara, 
C. P.), 10th November 1905, on paddy ; Surat, 16th February 1904 ; 
Laksam ; Munshiganj, 16th February 1906 ; Lumding, 24th October 
1911, at light; Comilla, 27th October 1911, at light ; Chaumahani, 
27th November 1911, at light ; Muzafiarpur, 6th September 1910 ; 
Tellicherry (Malabar), 2ud July 1907, on paddy ; Coimbatore, on paddy. 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 275 

It is an abundant species throiigliout the Plains and a minor pest 
of paddy, probably feeding on wild grasses also. 



Kolla mimica, Dist. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., IV, 225; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 177. 

This species has been recorded by Distant from Calcutta and Pusa. 
At Pusa it was reared from eggs found laid in rice leaves in 1915 when 
attempts were being made to rear NepJwtettix bipundatus. It is pro- 
bably a minor pest of paddy, but has been overlooked hitherto. 

Nephotettix bipunctatus, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Pthyn., IV, 359-360, f. 228 ; South Ind. Ins. p. 497, 
f. 386 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 176-177. 

We have this from Sakti, 3rd October 1914 ; Pusa, 3rd November 
1912 ; Aijal (Lushai Hills), 10th December 1913 ; Penukonda, 16th 
March 1907 ; Hagari, April 1907 ; Janjgir (Bilaspur), October 1914 ; 
Raipur, October 1914 ; Balasore, September and October 1914 ; Chau- 
mahani, 5th March 1911 ; in all cases on paddy. The adults also come 
to light in enormous numbers and form a large proportion of the swarms 
of " Green Fly " which come to light at Calcutta and other places to- 
wards the end of the Rains. [See pages 433-443.] 



Nephotettix apicalis, Mots. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., IV, 360-362, f. 229 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 177. 

We have this from Chapra ; Dacca, on paddy in October 1906 ; 
Aijal (Lushai Hills), on paddy, 10th December 1913 ; and Coimbatore, 
15th April 1913. It occurs together with N. bipunctatus and is probably 
a pest of paddy also. 

[See pages 433-443.] 

Empoasca flavescens, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., IV, 405-406 ; South Ind. Ins., pp. 497-498, 
^ f. 387 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 26, 28. 

We have this from Pusa and Coimbatore, in both cases found on 
castor as a minor pest, and in the Duars and Assam it occurs on tea. 



276 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Empoasca thea, Dist. 

Dist., Entom. XLIII 196 (1910), F. I. Rhyn. VII 91 (1918). 

Destructive to tea in Cachar in company with E. flavescens. Also 
from Calcutta. 

Empoasca devastans, Dist. 

Dist., F. I. VII 93 (1918) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 117. 
[Empcasca sp.] 

We have this from : — Pusa, 8th August 1912, on cotton ; Coimbatore, 
7th January 1914, on cotton ; Taru (Peshawar), 26th September 1913, 
on cotton ; Nagpur ; Lyallpur, on cotton ; Dhulia Farm, on .cotton ; 
and Dharwar, on cotton. It is at times a bad pest of cotton, especially 
of exotic varieties. 

Empoasca sp. 

This was found at Peshawar in numbers on leaves of beetroot on 
26th September 1913. 

Empoasca sp. 

This species attacks grape-vine in numbers at Peshawar in August. 
It has not been identified as yet. 

PSYLLID^. 

Arytaina isitis, Buckt. 

Psyllopa punctipennis, Crawf . 

Psylla isitis, Entl. Mem. IV, No. 6 ; Agricl. Journ. Ind., VIII, 

1-26, tab. 1-4 (Jan. 1913) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 

p. 81. 

This species occurs on indigo in most parts of the Plains of India, 
from the Punjab to Madras, but is a m.inor pest as a rule, occasionally 
serious, especially in North Bihar. 

Euphahrus citri, Kuw. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 215, 216. 

We have this from Cherat (North- West Frontier Province), Lyallpur, 
Pusa, Poona and Coimbatore. It is usually a minor pest of Citrus spp. 
(orange, lime, lemon, pomelo), sometimes occurring in large numbers 
and doing considerable damage, especially in the Punjab. At Pusa 
and Coimbatore it has been found on shoots of Murraya koenigii and 
at Coimbatore on Cordia cordifolia also. 

Spraying with fishoil-resin soap is effective. 



rEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 277 

Apsylla cistelht", Buckt. 

Ind. Ins. Life, p. 742, ff. 514, 514 ; Proc. Second Entl Meeting, p. 221. 

This insect is found tlirougLout Northern India on mango. Its 
early stages are passed inside a young shoot which becomes distorted 
and transformed into a cone-shaped gall. It is not common as a rule 
but occasionally becomes a pest. 

Aleyrodid^. 

Aleurolohus barodensis, Mask. 

Ind. Ins. Life, p. 749, ff. 524, 525 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 150-151. 

We have this from Cawnpur, Pusa, Sindewahi (Central Provinces), 
Bassein Fort and Baroda, in all cases on cane. It is a sporadic major 
pest of sugarcane, but is usually checked by parasites. 

Beyond the utilization of such parasites and the cutting and des- 
truction of badly infested leaves, no suggestion for control can be 
made at present. 

Aleurocanilms spiniferus, Quaint. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 214. 

This species is widely distributed in the Plains as a pest, sometimes 
serious, of Citrus trees. It has been noted at Pusa, Surat, and in the 
Punjab. 

It can be controlled by collection of the old leaves and regular spray- 
ings (three or four, at intervals of a fortnight) of the new leaves with 
fishoil-resin soap. 

The damage done is largely indirect, due to the honey-dew on the 
leaves. 

Aleurocanthus nubilans, Buckt. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, V, 36, t. 5, ff. 7-9 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meetinz, p. 301. 

This species was originally described from Backerganj where it was 
reported to be doing considerable damage to " betel-leaves " [probably 
Piper belle]. It has not been noticed since on betel. 

Aleurocanthus piperis, Mask. 

This species has been found in Ceylon on pepper, and is likely to 
be found on pepper in India also. 



278 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

NeomasJcellia bergi, Sign. 

South Ind. Ins., p. 507, f. 394 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 150-151. 
We have this from Pusa on sugarcane and from Pusa and Tharsa 
(Central Provinces) on juar. It is widely distributed in the Plains as 
a pest of sugarcane and juar. 

Dialeurodes citri, Riley and Howard. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 214-215. 

We have this from Lahore, on Citrus, and from Pusa on Jasminum 
sambac. It is not usually regarded as a serious pest in India, where it 
is probably kept in check by predators and parasites. 

Dialeurodes eugenim aurantii, Mask. 

This species has been found on Eugenia jambolana at Pusa, Poona, 
Bangalore and Coimbatore ; but it seems to be a very minor pest as a 

rule. 

Bemisia leakei, Peal. 

This species has been found at Pusa on indigo, but it is not known 
to be a pest. 

Aleyrodes cotesii, Mask. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 266. 

This species was originally described from examples found on rose 
at Quetta, and is also known to occur on rose at Pusa, Ahpur (Calcutta), 
and Pondicherry ; but it is a rather minor pest as a rule. 

Aleyrodes sp. 

Ind. Ins. Life, t. 81 ; South Ind. Ins., p. 202, f. 89 [parasite] ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 88. 

We have this from Pusa and it is known to occur in Burma, Baroda 
and Coimbatore also as a sporadic serious pest of castor, whence it is 
commonly referred to in India as Aleyrodes ricini, although that is an 
unpubUshed name. 

Aleyrodes sp. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 233-234. 

This species occurred in very large numbers on pomegranate at 
Dharwar in February 1912 and has also been reported to occur at Banga- 
lore and Coimbatore. 



peoceedings of the third entomological meeting 279 

Aphidid^. 

[Note. — Our knowledge of Indian Aphidg, even of those which are pests of culti- 
vated crops, is woefully scanty. The following list has been compiled almost wholly 
from the late Bashambar Das' paper on the Aphididse of Lahore.] 

Macrosiphwn pisi, Kalt. 

— SifJwnojjJiora pisi (Kech-Buch.). 

= Nectarophora destructor, Johnston. 

Jour. Eco. Entom. Vol. IV, p. 384 (1911). 

Jour. Eco. Bio. September 1913, p. 134. 

Memoirs, Ind. Mus., Vol. VI, No. 4, pp. 157-158 (1918). 

Has been found at Lahore on the following food plants : — Alhagi 
manrormn, Melilotus alba, Medicago sativa, Clianthus dampieri, Lathjrus 
odoratum, Dolichos lablab, Peganum Jiarmala. 

Macrosiphum roscpformis, Das. 

Mem. Ind. Mus. VI, 4, pp. 158-162 (1918). 
This has been found at Lahore on rose. 

Macrosiphum granarium (Kirby-Pergande). 

Buckton, Brit. Aphid., I, p. 114 ; Pergande, U. S. Dept., 

Agric. Div. Entom. Bull., 44 (1904) ; Theobald, Jour. Eco. 

BtoL, VIII (1913) ; Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, 4, pp. 162-163 

(1918). 

This species has been recorded from Lahore on wheat, oats and barley 

and is a pest of wheat at Pusa and probably throughout Northern 

India. 

Macrosiphum sanborni, Gillette. 

Sanborn, Kans. Univ. Sc. Bull., Vol. III. 
Gillette, Canad. Entom. L. ii, p. 65 (1908). 
Jour. Eco. Entom., IV, p. 385 (1911). 
Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 163-164 (1918). 

This species has been found at Lahore on cultivated Chrysanihemum, 

Macrosiphum sonchi, Linn. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 97. 

This species — or, at least, the Aphid we know under this name — 
has been noted on safflower at Pusa, Dharwar and in the Central Pro- 
vinces, and is sometimes a bad pest of safflower. 

This Aphid does not appear to have been seen by Mr. Das in Lahore. 



280 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

\ Myzus persicw, Sulz. 

= WiO'p(dosi'p}ium dianthi, Schr. 

Gillette, Jour. Eco. Entom., I, p. 359 (1908) ; Ind. Mtis. Notes, 

IV, i, p. 23 (1896) ; Lefroy, Ind. Ins. Life, p. 744 (1909) ; 

Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 166-169 (1918). 

This species is recorded from Lahore on rape, mustard, cabbages, 
cauliflowers, turnip, B. cawpestris, Raphanus sativus, Convolvulus tnajor, 
Ipomoea spp., Nicotiana tahacum, Datura stramonium, Prunus persica 
(often pinkish in colour ; along with Aphis jwuni), Pyrus communis, 
Dalhergia sissu, Solanum tuberosum, S. lycopersimvm, Chenopodium, 
Viola tricohr, Cineraria. It has been found at Berhampur on hrinjal. 

Stepliensonia lahorensis, Das. 

Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 175-179 (1918). 
This has been found at Lahore on cultivated Chrysanthemum. 

Brevicoryne coriandri, Das. 

Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 180-183 (1918). 

At Lahore this has been found on coriander {Coriandrmn sativum). 
Occasionally also on Fceniculum sp. and Carum copticmn. 

Brevicoryne chenopodii, Schrank. 

Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 184-187 (1918). 
Has been found at Lahore on Chenopodium album. 

Brevicoryne {Aphis) brassiccc, Linn. 

Buck., Brit. Aphid, II, p. 33 (1875) ; Essig. Pom. Coll. Jour. 
Entom. Ill, iii, p. 323 (1911) ; Herrick, Jour. Eco. Entom., 
IV, pp. 219-224 (1911) ; Ind. Mus. Notes, II, vi, p. 167 ; 
Ind. Ins. Life, p. 747 (1909) ; Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 

187-188(1918). 

This species has been found at Lahore on cabbage and turnip. 

Siphocoryne indobrassicce. Das. 

= Aphis pseudobrassicce, Davis. 

Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 188-191 (1918). 

Recorded by B. Das from Lahore, Java, America. Myzus persicce 
is also found along with this in varying proportions. A coloured plate 
has been issued by Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa. 



mOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 281 

We have it from Pusa, Poena, Ram Nagar (United Provinces), 
Fatehpur, in all cases on mustard. 

Sifhocoryne ni/mphceci', Linn. 

= Rhophalosi]>Jnn>i nymphcece. 

Buck. Brit. Aphid, 11, p. 12 ; Essig, Pom. Coll. Jour. Entom., 
IV. iii, pp. 793-797 ; Patch, Main. Agri. Expt. St. Bull. 202 
(1912) ; Davis. Entom. News, p. 245 (1910) ; Cockerell, 
Science, p. 704, (1905) ; Ind. Ins. Life, p. 747 ; Mem. Ind. 
Mus., yi, iv, pp. 191-194 (1918). 

Found on Lemna sp., Nehmibium specioswn and Scarpus lacvstris 
at Lahore. 

Siphocoryne fadi, Linn. 

^Si'phocoryne avenw, Fabr. 
= SipJionaphis padi, Linn. 

U. S. Dept. Agric. Bull.. No. 44 ; Essig, Pom. Coll. Jour. Entom., 
IV, p. 791 ; Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 194-195 (1918). 

At Lahore this has been found on wheat, barley. Arena, rhizomes 
of Cynodon dactylon. 

Toxopfera gramimim, Bond. 

Passerini, Aphid* Italicae, p. 28 (1863) ; S. J. Hunter and 
P. A. Glen, Bull. Kansas Univ., IX, ii (1909) ; Mem. Ind. 
Mus., VI, iv, pp. 196-198 (1918). 

This species occurs in the Punjab on wheat, barley, oats, Cyperus 
rotundus, Cyperus nivevs. 

Toxopfero punjabipy n , Das. 

Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 198-202 (1918). 

This species has been found at Lahore on Pynis commimis (pear), 
and Pyrvs sp. (wild pear). 

Toxopfera aurantii, Boy. 

= Ceylonia tJieaecola . 

Ind. Mus. Notes, II, i, p. 40 ; Ind. Ins. Life, p. 748. 

This species occurs at Pusa and in Bombay on Citrus trees, but 
apparently does not extend so far North as Lahore (Das ; Mem. Ind. 
Mus., VI, 196). 



282 TEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING^ 

Aphis rumicis, L. 

Schouteden, Cat. Aphides de Belgique, p. 277 (1906) ; Buck, 
Brit. Aphid, VII, pi. xiv ; Ocstlund, Aphid Minn., p. 61 
(1887) ; Gillette, Jour. Eco. Entom., Ill, p. 407 (1910) : 
Patch, Maine Agri. Expt. Sta. Bull., 202 (1912). 

This species has been found at Lahore on Solanvm nigrum, Cnicus 
arvensis, Rumex dentata, Chino'podium ravely, Pyrvs communis (pear). 



Aphis medicaginis, Koch. 

= Aphis cardui. 

Koch, Pflanzenlause, p. 94, figs. 125-126 (1857); Gillette, 
Jour. Eco. Entom., I, pp. 177-178 (1908) ; Essig, Pom. Coll. 
Jour. Entom., Ill, iii, p. 527 (1911). 

This species occurs commonly in the Plains on indigo and Cajanus 
indicus and has been noted at Pusa, Surat, and Ranchi on these plants, 
whilst it has also been recorded on Dolichos, Dalbergia, Medicago, Vicia, 
Sesbania, Cassia, etc. 



Aphis nerii, Boyer de Fonscolombe. 

Fonscolombe, Ann. Soc. Ento. Fr. X, p. 157 ; Essig, Pom. 
Coll. Jour. Entom., Ill, iii, p. 530 ; Ind. Ins. Life, p. 748. 

This species has been found at Lahore on Calotropis gigantea, C. 
procera, Hoya longijolia, Cryptostegia grandiflora, Asclepias sp., 
Cynanchum dalhousie, Draga voluhilis. 



Aphis sacchari, Zehntner. 

Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 206-208. 

This species has been found at Lahore on Sorghum and Panicvm 
colore. It has not been found hitherto on sugarcane in India, 
though it was first noticed on sugarcane in Java. {Arch. Java 
Suiker-industrie Dl. IX, p. 674 (1901). 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 283 

Afkis maidis, Fit'^h. 

=A])his advsta, Zehnt. 

=Afhis sorghi, Theobald. 

Fitch, Sec. Kept, on Insects of New York by State Entomolo- 
gist (1856) ; Oesthmd, Synop. Aphid Minn. (1887). p. 56 ; 
Webster, The Crotou. leaf Aphis, U. S. Dept., Agric. Circ. 
No. 86 (1907) ; Ind. Ins. Life, p. 747 ; Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, 
iv, pp. 208-213 (1918). 

This species has been found at Pusa on juar and at Lahore on wheat, 
maize and Panicum colore (inflorescence only), oats, barley, maize, 
Sorghum, Pennisetmn typlioideum, Panicum crusgalli, Cynodon dactylon. 

A plate showing this insect under the name of " Wheat Aphis " 
has been issued by the Agricultural Department, India, but is of Uttle 
scientific value. 



A'jMs malvce, Koch. 

=A. cucurbiti, Buck. 

Buck, Brit. Aphida?, II ; Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 213- 
215. 

This species has been found at Pusa on hhindi and at Lahore on 
cucurbits. 



Afliis malvoides, Das. 

Rec. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 215-216, 1918. 

This has been found at Lahore on Malva sp., Malvastrum spp.. 
Chrysanthemum, pear, pansy, Solanum spp. 



Aphis durranti, Das. 

Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 217-219 (1918). 

This species has been reported from Lahore on Duranla sp., Vitex 
negundo, Colocasia, etc. 

This species was called durranti by Bashambar Das, but the name 
apparently should have been durantce. 



284 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD EXTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Aphis gossypii, Glover, 

= A. citndli, Ashmead, 1882. 
=A. cucumeris, Forbes, 1883. 

Glover, Pat. Off. Report, p. 62 (1854) ; Ashmead, Can. Ento., 

XIV, p. 91 (1882) ; Gillette, Jour. Eco. Entom., I, iii, 

p. 176 (1908) ; Essig, Pom. Coll. Jour., Ill, iv, p. 590 (1911) ; 

Ind. Ins. Life, p. 746 (1909) ; Mem. Ind. Mus. VI, iv, pp. 219- 

220 (1918). 

This species occurs commonly on cotton and is sometimes rather 

a pest of this crop. It has been found on cotton at Lahore, Muzaffarpur, 

Pusa, Dhuha, Shimoga, Bellary and throughout Southern India. At 

Lahore it has also been found on Ca f sella, hnpatiens sp., Cryptostegia 

grandijlora. 

Aphis nasturtii, Kalt. 

Kaltenbach, Pflanzenl. (1843), p. 76 ; Koch, Pflanzenl (1857), 
p. 136, fig. 125 ; Schouteden, Cat. Aph. Belg. (1906), p. 224 ; 
Mem. Ind. Mus. VI, iv, pp., 212-222 (22). 

This species occurs at Lahore on Nasturtium. 

Brachycaudus pruni, Koch. 

Koch, Die Pflanzenlause ; Buckton, Brit. Aphid, II, p. 64 ; 
Van der Goot, Ziir Systematik der Aphiden, pp. 96-97 ; 
Stebbing, Ind. Mus. Notes, VI, 1913, p. 70. 
This species occurs throughout North- West Irdia on peach and is 
also found on Ageratum conyzoides. 

It is one of the worst insect pests that the peach-grower has to con- 
tend against in Northern India. The leaves are contorted into pseudo- 
galls and the trees become sickly and unsightly. The leaves appear 
closely crowded and nerer expand fully. They turn wliitish and in some 
cases "pinkish. It is found with Mijziis persicce on the same plant. 

Lachnus pyri, Buckt. 

South Ind. Ins., p. 503, f. 391 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 247. 
This species occurs commonly on pear in Ootacamund and the 
Shevaroy Hills and Ceylon (Hills), but apparently does not extend into 
Northern India. It occurs in masses on the stems and branches and 
is easily dealt with by brushing or spraying. 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING -285 

Hyaloperus jnuni, Fb. 

Buckt., Brit. Aphid, II. p. 110; Riley, Ins. Life, V, p. 236: 
Gillette, Baill. Color. Expt. Sta. No. 133 (1908) ; Mem. lud. 
Mus., VI, iv, pp. 225-227 (1918). 

This species has been found at Lahore on Arundo donax, Phragmites 
kirki and Pru mis persica (peach). 

Brachyimguis {I) carthami, Das. 

Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 237-240. 

. This species has been found at Lahore on wild safflower {Carthamus 
oxycarpi). 

Callipterus trifolii, Monell. 

=zChaitophon(S mdcvlatus, Buckt.* 

Monell, Canad. Entom. XVI, p. 14 (1882) ; Ind. Mus. Notes, 

IV, p. 277 ; Ind. Ins. Life, p. 746 ; Davis, Ann. Ent. Soc. 

America, I (1908) ; B. Das, Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 

244-245(1918). 

This species is found on lucerne and bersim throughout Northern 
India. 

Tvberodryobius persicw, Cholcdk. 

Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 259-268 (1918). 

This species occurs throughout North- Western India as a bad pest 
of peach, and it also occurs on plum, apricot and almond. 

The Aphids are present on the main trunk and branches of the fruit- 
-trees mentioned above, more particularly the peach. The loss to the 
peach crop from an attack of this Aphid is innnense. Very few fruits 
mature and attain the normal size and colour. 

Eriosoma {Schizoneura) lanigera, Hausm. 

South Ind. Ins., pp. 500-501, f. 389. 

This species has been introduced into India with imported orchard 
stock and is now fairly established in all the principal apple-growing 
districts. We know it from Simla, Binsar (Almora), Eamgarh (Kumaon), 
Lucknow, Shillong, Taung-gyi (Southern Shan States), Bangalore and 
Coonoor, in all cases on apple. 

At Eamgarh, where it is said to attack jungle plants also, the winged 
adults were found emerging towards the end of August 1918, and treat- 

* Theobald states that r. macuJahi.% is a synonym of Callij terus ononidis, Kalt 
{Bull. Eni. Res II 134-138, ff. 2.5, 26 (1915) ; Entom. 1918, p. 28). Editor. 



286 PROCEEDINGS OF THE TIIIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

ment at this time of all colonies on the trees is especially desirable to 
prevent spread of infection as far as possible. 



{Unidentified Aphid). 

" Ragi root Aphis," South Ind. Ins., pp. 502-503, f. 390 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 200. 

This species occurs regularly every year at Coimbatore on roots of 
ragi and is a serious pest. 

{Unidentified Aphid). 

South Ind. Ins., pp. 506-507, f. 393 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
p. 261. 

This species was found at Coimbatore on young coconut palms which 
had been imported from Colombo. 

Oregma bambiisce, Buckt. 

South Ind. Ins., p. 505, f. 392. 

This species occurs commonly at Coimbatore, and probably through- 
out Southern India, as a pest of bamboo. 

CocciD^. 

[Note. — The Coccidae form another group of which we know nothing in India and 
the following list, which is placed in the order of Fernald's Catalogue, is very incom- 
plete.] 

Monofhlebus stebbingi var odocaudata, Gr. 

Mem. Dept. Agric. India, II, ii, p. 16, II, ii, pp. 111-117 (1908). 

This species has been found at Sitamarhi (Bihar), Fatehgarh (United 
Provinces), Bareilly, Lahore (ShaUmar gardens), in all cases on mango. 
It is abundant at Pusa on practically all trees from December to April. 



Monofhlebus tamarindns, Green. 

South Indian Coccidse (MS.) ; Mem. Dept. Agric. India, II, ii, 
p. 17 (1908). 

This species has been found at Agra, on tamarind leaves ; and at 
Samalkota (Godavari), on garden crotons. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 287 

MonopJtlebus sp. (near tmnarindus, Gr.). 
This was found in May at Kohat (North- West Frontier Province) 
on mulberry. 

Walkeriana cinerea, Green. 

Mem. Dept. Agric. India, II, ii, p. 17 (1908) ; I. c, iv, p. 121 (1908). 

This species bf s been found in Western India, on Lawsonia alba ; 
at Surat, on Acacia arabica ; and at Vadanapalle (Malabar) on stem of 
Laivsonia alba and on sandalwood tree. 

Walkeriana sp. 
This was found in Coorg on TaberncBmontana. 

Icen/a cegyptiaca, Dougl. 

Mon. Brit. Cocci., II, p. 248 (1902) ; South Indian Coccidae 
(MS) ; Mem. Dept. Agric. India, IL ii, p. 118 (1908). 

This species has been noted at Vadanapalle (S. Malabar), on Arto- 
carpus incisa ; Kallar (Nilgiris), on Artocarpns integrifolia ; Simha- 
chalam (Vizagapatam), on Ficns sp. leaves ; Pusa, on Citrus, guava^ 
chillies (plants), jak ; and at Ranchi, on rose leaves. 

Icerya minor, Gr. 

Mem. Dept. Agric. India, II, ii, p. 118-121 (1908), I.e., II, ii, 
p. 17 (1908). 
This species has been found at Pusa, on mango leaf. 

Icerya seychellarum, Westwd. 

N. Z. Trans., p. 329 (1897) ; I. M. N., IV, i, p. 7 (1896) ; Mem. 
Dept. Agric. India, II, p. 18 (1908) ; South Indian Coccidse 
(MS) ; Bom. Jour., XXIII, p. 137 (19U). 

This species has been found at Kottur (Bellary Dist.), on Cassia 
tora ; Bombay, on mango ; Coromandel coast, on Casuarina ; and in 
Western India, on Ficus bengaknsis. 



Cerococciis hibisci, Green. 

Mem. Dept. Agric. India, II, ii, pp. 20, 122 (1908) ; Newstead, 

Bull. Ento. fees., VIII, 127 ; South Ind. Ins., p. 508, f. 395 ; 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 118. 

This species has been found at Coimbatore, Godavari, Madras, on 

cotton, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis ; Guntur, on Solamim melongena ; Lashkar 

VOL. I U 



288 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

(Gwalior), on cotton ; Rangoon, on cotton ; Sabour, on cotton (1918) 
Bombay, on Hibiscus liUflonis ; and at Pusa, on cotton. 

Dactylopius iiidicus, Green. 

Mem. Dept. Agric. India, II, ii, p. 28 (1908). 
This species was found at Kangra, on Opuntia dillenii. 

Phenacocciis ballardi, Newstead. 

Bull. Ent. Res., VIII, p. 17 (August 1917) ; South Ind. Coccidse (MS). 
This species has been found on mango at Coimbatore and in South 
Kanara. 

Phenacocciis hirsutus, Gr. 

Bom. Jour., XXIII, p. 136 (1914) ; Mem. Dept. Agric. Ind., II, ii, 25. 
This species has been found at M?hol (Sholapur District), on Ficus 
hengalensis ; Pusa, on mulberry, cotton shoots (very bad on mulberry, 
causing iiikra disease) ; Malda, on mulberry shoots ; Berhampore (Bengal) 
mulberry shoots ; and Bankura, on mulberry shoots. 

Phenacoccus iceryoides, Gr. 

Mem. Dept. Agric. Ind., II, ii, pp. 26, 129 (1908) ; South Indian 
Coccidc^ (MS). 

This species has been found at Coimbatore, on Odina wodier ; Palacole 
(Godavari), on Citrus shoots ; Alamanda (Vizagapatam), on mango 
shoots and fruits ; Tanjore, on Boswellia ; Calcutta, on mango ; and at 
Surat, on Caj^paris horrida. 

Phenacoccus insolitus, Green. 

Mem. Dept. Agric. Ind., II, ii, p. 27 ; Bull. Ento. Res., VIII, 
p. 127 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 289. 

This species has been found at Pusa, on Sida cordifolia ; Chingleput 
and Coimbatore, on hrinjal plants ; and at Saidapct, on Solanum melon- 
gena (Newstead). 

Phenacoccus mangiferce, Green. 

I. M. N., IV, i, p. 7 ; South Indian Coccida3 (MS.). 
This species has been found at Coimbatore, on mango. 



fROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 289 

Pseudococcus {Dacti/Iopim) cilri, Risso. 

Mem. Dept. Agric. Ind., II, ii, pp. 22, 122, 123-121 (1908) ; 
South Ind. Ins., pp. 508-509, fig. 396 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 29, 36, 79, 256. 

This species has been found at Kallar (Nilgiris), on cacao pods ; in 
Mysore, on coffee, Cedrela, Ficiis ghmerata ; in Coorg, on Eryilirina. 
Ageratum ; and in Ceylon, on coffee. 

Pseudococcus cocotis, Msk. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, II, p. 169 III, i, pp. 7, 66 (1893) ; South 
Indian Coccidge (MS). 

This species has been found on coconut leaves in Malabar and the 
Laccadive Islands. 

Pseudococcus corymbatus, Green (MS). 

South Indian Coccidse (MS). 

This species is known from Palacole (Godavari District), on Citrus 
shoots and fruits ; Malabar, on jak ; Coimbatore, on cotton shoot ; and 
Pusa, on cotton shoot, soy beans. 



Pseudococcus longispi)ius, Targ. 

Cotes, Ind. Mus. Notes, II, vi, p. 169 (1893) [adonidum]; 
Barlow, Ind. Mus. Notes, IV, p. 75 (1897). 

This species has been found at Vadanapalle (S. Malabar), on coconut 
leaves ; in Mysore, orf coffee and cedar ; and at Calcutta on croton. 



Pseudococcus nipce, Mask. 

Mem. Dept. Agric. Ind., II, ii, pp. 23, 121: ; South Ind. Ins. , 
p. 509, f. 397 ; South Indian Coccidee (MS) ; Bom. Jour., 
XXIII, p. 136. 

This species is known from Coromandel coast, on Gasuarina stem ; 
North India, on stored potatoes ; Western India, on Cajanm tndicm ; 
and Pusa, on potato tubers in store, mulberry, cotton. [The Mealy-bug 
on cotton and mulberry has been identified by E. E. Green (1919) 
as Phenacoccus hirsulus.] 

u2 



290 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Pseudococcus sacchari, Ckll. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, V, iii, p. 102 ; Mem. Dept. Agric. Ind., II, 
ii, p. 23 ; South Indian Coccidse (MS) ; Newstead, Bull. Ento.. 
Res., VIII, 126 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 151. 

This species has been found at Coimbatore, Trichinopoly and South 
Arcot, on paddy (a rather serious pest occasionally) ; Bassein ; Poona ;. 
Bilaspur ; and Rajnagar (Darbhanga), on sugarcane. 

Pseudococcus saccharifolii, Gr. 

Mem. Dept. Agric. Ind., II, ii, p. 24 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 15U 
This species has been found at Pusa, on sugarcane. 

Pseudococcus thececola, Green. 

Mem. Dept. Agric. Ind., II, ii, p. 24. 
This species was found in Darj'ling, on roots of tea plant. 

Pseudococcus virgatus, Ckll. 

Newstead, Ind. Mus. Notes, III, v, p. 24 (1895) ; Green, Ind. 
Mus. Notes, I. p. 7. (1896) [falini] ; Mem. Dept. Agric. Ind., 
II, ii, pp. 127-128 (1908) ; South Ind. Ins., p. 510, fig. 398 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 124, 257, 268, 290. 

This species has been found at Coimbatore, on croton, tomato ; 
Palur (S. Arcot), on Cambodia cotton ; Poona, on adventitious roots 
of banyan tree ; Serampore, on violets ; Poona, on croton ; Bettiah, on 
cotton ; Pusa, on cotton, mulberry, crotons, Draccena, Hibiscus, violets, 
Acahjpha. Cissus discolor. 

•' Piper sia resinofhila, Gr. 

Bull. Ent. Res., VI, pp. 395-397. 

This species has been found inKumaon and Kashmir (Kamraj Division) 
on Pinus longifolia and Pinus excelsa. 

^ Ripersia sacchari, Gr. 

I. M. N., V, ii, p. 37 ; South Indian Coccidse (MS) ; Mem. Dept. 
Agri. Ind., II, ii, p. 25 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 151. 

This species has been found at Coimbatore, on sugarcane ; Gorakhpur,. 
on cane ; Pusa, on cane ; and in Bengal, on rice plant. 



PliOCEEDTNGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 291 

Ripersia saccJiari oryzce, Green. 

Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, ii, pp 128-129. 

This insect has been found at Balasore, Bankipur, Champaran, Gorakh- 
pur, Moorla (Bihar), and Handia (Bihar), in all cases on rice. 

Ceronema hoeheli, Gr. 

Bull. Ent. Res., V, p. 267, 1914. 
This species has been found at Peradeniya, on Pitliecolobium saman. 



Pulvinaria burkiUi, Green. " 

Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., V, ii, pp. .31-32 ; South Indian Coccidse 
(MS) ; Bull. Ento. Res., VIII, 129. 

This species has been found at Coimbatore, on Zizyphus jujuba 
leaves, and at Siugaiug [?] (near Calcutta), on Croton tiglium. 



Pulvinaria maxima, Green. 

Ent. Mo. Mag., XL, p. 206 (1904) ; South Indian Coccid^ (MS). 

This species has been found at Coimbatore, on nim trees, and in 
South India, on mulberry plants. 

Pulvinaria psidii, Mask. 

N. Z. Trans., XXV, p. 223 (1892) ; Ind. Mus. Notes, IV, i, 
p. 8 (1896) ; Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, ii, p. 32, 131, 134 
(1908) ; South Ind. Ins., p. 511, f. 399 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 34. 228, 230, 232, 250. 

This species occurs in South India, on guava, mango, Morinda, tea, 
coffee ; at Coimbatore, on mango, guava ; in Mysore, on Ficus glomerata • 
in the Nilgiris, on guava, Eugenia, tea ; at Koilpatti, on guava ; in 
Western India, on mango, guava (very bad), Passia Icdifolia; and at 
Pusa, on mango leaves, litchi, and Ficus glomerata, 



Pulvinaria sp. 
This occurs at Pusa, on mulberry leaves. 



292 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Cewplastes adiniformis, Green. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, IV, i, p. 8 (1896) ; Coccida) of Ceylon, iv, 
p. 275 (1909) ; B. J., XXIII, p. 136 (1914) ; South Indian 
Coccidee (MS). 

This species has been found at Coimbatore, on coconut leaves and 
mango ; in Malabar, on coconut leaves ; at Samalkota (Godavari District) ,^ 
on Canna ; Penukonda (Anantapur District), on Ficus sp. ; Poona, on 
Loranthus sp., banyan ; and in Ceylon, on coconut and other palms, 
Canna and Sapium. 

Ceroplasles cerifenis, Anderson. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, I, p. 89 (1890), III,v, p. 21 (1896) ; Coccid^ of 
Ceylon, iv, p. 270 (1909). 

This species occurs at Coimbatore, on Laivsonia alba ; Tanjore, on 
BoswelUa [?] ; and in the Central Provinces on Terminalia and Bucha- 
nania. 

CeropJastes fioridensis, Comst. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, V, i, p. 8 (1900) ; Coccidse of Ceylon, iv, p. 
277; Kept. U. S. Dept. Agri. 1880, p. 331; Mem. Dept.' 
Agri. Ind., II, ii, p. 134 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 
228, 251, 255, 257. 

This species has been found at Bangalore, on cashew {Anacardium 
occidenfale) ; in Tinnevelly District, on Michalia courtallmn ; in Ceylon, 
on tea and guava ; and at Pusa, on Ficus carica, F. infectoria, Tamarix 
galnca, mango, guava. Hibiscus esculentus and Cyamojjsis fsoralioides. 

Ceropilastes rubens, Mask. {myriccE). 

N. Z. Trans. XXV, p. 214 ; I. M. N., V, i, p. 8 ; Mem. Dept.. 
Agri. Ind., II, p. 32 ; Bull. Ento. Res., VIII, 129. 

This species has been found at Coconada, on Cycas revoluta ; Chica- 
cole, on mango ; Coimbatore, on CalophyUion ; Palghat (Malabar), on 
jak ; and in Ceylon, on tea, mango, cinnamon and Eugenia. 

Vinsonia steUifera, Westwd. 

Coccidse of Ceylon, iv, p. 280 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 

' pp. 228, 260. 

This species has been found at Coimbatore, on mango ; in Tinnevelly, 

on nutmeg leaves ; Malabar, on coconut palm ; Godavari District, on 

rose-apple leaves {Eugenia jambos) ; South Malabar, on coconut ; Ceylon, 

on mango and coconut ; and at Bombay, on Garcinia indica. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 293 

Inglisia bivalvata, Green. 

Ind. Mus. Notes. V, iii, p. 95 ; South Indian Coccidse (MS). 
This species has been found at Mandapetta (Godavari District), 
on Cajanvs indicus leaves. 

Cerophstodes cajani, Mask. 

Newstead, Bull. Ento. Res., VIII (1917) ; Mem. Dept. Agri 
Ind., II, ii, p. 32 (1908) ; South Ind. Ins., p. 512, f. 400 : 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 57, 267. 
This species has been found in South India, on Cajanus indicus, 
Zkyjjhvs jnjuha, Ocimim sanctum, and wild indigo ; at Calcutta, on 
Ocimv.m ; and at Surat, on Coleus. 

Cerojdastodes chiton, Gr. 

Mem. Dept. Agric. Ind., II, ii, p. 32 (1908). 
This species has been found at Darjiling, on Cajanus indicus. 

Coccus acutissimus, Gr. 

