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Report of the Proceedings 

of the — — 

Third Entomological Meeting 



Held at Pusa, 3rd to 13th February 1919 







LIBRARY OF 



1885-1950 



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REPORT 

OF THE 

Proceedings of the 'Vhird Entomological 
Meeting 

Held at Pusa on the 3rcl to 15th February 1919 

In Three Volumes 

Edited by 
T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, r.n., f.l.s., f.e.s., f.z.s., 

Imperial Entomologist 



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PREFACE. 

THE following Report contains an account of the Proceedings of the 
Third Entomological Meeting, held at Pusa on 3rd to 15th February 
1919. As in the case of the Report of the Proceedings of the Second 
Entomological Meeting, every endeavour has been made to provide as 
full and complete a record as possible. A mere abstract is of very little 
use to those workers who require to refer to the record for references 
on particular points. The cordial reception accorded to the preceding 
Report has indicated clearly the general appreciation of a detailed record 
of the Proceedings of a Meeting of this kind. 

Notes on the discussions which took place were taken at the time by 
Messrs. M. Afzal Husain and ( r. R. Dutt, who acted as Joint-Secretaries, 
and to whom I am indebted for their assistance. These notes were again 
gone over and rewritten by myself. 

This Report contains a record of ninety-two original papers read at 
the Meeting, exhibitions and discussions, covering various aspects of 
Indian Entomology. It will, I hope, be found useful by all interested 
in Entomology, both in and outside of India. That such Meetings are 
of interest and use to all entomological workers in India will, I think, 
be self-evident from this Report. 

It will perhaps save correspondence if I state here that no Report 
was pubUshed of the First Entomological Meeting held in 1915. The 
Report of the Second Meeting, held in 1917, is still available. 

T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, 
Pusa, Imperial Entomologist. 

-28th June 1919. 



List of those who attended the Third Entomological 

Meeting held at Pusa on 3rd to 

15th February 1919. 

Mcinhers. 

1. E. A. Andrews, B.A., Entomologist to the Indian Tea Association. 

2. T. V. Eamakrishna Ayyar, B.A, F.E.S.. F.Z S., Actii.g Gov- 

ernment Entomologist, Coinibatoie. 

3. C. F. C. Beeson, M.A., I.F.S., Forest Zoologist to the Government 

of India. 

4. Dr. C. a. Bentley, Sanitary Commissioner to the Government of 



5. A. N. BosE, Assistant to the Imperial Agricultural Bacteriologist, 

Pusa. 

6. B. G. BuET, B.Sc, F.C.S., M.B.E., Deputy Director of Agriculture, 

United Provinces. 

7. P. C. Ghaudhuri, Superintendent of Sericulture, Berhampore. 

8. E. A. d'ABREU, F.Z.S., Gurator of the Gentral Museum, Nagpur. 

9. E. S. David, Entomological Assistant, United Provinces. 

10. M. N. De, Sericultural Assistant, Pusa. 

11. Gaptain Froilano de Mello, Director of the Bacteriological Labo- 

ratory, Goa. 

12. V. G. Deshpande, B.A., Entomological Assistant, Bombay. 

13. H. L. DuTT, M.S.A., Officiating Economic Botanist, Bihar and Ori.«sa. 

14. G. R. DuTT, B.A., Entomological Assistant, Pusa (Joint Secretary). 

15. T. Bainbeigge Fletcher, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S., Imperial 

Entomologist to the Government of India {Chairman). 

16. G. G. Ghosh, B.A., Entomological Assistant, Pusa. 

17. L. H. GouGH, Ph.D., F.E.S., Director of the Entomological Service, 

Egypt. 

18. H. S. Govind Rao, Student, Agricultural Bacteriological Section, 

Pusa. 

19. S. Gupta, L. Ag., Entomological Assistant, Assam. 

20. Abdul Haq, Fieldman, Entomological Section, Pusa. 

21. Harihar Prasad, Assistant, Agricultural Bacteriological Section, 

Pusa. 

22. S. HiGGiNBOTTOM, Director of Agriculture, Gwalior. 

23. M. Afzal Husain, M.Sc, Supernumerary Entomologist, Pusa 

{Joint Secretary). 

( V ) 



( vi ) 

24. C. M. Hutchinson, B.A., Imperial Agricultural Bacteriologist to 

the Government of India. 

25. C. M. Inglis, M.B.O.U., Laheria Serai. 

26. P. Isaac, B.A., Entomological Assistant, Madras. 

27. T. N. Jhaveri, L. Ag., Entomological Assistant, Bombay. 

28. Eamrao S. Kaseegode, L.x\g., Assistant Professor of Entomology, 

Poona. 

29. J. L. Khare, L. Ag,, Lecturer in Entomology, Nagpur. 

30. K. KuNHi Kannan, M.A., F.E.S., Senior Entomological Assistant, 

Mysore. 

31. J. Mackenna, C.I.E., M.A., I.C'.S., Agricultural Adviser to the 

Government of India. 

32. C. S. MiSRA, B.A., First Assistant, Entomological Section, Pusa. 

33. Ahmad Mujtaba, Head Fieldman, Entomological Section, Pusa. 

34. D. NowROJi, B.A., Entomological Assistant, Pusa'. 

35. G. D. Ojha, Fieldman, Entomological Section, Pusa. 

36. C. U. Patel, Entomological Assistant, Baroda. 

37. E. Madhavan Pillai, D. Ag., Entomological Assistant, Travancore. 

38. Y. Kamachandra Eao, M.A., F.E.S. , Entomological Assistant, 

Pusa. 

39. Eam Saran, Fieldman, Entomological Section, Pusa. 

40. W. Eobertson Brown, Agricultural Officer, North-West Frontier 

Province. 

41. P. C. Sen, Entomological Collector, Bengal. 

42. E. Senior- White, F.E.S?, Matale, Ceylon. 

43. Dwarka Prasad Singh, Fieldman, Entomological Section, Pusa. 

44. Harchand Singh, L. Ag., Agricultural Officer, Patiala. 

45. G. E. C. Wakefield, O.B.E., Director-General of Industries, Agri- 

culture and Commerce, Hyderabad (Deccan). 

46. M. Zahaeuddin, Forest Officer, Bhopal. 



The JoUowing , ivho did not attend the Meeting, took part by the contribvtion 
of pajKrs. 

47. E. D. Anstead, M.A., Deputy Director of Agriculture, Planting 

Districts, South India. 

48. Professor C. T. Bkues, Harvard University, United States of America. 

49. Major F. C. Eraser, I.M.S., Bombay. 

50. D. T. FuLLAWAY, Entomologist to Board of Commissioners of Agri- 

culture and Forestry, Hawaii. 
5K K. H. Hankin, M.A., Sc.D., Chemical Examiner, Agra. 
52. E. Meyrick, B.A., F.E.S., Marlborough, England. 



( vii ) 

53. W. Ormiston, F.E.S., Haldummulla, Ceylon. 

54. Professor E. B. Poulton, D.Sc, F.R.S., Oxford University. 

55. Baini Prasad, D.Sc, OfEciatiug Director of Fisheries, Bengal, 

Bihar and Orissa. 

56. David Sharp, F.R.S., Brockenhurst, England. 

57. T. Shiraki, D.Sc, F.E.S., Government Entomologist, Formosa. 

58. T. V. Subramaniam, Entomological Assistant, Madras. 

59. K. D. Shroff, B.A., Entomological Assistant, Bunua. 

60. A. W. Slater, Calcutta. 

61. J. Henry Watson, F.E.S., Manchester, England. 

62. F. C. WiLLCocKs, F.E.S., Entomologist to the Sultanic Agricultural 

Society, Cairo, Egypt. 



CONTENTS. 



Paob. 

Preface . . . . iii 

List of those who attended the Mectiug . . . . . . v 

Opening Address by the Agricultural Adviser . . . 1 

Chairman's Opening Address 2 

Committees 22 

Papers read at the Meeting. 

1. Insect control, by E. A. Andrews 23 

- 2. Annotated list of Indian Crop-pests, by T. Bainbrigge Fletcher ... 33 

3. Some Insects recently noted as injurious in South India, by T. V. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar . . . . . . . . . . . .314 

4. Note on the more important Insect Pests of Planting Districts of South India 

and the methods of control used, by R. D. Anstead ..... 328 

5. A list of Lepidoptera noted to attack cultivated plants in Ceylon, by R. Senior- 

White 332 

6. A list of plants with their Lepidopterous Pests in Ceylon by R. Senior-White . 337 

7. A list of the Pests of Cereals in Burma, by K. D. Shroff . . . .341. 

S.'A list of the Pests of Pulses in Burma, by K. D. Shroff 343 

9. A list of the Pests of Oil-seed plants in Burma, by K. D. Shrofi . . .347 

10. A list of the Pests of Tobacco in Burma, by K. D. Shroff . . . .349 

11. A hst of the Pests of Vegetables in Burma, by K. D. Shroff . . . .349 

- 12. Notes on miscellaneous Pests in Burma, by K. D. Shroff .... 352 

13. A list of the Pests ol Sugarcane in Burma, by K. D. Shroff .... 354 

14. Borers m Sugarcane, Rice, etc., by T. Bainbrigge Fletcher and C. C. Ghosh . 354 



LIST OF PLATES. 

Paoe. 

Plate 1. Group of Third Entomological Meeting 1 

„ 2. harva oi Oxijrimbiihjx fscriceipennis on vralnut a.t!ihil\ong; Sphingid 

{Langia zenzeroiile-f) larva on apple at Shillong ... 98 

3. IjaTva, o{ Actins selene ;\a,vva,ot Antheroea roylei .... 99 

4. Notodontid larva on apple at Shillong ; Boarmiane (No. 2) larva on 
apple at Shillong 101 

5. Belippa larva on apple at Shillong ; Limacodid larvae on apple at 
Shillong 105 

6. Stages of Dyscerus fctcJieri on apple fruits at Shillong . . 210 

7. Dyscervs maligmis in f niits of Prunus vepaUnsis at Shillong. Apple 
fruits attacked by grubs of /Jj/scerMs moHffnas at Shillong . 211 

8. Linda nigro-scutatn, girdling apple twigs at Shillong . . . 210 

9. South Indian Insects . . . . . . . .,.315 

10. , 318 

11. Philatithns ramnkriiJince, Alcides pictus. ..... 319 

12. Jak Weevil ; Rubber Scolytid ; Rubber Platypodid . . .320 

13. Alcides Imbo {Coloured) 321 

14. Shot-hole Borer {Xyleborus fornicatus) of Castor stem at Bangalore . 322 
Jg I Cirphis albisiigma (Coloured) 323 

17. Orgyia postica (Coloured) ........ 324 

18. Bitter-gourd-vine Gall-fly 324 

19. Purohila sp.; Woolly Aphid on bamboo 325 

20. Panchmioihrip-i indicus on arrow-root leaves ..... 327 

21. A Burmese fisliing basket {Dalu) . . . . . . ■ . 353 

22. Gryllotalpa afrkana ......... 359 

23. Diagrammatic figure to show how mole-crickets feed . . . 3,'i9 

24. Anomaln biharensis (C. S. 1744) 301 

23. Adoreius caliginosua (C. S. 1793) 3C1 

26. Auloserica sp. (C. S. 1654) ; DraMermD sp. . . . . . 361 

27. Diagrammatic figure to show how Melolonthid grubs feed . . 301 

28. Weekly rainfall, mean temperature and mean humidity at Pusa 
during 1918 370 

29. Anthomyiad Fly (C. S. 1867) in Juar shoot 37O 

30. Pachydiplosis oryzm (CoXoavedi) 371 

31. Sliclaspis ceraiitina ; C. S. 1814 larva ; Annual life-cycle of Lamiad 
Borer(C. S. 1814) 371 

32. (C. S. 1814) Lamiad Borer Beetle 372 

33. WeevilBorerinraW(tshoot(C. S. 1778) -j 
„ in motha stem (C. S. 1397) J •*''- 

34. Purple Zeuzerid larva boring in Kanra ; Annual life-cycle of purple 
Zeuzerid 373 

35. Borer in Saccharum spontaneum stem (C. S. 1696) ; Annual life- 
cycle of Borer in /SaccAarwm «;)on<aneum (C. S. 1696) . . . 374 

{ xi ) 



XII LIST OF PLATES. 

Page. 

Plate 36. Sesamia inferem (Coloured) 375 

„ 37. Sesamia injerena and Sesamia -iiiiiformis ; po.stcrior extremity of 

pupse 375 

„ 38. Borer in Saccharum spontanevm (C. .S. IGCO) ; Borer in kanra root 

(C. S. 1771) 377 

„ 39. Borer in Eleusine coracana (C. S. 1837) ; annual lifc-cj'clo of Emma- 

locera depressella 378 

„; 40. Emmalocera depressella (Coloured) ...... 379 

„ 41. Scirpophaga zanthogaslrella (anriflna) (Coloured) .... 381 

„ 42. Annu.al life-cycle of Scirpophaga xanthogaslrella ; S. monosUgmn ; annual 

life-cycle of Schcenobius bipvndifer 382 

„ 43. Scha:nobiusbipii,nclifer(Co\o\iTeA) 383 

„ 44. Eaphimetopus aUuiclla in sugarcane (C. S. 1801) ; Annual life-cycle 

of Chilo simplex. . 385 

,. 45. Egg-cluster of CTi7o sfmpica; (C. S. 1819) ; and C7a7o sim;)Zea: larva . 380 

., 46. Chilo simplex larva (C. S. 1580) ; C. simplex pupa (C. S. 1561) . . 386 

„ 47. C7»/o «'mp?cj: moths (C. S. 1551) 380 

„ 48. Diatraa auricilia larva (C. S. 1574) ; D. anricilia pupa (C. S. 1560) . 387 
„ 49. Egg-cluster of Diatra:a africilia (C. S. 1787) ; egg-cluster of D. 

venosala ; annual life-cycle of D. venosata ; annual life-cycle of 

D. auricilia 387 

„ 50. Dia;r«;o t'e«osflto larva (C. S. 1635) ; D. venosaUi pupa (C S. 1007) . 388 

„ 61. Diatrcca venosata moths ........ 388 

„ 52. Argyria tumidicostalis, larva and pupa 389 

., 53. Argyria tumidicostalis larva ; annual life-cycle of Diatraa sp. (C. S. 

1674) 389 

„ 54. Argyria tumidic^talis, moths ....... 389 

„ 55. ? Dialroea sp. in^sugarcane at Dacca, larva and pupa . . . 390 

„ 56. „ „ „ „ moths 390 

„ 57. Rice Chilo (C. S. 1677) ; larva and pupa 390 

„ 58. Rice Chilo (C. S. 1677) moths ; annual life-cycle of same . . .390 

„ 59. Borer in Kanra stem (C. S. 1769) ; larva and moth .... 391 
„ 60. „ „ „ ; pupa ; Borer in ilri stem (C. H. 

1795) pupa and moth 391 

„ 61. Borer in rar7ii(C. S. 1831); larva and pupa . . . . . 392 

„ 62. Borer in rarhi (C. S. 1831), moths; Borer in Saccharu/n fiiscum, 

moth (C. S. 1835) " . .392 

„ 63. Borer in i«-n(C.S. 1835); larva and pupa 392 

„ 64. Pyralid larva boring in Saccharum spontanevm ; (F. 18), Borer in 

ikri stem, larva ......... 393 

„ 65. Ramila rujicosialis ; Argyroploce paragramma .... 394 

„ 06. Ueliothis obsoleta (urmigera) (Coloured) 394 

„ 67. Dasyses rugosellus, larva and moth 395 

„ 68. Effect of borer attack on growth of cano ..... 396 

„ 69. Plan of two experimental plots under cane . . . . . 408' 



Proceedings of the Third Entomological Meeting 

VOLUME 1 



Fro>ili'>pii're, Page 1, 




PROCEEDINGS 



Third Entomological Meeting 



The Third Entomological Meeting was held at Pusa from 3rd to 
15th February 1919, both days inclusive. The Proceedings were opened 
in a short speech of welcome to the delegates by Mr. J. Mackenna, C.T.E., 
I.C.S., Agricultural Adviser to the Government of India, who was followed 
by the Chairman, Mr. T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, K.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., 
F.Z.S., in an Address to the Meeting, after which the business before the 
Meeting was proceeded with, as is detailed in the following account of 
the Proceedings. 

Opening Speech by the Agricultural Adviser to the Government 
OF India. 

Air. Fletcher and Gentlemen, I desire to extend to you a very cordial Mr, Mackenna- 
welcome to Pusa. And in particular I wish, on behalf of myself and of 
the Government of India, heartily to greet representatives from the 
Portuguese Government in the person of Captain de Mello and from Egyj t 
as represented by Dr. Gough. From all parts of the Indian Empire and 
from great distances you have come to attend these meetings and I trust 
that, on their conclusion, you will agree that the time and the effort 
involved, has been well worth it. I have much pleasure, Gentlemen. 
in welcoming you all. 

Sectional Meetings of the Board of Agriculture are now a recognized 
part of our departmental activities. But. before the adoption of this 
formal scheme by the Government of India, Mr. Bainbrigge Fletcher was 
in the habit of holding, at regular intervals, informal meetings of workers 
on Entomology at which many important and valuable discussions took 
place. These meetings are nov/ official and will be convened by the 
Government of India, but I hope that their value will not be diminished 
but rather enhanced by their change from informality to formality. 
It has been most gratifying to me, as I am sure it must be to you, to have 
heard from many sources appreciations of the value of your last published 
Proceedings. They were so recorded as to avoid entirely the official 



2 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIED EXTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

style and were invested with a personal tone wliicli gave them a very 
live interest. 

The exjjeriences of the last few years have turned men's thoughts 
more to the practical aspects of life and this is bound to be reflected in 
our views on education. I think one result of the war will be that educa- 
tion will take on a much more live aspect, and that the study of living 
phenomena will be greatly increased. And I venture to predict that a 
new era is arising as regards the study of biological questions. Entomo- 
logy is bound to come into greater prominence in the future. 
Already on the medical side men are talking of the next great war as the 
war of man against insects. 

On the side of Agricultural Entomology with which we are more 
ps.rticularly concerned the war being waged by you against the depre- 
dators of our agricultural crops is no less important. It is of little avail 
that improved agricultural methods should give us higher yielding crops, 
if annually the ravages of insects can be calculated in millions of pounds 
sterling. In time of war the mobilisation of our food supplies is almost 
as important as the mobilisation of our fighting men and any efforts of 
science which will assist in ensuring to us the full fruits of the earth or 
their jDreservation, when garnered, are of incalculable value to the nation. 
To the creation of such a position of security the labours of our Entomo- 
logical workers contribute. It is quiet, inconspicuous work, in which, 
I fear, the public as a whole take little interest. But it is none the less 
valuable that it is unobtrusive and unpretentious, and all honour is due 
to the small body of zealous and earnest workers, who are content to 
make its pursuit their life work. " Science is * * * like virtue 
its own exceeding ereat roward." 

I cannot, however, but feel that the time is coming when there will 
be an awakening to the vast importance of the subject in India. The 
popularity of these small conferences indicates that there is an increasing 
interest. Much has been done by Mr. Bainbrigge Fletcher to impress 
on Government the importance of the subject and his views on the expan- 
sion and centralization of Entomological work in India have been cordially 
endorsed by the Indian Industrial Commission. The future therefore 
seems full of promise. 

I trust that the results of your labours will be to j^our own profit 
and advantage and to the benefit of the agriculture of this vast Empire. 



Address by the Chairman. 
I am sure that we are all much indebted to Mr. Mackenna for coming 
here today and opening our Proceedings, and that we all appreciate the 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING d 

kindly words he has used regarding our past Meetings and this present 
one. 

It is once again my privilege, on behalf of the Staff of the Entomologi- 
cal Section of this Institute, to welcome to Pusa the many delegates who 
have come here from all parts of India, and even on this occasion from 
Ceylon and Egypt. We have at this Meeting a larger and more represen- 
tative gathering than at either of our previous Meetings. Assam, Bengal, 
Bihar and Orissa, the United Provinces, the North- West Frontier Pro- 
vince, Bombay, the Central Provinces and Madras have all sent one 
or more delegates of the Agricultural Service and only the Punjab and 
Burma are unrepresented, although Mr. K. D. Shroff has contributed 
a long hst of 'papers on Burmese insect and other pests. Hyderabad, 
which has not been represented before at our Meetings, has sent Mr. 
Wakefield, the Director-General of Industries, Agriculture and Commerce. 
Baroda is also represented by Mr. Patel ; Central India by Mr. S. 
Higginbottom, Director of Agriculture, Gwalior, and Mr. M. Zahar- 
uddin, Forest Officer ; Patiala by Mr. Harchand Singh, Superin- 
tendent of Dairy Farms, and Mysore and Travancore have each sent 
an entomological delegate. From the Forest Department we have Mr. 
C. Beeson, the Forest Zoologist, who has promised us several papers, 
amongst which we shall all look forward to hearing that on some 
problems in forest insect control. Mr. Osmaston, Director of the Forest 
Eesearch Institute at Dehra Dun, had also intended to have been present 
here to-day, but was unfortunately prevented at the last moment. 
The Indian Tea Association has very kindly permitted the attend- 
ance of their Entomologist, Mr. E. A. Andrews, who has promised us 
two papers on Tea Pests and another on the control of insect pests. 
The Bengal Government have also permitted the attendance of Dr. 
C. A. Bentley, their Sanitary Commissioner, and of Dr. Baini Prasad, 
who will not be able to attend this meetmg but has promised to 
send us a paper about aquatic insects as destroyers of fish in 
India. Portitguese India has sent a delegate in the person of Captain 
Froilano de Mello who has contributed a paper descriptive of those 
curious protozoal parasites, the Trichonymphids, found in extraordinary 
numbers in some species of Termites. Portugal, I may remind you, 
is a very old ally of ours and we therefore welcome Captain Froilano 
de Mello to our Meeting because he is present not only in his scientific 
capacity, since his presence is a mark of the amity existing between the 
British and Portuguese nations. Dr. Lewis H. Gough, Director of the 
Entomological Section, has been sent all the way from Egypt especially 
to represent his Government at this Meeting. The problems of entomo- 
logical research in Egypt are in many ways similar to those which we 



4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

have in India and we therefore appreciate all the more the delegation of 
a special representative of the Government of Egypt. Dr. Gough has 
brought with him a most interesting paper on Pink Bollworm in Egypt, 
into which country it was introduced from India, and I am sure that we 
shall all look forward to hearing it next week. The Government of 
Ceylon were asked to send their Government Entomologist but unfor- 
tunately were unable to send a delegate to this Meeting although they 
intimated that they hoped to be able to do so in future. Cej' Ion, however, 
is not left unrepresented, as Mr. R. Senior- White has been sufficiently 
interested to come all the way from Ceylon to Pusa in order to give us 
all the information he can about the insect pests of Ceylon, most of 
which, I need scarcely add, are identical with ours in India, of which- 
Ceylon is, entomogeographically speaking, only a part. Mr. C. M. 
Inglis, from Laheria Serai, is also taking part in this Meeting and has 
sent his collection of wild Indian silkmoths for exhibition. 

On behalf of the Entomological Section of this Institute, I welcome 
all these delegates to our Meeting and hope that their visit to Pusa may 
be a pleasant one in every way so that they may carry away pleasant 
recollections as well as any items of information they may pick up. At 
the same time, I trust that they will leave us the richer for all the new 
information concerning insects which they have doubtless brought with 
them. 

We are to-day commencing the third of our Entomological Meetings, 
of which the first was held herein 1915 and the second in 1917, but the 
present Meeting differs from the former ones in three respects : — 

(1) It is intended to last for a fortnight instead of only a week and, 
unless we become seriously pressed for time, we shall hold meetings in 
the morning only, leaving the afternoons free for the visitors to consult 
collections and records and to gather any information and to see the 
place generally. In order that you may do this last I have arranged with 
the other Heads of Sections at Pusa for convenient dates and times for 
you to visit their Sections if you care to do so. At the end of this 
Meeting we shall be able to see whether the one-week or two-week 
arrangement is preferable and arrange accordingly for future Meetings. 

(2) This Meeting differs from the former two in being of a more official 
character, '^he First Meeting in 1915 was arranged on my own initiative 
in order primarily to get the provincial workers in closer touch with one 
another and with our work at Pusa and also to link up the work done 
in the Agricultural Department with that being done by other entomo- 
logical workers in India, whether their results were applied to agriculture 
or not. Much the same remarks apply to our Second Meeting. Since 
then, however, the Tenth Meeting of the Board of Agriculture was held 



PEOCEKDINGS OF THE THIBD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

at Poena in December 1917 and, among other subjects discussed, was this 
question of Sectional Meetings, regarding which the Board passed the 
following Resolution : — 

" That meetings of the entomological sections be 

held in years in which there is no meeting of the Board of 
Agriculture, and that these should not be con fined to members 
of the agricultural department but others interested in these 
subjects be invited to attend." 
This Resolution of the Board has been approved by the Government 
of India and the present Meeting is the result of definite orders that such 
conferences are to be held henceforth at fairly definite intervals. The 
Resolution which I have just read, as you see, states definitely that they 
are to be " held in years in which there is no meeting of the Board of 
Agriculture." Now, the Board of Agriculture meets every second year, 
sometime in the cold weather between November and February inclusive, 
so this Resolution, if strictly interpreted, indicates that Entomological 
Meetings also are to be biennial events in future. Their order of fre- 
quency, however, is perhaps a matter which we can settle for ourselves 
if we desire to do so and go about it in a formal manner. I use the word 
" formal " deliberately, because, as I said just now, this Meeting is on a 
more official basis than previous ones and because I think there will be 
certain advantages if we adopt slightly more formality in this and subse- 
quent Meetings. I do not wish for a moment to imply that there is any 
idea of stifling discussion at these Meetings. We are all met here with 
the very object of mutual discussion. But there are a few things which 
we might perhaps do more formally, partly with the idea of saving time 
at the general meetings and partly with the idea of giving more force 
to our collective opinion on any subject. I propose therefore to appoint 
Committees to report on any subjects which may be usefully considered 
in this way in order that they may draw up and present to the Meeting 
reports which may form useful bases for discussion. I also propose, 
in cases where a subject is of sufficient importance and there is a clear 
preponderance of considered opinion after discussion regarding it, 
that such subject may form matter for a Resolution of the Meeting 
regarding it. If for example there is a consensus of opinion regarding 
the order of frequency of our Meetings, the best way to give it expression 
would be by a formal Resolution, which would doubtless be duly consi- 
dered by Government. You might consider this during the Meeting and 
at its close give your views regarding the next meeting, its duration, 
the date and place at which it should be held. As you know, the Board 
of Agriculture is a peripatetic body, meeting biennially, alternately at 
Pusa and in one of the Provinces. Hitherto, we have met at Pusa 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

because the collections and records are centralized at Pusa so far -as 
the Agricultural Department is concerned. But these Meetings are not 
confined to the Agricultural Department, and it may be that it might 
be advantageous for our Meetings to be held elsewhere, at least 
occasionally. I merely throw out the suggestion, which is for you 
to consider in order that you in your turn may be able to make any 
suggestions you think proper, at the close of this Meeting, regarding any 
subsequent ones. 

(3) You have been asked to bring with you to this Meeting written 
papers or notes on any subjects regarding which you have information 
to lay before the Meeting. The object of this is to facilitate securing a 
proper record of the Proceedings. At the 1915 Meeting the record kept 
proved so incomplete that it was not worth publication. At the 1917 
Meeting notes were taken as far as possible and these were worked up 
afterwards to form the Proceedings which were published and circulated 
to all of you. I may tell you that it took a great deal of hard work 
to go over the mass of notes taken and to rewrite, as far as possible in 
their own words, what everyone had to say about every subject. I 
leave it to you to say how far we succeeded. We at least rest content 
in the knowledge that we did our best. 

At the present Meeting the papers submitted will be read either in 
whole or in part or in abstract or merely by title — according to their 
general interest. After each paper is read, it will be open for general 
discussion. 

Since our last Meeting the War has caused us to mourn the loss of a 
valued colleague who attended our First Meeting here four years ago. 
Edward John Woodhouse died of wounds received in action in France 
on 18th December 1917 at the age of 33. At the outbreak of war he was 
a Captain in the Bihar Light Horse and in 1915 he joined the Indian 
Army Keserve of Officers, being subsequently attached to a Cavalry 
regiment. 

I first met Mr. Woodhouse in December 1910 when he came to Pusa 
to consult regarding the Agroiis ypsilon campaign at Mokameh. The 
use of poisoned bran baits, which had been recommended by Mr. Lefroy, 
had proved a faiktre, as the baits had dried up without being touched 
by the caterpillars, and it was not evident what was the next step to 
take. Just previous to this we had received some circulars about their 
traps from the Andres-Maire Company at Alexandria and, knowing 
from previous experience of sugaring in England that Agrotis 
moths were attracted to sweet baits, I suggested a trial of these traps, 
and it was arranged that one should be got out for Pusa and another 
one for Saboui. The result of the trial was completely successful and 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING i 

these traps have been used for control of Agrotis yjmlon to a considerable 
extent since then, as Mr. Woodhouse told us himself in this very room 
just four years ago. Subsequently I met Mr. Woodhouse many times 
and had considerable correspondence with him regarding entomological . 
matters, in which he took a keen interest, although he was of coiu'se a 
Botanist. His untimely death has deprived us of a valued colleague, 
whose place will be hard to fill. 

Another whose death has occurred since our last Meeting is Mr. 
Charles William Mason, who was the first Supernumerary Entomologist 
at Pusa and who will be remembered by many of you, although he left 
India just before my arrival so that I never met him personally. He 
came out to Pusa in December 1906 and during the next three years was 
stationed here, being chiefly occupied in an investigation of the food of 
birds, especially in relation to the value of birds to agriculture by their 
destruction of insect pests, and the third volume of Entomological 
Memoirs of this Department is wholly devoted to a record of this work. 

After his return to England in 1910 he studied for some time at the 
South-Eastern Agricultural College at Wye, and afterwards went to 
America as a Carnegie student to undergo further training in Entomology. 
Subsec^uently he was appointed to succeed Mr. E. Ballard as Government 
Entomologist in Nyasaland, where he died of black-water fever on 28th 
November 1917 at the Government Farm at Namiwawa. In his Annual 
Pieport for the year ended 31st March 1918, the Director of Agriculture 
in Nyasaland says : — " Mr. Mason was an exceptionally able and popular 
officer, his enthusiasm and care produced work of a very high standard^ 
his researches in connection with tobacco and cotton pests conferred a 
lasting benefit on the planting community, and his demise in the prime 
of young manhood is not only a loss to the Department and his fellow 
workers but to Tropical Agriculture in Africa." 

That is, I am sure, a statement which you will desire to endorse and 
I therefore propose to place the follo-wnng Resolution before you : — 

The Entomological Workers assembled at this Meeting desire to Resolution I 
express their sense of the loss to Entomological Science sustained by the 
untimely deaths of their former co-workers in India, the late Edward 
John Woodhouse and Charles William Mason, 

[Tliis Resolution teas passed in silence, all standing.] 

Before coming to a consideration of the subjects on our programme, 
there are one or two other points which I shouldjike to put before you, 
although they are not perhaps suitable for chscussion at the full Meeting. 

It has been suggested, from more than one direction, that we might 
form an Entomological Society in India and thus hnk together all the 
various workers on entomology in India, Burma and Ceylon. In this 



8 rKOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD EXTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

connection I may draw your attention to Appendix H to the Eeport of 
the Indian Industrial Commission in which they say :— 

" We desire to attract attention to the almost complete absence of 
scientific and technical societies in India. So long as the majority of 
the men in this country from whom such societies would naturally draw 
their members belonged to Government executive services, the subordi- 
nation essential to disciphne was unfavourable to their inception and 
growth ; but this phase is gradually passing away, owing to the much 
wider diffusion of scientific knowledge, to the rapid expansion of organized 
industries, and to the greatly increased number of scientific and technical 
experts in private employment." 



" It is unnecessary for us to dwell at any length upon the advantages 
which arise from a free interchange of ideas between men working in the 
same field of scientific investigation, and the stimulating effect of 
instructed criticism on men engaged in technical pursuits. 

" We are of opinion that the interests of India demand the estabhsh- 
ment of Indian institutes, societies and associations analogous to the 
Institution of Civil Engineers, the Chemical Society, and the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science. Action in this direction 
is urgently required to provide for the growing needs of Indians. It is 
true that they have free access to the Enghsh societies on the same terms 
as any other subjects of the Empire, and they are also freely admitted 
to American societies ; but beyond the prestige attaching to membership 
and the periodic receipt of copies of publications, they derive httle or no 
benefit from such distant associations, and they are altogether deprived 
of the advantages which arise from personal intercourse between the 
members. In matters connected with administration, the value of 
personal discussion has been recognized by Government, and every year 
an increasing number of conferences and committees meet to discuss 
specific problems. Men are convoked from all parts of India to exchange 
views, and experience shows that such meetings are well worth the 
time devoted to them and the expense incurred in bringing the officers 
together. But something more than this is necessary, and the movement 
in favour of it has found expression in the estabhshment of the Indian 
Science Congress, which was started four years ago and holds annual 
meetings in the month of January in one or other of the capital cities of 
India." 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 9 

" There would be advantages arising from a strong central society 
covering the whole of India, as membership thereof would confer a much 
greater prestige. Apart from the reading and discussion of professional 
papers, such a society would inevitably interest itself in many problems 
with which the State has to deal, and in which it would be advantageous 
-to obtain the considered opinion of such a representative body." 
****** 

" Such an institution should be an entirely independent body, to 
wliich Government can very well give an annual grant or subsidy in 
return for the indirect advantages which the country would enjoy in 
consequence of its establishment. We have in view an institution 
whose activities would be mainly devoted to professional and technical 
questions ; its existence therefore would be of great value in estabhshing 
a standard of professional conduct and efficiency." 

The above extracts refer more particularly to a Society of Engineers 
but as regards general scientific work in India they will show you what 
the Commission had in mind and I have no doubt that Government 
would view with sympathy any real desire on the part of scientific workers 
of any kind in India to form such societies and would perhaps assist 
to some extent. I do not know, however, to what extent the formation 
of an Entomological Society would meet the wishes and requirements 
of entomologists in India, nor, I must confess, do I qmte see what would 
be the functions of such a Society. If my scheme for centralization of 
entomological work in India eventuates, such a Central Institute and 
Service would fulfil all the ends of a Society as regards such items as 
pubhcations, collections, references and assistance generally to other 
workers. Even as it is, our periodical Meetings provide ample oppor- 
tunity for discussion of any problems and it is difficult to see how more 
frequent or better attended meetings could be arranged in such a vast 
country as India, nor is there any lack at present of facihties for pubh- 
cation in this country. If, however, any of you have any definite ideas 
on this subject, we might discuss it informally one afternoon or evening 
whilst we are all here and then, if any general agreement is reached, 
it might be brought forward more formally during the Meeting. 

Another subject which might perhaps be discussed informally at 
first is my scheme for the expansion of entomological work in India, 
which you will find published in Appendix K of the Industrial Commis- 
sion's Keport. Copies of this Keport are laid on the table for your perusal 
and when you have had time to go over it we might discuss that also one 
afternoon or evening. 

Our former Meetings were both held under the shadow of the Great 
War which has now happily come to a close and which has afiected our 



10 PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

work in so many ways. One of tlie obvious results of the war has been 
the great difSculty in obtaining apparatus. Another has been the set- 
baclc to our work owing to the difficulty in obtaining identifications of 
specimens, practically all of our younger specialists ha\'ing gone to the 
front. Another and more serious result has been the loss of parcels of 
specimens owing to the piratical action of the Germans in sinking merchant 
vessels indiscriminately. We at Pusa lost a large collection of Braconid 
parasites oi^ Earias fahia and E. insuhna, which means a loss of several 
years' work, and I understand that the Forest Eesearch Institute and the 
Zoological Survey have also sustained similar losses. Our losses in India 
have of course been infinitesimal in comparison to the damage and 
wanton destruction in Eiu-ope of collections in various branches of natural 
history. Some of the finest entomological collections in the world were 
in Russia, in Belgium and in Rumania. The dehberate destruction of 
irreplaceable objects of science and art, such as has taken place during 
this war, stamps the German people as an uncivihzed race of a very low 
type. It is sincerely to be hoped that in the future all entomological 
workers in India will mark their disapprobation of such misdeeds by 
declining to have any dealings with all Germans, that they will refuse 
to work with apparatus of any kind " made in Germany," that they 
will refuse to send any more collections for identification to Germany 
and thereby avoid having any more Indian insects described in a most 
barbarous language, and that they will as far as possible ignore all German 
literature pubhshed since August 1914. 

This last point, even if we are all agreed on it, will be difficult to enforce 
unless we can obtain universal agreement, but this might possibly be 
obtained, as many others must be of the same way of thinking at the 
present time. In his recent revision of the Hypsotropinse, for example, 
Sir George Hampson sa3's, " No quotations from German authors pub- 
lished since 1st August 1914 are inserted. ' Hostes hmnani generis' ." 

The International Entomological Congress, which met at Brussels 
in 1910 and at Oxford in 1912, was to have held its Third Session at 
Vienna in 1915. I have not heard any particulars regarding the third 
session, which was postponed indefinitely, but it is possible that it may 
be held at some date before our next Meeting and, if so, it would lend 
weight to our views if we could lay before the Congress our collective 
opinion on the subject of the treatment to be accorded to German workers 
and German entomological literature in the futiue. 

My own view, which I have held for a long time, is that the whole 
question of scientific pubhcations requires overhauhng and that pubhshed 
scientific work (in entomology at all events), to ensure proper recogni- 
tion, should be restricted as regards both the media and the languages 



PROCEEDINGS OP THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 11 

in which it appears. Separate pubhcations (for example, books ; although 
nothing should be considered as a book unless it contains a minimum 
number of pages) cannot easily be legislated for but there seems to be 
no end to the various serial publications in which entomological work 
appears now-a-days. Some time ago the Imperial Bureau of Entomology 
gave an mcomplete census of present-day periodicals in which entomo- 
logical articles are published, and this list, so far as I remember, came to 
over seventeen hundred. It is absolutely impossible to see all these, 
even in the best hbraries anywhere, and even a useful abstract hke the 
" Zoological Record "' is not really complete. Many important papers 
are published in Transactions of Societies, etc., which to the entomological 
world contain .little else of importance and no private worker and few 
public libraries can take in complete sets of such Transactions merely 
for the sake of an occasional paper which otherwise is overlooked or not 
accessible when required for reference. To take the case of India only, 
we have entomological papers appearing in the Memoirs, Bulletins and 
Annual Reports of the Agricultural and Forest Departments, the Memoirs 
and Records of thi Indian Museum, the Asiatic Society's Journal, the 
Bombay Natural History Society's Journal, the Indian Journal of Medical 
Research, the Journal of the Indian Tea Association, the Planters' Chro- 
nicle, Spoha Zeylanica, and half a hundred other Bulletins, Reports, 
Annuals and what-not issued by various Government Departments, 
Native States and others, although hardly one of these publications 
is devoted entirely to Entomology. I have dealt with tliis in my pro- 
posals for expansion and centrahzation of entomological work in India 
and only wish to draw your attention now to the large mass of current 
literature already in existence in India. But India is a comparatively 
small contributor to entomological hterature and we require a world- 
wide scheme to centralize work as much as possible. 

My idea, roughly, is tliis, that the leading entomological (or zoological) 
societies or workers in every civiUzed country should consider the Uterary 
output of their own country and compile a limited list of pubhcations 
which would be considered official from the point of view of scientific 
worth. For example, in England a dozen to twenty (at the outside) 
pubhcations — such as the Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal, 
Linnean, Zoological, and Entomological Societies, the Entomologist, the 
Entomologists' Monthly Magazine, the Entomologists' Record and a few 
other leading publications in pure and appHed entomology, including a 
few provincial pubhcations — should suffice for all scientific work. If 
anyone wished to pubhsh in non-official pubhcations they could do so, 
and their papers would of comse be on record but would possess no 
scientific value. The effect of this would be that the amateur and casual 



12 rROCEEDlNGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

workers would still be able to publish in their local Societies' Transac- 
tions and so on, but the serious worker would only have to consider 
a comparatively limited output of literature — Mmited, that is to say, for 
any one country but of pretty wide extent (jjrobably 150 to 200 pubh- 
cations) for the whole world. It would be better to have separate lists 
for entomological and zoological (non-entomological) j^apers, although the 
hsts might overlap in many cases. A permanent Committee in each 
country could consider apphcations for admission to the list of recognized 
publications but no new pubhcations should be admitted unless a clear 
want for additional publication-space was proved and in any case such 
admission should not be retrospective in effect. The lists approved by 
each local committee to be scrutinized and finally passed by an 
international committee (for example, at the International Zoological 
and Entomological Congresses). 

I quite see that there would be difficulties in starting such a scheme 
but, once started, I think it would work. And, unless something of this 
sort be done, it is not easy to imagine how entomological workers will 
get on, say a hundred years hence, if publications multiply at the present 
rate. It would, of course, only be possible to make such a scheme pros- 
pective from a definite date, of which due notice would be given. 

Another thing is the question of languages. It is not only the German 
language which is concerned but the whole matter is becoming one of 
general convenience. It is impossible for any ordinary man to be con- 
versant, even as far as mere reading goes, with English, French, Latin, 
German, Dutch, Russian, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and Japanese, 
in all of which languages important papers are appearing now-a-days— 
to say nothing ofi:yore or less occasional important papers in such langu- 
ages as Magyar. So far no original entomological papers of any peima- 
nent value have appeared in any Indian vernacular, but I know of 
nothing under the present rules governing publication of scientific work to 
prevent anyone publishing a paper in (say) Bengali or Malayalam and, 
although quite unintelligible to more than ninety-nine per cent, of the 
entomological world, such a publication would be recognized and secure 
priority under the present rules. Indeed, I know of no lule which would 
prevent my publishing a description of a new insect in an Indian 
vernacular in some obscure local daily paper. 

The present state of affairs is ridiculous and requires amending, 
not only by limiting the number of publications, but also by some limi- 
tation of the languages in which original scientific work should be allowed 
to appear and be recognized. I should restrict these languages to English. 
French, and perhaps Latin. In any case German should be absolutely 
barred in future. The local publication-committee in each country- 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE TUIKD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 13 

should recommend in what language each proposed "recognized " publi- 
cation would be issued and the international committee shoidd then go 
over these local lists and decide finally. There would probably be a 
considerable amount of disagreement over this language question, but,, 
as feelings are after this War, the Allies would probably secure a pre- 
ponderance at any international meeting in the near future, and it would 
be as well to take advantage of this before public opinion on the subject 
becomes blunted. 

The war has at least brought home the importance of a knowledge of 
entomology to many people whose previous idea of entomologists pictured 
them as useless, albeit harmless, cranks whose main object in life was the 
pursuit of butterflies by means of large green nets. The health of our 
troops in all the areas of the war has, however, required a vast deal of 
entomological work in controlling the various flies, mosquitos, lice and 
other insects which are carriers of disease, especially when large bodies 
of men are kept together in small areas under crowded and often neces- 
sarily insanitary conditions. Never before in such a short time has such 
a large number of entomological workers been employed on practical' 
work of this nature and never before has entomology so proved its value 
in this particular section of its sphere of usefulness. In the South African 
War the British Army lost nearly twice as many men from preventible 
diseases, chiefly typhoid fever, as it did from casualties in action. In 
the Spanish-American war one-sixth of the American troops was attacked 
by typhoid. Truly was it said that " Disease, not battle, digs the soldier's 
grave." But we have changed all that now-a-days to a very large extent 
and the preventible losses by disease during the recent war have been 
reduced to a comparatively trifling proportion, thanks to the adoption 
of scientific method, amongst which entomological investigations must 
be included. The transport and storage of the immense quantities of 
food-stuffs required for our forces during the war has also called forcible 
attention to the damage doi e to such food-stuffs by the numerous insect 
pests which attack stored produce. And the present world shortage 
of food and raw vegetable material is considerably aggravated by the 
losses caused by insect pests. It is not easily realized what these losses 
amount to in the aggregate. Taking only the case of agricultural crops 
grown in India, we may say that on an average ten per cent, of the total 
produce is destroyed by insect pests. In some cases it is more and in 
others less. The Director of Agriculture in Assam told me recently 
that, as the result of crop-cutting experiments in some districts in Assam, 
it was found that ninety per cent, of the paddy crop was destroyed 
ny insect pesvs and this is apparently a normal figure. Of course, we 
often find cases even of total destruction, but they are sporadic as a rule. 



14 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Taking, however, ten, per cent, as an average and calculating the total 
amount of loss annually in India we shall arrive at a figure which at the 
lowest cannot be placed at less than about Rs. 5,00,000,000. We have a 
long way to go yet in India before we can make peojjle understand the 
magnitude of this loss due to insect pests and to take Entomology really 
seriously, but the war will have had at least one good result if it helps 
to open people's eyes to these facts. 

The war has been responsible for the introduction of the word 
"" camouflage," and you have probably all seen pictures of disguised 
gun-positions, and of tanks and ships painted in weird combinations 
of colours. But concealing colouration was not an invention of the war. 
It was adopted by the animal world long ago and the insect world parti- 
cularly can show innumerable examples of things being not what they 
seem to be. Later on, I shall show you an excellent example of this. 
I might also call your attention to an article by Mr. J. C. Mottram in the 
Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 1916 (pp. 383-419) which deals 
with Indian butterflies and analyses their colour-patterns, showmg 
exactly how the various effects are produced. This is essentially the 
'• camouflage " principle, as evolved during the war. 

Insects have in fact anticipated many of man's present-day inven- 
tions. Our newspapers, which have brought us day by day the latest 
news of the happenings during the great struggle, are printed on paper 
which is almost wholly, made from wood-pulp and for years past the 
pine forests of the north temperate zone in Europe and North America 
have been ruthlessly destroyed at the rate of something like thirty 
milUon tons of timber per annum to satisfy the world's insatiable desire 
for paper. But few of those who read their daily paper know that the 
first suggestion that wood-fibre might be used for paper-making was 
made by an entomologist, Reaumur, who some two hundred years ago 
observed the structure of wasps' nests and how they are made of a paper- 
like material produced by these insects by the mastication of wood fibres. 
His observation seems trivial but its after-eft'ects afford only one of the 
many instances of the foundation of a great industry upon results ob- 
tained in scientific investigation. As Professor Silvanus P. Thompson 
has well put it : — " The seemingly useless or trivial observation made by 
one worker leads on to a useful observation by another ; and so science 
advances, ' creeping on from point to point.' " It is impossible to 
foresee what will be the ultimate practical outcome of even the smallest 
observation in matters scientific, provided that the observation is accurate, 
but we may be sure that sooner or later it will fit in with other equally 
small and seemingly useless facts to form a coherent whole. When we 
see the extensive uses of magneto-electricity now-a-days we are apt to 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING ' 15 

forget the seemingly trivial observation which led to this. In one of 
his experiments at the Royal Institution in London Faraday showed 
that when a magnet is brought suddenly near a coil of wire a slight 
electric current is induced in the coil. The experiment does not appear 
very impressive and a lady in the audience probably expressed the general 
sentiment when she asked afterwards, " But, Professor Faraday, even 
if the effect you explained is produced, what is the use of it ?" To which 
Faraday replied, " Madam, will you tell me the use of a new-born 
child 1" 

Nearly all the great inventions of our modern world, wireless tele- 
graphy, the telejjhone, the aeroplane, radium, anaesthetics and anti- 
toxins, spectrum analysis and X-rays, all had their foundations in purely 
scientific wort and were not the result of deliberate intention to make 
something of service to humanity. Scientific subjects do not progress 
necessarily on the lines of direct usefulness. Their appUed side may 
come many years after the actual discoveries themselves. Applying 
this to economic work in Entomology, as I said just now, provided that 
our work is accurate and honest, every smallest observation will ulti- 
mately prove to be of use whether in the immediate future it seems 
likely to be practically useful or not. As Aristotle said, " Let us first 
understand the facts, and then we may seek the cause." 

I am inclined to think that the control of insect pests in the future 
will be based on the dictum that " prevention is better than cure," and 
.that such prevention will be attained by an exact knowledge of each 
insect concerned, knowledge so exact that it will be known exactly under 
what conditions trouble is likely to occur, so that preventive measures 
can be taken before any actual damage has been done. This is not the 
case at present, as most of our so-called control measures are mere palli- 
atives, aiming only at minimizing damage which is already being done. 
I think that the control methods of the future will be based on fore- 
casts of the increase to destructive numbers of the particular insect 
concerned and that such forecasts will be based on an intensive study 
of a large number of exact records of occurrence of such insect. Why, 
for instance, does Xylotrechits quadripes, the Coffee Borer, appear in 
some years in swarms, whilst in other years this beetle is by no means 
plentiful ? Why do locust swarms invade India in some years and not 
regularly every year ? I think that, when we have accumulated exact 
records of such visitations and compare them with weather statistics and 
other records, we may find some correlation between them and, if so, 
we shall then be able to make insect-pest forecasts which can be used 
to nip the impending increase in the bud. But we shall only be able 
to do this when we have accumulated sufficient exact records of the 
Vol, I 



16 PROCEEDI>'GS OJ THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

occurrence of insect pests and for this reason all exact recotds at the 
present day are of importance. 

Entomology especially is such a vast science, with so many inter- 
related and interdependent branches, that progress in any one branch 
is necessarily dependent on progress in other branches as well. Economic 
work depends on progress in systematics, in the natural history (in its 
largest sense) of the insects concerned, and in control methods as applied 
to insects generally, as well as on some knowledge of the particular 
subject (agriculture, forestry, etc.) with which any particular insect is 
concerned, and all of these branches must be taken together if the best 
results are to be secured. The economic entomologist who thinks, 
for example, that he can get on quite well without bothering about the 
systematic side is on a par with the systematist who only pays attention 
to adult characters of insects and despises all information regarding their 
early stages and habits ', nor is the work of either likely to stand the test 
of time. 

But, although we cannot afford to neglect any aspect of Entomology 
. as a whole, it has become quite impossible for any one man to be profi- 
cient in, or even conversant with, the whole of such a vast subject as is 
Entomology now-a-days. We have, each of us, to do what we can in 
our little corner and to look to others for information on other subjects. 
Entomological research has become extremely specialized and tends to 
become more so in the future. There are no general entomologists 
now-a-days. The man who really knows his subject is a speciaHst in a 
comparatively small group of insects or in some other branch of entomo- 
logy. And so it is more and more coming to pass that we must rely on 
other's work for our own information, and this means that progress is 
only possible, in more than a very limited area at least, by mutual help. 
The specialist in one subject must be ready to help others in his speciality 
and must himself apply to others for' help outside of his own special 
group. As Laplace put it, " Nature is so varied in her manifestations 
and phenomena and the difficulty of elucidating their causes is so great, 
that many must unite their knowledge and efforts in order to compre- 
hend her and force her to reveal her laws." A Meeting of this sort 
provides an excellent opportunity for the exercise of that mutual confi- 
dence and mutual aid, of which I spoke at our last Meeting, and I hope 
that we shall all acquire at least a mutual knowledge of one another's 
information on the various subjects for discussion at this Meeting. 

Turning to the programme before us, you will see that a very large 
number of papers has been promised. The programme has been divided 
into twelve sections, purely for convenience in arranging the papers on 
various subjects. A paper may fall under more than one section. A 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING it 

^aper on a crop-pest, for example, might be placed under Agricultural 
Entomology or may deal with its life-history or systematics in which 
cases it could equally well be placed under these other sections. 

The first Section includes especially papers on Agricultural Entomo- 
logy and we commence with an annotated hst of general crop-pests 
followed by a paper on fruit-pests, both of which might be taken to- 
gether to save time. There are two ways of discussing crop-pests, 
one by taking each crop separate'y and going over its pests, the 
other by taking the insects themselves one by one in systematic order 
and going over their distribution, occurrence on various foodplants and 
control. At our last Meeting we went over our pest-hst by crops. At 
this Meeting we will do it the other way and consider each insect sepa- 
rately. We have prepared lists of these insects in systematic order and 
have summarized our information up to date. We shall thus indicate 
briefly what is known about each insect and you will be able to tell us 
any further facts. To facihtate matters I have had a series of the insects 
concerned put together so that if there is any doubt regarding the insect 
referred to you can refer to the specimens exhibited to make sure v/hat 
is meant. I must say, however, that I am quite unable to define what is 
a crop or what is a pest. Many plants, regarded as useless in some 
districts, are in others prized or even cultivated for their products. Ber 
(Zizypkus jujuha) is one. In most parts of the Plains it grows wild, but 
in some districts it is used extensively for growing lac or is cultivated for 
its fruits, and in such cases any insect attacking it and reducing its 
vigour must be looked on as a pest. Again, some insects are pests in 
some districts and not in others. Margaronia ccesalis is a case in point. 
In Southern India and Assam it is a pest of jak {Artocarpus integrijolia), 
but here at Pusa, where there are many jak trees and it occurs, it has 
never been noted to attack jak at all. Then there are the potential 
pests, to which I called youx attention at the last Meeting, quoting 
Prays citri as an example. Another example is Dacus olecB, the destruc- 
tive Ohve Fruit-fly of the Mediterranean Region ; we know that it 
occurs in Noith-Western India and that it is hkely to prove a serious 
menace to the budding ohve-growing industry in Kashmir and the North- 
West Frontier Province, although we do not as yet know of its having 
attacked cultivated olives. Yet another class of insects which would be 
refused admission to the pest-hst by some people are those which have 
never actually been reported as doing damage. But it must be remem- 
bered that, in a country hke India, it is comparatively rarely 
that any damage by insect pests is reported. Serious damage may be 
done for years without ever coming to the notice of the entomological 
stafis. Gracillmia zaclirysa, for example, occurs throughout the North- 

o2 



18 PEOCEEDI^-GS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

West Frontier Province from Parachinar to Abbottabad and also in- 
Assam at Shillong and probably all along the Himalayas and does serious- 
damage to young apple leaves ; yet it has never been reported. Similarly, 
apple fruits in Shillong are badly bored by two species of weevils, yet 
this has never been reported and we might have waited a long time for 
any knowledge of these pests if I had not happened to inquire into the 
subject of fruit-pests at Shillong last year. I think, therefore, that so 
far as pests are concerned it is better to be inclusive than exclusive 
when we come to hst them. It does no harm to include a doubtful case 
in the hst even if it ultimately turns out not to be a pest, but if we ex- 
clude it and it subsequently does do damage there is a danger that earlier 
information about it may be overlooked and not be available when 
required. If it is on the hst as a possible pest it is, so to speak, in our 
mind's eye and we are more likely to collect further information about 
it. At the same time it must be clearly understood that no hst of pests 
can be looked on as anything hke complete. We cannot foretell what 
insects, or even what groups, may turn out to be inimical. No one, 
for example, in any part of the world has ever looked on the Perhdse as 
of any economic importance except that they ser\'e as bait for anglers. 
Nevertheless, a species has lately been found to damage orchard fohage 
in the United States, and quite possibly some of our Indian species may 
do the same. Every year, every month, new pests come to light and 
our knowledge of the old ones is increased, and it will not be in our time 
that anything in the way of finahty is achieved. However, we shall 
help on this end by accumulating as many facts as we can, taking care 
only to prepare a firm foundation of accurate facts on which our suc- 
cessors may build securely. 

Most of the other papers in this Section are sufficiently explained by 
their titles and call for few remarks at this stage. 

Mr. Andrews, Entomologist to the Indian Tea Association, is giving 
us a paper on the control of insect pests. This subject has of course 
been discussed generally at previous Meetings as regards particular 
points, but not as a separate entity by itself. It will therefore be useful 
to have a paper on this subject. You will find a general resume, so far 
as crop-pests are concerned, in my book on South Indian Insects (Chapter 
XI) and I do not think that there is very much to add to that so far as 
the ordinary Plains crops are concerned. In the case of tea, the condi- 
tions are considerably different. In any case, we shall all be glad to hear 
what Mr. Andrews has to say. 

I have already referred to Dr. Gough's paper on the Pink BoUworm 
in Egypt ; this will be giren as an evening lecture illustrated by lantern 
slides. Mr. F. G. Willcocks. Entomologist to the Sultanic Agricultural 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 19 

Society in Egypt, has also sent a most interesting paper on his experi- 
ments on the survival of resting stage larvae of the Pink Bollworm in 
cotton-bolls buried at different depths and under different conditions m 
the ground. In my Address to the Second Meeting, two years ago, I 
referred to Mr. Willcocks' illuminating experiments on the length of time 
during which Pink Bollworm larvae were found to be able to rest in cotton- 
seed in Egypt, and the present experiments show how these larvae are 
able to survive in cotton-bolls buried in the soil even when an irrigated 
crop has been grown in the ground beneath which these bolls were buried. 

At GUV last Meeting also I referred to the visit paid to India by Mr. 
D. T. Fullaway especially to collect parasites of Chalodacus cucurbiice, 
our common Cucurbit Fruit-fly, for importation into Hawaii, and Mr. 
Fullaway has very kindly sent us a paper describing his visit to India 
and the success achieved in Hawaii by the parasite, Opius fletcheri, which 
he was successful in transporting from India to Honolulu. 

Section II, Forest Entomology, only contains one paper, on some 
problems in forest insect control, by Mr. Beeson, the Forest Zoologist. 
In many cases the insects which attack forest trees are similar to, or even 
identical with, those which attack agricultural crops, whilst in other 
cases they are widely different from any we have to deal with. In any 
case, we shall all be very interested to hear about them, whether they 
are old friends or new ones. 

Section III was intended for Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 
and in the preMminary provisional programme which I circulated last 
October it was presxuned that this subject would be arranged by the 
Imperial Pathological Entomologist. It has now been decided to omit 
this subject from the present conference. 

Section IV deals with Household and Store Pests, and we have a few 
papers on these. The subject of household and store pests is one that 
badly requires working on in India and might perhaps be taken up more 
fully at the next Meeting. 

Sections V (Bee-keeping) and VI (Lac) will not detain us for very 
long. I do not think there is much new to say about either. Regarding 
Bee-keeping, however, I should hke to warn any of you, who may think 
■of doing so, against importing European bees at present, owing to the 
grave danger of introducing bee diseases, particularly Isle of Wight 
disease, into India. It may be necessary to restrict the importation of 
bees and foundation-comb, as is done in South Africa. 

Under Subject VII (Silk) Mr. De will tell you something of what we 
have been doing in the way of attempts to improve the multivoltine 
races of silkworms, and will also give a paper on the methods of combat- 
ing pebrine. Mr. C. M. Hutchinson, the Imperial Agricultural Bacterio- 



20 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMdLOGICAI, MEETING 

legist; has also very kiudly promised to tell us something about his work 
on pebrine, and his paper will be given in the form of an evemng lecture. 

Subject VIII (Life-histories and Bionomics) calls for little remark, as 
the titles of the papers are self-explanatory, and the same appUes to 
Subject IX (Collection and Preservation of Specimens). Under the 
latter subject we have one paper which was received too late for inclusion 
in the printed programme and that is one by Dr. David Sharp, F.R.S., 
on the importance of collecting insects. Dr. Sharp's name is well known 
to all of you as the author of the two volumes on Insects in the " Cam- 
bridge Natural Histoiy" and we are greatly indebted to him for con- 
tributing this paper to oui Meeting. 

Subject X (Systematic Entomology) has brought us several interest- 
ing papers, amongst which I shall call your special attention to the one- 
by Mr. E. Meyrick, F.R.S., on our present knowledge of Indian Micro- 
lepidoptera. Mr. Meyrick, as you know, has been working on cur species 
for the last fifteen years, during which he has described over two thousand 
novelties from India, and we are greatly indebted to h'm for sending us a 
very valuable and interesting note on his special subject. 

Captain de Mello is giving us a paper on some Trichonymphid para- 
sites of Indian Termites. This is a subject which Hes, strictly speaking, 
beyond the borderland of Entomology but which is yet of considerable 
interest to us from an entomological point of view. These curious 
protozoan parasites which infest the interior economy of some (but by 
no means all) termites seem to be restricted to those termites belonging 
to the more primitive groups. Why this is so, it is difficult to say, but 
it is possible that further investigat'on of these Trichonymphid parasites 
may throw some Ught on the past history and relationships of their 
hosts. Captain de Mello is describing a new species of Nyctoiheriis also 
found in an Indian termite. Now, it is quite interesting, as Dobell has 
pointed out in the case of Nyctothervs termitis (found in Calotermes 
militaris at Peradeniya), to note that the only other known host of a 
Nyctotherus is a cockroach, Slylopyga orientalis, and as we know on 
other grounds that the termites and cockroaches are groups not remotely- 
allied to one another it is decidedly a matter of entomolosical interest 
for us to hear something about these parasites and to see how a small 
fact of this nature fits into its natural place in our knowledge of the 
relationships of their insect hosts. It is only one more example of the 
fact that an accurate observation apparently trivial in itself so long as 
it is isolated, when added .to other similar observations, joins up with 
them to build up a coherent whole. 

The question of preparing and issuing a general Catalogue of all 
known Indian insects also comes under this Section. The need for such 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 21 

a Catalogue is very great, as I think that you will all admit, and it 
remains to be seen whether we are in a position to meet our requirements 
in this matter. 

Under Subject XI (Publications) we have a paper by Mr. Slater on 
the preparation and reproduction of scientific illustrations. The making 
of drawings from which blocks are to be made for purposes of illustration- 
work is not quite the same thing as the making of drawings which are to 
be looked at as originals. This is a point which is often overlooked, 
and I thought it would be useful if we had a paper on the subject and 
on the methods by which prints are made and accordinglj' asked Mr. 
Slater if he could give us a paper, which he has very kindly done. 

Subject XII (Miscellaneous) is meant to include any subjects not 
fitting into the other Sections. I have prepared a note on Plant Imports, 
showing what has been done to keep pests out of India on plants imported 
from overseas. Entomological Education in Agricultural Colleges has 
also been included as I thought it would be a good thing if the teachers 
in the various Agricultural Colleges discussed, amongst themselves at 
first and afterwards at the full Meeting, any points about the courses 
in Entomology at some Colleges which might be interesting or useful 
to others. I have also asked each teacher to bring a syllabus of his 
course, any diagrams or models used for class-work and a rough estimate 
of the number of coloured plates rec[uired annually. The question of 
the organization and expansion of entomological work in India will 
also be discussed, at first in Committee. 

I doubt whether it will be possible to make, or adhere to, a daily 
programme. The first week will mostly be taken up with discussions on 
crop-pests but papers on cognate subjects (for example, life-histories) 
will be taken at the time the insect concerned is under discussion. Mr. 
Burt will be here only_ from 12th to 15th and especially wishes to be 
present at discussions on cotton-pests, so we will probably take bollworm 
papers on 13th. If any delegates wish to have any particular papers 
taken on particular days, I will try to fit these in as far as possible. 
It is really immaterial in what order papers are read or discussed, as 
they can be placed in proper order afterwards when the Proceedings are 
made up. 

As indicated in my Address, I propose to appoint Committees to Mr. Fletcher 
consider three subjects, namely, the proposed Catalogue of Indian Insects, 
Entomological Education in the Agricultural Colleges in the Provinces, 
and the Organization of Entomological Work in India. The Committees 
will consider these subjects and draw up short reports which will be 
circulated and then discussed at the General Meeting. The terms of 



22 PfiOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

reference and membership of the Committees will be as follows, and, if 
anyone else feels that he can usefully serve on a Committee or has any 
suggestions to make, I shall be glad if he will say so now. 

Committees. 

(1) Catalogue of Indian Insects. 
Terms of reference. To consider the desirability and practicality of 
the preparation and publication of a general Catalogue of all described 
Indian insects and to formulate proposals : — 
C. Beeson. 

B. A. Andrews. 

T. V. Ramakrishna Ayyar. 

R. Senior-White. 

T. Bainbrigge Fletcher (Chairman). 

(2) Entomological Education in Agricultural Colleges. 
Terms of reference. To consider the methods adopted in Provincial 
Agricultural Colleges in India for teaching Entomology to the Agricul- 
tural Students and to make any recommendations : — 

H. L. Dutt. 

Ramrao 'S. Kasergode. 

J. L. Khare. 

T. V. Ramakrishna Ayyar. 

K. Kunhi Kannan. 

S. Higginbottom (Chairman). 

C. Beeson. 
C. S. Misra. 

T. Bainbrigge Fletcher. , 

(3) Organization of Entmnological Work in India. 
Terms of reference. To consider the scheme put forward by Mr. 
Bainbrigge Fletcher (Appendix K of the Indian Industrial Commission's 
Report) and any alternative proposals, and to make any recommend- 
ations :— 

E. A. Andrews. 
C. Beeson. 
L. H. Gough. 
* C. A. Bentley (Chairman). 

* These delegates did not serve on the Committee as they were unable to be 
present at the Meeting during a sufficiently long period. 



PHOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 23 

S. Higginbottom. 
T. V. Ramakrishna Ayyar. 
*B. C. Burt. 
C. S. Misra. 
T. Bainbrigge Fletcher. 
Y. Ramacliaudra Rao. 
t K. Kunhi Kannan. 
• The first paper which we will take is that by Mr. E. A. Andrews on Mr. Fletcher. 
Insect Control. As we shall have to deal with various methods of 
control when we take the next paper on crop-pests, it will be better 
to take Mr. Andrews' paper first in order to save time later on when 
we come to deal with these control methods. Mr. Andrews, as you 
know, is the Entomologist to the Indian Tea Association and requires 
little introduction from me, 



1.— INSECT CONTROL. 

By E. A. ANbREWS, B.A., Entomologist to the Indian Tea Association. 

At the previous meeting we discussed under each insect control or 
preventive measures tried against that insect. This method of dealing 
with the subject, while excellent in that it gave to any one 
interested in one insect an opportunity of ascertaining which remedies 
could be used against it, yet had this drawback that it left one with a 
rather vague idea as to the respective values of different methods of 
insect control in India. "Were one to prepare a catalogue of the various 
methods for dealing with insect pests which have been put forward from 
time to time such a catalogue would be very extensive. Many of these 
methods are of value, others of no value, while some are effective under 
certain circumstances, but not under others, and my idea in suggesting 
that insect control be treated as a special subject was to ascertain if 
possible what methods had been found to be of practical value in India 
so far and what methods have been found to be of very little value. 
This is a side of the work which interests me to a very great extent. 
I am especially concerned with one serious pest. The serious nature of 
this pest you can never realize until you travel all round the tea districts 
and see it for yourselves. Now the community by whom I am employed 
are not greatly interested in the investigation of minor pests, but anxi- 

* These delegates did not serve on the Committee as. they were unable to be present 
at the Meeting during a sufficiently long period. 

f Added to the Committee at the request of the delegates from Native states. 



'Ai PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

ously desire a cure for tlie tea mosquito. I cannot therefore give much 
time to the investigation of the Ufe-histories of the various pests of tea, 
but must confine my energies to the search for a cure for one particular 
pest, and, as you all know, though there are difficulties in the investi- 
gation of insect life-histories, the search for a cure presents greater diffi- 
culties still. I believe that I have had opportunities which many of you 
have not had of going into the question of insect control from a parti- 
cular point of view, and I think it would be of interest to the meeting 
for me to give some of my experiences in this matter, and to give you 
an idea both of methods which I have found to be of value and of those 
that I have found to be of no value, under the conditions prevailing in 
tea, and I think that if other gentlemen would give an account of their 
experiences when working on the question of insect control it might 
lead to an exceedingly helpful discussion. Now the first point I want 
to emphasize with regard to insect control is this, that you must know 
your insect — and you must know it inside out. It is not enough to 
know its species ; it is not enough to be able to recognize the various 
stages ; you must know everything about it. It pays in my opinion to 
sit down amongst the bushes and watch every peculiarity of its behaviour, 
no matter how trivial it seems at the time, for the more you know of the 
insect's peculiarities the more likely are you to be successful in finding a 
remedy. Until we possess an intimate acquaintance with every phase of 
the economy of an insect we cannot hope to get very much further in the 
control of that insect and I think Mr. Fletcher is quite right when he 
says that we must get all the information we can about these insects 
before we can hope to devise adequate means of control. Another point 
I wish to emphasize is that if you are going to deal with an insect pest 
of any particular crop you must know all about the crop too. The 
methods of propagation, cultivation, and so on must be at your fingers' 
ends. You must be thoroughly conversant with the factors affecting 
the growth of the plant and of their respective effects before you can 
expect to form an accurate opinion with regard to the factors governing 
the attack by the insect. These are the two points which, in my opinion, 
should be borne in mind by all engaged in the investigation of problems 
in insect control. Before going further I may say that the title of this 
paper is rather misleading. I do not intend to go fully into the principles 
of insect control as they apply to all insect pests. That is a very broad 
subject with which I am not qualified to deal because my sphere has 
been limited to the investigation of the pests of a single plant. You will 
find adequate discussions of the subject in Mr. Fletcher's book on South 
Indian Insects and in other publications. I propose to discuss some of 
the work that I have been doing and to give you some of my experiences 



PROCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 25' 

on insect control in India. Insect control, as we all know, is effected 
in various ways — there are natural means and there are artificial means- 
of control. Insect pests are likewise controlled also by many natural 
factors — the climate, the nature of the plant attacked, the environment, 
the presence or absence of parasites, and so on. Now. in dealing with 
an insect all these factors have to be taken into consideration and you 
must be thoroughly conversant with the effect of these on the insect in 
all stages before you can hope to estimate the value of your control 
methods and, in view of the practical difficulties which may be experi- 
enced in applying recognized remedial measures under different circum- 
stances, it seems to me that general methods of control are veiy far 
away and that successful control is a question of adopting a method 
adapted to each particular instance. 

Take the case of insecticides. It does not follow that an insecticide 
which has once been successful will always be so, nor does it follow, 
because an application of insecticide is ' once ' ineffective, that it may 
not be used effectively under proper conditions. A case of this kind 
can be instanced in connection with the tea mosciuito, and it shows the 
imperative necessity for close observation of the habits of the pest. 
The tea mosquito can be killed by soap solution or by lime-sulphur if it 
is kept in them for a sufficient time, but this time is too great to render 
the substances of much value as an insecticidal application in the ordinary 
way. Now the tea mosquito has the following habit. It feeds on 
the young shoots of the bushes in all stages, sitting on the leaves and 
sucking them. When the bush is disturbed the adults apparently drop 
to the ground. They do not, as a rule, however, drojj quite to the 
ground, but drop almost to the ground and then fly away into another 
bush. The young forms, which cannot fly, run down the stems of the 
bushes and conceal themselves at the nodes where the leaves or branches 
come off from the stem. The bush is sprayed, the insects being thereby 
disturbed. The adults drop and fly away elsewhere and escape the 
spray ; the young forms run down the stems and branches to the nodes. 
The fluid falls on to the leaf, runs down the stems and collects in drops 
at the nodes, and the young insect is caught in a droj^ of fluid which is 
too big for him to be able to break through, and is held in the liquid for 
a sufficient period to allow of his being killed. Therefore, if the insecti- 
cide is apphed when the bulk of the insects are in the young stages one 
may have great success with it, and if apphed when the majority aie in 
the adult form no success. The result is that of tea planters to whom 
recommendations of this nature have been made, some say if is no good, 
while others say that it had excellent results. The fact of the matter is 
that, whereas the substances cannot be recommended for general use 



26 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

against the pest, they can be made to give good results by one thoroughly 
conversant with the habits of the insect. 

Another difficulty arises in connection with the treatment of this 
insect — a difficulty which is only apparent after close observation of the 
habits of the insect. The eflScacy of insecticidal treatment depends, 
amongst other things, upon two factors — the killing power of the in- 
secticide and the efficiency with which it can be applied. Helojieltis can 
only be treated by means of contact insecticides, which must be applied 
to the insect. This is in itself a difficulty except in the case of young 
forms, as described above. But supposing this difficulty be overcome, 
and that the adult tea mosquito be covered with a drop of the insecticide, 
and a drop of such a size that it would take considerable time to evapo- 
rate. One might suppose that that would kill him, but it does not, 
for the reason that he cleans it all off, just as a cat if covered with treacle 
would clean itself. For this reason any insecticide which has not suffi- 
cient penetrating power, even though properly applied to the insect, 
<loes very little good, and since insecticides with a sufficient corrosive 
powe'r burn the young shoots spraying to kill the adults presents in- 
superable difficulties. Spraying against the tea mosquito therefore boils 
down to this, that until a substance is discovered which exerts a powerful 
penetrating action on the insect and at the same time is harmless to the 
young shoots, we must confine ourselves to applying spray fluids with a 
high surface tension at a time when the bulk of the insects are in the 
young stages, and the spraying should consist of a thorough soaking of 
the bush, to ensure that it will run down the branches and form drops 
at all the nodes. Otherwise no beneficial results can be anticipated. 

We have another case — based on rather different lines. This is a 
case too where an intimate knowledge of the behaviour of the insect 
was necessary. The red spider of tfea {Tetmnychus bioculatus W. — M.) 
in North-East India lives for the most part on the upper surface of the 
leaves of the plant. Many sprays have been applied with the hope of 
dealing with red spider without success. The reason for their non- 
success was in many cases due to the fact that the red spider lives under 
a web, which is very fine and almost invisible, but which is nevertheless 
of considerable strength. It is very close to the leaf, but at the same 
time the dimensions of the red spider are so small that nothing above 
the net or web will touch it, and I found that after spraying for red 
spider the insecticide rested in drops above this net while the insects 
ran about happily underneath. In treating red spider it is 
therefore necessary to break down this web, and we find that lime- 
sulphur, which generally contains much suspended matter, will break 
down this web, and in many cases differences in the action of different 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 27 

lime-sulphurs can be traced to the presence or absence of suspended 
matter. Thus in spraying for red spider with lime-sulphur it is not 
advisable to filter away all the suspended matter, and the lime-sulphur 
concentrates on the market will therefore sometimes fail when a home- 
made mixture will succeed. This is again a question of detail, which 
may make all the difference between success and failure, and which 
could be easily overlooked by one not thoroughly conversant with the 
behaviour of the pest. There was one other case in which spraying was- 
effective, but I cannot tell you much about that because it was a pro- 
prietary insecticide made in Switzerland and I never knew the composi- 
tion of it. This was an insecticide which we used against Thrips (Physo- 
thnps setiventris, Bagn., and Haplothrips ienuipennis, Bagn.) in 
Darjiling. Spraying is often said to be useless in Darjiling because 
of the amount of rain, but we found that Thrips could be sprayed: 
with this substance during fine periods with success. 

Tea is grown mainly for the young shoots, and we find that in the 
case of most of our insect pests the young shoots are damaged by the 
insecticide at a weaker concentration than is necessary to kill the insect, 
which, of course, puts spraying out of the question, and here the import- 
ance of knowing all about the plant comes in. 

Spraying is of course one of the mechanical methods of control. The 
methods of control which have given the best results in my experience 
are cultural methods of control. You all know what I mean by cultural 
methods of control. They consist of adaptations of existing agricultural 
practices to meet the necessities which are brought into existence by 
the presence of the insect pest. You yourselves advocate such methods 
in the case of many pests, as for instance digging up the stimips of plants 
after the crop has been removed, in the case of cane-borers, etc., and 
such recommendations come under cultural methods of control. Now 
in tea we have had successes by the application of these methods, much 
more success in fact than in any other way, but if such methods are to 
be successfully worked out the investigator must possess not only an 
intimate knowledge of the insect he is dealing with, but also an intimate 
knowledge of the plant that is being dealt with, of all practices followed 
in connection with its cultivation, etc., and of the way in which the plant 
responds to different treatments. 

Termites occur all over the tea-districts, and do a great deal of 
damage to tea. We have tried fumigation, we have tried insecticides 
in the soil, we have tried deterrents of one sort or another, and all with- 
out success. Sometime ago I spent a short time in South Sylhet in- 
vestigating white ants and their behaviour in tea. I found, after examin- 
ing a large number of bushes, that the white ants always get into the- 



:28 mocEEOixtis of the third entomological meeting 

'bush above ground and that they do not as a rule go below the collar of 
the bush. In that part of the world there is a system of pruning by 
which the jjlants are cut at 12 inches and plucked somewhere above 
that. This results in the formation of a high central stump in which 
the termites can find lodgment. By working there they can cut off the 
supply of sap to the upper portions of the bush, and can only be eradi- 
cated by cutting away the whole bush. We advocated collar-pruning, 
i.e., pruning the bushes to the ground. By this means a bush is formed 
which consists of a circle of branches arising directly from the collar of 
the bush. There is no central stump to afford a lodging to the Termites, 
and as they do not work below the collar they cannot affect the several 
branches until after some years, when they are becoming moribund. 
When this occurs a number of the branches can be cut back in successive 
years— an operation which must be carried out in any case in order to 
get leaf, and the bushes thus consist always of strongly-growing branches 
which are not attacked by termites. This method of prevention has 
proved entirely successful. There is another case in which methods of 
cultural control are successful and that is in dealing with Melolonthid 
and other beetles. These beetles invariably attack new tea wherever 
jungle land is cleared and freshly planted. When the jungle is cleared, 
and the tea planted, the grub is still there, and the beetles attack the 
bushes, but in four years' time practically no damage can be seen. 
Continued hoeing and forking, given year after 3'ear, five or six 
times during the year, gradually kills out the insects, until they are 
present in such small numbers as to be incapable of doing any 
appreciable damage. We have another instance, which I gave you last 
year, in which such methods have been successful in the case of the 
looper caterpillar. 

Another question which must be considered is that of the relation 
between the insect and the plant pim the relation of the plant to its 
environment, and this is a line of inquiry which I think must always 
be followed. I can give you an instance of this in the case of red spider. 
There are certain places in which tea is always attacked by red spider, 
others in which it is never attacked. Of two gardens adjoining one 
another red spider may be serious in the one, and none may occur in 
the other, although, so far as the insect itself is concerned, the condi- 
tions are exactly similar. What causes the difference ? Probably it is 
in the nature of the bushes. If that is so, then if we can by any means 
alter the condition of the bushes which are attacked and bring it into 
line with the condition of the others which are not being attacked, we 
may reasonably hope for success in control. We find that in the case 
of red spider drainage has considerable effect. We know that bad 



FKOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 29 

■drainage causes weakening of the bushes, we know that weakening of 
the bushes may cause red spider. By improving the drainage we have 
been able to get rid of the red spider. I can give you one instance, . 
which perhaps takes us outside the realm of entomology, but which, 
since it is a case in which control of a pest was effected, is important. 
I was once called into a garden in South Sylhet where they had put out 
some young tea, and for some reason it was badly attacked by red 
spider. Now, there was no red spider on the bushes round it, and yet 
there was no apparent reason v/hy the pest should have chosen this area 
in preference to the surrounding areas. During this particular season 
there had been very wet weather, and an excessive rainfall for that part 
of the world. Now, when rain falls on to the ground it washes the fine 
particles down into the soil, the result being that a layer of fine jjarticles 
is formed which holds up moisture, and produces a temporary condition 
of bad drainage. Such a layer is known as a pan. There was a pan 
about 6 inches down, which would be probably 4 inches above the bottom ■ 
of the lowest of the roots of tea of that age. This means that the roots 
were in a layer of soil from which water could not get away. We there- 
fore trench-hoed the area to a depth of 9 inches, to break this pan and 
allow the excess moisture to get away through the soil, and the result 
was entirely successful. By this means we had removed the cause of 
the susceptibility of the bushes to attack, and the red spider, which 
had resisted all attempts to remove it by insecticides, was thrown off. 
Occasionally red spider reappears on this area. When this occurs the 
manager of the estate puts in a shallow trench-hoe instead in place of 
an ordinary round of light hoeing, and the pest is thrown off. 

My paper has consisted of a series of disconnected instances, rather 
than a discussion of the principles of insect control as a whole, because 
my activities have been restricted to a small sphere, but I wish to em- 
phasize that I do not think that one can expect to devise effective means 
of control except by a thorough acquaintance, not only with the life- 
history of the insect, but with its relation to the plant attacked in all 
circumstances, and of the behaviour of the plant under different methods 
of cultivation, and the nature of its response to environmental condi- 
tions, and to modifications of existing agricultural practices. 

I should like to thank Mr. Andrews on behalf of the Meeting for his Mr. Fletcher, 
very interesting paper which he has given us. I may say that I quite 
agree with all that he has said. It is an undoubted fact that, before 
taking up the application of control measures, it is essential to know 
every single thing we can know about the insect concerned and the crop 
which it damages. There is one point in the paper about which I should 
like some further information. Mr. Andrews said that, by giving several 



30 



PKOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



hoeings, the tea gardens are cleared of Melolonthid grubs. I should like 
to know how far that is true. 

Andrews. Ordinarily tea is not very badly attacked but, when forest areas are 

cleared and new bushes of tea are planted, these grubs come up and the 
beetles that emerge from them eventually attack the bushes. 

Fletcher. Do they feed on the tea-bushes ? 

Andrews. The adult beetles riddle the leaves during the first two or three 

years, but later on no serious damage is done as all the grubs in the soil 
are killed oS by the frequent hoeings that are given. 

Fletcher. In the case of fruit gardens in Shillong, the areas around the trees 

are constantly hoed and Melolonthid grubs are collected in very large 
numbers, and the beetles also are collected by hand from the leaves of 
the fruit-trees in the evening, but constant collecting of the grubs and 
beetles seems to exercise little permanent eSect on the numbers of the 
insects, which undoubtedly breed and come in from surrounding areas, 
so I am rather doubtful whether constant hoeing by itself would have 
such a permanent effect as is described. 

Andrews. In the case of fruit gardens, the conditions are perhaps rather different, 

as the fruit and flowers are disturbing factors. 

Fletcher. It is, therefore, another case in which a thorough knowledge of the 

crop is essential. 
Quite so. 

You have said nothing about the control of insect pests by means of 
their parasites. We in Ceylon have, for instance, a parasite on the Tea 
Tortricid [Homona coffearia, Nietn.] which keeps it down. 

We have a parasite on the Tea Looper [Biston suppressaria] which 
was bred in cages and liberated in enormous numbers, but it did not 
keep the pest under control. Similarly there is a parasite of the Tea 
Mosquito [Helopeltis tkeivora] but this parasite is already existing all 
over the Tea Districts, so there is no question of introducing it ; but 
something appears to keep this parasite down, as only about one per 
cent, of the bugs are found to be parasitized. Parasite distribution 
requires skilled men to carry it out. 

Were you not able to find any hyperparasites that were keeping this 
parasite down ? 

No ; but we have not studied the question seriously. In the case of 
some Tea Insects the percentage of parasitization may be quite large. 
In the case of Gelatine Grubs [Belippa sp.] for example, as many as 
eighty per cent, of the larvae are found parasitized, 
j^ jnglig_ With regard to collar-pruning, could this be done on a large scale ? 



PEOCEEDIXC.S OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 31 

Yes ; it is done to a large extent. If the tea has been properly collar- Mr. Andrews 
pruned once, you can cut out one branch at a time afterwards and get 
a new bush in a few years without any serious loss of crop. Tea is 
collar-pruned in the best practice. Sometimes cases occur where tea is 
not collar-pruned although the manager knows that it should be done. 
The immediate effect of a first collar-pruning is a loss of crop to a con- 
siderable extent, and when it is a case of losing crop for the benefit of 
his successor a manager who has been out some time may often leave 
tea up which ought to come down. In the case of tea owned b}' big 
Companies a certain percentage is cut down every year without reference 
to white ants, etc. In Sylhet collar-pruning was found to give no useful 
results, so it was not done there, but we did it. 

We are very thankful to Mr. Andrews for his interesting paper. Mr. Eamakrishua 
He is in a very good position, as he has to deal with only one crop and Ayyar. 
has got intelligent men to carry out his instructions. In our work, on 
the other hand, we have to find out in the case of each crop what it will 
be advantageous to do and often we get information regarding the appear- 
ance of a pest too late to be able to do anything at all. We realize the 
truth of all that Mr. Andrews has said, that knowledge both of the insect 
pests and of the crops is essential. We have to consider local conditions 
also. As a rule we do not deal with crops of such a high value as tea, 
coffee and rubber, but with staple crops whidi do not allow of very high 
profits. Next we have to take into consideration the point of view of 
the raiyat. Spraying with insecticides can only be applied to paying 
crops such as fruit-trees, cotton, etc., but with regard to staple crops 
I feel that spraying cannot be done for some time to come. Our hope 
lies in the direction of finding out different baits and working on the 
physiological aspect of insect-ljfe. Then we shall be able to deal with 
pests of such crops as paddy, sorghum and wheat. 

In Madras we tried spraying against Mango Hopper [Idiocerus spp.]. 
We succeeded in checking it and the people became interested in this 
method of control, but we could not get the right sort of sprayers nor 
could we get the insecticides at the time we wanted them and the prices 
also went high just at the time when we could have demonstrated with 
some success. 

Eegarding parasites, to which a previous speaker referred, we know 
very little about parasites. We want to know their original home. 
There is some danger in working with parasites especially in the case of 
their introduction from other countries. We inust first know what 
parasites we have already got in this country and their hosts. 

We are thankful to Mr. Andrews for his interesting paper. He has Kr. Misra 
struck out a line of his own and lays great stress on cultural methods. 



32 



rnOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD EKTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



We at Pusa have been working on Cotton Bollworm, Earias fabia and 
E. insulana. and find that cultural methods surely go a long way in pro- 
tecting the plant. One year [1911] our plants were attacked by "Red 
Spider " ; we sprayed with crude oil emulsion and, as Mr. Andrews has 
pointed out, we had no success. Then we sent around boys with brooms 
to rub the webbing off the plants. Next we tried spraying with a force- 
pump so that the liquid might reach the underside of the leaves. Next 
year we increased the distance between the plants to be three feet apart 
so that the plants got plenty of light and air. Thus cultural methods 
were found useful. We also found that inter-cultured plants were able 
to throw off the attack. There is scope for work along the lines suggested 
by Mr. Andrews. 

Chilonienes sex-niaculaius eats the Red Spider. 

Mr. Andrews has said that termites attack tea-bushes at the collar. 
Here at Pusa they attack the roots of trees also. In Assam it may be 
the specialized habit of those termites not to go below the collar. 

I have had some experience with sugarcane in which the setts were 
put down six inches below the soil. When we cut out the dead-hearts 
we find that the setts are attacked by termites. This shows that the 
termites of Assam have a special habit of not going down below the 
soil. 

It merely shows, what I have pointed out before, that different species 
of termites have very different habits. 

If there are no further remarks on Mr. Andrews' paper, we will go 
on to the Annotated List of Indian Crop-pests, with which we will take 
the paper on Indian Fruit-pests in order to save time, as many general 
crop-pests attack fruit-trees also and there will be no object in dealing 
with such insects twice over. We have been through the list of our 
insect pests on previous occasions. Four years ago we dealt with them 
according to the Orders and Families of the insects concerned. Two 
years ago we went over them according to the crops which they attack, 
and the whole information up to then is on record in the Report of the 
Proceedings of our Second Meeting, and there is therefore little need to, 
go into too great detail ; so at this Meeting we will give only a summarized 
account of these insects, adding especially any new information which 
we have been able to obtain about them during the last two years, and, 
instead of discussing the whole papers after they have been read, I will 
ask you to give any further remarks on each insect as we deal with "it. 
We will now run briefly through these insect pests, taking them in sys- 
tematic order and commencing with the Hymenoptera. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE XHIHD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETINO 33 

2.— ANNOTATED LIST OF INDIAN CROP-PESTS. 

By T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S., Imperial 
Entomologist. 



HYMENOPTERA. 

FORMICID^. 

The Foimicidae comprise the Ants, of which comparatively few species Mr. Fletcher, 
do damage directly to cultivated plants although numerous species do 
indirect damage by protecting Scale-insects and other noxious Ehynchota 
■which suck plant-juices and exude honey-dew, and also other insects 
-such as Lycsenid larvae. 



(Ecophylla smaragdina, Fb. 
F. I., Hym. II., 311, f. 93. 

Occurs throughout the whole of the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon, 
-wherever trees grow, and is often a source of considerable annoyance 
to fi'uit-gatherers, especially in the case of mango trees. It is also a 
decided pest by its habit of protecting noxious scale-insects. On the 
other hand, it is extensively insectivorous and does some good by des- 
troying large numbers of caterpillars, beetles, etc. On the whole it 
seems to do more harm than good and must certainly be included here 
as a pest. The nests may be burnt off the trees but it is very difficult 
-to reduce their numbers permanently. 



Holcmnyrmex scabriceps, Mayr. 
F. I., Hym. II., 282-283, f. 84. 
This species occurs irregularly throughout the Plains of India (except 
Assam), but is not recorded from Burma or Ceylon. We have speci- 
mens from Pusa, Lyallpur, Peshawar, Gujranwala, Lahore, Kasur, 
Chakwal, Shahpur, Zaffarwal Tehsil (Punjab), Hangu (N.-W. F. P.)' 
Chakradharpur and Coimbatore. 

This is the common Harvesting Ant of India and in some wheat- 
growing districts it does a certain amount of damage by carrying off 
ripe grains and storing these in its nest below ground. Indeed, in such 
.areas, in times of famine, it is usual to dig out these nests and to recover 
the grain, which is stored away in some quantity. 

d2 



34 



PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAI, MEETING 



Meranoplns bicolor, Guer. 
F. I., Hym. II., 168-169, f. 66. 
Occurs throughout the Plains of India (except in hot, dry districts)^ 
Burma and Ceylon. 

, In the Pusa collection we have specimens from Pusa, Bihar ; Tran- 
quebar, Madras ; Minbu, Lower Burma ; Ranchi (Kankey Farm). 

At Padu Farm, in Burma, this ant was noted as biting holes in leaves of 
Cajamis indiais. Otherwise, we do aot know it as a pest. 

Solenopsis geminata, Fb. 
F. I., Hyml II., 158-159, f. 64. 

Occurs throughout the Plaihs of India, Burma and Ceylon. We 
have specimens from Calcutta, Chakradharpur, Madura, Coimbatore^ 
Mandalay and Tatkon. 

At Calcutta the workers have been found destroying brinjal seed- 
lings, and at Mandalay, biting holes into the leaves of Cajamis indicus. 

We have tried with success the banding of plants with a rag and tar 
just- at the collar. 

Can you do this in the case of young plants, such as brinjal seedlings, 
for instance ? 

Yes. 

Cremastogaster hodgsoni, Forel. 
F. I., Hym. II., 131-132. 

At Pusa this is a distinct pest on Citrus trees by protecting Icerya. 
cegypiiaca and other Rh^-nchota. In the " Fauna " volume it is only 
recorded from Burma but our specimens appear to be hodgsoni. 



Mynnicaria bninnea, Saunders. 

F. I., Hym. II., 118-119, f. 55. 

Occurs almost everywhere in the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon „ 

except in dry areas. We have males from Chapra and Peradeniya, 

and workers from Belgaum, Trichinopoly, Tanjore, Sidapur (Coorg) 

and Pegu. 

At Bangalore this ant was found attacking garden plants of Arclotis. 
grandis and doing some damage by biting the leaves. 



rilOCKEDIKGS OF TKE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 35 

Donjlus orientalis, Westw. 
F. I., Hym. II., pp. 4-5, ff. <3-7. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon in the Plains, and 
frequently does damage by attacking the underground portions of plants. 
At Pusa it damages roots and underground parts of plants such as potato, 
cabbage, cauliflower and vegetables generally. At Cawnpur also it has 
been found damaging potato. At Shahabad, in the United Provinces, 
it has been noted as damaging early-sown groundnuts and at Gadag 
Farm it was found to eat out groundnut kernels when the nuts were 
lying in a heap after harvest. In Ceylon, both at Peradeniya and 
Dikoya, the workers have been observed to be destructive to the roots ^' ° ^^^^' 
cf potato and other vegetables. ' ^'- FJe^^er. 

It may be controlled by the use of crutle oil emulsion applied to the 
soil around the plants. It is usually only young plants that are attacked. 

Have you tried lime ? 

No ; we have not tried lime at Pusa as there is already an excess of 
lime in the soil here. A few years ago we had a bad attack of this ant 
on young cabbages and I tlfied various repellents, including apterite, 
naphthaline, and phenyle, and found that crude oil emulsion was the 
most successful. 

Borijlus labiatus, Shuck. 

F. I., Hym. II., pp. 2-3, fit. 1-3; 

Occurs throughout India, but not known from Ceylon, Assam or 

Burma. Is apparently carnivorous as a rule, attacking ants (Pheidole). 

Has only once been sent in as a pest, when it was attacking potato tubers 

underground at Sidapur, Coorg. 



Apid^. 

Megacliile anthracina, Smith. 
F. I., Hym. I., 473-474, f. 157. 
Occurs throughout the Plains of Northern India and Bengal. We 
have it from Pusa, Chapra and Cawnpur. 

It is a leaf cutting bee ; at Pusa it cuts leaves from tur {Cajaniis indicus) 
and rose plants. It has been noticed taking leaves from a ber tree also 
and from Cassia. 

It is scarcely a pest but sometimes disfigures rose-plants by cutting 
circular patches out of the leaves. 



36 



PROCEEDIK-GS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Megachile disjuncta, Fabr. 
F, I., Hym. I., 480. 

Occurs througlioufc India and Burma. We liave it from Pu.sa, 
Chapra, Jagi Road (Assam), Belgaum and Lower Burma. 

This is also a leaf-cutting bee, and removes leaves from tur and rose 
plants, in the same way as M. anthracina. 



VESPIDiE. 

Vespa basalts, Smith. 
F. I., Hym. I., 403-404. 
Widely distributed in India, Burma and Ceylon. 
We have had this species sent in to us from Dehra Dun, where this- 
hornet was noticed removing the bark of young Eucalyptus stuartiana 
trees-growing in the Cantonment of Dehra Dun. The bark was removW 
clean to the wood, the thickness of the bark being \ to J inch and tne- 
width of the eaten part about the same. 

Do they damage the trees very high above the ground ? 
I cannot say. The specimens were sent in to us and we have only 
received this one report about this insect. 

At Dehra Dun I have noticed ants removing the bark from these- 
trees. 

Possibly the trees were dead. It seems rather unUkely that these- 
hornets should strip living bark from Eucalyptus trees. I included this- 
insect in the list because it was sent in to us as doing damage and possibly 
someone else might be able to corroborate damage to living trees by- 
hornets. 



Chalcidid^. 
(Unidentified Eurytomine.) 

This is the insect which damages apricots at Haripur Hazara in th& 
North- West Frontier Province, by ovipositing in the young fruit. The- 
grub bores into the kernel inside the stone, the result being that the 
fruit shrivels and falls off the tree before it is fully developed. The larva 
lives inside the fallen stone until the next spring, when it pupates and 
emerges as an adult. It is probable that in some cases it may lie over 
for more than one year. 

Collection and destruction of the fallen fiuits and stones is the obvious, 
remedy for control. 



PKOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MliLlI.NG 37 

(Undetermined Eurytomine.) 

Another species of Eurytomine, as yet undetermined, has been found 
to attack dhaincha pods at Pusa. We referred to this in our Annual 
Eeport for 1917-18 and have figured the various stages [fgvres 
exhibited]. Mr. Crhosh, will you tell us something about it ? 

The eggs are laid in the pods and the seeds are attacked. In each Mr. Ghosh, 
seed attacked there is one grub which eats the cotyledons and then pupates 
in the seed, the adult wasp gnawing its way out through the shell of the 
seed and then through the wall of the pod. There is one grub in each 
seed and each adult wasp gnaws a hole of exit for itself. The only satis- 
factory method of control is the destruction of the affected pods. We 
tried spraying the plants with crude oil emulsion to deter the adults 
from ovipositing, but this did not keep them away. Picking out the 
dried pods reduces the number of the wasps. 

Eurytoma indi. 
This Eurytomine has been found at Coimbatore, the larva boring Mr. Fletcher, 
and eating seeds inside agathi and dhaincha pods. It is apparently 
distinct from our species in dhaincha at Pusa but works in a similar way. 

Megastigmiis indi. 
This also occurs at Coimbatore in agathi and dhaincha pods. 

I have nothing new to add abo«t these two Eurytomines from Coim- Mr. Ramakrishna 
batore. A^yar. 

Tenthredinid.?:. • 

Athalia proxima, Klug. 
Athalia proxima is widely distributed in the Plains of India and is Mr. Fletcher, 
usually a minor pest, sporadically bad, on cruciferous plants. We have 
records from the following localities and food-plants : — 



Chakwal {Jhelum District) 


. Cabbage, cauUflower. 


Lyallpur . 


. Turnip, cress. 


Throughout United Prorinces . Appears in the beginnin;? of cold wa 




on cruciferous plants. 


Jamalpur . . . 


. Mustard. 


Surat 




. Radish. 


Mahim (Bombay) 




. Mustard. 


Poena 




. Cabbage, mustard, radish. 


Baroda . 




. Crueiferffi generally. 


Nagpur . 




Radish, turnip, cabbage. 


Bababudin Hills 




. Turnip. 


Shevaroy Hills . 




. Turnip. 


Pusa 




Radish, turnip, mustard, candytuft 
cress {Lepidiiim sniivum). 


Dacca . 




. Mustard, radish. 


Assam 




. Mustard. 



38 PROCEEDINGS OF THE TUIKB ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Mr. Ramakrishna We find it at Coimbatore also. 

Ayyar. 

Mr. H. L. Dutt. This year it was bad in Bihar. 

Mr. Ramrao. We find Atlialia proxima [at Poena] all through the summer and 

monsoon months. 
Mr. RaTnachaidra I found it in July in Bellary. 

Rao 
Mr. Fletcher. At Pusa it appears active only during the winter and rests throughout 

the summer, from about April to October inclusive. 
Mr. Ramrao. At Poona it is bad on cruciferous plants in the middle of the monsoon 

[about August]. 
Mr. Gupta. It is a bad pest in Assam. 

Mr. Fletcher. Has anyone any control measures to suggest ? 

Mr. Misra. We usually dust the attacked plants with lead arsenate, road-dust 

and kerosinized ashes. 
Mr. Xuahi Kaauan. We shake the plants and the larvae fall oflt and they are either swept 

away along the rows or squashed. 
Mr. Gupta. At Jorhat we sprinkle lime mixed with soil on to the plants, but this 

is not possible over large areas. 
Mr. Fletcher. Has anyone tried turning chickens into the affected fields to eat up 

the caterpillars '^ 
Mr. Ghosh. j^q 

Mi. Fletcher. jt would seem worth while trying. 



, Atlialia leucostoma, Cam. 

We only know this insect from Hangu.in the North- West Frontier 
Province, where it was found on mustard. It probably replaces A. 
proxima in the North- West. 

( Unidentified Tenthredinid.) 
This sawfly occurs commonly at Shillong between May and October 
and often completely defoliates cultivated rose trees. The eggs are 
deposited in a long slit cut by the female through the bark of a young 
stem and, on the larvae hatching out, this slit expands until its sides are 
flattened and lie parallel with the surface through which the slit was 
originally made, causing a characteristic malformation of the stem. 
The larvEe feed on the leaves, at first gregariously but later on, as they 
become nearly full-fed, they tend to become solitary. The attacked 
rose trees are often completely defoliated. Pupation takes place in a 
rough silken cocoon, which is probably formed on or beneath the surface 
of the soil, but cocoons have not been noticed under natural conditions. 
There seem to be four or five broods during the season, but adult flies 



PHOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MELTING 39 

and young and full-grown larv^ can usually be found at any time, so 
that the broods are not clearly defined. 

Control is easy. The adult females may be caught as they are ovi- 
positing, or the positions where eggs have been laid may be seen and the 
eggs destroyed, or the larvae may be hand-picked. 

The life-history and damage done are shown in a coloured plate 
[exhihi'cd]. 

{V nidentified Tenthredinid). 

This species is distinct from the Shillong rose sawfly, having a reddish 
thorax (black in the Shillong species) but acts in an exactly similar 
manner, the eggs being thrust into tender stems -of cultivated rose, 
whose leaves are defoliated by the larvK. This species is common at 
Dehra Dun, and at Ramgaih (Kumaon District) in August 1918 I found 
a rose-twig which had had eggs deposited in it in the manner charac- 
teristic of these species, so that the Dehra Dun species probably occurs 
along the central Himalayas generally. 

In Dehra Dun this sawfly is scarcely a pest, as we have to cut Mr. Beeson. 
back the rose-bushes periodically. 

It certainly seemed to occur in large numbers when I was at Dehra Dun Mr. Fletcher 
last August. In the ease of the Shillong species, whose habits se^m 
exactly similar, certainly every leaf on a rose-bush may be eaten and 
the whole bush left leafless. 

DIPTERA. 

MUSC1D.E. 

PycHosoma flaviceps, Macq. 
S. I. I., pp. 318-349, f. 208. 
This fly, as noted in the reference given, has occurred in South Kanara 
and Malabar as a pest of toddy, spoiling the juice. 

Anthomyiad.^;. 
(Cholam Fly). 
Fletcher, S. Ind. Ins., pp. 356-357, if. 215, 1:2 [nee t 215 i] (1914). 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 178, 188, 202 (1917). 
This species has been recorded from Nagpur, larva in juar stem, 
■and from Coimbatore, larva in juar, wheat, varagu (Paspalum scrobi- . 
culatum), Panicum frmnentaceum, maize and broom corn (a kind of 
cholam). 



40 PROrEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

This was discussed at our last Meeting and I do not think there is- 
anything new to add. 

(ChnnbiiFly.) 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 178, 202, (1917). 
This fly also occurs at Coimbatore, the larva boring in ciimbu and 
Panicum m il iacevm. 

To me this seems to be the same as the Chohm Fly. 

Mr. Ballard studied these Anthomyiads and concluded that the 
chohm and mmhu flies were distinct. 

(Undetermined ? Anthomyiad.) 
We have an undertermined fly which was sent in to uS from Toong. 

in the Darjiling District by the Manager of Margaret's Hope Tea Co. 

(letter of 27th August 1915) ; the larvae were reported to be boring into 

healthy lime and orange fruits. Probably the same fly is also found 

boring into orange fruits in the Nilgiris. 

This is probably the same as the " Tomato fly " referred to Proc. 

Second Entl. Meeting, p. 178 (1917), as attacking rotting fruits and 

vegetable matter generally. 
Mr. Senior- White. In Ceylon I have also bred an Anthomyiad from brinjal. 

Trypaneid^e. 
Daciis {Lepfoxyda) longistylus, Wied. 

Bezzi, Bull. Ent. Res., VII, 101 (Oct. 1916). 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 137 (1917). 
Mc. Fletcher. Occurs at Coimbatore, Nagpur, Bellary and Puri, and probably 

throughout the Plains of India, the larva boring in the fruit of Cdotrofis^ 
and damaging the floss. 

Dacus breristylus, Bezzi (1908). 

Bezzi, Bull. Ent. Res., VII, 101 (Oct. 1916). 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 243, 304. 
Recorded by Bezzi from Hagari, Cuddapah, and Coimbatore. Attacks 
melons, water-melons and cultivated Cucurbits. We have this species 
from Triplicane, Madras, larva in bitter gourd fruit ; Siddhout, Cuddapah, 
larva in melons ; Nagpur, larva in Lagenaria vulgaris. 

Control may be attained by picking and destroying the early attacked 
fruits. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 41 

Dacus olece, Fb. 
This well-known serious pest of cultivated olives in Southern Europe 
is known to occur in wild olives at Cherat, North-West Frontier Province, 
and probably throughout North- West India. So far as we know, it 
has not yet been noted to attack cultivated olives in India but the olive 
industry is as yet a very young one and there is little doubt but that we 
shall have trouble with thrs olive fruitfly. 

ChcetodacusJerrnginensJerrvgine'us,'E\>. (1794). 

Bezzi, Bull. Ent. Res., VII, 104 (Oct. 1916). 
Recorded by Bezzi from Peradeniya, Katihar, Pusa, fruits of guava 
(Psidium guyava) and loquat [Eriobotnja japotiica). Also known from 
Mandalay, on mango ; Myitkyina, larva in peach and pomelo ; Maymyo, 
larva in mango. 

Chcetodanis femigineus dorsalis, Hendl. (1912). 

Bezzi, Bull. Ent. Res. VII, 104-105 (Oct. 1916). 
This species is known from the following localities and food-plants : — 
Peradeniya. 

Pusa ; in loquat {Eriobofn/a japonica). 
Coimbatore ; on mango. 
Taru ; larva in peach. 

Mandalay ; larva in mango and chilly {Capsicinn frutescens). 
Myitkyina ; larva in pomelo and guava. 

™ , ' > larva in Solamim verbascifolium fruits. 

Maymyo ; larva in American chillies (Capsicum sp.), pear (Pyrus 
communis) and peach {Primus per sica). 
At Matale, in Ceylon, I have reared it from larvae in Solanvm melon- Mr. Seaior- White. 
gena. 

That is new record, but hardly unexpected as we already have it Mr. Fletcher 
recorded from a wild Solanvm. 

Chcetodacus ferritginevs incisus, Wlk. (1860). 
Bezzi, Bull. Ent. Res. VII, 105 (Oct. 1916). 
This fruitfly is knowTi from the following localities and food-plants : — 
Kumaon ; PoUibetta, larva in jak {Artocarpus integrijolia) ; 
Santikoppa, larva in fruit of Careya arborea 



Mr. Senior- White. 



Mr. 5Jetcher. 



iZ PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD EXTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

adult on mango leaves, larva in guava fruits ; Coimbatore, 
larva in mango fruits ; Tatkon and Lashio, larva in Solanum 
verbascijolium fruits ; Taung-gyi (adult). 

Chcetodacus ferrugineus versicolor, Bezzi (1916). 
Bull. Ent. Ees., VII, 105 (Oct. 1916). 
We have the following records : — 

Peradeniya ; Pusa, larva in guava and AcJiras sapota fruits ; 
Coimbatore, larva in mango fruits. 
At Matale, in Ceylon, I. have reared it fi'om mango fruits. 

Chostodacus zonatus, Saunders (18-41); 
Dacus squalidus, Wlk. (1860). 
„ persicce. Bigot (1889). 
„ mangiferce, Cotes (1893). 
Bactrocera mangiferce, Bezzi (1913). 
Chcetodacus zonatus, Bezzi, Bull. Ent. Res. VII, 105-106 (Oct. 

1916). 
Chcetodacus zonatus, Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 216, 226, 
241, 249, 307 (1917). 
In his paper in Bull. Ent. Res. Bezzi gives the following records : — 
Ranchi, " Rauchi peach pest." 
Pusa, larva in peach, fig. (Ficus sp., cultivated), Achras sapota, 

ripe bael fruit. 
Santikoppa, larva in Careya arborea fruits. 
Amroha, Moradabad, larva in mango fruits. 
Pachmarhi, larva in peach fruits. 
Nagpur, in bottle gourd {Lagenaria vulgaris) VIII, 1913, 

Ratiram. [?] 
Taru, larva in peach VIII-IX. 1914. 
The Pusa collection also contains specimens from Coimbatore and 
Tranquebar. 

At Poona it is bad on mango, fifty per cent, of the fruit being attacked. 
It has a number of parasites but they do not seem to check it. 
At any rate, we should like to see some of those parasites. 

Chcetodacus tuberculatus, Bezzi. 
Bull. Ent. Res. VII, 106-107 (Oct. 1906). 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 241. 
This is kno^vIl from Taung-gyi (adults), and Myitkyina (larvae in 
peach, May-June). 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD EXTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 45 

C/icelodacus correclus, Bezzi. 