I. M. N., IV, i, p. 10 (1896) ; Coccidse of Ceylon, p. 218 (1899). 
This species has been found at Coimbatore, on coconut leaf and 
mango leaf. 

Coccus hesjjeridum, L. 

Coccidse of Ceylon, I, p. 188 (1899) ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 36. 
This species has been found at Mandapetta (Godavari District), 
on Citrus shoots ; and at Madahgam (S. Malabar), on coconut leaf. 

Coccus longulus, Douglas. 

I. M. N., IV, p. 8 (1896) ; Coccid^ of Ceylon, p. 221, t. LXX. 
This species has been found at Mandapetta (Godavari District), on 
red-gram ; and in Ceylon, on Acacia, Albizzia, Loranthus. 

Coccus mangijerce, Green. 

Mem. Dept. Agric. Ind., II, ii, p. 30 (1908). 
This species occurs at Pusa, on mango. 



294 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Coccus viridis, Green. 

I. M. N., pp. 49-117 ; Coccidae of Ceylon, p. 199, t. LXIX 
(1899) ; Ent. Mo. Mag., XXV, p. 248 ; West Ind. Bull., Vol. 
XII (1912) ; Mem. Dept. Agric. Ind., II, ii, p. 131 ; South 
Ind. Ins., p. 513, f. 401 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 34, 
36, 37, 232, 250. 

This species occurs in the Shevaroys, Anamalais, Palnis, Nilgiris, 
Coorg, and Mysore as a pest of coffee. It has also been found at Banga- 
lore, and in the Nilgiris, on Citrus ; at Coimbatore, on JEgle, Carissa ; 
and in the Nilgiris, on tea, guava. Citrus, Plumiera acutijolia. 

Euhcanium caprece, Linn. 

Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, ii, p. 29. 

This species *has been found on almond trees in Baluchistan, where 
it kills off the branches and lastly the trees, 

Eulecanium persicce, Fb. 

Mem. Dept. Agric. Ind., II, ii, p. 31 (1908). 
This species has been found at Jhelum, on Morus indica. 

Paralecanium expansum, Green. 

I. M. N., IV, i, p. 9 (1896) ; Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, p. 29 
(1908) ; South Indian Coccidee (MS). 

This species has been found in Mysore, on Ficus retusa. 

Saissetia depressa, Targ. 

Targioni-Tozzetti, Coccidae, p. 29 (1869) ; South Indian Coccidse (MS\ 
This species has been found at Coimbatore, on plantain leaf. 

Saissetia liemi splicer ica, Targ. 

I. M. N., I, p. 117 [L. cqffew] ; South Indian Coccidae (MS) ; 
Bom. Jour., XXIII, p. 136 (1914) ; Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., 
II, ii, pp. 129-130; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 214, 
232, 246, 250. 

This species has been noted in South India, on coffee, ferns, tea, 
guava, Tahernmnontana, loquat ; at Thana (Bombay), and in the Konkan, 
in pomelo (very serious on pomelo plants at Rajapur, Ratnagiri Dis- 



PROCEEDI^■GS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 295 

trict) ; Manickganj, on T richosanilies auguina ; and in North India, on 
guava, Thunbergia, TrkJiosanthes anguina. 

Saissetla (Lecanium) nigra, Nietn. 

I. M. N., L ii, p. 117 (1889) ; Coccidse of Ceylon, p. 229 ; Mem. 
Dept. Agri. Ind., 11, ii, pp. 31, 130 ; South Ind, Ins., pp. 
514-515, f. 403 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 36, 119, 
124, 230, 256. 

This species has been found in South Mysore, on Justicia ; at Pusa, 
on cotton (at times bad), Ficus glomerata ; at Calcutta, on Capparis 
'sepiaria ; at Coimbatore, on cotton, croton, H. esculentus, H. rosa-sinen- 
sis, Thespesia populnea, Hijgropliild spinosa, sandalwood, Laivsonia 
alba (News., Bull. Ent. Res., VIII, 130) ; in Tinneveljy, on nutmeg shoots ; 
at Poona ; and at Surat, on Capparis sepiaria. 

It is at times a bad pest of cotton and occurs on castor also. 

Saissetia olew, Bernard. 

Coccids of Ceylon, p. 227 (1899) ; South Indian Coccidse (MS). 

This species has been found at Coimbatore, on tamarind fruits 
Erythina leaves and stem, Hygropliila spinosa; in Co org, on coffee; 
and in P;ellary, on Sesbania (agafJii). 

Aderda japonica. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 152. 

This species has been noted on sugarcane at Jabbalpur, Partabgarh 
and Poona. 

Lecanium adersi, Newst. 

Bull. Ent. Res., VII, p. 357 ; South Indian Coccid^ (MS). 
This species has been found at Coimbatore, on mango. 

Lecanium discrepans, Green. 

Coccidas of Ceylon, pt. iii, p. 204 ; South Indian Coccidoe (MS). 

This species has been found at Palacole (Godavari District), on 
mango leaf. 

Lecanium imbricans, Green. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, V, 94 (1903) ; Mem. Dept. Agric. Ind., II, 
130 ; South Ind. Ins. pp. -516-517, f. 406. 

This species occurs in the Hills of South India, on Cedrela ioona. 



296 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Lecanimn marsupiale, Green. 

Mem. Dept. Agii. Ind., II, p. 30 ; Coccidse of Ceylon, pt. iii. 
p. 212; South Ind. Ins., p. 516, f. 405; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 300. 

This species occurs in South Wynaad and Malabar, on pepper leaves ;. 
and in South Arcot, on Calophyllvm. 

Lecanimn mercarce, Green MS. 

South Ind. Coccida3 (MS). 
This species has been found at Mercara (Coorg), on cofliee. 

Lecanium sigrdfermn, Gr. 

Coccid* of Ceylon, p. 197 (1899) ; South Indian Coccida? (MS). 

This species has been found at Golconda (Vizagapatam District), 
on plantain leaf. 

Chionaspis decvrvata, Gr. 

Bom, Jour., XXIII, p. 135 (1914) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 205. 
This has been found on bamboo at Poona and on rice at Calcutta. 

Chionaspis dilatata, Green. 

Cocc. of Ceylon, pt. iii, p. 146, t. LI ; Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., 
II, p. 36 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 228. 

This species is recorded from Bangalore, on areca palms ; Godavari, 
on leaf-sheaths of palmyra palm ; Calcutta, on palms ; and Poona, on 
mango and Ficus. 

At Poona it is of common occurrence on mango, on both surfaces of 
the leaves. 

Chionaspis graminis, var divergens, Gr. 

Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, ii, p. 37. 
This was found at Bharwain (Hoshiarpur), on Andropogon sorglivm. 

Chionaspis manni, Gr. 

= Chionaspis pntnicola var theae, Mask. 

Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, ii, p. 37 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
p. 26. 

This has been found on tea iu Assam and Darjiling and on Ficvs sp. 
in the Kangra Valley. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 297' 

Chionas'pis me(j(doha, Green. 
Pusa, on Zizyphus jvjuha leaves.. 

Chionas'pis nilgirica, Green MS. 

South Ind. C^occicla; (MS). 
This has been found in the Nilgiris. on Loranthns. 

Chionas'pis varicosa, Gr. 

I. M. N.. I, p. 2. (1896) ; Cocc. Ceylon, pt. ii, p. 140, t. L (1899). 

This has been reported from Sidapur (Coorg), on pepper stem, and' 
from Ceylon, on Gchniian lanccolatum. 

Chionaspis vilis, CJr. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, IV, i, p. 3 (189G) ; Cocc. of Ceylon, pt. ii.- 
p. 140. t. XLVII (1899) ; Mem. Dept. Agri. India, II. ii, 
p. 37 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 228. 
This is known from Pusa and Bangalore, on mango ; KoUegal ; 
Coonoor, on Elaxujmis ; and from Ceylon, on Vitis lanceolaria and Loran- 
thiis sp. 

Hoivardia biclavis, Comst. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, IV, i, p. 2 (189G) ; Cocc. of Ceylon, pt. ii, 
p. 152, t. LIV (1899) ; Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind. I, p. 354 

. (1907), II, p. 36 (1908) ; Mon. Brit. Cocc, I, p. 190, t. XXI 
(1901) ; South Ind. Ins., p. 519, f. 410 (1914) ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 37. 

This has been recorded from the Nilgiris, on tea, and from Ceylon, 
on Cinchona, coffee and Grevillea. 

Diaspis harheri, Green. 

Mem. Dept. Agri. India, II, p. 35 ; South Ind. Coccidee (MS). 

This species has been found on Loranthvs at Tanjore and Alamanda 
(Vizagapatam District). 

Diaspis echinocacti, Bouche. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, IV, 211 (1899) [D. cahjplroides] ; Mem. Dept. 
Agri. Ind. II, 36 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 41. 

This species occurs in South India and at Manjri (Poona), on pric kly 
pear {Opuntia sp.). 



.298 PEOCEEDIISrGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Diaspis mangijercB, Green. 

South Indian Coccidae (MS). 
This species has been found at ALamanda (Vizagapatam District) 
on mango leaf. 

Diaspis rosce, Bouche. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., IX, p. 441 (1869) ; Brit. Cocc, I, p. 168, 
t. XIV [Aulacaspis]. 

This species has been found at Bangalore, on mango leaves. 

Hemichionaspis aspidistrce, Sign. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (4) p. 443 (1889) ; Ind. Mus. Notes, II, 
p. 17 (1891), III, V, p. 52 (1891) [hrasiliensis'] ; Cocc. of 
Ceylon, pt. ii, p. 110, t. XXXII (1899) ; Mon. Brit. Cocc, 
I, p. 187, t. XX (1901) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 262, 
300. 

. This species has been found in ]\Iysore, on areca, jak ; Western Ghats 
(Madras), on pepper berries ; Nilgiris, on Ceara rubber ; Malabar, on 
coconut leaves ; Godavari District, on Citrus leaves ; Coimbatore, on 
Ficus leaves ; and in Ceylon, on ferns. Acacia, mango, Capparis, and 
croton. 

Hemichionaspis draccence, Cooley. 

Sepe. Bull. Mass. Expt. Sta., p. 57 ; South Ind. Coccidse (MS). 

This species has been found at Vadanapalle (South Malabar), on 
areca palm ; the young fronds are badly infested. 

Heniichionaspis fici, Gr. 

Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, ii, p. 38 (1908). 
This species has been found at Pusa, on Ficus glomerata. 

Hemichionaspis minima, Gr. 

Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, ii, p. 38. 

This species was found at Pusa on the underside of leaves of banyan 
{Ficus sp.). 



PEOCEEDIJN'GS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 291* 

Hemichio'naspis minor, Mask. 

N. Z. Trans. XVII, p. 33 (1884) ; Cocc. of Ceylon, ii, p. 115, 
t. XXXIV (1899); Ind. Mus. Notes, V, iii, p. 128 (1903); 
Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, pp. 39-128 ; South Ind. Coccidse 

(MS). - ■ 

This scale has been found at Cuddapah, on Agave ; Bellary, on Cassia 
tora ; Coimbatore, on tamarind ; and Sibpur (Calcutta), on sann-hemp. 



Hemichionas'pis tJiea' Mask. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, II, p. 60, t. I, fig. 2. (1891) ; Mem. Dept, 
Agri. Ind. I, p. 342 (1907) ; South Ind. Ins.. pp. 520-521, 
f. 411. 

This species has been found at Coimbatore, on pomegranate leaves 
in Ceylon, on tea ; and in North and South India, on tea. Also on 
Psych otria and other plants. 



Lencaspis indica, Marlatt. 

B. J., XXIII, 135 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 228-229. 

This species has been- recorded from Poona as occurring commonly 
on mango trees. 

Fiorinia froboscidaria , C4reen. 
Bull. Ent. Res., VIII, 133. 
This species was found in Jamaica, on Citrus imported from India. 

Fiorinia thece, Gr. 
Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, ii, p. 39 (1908). 
This species has been found at Calcutta, on Citrus. 

Asfidiotas {Selanaspidus) articvlatiis, Morgan. 
Bull. Ent. Res., VIII, 133. 
This species was found in Jamaica, on Citrus imported from India. 



300 rUOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Asjndiotus camelUce, Sign. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, 11, vi, p. 168 (1893) [As]). favescens] ; B. J., 
XIIT, p. 71 (1900) ; Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., I, pp. 343, 353 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 26, 37. 

This species has been found in the Nilgiris, on tea ; at Dodabetta 
(Nilgiris), on Ficus sp. ; in Ceylon, on cinchona, Michcdia, Acacia, 
^Osbeckia and ivy ; and at Bangalore, on tea stems. 

Aspidiotns curcumce, Green MS. 

Bom. Jour. XXIII p. 135 (1914); Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 295. 
This species has been found at Poona, on turmeric rhizomes. 

Asfidiotus cjjanophjlli, Sign. 

Cocc. of Ceylon, p. 51, t. IX ; South Ind. Coccidse (MS). 

This species has been found in the Nilgiris, on plantain leaf, Ceara 
rubber ; and in Ceylon, on tea, cinchona, palm [?j. 

Aspidioius cydonice, Comst. 

B. J. XIII, p. 71 (1900) ; South Ind. Coccidcfi (MS). 

This species has been found at Bangalore and Coimbatore, on grape, 
fig, pear; at Cojmbatore, on fig fruit; and in Ceylon on Ficus carica, 
Citrus deciimana, Cycas, Cactus, palms, tea stems. 

It is widely distributed, being know i from Florida, Sandwich Islands, 
British East Africa, Uganda, Gold Coast, Jamaica, South India. 

Asfidiotus destructor, Sign. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, III, i, p. 66 (1893) ; Bom. Jour. XIII, p. 70 
(1900), XXIII, p. 134 (1914) ; South Ind. Ins., p. 518, f. 408 ; 
Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, ii, p. 33 (1908) ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, pp. 229, 239, 260, 300. 

This species has been found at Nadiad, on mango leaves ; Tinnevelly 
and Coimbatore, on coconut ; Anantapur ; in the Laccadive Islands, on 
coconut ; in Bombay, on mango ; in Ceylon, on tea, pepper, Ceara rubber, 
plantain leaf, Loranllms ; in Cochin, on coconut leaves ; at Moovathi 
(Wv^naad), on coconut ; and at Pusa, on plantain leaves and mango 
leaves. 

It occurs commonly on coconut, mango, castor, banana, guava, 
screw-pine, Ceara rubber and Hevea brasilensis, and is often a bad 



PKOCEEDlIsGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 301 

pest of coconut. It is very widely distributed and is known from British 
Guiana, Zanzibar, South Africa, British East Africa, Uganda, and the 
•Oold Coast. 

Aspidiotus dichjosfermi, Morg. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, IV, p. 119 (1899) ; Bom. Jour. XIII, p. G8, 
XVI, p. 345 ; South Ind. Coccid^ (MS). - 

This species has been found at Bangalore, on Deiidrohium 
■Coconada, on Mimusops elengi ; in Ceylon, on Cycas, Opuntia and Calo- 
plujUum ; and in North India, on tea. 

Aspidiotus hartii. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 295. 
Specimens on turmeric rhizomes at Poona were identified by Mr. 
•Green as A. hartii, which is a West Indian species ; and possibly the 
identification was a mistake for A. curcumce. 

Aspidiotus latanice, Sign. 

A. cydonicB, Gr. 

Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II. p. 33 ; Bom. Jour. XlII, p. G9 ; 
South Ind. Coccidfe (MS). ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 211, 232, 239, 257. 

This species has been noticed at Coimbatore, on Ficus carica, sissal 
hemp, Carissa carandas ; Madras, on Nerium odonim ; Coonoor, on peach ; 
Calcutta, on Phoenix sp., ; Bombay, on Citrus, bamboo, Poinciana 
regia ; Pusa, on Zizyphus jujuba, Xylophylla clongata, D<dbergia sissu ; 
Bangalore, on guava leaves, tamarind fruit pods ; Muzafiarpur ; and 
Poona, on orange leaves. 

It is also found on tamarind fruits, plantain leaves, Ficus carica, 
Dalbergia sissu, guava, Xylophylla elongata, Zizyphus jujuba. 



yj 



Aspidiotus orientalis, Newst. 



Ind. Mus. Notes, II, v, p. 26 (1894), IV, 4 (1896) [osbeckiai] ; 
B. J., XIII, p. 69 (1900), XXIII. p. 135 (1914) ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 216, 234, 239, 257, 266. 

This species has been found at Pusa, on plantain leaves, Cassia 
fistula, Ficus religiosa, Melia azadirachta, Zizyphus jujuba, D. sissu ; 
in South India, on tamarind fruits ; Bombay, on roses ; Ceylon, on 
Osbeckia sp. ; Guntur, on Solanum melongena ; Poona ; Ahmadnagar, 



302 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

on roses, Cycas revoln'a ; Calcutta, on Phoenix sp. ; Alleppey (Travancore), 
on coconut palm ; Damda (C. P.), on rose ; Bilaspur, on guava leaves,, 
pomegranate leaves. 

Also recorded on Aegle marmelos and Tamarivdus. 

Asfidiotus tamarindi, Green MS. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 257. 
This species occur commonly at Coimbatore, on tamarind. 

Pseudao7tidia trilobitiformis, Green, 

Ind. Mus. Notes, IV, i, p. 41 (1896) ; Cocc. of Ceylon, pt. i, 
p. 41, t. IV (1898) ; B. J., XIII, p. 66 (1900) ; Bull. Ent. 
Res. VIII, 132 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 229. 

This spepies has been found at Vadanapalle (South Malabar), on 
Ixora ; Coconada, on MimiisojJS elengi ; Coimbatore, on mango ; Punda- 
luoya (Ceylon), on Dalhergia cliamfionii and Ixora coccineal and a" 
Pusa, on mango leaves. 

Chrysomphcdus aonidum (ficus). 

Ind. Mus. Notes, IV, ii, p. 69 (1896) ; B. J., XIII, 69 (1900) ; 
Cocc. Ceylon pt. i, p. 43 (1896); Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, 
p. 33 (1908) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 214, 236, 
262 ; South Indian Coccidse (MS). 

This species has been found at Pusa, on bamboo leaves ; Penukonda 
(Anantapur District), on Ficus ; Coimbatore, on mango vine (stems) ; 
South Malabar and Nilgiris, on Citrus leaves; Cochin coast, on Pandanus ; 
Calcutta, on Phcenix sp., ; Bombaj'-, on Areca catechu and orange ; Khed 
(Poona District) ; Sirsi (Kanara District) ; and at Poona, on palms. 

Chrysomphalus aurantii, Mask. 

N. Z. Trans. XI, p. 199 (1878) ; Coccidc^ of Ceylon, pt. i, p. 58 ; 
Bom. Jour., XIII, p. 71 (1900) ; Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, 
ii, p. 134 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meetmg, pp. 214, 266. 

This species has been found at Palghat (Malabar), on rose bush ; 
Godavari District, on jasmine leaves ; in North India, on rose bush ; 
in Ceylon on agave, pomelo, oranges ; in Jamaica, on Citrus imported 
from India ; at Pusa, on rose stems, orange leaves and stems ; Bombay, 
on Cycas circinalis, Cycas recurvata ; Damda (Central Provinces), on 
rose ; and at Myitkyina (Burma), on pomelo and orange leaves. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 303 

It is a widely distributed species, recorded from Australia, New 
Zealand, America, British East Africa, South Rhodesia, South Africa, 
Tasmania, Fiji. 

Chrysmnphalus rossi, Msk. 

Cocc. Ceylon, pt. i, p. 45, t. VI (1896) ; Proc. Second Enth 
Meeting, pp. 232, 234. 

This species has been found at Coimbatore, on Carissa carandas ; Coco" 
nada, on mango leaves ; Poona, on Baningtania acutanguJa ; in Ceylon, 
on Cycas sp., Capparis ; and at Bilaspur (C. P.), on guava and pome- 
granate leaves. 

Chrysmnphalus triglandulosus , Gr. 

Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, pp. 33-34 (1908). 

This species has been found at Mahableshwar (Bombay) ; and at 
Bangalore and Malabar, on jak leaf. 

Lepidosaphes (MytiJaspis) beckii, Newst. 

South Ind. Coccidse (MS). 
This species has been found at Trivandtum, on pepper leaf. 

Lepidosaphes erythrina, Rutherford. 
Bull. Ent. Res., V, p. 264. 

Lepidosaphes (Mytilaspis) lasianthi, Gr. 

Mem. Dept. Agri. India, II, ii, p. 134 (1908), 
This species has been found at Calcutta, on crotons. 

Lepidosaphes [Mytilaspis 1 ) pallida, Green. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, IV, p. 5 (1896) ; South Ind. Coccidee (MS). 
This species has been found at Ramchandrapur (Godavari District), 
on guava leaf. 

Lepidosaphes {Mylilaspis) piperis, Green. 

Mem. Dept. Agri. India, II, p. 34 (1908) ; South Ind. Insects, 
p. 519, f. 409 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 300. 

This species occurs in the Wynaad and probably all along the Western 
Ghats as a local minor pest of pepper. 

VOL. I X 



304 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Parlatoria caUantJdna , Berl and Leo. 

Rev. Pat. Veg., Ill, p. 346 (1895) ; South Indian Coccidee (MS). 
This species has been found in Madras, on oleander. 

Parlatoria maiigiferw, Marlatt. 

Bull. U. S. Bur. Ent. (T. S.) 16 pt. ii, p. 28 (1908) ; South 
Indian Coccidse (MS). 

This species has been found in the Godavari District, on a palmyra 
leaf-sheath. 

Parlatoria pergandii, Comst. 

Bull. Ent. Res., VIII, 133 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 299. 

This species has been found in Jamaica, on Citrus imported from 
India ; and in India at Bangalore, on grape vine stems ; and Alwar 
(Rajputana), on mango leaves. 

Parlatoria 2)rotens, Curtis, var. myiUasjnjormis, Gr. 

B. J., XVI, p. 349 (1905) ; South Ind. Coccidse (MS) ; Gard. 

Chron. p. 676 (1843) ; Mem. Dept. Agri India, II, ii, p. 35 

(1908). 

This species has been found at Bangalore, on a species of orchid ; 

in the Konkan, on Garcinia indica ; and in Bombay, on Cycas recurvata, 

Dracama leaves, Kantia. 

Parlatoria {Webster iella) zizyphus, Lucas. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, III, p. 102 (1903) ; South Ind. Coccidse (MS) ; 
Bull. Ent. Res. V, p. 233 (1914). 
This species has been found at Coimbatore, on Citrus leaves ; Calcutta, 
on Citrus ; and in Jamaica, on Citrus imported from India. {Bull. 
Ent. Res., VIII 133). 

THYSANOPTERA. 

Note. — As this group is dealt with elsewhere in a paper bj- Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar (see pages G18-G21), it is not included here.] 

ORTHOPTERA. 

ACRIDIIDiE. 

{Unidentified Tettigid). 
This small Tettigid grasshopper occurs at Pusa as a minor pest of 
cabbage. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 305 

Acrida turrita, Linn. 

Kby., F. I. Acrid., p. 98 ; S. Ind. Ins., pp. 524-525, f. 416. 

This species occurs •throughout the Plains and is found on misceHane- 
ous crops, but is scarcely a pest. 

Aswatthamanus cylindricus, Kby. 

Kby., F. I. Acrid, pp. 101-102, ff. 82, 83. 

This species is common at Pusa on grass, from July to November. 
It is doubtful whether it is really a pest. 

Phlceoba cinctalis, Kirby. 

Kby., F. I. Acrid, p. 105. 

This species is common at Pusa on grass, sweet-potato, etc., in July 
and August. 

Aiolopus tamulas, Fb. 

Epacromia dorsalis, I. M. N., Ill, v, p. 73, figs ; Lefroy Ind. 

Ins. Life, p. 83, f. 24. 
Epacromia tamulus, Fletcher, S. Ind. Ins., p. 525, f. 417 ; Proc. 

Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 72, 98, 160, 180, 186, 190, 191, 

196, 199. 
JEolopus tamulus, Kby, F. I, Acrid, p. 122. 

This grasshopper occurs throughout the Plains of S. India and is 
especially common in the Tinnevelly, Ramnad and Madura districts. 
It attacks ragi, cholam, cumbu, dhaincha, cotton, rice, maize, wheat, 
marua. 

We have it from Peshawar, on maize ; Munshiganj and Pusa, common 
on grass. 

Aiolopus ajffinis, Bol. 

^olopus qffinis, Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 122-123, f. 92. 

'This species is recorded from Madura and Bandra by Kirby, and 
we have it from Garlisankar (Punjab), on sugarcane ; Pusa, common 
on grass ; Nasirabad Tahsil (Baluchistan), great damage to juar, August 
1917. 

Stauroderus hicolor, Charp. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., p. 127, f. 93. 

This species occurs commonly throughout India and Burma, on 
grass, etc. 

x2 



306 mOCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Heteropternis respondens, Wlk. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 141-142, f. 101. 

This species occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon and is 
presumably a minor pest of low-growing crops, although it never seems 
to have been reported as doing damage. 

(Edaleus nigrofasciatus, Sauss. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., p. 143. 

This species occurs throughout India and Ceylon. We have it from 
Pusa, on grass and juar ; Dharwar ; and Trichinopoly. 

Gastrimargus warmcratus, Thnb. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., p. 145, f. 94. 

This species is recorded by Kirby from Baltistan, Nepal, Garhwal, 
Sylhet, Bengal and the Shevaroys. We have it from Pusa, Chapra, 
Surat and Bandra. At Pusa it has been found on paddy and lucerne. 

Locusta danica, Linn. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 146-147, f. 94. 

This grasshopper occurs throughout the Indian Empire. We have 
it from Pusa, on paddy (in numbers), on grass and oats in November 
1906 ; also a few at Pusa in February 1917. 

Acrotylus inficila, Wlk. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 152-153. 

This species is recorded from North Bengal and Ceylon. It is a 
common species at Pusa and at MuzafTarpur has been found injuring 
cabbage and cauliflower. We have it also from Koilpatti, on cumbu. 

Chrologonus sp. 

Kirby, F. L Acrid ; pp. 161-167 ; S. Ind. Ins., pp. 528-529, 
t. 49; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 49, 66, 79, 86, 90, 
95, 98, 160, 181, 186, 191, 193, 269, 274. 

Species of Chrotogonus . (whether of one or more or of which species 
I cannot say) occur throughout the Plains of India, and are often serious 
pests of young crops (tobacco, juar, wheat, etc.). They are best dealt 
with by bagnets. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 307 

Aularches miliaris, L. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 168-169 ; S. Ind. Ins. p. 526, f. 418 ; 

Proc. Second Entl . Meeting, pp. 28, 77, 200. 
Aul. punciatus, Dmiy ; Kby., F. I. Acrid., pp. 169-170, f. 112. 
Aul, scabiosce, Fb. ; Kby., F. I Acrid., p. 170. 

Recorded from Nepal, Sikkim, Orissa, Bombay, Coonoor, Ceylon. 
We have it from the Shevaroys, Nilgiris, Vizagapatam and Coimbatore. 
It is found on coffee, coconut and Erythnna, but does little damage as 
a rule. According to Green, the form scabiosce has been found at Veyan- 
goda (Ceylon) defoliating Enjthrma, areca-nut, coconut and various 
shade trees. We have specimens of pmictatus from Burdwan, on jute ; 
and Lashio (Upper Burma). 

Kirby splits this up into three species, miliaris, punctatus and 
scabiosce, but it seems impossible to separate them satisfactorily. 



Pcecilocerus pictus, Fb. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp 172-173, f. 113 ; S. Ind. Ins., pp. 526- 
527. f. 419 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 136, tab. 

This species is recorded by Kirby from Quetta, Karachi, Madras, 
etc. 

It occurs throughout the Plains of India and is faund on Calofropis 
especially. It has been found to damage young Ficus carica in Bellarv. 



Atractomorplia crenulata, Fb. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 181-182 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 528, f. 421 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 98, 270, 271, 288, 296, 
298, tab. 

This species occurs throughout the Plains of India, and is found 
especially on tobacco, brinjal, Amaranthus and other vegetable crops, 
of which it is often a decided pest. 



Atractotnorpha scabra, Thnb. 

Kirby, F.I. Acrid., p. 182. 
This species is only recorded from Ceylon by Kirby. We have it 
from Hambantota (S. E. Ceylon) ; Tricomali ; Pusa, on grass ; and from 
Dacca (in numbers). 



308 ritOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Orthacris sp. 

S. Ind. Ins. p. 527, f. 420 ; Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 184-188 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 90, 181, 187, 199, 288. 

This species has been found in Coimbatore, Tinnevelly, and Bellary 
and occurs probably throughout the Plains of South India. It is found 
on most low-growing crops, as a minor pest. 

Colemania sjjJienarioides, Bol. 

Kirby, F. I. Orth., p. 189 ; S. Ind. Ins., pp. 527-528, t. 48 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 51, 59, 160, 181, 187, 201. 

This species is found in Mysore, Bellary, Kurnul, and was a bad pest 
of most low-growing crops from 1910-1913, but lately it has been little 
heard of. It has been found in the Ahmednagar district, on bajra. 

Oxya velox, Fb. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., p. 199, f. 116 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 533, f. 426 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 148, 166, 181, 190, 202. 

This species occurs throughout the Plains of India as a minor pest 
of paddy especially, but it is also found on juar, sugarcane, inaize and 
other crops. 

The eggs are laid on bases of Sorghum stems. 

Hieroglyphus bilineatus, Kby. 

Kby., F. I. Acrid., pp. 202-203. 

" Bengal. Mr. Lefroy suggests that this is a micropterous form of 
H. banian " (Kirby). 

Specimens from Mandevi, Surat District, on crops in October 1903, 
seem to agree with this description, but how far it is a distinct species * 
seems doubtful. 

I do not know whether this is identical with the Hieroglyphus bili- 
neatus. Sauss. MS., referred to by Bolivar {B. J., XXIII, 174) ; if so, 
it should apparently be placed in the genus Hieroceryx. 

Hieroglyphus nigrorepletus, Bol. 

S. Ind. Ins., pp. 531-532, f. 425 ; B. J., XXIII, 172-175, ff. 1, 
2 (June 1914) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 181, 201. 

Hieroglyphus bettoni, Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 203-204, ff. 118- 
119. ' 

This species occurs in Bellary, Kurnul, and Guntur and is found on 
juar and tenai as a minor pest occurring in small numbers. We have 



FKOCEEDINGS Ol? THE TIIIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 309 

it also from Barban (Bombay) ; Kaira (Bombay) " on crops " ; and 
Lonavia, on ripe, 21st November 1905. 

Hieroglyph us banian, Fb. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., p. 204 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 531, t. 50, ff. 1-3 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 147, 166, 181, 190. 

This species occurs throughout the Plains of India as a pest of rice 
usually and in the United Provinces especially of sugarcane. It is 
possible that several distinct species are mixed up under this name. 
Faridpur specimens show very reduced black marks on the sutures on 
the sides of the prothorax. 

Hieroglyphus concolor. Wlk. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 204-205. 

This species is recorded by Kirby from Kanara and Sylhet. It 
" appears to be commoner than banian, with which it is probably often 
confounded " (Kirby). According to Kirby, the antennio in banian are 
wholly green, in concohr black, pale at base and at ends of joints, and 
the pronotum is smooth in ba^iian, finely punctured in concolor. 

In spite of Kirby' s assertion, we seem to have no specimens that 
can be separated as concolor, and I cannot distinguish this from banian. 
The antennae seem variable in colour even in specimens of the same 
brood reared from the egg. 

Spathosiermim prasinijerum, Wlk. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., p. 208, f. 121. 

According to Kirby this species is recorded from Bombay and Pusa 
and is very abundant and variable. We have it from Dacca. 

Orthacanthacris cegyptia, Linn. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid, p. 225. 

This species is recorded from Quetta. We have it from the Punjab, 
•on cotton. 

Orthacanthacris flavescens, Fb. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., p. 225-226, f. 127. 
This species is recorded by Kirby from Madras and Ceylon. 



310 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Orthacanfhacris succincta, Linn. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 227-228, f. 125 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 530, 
f. 423. [Cyrtacanthacris]. 

This species occurs througliout the Plains of India and CeyIon,''and 
s the well-known " Bombay Locust " dealt with in Entomological 
Memoir, Vol. I, No. 1. g^ 

Cyriacmithaoris ranacea, Stoll. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., p. 231 ; S. Ind. Ins., pp. 530-531, f. 424 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 88, 90, 103, 199. 

This specie; occurs throughout the Plains of India on almost all 
crops, but is usually found in ,'mall numbers only. It is a minor pest 
of cotton and other crops and has been reared from the egg on cotton 
at Pussa. 

Schistocerca tatarica, Linn. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 232-233, f. 128. 

This species is recorded by Kirby from Sind, Nepal, Assam, and 
Ceylon. It occurs all along the Western Ghats and the Himalayan 
Region, appearing in migratory hordes and doing immense damage. 

Teratodes monticollis, Gray. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., p. 235 ; Ind. Ins. Life, p. 88, ff. 28, 29 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 235. 

This species is recorded by Kirby from Bombay and Ceylon. It 
has been sent in to us from Bengal as attacking grape-vine leaves, but 
is probably a mere casual visitor or feeder on grape-vine. It seems to 
be commoner on the Bombay side. 

Eucoptacra frmnorsa, Stal. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 240-241. 

This species is recorded from Bandra, Madura, Bhamo and Tenasserim, 
by Kirby. It is apparently a common species and is probably at least 
a minor pest. 

Catantops sp.* 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 246-254 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 529, f. 422. 
This species occurs in Tinnevelly and Ramnad as a local and sporadic 
pest of cotton (damaging bolls, flowers and leaves) and grasses. 

* Probably ('. iivUcus, Bol, 



I'ROCEEDIXGS 01 THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 311 

Heferacris Hhislris, Wlk. 

■ Kirby, F. I. Acrid., p. 263. 

This species is recorded from South India by Kirby. It occurs 
fairly commonly at Pusa, on grass. 

Heferacris sp. 

This species was found at Peshawar, in numbers on maize in October 
1914. 

Clioroedocvs capensis, Thnb. 

Kby., F. I. Acrid., pp. 263-264. 

This species is recorded by Kirby from the Himalayas, Calcutta, 
Coromandel Coast, Ceylon, Bhamo. It is a widely distributed and 
common species and is presumably a minor pest. 

Heteracris elegans, Wlk. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid, pp. 264-265, f. 139. 

This species is recorded by Kirby from North India. We have it 
from Surat. 

Tylotropidnis varicornis, Wlk. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 265-266, f. 140. 

This species is recorded by Kirby from S. India, Ceylon, Karen 
Hills. It is widely distributed and common and is probably a minor 
pest. We have it from Pusa. 

Gryllidje. 

Gryllotalpa africana, Pal. 

S. Ind. Ins., pp. 534-535, f. 428 ; Pi*bc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 140, 270. 

This species is apparently abundant throughout India. The Pusa 
collection contains specimens from the Palnis, Cuttack, Pusa, Rangpur,. 
Rajapati, Khasis, Shillong, Abbottabad, Srinagar, Hoshangabad, Igatpuri 
and Bombay. Possibly more than one species i- included under this 
name. We have also a very much larger species from Shiraz, Persian 
Gulf, named by Lefroy as G. gryllotalpa and found damaging all forms 
of root crops and flowers by burrowing and destroying the points of the 
roots. 



312 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

G. africana has been noted at Pusa to damage cane-slioots in Febru- 
ary and March, gnawing into shoots at junction with sett ; at Dacca 
and Pusa, shght damage to seedling tobacco ; stated to damage opium 
poppy plants by cutting them off when considerably advanced in growth 
{Ind. Mus. Notes, II, vi, 172) ; Jorhat, damaged barley crop (Farm Supdt., 
letter of 8th December 1913) ; Kurnowl Factory, Tirhut, reported to be 
doing great damage to newly-sown Natal indigo by burrowing around 
roots (letter from F. Murray, 3rd November 1906). 

Brachyfrypes fortentosus, Licht. {=achatiniis). 

S. Ind. Ins., p. 536, f. 430 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 79, 
83, 98, 132, 270, 278, 281, 290. 

The distribution of this species appears to be rather restricted in 
India and the exact limits are not clearly known. It occurs abundantly 
throughout Bengal and Bihar, but in Madras only at Nellore, where 
it was found damaging Casiiarina seedlings. 

The young emerge during the first half of October at Pusa, and 
attain the adult stage about the middle of June. 

It is a serious pest of indigo, Sesamum, cotton, jute, tobacco, cabbage, 
cauhflower, and chillies. 

It did serious damage to rice-crops in Comilla in June 1893 {Ind. 
Mus. Notes, III, V. p. 78) and has been noted at Jalpaiguri, destroying 
cauliflowers at the Gaol, 22nd October, 1914 ; in Nepal, much damage 
to Residency lawns by burrowing, 3rd September 1912 ; Telhara Indigo 
Concern. Bairagnia, Champaran, indigo ravaged, 27th April 1911 ; 
Pabna, seriously damaging crops, especially young jute, 27th April 
1910 ; Malda, young mango — graft shoots 28th May 1909 ; Dacca, 
much damage to jute and paddy, 23rd April 1907 ; Bogra, young jute 
plants much injured, 24th April 1906 ; Myitkyina, much damage to 
gardens and forest nurseries, 2nd October 1903. 

Liogryllus himaculatiis, de Geer. 

S. Ind. Ins., p. 537, f. 431 ; Entl. Note, 99 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 50, 62. 

This species occurs throughout the Plains of India. It is partly 
predaceous, feeding on caterpillars and grasshoppers, and partly vege- 
tarian, feeding on decaying vegetation and growing plants. It has been 
found to gnaw into gram pods and eat the seeds, sometimes doing con- 
siderable damage, and it attacks lentil pods in a similar way in the 
Central Provinces, eating the seeds. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIIID ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



3l3 



In Khandesli it was found destructive to potato plants, cutting stems 
near soil-level {Ind. Mm. Noles, III, ii, 97) [? Bmchytryfes], and at 
Jabbalpur, attacldiig gram, wasvr and linseed and did 4 to 6 annas 
damage. (Mr. Misra's Note in File). 

Gryllus viator, Kirby. 

Kirby, Cat, Orth., II, 32 (190G). 

Gryllus melanoce^halus, Sauss., Mem. Soc. Geneve, XXV, 174, 

t. 12 (x) ff. 1, 2 (1877) [nee Serv.]. 
Gryllm inelanoceflmlus, Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 98, 

217. 

[Note.— Serville's G. melanocephahis [Orth., p. 342 (1839)] is also from Bengal. It 
is not quite certain whether our species is Saussure's or Serville's.] 

This species occurs as a pest chiefly in the Punjab, attacking young 
cotton plants in May and June as a major pest. It is controlled by 
light traps and fires at night. 

It is an occasional pest of young mango plants, and has also been 
reported from the Upper Sind Frontier, injuring young juar crops, July 
1892. [Ind. Mus. Notes, III, v, 77) ; Orai (Bundelkhand), attacking 
young rabi crops (D. D. A.'s letter of 8th January 1909) Rajanpur 
Subdivison, Punjab, attacking rap seed (Assistant Commissioner's 
letter, 25th May 1904) ; Mokameh Tal, erious pest of rabi ciops, respon- 
sible fo damage of about 450 b^ghas of crop in 1912 (letter from Mr. 
Woodhouse. 5th June 1913). 

I80PTERA. 

Termitid^e. 

Microtermes obesi, Holmgr. 

Holmgr, Entl. Mem. V. 159 160 [obesi and anandi] ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 194, 196, 281. 
This termite is a serious pest of wheat seedlings at Pusa, etc., and 
of wheat when coming into ear at Hoshangabad. It also attacks cabbage 
and cauliflower at Pusa. 

Odontotermes parvidens, Holmgr. 
Entl. Mem., V, p. 154 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 46-47. 
This species was found on an estate on the Gauhati-Shillong road 
as a serious pest of Cajanus indicus, eating the roots. 



314 TROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Odontotermes bangalorensis, Holmg. 

Holmg. Entl. Mem., V, 151-152. 
This species has been found at Hadagalli, nibbling roots of cholam. 

Odontotermes ohesus, Ramb. 

Holmg., Entl. Mem., V, 146-149. 

This species has been definitely noted from Quilandy (Malabar), 
damaging young coconut palms ; Coimbatore, galleries on tree-trunks ; 
Hadagalli, nibbling bark of small tree ; Mysore City, on bark of Grevillea ; 
Lyallpur, on tree trunk ; Bankura, eating sugarcane setts. 

Protermitid^. 

Stylotermes fletcheri, Holmg. 

Holmg., Entl. Mem., V, 142-143. 

This species was found m the Shevaroys, burrowing in the rotten 
interior and in sound wood of a mango tree. 

Hodotermes viarwn, Koenig. 

Hodotermes Jcoenigi, Holmgren, Entl. Mem., V, 138. 

This species occurs commonly at Coimbatore and sometimes does 
some damage to grass lawns by cutting ofE grass. 



3.— SOME INSECTS RECENTLY NOTED AS INJURIOUS IN SOUTH 

INDIA. 

By T. V. Ramakrishna Ayyar, B.A., F.E.S, F.Z.S., Acting Govermnent 

Entomologist, Madras. 

The latest connected record of the injurious insects of South India 
is the volume on Some South Indian Insects by Mr. Fletcher. In the 
preface to that publication the author writes thus : — " The list of crop- 
pests is not complete, and it must be clearly understood that it cannot 
be complete for many years, if ever. Every month new pests come to 
hght, many of them altogether unkno\\T^i even by name, and our know- 
ledge of old pests is augmented." These words are only too true ; for, 
since the publication of that volume in 1914, several new insects of 
economic importance have been noted in South India within the last 
three or four years. 



Page 3l5. 



PLATE 9. 




PiiOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 315 

In this paper I have attempted to bring together a very brief account 
of these recently noted forms. Of course, casual references and stray 
notes of some of these have appeared in reports and departmental papers 
but nowhere in a comiected and complete manner. 

The list is neither complete (it can never be complete for many a long 
time to come), nor does it profess to give any detailed accounts of the 
different forms. It is more or less a skeleton list forming a sort of supple- 
ment to Mr. Fletcher's valuable volume, and the only reason |or its publi- 
cation is to bring together our scattered and necessarily incomplete 
knowledge of these forms into a comiected shape as a sort of nucleus for 
future work. There is little doubt that, as our knowledge of these 
insects increases, it may be possible to bring out further papers con- 
taining detailed information on each of these forms. In the hst, I have 
included not only those insects that have been recently noted as of some 
economic importance, but also others, which though already kno^vn and 
recorded, have not been sufficiently recognized as injurious in South 
India. The forms are arranged under their natural Orders and with 
regard to many which have not yet been scientifically identified, I have 
given popular names by means of which each might be recognized 
until it gets its scientific baptism. 

Hymenoptera. 

Eurytama indi, Giraulfi. (Plate 9, fig. /.) —This is a small wasp of the 
family Eurytomidse included in the large group of Chalcidid wasps. 
Most of the insects of this group are parasitic on other insects and as 
such beneficial in many cases to the cultivator. This species, however, 
seems to be one among the exceptions. The adult insect is black 
with the abdomen shining ; measures 2-25 mm. It breeds inside seeds 
of dhaincha {Sesbania (rgyptiaca) pods and destroys the seed. The insect 
was noted on the Coimbatore farm three years ago doing serious 
damage to a crop of dhaincha left for seed. A smaller insect, also a 
€halcidid, Megasiigmus indi, Gir., has been noted along with it and 
is believed to be a parasite on the seed-borer. 

In general form and habits this borer appears very closely allied to 
the American ' Clover-seed Chalcid ' {Bruchophagus fimebris, How). 2 

Philanthus ramakrishnce, Turner. (Plate 11, fig. 1.) — This fossorial 
wasp is one of the many insect enemies of the honey-bee (Apis indica) in 
the Hills of South India. I first noted this on the Bababudin Hills in 



1 The name given to this insect in the Report of the 2nd Entomological Conference, 
Pusa, (p. 73), is a mistake. 

^Seo Monthly Bulletin. Calif. St. Com. Hort., Vol. H, p. 696 (1913). 



316 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Mysore at an elevation of 4,000 feet. It has latterly been noted on the 
Palnis also. Numbers of the honey-bee are carried off by this wasp 
and stored in nests made in hard banks at the sides of hill roads. There 
is no doubt that hives of honey-bees are depopulated in this way by 
this insect. Interesting accounts of how species of these wasps hunt bees 
and store them, will be found in Fabre's interesting works. 

Xylocopa tenuiscapa, Westw. In buildings where the roofhig materials 
are of bamboo or weak and unseasoned wood this carpenter-bee causes 
considerable damage. The rafters and beams are riddled with holes 
inside which the insect breeds. Swarms of these insects are found 
hovermg about the building all day long with their characteristic 
disturbing noise. I have collected the Meloid beetle Cissites debyi in 
the galleries made by this bee. This latter insect is believed to be 
predaceous on the larvae of the carpenter-bee. 

Among other Hymenoptera already recorded as injurious, mention 
may be made of two well-known ants — (Ecophylla smaragdina and Campo- 
notus compressus. The former was recently found bad on the crowns of 
coconut trees in South Kanara. It is found very hard to get rid of the 
nests on these trees ; tree-climbers often suffer very much. The latter 
is chiefly found guilty of spreading colonies of scale-insects from tree to 
tree ; this has been noted especially in the case of two Coccids on the 
Coimbatore farm, viz., Pulvinaria maxima, Gr., and Anomalococcus 
indicus, Gr. 

COLEOPTERA. 

Holotrichia sp. (Plate 9, fig. 6.)* This is a fairly big cockchafer beetle, 
chocolate-brown in colour. Mr. Arrow of the British Museum, to 
whom it was sent, says that the species is new to the Museum. 
Thousands of these emerge from the soil at the hill-sides soon after 
the first summer rains on the Nilgiris. The grubs are generally 
found active from September to November. In certain years these 
do considerable damage to young cinchona seedlings. Thousands of 
the adults may be caught at lights in May — June. Another known 
species, H. repetita, is occasionally found with this species, but not in 
such numbers, on the Nilgiris. 

J opillia cMorion, Newm. (Plate 9, fig. a.) This small pretty green 
insect is found in company with the big cockchafer noted above, 
and the grubs too have the same habits, but are smaller in size. 
Cockchafer grubs of sorts have now and then been observed also under 
cholam plants and other garden shrubs on the Coimbatore farm. 

* Since described in Ann, Mag. Nat. Hist., July 1^19, p. 24, by Mr. Arrow aa 
Rhizotrogus rufus. 



\ 

FKOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 317 

Anadastus .-^p. Within the past three or four year.5 the tenai 
crop {Setarkt italica) on the Coimbatore farm has been found 
subject to the attacks of a Languriad borer. The nature of the damage 
and the external symptoms of the crop are similar to those caused by 
ordinary borers — the fading and gradual death of the shoots and ears, 
and death of the plant. The beetle appears to be a species of 
Anadastus ; another Erotylid which I have noted as a borer till now is 
Fatva longicornis, W., breeding on dry and rotting Euphorbia antiquorum 
plants (See Fletcher, p. 290). The life-history of this tejiai beetle has 
recently been worked out by my Assistant, Mr. P. V. Isaac* The 
eggs are thrust into the stem at the nodes singly, a few inches above 
the ground level. The grub feeds from inside and pupates in th*e hollow. 
The beetle is small in size, about 6 mm. in length, and red and blue in 
colour. 

Anthrenus pimfinelke, Fab., var. (Fig. 7G in Fletcher's book.) Sillc 
and woollen goods are found subject to the attacks of a small 
Dermestid in South India. The beetle is very small, oval in shape and 
dark brown in colour with white patches on the elytra. The small dark 
hairy larva is found feeding on silk cocoons, woollens, brushes, etc. 
Antlnenvs jascialus has been reported more than once from Army 
cloth' ng depots. 

Trachjs hicolar. (Plate 9, fig. d.) The pcdas tree {Butea frondosa) 
is subject to the serious attacks of this Buprestid leaf-miner. In the 
months from December to March, when fresh leaves are put out by 
the bushes, every leaf is found mined and bUstered by this borer. The 
beetle is comparatively small in size and dark bluish in colour. It is 
very common in South Malabar. 

A species of Trachys is referred to as a pest of jute in Bengal (vide 
Rejmt of Second Entomological Meeting, p. 134) but I do not know which 
species this one is. 

Wire-Worms. Reports of Elaterid grubs attacking potatoes in the 
Hills have been recently received. The actual species concerned has yet 
to be bred out. 

The Morivga stem-borer. The larva, which in this case is a longicorn 
borer, attacks the moringa tree {Mori^iga pterygosferma). The beetle is 
a typical Lamiad appearing more or less like one of the species of 
Monohammns. It is about 19 mm. long and greyish-brown in colour. 
The insect is found occasionally serious. The life-history has recently 
been worked out by my Assistant Mr. T. V. Subramania Ayyar. [See 
paper No. 66 of these Proceedings.] , 



* fc'ee also Mr. Isaac's paper (No. C5 of these Proceedings). 



318 TROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Chelidonium cinctum, Guer. (Plate 9, fig. e.) Mr. Anstead, the 
Deputy Director of Agriculture for Planting Districts, has recently found 
this insect attacking Citrus trees in the Mysore uplands. Probably it is 
similar in habits to the other well-known orange-borer of Coorg, Chlori- 
dolum alanene. It may be the same or similar to one noted in Coorg 
by Fletcher (See Ilej>t. of Second Entomological Meeting, p. 211). 

The Morinda shoot borer. This insect is a very small pale-brown 
beetle, the whitish grubs of which are found attacking the growing 
terminal shoots of Morinda tinctoria plants. The presence of the 
pest is easily seen by the faded and drooping appearance of the 
young distal shoots ; the latter turn black in course of time and drop 
down. The larva is a minute pale white grub ; the pupa is also found 
in the same place. The beetle appears to be a Scolytid, having an 
oval prothorax and small bro^vnish head tucked underneath the thorax. 

The Kolingi pod beetle. (Plate 10, fig. g.) As a green-manure plant 
in wet areas, the kolingi or wild indigo {Tephrosia purpurea) is held 
in high esteem in South India. Seeds are regularly collected and even 
sold by the Department. The growing pods of this bush are attacked 
by a small beetle borer— an Anthribid, probably a species of ArcBcerus 
— which eats away the seeds and makes the pod empty. The pupa is 
also found inside the attacked pod. The insect is found in Tinnevelly, 
Tanjore and South Arcot districts. The adult beetle is very small in 
size, 2-5 mm. long, pale greyish in colour and is almost similar in 
appearance to the kolingi seed. It is a very active creature. 

Loiigitarsus nigripennis, Motsch. The grub of this small flea-beetle 
contributes a share to what is called the Pollu disease of pepper in North 
Malabar. The adult beetle is a very active small creature with the head 
and thorax ochraceous and the elytra bluish-black ; the hind femora are 
extraordinarily thick. Eggs are thrust singly just under the rind of the 
growing pepper-berry ; the small cream- white grub feeds on the inner 
contents of the berry and makes it hollow — this hollowing of the pepper- 
berry, to whatever cause it is due, being called the Pollu disease of 
pepper. The mature grub drops down into the soil and pupates under- 
ground enclosed in an earthen cell. I am reading a separate paper on 
this insect [See page 925]. 

There are also other species of flea-beetles which are often noted as 
sporadic local pests causing a certain amount of damage to crops in certain 
seasons. Of these the following are the chief : — 

The Bael flea-beetle. This dark shining beetle has been noted in 
Coimbatore and Kollegal doing damage to the foliage of bael, .Egle 
marmelos. They feed together in numbers and cause considerable 



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PLATE il. 





Fig. i.— Phihmtlrns vcouaJn-ishno , Turner, /2h. 
The lower figure shows a specimen in flight, carry- 
ing off a honey-bee. 




Fig. 2.—Alri(lcs 2ii<tus. natural size 
and magnified (x5). 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 319 

damage within a short period of time. It does not appear to be Clitea 
ficta, Baly. 

The Panivaragu flea-beetle. This small flea-beetle appears to be a 
specific pest of the millet Panicum miliore in Ooimbatore ; the larvae 
bore into the plant stem and often cause " dead hearts." 

The Radish flea-beetle. This small very active bright-blue insect is 
found doing serious damage often to cabbage, radish and other cruci- 
ferous plants. It is also occasionally found on other irrigated crops 
but the insect is very partial to Cruciferae. It appears to be similar to 
a flea-beetle which I remember to have collected on brinjal in Muzaffar- 
pur in October 1904. 

Other flea-beetles are those found on sann hemp, castor, etc. 

Green potato leaf-beetle. A shining green Galerucine beetle is 
found on the Nilgiris feeding on potato-leaves in some numbers. 
Similar beetles have also been noted on sweet-potato in Tinnevelly and 
other places — but not as bad pests. 

Several species of Myllocerus are now and then noted on various 
cultivated crops but only a few of these species ever do any appreciable 
damage and even this is not of common occurrence. The following 
species may however be watched. 

Myllocerus subfasciatus, Guer. This species is a grey insect commonly 
found on a variety of plants. Noted on brinjal, potatoes, apple, etc. 
Sometimes the insect causes serious damage to brinjal foliage in the 
Plains. 

Myllocerus discolor. This weevil is the common greyish-brown 
species found on a variety of crops all over South India. It has been 
noted on maize, rctgi, cJwlam, etc. In bad seasons and when the plants 
are young this weevil does appreciable damage to the crop, although 
in normal years the work of the insect is negligible. 

Myllocerus dent if er, F. This pale-greyish beetle is occasionally found 
defoliating tenai (Setaria), cumbu, etc., in South Arcot. 

Myllocerus viridanus. This pretty green species is generally found 
on groundnut, castor. Hibiscus esculentus, etc. Stebbing notes this 
insect as a bad pest on teak in the Walayar forests. With this species 
is often found a smaller species, M. preliosus, F. 

Corresponding perhaps to the species of Myllocerus in the Plains we 
have one or two species of Sympiezomias on coffee, cinchona, etc., in the 
Hills. The species noted so far are S.Jrater, S. cretaceus, and S. decipiens. 

Alcides pictus. (PL 11, f. 2). This species of Alcides, which is not 
unknown in South India, has within the last two or three years 
taken to feed on lablab. The grubs and pupae are found infesting 
the main vines and some damage is done to the plant. 

VOL. I • Y 



320 PR0CEEDIJSIG8 OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Conarilirus jansoni, WoU. In the coastal tracts of Malabar a 
Cochin I have noted a small shining black beetle boring in numb( 
into the bamboo framework of sheds and fences near houses. The sp 
bamboo pieces are badly tunneled in some cases. Fletcher has noted 
beetle of similar habits in Ceylon {Myocalandra exarata, Boh.), bu1 
find that this insect is not the same as the Ceylonese one. 

The Jak-fruit weevil (PI. 12, f. 1). In Malabar and the Mysc 
uplands voung fruits of jak trees are sometimes very badly damag 
by this insect. The weevil is a very small one. measuring abo 
6 mm. in length, and is pale-greyish-brown in colour. The snout 
prominent. Hundreds of the small cream-white grubs are fou 
riddling healthy tender fruits and as a consequence the fruits shri^ 
up and drop down. Dr. Marshall, to whom I sent specimens soi 
time back, tells me that the insect belongs probably to a new ger 
and that he would describe the same soon. 

Calandra rugicollis, Fst. This small weevil has been noted as 
pest of sal {Shorea robusta) seedlings in Ganjam. In appearance it 
more or less like the ordinary rice Calandra but slightly bigger. . 
fallen sal seeds contain the grubs and pupae of this weevil. This \\ 
noted by a nephew of mine who is a Forest Officer. It appears clos( 
aUied to the acorn weevil {C. scidpturata, Gyll.) mentioned by St( 
bing, and is perhaps the same as the undermined ' Sal weev 
referred to by Stebbing on page 450 of his book on Indian Forest Insec 

Eubber Scolytid.* (PI. 12, f. 2^. A small reddish-brown Scolyi 
beetle (very hkely a species of Xylebonis) was recently sent up fr( 
a rubber estate in Cochin as doing damage to Hevea bark. 

Eubber Platypodid. (PI. 12, f. 3). This was reported from Trav£ 
core doing the same kind of damage to rubber bark. The insect fr( 
its structure appears to be a species of Platypodid. 

Coconut Scolytid. A small Scolytid, said to damage coconut sten 
has been received two or three times from different parts of South Ind 

The real bionomics of these Scolytids have to be studied to see whetl 
they are the cause or the effect in these different cases, since in the a 
of rubber a fungus disease is often found mixed up. 

Two weevils — Melon weevil [Acytlwpeus citnilli, Marsh) and a sm 
Apion {Ainon amplum, Fst.) may also be added to the list of weevils, T 
former was noted in Cuddapah and Bellary inside melons, and the latl 
has been collected on Anacardium fruits in Malabar and also breedi 
in green-gram pods in Coimbatore. 



* Since named by Col. Winn Sampson as Xyleborus biporus, n. sp. 



Page 320. 



PLATE 12. 






Fig. 1.— Jak Weevil ; n, larva 8 ; h, pupa 8 ; r, 
beetle, dorsal view, natural size and enlarged 
( 8) ; //, beetle, side-view, > 8. 




Fig. 2.— Rubber Scolytid ( ; 36;. 




Fig. 3. Rubber Platypodid ( ;16). 



PLATI 




ALCIDES BUBO. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 13. 

Alcides bubo. 

Fig. 1. Stem cut open, showing eggs deposited in it (x H). 

Fig. 2. A single egg, magnified ( x 33) 

Fig. 3. Newly-hatched larva ( X 30). 

Fig. 4. Full-grown larva ( x 10). 

Fig. 5. Stem attacked by larva, showing galls. 

Fig. 6. Stem cut open, showing larval workings { x I3). 

Fig. 7. Pupa, magnified ( x 8). 

Fig. 8. Adult beetle ( x U). 

Fig. 9. Pair of beetles (x li). 

Fig. 10. Beetle, side-view ( x 5). 

Fig. 11. Beetle, dorsal view (x5). 

Fig. 12. Chalcidid parasite { x 10). 



rROCEEDIXGS OF THE THIPD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 321 

Before leaA-ing beetles, I may add a few remarks ou the following 
insects which have already been noted as injurious, just to point out 
their present status in view of our further knowledge of these insects. 

Pempheres affinis. This insect has within the past tW'O or three years 
distributed itself with Cambodia cotton into tracts where it was not 
found till now — viz., Madura, Ramnad and Tinnevelly districts. It 
appears that the weevil exists in different parts where no cotton is grown 
— for I noted the weevil on Hibiscus esculentus in North Malabar — and 
makes itself prominent with the introduction of cotton cultivation. 
The Hfe-history of the insect has been worked out and an account of it 
will be found in my paper on this insect in the Year Book of the Madras 
Department of Agri^cvlfure for 1918 (pp. 1—13) [Coloured plate exhibited]. 

Alcides bubo. (Plate 13). This insect continues to be a bad pest 
of Sesbania (agathi) in betel- vine gardens. The plants do not suffer 
much when they have grown 4 or 5 feet high ; but during the younger 
stages very serious damage is done. Two or three apjDlications of lead 
arsenate during the earlier stages at intervals of a fortnight checked the 
attack in the early stages. I am exhibiting a coloured plate showing 
the different stages of this pest. Two parasites Metastenomyia juliani, 
Gir., and Eurytoma pigra, Gir., have been noted on the grub ; but not 
to any great extent. In page 97 of the Madras Departmental Year-Book 
for 1917 is a short paper of mine on the egg-laying habits of this insect. 

Alcides affaber. This is a specific pest of gogu {Hibiscus camnabinvs) 
and is also found on Hibiscvs esculentus ; pretty bad occasionally. Alcides 
leopardus, 01., mentioned by Fletcher in his book, is api^arently a wrong 
identification for A. affaber, for I have never seen A. leopardus anywhere 
in Coimbatore. I, however, got some specimens of this latter species 
breeding on a wild plant in South Malabar a couple of years ago. 

Peltotrachelus pubes — a weevil noted in the Shevaroys on orange 
This is a minor pest only. 

Apoderus tranqiiebaricus. Recently this insect has been noted in 
numbers on tender shoots and leaves of mango trees in Chittur and adja- 
cent mango tracts. (Reference to my note in Bulletin of Second Hundred 
Notes). 

Pachytychius mungcnis, originally noted on green-gram, is also found 
on dhaincha as a pretty bad pest, causing prominent swelhngs of the 
stem. 

Olenecamptus bilobus (Plate 10, figure /<), though noted by Lefroy in 
his Indian Insect Life, is not in Fletcher's book. It is sufficiently 
important to be grouped as a pest. I have noted this doing damage to 
cultivated figs in Krishna, Bangalore, and other places. It was once 
noted on pomegranate also in Salem, Coimbatore. 

y2 



322 TROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETIKG 

Apomecyna perotteti (Plate 9, figure c) has recently been noted in 
Godavari and Vizagapatam districts as a pretty bad pest of cucurbits, 
especially of the vegetable called dondekaya in Telugu. 

Among Bruchids of economic importance the following might be 
noted. — 

Bruchus analis — on stored pulses, 

B. theobromce — breeding on red-gram in the fields. 

B. chinensis — both in the fields and in the store room. 

Other unidentified species are, one species breeding on lab lab in the 
fields, one on cow-pea also in the field, and another from agathi {Sesbania) 
pods in the field. The correct identification of these species is a matter of 
great importance, as confusion is sure to arise. 

Xyleborus foniicatus (PI. 14) was once noted pretty bad on a species 
of red garden castor plant in Bangalore. Being a well-known pest of 
tea and other plants in Ceylon, and this being the first record of it in the 
Plains, it is necessary that the progress of this pest should be watched 
carefully. 

The Bostrichid, Rhizopertha dominica, which was till now considered 
a minor pest of stored cereals, has during the past two or three years 
proved a serious pest of stored paddy. This was the case in the Coro- 
mandel districts two years ago. 

The weevil, Tylopholis ballardi, mentioned in Marshall's Fauna 
volume, has been noted attacking Bengal gram in Bellary, but has not 
been noted as serious. 

Lepidoptera. 

Chilades laius. This Lycsenid is occasionally noted doing damage 
to Citrus shoots in the Northern Circars. 

Parata alexis. The larva of this Skipper is found sporadically in 
numbers attacking the foliage of Pongamia glabra, a tree the leaves of 
which are largely used for green-manure in wet-lands. 

Psychidce. Among bag-worms we often have louble with some 
species. One is sometimes found on castor in Coimbatore (probably 
Psyche viirea). and another on fruit-trees in the Northern Circars, 
especially on Sapota. 

Contheyla rotunda. A sporadic serious pest of coconut trees on the 
South Malabar coast. It has also been noted by Mr. Ans ead as a pest 
of tea in the Hills. (See my paper on this insect, p. 91, Madras Depart- 
mental Year -Book 1917.) 

Natada nararia was once found as a bad pest of the garden 
hedge plant, Pithecolobium dulce, in Coimbatore. 



Page 322. 



PLATE 14. 



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^^'^X%Ti7bef£^^^^^^^^ castor-stem at Bangalore, a, caster stem 

Dorea oy oeeties , h, eggs 16 ; r, larva 20 ; </. pupa ; 24 ; ^. beetle, > 24. 



PLATE 







^ 1^ M' 




CIRPHIS ALBISTIGMA. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 15. 

Cirphis albistiyma . 

Fiy. 1. Eggs laid on paddy leaf, magnitied. 

Fig. 2. Larva, first instar ( x 4o). 

Fig. o. Larva, second instar ( X 25). 

Fig. 4. Larva, third instar { X 13). 

Fig. 5. Larva, fifth instar ( X 8). 

Fig. 0. Larva, sixth instar (xJ). 



PLATE. 16. 





CIRPHIS ALBISTIGMA. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 16. 

Civjih is a Ihistiqm a . 

Fig. 1, Pupa, magnified (X 5). 

Fig. 2. Moth, male, magnified ( x 2i), 

Fig. '.i. Moth, female, magnified ( x 24). 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 32-3 

Butea Limacodid. A stout spiny caterpillar similar to Parasa but 
bigger in size. Moth grey with ochraceous markings. Found defoliating 
Butea frondosa in the Bolampatty forests, Coimbatore, 

Carea suhtilis (Plate 10, figs. /, A-) very common on Eugenia jambolana 
in different parts. The caterpillar with the swollen anterior portion is 
easily made out. A parasite has been noted on this, Tumidicoxoides 
jambolana, Gir MS. 

Cirphis alhistiyma (Plates 15, 16). A pretty bad pest of ripening 
paddy. The caterpillar is the chmbing caterpillar ^ of paddy of the 
Coromandel coast, appearing generally after the heaVy North-East 
Monsoons, January to February. The caterpillar cuts down the 
ripening ear-heads. 

Adisura atkinsoni. A Noctuid borer of Jab lab pods. Veiy common in 
Coimbatore and the Northern Circars during the cold weather. (See 
Year Book of Madras Department, 1917, p. 87, for Mr. Y. Ramachandra 
Rao's paper on its life-history). 

Euzophora flmnbeifasciella has been found breeding "nside wood- 
apple fruits. 

Ephestia cauteUa, on stored groundnut pods ; the caterpillar bores 
into the pod and eats the seeds. Often bad in stores of unshelled ground- 
nuts. 

Heterographis bengalella, a Pyralid with ohve greenish upper wings. 
Larva found inside the fruits of custard apple. 

Corcyra cephalonica. The stored rice meal-worm. Very common 
in South India. Found on rice and meal of all cereals. 

Chrysanthemum caterpillar. A small green caterpillar was found 
once pretty bad on cultivated chrysanthemum in Madura. The moth 
is of medium size and has ochraceous wings. Probably a species of 
Hypargyria (Pyralidae). 

Brachmia effera, Meyr. The small caterpillar folds the leaf of sweet- 
potato ; has not become serious yet. 

Laspeyresia leucostoyna. Found near Kateri and Coonoor on the 
Nilgiris. The caterpillar feeds on the leaf of tea. 

Cyphosticha ccerulea. The pinkish small caterpillar mines into the 
leaf tissue of lab lab and produces a sort of prominent white blister en 
the leaf. Pretty bad in Coimbatore and Malabar. 

Phthorimcea blapsigona. A common pest of brinjal buds in South 
India. A species of Microbracon is found as a parasite of this caterpillar. 

PhyUocnistis toparcha, Meyr. The larva mines into grape-vine leaves 
and the mine is seen in the form of glistening wavy lines on the leaf in 
Coimbatore. 

Acrocercops syngramma, Meyr., on tender mango leaves, Madras. 



324 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Sylepta lunalis was found in numbers on grape in November 1917 
in Coimbatore. Pupa inside leaf fold. 

The Ragi ear-head worm. This is a slender elongated caterpillar 
found on the ripening ear-heads of the ragi plant. Sometimes appre- 
ciable damage is done to the ears. 

The Saturniad moth, Actias selene, has been noted as a regular pest 
defoliating Oclin-a ivodier trees in Coimbatore for the past two or three 
years. (See my note in the Bombay Journal, XXIII, p. 792). 

The following are already known pests among Lepidoptera ; but I 
have added some extra information regarding their status. 

Dfcnsia obliqua. This Arctiad has not been recorded till now from 
SoutK' India. It is found on sweet-potato and Lantana in Malabar. 
On the Wynaad Hills I found it on a variety of other plants. 

Orgyia fostica is found to be a pretty bad pest of castor in Coimbatore. 
A coloured plate of its stages is herewith exhibited. (Plate 17.) 

Euproctis fraterna has been noted on rose, doing serious damage in 
South Malabar. It is also found on pomegranate. A coloured plate is 
exhibited herewith. 

Prodenia litura. Noted bad on Colocasia in Tanjore and was recently 
noted on onions in Coimbatore. 

Dichocrocis punctiferalis on arrow-root plant in North Malabar. 

Hyhloea puera is often serious on Millingtonia and Bignonia. 

Laphjgma exigua has been noted on coriander at Coimbatore. 

DiPTERA. 

Fachydiplpsis oryzce. This is noted as a very important and serious 
pest, chiefly in the Northern Circars, Tanjore and Ramnad chstricts. 
The fly is found breeding on other Graminaeee also. It is known as 
Anaikomhu in Tamil districts. 

Bitter-gourd gall-fly, (PL 18). The distal tender shoots of the 
bitter-gourd plant often develop a long gall and the growth of the plant 
is much afiected by the maggot found inside the gall. 

The Cumbu fly. This is also a Cecidomyiad noted on cumbu in 
Coimbatore. 

An Anthomyiad has been noted on tomato also. 
Among fruit-flies we have a few species of Bactrocera, Clioetodacus 
etc., affecting mangoes, guavas, etc.: — 

Chcetodacus fenugineus incisus, on guava. Bangalore. 
Bactrocera camlata. On snake-gourd, Coimbatore. 
Dacus brevistylus, on water-melon, Cuddapah. 
Dacus longistylus, on Calotropis. 
Carpomyia vesuviana, Coimbatore, on ber fruit. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 17. 

Orgyia 'postica. 

Mass of eggs, natural size. 
Egg, magnified ( x 13). 
Newly-hatolied iarva. magnified. 
FuU-srown larva, natural size. 

„ „ „ magnified {x2i). 

Cocoon, natural size 
Pupa, magnified ( X 2h). 
8. Female moth, natural size. 

„ ,, magnified (Xlj). 

10. Male moth, magnified { x 2h). 



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Page 325. 



PLATE 19. 




Fig. 1 .—Purohita sp. x 5. (The smaller outline figure shows the natural size.) 




fefSXswJ*" 



Fig. 2.— Woolly Aphid on bamboo ; a. Aphids clustered on bamboo shoot ; h, yourg 
Aphid >,40 ; r, wingless adult 13 ; f/, winded adult ,\11. 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD E]S TOMOLOGICAL MEETING 325 

Teak leaf-gall. Throughout the West Coast, teak leaves are found 
covered with numerous gall-like formations with hairy out-growths on 
the lower surface. I beheve the galls are caused most probably by a 
gall-fly ; I even got bright pi nlc- coloured maggots crawling out of these 
but have not succeeded in rearing out the adults. Mr. Stebbing in his 
book on Indian Forest Insects, p. 120, thinks that the gall is due to a 
Cucujid beetle, Silvanus advena. This has to be verified, 

Rhynchota, 

Two or three species or Coptosoma have been noted as swarming on 
different plants in South India. These are — 

Coptosoma nazirce (Plate 10. figure /). On most vegetables such as 
cluster-beans, Hibiscus, etc., and mango shoots. 

Coptosoma ostensum, Dist., a minute light-yellowish-green species 
found by the thousand on young shoots and leaves of Butea fromlosa in 
the forest around Coimbatore in December. 

The black oval shining Pentatomid, Brachyplatys vahlii, is often 
found in numbers in company with the common Coptosoma crihraria 
on agathi (Sesbania). 

Vitellus orientalis (Plate 10, figure i) is a large greenish Pentatomid 
with sharp prothoracic spines which has been noted as puncturing 
orange fruits in Kurnul. The effect of the puncturing appears to 
hasten rotting and also attraction for fungi. It has to be verified 
whether the real injury is done by these or fruit-sucking Noctuids of the 
genus Ophideres. 

The Lygccid bug, Nijsius i)iconspiciius. is often found bad on growing 
gingelly in South Kanara during the months of February-April. 

Helopeltis {theivora'^) on tea in Piimaad and Travancore, and Mcga- 
coelum stramineum, found in company with Calocoris angustatus (see 
Year Book Madras Department, 1917, p. 83, for a paper by Mr. Ballard), 
are the Capsids of importance. 

PuroUta sp. (PI. 19, fig. 1). A pale-greyish bug found in some 
numbers at the stem of growing bamboo, especially between the stem and 
the sheaths. The mealy mass of eggs is very commonly found in that 
place also ; Coimbatore. 

Curry Leaf-hopper. A minute active Fulgorid found in numbers 
doing appreciable damage to the curry-leaf plant, Murraya Tcoenigi, 
in Coimbatore and Malabar. 

Clovialineaticollis (Plate 10, figure m). Common on jak shoots and 
tender leaves all over Malabar. Due to the attack the leaves curl up ; 
often inside these curls nymphs enclosed in frothy matter are also found. 

* Helopeltis anionii is perhaps intended. [Editor ] 



326 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Of mealy-wings we have chiefly the Dialeurodes eugenice on Eugenia 
and Aleurodids on Bassia and Citrus. 

Of plant-Uce pests we have several, and of these the chief are those 
found on cotton, tobacco, Citrus, lab lab, cow-pea and cliolam. 

Bamboo ^Voolly Aphis. On bamboo we occasionally find a species 
of woolly aphis coming in large colonies (PI. 19, fig. 2). It is not the 
same as Fletcher's fig. 392. 

The Coconut Aphis [Cerataphis lataniw), Fletcher's fig. 393, has not 
been noted since. 

Coming to Scales and Mealy-bugs there are a good many species of 
importance. In a paper I prepared for the Session of the Indian Science 
Congress held at Lahore in 1918, I hsted 32 species of Coccids having 
some economic importance. Though all these are not bad pests at 
present, some of them are really important. Of these mention might 
be made here of the following. 

Pulvinaria maxima, Gr., a bad pest of nhn trees {Melia azadirachta). 

Ceroplastodes cajani, on lab lab stems and Ocimum ; often bad. 

Anomalococcus indica, Gr., on babul {Acacia arabica). 

Pseudococcus sacchari. Bad on paddy. The disease is called Scorai 
novu in Tamil and often reported from Tanjore, Trichinopoly and Madura 
districts. Fields badly attacked show the infestation patches here and 
there. 

Phenacoccus insolitus. Bad on brinjal plants, Madras, Coimbatore, etc.. 

Ripersia sacchari. On sugarcane stems. This is the commonest 
species of mealy-bug on cane, and is different from Pseudococcus sacchari. 

Icerya cegyfliaca. On jak, Malabar and Nilgiris. This is the species 
to which I referred at the last meeting (p. 152 of Report). 