Bull. Ent. Ees. VII, 107 (Oct. 1916). 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 226, 211, (1917). 
Bactrocera zonata, Bezzi (nee Saunders), Mem. Ind Mus 
III, 94, t. 8, f. 4 (1913). 

We have records of this from Pusa, larva in peach ; Coimbatore, on 
mango ; Guindy, adults attracted to opened termitarium, and Hagari. 
adults. 



Chcefodacvs duplieatus, Bezzi (1916). 

Bull. Ent. Pves. VII, 107-108, (Oct. 1916). 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 241. 

This species seems to be known only fiom PaAmarhi, where speci- 
mens were bred from larvoe in peach fruits by Eatiram in May 1909. 



Ckcetodaeiis diversus, Coq. (1904). 

Dacus sp., Hewlett, Ind. Ins. Life, t. 66, f. 2 (1909). 
Bactrocera diversa, Bezzi, Mem. Ind. Mus. Ill, 94, t. 8, ff 2-3 

(1913). 
67iff?o(7(7CMs (/i'm-sHs, Bezzi, Bull. Ent. Ees. VII, 108-109 (Oct 

1916). 
Chcetodacm diversus, Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 213 307 

(1917). 

This species was originaly bred from oranges (Citrus aurantimn). 
In his paper Bezzi gives the following records : — 

Pusa, adults ; Bangalore, adult ; Machavaram, Godavari Distric: ; 
Coimbatore ; Nagpur, larva in bottle-gourd ; Dehra Dun. 

The Pusa collection contains specimens reared at Peradeniya from 
larvBB in mango and at Mandalay from larvae in plantain. ^ 

The females are attracted by the smell of soursop (Anona muricata). Mr. Sinior-Wlute. 

That is a useful observation. The male? of many- of these fruitflies Mr. Fietcher. 
are readily attracted to smells, but that provides no means of control as 
it is the females which do the damage. If we can attract the females, 
Ihe case becomes different. 



44 I'KOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Chcetodacus cucurhitw, Coq. (1899). 

Dacus cucurbitw, Coq. 

Howlett, Ind. Ins. Life, p. 633, f. 418 (1909). 
Bactrocera lucurbitce, Bezzi, Mem. Ind. Mus. Ill, p. 96, t. 8, 

f. 7 (1913). 
Dacus cucurbitw, Fletcher, S. Ind. Ins. p. 354, t. 16. 
Chcetodacus cucuibitce, Bezzi, Bull. Ent. Res. VII, 109-110, 

(Oct. 1916). 
ChcBtodacus cucurbitcc, Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 11, 304, 

305, 307 (1917). 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. 

The Pusa collection contains specimens from the following localities 
and food-plants : — 

Peradeniya, pumpkins ; Coimbatore, cucumber, pumpkin, melons ; 
Attur, watei--melon ; Pusa, Litffa cegyptia:a, pumpkins, cucum- 
ber, Trichosantkes dioica fruits, Cephalandra indica stem (making 
galls), in wild small fruits and cultivated large fruits of Cucumis 
trigonus, Mcmiordica charantia fruits, Trichosantkes anguina 
fruits, galls of Yitis trifolia : Peshawar, melon shoots ; Maymyo, 
Lujfa cegyptiaca ; Tatkon, Trichosanthes cucumerina. 

We discussed this species (as well as those other fruitflies also) at the 
last Meeting and I need only call your attention now to Mr. Fullaway's 
paper on the control of this fruitfly in Hawaii by means of a parasite. 
[See page 625.] 

We have bred parasites from it [at Coimbatore]. 

Chcetodacui caudatus, Fb. (1805). 

Bactro era^caudata, Bezzi, Mem. Ind. Mus. Ill, 97, t. 8, f. 8 

(1913). 
Chcetodacus caudatus, Bezzi, Bull. Ent. Res., VII, 110 (Oct. 

1916). 
Chcetodacus caitdatus, Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 213 (1917). 
In his paper, Bezzi gives the following localities and food-plants ; — 
Dehra Dun ; Shevaroys ; Coimbatore, on snake gourd ; Baba- 
budins ; Lashio ; Tatkon, larva on fruits of Trichosanthes pal- 
inata ; Myitkyina, on pomelo ; Taung-gyL 
The Pusa collection contains specimens reared at Peradeniya from 
pumpkins, and adults taken at Jeolikote, on mulberry fruit, and at 
Taung-gyi. 



FKOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING --0 

[Chcetoclacus hageni ? 
At Matale, in Ceylon, I have reared from larvae in Citrullus fruits Mr. Senior Whi^e. 
a fly which I believe to be C. hageni.] 

MeUesis eunienoides, Bezzi (1916). 
Bull. Ent. Res. VII, 119 (Oct. 1916). 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 307 (1917). 
This species is so far only known from Burma, where it has been reared 
at Tatkon from larvae in Tricliosantkes cucumerina fruits and at Jlyitkyina 
from larvae in cucumber. 

iJyiopardalis carpalina. 
Cleghorn, Agl. Jour. Ind. IX, 124-140, t. 13-15 (April 1914). 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 306. 
This fruitfly is well-known in Baluchistan as attacking melons and a 
long account of it was given by the late Mr. .1. Cleghorn in the Agricul- 
tural Journal oj India. So far as we know it has never been reported 
from the Plains of India, but in August 1915 we reared it at Pusa in some 
numbers from larv« found in fruits of Cucumis trigonus. 

Carpomyia vesuviana. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 11, 254 (1917). 
This species has been reared from her {Zizyphus jujuba) fniit at 
Coimbatore, Hadagalli (Bellary District), Pusa, Poona and Baroda. 

At Poona last year it was very bad on ber. The pest was so bad that Mr. Ramrao. 
no fruit could be had during the monsoon. 

It is parasitized extensively at Pusa by Biosteres carpoinyiw, Silv., Mr. Fletcher, 
and Brecon fletcheri, Silv. If these do not occur at Poona you might 
perhaps try introducing them there. 

Stictaspis ceratitina, Bezzi. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 204 (1917). 
This species is common at Pusa, the larva boring into bamboo shoots 
during the rains. It seems probable that it does a great deal more 
damage to young shoots than is generally realized. 

Stictaspis striata, Frogg. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 204 (1917). 
This species has similarly been bred at Peradeniya from larvae 
attacking shoots of giant bamboo (Dendrocalanius strictus) but has not 
been found in India so far as I know. 



4*3 ?l;OCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD E-VTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

[Ceratitis capitata. 

The Mediterranean Fruitfly, Ceratitis capitata, has not yet been found 
in India, but it is very widely distributed now and it is quite possible 
that it may be introduced some time, so perhaps Dr. C4ough will tell us 
something about it from his experience in Egypt. 

It is very bad in Egypt in gardens where several kinds of fruit are 
grown, such as oranges, guava, apricot and peach. In such cases it has 
the chance of passing through a generation in each of these fruits. If 
there is only one kind of fruit, for example, if only oranges are present, 
there is not much damage done. We have also taken it from dates. 
At present nothing is done to control it and no parasites are known. 

Have you any other fruitflies in Egypt besides Ceratitis ? 

No ; Ceratitis capitata is the only fruitfly so far known to attack 
cultivated plants in Egj-pt. 

You ought to be careful not to get Chcetodacus cuciirbitw introduced 
from India. It might easily be carried from Bombay or other ports in 
the larval state in vegetables or as an adult on board ship. 

We ought to be quite safe, because we have twenty miles of desert 
in the Suez Canal region and Port Said is also separated from Cairo by a. 
belt of desert. 

The adult fly is very long-lived pro%-ided it can obtain food. It can 
live for two or three hundred days or more under favourable conditions. 

\Miilst I was in Bombay I had some oranges which were probably 
Egyptian oranges ; so, if these oranges are imported, there is danger of 
the introduction of Ceratitis capitata from Egypt into India. It will 
pay the Indian Government to stop the importation of Egyptian fruit 
altogether. It is not much of a trade. Quarantine is of no avail ; entire 
prohibition is needed. 

There certainly have been importations of oranges from Egypt into- 
Bombay in the past. We are indebted to Dr. Gough for caUing our 
attention to the dajiger of importation of Ceratitis capitata into India, 
by this means.] 

PSILID^. 



(Til-Root Fly.) 

? Psila sp., Hewlett, Ind. Ins. Life, p. 629, f. 415 (1909). 

? Psila sp., Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 85 (1917). 
This fly, which is supposed to be a species of Psila, bores in the larval 
state in the roots of Sesammn irtdiciim. It is said to be a serious pest- 
at Hoshangabad and has been noticed at Nagpur and Pusa. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 47 

MlCROPEZID^. 

Calobata sp, 
Fletcher, S. Ind. Ins., p. 355, f. 213. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 294, 295, (1917). 
This species occurs throughout the Plains of India, the larva boring 
into the rhizomes of turmeric and ginger, but it is not definitely known 
whether it is a real pest or merely attacks rotting rhizomes. It has 
been noted at Coimbatore. Samalkota and Hopin (Upper Burma). 

Nerius sp. 

This is an undescribed species, which will be described by Mr. Brunetti 
in his second volume on Diptera in the Fauna of India Series. We have 
it from PoUibetta in South Coorg, from Lashio in the Northern Shan 
States, and from Myitkyina (Upper Burma) where the adults were found 
in numbers on stored potatoes and on rotten potatoes which had been 
thrown away. Like the Calobata, it is doubtfully a pest and may only 
breed in rotten vegetable matter ; on the other hand, it may attack 
sound tubers or may assist decay by carrying spores of rot-diseases from 
lotten to healthy tubers. 

I have bred it from brinjal also at Matale. Mr. Senior- White. 

It seems definitely attached to Solanaceae. Bj].. Fletcher. 

Chloropid^. 
Oscinis thece. 
Indian Insect Life, p. 626, f. 412. 
This species has been reported as mining in tea-leaves, but is not 
3, pest so far as we know. 

(Cruciferous leaf-miner.) 
Indian Insect Life, p. 623. fig. 411. 
This is another species of which we know nothing regarding its status 
as a pest. 

Agromyzid^. 
(Red-gram Agromyza.) 
S. I. Ins., p. 357, f. 216. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 44. 
Andrews, Q. J. Ind. Tea Assoc. 1918, 34. [Tur-pod Fly.] 
This species has been bred from Cajanus indicus at Coimbatore and 
in Bombay and the Central Provinces, and at Tocklai and Borbhetta 
d( Assam) the larva was found feeding on seeds of Cajanus indicus in April. 

VOL. I E 



48 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

As regards control, the only method that can be suggested is the 
selection of resistant varieties. 



Agrornyza sp. 

" Cowpea Agrornyza ", S. Ind. Ins., p. 358, f. 217, (1914). 

Agrornyza sp., Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 52, 56, 59, (1917). 
We now come to one or more species of Agrornyza, one of which may 
possibly be A. johaseoli, which bore into the stems of pulse crops." In 
Ceylon and at Nagpur the larvae have been found in the stems of French 
beans and considerable damage may be done. At Koilpatti, Coimbatore 
and Tinnevelly the larvae bore into the stems of young plants of cowpea, 
lablab and green gram, the plants withering as the result of attack, and 
pupation taking place in the larval burrow. At Pusa we have a species 
referred to on pages 62 and 65 of the Proceedings of the Second Entomolo- 
gical Meeting and possibly distinct from the foregoing, whose larva bores 
in the stems of peas and exotic field-beans. 

It is quite possible that several distinct species may be concerned. 
Certainly there seem to be differences of food-plant and habit. At Pusa, 
for example, the larvae in peas occur near or below soil-level, whilst at 
Sabour they have been noted high up in cowpea stems. So it looks as 
if we have several species mixed up here but I cannot undertake to 
differentiate them. 



{Bakia Stem-fly). 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 62, (1917). 
A fly, which may be an Agromyzid, has been reported by Ratiram 
lis attacking stems of Viciajaha in the larval stage in the Chanda District 
of the Central Provinces, but I have seen no specimens and know no^ 
more about it. 



{China stem-fly). 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 202, (1917). 
This is another unidentified species found at Pusa, the larva attacking- 
the stem of China {Paspahnn miliacemn) before the ear ripens. The 
effect of attack is like a borer, the ear drying without forming any grain. 
The affected plants are easily spotted in the field. This fly was first 
noticed at Pusa in September 1916. 



PfiOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 49 

(Vnidentified Agromijzid ?) 
This fly was found at Pusa in March and April 1918, the-larva boring 
into lucerne stems in small numbers. It has not been noted as a pest 
but might become so. 

Cecidomyiad^. 

Pachydiplosis orijzce, Wood-Mason. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 169-170, tab. (1917). 

This Cecidomyiad occurs commonly in Madras, Orissa and Bengal 

but does not seem to have been noticed elsewhere so far. It attacks 

the r^ce-plant, the larva causing the formation of a long white gall which 

has earned the name of " elephants tusk disease " in some districts. 

We went into this insect fairly fully at the last Meeting. Has anyone 

anything new to say about it ? 

It is still very bad in Madras. Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 
The flies are attracted to light. Mr. Senior-White. 

The flies are attracted to light in fairly large numbers. The speci- Mr. Ramachandra 
mens were sent to Dr. Felt, who has confirmed the identification. R^o- 

Light-traps are of httle use as a control measure because, by the time Mr. Fletcher, 
the adult flies emerge, the damage has been done. 

It is very bad in Ratnagiri district, but on the monsoon crop only. Mr. Deshpande. 
It is not found on summer or winter rice. 

We have not had it reported from Bombay before. Mr. Fletcher. 

Aspkondylia sesami, Felt. 
" Gingelly Gall-fly ", S. Ind. Ins. p. 364, ff. 224, 225, (1914). 
Asphondylia sesami, Felt, Canad. Entom. (1916). 

„ Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 84, (1917). 
This species has been found at Coimbatore, the larva'in buds of Sesa- 
mum indicum, and at Nadiad and Surat, the larva in immature pods of 
Sesammn indicum. 

At Coimbatore it has also been reported as attacking flowers of 
cluster bean {Cyamopsis psoralioides) [Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 
60-61] but it seems doubtful whether this is the same species. 

Dasyneura gossypii, Felt. 

Contarinia sp., S. I. Ins., pp. 363-364, f. 223, (1914). 

Dasyneura gossypii, Felt, Canad. Entom. 1916, pp. 29-30, (1916). 

Proc. Second Intl. Meeting, p. 103, (1917). 

This species was found in 1913 at Coimbatore, the larva boring into 

cotton buds, pupation taking place in the withered bud. It was then a 

e2 



50 



Mr. Kunhi Eannan. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



minor pest but does not seem to have been noticed since then, so is prob- 
ably only sporadic. In Mysore the larva has also been found in cotton 
buds, but there also it is sporadic, although considerable damage was 
done one year in a small area. 

In Mysore it is doing damage but not over a large area. 

Dr. Gough, have you found any Cecidomyiad attacking cotton buds 
in Egypt ? 

No, we have never noticed any in Egypt. 



(Cholatn Cecidomyiad.) 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 183, (1917). 
This is an imidentified Cecidomyiad which has been found attacking 
tholam at Coimbatore and Udumalpet in Madras. The egg is thrust 
in under the glumes when the seeds are about half- ripe and the larva 
bores in the seeds of plants in the field. Damage may be considerable. 
It has also been noticed in Mysore, where the damage done was consider- 
able in one year. 

{Juar Cecidomyiad.) 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 183, (1917). 

This Cecidomyiad was found attacking juar at Poona in December 
1916. The larva destroys the ovary of the flower of Andropogon sorghum, 
pupating inside, so that no grain is developed. This fly is extensively 
parasitized by a Chalcidid. 

Have you found this Cecidomyiad again, Mr. Ramrao ? 

It was not found this year although I made several searches for it. 

Most of these Cecidomyiads seem rather erratic in their occurrence. 



(Cumbu Cecidomyiad.) 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 188, (1917). 
This species has been found at Coimbatore and Mettupalaiyam, 
where the larva bores in seeds of cumbu {Pennisetum typhoideum) plants 
in the field, the eggs being laid at night. During the day the flies hide 
away among the sheathing leaves at ground-level. The damage may be 
very considerable. 

(Mango-leaf Cecidomyiad.) 
At Pusa we have a Cecidomyiad which makes numerous globular 
galls on mango-leaves. It is as yet unidentified although specimens were 
sent to Dr. Felt three years ago. We do not look on it as a pest, but 
last year I had a letter from the Government Entomologist in Mauritius, 
saying that this insect had been introduced with mango plants imported 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 01 

from India and was becoming a bad pest in Mauritius, and asking for 
help in procuring parasites to check it. So, if any of you come across 
this Cecidomyiad and can get parasites, you might remember that Mr. 
d'Emmerez de Charmoy would be glad to have some. 

In Mysore we have one species making galls on mango leaves. Mr. Kunhi Kannan, 

TlPULID^. 

Conosia irrorata, Wied. 

Brunetti, F. I., Nemat. pp. 497-499, f. 43, t. 10, f. 5, (1912). 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 175. 
Conosia irrm-ata occurs throughout the whole Oriental Region and is ^^- Fle'clie'"' 
commonly found in rice areas in India and Burma. We know nothing 
about its early stages but I shall not be surprised to find that the larva 
may feed at the roots of paddy. 

Incert^ sedis. 
The following Diptera, which have been reported as pests, cannot be 
placed in their Families. 

(Sqfflower Stem-fly.) 
Proc. Second Entl. Meetmg, p. 97, (1917). 
This has been reported by Ratiram from Mandla, in the Central 
Provinces, the larva boring in the stems of Safflower and killing the 
plants. 

{Safflower Shoot-fly.) 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 97, (1917). 
This fly has been reported by K. D. Shroff as attacking shoots of 
safflower at Mandalay. 

(Sqfflower Seed-fly.) 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 97, (1917). 
The larva of this fly has been reported by Ratiram as attacking 
safflower seeds, when on the plants, in the Central Provinces. 

(Juar Stem-fly.) 
Larvae of this fly were found at Pusa in August 1917 by Ram Saran, 
boring in young jiiar stems. This is not the same as the Anthomyiad 
found mjuar, but has not been definitely named as yet. 



52 PfiOCEEDISGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

LEPIDOPTEEA. 

Amatid^ (Syntomid^). 
Euchromia polymeria, Linn. 
Hmpsn., F. I., I, 227, f. 143, Cat. I, 297-299, f. 137 ; I. I. L., 
p. 434, t. 34, f. 6 ; Entl. Note 61 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
p. 291. 
This species has been leported by the Entomological Assistant, 
Travancore, as an occasional minor pest of sweet potato, destroying the 
leaves. It was also found by Green at Peradeniya in January 1903 
defoliating various garden varieties of Ipomcea. 

It is widely distributed within our limits. We have it frorn 
Fort (Bombay), Dacca, Eangpur, and Coimbatore. 

The eggs are laid on the leaf and the whole hfe-history is 
on the leaf. It is not so common on the cultivated sweet potato as on 
the wild variety, bul^it does do some damage. 

[Amata passalis, Fb.] 
Syntomis passalis, Hmpsn., F. I. Moths, I, 219, Cat. Phal. I, 86. 
Amata passalis, Hmpsn., Cat. Phal. Suppl. I, 13. 

In Travancore we found Syntomis passalis this year on Vigna catjang- 
There were only two or three caterpillar.s on each plant. 

Syntomis passalis is common in Quilon, Travancore. 

On the 31st of August at about 7-30 a.m. a female adult was found 
resting on the stem of a coconut palm at a height of say 3 feet above 
the ground-level. There were a few male moths flying about this 
female probably for mating. At 8 a.m. one of the males mated with 
this female. Mating was done end to end. While these were in cop. 
another male came and attempted to mate the female under observation. 
Finding it is impossible he also left the place. At 2 p.m. the male severed 
its connection. At about 5 p.m. on 31st of August the moth commenced 
to lay eggs and the maj or portion of the eggs was laid by the next morning. 
This female continued to lay eggs till the 3rd of September. 

The eggs were laid on the sides and bottom of the cage in 2 layers 
one over the other. The egg is soft and round without any ornamenta- 
tions. The colour of the egg is white when newly laid. The total number 
of eggs laid by this single female was 258. The first lot of eggs laid on 
the 31st of August changed colour to dark and at about 11-30 a.m. on 
6th September 1918, eggs hatched and the young larvae commenced to 
come out. The top portion of the eggs before hatching became darker 
still. The young larvse came oitt of the lids on the top portion of the eggs. 



PROCEEDINGS OF TJIE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETIMG 53 

The larva measures nearly 8 mm. in length, a few hours after emergence 
■and is dull white ; head round and shiny ; body is thinly hairy with dark 
hairs. As the larvae are growing the bodily colour is changed to brown. 
The caterpillar when full-grown measures little more than 25 mm. in 
length and is deep brown in colour. 

The insect feeds openly on Cowpea ( Vigna catjang) and is a very slow 
eater. They destroy the leaves. It is only a very minor pest. The 
full-grown larvae could be found in nature wandering in the fields. 
When disturbed the larva falls down from the foodplant and curves 
itself. A few larvae were found dead in the cage, and it was observed 
that other larvae were eating the dead body of their own species. 
The larva in nature is as a rule found isolated and not in groups. 

The insect commenced pupation on the 2nd of October. The newly- 
formed pupa is very soft and pink in colour and towards the close of the 
pupal period the colour became more pinkish. Abdominal spiracles 
and wing pads are very black. Pupa measures about 12 mm. in length 
and 35 mm. across the body. 

The insect makes a slight cocoon with silken threads and remnants 
of the foodplant. It makes its cocoon on the foodplants in nature. 

The moths commenced to come out from 16th October and continued 
for 2 days more. 

Eggs laid on 31st August 1918. 

Eggs hatched on 6th September 1918. 

Pupated on 2nd October 1918. 

Moths emerged on 16th October 1918. 
The adult is found throughout the year. 

[Amata passalis is widely distributed throughout India (except the Mr. Fletcher. 
North) and Ceylon, but we have not had it noted before as attacking any 
cultivated crop.] 

Arctiad^. 

Celama inteniella., Wlk. 
Hmpsn., Cat. II, 13-14, f. 6. 
Has been reared at Pusa from larvae eating grains of hajra {Pennisehm 
lyphoideum) and at Mandalay on Cajanus indicus. 

We have it from Pusa, Chapra, Dhamai (Bengal), Bassein Fort 
(Bombay), Bellahunisi(Bellary District), Mandalay and Meiktila (Upper 
Burma). 

Not a pest. 



54 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Celama squaUda, Stdgr. 

Hmpsn., Cat. IL 24-25 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 71. 

Reared at Pusa in December 1914 from larvse found on pods of sann 

hemp (Crotalaria juncea), but only found in small numbers. It has also 

been reared at Pusa from fallen fruits of Ficus glomerata and from larvae 

on flowers of Bombax malabaricim. We also have it from Peshawar. 

Diacrisia nigrifrons,W\]s.. (?) 
Hmpsn., F. I. II., 12, Cat. Ill, 263. 
Reared in January 1908 at Poona on cotton. 
Not known to be a pest. 

Diacrisia obliqua, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 7, Cat. Ill, 289-291 ; I. I. L., pp. 437-438, 
t. 35 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 47, 51, 54, 58, 61, 
64,65,83,86,89,91,95, 101, 126, 127, 129, 132, 237, 263, 
270,274,283,291,294,295. 
A common and destructive pest in most parts of India with the excep- 
tion of North-Western India. Our specimens are from the following 
localities and foodplants : — 

Poona ..... Chrysanthemum, mulberry, groundnut and 
Sesamum indicum. 

Central Provinces . . . Sesamum indicum and castor. 

United Provinces . . . Sesamum indicum (not common). 

Saharanpur .... Sunflower. 

Pusa ..... Groundnut, cauUflower, cabbage, lettuce, 

mangold wurzel, lucerne, jute, bean, 
Phaseolus radiatvs, cotton, Abutilon 
indicum, tobacco, turmeric, sunflower, 
Jerusalem artichoke, mustard, sweet 
potato, soybean and castor. 

Shillong. 

DarjiUng. 

Bhagalpur .... Phaseolus radiatus. 

Nadia District .... Jute. 

Control : — Hand-picking of larvae in early stages when clustered. 

Mr, Ramakrishna In Madras it is found on sweet-potato, Lantana and a number of hill 

Ayyar. plants. 

Mr. Kunhi Kancan. In Mysore it is very serious on castor, ragi, etc. It occurs there in the 
cold weather from October to January, but is not a regular visitor. We 
control it by hand-picking the caterpillars in the early stages when they 
are feeding gregariously on leaves. 



PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 00 

It was bad [at Pusa] on white nettle, but not for the last four years. Mr. Misra. 

There is one peculiarity that we have noticed about this insect in Mr. Kunhi Kannan. 
Mysore. It lays eggs on the more shady crops first and then moves on 
to the others. It attacks castor by preference. 

■^Tien it occurs in large numbers we find eggs on all sorts of plants Mr. Ghosh, 
and in all places whether shady or otherwise. 

That may be so in Pusa, but in Mysore we first fiind it on castor. Mr. Eunhi Kannan. 

Diacrisia montana, Guer. {sujfusa, Wlk.). 
Hmpsn., Cat. Ill, 302. 
Has been reported (I. M. N. II, 47) as defoliating plantain and (I. M. 
N., I. 54-55) on jute. Probably an error for D. obliqua. 

? Diacrisia sp. 

Bred from larvae found feeding on rice-leaves at Ranchi in Septem- 
ber 1915. 

The moth is a small, stoutly-built, immaculate, ochreous species, 
which has not yet been identified. 

Estigmcne Jactinea, Cram. 

S. I. I., p. 368, f. 230 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 28, 57, 
96, 101, 187, 189. 199, 291. 

A common and widely-distributed species throughout India (except 
extreme North) and Lower Burma. Its incidence as a pest appears 
to vary largely according to locality ; in Baroda, for example, it is stated 
to be a serious peot every year, whilst in the Central Provinces it is not 
common. In most districts it seems to be sporadic and scarcely a pest 
as a rule. 

Piepers and Snellen have described the larva on numerous plants in 
Java {Tijds. voorEnt. XL VIII, 187-188 (1905)) and figure it (t. 7, ff. 1-3). 
At Pusa it has been found on sunflower, jute, castor, sann hemp, Abutilon 
sp., maize, sweet potato and Phaseohis nnmgo, and in Southern India on 
cumhu, ragi, coffee, horse-gram, etc. 

Amsada lineola, Fb. 

Hmpsn. Cat. Ill, 324-325 ; Hmpsn., F. I., II, 28 (Creatonotus 
emittens, Wlk.) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 96. 
Common and widely-distributed throughout India and Burma, the 
larva occurring on most low-gi owing crops, especially on Graminese, 



56 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOIIOLOGICAL MEETING 

but not a pest as a rule. In Baroda it is stated to occur on all growing 
crops, and the Pusa collection contains examples reared at Balaghat 
(Central Provinces) on rice, at Pusa on tobacco, at Ranchi on rice, and at 
Palur (Madras) on varagu {Paspalum scrobiculutam). 



Amsacta moorei, Butl. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 27, Cat. Ill, 329 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 47, 53-55, 68, 83, 87, 91, 99, 179, 187, 189, 199, 203. 
Occurs, together with A. alhistriga, in Mysore and Madras, principally 
in the South Arcot district, on all low-growing crops. Also recorded 
from SindbyHampson. 



Amsacta moorei sara, Swinh. 
This form, sara, occurs in Bombay, where the larvae attack maize 
at Dohad, and in the Punjab, where it has been reared from larvae on 
Phaseolus radiatus at Jagadhri. A few of the specimens from Dohad 
have the abdomen yellow. We have reared this at Pusa from Bombay 
material and have prepared a coloured plate showing the life-history 
[exhibited]. I am inclined to think that sara is a good species, distinct 
from moorei, although I cannot give any morphological distinctions 
but the male genitalia have not been compared. : 

Mr. Jhaveri. "We find it on the Bombay side also. We have used light-traps and 

caught a large number of moths. We, however, still got a large number 
of caterpillars attacking plants. We also found Tachinid and Hymenop- 
terous parasites on these caterpillars. 

Mr. Kunhi Kannan. Did you find out the proportion of males and females attracted to 
the light-traps ? 

Mr. Jhaveri. Yes ; we did count these. The following are the details : — In the year 

1917, 7,581 moths were caught and out of these 3,336 were females 
loaded with eggs and 4,245 were males. For the greater attraction of the 
moths powerful lights, like Kitson lamps, were also used. In this way 
a large number of moths was caught before they could lay eggs, and as 
a result of this measure very much fewer caterpillars were found later 
on in our experimental fields than in the cultivator's areas. During 
the season 1918 we caught 3.192 moths by means of light-traps and of 
these 1 ,227 were females and 1 ,965 were males. 

Mr. Fletcher. The difference in attraction to light in this Bombay form and in that 

found in Southern India seems to indicate that we are really dealing with 
different species. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 01 

Amsacta albistriga, Wlk. 

S. I. I., p. 369, t. 17 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 55, 91, 
179, 187, 199. 

Occurs in Southern India, especially in the South Arcot and Salem 
districts in Madras and in Mysore, as a serious and destructive pest of 
almost all local crops, e.g., cliolam, cumhu, groundnut, pulses, castor, etc. 
Also stated to occur in Baroda, but I have not seen specimens, and the 
species concerned here will probably turn out to be ^. lineola. 

For control measures see South Indian Insects, pages 85, 135, and 
369. 

In the Mysore Agricultural Calendar for the year 1915, the life- Mr. Kunhi Kannan. 
history and simple method of controlling Amsacta albistriga was described. 
It was stated there that Kumblihulas are the offspring of a kind of moth 
with white wings and golden banded body, which comes out in the field 
during the rains and lies helpless until nightfall, when it begins to fly 
about. As each female lays about 1,000 eggs it was explained that, 
if the few thousands of moths that emerge in a village are hand-picked 
and killed, their offspring (the Kumblihulas) will not appear and the crops 
will be saved from devastation. The value of the remedy has been 
repeatedly demonstrated in several villages where its adoption by the 
raiyats has yielded very satisfactory results. Nevertheless there are a 
few raiyats in every village who refuse to co-operate with the rest in 
picking work. From this want of co-operation the whole village suffers 
for the moths are prolific and it is enough that a few moths are left un- 
picked for Kumblihulas to arise in large numbers and these will be the 
cause of the pest the following year, whereas if all the moths are picked 
regularly for three or four years then the chances are that the village 
should be rid of the pest for a very long time. A whole village is there- 
fore made to suffer for the neglect of a few. 

To avoid this possibility a Pest Act was passed in 1917 and it was 
appUed last year to two Hoblis, viz., Santebennur in Chennagiri Taluq 
and Burmanayakandrug Hobli in Holalkere Taluq. The following regu- 
lations were drawn up under the Act : — 



(1) As soon as the ear best mungar rains have fallen a diligent i 

is to be made daily in the morning or evening for the Kum- 
blihula moths which are to be picked and placed in a vessel 
containing water with a small quantity of kerosine floating 
on the surface. All moths so collected will be handed over 
to the headman of village for inspection by the fieldman 
in charge of operations in the village. 



58 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

(2) Each raiyat or landholder must arrange for a daily collection 

of moths on his own lands. 

(3) The work in each village will be under the charge of a fieldman 

of the Agricultural Department who will keep a record of 
work done on each holding and of the number of moths 
picked. 

(4) In cases where raiyats or landholders neglect to carry out the 

above operations a report will be made to the Amildar unless 
delay is likely to prejudice the operations in which case the 
fieldman in charge of operations in the village will make the 
necessary arrangements to pick the moths and intimate the 
cost to the Amildar. The Amildar will arrange to get the 
work done by the raiyaf concerned but if he fails this may be 
done by Government Agency and the expenses incurred 
will be charged to the raiyats or landholders concerned and 
collected as arrears of land revenue. 

(5) Payments will be made for the moths picked at rates fixed by 

the Director of Agriculture but the total amount paid for 
picking work in any one village shall not exceed Rs. 20. 

(6) Picking will continue for 45 days or until such time as in the 

opinion of the officer in charge there is no danger of further 
emergence of the moths. 

(7) Villages in these hoblis which are in the opinion of the Director 

of Agriculture not Ukely to sufier from the pest will be excluded 
from the operation of the Regulation. 

(8) Copies of a circular giving full information with regard to the 

pest and the measures to be taken against it will be distri- 
buted to the raiyats of the villages concerned not later than 
the 10th May 1918. 

(9) The officer in charge of the operations will be stationed at a 

central place (Sasalu) throughout the period during which 

combative measures against the pest have to be continued. 

He will visit the villages and will explain to the raiijats in 

detail the requirements for effectively deahng with the pest, 

the labour required, the period during which operations will 

have to be carried on and all other information necessary 

for the efficient control of the pest. 

Work has already been done in previous years, in several of the villages 

in these two hoblis so that raiyats were familiar with the operations. 

Nevertheless, well in advance of the picking season, circulars on the 

pest and the regulations were printed in Kannada and circulated in all 

the villages. ^Vhat the Department proposed to do and what help was 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 59 

«xpected was further explained by officers of the Department. Tem- 
porary fieldmen were appointed and put in charge of the picking work 
in the various villages and two officers were stationed — one at Sasalu 
and the other at Santebennur to organise and supervise the whole work. 
In spite of these elaborate preliminaries it was some time before the 
raiyats realised fully the intentions of the Government and the extent of 
the powers vested in them by the Act. The almost complete failure 
of the early rains was another obstacle, for it indisposed them to exertions 
against a pest which they said would die out of itself from the want of 
crops to feed on. There was however no active opposition and no 
penalties were imposed on any one even though the cases deserving of 
these were not a few. In all about 10,000 moths were collected re- 
presenting nearly five million caterpillars. But for the Pest Act it is 
certain no picking work would have been done even in villages in the 
hohJis where work had been done previously and where the raiyats knew 
very well the advantages of the remedy. 

Creatonotus gangis, Linn. 

S. 1. 1., pp. 369-370, f. 231 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 28, 
91, 133, 206. 
A minor, polyphagous pest, occurring throughout India and Burma. Mr. Fletcher. 
Piepers and Snellen have described {Tijds. voor Ent. XLVIII, 188-189 
^1905)) the larva from various wild plants in Java. In Southern India 
it has been found on coffee, groundnut, lucerne, etc., and we have speci- 
mens reared at Pusa on marua, grasses, and Mimulus gracilis, at Lyallpur 
on sweet potato, maize, urid and lucerne, and at Mandalay on seedling 
paddy. 

Pericallia ricini, Fb. 

S. 1. 1., pp. 370-371, f. 232 ; P oc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 75, 
84, 86, 101, 237, 267, 298, 299, 303. 

As is imphed by its specific name, this insect is usually found on 
castor, but it is polyphagous and has been noted in Madras on plantain, 
pumpkin, gingelly {Sesamum indicum), cotton, agathi, Calotropis, Moringa, 
oleander, and Colocasia. The Pusa collection contains specimens reared 
at Coimbatore on plantain, at Tynampet (Madras) on castor, at Calcutta 
on sweet potato, at Howrah on Cucurbita pepo, at Pusa on castor and 
Commelina, and at Nagpur on brinjal. We have no examples from 
Burma or from India north of the United Provinces. 

A minor pest of castor and of garden crops. The larvse may be 
hand-picked. This species is attacked by a Tachinid parasite. 



60 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Utetheisa pulchella, Linn. 

S. 1. 1., pp. 371-372, f. 233 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 66 

(tab), 71. 

Occurs commonly everywhere as a serious pest of Sann Hemp (Crota- 

laria juncea), the larvae eating the leaves and contents of pods. It has 

also been reared on a wild Crotalaria and at Pusa on Heliotropium indicum. 

NOCTUID^. 

Heliothis [Chloridea) obsoleta, Fb. 
S. 1. 1., pp. 373-374, f. 235 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 44, 
49 (tab), 56, 58, 71, 80, 88, 90, 91, 96, 97, 115, 124, 188, 191, 
206, 212, 265, 272, 273, 274, 289. 

This species is the^ cotton bollworm of America but is rarely found 
on cotton in India, where, however, it is a serious pest, principally of 
gram. Its range of foodplants is very wide. It has been reared at 
Pusa on gram, tur {Cajanus indicus), oats, indigo, lucerne, Malachra 
capiiata, rose-leaves, cotton-bud, cotton-boll, maize cob, safilower, bajia 
pod, marua ear, tobacco, tomato, carrot flowers, onion flowers, mangold, 
castor leaves and capsules, val and sunflower. We have also examples 
reared at Coimbatore on safflower, at Madras on Indian hemp, at Surat 
ongram. atKhandesh and Dhulia on cotton-buds, at Anand on tobacco, 
at Hoshangabad on wheat ears, at Nagpur on gooseberry 
[probably Cape gooseberry], cotton boll, tur and gram, at Patna on 
gram, in the United Provinces on poppy heads, at Lyallpur on Kusumba 
(C'flrt/((7}?n/s imdor/Ms) and on pea-pods, at Peshawar from larva boring 
young orange fruit, and at Hangu, in the Kohat Valley, North-West 
Frontier Province, from larvae boring into rose-buds. 

Control is difficult, owing to the wide range of foodplants and to the 
larval habit of eating into the pods of gram, which is the crop most 
seriously attacked — so much so that in some districts gram camiot be 
grown on account of this insect. In the case of young gram plants, 
bagging with a bag-net may be tried. Spraying is hardly practicable 
on a field-scale and is of Uttle use when gram-pods are formed and are 
being attacked. Fields which have been badly infested with larvae 
should be ploughed immediately after harvest to destroy the pupae in 
the soil and prevent the resulting moths from ovipositing on other crops. 

We get it occasionally in Eg}^t, but very rarely on cotton. 

It occurs on ganja at Nowgaon in the Eajshahi district. Hand- 
picking is done to check this pest. 

In the North- West Frontier Province it is impossible to grow gram 
on irrigated land on account of this pest. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 61 

Heliothis (Chloridea) assulta, Guen. 

S. I. I., p. 374, f. 236 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 270 
(tab), 271. 
Widely distributed in India (except extreme North) and Burma. 
A minor (occasional major) pest of tobacco, the larvae eating holes in the 
leaves. We have specimens reared on tobacco at Pusa, Nadiad (Bombay), 
Anand, Madras, and Amarapur (Burma). It has also been reared at 
Pusa from larvse on tur pods, Physalis minima, and on a wild PJiysalis. 

In Ceylon also the larva attacks Physalis peruviana and is found Mr. Senior-White. 
inside the calyx. .-.j-tti,- -v^s^ 

In the case of tobacco, the larvse are fairly easily found and hand- Mr. Fletcher, 
picked. 

Adisura atkinsoni, Moore. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 173-174, f. 113, Cat. IV, 120, f. 39 ; Proc 
Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 54, 56. 
Has been reared at Pusa from larva on Blumea sp. and at Coimbatore 
in January and February from larvse boring lab lab pods, on red gram > 

{Cajanus .ndicvs) and on field beans. 

A sporadic local pest of pulses. The pupal period is a long one and 
cultural methods at this time offer the best chance of checking it. 

Euxoa spinifera, Hb. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 182 [biconica], Cat. IV, 177-179, f. 60 ; Lefroy, 

Ent. Mem. I, 253-257, t. 14, f. 10 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 

pp. 203, 273. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, the larva usually 

feeding at roots of grasses, especially diibh grass. It was also reared at 

Pusa in February 1915 from a larva found on leaves of sweet potato 

and has been sent in from Gujrat (Punjab) as attacking young cotton 

plants. Usually a very minor pest, it occurs sporadically in enormous 

numbers at roots of grass. 

Euxoa segetum, Schiff. 

S. I. I., p. 375, f. 237 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 29, 

208, 280,- 284. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, more commonly in 

the Hill Districts, in which it is a major pest of garden crops. We have 

examples from Mysore reared from larvse destroying coffee seedlings in 

the Coffee Districts, from Ootacamund reared from larvse injuring garden 



62 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

and vegetable crops, from the Shevaroy Hills where the larvae were very 
destructive to potato in 1912, and from Gulmarg (Kashmii) from larvae 
attacking potato tubers ; at Pusa this species has also been reared from 
larvae found on sugarcane roots and on gram, at Rangpur on tobacco, 
at Nagpur on clover, and at Lyallpur on beetroot and gram. 

A serious pest of potato in the Hills. Control is difficult, the best 
remedy being to grub up the larvae which lie hidden by day in the earth 
around attacked plants. Spraying is not effective in the case of potato 
as the larvae prefer to feed on the roots and tubers below ground-level. 

At our suggestion one European planter in the Shevaroys tried sUced 
potatoes covered with a mixture of Paris Green and sugar as a bait, 
but it did not prove successful. 

Agrotis ypsilon, Rott. 
Hmpsn., F. I., II, 182, Cat. IV, 368-369, f. '71 ; Lefroy, Ent. 
Mem. I, 259-274, t. 14, ff. 1-8 ; A. J. I., VIII, 343-354, VIII, 
372-389 ; Bengal Qrly. Agrl. Jl., IV, No. 4 ; Bihar Agrl. Jl.. 
I, 1-19, 78-104, II, 16-35, III, 1-14, ; Proc. Second Entl. 

Meeting, pp. 8, 48 (tab), 80, 90, 206, 269, 273, 279, 282, 
284, 297. 
Occurs throughout Northern India and mostly in a belt of about one 
hundred miles wide and parallel with the Himalayas, stragghng as far as 
Nagpur and Jessore. Also in Ceylon. Not known in Western or 
Southern India. 

We have examples reared at Pusa on gram, tobacco, groundnut, 
sweet-potato, celery, cauliflower, cabbage, lucerne and wheat leaves ; 
at Lyallpur on beetroot, at Shahabad on opium poppy, at Nagpur on 
clover, at Jabbalpur on potato, at Gaya on gram, at Rangpur on tobacco, 
and at Jessore on mustard and linseed. 

It occurs regularly every year on the tal lands at Mokameh and has 
been effectively controlled there by the use of Andres-Maire traps. (See 
literature cited above.) 

I have a few more details to add to the account given at the last 
Meeting. We have found four or five parasites of which two or three 
are Tachinids and two are Braconids. One Braconid is very promising. 
It appears along with the pest but the parasitization percentage is about 
live per cent, in the beginning and later it rises to thirty-two per cent. 
In 1918 it rose so high as seventy-four per cent. The parasitic grub 
aestivates from March to September. By the middle of September or 
early in October cocoons kept in the insectary dry up and we cannot get 
the parasites out of these. Those that remain in the field get submerged 
.during flood time and remain under water in some cases for a couple of 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING t>3 

months, the result being that we get very few parasites when the pe.st 
appears in the field at the beginning of the rabi [cold weather] season. 
If the parasite could got a good start in the beginning of the season, we 
might succeed in controlling the pest. Agrotis is found in the Hills and 
we might be able to get parasites from there in September. 

Do you find any difficulty in breeding these parasites ? Mr. Fletcher 

We breed this Braconid quite well in the insectary up to a certain Mr. H. L. Dutt. 
time. 

To have it in sufficient numbers when required, in September, it would Mr. Fletcher, 
seem necessary to have a regular Hill Station to breed it. 

\Mien does the parasitic grub commence to sestivate ? Dr. Gough. 

In March or April. Mr. H. L. Dutt. 

The Andres-Maire trap has given very good results in India. It Mr. Fletcher, 
seems strange that it did not succeed in Egypt. 

The Andres-Maire trap was tried and discredited in Egypt. In Egypt Dr. Gough. 
Agrotis ypsilon is found also on wheat, grass and bersim, but chiefly on 
wheat. It is found in the basin area. It's habits in Egypt are exactly 
the same as in India. 

[See also page 622]. 



Agrotis c-nigrum, Linn. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 188, Cat. IV, 389-391, f. 76 ; I. I. L., t. 34 
ff. 10, 11 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 284. 
Occurs at Jabbalpur, usually annually, as a pest of potato. Recorded 
by Hampson from the Himalayas and Nilgiris. 
Control : — Hand-picking of larvae. 



Agrotis flammatra, Schiff. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 189, Cat. IV, 393-394 ; Lefroy, Ent. Mem. I, 
2.58-259 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 48, 63, 94, 122. 

Occurs throughout Northern India, Pusa being apparently its most 
southern lim't as far as records go. As a pest it is very minor and sporadic 
in most localities but it is stated to be a very serious pest of almost all 
low-growing plants (tobacco, gram, etc.) in the spring at Lyallpur and 
throughout the Punjab. 

The Pusa Collection contains examples reared from larvae on gram 
and tobacco at Pusa, on gram and piazi {AspJwdelus fistulosus) at 
Lyallpur and on poppy at Gondra (Oudh) in March 1890. 

VOL. I F 



64 rROCEEDlNGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

[Agrotis sp. 

[An Agrotis was found doing considerable damage to ganja plants 
inNowgaon (Rajshahi D strict) last year. Irrigation and hand-picking 
were found useful in its cont.ol. I cannot say definitely what species 
it was.] 

Polia ccnsanguis, Gn. 

Hmpsn., Cat. Lep. Phal. V, 102-103, f. 23. 

Recorded by Hampson from Sultanpur, Simla, Dharmsala, Sikkim, 
Nilg'ris, Ceylon. 

At Pusa t has been reared in some numbers on Graminese. (C. S. 
1366andC. S. 1527). 

Tiracola p'agia'a, Wlk. 
Hmpsn., Cat. Lep. Phal. V, 258-259, f. 51. 
Recorded by Hampson from Sikkim, Bombay, Kanara and Ceylon. 
It is a common species at Darjiling. 

At Shillong in 1918 one larva was found on apple, eating leaves. 
It pupated on 11-12 July and emerged on 2nd August. This species has 
also been found on tea in Assam, but is not known to be a pest. 

BritJiys crini, Fb. 

Glottula dominica, Cr. ; I. I. L., p. 415. 

Brithys crini, Hmpsn., Cat. V, 448, f. 125 ; Piepers and Snellen, 

Tijds. voor Ent. XLIX 37 (1906) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 

pp. 266, 268 (1917). 

Occurs throughout India and Burma and is an occasional pest of 

culiivated lilies. We have specimens reared on lilies at Pusa, Shillong, 

Daltonganj and Mandalay. Piepers and Snellen describe (Z. c.) the larva, 

found on Crinum and Cro us in Java. 

It has the habit of boring into the plants attacked. 
I have not noticed that in cases where I have come across the larvae. 
They were feeding much like those of Polytela gloriosce. 

Poly t la gloriosce, Fb. 

S. 1. 1., pp. 375-376, f. 238 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 266, 

268. 

Dstributed widely throughout the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon. 

The black'sh white spotted larva feeds on Gloriosa superba and on li ies 

(Amar/llidacese), often occurring in large numbers and proving a pest 



PKOCEUm.NvJS OF THE THIRD LNTOMOLOlilC.VL MKETING 65 

m gardens. They are easily hand-picked in the early morning and 
•even ng. 

Cirphis inyularis, Butl. 

Hmpsn., Cat. V, 486-487, t. 91, f. 22, F. I., II, 280 [Leirania 
■irro ata part] ; Proc. Second Ent). Meeting, jj. 162. 
Has been bred at Pusa from larvae on Dubh grass and in some numbers 
from larvae found on rice leaves but has never been recorded as a pest. 

Cirphis loreyi, Dup. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 274-275 [Leucania loreyi]. Cat. V, 492, f. 1-53 ; 
Piepers and Snellen, Tijds. voor Ent. XLIX, 38-39 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 49, 162 {tab.),179, 189, 195, 198. 

Occurs throughout India as an occasional pest of most Gramineae, 
often occurring together with C unipuncia and hence liable to be over- 
looked. We have (or I have seen) examples reared at Coimbatore on 
<}iolmn, at Kirkee (Poona) on juar, at Jalalpur (Bombay) on sugarcane , 
•at Surat on maize, at Jabbalpur on gram leaves, at Cawnpur on wheat 
leaves, at Peshawar on wheat and oats, and at Pusa on bajri {Pennisetum 
4yphoi<1eum),ma.ize,Tice, kauni {Setaria italica), sugarcane and guinea- 
-grass. 

We had a few Cirphis loreyi attracted to an Andres-Maire trap at Mr. Misra. 
Pusa. At least, they appeared to be C. loreyi ; it is difficult to identify 
insects that fall into this trap. We were using ethyl acetate. 

Country liquor and molasses makes just as good a bait. Mr. H. L. Dutt. 

Cirphis campta, Mo. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 272 [Leucania compta], Cat. V, 531-532 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 163. 
The larva is said to have been found on paddy in Southern India 
^Coimbatore, Madras), but does little damage. It may be a sporadic 
local pest. There are no specimens of this species in the Pusa or Coim- 
batore collections except one from Kandy and one worn and doubtful 
■example found as an imago on a paddy-stem at Melrosepuram, Madras, 
jn October 1907. 

Cirphis aJhist.'yma, Mo. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 275 [Leucania loreyi, part]. Cat. V, 543-544, 
t. 93, f. 23 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 162. 
Has occurred at Manganallur (Tanjore District) on paddy just ripe 
for harvest, the larvae cutting off the ear-heads ; it was in large numbers 

f2 • 



66 



'1;E1)I-V(-;S of the TIIIKU KXTOMOI.OCUCAI, MliETINO 



Mr. Kamakru^hua 
Ayyai'. 



and did considerable damage. This species has also been bred at Pma. 
ircm a larva on rice leaves and on Graminese [species not specified]. 
We also have moths collected in the Shevaroy Hills and at Pusa. 

It did not appear in 1918. I have had a coloured plate of this done^ 

[(xhihited]. 



Cirphis fmgilis, Butl. 

Hmpsn.. F. I.. II, 275 [Leucania fragilis]. Cat. V, 546, t. 93,. 
f. 26 ; I. I. L., p. 446 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 195. 
The larva is said by Hampson to do " much damage to wheat ii* 
Chhindwara District, Central Provinces," but it is not known to have^ 
occurred as a pest of late years. It is probably a sporadic local pest. 



Chyhis wiipiincta. Haw. 

S. I. I., p. 370, t. 18 ; Proc. Secotid Entl. Meeting, pp. 101, 179, 
189, 195, 198, 202. 
Occurs commonly throughout India as a major pest of Gramineas,. 
especially Ji<«v and rice. We have examples from the following localities. 
and food plants : — 



Palur (Madras) 


Cholam. 


Dharwar .... 


Juar. 


Poona .... 


Juar. maize, rice. 


Manjai-i (Bombay) . 


Jnar. 


Siu-at .... 


Juar. 


Peshawar .... 


Wheat, oats, juar. 


Pusa .... 


Maize, jnar, wheat, rioa 


Sadar Khas, Chittagong 


Rice. 


Mymensingh 


Rice. 


Lakhimpur, Goalpaia 


Rice. 


Dibrugarh 


SaV, dlian (paddy). 


Kamrup (Assam) 


Rice. 



M)-. ?. C. Se»J. It is a very bad sporadic pest of rice in Bengal, cutting the ripening 

ears by night. It was reported from several districts last year. The 
period of activity of the caterpillars is not long. , Reports are usually 
received only after the outbreak has subsided. 

Mr, ffiliate. Does this species come in to the And.es-Maire trap ? 

m. a. L. Du(t. Yes. 

Mt. F.ietcher. It is not attracted in sufficient numbers to hope for any control by 

this means. At Peshawar the caterpillars of this and allied species of 
Cirphis are extensively preyed on by the larvae and adults of Calosmiia 
indica, a large Carabid beetle, which frequents the places where the- 



TKOCEEDINGS OF THE THIKD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING bl 

CirpMs larvee hide away by day. I do not think we have much to 
add to what was said at the last Meeting regarding control of this insect. 

Borolia venalha. Mo. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 279 [Leucania venalha]. Cat. V, 567, t. 94, 
f. 32 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 163. 
Widely distributed and an occasional pest of rice, especially in 
Sonthein India. Has been found feeding on rice at Pusa, Manganallur 
(Tanjore District) and Puraswakam (Madras). In Madras it seems to 
occur chiefly in May and October. In .luly 1902 it was found de-truct've 
to rice at Tangalla, Ceylon. 

Perigea capensis, Gn. 

S-. 1. 1., pp. 376-377, f. 239 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 9-5, 

96 (Tab.), 134. 

Widely distributed throughout India as a sporadic destructive pest 

of Saffiower. W^e have examples reared on safflower {Carthamus tinc- 

tarius) at Coimbatore, Nagpur and Pusa and at Pusa it has also been 

reared on jute, Niger-seed, Coreopsis, Artemisia and Blumea bals'imifera. 



Prodcnia litura, Fb. 



I. I., pp. 377-378. t. 19 ; 
pp. 49, 51, 53, .59, 64, 75, 80, f 



Pioc. Second Entl. Meeting, 

5,89,91,127,133,179,189, 203, 

206, 2.37, 264, 271, 273, 280, 283, 289, 291, 298. 

Occurs commonly throughout India, Burma and Ceyon. The larva 

is remarkably polyphagous but this species is especially a major pest of 

tobacco and castor. The Pusa collection contains examples from the 

following localities and reared on the foodplants .specified : — 



Coimbatore j 


. Plantain (very minor pest). 


Bangalore 


. Castor. 


THysore . 


. Rose[?bredl. 


Dharwar . 


. Lantana. 


Kirkee (Poena) . 


. Juar. 


Nadiad . 


. Tobacco. 


Anand District . 


. Tobacco. 


Surat 


. Tobacco. 


Nagpur . 


. Ke^ar. 


Cuttack . 


. Dhaincha {Seabania Mulcata 


Daltonganj 


. Maize. Rice. 


Kot Chandpur (Jessore) 


. Linseed. 


Rasgpur . 


. Sesbania, tobacco. 



PROCEEDINGS Of THH THIRD lixro.vll 



JEII.-' 



Mr. Andrews. 

Iftc. Fjmakrishna 

Ayyar. 

Mr. Fletcher. 

Dr. Gough. 



Mr. Senior- White. 
Mc. Fletcher. 
Mc. G. R. Dutt. 
Mr. Kunhi Kannan. 

Mr. Fletcher. 



South Bihar .... Rahi crops on chars. 

Bankipur ..... Cauliflower. 

Muzaffarpur . . ... Tobacco, cabbage. cauUflowor. 

Pusa Cabbage, potato leaves, castor loave.^, 

sunflower, rice leaves, jute, radish leaves, 
sweet potato, urid {Pliaseohis radialus), 
lucerne, Ja»minvm, groundnut, sugar- 
cane, Coleiw. tobacco, cotton (very 
rarely), ttir {Cajamis indicvs), Panicvm 
sp.. rose, celery. 

Ghazipur (United -Provinces) . Opium-poppy leaves. 

Kumaon ..... Apple. 

The moth is attracted to Andres-Maire traps. 

It did extensive damage to tea in 1918 in the Eastern Duais. 

In Madras we find it on onions also. 

We find it very rarely on cotton in India, but I understand that it is 
a regular cotton pest in Egypt. 

In Egypt it occurs mainly on cotton and bers'im, but from Asiatic 
records we find that it is rarely found on cotton in Asia. In Egypt it 
occurs on hershn for the first two broods and, if we can arrange that 
the bersim is not watered, then the .subsequent attack on cotton is less- 
ened. We find it also boring into potato tubers underground ; it is also 
found on tomato fruits and it is very bad on lucerne. It is not found 
on castor in Egypt. As regards attraction to the Andres-Maire traps, 
we find that the female moths only go to the traps after depositing 
their eggs, so that this is useless as a means of control. 

In Cej'lon it is also found on Hibiscus. 

Have any parasites been reared ? 

We have bred a Braconid and a Tachinid. 

We have a Tachinid in Mysore also. 

The dift'erences in foodplants exhibited by Prodenia liliira ix\ India 
and Egj-pt raise a suspicion that different species are really implicated. 
It would be interesting to compare the male genitaha of Indian and 
Egyptian specimens. 



Spodoptera peclen, Gn, 
Hmpsn., F, I, II, 264 [Caradrina pectinala], Cat. VIII, 252-253, f. 63. 

Has been reared at Pusa from larvae on dubli and other grasses and 
fiom a larva found on maize leaves. We have also moths from Peshawar, 
Comilla and Lashio (Upper Burma), so that it is widely distributed 
and likely to be found anywhere on cereal crops. Hitherto, however,, 
it has not been reported as a pest. 



ritOt'KEUING.S Ol- THE TIIIUD EXTJM JLOGICAI. ilEKTIXt; 69 

Spodoptera abijssinia, Gn. 

Hmpsn., F. I, II, 259-260 [ciliuml Cat. VlII, 254-255, f. 64 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 163. 
Larvse were found attacking paddy at Coimbatore in August 1916- 
The Pusa collection contains moths from Peshawar, Pusa and Coimba- 
tore, and the species occurs throughout Peninsular Ind'a. Ha? also 
been reared on Cypenis rolundus leaves at Pusa. 

Spodoptera mauritia, Boisd. 

S. I. I, p. 378, t. 20 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 153, 
179, 194, 199, 203. 
Widely distributed throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, the larva 
feeding on various Gramineae and often a serious pest, especially of 
seedling rice-plants. The following Iccalit'es and food-plants will indi- 
cate its range in India : — 

Ootacamund .... Barley (doing damage). 

Western Ghats near Belgaum . Sugarcane (occasionally). 

Nagpur Rice, jvar. 

C'hliindwara, Central Provinces . Rice. 

Betul ..... Kodon, Kuiki and Smcan (small millets). 

Jabbalpur .... Rice, grasses, and Kodon (millet). 

Pusa Rice, grass, sugarcane, wheat seedlings, 

wheat leaves, cowpea leaves, Pa^palum 

scrobictilalvm leaves. 

Shantipur (Bengal) . . . Rice. 

Daltonganj .... Rice, maize. 

Darjiling .... 

Chittagong .... Aman paddj-. 

Shillong 

Pegu . . . . . 

In addition to the control methods indicated in South Indian Insects 
ploughing should, if possible, be done immediately after any outbreak 
of larvae, to destroy the pupae. Trenches may also be provided with 
pots of oil and water sunk level with the floor of the trench. 

Spodojitera mauritia is a very serious pest in Travancore, where it Mr. Pilla". 
occurs annually, but it is only in some years that it is very bad. Treat- 
ing the fields with kerosine oil, when the caterpillar is in its early stage, 
has been found useful as a means of control. We pour kerosine on to 
the water at the rate of four bottles to an acre. Andralhts spinidens 
has been found predaceous on these caterpillars. 

In Ceylon it is bad in rice-fiekls when the crop is half-grown. jir. Senior-White. 

We have caught the moths in the Andies-Maire trap. Mr. Misra. 



70 



PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD EXTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



We had a tuge swarm in 1918 but only on grass and the caterpillars 
did not attack the cultivated crops. 

As I have said before, it will be very useful to accumulate exact 
records of these outbreaks, as, by correlating these, we may be able to 
discover some underlying cause. 



Laphjgrna exigua, Hb. 
S. I. I., pp. 378-379, i. 240 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 
59, 75, 80, 84, 89, 97, 98, 132, 189, 206, 208, 209, 283, 287, 
290, 296, 297. 
Occurs everywhere throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, the larvae 
often joining swarms of larvae of Spodoptera mauritia. The Hfe-history 
is very short so that large broods are built up rapidly under favourable 
conditions and considerable damage may be done, especially to lucerne 
and occasionally to indigo. In Egypt this specie? has been noted as a 
cotton pest, but has not been found to attack cotton in India. The 
Pusa collection indicates the following range of localities and food- 
plants : — 



Coimbatore 

■Poona 

Surat 

Central Provinces 

Cawnpur . 

Lyallpur . 

Abbottabad 

Peshawar . 

Saharanpur 

Bhagalpur 

Bogra (Bengal) 

Pusa 



Biinjal. 

Lucerne. 

Maize leaves, radish, bhindi. 

Linseed, safflower. pea. 

Gram. 



ShnflaJ, bcrsbn. 

Lucerne. 

Lentil. 

Jute. 

Lucerne, indigo, Mclilottis parviflora, mung 
{Phaseolm nvingo), gram leaves, CeUia 
coromanddiana, ambadi {Hibiscus can- 
nabinus), Ainaranthus gangitus. Amaran- 
thus bicolor, castor, jute, maize ears, 
young sugarcane, cauliflower, mangold. 

Control is d fficult, owing to rapid increase and range of foodplants. 
In the case of crops such as lucerne, shafial, bersim and indigo, cutting 
may be adjusted to check damage, precautions being taken to prevent 
swarming into adjacent areas. At Mokameh and Pusa this species 
has been found attracted to the Andres-Maire traps put out for Agrotis 
ypsilon. 

We have found it on coriander in Madras. 

It occurs on maize in Sura*-. 



PSOCEEDINGS OF THE THIKD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 71 

Once it was found bad on young jute plants on the Dacca Farm. Mr. P. C. Sen. 
Handpicking was commenced but fortunately there was a heavy shower 
of rain soon afterwards, and this cleared oii the pest. 

We got a number of moths attracted to the Andres-Maire trap. Mr. Misra. 

In Egypt it feeds on cotton and bershn. ^^- ''o'^g^- 

With us it feeds freely on hershn where this crop is grown, but, is ^^- 5'letcher. 
not known to occur on cotton at all in India. This is another case of 
a pronounced difference of habit between what is supposed to be the same 
insect in India and Egypt. It is possible that we may be dealing with 
two or more insects which are really distinct although they may look 
alike. In this connection I may call your attention to a recent paper 
by Colonel Swinhoe in the Annals and Magazine of Nadiial History in 
which he shows that the moths hitherto known as AmpJiipyra pyramidea 
and supposed to occur in Europe, North India and Japan, really com- 
prise no less than four species, the true fyaramidea from Europe being 
replaced in the Punjab by magna and in Japan by two distinct species, 
surnia and yama, these distinctions being based on differences in the 
male genitalia. These four moths all look much alike and can only be 
distinguished by making microscopic preparations of the male genitalia. 
This shows us, I think, that we must not be too ready to assume that 
the species we are dealing with are necessarily identical with others 
apparently similar, especially when we get differences of habit as we 
have already seen in the case of Amsada moorei and sara, and in Pro- 
denia liiura and Laphygma exigua in Egypt and India. I shall be glad 
to give Dr. C4ough some Indian male .specimens of our Prodenia liiura 
and Laphygma exigua and it would be interesting if he would compare 
their genitalia with those of Egyptian specimens and let us know the 
result. 

I shall be very glad to do so. ^r. Gorg . 



Mudaria cornijrons, Mo. 

Mooie. Ird. Mu«. Notes, III, 69 figs. ; Hmpsn., F. I., II, 245, 
f. 136, Cat. IX, 2-26, f. 87 ; I. I. L., p. 447, f. 307 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 131. 

Laivse are common at Pusa in March-April in pods of Silk-cotton ^- Fletcher. 
{Bcmbax md'ala icum), devouring the seeds and spoil'ng the lint. A 
minor peet in ca.'^es wheie the pods are collected for the cotton. 



72 I'KOCEKDIKGS OF THE THII!D EMOilOI.OGICAL MEETING 

Sesamia mjerens. Wlk. 
S. I. I., pp. 379-380, t. 21 ; Entl. Note, 62 ; Proc. Second Entl- 
Meeting, pp. 145, 152, 174, 182, 187, 191, 196, 200, 204. 
Widely distributed in the Plains of India and an important pest of 
cultivated Gramineee, the larva boring in the stem and, in the case of 
paddy, sometimes deep into the roots. We have specimens reared in the 
following Iccalities from the fcodplants specified : — 



C'oimbatore 

Hagari (BeUary) 
Navsari (Bombay) 
Bassein (Bombay) . 
Surat .... 


. Rcuji {Eleusine coracmul). 

lend! {Setaria italica). 
. Paddy stem. 
. Maize. 
. Sugarcane. 
. Maize, juar, wlieat. 


sorghion stem 


Seoni (Central Provinces) . 
Nagpur .... 
Bankiinir .... 


. Wlieat. 

. Wheat.JHffr, maize, cane, 
. Rice stem. 




Tusa .... 


. Rice stem, rice stubble, m; 
Guinea grass stem. 


lize, sugarcane. 



Sesamia uniformis, Ddgn. 
Dudgeon, B. J, XVI, 402 [Nonagria] ; Hmpsn., Cat. IX, 332, 
t. 144, f. 25 ; I. I. L., t. 37, f. 7 ; Ent. Note 62 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 145, 191. 
Apparently not very common in India. We have examples reared 
at Lyallpur from sugarcane and maize, and at Pusa from maize and 
young sugarcane. Attacked canes show only one hole, plugged with 
frass. 

Lefroy apparently interchanged this species and the more common 
S. inferens (Indian Insect Life, p. 448). The differences are indicated, 
in the case of the moths, in my " First Hundred Notes, "" and the pupae- 
a-.e easily distinguishable by the spines on anal abdominal segments. 
Mr. Eenirr-White. Have any parasites been found on the eggs ? In Java and Mauritius 

Sesamia nonagrioides is attacked by a Proctotrypid parasite that keeps 
it in check. [There would seem to be some error in this last observa- 
tion. Hampson (Cat. Lep. Phal. IX 324-325) records S. vuteria (nona- 
grioides) from Europe and Africa, including Madagascar and Bourbon, 
so that this species presumably occurs in Mauritius, but not in Java. 
Editor.] 
Mr. Kunhi Kanann. Do these Sesamia larvae attack the plant in all stages of growth ? 
Mr. Ghosh. Yes. 

Mr. Kuahi Kannan. What is the percentage of plants attacked ? 

Mr. Gliosli. , Less than one per cent. At Pusa Sesamia inferens occurs more 

commonly in rice than in any other crop. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 73 

Exiblemma dimidialis, Fb. 

PhalcBna dimidialis, Fb., Ent. Syst. Ill, ii, 224 (1794) ; Htnpsn., 

Cat. X, 797 [Eitblemma]. 
AnthopMla seda, C4uen., Noct. II, 249 (1852) ; Hrapsn., Cat. 

X, 77, f. 35 [Eubhmma]. 
Micro hemirhoda, Wlk., Cat. XXVIII, 799 (1865) ; Hmpsn., 

F. I., II, 342 [Evblemma] ; Fletcher, Kept. Impl. Entom., 

1917-18, p. 104, t. 20 [Enhlemmal 

We liave two specimens labelled " Coimbatore ; on cholam " and Mr. Fletcher., 
one from Travancore labelled " on cowpea," but it is not apparent 
that these examples were bred. Specimens from Palur, S. Arcot, were 
noted as " flying in numbers in the groundnut fields " on 24th April 
1907. The moth is common at Pusa and has been bred from larvae 
eating mvvg flowers. We have it also from C4auhati. 

Eiiblemma olivacea, Wlk. 
S. 1. 1., pp. 380-381, f. 241 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 287 (tab.). 
Occurs throughout India as a pest of brinjal. Our specimens are 
from Pusa and Dharwar, and I have seen it from Lyallpur. It is usually 
a minor pest, occasionally very destructive. The larva rolls brinjal 
leaves ; it does not " bore in the green shoots " as stated (Indian Insect 
Life, p. 451) by Lefroy, who has apparently' described the larva of this 
species under the name Plotheia nephehtis (J. c, p. 449). 

Eublemma siUcida, Swinh. 

Swinhoe, A. M. N. H. (G) XIX, 167 (1897) ; Hmpsn., Cat. X, 

128-129, t. 152, f. 19 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 222. 

Reared at Pusa from larvae in flowers of Nyctanthes arbortristis and 

from mango buds and inflorescence, from castor fruit and from larvse 

eating grains in bajra heads, at Nagpu; from mango flowers and from 

laivse in jM«r heads, and at Coimba'ore from larvse in c/io.'am earheads. 

It is found also on Lantana cnmara. Mr. Ramachandra 

Rao. 

Cretoiiia vegeta, Swinh. 
Hmpsn., F. I., II, 325, f. 175 [SwinJwul Cat. X, 388-389, f. 123. 

Widely distributed throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Has Mr. Fletcher, 
been reared at Pusa from a larva found on rice leaves, but is not 
known to be a pest. 



74 rj{0CEEDiK(.;s op the tuied entomological meeting 

Amyna octo, Gn. 
Hmpsn., F. I., II, 251, f. 142, Cat. X, 468-470, f. 132 ; I. I. L., 
p. 448 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 68. 
Occurs commonly throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Has been 
reared at Dharwar from a larva found boring potato [stem or tuber not 
stated] in the field, at Palur, S. Arcot, from larvae on sann-hemp, and at 
Pusa from larvae on indigo and lucerne leaves, on jatadkari leaves (Celo- 
sia cristata), on PJtaseolus aconitifolius (boring pods), on leaves of sann- 
hemp. 

Usually a very minor and occasional pest of the crops indicated, but 
sporadically in large niimbers on indigo. Lefroy stated that the larva 
has been reared on sweet potato also. 



Amyna punctum, Fb. 
Hmpsn., Cat. X, 472-474, f. 133. 

Amyna seUnamplia, Guen. ; Hmpsn., F. I., II, 2-50 : I. I. L., 
p. 448. 
The larva is described by Hampson (Cat. X.. 474) as feeding on Cro!on 
tiglium (Crcton oil plant) and C. aromaticum in Ceylon, sometimes a 
serious pest of the former (Green). Not noticed as a pest in India, 
but the f-pecies is abundant almost everywhere and the moths often 
occur in swarms, especially in the Hills. 



Liihacodia signijera, Wlk. 
Hmpsn., F. I., II, 304 [Hyehpsis], Cat. X, 504-505; I. I. L., 
p. 455 [Hyehpsis]. 
"Widely distributed throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Has 
once been bred at Pusa from a larva on leaves of a millet {Panicum, sp.) 
and once from a larva on rice-leaves. Not known to be a pest. 



Naranga diffusa, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 333-3.34, f. 177, Cat. X, 631-632, f. 167 ; 
I. I. L., p. 456. • 
Has been bred at Pusa on two occasions fi'om larvae found feeding on 
leaves of rice, but is not known to be a pest in India. It has been 
recorded as found on paddy in Formosa by Shiraki, who figures the life- 
history. The female moths come to light freely, but the males rarely. 



PKOC'EEDI.VGS OF THE THIRD hNTOMOLOGIC'AL MDlIiTING IT, 

Tarache marmoralis, Fb. 

Hmpsn., Cat.- X, 747-749, f. 209. 

Tarache tropica, Guer. ; Hmpsn., F. I., II, 314, f. 170 ; I. I. L., 
p. 456, t. 37, £f. 1-4. 
Has been reared at Fusa on leaves of hariar {Sida rhombifoUa). May 
occasionally attack malvaceous crops but not yet noted as a pest. 

Tarache crocaia, Guen. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 314-315, Cat. X, 754-755, t. 172, ff. 15, 10 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 133. 
Widely distributed throughout the Plains of India, Burma and 
Ceylon. The larva is sometimes found on jute but is scarcely a pest. 

A female, captured in a jute-field at Samalkota on 17th June 1909, 
is noted by Y. Eamachand a Rao as having laid 220 eggs. 

Tarache nitidida, Fb. 
S. 1. 1., pp. 381-382, f. 243 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 101. 
Occurs commonly throughout the P'ains of India and is an occasional 
minor pest of cotton. 

Tarache opalinoides, Guen. 
S. I. I , p. 382, f. 244 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 101, 129. 
Occurs in Central and Southern India as a very minor pest of cotton. 
Also on Abvtilon indicum, at Pusa. (C. 584.) 

Tarache notabilis, Wlk. 

Hmp&n., F. I., II, 311, Cat. X, 783-784, t. 173, f. 24 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 101. 
Occurs throughout the Plains of India as a very minor pest of cotton. 
Has also been reared on brinjal at Nagpur. 

Bombo:elia jocosalrix, Guen. 
S. 1. 1., pp. 382-383^ f. 245 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 218. 
We have specimens from Chandragiri, Koilpatti and Coimbato re- 
in Madias, from Poona and Pusa, reared from larv» on mango leaves. 
A sporadic minor pest of mango. 



76 rROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Bmnbotelia sp. 

Larvae were found at Pusa, feeding on tender mango leaves in some 
numbers in May 1917. 

This species is very close to B. jocosatrix but is distinct and is appa- 
rently undescribed. 

CJilumetia (ranscerm, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 376, f. 207, Cat. XI, 68, f. 25 ; I. I. L., 
p. 450 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 220. 
A minor pest of mango, the larva boring the shoots and sometimes- 
feeding on the leaves and inflorescence. Stated to be a bad pest of 
young gi'afted mangoes at Poona, boring the shoots. Occasionally on 
litchi also. Our specimens are from : — 

Travancore .... Mango shoot. 

Coimbatore .... Mango. 

Chandragiri (Madras) . . Mango leaves. 

Poona ..... Mango shoots. 

Bombay ..... Mango shoots. 

Pusa ..... Mango shoots and inflorescence, litchi 

leaves. 

Noakhali (Bengal) . . . (Moth only). 

Chlumetia transversa is a bad pest of mango in Poona. The cater- 
pillars bore into the shoots and the attacked shoot does not flower the 
next season even if the larva is extracted. The method of cutting back 
to the point of injury does not seem helpful. We have reared parasites 
from this species but they do not check it effectually. The younger 
grafted plants suffer seriously from the a'tack ; the older plants need 
not be taken into account as the damage in their case is negligible. 

Symitha nolalella, Wlk. 
Hmpsn., Cat. Lep. Phal., XI, 244, f. 86. 
Hampson gives the distribution of this species as, Calcu (a, Kaiwar, 
Ceylon, Java. At Pusa the larvae were found in numbers defoliating 
Lagerstramia flosregina in August 1917. 

Nanaguna breviuscula, Wlk. 

Hrndsn., Cat. XI, pp. 252-253, f. 90. 
Cletthara valida, Wlk. ; Hmpsn., F. I., II, 384. 
Bred at Mandalay in January 1910 from larvae on Cajanus indijus 
and at Pusa in April 1916 and May 1917 from larvae on mango inflores- 



TROCEEDIJ^GS Or THE THIED KNTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 77 

cence. We have a]so a specimen from Peiadeniya and the species is 
widely distributed throughout India, fiom Kashmir (o Sikkim and in 
■Southern India and Ceylon. 

Giaura s:eplica, Swinh. 

Hmpsn., Cat. XI, 283 ; I. I. L., p. 450 [Cletthara] ; Proc. 

Second Entl. Meeting, p. 47. 

Has been reared at Pusa and Surat from larvae on velvet bean and 

soy bean, of which it is a sporadic minor pest. Also at Pusa from larva 

on Butea frondosa flower. Widely di.stributed throughout India, Burma, 

Ceylon and the Andamans. 

Selepa celtis, Mo. 

Hmpsn., Cat. XI, 298, f. 105 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 

pp. 218, 229, 246, 264. 
Plotheia celtis, Hmpsn., F. I., II, 370 ; 1. 1. L., p. 449, f. 308. 
The Pusa collection contains reared examples from Coimbatore on 
Odina wodier and from Pusa on litchi leaves, mango leaves and buds, 
rose leaves, Terminalia catajpfa leaves and Loranthus leaves. Other 
recorded foodplants are Ficui glomerata and Gmelina arborea. 

The species occurs thioughout India and Burma as a .sporadic pest 
(sometimes serious) of Ihe plants and trees mentioned. 

Plotheia nepJielotis, Meyr. MS. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 287. 

A minor pest of brinjal, On which it has been reared in Travancore 

and at Calicut, Coimbatore, Tiruvallur and Melro-epuram (Madras), 

Nagpur, Lyallpur and Pusa ; also at Hagari (Bellary District) on a wild 

folanaceous plant. 

The larva attributed to this species by Lefroy {Indian Insect Life, 
p. 449) is probably the larva of Euhlemma olivacea. 

Tae specific name nephelotis is an unpublished manuscript name. 

Brinjal Sarrothripine. 
S. I. I., p. 383, f. 246. 
Has been reared at Coimbatore and in Malabar on brinjal and at 
Hagari on Solanum xanthocarpum. This is probably the same as the 
preceding. 



78 



PROCEEDINGS Of THE THIUD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEliTIMG 



EHgrna narcissus, Cr. 
S. 1. 1., pp. 383-384, ff. 247-248 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 



263. 



Occurs throughout Southern India on Ailanthus, which is sometimes 
completely defoliated by the larvae. 



Dr. Gough. 



Earias insuhtna, Boisd. 

S. I. I., pp. 384-385, t. 22; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 

104, 122, 123, 127, 129, 130. 

Occurs throughout the Plains of India and Burma a? a serious pest 

of cotton. Also attacks hhindi {Hibiscus esculentus) and has been 

reared at Pu5a fiom buds and flowers of Hibiscus rosa-simnsis and on 

kanghani {Abutihn indicum). 

Earias insulana has become are in Egypt since 1912. We ascribe 
th's to the plant legislation against Pink Bollworm. Earias was a 
major pest at one time ; but now it does not trouble us. 



Earias cupreoviridis, Wlk. 

Xanihoptera cupreoviridis, Wlk., T. E. S. (3) I, 92 (1862). 
Earias cupreoviridis, Hmpsn., Cat. XI, 505-506 ; S. I. I., t. 22, 

f. 7 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 127, 135. 
Earias ckromataria ; Hmpsn., F. I., II, 133 ; I. I. L., p. 456. 
Occurs in most parts of the Plains of India. Our specimens are from 
Hazara District, Bassein Fort (Bombay), Nagpur, Pusa, Chapra, Cattack 
and Dacca. Has been reared at Pusa on bariar (Sida cordifolia) and at 
Nagpur on wild malvaceous plants. At Cuttack also the larva haa 
been found boring into jute capsules as a very minor pest. 
In Ceylon it occurs on garden hollyhocks. 



Dr. Gough. 
Mr. P. C. Sen 



Earias fabia, Stoll. 

S. I. I., p. 385, t. 23 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 104, 
122, 123, 127, 129, 130. 
Occurs throughout the Plains of India and Ceylon as a serious pest of 
cotton, boring the young shoots and bolls and sometimes feeding on the 
flowers. Also on blindi, boring the pods, and has also been reared at 
Pusa on Hibiscus alelmoschus and fiom flower bud of H. rosa-sinensis. 
Earias fabia does not occur in Egypt. We only get E. insulana. 
Last year Earias fabia was found bad on shoots and bolls of cotton 
grown on the Dacca Farm. 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THK THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING /9 

We shall defer discussion on these Cotton Bollworms until we take Mr. Fletcher, 
the papers dealing specifically with Cotton Pests. 

Carea suhtilis, Wlk. 
Hmpsn., F. I., II, 422, Cat. XI, 542-543, f. 208. 
Has been reared at Coimbatoie on Ficus and Eugenia jambolana. 
Not known to be a pest. 

I have found Carea suhtilis commonly on Eugenia jambolana at Coim- Mr. Ramakrishna 
batore. Ayyar. 

Beara dichromeUa, Wlk. 
Hmpsn., F. I., II, 428, Cat. XI, 581-582, f. 227. 
Widely distributed in India and Ceylon. Has been reared at Pusa jij. pietcher 
from larvae on leaves of Trema sp. and her (Zizyphus jujuba), but is not 
a pest. 

Acontia transversa, Guen. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 323, f. 173, Cat. XI, 654-655, f. 268 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 123. 
Has been reared from larvae on bhindi leaves at Surat, Nagpur and 
Pusa, but is scarcely a pest. We have it also from Rangoon. 

Acontia transversa occurs on hollyhock in Ceylon. 51^ Senior-White 



Acontia intersepta, Guen. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 323, Cat. XI, 656-657, f. 270 ; I. I. L., t. 37, 
f. 9 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 101, 123. 
Has been reared at Nagpur on bhindi and at Pusa on Sida, but is not Mr. Fletcher, 
known to be a pest. Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. 



Acontia malvce, Esper. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 322, Cat. XI, 658-659, f. 271 ; Proc. Second 

Entl. Meeting, pp. 101, 123, 129. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Has been reared 

from bJiindi at Surat and Nagpur and on Abutilon indicum at Nagpur, 

but is scarcely a pest. We also have it from Serai Salah (Hazara) and 

Myingyan (Lower Burma). 

VOL. I G 



PROCEEDINGS CF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Acontia graellsi, Feisth. 
S. 1. 1., pp. 385-386, f. 249 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 101. 
We have reared examples from the following localities : — 



Coimbatore 

Kadambokam (Madras) 

Surat 

Akola (Central Provinces) 

Nagpur 

Shripur (Bengal) 

Lyallpur . 



Cambodia cotton, gogu. 

Bhindi. 

Bhindi. 

Bhindi. 

Abutilon indicum. 

Cotton flower. 

Bhindi. 



It is a minor pest of cotton and bhindi. 

Anna caronata, Fb. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 502-503 [Ophiusa], Cat. XII, 427-428, f. 101. 

The larva is found commonly on Quisqualis and may be a minor 

garden pest. We have it from Pusa, Chapra and Darjiling, Insein and 

Minbu, and the moth is widely distributed in India, Burma and Ceylon. 

Aclicea Janata, Linn. {==Ophiusa melicerta, Diury). 

S. I. I., pp. 386-387, f. 250 ; Entl. Note 63 ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, pp. 86, 232, 235, 265. 
Occurs throughout India and Ceylon as a serious pest of castor. 
Has also been reared at Pusa on rose and dudhi (Euphorbia pilulifera) 
and at Nagpur on rose. 
Mr. Senior- White. Achcea jana'a is a bad pest of rose in Ceylon. 

Mr. Fletcher ^^ India it occurs occasionally on rose but has never been noted as a 

pest. With us it is a major pest of castor and we always have trouble 

with it every year at Pusa on the castor grown for the eri silkworms. 

It is controlled by hand-picking. 

Mr. Misra. There is a j^arasite which attacks it, but this appears late in the 



Parallelia analis, Guen. 
Hmpsn., F. I., II, 501 [Ophiusa], Cat. XII, 586, t. 221, f. 1 
Was sent in in October 1913 from Mow Bazidpur, Darbhanga Dis- 
trict, Bihar, as defoliating PhyUanthus emblica. Widely distributed 
throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, but not otherwise known as a 
pest. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENiOMOLOGICAL MEETING 81 



Parallelta algira, Linn. 
Hmpsn., F. I., II, 500-501, f. 280 [OpMusa], Cat. XII, 596-598, f. 133. 
Occasionally found feeding on castor together with Achcsa janata. 
We have a specimen bred from a larva found on castor at Cuttack and 
it was recorded as defoliating castor at Peradeniya in July 1903 and is 
likely to occur as a sporadic pest on castor throughout the Plains of 
India, Burma and Ceylon. 

Grammodes geomelrica, Fb. 
Hmpsn., F. I., II, 531, f. 296, Cat. XIII, 18-20, f. 4 ; I. I. L., p. 451. 
Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. The larva is stated 
(Indian Insect Life, p. 451) to feed on rice and we have a specimen from 
Balaghat (Central Provinces) labelled " on rice," but it is doubtful 
whether this was actually bred. Stated to feed on grasses at Nagpur. ' 
Hampson gives Polygonum persicaria and Cistus salvifolia as the food- 
plants in Europe. The larva is figured by Hofmann (Raupen, t. 36 
f. 24). 

Grammodes stolida, Fb. 

S. I. I., pp. 387-388, f. 251 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 89. 

Widely distributed throughout India and Burma and is an occasional 
minor pest of Hnseed in Madras. 

Chalciope hyppasia, Cr. 

Hmpsn., Cat. XIII, 27-29 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 80, 206. 
Trigonodes hyppasia, Hmpsn., F. I., II, 527 ; I. I. L., p. 451, f. 311. 
Common throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, but noi known as 
a pest except on one occasion when it was found defoliating indigo at 
Champaran on 1st April 1901 ; the Pusa Collection contains one of these 
moth-5 reared on indigo and the identification is certain. It also feeds 
on lucerne. 

Pe'amia fnujalis, Fb. 
Hmpsn., Cat. XIII, 87-89, f. 23 ; S. I. I., pp. 388-389, f. 253 [Remigia]. 
Occurs abundantly throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. The 
larva feeds as a rule on wild grasses but occasionally invades cultivated 
areas as a minor pest of Gramineas. It has been reared a*^ Kannapuram 
(N. Malabar) on paddy, at Nagpur on jiuir and grasses, and at Pusa on 
paddy, sugarcane, (Sypzrus rotundus and Phaseolus mungo radiatus. 

In Ceylon it attacks Guinea-grass. Mr. Senior- White. 

g2 



82 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Pelamia undafa, Fb. 

S. I. I., p. 388, f. 252 [Eemigia] ; Hmpsn., Cat. XIII, 91-93, 
f. 25 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 80, 102. 

Eemigia archesia, Cram. ; Hmpsn., F. I., II, 526, f. 293 ; 
I. M. N., V, 159 ; I. I. L., pp. 450 451, f. 309. 

Occurs abundantly throughout India, Burma and Ceylon and is a 
m'nor pest of pulses as a rule, feeding mostly on the lower leaves, but is 
sometimes extremely abundant on indigo. The Pusa Collection con- 
tains examples from the following localities and reared on the food- 
plants noted : — 

Palur (South Arcot) . . . Indigo. 

Dharwar (Bombay) . . . Boring into potatoes in the field. 

Nagpur ..... Cotton (verj' minor pest). 

Pusa ..... Vrid, cowpea, arhar. 

Pericyma glaucindns, Guen. 
S. I. I., p. 389, f. 255 [Homo'ptera] ; Hmpsn., Cat. XIII, 303-304, f. 76. 
A minor pest of Sesbania spp. We have it from Rangpur on Ses- 
bania, from Cuttack on Dhaincha (Sesbania aculeata), and from Coim- 
batore on Sesbania cegyptiaca. 

Plusia ni, Hb. 

Hmpsn., Cat. XIII, 468-470, f. 121 [Phytometra] ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 282. 
Occurs throughout India. We have it from Pusa and Lahore on 
cauliflower and from Surat and Kumbharia (Bombay) on cabbage. 
Other larval foodplants include safflower, nettle and Solanum, and in 
the United Provinces and Gujarat it is said to occur on opium poppy 
also. It is scarcely a pest. 

Plusia Jimbirena, Guen. 

. Hmpsn., Cat. XIII, 472 [Phytometra'] F. I., II, 568 : I. M. N., 

V, 162 ; I. I. L., p. 452 ; Ent. Mo. Mag. 1900, 127 ; Proc. 

Second Entl. Meeting, p. 80. 

Has been recorded as feeding upon indigo in Bihar. Possibly the 

identification is incorrect, as this species is recorded only from the Nil- 

giris and Ceylon in Hampson's Catalogue. 



VllOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGIC.il MEETING 83 

Plusia daub'': Boisd. 

Hmpsn., Cat. XIII, 477-478 [Phijtometia] ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 50. 
Has been reared at Pusa from larvae on mint leaves and from pupae 
found on cress, but is not a pest." Occurs throughout India. 

Plusia chaJcytes, Fb. 

Hmpsn., Cat. XIII, 484-486, f. 122 [Phijtometra] ; Proc. Second 

Entl. Meeting, pp. 51, 53, 68, .306. 
Plusia eriosoma, Doubl. ; Hmpsn., F. I., II, 569-570, f. 321. 
Occurs throughout India and Ceylon. The larva is polyphagous 
and is a minor pest of various crops. The Pusa Collection contains 
specimens from the following localities and foodplants : — 

Palur (South Arcot) . . . Groundnut, sann hemp. 

Kumbharia (Bombay) . . Cabbage. 

Nagpur Jute. 

Pusa Clitoria iernatca, mint, lucerne, senji, 

sann hemp, mania leaves, urid leaves, 
moth leaves (Phaseolus aconitifolius), 
pea, Cole-US sp., kadu leaves (bottle 
gourd, Lagenaria vulgaris). 

It has also been recorded on indigo in Champaran in September 1901 
and at Kotagala (Ceylon) as defohating tomato plants in January 1905. 

In Ceylon we get it on onion and brinial. ISIr. Semo>W]iite. 

Plusia signata, Fb. 

S. I. I., pp. 392-393, f. 259 ; Hmp-n., Cat. XIII, 491, t. 237, 
f. 24, [Phytmneira] ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 68, 91, 
271, 282. 
Eecorded on cabbage, as an occasional pest in Bihar (Lefroy), on Mr. Fletcher. 
iiobacco, groundnut, green gram and sann-hemp in Southern India. 
There is, however, some doubt regarding identification. (See also 
P. chalcytes). 

Plusia albostriata, Brem. and Grey. 

Hmpsn., Cat. XIII, 496, t. 237, f. 29 [Phytometra]. 
Plusia oxygramma, Hmpsn., F. I., II, 575. 
Found in August 1913 in some number on cultivated asters at Hebbal 
Farm, Bangalore. Also occurs at Pusa but not bred there. 



84 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Plusia nigrisigna, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 570, Cat. XIII, 536-537 [Phytometra] ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 49, 271. 
Occurs throughout India and is a sporadic minor pest, chiefly of 
gram. We have examples from : — 



Peshawar . 
Lyallpur . 
Cawnpur . 
Kaira (Bombay) 
Pusa 



Bcntj m . 

Gram, lorin (rape ; Brassica campestr 

Gram. 

Lettuce. 

Gram, mint, tobacco, pea, lucerne. 



Phsia peponis, Fb. 

S. I. I., p. 394, f. 261 ; Hmpsn., Cat. XIII, 573-574 [Ph/lo- 

metra] ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 50, 303, 307. 
Plusia agramma, Guen. ; Hmpsn., F. I., II, 574 ; I. I. L. 
p. 452, t. 37, f. 11. 
Occurs throughout India, Ceylon and the Andamans and is a minor 
pest of gourds. We have it from Pusa on bottle gourd and from Pusa 
and Coimbatore on snake gourd. 

Plvsia orichalcea, Fb. 

S. I. I., pp. 393-394, f. 260 ; Hmpsn., Cat. XIII, 580-581 

\Phylo7ne(ra] ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 47. 59, 63, 

80, 89, 95, 280, 282, 283. 285, 298. 

Occurs throughout India and Ceylon ; apparently not recorded from 

Burma, although it occurs in Assam and probably in Burma also. The 

larva is polyphagous and is a minor pest of garden crops especially. 

Our examples are from : — 



Palur (South Arcot) 






Indigo. 


Poona 






Cabbage. 


Nagpur . 








Cabbage, radish. 


JaUandhar 








Cauliflower. 


Lyallpur . 








Turnip. 


Patna 








Pea. 


Muzaffarpur 








Brassica sp. 


North Bihar 








Flax. 


Pusa 








Pea leaves, linseed, carrot, senji, lucerne. 


salad [probably lettuce], celery, potato. 


cabbage, sarson {Brassica campeslris). 


cauliflower, gram, Carthamns tinctorius. 


Nigerseed, wild ajwain plant. 


Parachinar .... Helianfhis tvberosa leaves. 


Pe.hnwar . 








Ber^sim 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 85 

Plusia orichalcea is one of the few insects that feed on umbelliferous Mr. Senior-White, 
plants, such as carrots and aniseed. It is highly parasitized. 

Rivida hioculalis. Mo. 
Hmpsn., F. I., II, 334-335, f. 178. 
Widely distributed throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. The Mr. Fletcter. 
larva has been found at Pusa on leaves of rice and Panicmn, but it is not 
known as a pest. 

Cosmophila fulvida, Guen. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 409-410, f. 226 ; 1. 1. L., p. 453 ; Proc. Second 

Entl. Meeting, p. 129. 

•Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Has been reared at 

Pusa on Abutilon indicum and Sida sp., and Hampson gives Walikeria 

indica as a food-plant. Not yet noted on cultivated plants but may be 

expected to be found on Malvaceae (cotton, hollyhock, etc.). 

Cosmophila sabuUjem, Guen. , 

S. I. I., pp. 390-391, f. 256 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 133. 

Occurs in all jute-growing districts as a major pest of jute. It is 
known from South Arcot, Godavari District, Samalkota, Dharwar, 
Belgaum, Poona, Nadiad, Nagpur, Pusa, Dacca and throughout Bengal. 

If the plants are sufficiently young and water is standing in the 
field, control may be effected by running a film of kerosine over the 
water and disturbing the plants, when the larvae drop. 

Cosmophila sabulijera is a regular bad pest of jute in Bengal du ing Mr. P. C. Sen. 
the rainy season. As far as remedial measures are concerned, on the 
Dacca Farm hand-picking is done although it is tedious. Dragging a 
rope slightly moistened with kerosine so that it may not injure the 
plants was also tried but was not found to be of much use, as the cater- 
pillars, which fall down at the time of operation, crawl up the plants 
again and feed on the leaves. This, of course, disturbs them when 
feeding. 

Cosmophila indica, Gn. 

S. I. I., p. 391, f. 257 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 100, 
123, 125, 126. [C. erosa, nee Hb.]. 
Occurs throughout India as a sporadic pest of cotton. We have Mr. Fletcher, 
examples reared on cotton from Dharwar, Poona, Jalgaon (Khandesh) 



86 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOI.OGICAL MEETING 

Bassein Fort (Bombay), Surat, Ajmer, Narsingpur, Cawnpur and Pusa. 
It has also been found on bhindi (Hibiscus esculentus) at Lyallpur, Pusa 
and Surat, and at Pusa on ambadi (Hibiscus cannabinus), bariar (Sida 
cordifolia), hollyhock, urid and Bomhax malabaricwm. 

The larvae are best controlled by hand-picking. 

In Ceylon it occurs in the North-East but not in the South- West. 
It breeds in October. 
Pillay. In Travancore it occurs on Hibiscus. 

Lyncestis ampMx, Cram. 
Hmpsn., F. I., II, 479, f. 267 ; I. I. L., p. 447, f. 306 [Euscotia sp.]. 
Fletcher. Has been found at Pusa feeding on Ocimum sanctum and 0. canum 

but is scarcely a pest. 

CatepJiia inquieta, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 484 ; I. I. L., p. 454, t. 28, ff. 4, 5 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 291. 
A minor sporadic pest of sweet potato in North Bihar. Also reared 
at Pusa on young sugarcane. We have also moths from Myingyan 
(Upper Burma) and frorn Coimbatore and Siruguppa (Bellary). 

Azazia rubricans, Boisd. 
S. I. I., p. 389, f. 254 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 51, 59. 
A minor and sporadic pest of pulses in Bihar and Madras. Has 
been reared at Pusa on cowpea, urid, guar, and moth (Phaseolus a^oniti- 
jolius). 

Ophideres fullonica, Linn. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 560-561, f. 317 ; Entl. Note 64 ; Tryon, 

Queensland Agricl. Journ. II, pt. 4, t. 18, 20, 21, 22'' (April 

1898) [Othreis] ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 212, 235. 

The moths have been recorded (Indian Museum Notes, V, 118) as 

piercing pomelo fruits at Tardeo, Bombay, causing a loss of 25 to 33 per 

cent, of the fruits, which drop off the trees. Also stated to damage 

orange fruits around Poona and at Nagpur, and to suck grape-fruit 

in the Punjab. The species is widely distributed throughout India and 

is undoubtedly a pest in all fruit-growing districts. 

r. Ramrao. At Poona I have not been able to find the larvae although the adults 

come in large numbers and puncture the fruits at night. We burn the 

moths off by means of torches and collect them by means of a small 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 87 

hand-net by tte light of a lantern. I have tried to trap the moths with 
fermented toddy but only caught one specimen in fifteen days. 

The early stages were described and figured in Moore's monograph of Mr. Fletcher, 
the Ophiderinse of the Indian Region in the Transactions of the Zoological 
Society and also by H. Tryon in the Queensland Agricultural Journal, 
Vol. II, t. 18, 20, 21, 22' (April 1898) ; Tryon states that the larvee 
feed on several distinct species of Menispermaceae. 

How did you try the trapping of the moths ? 

I placed the fermented toddy in narrow-mouthed earthen vessels, Mr. Eamrao. 
one jar to every five trees. 

What is the percentage of loss to oranges at Poona ? Mr. Fletcher. 

I have calculated that on an average, taking one season with another, Mr. Ramrao. 
from twenty to fortj' per cent, of the fruits drop off when nearly ripe. 
Punctures are made by these moths and only occasionally fruit-flies lay 
eggs in the wounds so caused. Fruit-flies do not harm oranges in Poona 
to any extent, as out of several hundred fruits examined only a few were 
found to contain fly maggots. 

Perhaps oil of bergamot might be used to attract these moths. Dr. Gough. 

At Nagpur we tried spraying the trees with phenyle as a deterrent Mr. Khare. 
but I am not sanguine of the results. 

What is the nature of the injury caused ? Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 

The moths probably inoculate some bacillus whilst sucking the fruit Mr. Ramrao. 
and this sets up fermentation from the point of puncture and this extends 
right up to the stalk, so that the fruit drops down within three days of 
the puncture. 

Uninjured fruits also drop down. There is some relation between Mr. Kunhi Kannan. 
the watering of the orange plants and the falling of the fruits. 

I have not been able to find the caterpillars so that I do not know Mr. Ramrao. 
where the moths come from. 

The caterpillar feeds on jungle creepers and is not easy to find, as a Mr. Fletcher. 
rule. I doubt whether much can be done to check it in the larval stage. 

Similar fruit-piercing moths have been noted in South Africa. Did 
you ever come across any when you were in South Africa, Dr. Gough ? 

No ; I never heard of any there. ■ Dr. Gough. 

Calpe ophideioidcs, Guen. 

Hmpsn., F. I., II, 564, Entl. Note 64 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 240-250. 
Has been recorded as a destructive pest of nectarines and peaches Mr. Fletcher, 
in the Kumaon Government Gardens, the moths piercing and sucking 
the fiuit in exactly the same way as in the case of 0. fulhnica. 



88 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Raparna nebulosa, Mo. 

Hmpsn., F. I., Ill, 25 ; I. I. L., p. 457 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 80. 
Recorded by de Niceville as found abundantly on indigo in Cham- 
paran during the rains, but not noted of late years. Perhaps a sporadic 
pest. 

ShnpUcia robiistalis, Guen. 
Hmpsn., F. I., Ill, 36, f. 16 ; S. I. I., p. 395, f. 262. 
Widely distributed throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Not a 
pest of growing crops, the larva feeding on dry vegetable matter, but 
it occasionally does some damage to house-thatching and may also attack 
crops (e.g., cholam) if stacked after harvest. Has been reared at Pusa 
on rice and on dry leaves of sissit {Dalbergia sissu), at Coimbatore on 
roof-thatching, and at Baddagama (Ceylon) on dry tea-prunings. 



Nodaria externalis, Guen. 

Hmpsn., F. I.. Ill, 56. 

Has been reared at Pusa from larva? on rice leaves. Not a pest. 

Hyblcea puera, Cram. 
S. I. I., p. 392, f. 258. 
A serious pest of teak {Tectona grandis) in all teak-growing district's. 
Has also been i eared on MiUingtonia at Bombay and Kodanur (Kurnul 
District, Madras). 

Lymantriad^. 

Orgyia poslica, Wlk. 

S. I. I., pp. 395-396, f. 263 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 77, 87. 

Occurs throughout India except the North- West. The larva is poly- 

phagous and has been found at Coimbatore on castor and Erylhrina 

indica and at Pollibetta (Coorg) on Erythrina lilhospenna and geranium. 

Also recorded on rose (B. J. XIII, 412). A sporadic minor pest of the 

plants mentioned. 

It damages castor at Coimbatore. We have done a coloured plate 
showing its life history [exhibited]. 



ruocEEDixns of the third entomological meeting «y 
Lwlia devestita, Wlk. 
Hmpsn., F. I., I, 441. 
Has been reared at Pusa in small numbers from larvee found on Mr. Fletcter. 
sugarcane and Guinea-grass. Not a pest. 

ThiackJas postica, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 445-446, f. 307 ; 1. 1. L., p. 459, f. 313 ; B. J. 
XVI, 199 [laiva] ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 253. 
Occurs throughout India and Burma. The larva is common on 
Zizyphus but is scarcely a pest. Our examples are from Pusa, Bilaspur 
and Coimbatore. 

Dasychira horsfieldi, Saund. 
Hmpsn., F. I. I, 448, f. 309 ; B. J., XIII, 414 [larva]. 
Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. The ?arva feeds on 
tea and sometimes becomes a pest in the Tea Districts. One specimen 
reared from apple leaf (without locality). 

Dasychira mendosa, Hb. 
S.. I. I., p. 396, f. 264 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 21, 28, 87. 
Widely distributed throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. The 
larva is polyphagous. Our records show the following locahties and 
foodplants : — 

Pusa 



Sibpur 

Nagpur 

Poona 

Surat 

Hagari (Bellary) 

Colombo . 

Mandalay 



Ficus glomerala, jute leaves, sann hemp. 

mango leaves, peach leaves. 
Potato leaves. 
HoUyhock. 
Ganja. 
Linseed. 
Castor. 
Cinnamon. 
Cajanus indicus. 



Also recorded from coffee in Southern India and on Terminalia 
catappa by de Niceville. 

A minor pest, of little importance, as a rule. The larva can be hand- 
picked. 

In this case probably at least four species are mixed up under the Mr. Senior-White, 
name mendosa. The foodplants and larvae differ in the various forms. 

That is quite possibly the case. There may be several species mixed Mr. Fletcher, 
up under mendosa. 



90 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGIC.U, MEETING 

Dasychira securis, Hb. 

S. I. I., p. 397. f. 265 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 148, 
163 (tab.), 179, 195, 199, 204. 
Occurs throughout India and Burma as a minor pest of cereals and 
.sugarcane. Kobus has also recorded it as a pest of sugarcane in Java 
and described and figured the life history (Tijds. voor Entom. XXXIX, 
121-125, t. 4, ff. 1-7 (1896) ). The Pusa Collection contains examples 
from the following localities and foodplauts ; — 



Peshawar . 
Lyallpur . 

Nagpur 

Pusa 

JIanickganj 

Gauhati . 

Samalkota 

Shoranore (Malabar) 

Shillong . 

Mandalay 



(Moths only). 

Rice. 

Wheat. 

Rice, sugarcane, dabhi grass, gr, 

Rice leaves. 

Rice leaves. 

Paddy. 

Rice. 

(Moth only). 

Wheat, rice. 



The larvae may be hand-picked. 

In Travancore D. securis has been reared on gram. 

Dasychira sp. 
This is an unidentified species which was reared from larvae found on 
apple leaves at Jeolikote by Mr. N. Gill. I do not know how far :t ^s a 
pest. 

Lymantria obfuscata, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 460-461. 
Specimens (in poor condition but probably of this species) were 
received in July 1916 from the Director of Agriculture, Kashmir, the 
larvae being stated to damage apple, apricot, poplar and willow. The 
larvae rest during the day time in cracks and holes in the trunks of the 
trees on which they are feeding and may be sought out and killed ofi. 
Artificial hiding places may also be provided by placing bands of sacking, 
etc., on the trees affected 

Lymantria beatrix Stoll. 
Hmpsn., F. I., L 463-464 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meetmg, p. 218. 
Occurs throughout India and Ceylon. The larva has been found 
feeding on mango at Poona and Pusa, but cannot be considered a pest. 
At Poona I have found the larvae feeding on mango flowers. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 91 

Lymantria concolor. 
We have moths fiom Tuizum and Shillong. It is probably this Mr. Fletcher, 
species whose larvae occur on apple at Shillong. The larvae are at present 
under rearing, January 1919, from eggs laid by a female caught at 
Shillong. 

Euprodis latifascia, Wlk. 
Hmpsn., F. I., I, 472. 
The larva has been recorded as found on tea (B. J. XIII, 420). The 
species occurs all along the Himalayan region, from Kashmir to Manipur. 

Euproctis suhfasciata, Wlk. 
Hmpsn., F. I., I, 472. 
Has been reared at Pusa in small numbers from larvae found on castor 
leaves ; also once from a larva on Tropceolum. Not yet noted in des- 
tructive numbers. 

Euproctis lunata, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 472-473 ; Proc. Second Eutl. Meeting, p. 218. - 
Occurs throughout India and Ceylon. Our records show the follow- 
ing locahties and foodplants : — 

Lyallpur Castor, ber (Zizyphis). 

Dharwar ..... Cotton. 

Mysore Defoliating mango and other trees in 

June 1902. 
Coimbatore .... Mulberry. ' 

Usually a very minor pest. 

Eiqjrocfis fralerna, Mo. 

S. I. I., pp. 398-399, ff. 266, 267 ; Proc. Second Eutl. Meeting, 
pp. 87, 102, 232. 
Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. The Pusa Collection 
contains examples from the following localities and foodplants : — 



Peshawar . 


. Pear. 


Lyallpur . 


. Castor, cotton, rose. 


Poona 


. Rose, cotton. 


Dharwar . 


. Castor. 


Coimbatore 


. Tylophora asthmaika 



A sporadic major pest of castor. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Ml. Ramakiishna 

Ayyar. 

Mr. Senior-White. 



Mr. Pillay. 

Mr. Senior- White. 



We have had a coloured plate done showing the Hfe-histoiy. [Ex- 
hibited.] 

In Ceylon it is found on Rutacese and does some damage to various 
species of Citrus, but it prefers Feronia elephantum. 

We have not found it on Citrus in India. This seems to be another 
case of a difference in locality meaning a difference in food, with the 
implication that we may not really be dealing with the same species of 
insect. 

In Travancore we find it on sunflower, castor, plantain, croton, and 
Vigna catjang. 

With us the larvae prefer Feronia and, if these trees be planted in 
orange gardens, damage to oranges will be reduced. 



S.I. 



Euproc'is scinlillans, Wlk. 
p. 399, f. 268 Proc. Second Entl. Meetin 



Andrews, Q. J. 



pp. 68, 87, 
Ind. Tea Assocn., 1918, pp. 



90, 126, 221 
31-32. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon as a sporadic minor 
pest of linseed. The larva i.s, however, polyphagous and has been 
leared at Pusa on linseed, castor leaves, Loranthus leaves, cowpea leaves, 
til {Sesamum indicum) leaves, pumpkin leaves, pomegranate and Ficws 
bengalensis ; at Jerruck (Sind) on babul (Acacia arabica) ; at Nagpur on 
linseed ; on leaves of Cassia fistula at Tocklai (Assam) in June ; at 
Poona on chavli {Vigna catjang) and bajri ; at Saidapet on mango, 
at Shillong on apple, and at Coimbatore on jute. 

The larvae may be hand-picked. 

It is found throughout the Ratnagiri district feeding on mango 
flowers. 

It is found on castor on Gujarat. 



Porfhesia xanthorrhcea, Koll. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 485, f. 322 ; I. I. L., pp. 460-461 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 204. 
Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, and in Java. It is 
often abundant but does not seem to do much damage as a rule. Has 
been reared at Nagpur on castor and cholai, and at Pusa on castor. Sor- 
ghum, grass, and mama (Eleusine coracana) ear-head. Lefroy also gives 
sugarcane, bajra, juar and Guinea-grass as foodplants. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 93 

Perina nuda, Fb. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I., 486, f. 323 ; I. M. N., IV, U [larva] ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 251. 
Occurs throughout India and Ceylon, and in China. The larva is 
sometimes found in small numbers on leaves of mango, Ficus and Arlo- 
carpvs integrifolia but is scarcely a pest. 

Hypsid^. 

Hypsa complana, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 500-501. 
Has been reared at Coimbatore from larvae on Ficus glomerata and 
may occasionally be a pest of other species of Ficus. We have it from 
Kotmalie (Ceylon), Chapra and Darjiling. It occurs throughout 'India 
(except North-West), Burma and Ceylon. 

Hypsa alciphron, Cram. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 502-.503 ; I. I. L., t. 39, ff. 3, 4. 
Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, the larvae feeding on 
various species of i^icws. A minor pest of Ficus carica in Bihar and has 
been reared at Pusa on F. bengalensis and F. glomerata and at Abbot- 
tabad on wild fig leaves. 