Hemichionasins asqndisirai. On pepper in Malabar, and also on 
Ficus leaves elsewhere. 

Aspidiotus tamarindi. On tamarind. Coimbatore etc. 

Phenacoccus iceryoides. On mango ; in Coimbatore, Northern Circars 
and Tanjore. 

Pseudococcus corymbatus. On cotton, mango and jak. In different 
places. 

Aspidiotus aurantii. On rose, Malabar. 

Aspidiotus curcumw or hartii. On turmeric rhizomes at Coimbatore. . 

Pseudococcus longispinus ? Bad inside leaf-sheaths of young coconut 
trees ; Coimbatore, Malabar and South Kanara. 

Orthoptera. 

Among grasshoppers no new pest of any importance has been noted.. 
The wingless grasshopper, Crihacris sp., was however found pretty bad 



Pa^e 327. 



PLATE 20. 





f\y^ 




a^A^2, 



Vancluetothrips imUca, Bg!l., on ar/cw-root leavas. 



PROCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 327 

Oil mulberry plots in Kollegal more than once. And on one occasion 
surface-grasshoppers of the genera Moloims and (Edaleus were noted 
very bad in paddy nurseries in one village in the Coimbatore district. 

Thysanoptera. 

Very little attention has been paid till now to the insects of this group 
and there is little on record regarding their economic importance.* In 
South India the following species have been noted so far, as having some 
economic importance : — 

Oti paddy. Tlirij)s {Bagnallia) oryzw on seedlings in many parts of 
the Province. Pretty bad sometimes. (Some p. 353, Bulletin of Entomo- 
logical Research, 1915, for description of this species by Williams). 

On turmeric and arrowroot. PanchcefotJiri'ps indicus, Bagn. 
(Plate 20). On turmeric in Coimbatore and on arrow-root in Malabar. 
Not serious. 

On onion. Heliothrips indicus, Bgl. Bad sometimes in Northern 
Circars. 

On grape-vine. Bliifi'phorotliri'ps cruentatum, Hood. On tender 
graj)e-\ane leaves. Turns the leaves pale brown. Found in numbers 
on the foliage at certain seasons. 

On Minniso'ps elengi. Arrhenothrips ramahrishnce, Hood, (Plate 99). 
Very serious on this garden plant in Coimbatore. The leaves are very 
badly twisted and galled. 

Thrips of sorts have also been noted doing some damage to chillies, 
indigo, etc., in different parts of the country. 

On groundnut. — In the Palur farm a species of Thrips was once 
rej^orted doing serious damage. 

Just a few words regarding non-hexapod pests of some importance 
may not be out of place before I close. Small Mites of sorts have been 
noted occasionally bad on cotton, cliolam, castor and coconut ; those on 
cliolam and cotton have often been found to do appreciable damage. 

The others among non-hexapods are the eel-worms. I have seen 
young tea-seedUngs and pepper-vines suffer from the attacks of eel- 
worms. In one or two places eel-worms appeared bad on pepper in the 
Wynaad last November [1918]. 

The question of crabs on paddy seedlings has become well-known 
and needs no further remarks from me. 

As already stated in the beginning, my chief idea in getting this list 
prepared was to gather more information regarding all or any of these 
from observations made by my colleagues in other parts of India so that 

* In another paper I have prepared for this Meeting, I have dealt at some length on 
our present knowledge of this group (See pp. 618-621). 



328 I'ROCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

our information regarding these forms may be kept as up-to-date as 
possible. 

Mr. Fletcher. This paper forms quite a useful supplement to my book on South 

Indian Insects, wkich, as I noted at the time, was only to be taken as an 
incomplete and prehminary introduction to the study of the insect pests 
of Southern India. I hope that the Madras Dejoartment will give us a 
further interesting supplement at the next Meeting. 

4._N0TE ON THE MORE IMPORTANT INSECT PESTS OF 
PLANTING DISTRICTS OF SOUTH INDIA AND THE 
METHODS OF CONTROL USED, 1917-18. 

Bij Rudolph D. Anstead, M.A., Deputy Director of Agriculture, Planting 

Districts. 

The author of this Note is in no sense of the term an Entomologist 
and the Note is merely intended to be an indication of the methods 
adopted on estates in Southern India to control some of the more import- 
ant insect pests. From this point of view it is hoped that it may be of 
interest to the members of the Entomological Meeting, but the author 
is seeking for information rather than trying to impart it. 

Coffee. 

Coccus viridis. A Bulletin on the subject has been pubhshed by 
Coleman and Kannan {Mysore Department of Agriculture, Entomological 
Series, No. 4, 1918). The form of this scale-insect which occurs in Mysore 
is considered to be a new species and has been named Coccus colemani. 

Certain species of Ants — Cremastogaster sp. and Plagiolepis longipes 
— are found to play an important role in the distribution of the scale. 
Nests of Cremastogaster on coffee estates are found crowded with scales 
in September and it is found that if the ants' nests are removed the 
infection of the trees is considerably diminished. In fact, the destruc- 
tion of ants' nests has now become part of the regular control measures 
adopted on estates. 

The most important natural checks of the scale are two species of 
fungi, Cephalosporium lecanii, which frequently kills off more than 
90 per cent, of the scales in coffee estates during wet weather, and Empusa 
lecanii, which is usually found attacking the scale during the early part 
of the cold weather. 

The pest is most troublesome in years when the North-East monsoon 
is scanty and a long period of dry weather succeeds it. Dispersion is 
largely effected by wind, the young scale insects being blown as far as 



PROCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 329 

450 feet. It is also carried about by game birds, and can be spread from 
field to field b^^ passing coolies who carry young scales on their clothes. 

The artificial methods of control adopted are the removal of ants' 
nests, and spraying and brushing with fish-oil-resin soap used at the rate 
of 1 lb. of soap to 2 gallons of water. Dispersal of the fungi mentioned 
above is encouraged by tying branches containing them to trees free 
from them. 

These methods when conscientiously carried out are highly efficient 
and no fear is now felt of the pest causing the damage to coffee in Mysore 
and Coorg which it did in the Nilgiris, w^here it was neglected, rendering 
the cultivation of coffee to be unprofitable and necessitating its replace- 
ment by tea. 

Saissetia JiemisphcBrica, Pidvinaria fsidii, and other scales are always 
to be found on coffee estates but these are ea,sily controlled by periodical 
spraying. 

Pseudococcvs (Dactyhpius) citri, a Mealy-bug scale which attacks the 
roots of young coffee. is still a bad pest, especially in South Coorg and some 
parts of Mysore. Tlus scale is also found on the roots of certain shade 
trees, particularly Erijthrina litJwsperma, and on some weeds. So trouble- 
some is it in infected land that unless some precautionary measures 
are taken it is impossible to raise young plants. At the beginning of 
the dry weather it is usual to see young plants, either in new clearings 
or supplies, suddenly wilt and die. On pulling them up they are found 
to have lost all their feeding roots except a small tuft set out at the collar 
which have kept the plant alive so long as the surface soil was wet, while 
the bark is also eaten into by the scales. As soon as the surface soil 
dries out with the advent of the dry weather the plant dies. 

A similar effect is produced by the larvae of a species of Cockchafer, 
Holotricliia conferta, which in some years is very troublesome and appears 
in very large quantities. These insects were very prevalent in 1912 and 
there are signs of their recurrence again on a wide scale now. In such 
years the soil is full of the larvae and the pits round a dead coffee-plant 
may contain half-a-dozen of them. 

Against both these pests Apterite has been found effectual. Apterite • 
was obtained before the war from Messrs. Cooper Nephews and appears 
to consist of a mixture of crude naphthaline and j)ink carbohc powder. 
It is a soil disinfectant and was recommended as a top dressing for 
new land put under the plough in England during the war in the Journal 
of the Board of Agriculture (England) although the reason was not stated. 
If this disinfectant is applied at the rate of 2 cwt. per acre, or if a shallow 
trench about an inch deep is made in a ring round the young plants about 
six inches to a foot away from the stem and an ounce of apterite is placed ' 



330 rROCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

in the trench and covered with soil, complete protection is afforded to 
the plants, and young clearings have been i-uccessfully raised in this way 
in places where before it was found impossible to grow them. Care 
must be taken that the young feeding roots do not come in actual contact 
with the apterite or they will be damaged, hence the reason for making 
the trench some little distance away from the plant to be protected, 
outside the root range. 

During the war it has been impossible to obtain apterite from England 
and stocks in the country were soon exhausted. Messrs. Parry & Co., 
Madras, however, came to the rescue and manufactured a substitute 
under the trade name " Ranicide " which appears to act quite as well. 
The price of naphthaline, however, caused the cost of this material to be 
very high. 

Xylotrechus quadrifes, the coffee borer, is still troublesome. The 
most efficient remedy so far discovered is to scrub the stems of the bushes 
in October-November with coconut husk to destroy and dislodge the eggs 
which are laid in the crevice and under loose pieces of bark. Dr. Coleman^ 
the Director of Agriculture in Mysore, has pubhshed the results of some 
work done with methods of control of this insect. 

Tea. 

Of tea pests HelofeUis continues to be the worst insect pest and no 
new remedies have been found for it. A combination of spraying, 
pruning large areas at one time down wind, burning the prunings, and 
hand-catching are employed and these give a certain measure of control, 
but do not materially help to stamp out the pest. Its attacks are most 
severe in the monsoon which renders all work in connection with it 
difficult and spraying out of the question. 

Of other pests there have been small sporadic outbreaks of the cater- 
pillars "of Thosea cervina which were easily controlled by hand-picking 
and collection of cocoons and cultivation of the soil round the affected 
bushes after the cocoons had been formed in it. Caterpillars and cocoons 
were sent me on 20th August 1917 and from these moths began to emerge 
in the laboratory at Bangalore on 3rd January 1918. 

Some specimens of a bark-eating borer have been recently received 
which are said to do a certain amount of damage. This appears to be a 
species of Arbela but more specimens are required for identification 
purposes. This pest is still under investigation and I have no notes at 
present of any value about it. 

Aspidiotvs camellice, the yellow bark-louse, a scale which used to give- 
a considerable amount of trouble in young tea, especially in replanted 



TROCEEDINGS OF THE TIIIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 331 

coffee land, has not of late done much damage and it is found to be 
controllable by means of fish-oil-resin sprays. 

Caterpillars of Coniheyla rotunda did a little local damage to tea in 
the Wynaad in 1917 and specimens of caterpillars of Terias silhetana 
in Mundakavam attacked Albizzias and the tea beneath them. Both 
attacks were easily controlled. 

Rubber. 

Rubber continues free from insect pests. All the diseases of import- 
ance are due to fungal attacks. 

Fruit. 

An interesting beetle attacking Citrus trees — Oranges and Limes — 
at Bangalore has come under observation lately. This is Chelidonium 
cinctiim the larvae of which bore the young shoots and old stems and do a 
large amount of damage. The following observations and notes may 
prove of interest : — 

The eggs are deposited in June in the axils of young living twigs 
(never on dead wood or on old branches). The eggs are covered 
with a sort of yellow transparent varnish. As soon as the eggs 
hatch the young larva bores into the t^ig and works upwards for 
about |-1| inches and then makes two tiny holes about the size 
of a pin's head. It then turns back and bores down the twig 
occasionally making small openings. Finally it gets into the 
main branches where it makes tunnels I inch in diameter. The 
young twigs at once che, turning black so that they are easily 
seen and they can be cut off with the larvse inside them. By 
doing this and by catching the adult insects with handnets the 
attack was to a large extent controlled. The time taken after 
deposition for the eggs to hatch appears to be about two weeks. 



Miscellaneous. 

The larva of a Tiger Beetle was found in the Shevaroys in December 
1917 boring into the tops of young coffee stems. It enters the stems 
about 9 inches from the top and makes a tunnel upwards some 2 inches 
long. An attempt to raise the perfect insect in captivity failed and the 
insect has not been seen since. 

Stegodi/pJms sarasinorum, a spider wliich makes long bags in which 
to live, is sometimes found in tea bushes where it is untidy but of course 
does no harm. 



332 



TROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



The' following special notes on insects have been pubUshed in the 
pages of the Planters Chronicle during 1917-18 : — 



r. Fletcher. 



( Vol. 


XI, p. 622. 


(. » 


XIT, p. 14. 




XII. pp. 579, 608 




XII, p. 594. 




XITI, p. 9a 




XIII, p. 426. 




XIII, p. 588. 




XIII, p. 465. 



Tiger Beetle Borer of Coffee 

Coffee Borer . . . . 

A swarm of Ochrophara montana 
Insects in Vegetable Gardens 
Bees and Pollination 
Helopeliis on tea 
Spiders in Tea Bushes 



This paper is now open for discussion, and in the first place I should 
like to say that we are considerably indebted to Mr. Anstead for giving 
us this summary of the insect pests which he has come across in the 
Planting Districts of South India during the last two years. 

In speaking of Pseiidococcus citri he mentions a loss of feeding-roots 
of young cofEee-plants as due to this scale which is also described as eating 
into the bark. As this scale is a sucking insect, it could not eat away 
the roots or eat into the bark, and this type of injury is presumably due 
to cockchafer grubs. 

5.— A LIST OF LEPIDOPTERA NOTED TO ATTACK CULTIVATED 

PLANTS IN CEYLON. 

Bij R. Senior- White, F.E.S. 

NYMPHALIDiE. 

Hypolimnas holina. 

Neptis eurynome. Canavalia gladiata, Vigna catjang. 

Melaniiis ismene. Sorghum, Panicum maximum. Parasitized by 

a Tachinid. 
Danais plexippus. Sfephanotis sp. 
(U. R. 3.) Ficus parasitica, Carissa carandas. 
Telchinia violce. Passi flora fcetida. 

Papilionid^e. 

Papilio demoleus. Citrus spp., Feronia elephanium. 

Papilio agamemnon. Anona muricata. 

Papilio pammon. Citrus spp., Murraya kcenigii. 

Papilio parinda. Citrus sp. - . 

Papilio aristolochice. Aristolochia sp. 

PlERID.E. 

Terias hecabe. Cassia fistula. 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE TIUltD EMTOilOLOGICAL MEETING 333 

LYCiENID^. 

Cotochrysops cnejiis. Vigna catjang. 

J amides bocJnis. Vigna catjang. 

Chilades la ins. Feronia elephantum. 

Spalgis epiiis. Pseudococcus sp. on Solanum sp. 

HESPEEIADiE. 

Hesperia gaJba. Hibiscus sp. (holly liock). 

EUPTEROTID^. 

Eupterote geminata. Erythriva indica, Theobroma cacao, Cajamis 
indicus. Parasitized by Tachinid. 

Sphingid.e. 

Bhyncolaba acteus. CaUadium vars. Parasitized hy Tachinid. 
Chcerocampa iheylia {vinacea).* Balsamifera impatiens ; very bad 

in November only. 
Chcerocampa theylia.'f " Pach-arisi-piUu " (Tamil). Tliis plant is 

a bad dry-weather weed in rubber. 
Nephele hespera. Carissa carandas. 
Deilephila nerii. Vinca sp., Oleander spp. 
Acherontia lachesis. Erythrina indica, Solanum melongena, Caqjsicum 

spp. Parasitized by Tachinid. 
Acherontia styx. Solanum 7nelongena. Very rare in Matale 

District. 
Herse convolvuli. Vigna catjang. 

NOTODONTID^. 

Stauropus alternus. Cajanus indicus. 
Syntomid^. 

Synfomis jyassalis. Phaseolus vulgaris, Capsicum spp. Kohlrabi, 
Daisy vars, Trichosanthes anguina. Parasitized by two species 
of Tachinids. 

Syntomis cyssea. Ipomcea rubro-ccerulea. 

Thyridid^. 

Dysodia ignita. Croton aromaticus. 

Lasiocampid^. 

Suana concolor. Psidium guyava, Cajanus indicus, Hibiscus rosa» 
sinensis. Attacked by a Phorid parasite. 

* The species here referred to as C. theylia {vinacea) is presumably Hippotion 
raffleai, Butl. (See Roths and Jordan, Eevis Sphing., p. 755.) — Editor. 

t The species hero referred to as G. theylia is presumably Hippotion hoerhavioe. Fab. 
(vido loc-cit p. 751)). The true Sphinx thyelia of Linnaeus is a South American 
Xylophan&n. — Editor. 



334 VROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

LlMACODID^. 

Altha lacteola. Carissa carandas. 

Thosea cana. Rose. 

Narosa consfersa. Feronia elefhantmn. 

Lymantriad^. 

Dasychira fusiformis. Pelargonium vars, Ccnma sp., Citrus sp., 
rose, Vigna catjang, C. carandas, Kohl-rabi, Solanum melongena, 
Phaseolus mungo, Cajamis indicus, Antigonon sp., Moringa 'ptery- 
gosferma. 

Dasychira divisa. Daisy vars, Amaryllid lily. 

Dasychira mendosa. Vigna catjang. 

Dasychira horsfieldi. Vigna catjang. 

Dasychira sp. (? mendosa). Solanum melongena, Citrus sp., Acalypha 
sp. 

Lymantria ampla. Pelargonium vars, Theobroma cacao. Begonia sp., 
Carissa carandas, rose, Quisqualis indica, Cajanus indicus. 

Orgyia postica. Pelargonium vars, Erythrina lithosperma, Vigna 
catjang, Canna sp., P. graiissima, Cajanus indicus, Solanum melon- 
gena, mangosteen. 

Lcelia exclamationis. Canna sp. 

Eiiproctis scintillans. Rose, Daisy vars. Capsicum sp,, Cajanus 
indicus. 

Euproctis fraterna. Citrus sp., Feronia elephantum. Pelargonium 
vars, Solanum melongeyut, rose. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Para- 
sitized by a Tachinid. 

Euproctis semisignata. Quisqualis indica. 

Psych iD^. 

Acanthopsyche cana. Hevea brasiliensis. 

A. punctimarginalis. Bred on Algse on bamboo. 

(AO. 2.) Anona muricata. Failed to rear out. Bad pests. 

(PO.) Antigonon sp. Failed to rear out. Bad pests. 

Clania crameri. Cajanus indicus. 

Arctiad^. 

Estigmene lactinea. Onion, kohl-rabi, beet. 

Pericallia ricini. Solanum melongena, Phaseolus vulgaris, Cohcasia 
sp., Oleander, kohl-rabi, rose, Cajanus iridicus, mustard, Momor- 
dica charantia, Luffa acutangula. Parasitized by a Tachinid. 

Pisara lucidalis. Carissa carandas. / 

Selca plagiola. Solanum melongena. 

Nyctemora lacticinia. Vernonia emeria, a bad weed. Feeds mainly 
on seed heads. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 335 

NOCTUIDJE. 

Glottiila dominlca. Amaryllis spp. 

Polytela glorioscp. Amaryllis spp., Gloriosa sicperha. 

Plusia. (Co. 6). Daisy vars. [? P. limhirena). 

Plvsia orichalcea, Kohl-rabi, carrot, Pimpinella afiisum. 

Plusia ogramma. Trichosanthes angnina. 

Plusia chalcytes. Onion, Zinnia, Solanum melongena, dahlia. 

Plusia ohtusisigna. Coleus sp. 

Cosmojihila imlica. Hibiscus sp. (hollyhock), H. rosa-sinensis. 

Achcpa melicerte. Rose. 

Ophmsa coronata. Quisqualis indica. 

Plotheia nephelotis. Solaymm melongena. 

Chloridea ohsoleta. Pelargonium vars, Dianotus sp., Canna sp.^ 
Hibiscus escnlentns. 

Chloridea assvlfa. PJiysolis peruviana. 

Prodenia litura. Solanum lycopersicnm, S. melongena, Capsicum 
spp.. Petunia, onion, cabbage, carrot, beet, Balsam, impatiens, 
Zinnia, Canna sp., Gossypiion sp. (Cambodia), P. gratissima, 
Dioscorea sp., Colocasia sp., mustard. Pelargonium vars, H. 
esculentus, Momordica charantia, Begonia vars, Phaseolus vulgaris, 
Vigna catjang. 
Eublemma olivacea. Solanum, melongena. 
Eublemma scitula. Pseudococci on C. carandas. 
Acontia transversa. Hibiscus esculentus, H. sp. (hollyhock). 
Euplexia opposita. Carrot, Daisy var. 

Panilla albopimctata. Polyporus zonalis (hymenium surface only). 
Amyna sehnampha. Croton aromaticus. 
Hypena cognata. Lantana. 
Lacera alope. CcEsaljnnia sappan. 
Farias chromataria. Hibiscus sp. (hollyhock). 
Earias fabia. Hibiscus esculentus. 
Remigia frugcdis. Panicum maximum. 
(Z. A. 3.) Hirneola hispidula. 
Beara dichromella. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. 

Geometrid^. 

Craspedia fibulata. Kohl-rabi, Petunia, Dendrobium macarfhicB, 

Calanthe vestita, Pimpiuella cinisum, spinach. 
Craspedia remotata. Gnaphalium sp. " Ponnandey Kirey " (Tam) 

garden edging plant, 
Hyposidra talaca. Salvia sp., Peltophorum ferrugineum, Canna sp. 

Zinnia sp., rose, Solanmn melcmgena, Ccesalpinia sappan, Vigna 

catjang. 

VOL. I z 



y 



33C I'ROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Gymnoscelis cdbicaudata. Hibiscus sp. (hollyhock). 

Thalera caudularia. Antigonon sp. 

Boarmia acaciaria. Cassia fistula. 

Boarmia bhurmitra. Solanum melongena, Cajmcum sp. 

Pseudoter'pna Mora. Cajanus indicus. 

Cidaria cingala. Balsam, imfatiens. 

Nemoria integranota. Cajanus indicus. 

Thalassodes veraria. Kose. 

Pyralid^e. 

Hymenia fascialis. Celosia sp., beet. 

Hellula iindalis. Kohl-rabi, turnip, cabbage, mustard. 

Glyphodes bivitralis. Ficus religiosa, F. glomerata. 

Glyphodes indica. Trichosanthes anguina, melon vars. 

Terastia meticulosalis. Erythrina lithos'perma. 

Sylepta derogata. Hibiscus esculentus, H. sp. (hollyhock), H. rosa- 

sinensis, Gossypium sp. (Cambodia). 
Lepyrodes geometralis. Jasmine. , 

Nephopteryx minutella. Solamim melongena. 

Crocidolomia binotalis. Kohl-rabi, cabbage, mustard, Capsicum sp. 
(Cut- worm). Parasitized by a Tachiuid. 

Myelois pectinicornella. Theobroma cacao. 

Epicrocis lateritialis. Beleropone sp. 

Pachjzancla (Bgrotalis. S. melongena, S. indicum ? 

Nacoleia indicata. Anona ynuricata. A- single occurrence between 
two small leaves. Larva dark blue from ingested food. 

Maruca testulalis. Phaseolus vulgaris vars. 

Leucinodes orbonalis. Solanum inelongena. 

Dichocrocis punctiferalis. Sorghnm (in heads). 

Lygropia quaiernalis. " Damunu,'' Singhalese (? Malvaceous.) 

Euzophera perticella. Solatium melongena. 

TiNEINA. 

Plutella maculij)ennis. Turnip, cabbage, mustard. 

Gelechia gossypiella. Gossypium sp. (Cambodia). 

Comocritis pieria. Heveabrasiliensis. 11th December 1918. Young 
larva found in No. 12. Evidently hatched within last few days. 
Webbing patch somewhat circular, but beginning to extend 
into usual line in large ears, usually upwards. Size of patch up 
to I" diameter. Cold weather a few days earlier. 

TORTRICID^. 

Adoxophyes privatana. Cajanus ii^dicus. 
(C. 0.). Dahha. 



troceedings of the third entomologjcal meeting 337 

Pterophorid^. 

SpJienarches caffer. Pelargonium vars, Theobroma cacao. 
Sleganodactyla concursa. Lantana, Passiflora fcetida. 

6.— A LIST OF PLANTS, WITH THEIR LEPIDOPTEROUS PESTS, 

m CEYLON. 

By R. Senior- White, F.E.S. 

ACANTHACE^. 

Beleropone sp. Epicrocis lateritialis. 

Amarantace^. 

Celosia sp. Hyn tenia fascialis. 

Amaryllid^. 

Cultivated species. Glottula dominica, Polytela gloriosce, Dasychira 
divisa. 

Anonace^. 

A. muricata. Papilio aga^nemnon, Psychid, Nacoleia indicata. 

Apocynace^. 

Carissa carandas. Allhg lacteola, Nephele hespera, Pisara litcidalis, 

Dasychira fusiformis, Lymantria ampla. 
Vinca sp. Deilephila nerii. 
Oleander spp. Deilephila nerii, Pericallia ricini. 

Aroide^. 

Calladium vars. Theretra actea. 

Colocasia sp. Pericallia ricini, Prodenia litura. 

Aristolochiace^. 

Aristolochia sp. Papilio arisfolochice. 

ASCLEPIADE^. 

Stephanotis sp. Adoxophyes privatana, Danais plexippus. 

Begoniace^. 

Cultivated vars. Lymantria ampla, Prodenia litura. 

Bromeliace^. 

Atuinas sativus. {Pseudococcus sp.). 

Chenopodiace^. 

Spinach. Craspedia fibulata. 

Beet. Hymenia fascialis, Estigmene lactinea, Prodenia litura, 

" Ponnandey-Kirey.''^ Craspedia remotata. 

Combretace^. 

Quisqualis indica. Euproctis semisignata, Lymantria ampla, Ophiusa 
coronatu. 

% 2 



338 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

COMPOSITiE. 

Daisy vars. Dasychira divisa, Plusia (CO. 6), Syntomis fassalis^ 

Adoxojihyes privatana, Eiiflexia ojj^wsita. 
Gnaphalimn sp. Craspedia remotata. 
Chrysanthemum vars. Homona sp. 
Dahlia vars. Plusia chalcytes, Eufroctis scintillans. 
Zinnia vars. Hyposidra talaca, Plusia chalcytes, Prodenia litura. 

CONVOLVULACE^. 

Ifomcea rubro-coerulea. Syntomis cyssea. 

Crucifer^. 

Kohl-rabi. Hellula undalis, Craspedia fibulata, Crocidolomia bino- 

talis, Plusia orichalcea, Dasychira fusiformis, Syntomis passalis, 

Estigmene lactinea, Pericallia ricini. 
Turnip. Hellula undalis, Plutella macuUpennis. 
Cabbage. Hellula undalis, Crocidolomia binotalis, Plutella maculi- 

pennis, Prodenia litura. 
Mustard. Hellula undalis, Plutella macuUpennis, Pericallia ricini f 

Prodenia litura, C. binotalis. 

CUCURBITACE^. 

Trichosanthes anguina. Plusia agranmia, Glyphodes indica, Syntomis 

passalis. 
Melon vars. Glyphodes indica. 
M. charantia. Pericallia ricini, Prodenia litura. 
Luffa acutangula. Prodenia litura. 

DlOSCORACE^. 

Dioscorea sp. (" angili-ala "). Prodenia litura. 

Caryophyllace^. 

Dianthus sp. {Indian fruits). Chloridea obsoleta. 

EUPHORBIACE^. 

Hevea brasiliensis. Acanthopsyche cana, Comocritis pieria. 
Acalypha sp. Adoxophyes privatana, Dasychira {? meridosa). 
Croton aromaticus. Amyna selenamfha, Dysodia ignita. 

Geraniace^. 

Pelargonium vars. Homona sp., Dasychira iusiformis, Lymantria 
ampla, Sphenarches caffer, Prodenia litura, Orgyia postica, Euproctis 
■ fraterna, Adoxophyes privatana, Chloridea obsoleta. 
Balsamifera impatiehs vars. Chcerocamjya theylia {vinacea),* Cidaria 
cingala, Prodenia litura. 

* See footnote on page 333. 



troceedings of the third entomological meeting 339 

Gramine^. 

Sorghum. Melanitis ismene, DicJiocrocis punctif emits. 
P. maximwn. Melanitis ismene, Remigia frugalis. 

GUTTIFERiE. 

Mangosteeii. Orgyia postica. 

LABIATiE. 

Salvia sp. Hyposidra talaca. 
Coleus sp. Plusia ohtusisigna. 
Laurace^. 

P. gratisima (avocado). Orgyia postica, Prodenia lilura. 

Leguminos.^. 

Canavalia gladiata. Homona sp., Neptis eurynome. 

Vigna catjatig. Dasychira jusiformis, Orgyia postica, Catoc-Jirysops 

cnejns, Dasychira mendosa, Jamides hochus, Adoxophyrs privafana, 

Herse convolvuli, Dasychira horsfieldi, Neptis eurynome, Prodenia' 

litura, Hyposidra talaca. 
Phaseolus mungo. Dasychira fusifortms. 
Cajanus imJicus. Dasychira fusiformis, Orgyia postica, Pseudoterpna 

chlora, Stanropus alternus, Nemoria integranota, Enproclis scintil- 

lans, Pericallia ricini, Suana concolor, Clania crameri, Adoxophyes 

privatana, Lymantria ampla, Eupterote geminata. 
Erythrina spp. Orygia postica, Terastia fneticulosalis, Eupterote 

geminata, Acherontia lachesis. 
Peltophorum femigineum. Hyposidra talaca. 
Ccesalpinia sappan. Hyposidra talaca, Lacera alope. 
Phaseolus vulgaris vars. Syntomis passalis, Maruca testulalis, 

Pericallia ricini, Prodenia litura. 
Cassia fistula. Terias hecabe, Boarmia acaciaria. 

JjIUACEM. 

Glor iosa superba . Poly tela gloriosce. 

Onion. Estigmene lactinea, Plusia chalcytes, Prodenia litura. 

Malyacem. 

Hibiscus esculentus. Sylepta derogata, Acontia transversa, Earias 

fabia, Chloridea obsoleta. 

Hibiscus sp., (Hollyhock). Sylepta derogata, CosmophiJa indicu, 

Hesperia galba, Gymnoscelis cdbicaudata, Earias chro,nataria, 

Acontia transversa. 
Hibiscus rosa- sinensis. Sylepta derogata, Cosmophila indica, Beara 

dichromella, Euproctisfraterna, Suana concolor. 
Gossypium sp. (Cambodia). Sylepta derogata, Gelechia gossypiella, 

Prodenia litura. 



340 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

MORING^. 

Moringa pterygosperma. DasycJiira fusiformis. 

Myrtace^. 

Psidium guyava. Suana concolor. 

Oleace^. 

Jasmine. Lepyrodes geometralis. 

Orchide^. 

Dendrobium macarthice. Craspedia jihulata. 
Calanthe vestita. Craspedia fibulata. 

Passiflorace^. 

P.fcetida. Homona sp. (CO 3), VB 2, ? Telchinia violce. 

POLYGALACE^. 

Antigonon sp. Thalera caudularia, Psychid, Dasychira fusiformis: 

KOSACE^. 

Roses. DasycJiira fusiformis, Lymantria ampla, Achcea melicerta, 
Euproctis scintillans, Thosea cana, Euprodis fraterna, Pericalliw 
ricini, Thalassodes veraria, Hyposidra talaca. 

RUTACE^'. 

Citrus spp. Dasychira fusiformis, Euproctis fraterna, Papilio demo- 
leus, Homona longipalpus, Papilio polytes, P. parinda, Dasychira 
sp. {? mendosa). 

Feronia elephantum.. Papilio demoleus, Chilades laius, Narosa 
conspersa, Euproctis fraterna. 

Murray a koenigii. Papilio polytes. 

SciTAMINEJi;. 

Canna vars . Dasychira fusiformis , Orgyia post ica , Hyposidra talaca, 
Lcelia exclamalionis, Prodenia litura, Chloridea ohsoleta. 

SoLANACEiE. 

Solanum melongena. Dasychira fusiformis, Orgyia postica, Hypo- 
sidra talaca, Acherontia lachesis, Plusia chalcytes, Euproctis fraterna, 
Plotheia nephelotis ? Pericallia ricini ? Nephopteryx minutella^ 
Pachyzancla cegrotalis, Prodenia litura, Eublemma olivaeea, Leuci- 
nodes orbonalis, Dasychira sp. {? mendosa), Selca plagiola, Acheron- 
tia Styx, Boarmia bhurmitra, Euzophera perticella. 

Petunia. Craspedia fibulata, Prodenia litura. 

Cap)sicum spp. Crocidolmnia binotalis, Syntomis passalis, Euproctis 
scintillans, Prodenia litura, Boarmia bhurmitra, Acherontia lachesis^ 

S. lycopersicum . Prodenia litura. 

Physalis peruviana. Chloridea assulta. 

S. indicum ? Pericallia ricini, Pachyzancla cegrotalis. 



rEOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



3il 



STERCULIACE^qi:. 

Theohroma cacao. Lijmantria ampla, Sphenarches cajfer, Chloridea 
obsoJeta, Myelois pectinicornella, Eupterote geminata. 

Umbelliffer^. 

PimpineUa anisum. Crasjiedia fibidata, Plusia orichalcea. 
Carrot, Plusia orichalcea, Prodenia litura, Euplexia opjJosifa. 

URTICACEiE. 

Ficus parasitica. Adoxo'phyes frivatana. 
Ficus religiosa. Glyphodes bivitralis. 
Ficus glomerata. Glyphodes bivitralis. 

Verbenace.e. 

Lcmtana. Hypena cognata, Steganodactyla concur sa. 

Fungi. 

Polypoi'us zonalis. Panilla albopunctata. 

Hrineola Mspidida. (ZA. 3) (also eaten by Ceropia induta, fide 
Fetch). 



7.— A LIST OF THE PESTS OF CEREALS IN BURMA. 
By K. D. Shroff, B.A,, Entcnnological Assistant, Burma. 



Pest 



1. Paddy. 

Spodoptera mauritia 

Cirphis nnipuncta . 

Psalis securis 

Melanitis ismene 
Parnctra mathias 

Nymphula depunctalis 

Nymphula fluclitosalis 



Ancylolomia chrysographdla 
Criaphalocrocis medinalis . 
Naranga diffusa 



Part ol the plant 
attacked 



Seedlings 

Leaves 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Remarks 



Major pest of irregular occur- 
rence. 

Major jiest of occasional occur- 
rence. 

Minor pest. Damage negli- 
gible. 

Ditto. 

Minor pest ; sometimes serious 
in small plots. 

Serious local pest in Lower 
Burma. 

Not yet reared. Moths are 
found flying in large num- 
bers in paddy fields in Lower 
Burma. 

Not serious. 
Ditto. 

Not serious ; more abundant 
in Lower Burma. Comes to 
light. 



i^^- 



342 PEOCEEDIA'GS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

7.— A LIST OF THE PESTS OF CEREALS IN BVmiA—contd. 



Pest 



1. — Paddy — contd 
Oxya velox 

Hispa armigera 
JSchoenobius bipunctifer 
Scirpophaga gilviberbis 

Sesamia infer ens (?) 
Stem-fly 
Menida histrio 
Leptocorisa varicornis 

Nephotettix bipunctatus 
Tettigoyiiella spectra 
Ripersia sacchari oryzoe 



2, Sorghum, Maize, etc. 
Cirphis loreyi 
Laphygma exigua 
Psalis securis . 
Parnara mathias 
Telicota bambusae 
Marasmia trapezalis 

Epacromia tamulus . 



Part of the plant 
attacked 



Leaves . 

Do. . 

Stalk . 
Do. . 

Do. . 
Do. . 

Plant-juice 
Plant milk 

Plant-juice 
Do. 
Do. 



Leaves 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 



Remabks 



Reported 
Bhamo. 



senous 



from 



Major pest. Very serious. 
Major pest. 

Not yet reared. Moths are 
found flying in large num- 
bers in paddy iields in Lower 
Burma. 

Found for the first time at 
Hmawbi in 1918. 

I\Iinor pest ; status not yet 
determined. 

Minor pest of n,pt much im- 
portance. 

Minor pest ; more in evidence 
in Lower Burma; not so 
serious in this Province as 
in some parts in India. 

Minor pest ; damage negligible. 

Ditto. 

Minor pest but sometimes very 
serious. (See notes on Ms- 
cellaneous pests hereto 
attached.) 



Not very serious. 
Not serious. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Minor pest, not seriously in- 
jurious. 

Minor pesfc. 



PROCEEDIXGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 343 

7.— A LIST OF THE PESTS OF CEREALS IN BVmiA—concld. 



Pest 


Part of the plant 
attacked 


Remarks. 

1 


2.— Sorghum, Maize, 

C07ltd. 


ETC. — 






Siiotroga cerealella . 


• 


Ear-heads 


Minor pest. 


Moth . 


• • 


Do. . 


Onoe found on an Indian juar. 


Moth (probably Stenachroia 
eJongella). 


Do. . 


Ditto. 


Fly . . . 




Stems of seedlings . 


Status not known. 


Thrips . 




Maize cobs 


Reported " serious " from the 
Pakokku Hills. 


Dolycoris indicus 




Plant-juice (Deve- 
loping grain). 


Minor pest. 


Aphids . 




Plant-juice 


Minor pest. 


Termites 




Roots . 


Minor pest ; damage sometimes 
perceptible. 


3. Wheat. 








Psalis securis . 


• • 


Leaves . 


Not a serious pest. 


Termites 


• 


Roots . 


Minor pest ; sometimes pretty 
serious in some localities. 


Chafer grubs . 


• • 


Do. . 


Ditto. 


Macrosiphimi granarium 


• 


Juice 


Minor pest. 



8.— A LIST OF THE PESTS OF PULSES IN BURMA. 
By K. D. Shroff, B.A., Entomological Assistant, Burma. 



Pest 


Pait of the plant 
attacked 


Remarks 


1. Tub (Pe-sein-gon) (Cajanus 
indicus). 






Solenopsis geminata 


Leaves of seedlings . 


Jtinor pest. 


Flea beetles .... 


Do. 


Ditto. 



344 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

8— A LIST OF THE PESTS OF PULSES IN BVmiA—contd. 



Pesfc 



1. TUR (PE-SeIN-GON) (CjiJANUS 

iNDicus) — conld. 
' Euproctis fraterna , 



Euproctis scintillans 
Nanaguna breviuscula 
Dasychira fasciformis 
Dasychira mendosa . 
Celama internella 
Caccecia micaceana . 
Green Geometrid moth 
Meranoplus bicolor . 
Zonabris pustulata . 
Thrips , 

Adisura atkinsoni . 
Heliothis obsoleta 
Catochrysops cnepis 
Sphenarches caffer . 
Maruca testulalis 
Etiella zinckenella . 
Agromyza sp. . 
Apion sp. 

Coptosoma cribraria 
Coptosoma sp. 
Cyclopelta obscura . 
Clavigralla gibbosa . 

Graptostethus servus 
Aphis (cardui ?) 



Part of the plant 
attacked 



Remarks 



Leaves 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Flowers 

Do. 
Seeds in pods 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Plant-juice 

Do. 

Do. 

Plant (unripe seeds 
in pods). 

Do. 

Shoots and pods 



Minor pest of not much import- 
ance. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Minor pest ; scarcely serious. 

Ditto. 



>Minor pests ; cause large 
aggregate damage. 



Minor pest ; not serious. 
Ditto. 
Ditto, 
Ditto. 

Ditto. 
Not very serious. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 345 

8._A LIST OF THE PESTS OF PULSES IN BVmiA—confd. 



Pest 



2. Gram. 
Eeliothis obsoleta 

Termites 
Chafer grabs . 



3. MuNG (Pe-di-sein), Urid 
(Mat-pe). 



Azazia nibricarui 
Nacoleia vulgaris 
Diacrisia obliqua 

Maruca teslulalis 
Stem-borer 
Mylabris pnstitlata 
Copfosoma cribraria 
Coptosotna sp. 
Biptortus linearis 
Aphids 



4. Beans (Dolichos lablab). 

Diacrisia obliqua 
Prodenia litura 
Cacoecia micaceana 
Nacoleia vulgaris 
Monolepta signata 
Epilachna dodecastigma 
Zonabris cichorii 



Part of the plant 
attacked 



Seeds in pods 

Roots . 
Do 



Leaves . 
Do. . 
Do. . 

Seeds in pods 
Shoots and stems 
Flowers 
Plant-juice 

Do. 
Pods (sacking) 
Pods and shoots 



Leaves 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Flowers 



Remarks 



General pest, rarely serious but 
causing a large aggregate 
damage. 

Minor pest ; sometimes serious. 

Ditto. 



Minor pest of not great importt- 
ance. 

Ditto. 

Major pest ; sometimes very 
serious. 

Minor pest. 

Minor pest ; not serious. 

Ditto. 

Ditto 

Ditto. 

Ditto; 
Minor pest ; sometimes serious. 



Major pest ; very serious. 
Minor pest, scarcely serious. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 
Minor pest ; status not known 



Mz. Fletcher. 



346 PROCEEDINGS OF THE TIIIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

8.— A LIST OF THE PESTS OF PULSES IN BVF.:SIA—concJd, 



Pest 



4. Beans (Dolichos lablab)- 
contd. 



Ilylabris pustulata . 
Etiella zinckenella . 
Maruca tesfulalis 
Sphenarches caffer . 
Coptosoma cribraria 
Clavigralla gibbosa . 



Riptortu-s linearis 
Aphids (sucking) 



5. Cow Pea (Pe-litn). 

Meloid Beetle 
Miner . 

Etiella zinckemlla . 
Maruca testulalis 
Graptostetlms servus 
Riptorlus linearis 
Aphids . 



Part of the plant 
attacked 



Flowers 

Seeds in pods 

Do. 

Pods 

Plant-juice 

Juice of unripe seeds 
in pods. 

Juice (pods) . 

Shoots and pods 



Leaves and flowers 
Leaves . 
Seeds in pods 

Do. 
Pods (sucking) 

Do. 

Do. 



Remaeks 



Minor local sporadic pest. 
Minor sporadic pest. 
Minor pest. 

Ditto. 
Scarcely a pest. 
Minor pest. 

Minor pest ; not serious. 
Minor pest. 



Minor pest. 

Minor pest, but not serious. 



►Minor pest, but cause an 
aggregate damage. 



►Minor pests ; not serious. 



Very serious. 



This paper is open to discussion. It is unfortunate that Mr. Shroff 
has not been able to attend this Meeting, although we are indebted to 
him for sending us these lists of insect pests in Burma. The only remark 
I have to offer is that perhaps not too much reliance should be placed 
on the exact identification of some of the insects listed here. The name 
Dasychira fasciformis, for example, is based on an error in copying the 
name fiisiformis, which is probably the same as D. mendosa. The names 
of the Meloid beetles also require check. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



347 



9.— A LIST OF THE PESTS OF OIL-SEED PLANTS IN BURMA. 
Bij K. D. Shroff, B.A., Entomological Assistant, Burma. 



Pest 



1. Sesamum. 
Diacrisia obliqiia 
Acherontia styx 
Antigastra catalaunalis 
Aularches miliaris , 

Ayiomala antiQua 



Diacrisia obliqua 
Amsacta lactinea 
Prodenia litiira 
Ergolis merione 
Bopica honesta 



Dichocrocis pii nctiferalis 
Aleyrodes ricini 

3. Linseed. 
Laphygma exigua . 



Part of the plant 
attacked 



Leaves . 

Do. . 

Do. . 

Do. . 

Do. 



Monolepfa signata . 


Do. . 


Termites .... 


Roots . 


Aphanus sordidus . 


Seed (sucking) 


2. Castoe. 




Achcea Janata 


Leaves . 



Do. . 

Do. . 

Do. . 

Do. . 

Stem 

Seed-capsules 
Leaf- juice (sucking) 

Leaves . 



Remarks 



Sometimes very serious. 
Minor pest. 
Ditto. 



Reported 
Myingyan. 



serious 



from 



Found on leaves and cobs of 
maize also ; status not 
known ; may not be serious 
at all. 

Elinor pest of not much import- 
ance. 

Sometimes damage percep- 
tible, ^fe-. 

Reported " serious " from { 
Taungtha, Myingyan dis- 
trict. Also attacks stored 
groundnut. 



Sporadic, sometimes serious. 
Once found breeding on 
Cassia Tora (Dan-gwe-bin) 
at Tatkon. 

Sometimes serious. 

Not serious. 

Serious if not checked in time. 

Minor pest ; not very serious. 

Reared from almost dry stems j 
status not known ; not much 
in evidence. 

Sometimes serious. 

Very serious. 



Pretty serious. 



348 



rROCEEDINGS OF IHE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



9._A LIST OF THE PESTS OF OIL-SEED PLANTS IN BURMA- 

contd. 



Pest 



4. Groundnut. 
Diacrisia obliqua 
Prodenia litura 

Meloid beetle . 

Monolepla signata . 
Chafer grubs . 
Aphanus sordidus . 

5. Mustard. 
Athalia (proxitrui ?) 
Phyllotreta chotanica 
Bagrada picta 
Eurydema pulchrum 
Apliids . 

6. Safflower. 
Fly-maggots . 

Fly-maggots . 

Macrosiphum soncM 

7, Sunflower. 
Amsacta caterpillars 



Part of the plant 
attacked 



Leaves 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Roots 



Remarks 



Sometimes serious. 

Minor pest ; not yet known to 
be serious. 

Once found eating leaves of 
groundnut ; dhainclia at 
Hmawbi. 

Not serious. 

Sometimes very serious. 



Stored seed (sucking) Reported " serious " . from 

Taungtha. Also attacks 
stored sesamum. 



Leaves . 
Do. . 
Plant-juice 

Do. 

Do. 



Shoots (boring) 
Stem (boring) 
Plant -juice 



Leaves 



Not serious. 

Ditto. 
Not so serious as to cabbage. 
Not serious. 

Ditto. 



Once found in young plants on 
the Mandalay Farm, 

Found serious on the Mandalay 
Farm in 1918. 

Very serious. 



Found once at Katha. The 
caterpillars died and, there- 
fore, could not be identified. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



349 



10.— A LIST OF THE PESTS OF TOBACCO IN BURMA. 
By K. D. Shroff, B.A., Entomological Assistant, Burma. 



Pest 



Agrotis ypsilon 
Brachytrypes portentosus 
Liogryllus bitnaculatus 
Prodenia litura 
Heliothis assulta 
Phikorimoea heliopa 

Gallobelicus crassicornis 
Aphids . 



Part of the plant 
attacked 



Seedlings 

Do. 

Do. 
Leaves 

Do. 
Stem 

Juice (sucking) 
Do. 



Remarks 



-Proved very serious in the 
Bassein District in 1907. 

"I IMinor pests ; damage some- 
> times perceptible in small 
J plots. 

Found only once in the Bassein 
District in 1907. 

Minor pest ; not serious. 

Ditto, 



11.— LIST OF THE PESTS OF VEGETABLES IN BURMA. 
By K. D. Shroff, B.A., Entomological Assistant, Burma. 



Pest 


Part of the plant 
attacked 


Remarks 


1. CrUCIFERvE. 






(a) Cabbage ; Cauliflower. 






Dorylus orientalis^ 






Agrotis ypsilon 


> 


Seedlings 


Sometimes very serious. 


Euxon segetis ^ 








Pier is brassicos 


Leaves . 


Minor pest. 


Prodenia litura 


Do. . 


Minor pest. Sometimes seri 
ous. 


Laphygma exigua 


Do. . 


Minor pest. 


Crocidolomia binotalis 


Do. . 


Ditto. 


Pluttlla maculipennis 


Do. . 


Ditto. 


Phyllotreta (choianica ?) . 


Do. . 


Ditto. 


Phyllotreki vittata 


Do. . 


Found once at Katha. 



350 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

11. —LIST OF THE PESTS OF VEGETABLES IN BURMA— contd 



Pest 


Part of the plant 
attacked 


Remarks 


1. Crucifer-s: — contd. 






(a) Cabbage ; Cauliflower — 
contd. 






Bagradapicta 


Juice (sucking) 


Sometimes very serious. 


Eurydema pulchrum 


Do. 


Minor pest ; not serious. 


Aphids . . . • • 


Do. 


Minor pest ; sometimes serious. 


(b) Radish. 






Phyllotreta chotanica 


Leaves . 


Minor pest ; not very serious. 


Bagrada picta 


Juice 


Minor pest. 


2. SOLANACE^. 






(a) Potato. 






Agrotis ypsilon 


Seedlings 


Serious in Hills. 


Phthorimoea operculella . 


Seed-potato . 


Minor pest 


(b) Brinjal. 






Epilachna sp. ... 


Leaves . 


Minor pest ; not serious 


Eublemma olivacea . 


Do. . 


Minor pest. 


Nephopteryx minutella 


Do. . 


Found once at Hopin. 


Pachyzancla bipunctalis . 


Do. . 


Ditto. 


Leucinodes orbonalis 


Fruit . 


Minor pest. 


Urentiua echinus (?) 


Leaf-juice 


Minor pest ; sometimes serious. 


Mealy-bugs .... 


Juice of leaves and 

twigs. 


Minor pest but not serious. 


3. CXJCTTRBITACE^. 






(a) Pumpkins. 






Aulacophora abdominalis . 


Leaves . 


Minor pest. 


Aulacophora atripennis 


Do. . 


Ditto. 


Apomecyna pertigera 


Stems (boring) 


Ditto. 



PKOCEEDIKGS OF THE THIttU ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 351 

11.— LIST OF THE PESTS OF VEGETABLES IN BURMA— contd. 



Pest 


Part of the 
attacked 


plant 


Remarks 


3. CcrcFRBiTACE^ — contd. 








(b) Gourds. 








Margaronia indica . 


Leaves of 
gourd. 


bitter 


IMinor pest ; not serious. 
Attacks cucumber also. 


Sphenarches caffer . 


Do. 


• 


Minor pest ; not serious. 


Epilachna dodecastigma . 


Do. 


• 


Minor pest. Attacks cucum- 
ber also. 


Ohoetodacus cucurbitce 
Chcetodacus caudatus 


Fruit 

Fruit of Trichosan- 
fhes palmaia. 


Also attacks Cucurbita 
maxima, Momordica Cha- 
rantia, Momordica dioica,. 
Cucumis melo, Cucumis sati- 
vus, Ciirullvs vulgaris, 
Cejifuilandra indica, L/ujfa 
acutangtda, Luffa cegyptiaca^ 


Mdlesis eumenoides 


Fruit of Cepha 
indica. 


landra 


Not so abundant as Chcetodacus 
cucurbitce. 


4. Malvaceae. 








Lady's finger {Hibiscus 
esculentus). 






• 


Sylepia derogata 


Leaves . 


• 


Sometimes serious. 


Nisotra madurensis . . 


Do. . 


• 


Once found at Moulmein, 


Earias fabia . . ' . 


Pods 


• 


Minor pest. 


Dysdercus cingulatus 


Pods (sucking) 


• 


Ditto. 


Aphids ..... 


Shoots and 
pods. 


small 


Not serious. 


Mealy-bugs .... 


Do. 


• 


Ditto. 


5. CONVOLVULAC^. 








Sweet-pohito 








Aspidomorpha indica 


Leaves 


• 


Not serious. 


Metriona circumdata 


Do. . 


• 


Ditto. 


Cylas formicarius . 


Tuber . 


• 


Minor pest. 



VOL. I 



2 A 



352 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

1].— LIST OF THE PESTS OF VEGETABLES IN BVmiA—concU. 



Pest 



6. Amaeantace^. 
Dere«dus sparsus 
Lixvs hrachyrrhinus 
Cletus bipunctatus . 



Part of the plant 
attacked 



Remarks 



Leaves . 

Stem 

Plant-Juice 



Not serious. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 



Mr. Fletcher. In this list of vegetables also I think that some of the names require 

check. It would, for example, be interesting to confirm the existence of 
Agrotis ypsilon in Burma. I also feel rather doubtful about Pieris 
hrassiccB as, when I looked over Mr. Shroff's collection at Mandalay in 
1914. the Maymyo examples labelled as P. brassiccp were all P. canidia. 



12.— NOTES ON MISCELLANEOUS PESTS IN BURMA. 

By K. D. Shroff, B. A. Entomological Assistant, Bnrma. 

The Paddy Case-worms {Nymphula). This pest is more prevalent in 
Lower Burma than in Upper Burma. The following notes on his obser- 
vations and experiments were submitted by Mr. R. A. Beale, Assistant 
Botanist, Southern Circle, Burma : — 

" Only tender leaves of young rice plants are attacked. Except in 
very rare cases (where the pest is present in large numbers) the attack 
is usually not fatal to the plants. When the plants reach a certain 
stage of development, their leaves become too tough for the pest which 
then seeks more tender food either among the crop of neighbouring 
fields or in the grasses on the bunds." 

" Keeping the bunds clean should be a fairly effective way of checking 
the spread of the pest, but it is hardly possible to do so on a large scale. 
Besides, the moths, which are numerous, may fly from field to field and 
deposit their eggs on healthy tender plants. The caterpillars in their 
cases may be carried by irrigation or drainage water ; .so it is advisable, 
when draining an infested area, to place a net or trap across the opening 
in the bund through which the water passes. The case-worms collect 
here in large numbers and may be removed and destroyed. Light traps 
may be used to catch the moths at night." 



Pdjje 353. 



PLATE 21. 




A Burmese fishing basket {dalti). 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE TIIIKD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 353 

■" Measures adopted on the Hmawbi Farm : — 

1. Water was let out, where possible, from the fields attacked. 

2. This was followed by two men walking along the bunds of the 
■fields, holding a rope between them ; with this the plants were shaken 
"to dislodge the caterpillars. Generally it is safer to keep the field without 
water for three or four days, during which time the rope-dragging should 
be carried out a couple of times. This ensures the removal of all insects 
from the plants. 

3. Where complete draining is not practicable, the insects may be 
collected after dragging with a rope either (a) by hand in the corners 
of the fields and near the bunds, whither they are blown by wind, or 
(b) by means of a dalu (See Plate 21). This is a flat, triangular, 

•open bamboo basket with handles, cft-dinarily used for catching 
mud-fish in drains, etc. By means of the handles it is pushed along, 
the open edge, which forms the base of the triangle, running along 
the ground. W^hen used for collecting insects on water, the flat edge 
should run on the surface of the water. The insects floating among the 
plants may thus be caught in large numbers. Very slight, if any, damage 
is done to the plants by the dalu passing over them." 

2. Ripersia sacchari. This pest sometimes proves very serious to 
paddy plants in experimental plots and in patches in transplanted areas. 
If the plants are tender, they are completely killed ; if they are tough, 
they are damaged but side-shoots sometimes come out. These new 
plants are evidently inferior to the healthy plants in the uninfested area. 
Mr. Lefroy, when he came to Burma, recommended to Mr. Warth, 
Agricultural Chemist, the destruction of his infested experimental 
plots. This measure is not desirable. Is there any other remedy by 
means of which the attacked plants could be saved ? 

3. A Plantain Stem-boring Beetle. Please see the specimen No. 1, 
sent for identification. 

This pest came to notice for the first time at Hmawbi. The grub 
first attacks the stalk of the leaf (probably the egg is laid on it) and gra- 
dually goes down to the stem. The slimy substance oozing out from the 
cracks and holes in the damaged parts, indicates the presence of the borer 
at work. It pupates inside the stem. All the stages are found inside 
the plant. It appears to be a serious pest. 

4. A small Horned-beetle looking like a Rhinoceros beetle. See the 
specimen No. 2, sent for identification. 

Two beetles were found along with Orijctes rhinoceros inside the 
xotten top of a dead coconut tree at Moulmein. 

2 a2 



354 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

13.— A LIST OF THE PESTS OF SUGARCANE IN BURMA. 
By K. D. Shroff, B.A., Entomological Assistant, Burma. 



Pest 


Part of the plant 
attacked 


Remarks 


Long-homed grass-hoppers 


Leaves . 


Found eating leaves of young 
cane in pots. 


Parnara matJiias 


Do. . 


Not serious. 


Dasychira securis 


Do. . 


Ditto. 


Marasmia trapezalis 


Do. . 


Ditto. 


Chilo simplex {">.) 


Stem 


Found pretty serious on the 
Hmawbi Farm in 1918. 


Scirpophaga 


Do. . 


A larva was once found in cane 
at Mandalay. As it died,, 
the species could not be 
determined. 


Termites .... 
Dorylus orientalis 


Setts . 
Do. . 


^ Found serious on the Nagu 
Farm, Shwebo District, in 
> 1918. Not yet reported 
fi'om any sugarcane-grow- 
ing locaUty. 


Callitettix versicolor 


Plant-juice 


Is found in large numbers on 
cane. Scarcelj' a pest. 


Phenict moesta 




Found on cane but not in- 
jurious. 


Abidama productu . 




Ditto. 


Elasmocdis platypoda 




Ditto. 


Ricania speculum 




Ditto. 


Ripersia sacchari 


Plant-juice 


Reported " serious " from 
Hmawbi in September 1918. 



14.— BORERS IN SUGARCANE, RICE, Etc. 

By T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, R. N. F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S., Imperial 
Entomologist, and C. C. Ghosh, B.A., Assistant to the hnferial 
Entomologist. 

Introductory. 

The borer pests of sugarcane, rice, etc., have a wide range of food- 
plants included under the Natural Order Graminese and some of them 
have been observed to extend this range into the Natural Order Cyperacese^ 
the plants of which order have stems very well suited to serve as food 



rKOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 355 

for boring insects. Therefore in the investigation of these pests we have 
to inchide for observation not only the cultivated gramineous crops but 
also the wild grasses and sedges which can possibly serve as alternative 
food-plants. The endeavour to trace their occurrence in alternative 
food-plants, however, has so far been confined principally to the neigh- 
bourhood of Pusa. Some of the wild grasses have been observed to har- 
bour borers which do not, or have not yet been found to, occur in the 
cultivated crops ; while among the borers of the wild plants there are 
others which, although principally confined to their wild food-plants, 
occur occasionally in the cultivated crops. The borers which are at 
present found only in the wild grasses may be considered as potential 
pests of allied cultivated plants and should very properly be included in 
any inquiry on borer pests of gramineous crops. 

The inquiry has been in progress for the last two years and is far 
from being complete and the present note must only be regarded as a 
preliminary one. As will appear later on, we have recorded the borers 
of twenty-nine gramineous and two cyperaceous plants, but of all these 
the borers of only two of them, viz., sugarcane and rice, have been under 
systematic observation. There are numerous other plants of these two 
Natural Orders which have yet to be examined and it is certain that at 
least many of the thick-stemmed ones among them will prove to be 
alternative food-plants of the borers of our gramineous crops. 



The Agents of Damage. 

Among the insects which bore the stem of sugarcane, etc., there are 
some which live in the soil and gnaw into the stem from outside. They 
do not live inside the stem and therefore cannot, strictly speaking, be 
called borers. But the eiTect of their attack is in most cases similar to 
that of attack by the borers proper. Moreover, they appear along with 
and at the same time as the borers. Therefore, in order to be able to 
obtain an approximate idea of the share of damage caused by the borers, 
not only all insects but also other agents affecting the plants with similar 
effect and simultaneously with the borers have to be taken into considera- 
tion. We have to include : — 

I. Fungal diseases. 

II. External agents of damage, i.e., insects which do not live and feed 
inside the plants but attack or gnaw into them from oat- 
side. 
III. Borers which live and feed inside the plants. 



356 TEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

I. Fungal diseases. 

The fungal diseases 'observed in sugarcane are of the nature 'of Red 
Rot which causes a redness of the internal tissue. Their occurrence has 
only been noted in an attempt to allocate their share of the damage to 
the crop. Smut appeared extremely rarely. The first effect of the 
occurrence of these fungal diseases in new shoots of sugarcane is the 
" dead heart " characteristic of borer attack. On splitting open the 
stem the growing buds of the affected shoots are found to have become 
red. Ultimately the shoots dry up. When the diseases appear in plants 
which have developed their stem, e.g., cane, to some extent, the plants 
become stunted and gradually wither. Entire stools may be affected 
in this mamier. Sometimes the leaves of the affected young shoots 
lose their green colour, becoming yellowish white. In all cases 'the 
affected plants wither. 

Besides being the primary agents of damage themselves, these fungal 
diseases invariably follow in the wake of the borers, both external and 
internal, and in all stages of the cane. In fact at Pusa grown-up canes 
do not actually suffer much from the borers themselves but the real 
damage is caused by the fungal diseases which follow. Thus, when 
Scirpofhaga caterpillars bore the top, the top withers and the cane may 
dry from the top downwards, the drying being due to fungal diseases^ 
When borers or rats gnaw the base of the cane, fungal diseases working 
at the base cut short the supply of sap and the entire cane dries up. 
Similarly borer or jackal damage in the middle of the stem introduces 
fimgal diseases which may redden the whole of the internal tissue of the 
stem, ultimately leading to the death of the entire plant. 

//. The External agents of damage., 

Among the external agents are included — 

(1) Termites, commonly known as " white ants," 

(2) Mole-crickets {Gnjllotaljpa ajricana). 

(3) Beetle grubs (Melolonthid, CurcuUonid, Chrysomehd and Elaterid 

grubs) ; also the Red Ants {Doryhis). 

Termites. 

Termites or white ants are common pests and attack young 
fruit and other trees, cuttings of plants, garden vegetables, and also 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 357 

field crops such as sugarcane, rice, wheat, barley, maize, etc. They 
gnaw the roots of plants but more often the base of the stem, causing 
entire young plants and shoots to wither. Usually they avoid wet and 
muddy places and are common m all moist soils. Thus, rice plants 
standing in water or growing in muddy places are immune but are liable 
to attack when the water dries up. Most of the other important crops 
such as sugarcane, wheat, barley, etc., cannot be grown in water and the 
moist soils in which they can be grown are the most favourable situations- 
for termites' activities. Only in the case of sugarcane have attempts- 
been made to check their ravages. The setts are liable to be attacked 
as soon as they are placed in the ground and in the worst cases all the 
setts may be eaten. Trials in treating the setts with chemicals, etc., 
-which can act as repellents, formed a subject-matter of discussion at the 
Second Entomological Meeting and the information regarding them will 
be found at pages 137 — 139 of the published Proceeditigs of that Meeting. 
It is a common behef that sugarcane setts are attacked only through the 
cut ends and recommendations have been made to protect the ends by 
dipping them in melted resin. Our experience has been that setts 
may be attacked at any point on their surface as well as at the ends and 
that it is the young shoots which require to be protected more than the 
setts. Our observations at Pusa as well as outside and the experiments 
wliich we have carried out to protect setts against termites go to show 
that the liability of cane to damage by termites depends largely on the 
nature of the soil in which it is grown. Generally speaking, the crop 
suffers much less or not at all when grown in clayey soils than in sandy 
soils. In soils which are liable to be infested by termites no single treat- 
ment of the setts can render them immune nor can any treatment of the 
setts save the shoots ; whilst in other soils little or no damage is done by 
termites either to setts or to shoots even when no treatment is adopted. 
Later on, when we come to discuss damage to sugarcane by the borers, 
we shall see that sugarcane grown in Chaunia field at Pusa in 1917 suffered 
very little from termites without treatment, and in the Brickfield both 
treated and untreated plots suffered equally heavily. In order to find 
out what it is in the soils which makes this difference the first step we 
have taken is to submit the soils for analysis to the Imperial Agricultural 
Chemist to whom we have to acknowledge our thanks for undertaking 
this work. We quote below the results of his analyses of the surface 
nine inches of soils of the places where no or httle damage >vas done as 
well as of the places where damage was severe. There are small differ- 
ence?^ in the constituents of the soils but without further experiments 
which we have in hand we cannot hazard any opinion. 



358 



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Page 359{1)> 



PLATE 22. 






V 








I 

«< 

3 
■O 

cs 



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5.' 



Hid 

o 



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Page 359{2). 



PLATE 23. 




Diagrammatic figure to show how mole-crickets feed. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 359 

When termites attack the new shoots of sugarcane the first visible 
external symptom is the " dead heart." The termites begin to gnaw 
in just at the base of the shoot and gradually eat into the centre, thus 
destroying the growing point. Therefore the heart leaf dries quickly. 
They may continue to eat and consume the entire base, detaching the 
shoot entirely from the sett. Then the entire shoot dries and comes 
out of the ground at the slightest pull. Cases are frequent when onl}'- 
the shoots are attacked, leaving untouched the setts from which they 
arise ; but more often the setts as well as the shoots are corroded. Older 
canes with well- developed stems or even ripe canes are not immune, 
as has been observed at Dacca and other places. Damage to grown or 
ripe canes has so far been shght at Pusa even in the Brickfield plots where 
damage to new shoots and setts has been severe. In this field the termites 
were active from about March to July and what led to the stoppage of, 
their activity afterwards cannot be explained. We propose to continue 
our observations by growing sugarcane in the same field. 

Mole-crickets. 

The mole-crickets {Gryllotnlpa ajricana) are common underground 
insects which usually frequent moist soils. They are very common 
in the moist or rather wet sandy beds of the River Gandak where their 
eggs can easily be collected. Eggs collected from this place have been 
reared in the Insectary. The nymphs were fed wholly on live fly maggots 
and they took about five-and-a-half months to come to the adult stage. 
The life-history is illustrated in Plate 22. Up to about fifty eggs are 
deposited loosely in a cluster in a chamber* specially formed at the bottom 
of the hole. There does not seem to be any regularity of broods as all 
stages of the insect are observable throughout the year. 

Gryllotalpa ajricana has been observed to cause rather serious damage 
to new shoots of sugarcane at Pusa on two occasions, once about jMarch- 
April in the JJiiUi field in 1913 and again about the same time of the year 
in the Brickfield in 1918. In cultivated fields, the insect lives in under- 
ground holes about two feet or more deep. It comes up and attacks the 
new shoots of sugarcane much in the way somewhat diagrammatically 
shown in Plate 23. The shoots are gnawed from the side at a point 
above their junction with the sett, the gnawing being Hke a scooped-out 
round hole with chewed-up fibrous margins and extending up to the core 
of the stem. The tender base of the heart leaf is eaten. Therefore 
the heart leaf dries and a " dead heart," characteristic of borers, is the 
result. 

It is not easy to observe the mole-crickets in the act of gnawing the 
shoots. Therefore the following corroborative experiment was carried 



360 mOCEEDINGS OF THE THIKD E>"TOiIOLOGlCAL MEETING 

out in the Insectary. A zinc cylinder with a solid bottom was filled to a 
depth of a little more than a foot with earth which was carefully examined 
before being put in. Six perfectly healthy sugarcane shoots with the 
setts from which they grew and of the age at which they were observed to 
be attacked by this insect in the field were transferred into this cylinder 
and eleven mole-crickets introduced into it between 13th and 15th 
March. The characteristic " dead heart " with the characteristic damage 
appeared as early as the 17th March in one shoot. Another shoot 
exhibited " dead heart " and damage on 3rd April. On the 12th April 
five pumpkin chips w^ere buried in the earth and two of them were found 
on the next day to have been bored. The buried pieces were removed 
on the 15th April and a few fresh pieces were placed on the surface of the 
earth. On the 17th April they were observed to have been bored 
from below. The pumpkin chips were removed on the 19th April. On 
the 5tli May a third shoot was damaged. The remaining three shoots 
were not damaged and the insects were dead before the 30th May. 

This experiment seems to prove that the mole-crickets cannot live 
on sugarcane alone. They attack sugarcane if it is planted in the land 
in which. they are present. There was practically no damage to sugar- 
cane by this insect in the Chmmia field which has been under cultivation 
for many years. The experimental plots of sugarcane in the Brick- 
field in 1918 were situated in a piece of land brought under cultivation 
about five or six years ago. It was previously a waste land overgro'yj'n 
with Sacchanim sfontaneum and Im/perata anmdinacea and was bordered 
by similar waste lands. (See Plate 69.) Mole crickets have been observed 
to eat Sacchanim sfonianeum ^oots in the same way as they do sugar- 
cane shoots. As proved by rearing in the insectary, they can live on 
animal food and probably depend on such food principally. Many kinds 
of soft-bodied Melolonthid, Chrysomelid and Curculionid grubs are known 
to abound among Saccharvtn spontanevm roots. Therefore mole-crickets 
obtain plenty of food in such waste lands and would naturally occur 
there in large numbers. This explains why so much damage was done 
to the experimental plots in the Brickfield. The occurrence of this 
insect in the sugarcane in Jhilli field in 1913 was under exactly similar 
conditions. Sugarcane was grown again in Jhilli in 1918 but so much 
damage was not done by this insect as on the former occasion. Repeated 
cultivations for a series of years naturally kill and drive away the mole- 
crickets from the field. 

Beetle-grubs. 

Among the third class of external agents of damage we have included 
the Melolonthid, Chrysomelid, Curculionid and Elaterid grubs and may 



PLATE 24. 



P./xje 361(1) 




Anouiala hiharensla (C. S. 1744). 

a. Larva, natural size and ""ag^'fied -J»- 
h\ details of posterior extremity of larva. 
c, Pupa, natural size and enlarged. 
U, Imago, II II 



II II 



Page 361{2). 



PL<ME 25. 







•'0 
I 




A<1oretllfi rali'f/inoftus (C. S. 1793). 
a, Larva, natural size and magnified ; 5. 
h, details of posterior portion of larva, magnified. 
c, Pupa, natural size and magnified. 
(I, Imago. 



Page 361 {3). 



PLATE 26. 




Fig. A.— Aiitoaevh-d sp. (C. S. 1654). 
rr,^Larva, natural size and magnified ( 8). 
b, details of posterior portion of larva, magnified. 
<;,{Pupa, natural size and magnified ( 8). 
<?/^lmago, 



II II II 



a 




I 



Fig. 2.—nrasterius sp. ; n. larva, natur?l size 



Page 361{4). 



PLATE 27. 




Diagrammatic figure to show how Melolonthid grubs feed. 



rPcOCEEDlNGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 3G1 

also mention in this connection Tipulid and Asilid maggots. Many 
kinds of these grubs abound among the roots of wild and semi-cultivated 
grasses as well as of sugarcane, maize, juar, wheat, barley, oats and similar 
crops grown in soils having a tolerable amount of moisture. When 
a crop is in the soil for the full year Hke sugarcane, or more or less per- 
manently hke the semi-cultivated grasses mentioned later on, these 
grubs increase to an enormous extent. As mentioned in the Imperial 
Entomologist's Annual Report for 1917-18, among the roots of sugarcane 
and semi-cultivated and wild Sacbharum spp. we have so far found the 
larvse of no less than sixteen different species of beetles including Anomala' 
hengalensis, A. biharensis (PI. 24), Adoretus caliginosus (PI. 25),. 
Autoserica STp. (Pi. 26, fig. \), Myllocems discolor, M.hlandus, Monolepa^ 
sicjnata, Formicomus sp.. PacJmephonis spp., Alissonotum piceum, A 
simile and Afogonia sp. To these we may add Anomala polita,. 
Adoretus versnfus, Myllocerns ll-piistulatus and Drasterius sp. 
(C. S. 1211, ElateridaJ ; PI. 26. fig. 2). Of all these the grubs of 
Anomala hengalensis have been definitely observed at Pusa as well as 
at Dacca to gnaw new shoots of sugarcane under the Soil surface from 
the side much in the same manner as mole-crickets do and as somewhat 
diagrammatically shown in Plate 27. The result is the " dead heart" 
characteristic of borers. The other Melolonthid grubs are similar in 
habit and are capable of damaging the shoots in the same way although 
they have not yet been observed to do so. The amount of damage 
however has so far been small. If the damaged shoots are examined 
after some days, the gnawing by these grubs is easily confused with that 
of mole-crickets. 

The Red Ants (Dorylvs) have also been observed to gnaw the base 
of sugarcane shoots in a few cases. 

Cheiving. One form of damage quite common in new sugarcane 
shoots and also in young as well as somewhat advanced wheat, barley 
and oat plants, is the chewing of the external layers of leafsheaths on one- 
side at a point just below or at the soil surface. Such plants invariably 
show " dead heart " and in some cases may become dry. Although the 
chewing does not extend into the core of the shoots, the part of the heart- 
leaf near about the level of the point of damage becomes discoloured and 
withers, causing " dead heart ", and frequently the base of the heart- 
leaf below the point of discoloration grows rather sideways. The shoot 
however is permanently injured and ultimately dies. Five sugarcane 
shoots showing " dead hearts " of this nature were submitted for exami- 
nation to the Imperial Mycologist who reported Red Rot in two of them. 
In wheat, barley and oats the chewing is frequently carried further 
the entire base being converted into a fibrous mass and leading to the- 



3G2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

•drying of the entire plant. It has not yet been possible to determine 
the agents of this form of damage. Probably mole-crickets and most 
of the coleopterous grubs ordinarily found in the fields may be concerned. 

III. The Borers. 

The following is the list of the borers so far observed. They are 
•grouped according to the Orders and Families. Most of them are not 
identified. In the case of those which are taken as identified there is a 
confusion in the names, especially of the species of Chilo and Diatroea. 
Therefore all the insects are referred to under the number in the Insectary 
Eegister of Cage Slips. When names are used they should be taken as 
those under which the insects have been known up to this time. 

DiPTERA — 

Anthomyiadse. — At present it is not known whether one or more 
species are concerned. The fhes are apparently alike and are 
grouped together as " Muscid flies." 

Cecidomyiada;. — Pachydiplosis oryzce. 

Trypaneidse. — Stictasjjis ceratitina. 

OOLEOPTERA — 

Lamiadffi.— C. S. 1814. 
Curculionidse — 

C. S. 1778. 

C. S. 1397. 

Lepidoptera — 
Zeuzeridffi — 

C. S. 1805. 

C. S. 1696. 
Noctuidse — 

Sesamia inferens. 

Sesamia unijormis. 

C. S. 1666. 

Heliothis obsoleta. 
Pyralidae — 

Emma locera depressella. 

Emmalocera sp. (C. S. 1771. 

C. S. 1700. 

C. S. 1837. 

Schfofhaga xanthogastrella. 

Scir'popJiaga nionostigma. 

Schoenobiiis bipunctifer. 

JSchoenobius sp. (d. S. 1780. 



PRDCEEDIXGS OF THE THIBD EXTOMO LOGICAL MEETING 363 

LePIDOPTERA — COHtd. 