Hypsa ficus, Fb. 

S. I. I., p. 400, f. 269. 

Occurs throughout India and Ceylon. The larva feeds on Ficus spp, 
and may sometimes strip even large fig-trees (see South Indian Insects, 
fig. 57). Not yet noted as a pest of cultivated figs but is hkely 
to occur thereon. Our records are from : — 

Tricliinopoly .... Banyan (Ficus religiosa). 

Nagpur Castor [probably error of food-plant]. 

Pusa Ficus infecloria, F. carica, F. glomerata. 

Lyallpur ..... Banyan (F.' religiosa). 

The moth is attracted to Audres-Maire traps. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Argina argus, Koll. 

463, t. 39, ff. 8, 9 ; Proc. 
Q. J. Ind. Tea Assoca., 



I. I. L., p. 

! ; Andrews, 



Hmpsn., F. I., II, 51 ; 

Entl. Meeting, p. 6 

1918, 30-31. 
Occurs throughout Ind a and Ceylon. The larva is occasionally 
found on pods of sann-hemp {Grotalaria juncea) but is scarcely a pest. 
Also boring in pods of Grotalaria sericea in April and on leaves on C. 
striata and C. sp. in May-June at Tocklai (Assam). 



Argina syringa, Cram. 

S. I. I., p. 401, f. 271 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 68. 

Occurs principally in Southern India and Bombay as a minor pest 
of sann-hemp, occasionally abundant. Stated to be a serious pest every 
year around Poona where sann-hemp is grown as a green-manure crop. 

Argina syringa is a serious pest of sann-hemp in the Deccan, where 
it takes the place of Utetheisa pulchella. We also find A. cribraria on 
sann-hemp, but our worst pest is A. syringa. 

In Madras we get all the three species of Argina but none of these 
approaches Utetheisa in the extent of the damage done. 

We do not get *S. syringa at all at Pusa and our collection is very poor 
in material of this species. Perhaps some of you may remember that 
when you next find it abundantly. 



Argina cribraria, Clerck. • 

S. I. I., pp. 400-401, f. 270 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 
67, 71 ; Andrews, Q. J. Ind. Tea Assocn., 1918, 31. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon as a serious pest of 
sann-hemp. the larva devouring the pods and leaves. We have it from 
Coimbatore, Poona, Bassein Fort (Bombay), Surat, Balaghat (C. P.), 
Gorakhpur and Pusa — in all cases reared on sann-hemp. Attacking 
leaves of Grotalaria sericea at Tocklai (Assam). 

At Pusa Argina cribraria is a pest of sann-hemp, but inferior to 
Utetheisa piilchella. 

It was found bad on atashi {Croialaria sp.) grown for seed last year. 
Hand-picking was found useful to check it. 

The hfe-history has been worked out at Pusa and is shown on a 
coloured plate [exhibited]. 



sproceedings of the thibd entomological meeting 95 

Sphingid^. 
Herse convolvuli, Linn. 
S. I. I., pp. 401-402, f. 272 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp! 
51, 291 (tab.) ; Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, pp. 11-15. 
Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. A minor pest as a 
rule, occasionally in large numbers on sweet potato and pulses. Our 
srecords include the following locahties and foodplants : — 
Samalkota .... Green gram. 

Kendrapara (Orissa) . . . Urid leaves. 

Bhagalpur (Bihar) . . . Soy bean. 

Pusa ..... .Sweet potato, sunflower, groundnut, Cli ■ 

torea teniafea, Quamoclit pinnala, Jeru- 
salem artichoke. 

Darjiling (Moths). 

ShUlong (Moths). 

Acherontia lachesis, Fb. 
Hmpsn., F. I., I, 67-68 ; Roths, ahd Jord., Rev. Sphing, pp. 
17-18 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 77. 
Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, but more common 
in the Hills where it tends to replace A. stijx. The moth is sometimes 
found in bee-hives, robbing honey. 

The larva may be a pest of Erytkrina where this is grown for green- 
manure or shade (as amongst tea and coffee). In such cases the larvae 
may be hand-picked. 

Acherontia styx, Westw. 
S. I. I., p. 402, t. 24 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 55, 84, 
287 ; Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, pp. 21-23. 
Occurs throughout the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon. The 
moth is often found in bee-hives, robbing honey and disturbing the 
bees. The larva is a minor pest of Sesamum indicum {til ; gingelly), 
brinjal and lablah. The Pusa Collection contains examples from the 
.following locahties and foodplants : — 



Peshawar 
Gujarat 
Poena • . 
Nagpur 
Bhagalpur 



Coimbatore 

Minbu (Lower Burma) 



(Moths only). 
Sesamum indicum. 



Potato. 

Sesamum indicum, brinjal, cowpea, Jas- 

minum sp., bhant (Anisomdes ovata). 
Brinjal. 
Sesamum indicum. 



'The larvae may usually be hand-picked. 

VOL. I 



96 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Oxyambulyx sericeipennis, Butl. (Plate 2, fig. 1.) 
Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, pp. 195-196, t. 9, f. 2. 
At Shillong the larva occurs ia July ou walnut (cultivated) in some- 
numbers, but each larva defoliates considerably, so that the damage 
may be fairly considerable in the case of young trees. 

The larva is shown in the accompanying photographs and the larva,, 
pupa and moth on a coloured plate [exhibited]. 

Leucophlebia lineata, Westw. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 74-75, f. 46 ; Entl. Note 65 ; Proc. Second 

Entl. Meeting, p. 149 ; Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, 

pp. 230-231. 

Occurs in the Plains of Southern and North-Eastern India, Burma. 

and Ceylon. The larva has been reared on sugarcane but has not 

been noted to do any damage in India. 

Polyptychus dentatus, Cr. 
Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, pp. 240-241. 
Recorded by Rothschild and Jordan from Ceylon and South India, 
as far north as Karachi and Calcutta ; the larva on Cordia sebistena. 
At Coimbatore the larvse have been found on Cordia subcordata. 
[Mr. T. V. Ramakrishna Ayyar read a paper on this species, which is^ 
printed separately.] 

Cephonodes picus, Cram. 

Hmpsn., B. J. XV, 645 ; Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, 
pp. 469-470. 
Apparently confined to Ceylon and Southern India. The larva 
occurs on coffee but is not^a pest. 

We have examples from Ceylon (Trincomali and Diyatalawa), Coim- 
batore, Nellikuppam, and Bilaspur. 

DeilepHila nerii, Linn. 

S. 1. 1., pp. 403-404, ff. 273, 274 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
p. 267; Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, pp. 507-509. 
Occurs throughout India and Ceylon as a minor pest of ornamental 
oleanders. Also reared at Nagpur on Jasminum sambac and at Pusa ou 
Tabernamontana wallichii. 



PKOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 97 

Deilefhila hjpothous, Cr. 
Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, pp. 509-510. 
Occurs throughout India and Ceylon. The larva sometimes does 
considerable damage to Cinchona, stripping the leaves. 
We have specimens from DarjiUng. 

Hif potion celerio, Linn. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 87 ; Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, pp. 
751-753 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meetmg, pp. 235, 297. 
A minor pest of the grape-vine in most parts of India. Has also been 
reared at Pusa on a wild Vitis and on Beta vulgaris, and at Poona was 
found in October 1916 feeding on the leaves of Rumex vs^icarius (a vege- 
table grown extensively for the Bombay markets). 

In Egypt it is a minor pes: of cotton. j)j_ (jough. 

In India we do not know it on cotton at all. ]jlj_ Fletcher. 

Hippotion echedus, Boisd. 

Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, pp. 754-755. 
Chcerocampa eson ; Hmpsn., F. I., I, 85 ; B. J. XVI, 142. 
Stated to be found on til (Sesatmtm indicum) as a minor pest in the 
Central Provinces. Not otherwise known as a pest in India. 

Theretra gnoma, Fb. 

Hmpsn., B. J. XVI, 145 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 298 ; 
Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, p. 770. 
Has been reared at Pusa and Poona on leaves of ' Elephant's foot,' 
to which it is stated to do considerable damage at Poona. Also found 
on grape-vine at Pusa and Jeolikote, and is a regular feeder on vine. 

Theretra alecto, Linn. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 85, B. J. XVI, 145 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 335 ; Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, pp. 776- 
778 ; Scott, B. J., XXVI, 299-300 (1918) [Early stages]. 
Has been reared at Pusa on grape-\'ine, a wild Vitis, and on Boer- 
haavia, but is not known to be a pest. 

Eggs and larvae were found on cultivated vine at Rae Bareh (United 
Provinces) at the end of October and in November 1917 by Captain 
F. B. Scott. {B. J., XXVI 299-300.) 

h2 



98 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Theretra oldenlandioe, Fb. 

Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, pp. 781-783 ; Pro?. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 268. 
Has been reared at Pusa on balsam, a wild Vitis, sweet potato and 
bansal (Ariesema tortuosum). A pest of Balsamifera impatien9 in Bihar. 
We have it from Abbottabad, Pusa, Darjiling. --" 

Theretra pallicosta, Wlk. 
R. and J., Rev. Sphing, p. 788. 
Recorded from Ceylon to Burma and Hongkong by Rothschild and 
Jordan. 

Major F. C. Fraser informs me that this species is common in every 
vineyard in Sind, the larva feeding on leaves of grape-vine, of which 
it is a decided pest. 

It has, however, never been reported as a pest. 

Rhyncolaba acteus, Cram. 

Roths, and Jord., Rev. Sphing, pp. 789-790; Proc. Second 

Entl. Meetmg, p. 298. Theretra acicea; Hmpsn., F. I., I, 

100, B. J. XVI, 147. 

The larva is recorded {B. J. XI, 415) to feed on Colocasia but is not 

known as a pest of cultivated plants. We have it from Pusa, bred 

from larvae on Chalirt, Conimelina bengalensis and Pythonessa wallicMi. 

In Ceylon the larva attacks varieties of Caladium and unfortunately 

prefers the best kinds. It is parasitized by a Tachinid. 

Rhagastis dibomarginatus, R. & J. 
Roths, and Jordan, Rev. Sphing, p. 798, t. 14, f. 8. 
At Shillong the larva is a serious pest of Hydrangea, often completely 
defohating the plants. Pupation in a slight cell of net-like silk threads. 
There seem to be two broods of larvae, in June-July and September- 
October. 

We also have a moth in the Pusa Collection from Turzum, DarjiUng. 

[Undetermined SpMngid.]* (Plate 2, fig. 2), 
At Shillong, the larva is a serious pest of apple, and to a less extent 
of pear, about the end of June. It does considerable damage, as the 
larvae are not easy to see in spite of their size, and one larva will strip 

* Thi3 species has since been determined ae Langia zenzeroides, Mo. — Editor. 



Page 




Fig. 1 — Uarva of oxijamoiityx senceipenms on walnut at Shillong. 




Fi». 2— Sphinsid {L<in'ji% senzeroiilesj lartra on apple at Shillong. 



Page 99. 





Fig. 2.— laiva of Atdlicxxa riiijlc 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 99 

a whole branch of leaves. Pupation probably takes place under dead 
leaves in natural conditions ; no cocoon is formed and larvae refused to 
enter soil. There is only one brood annually, the piipse hibernating. 
Larvae (in spirit) have been sent in as infesting apple at Kulu also. 
The moth has not been reared out as yet. 

EUPTEROTID^. 

Eupteroie mollifera, Wlk. 
S. I. I., pp. 404-405, f. 275 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meetmg, p. 299. 
A pest of Moringa pterygosperma at Coimbatore and Chingleput. 
The larvae may be burnt ofJ when clustered on the tree-trank during the 
day time. 

Eupteroie geminata, Wlk. 
Hmpsn., F. I., I, 60 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 163. 
The larvae occurred in destructive numbers on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis 
at Peradeniya in March 1902. It has been reared at Coimbatore 
on Moringa leaves. 

At Matale it is bad on Cajanvs indicus and also on young leaves of Mr. Senior-Whitei 



Nisaga simplex, Wlk. 
Hmpsn., F. I., I., 63, f. 36, B. J. XV, 630 ; I. I. L., p. 471. 
Occurs in most grassy areas in Western and Central India. Our Mr. Fletcher. 
examples are from Belgaum, Poona, Pachmarhi, Ranchi and Pusa. 
The larvae are found on wild grasses and sometimes occur literally in 
milUons, but seem to do little harm to crops. Occasionally they have 
been known to invade paddy areas and to do a litt'e damage. 

Saturniad^. 

Actia? selene, Hb. (Plate 3, fig. 1). 

S. I. I., p. 405, f. 276. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, more especially in 

submontane districts, but it is not very common as a rule. The larva 

feeds on various shrubby plants and small trees. It is recorded on " wild 

cherry " {fi. J., XI, 242) and has occurred as a pest defoliating Odina 

wodier at Coimbatore {B. J., XXIII, 792-793) ; also found on Moringa 

pterygosperma. At Shillong it occurs on Betida alnoides, apple, pear, 

walnut, etc. It is a decided pest of apple in the Khasi Hills and Kumaon. 

It occurs regularly every year on Odina wodier at Coimbatore. We Mr. Ramakrishna 
have shown the stages on a coloured plate [exhibited]. Ayyar. 



100 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Anthercea roylei. (Plate 3, fig. 2.) 
Hmpsn, F. I. Moths, I, 18 ; B. J., XI, 243. 
Hampson records this from Masuri, Kangra, Sikkim, and Khasis ; 
larva on " Mahowah, " oak and birch. 

At Shillong the larva feeds on Betula alnoides and less commonly on 
apple and pear, when it does some damage by defoliating branches. 

Cricida frifenesfrata, Heifer. 
S. I. I., pp. 405-406, f. 277 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 218, 255. 

Occurs throughout Southern and North-Eastern India and in Burma, 
usually on mango but also on various wild trees {Terminalia, etc.). In 
Assam it occasionally strays onto tea. In Eastern Bengal it is a serious 
pest of mango. 

The hairs of this caterpillar cause irritation. Hand-picking is conse- 
quently out of the question. In Eastern Bengal the people hght a 
bundle of straw and hold it below the leaves on which the caterpillars 
are feeding gregariously. The caterpillars are crushed when they fall 
down. 

BOMBYCID.®. 

Ocinara varians, Wlk. 
S. 1. 1., p. 407, f. 278 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 251. 
Occurs throughout India, Burma, and Ceylon as a minor pest of 
figs (Ficus spp.) of various sorts, sometimes repeatedly stripping every 
leaf in the case of young trees and so stunting growth. 



Andraca bipuncfata, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I. 40 f. 23 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 21. 
Occurs in Assam, Cachar and Sylhet as a serious pest of tea. There 
are two broods, in January-February and in April-May. The whole 
of the tea-leaves may be eaten ofi. The larvae cluster conspicuously 
and are easily hand-collected. 



NOTODONTID^. 

Dinara combusta, Wlk. 
Hmpsn., F.I. , I. 145 [Anticyra]. 
Has been reared at Pusa in small numbers on maize but is not known 
to be a pest. In Java the larva is common on sugarcane and the life 



Pagt iOl. 




Fig. 1.— Notodontid larva on apple at Shlllong. 



i'agc i01{i) 



PLATE 4. 




Fig. 2.- 



2.-Boarmiane (No. 2) larva on apple at Shillong. 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 101 

history has been described and figured by Kobus (Tijds. voor Ent, 
XXXIX 125-129 1. 5 ff. 1-5 (1896)). 

Stauropus alternus, Wlk. 

S. 1. 1., p. 408 ff. 279, 280 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 

pp. 18, 42, 257, 264. 

Occurs throughout India and Ceylon, but is rather scarce as a rule, 

odd examples of larvse being found on Cajanus indicus, tamarind, Trewia 

nudiflora, tea, rose, etc. It has once occurred in Ceylon on tea in alarming 

profusion ; in Assam only odd specimens are found on tea. 

We look on it as a curiosity in Assam. Mr. Andrews. 

(Undetermined Notodontid.) (Plate 4, fig. 1.) 

The larvse are found at Shillong on apple in small numbers at the Mr. Fletcher, 
end of June. Pupation takes place in a slight cocoon in which hiber- 
nation occurs in pupal state. The larvae eat the leaves from one side 
and are very difficult to detect, a'? their coloration is highly procryptic, 
resembling a withered edge of the leaf attacked. 

The caterpillar is shown in the photographs and coloured sketch 
[exhihitedl, but the moth has not emerged as yet. 

Geometrid^. 
(Undetermined Boarmiane.) 
The larvae of this feed on apple leaves at Shillong in June. They 
occur in small numbers and this species is scarcely a pest. The moth has 
not yet been determined but seems to be allied to Hyperythra. 

(Undetermined Boarmiane, No. 2.) (Plate 4, fig. 2). 
Another undetermined Boarmiane was found at Shillong, the larva 
feeding on apple in small numbers, but it does a good deal of damage, 
as the larvae are stick-like and large and not easy to see. 

Biston suppressaria, Guen. 
S. 1. 1., p. 409 f. 281 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 18. 
Occurs in the Tea Districts of Assam, South India and Ceylon, usually 
as a minor pest of tea and Cassia auriculata. In Assam it is sometimes 
a serious pest of tea, three broods occurring ; the control-method usually 
employed is to hand- fork around the base of the bushes in the cold weather 
to collect the pupae, and this is stated to be quite successful. 



102 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

The moths are killed in Assam as they sit on the bark of trees.; 
Children go round with a long stick and tap the moths and kill them. 
It is becoming quite a rarity with us now. 

Sterrha sacrarta, Linn. 
Hampsn., F. I. Ill, 424, f. 199 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 297. 
Occurs commonly throughout the Plains of India. In October 1916 
the larvae were found feeding in large numbers on and destroying the 
leaves of Rumex vesicarius (a leafy vegetable grown extensively for the 
Bombay markets) at Poona. 

Craspedia defamataria, Wlk. 
Hmpsn., F. I. Ill, 435 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 207. 
Occurred at Pusa on lucerne in some numbers in 1906. Not known 
otherwise as a pest. 

Thalassodes quadraria, Gueu. 
Hmpsn., F. I. Moths III 507, f. 225. 
The larva occurs, usually in small numbers, on mango and Pohjalthia 
longifolia at Pusa. 

It occurs on mango at Poona. 

I found it in numbers last year on mango at Sabour. 

Thalassodes veraria, Gn. 

Hmpsn. F. I. Moths. Ill, 508. 

Lefroy, 1. 1. L., p. 475, f. 325, t. 41, f. 7 [quadraria, nee Gn.] 
The larva occurs usually in small numbers on mango, litchi, rose, and 
Lagerstroemia fios-regince at Pusa, where in January 1909 it occurred in 
large numbers on mango. 

This species has hitherto been confused with quadraria, which is the 
scarcer species of the two at Pusa. They may be distinguished by the 
colour of the frons, which is green in veraria and red in quadraria. 

Lasiocampid^. 

Taragama siva, Lef. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I. 405-406 ; 1. 1. L., p. 497, t. 41 ff. 8-11. 

Occurs throughout the Plains of India and is a sporadic pest of various 

trees It has been reared at Coimbatore on mahogany, when it did 



PUOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING lOs 

slight damage to young trees, and at Pusa on Acacia arabica, rose 
Zizyphus jiijuba, Polyalihia longijolia, and Tamarix gallica. 

Metanastria hyrtaca, Cram. 

S. I. I., pp. 409-410, f. 282 ; Entl. Note 66 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 38, 249. 
Occurs throughout the Plains of India (except in North- West). The 
larva is polyphagous and is scarcely a pest as a rule, but occasionally 
occurs in large numbers, when it strips even large trees. The Pusa 
Collection contains examples from the following localities and food- 
plants : — 

Travancore .... Eugenia jambolana. 

Calcutta Acacia arabica, Mimusoys. 

Pusa ..... Albizzia stipulata, Mitnnsops elengi, Sapota 

(in some numbers, June 1916). 
Rajpur (Champaran District) . Kadam (Anthocephalus cadamba). 

The larva has also been recorded on Schima wallichii (B. J. XIII 
407). 

Trabala vishnu, Lei. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I. 421-422, f. 293 ; I. M. N., V. 107 ; 1. 1. L., p. 498 
t. 46 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 87, 246. 
Occurs throughout India and Burma as a sporadic pest of castor. 
The, larva also feeds on Eugenia jambolana and Tarminalia catappa and 
has been reared at Pusa on Quisqualis and at Shilloiig on rose, gera- 
nium, and other garden plants. 

The egg-clusters and larvae may be hand-picked. 

LlMACODID^. 

Natada nararia, Mo. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I. 381-382. 

Occurs in Southern India and Ceylon. Recorded by Rutherford 

on tea in Ceylon {Trop. Agric, July 1914) and at Coimbatore has occurred 

as a pest on Sideroxylon subsilatum and Pithecolobium dulce. Spraying 

with Lead Arsenate was found successful at Coimbatore. 

Natada velutina, Koll. 
1. 1. L., p. 500 f. 335 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 218. 
The larva sometimes occurs on mango but is not a pest. 



104 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Coniheyla rotunda, Hmpsn. 
Hmpsn., B. J. XVI, 196 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 20, 259. 

This species, originally described from Kanara, occurred as a pest 
of coconut in S. Malabar in February and March 1916, the larvae 
damaging the foliage and sometimes the flower-shoots and rinds of young 
nuts. When full-fed, the larva pupates in a small, oval, hard, shell-like 
cocoon, numbers of which are found on badly attacked tree-fronds. 
Spraying with Lead Arsenate was tried but found impracticable, and 
the preventive measures of cutting off first-attacked fronds and the 
destruction of the shell-like cocoons found on the trees before an outbreak 
raiijats were suggested and taken up by the raiyats (Madras Monthly 
Report for March 1916). 

It has also recently been reported as doing some damage to tea in the 
Wynaad. 

Parasa lepida, Cram. 
S. I. I., pp. 410-411, ff. 283, 284 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 19, 28, 87, 217, 232, 234, 258, 262, 299. 
Occurs throughout India (except North-West) and Ceylon as a sporadic 
major pest of mango, Ficus spp., coconut, rose, plantain and various 
other plants. The young larvas are gregarious and may be destroyed 
en masse ; later on, they scatter and feed solitarily. The round shell- 
like cocoons are often seen clustered in large numbers on tree-trunks 
and the enclosed larvae and pupae may be destroyed by crushing. Unless 
the hands and body are covered whilst doing this, an irritation is caused. 
The larval spines are highly poisonous and the larvae should not be 
handled. 

Phycita dentilinella was found predaceous on this insect at Coimbatore. 
Our records include the following locaUties and foodplants : — 



Peradeniya 


. Defoliating rose, January 1902. 


Kumbalengna (Cochin) 


Defoliating coconut. 


Coimbatore 


. Ficvs benjamini. 


Poena .... 


. Flacourtia, mango (especially on young 




plants, doing damage). 


Baukura (Bengal) 


. Mango leaves. 



Parasa lepida is pretty bad on young mango trees in 'Madras. We 
have done a coloured plate of it [exhibited]. 



Altlia nivea, Wlk. 
S. 1. 1., pp. 411-412, f. 285 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 87. 
Occurs throughout India as a very minor pest of castor. 




Fig. 1. /IcUppa Urva 



Oil apple at Shillang. 




Fig. 2. -^Limacodid larvae on apple at Shillong. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 105 

Belippa laleana. Mo. (Plate 5, fig. 1.) 

1. 1. L., p. 501, t. 28, f. 14 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 28. 

The fat slug-like, pale-green, yellow-dotted larva is common on 

cofiee in South Coorg, but is scarcely a pest. Also occurs on apple, pear, 

walnut and other fruit-trees at Shillong and does slight damage by 

feeding on the leaves. 

In Assam about eighty per cent, of the larvae are parasitized. Mr. Andrews. 

(Unidentified Limacodid.) (Plate 5, fig. 2.) 
At Shillong in June 1918 the larvae occurred on apple in some numbers, Mr- Fletcher, 
but the moth could not be reared out. 

Several different species of Limacodids attack apple and other fruit- 
trees in Shillong. 

Nymphalid^. 

Mycalesis per sens, Fb. 
Bingham, F. I., I. 57-58, f. 17 B ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 163. 
The larva is sometimes foimd in small numbers on rice at Pusa, but 
is not a pest. 

Mycalesis tnineus, Linn. 

Bingham, F. I., I. 58-59, f. 17-A, t. 2, f. 8 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 163. 
Pupae have been found at Gauhati on rice-leaves. Not known to be 
a pest of rice. 

Melanitis ismene, Cram. 

S. I. I., p. 412, t. 50, ff. 7-9 ; Entl. Mem. V, 3-7, t. 1 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 163, 180. 
Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon and is a minor pest of 
rice. The larvae are also less commonly found on juar and marua ; also 
on various wild grasses. 

In Java the larva is noted, under the name Cyllo leda, by Kobus as 
found on sugarcane (Tijds. voor. Ent. XXXIX, 129-130, t. 6 ff. 1-5 
(1896). 

Elymias undularis, Dr. 

Moore. Lep. Ind. II, 145-148, 1. 133 ff. 1 (larva), 1 A.C ; Bingham, 
F. I. Butt. I., 171-172. 
This species occurs along the Himalayas from Masuri to Bhutan in 
Assam, Lower Bengal, C. India, Burma to Malaya. 



106 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

The larva feeds on palms, often doing some damage to ornamental 
S23ecimens. It is usually extensively parasitized. 



Euthalia garuda, Mo. 

Bingham, F. I., I. 282-283 ; I. I. L., p. 411, t. 30 ; Proc. Second 

Entl. Meeting, p. 218. 

Occurs throughout India and Burma. We have it from Dehra Dun, 

Pusa, Rajapatti, Burdwan, Insein and Myitkyina. The larva feeds on 

leaves of mango, at times in some numbers, but does little damage and 

cannot be considered a pest. 

In Travancore the larva occurs on mango leaves but it is not a pest. 

Junonia lemonias, Linn. 
Bingham, F. I., I. 357-358 ; I. I. L., p. 413, f. 283. 
Occurs commonly throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. The larva 
has been found at Pusa on Sida rhombifolia and at Nagpuron jute, but 
has not yet been noted as a pest. 

Junonia orithyia, Linn. 
, F. I., I. 358-359. 



The larva has been found on sweet pot:ato on two occasions at Pusa 
and also at Coimbatore. Also reared «*n Justicia at Pusa. Not a 
pest. 

Junonia almana, Linn. 

Bingham, F. I., I. 361-362 ; 1. 1. L., p. 413, f. 282 ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meetmg, p. 163. 
Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Has been reared from 
larvse found on rice and on Mimulus gracilis. 

Scarcely a pest of paddy as a rule but has been found in large numbers 
destroying rice-fields together with larvse of Spodoptera mauritia. 

Kallima inachus, Boisd. 

Bingham, F. I., I. 395-397, t. 10, f. 76 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 244. 
The butterfly is said to suck peach fruits at Pachmarhi, Central 
Provinces, but the record seems doubtful. 



PHOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETINCJ 107 

Argynnis hyperbius, Johannsen. 

Bingham, F. I., Butt. I., 438440, t. 5, f. 36 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 268. 
Occurs throughout N. India (replaced in S. India by casletsi). 
Larva on violet and pansy, sometimes doing considerable defohation 
to cultivated plants. Found in numbers at Shillong in October 1918, 
and at Pusa in February 1919 defoliating Viola odora. 

Ergolis merione, Cram. 

Bingham, F. I., I. 462-463 ; 1. 1. L., p. 415, t. 31 ; Entl. Mem. V, 

8-15, t. 2 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 87. 

The typical form merione occurs throughout the Northern half of 

India, in Assam and Burma. The larva feeds on castor and as a 

rule is of very minor importance as a crop-pest, but is often found on 

isolated self-sown plants which may be almost completely defohated. 

In Southern India and Ceylon it is replaced by the form taprobana, 
Westw., which has not been noted as a pest of castor. 

Telchinia violw, Fb. 
Bingham, F. I., I. 471-472, f. 85 ; 1. 1. L., p. 415 ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 126. 
The larva has been found on Hibiscus cannabinus in Bihar as an 
■occasional minor pest. It also feeds on wild Passion-flower (Modecca 
jpalmata) and has been reared at Cuttack on mustapat (H. cannabinus). 

Papilionid^. 

Papilio machaon, Linn. 

Bingham, F. I., II, 36-38 f. 6. 

The larvae were found in small numbers on cultivated fennel at Hangu, 

Kohat District, North-West Frontier Province, in May 1916. Not a 

.pest. 

Papilio demoleus, Linn, {erithonius. Cram.). 

S. I. I., pp. 412-413, t. 25 ; Entl. Mem. V, 33-48, t. 6 ; Proc. 

Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 210, 216. 

Occurs throughout the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon. The 

larva feeds on various species of Citrus and is sometimes a serious pest, 

stripping the leaves. It has been reared at Pusa on lime, orange, bael 



108 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



(^gle marmdos) PsoraJea coryliJoUa and Murraya Koenigi. The eggs 
and larvee may be hand-picked and in small areas catching the butter- 
flies in hand-nets has been found practicable. 

The larva of Papilio rfe»jo?ews prefers Feronia elephantum to species of 
Citrvs. 

Papilio demoleus is found to attack Malta orange rather than other 
varieties in the North- West Frontier Province. Hand-netting of the 
butterflies has not been found efiective at Peshawar. 



Papilio helenus, Linn. 
Bmgham, F. I., II. 41-43, f. 8 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 210. 
The lace daksha, Hmpsn., which is confined to the Hill Districts of 
Southern India, is sometimes a serious pest of orange trees in South 
Coorg (fide Hannyngton). The typical form helenus is also a minor pest 
of orange at Shillong. 

Davidson and Aitken give Xanthoxylon rhetsa as a f oodplant. 

Papilio memnon, Linn. 
Bingham, F. I., II, 47-49, f. 9 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 210. 
Butterflies were observed to be ovipositing on cultivated pomelo 
trees at Myitkyina, Upper Burma, in September 1914. Probably a very 
minor pest of Citrus. 

Papilio polymnestor, Cram. 
Bingham, F. I., II, 50-51, 1. 12, f. 85 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 210. 

The larva is sometimes a serious pest of orange in South Coorg (Ude 
Haimyngton). 

Davidson and Aitken give Atalantia sp. and Garcinia xanthochrymus 
as wild foodplants, but it may be noted that Moore quotes Citrus decu- 
mana as the food of the Sinhalese form parinda, Mo. 

At Quilon Travancore, Papilio polymnestor occurs on orange and 
Murraya hoenigi. 

We have found Papilio polymnestor and P. helenus on wild Citrus 
trees on the Western Ghats. 



Papilio agamemnon. 
In Ceylon Papilio agamemnon occurs on Anona muricata. 
The larva is figured by Kershaw (Butt. Hongkong, p. 114 t. 4a ff. 10) 
.0 says that in Hongkong it feeds on Uvaria microcarpa and Unona. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD INTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 109- 

discolor (Anonaceae), Michelia champaca and the custard apple (4wowct 
reticulata). We have however, no record of its having damaged any 
cultivated plant in India.] 

Papilio polytes, Linn. 

Bingham, F. I., II, 61-63, f. 13 ; Entl. Mem. V, 33-42, 48-52. 
t. 7 [panmon] ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 210, 216. 
Occurs throughout the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon. The 
larva feeds on various species of Citrus (orange, lemon, etc.) and is occa- 
sionally a minor pest of cultivated Citrus. It has also been reared at 
Pusa on Murraya kcenigi. 



PlERID^. 

Pieris brassicoB, Linn. 

Bingham, F, I., II, 170-171, f. 43 ; I. I. L., p. 418 ; Agr. Jl. Ind. 
Jan. 1912, t. 1 ; Entl. Mem. V, 20-26, t. 4 ; Entl. Note 68 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 9, 269, 279, 282, 284. 
Found all along the Himalayan Region from Chitral to Bhutan and 
1, penetrating into the Plains in the winter months in an area about 
one hundred miles wide and parallel with the Hills, straggling as far 
South as Cuttack. At Pusa adults appear regularly about 1st February 
and two or three broods occur in February and March, the butterflies 
all disappearing by the end of April. At Peshawar the butterflies 
appear in October and are on the wing and breed until about the end of 
May. 

Our specimens are from Bhagalpur, Pusa, Lyallpur, Akalgarh 
(Punjab), Peshawar, Abbottabad, and Shillong. 

Larva on cabbage, cauliflower, mustard, Tropceolum (nasturtium) 
and other Cruciferae. A serious pest of cabbage and cauliflower. 

Control : — Hand-picking of the yellow egg-masses and of the young 
larvae whilst these are still gregarious. 

This year I saw P. brassicce at Laheria Serai on 8th and 9th January Mr. Inglis. 
1919. 

Pieris canidia, Sparrman. 
Bingham, F. I., II, 172-173 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 279. 
Occurs commonly in the Hills (Himalayan Region, Southern India, Mr- FletctKr, 
Assam, Upper Burma). We have it from Peshawar, Simla, Ootacamund, 
Shillong, and Lashio (N. Shan States). 



110 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

The larva is said to damage cabbages at Maymyo, Upper Burma, 
but the record seems doubtful. 



Mr. Ramakiisbna 
Ayyar. 



Calopsilia pyranthe, Linn. 

S. I. I., p. -113, f. 286 ; Entl. Mem. V, 29-32, t. 5, fl. 7-11 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 72, 75, 76. 
Occurs throughout India, Assam and Burma, mostly in the Plains. 
The larva feeds on Cassia fistula. C. tora and C. occidentalis and has been 
found at Pusa on Sesbania [sp.] flowers. 

Scarcely a pest as a rule but may do damage to species of Sesbania 
and Cassia when these are grown as ornamental or shade trees. 

In Assam Calopsilia pyranthe sometimes does considerable damage to 
Cassia fistula trees, which are planted along roadsides for shade pur- 
poses. 

We find it in Madras damaging dhaincha which is grown for green- 
manure. 

Colics hyale, Linn. 

Bingham, F. I., II, 234-235 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 208. 
Said to be an occasional minor pest of clovers (Trifolium spp.) at 
Peshawar, but there seems to be no exact record. 

Colias vroceus, Fourcroy, race fieldi. Men. 

Bingham, F. I.. II, 243-244, t. 15, f. 103 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 208. 
Said to have occurred as an occasional minor pest of clovers [Trifolium 
spp.) at Peshawar, where the butterfly is common in April. The butter- 
fly penetrates into Bihar in the cold weather but is a scarce visitor as 
a rule. 

Terias hecabe, Linn. 

S. I. I., p. 414, f. 287 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 72, 
(tab), 75, 76, 79. 
Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Larva on dhaincha, 
agathi and various species of Sesbania and Cassia. Our records 
include — 

Poona ..... Common on Sesbania.' 
Coimbatore .... Dhaincha. 

Cuttack Dhaincha 

Pusa ..... Cassia tora. 

Eangpur Sesbania aculeata. 

Duars ..... Sesbania sp. (in large numbers in 1912). 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 111 

Sometimes in large numbers on species of Sesbania when grown for 
green manure. 

Terias sUhetana, Wallace. 

Bingham, F. I.. II, 257-258, ff. 65, 66 ; Proc. Second Entl- 
Meeting, pp. 72, 75, 79. 
Occurs in Sikkim, Assam, Burma, and Central and Southern India. 
In November 1915 I found the larvae defoUating Sesbania grown for 
green-manure amongst cofi'ee in Coorg. The gregarious larvse are green, 
with a black head. Pupa blackish ; pupation in a cluster on stem. 
(In T. hecabe larva has green head, pupa greenish, not clustered gre- 
gariously). 

Lyc^nid^. 
Zizera hjsimon Hb. 
Bingham, F. I., II, 357-358 ; 1. 1. L., p. 426 [Z. karsandra.] 
" Breeds frequently on lucerne (Medicago sativa) in the Plains where 

this is grown Davidson and Bell reared it on a vetch, Zornia 

difliylla " (Lefroy, I.e.). Not known to be a pest. 

Chilades laius, Cram. 

Bingham, F. I., II, 365-367, t. 19, f. 135 ; 1. 1. L., p. 426 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 210. 
Occurs practically throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Larva 
on orange, lemon, hme, pomelo. Has been reared at Pusa on several 
occasions from larvse on topshoots of orange, but is scarcely a pest. 

In the Godavari district we once had it very bad on orange shoots. Mr. Bamakiishna 

Ayyar. 

Chilades trochilus initli. Freyer. 

Bingham, F. I., II, 367-368 ; 1. 1. L., p. 426 ; Moore, Lep. Ceylon 
I, 77, t. 35, ff. 4, 4a IC. [fxitli] ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
p. 80. 
Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, mostly in the Plains. Mr. Fletcher. 
The foodplants include Heliotr opium strigosutn, Zarnia dipkyUa and 
indigo. 

It has been reared on several occasions from larvae found on indigo 
leaves in North Bihar, but can scarcely be considered a pest. Also reared 
at Pusa from larvae boring pea pods. 

VOL. 1 I 



112 PEOCEEDINGS 01" THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Lyccenesthes emolus, Godt. 
Bingham, F. I., II, 373-374. 
Occurs in Sikkim, Assam, Burma, Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and North 
Kanara. 

De Niceville gives the foodplants in Calcutta as Nephelium litchi. 
Cassia fistula and Heynea trijuga. It has been reared in small numbers 
at Pusa from larvae feeding on mango leaves, but is not a pest. 



Lampides elpis, Godt. 

Bingham, F. I., II, 407-408 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 37. 

Occurs throughout the Hills of Southern India, Ceylon and Burma. 

The larva feeds on the flowers and fruits of the cultivated cardamom 

and also on those of Kaempfcena pandurata ; pupa in the fruit or in 

cluster of dead flowers above the fruit. 

A decided pest of cardamoms in districts where these are grown. 



Euchrysops cnejus, Fb. 

S.I. I., pp. 414-415, t.26 ; Entl. Mem. V, 59-66, t. 8 [Catochry- 
sops] ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 44, 52, 56, 58, 60, 
65. 
Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. The larva has been 
found at Pusa on tur (Cajanus indicus), mung, urid, moth, Vigna catjang 
and Sword-bean (Canavalia ensifonn's). It may occur on practically 
any pulses and when in numbers (as it often is) may do serious damage, 
the contents of the pods being eaten out. 
At Jorhat I found it on Phaseolus radio' us. 



Catochrysops pandava, Horsf . 

Bingham, F. I., II, 413-415 ; Rutherf., Trop. Agric, Sept. 1914 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 266. 
Occurs in most parts of the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon. 
The larva feeds on Cycads. De Niceville found it on Cycas revoluta 
in Calcutta and it has been sent to us from Bombay as damaging Oyeas 
circinalis, and Rutherford found it as a pest of Cycads at Peradeniya. 
It disfigures ornamental Cycads but is otherwise scarcely a pest. 
[See also pages 897-898.] ' 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE TUIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 113 

Pohjommatus hceticus, Linn. 

S. 1. 1., pp. 415-416, f. 288 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 44, 
56, 58, 64, 71 ; Andrews, Q. J., Ind. Tea Assocn., 1918, 29-30. 

Occurs abundantly tliroughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Larva 
on Crotalaria striata, Dolichos lablab, Cajanus indicus, Pisum and other 
Leguminosse. It has been reared at Coimbatore from larvae on pods of 
Cajanus indicus and flowers of Buteafrondosa. It may be a serious pest 
of Crotalaria when this is grown for seed. 

In Assam we had it on gram last year and the attack was rather bad. Mr. Andrews. 

I have had a request from Java for egg-parasites of P. bceticus ; so, Mr. Fletcker. 
if anyone comes across any Trichogramma or other parasite of the eggs, 
I shall be glad to be informed. 



Tarucustkeophraslus, Fb. 

Bingham, F. I., II, 417-419, t. 20, f. 151 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 253. 

Occurs practically throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. The larva 
feeds on the young leaves and buds of Zizyphus jujuba. It is scarcely 
a pest as a rule but is stated to be a minor pest of grafted Ssr-trees in 
the Central Province j. 



Deudorix epijarbas, Mo. 

Lep. Indica IX, 33-34, t. 711, ff. 3, 3 a-c ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 233. 

The larvse are destructive to pomegi-anate fruit in Kumaon m June 
and July, so that " in some years scarcely a pomegranate escapes their 
attacks " (Hannyngton, B. J. XX, 369-370). 

It is common as a borer of pomegranate fruits in the Dehra Dun Mr. Beesoa. 
district. 

Virachola isocrales, Fb. 

S. 1. 1., p. 416, f. 289 ; Lep. Indica IX, 64-69, t. 719, ff. 3,3 a-b ; 
Bell, B. J. XXIV, 184 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 213, 
231, 232, (tab.) 234, 245, 250, 257. 

Occurs throughout the Plain? of India (? except northward; of United ?lr. Fletcher. 
Provinces). Not noted in Burma. 



114 PEOCEEDI-N'GS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

A major pest of pomegranate, the fiuit being bored by the larva, 
which also occasionally attacks guava, orange and other fruit'^. Our 
records include the following locaUties and foodplants : — 

. Coimbatore .... Pomegranate, wood-apple, orange. 
Bangalore .... Apple (boring in fruity. 

Surat . . . ■ . . Pomegranate. 

Pusa Pomegranate, guava fruit, plums (alu bo- 

khara) (Pnmus communis), peach fruit. 
Nagpur ..... Orange, dchamali fruit (Gardenia gnmvii- 

Also attacks tamarind fniits and Bell gives fruits of Garden a and 
Randia and Strychnos nux-romica. 

In Bengal it is a very common pest of pomegranate. The cater- 
pillars are found on guava also, but in very small numbers. 

Hesperiad^. 
Parata alexis, Fb. 
Lep. Indica IX, 253-255, t. 752, ff. 3, 3a-d. 
Widely distributed in the Plains. 

Has been reared at Coimbatore and Chepauk from larvae on leaves- 
of Pongamia glabra and also on castor and at Nagpur from larvae on 
" Kanji." 

Not known to be a pe^t. 

Spialia galha, Fb. 
Lep. Indica X, 99-101, t. 781, ff. 1, la-c. 
Widely distributed throughout the Plains. 

Has been reared at Pusa from larvae on Sida rhomhifolia, on hollyhock 
leaves, and on soybean {Glycine hisjnda). Davidson, Bell and Aitken 
bred it fiom Wallheria indica. 
Not a pest. 

Ampittia d'oscorides, Fb. 

Hesper:a dioscorides. Fb., Ent. Sy~t. Ill, 329, (1793) ; Swinh.,^ 
Lep. Indica X, 125-126, t. 786, ff. 1, la-d [Ainpittia] ; Proc, 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 164. 
Hesperia maro, Fb., Ent. Syst. SuppL p. 432, (1798). 
Occurs in Sikkim, Burma, South India and Ceylon. 
It was reared by Davidson, Bell and Aitken from larvae on rice and 
grasses and has been reared on paddy at Coimbatore and Samalkota.- 
Probably^ veiy minor pest of rioe. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 115 

Suasiin gremim, Fb. 

S. I. I., pp. 418-419, f. 293 ; Lep. Indica X, 152-154, t. 793,. 
ff. 1, lac ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 258, 262. 
Widely distributed in the Plains, the larva feeding on various palms, 
mostly on palmyia, also on coconut and date. 

A minor pest, sometimes occurring in considerable numbers. 

Gangara thyrsis, Mo. 

S. I. I., p. 417, ff. 290-291 ; Lep. Indica X, 161-163, t. 795, 

ff. 1, la-c ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 258. 

A common species throughout the Plains of India, Burma and Ceyloni 

We have this from Coimbatore and South Coorg. The larva feeds 

on palms of various kinds and may do some damage to ornamental plants 

and in nurseries of young coco-palms, etc. 

Gangara thyrsis is a pretty bad pest of nurseries of young coconut- Mr. Ramakriskna 
palms in South Kanara. Ayyar. 



Matapa aria, Mo. 

I. M. N. V, 115 ; 1. 1. L. p. 431 ; Lep. Indica X, 171-172, t. 797, 

ff. 1, la-c ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 204. 

A common species in most parts of India, Burma and Ceylon. It ^^- Fletcher. 

-occurs commonly at Pusa, the larva rolling bamboo leaves, but is scarcely 

a pest. 

It is found at Coimbatore also. Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 

Udaspesfolus, Cram. 

S. 1. 1., p. 420, f. 295 ; Lep. Indica X, 205-207, t. 805, ff. 1, la-c ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 294, 295. 

Widely distributed in the Plains — we have it from Pusa, Rangpur, Mr. Fletcher. 
Nepal, Hopin (Upper Burma), the Northern Circars of Madras, and 
Coimbatore ; not common as a rule but sporadically abundant, when 
it may be a serious pest of turmeric and ginger. Davidson, Bell and 
Aitken found the larva on Curcuma aromatica. 

In Travancore it is a very minor pest of ginger. Mr. FiUay. 

The caterpillars are generally parasitized. Mr. Ramakrishna 

As a rule it is of no importance, but occasionally it occurs in very jt^Fl'etcher 
large numbers and does a good deal of damage to ginger and turmeric. 



lib PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Telicola augias, Linn. 

S. I. I., pp. 419-420, f. 294 ; Lep. Indica X, 246-247, t. 813, 
ff. 2, la-c ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 149, 164, 204. 
Common througlioiit the Plains of India. We have it from Pusa,. 
Cuttack, Palur and Coimbatore, in all cases reared from sugarcane. 

The larva feeds commonly on cane-leaves, and is also said to feed on 
bamboos and rice rarely, but is scarcely a pest. 



Caltoris colaca. Mo. 

S. I. I., p. 413, f. 292, [Parnara] ; Lep. Indica 316-317, t. 831^ 
ff. 1, la-c ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 164. 
Common throughout the Plains. Our specimens are from Pusa 
(larva on rice), Chingleput (larva on paddy) and Bassein Fort, Bombay 
(larva on grasses). 

Scarcely a pest of paddy. 



Caltoris bevani, Mo. 
Lep. Indica X, 318 1. 831, ff. 2, 2a-6 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 164.- 
Occurs throughout the Plains of India (except South) and Burma. 
We have examples reared from larvse found on rice leaves at Pusa and 
Samalkota. 

Not known as a pest. 

Chopra mathias, Fb. 

S. I. I., pp. 417-418, t. 27 [Parnara] ; Lep. Indica X, 320-321, 
t. 831, ff. 3, 3a-c; Entl. Mem.V, 67-72, t. 9; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, pp. 164, 180. 
Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. We have butter- 
flies from Peshawar, Bassein Fort, Pollibetta, Coimbatore, Ootacamund, 
the Anamalai Hills, Mandalay, Maymyo, and Myitkyina, as well as 
examples bred from laivse on rice at Nagpur, Pusa, Daltonganj, Poona 
and Thana District. It has also been reared at Pusa on jimr and once 
on sann-hemp leaves (collected on sann-hemp in field). 

A minor pest of paddy as a rule, and sporadically bad in most districts. 
I found one caterpillar on a leaf of sann-hemp. 
Sann-hemp is a very unusual food-plants Possibly it had wandered 
ofi grass. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 117 

Parnara bada, Mo. 

Lep. Indica X, 329-330, t. 834, ff. 1, la-c ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 164. 

Common throughout the Plains of Southern India, Burma and Ceylon. 
We have this from Pusa, Ootacamund, Bassein Fort and Maymyo, and 
also examples bred from larvse on rice leaves at Eanchi, Daltonganj 
and Karwar. 

Not hitherto recorded as a pest of paddy, but often occurs on this 
crop in large numbers ; probably overlooked and confused with other 
species. 

That brings us to the end of the butterflies, imless anyone has any Mr. Fletcher, 
more butterflies to bring forward ? 



[Delias aglea. 

There is a wild mistletoe, a species of Loranthus, which is a pest on Mr. Andrews, 
tea, in so far as it checks its growth. It is especially bad on tea-bushes 
reserved for seed and planters have to spend a lot of money in cutting 
this out. The larva of Delias aglea eats this parasite right down and 
as such it is a beneficial insect. 

At Pusa we have Delias eucharis which feeds on Loranthus in a similar Mr. Fletcher. ' 
way, but I am afraid it does not check the Loranthus very much. Indeed, 
I have never seen so much Loranthus as there is here just at present on 
the mango and Sissii trees.] 



Pyralid^. 
Trachylepidia fructieassiella, Rag. 
Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 4, f. 2. 
The larva bores commonly in pods of Cassia fistula at Pusa. 

Stenachroia elongella, Hmpsn. 

Hmpsn., B. J. XII, 94 fig. ; S. 1. 1., p. 421, f. 296 ; Prcc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 183. 
Has been reared in Madras from larvae on cholam ear-heads at Coim- 
batore and Hagari and at Pusa from larvae on Sorghum ear-heads and 
stems, maize cobs and marua ear-heads. A sporadic pest of these crops 
in Madras and Bihar. Apparently not known in Western or Northern 
India. 



118 PEOCEEMNGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

lirathaha sp. no v. 
Annl. Eept. 1917-18, p. 98, t. 14, ff. 2 (1918). 

Larvae were found at Pusa boriiig young coconut fruits in the bunch 
on the tree and causing the young fruits to drop off. 

Timthaha (Wlk., Cat. XXX, 961) is the Mucialla of the Fauna volume 
{IV, 5). 

A very similar species of this genus has been recorded to attack young 
coconut fruits in Fiji in a similar way and it is probable that this Indian 
species is widely distributed in India and does more damage than is at 
present suspected. Here at Pusa we are not in a coconut-growing 
district, and have only a few odd coconut palms here at all ; so we have 
little opportunity of going into this question. But those of you who work 
in coconut districts might look to see whether this insect is not present. 

Mr. Sampson was telling me some time ago about an injury to very 
tender coconuts which was very similar to that described just now. The 
young fruits had punctures in them and all such punctured fruits 
dropped down. This insect may have been responsible for the damage. 

Diatrcea saccharalis, Fb.* 
Hmpsn.,B.J.,XII,306fig. 
Recorded by Hampson from Ceylon. This is the species notorious 
as a cane-pest in America and the West Indies. It seems very doubtful 
whether it really occurs in India. 

Diatraea venosata, Wlk. 

Diatraea venosata Wlk., Cat. XXVII, 144 ; Hmpsn., P. Z. S. 
1895, 954 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 142 ; Anal. Eept, 
1917-18, pp. 90-93, t. 5. 
Diatraea striatalis, Snell., Tijds. voor Ent. XXXTV, 349, t. 19, 
ff. 1-4. 
Probably occurs everywhere in the Plains of India, the larva boring 
in sugarcane and less commonly in cereals such Sisjuar, maize and rice. 

We have specimens of the true D. venosata from Pasoeroean, Java, 
and these appear very similar to Indian examples reared at Pusa from 
sugarcane and less commonly from maize and juar stems, at Ramnad 
from sugarcane, at Jalalpur (Bombay) from sugarcane and juar stems, 
at Surat from sugarcane and maize, and at Cawnpur from juar. 

* Note. — The discussion on this and the following species of cane-borers will be found 

on pages 387 et seq. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 119 

The nomenclature of this species is doubtful. It is perhaps sacchari- 
phagus, Bojer, described from Mauritius (whither it was imported from 
Ceylon) ; if so, Bojer's name antedates those of Walker and Snellen 
(assuming that these two belong to the same species, which is also doubt- 
ful). 

Diatrcsa sp. (C. S. 1610).* 
Annl. Rept. 1917-18, pp. 90-92, t. 6. 
We have this from Sylhet, Dacca and Pabna. It is injurious to cane 
at Dacca and was sent in August 1911 from Pabna (cane). 

Diatma sp. (C. S. 1674). 

Annl. Rept. 1917-18, p. 90-92, t. 7. 

Annl. Rept. 1917-18, p. 90 [? Chilo in rice (C. S. 1768).] 
Dacca. — Injuriously prevalent in cane in July 1917. 
Pvsa. — Larva in rice-stem (C. S. 1768), once only. 

DiatrcBa aurkilia, Dudgeon. 

Chilo aurkilia, Ddgn., B. J. XVI, 405. 
Dkitrcea auricilia, Annl. Rept. 1917-18, pp. 90-92, t. 4. 
Diafrcea suppressalis, nee Wlk., Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
p. 142. 
Pusa. — The larva boring cane. This is probably the commonest 
species at Pusa and we have numerous examples from other localities 
which are probably the same but require further study before venturing 
an opinion. 

Diatrcea sp. (C. S. 1769). 
Annl. Rept. 1917-18, p. 90. 
Pusa. — Larva in Saccharum arundinaceuni, moth emerged 29, III, 
18 ; only a single specimen reared so far. 

? Diatrcea sp. (C. S. 1835). 

Pusa. — Laivae in SaccJiarum juscum, moths emerged 25, VIJI. — 
3, IX, 1918. 

Pupa with strong row of spines on aU abdominal segments. 

* Since described as Argyria tumidicosialis, Hmps. 



120 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Chilo simplex, Butl. 
S. I. I., pp. 422-424, ff. 299, 300 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 143, 174, 181 (tab.), 187, 191, 200 ; Ann. Kept. 1917-18, 
pp. 90-92, t. 3. 
Occurs everywhere throughout the Plains as a major pest of maize 
and juar, less commonly in rice and sugarcane, the larvae boring in the 
stems. 

In Western India, where seed is sown in excess and thinning practised, 
the first-attacked plants may be thumed out. 

Chilo oryzcB, n. sp. (M. S.). 
Ann. Eept. 1917-18, pp. 88-89, 90-92, t. 8 [" Rice Chilo "]. 
The larva occurs in rice at Pusa, boring stem. 

? Chilo sp. (C. S. 1795). 
[? Chilo suppressalis, Wlk.] 
Pusa ; larva in Saccharum fuscum, moth emerged 29, IV, 18 ; only 
one bred so far. 

.'' Chilo sp. (C. S. 1831). 
Pusa ; larvae in Saccharum spontaneum stem ; moths emerged 21, 
VIII— 18, IX, 18. 

Ancylolomia chrysographella, KoU. 
S. 1. 1., pp. 424-425, f. 301 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 165. 
Occurs throughout India and Ceylon as a minor pest of paddy, the 
larvae Uving ih silken tubes usually constructed at about grouud-level. 
Has been reared on paddy at Pusa, Nagpur, and in North Malabar, 
and at Pusa also on dabhi grass. The life-history has been worked out 
at Pusa and shown on a coloured plate [exhibited]. 

Specimens of moths from the Hills of Southern India and from Ceylon 
usually have the hindwings dark fuscous (form taprobanensis, Z.). 
Mr. Fletcher. Have you found it again in Madras ? 

Mr. Ramakrishna ^^ > '^^ ^^^ trouble from it only once. 

Ayyar. 

Scirpophaga xanthogastrella, Wlk. (:=auriflua, Z.). 

S. I. I., pp. 425-426, f. 302 ; Entl. Note 69 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 144. 
Mr. Fletcher. ' Occurs in most parts of the Plains of India as a pest of sugarcane, 

the larvae boring the stems. Also in shoots of Saccharum arundinaccimi. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 121 

Usually not very serious but a major pest of cane at Sindewahi, Central 
Provinces. Apparently unknown in Bombay. Our specimens are from 
Cawnpur, Saran, Chapra, Dumraon, Pusa, Sindewahi, and Hagari 
(Madras). 

Control methods include prompt cutting out of dead-hearts and collec- 
tion of egg- masses. In the Central Provinces early planting of setts 
in October-November, instead of in February-March, has been found 
eSective in mitigating attack. 

Scirfophaga monostigma, Z. 
S. 1. 1., p. 426, f . 303 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 144. 
Widely distributed in the Plains and is occasionally a minor pest of 
sugarcane but not common as a rule. Our specimens are from Pusa 
and Saran in Bihar. 

SdrpopJiaga gllviberbis, Z. 
Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 46 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 174. 
Found very commonly in paddy areas in Lower Burma where it 
will probably prove to be a specific pest of paddy. 
Specimens also from Pusa, Bengal and Assam. 

Schanobius immeritalis, Wlk. 
Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 47 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 174. 
Reared at Trivandrum, Travancore, from larvae boring in rice-plants. 
This species does not seem to have been bred othermse. It is mdely 
distributed and may prove to be a minor pest of paddy. 

Schcenohius bipundifer, Wlk. 
S. 1. 1., pp. 426-427, t. 29 ;, Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 171-174. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon as a major pest of paddy, 
the larva boring in the stem. 

This is the most important insect pest of paddy in India and Burma, 
usually destroying about ten per cent, of the total crop and doing damage 
totalling hundreds of milhons of rupees annually. The female moths 
are attracted to hght in large numbers but systematic trials of hght- 
traps have shown the inefficacy of this method as a means of control. 
The hand-picking of egg-masses and first attacked shoots is not practi- 
cable on a large scale over extensive areas, and hardly feasible in small 
plots. In districts where this can be done the growing of pulses or 



122 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL ilEETINC 



Ml. Desbpande. 



Mi. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 



shaftal under irrigation over the rice stubble helps to cheek this pest 
by rotting the rice stubble. The destruction of stubble by fire after 
harvest is probably the most efficacious control-measure that can be 
recommended at present and this should be combined with the control 
of wild grasses on field-bunds and areas adjacent to paddy lands ; this 
last measure will also be eSective against Leptocorisa. 

Our experience is that Sclicenohiiis and other borers of rice occur 
in large numbers at the time when the plants come into ear. All the 
borers put together damage rice in this district to the extent of about 
four per cent. 

At Eatnagiri our chief pest of rice is ScJioenobius and the damage 
done by this insect is about seventy-five per cent, of the crop. 

In Madras Schcenohius is our chief rice-borer and the damage during 
its worst attacks is as much as ninety per cent. 

The damage done aroimd Pusa is certainly very low but then this is 
not much of a rice-growing district. Taking the Indian Empire as a 
whole I should certainly say that Schosnobws destroys ten per cent, of 
the whole rice-crop on a general average. I consider it is far and away 
the worst pest we have so far as loss to the country is concerned. The 
loss caused by this one insect must run into several hundreds of milhons 
of rupees annually. I might also draw your attention to the interesting 
monograph on this species by Dr. T. Shiraki, issued since our last Meeting. 



Raphimetopi<s ablutella, Z. 
Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 56 ; I. I. L., p. 512, t. 47, ff. 8, 11 



Proc. 



Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 146 [Anerastia]. 
Hmpsn., P. Z. S., 1918, 78. 
Has been recorded as a cane-pest in North Bihar but is probably 
sporadic and does not seem to be known as a pest in normal years. 

Only once bred at Pusa from larva boring cane shoots (C. S. 1801). 
Old records probably refer to E. depressella. Said to have been reared 
from Cyperus rotundus. 



Saluria inficita, Wlk. 
S. 1. 1., pp. 427-428, f. 304 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 200, 201. 
Occurs commonly in ragi-stems at Coimbatore about August, the 
larvae boring low down in the stem, near the roots. Probably widely 
distributed but not yet noticed elsewhere. Also bores into tenai. 



PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 123 

Emmalocera defressella, Swinh. 

PoUjocha defressella ; Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 63, B. J. XXI, 1251. 
Polyocha saccharcUa, Ddgn., B. J. XVI, 405 ; I. I. L., p. 512, 

t. 47 ff. 7, 12, 19. 
Papua defressella ; Entl. Note 70 ; Free. Second Entl. Meeting, 

pp. 141, 145, 182. 
Emmalocera defressella, Hmpsn., P. Z. S., 1918, 128. 
Widely distributed in Northern India. We have specimens from 
Fusa, Saran, Tharsa. Jehanabad (Bengal), Cawnpux, and Lyallpur, 
in all cases bred from borers in sugarcane roots ; from Lyallpur also in 
Sorghum and maize. 

A very minor pest of sugarcane as a rule, chiefly found in roots of 
ratoon cane. Occasionally, as at Fusa in 1916 and subsequent years, 
boring into new shoots of young cane and doing considerable damage. 



Heterografhis bengalella, Kag. 

Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 70, B. J. XII, 313 ; Froc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 257. 
Recorded from Bhutan and Calcutta. 

The larva tunnels into fruits of Custard Apple {Anona squamosa) 
and occurs at Fusa about September-October, but is not common as a 
rule and can scarcely be called a pest. 

At Dacca it is a pest of custard-apple and bullock's-heart. Mr. P. C. 



Euzofhera ferticella, Eag. 
S. 1. 1., p. 428, t. 30, ff. 1-4 ; Froc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 289, 290. 

Occurs commonly throughout the Flains of India and Ceylon. We Mr. Fletcher, 
have examples from Fusa, Fenukonda (Anantapur District), Bellary, 
Coimbatore, Dharwar, Foona, Surat, Baroda and Peshawar, all bred 
from larvae boring stems of brinjal ; also from Fusa and Coimbatore, 
boring in stems of Chilli plants ; and it has also been found boring 
potato- tubers at Coimbatore and Pianclii, in stems of a wild Physalis 
at Fusa, and in tomato at Surat. 

A common pest of brinjal, often doing serious damage. 

Destruction of afiected plants or attacked portions, easily recognizable 
by the wilted appearance caused by the larva boring inside, is the only 
remedy. 



124 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



EuzopJiera puvicaella, Mo. 
Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 73; I. M. N., II, 28. 
Recorded as boring fruits of pomegranate in Balucliistan. Apparently 
not known elsewhere. No specimens in the Pusa Collection. 

EuzopJiera plunibeifasciella, Hmpsn. 
Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 73. 
Bred commonly at Pusa from bael fruits (.i:gle marmelos) and at 
Coimbatore from fruits of Wood-apple. Scarcely a pest. 
Mr. Senior-White. Id Ceylon we find a species of Euzophera in Wood-apple. 



Mr Senior-White. 



5Ir. Fletcher. 



Nephopteryx eugraphella, Rag. 
, Hmpsn., F. I., moths, IV, 77. 

Recorded by Hampson from Punjab and Calcutta, larva on cured 
tobacco [?] and Mimusops elengi. 

Pusa. — Reared in numbers on Achras sapota leaves and once on 
Mimusops. 

Neplwpteryx minutella, Rag. 

Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 81-82 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 288. 
Recorded from South India, Burma and Ceylon. 
We have specimens reared at Pusa from larv» on brinjal leaves ; 
it was bred in small numbers in August and September 1912. 
Not a pest. 
In Ceylon the larva webs together the topshoots of brinjal. 

Nephopteryx semirubella, Scop. 
Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 84-85. 
We have specimens reared at Pusa on Sij leaves (Euphorbia sp.), 
on Jatropha and on the green bark of Pcdilanthus tithynialoides, from 
Nagpur on " raubatana," from Surat on maize leaves, and from Mandalay 
on Jatropha glandulifera. According to Hampson, the larva feeds on 
Lotus, Hippocrepis, TrifoJivm, etc. 
Not a pest. 

Myelois pectin ieornelh., Hmpsn. 

Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 88-89, f. 55, B. J. XV, 29. 
Originally described from Bhutan but since found in Ceylon, where 
the larva bores in cacao pods after attack by squirrels. Also bred by 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 125 

■Green from pods of sword-bean {Canavalia ensiformis) at Peradeniya 
in July 1903. 

PJiycita infusella, Meyr. 

S. I. I., pp. 428-429, t. 31 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 100, 125, 126. 

Probably occurs throughout the Plains of India. The Pusa Collec- 
tion contains examples bred at Pusa, Surat and Lyallpui on cotton 
and at Pusa on top-shoots of Malvaslrum trkrejyidatum. Also reared in 
Madras on Hibiscus spp. 

A minor pest of cotton, the larvae sometimes doing appreciable 
damage to young shoots, especially in the Surat District. 

The affected shoots should be picked off and destroyed. 

At Surat we find it every year as a serious pest. Mr. jhaveii. 

At Pusa it is controlled by an unidentified parasite. Mr. Misra. 



Phycila clientella, Z. 
Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 94 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 288. 

Recorded from Calcutta, Bombay and Ceylon. We have specimens Mr. Fletcher, 
leared at Pusa and Hagari (Bellary District) from castor fruits and at 
Pusa from larvae rolling brinjal leaves. 

Scarcely a pest. 

Bhodofhcea heringi, Rag. 
Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 99, f. 58. 

Recorded from the Nilgiris and Ceylon, in which island the larva has 
been found destructive to foliage of ErytJiroxylon coca at Matale. We have 
specimens from Gammaduwa, Ceylon. 



Cryptoblabes ephestialis, Hmpsn. 
Hmpsn., B. J. XV, 32. 

Originally described from Matale in Ceylon. It has also been bred 
by Green from larvae in fruit-capsules of castor at Peradeniya and is 
likely to be found under similar circumstances in India. 



126 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Etiella zinckenella, Tr. 

S. I. I., p. 429, f. 305 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 44, 
(tab.), 57, 58, 60, 64, 71. 
Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, and is a destructive 
pest of sann-hemp and pulses, the larvae boring in the pods and 
devouring the seeds. Our records include : — 



Coimbatore 

Hagari 

Virar (Bombay) 

Jalalpur (Bombay) 

Mirpurkhas (Sind) 

Saharanpur 

Pusa 



Bankura . 
Amarapura (Burma) 



Horse-gram, eow-pea, red-gram and sana- 

hemp pods. 
Horse-gram pods. 
Lablab pods. 
Sann-hemp pods. 
Saidi beans. 
Pea -pods. 
Sann-hemp, Vulthi, tur, pea, khesari 

(Lathyrus sativus), sweet-pea. 
Khesari pods. 
Lablab pods. 



Macalla monciisalis, '^Ik. 
S. I. I., pp. 429-430, f. 306 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 218. 
The larva has been found webbing mango leaves and shoots and des- 
troying the young leaves at Coimbatore, Salem, Madras and Samalkota, 
also said to occur on sal in the United Provinces. It has been bred 
at Pusa on Lagerstrcemia flos-reghiCB and we have it from Nagpur also. 
A minor pest of mango. 

The webs are conspicuous and the enclosed caterpillars easily collected 
and destroyed. 

Nymphula fluduosalis, Z. 

Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 193-194, f. 115 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 165. 
Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, but has apparently 
only been bred at Taliparamba, Malabar, when it was reared from a 
pupa found on paddy. 

It is perhaps a pest of paddy, together with A", depunctalis, but has 
not been defiiiitely recorded. 

Nym.'phula depunclalis, Guen. 

S. I. I., pp. 430-431, t. 32 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 164. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, usually as a minor 

pest of paddy, sometimes serious. Said to have been bred in the 

Central Provinces from larva on leaves of garari (Lebidieropsia- 

orbicularis). 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 127 

The larvae may be controlled in some cases by spreading a film of 
oil over the water in the paddy-fields and dragging a rope or 
bamboo over the crop. 

In Mysore we have tried the kerosine treatment with success. Plants Mr. KunW Kannan. 
.should not touch the kerosinized water. 

Hifmenia fascialis, Cram. 

S. 1. 1., pp. 431-432, f. 307; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 296. 

Occurs commonly throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. We have Mr. Fletcher. 

■examples reared on Amaranthus at Pusa, Cuttack, Surat and Trivandrum ; 

at Coimbatore on Trianthyna monogyna and Silver Beet ; at Pusa on 

mangold wurzel leaves, on nmng, on Coleus and on jatadhari {Celusia 

■cristaia) leaves.; at Poona on beet ; and at Mandalay on White Beet. 

Usually a minor pest of Amaranthus, sporadically serious in gardens. 

Cmphalocrocis medinalis, Guen. 
S. I. I., p. 432, f. 308 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 166. 
Occurs commonly throughout India,' Burma and Ceylon. We have 
examples reared on paddy from Pusa, Poona, Surat, Belgaum, Palur 
and Parlakimedi (Ganjam District). 

A minor pest of paddy, sporadically rather serious. 

Marasmia venilialis, Wlk. 
Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 276, f. 167. 
Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Has been reared at 
Pusa from larvse rolling Guinea-grass leaves and on Panicum sp. 
Scarcely a pest. Probably feeds on wild grasses normally. 

Marasmia bilinealis, Hmpsn. 
Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 277. 
Occurs in Assam, the Nilgiris and Ceylon. It was bred at Peradeniya 
from larvse on rice-plants in November 1902. Not noted in India but 
Jikely to be found on paddy. 

Marasmia trapezalis, Guen. 

S. I. I., pp. 432-433, t. 33 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 149, 
180, 187, 190, 199. 
Occurs throughout India, Bxirma and Ceylon, the larva rolhng and 
feeding upon leaves of various Gramineas. 

VOL. I K 



128 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

The Pusa Collection contains examples from Pusa, on maize, sawai,. 
jimr, bajra and Jiaimi {Setaria italica), from Nagpur on jvor, from Siirat 
on maize, and from Coimbatore on sugarcane. 

A minor pest as a rule, sporadically serious. Picking of rolled leaves 
is the only practicable means of control. 

PUocrocis barcalis, Wlk. 
Hmpsn., F. I., Moths IV, 313 [Nacoleia]. 
Bred at Pusa in some numbers from larvis rolling Cassia fistula 
leaves. 

Occurs tlu-oughout India and Ceylon. 

Caprinia conchylalis, Guen. 

Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 295, f. 174. 

Distributed throughout India (except North-West), Burma and 

Ceylon. In Ceylon the larva has been found by Green at Peradeniya 

defohating Kicksia africana (Kickxia rubber), Portlandia grandiflora 

and Funtumia. 

DicJiocrocis jnmctiferalis, Guen. 

. S. I. I., p. 433, t. 34 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 37, 88, 

221, 231, 240, 294, 295. 

Occurs commonly throughout the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon. 

The larva is polyphagous, boring into various fruits, but is a specific 

pest of castor, often serious. Our records include the following localities- 

and foodplants : — 



Peradeui\'a 

North Jlalabar . 

Taliparamba (Malabar) 

Coimbatore 

Saidapet (Madras) 

Bangalore 

Poona . ' . 

Surat 

Nagpur 

Pusa 



Cacao pods, castor seed-capsules. 
Arrow-root. 
Ginger stem. 
. Turmeric stem, guava fruit. 
. 'Castor seed-capsules. 
. Mulberry fruit. 

Boring pomegranate fruits. 
. Castor seed -capsules. 

. Castor capsules, mango flowers, juar ear- 
Lead, 
. Castor seeds and seed-capsules and boring 
in castor stem, in mango flower buds, in 
ripe peach fruit, in pomegranate fruit, 
in sunflower, in ahi bokhara (Prunus 
communis), in guava fruit, and eating, 
grains in j%iar heads. 
Hopin (Upper Burma) . . In wild turmeric stems. 



Mr. Senior-White. In Ceylon it attacks Sorghum heads. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 129 

Lcmifrosema indicata, Fb. 

S. I. I., pp. 433-434; f. 309 [Nacoleia] ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 51, 57, 207 [Nacoleia]. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon as a minor pest of various ] 
pulses, etc. We have it from Saidapet on horse-gram leaves, from 
Nagpur on Chrysanthemum leaves, and from Pusa on vrid leaves, bean 
leaves, soy-bean, 7noth leaves, lucerne (rolling top-leaves), groundnut 
(pupa on leaf), snake-gourd, sann-hemp, Justicia, and Florida Beggar- 
weed (rolling leaves). 

Lamprosema diemenalis, Guen. 
S. I. I., f. 310. 

Occurs probably throughout the Plains of Central and Southern 
India, in Burma and Ceylon. It has been reared at Pusa from larvae 
rolHng Florida Beggar-weed, arhar and itrid leaves, on soy-bean leaves 
and on " chimri," but is not known as a pest. 



Sylepta derogata Fb. 

S. I. I., pp. 434-435, t. 35 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 100, 
123, 125, 130. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon as a minor pest (some- 
times serious) of cotton and other Malracece. We have examples from 
practically all districts, bred from cotton and bhindi, and it has also 
been reared at Pusa on hollyhock, Sida sp., Hibiscvs parviformis, Ahiitilon 
indicvm, CorcJwnis leaves, TJrina lohata and jatadhari {Celosia cristata). 
The larvae roll the leaves and may be hand-picked. 

Whenever cotton is introduced into Travancore, it is badly attacked Mr. Pillay. 
by Sylepta. 

At Dacca it was very bad ^n cotton last year. Hand-picking was Mr. P. C. Sen. 
done and this kept the pest in great check. It is foimd on bhindi also. 

In Cawnpur it is bad, so much so that we cannot experiment with Mr. David. 
American cottons. Even netted plants do not escape injury. 

It is bad in Bombay too, but in Khaudesh it is controlled by para- Mr. Jhaveri. 
sites. 

It is fairly easily controlled by picking off the rolled leaves or even Mr. Fletcher, 
by squashing the larvse inside the rolled leaves. 

K i 



130 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Sylepta lunalis, Guen. 
Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 339 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 235. 
Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Our examples are 
from Pusa and Shripur, Bihar, bred from larvae on grape-vine leaves and 
from Bassein Fort (moths). It also occurs on grape-vine at Coimbatore. 
A minor pest of grape-vine, the larva rolling the leaves into a funnel 
and dropping to the ground on the least disturbance. 

Margaronia negatalis, Wlk. 
Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 347 [Ghjphodes]. 
Found throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. The larva feeds on 
various species of Ficus but is not known to be a pest. 

Margaronia niarginata, Hmpsn. 

Hmpsn., F. I. IV, 348-349 [Glijphodes]. 
Hmpsn., B. J., XV, 216 [Larva]. 
Occurs throughout North-Eastern and Southern India and Ceylon. 
Has been bred at Pusa from larvae on leaves of Bombax malabaricum, 
from larvae boring galls on leaves of chatwan [Alstonia schohris). 
Not known to be a pest. 

Margaronia vertumnalis, Guen. 
Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 349 [Ghjfhodes]. 
Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Our records include 
the following locahties and foodplants : — 

Pusa ..... Gardenia florida, Taberncemontana wallichii 

and on an Apocynaceous plant. 
Sabour ..... Tabemamoniana sp, 
Mandalay .... T abcrnamordana crmm. 

Not known to be a pest. 

Blargaronia stolalis, Guen. 
Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 354 [GlypJiodes]. 
Found throughout India (? except North- West), Burma and Ceylon. 
The larva rolls leaves of various species of Ficus, but is not known to be 
a pest. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 161 

Margaronia bmtralis, Guen. 

Glyphodes bivitralis ; Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 355. 
Glyphodes alitalis, Hulst, Tr. Am. Ent. Sec. XIII, 158. 
Has been reared at Pusa in February 1915 from larvse on pods of 
arhar {Cajanvs indicus), but is not known to be a pest. We have speci- 
mens also from Peradeniya, Chapra and Lumding. Hampson describes 
the larva and gives Finis opfositifolia as a foodplant. 

In Ceylon it is bad on species of Ficvs. Mr. Senior- White. 



Marrjartmia ccesalis, Wlk. 
S. I. I., p. 435, f. 311 [Glyphodes]; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 252. 

Occurs throughout India (except North- West), Burma and Ceylon- Mr. Fletcher. 
The larva bores in the flower-buds and young fruits of jak and feeds on 
the leaves also. 

A minor pest of jak in Southern India and 



Margaronia canthitsalis, Wlk. 
Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 357. 
Common throughout India (except North- West). We have it from 
Pusa and Chapra in Bihar, and from Coimbatore where it was bred from 
larvse on Ficvs religiosa. 

Not known to be a pest, but likely to occur on Fiats spp. 



Margaronia indica, Saund. 

S. I. I., pp. 435-436, f. 312 [Glyphodes] ; Proc. Second Entl. 

Meeting, pp. 303 (tab), 307. 

Occurs abundantly everywhere in the Plains of India, Burma and 

Ceylon. The larva feeds on various cucurbitaceous plants and is a 

minor pest of such. The Pusa Collection contains examples from the 

following locahties and foodplants : — 



Coimbatc 

Surat 



Howrah 
Lyallpur 



Snake-gourd. 

Cucumber, pumpkin leaves, iiiria {Lvfja 

cBgyptiaca) leaf. 
Cucumber leaves ( = khira leaves), boring 

Luffa fruits. 
Cncurbita pepo. 
Kaddu. 



iO'J. PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Leucinodes orhonalis, Guen. 

S. I. I., p. 436, t. 30, ff. 5-9 ; Entl. Note 71 ; Proc. Second Entl, 
Meeting, pp. 286, 288. 
Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon and is a pest (sometimea 
serious) of brinjal, the larva boring in the growing topshoots, causing 
them to wilt, and in fruits. At Poona and Dharwar the larva was also 
found boring in potato shoots and at Coimbatore it was reared on Solanum 
nigrum and S. xantkocarpum. 

Crocidolomia binotalis, Z. 

S. I. I., p. 437, f. 313 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 276 
(tab), 277, 280, 282, 284. 
Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon, usually as a minor pest 
(sometimes serious) of cruciferous crops. It may be a serious pest of 
mustard, the larvse webbing and destroying the flowers and leaves of the 
whole plant and boring the pods and eating the green seeds. Our records 
include the following locahties and foodplants : — 



Peradeniya 


. Cabbage. 




Coimbatore 


. Radish (boring). 




Saidapet . 


. Radish. 




Dharwar . 


. Cabbage leaves. 




Poona 


Cabbage (a serious pest). 




Surat 


. Mustard. 




Pusa 


. Cabbage leaves, radish leaves 


, mustard' 




turnip, cress (kallm ; Lepidiu 


m sativum)- 


Lyallpur . 


. Mustard. 




Mandalay 


. Turnip. 





In Ceylon I had an extraordinary experience once when chilli plants, 
being transplanted, were attacked by this pest. 



Hellula undalis, Fb. 

S. 1. 1., pp. 437-438, f. 314 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 276 
(tab), 280, 282, 283. . 

Mr. Fletcher. Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon as a minor pest of 

cruciferous crops. We have examples from : — 



Coimbatore 
Nagpur 
Cuttack . 



Cabbage (boring bud), radish (boring). 

Knol-kohl. 

Cabbage stem and leaf. 

Cabbage, beet, cauliflower (buds and leaves), 

radish (leaves and boring) knol-kohl 

(leaves and boring). 
Cabbage, radieh. 



rilOCEEDIKGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 133 

In Egypt Hellula undalis is common with us on yoimg cabbages. Dr. Gough. 
When the damage is noticed it is too late to take any control measures. 

With us it comes late in the season on cabbage. Mr. Ghosh. 

They have a boring habit. I have seen them boring right through Mr. Ramrao. 
the heads of cabbages and it is very difficult to reach them. 

Teraslin metiadosalis, Guen. 
S. 1. 1., pp. 438-439, f. 315 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 77. 
Eecorded from Ceylon. The larva is common at Coimbatore, boring Mr. Fletcher. 
shoots of Erylhrlna indica, and may be a bad pest, checking new growth- 
Probably throughout South India. Also occurs at Poona. 

At Poona it is found damaging the shoots. Mr, Ramrao. 

Teiastia egialealis, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., Moths, IV, 381. • 

Andrews, Q. J. I. T. A., 1918, .33-34. 
Hampson gives the distribution as Dharmsala, Sikkim, Java. Mr. Fletcher. 

The larva bores into young stems and shoots of Erythrina indica in 
January at Tocklai (Assam). 

Omphisa anastomosalis, Guen. 
S. I. I., pp. 439-440, f. 316 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 292. 
Recorded from Sikkim, Khasis, Burma, Andamans, Nilgiris and 
Ceylon. Bred at Coimbatore from larva in stem of Ifomcea and has 
occasionally occurred as a pest of sweet potato, boring the main stem. 

Crocidophwa ftyophora, Hmpsn. 
Hmpsn., F. I., Moths, IV, 389, f. 210. 
Pusa. — Has been reared in small numbers from larvae rolUng leaves 
of bamboo. 

Maruca testukilis, Geyer. 
S. I. I., p. 440, t. 36 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 44, 52, 56, 60, 65. 
Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon as a pest of pulses of 
various kinds. Not noted in Bombay. In Assam the larvae have been 
found on pods of sword-bean, and at Pusa they have been bred from 
dhaincJia flowers, soy-bean, velvet-bean, tur (Cajanus itidicus) buds, 
flowers and pods, mung pods, Vigna catjang pods and cowpea pods. 
On cowpea it is sporadically a serious pest. 



134 



PEOCEEDTNGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Senior- White. It is sporadically bad in Ceylon. 

Mr. Pillay. I have bred a hymenopterous parasite from it. 

Mr. Fletcher. Collection and destruction of afTected pods effects the most practi- 

cable means of control. 

Psara hiqwnctalis, Fb. 

Paclnjzanda hifundalis, Fb. ; Hmpsn., P. Z. S., 1899, 204 ;. 

Entl. Note 72 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 288. 

Pachyzanda (pgroialis, Z., S. I. I., pp. 440-441, f. 317. 

Occurs tlirougliout India (except North-West) and Ceylon. Has 

been bred at Pusa on Alternanthera sessilis and on croton, and at Coim- 

batore on brinjal and in brinjal shoots. It does not seem to have been 

noted as attacking any crop-plant except in Southern India. 

Mr, Senior-White. ^^ Ceylon it is found on brinjal, but prefers the wild Solanvm indicum. 

( Undefermm ed Pyravstin e . ) 
Mr. Fletcl.er. Reared at Pusa in numbers from larvae rolling Amaranthis leaves. 

This was placed in the collection under Psara hifmictalis, but is distinct. 

LoTosUge massalis, Wlk. 
Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 408, f. 221 [PJilycfcBnodes]. 
Occurs throughout the Plains of India and Ceylon. The larvae have 
been found at Pusa feeding on tender top-leaves of maize, but this species- 
is not known to be a pest. 



Antigastra catalmmalis, Dup. 
S. I. I., p. 441, t. 37 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeeting, p. 84. 
Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon as a regular minor 
and occasional major pest of Sesammn indicmn {til ; gingelly), the larva 
rolling and webbing the leaves and boring in the shoots and pods. We 
have it, reared on Sesamicm, from practically all districts. 

Noorda hlitealis, Wlk. 
S. I. I., pp. 441-442, f. 318 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 229. 
Occurs throughout the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon as a very 
minor pest of Moringa, the larva attacking the leaves, shoots and small 
pods. We have it from Hagari (Bellary District) on Moringa, from 
Nagpur on " Munga " [probably intended for Moringa], and moths; 
from Puasa nd from Myingyan, Upper Burma. 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 135 

Metasia coniotalis, Hmpsn. 

Hmpsn., B. J., XV, 220 ; I. I. L., p. 520, t. 52, ff. 1-4 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 293. 
Recorded from Tibet, Kashmir, Simla, Ferozepur and Pusa. At 
Pusa it was found as a pest in March 1907, the larvae boring into sweet- 
potato tubers underground. It has not since been noted to do damage 
although moths occurred in July 1910 and March 1915. 

Hafalia jenugalis, Hb. 

Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 422-423, f. 234 [Pioma]. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Reared at Pusa from 
ISrvse on cabbage, violet, and h'kravnda [Bhimea halsamijera). 
Not a pest. 

Pyravsta macliccralis, Wlk. 
S. I. I., pp. 442-443, f. 319. 
Occurs commonly throughout the Plains as a pest of teak. We have 
it from Darjiling, Pusa and Nagpur on teak and it has also been reared 
at Pusa on Plvmeria acvii folia. 

Pyravsta nubihlis, Hb. 
Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 435. 
Thi.s species is recorded from the North- West Himalayas, Sikkim, 
Khasis and Manipur. In Russia it has been recorded (Rome Bull., Dec. 
1912, pp. 2767-2768), under the name silacealis, Hb. (quoted as a synonym 
of mibilalis in the " Fauna " volume), as very injurious to maize, hemp 
and millet. It may therefore be expected to occur as a pest of cereals 
in the montane districts of Northern India, but has notyet been recorded 
as a pest in India. 

Pyrausta nuhilalis occurs in Egypt, but we do not know it as a pest Dr. Gough. 
there. 

Pyrausta coelesalis, Wlk. 
Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 441, f. 235. 
Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon as a minor pest of 
bamboo, the larva rolling the leaves. We have it, reared from larvae * 
on bamboo, from Coimbatore, Poona, Nagpur and Pusa, and at Pusa 
it has also been reared on sugarcane. 



136 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Pl/rausta bambucivora, Mo. 
Hmpsn., F. I., IV, 442. 
Recorded from the Khasis, Jubbulpur and Ceylon. The larva " lives 
in rolled-up leaves of bamboo " (Hampson). 
Not known to be a pest. 

[ ( Undetermined Pyral id . ) 
There is another Pyralid which is very bad on cultivated chrysan- 
themums in the Madura district. 
Possibly it is Hapalia ferrugalis.] 

Pterophorid.^. 
DiacrotricJia fasciola, Z. 
Pusa. — Larva, AverrJioa carambola. Bores into flowers and destroys 
them. 

Galle. — Larva, AverrJioa bilimbi. Bores into flowers and destroys 
them. 

Sphenarches caffer, Z. 

S. L I., pp. 44.3-444, f. 320 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 44, 
56, 306 (tab.). 
Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon as a minor pest of cucur- 
bits and pulses. The larva is polyphagous and feeds on various wild 
plants, e.g., Biojyhytum sensilivum. The Pusa Collection contains 
examples from the following localities and foodplants : — ■ 

. Labial [also on bottle-gourd]. 

White gourd. 

Kaddu (bottle gourd) leaves, Cajanus 
indiciis pods, Hibiscris mnlahilis petals. 
. Luffii buds. 

Kaddu. 
. Kaddu. 



Coimbatore 
Surat 



Allahabad 
Cawnpur . 
Lyallpur . 



Has also been reared at Galle fi'om larvae on flowers of Averrhoa 
bilimbi. 

At Matale I have reared it fi'om larvse on young shoots of cacao and 
on cultivated Geranium flowers. 



lus laducce, Fletcher MS. 
Reared in small numbers on lettuce at Dehra Dun by Mr. Ollenbach 
in October 1906. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 137 

Exelasiis atomosa, Wlsm. 

S. 1. 1., pp. 444-445, t. 38 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 44, 56. 

Occurs throughout Madras, Bombay, Baroda, the Central Provinces 

and Bihar. I have not seen any specimens from Northern India, Assam, 

Burma or Ceylon (previous records from Ceylon ^jrobably all refer to 

E. phlyctanias, Meyr.). 

An important pest of Cajanus indicus and DolicJios lablab, the larva 
eating the flower-buds and flowers and boring into the pods and devouring 
the seeds. 

In the Sholapur District control is practised by shaking the plants 
over baskets and a small proportion of larvae and pupae is collected in 
this way. 

Plerophorus lienigianus, Z. 
S. I. I., p. 445, f. 322 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 288. 
Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Has been reared 
on brinjal at Coimbatore and in the Godavari District but is scarcely 
a pest. We have moths also from Ootacamund, Peshawar, Maymyo, 
Shillong, and Bankipur, and it has been reared at Pusa on leaves of 
" Khagra." [" Khagra " is given in Watt's Dictionary as Saccharum 
spontaneum, but this seems unlikely.] 

PSYCHID^. 

MaJiasena graminivora, Hmpsn. 

Hmpsn., T. E. S., 1895, 286; F. I., IV, 472-473 ; I. M. N., IV, 
18-19,t.3,ff.la-c. 
Originally described from Calcutta as destructive to thatching grass. 
Occasionally occurs on paddy in some numbers as a minor pest in Bihar, 
Orissa and Bengal. We have it, reared from larvae on Saccharum sponta- 
neum, from Pusa and Mukhtapur in North Bihar. 

MaJiasena theivora, Ddgn. 

Acanthopsyche {Metisa) theivora, Ddgn., B. J., XVI, 400 fig. 

Mahasena theivora, Hmpsn., B. J., XX, 96-97. 
Occurs in Sikkim, the larva on tea in a case composed of fragments 
and whole leaves attached to a rather soft case. Apparently not a 
pest. 



138 rROCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRU ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

CJania crameri, Westwd. 

S. I. I., p. 448, f. 325; Pioo. Second Eiitl. Meeting, pp. 19. 87,274. 

Occurs commonly in the Plains of India, usually on Acacia arabica 

and sometimes on castor. Dudgeon (B. J. XII, 643) records the larva 

on tea and it is said to be a destructive pest of tea in Assam, where it is 

controlled by hand-picking. 

Clanin destructor, Ddgn. 
Mahasena destructor, Ddgn., B. J., XVI, 401 fig. 
Clania destructor, Hmpsn., B. J., XX, 95. 
Dudgeon states that this is the most destructive tea Psychid in the 
Darjiliug and Terai Districts, often qpnfounded with C. crameri but 
distinguished " by the forewing wanting red markings and by the posi- 
tion of the elongate pale marginal or submarginal spot, a conspicuous 
one filling the the whole fork between veins 4 and 5 in crameri, whereas 
destructor has the largest conspicuous pale spot between veins 3 and 4 
and has only a marginal speck between veins 4 and 5." Also a pest of 
tea in Chittagong. Known to occur in Sikkim, Bhutan, Chittagong and 
Borneo. 

Clania antrami, Hmpsn. 

Hmpsn., B. J., XX, 96. 
Recorded from Cachar. Larva on tea in a case covered with frag- 
ments of dry leaves. 

Acanthopsyche bipars, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 293, "f. 202. 
The larva has been recorded as a tea-pest in Sikkim (B. J., XII, 644). 
Also known from Bombay. Also found ueding on apple leaves at 
Shillong. 

Acanthopsyche (Brachycyttarus) subteralbata, Hmpsn. 

Hmpsn., 111. Het. IX, t. 159, f. 23 (male), t. 176, f. 12 (case), 
F. I.. I, 295, B. J., XI, 284. 
The larva has been recorded as destructive to tea in Chittagong. 
Originally described from Colombo. 

Psyche vitrea, Hmpsn. 
Hmpsn., F. I., I, 299. 
We have a single specimen reared on mango leaves at Bakerganj in 
February 1906. Probably not a pest at all, but most Psychids are liable 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 139 

to occur sporadically in large numbers and to do damage when they 
feed on leaves. 

Manatha scotopepla, Hmpsn. 
Hmpsn., B. J., XX, 96. 
Has been recorded from Cachar, the larva on tea in a case covered 
with scales of bark. 

{Psychid — on Palms.) 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 263. 

We have specimens of an unnamed Psychid reared from larvae sent 

in June 1910, as destructive to palms in Calcutta. Larvae were also 

noticed as destructive to ornamental palms in Calcutta in September 

1916. 

In the case of 'small ornamental plants, the larval cases are easily 
seen and picked off. In the case of large trees, spraying with a stomach- 
poison, such as Lead Arsenate, may be done. 

(Psychid — on Orange.) 

A second unnamed Psychid was reared at Pusa in April 1913 from 
larvae feeding on orange twigs. Scarcely a pest as a rule. 

{Psychid — on Rose.) 
Sent in by Superintendent of the Gardens, Fyzabad, as feeding on 
rose in 1918. 

[( Undetermined Psychids.) 
We get two more Psychids, one on Achras sapota and the other on Mi. Ramakrishna 
castor. The former is very bad but the latter appears only sporadically.] Ayyar. 



Hetenma magnifica, Butl. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 261 ; B. J. XVIII, 431 tab.; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, pp. 19-20. 
A sporadic pest of tea in the Duars and 'Assam. Infested patches of Mr. Fletcher, 
bushes may be isolated by means of lines of fresh wood-ashes, which 
the larvae will not cross ; but of course in wet weather this method is 
ineffective. 



140 PHOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Helerusia edocla, Doubl. 
Hmpsn., F. I., I, 261, B. J., XII, 298. 
The larva occurs on tea, as a sporadic pest, iu Assam, Sikkiin and 
Cachar. 

Antram (B. J., XVIII, 431) suggests that this species is identical 
with magnifica. 

Heterusia virescens, Butl. 

S. 1. 1., pp. 448-449, f. 326 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 19-20. 
A sporadic pest of tea in the Nilgiris and Wynaad. 

Soritia leptalina, KoU. 

Hmpsn., F. I., 1, 252, f. 168. 

The larva occurs on rose, tea, etc., in Sylhet {B: J. XII, 296). We 

have specimens from Dungagah (Hazara District), Masuri, Darjiling, 

Khasis and Ma}anyo and also one specimen labelled " Pusa " [probably 

by error]. Also on apple at Shillong in some numbers. 

Zeuzerice. 
Zeuzera coffew, Nietn. 
S. I. I., p. 446, f. 323 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 21, 34, 121. 
Occurs in most parts of India and has been recorded from Sikkim, 
the Naga Hills, Rangoon, Nilgiris and Ceylon. In Assam the larva is 
said to be a bad pest of tea, boring the stems and branches, and is con- 
trolled by cutting back the affected parts. In Southern India the larva 
attacks tea and coffee bushes and seems to be not uncommon in cofEee- 
bushes. In Burma the larva has been found boring cotton plants. 

Phragmatcecia sp. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 152. 
Has been reared at Pusa from larvae boring in stems of Saccharum 
siyontaneum. Not known to be a pest. 

Azijgophleps scalaris, Fb. 
S. 1. 1., pp. 446-447, f. 324 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 73, 75, 76. 

Occurs in the Plains of Southern India and Burma as a pest of agathi 
(Sesbania grandiflora), dhaincha (S. aculeata), and chithagathi {S. 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 141 

cegijptiaca). We have examples reared from agathi at Hagari and 
Nandyal, and from cf/ia/«c/(nat Palur, Ciittack, PusaandMaiidalay. 



Teragrid.e = Aebelid.e. 
" Arbela " tetraonis, Mo. 

S. I. I., pp. 453-454, t, 41 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 211, 

227, 230, 231, 244, 252, 254. 

Widely distributed in the Plains, the larva boring into various trees 

and feeding on the bark under cover of a gallery composed of silk and 

fragments of -wood. Our records include the following localities and 

foodplants : — 

Coimbatore .... 3Ioringa. 

Bangalore .... Orange-, rose. 

Poona ..... Citrus. 

Nagpur • Orange, [a serious pest ; perhaps really 

quadrinotaia.^ 
Pusa ..... Mango, Zizyphus jujiila, Eugenia jambo- 

lana, Phtjllanthus emblica, litchi. 

Note. — The closely allied A. quadrinolata (F. I., I, 315, f. 215) has been recorded as 
tunnelling in the angles of cacao branches in Ceylon and it is probable that some of the 
Indian records also refer to quadrinolata. We have quadrinolata from Dharwar and from 
Coimbatore, where it bores in stems of the Rain Tree (Pithecolobium soman). 

In one garden we poured petrol in the galleries and found this treat- jjj Kjjare 
ment quite successful. 

At Poona we tried spraying with Paris Green, using twice the usual ^r- Ramrao. 
strength after removing the webbing. We noticed that several cater- 
pillars died when they came out at night to feed on the bark. The trees 
treated were those of Bassia latijolia on the roadside and the treatment 
was quite successful. 

What time of the day do you spray ? Jyyf/"'^''"'^* 

You can spray at any time. The larva comes out at night, feeds on Mr. Ramrao. 
the bark and dies. 

How high do you find the larvse in the trees ? Mr. Fletcher. 

Whole stems up to twenty feet from the ground were covered Mr. Ramrao. 
with webbing. This webbing was brushed off before spraying. 



" Arbela " dea, Swinh. 
Hmpsn., F. I., I, 315 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 22. 
The larva has been recorded as eating tea bark in Sylhet and Cachar. 



142 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIUD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

" Arbela " iheivora, Hrnpsn. 
Hmpsn., B. J. XX, 97, t. G. f. 1. 
Occurs in Assam. The " larva bores in the bark of tea and the smaller 
branches of mango, feeding under a web." 



CossiD^. 

Cossus cadamhcB, Mo. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 306, f. 209. 

Described from Calcutta. Fairly common in Bihar, the larva boring 

in stems of Ficus spp. (? and mango), usually in old trees and probably 

doing little damage. 

Duomitus cemmicus, Wlk. 
Hmpsn., F. I., I, 307. 
Said to attack Fig trees of many species in Western India (B. J. 
XXIII, 765), but this is probably an error for leuconotus. Stebbing 
(Indian Forest Insects, Coleoptera, p. 14) says that the larva feeds on the 
bast of teak, tunnelling into the wood to pupate and thus ruining it for 
timber purposes. 

We have no specimens in the Pusa Collection, and it is probably 
confined to Burma. 

Duomitus leuconotus, Wlk. 

Hmpsn., F. I., I, 308, f. 219. 

Recorded from Simla, Sikkim, Calcutta and Ceylon. We have this 

from Belgaum and Belgachia. The larva bores in various trees and may 

do considerable damage. It was found boring Cassia fistula at Rangoon. 

Duomitus mineus, Cram. 
Hmpsn., F. I., I, 309. 
Widely distributed in India and recorded from Sikkim, Sylhet, Calcutta 
andGanjam. We have moths from Pusa and Chapra, in North Bihar, but 
this insect does not seem to be common. The larva does not appear to 
have been noted but will probably turn out to be a pest owing to its 
large size. 

[Duomitus sp. 
We have a caterpillar of a species of Duomitus which damages the 
main stem of Cassia in the Nilgiris.] 



peoceedin&s of the third entomological meetinu 143 
Carposinid.*:. 
Meridarchis scyrodes, Meyr. 

Meyr. Exot. Micr. II, 30 (1916) ; Eatl. Note 74; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 254. 
The larva has been found at Pusa, Surat, Nagpur and Coimbatore Mr. Fletcher. 
boring the fruits of ber (Zizyphus jujuba). 
Status doubtful ; probably scarcely a pest. 

Meridarchis re probata, Meyr. 
Reared at Nagpur and Surat in fruits of Eugenia jambolana. It has 
also been sent in to us from Kashmir as boring and damaging cultivated 
ohve fruits. 

Phaloniad^. 
Clysia ambiguella, Hb. 
This insect is well-known in Europe as an injurious pest of the grape- 
vane, the larva feeding in the flower-buds. It occurs in the Hills of 
Assam and Burma, but has not been recorded as a pest in India, although 
it will probably prove to be so as cultivation extends in these Hill tracts. 

TOKTEICID.!. 

Capua invalidana, Wlk. 
Wlk., Cat. XXVIII, 327 (1863) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 300. 
Bred at Nagpur in December 1915 from larvae on leaves of Piper 
betle (J. L. Khare). 

May be a local minor pest. Also occurs in Ceylon. 

Homona coffearia, Nietn. 

S. 1. 1., pp. 452-453, f. 330 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 20-28. 

Said to occur in the Tea Districts of Southern India.* but the only 
specimens I have actually seen were collected by myself at PoUibitta, 
in South Coorg, amongst cofl'ee, and reared on Lantana by Y. Ra- 
chandra Rao at Kallar and Sidapur. It is, of course, a well-known pest 
of tea in Ceylon. Also said to occur in the Assam Tea-districts, but I 
have seen no specimens from Assam. 

* See also Laspeyresia leucosloma (page 147). 



Mr. Senior- White. 



Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. Andrews. 
Mr. senior- White. 
Mr. Andrews. 



144 PHOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

It is a bad pest of tea in Ceylon, so much so tliat one of our entomolo- 
gists, Mr. Jardine, has been working especially on this insect and has 
recently issued a Bulletin on it. 

No Bulletin on Homona coffearia has been received at Pusa as yet. 

Have j'ou noticed any efiect on three years' pruning ? 

None. There seem to be three species concerned in the attack. 

Homona coffearia occurs occasionally in Assam and almost invariably 
on the new flush which comes up after the plants have been cut back. 

Caccecia micaceana, Wlk. 
Wlk., Cat. XXVIII, 314 (1863). 
Bred at Mandalay in January 1909 by K. D. Shroff, from larvse found 
on broad bean and on guava. We have also moths from Minbu, in 
Lower Burma, and from Peshawar. 
Not known to be a pest. 

Caccecia epicyria, Meyr. 
We have specimens from the following localities and foodplants : — 
Madulsima (Ceylon). 
Coimbatore, larva on green cliilhes, Duranta shoots, webbing 

Lantana flowers. 
Shevaroys, larva on Lantana flowers. 
Palnis. 

Bangalore, larva on Lantana. 
Sidapur, larva on Lantana fruits. 
Solan, larva on orange leaf. • 
Pusa, larva boring guava fruit. 
Darjihng. 

EUCOSMID^. 

Sfilonota rliothia, Meyr. 
Meyr., T. E. S., 1910, 368. 
Probably widely distributed in the Plains of India. The larva rolls 
young leaves of guava, Eugenia jambolana and mango, but is not a pest. 
We have it from Pusa on guava and Eugenia, from Koilpatti (Madras) 
on tender mango leaves, and from Coimbatore. 



Ancylis lutescens, Meyr. 
Meyr., Exot. Micr. I, 32 (1912). 
The larva rolls tender leaves of Zizyplius jvyuha fairly commonly 
Pusa and has once been found boring in the fruit. Scarcely a pest. 



TEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 145 

Eucosma critica, Meyr. 

Eucelis critica, S. I. I., p. 450, t. 39 ; Proo. Second Meeting, 

pp. 12, 42. 
Eucosma ludicra, Meyr., B. J., XXI, 867, Exot. Micr. II, 19 

(1916). 
Eucosma tricliocrossa, Meyr., Exot. Micr. I, 563-564 ; Entl. 
Note 76, {Laspeyresia.'] 
Originally described from specimens reared from larvae in spim-up 
«hoots of Cajanus indicus at Surat. Said to occur at Poona as a minor 
pest and in the Central Provinces on young plants. The larvae have been 
found at Pusa boring the pods and eating the seeds of arhar (Cajanus 
iiidicus) in April and May and also on the flower-buds and top-leaves. 
Also at Coimbatore on Cajanus indicus. 

Kemoval of affected top-shoots should provide control. 

Eucosma melanaula, Meyr. 
Meyr., Exot. Micr. II, 17-18 (1916). 

Bred at Coimbatore, 3rd March 1915, from a larva on green-gram 
pods. Also reared at Pusa, 4th March 1913, from flower of Cajanus 
indicus ; 11th October 1907, from top-shoots of urid ; 30th June 1911, 
frotn mung pod. Since found at Pusa in numbers boring top-shoots 
of Phaseolus aconitifolius and Florida Begger-weed and in mung flowers 
and pods. We have also moths collected at Pusa in .January-March, 
and it is also known from the Khasi Hills. 

Probably widely distributed but hitherto mixed up with Eucosma 
£ritica. 

Eucosma zelota, Meyr. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 264. 
Has been found at Abbottabad, where the larvae spin and bunch 
together young rose leaves. A garden pest. 

Lohesia ceolopa, Meyr. 
Meyr., B. J., XVII, 976. 
Tliis species has been bred in Ceylon from Cajanus indicus. It is 
commonly and widely chstributed in India and Burma and has been 
reared in India from Lantana flower heads and from castor. Also recorded 
from Reunion and Cape Colony. 
Not known as a pest. 

l2 



l46 PROCEEDI.N'GS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING- 

Argyroploce illepida, Butl. 
S. 1. 1., pp. 449-450, f. 327 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 230,234, 2.57. 
Widely distributed in the Plains of India and Ceylon, the larva boring- 
in various fruits and seeds. Oiu: records include the following localities 
and foodplants : — 

Coimbatore .... Agathi pods, Acacia arabica seeds. 
Surat ..... Fleshy substance of wood-apple. 

Puga ..... Bael fruit. Cassia fistula pod, litchi fruits 

and seeds, dkaincha pods. 



Argyroploce aprobola, Meyr. 

Meyr., T. E. S. 1886. 27-5 [Eccopsis]; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 219, 230, 267. 
Widely distributed throughout the Plains. The larva is a very minor 
pest of mango and litchi, rolling the leaves, but is polyphagons. It 
has been reared at Coimbatore from larva boring rose-bud, at Poona 
and Bassein Fort on mango, at Pusa on mango, rose, and Utchi leaves, 
rose flower, Cassia tora and Polyalthia longifoUa leaves, and at Kallar 
on Lantana. It is also said to have been reared on DahUa at Nagpur,. 
but this record requires confirmation. 



Argyroploce erotias, Meyr. 

MevT.. B. J. XVI 584-585 (1905) [Platypejilus] ; Entl. Note 75 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting p. 219. 
The lai-va has been found at Pusa rolling tender mango leaves and 
feeding on them ; also reared in Bombay from larva boring in mango 
shoots. At Pusa it has also been reared from larva rolling Loranthus 
leaves [probably on mango] and from a larva webbing Cynoglossum 
leaves. Also occurs in Ceylon. 



Argyroploce leucaspis, Meyr. 

Meyr., Gardiner's Fauna Geogr. Maldives I 126 (1902) 

[Eiicosina] ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 229. 

Has been bred at Pusa in some numbers from larvse rolling litchi 

leaves but is scarcely a pest. Also reared at Nagpur from larva on 

"kamji" (1 Malva sylveslris) [perhaps error in labelling]. We also- 

have moths from Kandy and the Khasi Hills. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 147 

Argyroploce paragramma, Meyr. 

Report of Impl. Entom. 1917-18, p. 102, t. 17 ff. 1 a-d (1918). 

The larvae are! common at Pusa in July and August boring into 
new shoots of bamboo, completely hidden under the protection of the 
leaf-sheaths. They seem to damage the young shoots to some extent. 

I took a moth at Gauhati in May 1918, so that this species is pro- 
bably widely distributed in the Plains. 



La.speyresia hemidoxa, Meyr. 
Meyr., B. J. XVHI 145; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 300. 
A single specimen was reared on 2nd August 1909 fi'om a larva 
found boring in pepper-vine shoots at Tahparamba, Malabar. 
The species is otherwise only known from the Khasi Hills. 



Laspeyresia leucostovw, Meyr. 
Meyr., B. J. XXI 876 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 20. 
Larvae were found at Hillgrove, Nilgiris, in May 1915, in some num- 
bers, rolling tea leaves. Also from Munaar rolling tea leaves. 

The species is also known from Ceylon (MaskeHya), the Palnis and 
Khasis, and occurs in 



Laspeyresia tricentra, Meyr. 

S. I. I. p. 451 t. 40 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 70. 

The Pusa Collection contains moths from Surat, Bassein Fort and 

the Shevaroy Hills. Also reared at Coimbatore from larvae in cow-pea 

pods. This species apparently accompanies L. pseudonectis as a pest 

of Crotdaria in Western (and Southern ?) India. 

Laspeyresia pseudonectis, Meyr. 
Meyr., B. J. XVIII 146-1—7; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 69/ 
Widely distributed in the Plains of India as a pest of sann-hemp 
(Crotalaria juncea), the larva tunnelling in the stem and webbing top- 
shoots. Originally recorded from Surat. We have examples, bred 
from larvae in saim-hemp stems, from Pusa and Coimbatore. Also ' 
moths from Peshawar. 



148 



PEOCEEDINtiS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Laspeyresia torodelia, Meyr. 
S. 1. 1, p. 451, f. 329 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 5G. 
Apparently confined to Southern India, where it is a minor pest of 
DolicJios labJab, the larva boring into the shoots, especially of young 
The affected top-shoots may be picked off. 



Dr. Gougb. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Dr. Gough. 

Mr. Senior-White. 



Dr. Gough, 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Laspeyresia pomoneJh. Linn. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 249. 

This insect, the notorious Codling moth of Europe, North America 

and Australia, has been recorded from Dras Ladak (7,000 feet) in Kashmir, 

but I have as yet been unable to obtain any evidence of its occurrence 

in any apple-growing districts in India. 

I have found this insect in Syria and the Greek islands and also in 
South Africa. These places are worth guarding against in India. But 
we do not find it in Egypt. 

It occurs also in Australia and there is some importation of Australian 
apples into India and I think, Ceylon also. There is some danger of 
the importation of this insect with fruit but it is probably very sUght 
as there is little chance of this infected fruit being sent to any of our 
apple-grcwing districts. 

It might be brought in from the Levant. 

Is it a specific pest of apples ? If it has any alternative foodplaut, 
it may crop up in Ceylon. 