Pyralidae — contd. 

Raphimetopifs {Anerastia) ablufella (C. S. 1801.) 

Chilo sini'plex. (C. S. 1551.) 

Diatrcea auricilia. (C. S. 1574.) 

Dialrcea venosata. (C. S. 1607.) 

? Diatrcea sp. in sugarcane. (C. S. 1610.) 

? Diatrcea sp. in sugarcane and rice. (C. S. 1674.) 

? Chilo sp. in rice. (C. S. 1677.) 

? Chilo sp. in Kama. (C. S. 1769.) 

? Chilo sp. in Ikri. (C. S. 1795.) 

? Chilo sp. in Batri. (C. S. 1831.) 

? Chilo sp. in Ikri. (C. S. 1835.) 

? Pyralid Borer in Batri. (Not reared yet.) 

Pyralid Borer in Ikri. (Not reared yet.) 

Pyralid Borer in Batri. (Not reared yet.) 

Ramila ruficostalis. (C. S. 1533.) 

Eucosmidee — 

Argyro])loce paragramma. (C. S. 1631.) 

Bactra truculenta. (C. S. 1489.) 
Xyloryctidse. — Procomeiis trochala. (C. S. 1708.) 
Tineidae. — Dasyses rvgosellus. (0. S. 1873.) 

Foodflants. Below are mentioned the plants, cultivated as well as 
wild, which have been observed to harbour internal borers, notinc' at 
the same time which of the borers hsted above occur in each. All the 
plants belong to the Natural Order Graminese, with the exception of twc^ 
which, as noted against them, belong to Cyperaceae. 

I. Cultivated Crops. 

Sugarcane — 
Sesamia inferens. 
Sesamia imiformis. 
C. S. 1666. 

Enmialocera depressella. 
Scirfofhaga xanlhogastrelhj. 
S. monostigma. 
Procometis trochala. 
Raphi) net opus abluteUa. 
Chilo simplex. 
DiatrcBa auricilia. 
Diatrcea venosata. 



364 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Sugarcane — contd. 
Diatrcea sp. (C. S. 1610.) 
Diatrcea sp. (C. S. 1674.) 
Dasyses rugosella. (C. S. 1873.) 

Maize — 

Muscid flies. 

Sesamia inferens. 
Sesamia uniformis, 
C. S. 1700. 
Chilo simplex. 
Heliothis obsolefa. 
La/plnjgma exigua. 

Juar : {Andropogon sorghum) — 
Muscid flies. 
C.S. 1696. 
Sesamia inferens. 
Chilo simplex. 
Diatrcea auricilia. 
Diatrcea venosata. 

^Bajra : {Pennisetum typhoideum) — 
Muscid flies. 
ChiJo simplex. 
Diatrcea venosata. 
Heliothis obsoleta. 

nice — 

Muscid flies. 
Pachydiplosis oryzce. 
Sesamia inferens. 
Schoenobius bipunctifer. 
Chilo simplex. 
Diatrcea sp. (C. S. 1674.) 
Chilo sp. (C. S. 1677.) 

Marua {Eleusine coracana) — 

Muscid flies ? 

Sesamia inferens. 

C. S. 1837. 

Chilo simplex. 
Kodon {Paspalum scrobiculatum, Linn.) — 

Muscid flies. 
.Kauni {Setaria italica) — 

Muscid flies. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 365 

JSanm {Panicum frumentaceum) — 

Muscid flies. 

Sesamia inferens. 

Chilo simplex. 
China [Panicum miliaceum) — 

Muscid flies. 
Gandli (Panicum miliar e) — 

Muscid flies. 
Wheat— 

Muscid flies. 

Sesamia inferens. 
Parley — 

Muscid flies. 

Sesamia inferens. 
Oats— 

Muscid flies. 

Sesamia inferens. 

II. Fodder Grasses (cultivated). 

Guinea grass. — 

Sesamia inferens. 
Sudan grass — - 

Muscid flies. 

Sesamia inferens. 

Chilo simplex. 

Diatrcea venosata. 

III. Semi-cultivated Plants. 
These are not cultivated like field crops but have a market- value 
and are of more or less economic importance. Some grow without 
attention, in a more or Jess wild state, when once introduced into un- 
cultivated lands, such as Dabh (Eragrostis cynosuroides) and Dabhi or 
Ulu (Imperata arundinacea) extensively used as thatching grass. Kanra 
(Saccharum arundinaceum) is grown in the same manner as bamboos 
and their top portions are used for making munj ropes and lower portions 
in thatches and walls of huts. Sar (Saccharum arundinaceum var. ciliaris) 
and Ikri (Saccharum fuscum) are also grown in the same way as bamboos 
and are used in thatches and walls of huts. Batri (Saccharum spontaneum 
hatri) is also grown practically in the same manner but is of a more wild 
nature. It too is used in thatches and walls of huts. Rarhi or the proper 
Kans grass (Saccharum spontaneum rarhi) is, as is well known, a wild 
grass and troublesome weed which has invaded and occupied large tracts 



366 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

of land. It is found to grow in a stray manner in cultivated fields but 
it cannot get a footing there. Its leaves are sometimes used along with, 
other thatching grasses. The Botanical Survey Department, to whom 
we are indebted for the identification of these grasses, identified both 
Batri and Rarhi as Saccharum spo7itanemn. Batri has, however, a much 
thicker, taller and stouter stem than Rarhi, almost approaching that of 
Kanra and Ikri. For our purposes we have therefore named Batri as 
Sacchanun spontaneum batri and RarJii as Saccharu7n spontaneum rarhi.. 
Kanra, Sar, Ikri and Batri have thick stems almost like thin sugarcane. 
For the borers hitherto found only in these semi-wild grasses, the step- 
into sugarcane seems to be a short one and there will be no cause for 
wonder if they are actually observed to occur in sugarcane in some parts 
of India. We note below the borers which have so far been found in 
them and we include bamboo in the list in order to complete the record.. 
The borers of bamboo, however, are not expected to occur in sugarcane.. 

Kanra {Saccharum arundinaceum, Retz.) — 

C. S. 1805. 

Sesamia infer ens. 

Sesamia uniformis. 

Emmalocera sp. (C. S. 1771.) 

Scirpojphaga xanthogastrella. 

Chilo sp. (C. S. 1769.) 
Sar (Saccharum arundinaceum, Retz., var. ciliaris) — 

Sesamia inferens. 

C. S. 1666. 
Ikri {Saccharum fuscum, Roxb.) — 

Sesamia inferens. 

Sesamia uniformis. 

C.S. 1666. 

Diatrcea auricilia. 

Diatrcea venosata. 

Diatrcea sp. (C. S. 1795.) 

Chilo sp. (C. S. 1835.) 

Pyralid borer (not reared yet). 
Batri {Saccharum spontaneum batri) — 

Lamiad borer (C. S. 1814). V 

C. S. 1696. 

Sesamia inferens. 

Sesamia uniformis. 

C. S. 1666. 

Scirpophaga xanthogastrella. 

Diatrcea auricilia. 



PKOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 367 

Bairi {Saccharum spontaneum hatri) — contd. 
Diatrcea venosata. 
Chilo sp. (C. S. 1831.) 
Pyralid borer (not reared yet). 
Pyralid borer (not reared yet). 

Rarhi {Saccharum spontaneum rarhi) — 
Lamiad borer (C. S. 1814). 
Curculionid borer (C. S. 1778). 
C. S. 1696. 
Sesamia infer ens. 
C. S. 1666. 
Chilo sp. (C. S. 1831.) 

Bamboo — 
Stictaspis ceratitina. 
Ramila ruficostaUs (C. S. 1533). 
Argyroploce paragramma. 



IV. Wild Grasses and Plants. 

Dabhi or Ulu. {Imperata arundinacea, Cyrill) — 
Muscid flies. 

Dabh or Kush. {Eragrostis cynosuroides, Beauv.) — 
Muscid flies. 

Dub. {Cynodon dactylon, Pers.) — 

Muscid flies. 
Motha. {Cyperus rotundus, Linn.; Cyperacese) — 

Muscid flies. 

Weevil borer (C. S. 1397). 

Bactra truculenta (C. S. 1488). 
Sami-ghas. (Panicum colonum, Linn.) — 

Muscid flies. 
Jove-ghas . {Rottbcellia compressa, Linn. ) — 

Sesamia inferens. 

Diatrcea auricilia. 
Golmootha. {Scirpus affinis, Roth ; Cj^peraceae) — 

Sesamia inferens. 
Baijanti or Job's Tears (Coix Lachryma-Jobi, Linn.) — 

Chilo simplex. 
Narkat. (Phragmites Karka, Trim.) — 

Sesamia inferens. 

Schcenobius sp. (C. S. 1780.) 

VOL. I . 2 b 



368 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Differentiation of the Borers. 

The larval forms of the Zeuzerid, Noctuid and Pyralid borers can be 
distinguished with the help of the following key : 



1. Prothoracic shield with short spines .... 
Prothoracic shield without spines .... 

2. Colour, deep purple 

Colour, pale yellowish-white ; body speckled with 
violet markings ...... 

3. Caterpillars with the body of a uniform colour, with- 

out stripes, warts, spots or markings . 

Caterpillars having stripes, warts, spots or markings 
on the body ....... 

4. Caterpillars grouped as below according to colour : — 

A. Colour creamy yellow ; skin almost transpa- 
rent ; body very soft and pliable, slightly 
compressed dorsoventrally ; thoracic region 
prominently tapering forwards ; dorsal vessel 
very prominent ; spiracles like a slender 
brown streak ...... 



B. Colour greenish-yellow ; body cyUndrical, of a 
rather slender build ; dorsal vessel visible ; 
spiracles much elongated, oval, with a black 
or brown rim ...... 



C. Colour pinkish, like that of raw flesh ; spiracles 
elongated oval, black . ' . 



G. Colour white (or creamy white) with or without 
the dorsal vessel being visible ; spiracles oval 
or round ....... 



H. Colour green or partly green and copperish ; 
spiracles round ..... 

I. Colour light grey ; skin soft ; hairs long ; forming 
silken galleries in which pellets of excreta are 
webbed ; spiracles oval .... 

5. Caterpillars with six stripes ..... 

Caterpillars with less than six stripes or with warts 
(species of Chilo and Diatrcea which had hitherto 
been known as the Moth-borer — Chilo simplex) 

6. With middorsal stripe ..... 
Without middorsal stripe ..... 

7. Spiracles closed, i.e., without any clear s^ace inside ; 

no other longitudinal stripe but segments having 
purplish markings on side .... 

Spiracles open, i.e., with a clear space inside ; in 
addition to the middorsal stripe there are two 
stripes on each side of back .... 



2 
3 

C. S. 1805. 

C. S. 1696. 

4 



ScirpopTiaija xanthogas- 
irella ; S. monos- 
tigma. 



Scho&nobius bipiinc- 
tifer ; Schoenobius 
sp. (C. S. 1780). 

Sesaviia infereyis ; 
Sesamia uiiiformist 
(C. S. 1666.) 



Emmalocera depres- 
sella ; Emmalocera 
sp. (C. S. 1771); 
C. S. 1837; C. S. 
1700. 

Raphimetopus ablu' 
tella. 



Dasyses rugosellus 
(C. S. 1873). 

Procometis trochala. 
(C. S. 1708.) 

6 

7 
10 



C. S. 1835 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



3G9 



8. Booklets on prolcgs forming a half circle which is 

open externally ; booklets on internal edge of sole 
largest, diminishing in size externally 

Booklets on prolegs forming a complete or almost 
complete circle ...... 

9. Spiracles touching, or situated in, the stripe above 

them ; stripes grey-brown ; booklets on internal 
edge of sole largest, diminishing in size exter- 
nally 

Spiracles situated well below the stripe above them ; 
stripes reddish brown ; booklets on prolcgs practi- 
cally equal in size or those on external edge 
slightly smaller than those on internal edge 

10. Spiracles open, i.e., with a clear space inside . 
Spiracles closed, i.e., without a clear space inside . 

11. The* posterior trapezoidal warts in a line with the 

anterior trapezoidal warts ; booklets on prolegs 
in a complete circle, largest on internal edge of 
sole, diminishing in size externally (Caterpillars 
usually with prominent warts and no stripes ; 
sometimes warts absent and some markings 
present on side of the segments) 

The posterior trapezoidal warts much further re- 
moved from the middorsal line than the anterior 
trapezoidal warts ; booklets on prolegs much as 
in C. S. 1010 

12. Booklets on prolegs forming a half circle open 

externally ; those on internal edge of sole largest 
diminishing in size externally ; spiracles with a 
rather closed slit along their longer axis ; cater- 
pillars with two stripes on each side of back 

Booklets on prolegs forming a complete or almost 
complete circle ...... 

13. Booklets in a complete circle and equal in size; 

spiracles with rather an open slit along their 
major axis ....... 

Booklets in a more or less complete circle and much 
shorter externally ; spiracles with an oval-shaped 
concavity whoso major axis coincides with that 
of spiracles ; caterpillars usually with large shiny 
dark-brown warts situated on broad pinkish 
stripes, warts disappearing in hibernating larvai 



Dialrcea auricilia. 
(C. S. 1574). 

9 



Rice Chilo (C. S. 1077), 



C. S. 1074. 
11 
12 



C. S. 1010. 
C. S, 1709. 

C. S. 1831. 
13 



Chilo simplex. 
(C. S. 1551.) 



Dialrcea vetiosata 
(C. S. 1007). 



The pupal forms of the species of Raphitnetopus (Anerastia), Diatrcea 
and Chilo, which are likely to be and had hitherto been confused in the 
adult stage, can be distinguished with the help of the following key. 



Pupa without any chitinous protuberances on anal 
segment which has a few circinate hairs 



Pupa with chitinous protuberances on anal segment 

Pupa without spines, hooks, ridges or collar-like 
roughness on 7th abdominal segment . . 

Pupa with such ...... 



Raphimetopus {Aner- 
astia) ablutella 
(C. S. 1801). 
2 

C. S. 1077. 
3 

2 b2 



370 



ntOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



3. Pupa with scattered spines on 7th abdominal seg- 

ment formed out of the larval tubercles . . C. S. 1835. 

Pupa with continuous ridges, hooks, spines or 
roughness in the form of a collar on 7th abdominal 
segment ....... 4 

4. The collar makes a complete circle round the seg- 

ment ........ 5 

The collar makes a circle incomplete on the ventral 

side ........ G 

5. The circle composed of distinct and separate double 

hooks C. S. 1610. 

The circle composed of ridges, more or less joined . Diatrcea miricilia, 

6. Incomplete circle of distinct straight spines . . C. S. 1674. 
Incomplete circle of roughness .... 7 

7. Dorsal part of anal end with six spines in two groups 

of three, triangularly arranged . . •• 



Dorsal part of anal end with four spines 

8. The spines situated on the tip and pointing 
posteriorly ....... 

The spines situated on the dorsal margin and 
pointing dorsally ...... 



Chilo simplex. 
(C. S. 1551). 

8 

Diatrcea venosata 
(C. S. 1607). 

9 



9. The collar of roughness on 7th abdominal segment 

extending much beyond the spiracles . . C. "S. 1769. 

The collar extending up to the spiracles . . C. S. 1795. 

The col\ar not extending up to the spiracles . .- C. S. 1831. 

Life-histories of the Borers. 

The life-histories of the borers are given in the following pages. 
Ihe observations were carried on principally in the year 1918. In order 
to give some idea of the nature of the year regarding rainfall, temperature 
and humidity a chart is appended giving weekly rainfall, weekly mean 
temperature (dry bulb at 8 a.m.) and weekly mean humidity, calculated 
from the records at Pusa. (Plate 28.) 



The AntJwmyiad Flies. 

Plate 29. 

Foodplants — 

Jvar {Andropogon sorghwn) — October, January, May, August^ 

September, July. 
China {Pamcum miliaceum) — July, May. 
Somighas {Panicvm colonum) — July. 
Kodon {Paspalum scrobiciilati(m)—r July. 
Sudan grass — August. 
Rice — April, June. 
Sama {Panicum frumentaceum) — September. 



Page 370(1). 



PLATE 28. 




JANY FEBY MAR APR MAY JUNE JULYAUS" SEP 



Weekly rainfall, mean temperature and mean humidity at Pusa during 1918. 



Page 370(2), 



PLATE 29. 




« AnthomyiadlFly (C S. 1867) in hitti- shoot ; </, attacked Jtiar shoot, cut open to show 
t maggot ; h, larva 8 ; r. pupa 8 ; <^ fly > 8. (N.B.— The smaller outline figures 
'',1b, c, and d are 1i times the natural sizes.) 



PLATE • 




EXPLANATION OF PLATE 30. 

Pachydiplosis oryzae, Wood -Mason. 

Fig. 1. A cluster of rice plants several of whieh are affected. 

Fig. 2. An affected plant, with the pupa in its natural position exposed. 

Fig. 3. Egg enlarged. 

Fig. 4. FuUgrown maggot. 

Figs. 5 — 7. Different views of pupa. 

Figs. S & 9. The adult Hy in sitting and flying attitude.s. 

The small outline figures indicate natural sizes. 



Page if 1(2). 



I>'LATE 3t. 




Rg. 1.—Sti€t(tspis ceratitina, male (left) and female (right) 

natural sizes.) 



5. (The smaller figures show the 




Fig. 2.— C. S. 1814. Larva. The smaller figure shows the natural size. 




Fig. 3.— Annual life-cycle of Lamiad Borer (C. S. 1814). 



PllOCEEDINGS OF THE THIEP ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 371 

Food plants — contd. 

Dub {Cynodon dactyhn) — Marcli, June. 
Gandli {Panicum miliare) — July. 

Tlie above are some of the foodplants from which these flies have been 
reared in the Insectaiy. Fly maggots are found in other grasses and 
•even in the top shoots of bamboo branches. The maggots work at the 
base of the heart-leaf, lacerating and chewing the part entirely, producing 
the characteristic "dead heart." Usually the maggots are found in 
young plants. In China and Gandli, however, they occur in plants in 
ear, gnawing the bases of the ears which dry up. The effect is exactly 
similar to that caused by lepidopterous borers in ears of rice and wheat. 

These muscid flies are a real pest and very little is known about 
them. As will appear from the dates of collection of maggots given 
along with the foodplants above, the flies are active throughout the 
year. The period of their life-cycle is short, being completed approxi- 
mately withm a fortnight. 

Pachydiplosis oryzce. 

Plate 30. 

Foodplant — Rice. ^ 

This small Cecidomyiad fly causes serious damage to newly trans- 
planted rice seedlings, especially when transplanting is done late in the 
season. The maggots feed in the middle of the shoot, producing a peculiar 
long tube-like gall in place of the main stem. Further growth of the 
shoot is thus stopped. Therefore the result is the same as that of attack 
by the ordinary borers which cause " dead heart." 

This has not been observed to occur in the neighbourhood of Pusa, 
but it is a serious pest in parts of Bihar and Orissa, Bengal and Madras. 

Stictaspis ceratitina. 

Plate 31, fig. 1. 

Foodplant — Bamboo. 

The maggots of this Fruitfly have been observed to occur in large 
numbers in the new bamboo shoots which grow in the Rains. The grubs 
bore the soft stem, killing the shoots entirely. These, together with 
termites and to a less extent caterpillars of Argyroploce paragmmma, 
are responsible for the death of a large proportion of the new shoots, 
which do not become immune until their stem hardens. The stem 
and especially the apical portion of it, which is the part liable to attack, 



372 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

does not harden very quickly and not until the shoot has grown to a great 
height. On the 18th September 1918 the top of a new shoot about 
fifteen feet high was observed to drop off. On examination, the top 
was found to be full of maggots of this fruit-fly, which riddled the soft 
stem, causing the internodes to break off. There were 178 maggots in 
it out of which 146 attained the adult stage between 29th September 
and 30th October, 82 being females and 64 males. The shoot itself 
somewhat shrivelled and dried at the top and did not grow any further. 
But it hardened and its branches, especially those towards the apical 
part, grew thick and long. Such damaged bamboos are frequently met 
with. 

The Lamiad Borer (C. S. 1814). 

Plate 31, figs 2,3 ; Plate 32. 

Foodplants — Batri and Earhi {Saccharum sjiontaneum). 

This longicorn borer has only one generation in the year. The adults 
emerge about June and deposit eggs. Young grubs have been collected 
on the 20th Jun€^ The grubs are available in very large numbers in 
Rarhi and Batri from June onwards. They are extensive borers and 
voracious eaters and convert the stems into hollow tubes. They remain 
active till about November and then rest mside the stems, pupating just 
before emergence about June. 

The full-grown grub measures about 24mm. in length, about 3 mm. 
across the abdominal region and about 3'5 mm. across the thorax. The 
head is small compared with the thorax which is swollen and protuberant 
ventralJy. On the back of the sixth and seventh abdominal segments 
there are some small tubercles arranged across the segments in double 
rows. The hind end is truncated. The body has small brown hairs 
all over. There are no legs of any kind. The colour is yellow. The 
young grubs resemble the older ones in appearance and colour. 

The Weevil Borer (C. S. 1778). (Plate 33, fig. 1.) 

Foodplant — Rarhi (Saccharum spontaneum rarhi). 

The external symptom of attack is the " dead heart.'' The grubs are 
found in large numbers in March-April and although their size is small 
they are very vigorous borers and bore up and down the stem exten- 
sively. 

The full-growTi grub is about 5-5 mm. long and about 1-5 mm. across 
the middle of the body which tapers towards each extremity. The 
head is pale-yellow, glossy, and the body is also of the same colour 



Puf/z 37'Ml)i 



t>UtE 32. 




!M' 



V,'' 



C. S. 1814. (The smaller figure shows the natural size.) 



mmmm 



Pacjc 372(2). 



PLATE 33. 



^ja''/;: 



• V;^^} 






MM 



^S5> 





Fig. 1.— C.S. 1778. Weevil borer in yv/yV/y shoot, ff, larva ; 
h, pupa ; r, imago ; all magnified. The small figures show 
the natural sizes. 




Fig. 2.- (C. S. 1397). Weevil Borer in ntootlm stem x13. 
The small outline figure shows the natural size. 



Page 373. 



PLATE 34. 





^•^S^W**!^, 




Fig. 1.- C. S. 1805. Purple zeuzerid larva boring in ham a ; .a, larva ; /*, pupa ; r, 
moth ; all magnified ; the small figuresshow the natural sizes. 




Fig. 2.— Annual life-cycle of Purple Zeuzerid Borer (C. S. 1805). 



PROCEEDS GS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 373 

As, however, the contents of the body show through the skin the abdomi- 
nal region looks brownish. The grubs pupate inside the stems. 

The full seasonal Hfe-history is not knowTi. From grubs collected 
in March and April weevils appeared by the end of May. 



The Weevil Borer (C. S. 1397). (Plate 33, fig. 2.) 

Foodplant — Motha {Cyperus rotundus). 

Legless pale-yellowish- white grubs, boring the stem and causing dead 
heart were collected on 22nd May and weevils emerged from these in the 
Insectary between 13th and 17th June. 

The purple-coloured Zeuzerid Borer (C. S. 1805). (Plate 34.) 

Foodplant — Kanra {Saccharum armidinaceum). In the Insectary the 
caterpillars fed on maize and also on juar (Andropogon Sorghum) 
to a small extent. 

This borer has only one generation in the year. Young caterpillars 
have been collected from outside on the 8th July and gradually develop- 
ing ones onward till about November when they become fullgrown. 
Fullgrown hibernating and sestivating caterpillars have been collected 
in winter and up to about May. Moths emerged in the Insectary be- 
tween 15th June and 10th July. 

As usual with all internal borers, they cause " dead heart " in plants 
and bore in the centre of the stem, converting it into a hollow tube. 
The caterpillars go down right into the roots to hibernate and 
sestivate. 

A fullgrown caterpillar measures about 35 mm. in length and about 
4-5 mm. across the abdomen. The shape is cylindrical and shghtly 
tapering posteriorly. The head is red-brown and smaller than the 
prothorax which is the broadest segment, measuring a little more than 
5 mm. across. The prothoracic shield is large, yellow-brown in colour, 
having on its hinder part a number of posteriorly-directed flattened 
brown spines. The spiracles are elongated brownish shts and the five 
pairs of prolegs are rather short but equally developed. The colour of 
the body excepting that of prothorax is deep purple. 

Pupation takes place inside the tunnel formed by the larva. Before 
the emergence of the moth the pupa wriggles out to some extent through 
an opening on the side of the stem previously made by the larva, the 
mouth of the opening being left closed by a thin epidermal layer of the 
bark. 



374 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

The violet-spotted Zeuzerid Borer (C. S. 1696 and C. S. 1857) (? Phrag 

matcBcia sp . ) . ( Plate 35 . ) 

Foodplants. — Bairi {Saccharum spontaneum hatri) ; juar {Andropogon 
Sorghum). In tlie Insectary the caterpillars fed on Saccharum 
arundinaceum {Kanra) stem. 

This borer has only one generation in the year. Moths appear about 
October and deposit eggs probably among the foodplants. The eggs 
hatch within a few days. The caterpillars feed throughout the winter, 
summer and the rains and are available in all these seasons. Their 
growth is very slow. They occur in profuse numbers in Batri and have 
been found in small numbers in juar. In the Insectary moths emerged 
between 1st October and 6th November. Young caterpillars have been 
collected from outside on the 11th October and more and more advanced 
ones practically in all the later months up to August when full-grown 
ones are available. They pupated in September-October. 

In the Insectary a moth laid 80 unfertilized eggs in an irregular 
heap. Each egg is about 1 mm. long and about 0-6 mm. thick, elongated, 
tubular ' in shape with truncated ends. The shell is glossy and has 
very faint longitudinal furrows. 

A fullgrown caterpillar measures about 30 mm. in length and about 
5 mm. across the body. The head is yellow, glossy and smaller than 
the prothorax. The prothorax is pale yellow with a large shield similarly 
coloured as the head. The shield has a pair of brown spots one on 
each side and connected by a brown bar. The posterior half of the 
shield is armed with a number of posteriorly-directed flattened brown 
spines. The meso and metathoracic segments are divided into three 
and the abdominal segments into two sub-segments, the posterior sub- 
segments of all these and the anal segments have on the dorsum a 
number of minute tubercles surmounted with thin small hairs. There 
are similar tubercles clustered below the spiracles and also on the fold 
above the legs. The spiracles are elongated oval, yellow. The five 
pairs of prolegs are short but equally developed. The general colour 
of the body is yellowish-white. The metathorax and the first abdominal 
segment are violet coloured or rather purple with a violet tinge. The 
other abdominal segments have prominent violet markings which make 
up a thin middorsal stripe, a broad interrupted dorsolateral stripe and 
a similar spiracular stripe. The ventral surface is without any violet 
markings. 

The young caterpillars resemble older ones to some extent in appear- 
ance but have long hairs on the body. 



Page 374. 



PLATE 35. 






.«*''".'j2 



0. 





Fig. 1. C. S. 1696. Borer in Sarc/tartnn spovt07}einn stem ; r/, larva (x2|) ; 
h, pupa (; 2^) ; c, moth ( > 2^) ; if, egg ( <2^). 




Fig. 2.— Annual life-cycle of Borei m Sarc/iantm sponUtneiim (C. S. 1696). 



MT 



/ 




Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig 


3. 


Fig 


4. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig 


6. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 36. 

Sesamia infer ens. 

1. Eggs laid inside leal" sheath. 
A single egg magnified. 
Larva magnified. 
Pu])a inagnifietl. 
Moth with wings spread. 
An affected plant showing larva in tlie stem nnd moth sitting on leaf, 



Page 375(2). 




. . - ■ . - ■ 'h 

Vc-v'>A; ; ■-■'■,;: ■.;■■'.■•; Mir 



V 







E 






a> 


« 


N 




CO 






s 


(8 


br 


k 


« 


3 


E 


R 



^^^^^^^^^^B- P-^'^^^^^^^^^-~ 






I- 






OB 

V5 



,2? 
iZ 



PLATE 37 











/ '%,^ 



«•■•.,■ '. •■"•:•:'■ ..■'(■••" 5/ I ' ' i^ 







C8 

E 




T5 

3 

es 

c 













TEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 375 

Pupation takes place inside the stem. Before pupating, the larva 
gnaws an opening on the side of the stem, the mouth of the opening 
being just covered by a thin epidermal layer of the bark. The pupa 
is provided with a snout having spines on its tip with which to pierce 
this epidermal covering. The pupa wriggles out to some extent before 
the moth bursts out of the pupal case. 

Sesamia infer ens. 

Plate 36. 

Foodplants — Rice ; wheat ; barley ; oats ; mania {Eleusine coracana) ; 
sama {Pankum irumentaceum); Guinea grass ; Sudan grass; Jove 
grass {RottbaUia cotnpressa) ; golmootha {Scifjms afpnis) ; narJcat 
{Phragmites karka) ; sugarcane ; maize ; juar {Andro'pogon Sorghum) ; 
kanra {Sacchariim arundinaceum) ; rarhi and batri {Saccharum 
spontaneum) ; ikri {Saccharum fuscum). 

Caterpillars have been collected from the above plants. Besides 
these, they have fed in the Insectary on bajra (Pennisetum tyjjhoideum) 
stems. In Madras they are known to occur in Setaria italica. 

The caterpillars of Sesamia inferens, S. unijormis and the moth 
reared under C. S. 1666 are liable to be confused, as all of them are 
similar in appearance. Those of C. S. 1666 are more slender-looking 
than the larvae of the Sesamia spp. and have a faint purplish tinf^e. 
The larvae of the two species of Sesamia cannot yet be distinguished. 
The pupa of C. S. 1666 (Plate 38, fig. 1) can be easily distinguished as it 
has no hair or spine on its hind end. The pupae of Sesamia inferens 
and S. uniformis are liable to be confused but can be distinguished by 
the structure of, and the spines on, the hind end (PI, 37, f. 3). The hind 
end of the pupa of ;S. inferens is rounded and has four spines on a dis- 
tinct stalk. The hind end of S. uniformis pupa is protruded into a 
horny process concave on the ventral side and having four spines arrang- 
ed on its tip at some distance apart and two more spines behind the first 
four, i.e., six spines in all. The moths of S. inferens and S. uniformis 
are liable to be and have been confused in the past. They can be dis- 
tinguished easily by the trained eye from the shape of the forewings 
(Plate 37, figs. 1 , 2) and also from the structure of the male antennse 
as indicated in Entomological Note No. 62 of Pusa Bulletin No. 59. 

In the neighbourhood of Pusa S. inferens is active throughout the 
year, active caterpillars being available in all the months of the year. 
Also the larvae are observed to pupate and adults to emerge throughout 
the cold weather. In the cold season however the period of the hfe- 
cycle is very much extended. In ordinary years, in March, April and 



WT 



376 TEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETI•^•G 

May, the shortest period of Hfe-cycle observed is 49 days, viz., egg 
7 days, larva 30 days, and pupa 12 days, the longest period taken by 
some of the individuals out of the same lot being 71 days in which the 
larval life only was extended to 48 days. In the cold weather from 
November to January the larval stage has been observed to take about 
2| months and the pupal stage about a month. 

As growth is very slow in the cold season the caterpillars are hardly 
found in numbers in winter. With the spell of warm weather about 
February their activity is observed in wheat and barley in wliich dry 
ears appear. In March-April they are common in all the foodplants 
mentioned above which happen to grow at the time and may cause 
serious damage to maize. They occur in new shoots of sugarcane at 
this time. But ordinarily they have not been observed to infest sugar- 
cane in large numbers. From about June onwards they occur commonly 
on rice and in very large numbers when rice is in ear about October- 
November. 

From observations so far made S. inferens can be considered a pest 
only of maize and rice. Normally it does not cause much damage to 
the other foodplants mentioned. 

The female moth is capable of laying more than 400 eggs. One 
laid 419 eggs in the Insectary. The eggs are thrust between the leaf- 
sheaths and the stem in rows two to three deep. As many as 161 eggs 
have been counted on a single plant. The egg is hemispherical in shape, 
being about 0-7 mm. in diameter and having fine ridges on the surface, 
the ridges running in regular order down the sides from the top. The 
colour is creamy white, changing to brownish and ultimately to grey 
before hatching. 

The newly-hatched larva is about 1-5 mm. long, pale yellow in colour 
and has its head and cervical and anal plates dark brown. After the 
first moult it assumes the characteristic appearance and colour seen in 
older larvse. 

On hatching from the eggs the young caterpillars issue out of the 
leaf-sheath and may disperse, going into neighbouring plants. They 
may gnaw into the stems of young seedling plants either from the top 
or from the side and bore in the central part causing " dead heart " 
invariably. A\Tien they hatch on tall plants such as rice and wheat 
in ear, most of them bore into the upper part of the stem and do not 
disperse until they are somewhat grown. Many young caterpillars are 
therefore found in individual plants with dry ears. The caterpillars 
migrate from plant to plant, thus injuring many plants in the course 
of their life. 



Page 377. 



PLATE 38. 




-^ 



t^-jSW- 







m i ll .■,MMTi c&^. !■;. <:-=?"vr-'^f.,.«v.v\^ 




: W 

F'g* 1.— C. S. 1666. Borer in Sctfchafinn sjxmtonrtnn. ((. larva ( 4) ; h, pupa 
( > 4) ; r, moth (x4) ; the smaller figures show the natural sizes. 




0. 





Fig. 2. — C.S. 1771. Borer in /vVo>/Y^ root. a. larva- /. n-m 



9 ■ ^* m<4a4I« 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 377 

Pupation takes place inside the bored stem or under a leaf-sheath 
on the stem in which the larva has fed. Before pupating the larva 
prepares an exit hole for the moth. 

Sesamia unijormis. (Plate 37, figs. 2,3.) 

Foodplants — Sugarcane ; maize ; rarhi and hatri {Sacchanim spontcmeimi) ; 
ikri {Sacchanim fuscum) ; kanra {Sacchanim anmdinaceum). Besides 
the above, the caterpillars have been fed on jiiar {Androfogon 
Sorghum) in the Insectary. 

Like S. injerens, S. unijormis also remains active practically through- 
out the year, the growth in \vinter being however very slow. In March 
young larvae are available in large numbers, especially in kanra, and 
active caterpillars have been collected practically throughout the year^. 
To judge from its occurrence it prefers kanra to the other foodplants. 
It is similar to S. injerens in habit. 

C. S. 1666 (Plate 38, fig. 1.) 

Foodplants— i?ar7«i and hatri {Saccharum sjwntaneum) ; ikri {Saccharum 
juscum) ; sugarcane (Munni, Muzaffarpur, October). 

The caterpillars of this species have been observed to be active- 
throughout the year and occur in enormous numbers in rarhi and hatri. 
Only on one occasioa were they found in ikri at Pusa in small numbers. 
At Munni, a village in the Muzaffarpur District, they were observed 
in fair numbers in sugarcane in October, probably because there was 
no hatri growing there within a radius of about three miles. In winter, 
active caterpillars have been collected from outside but the pupal stage 
has been observed in the Insectary to extend to more than two-and-a- 
half months, although moths emerged in November and January. 

As usual with all internal borers, the caterpillars cause " dead heart " 
and bore extensively up and down the stem, converting it into a hollow 
tube. They pupate inside the bored stem after gnawing an opening on 
the side for the emergence of the future moth, the mouth of the opening 
being stopped by a thin layer of the epidermis of the stem. 

Emmalocera sp. (C. S. 1771). 

Plate 38, fig. 2. 

Foodplant — Kanra {Saccharum arundinaceum). 

These caterpillars exactly resemble those of Emmalocera depressella 
in appearance and Uke the latter bore the stem near the roots. Their 



378 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

seasonal liistory also is apparently similar. They remain active in the 
hot weather and the rains and hibernate right inside the thick roots. 
Hibernating larvae collected in March developed into moths between 
13th March and 14th April. , 



Phycitid Borer (C. S. 1700). 

Foodplant — Tender maize cob. 

On the 18th September a single caterpillar was collected boring a 
tender maize cob. It was 10 mm. long, cylindrical and tapering slightly 
hindwards. • The head was yellow and body pale yellowish-white \n\h. 
faint and indistinct spiracular and dorsolateral stripes visible under 
lens. The spiracles were round, a brownish rim enclosing a clear space 
inside. The booklets on abdominal prolegs were in complete circle. 

The caterpillar pupated on 23rd September in a silken cocoon formed 
lining the tunnel. The pupa was about 7-5 mm. long, yellow-brown 
in colour and without any marking or spine on any of the abdominal 
segments or on the hind end. The moth emerged on the 3rd October. 
It resembles the moth of C. S. 1837 to a very great extent. 



Phycitid Borer (C. S. 1837). 

Plate 39, fig. 1. 

Foodplant — Marua {Eleusine coracana). 

Caterpillars were collected in Mania stems which they were boring 
near the base, on 16th August. They were not however found in large 
numbers. Three of them developed into moths between 28th August 
and 6th September and the rest have been hibernating. 

The caterpillars resemble those of Emmalocera depressella in colour 
and appearance but are much smaller in size, being only about 12 mm. 
long. The head is yellow-brown and the body creamy-white. The 
spiracles are round with a clear space inside. The five pairs of prolegs 
are equally developed. 