It occurs principally in apples and pears but attacks many other 
fruits also. It is a very bad pest in apple-growing districts. In America 
it causes a loss of two to three million sterling a year, what with damage 
and control. We do not want to get it in India. 

Does it occur in quince ? 

In America it has been found in fruits of peach, prune, plum, cherry, 
quince and apricot. 

[ Un iden t ified Tortricid. ] 
Whilst discussing Laspieyresia pomoneUa, I may mention that when 
I was in Kumaon last year I found a Tortricid larva boring into apple 
fruits. It was said to be common at Ramgarh in one orchard but I 
was only able to secure one larva, which was brought back to Pusa but 
which we were unable to rear out. I cannot therefore say definitely 
what this is, but I had a drawing made of the larva and the arrange- 
ment of the tubercles is different to that foimd in pmnonella and so we 
may presume that it is not pomonella although the type of damage done 
is almost exactly similar. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING li\) 

Laspeyresia ptychora, Mep-. 

Meyr., B. J. XVIII 147. 

Reared at Coimbatore in February 1915 from larva on pods of 

Cajanus indicia. Also known from North Coorg, Queensland and 

South Africa ; in Rhodesia it has been reared from larvae feeding in 

pods of Vigna sinensis. 

COSMOPTERYGID^. 

Anatrachyntis simplex, Wlsm. (coriacella, Snell.) 
S. I. I. pp. 458-459 f. 334 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 114. 
Occurs throughout the Plains of India and Burma. Has been 
reared in some numbers from cotton-bolls at Pusa, Coimbatore, Chidam- 
baram (Madras), Shibpur Farm (Bengal) and Surat, and more occasion- 
ally from cotton-leaves at Pusa, from maize cobs and stem of Capparis 
diversifolia at Coimbatore, from mango inflorescence at Pusa, from 
p'alas lac in Berar, from a rotten pomegranate at Gobichettipalayam 
(Madras), from rotten bamboo stalk (Pusa), juar ear-heads (Pusa), dry 
Vigna catjang pods (Pusa). 

It seems rather doubtful how far this is a pest of cotton bolls and 
seeds. Perhaps it occurs only on dried-up bolls and leaves. At present 
it appears to be a general feeder on dry vegetable refuse and hardly a 
pest. 

Anatrachyntis JalcateUa, Stt. 

Gracilaria ? falmtella, Stainton, T. E. S. (n.s.) V 121 (1859). 
Pyroderces spodochtha, Meyr., B. J. XVI 607 (1905). 
Anatrachyntis falcatella, Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 114. 
Has been bred in small numbers at Pusa from larvae on cotton shoots 
" on Dactylopius on cotton " [probably eating the dried dead scales], 
and from a rotten pomegranate at Gobichettipalayam (Madras). Has 
also been bred from lac. 

Probably a rubbish-feeder and not a pest. 

Anataractis plumigera, Meyr. 

Meyr., Exot., Micr. I. 565-566 ; Entl. Note 83 ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 81. 
Reared at Pusa and Coimbatore from larvae feeding in galls produced 
in stem of Indigofera. 

Not known to be a pest. 



150 PEOCEEOINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Pyroderces semicoccinea, Stt. 
Cosmopieryx 1 scmicoccinea, Stainton, T. E. S. (n. s.) V, 123 (1859). 
Bred at Pusa from galls in stems of tur {Cajamis indicus), but other 
moths, including Phycitines, were also bred from these stems, and this 
species was perhaps only a scavenger. 

Pyroderces albilineeUa, van Dev. 
Has been reared at Coimbatore from indigo pods in some numbers. 
Also from Virajpet (S. Coorg). 

Pyroderces promacha., Meyr. 

Pyroderces promacha, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc, N. S. W. 1897. 351. 

Said by Lefroy {Indian Insect Life, p. 536) to have been " reared 
from a leaf-mining larva found in Phaseolus mungo ; the orange larva 
pupates in a thin cocoon of white silk.'' This is probably an error, the 
leaf-miner being perhaps Cypliosticlia ccerulea. P. prmnacha seems to be 
a nibbish-feeder and is not a pest, so far as is known. We have it from 
Pusa, Coimbatore and Peshawar. 

Cosmopteryx bambusce, Meyr. 
The larva mines blotches in bamboo leaves at Pusa. It is scarcely 
a pest. 

Cosmopteryx phceogastra, Meyr. 
Has been reared at Pusa in some numbers from larvee mining bean 
leaves, butis not a pest. 

Gelechiad^. 

Sitotroga cereaJella, Oliv. 

S. 1. 1, p. 456, f. 331 ; Entl. Note 79 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 183. 

Occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon. Usually a pest of 

stored grains but also occurs in the field on ripe ears of paddy, cholam, 

etc. 

Phthorimcea JieUopa, Low. 

S. I. I. pp. 454-455 t. 43 [GnorMoscJiema'] ; Entl. Note 81 ; 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 272. 

Occurs throughout the Plains of India (except North-West) and 

Ceylon as a minor (major in some districts) pest of tobacco, the larva 

boring in the stems. We have records from Hanguranketa (Ceylon), 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 151 

Coim'batore, Shevaroy Hills, Hagari, Penukonda (Anantapur District), 
Iharsa, Gujaiat, Anand District. Piisa and Rangpur. 

Control is best effected by removal and burning of all attacked plants 
in nurseries and by careful cleaning up of all stumps and stray plants 
after harvest. Slitting the galls with a knife is useless as a rule as it is 
only by' chance that the larva is killed in this way. 

It is an important pest in some districts of the Madras Presidency. Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 

It is a bad pest in Gujarat also. Mr. Jhaveri. 

In the hnJcas [islands in the Godavari delta] there is a lot of tobacco Mr. Ramakrishna 
cultivation. This pest occurs chiefly in the seed beds. The cultivators Ayyar. 
recognize the attacked plants and these are not transplanted but are 
collected and (Jestroyed. 

How are these young attacked plants recognized ? Mr. Fletcher. 

The leaves fade and the characteristic swelling is seen on the tender Mr. Ramakrishna 
stem. Ayyar. 

Do not these islands go under water in flood time ? Mr. Fletcher. 

Tobacco is grown only during the cold weather and the land is then Mr. Ramakrishna 
irrigated. These islands go under water very rarely and then silt is Ayyar. 
deposited and makes the soil very fertile. 

We have tried making slits in the affected plants to kill the cater- Mr. Jhaveri. 
pillars but it has not been found successful as there may be several 
caterpillars in one plant. We find the pest present right up to the 
harvesting-time and then it remains in the stubble. The removal and 
destruction of the stubble has been found very useful. 

We also find it in the stubble. Has it been found in any other plant ? Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 

It is only known from tobacco so far. Mr. Fletcher. 

It is a regular pest of tobacco, but is not found in the nurseries at Mr. Misra. 
Pusa. 

The cultivators reject the seedlings if they find a swelling on the Mr. Ghosh, 
stem. 

Tobacco is a very thin crop and if at the time of transplanting a Mr. Misra. 
swelhng comes up, the cultivator takes out the grub and kills it. 

Very probably they reject the seedlings. Mr. Ghosh. 

In Gujarat also they reject the afl^ected seedlings. Mr. Jhaveri. 

The stem is also used for smoking and therefore it is not thrown Mr. Misra. 
away. 

As far as my experience goes the swelhng stunts the growth of the Mr. Ramrao. 
plant and, if once the swelling comes up, the plant is useless, whether 
you cut open the swelhng and kill the grub or not. 

The plant is useless, but not quite so. Mr. Misra. 



Mr. Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 



152 



PROCEEDIXG: 



THIRD EXTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



PhtJiorimtea blapsigona, Meyr. 
Meyr., Exot. Micr. I, 569 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 288. 
Has been reared at Coimbatore, Saidapet and Nagpur from larvae 
boring and feeding in flower-buds of brinjal. Probably widely distributed 
in the Plains as a minor pest of brinjal. 

Five per cent, of brinjal buds are attacked by this insect. 



PhthorwiCEci operculella, Z. 

S. 1. 1, p. 455, t. 44 ; Entl. Note 77 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting. 
pp. 286, 288. 
Mr. Fletcher. Introduced with potatoes into Bombay, this moth has spread until 

it is now found in 2)ractically all parts of India. It is a serious pest 

of stored potatoes and the larvae were found at Dharwar mining leaves 

of brinjal. It is likely to be found as a leaf-miner in tobacco plants. 
Dr. Gough. In Egypt it was introduced by the mihtary authorities, but with us 

it remained restricted to the plants in the field. We store no potatoes 

in summer, so it died out again. 
Mr. Ramrao. We find it attacking the crop whilst it is still standing in the field. 

The larvae work as leaf-miners to begin with and later on attack the 

tubers. 
Mr. Kunhi Kannan. It is very rare in the tubers in Mysore. 
Mr. Ramrao. When there is a break in the monsoon, the soil cracks and the larvae 

get down into the cracks and attack the tubers. 

(See also page 76-3.) 

Phthorimcea ergasima, Meyr. 
Meyr. Exot. Micr. I. 568-569 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 288. 
Kr FletcCer. The larvae mme brinjal leaves at Pusa in February and March. 

Probably widely distributed in the Plains as a minor pest. 



Stoinopleryx nerferia, Meyr. 

S. I. I. pp. 457-458 f. 333 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 43, 47. 1>2. 
[Aprocerema. ] 

Widely distributed in most parts of the Plains of India but apparently 
not known in Bombay. Well known in Madras, under the name Surul- 
piichi, as a serious pest of groundnut ; also occurs on Cajamts indicus^ 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 153 

soy-bean, and Psoralea corylijolia. Our records include the following 
localities and foodplants : — 

Peradeniya .... Groundnut (Destructive in February 1905)i 

Coimbatore .... Groundnut. 

Hagari ..... Groundnut top-leaves." 

Sundarbans ... 

Nagpur Soy-bean, Psoralea corylifoUa. 

Pusa Psoralea corylijolia. Soy-bean (rolling 

leaves). 

Peshawar (Jlotlis only). 

Mandalay .... Groundnut. 

This moth comes to light in large numbers. Mr. Ramakrishna 

At Pusa we have not found it on groundnut. Mr. Ghosh. 

Platyedra gossypiella, Saund. 

S. I. I. p. 454, t. 42, Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 10, 111- 
114, 127, 129, 130 [GelecMa]. 

Occurs throughout the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon as a pest Mr. Fletcher, 
of cotton, serious in most localities, especially so in the United Provinces. 
In all districts exotic varieties seem to be most subject to attack. The 
larva bores into the bolls, feeding on the seeds and spoihng the hut, 
and also does some damage to buds and flowers. 

As regards control it is important to sow uninfested seed. The 
seeds should be fumigated or spread in a thin layer in the sun to drive 
out or kill any larvae contained in them. 

(See also pages 472 et t>eq.) 

Brachmig arotrcea, Meyr. 
Meyr., T. E. S. 1894. 15 (Cladodes) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meetmg, p. 164. ' 
Bred in small numbers from larvae on rice leaves at Pusa and Katni 
(Central Provinces). We have it also from Cuttack and Palamau. 
Also occurs in Burma and Ceylon. 
Not a pest. 

Brachmia idiastis, Meyr. 

Meyr., Exot. Micr. I. 577 (1916). 
Bred at Pusa from larvse feeding on leaves of Pankum in June. 
Not a pest. 

Brachmia insidsa, MejT. 
A very common species at Pusa. Has been reared from larvae found 
at the base oi jiiar shoots. Also from Peshawar. 



354 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Brachmia engrapta, Meyr. 
Has been reared at Lahore from larvae on sweet potato. Not known 
to be a pest. 

Brachmia effera, Meyr. 

Has been reared at Coimbatore from larvae on sweet potato leaves. 
Not known to be a pest. 



Helcystogramma hibisci, Stt. 

Gelechia hibisci, Stainton, T. E. S. (n. s.) V 117 (1859). 
Brachmia hibisci ; 1. 1. L. p. 533. 

Helcystogramma hibisci, Proc. Second Entl. Meeting pp. 123, 
265. 
Has been reared at Pusa from larvte on leaves of bhindi {Hibiscus 
esndentus), at Nagpur on rose, and at Pollibetta (S. Coorg) the moths 
were fonnd associated with Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. We also have it from 
Shillong. 
Not a pest. 

Paras-pistes palpigera, Wlsm. 
Originally described from S. Africa. 

We have it from Puttalam, Pollibetta, Coimbatore and Bhamo. 
At Coimbatore it has been reared from pods of indigo. Cassia flora 
and C. corymbosa. 

• Also on lablab at Coimbatore. Also at ManganaUnr, reared on 
wild indigo. 

Dichomeris ianthes, Meyr. 

S. I. I. pp. 456-457, f. 332 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 61, 80 (tab), 207. 

Occurs throughout the Plains of Ceylon, Madras, Bombay and Bihar 
—probably throughout India. We have examples reared on indigo 
from Palur (S. Arcot), Champaran, Muhammadpur, Pusa, Gondra and 
Dalsing Serai in North Bihar. Also reared at Pusa on lucerne and 
guar bean (Cyamopsis psoralioides). 

A sporadic pest of indigo and lucerne. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 155 

Anarsia ephippias, Meyr. 
1. 1. L. p. 534, t. 56 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 51, 53, 91. 
Occurs probably throughout the Plains of India as a very minor 
pest of pulses. We have it from the following loj^alities and food 
plants : — 



Coimbatore 
Virajpet (Coorg) 
Nagpur 

Gondra (Bihar) . 
Pusa 



. Red-gram (Cajanvs indicus). 

. Wild Acacia flowers. 

. rrld. 

. Indigo. 

. Groundnut leaves and top-shoots, moth 
leaves and top-shoots, vrid top-shoots, 
Dolichos biflcrux, soy-bean, 7nung (boring 
flowers and pods). 

Control : — Hand-picking of spun-up leaves and shoots. 

Anarsia acerala, Meyr. 
Meyr., B. J. XXII, 169 (1913). 
Bred at Saidapet in October 1906 from larva on Red-gram {Cajanus 
indicus). Not a pest. 

Anarsia ■melanoplecta, Meyr. 

Meyr., B. J. XXII 774 (1914) ; I. I. L. p. 534-; Entl. Note 78; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 221. 
At Pusa the larva burrows in young mango shoots but it is not 
common as a rule and scarcely a pest. Also reared at Nagpiu: from 
mango flowers [1 from twigs in cage with the flowers]. 

Anarsia onioptila, Meyr. MS. 
Bred at Coimbatore in October 1908 from larva folding leaves of 
Red-gram {Cajamis indicus). Not known to be a pest. 

Anarsia exallacta, Meyr. MS. 
Bred at Pusa, 7 October 1912, from larva in top-leaves of Cajanus 
indicus. 

Anarsia sagiUaria, Meyr. 
Meyr., B. J. XXII, 774-775 (1914). 
Bred at Pusa in June- August from larvae in top-shoots of ber 
Zizyphus jujuba). Not a pest. 



lo6 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIliU E.VTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Chelaria spaUwta, Meyr. 

Meyr., B. J. XXII, 165 (1913) ; Entl. Note 82 ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 219. 
The larva has been found eating tender mango leaves at Pusa and 
Koilpatti. It is not common, however, and not yet noted as a pest. 



Chelaria rhicnota, Meyr. 
Meyr., Exot. Micr. I. 580-581. 
Bred from larva in mango flowers at Panapakam, Chittijr District' 
in February, 1914. Also recorded from the Shevaroy Hills. Not known 
to be a pest. 

OECOPHOEID.E. 

Tonica niviferana, Wlk. 

BinsiUa niviferana, Wlk., Cat. XXIX 832 ; I. I. L. p. 535 ; 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 131 (tab). 

Has been reared fairly common at Pusa and Chapra from larvse 

boring young shoots of Boiiibax malabaricum, of which tree it is a very 

minor j^est. Probably widely distributed in the Plains, but overlooked. 

I have seen a moth from Nagpur, 



Tonica zizyphi, Stt. 
S. I. I. p. 459, f. 335 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 211. 
Occurs throughout the Plains of India as a minor pest of orange 
and lemon, the larva rolhng the young leaves. It also feeds on Murraija 
koenigi. We have it from Coimbatore, Nagpur, Pusa, Chapra and 
Peshawar. 
Mr Ramrao. At Poona it occiu-s on orange in large numbers rolhng the young 

leaves. We find the caterpillars particularly on young trees when 
they are putting out new leaves. 

Porlhmologa faradina, Meyr. 
Meyr., Exot. Micr. I. 261 (1914). 
Mr. Fletc'ier. Has been reared at Pusa from larvse rolling leaves and boring shoost 

of ber (Zizyphus jujuba). Not a pest. 



pkoceedings of the third entomological meeting 157 
Xyloryctid.e. 
Procometis trochala, Meyr. 
Pusa. The larvae usually feed on dry sugarcane stems, dry arhar 
etalks, etc. Once bred at Pusa (C. S. 1708) from a larva found boring 
into stem of sugarcane. 
Probably not a pest. 

Nefhantis serinopa, Meyr. 
S. I. I. p. 460, f. 336 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 259, 262. 

Occurs throughout the Plains of Ceylon, Southern India, Bengal and 
Burma as a pest of palms, often serious, especially on coconut and 
palmyra. 

In Travancore it was veiy bad last year on coconut palms. Nearly Mr. Pillay. 
5,000 trees were attacked. It spreads very rapidly and completes its 
whole lifehistory on the lea^ Cutting and biurning the affected branches 
has been found very effective. We engaged a temporary fieldman and 
treated the whole lot in this way. 

Ptochoryciis simbleiita, Meyr. 

Meyr., B. J. XVIII 150-151 ; I. I. L. p. 535 [Metatlirinca:\. 

Recorded from Gazepore (Assam). The brick-red larva feeds, beneath Mr. Fletcher. 

a web covered with refuse and pieces of bark, on bark of tea-shoots, 

eating right through the cambium and thus killing the branch or plant. 

Stenomid.i;. 

Synchalara rhombola, Meyr. 

Meyr., B. J. XVII 982 [Agriophara]. 

Occurs in the Khasis, Silchar, and Assam Tea Districts. The larva 

is yellowish-red, sides yellow-orange, subdorsal stripe broad, blackish, 

head and prothoracic segment black ; it feeds between spun leaves of 

tea and, when foliage is stripped, will attack the bark, doing great 

damage (Antram). 

Control consists in leaving leaves on the bushes when pruning. All 
prunings should be buried or burnt immediately. 

For the last three years we have had no trouble from this insect. Mr. Andrews. 
It can be controlled by collecting the pupa. 



158 pkoceedings of the third entomological meeting 
Blastobasid^. 
Blastobasis crassifica, Meyr. 
Meyr., Exot. Micr. I 595-596. 
Bred at Pusa in March from pods of Crotalaria juncea. Probably a 
refuse-feeder, eating dried seeds rather than attacking the crop in the 
field. Not noted as a pest. Also occurs at Coimbatore. 

Prosintis florivora, Meyr. 
Meyr., Exot. Micr. I. 598. 
Bred at Pusa in June and August from larvae feeding on mango in- 
florescence. Not noted as a pest. 

Heliodinidje. , 
Stathmofoda theoris, Meyr. 

Meyr., B. J. XVII, 410-411 (1906) [^oloscelis] ; I. I. L. p. 537 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 96. 
Reared at Pusa from sunflower-heads. The larvae are probably 
merelv rubbish-feeders, eating the dried remains of the flowers and not 
the seeds. Also reared at Coimbatore frona palm-fibre chewed by 
Oryctes grub, from rubbish, and from cholam heads. 
Not a pest. 

Stathmopoda sycastis, Meyr. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 251. 

The larva of this species occurs in cultivated figs in the Peshawar 

Valley in May and June, the moth emerging in July. The larva9 are 

well-known locally, so much so that the country-folk are chary of eating 

the fruit on account of the presence of the larvae. 



Eretmocera impaciella, Wlk. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting p. 296. 
Occurs throughout the Plains of India, Burma and Ceylon. 
In Bihar the larva webs up Aniaranthus plants, especially single- 
plants, sometimes badly, and eats back the tops. 



PROCEEDINGS Oi' THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 15t) 

jEGEEL4.D^. 

Mgeria ommaticBformis, Mo. 

Trochilium ommaticBJorme M.oove, I.M.N. II. 10, figs. (1891) ; 
Hmpsn., Moths. Ind. I. 189 , fig. (1893). 
This species has been recorded as doijig extensive damage by boring 
willow trees in Baluchistan. 

Melittia eurytion, Westw. 
Hmpsn., F.I. I. 203, f. 131. 
Bred at Pusa in small numbers from stems of snake-gourd (Tri- 
chosanthes anguina) in which the larva bores and forms an elongate 
gall. Also bred from stems of Cephalandra indica. 
Scarcely a pest. 

Glyphipterygid^. 

Hilarografha caminodes, Meyf. 

S. I. I. p. 464 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 37. 

Occvtrs in Ceylon as a pest of cardamoms, the larva boring in the ' 

bulbs. Likely to occur in Southern India also, although not hitherto 

noted. 

Phycodes minor, Mo. 
Moore, P. Z. S. 1881. 378 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 251. 
Apparently widely distributed in the Plains of India and Burma. 
We have examples from Lahore, Pusa, Gauhati, Nowgong, and Minbu 
(L. Bxirma). The larva rolls and spins up leaves of various species of 
Ficus. It occurs as a rule on wild species but may attack cultivated 
varieties, especially in the Pimjab, in which case it is decidedly a pest. 

Phycodes radiata, Ochs. 
S. 1. 1, p. 463, f. 339 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 251. 
Occurs probably throughout India. Our examples are from Pesha- 
war, Kulu, Gurdaspur, Pusa, Gauhati, Nagpur and Hagari. Has been 
reared at Pusa on wild figs {Ficus religiosa, F. glomerata, etc.), at 
Gauhati on Ficus indica and at Hagari on Ficus tisela. It also occurs 
on cultivated fig {F. carica), the larva rolhng the leaf, and is sometimes 
a serious pest of young fig-trees. 

vol. I w 



160 FEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

HyPONOMEUTIDjE . 

Prays citri, Mill. 
Entl. Note 89 fig. ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 17, 212. 
A well-known pest of various species of Citrus, the larva devouring 
the flowers, boring in the shoots and tunnelling in the rind of fruits. 
Has been recorded as a pest in S. Europe. E. AustraUa and the Phihp- 
pines. It occurs in Ceylon and Coorg and at Pusa, but has not yet 
been noted as a pest in India, although it probably is so. 

Atteva faflricielh, Swed. '' 

S. I. I. pp. 461-463, f. 338 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 263. 
A common pest of Aila.nthis at Coimbatore, the larvse living in a 
common web. Also reared at Nagpur on salai (Boswellia serrata). 
Also from Ahmadabad on Ailanthiis. 



Atteva niveigvtta, Wlk. 
Wlk., Cat. 11 526-527 (1854) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 263. 
The larva has been recorded as webbing and defoliating Ailanthvs 
in Sikkim and Sylhet. 

^therastis cirathta, Meyr. 

Bred at Trivandrum, Travancore, in May 1914 from larvae found 
making galleries on the bark of Evgenia jamholana. Not known to be 
a pest. 

The caterpillars are found feeding on the bark of Eugenia making 
galleries on the stem. 

Do you find them in any numbers ? 

Yes, I have found in some numbers. 



Comocritis pieria, Meyr. 
Meyr., B. J. XVII, 416 (1906). 
Eecorded from Ceylon and Assam, the larva in galleries on bark 
of Para Rubber {Hevea brasiliensis). Its status as a pest seems doubt- 
ful. [See also Mr. Senior- White's paper on this species (No. 53 of 
these Proceedings. )] 



rroceedingj of the tuikd entomological meeting 161 
Gracillariad.5;. 
Lithocolletis Iriarcho, Meyr. 

Meyr., B. J. XVIII 811 (1908) ; I. I. L. p. 537 ; Proc. Second 

Entl. Meeting, p. 102. 

The larva mines leaves of cotton (not only tree-cotton as miglit be 

implied from the statement in Indian Insect Life). Not common and 

not yet seen in sufificient numbers to do damage. We have examples 

'from Piisa only. 

Lithocolletis ganodes, Meyr. 
This has been found at Parachinar where it was reared from apple 
:leaves collected on 17th September 1917. 
It is not known how far it is a pest. 

Phrixosceles phxigrapha, Meyr. 
Meyr., Exot. Micr. I. 623. 
Bred at Coimbatore in March 1915 from red-gram (Cajam/s indicus) 
■pods. Also occurs at Pusa. 
Not known to be a pest. 

Acrocercops 'ordinatella, Meyr. 
Entl. Note 85 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 38. 
Occurs in Ceylon, Mysore, Coorg and Burma, the larva mining leaves 
of camphor and sometimes a considerable pest. 

Acrocercofs snpplex, Meyr. 
At Pusa the larva mines Tertninalia catappa leaves in small numbers. 

Acrocercops prosncto, M^r. 
At Pusa the larva has be&ii found mining leaves of Ipomoea batatas 
in small numbers. 

Acrocercops phceospora, Meyr. 
At Pusa the larva has been found mining Eugenia jambolana leaves. 

Acrocercops terminalice, Stt. 
Stainton, T. E. S. (3) I 298-299. t. 10. f. 8 (1862) [GracOaria]. 
Reared at Calcutta from leaf-miner on Country Almond {Tertni- 
nalia catappa) but not known as a pest. 



162 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Acrocercops cathedrcea, Meyr. 

Entl. Note. 84. 

Probably widely distributed in the Plains. We have it from Coim- 

batore, Pusa and RajshaM. The larva mines mango leaves but is 

scarcely a pest. Also reared from larvae mining leaves of " chichri " 

{Achyranthes aspera). 

Acrocercops gemoniella, Staintoiu 
Has been reared at Pusa from larva mining Achras sapota leaf. Not 
a pest. 

Acrocercops Jderocosma, Meyr. 
Entl. Note 86. 
Reared at Pusa in September and October from larvae mining leaves 
of Nephelium litchi. Described from Queensland, so that the species 
is probably widely distributed in India. 

Acrocercops auricilla, Stn. 
Bred in September 1915 from leaf-miners received from Belgachia- 
where they were doing considerable damage to leaves of mahogany. 
Also at Pusa from miners in Swietenia mahogani leaves. 

Acrocercops telestis, Meyr. 
Entl. Note 87. 
Reared at Pusa from larvas mining leaves of Eugenia jambolatia and 
Gmelina arhorea. Also reared at Coimbatore from larvae on Trewia, 
We also have it from Moulmeiu. 

Acrocercops syvgramma, Meyr. 
Entl. Note 84. 
Reared at Pusa. Saidapet, Coimbatore and Chittur from larvae 
mining young mango leaves. We also have it from Bankipur. Scarcely 
a pest. 

Acrocercops isonmna, Meyr. 
Meyr., Exot. Micr. I 625 ; Entl. Note 84. 
Once reared at Pusa in May from larvae mining mango leaves. Not^ 
known as a pest. 



PROCEEDINGS OF IHE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 163 

Liocrohyla paraschista, Meyr. 
Meyr., Exot. Micr. II 5 (1916). 
Reared at Pusa in February 1916 from leaf-mining larvae on tur 
(Cajanus indicus). Not a pest. Also reared from Desmodium gangeti- 
ntm. 

Cijfhosticha ccendea, Meyr. 
Meyr., Exot. Micr. I. 26 (1912) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 42, 56. 
Bred at Coimbatore from larvae mining leaves of Dolichos lablab 
and at Pusa from leaf miners on cowpea, tming, sem, Dolichos lablab, 
Cajanus indints and Vicia faba. 

May at times be. a minor pest of pulses. Probably widely distributed 
in the Plains, but overlooked. 

Gracillaria zachrysa, Meyr. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 248 [Apple Gracilariad]. 

A decided pest of apple, the larva at first mining in young leaves 

and afterwards tying up the leaves, fastening the edges together and 

living inside, gnawing the green substance on the upper side of the leaf. 

Sometimes practically all young leaves may be destroyed in this way. 

Has been found at Parachinar, Abbottabad and Peshawar and also 
at Shillong, so that it is probably widely distributed along the Hill 
districts of Northern India. 

Gracillaria theivora, Wlsm. 
I. M. N. II 49 ; Meyr., B. J. XVIII 829. 
Common in the tea Districts of Ceylon but apparently scarcely a 
pest. We have an example from Lebong, Darjihng District. The 
larva mines and rolls leaves of tea. 

Have you come across this as a pest of tea ? Mr. Fletcher. 

I have never had it from tea gardens except those situated near Mr. Andrews. 
Dehra Dun and from these it has twice been sent in to me as doing 
damage. 

Gracilhria soyeUa, van Dev. 
Entl. Note 88 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 42. 
Has been reared commonly at Pusa and Coimbatore from larvae 
rolhng leaves of Cajanus indicus and at Pusa also on Phaseolvs mimgo. 
It may also be expected to occur on soy-bean in India. 



164 proceedings of the third entomological meeting 
Plutellid^. 
Plittella tnaculi'pennis, Curt. 

S. I. I. p. 464, f. 340 ; Proc. Secoad Entl. Meeting, pp. 276' 
277, 280, 282, 283. 
Occurs everywhere, both in the Plains and Hills, throughout India, 
Burma and Ceylon. The larva gnaws holes in leaves of cabbage, cauU- 
flower, radish, mustard, turnip and other Cruciferse. 



Lyonetiad^. 
Phyllocnistis toparcha, Meyr. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 235. 
The larva mines leaves of grape-\'ine at Coimbatore, where it is a 
minor pest. 

It was found at Coimbatore in grape-vine leaves. Although not iu 
large numbers, yet it may be put down as a minor pest. 



Phyllocnistis citrella, Stt. 
S. I. I. p. 465, f. 341 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 209, 210, 216. 

Occurs in every locaUty where species of Citrus are cultivated in 
India. We have no specimens from Burma. The larva? may occur 
in large numbers, especially in young plants, mining the leaves and the 
epidermis of green shoots, and doing considerable damage. 

Also bred from larvse mining leaves of bael {^gle marmelos) at Pusa 
and Sibpur, and on Murraya koenigi. 

Control — spray of Crude Oil Emulsion mixed with tobacco extract. 

In the Central Provinces we get it, but it is never bad. 

In some districts it may be quite a bad pest, especially of young 
plants. I have seen young plants with every leaf badly mined and 
containing four or five or more larvae. 



Bvccvlatrix loxoptila, Meyr. 
Meyr. Exot, Micr. I 209 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, i^. 102. 
Reared at Attur, Madras Presidency, in June 1907 from larvae found 
eating small holes in leaves of CaravcJnica cotton. Not otherwise known 
in India as yet, but hkely to prove a pest. Originally described from 
Zanzibar, where the larva was found damaging cotton. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 165 

Petasobathra sirimi, Meyr. 
Meyr., Exot. Micr. I 355 ; Entl. Note 91. 
Found on indigo at Gorakhpur and Dalsing Serai, N. Bihar, in Sep- 
tember, the larva webbing the top-shoots and nibbhng the leaves. A 
very minor pest so far as is known. 

TlNEID^. 

Dasyses rugosellus, Stt. 
Stainton, T. E. S. (n. s.) V 113-114 (1859) [Cerostoma] ; Proc. 
*■ Second Entl. Meeting, p. 257. 

Reared at Pusa and Coimbatore from larvae in stems of Papaya 
carica. The larva usually feeds on dead wood but may bore in below 
the bark of old living stems ; the direct damage done is shght but the 
indirect damage, by admission of disease, may be more serious. The 
larval workings are easily seen and can be cut out and the wound tarred. 

TlSGHERIAD^. 

Tischeria ptamiica, Meyr. 
Meyr. Rec. Ind. Mus. II 399 ; 1. 1. L. p. 540. 
Found mining leaves of ber (Zizyphiis jupiba) in Orissa. May occur 
in very large numbers constituting a minor pest. 

HePIALIDjE. 

Phassus malabaricvs, Mo. 

S. I. I. pp. 467-468, f. 344 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 22. 

Reared at Ootacamund from a pupa found in tea-stem. Also known 

from Bangalore. In the Bombay Presidency the larva sometimes do^-s 

much damage by boring in roots of Tretna orientalis {B. J. XXIII 765). 

It is only occasionally found on tea in Assam. Mr Andrews. ' 

It occurs in Burma, probably on teak. Mr. Beeson. 

COLEOPTERA. 

Melolonthid^. 
Autoserica sp.* 
Ann. Rept. Impl. Entom. 1917-18, p. 93, t. 12, f. 1 (1918). 
This species has been reared in small numbers at Pusa from larvae Mr. Fletcher, 
at roots of lemon and sugarcane. It is probably a minor pest. 

* This has since been identified as A. imanabUis, Brenske. 



Ibb PnriCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Senca assamensis, Brsk. 
I. M. N. IV 176 (1899), V 14-15 ; Stebb., Ind. Forest Insects, pp. 74-75. 
Recorded by Stebbing as seriously defoliating tea in the Duars tea 
gardens close to the Bhutan Hills, larva also at roots of tea. Larva 
also at roots of sal trees in Bengal Duars. 

We have this from the Duars, but have no further information 
regarding it. 

Serica marginella, Hope. 
■ We have this from Gauhati and from Shillong, where it was found 
on cherry in May 1905. 

Serica maculosa, Brenske. 
This species was also found at Shillong on cherry in May 1905. 

Serica clypeata, Brenske. 
This species was also found at Shillong in May 1905 on cherry. 



Serica Calcutta. Brenske. 
I. M. N., IV 176 t. 13, f. 3 ; IV 243 ; V 130. 
Recorded from Calcutta, the adult beetles eating rose-leaves in the 
Indian Museum compound. 

Serica nilgiriensis, Shp. 

This species occurs at Ootacamund in the beginning of April. It 
occurs on Cinchona leaves to which it does a little damage. 

It is found on Cinchona leaves. Probably there are two species 
concerned. 

Does it do much damage ? 

No ; it does not do much damage. 

Serica ftlula, Shp. 
This species occurs in numbers at Ootacamund in the beginning of 
April. It is not definitely known to do damage but may be assumed 
to be at least a minor pest. 

Serica pruinosa, Burm. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 29. 
We have this from Devikulam (5,000-6,000 feet), Travancore, where 
it is reported to have done a considerable amoimt of damage by defolia. 



PROCEEDIKGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 167 

ting coffee bushes. {I. M. N. Ill, iii, p. 117 (1892)). Stebbing (Ind. 
For. Ins. p. 75, f. 40) also refers to the above record and records it from 
Trevandrum also. 

Melaserica barber i, Shp. 
This is one of the small cockchafers occurring at Ootacamund in 
numbers in April. The beetles occur on Cinchona there in small numbers. 

Brahmina coriocea, Hope. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 234, 245, 247, 248. 
This species has been sent in to us from Chavai, Kulu District, where 
it was defoliating apple and pear trees by night in August 1915 ; from 
JeoUkote, where it was attacking vine and fig leaves by night in June 
1910 and vine, apple, pear and plum in July 1912 ; we also have a speci- 
men taken on pear at Jeolikote on 3rd May 1915. This species occurs 
at Pusa also, and has been found attracted to the Andres-Maire traps 
there. 

Afogonia proxima, Waterh. 
We have this from Calcutta, Chapra and Pusa. At Pusa the adults 
are found in very large numbers on Fictis religiosa leaves in July, eating 
the leaves in the evening. A pupa and many adults have also been 
found at Pusa amongst roots of Saccharum spontaneum. It is not defi- 
nitely known to be a pest but probably feeds on cane roots during the 
larval stage. 

Afogonia ferruginea, Fb. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 131. 

We have this from Pusa, and from Hopin and Tatkon in Upper 

Burma. It is very abundant in the adult stage at Pusa in June and 

Jidy, resting in the evening on leaves of Bombax and Fictis spp., which 

they damage considerably. 



Holotrichia conferta, Shp. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 29. 
We have this from Pykara and Ootacamund in the Nilgiris, from 
Coorg and Santikoppa (N. Coorg). Said to damage coffee roots in the 
larval state. The adult beetles appear during the first half of April. 



10a PllOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGIC-VL MEETING 

Holotrichia repel ita, ShjJ. 
This cockchafer beetle appears in large numbers at Ootacamund in 
April. This insect damages cinchona to some extent. 
It is found on cinchona in small numbers. 



{Unidentified Melolonthid).* 
This cockchafer was sent in to us from Eanchi, the adult damaging 
rose leaves, in swarms at night, 6 July 1916. (Mrs. Maxide.) 

( Unidentified Melolonthid) . 
Sent in from Upper Shillong, 29 September 1904, the adult beetles 
found on fruit-trees. 

(Unidentified Melolonthid). 
The adults swarm at dusk in May in Shillong and eat Rnbvs leaves. 

{ Un identified Melolonthid). 

A second species found at Shillong in May 1918, the adult beetles 
swarming at dusk and destroying leaves of Rubus spp. 

The habits of all these Melolonthids are almost similar. The beetles 
all hide away in the day-time and come out at night just at dusk, and 
feed upon leaves. Individual specimens probably do comparatively 
little damage, but if many species appear together in large numbers 
(as they usually do), considerable damage may be caused. The ordinary 
remedy is to collect the adult beetles by hand or by light-traps. 

Is there any method of preventing the beetles from ovipositing in 
cultivated areas l 

It is not possible to do so. In cultivated areas hoeing provides a 
good remedy because it brings the grubs to light and is also good for 
cidtivation. 

Light-traps are effective. The hfe-cycle of these beetles is one 
year. 

Spraying with Bordeaux mixture may be tried. We found that, 
in a garden where the grape-vines were attacked by a fungal disease 
for which Bordeaux spray was given, a particular patch was left un- 
sprayed by mistake and this plot was found to be very badly attacked 
by cockchafers whilst the treated vines were quite untouched. 

In most districts spraying is impracticable because of the area to 
be covered and because of the occurrence of rain. The cockchafers 



since been identified a« Schizoni/cha roficollii. F. We have it also from 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 169 

generally hatch out with the first rains, about June in most parts of 
India. 

In the case of cinchona in the Nilgiris, thousands of grubs are collect- Mr. Ramakrislina 
ed by hand. Coolies are ofiered money for their collection. Ayyar. ■ 

In Shillong a fungus attacks the beetles, which are seen fixed on to Mr. Ramachandra 
leaves, dead. Rao- 

The fungus that attacks these beetles is not effective as a check Mr. Fletcher, 
because it apparently only attacks them when their activities are almost 
over, and the beetles must occur in very large numbers for this fungus 
to be of any use. 

We have some trouble with cockchafers in the forest areas. Seedhng Mr. Beeson. 
trees are attacked. The total damage to seedlings is sixty per cent., 
of which nearly a half is due to cockchafer grubs and the remainder to 
root-borers. I would like to know whether the method of collecting 
and kilhng them whilst hoeing is based on the knowledge of their life- 
history or is only an empirical method. 

It is only empirical. But it is practical, as it fits in with the cultiva- Mr. Fletcher. 
tion methods, and it is successful to some extent. 

How does the migration of the grubs take place in relation to the j^^ Beeson. 
season ; that is to say, how do they come to the surface ? 

We know very little about them but, as far as I know, they spend Mr. Fletchec 
their whole hfe-cycle fairly near the surface. Certainly, they are not 
found at any great depth when hoeing. 

RUTELID^E. 

Pojtillia cvpricollis, Hope. 
Arrow, F. I. Rutel. pp. 73-74 ; Entl. Note 25. 
We have this from Kumaon (I. E. 651 of 4th September 1909), 
Gopaldhara (Sikkim) Turzum, Lebong, Masuri, Lansdowne, Simla, and 
Shillong. Arrow also records it from Kangra Vallc}', Naini Tal, Nepal, 
Sikkim. At Shillong in September 1917 the adults were found destroy- 
ing flowers of rose, Dahha, and garden plants generally. 

Popillia fece, Kraatz. 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel. p. 80 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 240. 

We have this from Maymyo, where the adult beetles were found on 

peach trees in May 1909 by K. D. Shroff. Arrow also records it from 

Nepal, Sikkim, Sadiya, Sylhet, Karen Hills, Ruby Mines, Mergui, Siam 

and Malacca, 



170 PROCEEDINGS UF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Popillia chh'non,'Nevfm. 
Arrow, F. I. Rutel. p. 82 ; Ptoc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 300. 
This species is common at Ootacamund at the beginning of April. 
We have a single specimen from Coimbatore recorded as having been 
found on betel leaves ; but it is probably mis-labelled. 
It is doubtful whether it occurs at Coimbatore. 

Popillia histeroidea, Gyll. 
Entl. Note 24 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 240. 
Adult beetles were found on peach (Primus persica) leaves at Maymyo 
in May 1909 by K. D. Shroff. 

Anomala dorsalis, Fb. 
Arrow, F. I. Eutel. pp. 136-137, f. 32. 
The Pusa Collection contains examples from the following locahties : — 



Coimbatore 




Chapra 
Pusa 


. Adults abundant in June and attracted to 
Andres-Maire trap. 


Ambala . 


. Adult on 6;,mdi flower, July 1906. 


Dehra Dun 


. September 1906. 


Igatpuri . 
LyaUpur . 
Surat 


. July 1904. 

. 28 July 1912. 

. June 1904. adult at Ught. 



Arrow also records it from Bangalore, Khandesh, Nagpur, Calcutta, 
Chota Nagpur. Sikkim, Sibsagar, Andamans, Sinola, Secunderabad, 
Khulna, Gwahor. 

This is a common and widely-distributed cockchafer, not yet defi- 
nitely noted as a pest, but likely to be so. 



Anomala transversa, Burm. 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel. pp. 142-143, f. 33 ; Entl. Note 13 ; Proc. 

Second Entl. Meeting, p. 250. 

Found at Shillong in May 1905 in numbers on cherry leaves, also 

on white flowers, roses. Spiraeas, etc. In May 1918 at Shillong in large 

numbers inside Uly flowers in daytime, devouring pollen and petals. 

Also occurs at Gauhati in May. 

Arrow also records it from Ruby Mines, Tharrawaddy, Ma5rmyo 
and Tonkin. 



PEOCEBDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 171 

Anomala bengalensis, Bl. 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel. p. 143, f. 34 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
p. 146 ; Annual Report 1917-18, pp. 93-94. 
Hitherto mixed with polita. This is one of the three species hitherto 
mixed up xmder the name varians ; it is distinguishable by the incised 
clypeus. 

It has been reared at Pusa from larvae found in leaf-mould and at 
Pusa and Dacca from larvae gnawing sugarcane stems below ground. 
At Pusa the adult beetles have been taken at hght and are also freely- 
attracted to the Andres-Maire trap, in larger numbers than those of 
■polita. 

Also recorded by Airow from Calcutta, Chota Nagpur, Malda, 
Murshidabad, Golconda (Vizagapatam), Bangalore, Coimbatore and 
Mandalay. 

This species is undoubtedly a pest although we have as yet few recordb 
of it as actually doing damage. 

Anornala olivieri, Shp. 
Arrow, F. I. Rutel. p. 144. 
We have this from Naduvatum (Nilgiris), May 1904, and from 
Ootacamund (9 April 1901 ; C. A. Barber) where it occurs in numbers. 
Arrow also records it from Cochin. 

It is not common as a rule. Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 

Anmnala elata, Fb. 
Arrow, F. I. Rutel. p. 145, f. 35. 
This species apparently represents polita in the South Indian Hills. Mr. Fletcher. 
The hind tibia and tarsus are dark and the latter very thick (in polita 
slender and not very dark). 

It is represented in the Pusa Collection from Pollibetta and Sidapur 
m Coorg and from the Bababudin Hills. 

Anornala polita, Blanch. 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel. pp. 146-147, t. 2, f. 24 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 146, 174, 192, 245. 
This is one of the species hitherto mixed up under the name varians ; * 
it resembles bengalensis closely but has the clypeus straight (incised 
in bengalensis). 



172 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

At Pusa the larva has been found in leaf-mould and also at the roots 
of rice and grass. At Muzaffarpur and Nadia the larvae have also been 
found at the roots of rice-plants. At Jeolikote (Kumaon) the adult 
beetles were found damaging apricot shoo's and on apricot tree, and at 
Zhob (Baluchistan) the beetles were attacking greengage fruits in July 
1918. The Pusa Collection also contains examples from Coimba'-o-e, 
Kanara, Baroda and Kashmir, and Arrow also records it from Agra, 
Dehra Dun. Khandesh, Belgaum, N. Kanara, Jaintia Hills. 



Anomala varicolor, Gyll. 
Arrow, P. I. Rutei. pp. 152-153, f. 41. 
' At Pusa the adult beetles are attracted to the Andres-Maire trap 
in numbers in May and June ; the larva has been reared from Sarchamm 
spmlanewm (imder C. S. 1744 ; biharensis), and the pupa has been found 
at roots of oats (C. S. 1209). At Dacca the beetles have been found in 
small numbers attacking mango blossoms, and at Jeolikote (Kumaon) 
the beetle was found damaging plum leaves on 20th May 1915 by H. H. 
Prasad. We also have it from the Buxar Duavs and from Peradeniya, 
and Arrow also records it from Gopaldhara, Sarda (Bengal), Parlakimedi 
(Ganjam District), Bangalore, South Arcot, and the Palnis. 

At Dacca the adults occur on mango blossoms at night. 

Do they do any damage ? 

I found them only in small numbers and have not observed them 
doing any appreciable damage. 

Anomala variivestis, Arr. 
F. I. Rutel. p. 156, t. 3, ff. 20, 21. 
This species was found at Shillong, 23-26 June 1918, defoliating 
fruit trees (apple principally) at night. Arrow also records it from 
Manipur and Maymyo. 

Anomala biharensis. 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel., pp. 166-167 ; Ann. Rept. Impl. Entom. 
1917-18, p. 93, t. 10, ff. ad. 
This species has been reared at Pusa from larva? found at roots of 
sugarcane and roots of Saccharum sponianeum. Larvae and adults have 
also been found around roots of gular and banyan trees. 
It is apparently not a very common species. 



raOCEEUlNGS (IF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETIXG 173 

Anomala antiqua, Gyll. 
Arrow, F. I. Rutel. pp. 167-168. 
This is a large dark green Anomala which has been found at Tatkon, 
Burma, on maize and Sesmmtm by K. D. ShrofF. AVe also have speci- 
mens from Minbu, Sale, Mandalay, Myingyan and Tharrawaddy. Arrow 
also records it from Nepal, Hainan, Hongkong, Siam to Borneo and 
N. Australia. 

Anomala ignicollis, Blanch. 

Arrnw, F. I. Rutel. p. 178. 

This species occurs at high elevations (7,000 feet and over) in the 

Nilgiris. It is one of the abundant species found at Ootacamund in 

the beginning of April and we also have it from Naduvatam (7,000 feet) 

in May 1904 and from Pykara (7,000 feet). 

Ano))uda aurora, Arr. 
Arrow, F. I. Rutel. p. 185 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 240. 
This species was foiind by K. D. Shroff at Maymyo on peach leaves 
in May. Arrow also records it from the Ruby Mines. 

Anomala paUidospila, Arr. 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel. p. 195, f. 48 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 240. 

Also found by K. D. Shroff' at Maymyo on peach leaves in May. 

Anomala lineaiopennis, Blanch. 
Arrow, F. I. Rutel, pp. 212-21.3 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 245. 
This is a dark-green species with yellowish-bro-mi elytra. The 
beetles were found at Jeolikote (Kumaon) attacking plum leaves on 
20th May 1915 by H. H. Prasad, and we also have it from Buxar Duars. 
Arrow also records it from Dehra Dun, Masuri, Ramgarh, Ranikhet, 
Naini Tal, Kulu, Simla, Bhutan and Nepal. 

Anomala decorata, Kirsch. 
Arrow, F. I. Rutel. p. 216 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 240. 
This is a shining brown species with chestnut markings on the elytra. 
It has been found on peach at Maymyo and Arrow also records it from 
Perak. 



17 i 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Anotnala dimidiata, Hope. 
Arrow, F. I. Rutel., pp. 232-233. 

This is a large bright-greeu species, which is common at Pusa at 
light and has also been taken in the Andres-Maire trap. At Chawai, 
in the Kangra District, it appears during June and July every year 
and is found abundantly on berberry trees in sunny places, completely 
defoliating the trees, and by night it attacks apple and pear, damaging 
the fruits chiefly. At Zhob (Baluchistan) the beetles were found attack- 
ing greengage fruits in July 1918. At Daltonganj it has been found 
on Butea fro}idosa. At Darbhanga the beetles were reported to be 
damaging garden plants in the Rajbagh in the beginning of July 1906. 
Arrow also records it from Nepal, Campbellpur (North- West Frontier 
Province), Kulu, Simla, Naini Tal, Malda, Ranikhet, Sikkim, Shillong 
and Manipur. 

Anomala dussumieri, Bl. 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel., p. 2^3, t. 2, ff. 9, 10 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 219. 

This is a very large shining green species which has been found in 
the adult state as a minor pest of mango leaves and sweet-potato stems 
in Travancore. We also have it from Helem (Assam) and Peradeniya. 
Arrow also records it from Colombo, Cochin, and S. Kanara, and states 
that it is said to be destructive -to leaves of Cinchona succirubr'a in 
Ceylon. 

I have seen it in the centre of a rose flower in Ceylon. It was only 
chewing the petals. 

There is a specimen which was found on the stem of sweet-potato 
at Trivandrum. What was it doing, Mr. Pillay ? 

I found it in very small numbers. It is a very minor pest. 



Anmnala rufiventris, Redt. 
Arrow, F. I. Rutel., pp. 236-237 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 254. 
This is a large shining blackish-green species which was sent in 
to us in August 1915 from Chawai (Kulu) as attacking apples and pears, 
defoliating the trees, no trace bemg found of it in the daytime but 
emerging by night and doing a great deal of damage. We also have 
it fiom Simla (July 1909), Lansdowne (October 1909), Masuri (August 
1906) and Nagri Spur (Darjiling District). Also recorded by Arrow 
from Ranikhet, Manipur, Khasis, Jaintias, and Bhutan. 



PKOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 175 

Anomala regina, Newman. 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel., p. 252, t. 3, ff. 37, 38. 

This species occurs in both Hght-green and dark-blue forms. It 

occurs at Ootacamund in numbers at the beginning of April and we also 

have it from Neduvatam (Nilgiris ) in May 1904 and from Coimbatore 

(3 October 1917). 

Adoretus lobiceps, Arrow. 
F. I. Rutel., pp. 303-304, f. 67. 
We have this from Surat, Jabalpur and Nagpur, where the beetles 
were found on rose-trees in June by Mr. D'Abreu. 

Adoretus bicaudalus, Arr. 

F. I. Rutel., pp. 310-311, f. 68, t. 5, ff. 15, 16 ; Entl. Note 17 ; 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 264. 

We have this from Fenchuganj (C. Presley coll.) where it was found 

damaging rose-leaves and other garden trees. Also known from Sun- 

darbans, Dacca, Berhampur, Trincomali, and Nirodhumunai (Ceylon). 

At Dacca it was found on bark of a mango tree (Arrow). 

Adoretus oralis, Bl. 
F. I. Rutel., p. 338, t. 5, f. 28 ; Entl. Note 16. 
This species is only known from Ootacamimd, where it occurs in 
numbers at the beginning of April. The statement in South Indian 
Insects that this species was found in other locaUties damaging grape- 
vine and mango, is based on a misidentification and the figure given 
represents A. 



Adoretus duvauceli, Bl. 

F. I. Rutel., pp. 343-344, t. 5, f. 43 ; Entl. Note 21 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 234, 251. 
This species was sent in from Jeolikote (Kumaon) in Jime 1910 as 
damaging vine and fig leaves by night and again in July 1912 as damag- 
ing vine, apple, pear and plum leaves. It was received from Begum 
Serai in July 1904 as damaging vines by eating the leaves and in Calcutta 
Dr. Gravely has foimd the adults damaging leaves of Lager stroemia and 
Cassia. We also have it from Chapra and from Pusa, where the adults 
occur fiom June to September. 

VOL. I N 



176 PEOGEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Adoretus horticola, Arr. 

F. I. Eutel., p. 344, t. 5, f. 34 ; Entl. Note 22 ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, pp. 234, 245, 247, 248, 251. 
This species was sent in to us from Jeolikote (Kiiniaon) in June 
1910 as danjaging leaves of vine and fig by night and again in July 
1912 as damaging leaves of vine, apple, pear and plum by night. 

Adoretus bicolor, Brenske. 
Arrow, F. I. Rutel., p. 347. 
Recorded by Arrow from Kurseong, Sarda (Bengal), Calcutta, Pusa, 
Jabalpur, Surat, Berhampur (Ganjam), Bangalore, Coimbatore, Kodumor, 
and Kumul. 

At Bangalore it was found attacking rose-bushes. (7. M. N., V. 2, 
p. 38 (1900)). 

Adoretus lasiopygus, Burm. 

Arrow, F. I. Rutel., 348-349, t. v. f. 36; Entl. Note 18 ; Proc. 

Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 234, 264. 
Adoretus ovalis (part), Fletcher, S. Ind. Ins. p. .287, f. 127. 

This species was sent in from Begum Serai in July 1904 as damaging 
grape-vines. This is also the species referred to in South Indian Insects 
as ovalis as damaging grape-vine and mango in Southern India. We 
have it also from Pusa, where the beetles occur fronj June to September, 
from Calcutta, Rewari (Punjab) on 4th October 1905, from Jorhat 
(29th June 1907) and from Palamau in September 1906, and Arrow 
also records it from Allahabad, Sikkim, Tejpur, various locahties in 
Bengal, Ranchi, Coimbatore, S. Arcot, Godavari, Trichinopoli, and 
Anuradhapura. 

In Travancore it damages coconut seedling one-and-a-half year's 
old and three to four feet high. It completely defoliates the plants. 

On a big scale ? 

More than one hundred plants were destroyed. The leaf blades 
were eaten and only the mid-ribs left. 

Adoretus versed us, Har. 

F. I. Rutel. pp. 350-351, ff. 73, 74 ; Entl. Note 20 ; Proc. Second 

Entl. Meeting, pp. 234, 245, 247, 248, 251, 264. 

A. versutus was sent in to us from JeoUkote (Kumaon) in June 1910 

as lacerating leaves of vine and fig, and again in July 1912 as damaging 

leaves of vine, pear, apple and plum, whilst on 20th May 1915 H. H. 



PilOCIEEMiXGS OF VHH THinD ENTUMOLOulCAL MEEIINU 177 

Piasad found it at Jeolikote on apple seedlings and on a loquat tree. 
The adult beetle has a partiality for rose leaves and has been noted 
specially on rose at Bangalore, whilst in Calcutta it also attacks leaves 
of Lagirsiramia and Cdnnas. In Samoa the adult is a pest of cacao and 
the larva feeds on roots of grasses, etc. At Pusa the larva was found 
at roots of oats and the adult beetle reared out emerged on 1st May 
191.5 ; a pupa was also found at Pusa underground in an indigo field ' 
End from this the adult emerged on 4th September 1917. The Pusa 
Collection also contains examples from Murshidabad, Buxar Duars, 
.Sylhet, Tejpur (Assam), Ccimbatore and the Nilgiris. It is a very 
widely distributed species. 

Adoretus caligmoms, Burm. 

r. I., Rutef. pp. 355-3.56 ; Entl. Note 19 ; Proc. Second Entl. 

Meeting, p. 264 ; Ann. Rept. Impl. Entoni. 1917-1918, p. 93, 

t. 11, ff. a-d (1918). 

This species has been reared at l^usa from larvae found at roots of 

. grasses, rice, sugarcane and Saccharum sponianeton, the adult beetles 

emerging at the end of April. We have it also from Surat (5th Mav 

1904), Bababudin Hills (March to April), Santikoppa (N. Coorg : 4th- 

10th May 1914), Jorhat (29th June 1907) and Tharrawaddy. 

Arrow also records it from Kangra Valley, Sikkim, Saxda (Bengal), 
Belgaum, Bandra, Nilgiris (3,500 feet) and Rangoon. 

CETONI.'iD^. 

Jleterrorhina elegans, Fb. 
Arrow, F. I. Ceton. pp. 93-94 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 182. 

This is a large metallic green or blue species which occurs on cJiolam 
flower-heads in small numbers at Coimbatore, eating the pollen, but t 
is not looked on as a pest. We also have it from Chapra and Arrow 
also records it from Malda, Chota Nagpur, Mysore, Trichinopol}'. Nilgiris 
and Ceylon. 

I teats the pollen but does not do appreciable damage as it does Mr. R£iEf.I-ii.:tEa 
not occur in large numbers. Ayyar. 

Anthracophora crucijera, Oy\v.(=atromaciihia, Fb.) 
Arrow, F. I. Ceton. pp. 110-111 ; Proc. Secoiid Entl. Meeting, p. 182. 

This species has been found at Coimbatore on cholatn and LanliU.r Mr. FJetcbcr. 
.but is not looked or. as a pest. It is widely distributed and the Pusa 



178 PltOCEEDINGS OF THE THIKD EN'TOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

collection contains specimens from Dehra Dun, Pusa, Chapra, Igatpuri. 
Surat, Betul, Trivandriun, PoUibetta and Sidapur in S. Coorg, and 
from S. Kanara, whilst Arrow also records it from Sahibganj (Bengal)., 
Purneah District, Bangalore and Ceylon. 



Anatona stiUata, Newm. 

Arrow, F. I. Ceton. pp. 114-115 ; S. I. I. p. 282, f. 122 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 182, 188, 200, 201. 
This species seems to be confined practically to the Western Ghats, 
and Deccan and surrounding tracts and has been recorded from Khan- 
desh, Poona, Nagpur, Bellary aud Bangalore. In Bellary and Bangalore 
it occurs on cholam and ragi and at Poona it occurs on bajra earheads„ 
feeding on the pollen and unripe grains. It occurs at Poona every 
year but was particularly bad in 1918. At Poona control by means of 
light-traps has been tried, but these were found to be useless. The. 
Pusa collection contains one poor specimen. 



Prctcelia fiisca, Hbst. 
Arrow, F. I. Get. pp. 154-155, f. 34. 

We have this from Insein and from Pusa, where it was bred from 
larvae found in farmyard manure. 

Also known from Calcutta, Ghapra, Cachar, Bhamo, Mandalay, 
Rangoon and ranges through Tenasserim and Siam to S. Ghina, the. 
Malay Peninsula and Archipelago, Polynesia, N. Queensland and 
Mauritius (Arrow). 

Ridley says that at Singapore the larvae are very injurious to Cannas. 
and other cultivated plants, on whose roots they feed. In Queensland 
the adult beetle attacks nests of a Trigona, probably for the sake of tha- 
stored honey (Arrow). 



Protwlia albogidtata , Vig. 
Arrow, F. I. Ceton. p. 162-163 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 182. 

At Coimbatore and Bangalore the adult has been found on earheads. 
of cholam to which a little damage is done. At Pusa the adult beetle 
has been found at roots of Panicum. We also have it from Kanara 
Belgaum, Mysore, Surat, Chapra and Dehra Dun and Arrow also records. 
it from Eanchi and Kandv. ' 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 1/9 

Oxycetonia versicolor, Fb. 

Arrow, F. I. Ceton. pp. 164-166, ff. 35, 36 ; S. 1. 1, p. 284, f. 123 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 90, 123, 182. 
This species has been reared at Pusa from larvae in farm yard manure. 
The adult beetle has been found in South India on flowers and shoots 
of groundnut, doing some damage at times, also eating flowers of bkindi 
and cotton in West Khandesh, and attacking flower-heads of cholam 
in South India. It is a widely distributed species which we have from 
Chapra, Pusa, Murbhanj and Kanti in Bengal, Bombay, Andheri, Nasik, 
W. Khandesh, Bangalore, Coimbatore and Palur. 

Oxijceionia albopiinctata, Fb. 

Arrow, F. I. Ceton. p. 1G6-167 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 123, 212. 

This species has also been reared at Pusa from larvae in farmyard 
-manure. The adult beetles appear at Pusa from the end of July to the 
beginning of November and feed in numbers on bajra, maize, juar and 
rice ears and have also been noted as feeding on cotton {? flowers], 
Hibiscus mutabilis flowers, and lemon flowers. At Coimbatore it has 
also been found on cliohm. We have it also from Kanara, Chapra, 
Dehra Dun, Lebong, the Khasi Hills and Helem (Assam). 

Lefroy reports the adult as feeding on pollen of cotton flowers, and 
also found on rice, jute, cane and other crops (Arrow) and Mr. C. il. 
Inglis reports the adults as damaging Lager sir ceniia at Laheria Serai. 
<^^ I found this on heads of wheat. In Ceylon we carried on wheat- ^^- Senioi-Wbite. 
growing experiments but this beetle gave us much trouble by damaging 
the earheads. 

CJiiloloba acuta, Wied. 

Arrow, F. I. Ceton. p. 172, t. 2, f. 4 ; S. I. I. p. 284, f. 124 ; 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 178, 183, 188, 264-265, 

278, 281. 
At Pachmarhi the larva has been reported to damage seedhngs of 
cabbage, cauhflower, artichoke, etc. The beetles often occur in large 
numbers and have been reported to damage rice flowers at Cuttack 
and Nagpur. At Virajpet, in S. Coorg, the beetles were found on paddy 
and on a wild grass [Pennisetum alopecurus). At Nagpur the beetle 
has also been found on juar heads and at Pusa on rose leaves and flowers. 
In Kashmir the adult was noted in very large numbers on flowers of 
bhang (Cannabis saliva) on the road to Srinagar, and Mr. E. A. Andrews 
reports it as having occurred on tea in the Bengal Duars in considerable 



180 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIP,D ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

numbers, eating the young leaves and doing considerable damage. 
We also have it from the Punjab (oil bajra), Garh.wal, Dehra Dun, Nasik, 
the Shevaroy Hills and Maymyo. Lefroy has also reported it as injurious 
to juar and kutki [Panicvm miliare ; a small millet], whose flowers it 
damages (Arrow). 

I have found it on flowers of thatching grass. 

In the Bengal Duars the adults were eating the leaves of young 
tea-bushes and doing considerable damage. This tea was planted ou 
new land which had just been cleared of jungle. 



Eficmnetis sqwtlida, Linn. 
Arrow. F. I. Ceton. p. 174, f. 40 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 268. 

This has been sent in to us from Quetta, the adult beetles occurring 
on hyacinth, crocus, violet, and narcissus and destroying [the flowers ?] 
in April 1910. It also occurs in W. Asia, Europe, N. Africa, where it 
injures peach blossoms by destroying the stamens and in Greece, Corsica, 
Algeria and other vine-growing countries damages buds of growing 
vines. 

The larva is said to bred in manure (Arrow)'. 

Ageslrala michalcea, Linn. 
Arrow, F. I. Ceton pp. 192-194, f. 2. 

Occurs in Ceylon, Travancore, Bombay, Sylhet, Tenasserim, Anda- 
mans, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, China, etc. 

The larva bores into Pandamis, the woody stem being tunnelled 
tlirough just below the point of origin of the branches, causing them 
to die off. At Singapore it is very destructive to ornamental Pandamis 
growing in tubs. The larva is preyed on by Scolia nibiginosa, Fb. (Arrow). 
This has not yet been noted as a pest in India but is likely to be found 
damaging ornamental Pandanus. 

Spilophorus crelosus, Hope. 
Arrow, F. I. Ceton, pp. 201-202, f. 45. 
We have specimens from Coimbatore, where it was found on cvnibu 
on 21st September 1909 and on Cordia siibcordata , from Chapra, and from 
Malegaum in Bombay where the adult beetle was found in a nest of 
Cremastogasler sp. Also known from Malda, Berhampore, and Western 
Province of Ce^^lon (Arrow). 



PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIltD KNTOMOLOGICAL MKETl.VCi It^l 

Macroma mehnopiis, Sch. 
Arrow, F. I. Ceton, p. 219. 

^ Adult beetles were found at Shillong in May and the beginning of 
June 1918 on Buhus spp., usually on wild Rubus but also attacking 
cultivated species. Damage slight. 

Arrow also records it from Manipur, Sylhet, Jaintias, N. Kyen Hills 
(Burma) and Siam. 

Dynastid.e. 

Xylotnifes gideon, Linn. 

Arrow, F. I. Dyn., pp. 262-265, ff. 59. 

Recorded from Calcutta, Kurseong, Shillong, Sibsagar, Cachar, 
Bombay, Travancore, Ceylon (Arrow). 

The Pusa Collection contains specimens from Dehra Dun, Meroara 
(Coorg), Dacca, Tezpur, Khasi Hills (1,000-3,000 feet), Shillong, Heleiv. 
(Assam), and the Philippines. At Tezpur the adult beetles were found 
damaging seed indigo plants by gnawing and stripping the bark. 



[Enpatorvs hardwickei, Hope. 
Arrow, F. I. Dyn., pp. 268-269. 
While staying with Mr. J. R. P. Gent of the Forest Service in the Mr. Inglis. 
Kurseong Division (elevation 6,000 feet) he brought in one of each of 
Eicpatorus hardwickei and E. hardivickei canfori which he found stripping 
the bark from an Alder (Alnvs nepalensis). As far as I remember, he 
said the beetles were working vertically and doing a good deal of damage 
by stripping off about four feet of the bark all round the tree.] 

Orycles nasicornis, L. 
Arrow, F. I. Dynast., pp. 275-276 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 262. 

We have specimens from Quetta and had fcr determination from Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. Milne one specimen captured by him at Dalhousie. 

Recorded from Baluchistan, Kashmir, S. W. Asia, S. & S. E. Europe 
(Arrow). 

This species is not definitely known as a pest but probably attacks 
date-palms in North- West India. 



182 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIKD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. David. 
Mr. Ebare. 



Mi Ramakrishna 
Ayyar. 



Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 

Mr. Eunbi Eannan 

Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 

Mr. Senior- White. 



Oryctes rhinoctros, L. 

Arrow, F. I. Dynast., pp. 278-281, ff. 6, 63 ; S. I. I. p. 285, 
t. 3 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 135, 145, 259, 262. 

Throughout Southern India and Ceylon as far north as Pusa and 
Bandra, apparently not found in the United Provinces and we have 
no records from the Central Provinces. The larva occurs in farmyard 
manure, coffee pulp, rotting aloe stems and decaying vegetation generally, 
the adult beetle boring into crowns of palm trees, occasionally into 
sugarcane. It has been found in sugarcane at Coimbatore, and in 
Travancore is said to occur rarely in cane when 3-4 feet high. 

The Pusa Collection contains specimens from Pusa, Bangalore, 
Kanara, N. Coorg (larva in rotten cofiee pulp), Virajpet in S. Coorg 
(damaging coco palms) and Trichinopoly. 

The northern limit of the distribution of Orijdes rhinoceros in India 
does not seem to be definitely known. We have no records from the 
United Provinces and no specimens from the Central Provinces. 

It is not found at Cawnpur. 

In the Central Provinces we find it breeding in manure heaps. It 
is found throughout the Central Provinces. 

A new control method has been tried in Travancore. A powdered 
oil-cake is prepared from a plant called marrali (? Hydrocarjms sp.) 
and placed in the crowns of the palms. This has a strong emell and a 
bitter taste and probably acts as a repellent. 

How far is it actually practical ? 

I do not know. I have only heard of it. 

Fermented ragi water was tried in Mysore and found to attract the 
beetles in large numbers. 

Do the people keep pigs in these coconut-growing districts in Southern 
India ? 

No ; but they make pits filled with rubbish and when the beetles 
have collected they are killed oS. 

In Ceylon, in the low-country at an altitude of about 400 feet, the 
Singhalese keep pigs and, so far as I know, they do not have much 
trouble with Oryctes. 



Heteronyclius sacchari. Arrow. 
Arrow, F. I. Dyn., p. 297, f. 69. 
Eecorded by Arrow from Rangpur (Bengal) and 
considerable injury to sugarcane." 
No specimens in Pusa Collection. 



reported as causing 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 183 

Allissonotutn ficeum, Fb. 
Arrow, F. I. Dynast., p. 299 ; Ann. Kept. Impl. Entom, 1917-18, p. 93. 

Recorded from Darjiling, Sundarbans, Dacca, Malabar, Ceylon 
{Arrow). 

The Pusa Collection contains specimens from Dacca, Chapra, and 
Pusa, where the larva was found boring into sugarcane shoots, and 
the adults occur at roots of Saccliarum sfonianexmi in some numbers 
from July to September. 

Alissonoimn simile. Arrow. 
F. I. Dynast., p. 300-301 ; Ann. Kept. Impl. Entom. 1917-18, p. 93. 
Recorded from Assam (Dilkoosha), Sylhet and Pusa (Arrow). 
The Pusa Collection only contains examples from Pusa, where the 
adults occur at light in June and July, and the larva has once been found 
in a sugarcane field in May. The larva probably eats roots in the same 
way as A. ficeum. 

Pentodon bispinifrons, Reitter. 

Arrow, F. I. Dyn., p. 303 ; Proc. Second Entl.' Meeting, p. 146. 

Recorded from Bannu, Baluchistan, Karachi, Persia and Turkestan 

(Arrow). The Pusa Collection contains specimens from Lyallpur, 

Baroda (adult, labelled " sugarcane " 17 August 1907), Pusa (adults at 

hght), Simla (adult, July 1909), and Chapra. 

This species probably bores into cane in the same way as P. benga- 
lense. 

Pentodon bengahnse, Arr. 

Arrow, F. I. Dyn., p. 304, f. 71 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 146. 

Recorded by Arrow from Pusa and Rajmahal. The Pusa Collection 
contains specimens from Chapra, Pusa (larva at roots of sugarcane) 
and Peshawar, where the adult has been found destroying sugarcane 
shoots by burrowing in below ground. 

PJiyllognathiis dionysius, Fb. 

Arrow, F. I. Dynast., pp. 307-308, f. 73 ; Ent. Mem. II, 139- 

143, t. 13 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 174. 

The Pusa' Collection contains specimens from Simla, Dehra Dun, 

Pusa, Chapra, Hoshangabad, Seoni, Igatpuri, Belgaum, S. Kanara and 

€oimbatore, whilst Arrow also records it from Kurseong, Purnea District, 



184 PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Chota Nagpur. Calcutta, Mysore and Ceylon. The adult beetle was 
found in S. Kanara cutting stems of young rice-plants on one occasion, 
and the larvee were found in numbers at roots of rice-plants at Belgaum. 
It is apparently a sporadic pest of paddy. 

LUCANID.^. 

Lucanxis lunifer, Hope. 
Stebbing, Ind. For. Ins. Col., pp. 70-72. ff. 37, 38. 
This species occurs throughout the Himalayan region, the larva 
feeding in rotten wood. We have it from Dehra Dun and Ramgarh. 

At Ramgarh, Kumaon District, two male specimens were given me 
in August 1918 by Mr. N. Gill as having been found boring into peach 
fruits about the middle of July. The beetles are said to do considerable 
damage in this way and to bore into sound ripe fruits. 

SCOLYTID^. 

Xylehoms fomicaius, Eich. 
This Scolytid is the well-known and destructive " shot-hole borer " 
of Ceylon and has been reported as found in Travancore also, but this 
latter record appears to be uncertain. At Bangalore it has been reared 
from bored castor stems. 

Plants over a year old were attacked. The whole stem was bored. 
Ail stages were found in the stem — eggs, grubs and beetles. 

Mr. Speyer states that castor is the normal food of this insect. He 
came to this conclusion by a comparison of the galleries in castor and 
tea. He believes that it-comes into tea as an overflow when its numbers 
have increased too much on castor. In the Tea districts of Ceylon 
the planting of castor has been prohibited. It is extending its range 
in Ceylon. 

It is strange that it is such a bad pest of tea in Ceylon but not in 
South India. 

Mr. Speyer is now recommending fish-oil paints on the tea-bushes. 
His Bulletin on the subject is expected shortly and will contain all the 
information. 

[Xylehorus sp. 
Another species of Xijleborus was found in and around Surat damag- 
ing date and coconut pahns. This appears to be a new pest in this 
locality and has been noticed to spread gradually into the surrounding 
gardens at Surat. This insect was found to damage the tree by making 
very small holes of the size of the head of an ordinary pin. The damage 



PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOCUCAL MEETING 185 

commences from a foot or two above ground- level and goes upwards. 
It appears to be a serious pest in this limited area. 

See also the Scolytid on coconut in Madras. Possibly both species 
are identical. — Editor.] 

( Undetermined Scolytid.) 
S. I. I., pp. 344-345, fig. 203 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 37. 
This Scolytid occurred very abundantly in cardomom capsules in Mr. Fletcher, 
Coorg in 1913 and damaged a large percentage of the crop, but has not 
been reported again. 

( Undetermined Scolytid.) 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 261. 
An imdetermined Scolytid has been reported to bore in the stems of 
coconut palms at Negapatam and m the Godavari district, killing the 
attacked trees. It is also reported to be a bad pest of coconut in N. 
Kanara, but very little seems to be known about this insect. 

( Undetermined Scolytid.) 
Another undetermined Scolytid has 'been reported as damaging 
Hevea rubber trees, by boring the bark, on the Moopli Valley Estate. 
It is said to attack healthy trees. 

Platypodid^. » 

[? Crossofarsus, sp. 
A Platypodid has been reported as attacking Hevea rubber trees in Mr. Ramakrishna 
Travancore also.] Ayyar. 

OUECULIONID^. 

Blosynis asellus, Linn. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure, I. p. 33 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 292. 

The Pusa Collection contains specimens from Simla, Chapra, MuzafE- Mr. Fletcher 

arpur and Pusa and Marshall also records it from Bengal, Assam, 

Burma, Andamans, Cambodia, Malacca, Sumatra, Borneo and the 

Philippines. 

At Pusa the adults have been foimd on cotton and on sweet-potato 
in small numbers, but it is probably not a pest. 



186 PEOCF.EDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



•J.S incequalis, Boh. 
MshlL, F. I. Cure, I, pp. 35-36 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 61, 81. 

This species seems to be restricted to Southern India. We have 
it from Yemmiganur, Adoni and Hadagalli (all in Bellary), Coimbatore, 
and Nellikuppam (S. Arcot) and Marshall also records it from Sampgaou, 
Belgaum, Mysore, Bangalore, Pondicherry, Nagodi (S. Kauara), N. 
Coorg, and Anuradhapura. 

At Adoni the adults were found on gingelly, at Hadagalli on cluster 
beans, and at Nellikuppam in August 1912 on indigo in some numbers. 

Tanymecus sciurus, Oliv. 
Mshll., F. I. Cure. I, pp. 76-78, f. 24^ ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 149. 

We have this from Eastern Bengal and Assam (I. R. 357-V of 1 
August 1907), Chapra and Pusa, and Marshall also records it from Chota 
Nagpm" and Patna. At Pusa it has been found on sugarcane on two 
occasions and in small numbers on cotton. 

I found it doing a certain amount of damage to sugarcane at Rangpur. 
It eats the soft leaves of the young shoots. 

Tanymecus princeps, Fst. 
Mshll., F. I. Cure, I, 97, f. 2U ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 103. 

We have this from Surat,- where it was found " on cotton leaves," 
from Hoshangabad, and from Palamau, where D. P. Singh found it 
commonly in October 1906. It is also recorded by Marshall from Nag- 
pur, Belgaum, and N. Kanara. At Belgaum it was found on beans or 
other plants bordering rice-fields (Marshall). 

Tanymecus hispidus, Mshll. 

F. I. Cure. I. 98, f. 24< ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 103, 
149, 168, 190, 207, 254. 
The larva has been found at Pusa in sugarcane fields. The Pusa 
Collection contains specimens from Rohtak (Punjab), found on cotton, 
from Pusa, Dholi and Cooch Behar, and Marshall also records it from 
Rampurchaka, Bijnor District, United Provinces, and Jallandhur. It 
is of very minor importance as a rule, occurring at Pusa on maize, rice, 
sugarcane, lucerne and leaves of Dalbergia sissu and Zizyphus jiijuba, 
but at Dholi [near Pusa] in June 1909 it was reported to be attacking 
maize and in March 1918 it was sent in to us by Messrs. Turner, Morrison 
& Co. as found in fairly large numbers on a sugarcane plantation in 
Cooch Behar. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 187 

Tanymecvs indicus, Fst. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure, pp. 99-100, f. 32 ; Proc. Secoad Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 69, 81, 96, 97, 134, 168, 180, 186, 190, 193, 273, 283. 
Our records include the following localities and foodplants : — 

Lahore ..... On wheat. 
Lyallpur ..... 

Jhclum On wheat. 

Burhapur, U. P. . . .On poppy (opium). 

Pusa ..... On maize, indigo, sann-hemp, sunBowei', 

rice, jute. J?/ar, at Sacclmnim sp. roots. 
Muzaffarpur .... 
Chapra ... . . On rice. 

Nagpur ..... Safflower. 
Fyzabad, U. P. . . . . Damaging poppy seedlings. 

It is an occasional bad pest of yoimg wheat (when 5-6 inches high) 
in the Punjab and once occuired in numbers on beetroot at Pusa. SpUt 
pumpkins, placed at dusk and examined before sunrise, may be used 
as traps for the beetles. Marshall also records it as a pest of gram and 
barley, and at Surat the adults attack ji(or seedlings and do some damage. 

I found it a serious pest of juar seedlings at Surat last year. A Mr. Jhaveri. 
bait of cut pumpkins and heaps of uprooted weeds, put in the rows, 
attracted large numbers of beetles. It is also found on cotton. 

In Madras it is found on cotton. Mr. Ramakrishna. 

Ayyar. 

Atmetonychiis peregrinns, Ohv. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure, I. pp. 112-113, f. 37 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 123, 253, 273, 285. 
We have this from Amballa, Fyzabad, Chapra, Pusa, Cuttack and Mr. Fletcler. 
Eastern* Bengal and Assam. At Pusa the adults have been found on 
jute and on two occasions on ber, at Amballa on hhindi. at Cuttack on 
potato leaves, whilst at Fyzabad it was reported on opium poppy on 
16th December 1904 and again as damaging poppy seedlings on lith 
January 1918. 

Hypomeces squamosus, F. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure, I. pp. 116-117, f. 39 ; Proc. Second Entl. 

Meeting, pp. 128, 296. 

This species is apparently common in Burma and we have it from 

Myitkyina, Mandalay, Tagimding, Minbu and Moulmein. At Myitkyina 

the adults occurred on orange and on Hibiscus rosasinensis, and at 

Mandalay K. D. Shrofi found it on Amaranthus. 

In South India and Assam it defoliates teak, etc. Mr. 



188 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Dereodus pollinosus, Pedt. 
MshU., F. I. Cure, I. 121 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 136, 248. 
Marshall records this from Kumaon, Nepal, Kashmir and Baluchistan, 
and we have it from Masuri, Simla, Kulu, Amritsar, and Dera Ghazi 
Khan (I. E. 86-V, 12 May 1908). 

At Amritsar it was found on Calotropis and at Kulu it was found 
attacking and defoliating wild apples. 



Asiijcus lateralis, Fb. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure, I. pp. 139-140 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 42, m, 103, 149. 

Marshall records this as widely distributed in India, Burma, Siam 
and Malay Peninsula, and in Ind. Mus. Notes, IV, 184 (1899) it was 
reported as attacking tea plants in Assam and defoliating mulberry 
bushes at Rangoon. 

Our specimens show the following locaUties and records : — 

Pusa, on cluster bean, jute, inarua, sugarcane, bhindi, juar, and 
Erythrina indica leaves. It occurs mostly during the Rains 
and is sporadically abundant on cotton ; 

Cawnpur, on cotton ; 

Dehra Dun ; 

Chapra ; 

Tatkon, on sugarcane ; 

Lashio ; 

Maymyo ; 

Insein ; ♦ 

Myitkyina, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves ; 

Nagpur, does a little damage to cotton and tur ; 

Khasis ; 

Travancore, on Amaranthui ; 

Mercara ; 

Multan ; 

Belgachia ; 

Narayanganj ; 

Cuttack. 

Mr. Misra Sporadically it occurs in large numbers on cotton, particularly in 

the rains. 
JHi. Ghosh It ip quite common on sann-herap also. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD IJNTOMOLOGICAL MElill>\i 189 

Tylopholis ballahli, Mshll. 
F. I. Cure. I. 157-158, f. 50 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 50. 
This species was found in the Bellaiy District, at Yemmiganur, Mr. Fletcher, 
attacking steins of Bengal gram. I have no fiirther information about 
it. 

Sympiezomias fraler, Mshll. 

F. I. Cure. I. 164 ; Proe. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 29. 
Recorded by Marshall from the Nilgiris, Balur, Yereaud, and Coorg. 
At Yereaud, in April-May 1913, it occurred on coffee in some numbers, 
but is probably only a very minor pest ; it was also taken by C. W. 
Mason on coffee in the Shevaroys, in August 1907. We also have speci- 
mens from Sidapur (May 1914) and Pollibetta (September 190.3). 

Sympiezomias cretaceus, Fst. 
Mshll., F. I. Cure. I. 167 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 29, 255. 
This species has been found on mulberry at Bangalore on 26th August 
1913, and on coffee at Hillgrove (Nilgiris) on 3rd September 1908. We 
also have it from Bailur Forests, Coimbatore District, on 23rd Novem- 
ber 1913, and from the Nilgiris. It is doubtful how far it is a pest. 

Sympiezomias decipiens, Mshll. 

F. I. Cure. I. 167 : Proc. Second Ent. Meeting, p. 37. 

This species was reported in May 1913 as injuring young Java Ledger 

Cinchona in the Kukal Orange Valle}-, Nilgiris, by eating the leaves. 

The leaves sent were seriously injured. It is recorded by Marshall as 

occurring in the Nilgiris (1,000-6,000 feet) and in Pirmaad, Travancore. 

Episomus Jacerta, Fb. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure., I. 223-225, f. 66A- ; S. I. I. pp. 327-328, f. 
184 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 42, 56, 77, 121, 187. 

This is a South Indian species, which we have from Surat, Cuttack, 
Samalkota, Bellary, South Arcot, Coimbatore, Pollibetta and Mercara. 
At Surat it was found on bajra, at Samalkota on t^lr, and in Bellary, 
S. Arcot and Coimbatore on pulses. At Coimbatore it has been found 
eating field bean leaves in numbers. Throughout Coorg it is common 
on Erythrina, eating the leaves. 

It is recorded by Lefroy {Ind. In?. Life, p. 384) as eating cotton 
baik, but this is perhaps an error of determination. 



190 



PROCEEDINGS 01' THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



It is very common in Southern India, especially on leguminous 
crops. 

Emperorrhimis defoliator, Mshll. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure, I. 286-287 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting,. 
pp. 240, 245, 247, 248, 250. 

This species occurs in Kulu, Kurseong, Darjiling and the Khasi 
Hills. At Kulu it appears first on Alnus nitida, and then attacks peach,. 
then apricot and pear, apple being touched last. It is a serious local 
pest of fruit-trees in Kulu. 



Myllocervs vtridanus, Fb. 

. Mshll., F. I. Cure, I. 301-303, f. 93 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 81, 88, 92, 123, 134, 231. 

This small greyish or pale-greenish weevil seems to be confined to 
South India and Ceylon. We have it from Madura, on castor ; Tanjore ; 
Manaparai ; Palur, on guava leaves and in numbers on groimdnut ; 
Coimbatore, on castor ; Chepauk, on groundnut ; Shoranur (Malabar), 
on bhindi ; Kumbakonam, on jute ; Nellikuppam, on indigo ; and Tri- 
chinopoly, on groundnut in numbers in August 1908. 

It is sometimes a bad pest of groundnut in Southern India. 



Myllocerus seti(^ if er, J) esh. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, IV, p. Ill, t. 8, f. 2 (1899) ; Mshll., F. L 
Cure, I. 312-313. 

This species has been recorded from Dehra Dun where the adults 
were found damaging rose flowers in the Forest School Garden. The 
Pusa Collection contains no specimens. 



Myllocerus dorsatus, Fb. 
Mshll., F. I. Cure, I. .320-321 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 65, 92. 
We have this from the following localities and foodplants : — Kum- 
bakonam (Madras), sword-bean leaves ; Trichinopoly, on Margosa [Melia 
azadirachia] leaves ; Tranquebar ; Villupuram (Madras), on groundnut ; 
and Manaparai. Marshall also records it from the Nilgiris, Pondicherry,. 
Bangalore, Belgaum, Nagpur, Calcutta and Pusa. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 191 

Myllocerus blandus, Fst. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure, I. 333-334, f. 101 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 69, 96, 123, Ul, 168, 180, 190, 195, 256, 287. 
Marshall gives the distribution of this species as Godavari District, 
Pusa, Dacca, Siripur, Sarda, Prome, Mandalay and Yenangyaung. 
The Pusa Collection contains specimens from : — 
Pusa, on bhindi, sunflower, rice, cane, carrot, strawberry plant, 
sissu, sann-hemp, maize, wheat leaves, Tamarix, cucumber leaves, 
eating guava and pumpkin leaves, pupa underground in indigo field ; 
Sirsiah (N. Bihar) ; Lyallpur, on brinjal ; and Fyzabad, damaging 
poppy seedlings. 

MyUocerus sabvlosus, Mshll. 

Mshll. F. I. Cure. I. 336-337 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 

pp. 102, 219, 231, 254, 292. 

Marshall records this from Chota Jfagpur, Purneah, Ranchi, Dehra 

Dun and Madras. The only specimens that we have are from Pusa, 

where it has been found in some numbers on Zizyphus jujuha, on cotton 

and sweet-potato and devouring young mango leaves. 

Myllocerus transmarinus, Hbst. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure. I. 337-338, f. 102 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 102, 254. 
Marshall records this from the Punjab, United Provinces, Calcutta, 
Chota Nagpur, Central Provinces, and along the Western Ghats to 
Bellary. 

We have it from Chapra and Pusa. At Pusa it occurs mostly on 
Zizyphus jitjuba and has also been found on cotton and eating young 
leaves of Dalbergia sissu. It is not a pest as a rule. 

Myllocerus subfasciatus. Guar. 

Mshll, F. I. Cure. I. 345-346 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 285, 287. 
This species occurs in Madras, S. Bombay, Central Provinces, Burma 
and Ceylon. We have it from the Nilgiris, OotacSmund, Saidapet 
(Madras), Coimbatore and Virajpet (S. Coorg). At Saidapet and Coim- 
batore it has been found eating brinjal leaves and at Ootacamund on 
potato leaves, and it is sometimes a bad pest of these crops. 

In Ceylon it does some damage to brinjal, attacking the flowers and air, Senior-White. 
buds. 



192 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Myllocerus deniifer, F. 

Mshll., F. I. Cuic. I. 347-348; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 

_ pp. 92, 168, 201. 

This species occurs in Ceylon (low country), throughout Madras 

and Orissa to Palamau and Chota Nagpur. We have it from Colombo ; 

Palamau ; Shoranur (Malabar), on paddy ; and Palur (S. Arcot) on 

groundnut and tenui. 

It is probably quite a minor pest, often found intermixed with other 
species of Myllocerus. 

Myllocerus discolor. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure. I. 348-350, f. 106; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 92, 102, 126, 134, 141, 146, 168, 192, 195, 216, 
219, 231, 250, 254. 

M. discolor has been reared at Pusa from larvae found at roots of 
sugarcane and maize. It is a widely-distributed species, which we 
have from the following localities and foodplants : — Simla ; Patiala ; 
Pusa, adults on Eribotrya japonica (loquat), lucerne, guava, sugarcane, 
wheat, ber {Zizyphus jtijuba), young mango leaves, jute, rice, bael, and 
cotton ; Kanti (Bengal), on cotton ; Jamalpur (Bengal), on grass and 
ber ; Comilla ; Cuttack ; E. Bengal and Assam ; Bangalore ; Coimbatore, 
adults on wheat and Hibiscus cannabinvs, larva at roots of tenai (Setaria 
italica) ; and Palur, on groundnut. 

It is a common species, often occurring in sufficient numbers to 
constitute it at least a minor pest. 

It is found on every crop but is not serious to any as a rule. In one 
year, however, it was a pest. 

Myllocerus 11 — fustulatus, Fst. 

Mshll., F. I. Cure. I. 350-352. [Includes vars. fistor, maculosus 

and marmoratus] ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 42, 72, 

96, 102 (tab), 121, 123, 126, 141, 180, 187, 190, 192, 200, 

202, 219, 231, 232, 248, 254, 256. 

This Myllocerus is a common and widely-distributed species and a 

general feeder on almost all plants. It has been reared at Pusa from 

larvae found at roots of cotton and maize. The Pusa Collection contains 

the following records of adults : — Multan ; Amritsar, on cotton ; Lyall- 

pur, on cotton ; Lahore, on cotton and bajra ; Dehra Dun ; Cawnpur, 

on cotton ; Baktiarpur, on tender mango leaves ; Pusa, on cotton, 

maize, sunflower, ber, lur, bhituJi, mango, sugarcane, pomegranate, 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 193 

guava, strawberry, Panicum frumeniaceum, viania, and amhadi ; 
Dacca ; Kanti (Bengal), on cotton ; Manjri (Bombay), on cotton ; Surat, 
on maize ; Poona, on ambadi, bhiiuU, cotton, maize and millets ; Banga- 
lore, on apple shoots and branches ; and Coimbatore, on dwlam. Es- 
pecially a pest of cotton, but often of other plants also. 

Has any one any remarks to offer on the control of these species of Mr. Fletcher. 
Myllocents generally \ 

We tried dusting the attacked plants with lead arlenate and a number Mr. Eamakrishna 
of beetles were killed ; but this is a measure which we should not Ayyar. 
advise on any large scale to the raiyats. 



Sitones crinilus, Ohv. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 81, 207, 208. 
This species has been found in Champaran and at Dalsing Serai 
<N. Bihar) on indigo and at Pusa on lucerne in some numbers and also 
on senji, cabbage, wheat-ear, jute and ber. It is not a pest as a rule. 

It can be controlled by shaking it off with brushes made of twigs. jjj,_ juisra. 

Pellotrachelus pubes, Fst. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 211. 

We have this from Gorakhpur, Pusa, Cuttack, the Nilgiris and the 

Shevaroys. In the Shevaroy Hills it occurred .on orange and is a minor 

pest. At Pusa it has been found on ZizypJius jitjuba in small numbers, 

whilst the specimens from Cuttack were found in Termites' nests [!]. 

Platymyclerus sjostedti, Mshll. 
We have this from Dehra Dun, Chapra, Pusa and Daltonganj. At 
Pusa it has been found on grass, Dalbergia sissii, tender mango leaves, 
sann hemp and jute, and at Daltonganj* on ber. It usually occurs in 
small numbers and has not yet been noted as a pest. 

Phytoscaphus triangularis, 01. 
yfe have this from Pusa, on bamboo, pear, cotton leaf, sann hemp, 
■ber, rice, cane leaves, indigo, jute, sweet potato, dhaincha, tur, and maize ; 
from Cawnpur, on groundnut ; Pratapganj (Bengal) ; and from Dalton- 
ganj. 

It occurs as a rule in small numbers and has not been noted as a pest. 

o2 



194 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Phytoscafhus dissimilis, Mshll. 

Bull. Ent. Ees. V. iv fig. ; Entl. Note 26 ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 21. 
This species has been found in Assam, nibbling young tea-shoots. 

Amblyrrhimts ■poricolUs, Boh. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 219. 
This has been found at Pusa, on tender mango leaves, bael, Albizzia 
lebbek, sissu leaves, litchi, and mango inflorescence ; at Cuttack, on ber ; 
at Pithapuram (Godavari), on country almond leaves {Terminalia) ; 
and at Hagari, on agathi. 

Hypera medicaginis, Mshl. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 207 (tab.), 208. 
This has been reared at Pusa from larvae on lucerne, pea, senji {Meli- 
lotus alba), Lathyrvs hirsvta, and a weed locally called akta. It is a 
sporadic minor pest of these plants when cultivated. 

The pupse are prominent on the leaves and may be picked ofi. 
Spraying is out of the question. 

Hypera variabilis, Hbst. 
We have this from Tarnab and Charsada in the North- West Frontier 
Province ; Lyallpur, on lucerne leaves ; Jallandhar ; Lahore, on senji ; 
and from Pusa, larva? on lucerne. It is a sporadic minor pest of trefoils. 

Xanthotrachelus faunus, Ohv. 

Entl. Note 27 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 96, 253. 

We have this from Chapra, Pusa, Khandala, Cuttack and Maymyo. 

At Pusa the adults occur commonly on ber and have been found attacking 

sun-flower heads, whilst a few have also been taken on rice and grass. 

Xanthotrachelvs perlatus, Fb. 

Entl. Note 27 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 96. 

We have this from Masuri, Dehra Dun, Lahore, Muzafiarpur, Pusa 

and Daltonganj. At Pusa the adults were found attacking newly-formed 

sun-flower heads and a few have also been taken on castor and cotton^ 

At Daltonganj this weevil was foimd on Bvtea frondosa. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 195 

XantJiotrachelus swperciliosus, Gyll. 
Proc. Second Eutl. Meeting, p. 96. 
We have this from Belgaum, Chapra, Pusa and Tharrawaddy. At 
Pusa it has been found on ber and a few adults were also found attacking 
sunflower heads in company with the two preceding species. 

Atadogaster finiiimus, Fst. 

S. I. I., p. 333, f. 191 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 98, 102. 

We have this from Nathampatti (Ramnad) and Koilpatti, where the 

adults were found devouring young cotton plants. In Ind. Museum 

Notes (Vol. IV, pt. Ill, p. 112 (1899)) this species is also recorded as 

damaging young cotton and gram shoots at Tinnevelly. 

During the last two or three years we have found it in small numbers, mi. Ramakrishna 

Have you found it at Coimbatore ? Mr. Fletcher. 

It is found, but not as a pest. - Mr. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar. 

Lixus brachyrrhiniis, Boh. 

S. 1. 1., pp. 331-332, f. 189 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 296 (tab.). 

Lixus brachyrrhinus is a widely distributed species, contained in the Mr, Fletcher. 
Pusa Collection from : — Lahore, on Amaranthus ; Cawnpur, on Niger 
seed ; Nagpur ; Balaghat (Central Provinces) ; Igatpuri ; Surat ; Poona ; 
Bangalore ; Coimbatore, on Amaranthus ; Erode, on Amaranthus : Trichi- 
nopoly ; Manaparai ; Chingleput, on Amaranthus ; Cuttack ; Chapra ;■ 
Pusa, on indigo, larva on Amaranthus ; Daltonganj, on ber leaves ; 
Mandalay, on Amaranthus and ber ; Meiktila (Upper Burma) ; and 
Minbu (Lower Burma). 

It is a specific pest of Amaranthus, the larva boring in the stem and 
causing a gall-like swelhng, but the attack usually takes place at a 
time when the plant is past the period for consumption. 

Paramecaps farinosus, Wied. 
S. 1. 1., pp. 332-333, f. 190 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 136, 137. 
We have this from Taru (North- West Frontier Province), on Calo- 
tropis ; Lyallpur, on Cahtropis ; Lahore ; Igatpuri ; Bor Ghat ; 
Coimbatore, on Cahtropis ; and Pusa, on Cahtropis. 

It is a specific pest of Cahtropis, although adults have been takeo 
on rice at Pusa on two occasions. 



lyO PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGIC.U, MEETING 

Apoderus franquebaricus, F. 
S. 1. 1., pp. 335-336, f. 193 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 219, 246. 
We have this from Saidapet, Chepauk, Chittur, and South Arcot. 
It occurs on country almond {Terminalia calappa) and less commonly 
on mango, twisting the leaves, but it is scarcely a pest. 



Cylas fonnicarins, Fb. 
S. Ind. Ins. pp. 334-335, t. 12 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 293. 

This weevil occurs abundantly in all districts south of the United 
Provinces and is a very serious pest of sweet potato. We discussed this 
fairly fully at the last Meeting and I do not think there is much to add. 
The best preventive method that we can recommend at present is early 
harvesting. 

At Pusa it only damages the July crop and not the winter crop. The 
only possible remedy is the use of early harvesting varieties. 

In the winter there are no beetles about at Pusa and so there is no 



Deep-rooting varieties are not so badly attacked. 
But later on the beetles get down even into deep-rooting varieties. 
Is it recorded that the beetles are attracted to light ? 
They come in to light commonly but not in large enough numbers' 
to use that as a means of control. 

Has anyone reared any parasites from this species ? If anyone comes 
any effective parasite, we should hke to know about it. 



Balaninvs c-albmn, Fb. 

Ann. Kept. Impl. Entom. 1917-18, p. 102, t. 18, f. 1 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 247. 

We have this from Pusa and Eastern Bengal and Assam (probably 
Dacca). It also occurs at Poona. The life-history, damage, and control 
were treated of in my last Annual Report and we have no more to add 
to that. 

It was reared in Poona from seeds of Evgenia jamhohna. In our 
district most of the fruits are attacked. Is there any remedy ? 

The collection and destruction of the seeds is the only measure that 
is possible. 

Has the life-history been worked out in Bombay and, if so, is it the 
same as at Pusa ? 

It is the same as at Pusa. 



PROCEEDINGS OF TUE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 197 

[Balaninus sp. 

lu 1917 a large number of jamun fruits which had a pitted or distorted Mr. Khare> 
appearance were examined. It was thought first of all that each of the 
pits might have been a passage through which the egg was deposited. 
The pulp of the fruit was carefully examined, but no trace of any insect 
could be got. When the entire pulp was scraped off some brownish scars 
were noticed on the skin which was peeled off and the scars were noticed 
deep in the seed. On cutting open the seed, a whitish grub was found 
either in the centre of the seed or in the deep scars. Usually one grub 
is found in each seed, but sometimes more than one may be got. The 
pits on the fruits must have been made by the adult by thrusting their 
proboscis to feed on, which ultimately never heal up. The grubs remain 
inside, eat up, make the seed hollow and fill up with excreta, etc. These 
do not come out of themselves by biting a way through, but wait till 
the fruits drop on the ground. The fruits drop in large numbers on the 
ground and rot. The upper skin and pulp are all removed and the seeds 
are exposed. The seeds of Jamun fruits germinate very quickly and in 
such process the two cotyledons split up and liberate the encased grub. 
The grubs later on get into the moist soil, prepare several small earthen 
chambers, many of which are found lumped up together. If these 
chambers are periodically opened, one sees the grub lying inside. This 
shows that aestivation of the grub takes place in the soil, till the following 
April or May when they pupate and emerge as weevils, but in some cases 
weevils emerged in August, i.e.. within three months. This weevil is 
of the same shape and size as the one described in the report of the Imperial 
Entomologist of 1917-18, p. 102, but in colour it is uniformly brown and 
does not possess the whitish lines on the elytra. Mr. Naoroji kindly 
identified the specimens and put them under the genus Balaninus.] 



Eugnamftus marginatus, Pasc. 

S. I. I., pp. 329-331, ff. 186-187 ; Ann. Kept. 1917-18, p. 99, 
t. 16, f. 1 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 219. 

Our records include the following localities and foodplants : — Dehra Mr. Fletcher^ 
Dun, adults defoliating Bvtea frondosa ; Poona, mango leaves ; Nagpur, 
young mango leaves ; Pusa, mango leaves, the young leaves being com- 
pletely eaten at times ; Sabour, mango leaves ; Maymyo, tender mango 
leaves. 

The life-history has already been described and figured. 

At IVehra Dun it defohates Bntea frondosa. Mr. Beeson. 

At Dacca it does sUght damage by cutting the soft leaves of mango. Mr. P. C. Sen, 



Mr. Fletcher. 



iy» PHOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Apion sp. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 134. 

This species occurs throughout the jute-growing districts of Bengal 
and Bihar as a minor pest of jute, sporadically serious. The larva bores 
just at the junction of the leaf-petiole with the stem and cuts through a 
good many of the fibres. The attacked leaf withers and droops and 
this indicates the presence of the grub. No control measures can be 
suggested at j^resent. 

It was found doing considerable damage to jute plants grown in pots 
[at Dacca], Though it is common in jute fields, it has not been found 
doing much damage. When it attacks the tops of young plants, it does 
considerable damage, but when it attacks side-shoots of old plants the 
damage is not appreciable. Generally the young affected plants, which 
are not too many, are uprooted at the time of weeding and thinning. 
In the pot-culture house the affected shoots were removed and the grubs 
destroyed. 

Once I found it very bad on jute at Munshiganj. The plants were 
riddled and the fibre unfit for use. It is not known to occur every year. 
No remedy has been tried. 

{Jute Apion.) 
S. I. I., p. 331, f. 188 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 134. 
This occurs in Godavari and Bellary, in May and June, the larva 
boring stems and shoots of jute. It may be identical with the preceding, 
but we have no specimens in the Pusa collection for comparison. 

Apion sp. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 45. 
This species attacks Cajanus indicus in Burma, but we have no 
further information about it. 

Alcides bubo, Fb. 
S. I. I., pp. 337-338, f. 96 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 61,73, 75, 81. 
We have this from Bhor Ghat, " on grass (Dixon)"; Chapra ; Cuttack, 
dhaincha stem ; Pollibetta (South Coorg) ; Podanur, on agathi ; Madura ; 
Saidapet, agaihi stem ; Palur, on indigo ; Villapuram and South Kanara, 
on cluster-bean. It is especially a pest of species of Sesbania, the larva 
boring in the stem and causing a gall-like swelling. Cutting off the 
bored stems, when these are in the top-shoots, seems the only practicable 
remedy. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 199 

Alcides collaris, Pasc. 
S. I. I., p. 337, f. 195 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 46, 52, 56. 
We have this from Sarai Saleh (Hazara district), Chapra, Pusa, 
Dharwar, and Hadagalli (Bellary District). At Dharwar it was reared 
from a pupa found in roots of Cajanus indicus and at Hadagalli adults 
were found on green-gram. It is apparently a minor pest of pulses. 

Green-gram and lablab are attacked in Madras. A swelling in the Mr. Ramachandra 
stem is produced and the stem breaks down. It is only a minor pest, ^^o- 

Alcides fabricii, Pb. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 57,121. 

We have this from Abbottabad ; Dehra Dun ; Bulsara (Bombay) ; Mr. Fletcher. 

Nagpur, on cotton ; Eanchi ; Bankura ; Coimbatore, on maize : 

Hadagalli, on horse- gram : Hagari, on paddy ; Calicut ; and 

Saidapet. 

It is doubtful whether it is a pest. 

Alcides leopardus, Oh v. 

S. I. I., p. 338-399, f. 127 [? affaber] ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 121, 125, 126. 
We have this from Pusa, Muzaffarpur and South Malabar. At 
Pusa the adults have been found on cotton, Cajanus indicus, sann hemp, 
and on sun-flower heads, the larva has been found boring in shoots and 
stems of cotton, and the pupa has been found in a bored stem of Cyno- 
glossum lanceolatum. In South Malabar the larva was found in a wild 
malvaceous plant. It is apparently a sporadic minor pest of cotton. 

I found it breeding in malvaceous plants in South Malabar. Mr, Ramakrishna 

Any cotton near by ? jlr. Fletcher. 

No. jlr, Ramakrishna 

At Pusa we get it on cotton but it is not ba 
which were sent to Dr. Howard for examination. 



At Pusa we get it on cotton but it is not bad. We found parasites mj. misra. 



Alcides affaber, Est. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 121, 126. 
This species occurs at Coimbatore in December-January, the larva Mr. Fletcher, 
boring into the stems of cotton, bhindt, and gogu. It is distinctly a pest. 
The account given of Akides leopardtis in South Indian Insects prob- 
ably refers wholly or in part to this insect. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Ramakrisbna 
Ayyar. 

Mr. Eamachandra 
Rao. 



It damages cotton in the same way as A. kopardus. It is distinctly 
a pest of Hibiscus mnnahinus but not a serious pest of cotton. 
At Palur and Saidapet tree-cottons were attacked. 

Alcides frenatus, Fst. 

Entl. Note, 28 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 221 ; Ann. 
Report, Impl. Entm. 1917-18, p. 103, t. 19, f. \a-g (1918). 

This species occurs at Dacca in July as a decided pest of mango, 
the larva boring the top-shoots. Eggs are deposited in the shoots which 
are tunnelled by the larva, whose pellets of excrement are thrown out 
through small holes gnawed at the base of the tunnel. Pupation takes 
place inside the larval burrow, the adult weevil gnawing its way out 
through a large hole of exit. The adult wee\'ils are foimd freely pairuig 
and o\'ipositing on the shoots. 

It is a rsgular pest of grafted mangoes in the Botanical Garden at 
Dacca. It occurs every year and does lAich damage. The eggs and 
gi'ubs are very commonly to be seen in the affected shoots. 

Can you give us some idea of the percentage of damage ? 

As many as seventy-five per cent, of new shoots are damaged. 

Have you tried picking oft the affected shoots ? 

We have tried picking the affected shoots with the eggs and grubs 
in them and also the beetles which are seen on the shoots. 

Were any effects noticeable the next year ? 

Next year it was not so bad. 

It is possible to pick off the afiected shoots, but the influence of picking 
on future years is not definitely known. 

Do you know its life-history throughout the year ? 

I have not studied it. 

The seasonal hfe-history is not known. At Pusa we had pupse in 
September. The beetles are only seen in July. 

Probably it hibernates as an adult until the new shoots come out. 



Alcides m-ali, Mshll. MS.* 
This species has been found at Shillong, the larva boring shoots of 
apple, causing a gall-Uke swelling. The adult weevil makes several, 
usually four, holes with its snout in a row in a tender shoot of apple and 
in one of these holes, and only in one, it deposits an egg. The larvae 
tunnel in- the stem, which becomes swollen in consequence. Pupation 
takes place in the larval tunnel. The Ufe-history is shown on the coloured 
plate [exhibited]. Control is practised by coUectmg the adult beetles as 

* Since described in Bull. Entom Bes. IX, pp. 276-277, t. 17 f. 3 (July 1919). 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 201 

they rest on the twigs and by cutting o£E the twigs which show the punc- 
tures or the swelling caused by the enclosed larva. 

Metialma halsaminw. Mots. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 268. 

We have this from Pusa, Matheran and Poona. The larvae bore in 
the stem of garden Balsams which show a characteristic gall-hke swelling 
and ultimately droop. Choice imported varieties seem more subject 
to attack. Specimens which may belong to this species have also been 
reared at Pusa from larvae in stems of Anisomeles ovato, but the identity 
of the wee^al is not certain. M. halsamrnce is scarcely a pest as a rule, 
except of choice varieties of Balsams. 

On the Bombay side the balsam plants are attacked and at the place Mr- Ramrao. 
where the grubs are situated the growth is stunted and the stem becomes 
weak ; the slightest wmd then breaks off the plants. 

Do you get many complaints about it around Poona ? Mr. Fletcher. 

Yes, we get many complaints. Mr. Ramrao. 

Have you anything to say about it, Mr. Ghosh ? Mr. Fletcher. 

At Pusa we get it, but the effect of attack takes place late in the Mr. Ghosh, 
season. 

In 1917, I got some seed of especially good varieties of balsam from ^^- ^''^^''•isr. 
Poona and, when the plants came up, they attracted more weevils than 
the local varieties and were very badl)' attacked. 

\Miite- stemmed balsams are more attractive than red-stemmed, ^'^- Ramrao. 
probably because the white-stemmed varieties are softer. 

Does it attack wild balsams ? Mr. Robertson- 

Brown. 

We do not know of its occurrence in any but cultivated balsams. ^^- Fletcher. 

I may say that swellings on the plants do not always contain a grub. ^^- Cf^osh. 

Pachytyckius mungonis, Mshll. 
S. Ind. Ins. p. 336, f. 194 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 52, 60, 73. 

This species is at present only known from Southern India where it ^'^- Fletcher, 
has been found to attack pods of 7nvng (green-gram), cowpea, and 
dhaincha. 

Ceuthorrhynchus asperulus, Fst. 

S. Ind. Ins. pp. 328-329, f. 185 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 43. 

This small weevil has been found in flowers of Cajanus indicus, in 

both larval and adult states, at Nagpur, in Gujarat, at Poona, Coimbatore, 

and in the Godavari district. I do not thhik there is more to add to 

what has already been said about it. 



502 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Mr. Fletcher. 
Mi. Ramiao. 



Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. Jhaveri. 
Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. Ramrao. 



I found it in Poena doing damage to the tur flowers which drop down 
with the grubs in them. The beetle wanders in unopened flowers, punc- 
tures them and lays eggs inside. The grubs eat the pollen and stigma, 
and, before the ovary develops, the flower falls off. 

What is the proportion of damage done ? 

A very large number of flowers is destroyed. It is not possible to 
state the exact amount of damage done. A very large number of weevils 
is found if the plant is shaken ; they drop to the ground and afterwards 
climb up again. 

We have not found this weevil at Pusa hitherto. 

It is also found in Gujarat and was a very serious pest last year. 

Are any control measures practised ? 
-The only method to apply is the collection of the beetles ; but it is 
difiicult to check them under field conditions. 



Rhynchcenus mangijerce, Mshll. 
S. Ind. Ins., p. 334, f. 192 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 220. 
Mr. Fletcher. This species occurs as far north as Pusa, where it is not common, but 

in Southern India it is sometimes a bad pest of mango, whose tender 
leaves are damaged by the mining of the larvae. It has been noted at 
Pusa, Peddavadlapudi (Guntur), Coimbatore, and in Mysore, and is 
probably widely distributed, although overlooked on account of its 
small size. 
Mr. Kunhi Kannan. BhyncJicBnus nmngiferce is bad in Mysore and we have not done any- 
thing for it. 
Mr. Ghosh. We bred it here. We do not find it every year and, when it does 

occur, it is found only in small numbers. 

Probably Pusa is at the extreme northern hmit of its distribution 
and the conditions here do not suit it very well, and so it does not 
do much damage. 

The adults feed gregariously on the leaves in Mysore, and the leaves 

an appearance like tissue-paper. 
If you get them in numbers together like that, you might be able to 
control them. 



Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Kunhi Kannan. 



Penipheres affinis, Fst. 

S. Ind. Ins., p. 339, ff. 198, 199 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 

120, 125, 126, 274. 

This species has been reared at Pusa fi'om larvae in stems of cotton, 

bkindi, Cannabis [? Hibiscus cannabinus] and Triumjetta sp. It is also 

common in cotton and gogu at Coimbatore and has been recorded from 



PROCEEDINGS Or THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 203 

Cuddapah. The distribution seems curious, as it is difficult to see how 
a pest of this kind could have been overlooked in the areas from which 
it is not known. The larva bores in the stem and produces a gall-Uke 
swelling at or usually just above ground-level ; the plant is weakened 
and, especially in the case of Cambodia cotton, may be broken off by the 
wind. Rigid elimination of all attacked plants seems to be the only 
practicable means of control. 

Pempheres affinis is not found in Bombay. Mr. Ramrao. 

There is no record of it in the Central Provinces. Mr. Khare. 

In Madras we find that its distribution is extending. It is the Cam- Mr. Ramakrishna 
bodia cotton which is generally attacked and, as the cultivation of this ^yyar. 
cotton is spreading, the insect is also getting into new localities. 

Is it already present in these districts or is it going with the Cambodia Mr. Fletcher, 
cotton ? 

It is already present and probably breeding on some wild plant, Mr. Ramakrishna 
as it is found where there is no cotton. Ayyar. 

At Pusa it has been found on a species of Triimfetta. Mr. Ghosh. 

We have worked out the life-history and we are trying to get it pub- Mr. Ramakrishna 
fished in Madras. Ayyar. 

What is the effect of the destruction of affected plants ? Mr. Fletcher. 

Some good would result only if all the people do it. Mr. Ramakrishna 

But has the complete removal of all the attacked plants had any Mr. Fletcher, 
effect on the Farm at Coimbatore ? 

No appreciable difference has been noticed ; but, if all do it, it might Mr. Ramakrishna 
have some effect. Ayyar. 

I understood that the regular removal of affected plants on the Mr. Fletcher. 
Coimbatore Farm had had some effect on lessening the incidence of 
attack over a term of years. But whether this was due to any lessening 
of the numbers of beetles present or to the gradual evolution of a more 
resistant variety of plant, by continual .selection from the non-attacked 
ones, is another question. It seems to me that a possible solution of 
the difficulty with regard to Cambodia cotton may be attained by getting 
a resistant race. 

The worst of it is that this Cambodia cotton is kept on in the fields Mr. Ramakrishna 
lor two or three years, so it is difficult to get rid of this beetle. That is ^yy^"^- 
because the insect breeds throughout the year and the cotton is there 
for it to breed in. If there were an arrangement to uproot all cotton 
plants before a certain date, it might prove useful. 

Is any variety of cotton more affected ? Tree cotton was tried at Mr. Misra. 
Pusa but was not immune. 

That was before my time. What height was the tree cotton when it Mr. Fletcher, 
was attacked ? 



204 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Mr. Misra. Four or five feet. The majority of the plants all fell down. In our 

experiments it was very bad, so much so that in one plot not a single 
plant was left. 

Adees cribratus, Gyl. 
Mr. Fletcher. This was found at Shillong in June-July 1918, the larva boring into 

the main stem of Ficus carica, doing considerable damage. 

The adult beetles occurred on the stems by day, and could be collected 
by hand, although they readily drop to the ground when disturbed. 

Specimens were sent to Dr. Marshall who informs me that it is a 
V ariety of Adees cribratus, Gyl. 

Crfiptorrhijnchus maiigiferce, Fb. 

S. I. I., p. 341, f. 200; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 225. 

This species seems to be confined to Southern India so far as its actual 

breeding-area is concerned. We have records from Trivandrum, Travan- 

■ core, Naduvatam (Nilgiris), Coimbatore, Palur (South Arcot), Lahore 

and EangooD. The Lahore specimen is definitely noted as " in imported 

mango." 

In some years ninety per cent, of the mango-stones may contain this 
insect in some stage, but the adults usually emerge after the fruit is ripe 
and so do comparatively little damage. 
Mr. Kunhi Kannan. At Bangalore I had adult weevils which remained alive in the stones 
until the following .July and they never left the stones. 

Cryptorrhynchus gravis, Fb. 
Ann. Rept., 1917-18, pp. 100-101 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 225. 
Mr. Fletcher. This species seems to be confined to Bengal, Assam and Burma. 

We have specimens from Pusa (on Bombax stem), Dacca, Rangpur, Silchar, 
and Maymyo. The Pusa record is of a single adult individual which 
almost certainly came from a mango fruit imported from Bengal, as it 
is not known to occur naturally in the Pusa district. 

Unlike C. mangijerw, the larva of C. gravis bores in the pulp of the 
mango fruit so that the fruit is badly damaged and in some districts 
the damage done may be very serious, a large proportion of the crop 
being destroyed. We have prepared a coloured plate [exhibited] showing 
the life-history of this insect but, as it does not occur at Pusa, we have 
not been able to follow the hfe-cycle throughout the whole year. It is 
probable that the insect hibernates as an adult in Bengal, but this requires 
local investigation. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 205 

Can you tell us something more about it, Mr. Sen ? 

(Jrypforrhynchus gravis does great damage to mango fraits in Bengal, jij. p, («. sg„_ 
The grub bores into the fruit and makes it useless, eatiug its way through 
the pulp. In some trees all the fruits are attacked. It is a regular 
pest attacking the same tree every year. The early maturing varieties 
of mango are more attacked than the late ones. 

Life-history. — Early in April the female weevil lays small white eggs 
(about 0'5 mm. long) on the surface of the fruit when it has attained 
nearly half its size. The egg is covered by a coating of black hard sub- 
stance giving the appearance of a black spot which is about 1 mm. long. 
From the egg hatches out a tiny white legless grub in a week or so which 
bores into the fruit and feeds within. The black coating then falls off and 
the wound also heals up to such an extent as not to be easily detected. 
The grub has 11 body segments. It continues to feed within till it 
is fullgrown in about a month. It then pupates inside and subsequently 
the weevil emerges by cutting its way out of the fruit. The life-history • 
occupies about a month and a half. It has only one brood in the year. 
Immediately after the mango season and during the rains it has been a 

found to hibernate in the bark of the affected tree either in its natural 
cracks or amongst the roots of epiphytes growing on them. 

It is a very bad pest in Eastern Bengal and Assam, but does not Mr. Ghosh, 
occur in Western Bengal although fruits from Eastern Bengal are carried 
all over the country. I brought some infected fruits to Pusa and found 
that the grubs did not live here after September. 

It ispecuhar that, although these fruits are exported in such quantities, Mr. Fletcher, 
this weevil does not Spread into adjacent mango-growing areas. 

It is believed in Sylhet that the same trees are attacked year after Mr. Ghosh, 
year and that neighbouring trees are not affected. But that is not a 
fact, for all trees are attacked indiscriminately. I found wild mango 
trees growing isolated in the jungle and these trees bore very small fruits, 
but even in these the weevils were present. This is an insect which 
requires working out. 

It is a bad pest throughout Assam. Mr. Gupta. 



Cryptorrhynchus poricoUis, Est. 
Entl. Note 28 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 225. 
Specimens of this weevil were found under bark at Dacca on 27th Mr. Fletcher. 
July 1911 by Mr. Nowroji who was sent to investigate the damage done 
by C. gravis. It has also been found underground in the adult state by 
Mr. Sen at Dacca. It is not definitely known that this species attacks 
mango. 



206 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



I have found them in numbers underground around the trunks of 

3es but have never found them breeding. 
I found it at Dacca under the bark of a mango tree. 

Pachyomjx qvadridens, Chevr. 
At our First Meeting, in February 1915, this species was reported 
as found on Butea frondosa in the Northern Circle of the Central Provinces 
and was said to kill the trees. We have adults from Khandesh and from 
Banga (Punjab) ; these latter were taken on Bvtea frondosa on 19th 
September 1905. We have no further information about it, but it would 
appear that this weevil is a pest of Butea which, I may remind you, is an 
important host-tree of lac in many districts. 

Desinidofhorus hebes, Fb. 
Ind. Mus. Notes I 58, II vi 151, III i 23 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 128, 131. 

We have this from Dehra Dun, Pusa, Darbhanga, and Nongpoh 
(Khasi Hills). 

In Indian Mvseum Notes this species is recorded as attacking young 
Hibiscus plants in the Rajbagh, Darbhanga, eating the young stems and 
in some cases causing the young plants to die. On 9th July 1906 the 
Superintendent of the Rajbagh sent us further specimens and wrote : — 
" they have been damaging plants and are particularly fond of eating 
the new tops and chewing the lower parts of almost all the shoots. I get 
them caught by hundreds every morning and evening." 

This species was also sent in to us, the adult beetles damaging Bombax 
seedlings, defoliating those of one to two years old ; these beetles appeared 
in the third week of April 1904 in the Tista Forest Division. 

It has not been noted as a pest at Pusa. 

I have only seen this in one year when this weevil appeared in millions 
in one local area and attacked the garden Hibisnts and did much damage. 

Acythopeus citrulli, Mshll. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 306. 
This species was reported from Hagari (Bellary) as a bad pest of 
water-melons in April 1908, the grubs boring into the side in contact 
with the ground ; the larva tunnels in the fruit, filhng its passage with 
excrement, and causes decomposition. It apparently occurs regularly 
in Bellary as a pest of water-melon, and is also known from Tinnevelly. 
We have also one specimen from Nagpur labelled " fruit of Kakarulu, 
IX, 1915." 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEEIINO "ZU I 

Cyrtofracheliis dux, Boh. 

Stebbing, Ind. Forest Ins. Col., p. 443 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 204. 

We have this from Nongpoh (Khasi Hills). Stebbing records it from 
Darjiling. The larva bores in bamboo shoots and does some damage 
at times. 

Cyrtotrachelus longifes, Fb. 

Stebbing, Ind. Forest Ins. Col, pp. 440-44.3, t. 38 ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 204. 

We have this from Lebong (Darjihng). As in the case of C. dux, 
the larva of C. longifes bores in the gro-wing shoots of bamboos and does 
some damage at times. 

Polytus mellerborgii. Boh. 
We have this from Pusa where it was reared from rotten plantain 
rhizome and found " boring plantain root, 9th May 1907." We do not 
know this as a pest in India as yet, but in the Philippines it has been 
found to do damage by boring into plantains and it is probable that it 
is a pest in India also. The adult is a small black weevil, about the 
size of Calandra onjzm, with a strongly punctured thorax and striated 
elytra. 

Rhyncho'phonts ferniginexts, Fb. 

S. 1. 1., p. 343, t. 14 ; Entl. Mem. 11, pt. 10 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 259, 261, 262. 

This species occurs throughout the palm-gromng districts of India, 
and also in Sumatra, the Philippines, etc. In India it attacks coconut, 
date, palmyra, areca and practically all palms. We discussed this fairly 
fully at the last Meeting and I do not think there is much to add. It 
can be controlled by regular destruction of all attacked, dying and 
dead palm-trees. 

I have found Rhynchophorvs ferrugineiis attacking trees which had Mr. Pillay. 
neither been tapped nor attacked by Oryctes. 

It does serious damage to date palms in Suiat. Ittr. Jhaveri. 

Do the weevils vary in colour '( . Mr. Ramrac. 

Yes, the colour and markings vary considerably. Mr. Fletcher. 

Palms are also attacked in Ceylon. Mr. Senior-White. 

VOL. I P 



•208 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIHD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Odoiporns longicollis, 01. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 238 (tab.). 
Mr. Fletcher. We have this from Pusa, Munshiganj, Buxar Duars and Jorhat, 

and the form planipennis, Gyll., from Munshiganj, Buxar Duars, Helem 
(Assam) and Maymyo. The larva bores into the stem of plantain and 
kills the tree. Destruction of the attacked and wilting stems is the only 
practicable measure ; in any case, the plant will be destroyed by the 
beetle grubs, which occur in numbers. The adult beetle is very long- 
lived and may live for one or two years. 



Cosmopolites sordidus, Germ. 
S. I. I., pp. 3^2-343, f. 201 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 238. 

We have this from Mahim (Bombay), Poona, Tellicherry and Mayanad, 
and doubtfully from Baroma (Assam). The larva bores in plantain 
stems, low down and in the roots. It is a decided pest and may be 
introduced in planting setts. It does not occur at Pusa and we have 
nothing new to add to what was said at the last Meeting. 

I have found eggs laid in leaf-sheaths. They are cyhndrical. They 
have not been found before. No wound is made, but the eggs are simply 
pushed under the sheath. 

In Ceylon, when a fruit-bearing stump is cut away, the stool is simply 
riddled by the weevils ; but, when you thin a clump and remove the 
stumps that have not yet borne fruit, you find them quite healthy. 

Has anyone found any parasites of this weevil ? 

No.^ 

We should like to know of any parasites if anyone should find any, 
especially as we have not this weevil at Pusa. It has been introduced 
with plantain setts into several other parts of the world and has proved 
a bad pest, notably in Fiji, so that other countries are keenly interested 
in knowing about anything that will check it. 



Calandra stigmaticollis, Gyll. 
Annl. Eept. Impl. Entom. 1917-18, pp. 98-99, t. 15, f. 1. 
We have this from Malvan (Ratnagiri) and Tamarasseri (Malabar), 
where it was found in both cases boring stems of coconut in the larval 
stage. Specimens were reared at Pusa from a sample of attacked wood 
from Ratnagiri and we found that they were able to breed in sugarcane 
under insectary conditions. 

It is a very bad pest in the Ratnagiri district. 



PBOtJEEUINGS or THE THIHD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 209 

What percentage of trees is damaged ? jlj_ Fletcher. 

Two trees in every one hundred to five hundred are damaged every Mr. Deshpande. 
year. 

The proportion does not seem very high but it soon mounts up in the Mr. Fletcher. 
course of a few years in the case of a permanent crop like coconut. 

The larvae tunnel under the bark and the stem bleeds. Mr. Ramachandia 

Is the attack associated with any fungal disease ? Mr. Fletcher. 

That is not known. It is very widely spread. No remedial measures Mr. Deshpande. 
have been adopted. An attacked tree is bored and riddled from top to 
bottom. 

It also bores into the leaf-petioles at the top of the tree. mt. Ramrao. 

Only a few trees were found attacked in a coconut garden on the Mr. Ramachandra 
.Malabar coast, and these trees were scattered about. Rao. 

Did you get any idea as to why particular trees were attacked ? Mr. Fletcher. 

Probably those trees were unhealthy. A single tree may harbour jyj^ Ramachandra 
1,000 grubs but the number of attacked tr«es is not great. Rao. 

If the attacked trees are scattered about and not near one another, Mr Fletcher 
it looks as if the weevil attacked sickly trees. 

Ddradohus (n. g. Mshll. MS.) n. sp. 

This weevil was found at Shillong in June-July 1918, the adults on 
mulberry, apple, pear and fruit trees generally, nibbUng holes in leaves 
and doing considerable damage, being present in very large numbers. 

In the case of fruit trees, control was practised by collection by hand 
of the adult beetles. 



[V ndeter rained Cmculionid.) 
The adults were found at Dohad on maize leaves in numbers on 16th 
August 1917. It is apparently a minor pest. 

{Undetermined Cmculionid.) 
This weevil was reported from Poona in August 1915 by Ramrao 
S. Kasargode, the larva boring in fruits of Zizyplms jitjuha of a variety 
called Ahmedabad her. They change the shape of the fruits. The 
natural shape of the fruit is long, but attacked fruits are always round 
berry-like. 

There were about half-a-dozen trees in the Ganeshkhind Gardens ] 
at Pcona and this weevil attacked the fruits very badly. This, however, 
is not a generally distributed pest. 

p2 



210 PP.OCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD EXTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

{Undetermined Ctirculionid.) 

This weevil was found at Puaa, the larva boring in sann-hemp stems 
in the field, 15th August 1916, the adults emerging in the middle of Sep- 
tember 1916. 

The larva bores the central part of the stem and when full-grown 
forms a sort of pupal cell at the end of its burrow just below the bark 
of the stem. It is doubtful how far it is a pest. 

{Undetermined Cmcidionid.) 
The weevil was found at Abbottabad, at the beginning of June 1916. 
The adults occurred in numbers on apple, rose, Rubus spp. and thistles, 
eating the leaves. 

Dijscenis fletcheri, Mshll. M8.* (Plate 6.) 
This weevil was found at Shillong, the larva boring into apple fruits 
in June 1918. It is a reddish-brown species with scattered patches or 
dots of greyish scales. It is rather larger than the next species but 
attacks apple fruits in exactly the same way, but pupation seems to take 
place sometimes outside of the fruit. The egg is about 1 mm. in diameter 
and rather dull-brown in colour. The larva seems quite similar to that 
of the next species. The adults seem long-lived, as an individual caught 
at Shillong about l-5th June, and brought to Pusa, lived in the insectary 
imtil 15th October. 

Dr. Marshall has identified this as a new species of Dyscerus. 

Dyscenis maligmis, Mshll. MS.f (Plate 7.) 
This vveevil was found at Shillong in June 1918. It is brownish- 
black with a conspicuous grey patch on posterior portion of elytra. The 
adult weevils feed on apple fruits, eating small patches into them, and 
oviposit in excavations along the edge of such patches. The eggs are 
large for the size of the insect, about 1-25 mm. in diameter and pearl- 
white in colour. The grub bores about in the interior of the fruit and 
damages it considerably. Pupation takes place inside the attacked 
fruits which in the initial stages of attack are externally scarcely dis- 
tinguishable from healthy fruits, but the invariable presence of a number 
of small whitish dots on the surface of the infested fruits marks these as 
attacked. These small dots are really holes through which the tunnejs 
of the grubs communicate ^Nith the open air, and as a rule these 
tunnels originate at the apical end of the fruit, somewhere near the 
flower scar, whence they ramify throughout the interior, branches being 



* Since described in Bull. Entom. Res. IX, pp. 274-275 t. 17 f. 1 (July 1919), where 
> also recorded from Almora. 
t Since described in Bull. Enlom. Ra. IX. pp. 275-276 t. 17 f. 4 (.July 1919). 



Page 210. 




$ 




Stages of ]>i/sc(',iis fhtrliryi in apple fruits at Shillong. 



Page 211. 




Fi». \.—]>i/s((riis malifiHiiii in friiils of I'riniiis ticptil'tists at EhillonS. 



Pmjc -211(1). 




m-^-i 



Fig. 2.— Apple fruits attacked by grubs ot Byscetns iimliijnus at Shillong. 



PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 211 

given off at intervals towards the surface where their termination is 
marked by the small dots mentioned above. In the later stages of 
attack, these holes become much larger and often exude a frothy liquid 
which attracts Sarcophagid flies. 

This weevil was also found breeding in the fruits of Primus nepaknsis, 
0, wild indigenous plum whose fruits are edible when ripe. 

i)r. Marshall has identified this as a new species of Dyscerus. 

Corigeius bidentulus, Mshll. 
Entl. Note 26 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 21. 
This species occurs in Assam as a serious pest of tea. It has also 
been found in UiDper Burma. 

[{Unidentified Curculionid.) 

In September last year I happened to examine several stems of sann- Mr. Ebare. 
hemp which were stunted and had small curled up leaves. In all cases 
I found some indications of an insect attack, i.e., a meagre pas.sage cut 
through between the pith and wood quite a long way up and down the 
stem. In the passage at intervals very small whitish grubs were found 
embedded in the pith — a little. Similar grubs were found in the healthy 
stems as well, so that peculiar leaf growth could not be attributed to this 
insect. On examining the stem from outside some black scars were 
noticed in the axil of the leaves from about 12 to 18 inches to about 3 feet 
above ground. If the outer bark is scraped off then di.stinct injury to 
the wood is seen, thus showing that the grubs enter at such places and 
that the eggs must have been laid in the axil. (The eggs of the wee\'il 
are not found.) The height where the black scars are noticed suggests 
that the weevils appear some time in July and remain active, depositing 
eggs up to September. 

The grubs are about 3 mm. long, 0-5 mm. broad, whitish, fleshy, 
tunnel between the pith and the wood, but never go right into the root. 
The tunnelled portion is filled loosely with the frass or pellets excepting 
a httle portion abofe the pupal chamber which is stuffed closely. The 
grub on attaining full growth prepares a small oval chamber by cutting 
into the wood, thus the pupal chamber is not straight along the stem, 
but a little transverse, extending both in the pith and wood as well. 
The grub bores a small round hole before pupating, for the emergence 
of the weevil ; tliis I was led to conclude from the fact that a number 
of small holes were found outside on the bark and, on cutting open, 
weevils freshly come out of the pupae, were seen. 

The weevil is very small, brown, about 1-.5 mm. long and has a fairly 
Jong snout and long antennse ; when touched, it curls up with the snout 



212 



PEOCEEDIN'GS OF TirE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETINf 



and antennffi bent inward and, like several other weevils, sliams 
death. 

In two cases I found hymenopterous grubs attached to the weevil 
grubs and some parasitic pupae in the pupal chamber of the weevils. 
I could get only one adult parasite and it is shown with the weevil. I 
could not yet work out exact life-history of this weevil but so far as I have 
observed this weevil begins to emerge from September to November. 
In the month of December I cut open several dried stems of sann-hemp, 
but could not find a single one. Alternative food plant is not yet known. 
This weevil practically does no harm to the plant and tlius cannot be- 
included as a crop pest.] 



Mr. Senior- WWte. 
Mr. Fletcher. 



Mr. Beeson. 
Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. Robertson- 
Brown. 
Mr. Inglis. 
Mr. Senior- White 



Lamiad^. 

Batocera rvhus, Limi. 

S. Ind. Ins. p. 324, f. 129 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 36, 
131, 227, 251, 299. 

We have this from the following localities and foodplants : — Peshawar, 
adult eating shoots of Ficvs carica and larva boring into stems of F. 
carica ; Laksar (Gwalior), (IR. 912 of 12th October 1912) ; Dehra Dun ; 
Muzaffarpur district, larva boring into mango roots. March 1915 ; Pusa, 
larva in rotten papaya stem, boring sissu wood, in Bombax stem, and 
boring Erythrina indica stem; Khasi Hills ; Western Ghats, in Para 
rubber stump ; Kanara and Madura. It is widely distributed and is 
often a pest of cultivated fig. 

As regards control, collection of the adults and injection of a mixture 
of chloroform and creosote into the larval galleries have been found 
successful. 

In Ceylon I have found the larva boring into a five stem of Ficus 
religiosa some way above ground-level. 

At Pusa it is a common species and probably lives mostly in the various 
species of wild figs. We have reared it and found t£at there is only one 
generation in the year here. 

It attacks dead trees. 

Certainly not always. It is often a bad pest of cultivated fig-trees. 

Some time ago all the fig-trees in the Peshawar district were bored. 
Nothing was done and the pest has quite abated now. 

I have found it boring in a living tree of Ficvs religiosa. 

It has not been seen in living rubber trees but attacks dead rubber 
trees. Of course, it may work below ground-level in the case of living 
trees. 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 213 

This is another species about whose parasites we know nothing but Mr. Fletcher, 
would hke to have some information. It has been introduced into the 
West Indies and is doing a lot of damage there and I have been appealed 
to for parasites to help them ; but we do not know of any parasites in 
India. 

I have bred a large number and found an absolute absence of para- ^^ Beeson. 
sites. 

They lay a very large number of eggs. In the Insectary more than Mr. Ghosh. 
200 eggs have been laid. The female goes on laying eggs for fourteen 
days. 

Then what keeps it in check '. Mr. Fle'.cher. 

Probably desiccation of the wood as a result of the egglaying and Mr. Beeson. 
working of the grubs is an important check. 

What about those larvae that are boring in living wood ; Mr. Fletcher. 

There is no check on those. Mr. Beeson. 

Do wood-peckers help at all to check them ? Mr. Fletcher. 

The larvae have enormous vitality. Young larvae are probably Mr. Beeson. 
killed off by cannibaUsm. 

We have not noticed any cannibaUsm. Mr Ghosh. 

Apriona gerinari, Hope. 

Stebbing, Ind. For. Ins. Col., pp. 371, 372, 374, f. 249 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 255. 
This species has been recorded from Shahdera (near Lahore), the Mr. Fletcher, 
larva boring into mulberry, into the main trunk, and doing considerable 
damage. 

We have no specimens of this at Pusa. 

It is a shoot-girdler of mulberry and Ficiis. Mr. Beeson 

Apriona cinerea, Chev. 

Stebbing, For. Ins. Col., p. 374 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 255. 

Stebbing records this from Dehra Dun, the adult beetles stripping Mr. Fletcher, 
off the bark off the leading shoots and young twigs of Morus indica. 

The Pusa collection contains specimens, identified as A. cinerea with 
some doubt, from Jammu, larva boring mulberry stem ; Kumaon Hills, 
larva boring fig tree ; anjl Jeohkote (IE. 306 ; 29. \1I, 1-2). 

? Apriona sp. 
We have this from Chandinagar (Sylhet), where the larva was found 
boring stems of jak ; the adult emerged at Pusa, 6th August 1918. 



214 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Both young and old trees are attacked. Young trees are hollowed 
out from top to bottom. The grub throws out dust from its galleries. 
We tried to probe a gallery but the probe went upwards. Kerosine 
does not kill the grub ; we gave one 'grab three dippings in kerosine and 
yet it survived and pupated. In one locality there are 3,000 jak trees 
and all are affected by this beetle. 

I have found it spreading throughout the valley in some parts of 
Sylhet. The older trees can withstand the attack but the young trees 
do not grow. We find fifty per cent, of the trees attacked. The trees 
are not killed but are damaged severely. The tunnels of the grubs are 
very pecuUar. I tried the effect of carbon bisulphide on five trees and 
it was very satisfactory. I closed the side holes with mud and injected 
the carbon bisulphide through one hole. This remedy, however, cannot 
be adopted by the cultivators. Kerosine is not effective. 

Kerosine is not sufficiently 'volatile. You might try benzine, as 
that is more volatile and it is readily obtainable from Digboi. 

I tried phenol and carbon bisulphide in the case of a borer in lime. 

One could use a White Ant Exterminator and pump in the gas. 

Or you could use chloroform and creosote and inject it with a long- 
nozzled syringe. 

Any volatile hquid of that kind should be effective. 

With a White Ant Exterminator we can inject fumes of sulphur 
and arsenic and then see where the gas comes out and close the holes and 
then pump more gas in. 

I do not think the AVhite Ant Exterminator would be a practical 
proposition. For one thing the gas must be injected hot or it will all 
condense without doing any good. 

What girth are the trees attacked ? 

Various girths. The grub bores down the stem and in big trees the 
young branches are attacked and the grub works its way do\vn. The 
grub comes to maturity after two years. 



Cwlosterna »p. 

This insect was reported to us from Manipur State, where considerable 
damage was done to mulberiy on one plantation. " A quantity of 
wood-dust accumulated around the roots. Holes appeared here and 
there in the stem. Now when the tree is cut down it is found to be hollow 
and to contain these beetles and larvae." (Letter from Vice-President, 
Manipur State Darbar, Imphal ; 27th April 1914.) No specimen, however, 
is traceable. 

An unnamed Ccelosterna is also referred to in Ind. Mus. Notes. V, 
iv, 213 as doing much damage to mulberry at Shahdera, near Lahore. 



rROCEEDlNXS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING HID 

Coslostenia scabrator, Fb. 

South Ind. Ins., pp. 325-326, f. 181 ; Stebbing, Ind. Forest 
Ins. GoL, pp. 358-362, t. 25 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 22, 121, 248, 254, 265, 275 [scabrator and spinator]. 

We have this from Peshawar, Bhangaon Forest (Berar), Poona, 
Charodi (Bombay), Belgaum, the Shevaroy Hills and Shembaganur 
(Madura). At Peshawar the adult was found gnawing the bark of a 
branch of Tamarix indica on 21st October 1914 ; in the Bhangaon Forest 
it was reported as " doing very serious damage to sowings of babul, the 
larva boring into the stem and the adult eating the bark, often completely 
ringmg the shoot " (letter from Co"-servator of Forests, Berar Circle, 
14th September 1910) ; at Poona, the adult was found on Zizyphus, 
1st June 1910 ; and at Charodi " on cotton." 

Stebbing states that it attacks Acacia arabica and Shorea robusta 
in Berar, Casuarina equisetifoUa in Oudh, and that it occurs also at 
" Kandiduppa, Madras." 

Watt and Mann include it as a pest of tea in Assam, but I have never Mr. Andrews, 
known it on tea. 

Aristobia approximator, Thoms. 

We have this from Nongpoh (Khasi Hills), and from Paungde, Taung- Mr. Hetcher. 
gyi and Lashio in Burma. At Taunggyi the larva was found by 
K. D. Shroff boring the stems and branches of cheiTamoya. 

It girdles forest trees. Mr. Beeson. 

Epepeotes uncinatus, Gahan. 
Adult beetles were found at Shillong in July 1918 resting on the Mr. Fletcher. 
twigs of Ficus carica and the larva probably bores into this tree as this 
beetle belongs to a group which is usually attached to species of Ficus 
and a young longicorn larva was found boring in the stem of one of 
these trees. 

Monohammus nivosus, Wh. 
Stebbing, Ins. For. Ins. Col., pp. 357-358, f. 243. 
Stebbing gives its distribution as the Sub-Himalayan tract from 
Ganges to Nepal, Central and South India ; Burma ; Ceylon. 
The larva bores in stems of Calotropis giganteci. 

We have specimens fi-om Pusa, bred fi'om larvae in Calotropis, and ■ 
from Poona labelled " Woodfordia, 12th June 1910." It is apparently 
a very minor pest of Calotropis. 



216 



rKOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD EMOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Monohammus versteegi, Rits. 

This species occurs in Assam, where the larva bores in the pith of 
young stems of orange trees, the result of the attack being that the leaves 
turn yellow and the branch withers. We have specimens from Khowang 
and Haflong, in both cases reared from larvae boring orange stems, and 
also from Noiigpoh. 

It is found in some districts of the Surma Valley. There are three 
borers of orange, one in the shoots and two in the stem. The two latter 
differ in the nature of the damage they do to the Stem. 

One of these is M. versteegi and the other is a Buprestid. The eggs 
are laid just above the ground and the places of deposition may be seen 
by the slits made in the bark. 

If the eggs are always deposited near the base of the stem it should be 
possible to protect this portion by smearing on some repellent or applying 
some mechanical preventive such as by tacking on oiled paper. 

[Dihammus fistulator, Germ. 

At Matale a rubber tree nine years old came down in a wind and from 
above five feet upwards the trunk was hollowed out by this beetle. It is 
said to be a pest of cacao also. 

Under the name Monohammus fistidator Mr. Froggatt has recently 
described [Agricl. Gaz. N. S. Wales XXX. pp. 37-38, tab. (2nd January 
1919)] this species as damagmg passion-fruit vines in New South Wales 
and states that he has also found it boring in stems of cultivated fig- 
trees at Sydney. It is widely distributed in India, Ceylon, the Malay 
Archipelago, Java, Queensland, Victoria, New South Wales and South 
Africa, but we do not have any record of its being a pest in India . 1 



Linda nigroscutata, Fairm. (Plate 8.) 
This species was found in 1918 at Shillong, where the adults occurred 
fairly commonly on apple trees in June and July and were generalh- 
found resting on the shoots or leaves and occasionally feeding on the 
latter. In captivity the beetles fed on the leaves and also on the bark 
of apple twigs, but did not oviposit. Under. natural conditions, however, 
the beetle girdles the twig more or less (usually rather less) completely, 
makes a slit at right angles to the girdling and above it, slightly detaches 
the bark on one side of this sUt and thrusts in an egg under this loosened 
bark. The larva on hatching bores upwards into the twig find thrusts 
its longish pellets of frass out through holes cut in the twig, which of 
course dies off and shrivels up. This is a serious pest, doing considerable 
The only control method possible is hand-collection of the 



Page 216. 




Linda )ii</roscittata, girdling apple twigs at Shillcng. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 217 

beetles and cutting out of attacked twigs. No alternative foodplant 
is known as yet. 

The adult beetles can easily be haud-picked and the places where the Mr- Ramachandra 
eggs have been deposited can also be spotted easily and these branches 
cut ofi and destroyed. 

Sthenias grisator, Fb. 

S. 1. 1., p. 326, f. 182 ; Stebbing, Ind. For. Ins. Col., pp. 377-378, 
f. 252 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 77. 235, 255. 265, 
267, 268. 
AVe have this from PaUtana State, on grape-vines, oleander and other Mr. Fletcher. 
flo\vering plants ; Nasik, on grape-vines ; Bangalore, adults girdling 
rose-bushes ; Pollibetta (South Coorg), adults girdhng Erythrina : and 
Coimbatore, adults girdhng mulberry and Bougainvillea. Stebbing also 
records it as girdling Tabernamontana alba in Kurnul. 

We discussed this fairly fully at the last Meeting and I do not think 
there is much to add. 

At Coimbatore it is a serious pest of mulberry. The stages have been Mr. Ramakrishna 
drawn on a plate [exhibited'], but the length of the hfe cycle is not Imown. Ayyar. 

In Mysore it is not serious on mulberry. ■• Mr. Kunhi Kannan. 

At Poona it is very bad on grape-vine, girdhng branches as thick as Mr. Raairao. 
one's thumb. 

Ajjmnecijna pertigera, Thorns. 
S. I. I., p. 327, t. 11 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meetmg, pp. 303, 307. 
This has been reared at Pusa from larvae in Luffa stem, bottle-gourd. Mr. Fletciier. 
snake-gouid. and pumpkin stem, and the adult beetles have also been 
found eating cucumber fruits. At Mandalay it has been noted to 
bore pumpkins, and we also have it from Chapra, Jorhat and Coimbatore. 
It is a minor pest of cucurbits, the larva boring the stems and the adults 
eating the young fiuits. It may be controlled by destruction of affected 
stems and collection of the adult beetles. 



Ajjcmecipia Jiislrio, Fb. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 30i, 307. 

This has been reared at Pusa from larvae in stems of Liiffa, Cephahndra 

and gvrrach (Tinospora cordifolia). We have it also fi-om Chapra and 

Laheria Serai. It is a pest much m the same way as is A. pertigera but 

does not seem to be so widely distributed. 



218 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETLNG 

It hardly occurs in young plants but the adult beetles may gnaw young 
shoots. The larvae occur late in the season at Pusa. It is difficult to 
say whether it is a pest. 

The grub kills the plants which it attacks. 

Apomecyna perotteti. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 304, 307. 
This species is apparently confined to Southern India. We have it 
from Kanara, Madura and Pollibetta (South Coorg). The life-history 
is not known but is likely to be the same as in A. pertigera and A. hislrio 
and the Pollibetta specimens were collected by myself around cultivated 
cucurbits. 

Olenecamptus bilobus, Fb. 

Stebbing, Ind. For. Ins. Col., p. 375, f. 250 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 251. 

This is a widely-distributed species attached to fig-trees. At Trivan- 
drum, Travancore, it has been found in banyan, and at Surat, Coimbatore, 
Salem, and in the Krishna district it has been found damaging Ficiis 
carica, the larva boring into the sohd wood. At Pusa it does not seem to 
have been bred, but probably breeds in the wild fig-trees ; our Pusa 
examples were all taken as adults on yular {Ficus glomerata), teak and 
jak trees, or at light. In Java and Sumatra it has been recorded by 
Dammerman as boring in Ficus elastica. In India it seems to be mainly 
a pest of cultivated fig in Southern India. 

In Madras it does a good deal of damage to cultivated figs. The 
larvse are found right inside the wood of the stem. 

Have you tried any treatment in the case of afl'ected trees ? 

We cut out the old stem and affected branches.' That is the only 
thing that can be done. 

The adult beetles are attracted to light. 

Yes ; they come in to light sometimes at Pusa. 

Niipserha bicolor, Thoms. 

Dutt, Bihar Agricl. Journal ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 

p. 47, 70 ; Ann. Kept. Impl. Entom. 1917-18, p. 98, t. 14, 

ff. la-d (1913). 

This species is apparently only known so far from Bihar, where it 

has been reared at Sabour on soy-bean and sanu-hemp and at Pusa from 

soy-bean, sann-hemp, Vigna catjang, Phaseohis aconitifoJius and Ph- 

radiahts. 



PKOCEEDINCS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 219 

The eggs are laid on young shoots, which have previously been girdled 
by the adult beetle. The larva bores down to the root and goes from one 
branch to another, killing the plant. Hibernation takes place in the 
larval stage in the stumps. The larvae occur in the rains and the beetles 
emerge at Pusa in August (mainly) and September. A Chalcidid para- 
site has been reared. At Pusa the " bermeli "" variety of soy-bean (from 
Sabour) was attacked especially, other varieties growing alongside this 
escaping attack almost wholly. It may be controlled by destroying the 
aSected tips, which droop, and by burning the stiunps after harvest. 

Oberea sesami. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 85. 

This species only seems to be known in Baroda. The egg is laid on 
the midrib of a leaf of Sesamum wdicum, and the larva bores into the 
midrib and stem, and then down into the roots and pupates in the roots. 
Hibernation takes place in the larval stage. Ten to twelve days elapse 
before the larva bores into the stem and yellow blotches appear on the 
attacked leaves which may be collected at this stage of the attack. It is 
usually a minor pest of young Sesamum plants, but does very serious 
damage sporadically. 

In Bellary I once found a very few Sesatmim plants attacked in this Mr. Ramachandra 
way but I cannot say whether this was due to Oberea sesami. ^^'^' 

It is a regular pest in Baroda. Plants in the early stages of growth jir, p^tel 
are killed but growii-up plants do not suffer so much. 

It has not been found in Surat. Mr. Jhaveri. 



Oberea sp. 

This species was found at Pusa, the larva boring Phaseolus aconitifolms Mr. Fletcter. 
[moth] '(C. S. 428). The eggs were laid at the end of September 1906, 
and hatched after 5 days, the larva pupated at the end of June, and the 
adult beetle emerged after twelve days (in the beginning of July). The 
eggs were laid in the stems within a portion enclosed by two girdlings. 
The larva feeds on the pith and part of the woody tissues. The affected 
girdled stems droop and are easily seen. The larva feeds until November, 
then rests in the larval state until the end of June. Larvse often emerged 
from stems before hibernation and attempted to go into earth. There 
is only one cycle annually. 

Specimens were sent to Dr. Gahan some years ago, but no identifica- 
tion has yet been received. 

There is an Oberea in Travanccre which attacks Vi'gna catjan,g. Mr. Pil'ay. 



220 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

( Unidentified Lamiad.) 
This was found in the adult stage at Moulmein iu September 1914 
on sweet-potato and had apparently been breeding on this plant. 

( Unidentified Lamiad. ) 
Ann. Kept. Impl. Entom., pp. 17-18, f. 99, t. 15, ff. 2a-c (1918). 

This species was sent to us from Latu (Sylhet) by S. R. Gupta, the 
larva boring and kilhng orange shoots. The larva; bore into the new 
shoots which appear in spring and cause them to wither. The beetles 
emerged at Pusa in March and April. We have an apparently similar 
specimen taken in the Buxar Duars in May 1907. 

I found it common in the Surma and Assam Valleys. The grub 
bores in young orange shoots which wither. The tree is never killed 
but it bears less fruit. I Have found tliis borer wherever I have searched 
for it. We have cut out the withered shoots, but the pest was found 
again. The orange-garden at Latu is isolated from other orange gardens 
but is alongside a big forest and very probably this pest comes in from 
the forest plants ; but this is not known definitely. In one plot we cut 
off almost all the withered shoots but the insect was still present after 
a time. 

It is difficult to grow orange trees in Assam. This insect is known 
to do damage in a garden where there are only a few orange trees. 

{Unidentified Lamiad.) 
This was sent in to us from Bengal by D. N. Pal with the information 
that it was reared on 12th September 1907 from a larva in jute stem and 
that it is said to do damage. We have no further information about 
it. 

Cerambycid^. 
Loplwsternus hiigelii, Redt. 

Gahan, F. I. Ceramb., pp. 11-12 ; Stebb., Ind. For. Ins. Col., 
pp. 274-275, t. 17 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 248. 
We have this from Simla, Dehra Dun and Chaubattia (Kumaon). 
At Chaubattia the larva was foimd attacking roots and trunks of apple 
trees. 

Gahan gives the distribution of this species as Kashmir, the North- 
West Frontier Provinces, Punjab and Assam. Stebbing states that the 
larva feeds on Quercus incana and probably Q. dilaiaia. 



PllOCEEDINGS OF THE TUIKT FNTOMOLdGICAL MEETING 'IZl 

Xystocera globosa, Oliv. 

Gahan, F. I. Ceramb., pp. 106-107, f. 42 ; S. 1. 1., p. 321, f. 174 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 79. 
We have this from Coimbatore, Nagpiir and Tatkon (Upper Burma). 
It has not 3-et been noted as a pest in India but in Cairo it has proved 
a serious pest of Alhizzia lebheh when grown as shade- trees and it is 
apparently associated with A. kbbeJc in India also so that it may be 
expected to prove a pest of this tree. 

In Egypt it is a pest of old Albizzia lebhek trees. Dr. Gough. 

In India it damages Albizzia procera. Mr. Beeson. 

Was it introduced into Egypt \ Mr. Fletcher. 

I do not know. Dr. Gough. 

Gnatliolca eburifera, Thorns. 

Gahan, F. I. Ceramb., p. Ill ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 211. 
This has been noted by K. D. Shroii at Moulmein boring orange Mr. Fletcher, 
stem and at Kya-in, Karen Hills, as boring stem and branches of orange, 
the adult emerging on 4th January 1908. 

Stromatium barbatum, Fb. 

Gahan, F. I. Ceramb. pp. 114-11-5, fig. 45 ; S. I. I., pp. 321-322, 
f. 175 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 205, 211, 275 ; Khare, 
B. J. XXIV, 610-612. 

We have this from Dehra Dun ; Arrah, larva in dry wood of a case of 
cutlery ; Chapra ; Pusa, larva boring in sissu wood, bamboo, furniture, 
on one occasion boring a s^ssu-wood table for three years, the adult 
emerging in July 1909 ; Calcutta, larva in piano wood (Entl. Note 32) ; 
Nagpur, larva boring dead parts of orange trees, especially parts affected 
by '' Arbela "; Poona, on Acacia arabica ; Kanara ; North Coorg ; and 
Hagari (Bellary), larva boring in dry bamboo. 

It is a common household pest, the larva boring into wooden furni- 
ture, picture- frames and so on ; and Mr. Khare says that he has found it 
boring into Citrus trees in the Central Provinces. It seems doubtful, 
however, how far it may really be regarded as a pest of hving trees, 
although there is no doubt that it bores into many trees that are dead 
or perhaps dying from other causes. 

In Patiala this beetle does a lot of damage to living orange and Malta Harchand Singh. 
orange trees. 

In the Central Provinces I found orange trees in a garden very badly mj_ jiisra. 
affected by " Arbela " and these trees were afterwards attacked by 
Stromatium. 



22'J PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD EXTOilOLOGICAL MEETING 

[Ploccederus pedestris, WTiite. 
Gahan, F. I. C'eramb. p. 123. 

Ploccederus pedestris is found boring into mango trees in Dacca. Last 
year in February grubs, pupae and beetles were found in numbers in a 
dead tree. As regards its habits, the grub feeds on the portion between 
the bark and the wood and goes upwards or downwards. M'hen full- 
grown, it makes a big slanting hole in the wood and pupates in a yellowish- 
white hard cocoon inside the hole. The life-history has not been studied 
in detail. 

We have P. pedestris from Pusa, but it is not common here and it 
is not recorded from anywhere East of this by Gahan. The Dacca 
species is more hkely to be P. obesus, Gahan, but it is impossible to say 
without seeing the specimens.] 

^olesthes holosericea, Fb. 

Gahan, F. I. Ceramb., pp. 127-128 ; Stebbing, Ind. For. Ins. 
Col., pp. 301-305, S. 208-210, t. 19. 
Gahan gives the distribution as North-West India, Bombay, 
Nilgiris, Ceylon. Assam. Tenasserim, Andamans. Nicobars, Siam and 
Malay Peninsula. 

We have it from Khedut (Baroda) [labelled Poona on specimen] 
reared from a larva in guava stem, the adult emerging on 4th April 1907. 
This stem was also infected with Belionota prasma, and it is doubtful 
how far M. holosericea is a pest of living trees so far as non-forest trees 
are concerned. 

? Rhylidodera robusta. 
Gahan, F. I. Ceramb., p. 147, f, 59. 
This was reared by K. D. Shroff on 4th April 19CS from a larva boring 
Ficus carica at Mandalay, and has also been noted at Thaton in mango. 
The identific.ition of this species is uncertain. 

CJdoridolvm cdcinene, Thorns. 

Gahan, F. I. Ceramb., pp. 199-200 ; S. Ind. Ins, p. 323, f. 177 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 211. 
We have specimens from Pollibetta and Virajpet, in South Coorg. 
This insect occurs in the orange-growing tracts in the South Indian Hills 
and does serious damage to Citrus trees by its larva boring in the stems 
and large branches. It seems to be rather sporadic in its appearance, 
and has only been noted as a pest in Coorg. 



PKOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 223 

In Coorg I collected beetles from lemon and Citrus trees. They were Mr. Ranatlardia 
resting on the leaves and, when disturbed, they fly about actively. Rao. 

Chelidonhnn cindiim, Guer. 
Gahan, F. I. Ceramb., p. 210. 
This was sent in to us in 1918 from Bangalore by Mr. Anstead who Mr. Fletcher, 
found the larva boring into orange branches. Mr. Anstead states that 
the eggs are deposited in June in the axils of young Uving twigs and never 
on dead wood or old branches. The eggs are covered with a sort of ydlow 
transparent varnish. As soon as the eggs hatch the yotmg larva bores 
into the twig and works upward for about half-an-inch to an-inch-and-a- 
half and then makes two t'liy holes about the size of a pin's head. It 
then turns back and bores down the twig, occasionally making small 
openings. Finally it gets into the main branches where it makes tunnels 
a quarter-of-an inch in diameter. The young twigs that are bored at 
once die and turn black so that they are conspicuous and they can be 
cut off with the larvae inside them. By doing this and by hand-collec- 
tion of the adult beetles the attack can be controlled to a large extent. 
The eggs appear to take about two weeks to hatch out. 

Xylotrechus quadripes, Chevr. 

Gahan, F. I. Ceramb., pp. 245-246, f. 90 ; S. Ind. Ins., pp. 323- 
324, f. 178 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 30-34. 

We have this from North and South Coorg and the Nilgiris. It is 
the well-known " Coffee-borer " of South India, which was discussed 
fully at the last Meeting in 1917. Since then I have not visited the Coffee 
Districts and have therefore no more to add. 

The length of the hfe-history is one year but it may vary. The jij_ gmijij gajman. 
bushes may be infected with eggs laid by the April brood. The method 
of egg-laying is very interesting. The egg is always laid in a crevice ; 
if it is laid anywhere else, the grub fails to penetrate into the wood. 
Scrubbing the plants is successful to prevent egg-laying and to destroy 
the eggs when laid. The eggs are never laid loose on the tree. The 
larvae take from two to two-and-a-half months to eat into the wood. 
To check them in this stage Brunolineum has been used. The larval 
excrement in the tunnels is not very compact so that the fumes enter the 
gallery and kill the larva. This chemical might be tried on all sorts of 
borers in fruit-trees. It is not known exactly what it is but it is perhaps 
a tar distillate. 

What does it cost ? BIr. Fletcher. 

VOL. 1 



224 PHOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Mr. Kunhi Kannan. One Rupee per gallon. Even when used at full strength, one gallon 
will treat 200 trees. But now the price has gone up, so we are usirg an 
emulsion with soap. 

Mr. Fletcher. It might be worth trying an emulsion of soap and creosote. 

Mr. Senior- White. There is some description of this Brunolineum in a Bulletin lately 

issued by the Ceylon Agricultural Department. Just before I left Ceylon, 
about 25th January, the beetles emerged in large numbers. I have 
found a predaceous Carabid grub which follows up the track of the boring 
larva and kills it. Another interesting fact is that the attack depends 
on the weather conditions. Probably these influence emergence and 
oviposition, rainfall records and the number of trees taken out bearing 
a close relation to one another. There are two or tliree sj^ecies of para- 
sites. 

CHEYSOMELIDiE. 

Sagra tiigrita, Ohv. 
Jacoby, F. I. Chrysom., p. 5; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 56. 
Mr. Fletcher. This species was reared by Mr. E. Ernest Green at Peradeiiiya, 

where the larva was found boring in stems of DolicJios lablab, causing 
large gall-hke swellings in the stems. It occurred abundantly and did 
considerable damage. We have not noted it in India as a pest as yet, 
but it is quite hkely to occur. 

Sagra femorata. 
This was found in some numbers by Y. Ramachandra Rao " on bean 
creeper " at Sidapur, South Coorg. I do not know how far it was 
damaging any cultivated crop, but, in view of the record of S. nigrila on 
Dolichos lablab, it seems better to include it for the present. 

Leina dou-nesi, Bal3^ 
Jacoby, F. I. Chrysom.,, p. 43. 

At Pusa the eggs have been found laid singly or in rows, usually on 
the upper surface of leaves of Panicum sp., the larva eating one epidermis 
and the mesophyll substance of the leaf, and leaving the other epidermis 
intact. Pupation takes place in soil in a slight cocoon. The life-cycle 
from egg to adult is about 17 days at the end of August. One female 
laid 227 eggs between 19th and 30th August and was then lost. We 
have it also from Chapra. 

This species is not known as a pest, but might easily be one. 



PHOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 225 

Miofristis bimactdata, Jac. 

Jacoby, F. I. Chrysom., pp. 99-100, fig. 21. 

The adult beetles have been found at Pusa in small numbers eating 

flowers of nee on 8th October 1917, and have also been found on cotton 

leaf and on grass. We have it also from Chapra. It is probably not 

common enough to do any real damage. 

Diafromwfha melanopDs, Lac. 
Jacoby, F. I. Chrysom., pp. 168-169, fig. 64. 
In In<nan Mn.eum Notes, I, ii, p. 106 (1889) this species is recorded 
as received in 1885 from Sibsagar from S. E. Peal who noticed it as 
"tI!"^^ 'nT °^ *«^-«^^°°^« ^o tJ^at ttey wither and droop." 
,^^u i^°"'*=*'°" '^^^t^i"^ specimens from the Khasis (1000-3000) 
and Sbllong, Buxar Duars, Maymyo, Lebong, Palamau, Chapra. MunsW^ 
ganj and Pusa. At Pusa the adult has been taken on B^mha.r n,a!a- 
baricum, but we do not know it as a pest here 

oveJ'thtTeT i-J'T' """"'■ r' r ' ^''^ '^P°^*^"^ 1^^«* °^ tea all Mr. i^ndrews. 
hli? 1 If' ''P'"'""^ "^°"§ *^' '^^'' °f j"^gles. It bites 

half-way through the stem which droops .and withers. Every planter 
knows It and It IS destroyed by hand-picking 

of lu tr"^ *^'VT'' '" "Pf ^^^tly *^^"^d the Orange Beetle on acco^.nt Mr. Fleicher. 
of it^ colour and it is so referred to in Watt and Mann's " Pests and 
Bhghts the Tea Plant." As you know, before the appointment of 

tZclZlr ^r"T' ^^*°-«'°gi«t« - I-'iia, information about 
insect pests, along with various other matters, was dealt with under a 
scissors-and-paste method in the ofiice of the Reporter on Economic 
Products and these files on insect pests were finally transferred to PuJ 
On looking up the file on this insect I find that the name " Orange Beetle •• 
proved too much for the Office Staff of the Reporter on Econonuc Pro- 

1 \d;7' P T 7r?' '^'* '^' ^'''^' ""'^ solemnly filed under the 
Heading Pests of Citrus trees." 



"^T^J'J" ^- ^'^^y^°^' PP- 252-253, fig. 97: Proc. Second 
iintl. Meeting, p. 264. 



CryplocepMus dodecaspilus, Suff 

■ I. Chrysom., pp. 252-253, fig. 
seting, p. 264. 

.t III Tu ^"''^7r '°'""^ •" "'•" ™'>™ ''"'"Si'g rose-leaves 
.lit"";,;.'"' '""^ "'^- ™' •'- '-' ■'"- »"3'Wo, 

q2 



226 PKOCEEDINGS OF THK THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Nodina rufi/pes, Jac. 
Jac, F. I. Chrysom., p. 293. 
We have this from Moulmein and also from Maymyo, where K. D. 
tShrofi found the adults on Prvnvs persica on 18th May 1909. Jacoby 
records it from Momeit. 

Nodosloma svbcostatum, Jac. 
Jac, F. I. Chrysom, p. 334 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 237. 

This occurs at Pusa as a regular pest of plantain, the beetles feeding- 
on the leaves and fruits, eating patches which sjioil the appearance of the 
fruits and it is also said to spoil the flavour of the fruits. In October 
1917 the adult beetles were also found at Pusa eating and damaging 
grape-vine leaves. The larva has been found underground, near roots 
of grasses. Control may be attained by spraying or by collecting the 
adults by hand. 

It is curious that this beetle has never been noted as a pest except 
in Pusa, although Jacoby records it from Assam and Burma. It only 
shows how very httle we know as yet regarding even our commonest 
insect-pests. 

Pagria signata, Mots. 
Jac, F. I. Chrysom. pp. 356-357, f. 125. 

Jacoby records tWs from South India, Nilgiris, Burma, Ceylon, China 
and Japan, and the Pusa Collection contains specimens from the Nilgiris, 
Pusa and Jorhat. 

At Jorhat at the end of September 1913, it did great damage to cow- 
peas in the field, completely destroying a crop sown for seed in about 
4 bighas of land and also invaded a " mashkolai " [Phaseohis munga 
roxburghii] crop adjaceat. The " Mashkolai " was sprayed twice with 
kerosine emulsion and the insects then disappeared. (Farm Superin- 
tendent, Jorhat, letter of 9th December 1913.) 

Scelodonta strigicoUis, Mots. 

Jac, F. I. Chrysom., p. 386 ; South Ind. Ins., p. 309, f. 158 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 234-235. 
We have this fiom the following locaUties and foodplants : — Peshawar^ 
adults on grape-vine ; Jeolikote (Kumaon), adults on grape-vine ; Poona, 
adults on grape-vine ; Nasik, adults on grape-vine ; Nagpur, on grape- 
vines ; Pusa, adults on mango inflorescence ; Coimbatore ; Dacca ; 
Tharrawaddy ; and Minbu (Lower Burma), adults on wild Vitis. 



PilOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 227 

It is at times a serious pest of grape-vine, especially around Peshawar 
and Poona, the adults destroying the tender shoots of the vines. Collec- 
'tion of tie adults, either by tapping the bushes or by means of the plan- ■ 
tain brooms used at Nasik, is the best method of control and this should 
be supplemented by leaving three or four buds, instead of only one or 
two, when pruning and by removal of all loose bark. The life-history 
is as yet unknown. 

At Peshawar we shake them oE the vines into kerosinized water. Mr. Robertson- 
The beetles are not found in very large numbers. Brown 

Colasposonia semicostatum, Jac. 
Jac, F. I. Chrys., p. 443 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 212. 

Jacoby records this from Sikkim, Mungphu, and Cachar, and the Pusa jir. Fletcher. 
Collection contains specimens from Chapra and the Khasi Hills. In the 
Khasis the adult beetles destroyed flowers and leaves of orange trees in 
March and April 1916 at Ramdait " Alakha." The leaves were eaten 
near the stalks. It is said to have done considerable damage to oranges 
during the preceding three years, appearing in March and April and 
then disappearing again. (S. R. Gupta's letter of 12th May 1916.) 

It is very bad on oranges and eats away the flowers. Mr. Gupta. 

Is it found in any other part of Assam ? Mr. Fletcher. 

I have not seen it anywhere else. Mr. Gupta. 

Pachnephorus bretinghami, Baly. 

Jac, F. I. Chrysom., pp. 460-461 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 140, 180, 294. 
We have this from Pusa, Narayanganj and the Nigiris, so that it is Mr. Fletcher. 
widely distributed. At Pusa the adult has been found on artichoke. 
It has also been recorded on sugarcane and juar. It probably does 
damage in the same way as P. impressus but does not seem to have 
actually been noted as a pest. 

Pachnephorus impressus, Rosenh. 

Jac, F. I. Chrysom., p. 461, f. 15 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 83, 122, 140, 180, 192 ; Entl. Note 33. 
Jacoby gives the distribution of this species as Europe, Africa, India, 
"Bengal, Philippines and Macassar. The Pusa Collection contains speci- 
mens from Peshawar, adults on sugarcane ; Pusa ; Kalyan ; Hoshanga- 
bad, adults on Sessamum indicum; Coimbatore ; and Taunggoo (Burma). 
At Peshawar the beetles occur in numbers and eat small holes in the 



228 PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD EiVTOMOLfXUCAL MEETING 

leaves of young sugarcane. At Pusa the larva has been found amongst 
maize roots and the adults have been noted on young bhindi. At 
Hoshangabad it is said to be a bad pest of til, eating the leaves and 
pods. Collection of the adults seems to be the simplest remedy. 

Phcedon brassicce, Baly. 

In Indian Museum Notes, III, v, p. 44 (1896) it was reported under 
date of 28th December 1893 by the Sub-Divisional Officer, Golaghat, 
that the mustard crop in part of the Sub-Division was infested by Ph. 
hrassiccB and the beetles were identified by Jacoby who records it' also 
from China and Japan. It has not been reported again as a pest, but 
it is said to be common throughout Assam and presumably does some 
damage. 

In Assam it comes to light but I have never noticed it in large numbers. 

( Unidentified Chrysomelid. ) 
This species was found at Mandalay by K. D. Shroff on 12th May 
1909, the adult beetles occurring on guava. 

Oides affinis, Jac. 
South Ind. Ins., p. 313, f. 164 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 168. 
This species was found in large numbers on rice-plants at Shoranur 
(Malabar) on 31st July 1907 and we have it also from Taliparamba 
(Malabar), where it was found on grass, and from the Nilgiris. It is 
very doubtful how far it is a pest. At any rate, it seems to be 
sporadic and local. 
Mr. Ramakiishna We have not found it again. On the one occasion when we did find 

it, it was in numbers, nibbling the plants. 



Ayyar, 



Avlacophora stevensi, Baly. 

South Ind. Ins., pp. 312-313, f. 163 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting,, 
pp. 303-307. 
Mi. Fletcher. This species occurs on cucurbits generally and has been noted on 

snake-gourd, bottle-gourd and bitter-gourd, the adult beetles being 
especially destructive to the flowers. It does not seem to occur in North 
India, but is abundant in Southern India and Burma. Our specimens 
are from Ceylon, Trichinopoly, Saidapet, Kistna district and Tatkon 
(Burma) and it is also recorded from Coimbatore, Chingleput and Goda- 
vari. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 22\) 

Aulacophara atripennis, Fb. 
South Ind. Ins., p. 312, f. 162 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 303-307. 
Aulacophora atripennis (excavata), a ferruginous species with blue- 
black elytra, is common in most parts of India except the extreme North 
and occurs on all cucubitaceous plants but is hardly a pest as a rule. 
We have it from Dehra Dun ; Chapra ; Pusa ; Buxar Duars ; Jorhat ; 
Silchar ; Mandalay ; Hopin (Upper Burma) ; Pyinmana ; Moulmein, 
on cucumber ; Surat ; Poona, on gourd leaves ; Pollibetta (South Coorg) ; 
Manganallur ; and Peradeniya, on cucumber. 

Aulacophora abdominalis, Fb. 

South Ind. Ins., p. 311, f. 161 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 207, 302 (tab.), 306, 307. 

Aulacophora abdominalis (foreicollis) occurs abundantly throughout 
India and Burma as a bad pest of all cultivated cucurbits, and it feeds 
on wild species also. We have it from Kohat, Peshawar, Haripur Hazara, 
Lyallpur, Zaffarwal Tahsil (Punjab), Jallandhar, Gwahor, Bilaspur, 
Balaghat (Central Provinces), Belgaum, Kanara, Coimbatore, Samalkota, 
Pusa, Dacca, Jorhat, Manikganj (Assam), Tharrawaddy and Meiktila 
(Burma). 

At Pusa it has been noted especially on bottle-gourd, at Lyallpur on 
pumpkin and in Gwahor the adult beetles were eating holes in cucumber 
leaves. At Jallandhar both larvae and adults were found boring into 
the underside of melon fruits lying on the ground and at Peshawar I 
found it domg serious damage to melons in the larval stage in May by 
boring into the roots. 

Control was discussed at the last Meeting and there is nothing to 
add. 

Do the grubs usually breed in roots ? Mr. Ramrao. 

They are not found inside the roots but underground feeding on roots. Mr. Ghosh. 

At Peshawar I found them actually boring inside melon roots. Mr. Iletcher. 

I cannot find the larva, although I have tried. Mr. Ramrao. 

At Pusa it took us five years to discover the early stages. Mr. Fletcher. 

GaleruceUa singhara, Lefroy. 

Entl. Mem. II, pp. 146-149, 1. 15 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 254. 

This species occurs principally in the United and Central Provinces 

where it is a bad pest of water-nut {Trapa bispinosa). We have it from 

Cawnpur, Shakartala and Bhadra (Central Provinces), Muzaffarpur and 



230 rfiOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Pusa. At Pusa the adult beetles have been taken at hght. As regards 
control, collection by hand and crushing the insect in all stages is the 
only satisfactory remedy. 

It is a bad pest in the United Provinces, where we control it by 
collection in handnets. 

Galervcella sp. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 250. 
This species was found on loquat {Eriohotnja japonica) by K. D. 
Shroff at Maymyo on 17th May 1909. 

Mimaslra cyanea, Hope. 
Ind. Museum Notes IV, iv, 217 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 247. 
The Pusa collection contains specimens with the following data : — 
Jeohkote, adults on apricot fruit, chestnut, apple fruit ; Solan, 
adults defohating pear trees, 29th May 1916 (H. P. J. Peake) ; 
Dehra Dun ; Abbottabad ; Hills near Simla, adults defohating 
mulberry and apple (inlcludng wild Pyrus PasJiia), occurring 
annually at end of May, flying in morning and late afternoon, 
resting at midday (I. H. Burkill, letter of 28th May 1906) ; Sambli 
(near Murree Hills) 4,000 feet, adult beetles in enormous numbers 
in June 1918 defoliating pear, apricot and grape-vine. 
It has also been recorded as injurious to Grewia asiatica in the Dun 
Forest {Ind. Mus. Notes, I.e.). 

Monolepta signata, Oliv. 

South Ind. Ins., p. 310, f. 159 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 

pp. 42, 64, 81, 190, 1'95, 200, 207, 280, 282, 283, 290, 298 ; 

Ann. Eept. Impl. Entom., 1917-18, p. 93, 1. 12, ff. 2a-c (1918). 

This is a common and widely distributed insect with a very wide 

range of foodplants. The Pusa Collection contains examples from Pusa 

on grass, Polygonum, lucerne, indigo, ■ arJiar, maize, cabbage ; Chapra ; 

Jeolikote (Kumaon), on grape-vine leaf ; Tharsa Farm (Central Provinces) 

on maize, 3rd January 1913 ; Patna district, on pea ; Poona ; Coimbatore, 

on ragi, grass, wheat, and vegetables ; Nilgiris ; Samalkota ; Dacca ; 

Eaniganj (Bengal) ; Buxar Duars ; Jorhat ; Minbu (Lower Burma) ; 

Tharawaddy ; Myitkina ; and Maymyo. In Burma it is a minor pest 

of tur. In India it seems to be scarcely a pest as a rule although it is 

sufficiently common at times, especially on maize, to do a small amount 

of damage. It has been reared at Pusa from larvae found feeding at the 



rEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 231 

TOots of sugarcane but it is probable that the larvse are general feeders 
on roots of Gramiaese and do some harm in this stage. 



( Undetermined Galerucine.) 
This was found in the Shevaroy Hills (4,000 feet) on mustard by 
Y. Ramachandra Rao on 26th August 1907. 

(Undetermined Galerucine.) 

This species was sent in to us from Solan by Mr. H. E. J. Peake, 
who in his letter of 30th July 1915 states that it " attacks almost every 
plant, and is specially partial to fiaiit trees, such as apples, pears and 
apricots, also roses ; the latter they cornpletely destroy. May attack 
and completely ruin^leaves of large apricot trees." 

It also attacks rose leaves, completely ruining them, and also attacks 
rose flowers, both when in full bloom and in bud. 



( Undetermined Galerucine.) 
This was sent in to us on 29th March 1907 by Mr. J. Harold Mitchell, 
from Helem (Assam), the adults attacking leaves and unripe fruit on 
plum trees in large numbers. 

Nisotra madurensis, Jac. 

South Indian Ins., pp. 310-311, f. 160 ; Proc. Second Entl. 

Meeting, pp. 126, 134. 

We have this from the Nilgiris, Malabar, Kundapur (South Kanara) 

and Trichinopoly. It is apparently confined to Southern India, where 

it is a minor pest of jute and an occasional major pest of Hibiscus canna- 

binus. 

Psylliodes tenebrosus, Jac. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 278, 281. 
This species was sent in to us from Jeolikote (Kumaon) as causing • 
great damage to cruciferous seedlings in November 1909. It was also 
sent in to us from Bhim Tal by Mr. C. F. Ruxton who wrote in a letter, 
dated 2nd March 1912, that these beetles " have devastated my garden 
in the last four days. They have practically cleared everything except 

peas, which they have not touched They seem to prefer mustard 

seed." 



232 TROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGIC.\L MEETING 

Clitea pida, Baly. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 215. 
We have this from Tharrawaddy (Burma) and Pusa. At Pusa it 
is a decided pest of bael {Mgle marmelos), the larva boring into the leaf- 
petioles and shoots and the adult beetles eating the leaves so that they 
are riddled with small holes in June and July. 



Haltica cyanea. 

This \Yus sent in on 14th December 1911 by the Superintendent of 
the Victoria Gardens, Bombay, as very badly infesting Ruellia amwna 
and R.fonnosa and CiqyJiea ignea. It has been reared at Pusa from larvae 
on Amnicaiin sp.; pupation took place in earthern chambers in the soil. 

At Taru the adult beetles were found in numbers in May 1916 on 
cauhflowers, cabbage, lettuce, sugar beet (especially on flower-heads) 
and also spread on to shaftal and bersim. 

The Pusa Collection contains specimens from Pusa (abundant) ; 
Nainpur (Central Provinces) ; Balaghat (Central Provinces) ; Surat ; 
Nuwara Eliya ; Tranquebar ; Coimbatore ; Samalkot ; Munshiganj ; 
Cuttack ; and Nepal. 

CJiakenosonia tnetaUic'rm, Jac. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 267. 

Thi^ is a medium-sized, globular, bright metallic green and blue 

Halticine which was found in numbers injuring garden lilies at Ootaca- 

mund in December 1912 and 1913. The beetles may be collected by 

hand. 

PhjUotreta vittcUa, Fb. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 280, 282. 
This species was found by K. D. Shroff on cabbage at Kaltha (Burma) 
on 2nd February 1907. 



PhyUotrela chotanica, Duviv. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 280, 282. 
This species was found in small numbers on cabbage at Pusa, on 
4th March 1916 and we also have it from Mandalay (13th December 
1910). 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 233 

CJicBlocnema basalis, Baly. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 68. 
We have this from Ranchi, Dharwar and Tharrawaddy. At Dharwar 
it was found ii\ February 1913 at the roots of withering rice plants. 
There are also old records on cards of the occurrence of adult beetles on 
sann hemp at Pusa in April 1906 (on stray plants), and in August 1905 
(" some "), at Raipur in August 1907 (" a good deal "), at Jallandhar 
in September 1905 and at Surat in September 1904 ; but we have no 
specimens with these data and it is very doubtful whether these records 
really belong to C. basalis at all — more probably they belong to the 
unidentified Halticine dealt with later on. 

Podontia 14-punctata, Linn. 
We have this from the Khasi Hills, Helem (Assam), Jalpaiguri, and 
Bassein (Burma). It has been noted to attack fruit-trees at Jalpaiguri 
and, in his letter of 29th August 1908, Mr. I. H. Burkill reports that 
these beetles " have almost defoliated some imported fruit trees in the 
Jalpaiguri District." 

{Unidentified HaUicine.) 
This species was found at Cawnpur on 15th October 1905 by Mr. C. S. 
Misra, the adults attacking groundnut and sweet potato. 

( Unident ified Halt icine . ) 

This species occurs at Pusa on sann hemp, generally in July on young 
plants, often in large numbers, eating the leaves into holes. On 15th 
December 1915 it was found on sami hemp at Pusa by Tahl Ram. 

It is often a bad pest of young sann hemp and the records on sann 
hemp quoted under Chcetocnema basalis {supra) probably belong to this 
species, which is distinct from C. basalis. 

In the case of young plants, the beetles can be caught in bag-nets 
swept over the plants or may be dealt with by spraying the plants. 

The larvae feed on roots of sann hemp but we have not been able to Mr. Ghosh. 
trace it through all its stages. 

At Coimbatore we also have a flea-beetle which is very bad on sann Mr. Ramakrishna 
hemp, but I do not know whether it is the same species. Ayyar. 

It is not safe to assume that it is the same species because it feeds on Mr. Fletcher, 
the same plant. There are so many of these small flea-beetles and their 
identification is hopeless at present. There is a very wide field in the 
Halticinae for anyone who wishes to take up systematic work. 



234 



PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



( Vnidentified Halt icine.) 
This was found on sann hemp at Mandalay by K. D. Shroff on 10th 
May 1909. It is apparently distinct from the preceding species ; it is 
larger and more stoutly built and rather redder in colour. 

( Unidentified Halticine.) 

The adult beetles have been found at Pusa, onbrinjal leaves in August 
1912 and on sweet-potato leaves in September 1915, eating small holes 
in the leaves. 

The beetles were also found nibbling the surface of brinjal seedUng 
leaves in the seed-bed on 25th August 1915, producing yellowish markings 
all over the leaves. In many cases the entire tissue of the leaf is eaten 
and holes are produced. The beetles are a pest of the seedlings, eating 
both the upper and lower surfaces of the leaves. Adult beetles were 
also found at Muzaffarpur on brinjal, 10-20th January 1905. 

( Vnidentified Halticine.) 
This species was reported by T. N. Jhaveri, in his letter of 7th February 
1913, as occurring at Dhulia, East Khandesh, and attacking a young 
germinating crop of rabi ji'«fH-. 

Aspidomorpha miliaris, Fb. 

Ind. Mus. Notes III, i, 24 (1893) [Aspid. militaris] ; South Ind. 

Ins. pp. 316-317, f. 168 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 291. 

This is a widely distributed species which we have from Bassein 

Fort ; Poona, on Gmelina ; Kanara ; Huusur (Mysore), on wild Ipamosa ; 

Coimbatore, on sweet-potato ; Madura ; and Ceylon. It is an occasional 

very minor pest of sweet-potato, the larva feedrag on the leaves. 

We find this around Poona but it is not a pest. 

Aspidamorpha/oveata, Thnbg. 
We have this from Tharrawaddy and Moulmein, where it was found 
on sweet-potato. 

Aspidomorplia indica. Boh. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 292. 
We have this from Chapra, Pusa, Betul, Khasi Hills (1,000-3,000 
feet), the Anamalai Hills and Tatkon (Burma). At Betul it was found 
" on salad, 9th December 1915," at Tatkon the adults occurred on 
Trichosanthes cucumerina, and at Pusa it has been reared from the egg on 
sweet-potato leaves. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 235 

It is perhaps an occasional pest of sweet-potato, but as a rule the 
damage done is negUgible. 

From a long series reared from the egg, it would appear that indica. 
Boh., and foveata, Thnbg., are identical ; at least, I fail to see any dis- 
tinction. 

Pilemostoma tnlmeata, Hope. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meetmg, p. 292. 

We have this from Masuri, Chapra, Pusa, Lebong (Darjiling), and 
Tatkon (Burma). At Tatkon the adults were found on Trichosmithes 
cucvmerina and at Pusa the larvae have been found on sweet-potato 
leaves. It is scarcely a pest of sweet-potato, but may do a little damage 
at times. 

Metriona circumdafa, Hbst. 
Metriona sp., S. 1. 1., p. 318, f. 170 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 292.. 

We have this from Surat, Chapra, Pusa and Dacca. At Pusa it has. ' 
been reared from larvae on sweet- potato and in South Arcot and Tinnevelly 
it has also been found on sweet-potato, of which it is scarcely a pest. 

(Unidenfified Cassidine.) 
This was found on sweet-potato at Moulmein in September 1914,. 
the adults occurring in small numbers. 

Leptispa pygmcea, Baly. 

South Ind. Ins., pp. 313-314, f. 165 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
p. 168 (tab.). 

This species seems to be restricted in its distribution to Southern 
India, occurring as far North as Londa in Bombay and Godavari in 
Madras. We have it from Bassein Fort (Bombay) ; AUbagh (North of 
Bombay) ; Hassan (Mysore) ; Mercara (Coorg), on paddy, 17th November 
1915 ; Ottapalam, Malabar ; South Malabar, on rice, 23rd October 1911 ; 
and Travancore. 

It is a serious pest of paddy in Southern India, especially in districts 
with a heavy rainfall. 

We find it in Bombay, especially near the coast. Mr. Eamrao. 

How far north do you get it ? Mr. Fletcher. 

From Eatnagiri to Surat ; but in the Upper Konkan (('.e., in Thana Mr. Ramrao. 
and Ahbagh Districts) we have only Hispa, and in the Lower Konkan 
{i.e., Eatnagiri and Karwar) we have Leptispa. 



We do not find it at all at Pusa. 



Mr. Fletcher.. 



236 



PnOCEEDlNGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



It is a serious pest in Travancore. 

Do you do anything against it ? 

Nothing. 

We have found the grubs parasitized at Surat. 

The parasite is probably not very successful. 

{Unidentified Hisjjine.) 
This species was found by ,K. D. ShrofE on 7th September 1908 at 
Hmawbi -(Lower Burma) boring into plantain stems. 



Wallacea sp. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 262. 
This species has been found at Pusa, the adult on top-leaves and the 
larva on top-shoots of the date palm {Phoenix sylveslris). The larvae 
and adults eat the epidermis of young leaflets. 



( Unidentified Hispine.) 
This species has been found in some numbers at Pusa on Sacchannn 
arundinaceum. On 21st June 1918 the larvte were found living gregari- 
ously inside rolled leaves, nibbhng the epidermis, and on 10th July 1918 
the adults were found in the field nibbhng the leaves. The larvee collected 
in June emerged on 25th July 1918. 



Oncocepliala tubcrcidata, Ohv. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 292. 
We have this from Bulsar (Bombay), in numbers on 20th May 1904 ; 
from Coimbatore, on sweet-potato ; and from Moulmein, adults on sweet- 
potato. It is not known to be a pest. 

Oncocephala. sp. 
This was reared at Pusa from larvae found in September 1915 on sweet- 
potato leaves, mining them, September 1915. It is not known to be a 
pest. 

Platypria andreiresi, Weise. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 253. 
This species occurs on her {Zizypkus jujuba), the larva damaging the 
leaves to a small extent. We have it from the Punjab, Surat, Pusa, 
Sripur, and Coimbatore. 



rUOCEEDliNGS OF THE THIRD EXTOMOLOCxICAL MEETING 237 

Platypria echidna, Guer. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 77. 

We have this from Matherau, Belgaum, the Nilgiris, and PolHbetta 

(South Coorg). It lives on Eri/thriiui litlwsperma and is a minor pest of 

this, the leaves sometimes being damaged to a considerable extent. 

Platypria hyslrix, Fb. 

South Ind. Ins., p. 316, f. 167 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 56, 74, 77. 
We have this from Cahcut and Tanjore. It occurs throughout 
Southern India as a local and minor jiest of lablab, agatJii and Erythrina. 

Hispa annigera. 
South Ind. Ins., pp. 315-316, t. 10 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 167. 

Hispa armigera (cenescens) occurs in practically all rice-growing 
areas in Southern and Eastern India as a serious pest of rice, usually 
on young rice plants. North Bihar seems about its northern limit, 
and at Pusa it is sometimes a pest of nurseries. Our records include the 
following data : — Champaran, on rice ; Pusa, usualh* in small numbers, 
occasionally destructive to seedling rice-plants ; Kidderpur ; Midnapnr ; 
Noakhali, on rice, 11th September 1913 ; Harra (Bankura), breeding 
in a((s paddy leaves, July 1917 ; Bakerganj (Bengal), on paddy in numbers, 
September 1905 ; Sylhet, on paddy, 10th June 1912 ; Cuttack, occasionally 
serious ; Ellore ; Salem, on paddy ; South Kanara, on paddy ; Lonavla 
(Bombay), on rice. 

The hfe-history is known and the niain difficulty in control is the 
sporadic manner in which this pest usually appears in destructive numbers. 
Collection of the beetles in hand-nets has been found useful in Madras, 
and perhaps oiling of the water and dipping the plants by dragging a 
rope over them might be useful in the case of seed-beds. 

Can anyone give us an account of practical experience in control 
measures ? 

Cutting off the tips of the plants is effective. When the pest appears Mr. Ramrao. 
in large numbers, cutting the tips off the plants reduces the pest con- 
siderably, but this must be done before the flowering shoot comes up. 

In Madras it is the custom to bundle the seedlings together and to Mr. Ramakrishna 
cut off the tops whether the beetles are present or not. We tried this Ayyar. 
and found it successful. 

In Travancore we tried hand-netting. If this is done twice or thrice Mr. Pillay. 
after the rains it is successful. Eain is essential for hand-netting, because 



238 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD EXTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



the mire in the fields gets sticky and the beetles that fall in get stuck 
there. 

We find this pest very bad in cases where fields are, irrigated from 
tanks. 

It does not occur until forty-five days after transplantation. 

It is bad in flooded areas in Bengal and nothing can be done there to 
check it. When it attacks cms paddy, bagging is possible. 

In Assam there is no hope of checking the pest by bagging or netting. 

Will Mr. Pillay say whether it was a bag-net or a hand-net that he 
tried ? 

Hand-netting. 

We did bagging, but it was no good. 

The fields must be muddy and then the insects fall into the mire. 

Paddy is grown under swampy conditions, and bagging or netting 
seem impossible. 

We do netting two or three times. 

Do you get the beetles by bagging ? They seem to sit tight on the 
leaves. 

The insect occurs in patches where the paddy is about two feet high. 

Some varieties of paddy are more afiected than others and work might 
be done on the selection of resistant varieties. 



Phidodonta modesta, Wied. 

South Ind. Ins., p. 315, t. 9 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 149, 
152, 180, 199. 

Our specimens are from Ctapra ; Pusa, on sugarcane, Sacchariim 
Sfontaneiim, juar, oats and rice ; Surat, on sugarcane and jiiar ; and 
Pyinmana (Burma), on sugarcane. It is a widely distributed species 
throughout the Plains of India and Burma and is a minor pest of sugar- 
cane and jttar. The larva mines the leaf and the beetle also eats the leaf. 
The mined leaves and adult beetles may be collected and destroyed. 

It is uncertain whether we have one or more species on sugarcane 
under the name Ph. modesta. The Pusa specimens (as is shown in the 
coloured plate given in Indian Insect Life, tab. 23, and in South Indian 
Insects, tab. 9) have five pairs of thoracic spines, the first and second 
and the third and fourth connate, the fifth free. In the Surat specimens 
the first and second spines are connate, the rest separate at origin. The 
Burma form, as represented by a single specimen from Pyinmana, has 
the third and fourth thoracic spines on a distinct staUc and the elytra 
with accentuated colourless patches in rows between the spines. One 
Pusa specimen has the fifth thoracic spine double on the left side only. 



PKGCEEDINGS OF THE ''tHIED EXTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 239 

The original description of Ph. modesta applies to the Surat form, whilst 
our coloured plate is taken from the Pusa form. 

It is not a pest at Pusa. Mr._Misra. 

Laeiad^ (Beuchid^). 
This family includes a number of species which attack pulses. Most Mr. Fletcher, 
of them are pests of stored pulses, but a few attack the seeds in the field. 
The various species concerned are as 3'et very imperfectly known in India 
and further investigation will doubtless bring to hght many more species 
which attack crops in the field. Besides those mentioned here we have 
various unidentified species from Seslania and Crotalaria seeds. 

Bruchiis affinis, Frol. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 64, 65, 308 ; Ann. Rept. Impl. 
Entom., 1917-18, p. 105. 
This species has been found at Pusa and Poona attacking Pisvm 
sativum seeds in the field. We have it also from Kanara. 

We find it breeding in the field to a considerable extent. It has one Mr. Ramrao. 
brood in the year and cannot breed in the dry seeds later on. 

Bruchus theobromw, Linn. 

This species has been foimd at Poona, breeding in Pisum sativum y^_ Fletcher, 
seeds in the field. 

We also have it from Belgaum, Matheran and Coimbatord, but it has 
not been found at Pusa. 

Pachijmerus chinensis, Linn. 

S. 1. 1., pp. 306-307, f. 155 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 45, 
57, 60, 64, 308 {Bmcnus) ; Ann. Rept. Impl. Entom. 1917-18, 
p. 105. 
Pachymems (Bruchus) chinensis breeds both in the field and in stored 
pulses. At Pusa it is mainly a pest of stored seeds, but has been found 
to breed in the field in pods of cowpea (Vigna catjang). We have speci- 
mens from the following localities and foodplants, but not all of these 
latter are from growing plants : — Nagpur, larva in pea-seeds and Vigna 
catjang pods ; Gaya, on Cajanns indicus ; Pusa, eggs on pea-pods, larvae 
in Vigna catjang pods in fields, seeds of Dolichos biflorus, arhar seeds, 
lentils in store ; Mysore and Coimbatore, on Cajanvs indicus. 

The fact that these seeds may be infested in the field emphasizes the 
necessity for proper treatment before storage. 

VOL. I E 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Meloid^ (Cantharid^). 
Epiccnita hirticornis badgleyi, Wellm. MS. 
This species was sent in by Dr. H. H. Mann in June 1907 as damaging 
vegetable gardens in Assam and also seriously attacking Sesbama aculeata 
(dhaincha) plants introduced for green manure on Tea Gardens^ It was 
also sent in on 21st September 1907 by the Head-Master of the Dacca 
Training School as destroying leaves of dhaincha plants. 

The Pusa CoUection also contains specimens from Buxar Duars, 
Gauhati and Nongpoh. 

Epicaiita sp. 
S. S. I., p. 306, f. 154. 
This species was found at Puttur, South Kanara, on paddy, 3rd 

October 1909. .. , • ,u 

It is a local pest of paddy, eating the flowers and also attacking the 

ripe ear-heads. 

Efkaiita sp. 

Adult beetles were sent in to us on 17th June 19U from Simla by 

Kishen Singh as " working havoc on all the potato and cabbage crops, 

and it swarms like locusts, eating up all the leaves, even of walnut and 



other trees." 



Zonahris -phalerata, Pall. 



Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 128. 

Specimens were sent in to us by Messrs. Mitchell and Company on 
23rd June 1915 from Garhi, Kashmir (3,000 feet) and were stated to be 
eating and destroying the olive fruits on the trees. 

At Pusa the adixlts occur in November every year and destroy Hibiscus 
rosa-sinensis flowers. 

We also have specimens of this species (identified by Dr. Creighton 
Wellman) from Helem (Assam), Belgaum, Shevaroys, Masuri, Surat, 
Berar (Central Provinces), Hoshangabad, Saran (Bihar) and Cuttack. 

It has not been noticed on olives in the North- West Frontier Province. 

• Zonabris pustulata, Thunb. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 43, 60, 128, 201. 
We have two or three specimens named as puslulata by Dr. Creighton 
Wellman but I cannot distinguish these from phalerata, which seems to 
be the commoner form. 



PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 241 

The name pvstulala has generally been applied to the common large 
black red-banded species which is frequently destructive to Cajanus 
indicus, cowpea, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and tenai. 



Lytta tenuicollis, Pall. 

S. I. I., p. 302, f. 148 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 178, 
183, 188, 201. 
We have this from Chapra ; Pusa ; Belgachia ; Palamau ; Bhandara 
(Central Provinces), on rice ; Hoshangabad ; Suiat, on bajra and juar ; 
Nadiad ; Hagari (Bellary), on cholam ear-heads and paddy ; Bezwada ; 
and Coimbatore. In Southern India this species does considerable 
damage to ear-heads of cliolam, ciimbu, etc. 

As in the case of all these Meloid beetles, the adults are easily 
collected by hand or in nets. 

Lytta fida, Cast. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 207. 

This has been found at Gurgaon (Punjab), the beetles eating bajra 

{Pennisetitm typhoideum) flowers, 4th September 1906. Mr. T. N. 

Jhaveri has also found the beetles eating lucerne leaves in North Gujarat. 

Lytta ruficollis, Oliv. 
S. I. I., p. 305, f. 153 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 201 (Cantharis). 
This species seems to be confined to Southern India. It has been 
found in Coimbatore, Bellary, Kurnul, Tanjore, and Tinnevelly ; the 
adult beetles damage cumbii, cholam and tenai ear-heads. 



Lytta actcBon, Cast. 

Entl. Note 35 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 149, 202, 207 
(Cantharis). 
We have this from Kasur (Pimjab), Cawnpur, Surat, Khandesh, 
Pusa and Cuttack. At Pusa the adult beetles were found on rice-plants 
■on 8th August 1905, on grass on 10th June 1907, eating lucerne on 2nd 
August 1913, on Setaria and Panieum miliaceum in large numbers on 17th 
July 1915, and also appeared in the beginning of July 1916. At Cuttack 
the adults were found on avs paddy on 20th August 1907. 

We find this in Madras also. ^- Ramakri3hna 

, Ayyar. 



242 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Gnatliosfastoides rouxi, Cast. 

South Ind. Ins., p. 302, f. 147 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 51, 201. 
This is a widely-distributed species which we have from Fyzabad 
(United Provinces), Pusa, Seoni, Bhandra (Central Provinces), Hoshang- 
abad, Surat, Dharwar, Kanara, Bezwada, Samalkota, Devanakonda 
(Kurnul), Beeravalli (Bellary) and Yemmiganur (Bellary). At Pusa it 
has been found on irrid leaves. At Bhandara the adult beetles were 
found in a field of Kutki [Panicum miliare] ; they " ate up nearly two- 
thirds of the whole crop, selecting the seeds which were just ripening and 
leaving those that were dry and perfectly mature." At Seoni on 7tb 
September 1904 the adult was noted to attack the ear of young plants 
of Kutki. At Dharwar on 21st September 1908 the beetles were found 
on juar ear-heads ; " sweet " and " dwarf Milo " varieties of juar were 
attacked, whilst the " Sundhia " variety, grown close to the others, 
was quite free from attack. At Devanakonda the beetles occurred on 
cliolam at the end of August 1913. At Beeravalli and Yemmiganur the 
adults appeared at the end of August 1913. 



TENEBEIONIDiE. 

Hopatroides serialopoms, Fairm. 
Specimens of adult beetles were sent to us on 29th July 1910 by the 
Superintendent of the Agricultural Station, Dharwar, who stated that 
they were " found in the surface of the soil and had done a lot of damage 
by cutting the tenderupshoots of potatoes, castors and groundnuts." 
Injured stems were sent for inspection. No attack of these beetles had 
hitherto been observed nor has it been reported subsequently. 



Gonocefhalum brachelylra, Gebien. 
We have this only from Pusa, where it is abundant. On 18th January 
1919 adult beetles were found in large numbers in recently transplanted 
beds of poppies, petunias, etc., in a garden, feeding on the plants. They 
were collected by hand and excluded from the flower-beds by a border 
of ashes mixed with kerosine. The larva has been found imderground 
at Pusa in a gram field, where it was eating gram roots ; in confinement 
it fed on fresh indigo leaves and decomposing leaves. The larva and pupa 
have been found on 18th May 1914 underground in a field of palwat 
(Trichosanthes dioica). 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 243 

Gonoceffialum depresswn, Fb. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 46, 50, 284. 
This is a widely-distributed species which we have from Peshawar, 
Masuii, Cawnpui, Bundhilkhand (Central India), Pusa, Lebong 
(Darjiling District), Buxar Duars, Khasi Hills, Mandalay, Belgaum, 
Bangalore, Kanara, Trichinopoly, lyerpadi (South India), Coimbatore, 
and Valparai (Anamalai Hills). In Bundhilkhand it was found at roots 
of gram and at Bangalore in March 1910, the beetles were noted by 
T. V. Ramakrishna Ayyar to damage grape-vines by nibbling the tender 
roots and scraping the fruits. Larvae were sent in from Oral, near 
Cawnpur, by Mr. B. C. Burt and stated to be damaging gram roots in 
January 1909 ; " the larva remains underground, first eating the hairs 
of the roots, sometimes cutting roots through four or five inches below 
ground. Individual plants are attacked here and there ; they yellow 
and dry up." 

Gonocefhalum hojmannseggi, Steven. 

South Ind. Ins., p. 299, f. 143 ; Mysore Entl. Bull, No. 5 (1918). 

We have this from Dehra Dun. Bangalore, Nilgiris, Kanara, Calicut, 
Coimbatore, Anamalais and Tinnevelly. It has been noted at Bangalore 
to do occasional damage to grape-vines, potatoes, etc., and in their recent 
Bulletin Messrs. Coleman and Kunhi Kannan record it definitely as a 
pest of potato and ragi {Eleusine coracana), and recommend control by 
attracting the adult beetles to bundles of weeds pulled out with their 
roots and laid down on the field bunds. 

We have recently issued a Bulletin on G. hojmannseggi and G. depres- jh,. Kttnhi Kannan 
sum and remedial measures have been suggested there. This species 
attacks ragi seedHngs and potato tubers in Mysore. 



Gonocefhalum elongatum, '. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 46, 50, 94. 
This is also a widely-distributed species and we have it from Cawnpur, Mr. Fletciier. 
Chapra, Pusa, Comilla, Busar Duars, Lashio (Upper Biu-ma), Nongpoh 
(Khasis), Chitrakote and Lalitpur (Central Provinces), and Belgaum. 
At Cawnpur the adult beetles have been found on groundnut and at Pusa 
on 18th January 1919 they were abundant in newly-transplanted beds of 
seedlings (poppies, petunias, etc.), in a garden, pairing, and apparently 
breeding and feeding on the plants. At Pusa the larva was found eating 
roots of gram in May 1915 and the insect has also been reared from ihe 
egg on dry indigo leaves. Like the preceding species, it probably feeds 
normally in the larval stage at the roots of grass but may do considerable 



244 



PEOCEliDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



damage to cultivated plants at times and the beetles also attack culti- 
vated plants, especially any that are at all sickly. 
Mr. Senior- White. The beetles are gregarious in habit. 

Gonocephalum sp. 
Mr. Fletcter. The larvae were found at Pusa in a gram field, and in confinement 

ate gram roots and also decaying leaves. 

Gonocephalum sp. 
The adult beetles were found in numbers at Moulmein in September 
1914 on sweet-potato which certainly seemed to have been attacked by 
them, many plants being dying or dead and their stems eaten into. 

Elaterid^. 
Drasterius sp. 

Elaterid grubs found at Pusa on 10th November 1914 were supposed 
to be damaging newly-grown wheat. The larvae were supphed with 
roots but it could not be determined that they were eaten ; they were 
probably predaceous, and it is doubtful whether they were actually- 
doing damage. 

We have foimd this species actually eating potato-tubers undergrounds 
We find it chiefly in the Hilly tracts. 

All the Elaterids that we have reared have been predaceous in the 
larval stage. 

They Hve in wood in large numbers. 

The grubs were fed on potato-tubers in our insectary. 



Mr. Ramakrislma 
Ayyar. 



Mr. Beeson. 

Mi. Ramakrislma' 

Ayyar. 



BUPEESTID^. 



Kerr. 



Sphenoptera gossypii 
South Ind. Ins., p. 298, t. 8 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 119, 124. 
This species is widely distributed in India and we have it from Hissar 
(Punjab), Pusa, Nagpur, Anand, Surat, Baroda, and the Nilgiris. As a 
pest of cottons, however, its activities seem localized. In the Punjab 
and at Pusa it is scarce. In Berar it used to be a bad pest but the practice 
of removing and burning all attacked plants has apparently reduced the 
damage to insignificant proportions. In the Surat District it is still very 
serious, especially in young cotton plants. In Baroda it is reported to- 
occur especially on areas of black soil. In the Bellary district and the 
adjacent territories in Mysore it is an occasional pest of cotton. It is. 
occasionally found in hhindi also throughout its area of occurrence. 



rnOCEEDlNGS OF THE THIRD EN-TOMOLOGICAL MEETING 245 

It is easily controlled by systematic destruction of all attacked plants. 

In Bellary we found it in Egyptian cotton. Mr. Famakrishna 

Ayyar. 

It is not found in cotton in Egypt. What chances are there of its Dr. Gough. 
importation into Egypt from India ? 

The chances are very small since the insect is not found in the seeds Mr. Fletche?, 
at all. 

In Baroda it is bad in areas of black cotton soil. ^- ^*'®'- 

The same statement is true in Surat. With us it is controlled by Mr. JhaverL 
a parasite. 

Sphenoptera arachidis, Lefroy MS. 
South Ind. Ins., pp. 298-299, ff. 141, 142 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 46, 48, 56, 57, 60, 70, 75, 93, 208. 

We have this from Palur (S. Arcot) and Hagari (Bellary), reared Mr. Fletcher, 
from groundnut, of which this insect is a sporadic pest, and it has also 
been reported to occur at Nagpur on groundnut and soy-bean and in 
Baroda on hir. We have also specimens in the Pusa collection, placed 
.under gossypii but which more probably belong to arachidis, from Nagpur, 
on soy-bean, from Hagari, on groundnut, and from Pusa on sann-hemp 
and tur. S. arachidis has also been noted in lucerne at Bellary, in 
Jablab at Nadiad, in horsegram in Madras, in cowpea, and in agaihi 
in Madras ; but it is possible that some these records do not really refer 
to this species. 

In Madras it is a sporadic pest which has never been serious, at least Mr. Ramakrishna 
not for the last two or three years. ^^^^' 

Psiloptera fastuosa, Fb. 
Stebbing, In. For. Ins. Col., pp. 199-200, t. XI ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 275. 
This species seems to occur chiefly in Southern India, our specimens Mr. Fletcher, 
being from Bassein Fort (Bombay), JIalabar, Trichinopoly, Manaparai, 
Saidapet, Kumul, Yemmiganur and Beeravalli (Bellary). In Malabar 
it has been recorded on teak and at Saidapet the adult beetle was found 
on castor stems. The beetle is also recorded as stripping the bark off 
young stems of Acacia arabica. It seems doubtful whether it is a pest 
to any cultivated -crop. 

Belionota prasina, Thunb. 

Stebbing, Ind. Forest Ins. Col., pp. 217-218, fig ; Proc. Second 

Entl. Meeting, pp. 227-231 ; Ann. Kept. Impl. Entom. 

1917-18, p. 103, t. 18, ff. 2 a-d. 

We have this from the Khasi Hills, Pusa, Baroda, Surat, Poona 

and Kanara. At Pusa the adults occur in^August and September. At 



246 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Poena it has been found boring into guava stems and at Surat the larvae 
were found in August 1917 in numbers in a mango stem which had 
apparently been killed by them. Stebbiug also records it in mango 
at Chicacole, and it may be looked on as a sporadic pest of mango. 



Julodis atkinsoni, Kerr. 
~ Ind. Mus. Notes IV, ii, 48-49, fig. (1896). 
Reported as very destructive in June 1895 to the cotton and melon 
crops in the Lieah Tahsil of Dehra Ismail Khan. 

There are no specimens in Pusa Collection and it has not since been 
reported as a pest. 

Trachys sp. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 134. 
This species occurs as a pest of jute chiefly in Bengal and the adja- 
cent parts of Bihar, the larva mining the leaves. At Pusa it is not 
common, whilst at Dacca jute plants left for seed have been noted to 
have been riddled with holes. It has also been noted on jute at Rang- 
pur and Purnea but it is usually regarded as only a minor pest of jute. 
It is only a minor pest of jute, for which no remedy : 



Trachys bicolor. 

The larvae of this species have been found mining Butea frandosa 
leaves in South Malabar. 

It is found as a bad pest of Butea jrondosa in the Wajayar Forest, 
in South Malabar. The leaves appear blistered when attacked. 



{Unidentified Buprestid.) 
This species was sent to us from Simla by Messrs. W. M. Cotton 
& Co., as boring cherry trees in the larval stage. These cherry 
trees had been imported and were five years old. The larva apparently 
hatched between the bark and the wood, and the pupa was embedded 
in the hard wood. The outside bark was riddled with oval holes as 
large as the head of a match, but these did not contain hving in'sects. 



[Chrysochroa sp. 
Senior-White. This is an occasional pest of cultivated roses at Matale, the beetles 
getting into the middle of*the flowers and eating out the flowers.] 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETINj 247 

[Agrilus aculus. 

In 1918 in the observation plots at the Nagpur Experimental Farm, Mr. Khare. 
some amhacli (Hibiscus cmmahimis) plants were growing. These plants 
looked quite healthy, till the month of October, but later on put on a 
sickly appearance, so much so that in November many plants died 
and had to be uprooted : all the dead plants were examined, and found 
harbouring more than one gmb of a Buprestid beetle. I first of all 
took that to be a Sphenopfera grub, but later on when the beetles emerged, 
those were no longer SpJienoptera but Agrilus acuius. The stems of 
ambadi apparently were all right excepting a few cuts on the bark here 
and there. The root system too was quite sound, unhke in cotton when 
the main root is hollowed by the SpJienoptera gossypii grub, and, when 
the plants are pulled up, always break at that point. The grub, when 
it enters the stem, makes its way up spirally by cutting the wood a 
little deep, behind the bark. When the grub is fully developed it cuts 
a chamber in the wood and remains doubled up in a resting condition. 
I have kept quite a large number of the affected stems in a cage. I 
got a couple of beetles emerged in December last, but the majority of 
the grubs are lying inactive in the stems. It is possible that these 
may emerge next May or June. 

I could not find any reference to this beetle in any of the books 
like South Indian Insects, Indian Insect Lije, or Indian Museum Notes. 
I think it worth recording that this beetle may turn out a serious pest 
of ambadi.] 

MeLYRIDvE. 

Idgia melanura, Koll and Redt. 
This species occurs commonly at hght at Pusa in July-September, Mr. Fleto'aec. 
and in Augiist-September 1905, the adults were found on maize in small 
numbers and in September 1908 on juar. We also have it from Chapra, 
Masuri, Lebong (Darjiling), Khandesh, Belgaum and Coimbatore (at 
light), so that it is widely distributed in India. It may be looked on 
as a potential pest of cereals. 

Idgia cardoni. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 188. 
This species is very similar to meJanura but the femora are unicolorous 
testaceous, whereas in melanura the apices of femora are blackish. We 
have it from Lahore, Helem (Assam), Coimbatore, the Anamalai Hills, 
and Peradeniya. At Lahore it was found on one occasion in destructive 
numbers on bajra flowers and it may be looked on as a sporadic pest 
of cereals. 



PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



[Idgia belli. 
Mr. Ramakrishna Idgia belli was found in enormous numbers in October in the Wynaad, 

^yy^^- the adults attacking flowers of wild and thatching grass but not any 

cultivated crop. They occur in such enormous numbers that three or 
four baskets-full could be collected in a couple of hours by one man.] 



Hapalochrus fasciatus, Fb. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 168, 207. 
Kr. Fletcher. This species has been found on rice at Chapra, and at Pusa on rice 

in small numbers in July 1915, on grass and on lucerne. We have it 
also from Kasara (I^ombay). It is not known as a pest. 

COCCINELLID^. 

EpilacJina dodecastigma, Muls. 

South Ind. Ins., p. 292, t. 6 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 59, 285, 287, 289, 302, 307. 

We have this in the Pusa Collection from Igatpuri, Pusa, Nilgiris, 
Tatkon, Jorhat, Chapra, Cheniot (Punjab) and Coimbatore. 

At Pusa it occurs on leaves of Lvffa wgyptiaca, potato, brinjal, tomato 
and cucumber in all stages. At Tatkon the adults were found on Tri- 
chosantlies cucumerina. At Coimbatore it was reared on Solarium sp. 

It also occurs less commonly on cowpea. 

It is a decided pest of brinjal, potato and cucurbits, both the larvse 
and adults feeding on the leaves. It may be collected in all stages or 
treated by spraying. 

Epilachna 28-punctata, Fb. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 59, 285, 287, 289, 302, 307. 
This species occurs commonly throughout the Plains and we have 
it in the Pusa collection from Belgaum, Jalpaiguri, Palur, Pusa, Baroma, 
, (Assam), Jorhat, Nongpoh, Chapra, Tatkon. 

At Pusa and in the Philippines it occurs on potato, brinjal, Cepha- 
landra indica, and it is regular pest of brinjal, potato and cucubits when- 
ever it occurs. Life-history and control as in E. dodecastigma. 
Harchand Singh. This beetle did enormous damage to desi varieties of potatoes at 

Solan and Kanda Ghat, near Simla. Scotch varieties, which were 
put down nearby, were untouched. 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING Ziy 
EROTYLIDiE. 

Languria sp. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 201. 

This species Las been found at Coimbatore, where it bores into tenai 

(Setaria italica). The egg is laid in a hole cut by the adult in a stem, 

inside which the larva bores and pupates. This is at present only 

known from Coimbatore and the Pusa Collection contains no specimens. 

Have you found it anywhere outside of Coimbatore ? Mr. Fletcher 

We have not found it anywhere outside of Coimbatore. Mr. Isaac. 

[See also papers Nos. 3 and 6-5 of these Proceedings.] 

ClClNDELID^E. 

' Colly ris sp. 

Fowler, F. I. Cicind, p. 515. 
The larva of a species of Collyris has been noticed to bore into branches Mr. Fletcher, 
of tea in the Nilgiris. It is not sufficiently common to do much damage. 

HEMIPTERA (RHYNCHOTA). 

Pentatomidje. 

Brachyplatys pauper, Voll. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 9-10. 

This species was found in large numbers on hemp at Rangpur on 

21st July 1905 and was said to have done some damage. It is scarcely 

a pest as a rule. 

Brachyplatys subaeneus, Westwd. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 11. 

This species was also found in large numbers on hemp at Rangpur 
on 21st July 1905, but is scarcely a pest as a rule. 

Copiosoma cribraria, Fabr. 

South Ind. Ins., pp. 469-470, fig. 345; F. I. Rhyn. I. 22-23, 

fig. 11 ; Ind. Ins. Life, p. 612 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 

pp. 51, 57, 76. 

We have this from Seoni (Bhandara), on beans, 26th April 1912 ; 

Poona, on Cajanus indicus on 15th December 1908, and on val ; Cuttack ; 



250 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Travancore, on cluster beans ; Yercaud (Shevaroys) ; Coimbatore ; 
Pusa, on beans ; Surat ; MuzafEarpur ; Ranchi ; Nadiad ; Mahim ; Jalal- 
pore ; and Jallandhar. 

In Southern India it has been recorded as found on Dolichos lablab, 
Phaseolus mungo, Cyamopsis, agathi (Sesbania grandiflora), Legumi- 
nosse and Compositse. It is generally a minor pest of lablab and agathi. 
Control by catching in hand-nets. 



[Coptosoma nazirm, Atk. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 33. 
Mr. Ramakrishna This species occurs in large numbers on brinjal, cluster-bean, etc., 

^^'^^^- in South Kanara. It occurs on mango shoots also. 

Mr. Andrews. We have found it in enormous mimbers in Assam, but have not 

noticed that it did any 



Coptosoma sp. 
This was found at Mandalay in August 1914 on Sesbania and Cajanus 
indicus, in some numbers. 

Coptosoma sp. 
This species was found in August 1914 at Mandalay on Sesbania 
acuUata, in some numbers. 

Coptosoma sp. 
This species has been found at Palur (S. Arcot) on Butea fr&ndosa. 



Poecilocoris latus, Dall. 
Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 44, f. 19 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 23. 
This species occurs throughout Assam on tea. The bug pierces into 
the heart of unripe tea seed, and thus facihtates the entrance of fungus 
spores. 

As regards control, we still rely on catching it by hand. 



Scutellera nobilis, Fb. 
Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 51-52; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 236. 
We have this from Poona, on cotton and Phyllanthus ; Pusa, on 
castor ; and Garhwal. It was recorded in Indian Museum Notes V, 
iii, 119 as attacking grape fruits at Siripur Farm, Hutwa. 



PHOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 201 

Ochrophara monlana, Dist. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 147 ; Anstead, Planters' Chronicle, Vol. 
XII, No. 47, 24 Nov. 1917, p. 594. 

We have this from Aijal (Lushai Hills) on paddy ; Sallebile Estate 
(Mysore), on GreviUea robusia, a shade tree to coffee; Hallery Estate, 
Santikoppa, N. Coorg ; and Pollibetta, S. Coorg. 