Pupation takes place inside the stem. The pupa is yellow-brown 
and has on its hind end two conical tubercles, one on each side, and 
four to six much smaller tubercles between these two, all being surmounted 
with a thin hair. 



Page 378. 



FL/^.TE 39. 




Fig. 1.— (C. S. 1837). Bcier in Elevs.i})<' rorafdva : 
a, larva 5; />, details of larval spiracte ; r. 
arrangement of crochets on proleg of larva ; </, 
moth ; 5 (the smaller figure shows the naturri 
size). 




Fig. 2. Annual life-cycle of Ennnalocera 
dcprcsscUa. 



PLATE 




EXPLANATION OF PLATE 40. 

Emmalocera depressellu. 

Fig. 1. Young cane shooL cut open to show attack by larva. Note " dead-heart." 

Fig. 2. Eggs as laid on a leaf, natural size. 

Fig. !3. Egg, magnified (xll). 

Fig. 4. Full-grown larva, magnified (x2i) and natural sizv. 

Fig. 5. Cane plant cut open to show pupa, natural size. Note cocoon with gallery 
j)repaied for exit of moth. 

Fig. 0. Pupa, natural size and magnified (x2i). 

Fig. 7. Female moth, in resting j»osition, natural size and magnified (x2i). 

Fig. ts. Male moth, natural size and magnified. 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 379' 

Emmalocera depressella {Pohjoclia saccfiarella). 
Ptate 39. fig. 2 and Plate 40. 

Foodplant — Sugarcane. 

Emmalocera depressella may be described as the specific pest of 
sugarcane. It has not yet been found in any other plant and it causes 
the greatest damage of all the internal borers which occur in this crop. 
As its caterpillars always work near the roots of the plants and mostly 
occur in the roots of old stools in the latter part of the season, it had 
hitherto been supposed to be simply a root-borer and hence of minor 
importance. Closer observation has revealed its real nature. Iij the 
neighbourhood of Pusa and probably everywhere the greatest damage 
to sugarcane from borers occurs when the crop is young and the share 
of E. depressella is usually greater than the damage by all other borers 
taken together. It cannot most probably be said that this insect has 
changed its habit recently. The first external symptom of damage in 
young plants is the " dead heart " characteristic of all internal borers 
and superficial observation would place it to the credit of Diatrcea or 
Chilo or Scirpophaga, whose larvae are usually found in the stems of the 
shoots affected by these latter insects. It is not only at Pusa that 
E. depressella has been observed to damage young canes. About three 
years ago more than fifty young shoots were sent from Etawah and they 
were all damaged by this insect. Last year (1918) out of 69 borers 
sent from Sipaya early in May, as many as 48 were E. depressella, 20 
Diatro'a auricilia and 1 Sesamia. E. depressella has also been reported 
from Sind and observed at Chinsurah in Bengal. In the Agricultural 
Journal of India, Vo. Ill, p. 104, Messrs. Lefroy and Mackenzie mention 
its occurrence in young sugarcane at Hathwa, Saran. 

The modes of feeding of the internal borers which have so far been 
observed in sugarcane shoots are quite distinct. Scirpojjhaga cater- 
pillars bore down from the top forming a single distinct tunnel ending 
in the characteristic exit hole for the future moth. The l^ase of the 
heart leaf does not usually rot and therefore does not give out any 
offensive smell. 

Diatrcea auricilia and Chilo simplex caterpillars also bore down 
from the top, and Sesamia larvae may similarly bore down from the 
top but more often they enter from the side. In the case of all these 
the tunnel is filled with a wet mass of frass, the " dead heart " comes off 
with a pull and there is a very offensive smell. Also there are always 
side-holes in the affected shoots but all of these holes may not extend 
up to the exterior and therefore may not be noticed unless some of 
the sheaths are removed. 



:380 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

E. depressella caterpillars usually effect entrance into the base of 
the shoot through the side near or below the sBil surface. The cater- 
pillars seldom work upwards through the shoot but confine themselves 
to the extreme base of the shoot or to the newly-formed stem (cane). 
The tunnel usually runs across the stem and may go round somewhat 
in a circular manner and it is closely filled with dry powdery frass. The 
base of the shoot is weakened and when pulled sideways the entire 
shoot is dislodged at the base. When no stem (cane) is formed the 
'Caterpillar in the majority of cases may either come off with the shoot 
or is more often left exposed to view. But, when the shoot has grown 
somewhat and has formed a stem (cane), the caterpillar is usually left 
behind in the stem and can be got at by splitting open the stem. The 
first external symptom of damage is the " dead heart " and the entire 
shoot gradually dries. Side shoots are given off by the affected one 
but the same caterpillar may attack and kill some of them too, if not 
all. This form of damage is common up to about May. Later in the 
season, when the stools have formed thick roots, the caterpillars are 
usually found among the roots where however they are in no want of 
new shoots which appear practically throughout the season. Even if 
no new shoots be found the caterpillars may bore the thick root or rarely 
the base of the grown-up canes. In a few cases they have been observed 
to bore the setts. 

E. depressella has been observed to be active from about March to 
•October and the winter is passed in hibernation in the larval state in the 
roots. The 14th of October is the latest date before winter and 28th 
February is the earliest date after winter, when moths have emerged. 
Ordinarily the life-cycle is completed in about a month-and-a-half. 
In the Insectary one brood took 56 days, viz., egg 3 days, larva 41 
days, and pupa 12 days. 

The eggs are flattened, scale-like, and creamy-white in colour and 
are deposited singly or a few at one place but separately, on the stem 
or even on the ground and less frequently on leaves. The young larva 
is about 2 mm. long, pale yellow with a yellow-brown head and five 
pairs of equally developed prolegs. The fullgrown larva measures about 
30 mm. in length, has a yellow-brown head and creamy white body 
which is somewhat wrinkled transversely. The dorsal vessel is usually 
visible as a bro^vn marking on the back. The larvae are rather sluggish. 
They pupate in the tunnel they form in the stem or roots. Before 
pupation an opening for the emergence of the future moth is made in 
the form of a silken tube which comes up to the surface of the earth 
when pupation happens to take place at some depth. The pupa is 
yellow-broAvn in colour and can be easily distinguished from the pupaB 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 4L 

Scirpophaga xanlhoyastrcUa. 

Fig. 1. Attacked shoot of sugarcane cut open, showing larva inside. Note " dead- 
heart " and oga-mass on loaf. 

Fig. 2. Attacked shoot of sugarcane with" dead-heart " and sido-shoota (typical 
ol attack) thrown out. On leaf is a moth in resting position (natural 
size). 

Fig. 3. Egg-mass with covering hairs removed, magnified ( X 2J). 
Fig. 5. Full-grown larva, magnified ( x 2J). 

Fig. 6. Pupa in stem (cut open), natural .size. Note hole of exit closed by silken 

barriers, prepared for escape of the moth- 
Fig. 7. Pupa of female, magnified ( x 2i). 

Fig. 8. Pupa of male, magnified (x2^). The smaller figure shows the natural 
size. 

Fig. 9. Moth in natural resting position, magnified ( x 21). The natural size is shown 
in the moth on the leaf in figure 2. 

Fig. 10. Moth, female, form with reddish anal tuft, natural size. 

Fig 1 1. Moth, male, natural size. 

Fig. 12. Moth, female, form with yellow anal tuft, natural size. 

Fig. 13. Newly-hatched larva, magnified. The natural size is indicated by the 
emaller figure to the right. 



^m^^gwJSi 



TEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 381 

of the other borers as it has no horny process or hairs at the hind end 
which has a hump-like protuberance on the dorsal side, 

Scirpophaga xanthogastrella {auriflua). 

Plate 41 and Plate 42, fig. 1. 

Foodplants — Sugarcane ; kanra {Saccharmn arundinaceum) ; batri {Sac- 
char um spantaneiim batri). 

This insect is active from about March to October, the winter bem<T 
passed in hibernation in the larval state on the foodplants. The hiber- 
nating larvae emerge as moths in large numbers about March and the 
two sexes appear practically in equal numbers. Out of a lot of such 
larvae collected in February, 114 moths consisting of 58 males and 56 
females emerged between 3rd March and 5th April. During the active 
season the life-cycle takes about 6 to 7 weeks, viz., egg 1 week, larva 
4 to 5 weeks and pupa about 1| weeks. Unhke the moths of other 
borers, which are dry-grass colour and therefore inconspicuous on plants 
or on the ground, the moths of this borer are perfectly white and con- 
spicuous creatures which can be observed flying about in the fields and 
ovipositing. 

Eggs are deposited mostly on leaves in a cluster which is covered 
with bro\\Ti hairs from the anal tuft of the female moth. These brown 
clusters are prominently visible on green leaves. The eggs are flattened, 
scale-like, and overlap one another in the cluster. They are pale yellow 
in colour and become dark grey before hatching, when the embryo is 
visible coiled inside the shell. 

The newly-hatched larva is about 2-5 mm. long, slightly flattened in 
shape, with the head shiny black, the prothorax entirely covered by a 
black shiny shield,the next two thoracic segments dark smoky in colour, 
the first abdominal segment pale yellow and the rest of the body brownish- 
grey. The hairs on the body are longish and there are five pairs of 
short prologs. 

Unlike the growTi-up caterpillars, which are extremely sluggish, and 
helpless when taken out of their tunnels in the foodplants, the younf' 
larvae are very quick and active. They issue out of the hairy covering 
of the egg-cluster and walk about briskly on the leaves, some letting 
themselves down by means of silken threads, and are thus blown hither 
and thither on to neighbouring shoots. They disappear into the rolled 
base of the top leaves and form the characteristic tunnel downwards 
through the growing bud, thus killing the growing point and producing 
" dead heart." If the larva is now taken out of the tumicl it cannot 
form a fresh one even when placed in a suitable situation at the top 



rr^ 



382 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

of a plant. The tunnel goes downwards and opens on the side a little 
way down from the top. The larva pupat es near the mouth of this 
opening through which the moth emerges. There is always a single 
larva in one plant. 

The effect of attack by the larva is always disastrous to the plant. 
Further growth is stopped in every case. Only very vigorous plants, 
whether young or old, can and do give out sideshoots or branches. In 
the case of grown-up plants it has been assumed that they give out 
branches so that the top becomes bunchy. But actually this happens 
in the case of only a very small proportion of such plants, as will appear 
from the facts stated below. Between the 3rd and 4th August, fifty 
affected plants of Satin No. 131 with stems (actual canes measured below 
the base of the whorl of leaves at the top) varying in height from 
1' 4" to 3' 10" were marked. From half of them the " dead heart " leaf 
was pulled out with the hand and these we may call Lot I, and the 
rest Lot IL The height of all was measured at intervals and none of 
them except one in Lot I was observed to grow. On the 23rd October, 
nine in Lot I and twelve in Lot II were observed to have given out 
branches and eight in Lot I and ten in Lot II were practically wholly 
dry and all the others in process of drying from the top downwards. 
The internal tissue of the dry and drying ones was practically wholly 
red. The tops of those which had given out branches were also drying. 
It was evident that hardly any of them would contribute to the harvest. 
The one in Lot I which was growing measured 3' 2" when marked on 
4th August and 7' 4" on the 23rd October. It was afterwards chewed 
and damaged by a jackal. The same effect as recorded in these two 
lots is observable in mature canes but, as they are harvested soon, they 
have hardly time to dry. 

Scirpojphaga xanthogastrella occurs commonly in the three foodplants 
mentioned but more in Jcanra than in either of the other two. In the 
Purple Mauritius sugarcane plot in Chamiia in 1917 the caterpillaBS 
appeared very early in April. But in about 8 acres of different varieties 
of cane in Jhilli and Brickfield in 1918 even on the 6th May there were 
hardly any observable, a search through the whole fields revealing only 
one caterpillar, though at a distance of about half-a-mile they were 
occurrmg plentifully in kanra. 

Scirpophaga monostigma. (Plate 42, fig. 2.) 
Foodplant — Sugarcane. 

This is similar io S. xantJwgastrella m habit. The larval- and pupal 
forms of these two species are indistinguishable. The moth of S. monos- 
tigma is however distinguishable as it has a black spot on the fore- wing. 



Page 382{1). 



PLATE 42. 




Fig. 1.— Annual life-cycle of hirirpophaoa JC<uitlto(jastreUa, 








' ''^^^^^^.vivx4^>-^^^^' 




Fig. 2.— >Scii'pop/tf( (J a monosthfni% >;5. Thj s.nillsr figure shows the 

natural size. 



WW 



rage 3S2('J). 



PLATE 42. 




Fig. 3.— Annual life-cycle of Schunobius bipunctlfer 



irr 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 43. 

Schoenobius hifunctifer. 

The caterpillar (fig. 3) bores into the stem and destroys the heart ; consequently 
the ear dies. The female moth (figs. 6 & 7) deposits eggs in a cluster on the leaf (tigs. 
1 & 2) and covers them with yellow hairs. The cat ei pillars which hatch bore into the 
stem and eat the interior parts. When fuUgrown they prepare a white cocoon hning 
the hollow stem ; one end of the cocoon is open and a round hole is cut in the stem 
opposite the open end in order to enable the future moth to come out easily (fig. 5). 
In these cocoons they turn into pupae (fig. 4) and ultimately come out as moths (fig-'. 
6, 7 & 8). Normally the caterpillars pass the winter in the stubbles after rice is harvested. 

Figs. 1 & 2. Eggclusters. 

Fig. .3. Caterpillar. 

Fig. 4. Pupa. 

Fig. 5. Cocoon in stem. 

FigH. 6 & 7. Female moth. 

Fig. 8. Male moth. 



■■f^, 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 383 

The season of activity, as in S. xcmtJiogastreUa, lasts from about 
March to October, the winter being passed in hibernation. This species 
has so far been observed to occur in verv small numbers at Pusa. Out 
of a lot of hibernating caterpillars collected in February, 114 S. xantlio- 
gastrella moths and only three of this species were obtained, these latter 
emerging on 10th and 11th March. Similarly, out of a lot of caterpillars 
collected in new sugarcane shoots in April, 22 S. xanthogastrella and 
only one of this species emerged. 

Schcenobius bipunctifer, Wlk.* ^ 

Plate 43. 

Foodplant — Rice. 

This is a specific pest of rice and occurs in all rice-growing tracts. 
It has not yet been observed in any other plant. In Bombay Bulletin 
No. 69 of 1915 — TJie Rice Stem Borer in the Konkan — Messrs. Kasar- 
gode and Deshpande state that it has been observed to occur in the 
following plants : — 

(1) Coix lachrjjma-jobi, 

(2) Ischcenvmn aristatum, 

(3) Andropogon odoratus, 

(4) Anthistiria ciliata. 

This statement, however, should be taken with caution as the hiber- 
nating larvae found in them do not seem to have been definitely reared 
and identified. Similarly in Formosa, Dr. T. Shiraki, in spite of his 
very careful work on this insect, recorded in a large volume,"]' did not 
succeed in tracing any other foodplant. 

In the neighbourhood of Pusa the moths have been observed to 
oviposit in May on a large scale on a reed- like grass, locally known as 
cliicliori {Heleocharis plantaginea), growing in rice fields, especially in 
marshy situations. Search has been made in these grasses at different 
times in the year but no trace of any larva has been found in them* 

Schayiobius bipunctifer is active from about March to October or 
November and the rest of the year is passed in hibernation in the stubbles. 
Moths emerged in March from hibernating larva3 collected between 
December and March. Some larvae may continue to rest till about 
May or June. On the other hand, young larvae hatched from eggs in 



* The name bipunctifer, Wlk., although ante-dated bj- incertdlus, Wlk., is retained 
for this species for the present. 

f Paddy Borer {Sclianobius inccrteUus, Wlk.) ; Taihoku Agrie. Expt. Station, Formosa^ 
1917. 

VOL. I 2 C 



»r 



384 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

November have been observed in January to feed on ratoon shoots 
growing from stubbles. During the active season the life-cycle is com- 
pleted in about six weeks, viz., egg 5 to 6 days, larva 25 to 30 days and 
pupa 9 to 10 days. Eggs are deposited mostly on leaves in clusters 
covered over with brown hairs. The young larvae hatch and bore into 
the stem in the middle of which they feed and pupate. As will appear 
from the record of its occurrence along with the other borers in rice 
(Table XII), it is found in small numbers up to about September, after 
which oviposition takes place on a very large scale on rice in ear in 
October and the earlier part of November. The larvae which hatch 
from these eggs hibernate. (Plate 42, fig 3.) 



Schcenohius sp. (C. S. 1780). 

Foodplant — Narkat {Phragmites karka). 

The larvae and pupae of this species are apparently indistinguishable 
from those of Schcenohius bipunctifer, with which it seems to agree in 
seasonal history. 



Procometis trochala (C. S. 1708). 

Foodplant — Usually decaying sugarcane stem. 

The larvae of this moth were found in drying stems of sugarcane 
which they were boring. On only one occasion a larva was observed 
boring a fresh stem. The larvae have the habit of webbing up pellets 
of excreta and forming galleries under which they live hidden. The 
fullgrown larva measures about 28 mm. in length, has a dark brown 
glossy head, a large prothoracic plate of the same colour as the head 
and the body dirty light-brown with six yellowish longitudinal stripes 
on the back. The tubercles on the segments bear longish hairs and 
are small brown spots, the supraspiracular ones being larger than the 
others. The five pairs of prolegs are equally developed. \;^^ j ^ ^1 

Pupation takes place in the stem in holes previously made by the 

larva and opening on the side of the stem. The pupa is brown and 

can be easily distinguished by a pair of pointed spines on the hind end 

joined at their bases and bent so much ventrally as to have their longer 

►axis almost at right angles to the axis of the body of the pupa. 



ir 



Page $85. 



PLATE 44. 




a.. 









Fig. \.—liupltiitietopus^ahlutella in sugarcane (C. S. 1801). 
f^. Larva, x5. 

b. Pupa, x5. 

c. Imago, >5. 

The smaller figures show the natural sizes. 




Fig. 2.— Annual life-cycle of Chilo simplex. 



I'ROCEEDI^iGS OF THE TPIIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 385 

Raphimetopus (Anerastia) ablutella (C. S. 1801). 
Plate 44, fig. 1. 

Foodplant — Sugarcane. 

In the course of the two seasons 1917 and 1918, the caterpillars of 
this species were observed to occur in very small numbers in young 
sugarcane in April 1918 and to cause '• dead heart " like the other 
borers. 

The full-grown larva is about 16 mm. long and about 2 mm. across 
the middle of the body which is cylindrical and slightly tapering at 
the ends. The head is yellow-brown, glossy. The prothorax green ; 
the meso-and metathorax and the abdomen copper-coloured dorsally 
and greenish ventrally. The spiracles are round, yellow-brown. The 
hairs are brown, thin and longish. The booklets on prolegs are in a 
complete circle. 

One pupated on 3rd May and emerged as moth on the 11th May. 
The pupa is about 8 mm. long and tapering hindwards, the hind end 
having a few long circinate hairs. The colour is greenish brown. 

|This. insect is stated by Messrs. Mackenzie and Lefroy to have been 
found in great numbers at Siripur, Hatliwa, Saran, in young sugarcane 
when about three weeks to a month above the ground. {Agri. Journ. 
liul. Ill, p. 104). The larva observed by them was completely green. 



Chilo simplex, Butl. 

Plates 45—47. 

Poodplants — 

Maize — Pusa ; Mirpurkhas ; Sukkur ; Poona ; Jhalrapatan ; Lyall- 

pur. 
Juar {Andropogori Sorghum) — Pusa ; Mirpurkhas ; Landhi ; Lar- 

kana ; Sukkur ; Jalaun ; Jhalrapatan ; Babugarh ; Lyallpur. 
Sugarcane — Pusa. 
Rice — Pusa ; Konkan. 

Bajra {Pennisetum typhoideum) — Pusa ; Sukkur ; Mirpurkhas. 
Sama {Panicmn frumentaceum) — Pusa. 
Marua {Eleusine coracana) — Pusa. 
Sudan grass — Pusa. 
Job's Tears (Coix lachrgma-jobi) — Konkan. 

In this list of foodplants the localities cited are those from wh ch 
the larvse have been collected in the course of the last two years and 
■definitely identified as those of Chilo simplex. 

2c2 



Fr.^ 



i 

38 G PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

The seasonal history of Chilo simplex is most irregular. Many larvse- 
begin to rest from September and may continue to do so till July or 
even August next year. On the other hand moths have emerged up 
to 12th December and oviposition has been observed to continue in the 
fields up to the earher part of November. Again, from the same batch 
of eggs laid in September some larvae have been observed to develop 
into moths in the earlier part of the cold weather while the others rested 
till the following July. The earliest date after the cold weather on 
which moths have been observed to emerge from over-wintering larvse 
is the 13th of May, The time when over- wintering larvae generally 
develop into moths is May to July. But active feeding caterpillars, 
apparently hatched from eggs laid after the winter, have been collected 
on the 10th April and the eggs from which these larvae developed must 
have been laid towards the end of March. Therefore the shortest abso- 
lute resting period when no activity is observable extends from about 
December to about March and the longest resting period so far noticed 
lasts from about September to about July or August. Some larvae 
have been observed to continue their rest 43eyond July but they died 
in August and it is not known whether they would have rested, till the 
hot weather in the following year. While over-wintering larvae rest 
in this manner, normal successive broods occur in the case of those 
which become active in spring. (Plate 44, fig. 2.) 

The shortest and longest periods required for the completion of the 
life-cycle in the warm weather during the active season have been 
observed to be 36 and 63 days respectively, viz., egg 3 to 5 days, larva 
28 to 50 days and pupa 5 to 8 days. In the case of resting larvae the 
life-cycle may take up to about nine months. 

The creamy- white flattened scale-like eggs are deposited on the stem 
or leaves, more usually on leaves in clusters, and overlapping one another 
like the tiles on a roof. The clusters stick to the substratum like scales. 
When the eggs hatch, the young larvae walk down into the heart of such 
plants as maize and juar. Some may be disturbed by the waving of 
the leaves by wind and let themselves clown with silk and are thus blown 
on to neighbouring plants. They are active creatures, capable of walk- 
ing over the ground to neighbouring plants and effecting their entrance 
into the stem through the side. In the worst cases the plants may be- 
riddled by the larvae and maize and jiiar which are somewhat grown 
may not show " dead heart " although their stems may be bored through 
alid through. The larvae pupate inside the stem. 

It is really a pest of maize, juar and rice. Maize is mainly attacked 
when young and practically wholly avoided when mature. Juar is 
however attacked in all stages. It occurs in rice throughout the season 



P<((J( 3S6{1). 



PLATE 45. 




Fig. 1 — Egg-cluster of C7filo simplex (C S. 1819) x30. 





Fig. l.—t'hilo simplex, larva, lateral and dorsal views, x 5. 



«^^^r 



^^m 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 46. 
Fig. 1. Chilo sim'plex (C. S. 1580). 

o. Lateral, and, ft* dorsal view of larva, x 5. 

c. Details of spiracle on fifth segment, more highly magnified. 

d. Details of first proleg, seen from below, more highly magnified. 

{^Note. — Anterior hair on right side of anal plate was absent in this specimen ) 



Fig. 2. Chilo simplex (C. S. 1561). 

a. Pupa, X 5. 

b. Posterior segments of pupa, lateral view, mOie highly magnified. 

c. Anal segment of pupa, ventral surface, more highly magnified. 



Page 3S6{2). 



PLATE 46, 




.^0S^0^^ 









OL. 





Fig. -\.—ChUo si tuple Ji' (C. S. 1£80) 




Fig. l.— t'hiJo shii2)fex (C. S. 1561) 



Pngp. 3S0{.3). 



PLATE 47. 




V;- • •■.':;.i 



'yw 






%\\\sy# 














..::':V^ 






f 



;sai 



--<?*«<: 
















il^i 



r 






V 



Cltilo fihnplrx (C S. 1551). Moths : 5. The smaller figures show the 

natural sizes. 



Page /M7(i). 



PLATE 48. 




,*Mi 








'Tn 





Fig. 1. — JJiatiwa iniiicilia (C. S. 1574). 





Fig. 2.~Dlatfiea aariciliii (C S. 156D). 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 48. 
Fig 1. Diatrcea auricilia (C. S. 1574). 

a. Lateral, and, h, dorsal view of larva, x5. 

c. Details of spiracle on fifth segment, more highly magnified. 

d. Details of proleg, seen from below, more highly magnificcl. 

Fig 2. Diatrcea auricilia (C. 8. 1560). 

a. Pupa, X 5. 

h. Posterior segments of jjupa, seen laterally, more highly magnified. 

c. Anal segment of pupa, ventral surface, more highly magnified. 



«? 



Page 387(2). 



PLATE 4&. 




Fig. 1.— Egg-cluster of JHatram auricilia (C S. 1787) >;30. 




^ 



Fig. 2.— Eggs of Diutrwa venosaUi ( x 24). 





Fig. 3.-Annual life-cycle of JJiatrwa venosatu. Fig. 4.— Annual life-cycle of JJiatraa auiicili 



PROCEEI)I>GS OF THE THIRD EXTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 287 

and in greatest numbers about October-November when the rice comes 
into ear. Hibernation and aestivation take place mainly in rice stubbles 
and juar stalks. 

Of all the borers in gramineous crops this is the most widespread 
and occurs in the largest numbers. 

The appearance of the caterpillars varies a little. The common 
form is shown in PI. 45. f. 2 in which there are distinct sub-dorsal brown 
stripes with the warts indistinct. In a second form (PI. 46, f . 1) the sub- 
dorsal stripes approach one another on the back and practically meet. 
In a third form the stripes are rather indistinct and the warts prominent. 
This third form is not common. 



Diatrcsa auricilia (C. S. 1574). 

Plate 48 ; Plate 49, figs. 1,4. 

Poodplants — • 

Sugarcane — Pusa ; Sipaya ; Sabour • Munni, Muzaffarpur ; Chin- 
surah ; Bankura ; Cawnpore ; Lyallpur ; Sukkur ; Landhi ; 
Manjri. 

Juar (Andropogon Sorghum) — Pusa. 

Rarhi and Bafri {Saccharum sjjonfaneum) — Pusa. 

Ikri {Saccharum fuscmn) — Pusa. 

Jove grass (Rotthoellia compressa) — Pusa. 

The localities mentioned above are the places where caterpillars 
have been collected in the course of the last two years and definitely 
identified. Out of these foodplants it occurs in the largest numbers in 
hatri and, next to that, in sugarcane. In the other foodplants it has 
been found occasionally and in small numbers. 

The seasonal history of this species too is very irregular. Some 
larvae begin to rest from about July and pupate and emerge as moths 
in the following March- April. Many caterpillars however, continue to 
be active up to about October when hibernation on a general scale 
commences. Moths have been obtained up to 15th November before 
winter and the earliest date after winter when moths have emerged 
from over- wintering larvae is the 12th March, on which date young larvae 
also have been collected from hatri. During the active season the 
life-cycle occupies about five to six weeks, viz., egg about 3 days, larva 
about 30 days and pupa 7 to 8 days. Eggs are deposited in the same 
maimer as observed in the case of Chilo simplex. The caterpillars boie 
in the middle of the stem. In sugarcane they occur more commonly 
in young shoots than in grown canes. In halri they occur in all stages 



388 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

of the plants. Tliey pupate in the affected stems and the moths emerge 
through holes previously made by the larvse. (Plate 49, fig. 4.) 

The caterpillars have five bro^^Ti stripes on a pale yellow body and 
show no variation or change in appearance. 

Diatrcea venosata (0. S. 1607). 

Plate 49, figs. 2,3 ; Plates 50, 51. 
Foodplants — 
Sugarcane. 
Sudan grass. 

Rarhi and Batri — (SaccJwrum spontaneum). 
Juar — (Andropogon Sorghum). 
Ikri {Saccharwn fuscum). 
Bajra (Pennisetum, typhoideum). 
All these foodplants have been recorded in the neighbourhood of 
Pusa. The caterpillars occur largely in batri, Sudan grass and juar 
and only occasionally in the other plants. 

The seasonal history of this species is more regular than that of 
Chilo simplex and Diatrcea auricilia. Hibernation iii the larval state 
commences about September and continues up to March-April when 
the over- wintering larvae pupate and emerge as adults. During the 
active season the life-cycle occupies about five to seven weeks, viz., 
egg about 6 days, larva about 21 to 30 days and pupa 9 to 11 days. 
Eggs are deposited in the same manner as Chilo sifnplex. The caterpillars 
feed inside the stem and have been observed to occur more in grown 
plants than in young ones, many of them being found in individual 
stems. Pupation takes place inside the tunnels in the affected stems. 
This insect is a real pest of juar among the cultivated crops. 
The caterpillars have large shining dark browm warts, u.sually with 
broad pinkish stripes along the line of the trapezoidal and supra-spira- 
cular warts. In some cases the stripes may be indistinct and in certain 
other cases again the warts may be indistinct. In hibernating larvae 
both the stripes and warts may be indistinct. 

Diatrcea sp. (C. S. 1610).* 

Plates 52, 54, aud 53, fig. 1. 

Foodplant — Sugarcane. 

This borer has so far been observed to be confined to Eastern Bengal 
and Assam, the western-most places where it has been found being 
Goalundo and Pabna. There has been no opportunity of investigating 
it properly. Therefore neither its seasonal history nor alternative 

* Since named bj Sir George Hampson as Argyria tumidicoslalis, Hmpsn. 



Paqp. S8S(1). 



PLATE 50. 




Fig. -i.— Hi of i (CO if^ujsata (C. S. 1635). a, lateral, and h, doissl vitw cf [arva /4 ; r. detail 
cf spiracle cf fifth segment, more hig'ily magnified ;</, details of frst proleg, seen frcm belcw, 
more highly magnified. 






Fig. 2.- lii((fi ft (f tr}tos(if(( fC S. 1607) ; a. pupa 5 ; 7k pcsterior segments of f^v^s, lateral 
view, more highly magnified ; r. anal segment of pupa, ventral surface, mcie highly irs£nif(t?. ; 



Prujp S8R{2). 



PLATE 51. 














JHafrwa venosata, moths 5. The smaller figures show the natural 

sizes- 



Page 3S9{1). 



PLATE 5! 



^\!> 



m 


rfe^tfir^r^l^ 




>m^ 






«39 








1^ 



«s»- 



P!«4 1 ^ 



a. 





"'^ifiA!^':^ 






Fig. 1. Argyria tumidicostalis (C S. 1610). 





c 



<>••' 




EXPLANATION OF PLATE 52. 

Fig. L Argyria tumidicostalis (C. S. 1610). 

a. Lateral, b, dorsal, and, c, ventral view of larva, x i 

d. Details of spiracle on fifth segment, more highly magnified. 

e. Details of proleg, seen from below, more highly magnified. 

Fig. 2. Argyria tumidicostalis (C. S. 1610). 

a. Pupa, x4. 

6. Posterior segments of p'lpa, seen laterally, more highly magnified. 

c. Anal segment of pupa, ventral surface, more highly magnified. 



f» aooe .RQVQ lo eJjif»i 



Page 389(2). 



PLATE 53. 





Fig. ^.-^ iif/i/ri(( ttnniffirostafis, Hmpsn. (C. S. 1610), third form of larva. (Note.- The 
submedian hair on left side of penultimate segment was absent in this individual larva bui 
was present on the right side.) 




Fig. 2.- Annual life-cycle of Jiiatraa sp. (C. S. 1674) 



* f 



PdffeSSCiS), 



PLATE 54. 




Artjfjria tUHUilicostalLs (C. S. 1610). Moths ^5. ^The smaller figures 

indicate the natural sizes. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



389 



foodplants are known. The larvae have been collected at Pabna in the 
latter part of August, at Dacca in July and September and at Jorhat, 
Assam, in August, in all cases in sugarcane. All of them developed into 
moths in August, September and before 2nd October. Mr. S. E. Gupta 
sent 138 larva? and 12 pupse from Jorhat in August 1918. Ninety- 
two of them developed into moths, 59 females and 33 males, between 
23rd August and 26th September. Almost all of them were tried for 
eggs in the Pusa Insectary without success. 

The full-grown larva is about 30 mm. long and cylindrical in shape. 
The head is red-brown, shiny. The prothoracic shield is large, dirty 
brown in colour and divided longitudinally by a faint marking. The 
general colour of the body is pale yellowish-white. The marking and 
warts on the body show the following variations : (1) There may be 
two broad slightly pinkish-brown stripes on each side of the body, one 
subdorsal and the other supraspiracular, the dark brown large shiny 
warts being situated on these stripes ; such larvae closely resemble the 
active larvae of Diatrcra venosata. (2) The stripes may be indistinct, 
the warts only being very prominent on the skin. (PI. 52, f. 1). These 
larvae too are liable to be mistaken for those of Diatrwa venosata. (3) 
The warts may be altogether indistinct, the stripes only being present 
in an interrupted manner and the two stripes on each side approaching 
each other at intervals (PI. 53, f. 1). Such larvae are hable to be confused 
with those of Chilo simplex. (4) Both stripes and warts may be indis- 
tinct. Of these four types of larvae the second is the commonest. The 
morphological characters given in the key of the larval forms, on which 
the differentiation is based, are always constant. 

The caterpillars occur in large numbers in individual jilants which 
are literally riddled, some dust being thrown out from side-openings 
in the stem. They pupate inside the affected stems near previously- 
made holes through which the mature pupa wriggles out before the 
moth emerges. The pupa is bro^vn and the characters given in the key 
of the pupal forms distinguish it sufficiently. Of all the internal borers 
so far observed this is the most injurious to grown-up canes. 

Diatma sp. (C. S. 1674). 

Plates 55, 56. 
Foodplants — 

Sugarcane — Dacca ; Pusa. 

Rice — Pusa ; Karimganj, Sylhet. 

This species is active from about February-March to October -Novem- 
ber, the winter being passed in hibernation in the larval state. (Plate 
53, fig. 2). 



f 



s- 



390 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

The caterpillars were found in some numbers in grown-up sugarcanes 
at Dacca in July and September, and have been observed at Pusa only, 
in small numbers in rice from July to November and in grown canes in 
October. 

The larva closely resembles those of Diatrcea auricilia (C. S. 1574:) 
and Rice Chilo (C. S. 1677), but can be distinguished with the help of 
the key. 

The full-grown larva is about 20 to 25 mm. long. The head is red- 
brown, shiny. The prothoracic shield is almost similarly coloured as 
the head and divided longitudinally in the middle by a faint marking. 
The general colour of the body is pale yellow. There are five brown 
stripes on the back, one mid-dorsal and two on each side. In some 
larvae there is a black band on the inner side of the abdominal prolegs. 

The pupa is rather slender-looking compared with the pupae of the 
other borers and either brownish-grey or brown in colour. On the head 
end just above the eyes there is a transverse ridge the two ends of which 
protrude slightly in the form of a pair of short horns. The prothoracic 
spiracles are rather large arching ridges and the abdominal ones are 
protuberant short tubes with clear holes. These characteristics di^ 
tinguish it altogether from the pupae of the other borers. 



The Rice Chilo (C. S. 1677). 
Plates 57,58. 

Foodplant — Rice. 

This species has not yet been observed to occur in any other plant, 
In the Insectary the larvae fed on maize and sugarcane stems. But i1 
was evident that they did not like these two plants and were compelled 
to bore them in the absence of rice. 

As a general rule, the caterpillars hibernate in rice stubbles from about 
the end of November to about March, the over-wintering larvae pupating 
and emerging as moths on a large scale in March to May. But moth.s 
have been observed to emerge up to 12th November before winter and 
on 5th, 13th and 20th January and 2nd, 18th, 20th, 25th and 28tl] 
February. The early- emerging moths breed in early-sown rice : larvae 
have been collected in desaria rice in April. Up to about September 
the larvae are found in rice in small numbere. They occur in larg^ 
numbers when rice comes ini o ear in October and November. This u 
why we observe such large numbers of the larvae in rice stubbles in 
winter. 



Pu<jc 3'J0{T). 



PLATE 55. 




C 







A 




Fig. 1.—7>/Vfr»vr^/ sp. in sugarcane at Dacca (C. S. 1674). n, lateral, and b, 
dorsal view of larva, 4 ; r. details of spiracle en fifth segment, more highly 
magnified; </, details of first proleg, seen from below, more highly magnified. 




a.. 





Fig. 2.—l>H(tr(i(i sp. in sugarcane at Dacca (C S. 1674). ti. Pupa 5. [h. Posterior 
segments of pupa, seen laterally more highly magnified ; c, anal segment of pupa, 
ventral surface, more highly magnified. 



racje -390{i 



PLATE 56. 




■■■■■ •-■^^:ffi 












»'-•!■ •■■■'■fel 



7:-; tots; 






$ 












^^^^ 






*»/V. I 



'''u..».;v^'^ 




(C. S. 1674), Moths 5. The smaller figures shew the natural sizes. 



Page 390(3). 



PLATE 57. 