This species apparently lives normally on bamboo seeds, and when 
the bamboos have flowered over a large area, the bugs increase enormous- 
ly so that they sometimes do damage to shade trees on coffee estates 
by breaking off the branches owing to the weight of the vast number 
of bugs congregated on the trees. They also occur on coffee in large 
numbers at such times but have not been noticed to attack coffee at all. 

Cappwa taprobanensis, Dall. 
Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 149, f. 88 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 213. 
We have this from the Shevaroys, Coonoor, Bababudins and Malabar, 
in all cases found on orange trees. 

It has also been found gregariously in Ceylon on the bark and trunk 
of orange trees {Distant). It is apparently a minor pest of Citrus trees. 

Codophila maculicollis, Dall. 
Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I, 158-159, f. 95. 
We have this from Poena, on Sokmum xanthocarpmn. 

Dolycoris indicus, Stal. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 160, f. 96 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 82, 96, 97, 184, 198, 201. 
■ We have this from Poona, on wheat ; Lahore ; Berhampore ; 
Aska (Ganjam), aniseed ; Chapra ; Pusa, Cajamis indicus fods, indigo, 
wheat, lucerne, tobacco plants, sugarcane, cotton ; Jallandhar ; Gojra 
(Punjab). In Southern India it has been recorded as found on chohm, 
Pennisetum typhoideum, Setaria italica, safilower, sun-flower. It is a. 
minor pest of the various crops attacked. 

Eusarcocoris vmtralis, Westwd. 
Dist., F. 1. 1, 167 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 85. 
This species has been found at Ganjam on gingelly, and we also have 
it from Pusa, Khasi Hills, Chapra, Raniganj, and Bangalore. 



252 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Evsarcocoris gulliger, Thunb. 
Dist., F. I. Ryn., 1. 165-166; S. Ind. Ins. p. 471, f. 348. 
We have this from Surat, Belgaum, Bassein Fort, Pusa, and 
Chapra. 

In the Plains of South India, it is a minor pest of Pennitetum typhoi- 
deum. 

Antestia CTuciata, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 185 ; f^. Ind. Ins.. p. 472, f. 350 ; Proc. 

Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 36, 222 ; Planters' Chronicle, 

VIII, 37. 

We have this from Nagpur, on lemon 16th June 1906, and ivr 

i3th July 1906 ; Poona, on coffee 21st May 1910 ; Chindwara, on mango 

inflorescence (said to be damaged) ; Kullakamby, on coffee ; Calcutta, 

on Acanthus ; Kasauli, on peach, apricot ; Seoni (C. P.), on mango, 

peaches — sucks the juice of fruits which fall down. 

It attacks young berries of coffee in Ceylon [Distant]. In the Nil- 
giris it has been found in large numbers sucking coffee berries and may 
be looked on as a sporadic pest of coffee in South India. 

A fines concinna, Dall. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. pp. 186-187, fig. 111. 

Distant gives the distribution, Hardwar, Bombay, " reported as 

attacking Rabi (winter) crops in the North Western Provinces {Ind. 

Mus. Notes, Vol. II, p. 165)."' Otherwise we do not know this as a 

pest. 

Agonoscelis nubila, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 189 ; South Ind. Ins. pp. 472-473, fig. 
351 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 184, 298, 301. 
Our specimens are from Jabbalpur, on tobacco, 14th March 1906 ; 
Poona, on lucerne, 21st October 1909 ; C. P., carrot flowers ; Pusa, on 
sunflower, Hibiscus sabdariffa, ber, Leiicas sp. ; Dacca ; Naduvatum ; 
Cuttack ; Sitamarhi (N. Bihar) ; Munshiganj ; Balaghat (C. P.) ; Jorhat 
(Assam) ; Khasi Hills ; Tatkon (Upper Burma), on cotton (K. D. Shroff) ; 
Shoranur (Malabar), paddy. 

" At Bombay, generally found on DolicJws lablab ; R. M. Dixon " 
(Distant). In the Central Provinces it is reported on carrot flowers 
and in South India it has been recorded on cholain. cumbu {Pennisetum 
typhoideum), wheat, various pulses, and aniseed. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 253 

Bagrada fida, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 193-194, f. 116; South Ind. Ins., p. 473, 
t. 2, f. 10; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 277 (tab.), 281, 
282, 283. 
We have this from Nagpur, on cabbage in December 1909 ; Poona 
on mustard, 18th September 1909 ; Coimbatore ; Ootacamund, on 
turnips ; Simla, on cabbage, cauliflower, radish, cress ; Saharanpur 
on Cruciferse ; Bhim Tal (Kumaon). did considelrable damage to potato 
crop, 30th May 1907 ; Naini Tal (Kimiaon), cabbage — did considerable 
damage ; Ramgarh (Kumaon), on cruciferous plants ; Pusa, on sugar- 
cane, rice [?], mustard, cabbage ; Kasauli (Punjab) ; Surat, on mustard ; 
Bombay, on radish ; and Chapra. 

At Dalsing Serai it was foimd attacking Natal indigo by de Nicevile 
(Distant). It is a pest of Cruciferse generally throughout India, occur- 
ring in very large numbers in some years. As a rule, it occurs late in 
the season. 

Rhynchocoris humeralis, Thnb. 

Dist., F. I. Ehyn. I. 212-213, f. 133 ; Entl. Note 94 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 214. 

We have this from Myitkyina (Upper Burma), on orange at end of 
August 1904 ; Jeohkote (Kimiaon), on orange, did considerable damage ; ■ 
and the Buxar Duars. It is a minor pest of orange. 

We find a bug, which is probably this one, in large numbers on Mr. Gupta. 
orange fruits in Assam. The small green oranges drop .ofi the trees 
when attacked. We control these bugs by applying the milky juice 
of the jak fruit to the end of a long stick and touching the bugs with 
this sticky end. 

Can the bugs be seen easily ? Mr. Fletcher 

Yes ; quite easily. Mr. Gupta. 

Bhynchocoris flagiatus, Wlk. 
Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 213 ; Entl. Note 95. 
This species was found in numbers on Coca (Erythroxylon coca) at Mr. Fletcher. 
Peradeniya in April 1914. 

[Viielliis orientalis, Dist. 
Dist. F. I. Rhyn., I. 214-215, f. 134. 
It punctures the ripe fruits of oranges, particularly the sweet varie- Mr. Isaac. 
ties. The area around the puncture sinks down and the size of the 



254 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

pit thus formed may be as large as a four-anna piece. Probably this 
condition is brought about by a fungus which follows the puncture.] 



Dr. Gough. 
Mi. Ghosh. 



Nezara viridula, L. 

Dist. F. I. Rhyn. I. 220, f. 139; S. Ind. Ins.. pp. 473-474' 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 52, 71, 89 (tab.), 130, 184. 
187, 198, 200, 285. 

This species has been reported frOm Akola (Berar), on Maghai Telli^ 
24th December 1909 ; Poona, on cotton {18th November and 19th 
December 1909), tur (15th October 1907) ; Pusa, on mung {Phascohs 
mungo), potato leaves (in large numbers), cotton, millets, sun flower ; 
Simla ; Ging (Darjiling) ; Bassein Fcrt ; Ganjam, on ragi ; Coimbatore, 
on wheat ; Shevaroys (Yercav.d), bad pest of potatoes ; HubH (Dhaiwar), 
on castor ; Gadag, on Sesamum ; Tinnevelly, reported bad on cinnbv ; 
Bangalore, on potato ; Dharwar, on til pods ; Poona, on Cajamis indicvs ; 
Minbu (Lower Burma) ; and Rajshahi. 

It is a regular minor pest of castor and the other crops ramed above 
and is sometimes serious on potato in the Hills, It is best controlled 
by hand-picking. 

It is a bad pest of potato in the Shevaroys. 

In Egypt it is a pest of cotton and a bad pest of potato. 

It is found on pulses also. 



Nezara graminea, Fb. 
Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 221. 
This species has been found at Dharwar, on jiiar. 

Fiezodorus ruhroiusciatus, Fb. 



Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 224-225, f. 142 ; S. Ind. Ins.. p. 474, 
f. 353 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 39, 184. 

We have this from Pusa, Bilaspur, Katni, Surat, Bassein Fort, 
Nadiad, Burdwan, Cuttack (on dhaincha), Mysore, and Godavari Dis- 
trict. 

In South India it is a minor pest of cholam, pulses and low growing 
plants. It has also been found on Laniana camara. 



PEOCEEDIN-GS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 255 

Menida histrio, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 228 ; S. Ind. Ins., pp. 474-475, f. 354 ; 
Proc. Second Enfcl. Meeting, pp. 175, 184. 
We have this from Pusa, Chapra, Cuttack (on potato), Dacca, Rani- 
ganj, Trevandrum (on rice), Suri (Bengal) on rice, Pennkonda (Madras) 
on paddy, and Kezanathum (Tinnevelly). 

In South India it has been noted on paddy, wheat, cholam and pulses. 
It is scarcely a pest. 

Asopus malabariciis, Fb. 
Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 255, f. 162. 
This species has been found in the Central Provinces on cotton and 
we also have it from Pusa. It is not known as a pest. 

Tessaratoma quadrala, Dist. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 258, f. 164 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 230, 247, 249. 
This species was reported from Kalimpong in 1914 as damaging 
pears, apples and htchis. We have it also from the Buxar Duars and 
the Khasi Hills. 

Cydopella siccifolia, Westw. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 280-281, f. 178 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 476, f. 
357 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 45, 78, 299, 300, 
- We have this from Surat ; Belgaum ; TeUicherry, on Erythrina ; 
Manjri, on Cyamopsis psoraloides ; and Poona, on Sesbania cegyptiaca, 
and Moringa pterygosperma. 

In South India it is a pest of Cajanus indicus, Erythrina indica, E. 
lithosperma, and Piper betle, and at Poona it has been reported as infest- 
ing Erythrina spp. and Leguminosse. 
The bugs are easily hand-picked. 

Aspongopus janus, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 281-282, f. 179 ; S. Ind. Ins., pp. 476-477, 

f. 358 ; Proc." Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 289, 304, 307. 

We have this from Chakwal (Punjab) ; Poona, on Abiitilon muticum ; 

Muzaffarpur, on Cucuibitaj ; Pusa, on pumpkin and bottle gourd ; Adoni 

and Salem, on pumpkin ; and Travancore, on bottle gourd (Lagenaria). 



256 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE TIIIKD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



In South India it has been noted on brinjal, lablab, pumpkins, most 
low-growing plants, and it is a sporadic pest of cucurbits in most parts 
of India. The bugs may be hand-picked. 

Aspongofus bninneiis, Thunb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 283-284 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 304, 307. 
We have this from Siripur, Pusa (on pumpkin), Rangpur, Balur, 
and Myitkyina (Upper Burma). At Pusa it has occurred as a sporadic 
serious pest on pumpkin. 

It occurs mostly in the Rains but the adults can be seen throughout 
the year. They sometimes kill the plants attacked. 

Tetroda histeroides, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. I. 199, f. 191 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 477, f. 359 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 175. 
This species l;ias occurred at Coimbatore and Salem as a sporadic 
minor pest of paddy. 

COREID.^. 

Anoplocneiiiis phasiana, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. pp. 346-347, f. 210 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 477, 
f . 8 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 45, 52, 76, 82, 184, 



This species has been found in South India on brinjal, redgram, 
greengram, cholam, Erythrina and lablab. We have it from Shripur 
(Bihar) ; Chapra ; Kanara ; Coimbatore, on Odina wodier ; and Pusa, 
on Sesbania cegyptiaca. 

This species is often a bad pest of Erylhrina and is less commonly 
found on the other plants mentioned. Control, by hand-picking, is 
easy. 

Bracliyies sp. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., p. 353. 
This insect was sent in to us from Solan, (near Simla), Punjab, attack- 
ing Asparagus plants. 

Ochrochira sp. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., pp. 342-344. 
This has been sent in to us from Jeolikote (Kumaon), where it attacks 
young growths of apple and cherr}'. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 257 

Leptoglossus membmnaceus, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rliyn., I. 382-383, f. 224 ; Green, Trop. Agric. 
XXXVIII, No. 6 (1912) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 307. 
We have this from Tatkon (Burma) where it was found in some 
numbers on Tricliosantlies cucumerina. It has not been noted as a pest 
in India but in Ceylon it has occmTed sporadically on orange, tree 
-tomato, passion fruit, pear, plum, cape gooseberry, beans, peas, and 
vegetable marrow. 

Physomenis sp. 
Dist., F. I. Ehyn., p. 383. 
This insect was sent in to us from Cooch Behar (Bengal) as found in 
large numbers on sugarcane, but we do not know how far it is a real 
pest. 

ClavigraUa gibbosa, Spin. 

Dist. F. I. Rhyn., pp. 401-402, f. 235 ; S. lud. Ins., p. 478, 

f. 361 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 45, 57. 

We have this from Pusa, January to May, on fur and cowpea ; Surat, 

December to Aj)ril ; Nagpur, on tur ; Bilaspm-, February 1907, on tur ; 

Puruha, November 1906 ; Katni, February 1907 ; Lebong, September 

1908 ; Buxar Duars. 

It is a minor pest of //(/•, especially bad around Poona. Control by 
collection of the bugs. 

Clavigralla Jiorrens, Dohrn. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 402 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 479, f. 362 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 45, 118. 
We have this from Nagpur, on ^(O', 11th December 1905; and Coim- 
batore, on tur pods. 

It is a minor pest of tur {Cajanus imlicus), said to be a serious pest 
around Poona. Shaking the plants over vessels of oil and water or 
.over oily cloths seems the most practical remedy. 

Leptocorisa varicornis, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 409-410, f. 241 ; S. Ind. Ins., pp. 479-480, 

f. 363 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 175, 184, 192, 200, 

201, 202. 

We have this from Pusa, on rice, grasses, millets, sugarcane (odd 

-specimens) ; Dacca, on rice ; Bankura, on rice ; Rangpur, on rice ; Comilla, 

s 2 



258 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD EiXTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



on rice; Siripur, on rice; Manickganj, on rice; Nagpur, on rice ; 
Bhandara, on rice; Balaghat, on rice; Mayorbhanj, on rice; Trincomali, 
on rice ; Partabgarh, on rice ; Benipur (Bihar), on rice ; Jhansi ; Cawn- 
pur ; Khunti ; Bihta ; and Lakhimpur. It is a serious pest of rice, 
especially in Assam, sucking the developing grain so that it is not 
formed. Control by keeping bunds and other areas adjacent to paddy 
fields clear of wild grasses and by use of hand-nets. 

We get it generally on the borders of the paddy fields and we use- 
hand-nets with advantage. Ten, twenty or thirty acres can be treated' 
in this way. It usually occurs mostly along the margins of the fields 
and, when netting or bagging is done, there is a likehbood of its going 
right into the field. The cultivators are beginning to take up this 
method of control. 

It is very bad in Assam and bagging has been found to be very 
difficult. The bug is attracted to rotting flesh. We discovered a number 
of bugs clustering around a squashed frog, not only on the dead body 
but also on the juice which was oozing out. Both nymphs and adults 
were found on it. We tried frogs and found that decomposing frogs 
do attract the bugs. 

At Pusa we found that the squashed bugs attracted a small fly in 
large numbers. 

Leptocorisa cmita, Thnbg. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 410. 

We have specimens, supposed to be L. acuta, from Chapra, on rice ; 
Kiirseong ; Khasis ; Phoobsering (Darjiliug) ; Bassein Fort ; and Tatkon, 
on sugarcane. 

In its habits it seems exactly similar to varicornis and I cannot 
distinguish it as distinct. 

I found this insect clustering on guava leaves between 9 and 10 a.m. 
at several places and on several occasions. 

I have seen L. varicornis swarming at noon-time during the heat of 
the day, leaving the rice-fields then and flying about amongst gram. 
Mr. Jhaveri's case may be the same. 

There were no rice-fields nearby. 

Riptwtus fedestris, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 414, f. 244 ; S. Ind. Ins., pp. 480-481, f. 

364 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 45, 48, 52, 57, 60, 307 . 

We have this from Pusa, on tur, cowpea, val (DolicJios lahlah), 

P. mungo, P. radiatiis ; Lebong ; Manikganj ; and Coimbatore. It is 

a minor pest of pulses. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL 'MEETING 259 

Riftortiis fwcus, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 414-415 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 45, 57, 60. 
We have this from Pusa, on Dolichos lahlab, cowpea, and PJiaseolus 
sp. ; Cuttack ; Lebong (Darjihng) ; Manikganj ; Bassein Fort ; and 
Coimbatore. 

It is a minor pest of pulses. 

Riplortus linearis, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 415 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 45, 
48, 57, 60. 
We have this from Pusa, on sweet potato, Guinea grass ; Bassein, 
October 1909 ; and Ganjam, on cJiolam. 

Corizus rubicundus, Sign. 
Dist., F. I. Rhyn., p. 417, f. 245. 
This species occurs at Pusa in numbers on Ahutilbn indicuni and some- 
times also on hollyhock. 

Serinetha abdomiiialis, Fabr. 
Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 419, f. 246. 
We have this from Bankura, Burdwan and Yercaud. At Yercau(? 
•it was found in numbers on coffee but it is not known to be a pest. 

Serinetha augur, Fb. 
Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 420 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 118. 
We have this from Pusa, on cotton ; Poona, on cotton ; Dacca ; and 
•Coimbatore, on Treweia in large numbers. 
It is scarcely a pest. 

BERYTID.S. 

Metacanthus pulcJiellus, DaU. 
Dist., F. I. Rhyn., I. 423, f. 248 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 306. 
This species was sent in to us in March 1913 as damaging bottle- 
gourds at Baroda by punctiuring the young fruits. At Pusa it has been 
found on pumpkin, bottle-gourd, and tobacco. It is widely distributed 
in India but does not seem to be a serious pest as a rule. 



260 rEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

I have found it on tea in the Duars. It was sent in along with 
Hehpeltis. 

Lyg^id-e. 
LygcBUS pandurus, Scop. (=mililarts, Fb.) 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., II. 6 [militaris] ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 481, f. 365 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 118, 137, 184, 290. 

We have this from Pusa, on cotton, iur ; Igatpuri ; Bilaspur ; 
Banknra ; Surat ; Lyallpur, on cotton ; Purulia ; Bhor Ghat, on Calo- 
tropis giganfea ; Chetput (Madras) ; and Coimbatore. 

It occurs at times in some numbers on cotton and Calotropis, but 
is hardly a pest. 

Lijgcevs hospes, Fb. 
Dist., F. I. Rhyn., II, 6-7, f. 3. 
This occurs throughout India. We have it from Peshawar, on 
Calotropis ; and Lyallpur, on cotton. 

At times it occurs in numbers, but it is scarcely a pest as a rule. 



GraptosfetJnis semis, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., II. 8-9, f. 4 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 482, f. 366 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 46, 134, 294. 

We have this from Pusa, on sun flower, cotton ; Samalkota, on red- 
gram : Bilaspur ; Surat ; Chapra ; Tatkon, on sugarcane ; Chepauk, on- 
cotton ; and Moulmein, on sweet potato. 

It is a very minor pest of the plants attacked. 

Nyshis inconspicmts, Dist. 

Dist., F. I. Ehyn., II. 18-19 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 84, 272. " 
We have this from Pusa, on tobacco and grasses, and from Ka.^ar- 
gode (S. Kanara) on gingelly. At Pusa the bugs have been found 
clustered in thousands on tobacco capsules and it is at times a decided 
pest. It may be controlled by tapping the bugs into pans of oil and 
water. 

It may be observed that the identification of this insect is doubtful. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 261 

Macropes excavatus, Dist. (? raja, Dist.) 

Macropes excavatus, Dist., F. I. Rhyn., II, 25 [Shillong]. 
Macropes raja, Dist., A. M. N. H. (8) III. 323 (1909), F. I. 
Rhyn., V. 19 [Calcutta]. 
We have specimens from Pusa, on sugarcane, grasses ; and from the 
Naga Hills, on rice, Job's-tears. 

At Pusa this insect appears occasionally in some numbers on cane, 
but is scarcely a pest. 

The identification seems doubtful. The specimens in the Pusa 
Collection standing under the name of M. excavatus do not seem to have 
been named authoritatively. They difier from Macrop>es in pilo.sity 
and the fore femora not being spined. If it is a Macropes, it is probably 
M. raja. 

BJissus gihhits, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. II. 28-29, f. 20. 
Distant, on the authority of de Niceville, records the immature 
stages as having done " much damage to sugarcane at Cawnpur." 
This species has not been reported as a pest during recent years. 

Chauliops fallax, Scott. 
Dist., F. I. Rhyn., II. 36, f. 24. 
This species was sent in to us on 22nd August 1913 from the Govern- 
ment Garden at Jeohkote (Kumaon) as attacking soy bean. 

It is recorded from Ceylon and Japan. In Ceylon it punctures the 
foliage of Dolichos unguiculata and completely checks the growth of the 
plant ; E. E. Green (Distant). 

Oxycarenus Iwlus, Kby. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., II, 43, f. 31 ; S. Ind. Ins. pp. 482-483, f. 367 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 116 (tab), 124, 126, 127, 129, 
130. 
We have this from Pusa, on cotton. Hibiscus esculentus, H. abel- 
moschus, AbutUon indicum, hollyhock, Thespesia popnlnea ; Gojra 
(Punjab), on cotton ; Belgaum, on cotton ; Coimbatore, on cotton ; 
Lyallpur, on cotton ; Surat, on cotton ; Saidapet, on cotton ; Coimba- 
tore, on cotton. 

The bugs attack the seeds, especially of over-ripe bolls left on the 
plant, and probably have some efiect on the vitality of the seed. They 
also do some damage by staining the lint when crushed. 



2G2 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD EKTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Control was discussed at the Second Entomological Meeting. 

Oxymrenus hyubris, Mots. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., II, 44. 
We have this from Peradeniya where it occurred in April 1914 on 
Hibiscus saMariffa in numbers. Distant states that it attacks cotton 
in Ceylon. 

Aphanus sordidus, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., II, 79-80, f. 62 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 483; f. 368 ; 
Proc. Second Eutl. Meeting, pp. 85, 93. 

We have this from Jallandhar, on tobacco, bonga [?]; Palamau ; 
Pusa ; Ranchi ; Belgaum ; Palur, on threshing floor (groundnut) ; Surat ; 
Poena, on groundnut, Sesamum indicum ; Taungtha (Burma), stored 
Sesamum and groundnut ; and Bezwada, on cumbu seeds (threshing 
floor). 

This insect is sometimes a serious pest of Sesamum and groundnut 
by carrying ofi the seeds in large numbers from the threshing-floor. 
It hardly seems to be a pest in the field, although it has been noted to 
feed on groundnut pods -on the ground when the soil is cracked. The 
bugs are easily swept up and destroyed. 

I have found these bugs on Cambodia cotton seed on the threshing 
floor after harvest. 

Pyrrhocorid^. 
Dysdercus cingulatus, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., II, 118-119, f. 87 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 484, t. 46 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 115, 124, 126-130, 132. 
This species occurs abundantly throughout the Plains of India, 
Burma, and Ceylon on cotton. Hibiscus esculentus, H. cannabinus, 
H. abelmoschus, H. rosa-sinensis, hollyhock, Abutilon indicum, Bombax 
malabancum, Thespesia populnea, etc. At times it occurs in masses 
of individuals and at such times the bugs are sometimes predaceous 
on one another, newly-moulted individuals being attacked and sucked 
by the others. It is a bad pest when it occurs on plants in any numbers. 
It may be controlled by collection by hand or in bags provided with 
tin funnels or by attraction to heaps of moistened cotton-seed placed 
amongst the plants or hung up on the bushes. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING Zt)j 
TiNGIDIDiE. 

Recaredus sp. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., V, 104-105 (1910); Dutt, Bihar Agricl. 
Journ. 1, 139-141, tab. (October 1913). 
This species occurs in North Bihar (Bettiah) as a pest of stored 
potatoes. 

Galeatiis retiarius, Dist. 

Cadmilos retiarius, Dist., Ann. S. E. Belg. liii, 114 (1909), 

F. I. Rhyn., V, 107-108, f. 53 (1910). 
Galeatus, Horvath, Ann. Mus. Hung. IX, 337 [Cadmilos is 
synonym]. 
This species was sent in to us from Allahabad by the Superintendent 
of the Government Gardens, on 12th June 1916, as attacking Chrysan- 
themum plants in May and June, disappearing during the Rains and 
giving no further trouble until next hot weather. It was found on 
plants in considerable numbers in the early morning, disappearing later 
on in the day. It has also been noted as common on chrysanthemums 
at Lahore. 

Stephanitis typicus, Dist. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., II, 132, [Cadamustus'] ; Entl. Note 96, f. 20 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 37, 239, 260, 295. 
We have this from Pusa, on plantain leaf ; Coimbatore, on plantain 
leaf ; and Colombo. 

It is a minor pest of plantain and turmeric, and has been recorded 
to puncture leaves of cardamom, Hedychium and alhed Scytamineous 
plants in Ceylon. 

Stephanitis sp. 
This was found at Coimbatore, on the underside of young coconut 
leaves in small numbers. It is perhaps the same as the preceding. 

Urentius echinus, Dist. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., II, 134, f. 97 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 485, f. 370 ; 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 289. 

We have this from Surat, Dharwar and Belgaum, in all cases on 

brinjal leaves. At Dharwar and in Travancore it is stated to be bad 

on brinjal, and in August 1915 it was reported to be damaging brinjal 

plants at Lyallpur. It is sometimes a serious pest of brinjal. It may 



264 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIKD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

be controlled by spraying and by picking off the affected leaves, which 
turn yellow and ultimately dry up and fall off the plant in any case. 

Tingis hystricelliis, Richter (1869) seems to be a prior name of this 
species (see Dist., F. I. Rhjn. II, 141, f. 104). 

Monanihia globidifera, Wlk. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., II, 144, f. 107 ; S. Ind. Ins.. pp. 485-486, 
f. 371 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 97, 267. 
We have this from Pusa, on croton, Ociinum hasilimum, mint ; and 
Yemmigannur, on Ocimum. 

It has also been noted on mint in Travancore and on heliotrop? in 
Madras and occurs in Ceylon also. Occasionally it occurs on safflower. 
Generally it is a minor pest of iulsi (Ocimum sanctum), causing the leaves 
to turn yellow. 

(Unidentified Tingidid.) 

Ann. Kept. 1917-18, p. 113. 

This species has been found at Bankura, where it did severe damage 
to Jasminum sambac. Spraying with soap was effective. 

Probably the same species has been found at Pusa and Lyallpur in 
lar^e numbers on Jasminum sambac damaging the leaves, especially in 
company with Dialeurodes citri. 

CAPSIDiE. 

Megaccelum stramineum, Wlk. 
Dist., F. I. Rhyn., II, 428 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meetmg, pp. 184, 187, 192. 
This species is recorded by Distant from N. Bengal, Kangra Valley 
and Pmidaluoya. At Coimbatore it is associated with Calocoris angus- 
tatus, laying its eggs in the surviving seeds of cJioJam after Calocoris 
has destroyed a certain proportion. 

It has been found at Pusa on" lucerne, p3as, Unseed and grass, but 
has not been noted on juar. It is probably widely distributed in India 
as a pest of cereals, but has been overlooked. 

ApoUodotus pra'fedus, Dist. 
Dist., F. I., Rhyn. V, 247-248, f. 135 [II, 438]. 
This species is recorded by Distant from Eppawela (Ceylon), and 
has been found at Pusa on plantain leaves. It is not known to be a 
pest. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 265 

Helopeltis antonii, Sign. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn, II, 440, f. 285 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 488, f. 374 ; 

Agr. Jouin. Ind. X, 412-416 (October 1915) ; Proc. Second 

Entl. Meeting, pp. 23, 26, 37, 255. 

We have this from Kudua Kamam Estate, on tea on 13th September 

1913, and from Pirmaad, on tea on 11th August 1913. In the South 

Indian Hills it is a pest of tea and cinchona and in Ceylon of cacao. 

In Coimbatore, and probably throughout the Plains of Madras, it attacks 

nim {Melia azadirachta), as described by Y. Ramachaudra Rao in the 

Agricultural Journal of India, and in North Malabar, South Kanara 

and Bangalore it attacks shoots of cashew {Anacardium occidentale). 

It has also been recorded on amiatto {Bixa orellana). We seem to 

know remarkably little about it as a pest of tea and cinchona in South 

India. 

Has anyone found this on nim shoots ? Mr. Ramakrishna- 

Ayyar. 

Yes ; I have seen this insect on roadside nim trees, the topshoots Mr. Ramchandra 
of which get withered as the result of their attack. R*o- 

I have been examining these shoots for some time. I cannot find Mr. Ramakrishna 
the insect and have some doubts as to whether the damage done is due Ayyar. 
to an insect or to a fungus attack. 

I investigated this subject some years ago and published an account Mr. Ramchandra- 
of it in the Agricultural Journal. I found the eggs as well as the nymphs Rao. 
on the new shoots. The reason why the insect is not seen on the damaged 
shoots is because it attains the adult stage and flies away before the 
damage becomes apparent. 

Helopeltis theivora, Waterh. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. II, 440-441 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 23, 26, 37. 
We have this from Lower Ging (Darjiling District ; October 1908) Mr. Fletcher, 
and from the Buxar Duars in May 1907. It occurs from Darjiling to 
Chittagong as a serious pest of tea. 
I See also pp. 669-671]. 

Disphinctus humeralis, Wlk. 
Dist., F. I. Rhyn. II, 444, f. 286 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 23. 
This species has been reported to occur on tea in Assam in much 
the same way as Helopeltis and on cinchona in Sikkim. 



266 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



It has been found in the Mangaldai district doing damage to tea 
in exactly the same way as Helopeltis theivora. The damage done by 
this bug is quite as much as by Helopeltis in districts where the latter 
does not occur. 

Disphinctus politus, Wlk. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. II, iU-Uo ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 489, f. 375 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 300. 

We have this from Talegaon ; Amraoti (Berar), on betel-vine leaves, 
11th October 1907 ; Kasargode (S. Kanara), on betel-vines, 3rd October 
1913 ; Basseiu Fort, on betel-vine leaves, 21st July 1903 ; Dharwar, 
on betel-vine leaves, 4th October 1903 ; Kirkee, on betel- vine. 

It is also reported from Belgaum and Ahmednagar. It is a pest of 
betel leaves (Piper betle) chiefly in Madras, Kanara and Bombay and 
is especially noted as a bad pest in Berar. 

In Ceylon Green gives its host-plants as Cuphea jorullensis (abun- 
dant, young shoots punctured and wilted), Solarium sp., young leaves 
and shoots of Peperonia sp., young leaves of Psidium guyava, and of 
AcalypJia (Distant). 

Hand-collection and crashing of the nymphs and adult bugs where 
these are accessible, combined with catching the adults in hand-nets and 
spraying of the immature stages, appear to be the best methods of 
control. 

Calocoris angustatKs, Leth. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. II, 452 ; Bulletin No. 58 ; S. Ind. Ins. p. 490, 
f. 376 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 184, 187, 192. 
We have this from Coimbatore and Yemmiganur (Bellary). In 
Madras it is a major pest oicholam, ciunhu and maize, the damage done 
being usually associated with that done by Megacoelum stramineum. 
Mr. Ballard has worked especially on this insect and has given 
all the available information in a Bulletin. No effective means of 
control can be suggested at present. 



Gallobelicus crassicornis, Dist. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. II, 478, f. 310 ; S. Ind. Ins. pp. 490-491, 
f. 377 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 272. 
We have this from Pusa and Coimbatore, in both cases found on 
tobacco leaves and seed capsules, and Distant records it also from Bhor 
Ghat and Tenasserim, so that it is very widely distributed. It seems 
to be a minor pest of tobacco, sometimes found abundantly on tender 
shoots, flower-heads and seed-capsules. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD EXTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 267 

The adults are fairly active and are probably best dealt with by 
catching in hand-nets and shaking the plants over pans of oil and water. 



Bagmus hnpmtumtas, Dist. 

F. I. Rhyn. V, 288-289, f. 159 ; South Ind. Ins., p. 491, f. 378 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 71. 

We have this from Pusa, Nagpur, Samalkota and Palur (South 
Arcot), in all cases on sann-hemp, of which it is sporadically a serious 
pest, especially on young plants, whose leaves curl up and become pale- 
yellow and finally drop ofi in bad cases. 

In Ceylon it has been noted by Mr. E. Ernest Green to puncture 
leaves of Crotalaria verrucosa and C. incarna [Distant]. 

As it is chiefly a pest of young plants, it may be controlled by bagnets 
or handnets. 

Haltiais jnimitiis, Rent. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. II, 480, f. 312 ; Ind. Ins. Life, p. 707, f. 479 ; 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 269, 286, 294. 

We have this from Pusa and also from Moulmein, where it was found 

in September 1914 in numbers on sweet-potato. It is sometimes a pest 

of tobacco seedhngs and brinjal seedhngs, and Distant records it as 

found on an Ipomcea at Peradeniya. . 

It may be collected in handnets when sufficiently abundant. 



^ FULGORID.5;. 

Eiirybrachys tomentosa, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. Ill, 222-223 ; S. Ind. Ins. p. 492, f. 379 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 78, 118, 124, 136. 

We have this from Surat (Athwa Farm), 5th December 1903 ; 
Surat, on cotton in 1903 ; Dhuha, 28th October 1908 ; Nagpur, 27th June 
1905, on Zizyphus jujuha ; Godarwada (C. P.), 15th October 1910 ; 
Madras, 28th September 1906 ; Penukonda, 30th March 1907, on Hibis- 
cus esciileiitus ; Nagpur, on bhindi — imagines on flowers and tender shoots ; 
Aurangabad, on bhindi tender shoots ; Polhbetta, on Enjthrina litfios- 
ferma. 

This species occurs commonly in the Central Provinces, Bombay 
and Southern India on Calotropis and Erythrina and less commonly on 
bhindi and cotton. It is scarcely a pest of cultivated plants. 



268 PEOCKEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Dictyophora pallida, Don. 
Dist., F. I. Khyn. Ill, 243-244. 
Distant gives a record from Indian Museum Notes, V, 43 [destructive 
to cane in N. Arcot], evidently a mistake for a species ofiPyrilla, pro- 
babljQ^. ferfusilla. We have one of the specimens collected by Atkinson 
at Raniganj and identified as D. pallida by Distant. D. pallida is not 
a pest so far as we know. 

*" Oliarus sp. 
Dist., F. I. Rhyn., III. p. 256. 
This was found on rice at Pusa on 10th November 1914. It is 
scarcely a pest, so far as we know. 

^ Assamia moesta, Westw. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., Ill, 296-297, f. 142 [Phenice] ; South Ind. 

Ins. p. 493, f. 380; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 150, 

184, 192. 

We have this from Pardi (Bombay), 23rd September 1904 ; Muzaffar- 

pur, 15th October 1904 ; Pusa, on her, Dracwna, maize. Sorghum, Setaria 

italica, sugarcane ; Coimbatore, 15th January 1913, on sugarcane, 

grasses, c/«ofem, palms ; Tatkon (Upper Burma), 7th September 1914, on 

sugarcane. 

This species is common in the Plains and the a,dults are often found 
in numbers on sugarcane and cereals, on which it does not seem to 
breed, however. It has not definitely been noted as doing any damage, 
but it often occurs in such numbers on cultivated plants that we may 
well remain suspicious of its doings pending further evidence. 

C) 
Elasmoscelis plalypoda, Kirby. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., Ill, 318-319, f. 155. 
We have this from Laksam (Bengal), on 26th January 1906 ; Pyin- 
mana (Upper Burma), on sugarcane, 7th September 1914 ; and Distant 
also records it from Ceylon. This may turn out to be a minor pest of 
sugarcane but we know very httle about it as yet. 

Jivalma sp. 
Dist., F. I. Rhyn., Ill, 328. 
This insect was found at Pyinmana (Upper Burma), on sugarcane 
on 9th September 1914. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 269 

-'Ricania sp. 
Dist., F. I. Ehyn., Ill, 375. 
This insect was also found at Pyinmana (Upper Burma) on sugar- 
cane on 9th September 1914. 

\/ n 

^ ' Pyrilla aberrans, Kby. y/' 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., Ill, 326-327, f. 161 [Zamila], VI, 85 ; Entl. 
Note 97; Entoml. Mem. V, 73-136, t. 10-15, figs. ; 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 150, 185, 192. 

We have this from Alcola, on sugarcane ; Cawnpur, on cane, IGth 
October 1905 ; Kasandra (Ahmedabad), on sugarcane, 6th January 
1915 ; Bassein Fort'(Bombay), in October 1909 ; and Pusa, on Sacchanim 
■simntaneum, 13th September 1906, Pennisetum tyjjhoideum , 18th Sep- 
tember 1906, grasses 20th September 1906, sugarcane, juar, wheat, 
oats and Setaria italica ; and Distant has recorded it from Chikkaballa- 
pura*^Mysore). 

All the available information on this and the other two species of 
Pyrilla has recently been given in Mr. Misra's Memoir. 



Pyrilla pusana, Dist. 

A. M. N. H. (8), XIV, 326 (1914), F. I. Rhyn., VI, 84 ; Entl. 

Mem., V, pp. 76-78 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 150. 

We have this from Akola (Berar), on sugarcane, in December 1909 ; 

Talodi (Chanda District), on sugarcane, 9th October 1914 ;'^ Pusa, on 

sugarcane, juar, and grasses ; and'^Chapra. Distant also records this 

fromHjpper Burma. ^/^ 

In habits it is practically identical with P. aberrans. 



Pyrilla ferfusilla, Wlk. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., Ill, 2,2{\Zamilal VI, 85 ; South Ind. Ins., 

pp. 493-494, f. 381 ; Entl. Mem., V, p. 78 ; Proc. Second 

Entl. Meeting, pp. 150, 185, 192. 

We have this from Pusa, on sugarcane in March and April ; Cawnpur, 

on cane and juar ; X5oimbatore, on sugarcane, maize and cliolam and 

Palur. It is, a common pest of sugarcane and cereals, occurring more 

especially irrSouthern India. 



270 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Pundaliioya shnplicia, Dist. 

Dist., F. I., Ill, 468-469, f. 255, VI, 134 ; South Ind. Ins., p. 
494, f. 382 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 185, 193. 

We have this from Pusa, on maize, and from Coimbatore, on cJwlam 
and maize. It occurs probably throughout the Plains, but has been 
little noted, although it is a bad pest of sorghimi and maize. The 
attack is usually localized in patches, the attacked plants assuming an 
unhealthy yellow appearance and producing practically no grain. 

Control is very difficult, as the bugs Hve protected inside the leaf- 
sheaths, where it is practically impossible to get at them. They are 
usually attended by ants and one line of attack might deal with these 
ants' nests. Beyond that the only method is by cutting the attacked 
plants and using them for fodder. 

( Unidentifed Fidgorid) . 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 216. 
This insect has been found at Coimbatore in all stages in swarms on 
shoots of Murraya koenigi, arresting the growth of the shoots. 

In South Kanara we find this small Fulgorid in large numbers on 
Murraya koemgi, and it does some damage to the leaves. 


Sogata pusana, Dist. 

Dist., A. M. N. H. (8), IX, 191 (1912) ; Dist., F. I. Rhyn., YI, 

139-140, f. 100 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 177. 

This insect has been found on rice-plants at Pusa, Bilaspur and 

Sambalpur, and has also been recorded from Calcutta, Berhampur, 

and Chikkaballapura (Mysore). It appears to be a minor pest of rice. 



Sogata distinda, Dist. 

Dist., A. M. N. H. (8), IX, 191 (1912) ; F. I. Rhyn., VI, 140 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 177. 
This species has been found on rice at Pusa and has also been recorded 
from Chikkaballapm-a (Mysore) and Peradeniya. It occms, together 
with''*?, pusana, as a minor pest of rice. 

[Since this paper was read, Mr. F. Muir has stated {Canud. Entom. L^, p. 8 ; 
January 1919) thatPS. disHncta is the same species asCafpgromciiis furcifera, Horv. — 
Editor.] 



PHOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 271 

Sogata ■pallescens, Dist. 

Dist., A. M. N. H. (8) IX, 192 (1912) ; F. I. Rhyn., VI, 140 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 177. 

This species has been recorded from Galle ; Chapra ; Madhupur 
District ; Calcutta ; Pusa, on rice ; and Janjgri (Bilaspur district), on 
rice. 

It occurs, together with the two preceding species, as a minor pest 
of rice. 

[Note. — Since this paper w^ read, Mr. F. Muir 1 as stated {Canad. Entom. LT, p. 8 
J'anuary 1919) that the type otiS. pallescen.i, Dist., is leaU^Megamdus furcijera, Horv. — 
£:dilor]. 

Liburnia sp. 
Dist., F. I. Rhyn., Ill, 480-481 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 177. 

This species has been found at Pusa, Burdwan, Hooghly, Bomchi 
■(Hooghly), Ahpur, Kandi (Murshidabad), Nadiad ; in all cases on rice- 
plants. It is reported to be an occasional serious pest of paddy in 
Bengal, but very little is known about it. Specimens have been sent 
to Mr. Distant, but the identification has not yet been received. 

Liburnia psylloides, Leth. 
Dist., F. I. Rhyn., Ill, 484-485. 

This insect has been reported as a pest but it is probably in mistake 
ior^Pundaluoya simpUcia. We have no specimens oi'L. fsylloides. 



C) 
Membracid^. 

Oxyrhachis tarandus, Fabr. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., IV, 4-5, f. 1 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 275. 

We have this from Sitamarhi (Muzaffarpur), on tur {Cajanus indicus) ; 
Pusa, on tur, Cassia fistula, and Acacia arabica ; Bombay, on Acacia 
richii. 

It is common in the Plains and is a minor pest of Acacia arabica, 
occurring sometimes in some numbers on Cajanus indicus also. 

VOL. I T 



272 proceedings of the third entomological meeting 
Cercopid^. 
*^ Machcerota flanitiw, Dist. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., IV, 84 ; Ind. Ins. Life, p. 733, t. 79 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 118. 
This, species occurs abundantly on cotton at Pusa and checks new 
growth. It is a serious pest at times. 
[See also pages 556-559.] 

J 

MachcBrola sp. 

This species occurs at Pusa on Phyllanthvs emblica in some numbers, 
the nymphal cases being attached to the twigs. It has also been noticed 
at Lucknow and is probably widely distributed in the Plains. 

Machcerota sp. 
The tubes of this species occur at Pusa on j^cjle numnelos shoots, 
which are sometimes considerably stunted. 

Callitettix versicolor, Fabr. 
Dist., F. I. Rhyn., IV, 113, f. 86 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 150. 
We have this from Wahjain and Nongpoh (Khasi Hills, 1,000 to 
3,000 feet) and Tatkon in Upper Burma. At Tatkon it was found in 
numbers on sugarcane on 7th September 1914, but it is not known how 
far it is a pest of cane. 

Abidama producta, Wlk. 

Dist.,F. I.Rhyn.,IV, 114, f. 87. 

We have this from Nongpoh (Khasi Hills), Shripur (Bihar), Pusa, 

Buxar Duars, and Pyinmana (Burma). At Pyinmana it was found 

on sugarcane on 7th September 1914, but it is not known how far it is 

a pest of cane. 

Phj/matostetha deschainpsi, Leth. 

Dist., F.I. Rhyn., IV, 128, f. 94. 

We have this from Paruthur (Malabar), 15th November 1913, on 
plantain ; Trithala (Malabar), 12th November 1913, on plantain ; Somesh- 
war (S. Kanara, 2,000 feet), 24th September 1913, on plantain ; 
and Tahuaramba (Malabar), 30th September 1913, on plantain. 

It occurs on plantain in some numbers along the Malabar coast but 
is scarcely a pest. 



PKOCEEDIXCiS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETINC 2/3 

Cosmoscarta relata, Dist. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., IV, 143 ; Soutli Ind. Ins. p. 495, f. 383 ; 
Free. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 252. 
This species occius in Soutli Mysore and in Coorg as a serious pest 
of jak, sucking the young shoots. 

Cosmoscarta juneraUs, Butl. 
Dist., F. I. Rhyn., IV, 154. 
We have this from Lebong (DarjiUng), Nongpoh (Khasi Hills ; 1,800 
feet) and Myitkyina (Upper Burma). At Myitkyina it was found on 
orange but it is doubtful how far it is a pest. 

Jassid^e. 
Idiocerus niveosparsus, Leth. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn. IV, 185, f. 121 ; South Ind. Ins., pp. 495- 
496, f. 384 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 222-224. 
"We have this from Saharanpur, Pusa, Bangalore, and Coimbatore, 
in all cases on mango, and it is a serious pest of mango throughout the 
Plains. 

It can only be controlled by spraying, which should start before 
the flowers open, as the eggs may be laid on the young leaves which 
appear before the flowers, and should be continued until the fruits are 
well set. 

' Idiocerus atUnsoni, Leth. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., IV, 18G ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 222-224. 
We have this from Pusa, 3rd May 1906, on mango bark and leaves ; 
Bombay, October 1905, on mango bark ; Pratapganj, 18th June 1907 ; 
Jamalpur, r2th December 1905 ; Manickganj, 26th October 1906, on 
mango ; Saidapet, 16th March 1907, on mango leaves ; Baliganj, Calcutta, 
mango ; Bankipur, mango ; Thar and Parkar (Sind), mango. 

It is common together with 7. niveosparsus and the same remaik 
applies to both species. 

Idiocerus clypealis, Leth. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., IV, 187, f. 122 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 222-224. 
We have tMs from Pusa, Coimbatore (27th May 1913), Shillong, 
Bombay, Alwar (Rajputana), in all cases on mango. It occurs together 
with the two preceding species and the same remarks apply to all. 

T 2 



274 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD EXTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



I have found an egg-parasite on Idiocerus spp. on mango. 

There are some important mango-growing tracts around Salem, 
Chittur, and Vizagapatam. These gardens contain trees from fifteen 
to twenty years old. 

Spraying with fishoil soap has been found effective against this 
insect. The cost of spraying works out at eight to twelve annas per 
tree, may be a rupee, but it pays because a tree after treatment yields 
fruit worth fifteen to twenty rupees. 

It is very important to know when the young nymphs appear, be- 
cause it is very essential to know the right time to commence spraying. 
Once we know the time of the emergence of the nymphs we can reduce 
the number of sprayings to be given to the trees. Spraying is quite 
effective on yoimg trees but is not so on old ones. Our present difficulty 
is to secure the spraying machinery. 

The cost you have given seems much too low. Does this include 
labour charges and hire of machinery ? 

No ; those items are not included. As was explained by me at the 
last Meeting, the labour is supplied by the watchmen who are maintained 
by the owners of the gardens to look after the gardens. I have not 
included cost of the spraying machines either. 

In view of the difficulty experienced by entomologists in India in 
obtaining sprayers, I may mention that Messrs. Shaw Wallace & Co. 
are putting on the market sprayers manufactured on the lines of Auto- 
sprayers. These sprayers are quite good ones, better than the Auto- 
sprayers, with all the modern improvements, and are quite 
thirty rupees or so. 

Mr. Speyer is also getting machines made in Colombo. 



Idiocerus sp. 
This insect was found at Yercaud on orange, 
far it is a pest. 



It is not known how 



TeUigoniella spectra, Dist. 



Dist., F. I. Ehyn., TV, 211-212, f. 1.37 ; South Ind. Ins., pp. 
496-497, f. 385 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 177. 
We have this from Pusa, 5th May 1914, on Sacckarum sponlaneum, 
paddy ; Penukonda, 27th March 1907, on paddy ; Gangajhari (Bhandara, 
C. P.), 10th November 1905, on paddy ; Surat, 16th February 1904 ; 
Laksam ; Mmishiganj, 16th February 1906 ; Lumding, 24th October 
1911, at light; Comilla, 27th October 1911, at light ; Chaumahani, 
27th November 1911, at light ; Muzaffarpur, 6th September 1910 ; 
Tellicherry (Malabar), 2nd July 1907, on paddy ; Coimbatore, on paddy. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 275 

It is an abundant species througliout the Plains and a minor pest 
of paddy, probably feeding on wild grasses also. 



Kolla mimica, Dist. 
Dist., F. I. Ehyu., IV, 225; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 177. 
This species has been recorded by Distant from Calcutta and Pusa. 
At Pusa it was reared from eggs found laid in rice leaves in 1915 when 
attempts were being made to leavi Nephotettix bipundatus. It is pro- 
bably a minor pest of paddy, but has been overlooked hitherto. 

^ NepJiotettix bipundatus, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Khyn., IV, 359-360, f. 228 ; South Ind. Ins. p. 497, 
f. 386 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 176-177. 
We have this from Sakti, 3rd October 1914 ; Pusa, 3rd November 
1912 ; Aijal (Lushai Hills), 10th December 1913 ; Penukonda, 16th 
March 1907 ; Hagari, April 1907 ; Janjgir (Bilaspur), October 1914 ; 
Raipur, October 1914 ; Balasore, September and October 1914 ; Chau- 
mahani, 5th March 1911 ; in all cases on paddy. The adults also come 
to hght in enormous numbers and form a large proportion of the swarms 
of " Green Fly " which come to hght at Calcutta and other places to- 
wards the end of the Rains. [See pages 433-443.] 



Nephotettix apicalis, Mots. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., IV, 360-362, f. 229; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 177. 
We have this from Chapra ; Dacca, on paddy in October 1906 ; 
Aijal (Lushai Hills), on paddy, 10th December 1913 ; and Coimbatore, 
15th April 1913. It occurs together withViV. bipundatus and is probably 
a pest of paddy also. 
[See pages 433-443.] 

Empoasca flavescens, Fb. 

Dist., F. I. Rhyn., IV, 405-406 ; South Ind. Ins., pp. 497-498, 
f. 387 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 26, 28. 
We have this from Pusa and Coimbatore, in both cases found on 
castor as a minor pest, and in the Duars and Assam it occurs on tea. 



276 PROCEEDINGS or THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Empcasca ihea, Dist. 
Dist., Entom. XLIiri96 (1910), 'f. I. Rhyn. VII 91 (1918). 
Destructive to tea in Cachar in company with E. flavescens. Also 
from Calcutta. '■ 

Empoasca devasfans, Dist. 

Dist., F. I. VII 93 (1918) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 117. 
[Empoasca sp.] 
We have this from : — Pusa, 8th August 1912, on cotton ; Coimbatore, 
7th January 1914, on cotton ; Taru (Peshawar), 26th September 1913, 
on cotton ; Nagpur ; Lyallpur, on cotton ; Dhulia Farm, on cotton ; 
and Dharwar, on cotton. It is at times a bad pest of cotton, especially 
of exotic varieties. ^ 

Empoasca sp. 
This was found at Peshawar in numbers on leaves of beetroot on 
26th September 1913. 

' EmjJoasca sp. 
This species attacks grape-vine in numbers at Peshawar in August. 
It has not been identified as yet. 

PSYLLID^. 

Arytaina isilis, Buckt. 

Psyllopa punctipennis, Crawf . 

Psylh isitis, Entl. Mem. IV, No. 6 ; Agricl. .Journ. Ind., VIII, 

1-26, tab. 1-4 (.Jan. 1913) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 

p. 81. 

This species occurs on indigo in most parts of the Plains of India, 

from the Punjab to Madras, but is a minor pest as a rule, occasionally 

serious, especially in North Bihar. 

Euphalerus citri, Kuw. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 215, 216. 
We have this from Cherat (North- AVest Frontier Province), Lyallpur, 
Pusa, Pooua and Coimbatore. It is usually a minor pest of Citrus spp. 
(orange, lime, lemon, pomelo), sometimes occurring in large numbers 
and doing considerable damage, especially in the Punjab. At Pusa 
and Coimbatore it has been found on shoots of Marraya koenigii and 
at Coimbatore on Cordia cordifolia also. 

Spraying with fishoil-resin soap is effective. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL ^ MELTING .277 

Apsylla dstellata, Buckt. 
Ind. Ins. Life, p. 742, ff. 514, 514 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 221. 
This insect is found throughout Northern India on mango. Its 
early stages are passed inside a young shoot which becomes distorted 
and transformed into a cone-shaped gall. It is not common as a rule 
but occasionally becomes a pest. 

ALEYEODIDiE. 

AleuroJobus harodensis. Mask. 

Ind. Ins. Life, p. 749, ff. 524, 525 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
pp. 150-151. 
We have this from Cawnpur, Pusa, Sindewahi (Central Provinces), 
Bassein Fort and Baroda, in all cases on cane. It is a sporadic major 
pest of sugarcane, but is usually checked by parasites. 

Beyond the utiHzation of such parasites and the cutting and des- 
truction of badly infested leaves, no suggestion for control can be 
made at present. 

Aleurocanthus spiniferus, Quaint. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 214. 

This species is widely distributed in the Plains as a pest, sometimes 
serious, of Citrus trees. It has been noted at Pusa, Surat, and in the 
Punjab. 

It can be controlled by collection of the old leaves and regular spray- 
ings (three or four, at intervals of a fortnight) of the new leaves with 
fishoil-resin soap. 

The damage done is largely indirect, due to the honey-dew on the 
leaves. 

Aleurocanthus nubilans, Buckt. 
Ind. Mus. Notes, V, 36, t. 5, ff. 7-9 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meetin^', p. 301. 

This species was originally described from Backerganj where it was 
reported to be doing considerable damage to " betel-leaves " [probably 
Piper betle]. It has not been noticed since on betel. 

Aleurocanthus piperis, Mask. 
This species has been found in Ceylon on pepper, and is likely to 
be found on pepper in India also. 



278 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING- 

NeomasJcellia bergi, Sign. 

South Ind. Ins., p. 507, f. 394 ; Proc. Second Entl, Meetings 
pp. 150-151. 
We have this from Pusa on sugarcane and from Pusa and Tharsa 
(Central Provinces) on juar. It is widely distributed in the Plains as. 
a pest of sugarcane and juar. 

Diahurodes citri, Riley and Howard. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 214-215. 
We have this from Lahore, on Citrus, and from Pusa on Jasminum 
sambac. It is not usually regarded as a serious pest in India, where it 
is probably kept in check by predators and parasites. 

Dialeurodes eugenice aurantii, Mask. 
This species has been found on Eugenia jambolana at Pusa, Poona^ 
Bangalore and Coimbatore ; but it seems to be a very minor pest as a. 
rule. 

Bemisia leakei, Peal. 
This species has been found at Pusa on indigo, but it is not known- 
to be a pest. 

Aleyrodes cotesii, Mask. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 266. 
This species was originally described from examples found on rese- 
at Quetta, and is also known to occur on rose at Pusa, Alipur (Calcutta)^, 
and Pondicherry ; but it is a rather minor pest as a rule. 

Aleyrodes sp. 

Ind. Ins. Life, t. 81 ; South Ind. Ins., p. 202, f. 89 [parasite] ;. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 88. 

We have this from Pusa and it is known to occur in Burma, Baroda 

and Coimbatore also as a sporadic serious pest of castor, whence it is^ 

commonly referred to in India as Aleyrodes ricini, although that is an. 

unpublished name. 

Aleyrodes sp. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 233-234. 
This species occurred in very large numbers on pomegranate atr 
Dharwar in February 1912 and has also been reported to occur at Banga- 
lore and Coimbatore. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 279 



[Note. — Our knowledge of Indian Aphids, even of those -which are pests of culti- 
vated crops, is woefully scanty. The following list has been compiled almost wholly 
from the late Bashambar Das' paper on the Aphididse of Lahore.] 

Macrosiphutn pisi, Kalt. 

= SipJionophora pisi (Kech-Buch.). 

=Nectarophom destructor, Johnston. 

Jour. Eco. Entom. Vol. IV, p. 384 (1911). 

Jour. Eco. Bio. September 1913, p. 134. 

Memoirs, Ind. Mus., Vol. VI, No. 4, pp. 157-158 (1918). 
Has been found at Lahore on the following food plants : — Alhagi 
maurorum, Melilotus alba, Medicago saliva, Clianthus dampieri, Lathyrus 
odoratttm, Dolichos lablab, Peganum harmala. 

Macrosiphutn rosceformis, Das. 
Mem. Ind. Mus. VI, 4, pp. 158-162 (1918). 
This has been found at Lahore on rose. 

Macrosiphmn granarium (Kirby-Pergande). 

Buckton, Brit. Aphid., I, p. 114 ; Pergande, U. S. Dept., 

Agric. Div. Entom. Bull., 44 (1904) ; Theobald, Jour. Eco. 

Biol., VIII (1913); Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, 4, pp. 162-163 

(1918). 

This species has been recorded from Lahore on wheat, oats and barley 

and is a pest of wheat at Pusa and probably throughout Northern 

India. 

Macrosifhum sanborni, Gillette. 

Sanborn, Kans. Univ. Sc. Bull, Vol. III. 
Gillette, Canad. Entom. L.ii, p. 65 (1908). 
Jour. Eco. Entom., IV, p. 385 (1911). 
Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 163-164 (1918). 
This species has been found at Lahore on cultivated Chrysanthemvm . 

Macrosifhum sonchi, Linn. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 97. 
This species — or, at least, the Aphid we know under this name — 
has been noted on safflower at Pusa, Dharwar and in the Central Pro- 
vinces, and is sometimes a bad pest of safflower. 

This Aphid does not appear to have been seen by Mr. Das in Lahore. 



280 I'ROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Myzus persicce, Sulz. 

= Rhopalosi'phim dianthi, Schr. 

Gillette, Jour. Eco. Entom., I, p. 359 (1908) ; Ind. Mus. Notes, 
IV, i, p. 23 (1896) ; Lefroy, Ind. Ins. Life, p. 744 (1909) 
Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 160-169 (1918). 
This species is recorded from Lahore on rape, mustard, cabbages, 
cauliflowers, turnip, B. campestris, Raphanvs satmis, Convolvulus major, 
Ipomoea spp., Nicotiana tabaciim, Datura stramonium, Primus persica 
(often pinkish in colour ; along with Aphis pruni), Pyrus co^mmunis 
Dalbergia sissu, Solanum tuberosum, S. lycopersicum, Chenopodium 
Viola tricolor. Cineraria. It has been found at Berhampur on brinjal. 

Stepkensonia lahorensis. Das. 
Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 175-179 (1918). 
This has been found at Lahore on cultivated Chrysanthemum. 

Brevicoryne coriandri, Das. 
Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 180-183 (1918). 
At Lahore this has been found on coriander [Coriandrum sativum). 
Occasionally also on Foeniciilum sp. and Camm copticum. 

Brevicoryne chenopodii, Schrank. 
Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 184-187 (1918). 
Has been found at Lahore on Chenopodium album. 

Brevicoryne (Aphis) brassicw, Linn. 

Buck., Brit. Aphid, II, p. 33 (1875) ; Essig. Pom. Coll. Jour. 
Entom. Ill, iii, p. 323 (1911) ; Herrick, Jour. Eco. Entom., 
IV, pp. 219-224 (1911) ; Ind. Mus. Notes, II, vi, p. 167 ; 
Ind. Ins. Life, p. 747 (1909) ; Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 
187-188 (1918). 
This species has been found at Lahore on cabbage and turnip. 

Siphocmyne indobrassicw, Das. 

= Aphis pseudobrassicce, Davis. 

Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 188-191 (1918). 
Recorded by B. Das from Lahore, Java, America. Myzus persicce 
is also found along with this in varying proportions. A coloured plate 
has been issued by Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa. 



PBOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 281 

We have it frorii Pusa, Poena, Ram Nagar (United Provinces), 
Fatehpur, in all cases on mustard. 

Siphocoryne nymphcece, Linn. 

^^Jthcfhalosiphiim nymfhcece. 

Buck. Brit. Aphid, II, p. 12 ; Essig. Pom. Coll. Jour. Entom., 
IV, iii, pp. 793-797 ; Patch, Main. Agri. Expt. St. Bull. 202 
(1912) ; Davis, Entom. News, p. 245 (1910) ; Cockerell, 
Science, p. 764, (1905) ; Ind. Ins. Life, p. 747 ; Mem. Ind. 
Mus., Yi, iv, pp.. 191-194 (1918). 
Found on Lennxi sp., Nehimbimn sfeciosvm and Scarpus lacnstris 
at Lahore. 

Siphocoryne padi, Linn. 

= Siphocoryne avenw, Fabr. 
=Siphonaphis padi, Linn. 

U. S. Dept. Agric. Bull., No. 44 ; Essig, Pom. Coll. Jour. Entom., 
IV, p. 791 ; Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 194-195 (1918). 
At Lahore this has been found on wheat, barley, Arena, rhizomes 
of Cynodon dactylon. 

Toxoplera graminmn. Bond. 

Passerini, Aphida? Italics, p. 28 (1863) ; S. J. Hunter and 
P. A. Glen, Bull. Kansas Univ., IX, ii (1909) ; Mem. Ind. 
Mus., VI, iv, pp. 196-198 (1918). 
This species occurs in the Punjab on wheat, barley, oats, Cyperus 
rotundus, Cyperus niveiis. 

Toxoplera punjabipyri, Das. 
Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 198-202 (1918). 
This species has been found at Lahore on Pyrus communis (pear), 
and Pyrus sp. (wild pear). 

Toxoptera aurantii, Boy. 

= Ceylonia theaecola. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, II, i, p. 40 ; Ind. Ins. Life, p. 748. 
This species occurs at Pusa and in Bombay on Citrus trees, but 
apparently does not extend so far North as Lahore (Das ; Mem. Ind. 
3Ius., VI, 196). 



282 FBOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Aphis rumicis, L. 

Schouteden, Cat. ApMdes de Belgique, p. 277 (1906) ; Buck, 
Brit. Aphid, VII, pi. xiv ; Oestlund, Aphid Minn., p. 61 
(1887) ; Gillette, Jour. Eco. Entom., Ill, p. 407 (1910) : 
Patch, Maine Agri. Expt. Sta. Bull., 202 (1912). 

This species has been found at Lahore on Solanum nigrum, Cnicus 
arvensis, Rumex dentata, Chinopodium ravely, Pynts communis (pear). 



Aphis medicaginis, Koch. 

= Aphis cardui. 

Koch, Pflanzenlause, p. 94, figs. 125-126 (1857); Gillette, 

Jour. Eco. Entom., I, pp. 177-178 (1908) ; Essig, Pom. Coll. 

Jour. Entom., Ill, iii, p. 527 (1911). 

This species occurs commonly in the Plains on ind.go and Cajanus 
indicus and has been noted at Pusa, Surat, and Kanchi on these plants, 
whilst it has also been recorded on Dolichos, Dalbergia, Medicago, Yicia, 
Sesbania, Cassia, etc. 



Aphis nerii, Boyer de Fonscolombe. 

Fonscolombe, Ann. Soc. Ento. Fr. X, p. 157 ; Essig, Pom. 
Coll. Jour. Entom., Ill, iii, p. 530 ; Ind. Ins. Life, p. 748. 

This species has been found at Lahore on Calotropis gigantea, C. 
procera, Hoya longifolia, Crypiostegia grandiflora, Asclepias sp., 
Cynanchum dalhousie, Draga volubilis. 



Aphis sacchari, Zehntner. 
Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 206-208. 

This species has been found at Lahore on Sorghum and Paninim 
colore. It has not been found hitherto on sugarcane in India, 
though it was first noticed on sugarcane in Java. {Arch. Java 
Suiker-indusirie Dl. IX, p. 674 (1901). 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 283 

Aphis maidis, Fitch. 

= Aphis adnsta, Zelint. 

=Aphis sorghi, Theobald. 

Fitch, Sec. Rept. on Insects of New York by State Entomolo- 
gist (18.56) ; Oestlund, Synop. Aphid Minn. (1887), p. 56 ; 
Webster, The Croton leaf Aphis, U. S. Dept., Agric. Circ. 
No. 86 (1907) ; Ind. Ins. Life, p. 747 ; Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, 
iv, pp. 208-213 (1918). 

This species has been found at Pusa on juar and at Lahore on wheat, 
maize and Pankum colore (inflorescence only), oats, barley, maize, 
Sorghum, Pennisetum typhoideum, Panicum crusgalli, Cynodon dactylon. 

A plate showing this insect under the name of " Wheat Aphis " 
has been issued by the Agricultural Department, India, but is of little 
scientific value. 



Aphis malvce, Koch. 

^A. cucurbiti, Buck. 

Buck, Brit. Aphidae, II ; Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 213- 
215. 

This species has been found at Pusa on bhindi and at Lahore on 
cucurbits. 



Aphis malvoides, Das. 
Rec. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 215-216, 1918. 

This has been found at Lahore on Malta sp., Malvastnmi spp.. 
Chrysanthemum, pear, pansy, Solanum spp. 



Aphis durranti, Das. 
Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 217-219 (1918). 

This species has been reported from Lahore on Diiranta sp., Vitex 
negundo, Cohcasia, etc. 

This species was called durranti by Bashambar Das, but the name 
apparently should have been durantce. 



.iS4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD EXTOWOLOGICAL MEETING 

Aphis gossypii, Glover. 

= ^. citrulli, Astimead, 1882. 
=A. cucuimris, Forbes, 1883. 

Glover, Pat. Off. Report, p. 62 (1854) ; Ashraead, Can. Ento., 

XIV, p. 91 (1882) ; Gillette, Jour. Eco. Entom., I, iii, 

p. 176 (1908) ; Essig, Pom. Coll. Jour., Ill, iv, p. 590 (1911) ; 

Ind. Ins. Life, p. 746 (1909) ; Mem. Ind. Mus. VI, iv, pp. 219- 

220 (1918). 

This species occurs commonly on cotton and is sometimes rather 

a pest of this crop. It has been found on cotton at Lahore, Muzaffarpur, 

Pusa, Dhulia, Shimoga, Bellary and throughout Southern India. At 

Lahore it has also been found on Capsella, Impatiens sp., Cnjptostegia 

grandiflora. 

Aphis rmslurtii, Kalt. 

Kaltenbach, Pflanzenl. (1843), p. 76; Koch, Pflanzenl (18.57), 
p. 136, fig. 125 ; Schouteden, Cat. Aph. Belg. (1906), p. 224 ; 
Mem. Ind. Mus. VI, iv, pp., 212-222 (22). 
This species occurs at Lahore on Nasturtium. 



Brachycaudus pnini, Koch. 

Koch, Die Pflanzenlause ; Buckton, Brit. Aphid, II, p. 64 ; 
Van der Goot, Ziir Systematik der Aphiden, pp. 96-97 ; 
Stebbing, Ind. Mus. Notes, VI, 1913, p. 70. 
This species occurs throughout North- West Irdia on peach and is 
also found on Ageratum comjzoides. 

It is one of the worst insect pests that the peach-grower has to con- 
tend against in Northern India. The leaves are contorted into pseudo- 
gdls and the trees become sickly and unsightly. The leaves appear 
closely crowded and never expand fully. They turn whitish and in some 
cases pinkish. It is found with Myzus persicm on the same plant. 

Lachnus pyri, Buckt. 

South Ind. Ins., p. 503, f. 391 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 247. 

This species occurs commonly on pear in Ootacamund and the 

Shevaroy Hills and Ceylon (Hills), but apparently does not extend into 

Northern India. It occurs in masses on the stems and branches and 

is easily dealt with by brushing or spraying. 



PEOCEEDINUS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 285 

Hyaloftents ■pruni, Fb. 

Buckt., Brit. Aphid, II, p. 110; Riley, Ins. Life, V, p. 2.36: 
Gillette, Bail!. Color. Expt. Sta. No. 133 (1908) ; Mem. Ind. 
Mus., VI, iv, pp. 225-227 (1918). 
This species has been found at Lahore on Antndo donax, Phragmites 
kirki and Primus persica (peach). 

Brachyimguis (?) carthami, Das. 
Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 237-240. 
This species has been found at Lahore on wild safflower {Carthamus 
oxy carpi). 

Calliplerus trijolii, Monell. 

=Ckaitop}wrvs macnlatus, Buckt.* 

Monell, Canad. Entom. XVI, p. 14 (1882) ; Ind. Mus. Notes, 

IV, p. 277 ; Ind. Ins. Life, p. 746 ; Davis, Ann. Ent. Soc. 

America, I (1908) ; B. Das, Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 

244-245 (1918). 

This species is found on lucerne and bersim throughout Northern 

India. 

Tiiherodryohius persiccp, Cholcdk. 

Mem. Ind. Mus., VI, iv, pp. 259-268 (1918). 

This species occurs throughout North- Western India as a bad pest 
of peach, and it also occurs on plum, apricot and almond. 

The Aphids are present on the main trunk and branches of the fruit- 
trees mentioned above, more particularly the peach. The loss to the 
peach crop from an attack of this Aphid is immense. Very few fruits 
mature and attain the normal size and colour. 

Eriosoma {Schizoneura) lanigera, Hausm. 
South Ind. Ins., pp. 500-501, f. 389. 
This species has been introduced into India with imported orchard 
stock and is now fairly estabhshed in all the principal apple-growing 
districts. We know it from Simla, Binsar (Almora), Eamgarh (Kumaon), 
Lucknow, Shillong, Taung-gyi (Southern Shan States), Bangalore and 
Coonoor, in all cases on apple. 

At Eamgarh, where it is said to attack jungle plants also, the winged 
adults were found emerging towards the end of August 1918, and treat- 

* Theobald states that C macu^aijM ia a synonym of Callijtervs ononidis, Kalt 
(BuJl. Ent. Res II 134-138, ff. 25, 26 (1915) ; Enlom. 1918, p. 28). Editor. 



28b PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

ment at this time of all colonies on the trees is especially desirable to 
prevent spread of infection as far as possible. 



(Unidentified Aphid). 

" Ragi root Aphis," South Ind. Ins., pp. 502-503, f. 390 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, p. 200. 
This species occuts regularly every year at Coimbatore on roots of 
ragi and is a serious pest. 

{Unidentified Aphid). 

South Ind. Ins., pp. 506-507, f. 393 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
p. 261. 
This species was found at Coimbatore on young coconut palms which 
had been imported from Colombo. 

Oregma bamhisw, Buckt. 
South Ind. Ins., p. 505, f. 392. 
This species occurs commonly at Coimbatore, and probably through- 
out Southern India, as a pest of bamboo. 

CocciD^. 

[Note. — The Coccidse form another group of which we know nothing in India and 
the following list, which is placed in the order of Femald's Catalogue, is very incom- 
plete.] 

Monophlebus stebbingi var octocavdala, Gr. 

Mem. Dept. Agric. India, II, ii, p. 16, II, ii, j p. 111-117 (1908). 

This species has been found at Sitamarhi (Bihar), Fatehgarh (United 

Provinces), Bareilly, Lahore (Shalimar gardens), in all cases on mango. 

It is abundant at Pusa on practically all trees from December to April. 



Monophlebiis tamarir^dus, Green. 

South Indian Coccidee (MS.) ; Mem. Dept. Agric. India, II, ii, 
p. 17 (1908). 
This species has been found at Agra, on tamarind leaves ; and at 
Samalkota (Godavari), on garden crotons. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 20r 

Monophlehus sp. (near tmmrindus, Gr.). 
This was found in May at Kohat (North-West Frontier Province) 
on mulberry. 

Walkeriana cinerea, Green. 

Mem. Dept. Agric. India, II, ii, p. 17 (1908) ; I. c, iv, p. 121 (1908). 
This species has been found in Western India, on Lawsonia alba ; 
at Surat, on Acacia arabica ; and at Vadanapalle (Malabar) on stem of 
Lawsonia alba and on sandalwood tree. 

Walkeriana sp. 
This was found in Coorg on Taberncemonlana. 

Icenja cegyptiaca, Dougl. 

Mon. Brit. Cocci., II, p. 248 (1902) ; South Indian Coccid* 

(MS) ; Mem. Dept. Agric. India, II, ii, p. 118 (1908). 

This species has been noted at Vadanapaiie (S. Maiabar), on Arfo- 

carpus iticisa ; Kallar (Nilgiris), on Artocarpiis integrifolia ; Simha- 

chalam (Vizagapatam), on Ficus sp. leaves ; Pusa, on Citrus, guava, 

chilhes (plants), jak ; and at Ranchi, on rose leaves. 

Icenja minor, Gr. 

Mem. Dept. Agric. India, II, ii, p. 118-121 (1908), I.e.. II, ii, 
p. 17 (1908). 
This species has been found at Pusa, on mango leaf. 

Icerya seycJiellarum, Westwd. 

.N. Z. Trans., p. 329 (1897) ; I. M. N., IV, i, p. 7 (1896) ; Mem. 

Dept. Agric. India," II, p. 18 (1908) ; South Indian Coccid^ 

(MS) ; Bom. Jour., XXIII, p. 137 (1914). 

This species has been found at Kottur (Bellary Dist.), on Cassia 

tora ; Bombay, on mango ; Coromandel coast, on Casuarina ; and in 

Western India, on Ficus bengalensis. 

Cerococcits hibisci, Green. 

Mem. Dept. Agric. India, II, ii, pp. 20, 122 (1908) ; Newstead, 

Bull. Ento. Res., VIII, 127 ; South Ind. Ins., p. 508, f, 395 ; 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 118. 

This species has been found at Coimbatore, Godavari, Madras, on 

cotton, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis ; Guntur, on Solanum melongena ; Lashkar 

VOL. I u 



288 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

(Gwalior), on cotton ; Rangoon, on cotton ; Sabour, on cotton (1918) 
Bombay, on Hibiscus lilifloms ; and at Pusa, on cotton. 

Dadylopius i)idicus, Green. 
Mem. Dept. Agric. India, II, ii, p. 28 (1908). 
This species was found at Kangra, on Opuntia dillemi. 

Phenacocais ballardi, Newstead. 
Bull. Ent. Res., VIII, p. 17 (August 1917) ; South Ind. Coccidse (MS). 
This species has been found on mango at Coimbatore and in South 
Kanara. 

Phenacoccits hirsuius, Gr. 
Bom. Jour., XXIII, p. 136 (1914) ; Mem. Dept. Agric. Ind., II, ii, 25. 
This species has been found at M?hol (Sholapur District), on Ficus 
bengahnsis ; Pusa, on mulberry, cotton shoots (very bad on mulberry, 
causing tt(kra disease) ; Malda, on mulberry shoots ; Berhampore (Bengal) 
mulberry shoots ; and Bankura, on mulberry shoots. 

Pkenacoccus iceryoides, Gr. 

Mem. Dept. Agric. Ind., II, ii, pp. 26, 129 (1908) ; South Indian 

Coccidse (MS). 

This species has been found at Coimbatore, on Odina wodier ; Palacole 

(Godavari), on Citrus shoots ; Alamanda (Vizagapatam), on mango 

shoots and fruits ; Tanjore, on Boswellia ; Calcutta, on mango ; and at 

Surat, on Capparis horrida. 

PJienacocciis insolifus, Green. 

Mem. Dept. Agric. Ind., II, ii, p. 27 ; Bull. Ento. Res., VIII, 
p. 127 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 289. 
This species has been found at Pusa, on Sida cordifoUa ; Chingleput 
and Coimbatore, on brinjal plants ; and at Saidapet, on Solanum melon- 
gena (Newstead). 

Phenacoccus mangiferce, Green. 
I. M. N., IV, i, p. 7 ; South Indian Coccida; (MS.). 
This species has been found at Coimbatore, on mango. 



fEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETIKG 289 

Pseudococcus (Dactylopius) cilri, Risso. 

Mem. Dept. Agric. Ind., II, ii, pp. 22, 122, 123-124 (1908) ; 

South Ind. Ins., pp. 508-509, fig. 396 ; Proc. Second Entl. 

Meeting, pp. 29, 36, 79, 256. • 

This species has been found at Kallar (Nilgiris), on cacao pods ; in 

Mysore, on coffee, Cedrela, Ficus glomerata ; in Coorg, on Enjthrina. 

Ageratum ; and in Ceylon, on coffee. 



Pseudococcus cocolis, Msk. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, II, p. 169, III, i, pp.' 7, 66 (1893) ; South 
Indian Coccidae (MS). 
This species has been found on coconut leaves in Malabar and the 
Xaccadive Islands. 



Pseudococcus corymbatus, Green (MS). 
South Indian Coccidae (MS). 
This species is known from Palacole (Godavari District), on Citrus 
.-shoots and fruits ; Malabar, on jak ; Coimbatore, on cotton shoot ; and 
Pusa, on cotton shoot, soy beans. 



Pseudococcus longisinnus, Targ. 

Cotes, Ind. Mus. Notes, II, vi, p. 169 (1893) [adonidum] ; 
Barlow, Ind. Mus. Notes, IV, p. 75 (1897). 
This species has been found at Vadanapalle (S. Malabar), on coconut 
Reaves ; in Mysore, on coffee and cedar ; and at Calcutta on croton. 



Pseudococcus nipoe, Mask. 

Mem. Dept. Agric. Ind., II, ii, pp. 23, 124; South Ind. Ins., 
p. 509, f. 397 ; South Indian Coccidee (MS) ; Bom. Jour., 
XXIII, p. 136. 

This species is known from Coromandel coast, on Casuarina stem ; 
North India, on stored potatoes ; Western India, on Cajanm itidicus ; 
and Pusa, on potato tubers in store, mulberry, cotton. [The Mealy-bug 
on cotton and mulberry has been identified by E. E. Green (1919) 
as Phenacoccus Mrsutus.] 

u2 



290 PROCEEDI.VGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Pseudococcus sacchari, Ckll. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, V, iii, p. 102 ; Mem. Dept. Agric. Ind., II,, 

ii, p. 23 ; South Indian Coccidse (MS) ; Newstead, Bull. Ento. 

Res., VIII, 126 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 151. 

This species has been found at Coimbatore, Trichinopoly and South 

Arcot, on paddy (a rather serious pest occasionally) ; Bassein ; Poona ; 

Bilaspur ; and Rajnagar (Darbhanga), on sugarcane. 

Pseudococcus saccharifoUi, Gr. 
Mem. Dept. Agric. Ind., II, ii, p. 24 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p: 151. 
This species has been found at Pusa, on sugarcane. 

Pseudococcus ihececoJa, Green. 
Mem. Dept. Agric. Ind., II, ii, p. 24. 
This species was found in Darjiling, on roots of tea plant. 

Pseudococcus virgalus, Ckll. 

Newstead, Ind. Mus. Notes, III, v, p. 24 (1895) ; Green, Ind- 

Mus. Notes, I. p. 7. (1896) [talini] ; Mem. Dept. Agric. Ind., 

II, ii, pp. 127-128 (1908) ; South Ind. Ins., p. 510, fig. 398 ; 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 124, 257, 268, 290. 

This species has been found at Coimbatore, on croton, tomato ; 

Palur (S. Arcot), on Cambodia cotton ; Poona, on adventitious roots 

of banyan tree ; Serampore, on violets ; Poona, on croton ; Bettiah, on 

cotton ; Pusa, on cotton, mulberry, crotons, Draccena, Hibiscus, violets, 

Acalypha. Cissus discolor. 

Ripersia resinophila, Gr. 
Bull. Ent. Res., VI, pp. 395-397. 
This species has been foimd in Kumaon and Kashmir (Kamra j Division) 
on Pinus longifolia and Pinus excelsa. 

Ripersia sacchari, Gr. 

I. M. N., V, ii, p. 37 ; South Indian Coccidse (MS) ; Mem. Dept. 
Agri. Ind., II, ii, p. 25 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 151. 
This species has been found at Coimbatore, on sugarcane ; Gorakhpur, 
on cane ; Pusa, on cane ; and in Bengal, on rice plant. 



PllOCEEDTNGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 291 

Ripersia saccliari oryzce. Green. 
Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, ii, pp 128-129. 
This insect has been found at Balasore, Bankipur, Champarau, Gorakh- 
vpur, Moorla (Bihar), and Handia (Bihar), in all cases on rice. 

Ceronema koebeh\ Gr. 
Bull. Ent. Res., V, p. 267, 1914. 
This species has been found at Peradeniya, on Pithecolobium saman. 

Pidvinaria burkilli. Green. 

Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., V, ii, pp. 31-.32 ; South Indian Coccidje 
(MS) ; Bull. Ento. Res., VIII, 129. 
This species has been found at Coimbatore, on Zizy pints jiijuba 
id at Siugaing [?] (near Calcutta), on Croton tigliuni. 



Pulvinaria maxima, Green. 
Ent. Mo. Mag., XL, p. 206 (lEOl) ; South Indian C'occid» (MS). 
This species has been found at Goimbatore, on nim trees, and in 
South India, on mulberry plants. 



Pulvinaria psidii, Mask. 

■ N. Z. Trans., XXV, p. 223 (1892) ; Ind. Mus. Notes, IV, i, 
p. 8 (1896) ; Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, ii, p. 32, 131, 134 
(1908) ; South Ind. Ins., p. 511, f. 399 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 34. 228. 230, 232, 250. 

This species occurs in South India, on guava, mango, Morinda, tea, 
coffee ; at Coimbatore, on mango, guava ; in Mysore, on Ficus glomerata ; 
in the Nilgiris, on guava, Eugenia, tea ; at Koilpatti, on guava ; in 
Western India, on mango, guava (very bad), Pa^sia htlfolia ; and at 
Pusa, on mango leaves, litchi, and Ficus , 



Pulvinaria sp. 
This occurs at Pusa, on mulberry leaves. 



292 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Ceroplastes actimformis, Green. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, IV, i, p. 8 (1896) ; Coccidae of Oeylon, iv, 

p. 275 (1909) ; B. J., XXIII, p. 136 (1914) ; South Indian 

Coccidse (MS). 

This species has been found at Coimbatore, on coconut leaves and 

mango ; in Malabar, on coconut leaves ; at Samalkota (Godavari District), 

on Carina ; Penukonda (Anantapur District), on Fkus sp. ; Poona, on 

Lorantkus sp., banyan ; and in Ceylon, on coconut and other palms, 

Canna and Sapimn. 

Ceroplastes ceri/ems, Anderson. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, I, p. 89 (1890), III, v, p. 21 (1896) ; Coccidaj of 
Ceylon, iv, p. 270 (1909). 
This species occurs at Coimbatore, on Lawsonia alba ; Tanjore, on 
Boswellia [?] ; and in the Central Provinces on Terminalia and Bucha- 
nania. 

Ceroplastes floridensis, Comst. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, V, i, p. 8 (1900) ; Coccidae of Ceylon, iv, p.. 

277 ; Kept. U. S. Dept. Agri. 1880, p. 331 ; Mem. Dept. 

. Agri. Ind., II, ii, p. 134 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 

228, 251, 255, 257. 

This species has been found at Bangalore, on cashew (Anacardium 

occidmtale) ; in Tinnevelly District, on MichcBlia courtallum ; in Ceylon, 

on tea and guava ; and at Pusa, on Ficus carica, F. infedoria, Tamurix 

gallica, mango, guava. Hibiscus esculentus and Cyamopsis fsoralioides. 

Ceroplastes rubens, Mask. (myriccE). 

N. Z. Trans. XXV, p. 214 ; I. M. N., V, i, p. 8 ; Mem. Dept. 
Agri. Ind., II, p. 32 ; Bull. Ento. Ees., VIII, 129. 
This species has been found at Coconada, on Cycas revoluta ; Chica- 
cole, on mango ; Coimbatore, on CalopJiyllum ; Palghat (Malabar), on 
jak ; and in Ceylon, on tea, mango, cinnamon and Eugenia. 

Vinsmiia stellifera, Westwd. 

Coccidse of Ceylon, iv, p. 280 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 

pp. 228, 260. 

This species has been found at Coimbatore, on mango ; in Tinnevelly, 

on nutmeg leaves ; Malabar, on coconut pahn ; Godavari District, oa 

lose-apple leaves {Eugenia jambos) ; South Malabar, on coconut ; Ceylon,. 

on mango and coconut ; and at Bombay, on Garcinia indica. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 293 

Inglisia bivalvata, Green. 
Ind. Mus. Notes. V, iii, p. 95 ; South Indian Coccidse (MS). 
This species has been found at Mandapetta (Godavari District), 
on Cajanus indiciis leaves. 

Ceroplastodes cajani, Mask. 

Newstead, Bull. Ento. Res., VIII (1917); Mem. Dept. Agri, 

Ind., II, ii, p. 32 (1908) ; South Ind. Ins., p. 512, f. 400 ; 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 57, 267. 

This species has been found in South India, on Cajanus indiciis, 

Zizyphiis jujiiba, Ocimum sanctum, and wild indigo ; at Calcutta, on 

Ocimiim ; and at Surat, on CoJeus. 

Ceroplastodes chiton, Gr. 
Mem. Dept. Agric. Ind., II, ii, p. 32 (1908). 
This species has been found at Darjiling, on Cajanus indicus. 

Coccus acutissinms, Gr. 
I. M. N., IV, i, p. 10 (1896) ; Coccid^e of Ceylon, p. 218 (1899). 
This species has been found at Coimbatore, on coconut leaf and 
mango leaf. 

Coccus hesperidum, L. 

Coccidse of Ceylon, I, p. 188 (1899) ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, p. 36. 
This species has been, found at Mandapetta (Godavari District), 
on Citrus shoots ; and at Madaligam (S. Malabar), on coconut leaf. 

Coccus longulus, Douglas. 
I. M. N., IV, p. 8 (1896) ; Coccidae of Ceylon, p. 221, t. LXX. 
This species has been found at Mandapetta (Godavari District), on 
red-gram ; and in Ceylon, on Acacia, Alhizzia, Loranthus. 

Coccus mangifercp. Green. ^ 

Mem. Dept. Agric. Ind., II, ii, p. 30 (1908). 
This species occurs at Pusa, on mango. 



294 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIHD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Coccus viridis, Green. 

I. M. N., pp. 49-117 ; Coccidse of Ceylon, p. 199, t. LXIX 
(1899) ; Ent. Mo. Mag., XXV, p. 248 ; West Ind. Bull., Vol. 
. XII (1912) ; Mem. Dept. Agric. Ind., II, ii, p. 131 ; South 
Ind. Ins., p. 513, f. 401 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 34, 
36, 37, 232, 250. 
This species occurs in the Shevaroys, Anamalais, Palnis, Nilgiris, 
Coorg, and Mysore as a pest of coffee. It has also been found at Banga- 
lore, and in the Nilgiris, on Citrus ; at Coimbatore, on jEgle, 'Carissa ; 
and in the Nilgiris, on tea, guava, Citrus, Plumi-era acutifoUa. 

Eulecanium caprece, Linn. 
Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, ii, p. 29. 
This species has been found on almond trees in Baluchistan, where 
it kills off the branches and lastly the trees. 

Eulecanium persiccE, Fb. 
Mem. Dept. Agric. Ind., II, ii, p. 31 (1908). 
This species has been found at Jhelum, on Morus indica. 

Paralecanium expansmn. Green. 

I. M. N., IV, i, p. 9 (1896) ; Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, p. 29 
(1908) ; South Indian Coccid^ (MS). 
This species has been found in Mysore, on Ficus retusa. 

Saissetia depressa, Targ. 
Targioni-Tozzetti, Coccidae, p. 29 (1869) ; South Indian Coccidse (MS. 
This species has been found at Coimbatore, on plantain leaf. 

Saissetia hemisphcerica, Targ. 

I. M. N., I, p. 117 [L. cqffew] ; South Indian Coccida (MS) ; 

Bom. Jour., XXIII, p. 136 (1914) ; Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., 

II, ii, pp. 129-130 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 214, 

232, 246, 250. 

This species has been noted in South India, on coffee, ferns, tea, 

guava, Tahernmnontana, loquat ; at Thana (Bombay), and in the Konkan, 

in pomelo, (very serious on pomelo plants at Rajapur, Ratnagiri Dis- 



PROCEEDIKGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 295 

trict) ; Manic kganj, on Trichosanthes auguina; and in North India, on 
gnava, Thunbergia, Trichosanthes anguina. 

Saisseiia {Lecanium) nigra, Nietn. 

I. M. N., I, ii, p. 117 (1889) ; Coccidae of Ceylon, p. 229 ; Mem. 

Dept. Agri. Ind., II, ii, pp. 31, 130 ; South Ind. Ins., pp. 

514-515, f. 403 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 36, 119, 

124, 230, 256. 

This species has been found in South Mysore, on Jvsticia ; at Pusa, 

on cotton (at times bad), Ficiis glomerala ; at Calcutta, on Camparis 

sefiaria ; at Coimbatore, on cotton, croton, H. esculentm, H. rosa-sinen- 

sis, Thespesia populnea, Hggrophila spinosa, sandalwood, Lawsonia 

alba (News., Btill. Ent.Res., VIII, 130) ; in Tinnevelly, on nutmeg shoots ; 

at Poena ; and at Surat, on Capparis sepiaria. 

It is at times a bad pest of cotton and occurs on castor also. 

Saissetia olew, Bernard. 
Coccidae of Ceylon, p. 227 (1899) ; South Indian Coccid* (MS). 
This species has been found at Coimbatore, on tamarind fruits 
Eryihrina leaves and stem, Hygrophila spinosa ; in Coorg, on coffee ; 
and in Bellary, on Sesbania (agathi). 

Aclerda japonica. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 152. 
This species has been noted on sugarcane at Jabbalpur, Partabgarh 
and Poona. 

Lecanium adersi, Newst. 

Bull. Ent. Res., VII, p. 357 ; South Indian Coccidse (MS). 
This species has been found at Coimbatore, on mango. 

Lecanium discrcpans, Green. 
Coccidse of Ceylon, pt. iii, p. 204 ; South Indian Cocci d<T3 (MS). 
This species has been found at Palacole (Godavari District), on 
mango leaf. 

Lecanium imbricans. Green. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, V, 94 (1903) ; Mem. Dept. Agric. Ind., II, 
130 ; South Ind. Ins. pp. 516-517, f. 406. 
This species occurs in the Hills of South India, on CedreJa toona. 



296 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Leconnim marsvpiale, Green. 

Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, p. 30 ; Coccidse of Ceylon, pt. iii, 
p. 212 ; South Ind. Ins., p. 516, f. 405 ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 300. 
This species occurs in South Wynaad and Malabar, on pepper leaves ;. 
and in South Arcot, on Calophjllum. 

Lecanium mercarce, Green MS. 

South Ind. Coccidee (MS). 
This species has been found at Mercara (Coorg), on coffee. 

Lecanium signifervm, Gr. 
Coccidte of Ceylon, p. 197 (1899) ; South Indian Coccidte (MS). 
This species has been found at Golconda (Vizagapatam District),, 
on plantain leaf. 

Chiormsfis deciirvala, Gr. 

Bom. Jour., XXIII, p. 135 (1914) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 205. 
This has been found on bamboo at Poona and on rice at Calcutta. 

Chionaspis dilalata, Green. 

Cocc. of Ceylon, pt. iii, p. 146, t. LI ; Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., 
II, p. 36 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 228. 
This species is recorded from Bangalore, on areca palms ; Godavari, 
on leaf-sheaths of palmyra palm ; Calcutta, on palms ; and Poona, on 
mango and Ficus. 

At Poona it is of common occurrence on mango, on both surfaces of 
the leaves. 

Chionaspis graminis, var divergens, Gr. 
Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, ii, p. 37. 
This was found at Bharwain (Hoshiarpur), on Andropogon sorghvm. 

Chionaspis manni, Gr. 

^Chionaspis prunicola var theae, Mask. 

Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, ii, p. 37 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 
p. 26. 
This has been found on tea in Assam and Darjiling and on Ficus sp. 
in the Kangra Valley. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 297' 

Chionaspis megaloha, Green. 
Pusa, on Zizyplms jujvha leaves. 

Chionaspis nilgirica. Green MS. 
South Ind. Coccidaj (MS). 
This has been found in the Nilgiris, on Loranthns. 

Chionaspis varicosa, Gr. 
I. M. N., I, p. 2. (1896) ; Cocc. Ceylon, pt. ii, p. 146, t. L (1899). 
This has been reported from Sidapur (Coorg), on pepper stem, and. 
from Ceylon, on Gelon ivm lanceolatum . 

Chionaspis vitis, Gr. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, IV, i, p. 3 (1896) ; Cocc. of Ceylon, pt. ii. 

p. 140, t. XLVII (1899) ; Mem. Dept. Agri. India, IT, ii, 

p. 37 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 228. 

This is known from Pusa and Bangalore, on mango ; Kollegal ; 

Coonoor, on Elaagnus ; and from Ceylon, on Vitis lanceohria and Loran- 

thus sp. 

Howardia biclavis, Comst. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, IV, i, p. 2 (1896) ; Cocc. of Ceylon, pt. ii, 
p. 152, t. LIV (1899) ; Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind. I, p. 354 
(1907), II, p. 36 (1908) ; Mon. Brit. Cocc, I, p. 190, t. XXI 
(1901) ; South Ind. Ins., p. 519, f. 410 (1914) ; Proc. Second 
Entl. Meeting, p. 37. 
This has been recorded from the Nilgiris, on tea, and from Ceylon, 
on Cinchona, coffee and Grevillea. 

Diaspis harberi, Green. 
Mem. Dept. Agri. India, II, p. 35 ; South Ind. Coccidse (MS). 
This species has been found on Loranthus at Tanjore and Alamanda 
(Vizagapatam District). 

Diaspis echinocadi, Bouche. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, IV, 211 (1899) [D. calyplroides] ; Mem. Dept. 
Agri. Ind. II, 36 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 41. 
This species occurs in South India and at Manjri (Poona), on pric kly 
pear {Opuntia sp.). 



298 PHOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Diaspis mangiferce, Green. 
Soutli Indian Coccidse (MS). 
TMs species has been found at Alamanda (Vizagapatam District) 
on mango leaf. 

Diaspis roscB, Bouche. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., IX, p. 441 (1869) ; Brit. Cocc, I, p. 168, 
t. XIV [Aulacaspis]. 
This species has been found at Bangalore, on mango leaves. 



Hemichionaspis aspidistrw, Sign. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (4) p. 443 (1889) ; Ind. Mus. Notes, II, 

p. 17 (1891), III, V, p. 52 (1894) [h-asiliensis] ; Cocc. of 

Ceylon, pt. ii, p. 110, t. XXXII (1899) ; Mon. Brit. Cocc, 

I, ip. 187, t. XX (1901) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 262, 

300. 

- This species has been found in Mysore, on areca, jak ; Western Ghats 

(Madras), on pepper berries ; Nilgiris, on Ceara rubber ; Malabar, on 

coconut leaves ; Godavari District, on Citrus leaves ; Coimbatore, on 

Ficus leaves ; and in Ceylon, on ferns. Acacia, mango, Gapparis, and 

croton. 

HemicJiioiiaspis draccence, Cooley. 
Sepe. Bull. Mass. Expt. Sta., p. 57 ; South Ind. Coccidee (MS). 
This species has been found at Vadanapalle (South Malabar), on 
areca palm ; the young fronds are badly infested. 



Hemichionaspis fici, Gr. 
Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, ii, p. 38 (1908).' 
This species has been found at Pusa, on Ficus glotnerata. 

Hemichionaspis minima, Gr. 
Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, ii, p. 38. 
This species was found at Pusa on the underside of leaves of banyan 
{Ficus sp.). 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 299 

HemicMonaspis minor. Mask. 

N. Z. Trans. XVII, p. 33 (1884) ; Cocc. of Ceylon, ii, p. IID, 
t. XXXIV (1899) ; Ind. Mus. Notes, V, iii, p. 128 (1903) ; 
Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, pp. 39-128 ; South Ind. Coccidss 
(MS). 

This scale has been found at Cuddapah, on Agave ; Bellary, on Cassia 
tora ; Coimbatore, on tamarind ; and Sibpur (Calcutta), on sann-hemp. 



Hemichionasfis thece Mask. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, II, p. 60, t. I, fig. 2. (1891) ; Mem. Dept. 
Agri. Ind. I, p. 342 (1907) ; South Ind. Ins., pp. 520-521, 
f. 411. 

This species has been found at Coimbatore, on pomegranate leaves 
in Ceylon, on tea ; and in North and South India, on tea. Also on 
Psychottia and other plants. 



Leucasfis indica, Marlatt. 

B. J., XXIII, 135 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 228-229. 

This species has been recorded from Poona as occurring commonly 
on mango trees. 

Fiorinia proboscidaria, Green. 
Bull. Ent. Res., YIII, 133. 

This species was found in Jamaica, on Citrus imported from India. 

Fiorinia thea', Gr. 
Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, ii, p. 39 (1908). 
This species has been found at Calcutta, on Citrus. 



Asfidiotus {Selanasfidus) articiikttvs, 
Bull. Ent. Res., VIII, 133. 
This species was found in Jamaica, on Citrus imported from India. 



300 I'KOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Aspidiotits mmellicB, Sign. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, II, vi, p. 168 (1893) [Asf. fiarescens] ; B. J., 

XIII, p. 71 (1900) ; Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., I, pp. 343, 353 ; 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 26, 37. 

This species has been found in the Nilgiris, on tea ; at Dodabetta 

(Nilgiiis), on Ficus sp. ; in Ceylon, on cinchona, Michcelia, Acacia, 

'Osbeckia and ivy ; and at Bangalore, on tea stems. 

Aspidiotus cmcnmcB, Green MS. 
Bom. Jour. XXIII p. 135 (1914) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 295. 
This species has been found at Poona, on turmeric rhizomes. 

Aspidiotus cyanophylli, Sign. 
Cocc. of Ceylon, p. 51, t. IX ; South Ind. Coccid® (MS). 
This species has been found in the Nilgiris, on plantain leaf, Ceara 
rubber ; and in Ceylon, on tea, cinchona, palm [?J. 

Aspidiotus cydonicB, Comst. 
B. J. XIII, p. 71 (1900) ; South Ind. Coccidae (MS). * 
This species has been found at Bangalore and Coimbatore, on grape, 
fig, pear ; at Coimbatore, on fig fruit ; and in Ceylon on Ficus carica, 
Citrus deciimana, Cycas, Cactus, palms, tea stems. 

It is widely distributed, being know i from Florida, Sandwich Islands, 
British East Africa, Uganda, Gold Coast, Jamaica, South India. 

Aspidiotus destructor, Sign. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, III, i, p. 66 (1893) ; Bom. Jour. XIII, p. 70 

(1900), XXIII, p. 134 (1914) ; South Ind. Ins., p. 518, f. 408 ; 

Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, ii, p. 33 (1908) ; Proc. Second 

Entl. Meeting, pp. 229, 239, 260, 300. 

This species has been found at Nadiad, on mango leaves ; Tinnevelly 

and Coimbatore, on coconut ; Anantapur ; in the Laccadive Islands, on 

coconut ; in Bombay, on mango ; in Ceylon, on tea, pepper, Ceara rubber, 

plantain leaf, Loranthus ; in Cochin, on coconut leaves ; at Moovathi 

(Wynaad), on coconut ; and at Pusa, on plantain leaves 

leaves. 

It occurs commonly on coconut, mango, castor, 
screw-pine, Ceara rubber and Hevea brasilensis, and is often 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD EXTOMOLOGICAI, MEETING 301 

pest of coconut. It is very widely distributed and is known from British 
Guiana, Zanzibar, South Africa, British East Africa, Uganda, and the 
•Gold Coast. 

Asfidiotus diclyospermi, Morg. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, IV, p. 119 (1899) ; Bom. Jour. XIII, p. 68, 
XVI, p. 345 ; South Ind. Coccidee (MS). 
This species has been found at Bangalore, on Dendrobium 
Coconada, on Mimusops elengi ; in Ceylon, on Cycas, Opuntia and Calo- 
phylliim ; and in North India, on tea. 

Asfidiotus hartii. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 295. 
Specimens on turmeric rhizomes at Poona were identified by Mr. 
Green as A. hartii, which is a West Indian species ; and possibly the 
identification was a mistake for A. curcumw. 



Asfidiotus latanice, Sign. 
A. cydonicB, Gr. 

Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, p. 33 ; Bom. Jour. XIII, p. 69 ; 

South Ind. Coccidae (MS). ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, 

pp. 214, 232, 239, 257. 

This species has been noticed at Coimbatore, on Ficus carica, sissal 

hemp, Carissa carandas ; Madras, on Neriuni odoriim ; Coonoor, on peach ; 

Calcutta, on Phcenix sp., ; Bombay, on Citrus, bamboo, Poinciana 

regia ; Pusa, on Zizypkus jujuba, Xylojjhylla elongafa, Dulbergia sissu ; 

Bangalore, on guava leaves, tamarind fruit ])ods ; Muzaffarpur ; and 

Poona, on orange leaves. 

It is also foimd on tamarind fruits, plantain leaves, Ficus carica, 
Dalbergia sissu, guava, XylofJiylla elongata, Ziztjfhus jujuba. 

Asfidiotus orientalis, Newst. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, II, v, p. 26 (1894), IV, 4 (1896) [osbecliiw] ; 

B. J., XIII, p. 69 (1900), XXIII, p. 135 (1914) ; Proc. 

Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 216, 234, 239, 257, 266. 

This species has been found at Pusa, on plantain leaves. Cassia 

fistula, Ficus religiosa, Melia azadirachta, Zizyfhiis jujuba, D. sissu ; 

in South India, on tamarind fruits ; Bombay, on roses ; Ceylon, on 

Osbeckia sp. ; Guntur, on Solatium melongena ; Poona ; Ahmadnagar, 



302 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

on roses, Cycas revoluta ; Calcutta, on Phoenix sp. ; AUeppey (Travancore),. 
on coconut palm ; Damda (C. P.), on rose ; Bilaspur, on guava leaves, 
pomegranate leaves. 

Also recorded on Aegk marmelos and Tamarindus. 

Aspicliotus tamarindi, Green MS. 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 257. 
This species occur commonly at Coimbatore, on tamarind. 

P.ieudaon.)dia trilobitiforniic!, Green. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, IV, i, p. 41 (1896) ; Cocc. of Ceylon, pt. i,. 

p. 41, t. IV (1896) ; B. J., XIII, p. 66 (1900) ; Bull. But. 

Res. VIII, 132 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 229. 

This species has been found at Vadanapalle (South Malabar), on 

Ixora ; Coconada, on Mimitsojps elmgi ; Coimbatore, on mango ; Punda- 

luoya (Ceylon), on Dalbergia championii and Ixora coccinea\ and at 

Pusa, on mango leaves. 

Ckrysomphalus aonidum {ficus). 

Ind. Mus. Notes, IV, ii, p. 69 (1896) ; B. J., XIII, 69 (1900) ; 

Cocc. Ceylon pt. i, p. 43 (1896) ; Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, 

p. 33 (1908); Proc. Second Entl. Meetmg, pp. 214, 236, 

262 ; South Indian Coccidaj (MS). 

This species has been found at Pusa, on bamboo leaves ; Penukonda 

(Auantapur District), on Ficus ; Coimbatore, on mango vine (stems) ; 

South Malabar and Nilgiris, on Citrus leaves; Cochm coast, on Pandamis ; 

Calcutta, on Phoenix sp., ; Bombay, on Areca catechu and orange ; Khed 

(Pooiia District) ; Sirsi (Kanara District) ; and at Poona, on palms. 

Chrijsompkalus aurantii, Mask. 

N. Z. Trans. XI, p. 199 (1878) ; Coccidee of Ceylon, pt. i, p. 58 ; 

Bom. Jour., XIII, p. 71 (1900) ; Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, 

ii, p. 134 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meetmg, pp. 214, 266. 

This species has been found at Palghat (Malabar), on rose bush ; 

Godavari District, on jasmine leaves ; in North India, on rose bush ; 

in Ceylon on agave, pomelo, oranges ; in Jamaica, on Citrus imported 

from India ; at- Pusa, on rose stems, orange leaves and stems ; Bombay ,^ 

on Cycas circinalis, Cycas recurvata ; Damda (Central Provinces), on 

rose ; and at Myitkyina (Burma), on pomelo and orange leaves. 



PBOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 303 

It is a widely distributed species, recorded from Australia, New 
Zealand, America, British East Africa, South Ehodesia, South Africa, 
Tasmania, Fiji. 

Ckrysoniphalus rossi, Msk. 

Cocc. Ceylon, pt. i, p. 45, t. VI (1896) ; Proc. Second EntU 
Meeting, pp. 232, 234. 
This species has been found at Coimbatore, on Carissa carandas ; Coco" 
nada, on mango leaves ; Poona, on Barringtonia acutangula ; in Ceylon, 
on Cycas sp., Capparis ; and at Bilaspur (C. P.), on guava and pome- 
granate leaves. 

Chrysotnphalus triglandulosus, Gr. 
Mem. Dept. Agri. Ind., II, pp. 33-34 (1908). 
This species has been found at Mahableshwar (Bombay) ; and at 
Bangalore and Malabar, on jak leaf. 

Lepidosaphes (Mytilaspis) bechii, Newst. 
South Ind. Coccidse (MS). 
This species has been found at Trivandrum, on pepper leaf. 

Lepidosaphes erythrina, Rutherford. 
Bull. Ent. Res., V, p. 264. 

Lepidosaphes {Mytilaspis) lasianthi, Gr. 
Mem. Dept. Agri. India, II, ii, p. 134 (1908), 
This species has been found at Calcutta, on crotons. 

Lepidosaphes {Mytilaspis ?) pallida, Green. 
Ind. Mus. Notes, IV, p. 5 (1896) ; South Ind. Coccidse (MS). 
This species has been found at Ramchandrapur(Godavari District), 
on guava leaf. 

Lepidosaphes {Mytilaspis) piperis, Green. 

Mem. Dept. Agri. India, II, p. 34 (1908) ; South Ind, Insects, 
p. 519, f. 409 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 300. 
This species occurs in the Wynaad and probably all along the Western 
Ghats as a local minor pest of pepper. 

VOL. I X 



304 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Parlatoria calianthina, Berl and Leo. 
Rev. Pat. Veg., Ill, p. 346 (1895) ; South Indian Coccidae (MS), 
This species has been found in Madras, on oleander. 
Parlatoria mangijerce, Marlatt. 

Bull. U. S. Bur. Ent. (T. S.) 16 pt. ii, p. 28 (1908) ; South 
Indian Coccidae (MS). 
This species has been found in the Godavari District, on a palmyra 
leaf-sheath. 

Parlatoria pergandii, Comst. 

Bull. Ent. Res., VIII, 133 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 299. 
This species has been found in Jamaica, on Citrus imported from= 
India ; and in India at Bangalore, on grape vine stems ; and Alwar 
(Rajputana), on mango leaves. 

Parlatoria protens, Curtis, var. ritytilaspijormis, Gr. 

B. J., XVI, p. 349 (1905) ; South Ind. Coccidae (MS) ; Gard, 

Chron. p. 676 (1843) ; Mem. Dept. Agri India, II, ii, p. 3& 

(1908). 

This species has been found at Bangalore, on a species of orchid ^ 

in the Konkan, on Garcinia indica ; and in Bombay, on Cycas recurvata^ 

Draccena leaves, Kantia. 

Parlatoria (Websteriella) zizyphus, Lucas. 

Ind. Mus. Notes, III, p. 102 (1903) ; South Ind. Coccidee (MS) ; 
Bull. Ent. Res. V, p. 233 (1914). 
This species has been found at Coimbatore, on Citrus leaves ,; Calcutta, 
on Citrus ; and in Jamaica, on Citrus imported from India. {Bull. 
Ent. Pes., VIII 133). 

THYSANOPTERA. 

Note. — As this group is dealt with elsewhere in a paper by Mr. Eamakrishna 
Ayyar (see pages 618-621), it is not included here.] 

ORTHOPTERA. 

ACRIDIID^. 

(Unidentified Tettigid). 
This small Tettigid grasshopper occurs at Pusa as a minor pest of 
cabbage. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 306 

Acrida turrita, Lmn. 
Kby., F. I. Acrid., p. 98 ; S. Ind. Ins., pp. 524-525, f. 416. 
This species occurs throughout the Plaias and is found on miscellane- 
ous crops, but is scarcely a pest. 

Aswatthamanus cylindricus, Kby. 
Kby., F. I. Acrid, pp. 101-102, ff. 82, 83. 
This species is common at Pusa on grass, from July to November. 
It is doubtful whether it is really a pest. 

Phlasoba cinctalis, Kirby. 
Kby., F. I. Acrid, p. 105. 
This species is common at Pusa on grass, sweet-potato, etc., in July 
and August. 

Aiolopus tamulus, Fb. 

Epacromia dorsalis, I. M. N., Ill, v, p. 73, figs ; Lefroy Ind. 

Ins. Life, p. 83, f. 24. 
Epacromia tamulus, Fletcher, S. Ind. Ins., p. 525, f. 417 ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 72, 98, 160, 180, 186, 190, 19U 
196, 199. 
JEolopus tamulus, Kby, F. I. Acrid, p. 122. 
This grasshopper occurs throughout the Plains of S. India and is 
especially common in the Tinuevelly, Ramnad and Madura districts. 
It attacks ragi, cholam, cumbu, dhaincha, cotton, rice, maize, wheat, 
marua. 

We have it from Peshawar, on maize ; Munshiganj and Pusa, common 
on grass. 

Aiolopus affinis, Bol. 

Mohpus affinis, Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 122-123, f. 92. 
This species is recorded from Madura and Bandra by Kirby, and 
we have it from Garhsankar (Punjab), on sugarcane ; Pusa, common 
on grass ; Nasirabad Tahsil (Baluchistan), great damage to juar, August 
1917. 

Stauroderus bicolor, Charp. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., p. 127, f. 93. 
This species occurs commonly throughout India and Burma; on 
grass, etc. 

x2 



306 rnocEEDiNGS of the third entomological meeting 
Heteropteniis respondens, Wlk. 
Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 141-142, f. 101. 
This species occurs throughout India, Burma and Ceylon and is 
presumably a minor pest of low-growing crops, although it never seems 
to have been reported as doing damage. 



CEdaleus nigrqfa 
Kirby, F. I. Acrid., p. 143. 
This species occurs throughout India and Ceylon. We have it from 
Pusa, on grass and juar ; Dharwar ; and Trichinopoly. 

Gastrimargus marrnomtus, Thnb. 
Kirby, F. I. Acrid., p. 145, f. 94. 
This species is recorded by Kirby from Baltistan, Nepal, Garhwal, 
Sylhet, Bengal and the Shevaroys. We have it from Pusa, Chapra, 
Surat and Bandra. At Pusa it has been found on paddy and lucerne. 

Locusta danica, Linn. 
Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 146-147, f. 94. 
This grasshopper occurs throughout the Indian Empire. AVe have 
it from Pusa, on paddy (in numbers), on grass and oats in November 
1906 ; also a few at Pusa in February 1917. 

Acrotylus inficita, Wlk. 
Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 152-153. 
This species is recorded from North Bengal and Ceylon. It is a 
common species at Pusa and at MuzafEarpur has been found injuring 
cabbage and cauliflower. We have it also from Koilpatti, on cumbu. 

Chrotogonus sp. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid ; pp. 161-167 ; S. Ind. Ins., pp. 528-529, 

t. 49; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 49, 66, 79, 86, 90, 

95, 98, 160, 181, 186, 191, 193, 269, 274. 

Species of Chrotogonus (whether of one or more or of which species 

I cannot say) occur throughout the Plains of India, and are often serious 

pests of young crops (tobacco, juar, wheat, etc.). They are best dealt 

with by bagnets. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAX MEETING 307 

Aularches miliaris, L. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 168-169 ; S. Ind. Ins. p. 526, f. 418 ; 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 28, 77, 200. 
Aul. punctatus, Drury ; Kby., F. I. Acrid., pp. 169-170, f. 112. 
Aul, scctbioscE; Fb. ; Kby., F. I Acrid., p. 170. 
Recorded from Nepal, Sikkim, Orissa, Bombay, Coonoor, Ceylon. 
We have it from the Shevaroys, Nilgiris, Vizagapatam and Coimbatore. 
It is found on coffee, coconut and Erythrina, but does little damage as 
a rule. According to Green, the form scabiosce has been found at Veyan- 
goda (Ceylon) defohating Erythrina, areca-nut, coconut and various^ 
shade trees. We have specimens of punctatus from Burdwan, on jute ; 
and Lashio (Upper Burma). 

Kirby splits this up into three species, miliaris, punctatus and 
scabioscB, but it seems impossible to separate them satisfactorily. 



Poecilocerus pictus, Fb. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp 172-173, f. 113 ; S. Ind. Ins., pp. 526- 
527. f. 419 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 136, tab. 
This species is recorded by Kirby from Quetta, Karachi, Madras, 
etc. 

It occurs throughout the Plains of India and is found on Calotropis 
especially. It has been found to damage young Ficus carica in Bellary. 



Atractomorpha crenulata, Fb. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 181-182 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 528, f. 421 ; 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 98, 270, 271, 288, 296, 

298, tab. 

This species occurs throughout the Plains of India, and is found 

especially on tobacco, brinjal, Amaranthus and other vegetable crops, 

of which it is often a decided pest. 



Atractotnorpha scabra, Thnb. 
Kirby, F. I. Acrid., p. 182. 
This species is only recorded from Ceylon by Kirby. We have it 
from Hambantota (S. E. Ceylon) ; Tricomali ; Pusa, on grass ; and from 
Dacca (in numbers). 



308 PltOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Orthacris sp. 

S. Ind. Ins. p. 527, f. 420 ; Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 184-188 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 90, 181, 187, 199, 288. 
This species has been found in Coimbatore, Tinnevelly, and Bellary 
and occurs probably throughout the Plains of South India. It is found 
on most low-growing crops, as a minor pest. 

Colemania sphenarioides, Bol. 

Kirby, F. I. Orth., p. 189 ; S. Ind. Ins., pp. 527-528, t. 48 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 51, 59, 160, 181, 187, 201. 
This species is found in Mysore, Bellary, Kurnul, and was a bad pest 
of most low-growing crops from 1910-1913, but lately it has been little 
heard of. It has been found in the Aimednagar district, on bajra. 

Oxya velox, Fb. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., p. 199, f. 116 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 533, f. 426 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 148, 166, 181, 190, 202. 
This species occurs throughout the Plains of India as a minor pest 
of paddy especially, but it is also found on juar, sugarcane, maize and 
other crops. 

The eggs are laid on bases of Sorghum stems. 

Hieroglyphus hilineatus, Kby. 
Kby., F. I. Acrid., pp. 202-203. 

" Bengal. Mr. Lefroy suggests that this is a micropterous form of 
H. banian " (Kirby). 

Specimens from Mandevi, Surat District, on crops in October 1903, 
seem to agree with this description, but how far it is a distinct species 
seems doubtful. 

I do not know whether this is identical with the Hieroglyphus hili- 
neatus, Sauss. MS., referred to by Bohvar (B. J., XXIII, 174) ; if so, 
it should apparently be placed in the genus Hieroceryx. 

Hieroglyphus nigroreplelus, Bol. 

S. Ind. Ins., pp. 531-532, f. 425 ; B. J., XXIII, 172-175, ff. 1, 

2 (June 1914) ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 181, 201. 
Hieroglyphus bettoni, Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 203-204, ff. 118- 
119. 
This species occurs in Bellary, Kurnul, and Guntur and is found on 
juar and tenai as a minor pest occurring in small numbers. We have 



PROCEEDINGS 01 THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING OVV 

it also from Baxban (Bombay) ; Kaira (Bombay) " on crops " ; and 
Lonavla, on rice, 21st November 1905. 



Hieroglyphus hanian, Fb. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., p. 204 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 531, t. 50, ff. 1-3 ; 
Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 147, 166, 181, 190. 
This species occurs throughout the Plains of India as a pest of rice 
usually and in the United Provinces especially of sugarcane. It is 
■possible that several distinct species are mixed up under this name. 
Faridpur specimens show very reduced black marks on the sutures on 
the sides of the prothorax. 

Hieroglyphus concolor, Wlk. 
Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 204-205. 

This species is recorded by Kirby from Kanara and Sylhet. It 
" appears to be commoner than banian, with which it is probably often 
confounded " (Kirby). According to Kirby, the antennaj in banian are 
wholly green, in concolor black, pale at base and at ends of joints, and 
the pronotum is smooth in banian, finely punctured in concolor. 

In spite of Kirby's assertion, we seem to have no specimens that 
can be separated as concolor, and I cannot distinguish this from banian. 
The antennae seem variable in colour even in specimens of the same 
brood reared from the egg. 

Spathosternum prasiniferum, Wlk. 
Kirby, F. I. Acrid., p. 208, f. 121. 
According to Kirby this species is recorded from Bombay and Pusa 
and is very abundant and variable. We have it from Dacca. 

Orthacanthacris cegyplia, Linn. 
Kirby, F. I. Acrid, p. 225. 
This species is recorded from Quetta. We have it from the Punjab, 
<on cotton. 

Orthacanihacris flavescens, Fb. 
Kirby, F. I. Acrid., p. 225-226, f. 127. 
This species is recorded by Kirby from Madras and Ceylon. 



310 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Orthacanthacris sucdncta, Linn. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 227-228, f. 125 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 530. 
f. 423. [Cyrtacantkacris]. 
TMs species occurs throughout the Plains of India and Ceylon, and 
s the well-known " Bombay Locust " dealt with in Entomological 
Memoir, Vol. I, No. 1. '^ 

Cyrtacanthw-ris ranacea, StoU. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., p. 231 ; S. Ind. Ins., pp. 530-531, f. 424 ; 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 88, 90, 103, 199. 

This species occurs throughout the Plains of India on almost all 

crops, but is usually found in small numbers only. It is a minor pest 

of cotton and other crops and has been reared from the egg on cotton 

at Pussa. 

Schisiocerca tatarica, Linn. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 232-233, f. 128. 
This species is recorded by Kirby from Sind, Nepal, Assam, and 
Ceylon. It occurs all along the Western Ghats and the Himalayan 
Region, appearing in migratory hordes and doing immense damage. 

Teratodes monticollis, Gray. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., p. 235 ; Ind. Ins. Life, p. 88, ff. 28, 29 ;. 

Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, p. 235. 

This species is~recorded by Kirby from Bombay and Ceylon. It 

has been sent in to us from Bengal as attacking grape-vine leaves, but 

is probably a mere casual visitor or feeder on grape-vine. It seems to 

be commoner on the Bombay side. 

Eucoftacra prwmorsa, Stal. 
Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 240-241. 
This species is recorded from Bandra, Madura, Bhamo and Tenasserim, 
by Kirby. It is apparently a common species and is probably at least 
a minor pest. 

Catantops sp.* 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 246-254 ; S. Ind. Ins., p. 529, f. 422. 
This species occurs in Tinnevelly and Ramnad as a local and sporadic 
pest of cotton (damaging bolls, flowers and leaves) and grasses. 

* Probably ('. imiicm, Bol. 



TROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 311 

Heteracris illustris, Wlk. 
Kirby, F. I. Acrid., p. 263. 
This species is recorded from South India by Kirby. It occurs- 
fairly commonly at Pusa, on grass. 

Heteracris sp. 
This species was found at Peshawar, in numbers on maize in October 
1914. 

Choroedocus cafensis, Thnb. 
Kby., F. I. Acrid., pp. 263-264. 
This species is recorded by Kirby from the Himalayas, Calcutta,. 
Coromandel Coast, Ceylon, Bhamo. It is a widely distributed and 
common species and is presumably a minor pest. 

Heteracris elegans, Wlk. 
Kirby, F. I. Acrid, pp. 264-265, f. 139. 
This species is recorded by Kirby from North India. We have it 
from Surat. 

Tylotrofidius varicornis, Wlk. 

Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 265-266, f. 140. 

This species is recorded by Kirby from S. India, Ceylon, Karen 

Hills. It is widely distributed and common and is probably a, minor 

pest. We have it from Pusa. 

Gryllid^. 
Gryllotalpa ajricana, Pal. 

S. Ind. Ins., pp. 534-535, f. 428 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting,. 
pp. 140, 270. 
This species is apparently abundant throughout India. The Pusa 
collection contains specimens from the Palnis, Cuttack, Pusa, Eangpur, 
Eajapati, Khasis, Shillong, Abbottabad, Srinagar, Hoshangabad, Igatpuri 
and Bombay. Possibly more than one species is included under this 
name. We have also a very much larger species from Shiraz, Persian, 
Gulf, named by Lefroy as G. gryllotalpa and found damaging all forms 
of root. crops and flowers by burrowing^and destroying the points of the' 
roots. 



312 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIHD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

G. ajricana has been noted at Pusa to damage cane-shoots in Febru- 
ary and March, gnawing into shoots at junction with sett ; at Dacca 
and Pusa, slight damage to seedling tobacco ; stated to damage opium 
poppy plants by cutting them off when considerably advanced in growth 
(Ind. Mus. Notes, II, vi, 172) ; Jorhat, damaged barley crop (Farm Supdt., 
letter of 8th December 1913) ; Kurnowl Factory, Tirhut, reported to be 
•doing great damage to newly-sown Natal indigo by burrowing around 
roots (letter from F. Murray, 3rd November 1906). 



Brachytrypes portentosus, Licht. (= achat i mis). 

S. Ind. Ins., p. 536, f. 430 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 79, 
83, 98, 132, 270, 278, 281, 290. 

The distribution of this species appears to be rather restricted in 
India and the exact limits are not clearly known. It occurs abundantly 
throughout Bengal and Bihar, but in Madras only at Nellore, where 
it was found damaging Casuarina seedlings. 

The young emerge during the first half of October at Pusa, and 
attain the adult stage about the middle of June. 

It is a serious pest of indigo, Sesamum, cotton, jute, tobacco, cabbage, 
cauliflower, and chillies. 

It did serious damage to rice-crops in Comilla in June 1893 {Ind. 
Mus. Notes, III, V. p. 78) and has been noted at Jalpaiguri, destroying 
cauliflowers at the Gaol, 22nd October, 1914 ; in Nepal, much damage 
to Eesidency lawng by burrowing, 3rd September 1912 ; Telhara Indigo 
Concern, Bairagnia, Champaran, indigo ravaged, 27th April 1911 ; 
Pabna, seriously damaging crops, especially young jute, 27th April 
1910 ; Malda, yoimg mango— graft shoots, 28th May 1909 ; Dacca, 
much damage to jute and paddy, 23rd April 1907 ; Bogra, yoimg jute 
plants much injured, 24th April 1906 ; Myitkyina, much damage to 
gardens and forest nurseries, 2nd October 1903. 

Liogryllus himaculqtus, de Geer. 

S. Ind. Ins., p. 537, f. 431 ; Entl. Note, 99 ; Proc. Second Entl. 
Meeting, pp. 50, 62. 
This species occurs throughout the Plains of India. It is partly 
predaceous, feeding on caterpillars and grasshoppers, and partly vege- 
tarian, feeding on decaying vegetation and growing plants. It has been 
found to gnaw into gram pods and eat the seeds, sometimes doing con- 
siderable damage, and it attacks lentil pods in a similar way in the 
Central Provinces, eating the seeds. 



PKOCEEDINGS OF THE THIHD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



313 



In Khandesh it was found destructive to potato plants, cutting stems 
near soil-level (hid. Mvs. Notes, III, ii, 97) [? Brachytrypes], and at 
Jabbalpur, attacking giam, masur and linseed and did 4 to 6 annas 
damage. (Mr. Misra's Note in File). 

Gryllus viator, Kirby. 

Kirby, Cat, Orth., II, 32 (1906). 

Gryllus tnelanocephalus, Sauss., Mem. Sec. Geneve, XXV, 174, 

t. 12 (x) ff. 1, 2 (1877) [nee Serv.]. 
Gryllvs melanocefhalus, Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 98, 

217. 

[Note.— Serville's G. melanocephalus [Orth., p. 342 (1839)] is also from Bengal. It 
is not quite certain whether our species is Saussure's or Serville's.] 

This species occurs as a pest chiefly in the Punjab, attacking young 
cotton plants in May and June as a major pest. It is controlled by 
light traps and firts at night. 

It is an occasional pest of young mango plants, and has also been 
reported from the Upper Sind Frontier, injuring young juar crops, July 
1892. [Ind. Mi(s. Notes, III, v, 77) ; Orai (Bundelkhand), attacking 
young rabi crops (D. D. A.'s letter of 8th January 1909) : Kajanpur 
Subdivison, Punjab, attacking rape seed (Assistant Commissioner's 
letter, 25th May 1904) ; Mokameh Tal, terious pest of rabi crops, respon- 
sible fo damage of about 450 bighas of crop in 1912 (letter from Mr. 
Woodhouse, 5th June 1913). 

ISOPTERA. 



Microtermes obesi, Holmgr. 

Holmgr, Entl. Mem. V. 159-160 [obesi and anandi] ; Proc. 
Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 194, 196, 281. 
This termite is a serious pest of wheat seedlings at Pusa, etc., and 
of wheat when coming into ear at Hoshangabad. It also attacks cabbage 
and cauliflower at Pusa. 

Odontotermes parvidens, Holmgr. 
Entl. Mem., V, p. 154 ; Proc. Second Entl. Meeting, pp. 46-47. 
This species was found on an estate on the Gauhati-Shillong ro'ad 
as a serious pest of Cajanus indicus, eating the roots. 



314 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Odontotennes hangalorensis, Holmg. 

Holmg. Entl. Mem., V, 151-152. 

This species has been found at Hadagalli, nibbling roots of ckolam. 

Odontotennes obesvs, Ramb. 

Holmg., Entl. Mem., V, 146-149. 

This species has been definitely noted from Quilandy (Malabar), 

damaging young coconut palms ; Coimbatore, galleries on tree- trunks ; 

Hadagalli, nibbUng bark of small tree ; Mysore City, on bark of GreviUea ; 

Lyallpur, on tree trunk ; Bankura, eating sugarcane setts. 

PROTEEMITID^i:. 

Stylotermes fletcheri, Holmg. 
Holmg., Entl. Mem., V, 142-143. 
This species was found in the Shevaroys, burrowing in the rotten 
interior and in sound wood of a mango tree. 

Hodotermes riarum, Koenig. 
Hodotermes koenigi, Holmgren, Entl. Mem., V, 138. 
This species occurs commonly at Coimbatore and sometimes does 
some damage to grass lawns by cutting off grass. 

3.— SOME INSECTS RECENTLY NOTED AS INJURIOUS IN SOUTH 
INDIA. 

By T. V. Ramakrishna Ayyar, B.A., F.E.S, F.Z.S., Acting Government 
Entomologist, Madras. 
The latest connected record of the injurious insects of South India 
is the volume on Some South Indian Insects by Mr. Fletcher. In the 
preface to that pubUcation the author writes thus : — " The list of crop- 
pests is not complete, and it must be clearly understood that it cannot 
be complete for many years, if ever. Every month new pests come to 
light, many of them altogether unknown even by name, and our know- 
ledge of old pests is augmented." These words are only too true ; for, 
since the publication of that volume in 1914, several new insects of 
economic importance have been noted in South India within the last 
three or four years. 



f Page 3l5. 




PEOCEEDIJTGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 315 

111 this paper I have attempted to bring together a very brief account 
of these recently noted forms. Of course, casual references and stray 
notes of some of these have appeared in reports and departmental papers 
but nowhere in a connected and complete manner. 

The list is neither complete (it can never be complete for many a long 
time to come), nor does it profess to give any detailed accounts of the 
different forms. It is more or less a skeleton list forming a sort of supple- 
ment to Mr. Fletcher's valuable volume, and the only reason for its pubh- 
cation is to bring together our scattered and necessarily incomplete 
knowledge of these forms into a connected shape as a sort of nucleus for 
future work. There is little doubt that, as our knowledge of these 
insects increases, it may be possible to bring out further papers con- 
taining detailed information on each of these forms. In the Ust, I have 
included not only those insects that have been recently noted as of some 
economic importance, but also others, which though akeady known and 
recorded, have not been sufficiently recognized as injurious in South 
India. The forms are arranged under their natural Orders and with 
regard to many which have not yet been scientifically identified, I have 
given popular names by means of which each might be recognized 
until it gets its scientific baptism. 

Hymenoptera. 

Eurytoma indi, Giraulfi. (Plate 9, fig. /.) — This is a small wasp of the 
family Eurytomidse included La the large group of Chalcidid wasps. 
Most of the insects of this group are parasitic on other insects and as 
such beneficial in many cases to the cultivator. This species, however, 
seems to be one among the exceptions. The adult insect is black 
with the abdomen shining ; measures 2-25 mm. It breeds inside seeds 
of dhaincba {Sesbania cegyptiaca) pods and destroys the seed. The insect 
was noted on the Coimbatore farm three years ago doing serious 
damage to a crop of dhaincha left for seed. A smaller insect, also a 
Chalcidid, Megastigmus indi, Gir., has been noted along with it and 
is believed to be a parasite on the seed-borer. 

In general form and habits this borer appears very closely allied to 
the American ' Clover-seed Chalcid ' {BmcJi&phagus Junebris, How).^ 

Philantkus ramakrishnce. Turner. (Plate 11, fig. 1.) — This fossorial 
wasp is one of the many insect enemies of the honey-bee {Apis indica) in 
the Hills of South India. I first noted this on the Bababudin Hills in 

' The name given to this insect in the Report of the 2nd Entomological Conference, 
Ttisa, (p. 73), is a mistake. 

2 See Monthly Bulletin Calif. St. Com. Hort., Vol. II, p. 696 (1913). 



316 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Mysore at an elevation of 4,000 feet. It has latterly been noted on the- 
Palnis also. Numbers of the honey-bee are carried off by this wasp 
and stored in nests made in hard banks at the sides of hill roads. There 
is no doubt that hives of honey-bees are depopulated in this way by 
this insect. Interesting accounts of how species of these wasps hunt bees 
and store them, will be found in Fabre's interesting works. 

Xylocopa tenuiscapa, Westw. In buildings where the roofing materials 
are of bamboo or weak and unseasoned wood this carpenter-bee causes 
considerable damage. The rafters and beams are riddled with holes 
inside which the insect breeds. Swarms of these insects are found 
hovering about the building all day long with their characteristic 
disturbing noise. I have collected the Meloid beetle Cissites debyi in 
the galleries made by this bee. This latter insect is believed to be 
predaceous on the larvse of the carpenter-bee. 

Among other Hymenoptera already recorded as injurious, mention 
may be made of two well-known ants — (Ecophylla smaragdina and Catnpo- 
notus compressus. The former was recently found bad on the crowns of 
coconut trees in South Kanara. It is found very hard to get rid of the 
nests on these trees ; tree-climbers often suffer very much. The latter 
is chiefly found guilty of spreading colonies of scale-insects from tree to 
tree ; this has been noted especially in the case of two Coccids on the 
Coimbatore farm, viz., Pulvinaria maxima, Gr., and Anomalococcus 
indicus, Gr. 

COLEOPTERA. 

Holotrichia sp. (Plate 9, fig. b.)* This is a fairly big cockchafer beetle,, 
chocolate-brown in colour. Mr. Arrow of the British Museum, to 
whom it was sent, says that the species is new to the Museum. 
Thousands of these emerge from the soil at the hill-sides soon after 
the first summer rains on the Nilgiris. The grubs are generally 
found active from September to November. In certain years these 
do considerable damage to young cinchona seedhngs. Thousands of 
the adults may be caught at lights in May — June. Another known 
species, H. repetita, is occasionally found with this species, but not in 
such numbers, on the Nilgiris. 

Fopillia chlorion, Newm. (Plate 9, fig. a.) This small pretty green 
insect is found in company with the big cockchafer noted above, 
and the grubs too have the same habits, but are smaller in size. 
Cockchafer grubs of sorts have now and then been observed also under 
cholam plants and other garden shrubs on the Coimbatore farm. 

* Since described in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., July 1919, p. 24, by Mr. Arrow as 
Bhizotrogus rujus. 



rHOCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 317' 

Anadastiis sp. Within the past three or four years the tenai 
crop (Setaria italica) on the Coimbatore farm has been found 
subject to the attacks of a Languriad borer. The nature of the damage 
and the externarsymptoiiis of the crop are similar to those caused by 
ordinary borers — the fading and gradual death of the shoots and ears, 
and death of the plant. The beetle appears to be a species of 
Anadastus ; another Erotylid which I have noted as a borer till now is 
Fatiia hngicmnis, W., breeding on dry and rotting Euphorbia antiquorum 
plants (See Fletcher, p. 290). The life-history of this tenai beetle has 
recently been worked out by my Assistant, Mr. P. V. Isaac* The 
eggs are thrust into the stem at the nodes singly, a few inches above 
the ground level. The grub feeds from inside and pupates in the hollow. 
The beetle is small in size, about 6 mm. in length, and red and blue in 
colour. 

Antkrenus pimpinellce, Fab., var. (Fig. 76 in Fletcher's book.). Silk 
and woollen goods are found subject to the attacks of a small 
Dermestid m South India. The beetle is very small, oval m shape and 
dark brown in colour with white patches on the elytra. The small dark 
hairy larva is found feeding on silk cocoons, woollens, brushes, etc. 
Anthrenvs fasciatus has been reported more than once from Army 
clothing depots. 

Trachys bicolor. (Plate 9, fig. d.) The jmlas tree {Btdea frondosa) 
is subject to the serious attacks of this Buprestid leaf-miner. In the 
months from December to March, when fresh leaves are put out by 
the bushes, every leaf is found mined and bhstered by this borer. The 
beetle is comparatively small in size and dark bluish in colour. It is 
very common in South Malabar. 

A species of Trachys is referred to as a pest of jute in Bengal (\'ide 
Report of Second Entomological Meeting, p. 134) but I do not know which 
species this one is. 

Wire-Worms. Reports of Elaterid grubs attacking jjotatoes in the 
Hills have been recently received. The actual species concerned has yet 
to be bred out. 

The Moringa stem-borer. The larva, which in this case is a longicorn 
borer, attacks the moringa tree {Moringa pterygosperma). The beetle is 
a typical Lamiad appearing more or less hke one of the species of 
Monohammus. It is about 19 mm. long and greyish-brown in colour. 
The insect is found occasionally serious. The hfe-history has recently 
been worked out by my Assistant Mr. T. V. Subramania Ayyar. [See 
paper No. 66 of these Proceedings.] 

* See also Mr. Isaac's paper (No. 65 of these Proceedings). 



318 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Chelidonium cinctum, Guer. (Plate 9, fig. e.) Mr. Anstead, the 
Deputy Director of Agriculture for Planting Districts, has recently found 
this insect attacking Citrus trees in the Mysore uplands. Probably it is 
similar in habits to the other well-known orange-borer of Coorg, Cklori- 
dolum alcmene. It may be the same or similar to one noted in Coorg 
by Fletcher (See Rept. of Second Entomological Meeting, p. 211). 

The Morinda shoot borer. This insect is a very small pale-browTi 
beetle, the whitish grubs of which are found attacking the growing 
terminal shoots of Morinda tinctoria plants. The presence of the 
pest is easily seen by the faded and drooping appearance of the 
young distal shoots ; the latter turn black in course of time and drop 
down. The larva is a minute pale white grub ; the pupa is also found 
in the same place. The beetle appears to be a Scolytid, having an 
oval prothorax and small brownish head tucked underneath the thorax. 

The Kolingi pod beetle. (Plate 10, fig. g.) As a green-manure plant 
in wet areas, the kolingi or wild indigo {Tephrosia purpurea) is held 
in high esteem in South India. Seeds are regularly collected and even 
sold by the Department. The growing pods of this bush are attacked 
by a small beetle borer — an Anthribid, probably a species of Arcecerus 
— which eats away the seeds and makes the pod empty. The pupa is 
also found inside the attacked pod. The insect is found in Tinnevelly, 
Tanjore and South Arcot districts. The adult beetle is very small in 
si^e, 2-5 mm. long, pale greyish in colour and is almost similar in 
appearance to the kolingi seed. It is a very active creature. 

Longitarsus nigripennis, Motsch. The gi'ub of this small flea-beetle 
■contributes a share to what is called the Pollu disease of pepper in North 
Malabar. The adult beetle is a very active small creature with the head 
and thorax ochraceous and the elytra bluish-black ; the hind femora are 
extraordinarily thick. Eggs are thrust singly just under the rind of the 
growing pepper-berry ; the small cream-white grub feeds on the inner 
contents of the berry and makes it hollow — this hollowing of the pepper- 
berry, to whatever cause it is due, being called the Pollu disease of 
pepper. The mature grub drops down into the soil and pupates under- 
groimd enclosed in an earthen cell. I am readuig a separate paper on 
this insect [See page 925]. 

There are also other species of flea-beetles which are often noted as 
sporadic local pests causing a certain amount of damage to crops in certain 
seasons. Of these the following are the chief : — 

= c The Bael flea-beetle. This dark shining beetle has been noted in 
Coimbatore and Kollegal doing damage to the foUage of bael, Mgle 
marmelos. They feed together in numbers and cause considerable 



Fugt 31S. 




^ ■?. 




Page 3l9. 





Fig. ^.— VhilnntJnis loiiial.iis/iuo. Turner, '2^. 
The lower figure shows a specimen in flight, carry- 
ing oft a honey-bee. 




Fig. 2. 



Alchh's 2}i(tits, natural size 
and magnified (x5). 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 319 

damage within a short period of time. It doesnot ajjpear to beC'Zi<ea 
ficta, Baly. 

The Panimragu fiea-beetle. This small flea-beetle appears to be a 
specific pest of the millet Panicum miliare in Ooimbatore ; the larvae 
bore into the plant stem and often cause " dead hearts." 

The Radish flea-beetle. This small very active bright-blue insect is 
found doing serious damage often to .cabbage, radish and other cruci- 
ferous plants. It is also occasionally found on other irrigated crops 
but the insect is very partial to Cruciferte. It appears to be similar to 
a flea-beetle which I remember to have collected on brinjal in Muzaffar- 
pur in October 1904. 

Other flea-beetles are those found on sann hemp, castor, etc. 

Green potato leaf-beetle. A shining green Galerucine beetle is 
found on the Nilgiris feeding on potato-leaves in some numbers. 
Similar beetles have also been noted on sweet-potato in Tumevelly and 
other places — but not as bad pests. 

Several species of Myllocerus are now and then noted on various 
cultivated crops but only a few of these species ever do any appreciable 
damage and even this is not of common occurrence. The following 
species may however be watched. 

Myllocerus subfasciatus, Guer. This species is a grey insect commonly 
found on a variety of plants. Noted on brinjal, potatoes, apple, etc. 
Sometimes the insect causes serious damage to brinjal foliage in the 
Plains. 

Myllocerus discolor. This weevil is the common greyish-brown 
species found on a variety of crops all over South India. It has been 
noted on maize, ragi, cliolam, etc. In bad seasons and when the plants 
are young this weevil does appreciable damage to the crop, although 
in normal years the work of the insect is negUgible. 

Myllocerus dentifer, F. This pale-greyish beetle is occasionally found 
defoliating tenai (Setaria), cumbu, etc., in South Arcot. 

Myllocerus viridanus. This pretty green species is generally found 
on groundnut, castor, Hibiscus esculentus, etc. Stebbing notes this 
insect as a bad pest on teak in the Walayar forests. With this species 
is often found a smaller species, M. ■preiiosus, F. 

Corresponding perhaps to the species of Myllocerus in the Plains we 
have one or two species of Sympiezotnias on coffee, cinchona, etc., in the 
Hills. The species noted so far are S. Jrater, S. cretaceus, and S. decipiens. 

Alcides pictus. (PI. 11, f. 2). This species of Alcide.% which is not 
nnknovm in South India, has within the last two or three years 
taken to feed on lablab. The grubs and pupae are found infesting 
the main vines and some damage is done to the plant. 

VOL. I Y 



320 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

ConartJirus jansoni, WoU. In the coastal tracts of Malabar and 
Cocliiii I have noted a small shining black beetle boring in numbers 
into the bamboo framework of sheds and fences near houses. The spUt 
bamboo pieces are badly tunneled in some cases. Fletcher has noted a 
beetle of similar habits in Ceylon [Myocalandra exarata, Boh.), but I 
find that this insect is not the same as the Ceylonese one. 

The Jak-fruit weevil (PI. 12, f. 1). In Malabar and the Mysore 
uplands young fruits of jak trees are sometimes very badly damaged 
by this insect. The weevil is a veiy small one, measuring about 
6 mm. in length, and is pale-greyish-brown in colour. The snout is 
prominent. Hundreds of the small cream-white grubs are found 
riddUng healthy tender fruits and as a consequence the fruits shrivel 
up and drop down. Dr. Marshall, to whom I sent specimens some 
time back, tells me that the insect belongs probably to a new genua 
and that he would describe the same soon. 

Cahmlra rugicoUis, Fst. This small weevil has been noted as a 
pest of sal {Shorea robusta) seedlings in Ganjam. In appearance it is 
more or less like the ordinary rice Calandra but shghtly bigger. All 
fallen sal seeds contain the grubs and pupse of this weevil. This was 
noted by a nephew of mine who iS a Forest Officer. It appears closely 
allied to the acorn weevil (C. sculpturata, Gyll.) mentioned by Steb- 
bing, and is perhaps the same as the undermined ' Sal weevil ' 
referred to by Stebbing on page 450 of his book on Indian Forest Insects. 

Rubber Scolytid.* (PI. 12, f. 2). A smaU reddish-brown Scolytid 
beetle (very hkely a species of Xijlehonis) was recently sent up from 
a rubber estate in Cochin as doing damage to Hevea bark. 

Rubber Platypodid. (PI. 12, f. 3). This was reported from Travan- 
core doing the same kind of damage to rubber bark. The insect from 
its structure appears to be a species of Platypodid. 

Coconut Scolytid. A small Scolytid, said to damage coconut stems, 
has been received two or three times from different parts of South India. 

The real bionomics of these Scolytids have to be studied to see whether 
they are the cause or the effect in these different cases, since in the case 
of rubber a fungus disease is often found mixed up. 

Two weevils — Melon weevil {Acythopeus citndli, Marsh) and a small 
Apion [Afion ampluni, Fst.) may also be added to the list of weevils. The 
former was noted in Cuddapah and Bellary inside melons, and the latter 
has been collected on Anamrdium fruits in Malabar and also breeding 
in green-gram pods in Coimbatore. 

* Since named by Col. Winn Sampson as Xyleborus biporus, n. sp. 



Varje P.-^O. 




Fig. 1.— Jak Weevil ; n, larva > 8 ; h, pupa 8 ;'<■. 
beetle, dorsal view, natural size and enlarged 
( X 8) ; (I. beetle, side-viev», ; 8. 




Fig. 2.— Rubier Scolytid (;;36; 




Fig. 3.— Rubber Platypodid (16). 



PLATE 13. 




ALCIDES BUBO. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 13. 

Alcides bubo. 

Fig. 1. stem cut open, showing eggs deposited in it 

Fig. 2. A single egg, magnified ( x .33) 

Fig. 3. Newly-hatched larva ( X 30). 

Fig. 4. Full-grown larva ( X 10). 

Fig. 5. Stem attacked by larva, showing gall.«. 

Fig. 6. Stem cut open, showing larval workings ( X 

Fig. 7. Pupa, magnified ( X 8). 

Fig. 8. Adult beetle ( x U). 

Fig. 9. Pair of beetles (x IJ). 

Fig. 10. Beetle, .side-view ( x 5). 

Fig. 11. Beetle, dorsal view (xo). 

Fig. 12 Chalcidid parasite ( x 10). 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIBD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 321 

Before leaving beetles, I may add a few remarks on the following 
insects which have alread}^ been noted as injurious, just to jjoint out 
their present status in view of our further knowledge of these insects. 

Pempheres affinis. This insect has within the past two or three years 
distributed itself with Cambodia cotton into tracts where it was not 
found till now — viz., Madura, Eamnad and Tinnevelly districts. It 
appears that the weevil exists in different parts where no cotton is grown 
— for I noted the weevil on Hibiscus esciilentus in North Malabar — and 
makes itself prominent with the introduction of cotton cultivation. 
The hfe-history of the insect has been worked out and an account of it 
will be found in my paper on this insect in the Year Book of the Madras 
Department of Agrindture for 1918 (pp. 1—13) [Coloured plate exhibited]. 

Alcides bubo. (Plate 13). This insect continues to be a bad pest 
of Sesbania (agathi) in betel-vine gardens. The plants do not suffer 
much when they have grown 4 or 5 feet high ; but during the younger 
stages very serious damage is done. Two or three applications of lead 
arsenate during the earher stages at intervals of a fortnight checked the 
attack in the early stages. I am exhibiting a coloured plate showing 
the different stages of this pest. Two parasites Metastenmmjia juliani, 
Gii^, and Eurytoma pigra, Gir., have been noted on the grub ; but not 
to any great extent. In page 97 of the Madras Departmental Year-Book 
for 1917 is a short paper of mine on the egg-laying habits of this insect. 

Alcides affaber. This is a specific pest of gogu {Hibiscvs cannabinvs) 
and is also found on Hibiscus esctdentus ; pretty bad occasionally. Alcides 
leopardvs, 01., mentioned by Fletcher in his book, is apparently a wrong 
identification for A. affaber, for I have never seen A. leopardus anywhere 
in Coimbatore. I, however, got some specimens of this latter species 
breeding on a wild plant in South Malabar a couple of years ago. 

Peltotrachelus pubes — a weevil noted in the Shevaroys on orange 
This is a minor pest only. 

Apodenis tranqvebaricvs. Recently this insect has been noted in 
numbers on tender shoots and leaves of mango trees in C'hittur and adja- 
cent mango tracts. (Reference to my note in Bidleiin of Second Hundred 
Notes). 

PachytycMvs mungcnis, originally noted on green-gram, is also found 
on dhaincha as a pretty bad pest, causing prominent swellings of the 
stem. 

Olenecamptus bilobiis (Plate 10, figure/?), though noted by Lefroy in 
his Indian Insect Life, is not in Fletcher's book. It is sufficiently 
important to be grouped as a pest. I have noted this doing damage to 
cultivated figs in Krishna, Bangalore, and other places. It was once 
noted on pomegranate also in Salem, Coimbatore. 

y2 



322 rEOCEEDlXGS OF THE TIIIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Apomecyiia ferotteti (Plate 9, figure c) has recently been noted in 
Oodavari and Vizagapatam districts as a pretty bad pest of cucurbits, 
especially of the vegetable called dondekaya in Telugu. 

Among Bruchids of economic importance the following might be 
noted. — 

Bruchus analis — on stored pulses. 

B. theobromw — breeding on red-gram in the fields. 

B. chinensis — both in the fields and in the store room. 

Other unidentified species are, one species breeding on lab lab in the 
fields, one on cow-pea also in the field, and another from agatlii (Sesbania) 
pods in the field. The correct identification of these species is a matter of 
great importance, as confusion is sure to arise. 

Xyleborus fomicatus (PI. 14) was once noted pretty bad on a species 
of red garden castor plant in Bangalore. Being a well-known pest of 
tea and other plants in Ceylon, and this being the first record of it in the 
Plains, it is necessary that the progress of this pest should be watched 
carefully. 

The Bostrichid, RJiizopertha dominica, which was till now considered 
a minor pest of stored cereals, has during the past two or three years 
proved a serious pest of stored paddy. This was the case in the Coro- 
mandel districts two years ago. 

The weevil, Tylopholis ballardi, mentioned in Marshall's Fawia 
volume, has been noted attacking Bengal gram in Bellary, but has not 
been noted as serious. 

Lepidoptera. 

Chilades laius. This Lycsenid is occasionally noted doing damage 
to Citrus shoots in the Northern Circars. 

Parata alexis. The larva of this Skipper is found sporadically in 
numbers attacking the foliage of Ponrjamia glabra, a tree the leaves of 
which are largely used for green-manure in wet-lands. 

PsychidcB. Among bag-worms W3 often have rouble with some 
species. One is sometimes found on castor in Coimbatore (probably 
Psyche vitrea). and another on fruit-trees in the Northern Circars, 
especially on Sapota. 

Contheyla rotunda. A sporadic serious pest of coconut trees on the 
South Malabar coast. It has also been noted by Mr. Ans ead as a pest 
of tea in the Hills. (See my paper on this insect, p. 91, Madras Depart- 
mental Year-Booh 1917.) 

Natada nararia was once found as a bad pest of the garden 
hedge plant, Pithecolobium dulce, in Coimbatore. 



Page 322 






-ho\e Borer {Xi/leborus fornicfitiis)j>i castor-stem at Bangalore, a, castor stem 
bored by beetles ; b, eggs > 16 ; c, larva /20 ; i/. pupa : 24 ; f, beetle, > 24. 



PLATE 15. 




^^ 







S^^-^ 




CIRPHIS ALBISTIGMA. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 15. 

Cirphis albinligmu . 

Fig. I. Eggs laid on paddy leaf, magnified. 

Fig. 2. Larva, first instar ( x 45). 

Fig. 3. Larva, second instar ( x 25). 

Fig. 4. Larva, third instar ( x 13). 

Fig. 5. Larva, fifth instar (x8). 

Fig. 6. Larva, sixth instar (x4). 



PLATE. 16. 




CIRPHIS ALBISTIGMA. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 16. 

Cirph'is alhi stigma. 

Fig. 1. Pupa, magnified (X 5). 

Fig. 2. Moth, male, magnified ( x 2J). 

Fig. 3. Moth, female, magnified (;<2i). 



PKOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD E>'TOMOLOGICAL MEETING 323 

Butea Litnacodid. A stout spiny caterpillar similar to Parasa but 
bigger in size. Moth grey with ochraceous markings. Found defoliating 
Butea frondosa in the Bolampatty forests, Coimbatore. 

Carea subtilis (Plate 10, figs. /, k) very common on Eugenia jambolana 
in different parts. The caterpillar with the swollen anterior portion is 
easily made out. A parasite has been noted on this, Tumidicoxoides 
jambolana, Gir MS. 

CirpMs albistignta (Plates 15, 16). A pretty bad pest of ripening 
padd}'. The caterpillar is the cHmbing caterpillar of paddy of the 
Coromandel coast, appearing generally after the heavy North-East 
Monsoons, January to February. The caterpillar cuts down the 
ripening ear-heads. 

Adisura atkinsoni. A Noctuid boier of lab lab pods. Veiy common in 
Coimbatore and the Northern Circars during the cold weather. (See 
Year Book of Madras DejMritnent, 1917, p. 87, for Mr. Y. Eamachandra 
Rao's paper on its life-history). 

Eiizofhora plitmbeifasciella has been found breeding uside wood- 
apple fruits. 

Efhestia cautella, on stored groundnut pods ; the caterpillar bores 
into the pod and eats the ^^t eds. Often bad in stores of unshelled ground- 
nuts. 

Heterographis bengakUa, a Pyralid with olive greenish upper wings. 
Larva found inside the fruits of custard apple. 

Corey ra cephalonica. The stored rice meal-worm. Very common 
in South India. Found on rice and meal of all cereals. 

Chrysanthemum caterpillar. A small green caterpillar was found 
once pretty bad on cultivated chrysanthemum in Madura. The moth 
is of medium size and has ochraceous mngs. Probably a species of 
Hypargyria (Pyralidse). 

Brachmia effera, Meyr. The small caterpillar folds the leaf of sweet- 
potato ; has not become serious yet. 

Laspeyresia leucostoma. Found near Kateri and Coonoor on the 
Nilgiris. The caterpillar feeds on the leaf of tea. 

Cyphosticha ccerulea. The pinkish small caterpillar mines into the 
leaf tissue of lablab&nA produces a sort of prominent white blister en 
the leaf. Pretty bad in Coimbatore and Malabar. 

Phthorimcea blapsigona. A common pest of brinjal buds in South 
India. A species of Microbracon is found as a parasite of this caterpillar. 

Phyllocnistis toparcha, Meyr. The^ larva mines into grape-vine leaves 
and the mine is seen in the form of glistening wavy lines on the leaf in 
Coimbatore. 

Acrocercops syngramma, Meyr., on tender mango leaves, Madras. 



3:M rROCEEDixGS of the third extohological meeting 

Syhpta lunalis was found in numbers on grape in November 1917 
in Coimbatore. Pupa inside leaf fold. 

The Ragi ear-head worm. This is a slender elongated caterpillar 
found on the ripening ear-heads of the ragi plant. Sometimes appre- 
ciable damage is done to the ears. 

The Saturniad moth, Adias selene, has been noted as a regular pest 
defoliating 0(li)ia ivodier trees in Coimbatore for the past two or three 
years. (See my note in the Bombay Journal, XXIII, p. 792). 

The foUomng are already known pests among Lepidoptera ; but I 
have added some extra information regarding their status. 

Dicrisia obliqua. This Arctiad has not been recorded till now from 
South India. It is found on sweet-potato and Lantana in Malabar. 
On the Wynaad Hills I found it on a variety ,of other plants. 

Orgyia postica is found to be a pretty bad pest of castor in Coimbatore. 
A coloured plate of its stages is here^^^th exhibited. (Plate 17.) 

Euproctis fratenia has been noted on rose, doing serious damage in 
South Malabar. It is also found on pomegranate. A coloured plate is 
exhibited herewith. 

Prodenia litura. Noted bad on Colocasia in Tanjore and was recently 
noted on onions in Coimbatore. 

Dichocrocis punctiferalis on arrow-root plant in North Malabar. 

Hyhlaea puera is often serious on Millingtonia and Bignonia. 

LapJiygma exigua has been noted on coriander at Coimbatore. 

DiPTERA. 

PacJiydiplosis oryzce. This is noted as a very important and serious 
pest, chiefly in the Northern Circars, Tanjore and Eamnad districts. 
The fly is found breeding on other Graminaese also. It is known as 
Anaikombu in Tamil districts. 

Bitter-gourd gall-fly, (PI. IS). The distal tender shoots of the 
bitter-gourd plant often develop a long gall and the growth of the plant 
is much afiected by the maggot found inside the gall. 

T\i&' Cumbu fly. This is also a Cecidomyiad noted on cumbii in 
Coimbatore. 

An Anthomyiad has been noted on tomato also. 
Among fruit-flies we have a few species oi Bactrocera, Chcetodacus- 
etc., affecting mangoes, guavas, etc.: — 

ChcetodacKs jernigineus incisus, on guava, Bangalore. 
Bactrocera caudata. On snake-gourd, Coimbatore. 
Dacus brevistylus, on water-melon, Cuddapah. 
Dacus longistylus, on Calotropis. 
Carpomyia vesuviana, Coimbatore, on ber fruit. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 17. 
Orgyia fostica. 

Fig. 1. Mass of eggs, natural size. 

Fig. 2. Egg, magnified (x 13). 

Fig. 3. Newly-hatclied "larva, magnified. 

Fig. 4. Full-grown larva, natural size. 

Fig. 5. „ „ „ magnified ( X 2J). 

Fig. 6. Cocoon, natural size 

Fig. 7. Pupa, magnified ( x 2J). 

Fig. 8. Female moth, natural size. 

Fig. 9. „ ,> magnified (X li). 

Fig. 10. Male moth, magnified ( x 2\). 



PLATE 17. 




ORGYIA POSTICA. 



Page 324(2). 




Page 325. 




Fig. i.—PiiroIiita sp. ,; 5. (The smaller outline figure shows the natural size.) 




Fig. 2 Woolly Aphid en bamboo ; a, Aphiiis clustered ion [bamboo shoot ; b, yourg 

Aphid : 40 ; c, wingless adult > 13 ; d, winded adult x11. 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD EIv TOMOLOGICAL MEETING 325 

Teak leaf-gall. Throughout the West Coast, teak leaves are found 
covered with numerous gall-like formations with hairy out-growths on 
the lower surface. I believe the galls are caused most probably by a 
gall-fly ; I even got bright pink-coloirred maggots crawling out of these 
but have not succeeded in rearing out the adults. Mr. Stebbing in his 
book on Indian Forest Insects, p. 120, thinks that the gall is due to a 
Cucujid beetle, Silvanus advena. This has to be verified. 

Rhynchota. 

Two or three species or Coptosoma have been noted as swarming on 
different plants in South India. These are — 

Coplosoma nazirw (Plate 10. figure I). On most vegetables such as 
cluster-beans, Hibiscus, etc., and mango shoots. 

Coptosoma ostensum, Dist., a minute light-yellowish-green species 
found by the thousand on young shoots and, leaves of Butea frondosa in 
the forest around Coimbatore in December. 

The black oval shining Pentatomid. Brachyplatys vafilii, is often 
found in numbers in company with the common Coptosoma cribraria 
on agathi (Sesbania). 

Vitellus orientalis (Plate 10, figure i) is a large greenish Pentatomid 
with sharp prothoracic spines which has been noted as puncturing 
orange fruits in Kiunul. The effect of the puncturing appears to 
hasten rotting and also attraction for fungi. It has to be verified 
whether the real injury is done by these or fruit-sucking Noctuids of the 
genus Ophideres. 

The LygtBid bug, Nijsius inconspicuus, is often found bad on growing 
gingelly in South Kanara during the months of February -April. 

Helopeltis (theivora*) on tea in Pirmaad and Travancore, and Mega- 
calum stramineum, found in company with Calocoris angustatus (see 
Year Book Madras Department, 1917, p. 83, for a paper by Mr. Ballard), 
are the Capsids of importance. 

^Purokita sp. (PI. 19, fig. 1). A pale-greyish bug found in some 
numbers at the stem of growing bamboo, especially between the stem and 
the sheaths. The mealy mass of eggs is very commonly found in that 
place also ; Coimbatore. 

Curry Leaf-hopper. A minute active Fulgorid found in numbers 
doing appreciable damage to the curry-leaf plant, Mitrraya J:oenigi, 
in Coimbatore and Malabar. 

^Clovialineuticollis (?\nt% 10, figure m). Common on jak shoots and 
tender leaves all over Malabar. Due to the attack the leaves curl up ; 
often inside these curls nymphs enclosed in frothy matter are also found. 

* Helopeltis antonii is perhaps intended. [Edilor ] 



326 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Of mealy-wings we have chiefly the Dialetirodes eugenice on Eugenia 
and Aleiirodids on Bassia and Citrus. 

Of plant-lice pests we have several, and of these the chief are those 
found on cotton, tobacco, Citrvs, lab lab, cow-pea and cJioJam. 

Bamboo VVoolly Aphis. On bamboo we occasionally find a species 
of wnolly a^ihis coming in large colonies (PI. 19, fig. 2). It is not the 
same as Fletcher's fig. 392. 

The Coconut Aphis (Cerataphis latanice), Fletcher's fig. 393, has not 
been noted since. 

Coming to Scales and Mealy-bugs there are a good many species of 
importance. In a paper I prepared for the Session of the Inchan Science 
Congress held at Lahore in 1918, I hsted 32 species of Coccids having 
some economic importance. Though all these are not had pests at 
present, some of them are really important. Of these mention might 
be made here of the following. 

Pidvinaria maxima, Gr., a bad pest of nim trees (Melia azadirachta). 

Ceroplastodes cajani, on lab lab stems and Ocimum ; often bad. 

Anomalococcvs indica, Gr., on bahil (Acacia arabica). 

Pseiidococcvs sacchari. Bad on paddy. The disease is called Scorai 
now in Tamil and often reported from Tanjore, Trichinopoly and Madura 
districts. Fields badly attacked show the infestation patches here and 
there. 

Phenacoccvs insolihis. Bad on brinjal plants, Madras, Coimbatore, etc. 

Rifersia sacchari. On sugarcane stems. This is the commonest 
species of mealy-bug on cane, and is different from Psendococciis sacchari. 

Icerya cegyptiaca. On jak, Malabar and Nilgiris. This is the species- 
to which I referred at the last meeting (p. 152 of Eeport). 

Hemichionaspis aspidistrce. On pepper in Malabar, and also on 
Ficus leaves elsewhere. 

Aspidiohis tamarindi. On tamarind. Coimbatore etc. 

Phenacoccvs iceryoides. On mango ; in Coimbatore. Northern Circars- 
and Tanjore. 

Pseiidococcvs corymbatvs. On cotton, mango and jak. In different 
places. 

Aspidiohis avrantii. On rose, Malabar. 

Aspidiohis curcvmce or harhi. On turmeric rhizomes at Coimbatore-. 

Pseudococcvs lotigispinvs ? Bad in,side leaf-sheaths of young coconut 
trees ; Coimbatore, Malabar and South Kanara. 

Orthoptera. 

Among grasshoppers no new pest of any importance has been noted.. 
The wingless grasshopper, Crthacris sp., was however found pretty ba<J 



Page 327. 





%1-^ 



r#i 'a^A^2< 




I'anchcetotlirifis indica, Bgll., on arrow-root leaves. 



rUOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 327 

on mulberry plots in Kollegal more than once. And on one occasion 
surface-grasshoppers of the genera JEolofus and (Edaleus were noted 
very bad in paddy nurseries in one village in the Coimbatore district. 

Thysanoptera. 

Very little attention has been paid till now to the insects of this group 
and there is httle on record regarding their economic importance.* In 
South India the following species have been noted so far, as having some 
economic importance : — 

Ou paddy. Thrifs {Bagmdlia) oryzce on seedlings in many parts of 
the Province. Pretty bad sometimes. (Some p. 353, Bvlletin of Entomo- 
logical Research. 1915. for description of this species by Williams).' 

Ou turmeric and arrowroot. Panchcetothrips indicxs, Bagn. 
(Plate 20).* On turmeric in Coimbatore and on arrow-root in Malabar. 
Not serious. 

On onion. HeliotJirips indicus, Bgl. Bad sometimes in Northern 
Circars. 

On grape-vine. Rhipiphorothrips cruentatum, Hood. On tender 
grape-%ane leaves. Turns the leaves pale brown. Found in numbers 
on the foliage at certain seasons. 

Ou Mimusops elengi. Arrhenothrips ramakrishnw, Hood, (Plate 99). 
Very serious on this garden plant in Coimbatore. The leaves are very 
badly twisted and galled. 

Thrips of sorts have also been noted doing some damage to chiUies, 
indigo, etc., in different parts of the country. 

On groundnut. — In the Palur farm a species of Thrips was once 
reported doing serious damage. 

Just a few words regarding non-hexapod pests of some importance 
may not be out of place before I close. Small Mites of sorts have been 
noted occasionally bad on cotton, cholam, castor and coconut ; those on 
cholam and cotton have often been found to do appreciable damage. 

The others among non-hexapods are the eel-worms. I have seen 
young tea-seedhngs and pepper- vines sufier from the attacks of eel-* 
worms. In one or two places eel-worms appeared bad on pepper in the 
Wynaad last November [1918]. 

The question of crabs on paddy seedlings has become well-known 
and needs no further remarks from me. 

As already stated in the beginning, my chief idea in getting this list 
prepared was to gather more information regarding all or any of these 
from observations made by my colleagues in other parts of India so that 

* In another paper I have prepared for this Meeting, I have dealt at some length on 
our present knowledge of this group (See pp. 618-621). 



328 rEOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

our information regarding these forms may be kept as up-to-date as 



This paper forms quite a useful supplement to my book on South 
Indian Insects, which, as I noted at the time, was only to be taken as an 
incomplete and prehnunary introduction to the study of the insect pests 
of Southern India. I hope that the Madras Department will give us a 
further interesting supplement at the nest Meeting. 

4._N0TE ON THE MOEE IMPOETANT INSECT PESTS OF 
PLANTING DISTEICTS OF SOUTH INDIA AND THE 
METHODS OF CONTEOL USED, 1917-18. 

By EuDOLPH D. Anstead, M.A., Deputy Director of Agricultiire, Planting 
Districts. 

The author of this Note is in no sense of the term an Entomologist 
and the Note is merely intended to be an indication of the methods 
adopted on estates in Southern India to control some of the more import- 
f ant insect pests. From this point of view it is hoped that it may be of 
interest to the members of the Entomological Meeting, but the author 
is seeking for information rather than trying to impart it. 

Coffee. 

Coccus viridis. A Bulletin on the subject has been published by 
Coleman and Kannan (Mysore Department of Agriculture, Entomological 
Series, No. 4, 1918). The form of this scale-insect which occurs in Mysore 
is considered to be a new species and has been named Coccus colemani. 

Certain species of Ants — Cremastogaster sp. and Plagiolepis longipes 
— are found to play an important role in the distribution of the scale. 
Nests of Cremastogaster on coffee estates are found crowded with scales 
in September and it is found that if the ants' nests are removed the 
infection of the trees is considerably diminished. In fact, the destruc- 
tion of ants' nests has now become part of the regular control measures 
adopted on estates. 

The most important natural checks of the scale are two species of 
fungi, Cephalosporium lecanii, which frequently kills off more than 
90 per cent, of the scales in cofiee estates during wet weather, and Empusa 
lecanii. which is usually found attacking the scale during the early part 
of the cold weather. 

The pest is most troublesome in years when the North-East monsoon 
is scanty and a long period of dry weather succeeds it. Dispersion is 
largely efiected by wind, the young scale insects being blown as far as 



rROCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 329 

450 feet. It is also carried about by game birds, and can be spread from 
field to field by passing coolies who carry young scales on their clothes. 
The artificial methods of control adopted are the removal of ants' 
nests, and spraying and brushing with fish-oil-resin soap used at the rate 
of 1 lb. of soap to 2 gallons of water. Dispersal of the fungi mentioned 
above is encouraged by tying branches containing them to trees free 
from them. 

These methods when conscientiously carried out are highly efiicient 
and no fear is now felt of the pest causing the damage to coffee in Mysore 
and Coorg which it did in the Nilgiris, where it was neglected, rendering 
the cultivation of coffee to be unprofitable and necessitating its replace- 
ment by tea. 

Saissetia hemis-phwrica, Pulvinoria fsidii,_aiui other scales are always 
to be found on coffee estates but these are easily controlled by periodical 
spraying. 

Pseudococcus {Dactyhpius) citri, a Mealy-bug scale which attacks the 
roots of young coff'ee.is still a bad pest, especially in South Coorg and some 
parts of Mysore. This scale is also found on the roots of certain shade 
trees, particularly Erythriivx liOiosperma, and on some weeds. So trouble- 
some is it in infected land that unless some precautionary measures 
are taken it is impossible to raise young plants. At the beginning of 
the dry weather it is usual to see young plants, either in new clearings 
or supplies, suddenly wilt and die. On pulHng them up they are found 
to have lost all their feeding roots except a small tuft set out at the collar 
which have kept the plant alive so long as the surface soil was wet, while 
the bark is also eaten into by the scales. As soon as the surface soil 
dries out with the advent of the dry weather the plant dies. 

A similar effect is produced by the larvae of a species of Cockchafer, 
Holotrichia conferta, which in some years is very troublesome and appears 
in very large quantities. These insects were very prevalent in 1912 and 
there are signs of their recurrence again on a wide scale now. In such 
years the soil is full of the larva? and the pits round a dead coffee-plant 
may contain half-a-dozen of them. 

Against both these pests Apterite has been found effectual. Apterite 
was obtained before the war from Messrs. Cooper Nephews and appears 
to consist of a mixture of crude naphthaline and pink carbolic powder. 
It is a soil disinfectant and was recommended as a top dressing for 
new land put under the plough in England during the war in the Journal 
of the Board of Agriciillure (England) although the reason was not stated. 
If this disinfectant is applied at the rate of 2 cwt. per acre, or if a shallow 
-trench about an inch deep is made in a ring round the young plants about 
«ix inches to a foot away from the stem and an ounce of apterite is placed 



330 I'ROCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

in the trench and covered with soil, complete jDrotection is afforded to 
the plants, and young clearings have been i-uccessfuUy raised in this way 
in places where before it was found impossible to grow them. Care 
must be taken that the young feeding roots do not come in actual contact 
with the apterite or they will be damaged, hence the reason for making 
the trench some httle distance away from the plant to be protected, 
outside the root range. 

During the war it has been impossible to obtain apterite from England 
and stocks in the country were soon exhausted. Messrs. Parry & Co., 
Madras, however, came to the rescue and manufactured a substitute 
under the trade name " Ranicide " which appears to act quite as well. 
The price of naphthaline, however, caused the cost of this material to be 
very high. 

Xylotrechiis quadripes, the cofiee borer, is still troublesome. The 
most efficient remedy so far discovered is to scrub the stems of the bushes 
in October-November with coconut husk to destroy and dislodge the eggs 
which are laid in the crevice and under loose pieces of bark. Dr. Coleman^ 
the Director of Agriculture in Mysore, has pubUshed the results of some 
work done with methods of control of this insect. 

Tea. 

Of tea pests Helofeltis continues to be the worst insect pest and no 
new remedies have been found for it. A combination of spra}nng, 
pruning large areas at one time down wind, burning the prunings, and 
hand-catching are employed and these give a certain measure of control, 
but do not materially help to stamp out the pest. Its attacks are most 
severe in the monsoon which renders all work in connection with it 
difficult and spraying out of the question. 

Of other pests there have been small sporadic outbreaks of the cater- 
pillars of Thosea cervina which were easily controlled by hand-jjicking 
and collection of cocoons and cultivation of the soil round the affected 
bushes after the cocoons had been formed in it. Caterpillars and cocoons 
were sent me on 20th August 1917 and^from these moths began to emerge 
in the laboratory at Bangalore on 3rd January 1918. 

Some specimens of a bark-eating borer have been recently received 
which are said to do a certain amount of damage. This appears to be a 
species of Arhela but more specimens are required for identification 
purposes. This pest is still under investigation and I have no notes at 
present of any value about it. 

Asfidiotus camellicB, the yellow bark-louse, a scale which used to give 
a considerable amount of trouble in young tea, especially in replanted 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 331 

coffee land, has not of late done much damage and it is found to be 
controllable by means of fish-oil-resin sprays. 

Caterpillars of Conlheyla rotunda did a little local damage to tea in 
the Wynaad in 1917 and specimens of caterpillars of Terias silhetatia 
in Mundakayam attacked Albizzias and the tea beneath them. Both 
attacks were easily controlled. 

Rubber. 
Rubber continues free from insect pests. All the diseases of import- 
ance are due to fungal attacks. 

Fruit. 
An interesting beetle attacking Citrus trees — Oranges and Limes — 
at Bangalore has come under observation lately. This is Chelidonium 
cinctum the larvae of which bore the young shoots and old stems and do a 
large amount of damage. The following observations and notes may 
prove of interest : — 

The eggs are deposited in June in the axils of young living twigs 
(never on dead wood or on old branches). The eggs are covered 
with a sort of yellow transparent varnish. As soon as the eggs 
hatch the young larva bores into the twig and works upwards for 
about i-lj inches and then makes two tiny holes about the size 
of a pin's head. It then turns back and bores down the twig 
occasionally making small openings. Finally it gets into the 
main branches where it makes tunnels | inch in diameter. The 
young twigs at once die, turning black so that they are easily 
seen and they can be cut off with the larvae inside them. By 
doing this and by catching the adult insects with handnets the 
attack was to a large extent controlled. The time taken after 
deposition for the eggs to hatch appears to be about two weeks. 



Miscellaneous. 

The larva of a Tiger Beetle was found in the Shevaroys in December 
1917 boring into the tops of young coffee stems. It enters the stems 
about 9 inches from the top and makes a tunnel upwards some 2 inches 
long. An attempt to raise the perfect insect in captivity failed and the 
insect has not been seen since. 

Stegodyphiis sarasinonnn, a spider which makes long bags in which 
to hve, is sometimes found in tea bushes where it is untidy but of course 
does no harm. 



332 FROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

The following special notes on insects have been published in th& 
pages of the Planters' Chronicle during 1917-18 : — 



Tiger Beetle Borer of Coffee 

Coffee Borer . . . . 

A swarm of Ochrophara montana 
Insects in Vegetable Gardens 
Bees and Pollination 
Helopeltis on tea 
Spiders in Tea Bushes 



( Vol. Xr, p. 622. 

■ I „ XIT, p. 14. 

„ XII, pp. 579 

„ XII, p. 594. 

„ XIII, p. 9a 

„ XIII, p. 426. 

„ XIII, p. 588. 

„ XIII, p. 465. 



This paper is now open for discussion, and in the first place I should 
like to say that we are considerably indebted to Mr. Anstead for giving 
us this summary of the insect pests which he has come across in the 
Planting Districts of South India during the last two years. 

In speaking of Pseudococcus citri he mentions a loss of feeding-roots 
of young cofiee-plants as due to this scale which is also described as eating 
into the bark. As this scale is a sucking insect, it could not eat away 
the roots or eat into the bark, and this type of injury is presumably due 
to cockchafer grubs. 

5.— A LIST OF LEPIDOPTERA NOTED TO ATTACK CULTIVATED 
PLANTS IN CEYLON. 

By R. Seniok-White, F.E.S. 
Nymph ALiDiE. 

Hypolimnas holina. 

Neptis eurynome. Canavalia gladiata, Vigna catjang. 

Melanitis ismene. Sorghum, Panicum maximum. Parasitized by 
a Tachinid. 

Dmmis plexipjnis. Stephanotis sp. 

(U. R. 3.) Ficus parasitica, Carissa carandas. ^ 

Telchinia violce. Passiflora foetida. 
Papilionid-e. 

Papilio demoleus. Citrus spp., Fermiia elephantmn. 

Papilio agamemnon. Anona muricata. 

Papilio pammon. Citrus spp., Murray a hcenigii. 

Papilio parinda. Citrus sp. 

Papilio aristolochice. Aristolochia sp. 

PlERID^. 

Terias hecabe. Cassia fistula. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE TXllI'.D EKTOllOLOGICAL MEETING' 333 

Lyc^nid^. 

Catockrysops cnejits. Vigna catjang. 

Jamides bochts. Vigna catjang. 

Chilades laius. Feronia elephanhim. 

Spalgis epius. Pseudococcus sp. on Solanvm sp. 
Hespeeiad^. 

Hesperia galba. Hibisms sp. (holh'liock). 

EUPTEROTID^. 

Eupterote geminata. Erythrina indica, Theobroma cacao, Cajanus 

indicus. Parasitized by Tachinid. 
Sphingid.e. 

Rhyncolaba acteus. Calladium vars. Parasitized by Tacliinid. 
Chcerocampa theylia (vinocea).* Balsamifera impatiens ; very bad 

in November only. 
Chcerocampa theylia.'\ " Pach-arisi-pillu " (Tamil). This plant is 

a bad dxy-weatlier weed in rubber. 
Nephele hespera. Carissa carandas. 
Deilephila nerii. Vmca sp., Oleander spp. 
Acherontia lachesis. Erythrina indica, Solamim melongena, Capsicum 

spp. Parasitized by Tacliinid. 
Acherontia styx. Solanum melongena. Very rare in Matale 

District. 
Eerse convolmdi. Vigna catjang. 

NOTODONTID^. 

Stauropus alternus. Cajanus indicns. 
Syntomid^. 

Syntomis passalis. Phaseolus vidgaris. Capsicum spp. Kohlrabi, 
Daisy vars, Trichosanthes anguina. Parasitized by two species 
of Tacbinids. 
Syntomis cyssea. Ipomcea rubro-ccerulea. 
Thyeidid^. 

Dysodia ignita. Croton aromaticus. 

LASIOCAJIPIDiE. 

Suana concolor. Psidimn ginjava, Cajanus indicus, Hibiscus rasa- 
sinensis. Attacked by a Pborid parasite. 

* The species here referred to as C. theylia (vinacea) is presumably Hippotion 
raffitsi, Butl. (See Roths and Jordan, Revis Sphing., p. 755.) — Editor. 

f The species here referred to as C. theylia is presumably Hippotion boerhavice. Fab. 
(vide loc-cit p. 756), The true Sphinx thydia of Linnaeus is a South American 
Xyloph anes. — Editor. 



334 rnocEEDiNGS of the third entomological meeting 

LlMACODID^. 

Altha lacteola. Carissa carandas. 
Thosea cana. Eose. 

Narosa conspersa. Feronia elephantum. 

Lymanteiad^. 

Dasychira fusiformis. Pelargonium vars, Camia sp., Citrus sp., 
rose, Vigna catjatig, C. carandas, Kohl-rabi, Solanum melongena, 
Phaseolus mungo, Cajanus indiciis, Antigonon sp., Moringa ptery- 
gosperma. 

Dasychira divisa. Daisy vars, Amaryllid lily. 

Dasychira mendosa. Vigna catjang. 

Dasychirarhorsfieldi. Vigna catjang. 

Dasychira sp. (? mendosa). Solanum melongena, Citrus sp., Acalypha 
sp. 

Lymantria ampla. Pelargonium vars, Theobroma cacao, Begonia sp., 
Carissa carandas, rose, Quisqualis indica, Cajanus indicus. 

Orgyia postica. Pelargonium vars, Erythrina lithosperma, Vigna 
catjang. Carina sp., P. gratissima, Cajanus indicus, Solanum melon- 
gena, mangosteen. 

Lcelia exclamationis. Canna sp. 

Euproctis scintillans. Rose, Daisy vars. Capsicum sp., Cajanus 
indicus. 

Euproctis fraterna. Citrus sp., Feronia elephantum. Pelargonium 
vars, Solanum melongena, rose. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Para- 
sitized by a Tachinid. 

Euproctis semisignata. Quisqualis irdica. 

PSYCHID^. 

Acanthopsyche cana. Hevea brasiliensis. 

A. punctimarginalis. Bred on Algse on bamboo. 

(AO. 2.) Anona muricata. Failed to rear out. Bad pests. 

(PO.) Antigonon sp. Failed to rear out. Bad pests. 

Clania crameri. Cajanus indicus. 
Arctiadm. 

Estigmene lactinea. Onion, kohl-rabi, beet. 

Pericallia ricini. Solanum melongena, Phaseolus vulgaris, Colocasia 
sp., Oleander, kohl-rabi, rose, Cajanus indicus, mustard, Momor- 
dica charantia, Luffa acutangula. Parasitized by a Tachinid. 

Pisara lucidalis. Carissa carandas. 

Selca plagiola. Solanum melongena. 

Nyctemora ladicinia. Vernonia emeria, a bad weed. Feeds mainly 
on seed heads. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD EJSTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 335 

NOCTUID^. 

Glotlida dominica. Amaryllis spp. 

Polytela gloriosce. Amaryllis spp., Gloriosa superba. 

Plusia. (Co. 6). Daisy vars. {? P. limbirena). 

Plusia oriclialcea. Kohl-rabi, carrot, Pimfinella anisum. 

Plusia agramma. Trichosanthes anguina. 

Plusia chalcytes. Onion, Zinnia, Solammi melongena, dahlia. 

Plusia obtusisigna. Coleus sp. 

Cosmophila indica. Hibiscus sp. (hollyhock), H. rosa-sinensis. 

Achcea melicerte. Eose. 

Ofhiusa coronata. Quisqualis indica. 

Plotheia nephelotis. Solanum melongena. 

Chloridea obsolefa. Pelargonium vars, Dianotus sp., Canna sp.. 

Hibiscus esculentus. 
Chloridea assulta. Physalis peruviana. 

Prodenia litura. Solanum lycopersicum, S. melongena, Capsicum 
spp.. Petunia, onion, cabbage, carrot, beet, Balsam, impatiens, 
Zinnia, Canna sp., Gossypium sp. (Cambodia), P. gratissima, 
Dioscorea sp., Colocasia sp., mustard, Pelargonium vars, H. 
esculentus, Mommdica charantia. Begonia vars, Phaseolus vulgaris^ 
Vigna catjang. 
Eublemtna olivacea. Solanum melongena. 
Eublemma scitula. Pseudococci on C. carandas. 
Acontia transversa. Hibiscus esculentus, H. sp. (hollyhock). 
Euphxia opposita. Carrot, Daisy var. 

Panilla albopunctata . Polyporus zonalis (hymenium surface only). 
Amyna selenampha. Croton aromaticus. 
Hypena cogiuita. Lantana. 
Lacera alope. Ccesalpinia sappan. 
Earias chromataria. Hibiscus sp. (hollyhock). 
Earias fabia. Hibiscus esculentus. 
Remigia frvgalis. Panicum maximum. 
(Z. A. 3.) Hirneola Mspidula. 
Beara dichromella. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. 
GeoiIetrid^. 

Craspedia fibulata. Kohl-rabi, Petunia, Dendrohium macarthice, 

Calanthe vestita, Pimpinella anisum, spinach. 
Craspedia remotata. Gnaphalium sp. " Ponnandey Kirey " (Tarn) 

garden edging plant. 
Hyposidra talaca. Salvia sp., Peltophorum ferrugineum, Canna sp. 
Zinnia sp., rose, Solamim melongena, Ccesalpinia sappan, Vigna 
catjang. 
VOL. I z 



33C rEOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Gymnoscelis alhicaudata. Hibiscus sp. (hollyhock). 
Thalera caiidularia. Antigonon sp. 
Boarmia acaciaria. Cassia fistula. 
Boarmia bhurmitra. Solanum melongena, Capsicum sp. 
Pseudoterpna chlora. Cajanus indicus. 
Cidaria cingala. Balsam, impatiens. 
Nemoria integranota. Cajanus indicus. 
Thalassodes veraria. Eose. 
Pyralid^. 

Hymenia fascialis. Celosia sp., beet. 

Hellula undalis. Kohl-rabi, turnip, cabbage, mustard. 

Glyphodes bivitralis. Ficus religiosa, F. glomerata. 

Glyfhodes indica. Trichosanthes anguina, melon vars. 

Terastia meticulosalis. Erythrina lithosperma. 

Sylepta derogata. Hibiscus esculentus, H. sp. (hollyhock), H. rosa- 

sinensis, Gossypium sp. (Cambodia). 
Lepyrodes geonmtralis. Jasmine. 
Nephopteryx minutella. Solanum melongena. 
Crocidolomia binotalis. Kohl-rabi, cabbage, mustard. Capsicum sp. 

(Cut-worm). Parasitized by a Tachinid. 
Myelois pectinicornella. Theobroma cacao. 
Epicrocis lateritialis. Beleropone sp. 
Pachyzancla wgrotalis. S. melongena, S. indicum ? 
Nacoleia indicata. Anona muricata. A single occurrence between 

two small leaves. Larva dark blue from ingested food. 
Maruca testulalis. Phaseolus vulgaris vars. 
Leucinodes orbonalis. Solanum melongena. 
Dichocrocis puncliferalis. Sorghum (in heads). 
Lygropia quaternalis. " Damimu," Singhalese (? Malvaceous.) 
Euzophera perticella. Solanum melongena. 

TiNEINA. 

Plutella macidipennis. Turnip, cabbage, mustard. 

Gelechia gossypiella. Gossypium sp. (Cambodia). 

Comocritis pieria. Heveabrasiliensis. 11th December 1918. Young 
larva found in No. 12. Evidently hatched within last few days. 
Webbing patch somewhat circular, but beginning to extend 
into usual line in large ears, usually upwards. Size of patch up 
to ^" diameter. Cold weather a few days earlier. 

ToRTRiciD.a;. 

AdoTophyes privatana. Cajanus indicus. 
(C. 0.). Dahlia. 



proceedings of the third entomologilcal meeting 337 

Pterophorid^. 

Sphetmrches caffer. Pelargonium vars, Theohxoma cacao. 
Steganodactyla concursa. Lantana, Passiflora foetida. 

6.— A LIST OF PLANTS. WITH THEIR LEPIDOPTEROUS PESTS, 
IN CEYLON. 

By R. Senior- White, F.E.S. 

ACANTHACE.S:. 

BeUrofone sp. Epicrocis lateritialis. 

AMARANTACE.E. 

Celosia sp. Hymenia fascialis. 
Amaryllid^. 

Cultivated species. Glotlula dominica, Polytela gloriosce, Dasychira 
divisa. 
Anonace^. 

A. muricata. Papilio agamemnon, Psychid, Nacoleia indicata. 
Apocynace^. 

Carissa carandas. Altha lacteola, Nephele hespera, Pisara lucidalis, 
Dasychira fusiformis, Lymantria ampla. 

Vinca sp. Deilephila nerii. 

Oleander spp. Deilephila nerii, Pericallia ricini. , 

AROIDEiE. 

Calladium vars. Theretra actea. 
Colocasia sp. Pericallia ricini, Prodenia litura. 
Aristolochiace^. 

Aristolochia sp. Papilio aristolochice. 

AsCLEPIADEiE. 

Stephanotis sp. Adoxophyes privatana, Danais plexippus. 
Begoniace^. 

Cultivated vars. Lymantria ampla, Prodenia litura. 
Bromeliace^. 

Armnas sativus. {Pseiidococcus .sp.). 
Chenopodiace^. 

Spinach. Craspedia fibulata. 

Beet. Hymenia fascialis, Estigmene lactinea, Prodenia litura. 

" Ponnandey-Kirey." Craspedia remotata. 
Combretace^. 

Quisqualis indica. Euprodis semisignata, Lymantria ampla, Ophiusa 
coronata. 

% 2 



338 proceedings of the tiiied entomological meeting 

Composite. 

Daisy vars. Dasychira divisa, Plusia (CO. 6), Syniomis passalisr 

Adoxophyes frivatana, Ewplexia opposita. 
Giuzphalium sp. Craspedia remotata. 
Chrysanihemum vars. Homona sp. 
Dahlia vars. Plusia chalcytes, Euproctis scintillans. 
Zinnia vars. Hyposidra talaca, Plusia chalcytes, Prodenia litura. 

CONVOLVULACE^. 

Ipomoea rubro-cosrulea. Syntomis cyssea. 

Crucifer^. 

Kohl-rabi. Hellula undalis, Craspedia fibulata, Croddolomia binff- 
talis, Plusia orichahea, Dasychira fusiformis, Syntomis passalis, 
Estigmene lactinea, Pericallia ricini. 

Turnip. Hellula midalis, Plutella maculipennis. 

Cabbage. Hellvla undalis, Croddolomia binotalis, Plutella maculi- 
pennis, Prodenia litura. 

Mustard. Hellula undalis, Plutella maculipennis, Pericallia ricini, 
Prodenia litura, C binotalis. 

CUCURBITACE^. 

Trichosanthes anguina. Plusia agramma, Glyphodes indica, Syntomis 



Melon vars. Glyphodes indica. 

M. charantia. Pericallia ricini, Prodenia litura. 

Luffa acutangula. Prodenia litura. 

DlOSCORACE^. 

Dioscorea sp. (" angili-ala "). Prodenia litura. 
Caryophyllace^. 

Dianthus sp. {Indian fruits). Chloridea obsoleta. 

EuFHOEBIACEiE. 

Hevea brasiliensis. Acanthopsyche cana, Comocritis pieria. 

Acalypha sp. Adoxophyes privatana, Dasychira (? mendosa). 

Croton aromaticus. Amyna selenampha, Dysodia ignita. 
Geraniace^. 

Pelargonium vars. Homona sp., Dasychira fusiformis, Lymantria 
ampla, Sphenarches caffer, Prodenia litura, Orgyia postica, Euproctis 
fraterna, Adoxophyes privatana, Chloridea obsoleta. 

Balsamifera impatiens vars. Chcerocampa theylia {vinacea),* Cidaria 
cingala, Prodenia litura. 

* See footnote on page 333. 



proceedings of the third entomological meeting 339 

Geamine^. 

Sorghum. Melanitis ismem, DicJiocrocis punctiferalis. 
P. maximum. Melanitis ismene, Remigia frugalis. 

GUTTIFER^. 

Mangosteen. Orgyia fostica. 
Labiate. 

Salvia sp. Hyposidra talaca. 

Coleus sp. Plusia obtusisigna. 
Laurace^. 

P. gratisima (avocado). Orgijia postica, Prodenia lilura. 

Ieguminos^. 

Canavalia gladiata. Homona sp., Neftis eurynom^. 

Vigna catjang. Dasychira fusiformis, Orgyia fostica, Catochrysops 
cnejus, Dasychira mendosa, Jamides bochus, Adoxophyes privatana, 
Herse convolvuli, Dasychira horsfieldi, Neptis eurynome, Prodenia 
litura, Hyposidra talaca. 

Phaseolus mungo. Dasychira lusiformis. 

Cajanus indicus. Dasychira fusiformis, Orgyia postica, Pseudoterpm, 
chUna, Stauropus alternus, Nemoria infegranota, Euproctis scintil- 
lans, Pericallia ricini, Suana concolor, Clania crameri, Adoxophyes 
privatana, Lymantria ampla, Eupterote geminata. 

Erythrina spp. Orygia postica, Terastia meticulosalis, Eupterote 
gemirmta, Acherontia lachesis. 

Peltophorum ferrugineum. Hyposidra talaca. 

CcBsalpinia sappan. Hyposidra talaca, Lacera alope. 

Phaseolus vulgaris vars. Syntomis passalis, Maruca teslulalis, 
Pericallia ricini, Prodenia litura. 

Cassia fisttila. Terias hecabe, Boarmia acaciaria. 

Tajaacem. 

Gloriosa stiperba . PolyteJa gloriosw. 

OnioB. Estigmene lactinea, Plusia chalcytes, Prodenia litura. 

JilALVACE^. 

Hibiscus esculentus. Sylepta derogata, Acontia transversa, Earias 
fabia, Chloridea obsoleta. 
' Hibiscus sp., (Hollyhock). Sylepta derogata, Cosmophila indica, 

Hes'peria galba, Gymnoscelis albicaudata, Earias chromataria, 

Acontia transversa. 
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Sylepta derogata, Cosmophila indica, Beara 

dichromella, Euproctis fraterna, Suana concolor. 
Gossypium sp. (Cambodia). Sylepta derogata, Gelechia gossypiella, 

Prodenia litura. 



340 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

MORING^. 

Moringa pterygosperma. DasycJiira fusiformis. 
Myetace-e. 

Psidimn guyava. Suana concolor. 
Oleace^. 

Jasmine. Lepyrodes geometralis. 
Orchide^. 

Dendrohium macarthice. Craspedia fibulata. 
Calanthe vestita. Craspedia fibulata. 
Passiflorace^. 

P.fcetida. Homona sp. (CO 3), VB 2, ? Telchinia violce. 
Polygalace^. 

Antigonon sp. Thalera caudularia, Psycliid, Dasychira fusiformis. 
Rosacea. 

Roses. Dasychira fusifmmis, Lymantria ampla, Achcea melicerta, 
Euproctis scintillans, Thosea cana, Euproctis fraterna, Pericallia 
ricini, Thalassodes veraria, Hyposidra talaca. 
Rutace^. 

Citrus spp. Dasychira fusiformis, Euproctis fraterna, Papilio demo- 
leus, Homona Icmgipalpus, Papilio polytes, P. parinda, Dasychira 
sp. {? mendosa). 
Feronia elephantum. Papilio demoleus, Chilades laius, Narosa 

conspersa, Euproctis fraterna. 
Murraya hoenigii. Papilio polytes. 

Scitamine^. 

Canna vars. Dasychira fusiformis, Orgyiapostica, Hyposidra talaca, 
Lcelia exclamationis, Prodenia litura, Chloridea obsoleta. 

SOLANACE^. 

Solanum melomfena. Dasychira fusiformis, Orgyia postica, Hypo- 
sidra talaca, Acheroniia lachesis, Plusia chalcytes, Euproctis fraterna, 
Plotheia nephelotis ? Pericallia ricini ? Nephopteryx minutella, 
Pachyzancla cegrotalis, Prodenia litura, Eublemma olivacea, Leuci- 
nodes wbonalis, Dasychira sp. (? mendosa), Selca plagiola, Acheron- 
tia Styx, Boarmia bhurmitra, Euzophera perticella. 

Petunia. Craspedia fibulata, Prodenia litura. 

Capsicum spp. Crocidolomia binotalis, Syntomis passalis, Euproctis 
scintillans, Prodenia litura, Boarmia bhurmitra, Acherontia lachesis. 

S. lycopersicum.. Prodenia litura. 

Physalis peruviana. Chloridea assulta. 

S. indicum ? Pericallia ricini, Pachyzancla cegrotalis. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



341 



Steeculiace^. 

Theobroma cacao. Lymantria ampla, Sphenarches caffer, Chloridea 
obsoJeta, Myelois pectinicornella, Eupterote geminata. 

Umbelliffer^. 

Pimpinella anisum. Craspedia fibulata, Plusia orichalcea. 
Carrot. Plusia orichalcea, Prodenia litura, Euplexia opposita. 

UETICACEiE. 

Ficus parasitica. Adoxofhyes privatana. 
Ficus religiosa. Glyphodes bivitralis. 
Ficus glomerata. Glyphodes bivitralis. 

Vekbenace^. 

Lantana. Hypena cognata, Steganodactyla concursa. 

Fungi. 

Poh/pwus zonalis. Panilla albopunctata. 

Hrineola hispidid<^. (ZA. 3) (also eaten by Ceropia induta, fide 
Fetch). 



7.— A LIST OF THE PESTS OF CEEEALS IN BURMA. 
By K. D. Shroff, B.A., Entomological Assistant, Burma. 



Pest 


Part of the plant 
attacked 


Remakes 


1. Paddy. 






Spodopiera mauritia 


Seedlings 


Major peat of irregular occur- 
rence. 


Chphis unipuncta . 


Leaves . 


Major pest of occasional oocur- 


Psalis securis 


Do. . 


Minor pest. Damage negli- 
gible. 


Mdanitis ismene . 


Do. . 


Ditto. 


Panuira mathias . 


Do. . 


in small 'plots. 


Nymphnla depunctalis 


Do. . 


Serious local pest in Lower 
Burma. 


Nymphulaflucttiosalis 


Do. . . . 


Not yet reared. Moths are 
found flying in large num- 
bers in paddy fields in Lower 










Burma 


Ancylolomia chrysographella 


Do. . . . 


Not serious. 


Cnaphalocrocis medinalis . 


Do. . 


Ditto. 


Naranga di^usa . 


Do. . 


in Lower Burma. Comes to 

light. 



342 rEOCEEDmcs of the third entomological meeting 
7.— A LIST OF THE PESTS OF CEREALS IN BVmiA—contd. 



Pest 



1. — Paddy — contd 
Oxya velox 



Bispa armigem 
Schmnobius bipunctifer 
Scirpophaga gilviberbis 

Sesamia inferens (?) 
Stem-fly 
Menida hislrio 
Leptocorisa mricornis 

Q Nephotettix bipunctatiis 
Q Tettigonidla spectra 
Slpersia sacchari oryzm 



2. SoKGHUM, Maize, etc. 
Cirphis loreyi 
Laphygma exigua 
Psalis securis . 
Parnara mathias 
Telicota bambusce 
Marasmia trapezalis 

Epacromia tamulus . 



Remarks 



Stalk 
Do. 



Do. 



Plant-juice 
Plant milk 

Plant-juice 
Do. 
Do. 



Learea . 
Do. . 
Do. . 
Do. . 
Do. . 
Do. . 



Do. 



■ serious " from 



Major pest. Very serious. 
Major pest. 

Not yet reared. Moths are 
found flying in large num- 
bers in paddy fields in Lower 
Burma. 

Found for the first time at 
Hmawbi in 1918. 

Minor pest ; status not yet 
determined. 

Minor pest of not much im- 
portance. 

Minor pest ; more in evidence 
in Lower Burma; not so 
serious in this Province as 
in some parts in India. 

Minor pest ; djimage negligible. 

Ditto. 

Minor pest but sometimes very 
serious. (See notes on Mis- 
cellaneous pests hereto 
attached.) 



Not very serious. 
Not serious. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Minor pest, not seriously in- 
jurious. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIHD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 343 

7.— A LIST OF THE PESTS OF CEREALS IN BURMA— conc/rf. 



Pest 



Part of the plant 
attacked 



Remaei 



!. — SoRGHtTM, Maize, btc- 
contd. 



Sitotroga cerealella 
Moth . 



Moth (probably 
elotigella). 



Fly 
Thripa 



Dolycoris indiciis 

Aphids . 
Termites 

3. Wheat. 

Psalis aecuris . 
Termites 



Chafer grubs . 
Macrosiphum granarium 



Ear- heads 
Do. . 
Do. . 

Stems of seedlings 
Maize cobs 



Plant-juice (Devi 
loping grain). 



Plant-juice 
Roots . 



Leaves 
Roots 



Do. 
Juice 



Minor pest. , 

Onoe found on an Indian JMr. 
Ditto. 

Status not known. 

Reported " serious " from the 
Pakokku HiHs. 

Minor pest. 

Minor pest. 

Minor pest ; damage sometimes 
perceptible. 



Minor pest. 



8.— A LIST OF THE PESTS OF PULSES IN BURMA. 
B]f K. D. Shroff, B.A., Entomological Assistant, Burma. 



1. Tttk (PE-sEm-QON) ((Sjanus 
rsDicus). 

Sohnopsis geminata 

Flea beetles .... 



Leaves of seedlings . Minor pest. 
Do. . Ditto. 



34:4 rnocEEDiNGS of the third entomological meeting 
8— A LIST OF THE PESTS OF PULSES IN BURMA— con?rf. 



Pest 


Part of the plant l „ 

attacked^ ! ^^^^^^ 

1 


1. TnR (Pe-Sein-qon) (Cajanus 
INDICUS)— co?i(d. 




1 


Euproctis fraterna . 


Leaves . 




Minor pest of not much import- 
anco. 


Euproctis scintillans 


Do. . 




Ditto. 


Nanaguna breviuscula 


Do. . 




Ditto. 


Dasychirafasciformis 


Do. 




Ditto. 


Da^ychira mendosa . 


Do. . 




Ditto. 


Celaina internella . 


Do. . 




Ditto. 


Caccecia micaceana . 


Do. . 




Ditto. 


Green Geometrid moth . 


Do. . 




Ditto. 


Memnoplus bicolor . 


Do. . 




Ditto. 


Zonabris pustulata . 


Flowers 




Minor post ; scarcely serious . 


Thrips 


Do. 




Ditto. 


Adisura atkinsoni . 


Seeds in pods 




- 


Heliothis obaoUta . 


Do. 






Cntochrysop-s cnejvs 


Do. 






Sphenarches caffer . 
Maruca testulalis . 


Do. 
Do. 




>Minor pests ; cause large 
aggregate damage. 


EtieUa zinckenella . 


Do. 






Agromyza sp. . 


Do. 






Apiom^ 


Do. 




. 


Coptosoma cribraria 


Plant-juice 




Minor pest; not serious. 


Coptoaoma sp. 


Do. 


■ 


Ditto. 


Cyclopelta obscura . 


Do. 




Ditto. 


Clavigralla gibbosa . 


Plant (unripe seeds 
in pods). 


Ditto. 


Graptostellms servus 


BO. . 


Ditto. 


Aphis (carduil) . 


1 

Shoots and pods 


Not very serious. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 345 

-A LIST OF THE PESTS OF PULSES IN B\jmiA—contd. 



Pest 



2. Gram. 

Eeliothis cbsoleta 



Termites 
Chafer grabs 



MUNO (Pe-di-sein), Ueid 
(Mat-pe) 



Azazia rubricann 
Nacohia vulgaris 
Diacrisia obliqua 

Maruca testulalU 
Stem-borer 
Mylabris pustulata 
Coptosoma cribmria 
Coptosoma sp. 
Eiptortus linearis 
Aphids 



4. Beans (Dolichos lablab). 

Diacrisia obliqua 
Prodenia litura 
Cacoecia micaceana 
Nacoleia vulgaris 
Monolepta signata 
Epilachna dodecastigma 
? cichorii 



Part of the plant 
attacked 



Remarks 



Seeds in poda 



Roots 
Do 



Leaves . 
Do. . 
Do. . 

Seeds in pods 
Shoots and stems 
Flowers 
Plant-juice . 

Do. 
Pods (sucking) 
Pods and shoots 



Leaves . 

Do. . 

Do. . 

Do. . 

Do. . 

Do. . 
Flowers 



General pest, rarely serious but 
causing a large aggregate 
damage. 

Minor pest ; sometimes serious. 

Ditto. 



I Jlinor pest of not great import- 

I Ditto. 

1 Major pest ; sometimes very 
serious. 

Minor pest. 

Minor pest ; not serious. 

Ditto. 

Ditto 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 
Minor pest ; sometimes serious. 



Major pest ; very senous. 
Minor pest, scarcely serious. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 
Slinor pest ; status not known 



346 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

8.-A LIST OF THE PESTS OF PULSES IN BVmiA-concld. 



Part of the plant 
attacked 



4. Beans (Dolichos lablab) — 
contd. 



Mylabris puslulala . 
Etiella zinckenella . 
Maruca testulalis . 
Sphenarches cajfer . 
Coptosoma cribraria 
Clavigralla gibbosa . 



Bipiortus linearis 
Aphids (sucking) 



5. Cow Pea (Pe-lun). 

Meloid Beetle 
Miner . 

Etiella zinckenellu . 
Maruca testulalis 
Graptostethus servus 
mptortus linearis 
Aphids . 



Flowers 
Seeds in pod 

Do. 
Pods . 
Plant-juice 



Minor local sporadic pest. 
Minor sporadic pest. 
Minor pest. 

Ditto. 
Scarcely a pest. 



Juice of unripe seeds Minor pest. 
in pods. 



Juice (pods) . 
Shoots and pods 



Leaves and flowers 
Leaves . 
Seeds in pods 

Do. 
Pods (sucking) 

Do. 

Do. 



Minor pest ; not serious. 
Minor pest. 



Minor pest. 

Minor pest, but not serious. 



►Minor pest, but ca 
aggregate damage. 



VMinor pests ; not serious. 
Very serious. 



This paper is open to discussion. It is unfortunate that Sir. ShrofE 
has not been able to attend this Meeting, although we are indebted to 
him for sending us these lists of insect pests in Burma. The only remark 
I have to offer is that perhaps not too much reliance should be placed 
on the exact identification of some of the insects listed here. The name 
Dasychira fasciformis, for example, is based on an error in copying the 
namefusiformis, which is probably the same as D. mendosa. The names 
of the Meloid beetles also require check. 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



UT 



-A LIST OF THE PESTS OF OIL-SEED PLANTS IN BURMA. 
By K. D. Shroff, B.A., Entomological Assistant, Burma. 



Pest 


Part of the plant 
attacked 


Remakes 


1. Sesamum. 






Diacrisia obliqna 


Leaves . 


Sometimes very serious. 


Acherontia aiyx 


Do. . 


Minor pest. 


Antigasira catalaunalis 


Do. . . . 


Ditto. 


Autarches miliaris . 


Do. . 


Reported serious from 
Myingyan. 


Anomala antiqva 


• • 


Found on leaves and cobs of 
maize also; status not 
known ; may not be serious 
ataU. 


Monolepla signota . 


Do. . 


Minor pest of not much import- 
ance. 


Termites .... 


Boots . 


Sometimes damage percep- 
tible. 


Aphanus sordidus . 
2. Castoe. 


Seed (sucking) 


Reported " serious " from 
Taungtha, Myingyan dis- 
trict. Also attacks stored 
groundnut. 


Achma Janata 


Leaves . 


Sporadic, sometimes serious. 
Once found breeding on 
Cassia Tora (Dan-gwe-bin) 
at Tatkon. 


Diacrisia obliqua 


Do. . 


Sometimes serious. 


Armactalactinea . . . 


Do. . 


Not serious. 


Prodenialitura 


Do. . 


Serious if not checked in time. 


Ergolis merione 


Do. . 


lEnor pest ; not very serious. 


Bopica honesla 


Stem . 


Reared from almost dry stems ; 
status not known ; not much 
in evidence. 


Dichocrocis punctiferalis . 


Seed-capsules 


Sometimes serious. 


Aleyrodes ricini 


Leaf-juice (sucking) 


Very serious. 


3. Linseed. 






Laphygma exigua . 


Leaves . 


Pretty serious. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



9.— A LIST OF THE PESTS OF OIL-SEED PLANTS IN BURMA- 

contd. 



Pest 


Part of the plant 
attacked 


Remarks 


4. Groundnut. 






Diacrisia obliqua . 


Leaves . 


Sometimes serious. 


Frodenia lilura 


Do. . 


Minor pest ; not yet known to 
be serious. 


Meloid beetle .... 


Do. . 


Once found eating leaves of 
groundnut ; dhaincha at 
Hmawbi. 


MonoUpla signata . 


Do. . 


Not serious. 


Chafer grabs . 


Boots . 


Sometimes very serious. 


Aphanus sordidus . 


Stored seed (sucking) 


Reported " serious " from 
Taungtha. Also attacks 


5. MUSTAED. 






Atlialia {proxima ?) 


Leaves . 


Not serious. 


PhylMreta chotanica 


Do. . 


Ditto. 


Bagrada picta 


Plant-juice . 


Not so serious as to cabbage. 


Enrydema pulchrum 


Do. 


Not serious. 


Aphids 


Do. 


Ditto. 


6. Safflower. 






Fly-maggots .... 


-Shoots (boring) 


Once found in young plants on 
the Mandalay Farm. 


riy-maggots .... 


Stem (boring) 


Found serious on the Mandalay 
Farm in 1918. 


Macrosiplium soncU 


Plant-juice . 


Very serious. 


7, SUNFLOWEK. 






Amsacta caterpillars 


Leaves . 


Found once at Katha. The 
caterpillars died and, there- 
fore, could not be identified. 



FROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 349 

10.— A LIST OF THE PESTS OF TOBACCO IN BURMA. 
By K. D. Shroff, B.A., Entomological Assistant, Burma. 



Part of the plant 
attacked 



Agrotis ypsilon 
Brachytrypes portentosus 
Liogryllus bimaculatus 
Prodenia litura 
Heliothis assulta 
Phthorimosa heliopa 

Gallobelicus crassicomis 
Aphids . 



Seedlings 

Do. 

Do. 
Leaves 

Do. 
Stem 

Juice (sucking) 
Do. 



Proved very serious in the 
■ District in 1907. 



^ Minor pests ; damage some- 
> times perceptible in small 
J plots. 

Pound only once in the Bassein 
District in 1907. 

Jlinor pest ; not serious. 

Ditto. 



11.— LIST OF THE PESTS OF VEGETABLES IN BURMA. 
By K. D. Sheoff, B.A., Entomological Assistant, Burma. 



Pest 


Part of the plant 
attacked 


Remakes 


1. Crucifee^. 






(a) Cabbage; Cauliflower. 






Dorylus orientalis'^ 






Agrotis ypsiloH V 


SeedUngs 


Sometimes very serious. 


Euxoa segetis 






Pieris brassicce 


Leaves . 


Minor pest. 


Prodenia litura 


Do. . 


Minor pest. Sometimes sen 
ous. 


Laphygma exigua . 


Do. . 


Minor pest. 


Crocidolomia binotalis 


Do. . 


Ditto. 


Plutilla maculipennis 


Do. . 


Ditto. 


PhyUolrreta (chotanica T) . 


Do. . 


Ditto. 


Phyllotreta viliata . 


Do. . 


Found once at Katha. 



350 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

11.— LIST OF THE PESTS OF VEGETABLES IN BURMA— 



Pest 


Part of the plant 
attacked 


Remakes 


1. CBUciFER.a>— conW. 






(a) Cabbage ; Cauliflower— 
oontd. 






Bagradapicta 


Juice (sucking) 


Sometimes very serious. 


giirydemapukhrum 


Do. 


Minor pest ; not serious. 


ApWds 


Do. 


Minor pest ; sometimes serious. 


(b) Radish. 






Phyllotreta chotanica 


Leaves . 


Minor pest; not very serious. 


Bagradapicta 


Juice . 


Minor pest. 


2. SOLANACE^. 






(a) Potato. 






Agrotis ypsilon 


Seedlings 


Serious in HiUs. 


Phthorimma operculella . 


Seed-potato . 


Minor pest 


(b) Brinjal. 






Epilachmap. 


Leaves . 


Minor pest ; not serious 


Eublemma olivacm . 


Do. . 


Minor pest. 


Nephopteryx minutella . 


Do. . 


Found once at Hopin. 


Pachyzancla bipunctalis . 


Do. . 


Ditto. 


Leucinodes orbonalis 


Fruit . 


Minor pest. 


Urentius echinus (?) 


Leaf-juice 


Minor pest ; sometimes serious. 


Mealy-bugs .... 


Juice of leaves and 
twigs. 


Minor pest but not serious. 


_ 3. CucuKBiTACEa;. 






(a) Pumpkins. 






Aulacophora abdominalis . 


Leaves . 


Minor pest. 


Aulacophora alripennis . 


Do. . 


Ditto. 


Apomecyna pertigera 


Stems (boring) 


Ditto. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THK THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 351 

11.— LIST OF THE PESTS OF VEGETABLES IN BUmiA—contd. 



Pest 


Part of the plant 
attacked 


Remakes 


3. CcJClTKBITACEiE— C0n(d. 








(b) Gourds. 








Uargaronia indica . 


Leases of 
gourd. 


bitter 


Slinor pest; not serioua. 
Attacks cucumber also. 


Sphenarchescaffer . 


Do. 




Minor pest ; not serious. 


Epilachna dodecastigma . 


Do. 




Minor pest. Attacks cucum- 
ber also. 


Chceiodacus citciirbitce 
Chmtodacus caudMtus 


Fruit . 

Fruit of Trichosan- 
thes palmata. 


Also attacks Cwurbita 
maxima, Momordica Cha- 
raniia, Momordica dioica, 
Cucumia melo, Cucumig sati- 
vus, CitruUus mlgarisy 
Cephalandra indica, Lnffa 
acutangula, Lvffa aegyptiaca. 


Mellesis eumenoides 


Fruit of Cepha 
indica. 


landra 


Not so abundant as Cha;lodactis 
cucurbito'. 


4. Malvace^. 








Lady's finger (Hibiscus 
esculentus). 








Sylepla derogata 


Leaves . 




Sometimes serious. 


Nisoira inadurensis , . 


Do. . 




Once found at Moulmein 


Eariasfabia .... 


Pods . 




Minor pest. 


Dysdercus cingulatus 


Pods (sucking) 




Ditto. 


Aphids 


Shoots and 
pods. 


small 


Not serious. 


Mealy-bugs .... 


Do. 




Ditto. 


5. CONVOLVTTLAC^. 








Sweet-potato 








Aspidomorpha indica 


Leaves 




Not serious. 


Metriona circumdata 


Do . 




Ditto. 


Cylasformicarius . 


Tuber . 




Minor pest. 



352 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

11.— LIST OF THE PESTS OF VEGETi^BLES IN BURMA— cowcW. 



Pest 


Part of the plant „ 

attacked 1 Remarks 


6. AMARANTACEa:. 

Dereadns sparsns 
Lixui brachyrrhinus 
Cletus bipunctatus . 


Stem . . Ditto. 
Plant-juice . . Ditto. 



In this list of vegetables also I think that some of the names require 
check. It would, for example, be interesting to confirm the existence of 
Agrotis ypsilon in Burma. I also feel rather doubtful about Pieris 
brassiccB as, when I looked over Mr. ShroS's collection at Mandalay in 
1914, the Maymyo examples labelled as P. hrassicce were all P. canidia. 



12.— NOTES ON MISCELLANEOUS PESTS IN BUEMA. 

By K. D. Shroff, B. A. Entomological Assistant, Burma. 

The Paddy Case-worms {Nymphula). This pest is more prevalent in 
Lower Burma than in Upper Burma. The following notes on his obser- 
vations and experiments were submitted by Mr. R. A. Beale, Assistant 
Botanist, Southern Circle, Burma : — 

" Only tender leaves of young rice plants are attacked. Except in 
very rare cases (where the pest is present in large numbers) the attack 
is usually not fatal to the plants. When the plants reach a certain 
stage of development, their leaves become too tough for the pest which 
then seeks more tender food either among the crop of neighbouring 
fields or in the grasses on the bnnds." 

" Keeping the bunds clean should be a fairly effective way of checking 
the spread of the pest, but it is hardly possible to do so on a large scale. 
Besides, the moths, which are numerous, may fly from field to field and 
deposit their eggs on healthy tender plants. The caterpillars in their 
cases may be carried by irrigation or draiaage water ; so it is advisable, 
when draining an infested area, to place a net or trap across the opening 
m the bund through which the water passes. The case-worms collect 
here in large numbers and may be removed and destroyed. Light traps 
may be used to catch the moths at night." 



Vaje. 353. 




A Burmese fishing basket (dalu). 



PEOCEEmNGS OF THE TIUKD EMTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 353 

" Measures adopted on the Hmawbi Farm : — 

1. Water was let out, where possible, from the fields attacked. 

2. This was followed by two men walking along the bunds of the 
fields, holding a rope between them ; with this the plants were shaken 
to dislodge the caterpillars. Generally it is safer to keep the field without 
water for three or four days, during which time the rope-dragging should 
be carried out a couple of times. This ensures the removal of all insects 
from the plants. 

3. Where complete draining is not practicable, the insects may be 
collected after dragging with a rope either (a) by hand in the corners 
•of the fields and near the bunds, whither they are blown by wind, or 

(b) by means of a dalu (See Plate 21). This is a flat, triangular, 
open bamboo basket with handles, ordinarily used for catching 
mud-fish in drains, etc. By means of the handles it is pushed along, 
the open edge, which forms the base of the triangle, running along 
the ground. When used for collecting insects on water, the flat edge 
should run on the surface of the water. The Insects floating among the 
plants may thus be caught in large numbers. Very sUght, if any, damage 
is done to the plants by the dalu passing over them." 

2. Ripersia sacchari. This pest sometimes proves very serious to 
paddy plants in experimental plots and in patches in transplanted areas. 
If the plants are tender, they are completely killed ; if they are tough, 
they are damaged but side-shoots sometimes come out. These new 
plants are evidently inferior to the healthy plants in the uninfested area. 
Mr. Lefroy, when he came to Burma, recommended to Mr. Warth, 
Agricultural Chemist, the destruction of his infested experimental 
plots. This measure is not desirable. Is there any other remedy by 
means of which the attacked plants could be saved ? 

3. A Plantain Stem-boring Beetle. Please see the specimen No. 1, 
sent for identification. 

This pest came to notice for the first time at Hmawbi. The grab 
first attacks the stalk of the leaf (probably the egg is laid on it) and gra- 
dually goes down to the stem. The slimy substance oozing out from the 
cracks and holes in the damaged parts, indicates the presence of the borer 
at work. It pupates inside the stem. All the stages are found inside 
the plant. It appears to be a serious pest. 

4. A small Horned-beetle looking like a Rhinoceros beetle. See the 
No. 2, sent for identification. 



Two beetles were found along with Oryctes rhinoceros inside the 
jotten top of a dead coconut tree at Moulmein. 

2 a2 



354 PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

13.— A LIST OF THE PESTS OF SUGARCANE IN BURMA. 
By K. D. Shroff, B.A., Entomological Assistant, Burma. 



Part of the plant j 
attacked i 



Long-homed grass-hoppers 

Parnara mathias 
Dasychira securis 
Marasmia (rapezalis 
Chilo simplex {1) 



Scirpophaga 



Termites 
Dorylus orienfali 



Callitettix versicolor 
Phertict maesta 



'j Abidama prodiicta . 
V, V Elasmocelis platypoda 
V ' ' Ricania speculum . 
Ripersia sacchari 



Leaves 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Stem 

Do. 



Plant-juice 



Found eating leaves of young 
cane in pots. 



Not seri( 
Ditto. 



Found pretty serious on the 
Hmawbi Farm in 1918. 

A larva was once foujj^ in cane 
at Mandalay. As it died, 
the species could not be 
determined. 

"1 Found serious on the Nagu 

Farm, Shwebo District, in 

Y 1918. Not yet reported 

from any sugarcane-grow- 

J ing locality. 