V. ■•' 







Fig. 1.— C. S. 1677 ; <f, larva, side-view 5 ; />, larva, dorsal view > 5 ; r, details 
of spiracle ; </, arrangement of crochets on proieg of larva. 





c. 




Fig. 2.— Rice Chilo in rice at Pusa (C S. 1677). (t. pupa : 5 ; />. posterior segments of 
pupa, seen laterally, more highly magnified ; r, anal segment of pupa, ventral surface, more 
highly magnified. 



Page 390{4) 



PLATE 58. 




<<;;';• ••■to Va.- 






\ \ N 






|i''%yi# 







Fig. I.e. S. 1677. Moths 5. The smaller figures indicate the 

natural sizes. 




Fig. 2. Annual life-cycle of Rice Chiht (C S. 1677) 



\. 



Page 39 1(1). 



^LATE E9. 











ct 




■■W 



>i 



3*! 



•k 



^ K 






K.-U •«*;; 



A 



• 1' 


V1 


.^^ 








^J 


^J 


'0 

A >1 





< 



Fig. 1. (C. S. 1769). ((, larva, lateral view 5 ; h, larva, dorsal view x 5 ; c, details of spiracle ; 

(f, arrangement of crochets on proleg. 







Fig. 2.- (C. S. i769). Borer in kanra stem ; moth, natural size and magnifed. 



"' - 11 irn I \< 



Page 39t(2). 



PLATE 60. 





Fig. 1. — (C. S. 1769). ((, pupa, posterior portion from side (> 13) ; h, anal segment ct pupa, end 

view, more highly magnified. 



















Fig. 2. — (C S. 1795). a, posterior portion of pupa, 
magnified ; h. anal segment of pupa, posterior 
view, magnified. 



Fig. 3.- (C S. 1795). Borer in ifiii 
stem ; moth, natural size and 
magnified. 



niOCEEDlXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 391 

Eggs are deposited in the same manner as tliose of Chilo simplex. 
The caterpillars bore inside the stems and also pupate there. The 
f\illgrown larva measures about 20 mm. in length, and tapers slightly 
<at the extremities. The young larvae have practically the same thick- 
ness throughout their length. The head is yellow and the prorhoracic 
sliield paler than the head. The body is pale-yellow and, in the case 
of hibernating larvae, greyish. The five stripes on the back are grey- 
brown. The pupa is about 12 mm. long and yellow-brown in colour. 
The surfaces of the fifth, sixth and seventh abdominal segments are 
practically smooth, a very faint roughness being observable at the 
anterior part of their back under a high-power lens. 



Chilo sp. (C. S. 1769). 

Plate 59 ; Plate 60, fig. 1. 

Poodplants — 

Kanra {Saccharum arundinaceum). 
Ikri {Saccharum fuscum). 

The caterpillars were found in small numbers in these two plants 
in March- April. They were boring new shoots and causing " dead 
heart." 

The fullgrown caterpillar is about 25 mm. long. The head is dark 
red-brown, shiny ; the prothoracic shield similarly coloured as the head 
and divided longitudinally in the middle. The general colour of the 
body is pale yellowish-white with prominent shiny warts. The dorsal 
vessel is visible and looks like a stripe. 

The caterpillars pupate in the stem near previously-made holes 
through which the moths emerge. The pupa is dark-brown in colour. 



Diatrcea sp. (C. S. 1795). 

Plate 60, figs. 2,3. 

Foodplant— /A'/i {Saccharum fuscum). 

The caterpillars were found in very small numbers in March. They 
liave a red-brown shiny head, a large brown plate on the prothorax 
and prominent warts on a pale-yellow body. The pupa is brown. 



392 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Chilo sp. (C. S. 1831). 
Plate 61 ; Plate 62, fig. 1. 

Foodplant — Rarhi and Batri {Saccharum spontaneum). 

The caterpillars were found in small numbers from July to September 
b(jring in the stems of grown-up plants. 

The fullgrown larva is about 18 to 20 mm. long, with a glossy yellow- 
brown head, a shiny yellow shield on the prothorax and a pair of broad 
brick-reddish stripes on each side of a pale-yellow body. The dis- 
tinguishing characters are given in the key of the larval forms of borers. 
The larva pupates inside the stem. The pupa is brown. 

« 

Chilo sp. (C. S. 1835). 

Plate 62, fig. 2 ; Plate 63. 
Foodplant — 

Ikri {Saccharum fuscum). 

The larvse fed on juar (Andropogon) stem in the Insectary. 

The caterpillars were found in small numbers and boring near the 
top of the stems and causing " dead heart." A young caterpillar 
collected on 12th March died on 10th May without pupatmg. Cater- 
pillars collected on 5th July pupated and emerged before the 3rd Septem- 
ber, the pupal stage occupying 12 days. 

The larva attains a length of about 21 mm. and is rather thick in 
appearance, measuring about 3'25 mm. across the mesothorax from 
which the body tapers shghtly both ways. The head is brown-yellow 
and glossy. The prothorax is pale-yellow and rather glossy. The 
other two thoracic and the abdominal segments have on the dorsal side 
above the spiracles a purplish tinge on the pale-yellow skin, the purphsh 
marking being deeper in the dorsolateral region and almost disappearing 
on the dorsal region. The dorsal vessel is visible like a faint and some- 
what interrupted stripe. 

The larva pupates inside the affected stem. The pupa is about 
15 mm. long and yellow-brown in colour. 'The head has a thick short 
protuberant ridge on the front. The primary tubercles on the body of 
the larva develop into strong prominent spmes on the body of the pupa. 
The spines are pointed, have a broad base and a hair arising from the 
side below the tip. 



Page 39-2(l). 



PLATE 61. 




a. 




(i\ 







Fig. 1. — (C S. 1831). a. larva, side-view 5 ; ?>, larva, dorsal view 5 ; r, spiracle 
more highly magnifiea ; il. arrangement of crochets on proleg of larva. 






Fig. 2. Pupa of (C. S. 1831), Borer in larhi; n, pupa 5 ; h. posterior extremity 
of pupa, side-view, more highly magnified ; r, posterior extremity of pupa, anal view 
more highly magnified. ^ r r . «, 



Page 392(2). 



PLATE 62. 







•.•■^n>.- 



•;;'(:;;;■' 















Fig. 1.— Borer in »'«*•/*/ stem (C.S. 1831). Moths 
x5. TtiJ smaller figures indicate the natural 
sizes,^ 




Fig. 2.~(C. S. 1835). Borer in Sncchmmm fuscinn, 
natural size and magnified ( x 5). 



fage 392{3). 



PLATE 63. 







Fig. 1. Borer in i/,i/ (C S. 1835). ff, larva, side-view > 5; //. cfcrsal 
view 5 ; r, details of spiracle ; tf, arrangtirtnt cf crtchtfs (n rrcifg. 





Fif, ■ i. (C. S. 1835). Pupa of borer in //./v ; f/. side-view, magnified 5 • 
h, posterior extremity, side-view, more highly magnified ; r. a single spine 
more highly magnified ; »/. anal segment, highly magnified. ' 



1^ . u 



Page 393. 



PLAIE b4. 




Fig. 1.— Pyralid larva boring in SitctlHiniin spoHtdttrffiii x3. 




Fig. 2. -(F- 18)- Borer in //./■/ stem. (The smaller figure shows the 

natural size.) 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 393 

? Pyralid borer. 

Plate 64, fig. 1. 

Foodplant — Rarki and Batri {Saccharum spontaneum). 

These caterpillars, which we have not yet been successful in rearing,. 
occur in very large numbers. The hard steins of grown-up plants are 
converted into hollow tubes throughout their length, a single larva 
usually occurring in individual plants. The heart shoot dies and dries 
only when the larva bores near the top. 

The insect has only one generation in the year. Young larvse are 
found about July and they feed up to about the early part of November, 
by which time they become fullgrown. Then they rest through the 
winter and the hot weather, pupating and emerging as moths about 
June-July. The larvae have been observed to rest in the Insectary up 
to the middle of August and then die. 

The fullgrown larva is about 35 mm. long. The shape is cylindrical 
or rather semicylindrical being slightly compressed dorsoventrally. The 
head is glossy-yellow. The segments of the body have an elongated 
■and slightly chitinized and glossy appearance. The hairs are small 
and black. The spiracles are elongated oval, brown with a dark narrow 
rim. The five pairs of prolegs are short, equally developed and have 
their booklets in complete circles. 

f- Pyralid borer. (Plate 64, fig. 2). 

Foodplant — Ikri (Saccharum fuscum) . 

A caterpillar with a glossy yellow-brown head and the body having 
a green colour on the ventral surface and the sides and dorsally a brow^lish 
tinge on the prothorax, pink on the mesothorax and deep pink or rather 
red on the rest of the segments, was observed to occur in large numbers- 
in March. They fed on sugarcane stems in the Insectary but could not 
be reared. 

? Pvralid borer. 

Foodplant — Bairi [Saccharum spontaneum batri). 

A rather slender-bodied, pale-yellow caterpillar, "with a yellow head, 
reddish-brown patches in the subdorsal region of the segments of the 
body arranged in longitudinal rows on the back and a very prominent 
visible broad brown tracheal tube running from the thoracic to the 
last abdominal spiracle on each side, was collected in small numbers-; 
in June. It could not be reared. 



394 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Ramila ruficostalis (C. S. 1533). 

Plate 65, fig. 1. 

Foodplant — Bamboo. 

A few caterpillars were collected from the top shoots of bamboo 
branches showing "dead heart" on 10th January. They had bored 
the twigs and were apparently hibernating. They continued to rest 
and pupated in March, emerging on 26th March. 

Argi/roploce paragramma (C. S. 1631). 

Plate 65, fig. 2. 

Foodplant — Tender bamboo shoots. 

The caterpillars are very common in the rainy season, infesting 
and boring new bamboo shoots as they come out of the ground. Gene- 
rally a great many caterpillars are found in the same shoot boring the 
stem, completely hidden under the leafsheaths. They are responsible 
for the death of a fair percentage of the new shoots. 

Bactra truculenta (C. S. 1489). 

Foodplant — Mootha {Cyperus rotundus). 

The caterpillafrs of this Eucosmid moth were found boring the stems 
in October. 

Heliothis ohsoleta. 

Plate 66. 

Foodplants — Gram ; tobacco ; pigeon-pea {Cajamis indicus); mangel- 
wurzel ; lucerne ; hemp [Cannabis saliva) ; khesari {Latlujrus sativus); 
wheat ; val (Dolichos lablab) ; flax ; oats ; castor ; hajra {Pennisetum 
typhoideum) ; maize ; tomato ; onion ; indigo ; rose ; Dhutra {Datura 
stramonium) ; pumpkin ; sweet-potato ; sunflower ; cottonbud ; 
mania {Eleusine coracana) ; han-bhindi {Malackra capital a) ; 
Physalis peruviana. 

In the neighbourhood of Pusa Heliothis obselota occurs in large 
n'.nnbers only on gram and arhar {Cajanus indicus) of which they bore 
the pods. Sometimes the caterpillars occur in small numbers on maize 
of which the tender cob or the soft part of the top of the stem is bored. 
Similarly they occur in small numbers on bajra heads which are bored. 



Pngf .304(7). 



PLATE 65. 




■■•::■:"{ 

'• '■•i^ 

■■".'"• 
1 1 ..Uol 




Fis. 1. -n«»„7r, r„/!ro,M/s 5. Tha smafler figure sl,ows Ih. oMural size. 



Page 30^(2). 



FL'TE C5. 



■ J 



■■^•n 









^ t 



;3' 




a. 



:m 



c. 







#:? 



Fig. 2. A I'f/i/roplocc /xn'of/ramiiia (C. S. 1631). r^, bamboo shoot with outer 
sheathing leaves removed, showing bore-hole of larva ; h. larva, natuial iiie tt6 
magnified ( 5i ; c. pupa, natural size and magnified i 5) ; </. imsgo, natut:.! size and 
magnified ( 5). 



\ 



! M(i y^'>\'n:/:i^j<{x:^ 



VjW 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 66. 
Heliothis obsoleta, Fb. 

Fig. 1. An egg laid on a tur-pod (magnified). 

Figs. 2 — 5. Caterpillars on a gram plant, two eating into the pods (life-size). 

Fig. 6. Pupa in its underground cell (life-size). 

Fig. 7. Moth in repose (life-size). 

Fig. 8 Moth with wings expanded (life-size). 



PLATE 66. 



r 




it -J 



g-' 



W 



■f *•«» 




8 







^^ 



V^ 



1 




■ s-^..- 









i} 







^y^J&l...A^' 



1 



HELIOTHIS OBSOLETA. 



V. 



PLATE G7. 




Fi^. 1.— J>rr«; /si"s i-iKfo^cl/in (C S. 1873), larva. (The smaller figure shjws the 

natiiral size.) 




F'g- 2.—Dafitfsrs rtif/ospfhf>i. natural size and magnified (x5). 



ntOCEEDlNGS OF TIIK THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 395' 

Dasyses rugoselhis (C. S. 1873). 
Plate 67. 
FoocI — Usually decaying vegetable matter. 

Caterpillars of this moth were observed to feed gregariously by boring 
inside sugarcane stems which had been afTected by fungal diseases 
following the attack of borers such as Scirpophaga and Diatrcea. They 
did not infest healthy canes. They exuded a profuse amount of silk 
with which the pellets of excreta were webbed up into tube-like galleries. 

The caterpillars were observed to hibernate from about October to 
February. Pupation took place in oval silken cocoons covered over 
with pellets of excreta. Moths emerged in March. 



The damage to sugarcane caused by borers. 

Let us commence with the planting of the setts in the ground. The 
setts are liable to be eaten by termites. A short account of what is 
being done to prevent this damage has been given when dealing with 
these insects. When the new shoots appear they are liable to be attacked 
by Termites, Mole-crickets, Melolonthid grubs and other external agents, 
as well as by all the internal borers mentioned under this crop. Of the 
internal borers, however, usually only Scirpophaga spp. and Diatrcea 
auricilia are common at this stage at Pusa, the others occurring in 
small numbers. The fungal diseases also may appear at this time. 
The first external symptom of attack by all these destructive agents is 
" dead heart." The infested shoots are either killed and become entirely 
dry or continue to be green for some time with their heart-shoot dead 
and dry. The effect however, is the same in all cases, viz., their further 
growth is stopped. Except when affected by fungal diseases, all such 
shoots throw out new shoots from the base, giving rise to the tillerincr 
effect so commonly observed. Many of the new shoots or tillers also 
are attacked in their turn. This struggle between the shoots and their 
enemies goes on and only those of the shoots which escape being attacked 
continue to grow. Those which have grown somewhat and formed 
stems (canes) become immune against some of the enemies but their 
growth may be stopped at a later stage, as they remain hable throughout 
their life to be bored at the top by Scirpophaga spp., in the stem by 
the species of Diatrcea, Sesamia and Chilo, and at the roots by Termites 
and EmmaJocera. E. depressella itself cannot kill a grown-up cane but 
the fungal diseases, to which its tunnel affords access, do the work for 
it. Termites may kill a grown-up plant and, even when they merely 



396 niOCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

gnaw the surface and do not kill it themselves, fungal diseases follow. 
When fungal diseases affect the base of the stem usually the entire cane 
dries up. The borers in the grown cane itself, observed at Pusa in the 
course of the last two seasons, did not prove to be serious. They are 
the same which infest the young shoots. They do not however occur 
in large numbers in individual plants and one or two caterpillars in the 
stem of a grown-up plant are not able to kill it or retard its growth 
seriously, although a single larva is sufficient to kill a young shoot. 
Besides, they seem to prefer young shoots to grown-up canes and, as 
there are plenty of young shoots always in the field, the majority of 
the grown canes escape being attacked. The tunnel of the borers in 
the stem always opens externally and, affords access to fungal diseases, 
which in extreme cases may cause the upper part of the cane to dry 
up. The effect of fungal diseases in grown canes is observed to be slow. 
Sometimes the tunnel of the borers may run across the stem in such a 
manner as to cause it to break at that point or to stop further growth 
above it. When growth stops in this manner vigorous plants put forth 
side shoots (PI. 68, f. 1 «, c, d). The effect of attack at the top by 
Scirpophaga caterpillars is always to stop further growth and the 
plants may either wither from the top downwards or put forth 
side-shoots (fig. 2 and fig. 1 b). No other borer attacks grown canes 
at the top. 

The planting of cane is usually done about February and the greatest 
injury to the crop is caused by the borers in the young stage and up 
to about July. By this time some plants are grown and become partly 
immune, the harvest being obtained principally from these plants. As 
will appear from records of actual observations given below of two 
varieties of thick canes, viz., Purple Mauritius and Sathi No. 131, on 
the average, out of every four shoots which grow only one comes to be 
harvested, the other three being killed at various stages of growth, 
mainly by the injurious activities of insects and fungal diseases. All 
thick varieties seem to be Hable to a similar amount of damage. Thin 
varieties are however more resistant. A rough idea of the comparative 
immunity of thick and thin varieties may be formed from column 6 
in Table V giving the number of harvestable canes out of every 100 
setts planted. 

The experiments of 1917. 

In November 1916 a plot | acre in area in Chaunia field at Pusa was 
planted with Purple Mauritius. In Table I, the percentage of affected 
plants, including dry ones as well as those with " dead heart," and 
the proportion of the agents of damage are shown. 



Paqe 396. 



PLATE 68. 





PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



397 



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l*^ 


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398 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



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PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAi. JsiEElTNG 



399 



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VOL. I. 



2d 



400 



PROCEEDTNGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 









o 

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3.I0B J9d sauBO ajq'B^saA 
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oiqt!'}S3AJBn santjo 
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Xjp sani^o SnnoX 
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mocooo-i'ococooi^ocs 
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flu's 



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Apio 
sauBO UMOiS ni sjiuaq 
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pojiiuid s^jas JO 
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cro Ci coi> tb 60 oiocoC'--*r-inr-i-finort*Tii 



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401 

















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PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



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IROCEEDIXGS OF THE IHIRD EXTOMOLOGIC^VL MEETING 407 

As regards growth, in tlie middle of April 1917, the plants in the plot 
planted in November 191G ^Yere slightly ahead of those of the plot 
planted in February. But the difference in gi-owth did not indicate 
a difference of four months in planting. The difference disappeared by 
May. As regards yield the plot planted in November was better than 
that planted in February. This result, however, cannot be depended 
upon as conclusive. 

From the two plots of Purple Mauritius all the affected plants 
examined on the different dates given in Tables I and II were cut out 
with the insects. No other plot was similarly treated. 

The Experiments of 1918. 

In February 1918 two half-acre plots of SatJii No. 131 were planted, 
one for treatment by cutting out and removing plants and shoots which 
were dry or showed " dead heart " together with the insects found in 
them, and the other to be left untreated as a check. The two plots 
were in an area known as the Brickfield at some distance from the main 
sugarcane area of the Farm in Jhilh'. They were practically similar 
as regards soil and were not contisjuous. having about half-an-acre of 
indigo between them. This field was previously a piece of wasteland 
overgro^vn with Saccharum sponfaneum and Tmperala arundinacea and 
was even now bordered by similar wastelands on the west side, as will 
appear from the plan. The setts, about a foot in length, were examined 
by the Entomological and Mycological Assistants against borers and 
Red Rot. For the treated plot the setts were dipped in lead arsenate 
solution (lib. of Thompson Chemical Co.'s 40 per cent, lead arsenate 
in 2 gallons cold water) and dried in the shade before being planted, 
51bs. lead arsenate being used for about 9,000 setts. 

The setts were planted in furrows made with a plough and, before 
the furrows were filled up with the harrow, powdered oilcake was sprinkled 
in them. Both the plots were weeded in the third week of June, powJered 
oilcake was sprinkled near the base of the plants and their bases earthed 
up by driving a ridging plough between the rows of plants. No further 
cultivation was given to either of the plots. As usual with the cultiva- 
tion of sugarcane at Pusa no irrigation was given. Between the 7th 
and 13th August both the plots were submerged in water, the water 
standing a few inches above the ground. The water was pumped out 
by the 1 3th and 1 4th August but the furrows between the rows of sugar- 
canes remained full and the soil did not dry or become fit to be walked 
on before the middle of September. 

Both the plots were examined on various dates, the actual number 
•of plants and those with " dead heart " or dry being noted, and the 



408 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

afiected plants in the treated plot being cut out at intervals. The 
results of examination are given in Tables VI to X. The work of the 
different agents of damage is shown in Table VIII. In Table XI are 
shown the final results of the two plots and also the results of examin- 
ation of the thick varieties of sugarcane grown by the Farm in Jhilli. 

As has been indicated in the plan, portions of both the plots adjoining 
the wasteland became bare. This was practically due to termites which 
ate the setts as well as the new shoots. The figures in Table VIII relate 
only to the shoots which grew and were then attacked and not to the 
setts which were eaten underground by the termites. The crop was 
obtained only from the shaded portion of each plot as indicated in the 
plan, which in the case of the treated plot was about 13,544 sq. feet 
and in that of the untreated plot about 18,281 sq. feet. In calculating 
the harvested result given in Table XI the entire plots including the 
bare parts have been taken into consideration. (See Plate 69.) 

If we exclude the bare portion of each plot and calculate on the 
approximate number of setts which covered only the shaded parts 
which yielded the harvest, the number of canes which came to harvest- 
able stage represents 111 per cent, of setts in the treated. and 116 per 
cent, of setts in the untreated plot. The weight of canes harvested 
was 6,550 lb. in the treated and 11,440 lb. in the untreated plot. 
Taking only the shaded portions of both the plots into consideration 
the yield worked out at 21,066 lb. per acre in the treated and 27,259 lb. 
per acre in the untreated plot. 

Therefore, we see that the cutting out treatment, instead of helping 
the crop, actually does some harm to it. The same effect was observed 
in the 1917 experiment with Purple Mauritius. The yield of the treated 
plot of Purple Mauritius given in colurmi 6 of Table V may be com- 
pared with the yield of the same cane in 1918 given in Table XI. The 
reason of the inefficacy of the treatment is obvious. " Dead heart " 
in young canes is caused by various agents which are not removed 
simply by the removal of the shoots with " dead heart." Scirpophaga 
is the only insect which is likely to be removed if the shoot is cut before 
the moth emerges. Diatrcea and other internal borers usually Uve so 
far down the base of the new shoots that the majority of them are left 
behind unless the shoot is cut near its point of growth from the sett. 
In order to counteract the evil effects of borer attack the quicker and 
more the tillering the better. The cutting-out treatment interferes 
with tillering, as invariably some of the new side shoots, which begin 
to grow from the afiected ones, are either injured or removed in the 
operation. Therefore the treatment causes a set-back to the crop 



Page i08. 



PLATE 69. 



7~'fc<<ecC ^(of- 




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Plan of the two experimental plo<s of Snihi No. 131 Sugarcane in Brickfield area in Pusa Farm. The crop was obtained 
from the shaded portions. The unshaded portions became bare. Scale should read 1 to 80 . 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 40& 

It is better to let the crop grow undisturbed, especially in its earlier 
stage.;g^ 

But the borers are there and they cause a serious loss. As has been 
pointed out already,^ out oi every four shoots only one is allowed 
to come to the harvesting stage, the other three being killed principally 
by the borers. Even when the plants are allowed to grow, in many 
of them braiiching is brcught about by their injurious activities at the 
expense of growth. I he ideal corditicn would be to allow the first 
fchoots to grow. Mr. M. L, Kulkami in his paper read at the Science 
Congress, 1918, and reprinted in Agricl. Jcunial of India (Special Sc. 
Congress ^'o., 1918) en experiments in planting sugarcane setts, gives a 
photograph of a very thick uniformly grown crop, raised from setts 
with single eyebuds and planted with the bud upwards. The tillers 
were not allowed to grow. At Pusa and probably in most places the 
borers make such a crop impossible. On account of the borers and 
other agents of damage the return from the outlay in the cultivation of 
sugarcane, especially the thick varieties, is less than 50 per cent, of what 
it ought to be. 

Damage to Rice by Borers. 

In the neighbourhood of Pusa various kinds of rice are grown accord- 
ing to the nature of the lands. 

The earliest rice to be sown is locally known as Desaria which is grown 
in deep chaws, i.e., lew marshy places which allow water to accumulate 
to a depth of about 10 or 12 feet or more. The seeds are sown in seed- 
beds about February and the seedhngs transplanted into the chaws 
as soon as water begms to collect in them. The harvesting is done along 
■^ith winter paddy in Kovember-December. 

The second kind of lice may be broadly called Aus or, as locally 
named, Bhadai. It includes various varieties, some being broadcasted 
gnd others transplanted. lor the transplanted varieties the seed is 
gQ-wn in seed-beds about March, the transplanting being done as early 
gg possible in May or June. The broadcasted varieties are usually 
sown about May- June and generally on slightly higher lands. The 
harvesting is done about September. 

The third kind is Ama^i or winter paddy, which also includes broad- 
casted and transplanted varieties and which is grown both in chaurs 
with shallow water and in higher places. For the transplanted varieties 
seeds are sown in seed-»beds about April-May and transplanted about 
July. ^°^' ^^^ broadcasted varieties the seeds are sown about May- 
June. About four-fifths or more of the rice-growing tracts in the neigh- 
bourhood of Pusa grow Ainan paddy. 



410 rROCEEDINGS OF THE TITIKD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

There lias been no opportunity of examining Desaria paddy. Both 
Aus and Aman varieties were kept under observation in different fields 
a short description of which is given below. 

Dhougamma chaur is about 400 acres in area. About 100 acres 
in the middle remains permanently under water. 

Harpur chaur, about 250 acres in the area, is a somewhat marshy 
land. 

Guzarmalla, a high land, is about 30 acres in area, 

Deopar Gonhri, a high land, is about 40 acres in area. 

Jhilli, a high land, is about 60 acres in area. 

Sweepers' plot, consisting of about one or two acres in area, is in 
the trenching ground within the Pusa Estate. 

The method of examination was as follows : Plots 5 yards X 5 yards 
were marked out at different places in the fields and the plants which 
showed " dead heart " or were dry within this area were counted. In 
order to get an approximate number of the plants growing within 
5 yards x 5 yards, the plants within an area of 1 yard X 1 yard anywhere 
within the 5x5 area were counted. Plants standing in water as well 
as in dry ground were selected for examination. The results of examina- 
tion of the plants at various periods of their growth are given in Table 
XII. The amount of damage in the different plots and in the different 
fields varied, it being more in some and less in others. Table XII gives 
an idea of average damage over large tracts. The damage hardly 
exceeds about 4 per cent.* 

The results of the examination of stubbles in five of the fields men- 
tioned above, excepting Dhougamma and Harpur chaurs, are given in 
Table XIII. 

From the stubbles which showed signs of borer attack the percentage 
of damage was calculated to vary from 14 to 55 in the various countings 
and to be about 29 on the average. This percentage would indicate 
the proportion of chaff in the harvested grain. Actually, however, as 
will appear from Table XII, giving results of the examination of growing 
rice, the damage at no period of the growth of the plants exceeded about 
4 per cent, and usually it was much less than 2 per cent. All the four 
principal borers, viz., S. infer ens, Chilo simplex, Rice Chilo and Schceno- 
hius bipunctifer, appear on a large scale in October-November when the 
plants put forth ears. At this time a large number of young larvae of 
all these borers is found in individual plants, the maximum number 

* It must be pointed out that this figure represents the state of affairs only in a 
.'Small district in North Bihar. In other parts of India the damage is certainly much 
greater. In Madras, for example, the average loss may be taken as ten per cent., repre- 
senting a money value of approximately one hundred millions of rupees every year 
in this Presidency alone. 



PEOCEKDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



411 




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414 



mOCEEDINGS OF THE TIIIKD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



actually found being as many as 72. These young caterpillars spread 
after a short time and go into other plants ; but by that time the grains 
are formed and developed so that although many plants are bored they 
are observed to have sound ears. Three 2| yards x 2J yards plots 
were selected at random at Bhoraha which showed a bad attack, just 
before harvest, and the results of the examination are given in Table 
XIV. The plants in columns 6 and 7 of this Table must have been 
attacked before the crop came into ear and many of them were young 
undeveloped shoots the tillers 'of which developed and bore ears. As 
will appear from this Table, no correct idea can be formed of the actual 
damage by the borers from an examination of the stubbles. 

The presence of a large number of hibernating larvae, at least of some 
species, in the stubbles of a field does not seem to affect the crop in the 
next year. In September 1917 large numbers of Rice Chilo caterpillars 
were obtained in the sweepers' plot within the Estate. In 1918 there 
was hardly any Rice CMIo in this plot. 



Damage to Juar {Andropogon sorghum) by Borers. 

In the young state juar is very liable to be affected by Muscid flies 
and throughout its grown-up state by the other borers mentioned under 
it. Chilo simplex and Diatrwa venosata are however, the most injurious. 
Both these borers hibernate in large numbers in juar stalks, individual 
stalks harbouring as many as twenty or even more hibernating larvas. 

Twenty-five varieties of juar were grown in small plots (one-fortieth 
of an acre) in the permanent experimental area of the Pusa Farm in 1918. 
The result of examination of them in the first week of November is 
given in Table XV. 

Table XV. — The varieties of Juar mi sinall plots were side by side in the 
Punjab experimental area excepting No. 25, Dura, which ivas at 
some distance. 





Farm 
No. 


Variety 


Counted Cth Nov- 
ember 1918 




Serial 
No. 


Total No. 
of plants 

in the 

plot 


No. of 
affpetod 
plants 


Insects found in two affected 
plants brought for examination 


1 

2 

4 


IB 
2A 
2B 

3A 


Emphie juar 
Nilva juar . 
Utavali juar 

Siindhia juar 


777 

on 

832 

847 


11 

10 

8 

13 


3 1). venosata larvae. 

1 Chilo simplex larva. 

No living larva or grub or pupa 
case. 

3 Chilo simplex larvae 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



415 



Tabh XV. — The varieties of Juar in small plots were side hy side in the 
Punjab experimental area excepting No. 25, Dura, which ivas at 
some distance — contd. 





Farm 
No. 


Variety 


COUNTED 6th XO- 
VEMBER 1918 


Serial 
No. 


Total No. j 
of plants ' 
in the 
plot 


No. of 

affected 

plants 


5 


3B 


Black Hall Kuslag. 


65 


21 


6 


3C 


White Parre 


28 


12 


7 


3D 


Maucher Brown . 


63 


18 


8 


3E 


Red Kaffer . 


78 


9 


9 


4A 


Black Hall Kaffer . 


90 


4 


10 


4B 


Dwarf Kaffer 


109 


None. 


11 


4C 


Standard Melo juar 


94 


11 


12 


4D 


Dwarf Melo . 


169 


13 


13 


4E 


White Melo . 


252 


4 


14 


5A 


Local juar* . 


292 


• None. 


15 


5B 


Emphie or Impey juar . 


296 


11 


16 


6A 


Alakh juar . 


158 


6 


17 


6B 


White Turee 


201 


24 


18 


7A 


Red Sathree 


189 


9 


19 


7B 


Nilva juar . 


217 


4 


20 


8A 


Utavali 


206 


10 


21 


SB 


Sundhia juar 


227 


24 


22 


9A 


! Khaudia juar 


248 


13 


23 


[9B 


Hundi juar . 


97 


3 


2-i 


10 


Slialu juar . 


041 


54 


25 


•• 


Dura . . . . 

1 


126 

1 


86 



Insects found in two affected 
plants brought tor examination 



6 Chilo simplex larvK. 
16 Chilo simplex larvae. 

7 Chilo simplex larvte. 

1 Chilo simplex larva. 

1 Chilo simplex larva ; 
stunted by fly maggots. 



some- 



10 Chilo simplex larvce, 1 para- 
sitic grub. 

3 Chilo simplex larvae. 

6 1). venosata larvje, G Chilo- 
simplex larvae. 



6 Chilo simplex larvre. 

3 Chilo simplex larvae. 

10 Cliilo simplex larvce (about 5- 
half-grown). 

9 Chilo simplex larvffi. 

1 Chilo simplex larva. 

1 Chilo simplex larva, 1 V, 
venosata larva. 

14 Chilo sim2)lex larvae. 

1 Chilo simplex larva . 

4 Chilo simplex larva>. 

9 larvse and 1 pupa case of 
Chilo simplex. 

2 C'lulo simplex larvae 1 para- 
sitized. 



By " affected " plants are meant those only which showed signs of 
being bored by borers. Two affected plants from each plot were brought 
and examined to see what the borers were. The borer larvas found were 
all grown-up. 

With regard to local juar, in 1917 up to about ]\Iay there was a large 
area grow^n as a rabi crop in JhilU and it was entirely free from borers, 
although there were large numbers of Chilo simj^lex and Sesamia inferens 
in the contiguous maize crop, 

VOL, I 2 E 



416 PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIED laO'DMOLOGICAL MEETING 

For entomological observation the following plants were grown in 
•^ acre plots side by side : 

Maize Juar. Bajra. Sudan Guinea Rarhi Batri 

(Inipey grass grass 

variety). 

At a distance of about 200 yards from tbis variety plot there was 
in the trenching ground about 2 acres of winter paddy, there being 
no other rice within about half a mile. All of the above remained on 
the ground from about June to November. Rarhi and hatri did not 
have good growth as they require well-developed roots which cannot 
grow unless they be at a place for a few years continuously. 

In the jwar, Chilo simplex occurred in large numbers, Diatrcea venosata 
in smaller numbers and Sesamia hiferens in still smaller numbers. 
Between 11th and 16th October, out of 3,174 plants in the entire plot, 
501 were observed to have been bored in the stem and each stem to 
harbour from 3 to 8 larvae and pupae of Chilo simplex. The affected 
plants were cut and kept under observation. The caterpillars hibernated 
in them. 

In Sudan grass, Chilo simplex and Diatrcea venosata occurred to the 
same extent as in juar. 

In maize, Chilo simplex and Sesamia inferens, the latter in smaller 
numbers, occurred up to about August. In the ripening plants there 
was hardly any borer. 

In' bajra there was no borer. Only one Chilo simplex larva was 
observed in the entire plot. This crop is usually observed to be practi- 
cally immune. 

In Guinea grass there was no borer. 

In rarhi, Diatrcea auricilia occurred in small numbers. 

In hatri, Diatrcea auricilia and the Zeuzerid borer (C. S. 1696) occurred 
in small numbers. 

In the neighbouring rice plot hardly any Chilo simplex occurred al- 
though it was occurring in numbers on rice outside the Pusa Estate. 



Parasites and Predators. 

Special attention has not been paid to parasites of the borers but 
parasites necessarily came under observation in the course of examining 
thousands of caterpillars and pupae. At Pusa, Dacca and Cawnporc and 
probably in the whole of North India there are hymenopterous para- 
sites including Chalcidids, Braconids and Ichneumons on practically 



I'KOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 417 

all species of Diatrcea, Chilo and Scirpophaga, and they are present 
througliout the period of activity of the borers. No Dipterous parasite 
has been observed in Northern India although some were obtained 
from Chilo simplex caterpillars sent from Gujarat and the Konkau. 
Occasionally Carabid grubs (species of Chlcenius) are observed preying 
upon the larviB in affected stems. But the combined influence of all 
these enemies does not seem to be great. • 



Conclusion. 

The borer pests of gramineous crops of only one locality, viz., Pusa, 
have so far been investigated. Although most of them are wide-spread 
there are some which are apparently confined to particular localities. 
For instance, Diatrcea sp. (C. S, 1610) is confined to Eastern Bengal 
and Assam. As of all the borers it is the most injurious to grown-up 
canes, its introduction to other localities should be guarded against. 
Further work may reveal the presence of other borers in particular 
localities whose indiscriminate spread may not be desirable. The 
presence of one such borer is suspected in Southern India. 

In the present incomplete state of the investigation no practical 
effective measures can be suggested against the borers. The old recom- 
mendation of cutting out " dead hearts" in sugarcane is of hardly any 
use and is distinctly injurious under certain conditions especially when 
the crop is young. Similarly cutting out dry ears of rice has hardly 
any effect on the crop. We are not yet in a position to suggest any- 
thing. The presence or absence of alternative foodplants has certainly 
some efiect on the prevalence in any crop of the Pyralid and Noctuid 
borers. This, as already stated, has been definitely observed in the 
case of Scirpophaga and the Noctuid borer C. S. 1666. The presence 
of alternative foodplants has a great deal to do with the absence of 
Chilo simplex, Diatrcea venosata and Sesamia spp. in injurious numbers 
at Pusa although each of them is capable of doing serious harm. A 
good deal of work is necessary in order to be able to study this question 
thoroughly under different conditions and to regulate alternative food- 
plants as an effective weapon to fight the borers, if it is proved that 
control can be effected in this way. 

While we cannot suggest any treatment of the young crop of suf^ar- 
cane, in the case of those insects which attack grown-up canes such as 
Scirpophaga spp. and Diatrcea sp. (C. S. 1610) removal of the affected 
stems is expected to reduce their number or at least prevent the increase 
of their number and hence this practice can be followed in the absence 
of a better method of dealing with them. 



CALCUTTA 

SUPERINTENDENT GOVERNMENT PRINTING, INDIA 

3, HASTINGS STREET 



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