Is found in large numbers on 
cane. Scarcely a pest. 

Found on cane but not in- 
jurious. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Reported " serious " from 
Hmawbi in September 1918. 



U.— BORERS IN SUGARCANE, RICE, Etc. 

By T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, R. N. F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S., Imperial 
Entomologist, and C. C. Ghosh, B.A., Assistant to the Imperial 
Entomologist. 

Introductory. 
The borer pests of .stigarcane, rice, etc., have a wide range of food- 
plants included under the Natural Order Graminete and some of them 
have been observ^ed to extend this range into the Natural Order Cyperacese, 
the plants of which order have stems very well suited to serve as food 



rROCEEMXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 355 

for boriiig insects. Therefore in the investigation of these pests we have 
to iuchide for observation not only the cultivated grammeous crops but 
also the wild grasses and sedges which can possibly serve as alternative 
food-plants. The endeavour to trace their occurrence in alternative 
food-plants, however, has so far been confuied principally to the neigh- 
bourhood of Pusa. Some of the wild grasses have been observed to har- 
bour borers which do not, or have not yet been found to, occur in the 
cultivated crops ; while among the borers of the wild plants there are 
others which, although principally confined to their wild food-plants, 
occur occasionally in the cultivated crops. The borers which are at 
present found only in the wild grasses may be considered as potential 
pests of allied cultivated plants and should very properly be included in 
any inquiry on borer pests of gramineous crops. 

The inquiry has been in progress for the last two years and is far 
from being complete and the present note must only be regarded as a 
preliminary one. As will appear later on, we have recorded the borers 
of twenty-nine gramineous and two cyperaceous plants, but of all these 
the borers of only two of them, viz., sugarcane and rice, have been under 
systematic observation. There are numerous other plants of these two 
Natural Orders which have yet to be examined and it is certain that at 
'least many of the thick-stemmed ones among them will prove to be 
alternative food-plants of the borers of our gramineous crops. 



The Agents of Damage. 

Among the msects which bore the stem of sugarcane, etc., there are 
some which live in the soil and gaaw into th* stem from outside. They 
do not Uve inside the stem and therefore cannot, strictly speaking, be 
called borers. But the effect of their attack is in most cases similar to 
that of attack by the borers proper. Moreover, they appear along with 
and at the same time as the borers. Therefore, in order to be able to 
obtain an approximate idea of the share of damage caused by the borers, 
not only all insects but also other agents affectmg the plants with similar 
effect and simultaneously with the borers have to be taken into considera- 
tion. We have to include : — 
I. Fungal diseases. 

II. External agents of damage, i.e., insects which do not live and feed 
uaside the plants but attack or gnaw into them from out- 
side. 
III. Borers which live and feed inside the plants. 



356 niOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

I. Fungal diseases. 

The fungal diseases observed in sugarcane are of the nature'of Red 
Eot which causes a redness of the internal tissue. Their occurrence has 
only been noted in an attempt to allocate their share of the damage to 
the crop. Smut appeared extremely rarely. The first effect of the 
occurrence of these fungal diseases in new shoots of sugarcane is the 
" dead heart " characteristic of borer attack. On splitting open the 
stem the growing buds of the affected shoots are found to have become 
red. Ultimately the shoots dry up. When the diseases appear in plants 
which have developed their stem, e.g., cane, to some extent, the plants 
become stunted and gradually wither. Entire stools may be affected 
in this mamier. Sometimes the leaves of the affected young shoots 
lose their green colour, becoming yellowish white. In all cases the 
affected plants wither. 

Besides being the primary agents of damage themselves, these fungal 
diseases invariably follow in the wake of the borers, both external and 
internal, and in all stages of the cane. In fact at Pusa grown-up canes 
do not actually suffer much from the borers themselves but the real 
damage is caused by the fungal diseases which follow. Thus, when 
Scirpopliaga caterpillars bore the top, the top withers and the cane may 
dry from the top downwards, the drying being due to fungal diseases. 
WTien borers or rats gnaw the base of the cane, fimgal diseases working 
at the base cut short the supply of sap and the entire caue dries up. 
Similarly borer or jackal damage in the middle of the stem introduces 
fimgal diseases which may redden the whole of the internal tissue of the 
stem, ultimately leading to the death of the entire plant. 



II. The External agents of damage. 
Among the external agents are included — 

(1) Termites, commonly known as " white ants." 

(2) Mole-crickets (Gryllotalpa ajricana). 

^3) Beetle grubs (Melolonthid, Curculionid, Chrysomelid and Elaterid 
grubs) ; also the Red Ants {Dorylus). 



Termites or white ants are common pests and attack young 
fruit and other trees, cuttings of plants, garden vegetables, and also 



TEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 35T 

field crops such as sugarcane, rice, wheat, barley, maize, etc. They 
gnaw the roots of plants but more often the base of the stem, causing 
entire young plants and shoots to wither. Usually they avoid wet and 
muddy places and are common in all moist soils. Thus, rice plants- 
standing in water or growing in muddy places are immune but are liable 
to attack when the water dries up. Most of the other important crops 
such as sugarcane, wheat, barley, etc., cannot be grown in water and the 
moist soils in which they can be grown are the most favourable situations 
for termites' activities. Only in the case of sugarcane have attempts 
been made to check their ravages. The setts are liable to be attacked 
as soon as they are placed in the ground and in the worst cases all the 
setts may be eaten. Trials in treating the setts with chemicals, etc., 
which can act as repellents, formed a subject-matter of discussion at the 
Second Entomological Meeting and the information regarding them will 
be found at pages 137 — 139 of the published Proceedings of that Meeting. 
It is a common behef that sugarcane setts are attacked only through the 
cut ends and recommendations have been made to protect the ends by 
dipping them in melted resin. Our experience has been that setts 
may be attacked at any point on their surface as well as at the ends and 
that it is the young shoots which require to be protected more than the 
setts. Our observations at Pusa as well as outside and the experiments 
which we have carried out to protect setts against termites go to show 
that the hability of cane to damage by termites depends largely on the 
nature of the soil in which it is grown. Generally speaking, the crop 
suffers much less or not at all when grown in clayey soils than in sandy 
soils. In soils which are liable to be infested by termites no single treat- 
ment of the setts can render them immune nor can any treatment of the^ 
setts save the shoots ; whilst in other soils little or no damage is done by 
termites either to setts or to shoots even when no treatment is adopted. 
Later on, when we come to discuss damage to sugarcane by the borers>. 
we shall see that sugarcane grown in Ckaunia field at Pusa in 1917 suffered 
very httle from termites without treatment, and in the Brickfield both 
treated and untreated plots suffered equally heavily. In order to find 
out what it is in the soils which makes this difference the first step we 
have taken is to subnut the soils for analysis to the Imperial Agricultural 
Chemist to whom we have to acknowledge our thanks for undertaking 
this work. We quote below the results of his analyses of the surface 
nine inches of soils of the places where no or httle damage was done as 
well as of the places where damage was severe. There are small differ- 
ences in the constituents of the soils but without further experiments 
which we have in hand we cannot hazard any opinion. 



358 



ritOCEEUINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 







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P„gc 35'J(2). 




Diagrammatic figure to show how mole-crickets feea. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 359 

When termites attack the new shoots of sugarcane the first visible 
external symptom is the " dead heart." The termites begin to gnaw 
in just at the base of the shoot and gradually eat into the centre, thus 
destroying the growing point. Therefore the heart leaf dries quickly. 
They may continue to eat and consume the entire base, detaching the 
shoot entirely from the sett. Then the entire shoot dries and comes 
out of the ground at the slightest pull. Cases are frequent when only 
the shoots are attacked, leaving untouched the setts from which they 
arise ; but more often the setts as well as the shoots are corroded. Older 
canes with well-developed stems or even ripe canes are not immune, 
as has been observed at Dacca and other places. Damage to grown or 
ripe canes has so far been sHght at Pusa even in the Brickfield plots where 
damage to new .shoots and setts has been severe. In this field the termites 
were active from about March to July and what led to the stoppage of 
their activity afterwards cannot be explained. We. propose to continue 
our observations by growing sugarcane in the same field. 

Mole-crickets. 

The mole-crickets (Gnjllotalpa africana) are common underground 
insects which usually frequent moist soils. They are very conmion 
in the moist or rather wet sandy beds of the River Gandak where their 
eggs can easily be collected. Eggs collected from this place have been 
reared in the Insectary. The nymphs were fed wholly on live fly maggots 
and they took about five-and-a-half months to come to the adult stage. 
The life-history is illustrated in- Plate 22. Up to about fifty eggs are 
deposited loosely in a cluster in a chamber specially formed at the bottom 
of the hole. There does not seem to be any regularity of broods as all 
stages of the insect are observable throughout the year. 

Gryllotalpa africana has been observed to cause rather serious damage 
to new shoots of sugarcane at Pusa on two occasions, once about March- 
April in-the JhiJIi field in 1913 and again about the same time of the year 
in the Brickfield in 1918. In cultivated fields, the insect fives in under- 
ground holes about two feet or more deep. It comes up and attacks the 
new shoots of sugarcane much in the way somewhat diagrammatically 
shown in Plate 23. The shoots are gnawed from the side at a point 
above their junction with the sett, the gnawing being like a scooped-out 
round hole with chewed-up fibrous margins and extending up to the core 
of the stem. The tender base of the heart leaf is eaten. Therefore 
the heart leaf dries and a " dead heart," characteristic of borers, is the 
result. 

It is not easy to observe the mole-crickets in the act of gnawing the 
shoots. Therefore the following corroborative experiment was carried 



dbO TKOCEEDINGS OF THE TIIIED EXTOilOLOGlCAL MEETING 

out in the Insectary. A zinc cylinder with a solid bottom was filled to a 
depth of a little more than a foot with earth which was carefully examined 
before being put in. Six perfectly healthy sugarcane shoots with the 
setts from which they grew and of the age at which they were observed to 
be attacked by this insect in the field were transferred into this cyhnder 
and eleven mole-crickets introduced into it between 13th and 15th 
March. The characterisflc " dead heart " with the characteristic damage 
appeared as early as the 17th March in one shoot. Another shoot 
exhibited " dead heart " and damage on 3rd April. On the 12th April 
five pimipkin chips were buried in the earth and two of them were found 
on the next da}' to have been bored. The buried pieces were removed 
on the 15th April and a few fresh pieces were placed on the surface of the 
earth. On the 17th April they were observed to have been bored 
from below. The pumpkin chips were removed on the 19th April. On 
the 5th May a third shoot was damaged. The remaining three shoots 
were not damaged and the insects were dead before the 30th May. 

This experiment seems to prove that the mole-crickets cannot live 
on sugarcane alone. They attack sugarcane if it is planted in the land 
in which they are present. There was practically no damage to sugar- 
cane by this insect in the Chaunia field which has been under cultivation, 
for many years. The experimental plots of sugarcane in the Brick- 
field in 1918 were situated in a piece of land brought under cultivation 
about five or six years ago. It was previously a waste land overgrown 
with Saccharmn spotitanemn and Imperala anindinacea and was bordered 
by similar waste lands. (See Plate 69.) Mole crickets have been observed 
to eat Sacchanim sfontaneum shoots in the same way as they do sugar- 
cane shoots. As proved by rearing in the insectary, they can live on 
animal food and probably depend on such food principally. Manj' kinds 
of soft-bodied Melolonthid, Chrysomelid and Ciu-cuhonid grubs are known 
to abound among Sacchanim sfontaneum roots. Therefore mole-crickets 
obtain plenty of food in such waste lands and would naturally occur 
there in large numbers. This explains why so much damage was done 
to the experimental plots in the Brickfield. The occurrence of this 
insect in the sugarcane in Jhilli field in 1913 was under exactly similar 
conditions. Sugarcane was grown again in Jhilli in 1918 but so much 
damage was not done by this insect as on the former occasion. Repeated 
cultivations for a series of years naturally kill and drive away the mole- 
crickets from the field. 

Bedle-cjrubs. 
Among the third class of external agents of damage we have included 
the Melolonthid, Chrysomehd, Curculionid and Elaterid grubs and may 



Page. 361(1). 




Anomala hihnrensis (C. S. 1744). 
(I, Larva, natural size and magniiied : 4. 
h\ details of posterior extremity of larva. 

c, Pupa, natural size and enlarged. 

d, Imago, „ „ „ „ 



Page 361(2). 




Adoretuf) caliohiosus (C. S. 1793). 

a, Larva, natural size and magnified ; 5. 

b, details of posterior portion of larva, magnified. 

c, Pupa, natural size and magnified. 

d, Imago. 



Page 361(3). 




Fig. A.— Aiitosoha sp. (C. S. 1654). 
«.iLarva, natural size and magnified ( 8). 
?». details of posterior portion of larva, magnified. 
r',*Psipa, natural size and magnified ( 8). 
r// Imago, „ „ „ „ „ 




Fig. 2. — Di'fisffiiiissf. ; fi. larva, natural size 
and magnified ( 5) ; h. beetle, natural size 
and magnified ( 5). 



Page 36m. 



PLATE 27. 




Diagrammatic figure to show how IVIelolonthid grubs feed. 



PROCEEDIIfGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAl, MEETING 361 

also mention in this connection Tipiilid and Asilid maggots. Many 
kinds of these grubs abound among the roots of wild and semi-cultivated' 
grasses as well as of sugarcane, maize, jiuir, wheat, barley, oats and similar 
crops grown in soils having a tolerable amount of moisture. When 
a crop is in the soil for the full year hke sugarcane, or more or less per- 
manently hke the semi- cultivated grasses mentioned later on, these 
grubs increase to an enormous extent. As mentioned in the Imperial 
Entomologist's Annual Report for 1917-18, among the roots of sugarcane 
and semi-cultivated and wild Saccharum spp. we have so far found the 
larvae of no less than sixteen different species of beetles including Anomala 
bengalensis, A- biharensis (PI. 24), Adoretus cahginosiis (PI. 25), 
Autoserica STp. (PI. 26, fig. 1), Myllocerus discolor, M. blandus, Monolefta 
signata, Forrnicomus sp., Pachnepjionis spp., Alissonotum piceum, A 
simile and Apogonia sp. To these we may add Anomala polita,. 
Adoretus versutus, Myllocerus 1 1-pustulatus and Drasteriiis sp. 
(C. S. 1211, Elaterida3 ; PI. 26. fig. 2). Of all these the giubs of 
Anomala bengalensis have been definitely observed at Pusa as well as 
at Dacca to gnaw new shoots of sugarcane under the soil surface from 
the side much in the same manner as mole-crickets do and as somewhat 
diagrammatically shown in Plate 27. The result is the " dead heart" 
characteristic of borers. The other Melolonthid grubs are similar in 
habit and are capable of damaging the shoots in the same way although 
they have not yet been observed to do so. The amount of damage 
however has so far been small. If the damaged shoots are examined 
after some days, the gnawing by these grubs is easily confused with that 
of mole-crickets. 

The Red Ants (Doryhis) have also been observed to gnaw the base 
of sugarcane shoots in a few cases. 

Cheiving. One form of damage quite common in new sugarcane 
shoots and also in young as well as somewhat advanced wheat, barley 
and oat plants, is the chewing of the external layers of leafsheaths on one 
side at a point just below or at the soil surface. Such plants invariably 
show " dead heart " and in some cases may become dry. Although the 
chewing does not extend into the core of the shoots, the part of the heart- 
leaf near about the level of the point of damage becomes discoloured and 
withers, causing "dead heart", and frequently the base of the heart- 
leaf below the point of discoloration grows rather sideways. The shoot 
however is permanently injured and ultimately dies. Five sugarcane 
shoots showing " dead hearts " of this nature were submitted for exami- 
nation to the Imperial Mycologist who reported Red Rot in two of them. 
In wheat, barley and oats the chewing is frequently carried further 
the entire base being converted into a fibrous mass and leading to the 



362 I'l^OCEEDINGS OF THE TUIED EA^TOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

drying of tlie entire plant. It has not yet been possible to determine 
the agents of this form of damage. Probably mole-crickets and most 
of the coleopterous grubs ordinarily found in the fields may be concerned. 

III. The Borers. 
The following is the list of the borers so far observed. They are 
grouped according to the Orders and Families. Most of them are not 
identified. In the case of those which are taken as identified there is a 
confusion in thd names, especially of the species of Chilo and Diatrcea. 
Therefore all the insects are referred to under the number in the Insectary 
Register of Cage Shps. When names are used they should be taken as 
those under which the insects have been known up to this time. 

DiPTERA — 

Anthomyiadae. — At present it is not known whether one or more 
species are concerned. The flies are apparently alike and are 
grouped together as " Muscid flies." 

Cecidomyiadae. — Pachydiplosis oryzce. 

Trypaneidse. — Stictaspis ceratitina. 

COLEOPTERA — 

Lamiada;.— C. S. 1814. 
Curcuhonids6 — 

C. S. 1778. 

C. S. 1397. 

Lepidoptera — 

Zeuzeridee — 

C. S. 1805. 

C. S. 1696. 
Noctuidse — 

Sesamia inferens. 

Sesamia uniformis. 

C. S. 1666. 

Heliothis obsoleta. 
Pyrahdse — 

Enimalocera depressella. 

Emmalocera sp. (C. S. 1771. 

C. S. 1700. 

C. S. 1837. 

ScirfOfliaga xanthogastrella. 

Scirjwphaga monosiigma. 

Schoe)wbws bipunctifer. 

Schosnobius sp. (C. S. 1780. 



PK3CEEDI.\GS OF THE THIBD E>-TOMOLOGICAL MEETING 6b6 

Lepidoptera — contd. 
Pyralidse — contd. 

Raplmnetopus {Anerastia) abhtella (C. S. 1801.) 

Chilo simplex. (C. S. 1551.) 

Diatrcea miricilia. (C. S. 1574.) 

Diatrcea venosata. (C. S. 1607.) 

? Diatrcea sp. in sugarcane. (C. S. 1610.) 

? Diatrcea sp. in sugarcane and rice. (C. S. 1674.) 

? Chilo sp. in rice. (C. S. 1677.) 

? Chilo sp. in Kanra. (C. S. 1769.) 

? Chilo sp. in Ikri. (C. S. 1795.) 

? Chilo sp. in Batri. (C. S. 1831.) 

? Chilo sp. in Ikri. (C. S. 1835.) 

? Pyralid Borer in Batri. (Not reared yet.) 

Pyralid Borer in Ilri. (Not reared yet.) 

Pyralid Borer in Batri. (Not reared yet.) 

Eamila ryficostalis. (C. S. 1533.) 
Eucosinidas — 

Argyroploce paragramma. (C. S. 1631.) 

Bactra trvculenta. (C. S. 1489.) 
Xylorj-ctidae. — Procomelis trochala. (C. S. 1708.) 
Tineidas. — Dasyses mgosellus. (0 S. 1873.) 

Foodplants. Below are mentioned tlie plants, cultivated as well as 
wild, which have been observed to harbour internal borers, noting at 
the same time which of the borers listed above occur in each. All the 
plants belong to the Natural Order Gramiiaea?, with the exception of two 
which, as noted against them, belong to CyperaccEe. 

/. Cultivated Crops. 
Sugarcane — 
Sesamia inferens. 
Sesamia unijormis. 
C. S. 1666. 

Emmalocera depresseUa. 
Scirpophaga xanthogastrelln. 
S. nionostigma. 
Procometis trochala. 
EajMinetopus ahlutella. 
Chilo simplex. 
Diatrcea auricilia. 
Diatrcea venosata. 



-364 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Sugarcane — contd. 

Diatrcea sp. (C. S. 1610.) 

Diatrwasp. (C. S. 1674.) 

Dasyses rugosella. (C. S. 1873.) 
Maize— 

Muscid flies. 

Sesamia inferens. 

Sesamia uniformis. 

C. S. 1700. 

Chilo sim-plex. 

Heliothis obsoteia. 

Laphygnui exigua. 
. Juar : {Andropogoti sorghum) — 

Muscid flies. 
C.S.1696. 

Sesamia inferens. 

Chilo simplex. 

Diatrcea auricilia. 

Diatrcea venosata. 
.Bajra : (Pennisetum typhoideum) — 

Muscid flies. 

Chilo simplex. 

Diatrcea venosata. 

Heliothis obsoleta. 
Rice— 

Muscid flies. 

Pachydiplosis oryzce. 

Sesamia inferens. 

Schcenobius bipunctifer. 

Chilo simplex. 

Diatrcea sp. (C. S. 1674.) 

Chilo sp. (C. S. 1677.) 
Marua {Eleusine coracana) — 

Muscid flies ? 

Sesamia inferens. 

C. S. 1837. 

Chilo simplex. 
Kodon {Paspalum scrobiculatum, Linn.) — 

Muscid flies. 
Kauni (Setaria italica) — 

Muscid flies. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 365 

Soma {Panicum frumenlaceum) — 

Muscid flies. 

Sesamia inferens. 

Chilo simplex. 
China {Panicum miliaceum) — 

Muscid flies. 
Gandii (Panicum miliare) — 

Muscid flies. 
AVheat— 

Muscid flies. 

Sesamia inferens. 
Barley — 

Muscid flies. 

Sesamia inferens. 
Oats— 

Muscid flies. 

Sesamia inferens. 

II. Fodder Grasses (cultivated). 
■Guinea grass. — 

Sesamia inferens. 
Sudan grass — 

Muscid flies. 

Sesamia inferens. 

Chilo simplex. 

Diatrcea venosata. 

III. Semi-cultivated Plants. 
These are not cultivated like field crops but have a market-value 
and are of more or less economic importance. Some grow without 
attention, in a more or less wild state, when once introduced into un- 
cultivated lands, such as Dabh (Eragrostis cynosuroides) and Dabhi or 
Ulu (Imperata arundinacea) extensively used as thatching grass. Kama 
(Saccharum arundinaceum) is grown in the same manner as bamboos 
and their top portions are used for making munj ropes and lower portions 
in thatches and walls of huts. Sar (Saccharum arundinaceum Tar. ciliaris) 
and Ilcri (Saccharum jusciim) are also grown in the same way as bamboos 
and are used in thatches and walls of huts. Batri (Saccharum spontaneum 
batri) is also grown practically in the same manner but is of a more wild 
nature. It too is used in thatches and walls of huts. Rarhi or the proper 
Kans grass (Saccharum spontaneum rarhi) is, as is well known, a wild 
_grass and troublesome weed which has invaded and occupied large tracts 



366 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

of land. It is found to grow in a stray manner in cultivated fields but 
it cannot get a footing there. Its leaves are sometimes used along with 
other thatching grasses. The Botanical Survey Department, to whom 
we are indebted for the identification of these grasses, identified both 
Batri and Rarhi as Saccharum spontaneum. Batri has, however, a much 
thicker, taller and stouter stem than Rarhi, almost approaching that of 
Kama and Ikri. For our purposes we have therefore named Batri as 
Saccharum spontaneum batri and Rarhi as Saccharum spontaneum rarhi. 
Kanra, Sar, Ikri and Batri have thick stems almost like thin sugarcane. 
For the borers hitherto found only in these semi-wild grasses, the step 
into sugarcane seems to be a short one and there will be no cause for 
wonder if they are actually observed to occur in sugarcane in some parts 
of India. We note below the borers which have so far been found in 
them and we include bamboo in the list in order to complete the record. 
The borers of bamboo, however, are not expected to occur in sugarcane. 
Kanra (Saccharum arundinaceum, Retz.)— 

C. S. 1805. 

Sesamia inferens. 

Sesamia imiformis. 

Emmalocem sp. (C. S. 1771.) 

Scirpophaga xanthogastrella. 

Chilo sp. (C. S. 1769.) 
Sar (Saccharum arundinaceum, Retz., var. ciliaris) — 

Sesamia inferens. 

C. S. 1666. 
Ikri (Saccharum fuscum, Roxb.) — 

Sesamia inferens. 

Sesainia uniformis. 

C.S.1666. 

Diatrcea auricilia. 

Diatrcea venosata. 

Diatrwa sp. (C. S. 1795.) 

Chilo sp. (C. S. 1835.) 

Pyralid borer (not reared yet). 
Batri (Saccharum spontaneum batri) — 

Lamiad borer (C. S. 1814). 

C. S. 1696. 

Sesamia inferens. 

Sesamia uniformis. 

C. S. 1666. 

Scirpophaga xanthogastrella. 

Diatrcea auricilia. 



PKOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Batri {Saccharum spontaneum batri) — contd. 

Diatrcea venosata. 

Chilo sp. (C. S. 1831.) 

Pyralid borer (not reared yet). 

Pyralid borer (not reared yet). 
RarJii (Saccharum spontaneum rarhi) — 

Lamiad borer (C. S. 1814). 

Curculionid borer (C. S. 1778). 

C. S. 1696. 

Sesamia inferens. 

C. S. 1666. 

Chilo sp. (C. S. 1831.) 
Bamboo — 

Stictaspis ceratitina. 

Ramila ruficostalis (C. S. 1533). 

Argyroploce paragramma. 



IV. Wild Grasses and Plants. 
Dabhi or TJlu. (Imperata arundinacea, Cyrill) — 

Muscid flies. 
Dabh or Kush. {Eragrostis cynosuroides, Beauv.) — 

Muscid flies. 
Dub. (Cynodon dactylon, Pers.) — 

Muscid flies. 
Motha. (Cyperus rotundus, Linn.; Cyperaceae) — 

Muscid flies. 

Weevil borer (C. S. 1397). 

Bactra truculenta (C. S. 1488). 
Sami-ghas. (Panicum colonum, Linn.) — 

Muscid flies. 
Jove-ghas . (Rottbcellia compressa, Linn. ) — 

Sesamia inferens. 

Diatrcea auricilia. « 
Golmootha. (Scirpus affinis, Roth ; Cyperaceee) — 

Sesamia inferens. 
Baijanti or Job's Tears (Coix Lachryma-Jobi, Linn.) — 

Chilo simplex. 
Narkat. {Phragmites Karka, Trim.) — 
■Sesamia inferens. 

Schoenobius sp. (C. S. 1780.) 



PHOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



Differentiation of the Borers. 
The larval forms of the Zeuzerid, Noctuid and Pyralid borers can be 
distinguished with the help of the following key : 



1. Prothoracic shield with short spines .... 
Prothoracic shield without spines .... 

2. Colour, deep purple 

Colour, pale yeUowish-white ; body speckled with 
violet markings ...... 

3. Caterpillars with the body of a uniform colour, with- 

out stripes, warts, spots or markings . 
Caterpillars having stripes, warts, spots or markings 
on the body ....... 

4. Caterpillars grouped as below according to colour : — 

A. Colour creamy yellow ; skin almost transpa- 
rent ; body very soft and pliable, slightly 
compressed dorsoventraUy ; thoracic region 
prominently tapering forwards ; dorsal vessel 
very prominent ; spiracles like a slender 
brown streak ...... 



B. Colour greenish-yellow ; body cylindrical, of a 
rather slender build ; dorsal vessel visible ; 
spiracles much elongated, oval, with a black 
or brown rim ...... 



C. Colour pinkish, like that of raw flesh ; spiracle 
elongated oval, black 



G. Colour white (or creamy white) with or without 
the dorsal vessel being visible ; spiracles oval 
or round 



H. Colour green or partly green and copperish ; 
spiracles round ..... 

I. Colour light grey ; skin soft ; hairs long ; forming 
silken galleries in which pellets of excreta are 
1 ; spiracles oval .... 



C. S. 1805. 
C. S. 1696. 



5. Caterpillars with six stripes 



Caterpillars with less than six stripes or with warts 
(species of Chilo and Diatrcea which had hitherto 
been known as the Moth-borer — Chilo simplex) 

With middorsal stripe ..... 

Without middorsal stripe ..... 

Spiracles closed, i.e., without any clear space inside ; 
no other longitudinal stripe but segments having 
purplish markings on side .... 

Spiracles open, i.e., with a clear space inside ; in 
addition to the middorsal- stripe there are two 
stripes on each side of back .... 



Scirpophaga xantliogas- 
trelln; S. monos- 
ligma. 



ScJiosnobiiis bipunc- 
tifer ; Schcenobius 
sp. (C. S. 1780). 

Sesamia itiferens ; 
Sesamia ■uniformis, 
(C. S. 1666.) 



Emmalocera depres- 
sella ; Emmalocera 
sp. (C. S. 1771); 
C. S. 1837; C. S. 
1700. 



Dasij^es rugosellus 
(C. S. 1873). 

Procomeiis trocJmla. 
(C. S. 1708.) 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIHD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING ObSJ 

■S. Hooklets on prolegs forming a half circle which is 
open externally ; hooklets on internal edge of sole 
largest, diminishing in size extema^y . . Diatrcea auricilia, 

(C. S. 1574). 
Hooklets on prolegs forming a complete or almost 

complete circle ...... 9 

9. Spiracles touching, or situated in, the stripe above 
them ; stripes grey-brown ; hooklets on internal 
edge of sole largest, diminishing in size exter- 
nally Rice Chilo (C. S. 1677). 

Spiracles situated well below the stripe above them ; 
stripes reddish brown ; hooklets on prolegs practi- 
cally equal in size or those on external edge 
slightly smaller than those on internal edge . C. S. 167-t. 

10. Spiracles open, i.e., with a clear space inside . 11 
Spiracles closed, i.e., without a clear space inside . 12 

11. The posterior trapezoidal warts in a line with the 

anterior trapezoidal warts ; hooklets on prolegs 
in a complete circle, largest on internal edge of 
sole, diminishing in size externally (Caterpillars 
usually with prominent warts and no stripes ; 
sometimes warts absent and some markings 
present on side of the segments) . . . C. S. 1610. 
The posterior trapezoidal warts much further re- 
moved from the middorsal line than the anterior 
trapezoidal warts ; hooklets on prolegs much as * 

inC. S. 1610 C. S, 1709. 

12. Hooklets on prolegs forming a half circle open 

externally ; those on internal edge of sole largest 
diminishing in size externally ; spiracles with a 
rather closed sUt along their longer axis ; cater- 
pillars with two stripes on each side of back . C. S. 1831. 
Hooklets on prolegs forming a complete or almost 

complete circle ...... l:i 

13. Hooklets in a complete circle and equal in size ; 

spiracles with rather an open slit along their 

major axis ....... Chilo simplex. 

(C. S. 1551.) 
Hooklets in a more or less complete circle and much 
shorter externally ; spiracles with an oval-shaped 
concavity whose major axis coincides with that 
of spiracles ; caterpillars usually with large shiny 
dark-brown warts situated on broad pinkish 
stripes, warts disappearing in hibernating larvse Diatrcea veiiosata 

(C. S. 1607). 

The pupal forms of the species of Raphimetopus (Anerastia), Diatrcea 
and C/iito, which are hkely to be and had hitherto been confused in the 
adult stage, can be distinguished with the help of the following key. 

1. Pupa without any chitinous protuberances on anal 

segment which has a few circinate hairs . . Raphimetopus (Aner- 
astia) ablulella 
(C. S. 1801). 
Pupa with chitinous protuberances on anal segment 2 

2. Pupa without spines, hooks, ridges or collar-like 

roughness on 7th abdominal segment , . .0. S. 1677. 
Pupa with such 3 



370 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING • 

3. Pupa with scattered spines on 7th abdominal seg- 

ment formed out of the larval tubercles . . C. S. 1835. 
Pupa with continuous ridges, hooks, spines or 
roughness in the form of a collar on 7th abdominal 
segment ........ 4 

4. The collar makes a complete circle round the seg- 

ment ........ 5 

The collar makes a circle incomplete on the ventral 

side 6 

5. The circle composed of distinct and separate double 

hooks C. S. 1610. 

The circle composed of ridges, more or less joined . Diatrcea auricilia,- 

S. Incomplete circle of distinct straight spines . . C. S. 1674. 
Incomplete circle of roughness .... 7 

7. Dorsal part of anal end with six spines in two groups 

of three, triangularly arranged .... Chilo simplex. 

(C. S. 1551). 
Dorsal part of anal end with four spines . . 8 

8. The spines situated on the tip and pointing 

posteriorly ....... Diatrcea venosata 

(C. S. 1607). 
The spines situated on the dorsal margin and 

pointing dorsally 9 

9. The collar of roughness on 7th abdominal segment 

extending much beyond the spiracles . . C. S. 1769. 

The collar extending up to the spiracles . . C. S. 1795. 

The col\ar net extending up to the spiracles . . C. S. 1831. 

Lije-histories of the Borers. 
The life-histories of the borers are given in the following pages. 
Ihe observations were carried on principally in the year 1918. In order 
to give some idea of the nature of the year regarding rainfall, temperature 
and humidity a chart is appended giving weekly rainfall, weekly mean 
temperature (dry bulb at 8 a.m.) and weekly mean humidity, calculated 
from the records at Pusa. (Plate 28.) 

The Anihomyiad Flies, 
Plate 29. 
Foodplants — 

Jvar {And^-opogon sm-gh\nn) — October, January, May, August^ 

September, July. 
China (Panicum miliaceum) — July, May. 
Samighas {Panicnvi colomim) — July. 
Kcdon (Paspalum scrohicidatiim) — July. 
Sudan grass — August. 
Eice — April, June. 
Soma (Panicum frumeniaceitm) — September, 



Pnge 370(1). 




JANY FEBY MAR 'APR ' MAY JUNE'JULY' AUG' SEP' OCT NOV DEC 



Weekly rainfall, mean temperature and mean humidity at Pusa during 1918. 



Page 370(2). 




(C. S. 1867) ynjuiir shoot ; <u attacked jiiar shoot, cut open to show 
maggot ; h, larva : 8 ; <•, pupa 8 ; </. fly ; 8. (N.B.— The smaller outline figures 
b, c, and d are 1 '. times the natural sizes.) 



PLATE 30. 




PACHYDIPLOSIS ORYZ/E. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 30. 

Pachydi/plosis oryzne, Wood -Mason. 

Fig. 1. A cluster of rice plants several ot which are affected. 

Fig. 2. An affected plant, with the pupa in its natural position exposed. 

Fig. 3. Egg enlarged. 

Fig. 4. Fullgrown maggot. 

Figs. 5 — 7. Different views of pupa. 

Figs. S A 9. The adult fly in sitting and flying attitudes. 

The small outline figures indicate natural sizes. 



'■5t .B .§W 

, ■ liniii- eiH" 



Page in(2). 



••LAtt 3i. 




Kg. l.—SUctaspis ceratUina, male (left) and female (right) 5. (Tfie smaller figures show the 
natural sizes.) 




Fig. 2.— C. S. 1814. Larva. The smaller figure shows the natural size. 




Fig. 3.— Annual life-cycle of Lamiad Borer (C. S. 1814V 



PKOCEEDINGS OF THE THIHP ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 371 

Poodplants — contd. 

Dub {Cynodon dactylon)— March, June. 
Gandli (Panicum miliare) — July. 

The above are some of the foodplants from which these flies have been 
reared in the Insectary. Fly maggots are found in other grasses and 
•even in the top shoots of bamboo branches. The maggots work at the 
base of the heart-leaf, lacerating and chewing the part entirely, producing 
the characteristic " dead heart." Usually the maggots are found in 
young plants. In China and Gandli, however, they occur in plants in 
ear. gnawing the bases of the ears which dry up. The eSect is exactly 
similar to that caused by lepidopterous borers in ears of rice and wheat. 

These muscid flies are a real pest and very httle is known about 
them. As will appear from the dates of collection of maggots given 
along with the foodplants above, the flies are active throughout the 
year. The period of their Ufe-cycle is short, being completed approxi- 
mately within a fortnight. 

Pachydiplosis onjzce. 
Plate 30. 
Foodplant — Rice. 
This small Cecidomyiad fly causes serious damage to newly trans- 
planted rice seedlings, especially when transplanting is done late in the 
season. The maggots feed in the middle of the shoot, producing a pecuHar 
long tube-like gall in place of the main stem. Further growth of the 
shoot is thus stopped. Therefore the result is the same as that of attack 
by the ordinary borers which cause " dead heart." 

This has not been observed to occur in the neighbourhood of Pusa, 
but it is a serious pest in parts of Bihar and Orissa, Bengal and Madras. 

Stidaspis ceratitina. 

Plate 31, fig. 1. 
Foodplant — Bamboo. 
The maggots of this Fruitfly have been observed to occur in large 
numbers in the new bamboo shoots which grow in the Rains, The grubs 
bore the soft stem, kilhng the shoots entirely. These, together with 
termites and to a less extent caterpillars of Argyroploce paragramma, 
are responsible for the death of a large proportion of the new shoots, 
which do not become immune until their stem hardens. The stem 
and especially the apical portion of it, which is the part liable to attack. 



372 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

does not harden very quickly and not until the shoot has grown to a great 
height. On the 18th September 1918 the top of a new shoot about 
fifteen feet high was observed to drop off. On examination, the top 
was found to be full of maggots of this fruit-fly, which riddled the soft 
stem, causing the internodes to break off. There were 178 maggots in 
it out of which 146 attained the adult stage between 29th September 
and 30th October, 82 being females and 64 males. The shoot itself 
somewhat shrivelled and dried at the top and did not grow any further. 
But it hardened and its branches, especially those towards the apical 
part, grew thick and long. Such damaged bamboos are frequently met 
with. 

The Lamiad Borer (C. S. 1814). 

Plate 31, figs 2,3; Plate 32. 

Foodplants — Batri and Rarhi (Sacchanmi spontaneum). 

This longicorn borer has only one generation in the year. The adults 
emerge about June and deposit eggs. Young grubs have been collected 
on the 20th June. The grubs are available in very large numbers in 
Rarhi and Batri from June onwards. They are extensive borers and 
voracious eaters and convert the stems into hollow tubes. They remain 
active till about November and then rest inside the stems, pupating just 
before emergence about June. 

The full-grown grub measures about 24mm. in length, about 3 mm. 
across the abdominal region and about 3'5 mm. across the thorax. The 
head is small compared with the thorax which is swollen and protuberant 
ventrally. On the back of the sixth and seventh abdominal segments 
there are some small tubercles arranged across the segments in double 
rows. The hind end is truncated. The body has small brown haira 
all over. There are no legs of any kind. The colour is yellow. The 
young grubs resemble the older ones in appearance and colour. 

The Weevil Borer (C. S. 1778). (Plate 33, fig. 1.) 
Foodplant — Rarhi (Saccharum spontatieiwi rarhi). 
The external symptom of attack is the " dead heart."' The grubs are 
found in large numbers in March- April and although their size is small 
they are very vigorous borers and bore up and down the stem exten- 
sively. 

The full-grown grub is about 5-5 mm. long and about 1-5 mm. across 
the middle of the body which tapers towards each extremity. The 
head is pale-yellow, glossy, and the body is also of the same colour 



Pag, srmt 



PLATE 32. 




h 



C. S. 1814. (The smaller figure shows the natural size.) 



Page 372(2). 



PLATE 33. 





Fie 1 —C.S.I 778. Weevil borer in /rn/// shoot. «. larva ; 
b, pupa ; c, imago ; all magnified. The small figures shov* 
the natural sizes. 




Fie 2 — (C. S. 1397). Weevil Borer in mootlia stem 
The small outline figure shov»s the natural size. 




^^S^^ss^ a 




Fig. 1.— C. S. 1805. Purple zeuzerid larva horirg in ham a ; a. laiva ; It. pipa ; e, 
moth ; all magnified ; the small fgures show the natural sizes. 




Fig. 2.— ^Annual life-cycle of Purple Zeuzerid Borer (C. S. 1805). 



PE0CEEDI3SGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 373 

As, however, the contents of the body show through the skin the abdomi- 
nal region looks brownish. The grubs pupate uiside the stems. 

The full seasonal life-history is not known. From grubs collected 
in March and April weevils appeared by the end of May. 



The Weevil Borer (C. S. 1397). (Plate 33, fig.2.) 
Foodplant — Motlia {Cyperus rotundus). 
Legless pale-yellowish-white grubs, boring the stem and causing dead 
heart were collected on 22nd May and weevils emerged from these in the 
Insectary between 13th and 17th June. 

The purple-coloured Zeuzerid Borer (C. S. 1805). (Plate 34.) 

Foodplant — Kanra (Saccharum arundinaceum). In the Insectary the 
caterpillars, fed on maize and also on juar (Andropogon Sorghum) 
to a small extent. 

This borer has only one generation in the year. Young caterpillars 
have been collected from outside on the 8th July and gradually develop- 
ing ones onward till about November when they become fullgrown. 
Fullgrown hibernating and aestivating caterpillars have been collected 
in winter and up to about May. Moths emerged in the Insectary be- 
tween 15th June and 10th July. 

As usual with all internal borers, they cause " dead heart " in plants 
and bore in the centre of the stem, converting it into a hollow tube. 
The caterpillars go down right into the roots to hibernate and 



A fullgrown caterpillar measures about 35 mm. in length and aboi^t 
4-5 mm. across the abdomen. The shape is cylindrical and slightly 
tapering posteriorly. The head is red-brown and smaller than the 
prothorax which is the broadest segment, measuring a httle more than 
5 mm. across. The prothoracic shield is large, yeUow-brown in colour, 
having on its hinder part a number of posteriorly-directed flattened 
brown spines. The spiracles are elongated brownish shts and the five 
pairs of prolegs are rather short but equally developed. The colour of 
the body excepting that of prothorax is deep pmple. 

Pupation takes place inside the tuimel formed by the larva. Before 
the emergence of the moth the pupa wriggles out to some extent through 
an opening on the side of the stem previously made by the larva, the 
mouth of the opening being left closed by a thin epidermal layer of the 
bark. 



374 PEOCEEDrN-GS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAX MEETING 

The violet-spotted Zeuzerid Borer (C. S. 1696 and C. S. 1857) (? Phrag 
matcecias-p.). (Plate 35.) 

Foodplants. — Bairi {Saccharum sponianeum hatri) ; juar (Andropogon 
Sorghum). In the Insectary the caterpillars fed on Saccharum 
arundinaceum (Kanra) stem. 

This borer has only one generation in the year. Moths appear about 
October and deposit eggs probably among the foodplants. The eggs 
hatch within a few days. The caterpillars feed throughout the winter, 
summer and the rains and are available in all these seasons. Their 
growth is very slow. They occur in profuse numbers in Batri and have 
been foimd in small numbers in jnar. In the Insectary moths emerged 
between 1st October and 6th November. Young caterpillars have been 
collected from outside on the 11th October and more and more advanced 
ones practically in all the later months up to August when full-grown 
ones are available. They pupated in September-October. 

In the Insectary a moth laid 80 unfertiUzed eggs in an irregular 
heap. Each egg is about 1 mm. long and about 0-6 mm. thick, elongated, 
tubular in shape with truncated ends. The shell is glossy and has 
very faint longitudinal furrows. 

A fuUgrown caterpillar measures about 30 mm. in length and about 
5 mm. across the body. The head is yellow, glossy and smaller than 
the prothorax. The prothorax is pale yellow with a large shield similarly 
coloured as the head. The shield has a pair of brown spots one on 
each side and connected by a brown bar. The posterior half of the 
shield is armed with a number of posteriorly-directed flattened brown 
spines. The meso and metathoracic segments are divided into three 
and the abdominal segments into two sub-segments, the posterior sub- 
segments of all these and the anal segments have on the dorsum a 
number of minute tubercles surmounted with thin small hairs. There 
are similar tubercles clustered below the spiracles and also on the fold 
above the legs. The spiracles are elongated oval, yellow. The five 
pairs of prolegs are short but equally developed. The general colour 
of the body is yellowish-white. The metathorax and the first abdominal 
segment are violet coloured or rather purple with a violet tinge. The 
other abdominal segments have prominent violet markings which make 
up a thin middorsal stripe, a broad interrupted dorsolateral stripe and 
a similar spiracular stripe. The ventral surface is without any violet 
markings. 

The young caterpillars resemble older ones to some extent in 
ance but have long hairs on the body. 



Page 374. 






Fig. 1.— C. S. 1696. Borer in Surcliarum spontaneum stem ; a, larva (>2g) ; 
h, pupa (2*) ; c, moth (> 25) ; t1, egg ( 2^). 




Fig. 2.— Annual life-cycle of Borei in Sacchariim spontaneiim (C. S. 1696). 




SESAMIA INFERENS. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 36. 

Sesamia inferens. 

Fig. 1. Eggs laid inside leaf sheath. 

Fig. 2. A single egg magnified. 

Fig 3. Larva magnified. 

Fig 4. Pupa magnified. 

Fig. 6. Moth with wings spread. 

Fig 8. An affected plant showing larva in the stem and moth sitting on leaf. 



Page S7oi:Z 




PEOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 375 

Pupation takes place inside the stem. Before pupating, the larva 
gnaws an opening on the side of the stem, the mouth of the opening 
being just covered by a thin epidermal layer of the bark. The pupa 
is provided with a snout having spines on its tip with which to pierce 
this epidermal covering. The pupa wriggles out to some extent before 
the moth bursts out of the pupal case. 

Sesamia inferens. 
Plate 36. 
Foodplants — Rice ; wheat ; barley ; oats ; marua (Eleusine caracana) ; 
sama (Panicum frumentaceum) ; Guinea grass ; Sudan grass ; Jove 
grass (RoUhoellia compressa) ; golmootha {Scirjms affinis) ; narkat 
(Phragmites karka) ; sugarcane ; maize ; juar {Atidropogon Sorghum) ; 
kanra (Saccharum arundinaceum) ; rarhi and balri (Sacchmmn 
spontaneum) ; ikri (Saccharum fuscum). 
Caterpillars have been collected from the above plants. Besides 
these, they have fed in the Insectary on bajra {Pennisetum typhoideum) 
stems. In Madras they are known to occur in Setaria italica. 

The caterpillars of Sesamia inferens, S. uniformis and the moth 
reared under C. S. 1666 are hable to be confused, as all of them are 
similar in appearance. Those of C. S. 1666 are more slender-looking 
than the larvse of the Sesamia sj^p. and have a faint purphsh tinge. 
The larvae of the two species of Sesamia cannot yet be distinguished. 
The pupa of C. S. 1666 (Plate 38, fig. 1) can be easily distinguished as it 
has no hair or spine on its hind end. The pupae of Sesamia inferens 
and S. uniformis are hable to be confused but can be distinguished by 
the structure of, and the spines'on, the hind end (PI, 37, f. 3). The hind 
end of the pupa of S. inferens is rounded and has four spines on a dis- 
tinct stalk. The hind end of S. uniformis pupa is protruded into a 
horny process concave on the ventral side and having four spines arrang- 
ed on its tip at some distance apatt and two more spines behind the first 
four, i.e., six spines in all. The moths of S. inferens and S. uniformis 
are hable to be and have been confused in the past. They can be dis- 
tinguished easily by the trained eye from the shape of the forewings 
(Plate 37, figs. 1, 2) and also from the structure of the male antennae 
as indicated in Entomological Note No. 62 of Pusa Bulletin No. 59. 

In the neighbourhood of Pusa S. inferens is active throughout the 
year, active caterpillars being available in all the months of the year. 
Also the larvae are observed to pupate and adults to emerge throughout 
the cold weather. In the cold season however the period of the hfe- 
cycle is very much extended. In ordinary years, in March, April and 



376 I'EOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD EXTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

May, the shortest period of Ufe-cycle observed is 49 days, viz., egg 
7 days, larva 30 days, and pupa 12 days, the longest period taken by 
some of the individuals out of the same lot being 71 days in which the 
larval life only was extended to 48 days. In the cold weather from 
November to January the larval stage has been observed to take about 
2| months and the pupal stage about a month. 

As growth is very slow in the cold season the caterpillars are hardly 
found in numbers in winter. With the spell of warm weather about 
February their activity is observed in wheat and barley in which dry 
ears appear. In March-April they are common in all the foodplants 
mentioned above which happen to grow at the time and may cause 
serious damage to maize. They occur in new shoots of sugarcane at 
this time. But ordinarily they have not been observed to infest sugar- 
cane in large numbers. From about June onwards they occur commonly 
on rice and in very large numbers when rice is in ear about October- 
November. 

From observations so far made S. inferens can be considered a pest 
only of maize and rice. Normally it does not cause much damage to 
the other foodjjlants mentioned. 

The female moth is capable of laying more than 400 eggs. One 
laid 419 eggs in the Insectary. The eggs are thrust between the leaf- 
sheaths and the stem in rows two to three deep. As many as 161 eggs 
have been counted on a single plant. The egg is hemispherical in shape, 
being about 0-7 mm. in diameter and having fine ridges on the surface, 
the ridges running in regular order down the sides from the top. The 
colour is creamy white, changing to brownish and ultimately to grey 
before hatching. 

The newly-hatched larva is about 1-5 mm. long, pale yellow in colour 
and has its head and cervical and anal plates dark brown. After the 
first moult it assumes the characteristic appearance and colour seen in 
older larvse. 

On hatching from the eggs the young caterpillars issue out of the 
leaf-sheath and may disperse, going into neighboring plants. They 
may gnaw into the stems of young seedling plants either from the top 
or from the side and bore in the central part causing •' dead heart " 
invariably, ^\^len they hatch on tall plants such as rice and wheat 
in ear, most of them bore into the upper part of the stem and do not 
disperse until they are somewhat grown. Many young caterpillars are 
therefore found in individual plants with dry ears. The caterpillars 
migrate from plant to plant, thus injuring many plants in the course 
of their life. 



Page 377. 



<^??3S^i^^S^ 





Fig. 1.— C. S. 1666. Borer in Sacchaiiiin sponfaucinti. <i, larva ( < 4) ; h, 
(x4) ; c, moth ( ;4) ; the smaller figures show the natural sizes. 




Fig. 2.— C.S.I 771. ^artr'm K(i lira tooX. <i. larva ; /». pupa; 
all magnified. The small figures show the natural sizes. 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOJIOLOGICAX MEETING 377' 

Pupation takes place inside the bored stem or under a leaf-sheath 
on the stem in which the larva has fed. Before pupating the larva 
prepares an exit hole for the moth. 

Sesamia uniforniis. (Plate 37, figs. 2,3.) 

Foodplants — Sugarcane ; maize ; rarhi and batri {Saccharmn spontcmeum) ; 
ikri [Saccharum fuscum) ; kanra {Saccharum arundinaceum). Besides 
the above, the caterpillars have been fed on jitar {Andropogon 
Sorghum) in the lusectary. 
Like S. inferens, S. imifonnis also remains active practically through- 
out the year, the growth in winter being however very slow. In March 
young larvae are available in large numbers, especially in lanra, and 
active caterpillars have been collected practically throughout the year. 
To judge from its occurrence it prefers kajira to the other foodplants. 
It is similar to S. inferens in habit. 

C. S. 1666 (Plate 38, fig. 1.) 

Foodplants — Rarhi and batri {Saccharum spontaneum) ; ikri {SaccJiarum 
f^lscum) ; sugarcane (Muimi, MuzafEarpur, October). 

The caterpillars of this species have been observed to be active 
throughout the year and occur in enormous numbers in rarhi and batri. 
Only on one occasion were they found in ikri at Pusa in small numbers. 
At Munni, a village in the Muzafiarpur District, they were observed 
in fair numbers in sugarcane in October, probably because there was 
no batri growing there within a radius of about three miles. In winter, 
active caterpillars have been collected from outside but the pupal stage 
has been observed in the Insectary to extend to more than two-and-a- 
half months, although moths emerged in November and January. 

As usual with all internal borers, the caterpillars cause " dead heart " 
and bore extensively up and down the stem, converting it into a hollow 
tube. They pupate inside the bored stem after gnawing an opening on 
the side for the emergence of the future moth, the mouth of the opening 
being stopped by a thin layer of the epidermis of the stem. 

Emmahcera sp. (C. S. 1771). 

Plate 38, fig. 2. 

Foodplant — Kanra {Saccharum arundinaceum). 

These caterpillars exactly resemble those of Emmahcera depressella 
in appearance and hke the latter bore the stem near the roots. Their 



•378 PKOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

seasonal history also is apparently similar. They remain active in the 
hot weather and the rains and hibernate right inside the thick roots. 
Hibernating larvae collected in March developed into moths between 
13th March and 14th April. 



Phycitid Borer (C. S. 1700). 

Foodplant — Tender maize cob. 
On the 18th September a single caterpillar was collected boring a 
tender maize cob. It was 10 mm. long, cylindrical and tapering shghtly 
hindwards. The head was yellow and body pale yellowish-white with 
faint and indistinct spiracular and dorsolateral stripes visible under 
lens. The spiracles were round, a brownish rim enclosing a clear space 
inside. The booklets on abdominal prolegs were in complete circle. 

The caterpillar pupated on 23rd September in a silken cocoon formed 
lining the tunnel. The pupa was about 7-5 mm. long, yellow-brown 
in colour and without any marking or spine on any of the abdominal 
segments or on the hind end. The moth emerged on the 3rd October. 
It resembles the moth of C. S. 1837 to a very great extent. 



Phycitid Borer (C. S. 1837). 

Plate 39, fig. 1. 

Foodplant — Marua (Eleusine coracana). 

Caterpillars were collected in Marua stems which they were boring 
near the base, on 16th August. They were not however found in large 
numbers. Three of them developed into moths between 28th August 
and 6th September and the rest have been hibernating. 

The caterpillars resemble those .of Emmalocera depressella in colour 
and appearance but are much smaller in size, being only about 12 mm. 
long. The head is yellow-brown and the body creamy-white. The 
spiracles are round with a clear space inside. The five pairs of prolegs 
are equally developed. 

Pupation takes place inside the stem. The pupa is yellow-brown 
and has on its hind end two conical tubercles, one on each side, and 
four to six much smaller tubercles between these two, all beiag surmounted 
with a thin hair. 



P(uji 378. 




Fig. 1.— (C. S. 1837). Borer m Elfimiue roi-firrniff : 
ft, larva 5 ; h. details of larval spiracle ; r. 
arrangement of crochets on proleg of larva ; >^ 
moth : 5 (the smaller figure shows the natural 
size). 




Fig. 2.— Annual life-cycleT ' of Eninifilocera 



PLATE 40. 




EMMALOCERA DEPRESSELLA. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 40. 

Emmidocera depressella. 

Fig. 1. Young caue shoot cut open to show attack by lar.a. xNote " dead-heart 

*'g- 2. Jiggs as laid on a leaf, natural size. 

Fig. 3. Egg, magnified ( x 1) ). 

rig. 4. Full-grown larva, magnified ( x 2<) and natural size 

';""• '• 'Tept:^ for SrornTotr ^"^^- °^'"-' ^'-- ^^°'« ™-- ^^^^h ganer 
Fig. 0. Pupa, natural size and magnified (x2l,) 

Fig. 7. Female moth, in resting position, natural size and magnified (xiH). 
Fig. 8. Male moth, natural size and magnified. 



I'EOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 379' 

Emmalocera dep-essella {Polyocha sacchareUa). 

Plate 39. fig. 2 and Plate 40. 

Foodplant — Sugarcane. 

Emmalocera depressella may be described as the specific pest of 
sugarcane. It has not yet been found in any other plant and it causes 
the greatest damage of all the internal borers which occur in this crop. 
As its caterpillars always work near the roots of the plants and mostly 
occur in the roots of old stools in the latter part of the season, it had 
hitherto been supposed to be simply a root-borer and hence of minor 
importance. Closer observation has revealed its real nature. In the 
neighbourhood of Pusa and probably everywhere the greatest damage 
to sugarcane from borers occurs when the crop is young and the share 
of E. depressella is usually greater than the damage by all other borers 
taken together. It cannot most probably be said that this msect has 
changed its habit recently. The first external symptom of damage in 
young plants is the " dead heart " characteristic of all internal borers 
and superficial observation would place it to the credit of Diatrcea or 
CMlo or Scirpophaga, whose larvae are usually found in the stems of the 
shoots affected by these latter insects. It is not only at Pusa that 
E. depessella has been observed to damage young canes. About three 
3'ears ago more than fifty young shoots were sent from Etawah and they 
were all damaged by this insect. Last year (1918) out of 69 borers 
sent from Sipaya early in May, as many as 48 were E. depressella, 20 
Diatrcea auricilia and 1 Sesamia. E. depressella has also been reported 
from Sind and observed at Chinsurah in Bengal. In the Agricultural 
Journal of India, Vo. Ill, p. 104, Messrs. Lefroy and Mackenzie mention 
its occurrence in young sugarcane at Hathwa, Saran. 

The modes of feeding of the internal borers which have so far been 
observed in sugarcane shoots are quite distinct. Scirpophaga cater- 
pillars bore down from the top forming a single distinct tunnel ending 
in the characteristic exit hole for the future moth. The base of the- 
heart leaf does not usually rot and therefore does not give out any 
ofiensive smell. 

Diatrcea auricilia and Chile simplex caterpillars also bore down 
from the top, and Sesamia larvae may similarly bore down from the 
top but more often they enter from the side. In the case of all these 
the tunnel is filled with a wet mass of frass, the " dead heart " comes off 
with a pull and there is a very ofiensive smell. Also there are always 
side-holes in the affected shoots but all of these holes may not extend 
up to the exterior and therefore may not be noticed unless some of 
the sheaths are removed. 



:380 rHOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

E. depressella caterpillars usually effect entrance into the base of 
"the shoot through the side near or below the soil surface. The cater- 
-pillars seldom work upwards through the shoot but confine themselves 
to the extreme base of the shoot or to the newly-formed stem (cane). 
The tunnel usually runs across the stem and may go round somewhat 
in a circular manner and it is closely filled with dry powdery frass. The 
base of the shoot is weakened and when pulled sideways the entire 
shoot is dislodged at the base. When no stem (cane) is formed the 
•caterpillar in the majority of cases may either come off with the shoot 
■or is more often left exposed to view. But, when the shoot has grown 
somewhat and has formed a stem (cane), the caterpillar is usually left 
behind in the stem and can be got at by splitting open the stem. The 
first external symptom of damage is the " dead heart " and the entire 
shoot gradually dries. Side shoots are given off by the affected one 
but the same caterpillar may attack and kill some of them too, if not 
all. This form of damage is common up to about May. Later in the 
season, when the stools have formed thick roots, the caterpillars are 
usually found among the roots where however they are in no want of 
new shoots which appear practically throughout the season. Even if 
no new shoots be found the caterpillars may bore the thick root or rarely 
the base of the gro^vll-up canes. In a few cases they have been observed 
to bore the setts. 

E. depressella has been observed to be active from about March to 
October and the winter is passed in hibernation in the larval state in the 
roots. The 14th of October is the latest date before winter and 28th 
' February is the earliest date after winter, when moths have emerged, 
•Ordinarily the life-cycle is completed in about a month-and-a-half. 
In the lusectary one brood took 56 days, viz., egg 3 days, larva 41 
days, and pupa 12 days. 

The eggs are flattened, scale-like, and creamy- white in colour and 
•are deposited singly or a few at one place but separately, on the stem 
■or even on the ground and less frequently on leaves. The young larva 
is about 2 mm. long, pale yellow with a yellow-brown head and five 
pairs of equally developed prolegs. The fullgrown larva measures about 
30 mm. in length, has a yellow-brown head and creamy white body 
which is somewhat -wrinkled transversely. The dorsal vessel is usually 
visible as a brown marking on the back. The larvae are rather sluggish. 
They pupate in the tunnel they form in the stem or roots. Before 
pupation an opening for the emergence of the future moth is made in 
the form of a silken tube which comes up to the surface of the earth 
when pupation happens to take place at some depth. The pupa is 
yellow-brown in colour and can be easily distinguished from the pupae 



PLATE 41. 




SCIRPOPHAGA XANTHOGASTRELLA (AURIFLUA.) 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 41. 

ScirpopJiaga xanthogastrella . 

Fig. 1. Attacked shoot of sugarcane cut open, showing larva inside. Note " dead- 
heart " and egg-mass on leaf. 
Fig. 2. Attacked shoot of sugarcane with" dead-heart " and side-shoots (typical 
ol attack) thrown out. On leaf is a moth in resting position (natural 
size). 
Fig. 3. Egg-mass with covering hairs removed, magnified ( x 2i). 
Fig. 5. Full-grown larva, magnified ( x 2i). 
Fig. 6. Pupa in stem (cut open), natural size. Note hole of exit closed by silken 

barriers, prepared for escape of the moth. 
Fig. 7. Pupa of female, magnified ( x 2J-). 
Fig. S. Pupa of male, magnified ( x 2^). The smaller figure shows the natural 

size. 
Fig. 9. Moth in natural resting position, magnified (x2i). The natural size is shown 

in the moth on the leaf in Ggure 2. 
Fig. 10. Moth, female, foim with reddish anal tuft, natural size. 
Fig 11. Moth, male, natural size. 

Fig. 12. Moth, female, form with yellow anal tuft, natural size. 
Fig. 13. Newly-hatched larva, magnified. The natural size is indicated by the 
smaller figure to the right. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 381 

of the other borers as it has no horny process or hairs at the hind end 
which has a hump-like protuberance on the dorsal side. 

Scirpophaga xantkogastrella {aurifiua). 
Plate 41 and Plate 42, fig. 1. 

Foodplants — Sugarcane ; hanra (Saccharum arundinaceum) ; hatri {Sao- 
charum spontaneum hatri). 
This insect is active from about March to October, the winter being 
passed in hibernation in the larval state on the foodplants. The hiber- 
nating larvae emerge as moths in large numbers about March and the 
two sexes appear practically in equal numbers. Out of a lot of such 
larvae collected in February, 114 moths consisting of 58 males and 56 
females emerged between 3rd March and 5th April. During the active 
season the life-cycle takes about 6 to 7 weeks, viz., egg 1 week, larva 
4 to 5 weeks and pupa about \\ weeks. Unlike the moths of other 
borers, which are dry-grass colour and therefore inconspicuous on plants 
or on the ground, the moths of this borer are perfectly white and con- 
spicuous creatures which can be observed flying about in the fields and 
ovipositing. 

Eggs are deposited mostly on leaves in a cluster which is covered 
with brown hairs from the anal tuft of the female moth. These brown 
clusters are prominently visible on green leaves. The eggs are flattened, 
scale-like, and overlap one another in the cluster. They are pale yellow 
in colour and become dark grey before hatching, when the embryo is 
visible coiled inside the shell. 

The newly-hatched larva is about 2-5 mm. long, slightly flattened in 
shape, with the head shiny black, the prothorax entirely covered by a 
black shiny shield, the next two thoracic segments dark smoky in coloiir, 
the first abdominal segment pale yellow and the rest of the body brownish- 
grey. The hairs on the body are longish and there are five pairs of 
short prolegs. 

Unlike the grown-up caterpillars, which are extremely sluggish, and 
helpless when taken out of their tunnels in the foodplants, the young 
larvae are very quick and active. They issue out of the hairy covering 
of the egg-cluster and walk about briskly on the leaves, some letting 
themselves down by means of silken threads, and are thus blown hither 
and thither on to neighbouring shoots. They disappear into the rolled 
base of the top leaves and form the characteristic tunnel downwards 
through the growing bud, thus killing the growing point and producing 
" dead heart." If the larva is now taken out of the tunnel it cannot 
form a fresh one even when placed in a suitable situation at the top 



OtSZ PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

of a plant. The tunnel goes downwards and opens on the side a little 
way down from the top. The larva pupat es near the mouth of this 
opening through which the moth emerges. There is always a single 
larva in one plant. 

The effect of attack by the larva is always disastrous to the plant. 
Further growth is stopped in every case. Only very vigorous plants, 
whether young or old, can and do give out sideshoots or branches. In 
the case of grown-ujD plants it has been assumed that they give out 
branches so that the top becomes bunchy. But actually this happens 
in the case of only a very small proportion of such plants, as will appear 
from the facts stated below. Between the 3rd and 4th August, fifty 
affected plants of Sathi No. 131 with stems (actual canes measured below 
the base of the whorl of leaves at the top) varying in height from 
r 4" to 3' 10" were marked. From half of them the " dead heart " leaf 
was pulled out with the hand and these we may call Lot I, and the 
rest Lot II. The height of all was measured at intervals and none of 
them except one in Lot I was observed to grow. On the 23rd October, 
nine in Lot I and twelve in Lot II were observed to have given out 
branches and eight in Lot I and ten in Lot II were practically wholly 
dry and all the others in process of drying from the top downwards. 
The iaternal tissue of the dry and drying ones was practically wholly 
red. The tops of those which had given out branches were also drying. 
It was evident that hardly any of theni would contribute to the harvest. 
The one in Lot I which was grooving measured 3' 2" when marked on 
4th August and 7' 4" on the 23rd October. It was afterwards chewed 
and damaged by a jackal. The same effect as recorded in these two 
lots is observable in mature canes but, as they are harvested soon, they 
have hardly time to dry. 

Scirpophaga xanthogastrella occurs commonly in the three foodplants 
mentioned but more in kanra than in either of the other two. In the 
Purple Mauritius sugarcane plot in Chaunia in 1917 the caterpillars 
appeared very early in April. But in about 8 acres of different varieties 
of cane in JhiUi and Brickfield iu 1918 even on the 6th May there were 
hardly any observable, a search through the whole fields revealmg only 
one caterpillar, though at a distance of about half-a-mile they were 
occurring plentifully in kanra. 

Scirpophaga monostigma. (Plate 42, fig. 2.) 
Foodplant — Sugarcane. 
This is similar to S. xanthogastrella in habit. The larval and pupal 
forms of these two species are indistinguishable. The moth of S. monos- 
tigma is however distinguishable as it has a black spot on the fore-wing. 



Page 3S-H1)- 



PLATE 42. 




Fig. I.-Annaal liSe-tycle ot Hcivitopham jcunthogastvelhi. 




n ^ ^^^^^^vAiU^v.v:^^^^^" 




Fie 2.-Sciraop/i(i'j(t uioHOStKjma :;5. Th; s-nillsr fisure shiws «he 
^ natural size. 



rage 3S2{2). 




•ig. 3.— Annual life-cycle of SclianoMus bipiiHcUfev, 




SCHCENOBIUS BIPUNCTIFER. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 43. 

Scfi wnobius hifunctifer. 

The caterpillar (fig. 3) bores into the stem and destroys the heart ; consequently 
the ear dies. The female moth (figs. 6 & 7) deposits eggs in a cluster on the leaf (figs. 
1 & 2) and covers them with yellow hairs. The cateipillars which hatch bore into the 
stem and eat the interior parts. When fuUgrown they prepare a white cocoon Uning 
the hollow stem ; one end of the cocoon is open and a round hole is cut in the stem 
opposite the open end in order to enable the future moth to come out easily (fig. 5). 
In these cocoons they turn into pupae (fig. 4) and ultimately come out as moths (fig-?. 
6, 7 & 8). Normally the caterpillars pass the winter in the stubbles after rice is harvested. 

Figs. 1 & 2. Eggclusters. 

Fig. 3. Caterpillar. 

Fig. 4. Pupa. 

Fig. 5. Cocoon in stem. 

Fign. 6 & 7. Female moth. 

Fig. 8. Male^moth. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 383 

The season of activity, as in S. xantJiogastrella, lasts from about 
March to October, the winter being passed in hibernation. This species 
has so far been observed to occur in very small numbers at Pusa. Out 
of a lot of hibernating caterpillars collected in February, 114 S. ocantho- 
gastrella moths and only three of this species were obtained, these latter 
emerging on 10th and 11th March. Similarly, out of a lot of caterpillars 
collected in new sugarcane shoots in April, 22 S. xanthogastrella and 
only one of this species emerged. 

Schcenobius bipunctifer, Wlk.* 
Plate 43. 
Foodplant — Rice. 
This, is a specific pest of rice and occurs in all rice-growing tracts. 
It has not yet been observed in any other plant. In Bombay Bulletin 
No. 69 of 1915 — The Rice Stem Borer in the Konkan — Messrs. Kasar- 
gode and Deshpande state that it has been observed to occur in the 
following plants : — 

(1) Coix lachryma-jobi, 

(2) Ischcemum aristatum, 

(3) Andropogon odoratus, 

(4) Anthistiria ciliata. 

This statement, however, should be taken with caution as the hiber- 
nating larvae found in them do not seem to have been definitely reared 
and identified. Similarly in Formosa, Dr. T. Shiraki, in spite of his 
very careful work on this insect, recorded in a large volume,"]' did not 
succeed in tracing any other foodplant. 

In the neighbourhood of Pusa the moths have been observed to 
oviposit in May on a large scale on a reed-hke grass, locally known as 
chichori (Heleocharis plant aginea), growing in rice fields, especially in 
marshy situations. Search has been rnade in these grasses at different 
times in the year but no trace of any larva has been found in them* 

Schcenobius bipunctifer is active from about March to October or 
November and the rest of the year is passed in hibernation in the stubbles. 
Moths emerged in March from hibernating larvae collected between 
December and March. Some larvae may continue to rest till about 
May or June. On the other hand, young larvae hatched from eggs in 

* The name bipunctifer, Wlk., although ante-dated by incertdlus, WLk., is retained 
for this species for the present. 

f Paddy Borer {Sclianobius incertdlus, Wlk.) ; Taihoku Agric. Expt. Station, Formosa,. 
1917. 

VOL. I 2 C 



384 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

November have been observed in January to feed on ratoon shoots 
growing from stubbles. During the active season the life-cycle is com- 
pleted in about six weeks, viz., egg 5 to 6 days, larva 25 to 30 days and 
pupa 9 to 10 days. Eggs are deposited mostly on leaves in clusters 
covered over with brown hairs. The young larvae hatch and bore into 
the stem in the middle of which they feed and pupate. As will appear 
from the record of its occurrence along with the other borers in rice 
(Table XII), it is found in small numbers up to about September, after 
which oviposition takes place on a very large scale on rice in ear in 
October and the earlier part of November. The larvae which hatch 
from these eggs hibernate. (Plate 42, fig 3.) 



ScJiosnobius sp. (C. S. 1780). 

Foodplant — Narkat {PJmigmites karJca). 

The larvae and pupae of this species are apparently indistinguishable 
from those of Schoenobius bipunctifer, with which it seems to agree in 
seasonal history. 



Frocometis irochala (C. S. 1708). 
Foodplant — ^Usually decaying sugarcane stem. 

The larvae of this moth were found in drying stems of sugarcane 
which they were boring. On only one occasion a larva was observed 
boring a faesh stem. The larvae have the habit of webbing up pellets 
of excreta and forming galleries under which they live hidden. The 
fullgrown larva measures about 28 mm. in length, has a dark brown 
glossy head, a large prothoracic plate of the same colour as the head 
and the body dirty hght-brown with six yellowish longitudinal stripes 
on the back. The tubercles on the segments bear longish hairs and 
are small bro^vn spots, the supraspiracular ones being larger than the 
others. The five pairs of prolegs are equally developed. 

Pupation takes place in the stem in holes previously made by the 
larva and opening on the side of the stem. The pupa is brown and 
can be easily distinguished by a pair of pointed spines on the hind end 
joined at their bases and bent so much ventrally as to have their longer 
axis almost at right angles to the axis of the body of the pupa. 



Page 3Su. 




Fig. \.—IiaplihnetoinisZabluteU(( in sugarcane (C. S. 1801) 
<i. Larva, ^ 5. 
/*. Pupa, > 5. 
r. Imago, 5. 
The smaller figures show the natural sizes. 




Fig. 2.— Annual life-cycle of Chilo simplex. 



I'ROCiEDI.NGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 385 

Raphimetopiis {Anerastia) ablutella (C. S. 1801). 
Plate 44, fig. 1. 
Foodplant — Sugarcane . 

In tlie course of the two seasons 1917 and 1918, the caterpillars of 
this species were observed to occur in very small numbers in young 
sugarcane in April 1918 and to cause " dead heart" like the other 
borers. 

The full-grown larva is about 16 mm. long and about 2 mm. across 
the middle of the body which is cylindrical and slightly tapering at 
the ends. The head is yellow-brown, glossy. The j^rothorax green ; 
the meso-and metathorax and the abdomen copper-coloured dorsally 
and greenish ventrally. The spiracles are round, yellow-brown. The 
hairs are brown, thin and longish. The booklets on prolegs are in a 
complete circle. 

One pupated on 3rd May and emerged as moth on the 11th May. 
The pupa is about 8 mm. long and tapermg hindwards, the hind end 
having a few long circinate hairs. The colour is greenish brown. 

This insect is stated by Messrs. Mackenzie and Lefroy to have been 
found in great numbers at Siripur, Hathwa, Saran, in young sugarcane 
when about three weeks to a month above the ground. (Agri. Journ. 
Ind. Ill, p. 104). The larva observed by them was completely green. 



Chilo simplex, Butl. 
Plates 45—47. 
Foodplants — 

Maize — Pusa ; Mii-purkhas ; Sukkur ; Poona ; Jhalrapatan ; Lyall- 

pur. 
Juar (Andropogon Sorghum) — Pusa; Mirpurkhas ; Landhi ; Lar- 

kana ; Sukkur ; Jalaun ; Jhalrapatan ; Babugarh ; Lyallpur. 
Sugarcane — Pusa. 
Rice — Pusa ; Konkan. 

Bajra (Pemiisetum tgphoideum) — Pusa ; Sukkur ; Mirpurkhas. 
Sama [Panicum frumentaceum) — Pusa. 
Marua (Eleusine coracana) — Pusa. 
Sudan grass — Pusa. 

Job's Tears (Coix lachrijma-johi) — Konkan. 
In this list of foodplants the localities cited are those from which 
the larvse have been collected in the course of the last two years and 
definitely identified as those of Chilo simplex. 

2c2 



386 rROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

The seasonal history of C7n7o simj^lex is most irregular. Many larv£e 
begin to rest from September and may continue to do so till July or 
even August next je&x. On the other hand moths have emerged up 
to 12th December and oviposition has been observed to contimie in the 
fields up to the earher part of November. Again, fi'om the same batch 
of eggs laid in September some larvse have been observed to develop 
into moths in the earlier part of the cold weather while the others rested 
till the following July. The earliest date after the cold weather on 
which moths have been observed to emerge from over-wintering larvee 
is the 13th of Ma3^ The time when over-wintering larvae generally 
develop into moths is May to July. But active feeding cateq^illars. 
apparently hatched from eggs laid after the winter, have been collected 
on the 10th April and the eggs from which these larvse developed must 
have been laid towards the end of March. Therefore the shortest abso- 
lute resting period when no activity is observable extends from about 
December to about March and the longest resting period so far noticed 
lasts from about September to about July or August. Some larv8& 
have been observed to continue their rest beyond July but they died 
in August and it is not known whether they would have rested till the 
hot weather in the following year. "While over-wintering larvae rest 
in this maimer, normal successive broods occur in the case of those 
which become active in sprmg. (Plate 44, fig. 2.) 

The shortest and longest periods required for the completion of the 
hfe-cycle in the warm weather during the active season have been 
observed to be 36 and 63 days respectively, viz., egg 3 to 5 days, larva 
28 to 50 days and pupa 5 to 8 days. In the case of resting larvae the 
hfe-cycle may take up to about nine months. 

The creamy-white flattened scale-hke eggs are deposited on the stem 
or leaves, more usually on leaves in clusters, and overlapping one another 
like the tiles on a roof. The clusters stick to the substratum like scales. 
When the eggs hatch, the young larvae walk do-mi into the heart of such 
plants as maize and jvar. Some may be disturbed by the waving of 
the leaves by wind and let themselves down with silk and are thus blown 
on to neighbouring plants. They are active creatures, capable of waUc- 
ing over the ground to neighbouring plants and effecting their entrance 
into the stem through the side. In the worst cases the plants may be 
riddled by the larvae and maize and juar which are somewhat grown 
may not show " dead heart " although their stems may be bored through 
and through. The larvae pupate inside the stem. 

It is really a pest of maize, juar and rice. Maize is mainly attacked 
when young and practically wholly avoided when mature. Juar is 
however attacked in all stages. It occurs in rice throughout the season. 



Pnrje 3S6{1). 





Fig. 2.—C7tilo simplex, larva, lateral and dorsal views, >: 5. 



.(0881 .8 .0) x",\u 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 46. 

Fig. 1. CMlo simplex (C. S. 1580). 

a. Lateral, and, b, dorsal view of larva, x 5. 

c Details of spiracle on fifth segment, more highly magnified. 

d. Details of first prolog, seen from below, more highly magnified. 

{Note. — Anterior hair on right side of anal plate was absent in this specimen.) 



Fig. 2. CMlo simplex (C. S. 1561). 

a. Pupa, x5. 

h. Posterior segments of pupa, lateral view, moie highly magnified. 

c. Anal segment of pupa, ventral surface, more highly magnified. 



Poge .3S6{,2). 





Fig. l.—C'hilo iiii)>j)1ex (C. S. 1561) 



Page 3S6{3). 




t'hilo simplex (C. S. 1551). Moths > 5. The stnaller figures show the 
natural sizes. 



Pagc:iS7il). 




.^x\— r-tv i-^Y^''''Y^'''^^^^t^'^f^r^ 




p^^ 







Fig. I.—Biatiwa ainiciliu (C. S. 1574). 




Fig. 2.~Diati'ieii aiificUiti, (C. S. 1560). 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 48. 

Fig 1. Diatrcea auricilia (C. S. 1574). 

a. Lateral, and, h, dorsal view of larva, x 5. 

c. Details of spiracle on fifth segment, more higlilj' magnified. 

d. Details of proleg, seen from below, more liighly magnified. 

Fig 2. Diatrcea auricilia (C. S. 15G0). 

a. Pupa, X 5. 

b. Posterior segments of pupa, seen laterally, more highlymagnifi od. 

c. Anal segment of pupa, ventral surface, more highly magnified. 




I>LATE 4J9. 



Fig. 1.— Egg-cluster of Diotrwu aurlcilia (C S. 1787) x30. 




Fig. 2.— Eggs of DiutrtL'U venosatu ( < 24). 




Fig. 3.^Annual life-cycle of Diutraa veiio.satti. Fig. 4.— Annual life-cycle of Hiatraa aiiHvilia. 



PEOCEEUINGS OF THE THIKD EIs'TOMOLOGICAL MEETING ?87 

and in greatest numbers about October-November when the rice comes 
into ear. Hibernation and aestivation take place mainly in rice stubbles 
and jiiar stalks. 

Of all the borers in gramineous crops this is the most widespread 
and occurs in the largest numbers. 

The appearance of the caterpillars varies a little. The common 
form is shown in PI. 4.5. f. 2 in which there are distinct sub-dor.sal brown 
stripes with the warts indistinct. In a second form (PI. 4Q, f. 1) the sub- 
dorsal stripes approach one another on the back and practically meet- 
In a third form the stripes are rather indistinct and the warts prominent. 
This third form is not common. 



Diatraa auricilia (C. S. 1574). 

Plate 48 ; Plate 49, figs. 1,4. 
Foodplants — 

Sugarcane — Pusa ; Sipaya ; Sabour ; Munni, MuzafEarpur ; Chin- 
•surah ; Bankura ; Cawnpore ; Lyallpur ; Sukkur ; Landhi ; 
Manjri. 
Jitar {Andropogon Sorghum) — Pusa. 
Raihi and Batri (Saccharum spontaneuni) — Pusa. 
Ikri {Saccharum ftiscum) — Pusa. 
Jove grass (Rottboellia compressa) — Pusa. 
The localities mentioned above are the places where caterpillars 
have been collected iu the course of the last two years and definitely 
identified. Out of these foodplants it occurs in the largest numbers in 
batri and, next to that, in sugarcane. In the other foodplants it has 
been found occasionally and in small numbers. 

The seasonal history of this species too is very irregular. Some 
larvae begin to rest from about July and pupate and emerge as moths 
in the following March-April. Many caterpillars however, continue to 
be active up to about October when hibernation on a general scale 
commences. Moths have been obtained up to 15th November before 
winter and the earliest date after winter when moths have emerged 
from over-wintering larvae is the 12th March, on which date young larvae 
also have been collected from hairi. Durmg the active season the 
life-cycle occupies about five to six weeks, viz., egg about 3 days, larva 
about 30 days and pupa 7 to 8 days. Eggs are deposited iu the same 
maimer as observed in the case of Chilo simplex. The caterpillars bore 
in the middle of the stem. In sugarcane they occur more commonly 
in young shoots than in grown canes. In batri they occur in all stages 



388 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

of the plants. They pupate in the affected stems and the moths emerge 
through holes previously made by the larvae. (Plate 49, fig. 4.) 

The caterpillars have five brown stripes on a pale yellow body and 
show no variation or change in appearance. 

Diatrcea venosata (C. S. 1607). 
Plate 49, figs. 2,3 ; Plates 50, 51. 
Foodplants — 
Sugarcane. 
Sudan grass. 

RarJii and Batri — [Saccharum spontaneum). 
Juar — (Andropogon Sorghum) . 
Ikri (Saccharum fuscum). 
Bajrct {Pennisetum typhoideum). 
All these foodplants have been recorded in the neighbourhood of 
Pusa. The caterpillars occur largely in batri, Sudan grass and juar 
and only occasionally in the other plants. 

The seasonal history of this species is more regular than that of 
Chilo simplex and Diatrcea auricilia. Hibernation in the larval state 
commences about September and continues up to March-April when 
the over- wintering larvae pupate and emerge as adults. During the 
active season the life-cycle occupies about five to seven weeks, viz., 
egg about 6 days, larva about 21 to 30 days and pupa 9 to 11 days. 
Eggs are deposited in the same manner as Chilo simplex. The caterpillars 
feed inside the stem and have been observed to occur more in grown 
plants than in young ones, many of them being found in individual 
stems. Pupation takes place inside the tunnels in the affected stems. 
This insect is a real pest of juar among the cultivated crops. 
The caterpillars have large shining dark brown warts, usually with 
broad pinkish stripes along the line of the trapezoidal and supra-spira- 
cular warts. In some cases the stripes may be indistinct and in certain 
other cases again the warts may be indistinct. In hibernating iarvee 
both the stripes and warts may be indistinct. 

Diatrcea sp. (C. S. 1610).* 

Plates 52, 54, and 53, fig. 1. 

Foodplant — Sugarcane. 

This borer has so far been observed to be confined to Eastern Bengal 

and Assam, the western-most places where it has been found being 

Goalundo and Pabna. There has been no opportunity of investigating 

it properly. Therefore neither its seasonal history nor alternative 

* Since named by Sir George Hampson as Argyria tumidicosialis, Hmpsn. 




Fig. i.~Ttiaii (f'fi itiiosfifa (C. S. 1635). a, lateral, and b. doisfl vitw of Isiva > 4 ; ^. detail 
of spiracle of fifth segment, more higSily magnified ; r/, details of fist preleg, seen from bekw, 
more highly magnified. 





Fig. i.^liiotura vctuisata (C S. 1607) ; a. pupa 5 ; h, posterior segments of pupa, lateral 
view, more highly magnified ; r, anal segment of pupa, ventral surface, mcie highly msgnifed. ; 



Paqr .3SS{:2). 




Pfir. 3S9{1). 





Fig. 1.— Argyria tumidicostalis (C. S. 1610) 




Fig. 2.— Argyria tumidicostalis (C. S. 1610). 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 52. 
Fig. 1. Argyria tumidicostalis (C. S. 1610). 

a. Lateral, i, dorsal, and, c, ventral view of larva, x 4 
d. Details of spiracle on fifth segment, more highly magnified. 
' c. Details of jroleg, seen from below, more highly magnified. 

Fig. 2. Argyria tumidicostalis (C. S. 1610). 

a. Pupa, x4. 

6. Posterior segments of p'jpa, seen laterally, more highly magnified. 

c. Anal segment of pupa, ventral surface, more highly magnified. 



Page 389{2). 





Fig. \.—Ai(f!iri(i tiiHiidirostolis, Hmpsn. (C S. 1610), third form of larva. (Note.— The 
submedian hair on left side of penultimate segment was absent in this individual larva but 
was present on the right side.) 




Fig. 2.— Annual life-cycle of Jliiifrad sp. (C. S. 1674) 



I'lige 3SS(3). 




I'Pt^^ 



Aryijria tiiiiUdirotiUdin (fi.^.MAO). Moths ;<5. The smaller I 
indicate the natural sizes. 



PKOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



389 



foodplants are known. The larvse have been collected at Pabna in the 
latter part of August, at Dacca in July and September and at Jorhat, 
Assam, in August, in all cases in sugarcane. All of them developed into 
moths in August, September and before 2nd October. Mr. S. E. Gupta 
sent 138 larvse and 12 pupse from Jorhat in August 1918. Ninety- 
two of them developed into moths, 59 females and 33 males, between 
23rd August and 26th September. Almost all of them were tried for 
eggs in the Pusa Insectary without success. 

The full-grown larva is about 30 mm. long and cylindrical in shape. 
The head is red-brown, shiny. The prothoracic shield is large, dirty 
brown in colour and divided longitudinally by a faint marking. The 
general colour of the body is pale yellowish-white. The marking and 
warts on the body show the following variations : (1) There may be 
two broad slightly pinkish-bro-mi stripes on each side of the body, one 
subdorsal and the other supraspiracular, the dark brown large shiny 
w^arts being situated on these stripes ; such larvae closely resemble the 
active larvse of Dialrcea venosata. (2) The stripes may be indistinct, 
the warts' only being very prominent on the skin. (PI. 52, f. 1). These 
larvse too are liable to be mistaken for those of Biatrcea venosata. (3) 
The warts may be altogether indistinct, the stripes only being present 
in an interrupted manner and the two stripes on each side approaching 
each other at intervals (PI. 53, f. 1). Such larvse are Uable to be confused 
with those of CkUo simplex. (4) Both stripes and warts may be indis- 
tinct. Of these four types of larvse the second is the commonest. The 
morphological characters given in the key of the larval forms, on which 
the differentiation is based, are always constant. 

The caterpillars occur in large numbers m. individual plants which 
are literally riddled, some dust being thrown out from side-openings 
in the stem. They pupate inside the affected stems near previously- 
made holes through which the mature pupa wriggles out before the 
moth emerges. The pupa is brown and the characters given in the key 
of the pupal forms distinguish it sufficiently. Of all the internal borers 
so far observed this is the most injurious to grown-up canes. 

Biatrcea sp. (C. S. 1674). 
Plates 55. 56. 
Foodplants — 

Sugarcane — Dacca ; Pusa. 
Rice — Pusa ; Karimganj, Sylhet. 
This species is active from about February-March to October-Novem- 
ber, the winter being passed ia hibernation in the larval state. (Plate 
53, fig. 2). 



390 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

The caterpillars were found in some numbers in grown-up sugarcanes 
at Dacca in July and September, and have been observed at Pusa only 
in small numbers in rice from July to November and in grown canes in 
October. 

The larva closely resembles those of Diatrcea auricilia (C. S. 1574) 
and Rice Chilo (C. S. 1677), but can be distinguished With the help of 
the key. 

The full-grown larva is about 20 to 25 mm. long. The head is red- 
brown, shiay. The prothoracic shield is almost similarly coloured as 
the head and divided longitudinally ia the middle by a faint marking. 
The general colour of the body is pale yellow. There are five brown 
stripes on the back, one mid-dorsal and two on each side. In some 
larvee there is a black band on the iimer side of the abdomiaal prolegs. 

The pupa is rather slender-looking compared with the pupae of the 
other borers and either brownish-grey or brown in colour. On the head 
end just above the eyes there is a transverse ridge the two ends of which 
protrude slightly in the form of a pair of short horns. The prothoracic 
spiracles are rather large arching ridges and the abdominal ones are 
protuberant short tubes with clear holes. These characteristics dis- 
tiuguish it altogether from the pupae of the other borers. 



The Rice Chilo (C. S. 1677). 

Plates 57,58. 

Foodplant — Rice. 

This species has not yet been observed to occur ia any other plant. 
In the Insectary the larvae fed on maize and sugarcane stems. But it 
was evident that they did not like these two plants and were compelled 
to bore them in the absence of rice. 

As a general rule, the caterpillars hibernate in rice stubbles from about 
the end of November to about March, the over- wintering larvae pupating 
and emergiug as moths on a large scale in March to May. But moths 
have been observed to emerge up to 12th November before winter and 
on 5th, 13th and 20th January and 2nd, 18th, 20th, 25th and 28th 
February. The early- emerging moths breed in early-sown rice ; larvae 
have been collected in desaria rice in April. Up to about September 
the larvae are found in rice in small numbers. They occur in large 
numbers when rice comes into ear in October and November. This is 
why we observe such large numbers of the larvaa in rice stubbles in 
winter. 





1^ 





Fig. 1.—7>yVf^i■(f'r/ sp. in sugarcane at Dacca (C. S. 1674). a. lateral, and b, 
dorsal view of larva, 4 ; r. details of spiracle en fifth segment, more fiighly 
magnified; r/, details of first proleg, seen from below, more highly magnified. 





Fig. 2.—J>i(itr<i(i sp. in sugarcane at Dacca (C S. 1674). ti. Pupa ; 5. [b, Posterior 
segments of pupa, seen laterally more highly magnified ; c, anal segment of pupa, 
ventral surface, more highly magnified. 



Page 39l}{2). 









^&^^^M 



1* '*«» 





(C. S. 1674). Moths 5. The smaller figures show the natural sizes. 



Page 390(3). 




Fig. 1.—C. S. 1677 ; f/. larva, side-view 5; f>, larva, dorsal view ; 5; (-.details 
of spiracle ; d, arrangement of crochets on proleg of larva. 





Fig. 2. — Rice Chilo in rice at Pusa (C. S. 1677). <t, pupa : 5 ; h, posterior segments of 
pupa, seen laterally, more highly magnified ; r, anal segment of pupa, ventral surface, more 
highly magnified. 



Page M(4) 



PLATE 58. 




Fig. 1.— C. S. 1677. Moths 5 The smaller figures indicate the 
natural sizes 




Fig. 2. Annual lile-cycle of Rice Chilo (C. S. 1677). 



Page 391(1). 



t^LAtt £S. 




Fig. 1.^(C. S. 1769). (I, larva, lateral view 5 ; />. larva, dorsal view ; 5 ; f , details of spiracle ; 
</, arrangement of crochets on proleg. 




^\ xVaC^^"^ 



Fig. 2.— (C. S. i769). Borer in kanra stem ; moth, natural size and magnified. 



Page 391(2). 



PLATE 60. ^ 




Fig. 1.— (C. S. 1769). i(. pupa, posterior portion from side ( 13) ; b, anal segment of pupa, end 
view, more highly magnified. 







Fig. 2. (C S. 1795). a, posterior portion of pupa, 
magnified ; h. anal segment of pupa, posterior 
view, magnified. 



Fig. 3.^(C. S. 1795). Borer in ihri 
stem ; moth, natural size and 
magnified. 



PKOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING dyi 

Eggs are deposited in the same manner as those of Chilo simplex. 
The caterpillars bore inside the stems and also pupate there. The 
iullgrown larva measures about 20 mm. in length, and tapers slightly 
at the extremities. The young larvae have practically the same thick- 
ness throughout their length. The head is yellow and the prothoracic 
shield paler than the head. The body is pale-yellow and, in the case 
of hibernating larvae, greyish. The five stripes on the back are grey- 
brown. The pupa is about 12 mm. long and yellow-brown in colour. 
The surfaces of the fifth, sixth and seventh abdominal segments are 
practically, smooth, a very faint roughness being observable at the 
anterior part of their back under a high-power lens. 



Chilo sp. (C. S. 1769). 

Plate 59 ; Plate 60, fig. 1. 
Foodplants — 

Kanra {Saccharum arundinaceuni). 
Ikri (Saccharum fuscum). 

The caterpillars were found in small numbers in these two plants 
in March- April. They were boring new shoots and causing " dead 
heart." 

The fullgrown caterpillar is about 25 mm. long. The head is dark 
red-brown, shiny ; the prothoracic shield similarly coloured as the head 
and divided longitudinally in the middle. The general colour of the 
body is pale yellowish- white with promiaent shiny warts. The dorsal 
vessel is visible and looks like a stripe. 

The caterpillars pupate in the stem near previously-made holes 
through which the moths emerge. The pupa is dark-brown in colour. 



Diatrcea sp. (C. S. 1795). 

Plate 60, figs. 2,3. 

Foodplant — Ikri [Saccharum fuscum). 

The caterpillars were found in very small numbers in March. They 
have a red-brown shiay head, a large brown plate on the prothorax 
and prominent warts on a pale-yellow body. The pupa is brown. 



392 pitocr.F.DiNGS of the third entomological meeting 
Chilo SID. (C. S. 1831). 
Plate 61 ; Plate 62, fig. 1. 

Foodplant — Rarhi and Batri {SaccJianim spontaneum). 

The caterpillars were found in small numbers from July to September 
boring in the stems of grown-up plants. 

The fullgrown larva is about 18 to 20 mm. long, with a glossy yellow- 
brown head, a shiny yellow shield on the prothorax and a pair of broad 
brick-reddish stripes on each side of a pale-yellow body. The dis- 
tinguishing characters are given in the key of the larval forms of borers. 
The larva pupates inside the stem. The pupa is brown. 

Chilo sp. (C. S. 1835). 

Plate 62, fig. 2 ; Plate 63. 
Foodplant — 

Ikri (Saccharum fuscmn). 

The larvee fed on juar (Andropogon) stem in the Insectary. 

The caterpillars were found in small numbers and boring near the 
top of the stems and causing " dead heart." A young caterpillar 
collected on 12th March died on 10th May without pupating. Cater- 
pillars collected on 5th July pupated and emerged before the 3rd Sejjtem- 
ber, the pupal stage occupying 12 days. 

The larva attains a length of about 21 mm. and is rather thick in 
appearance, measuring about 3-25 mm. across the mesothorax fi-om 
which the body tapers slightly both ways. The head is brown-yellow 
and glossy. The prothorax is pale-yellow and rather glossy. The 
other two thoracic and the abdominal segments have on the dorsal side 
above the spiracles a purplish tinge on the pale-yellow skin, the purjDlish 
marking being deeper in the dorsolateral region and almost disappearmg 
on the dorsal region. The dorsal vessel is visible hke a faint and some- 
what Laterrupted stripe. 

The larva pupates inside the aft'ected stem. The pupa is about 
15 mm. long and yellow-brown in colour. The head has a thick short 
protuberant ridge on the front. The primary tubercles on the body of 
the larva develop into strong prominent spines on the body of the pupa. 
The spines are pointed, have a broad base and a hair arising from the 
side below the tip. 



Page 392(1). 



PLATE 



s:5;ilj5^p^f$^ •, .- , ., ^ 




Fig. 1. (C. S. 1831). a, larva, side-view 5 ; f>. larva, dorsal view 5 ; r. spiracle 
mure highly magnified ; il. arrangement of crochets on proleg of larva. 





Fig. 2.— Pupa of (C.S. 1831), Borer in rarhi \ a, pupa 5 ; h. posterior extremity 
of pupa, side-view, more highly magnified ; r, posterior extremity of pupa, anal vitw, 
more highly magnified. 



Pnge 392(2). 




Fig. 2.— (C. S. 1835). Borer in Sacchmnim fusctim, 
natural size and magnified ( x 5). 



Fig. 1.— Borer in >'»>■/< /stem (C.S. 1831). IMoths 
x5. Th3 smaller figures indicate the natural 



fagt 392(i). 




I 



Fig 1 —Borer in ihii (C. S. 1835). u. larva, side-view 5; h. ifcisal 
view 5 , c, details of spiracle ; tl, arrangement cf crcchits en rreieg. 




Fir <— (C. S. 1835). Pupa of borer in ;/.(•/ ; n. side-view, magnified : 5 : 
b. posterior extremity, sid>yi€w, more highly magnified ; c. a single spine 
more highly magnified ; <l. anal segment, highly magnified. 



PcKjc 393. 




Fig. 1.— Pyralid larva boring in Savcharmu f<pont<nniini 3. 




Fig. 2.— (F- 18). Borer in ihii stem. (The smaller figure shows the 
natural size.) 



PKOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAI, MEETINO 393 

? Pyralid borer. 
Plate 64, fig. 1. 
Foodplant — Rarhi and Batri (Saccharum spontaneum). 

These caterpillars, which we have not yet been successful in rearing, 
occur in very large numbers. The hard stems of grown-up plants are 
converted into hollow tubes throughout their length, a single larva 
usually occurring in individual plants. The heart shoot dies and dries 
only when the larva bores near the top. 

The insect has only one generation in the year. Young larvae are 
found about July and they feed up to about the early part of November, 
by which time they become fullgrowu. Then they rest through the 
winter and the hot weather, pupating and emerging as moths about 
June-July. The larvae have been observed to rest in the Insectary up 
to the middle of August and then die. 

The fullgrown larva is about 35 mm. long. The shape is cylindrical 
or rather semicylindrical being slightly compressed dorsoventrally. The 
head is glossy-yellow. The segments of the body have an elongated 
and slightly chitinized and glossy appearance. The hairs are small 
and black. The spiracles are elongated oval, brown with a dark narrow 
rim. The five pairs of prolegs are short, equally developed and have 
their booklets iu complete circles. 

' Pyralid borer. (Plate 64, fig. 2). 

Foodplant — Ikri (Saccharum fuscum). 
A caterpillar with a glossy yellow-brown head and the body havuig 
a green colour on the ventral surface and the sides and dorsally a browmish 
tinge on the prothorax, pink on the mesothorax and deep pink or rather 
red on the rest of the segments, was observed to occur in large numbers 
iu March. They fed on sugarcane stems in the Insectary but could not 
be reared. 

1 Pyralid borer. 
Foodplant — Batri {Saccharum spontaneum batri). 
A rather slender-bodied, pale-yellow caterpillar, with a yellow head, 
reddish-brown patches in the subdorsal region of the segments of the 
body arranged in longitudinal rows on the back and a very prominent 
visible broad brown tracheal tube running from the thoracic to the 
last abdominal spiracle on each side, was collected in small numbers 
in June. It could not be reared. 



394 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

Ramila ruficostalis (C. S. 1533). 

Plate 65, fig. 1. 

Foodplant— Bamboo. 

A few caterpillars were collected from tlie top shoots of bamboo 

branches showing " dead heart " on 10th January. They had bored 

the twigs and were apparently hibernating. They continued to rest 

and pupated in March, emerging on 26th March. 

Argyroploce paragramma (C. S. 1631). 
Plate 65, fig. 2. 
Foodplant — Tender bamboo shoots. 
The caterpillars are very common in the rainy season, infesting 
and boring new bamboo shoots as they come out of the ground. Gene- 
rally a great many caterpillars are found in the same shoot bormg the 
stem, completely hidden under the leafsheaths. They are responsible 
for the death of a fair percentage of the new shoots. 

Bactra truculenta (C. S. 1489). 

Foodplant — Mootha {Cyperiis rotimdus). 
The caterpillars of this Eucosmid moth were found boring the stems 
in October. 

Heliothis obsoleta. 
Plate 66. 

Foodplants — Gram ; tobacco ; pigeon-pea (Cajanus indicus); mangel- 
wurzel ; lucerne ; hemp {Cannabis sativa) ; Tchesari (Lathyrus sativus); 
wheat ; vol (Dolichos lablab) ; flax ; oats ; castor ; bajra {Pennisetum 
typhoideum) ; maize ; tomato ; onion ; indigo ; rose ; Dhutra (Datura 
stramonium) ; pumpkin ; sweet-potato ; sunflower ; cottonbud ; 
marua (Eleusine coracana) ; ban-bhindi (Malachra capitata) ; 
Physalis peruviana. 

In the neighbourhood of Pusa Heliothis obselota occurs in large 
numbers only on gram and arhar {Cajanus indicus) of which they bore 
the pods. Sometftaes the caterpillars occur in small numbers on maize 
of which the tender cob or the soft part of the top of the stem is bored, 
■ Similarly they occur in small numbers on bajra heads which are bored. 




Fig. ^.-Baiiiitfi rufirosfali-< 5. The smaller figure shows Ihe natural size. 



Page .79^(2). 




Fig. 2.-~Aryi/foj)Iocf jnirdf/raiiniia (C. S. 1631). fi, bamboo shoot with cuter 
sheathing leaves removed, showing bore-hole of larva ; h, larva, natural i'ne tid 
magnified ( 51 ; r. pupa, natural size and magnified ( 5) ; </, imsgo, natuia! si^e and 
magnified ( 5). 



EXPLANATION OP PLATE 66. 

Heliothis obsoleta, Fb. 

Pig. I. An egg laid on a tur-pod (magnified). 

Figs. 2—5. Caterpillars on a gram plant, two eating into the pods (life-size). 

Fig. 6. Pupa in its underground «all (life-size). 

Fig. 7. Moth in repose (life-size). 

Fig. 8 Moth with wings expanded (life-size). 



4bsf)in:D«ni) boq-tui it no biiil a^t aA .1 ^'9 

.(•»It-«Mt) iifxxi 9rf.1 otni snil»' ow* .Jnalq m«ia a no inalliqiaJaO .?.— S .«8ra 

HTipi'if) l!«^i"-' I << ni <iqu^ .8 .gi'i 

./uife.-.lil iwfrfJoll 8 RiH 



PLATE 66. 



4 



%J::.:^ 



# 

^^i 




f^|^« 



m^ 










HELIOTHIS OBSOLETA. 



Pagf. 303. 




Fij. l.— ltds/urs riif/o'-clhn (C. S. 1873), larva. ( The smaller figuM shJW5 the 
natural size.) 




I'ltOCEEDI.NGS OF THE 'JH7KD EiVTOlIOLOGICAL MEETIXO 395 

Dasyses rugosellus (C. S. 1873). 

Plate 67. 

Food — Usually decaying vegetable matter. 

Caterpillars of this motli were observed to feed gregariously by boring 
inside sugarcane stems wliicli had been affected by fungal diseases 
following the attack of borers such as Scirpophaga and Diatrcea. They 
did not infest healthy canes. They exuded a profuse amount of silk 
with w-hich the pellets of excreta were webbed up into tube-like galleries. 

The caterpillars were observed to hibernate from about October to 
February. Pupation took place in oval silken cocoons covered over 
with pellets of excreta. Moths emerged in March. 

The damage to sugarcane caused by borers. 

Let us commence with the planting of the setts in the ground. The 
setts are Uable to be eaten by termites. A short account of what is 
being done to prevent this damage has been given when dealing with 
these insects. When the new shoots appear they are liable to be attacked 
by Termites, Mole-crickets, Melolonthid grubs and other external agents, 
as well as by all the internal borers mentioned under this crop. Of the 
internal borers, however, usually only Scirpophaga spp. and Diatrcea 
auricilia are common at this stage at Pusa, the others occurring in 
small numbers. The fungal diseases also may appear at this time. 
The first external symptom of attack by all these destructive agents is 
" dead heart." The infested shoots are either killed and become entirely 
dry or continue to be green for some time with their heart-shoot dead 
and dry. The effect however, is the same in all cases, m^., their further 
growth is stopped. Except when affected by fungal diseases, all such 
shoots throw out new shoots from the base, giving rise to the tillering 
effect so commonly observed. Many of the new shoots or tillers also 
are attacked in their turn. This struggle between the shoots and their 
enemies goes on and only those of the shoots which escape being attacked 
continue to grow. Those which have grown somewhat and formed 
stems (canes) become immune against some of the enemies but their 
growth may be stopped at a later stage, as they remain Hable throughout 
their Ufe to be bored at the top by Scirptophaga spp., in the stem by 
the species of Diatrcea, Sesamia and Chilo, and at the roots by Termites 
and Emmalocera. E. depressella itself cannot kill a grown-up cane but 
the fungal diseases, to which its tunnel affords access, do the work for 
it. Termites may kill a grown-up plant and, even when they merely 



396 r-HOCEEDINGS OF THE THIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

gnaw the surface and do not kill it themselves, fungal diseases follow. 
When fungal diseases affect the base of the stem usually the entire cane 
dries up. The borers in the grown cane itself, observed at Pusa in the 
course of the last two seasons, did not prove to be serious. They are 
the same which infest the young shoots. They do not however occur 
in large numbers in in(^vidual plants and one or two caterpillars in the 
stem of a grown-up plant are not able to kill it or retard its growth 
seriously, although a single larva is sufficient to kill a young shoot. 
Besides, they seem to prefer young shoots to grown-up canes and, as 
there are plenty of young shoots always in the field, the majority of 
the grown canes escape being attacked. The tunnel of the borers in 
the stem always opens externally and affords access to fungal diseases, 
which in extreme cases may cause the upper part of the cane to dry 
up. The effect of fungal diseases in grown canes is observed to be slow. 
Sometimes the tunnel of the borers may run across the stem in such a 
manner as to cause it to break at that point or to stop further growth 
above it. When growth stops in this manner vigorous plants put forth 
side shoots (PL 68, f. 1 a, c, d). The effect of attack at the top by 
Scirpophaga caterpillars is always to stop further growth and the 
plants may either wither from the top downwards or put forth 
side-shoots (fig. 2 and fig. lb). No other borer attacks grown canes 
at the top. 

The planting of cane is usually done about February and the greatest 
injury to the crop is caused by the borers in the young stage and up 
to about July. By this time some plants are grown and become partly 
immune, the harvest being obtained principally from these plants. As 
will appear from records of actual observations given below of two 
varieties of thick canes, viz., Purple Mauritius and Sathi No. 131, on 
the average, out of every four shoots which grow only one comes to be 
harvested, the other three being killed at various stages of growth, 
mainly by the injurious activities of insects and fungal diseases. All 
thick varieties seem to be liable to a similar amount of damage. Thin 
varieties are however more resistant. A rough idea of the comparative 
immunity of thick and thin varieties may be formed from column 6 
in Table V giving the number of harvestable canes out of every 100 
■setts planted. 

The experiments of 1917. 
In November 1916 a plot I acre in area in Chaunia field at Pusa was 
planted with Purple Mauritius. In Table I, the percentage of affected 
plants, including dry ones as well as those with " dead heart," and 
the proportion of the agents of damage are shown. 





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Total No. of 

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dry and 

with dead 

heart 


504 
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3,022 
3,436 
3,547 
3,145 
2,143 
6,499 


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6,855 
10,147 
11,820 
14,152 
18,302 
16,468 
12,062 
15,994 


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15th March 1918 . 
25th-26thMaich 1918 . 
13th April 1918 .... 
28th-29th April 1918 . 
16th-17thMay 1918 
2l8t-24th June 1918 . 
27th-31st July 1918 
8th-9th October* 1918 . 
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5th October 1918 . 
8th October 1918 . 


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lliOCEEDIXCiS OF THE IHIKD EMOiIOLOGIC.\L MEETING 407 

As regards growth, in the middle of April 1917, the plants in the plot 
planted in November 1916 were slightly ahead of those of the plot 
planted in February. But the difference in growth did not indicate 
a difference of four months in planting. The difference disai3peared by 
May. As regards yield the plot planted in November was better than 
that planted in February. This result, however, cannot be depended 
upon as conclusive. 

From the two plots of Purple Mauritius all the aff'ected plants 
examined on the different dates given in Tables I and II were cut out 
with the insects. No other plot was similarly treated. 

The Experiments of 1918. 

In February 1918 two half-acre plots of Sathi No. 131 were planted, 
one for treatment by cutting out and removing plants and shoots which 
were dry or showed " dead heart " together with the insects found in 
them, and the other to be left untreated as a check. The two plots 
were in an area known as the Brickfield at some distance from the main 
sugarcane area of the Farm in Jhilli. They were practioally similar 
as regards soil and were not contiguous, having about half-an-acre of 
indigo between them. This field was previously a piece of wasteland 
overgrown with Saccharum spontaneiim and Imperala arundinacea and 
was even now bordered by similar wastelands on the west side, as will 
appear from the plan. The setts, about a foot in length, were examined 
by the Entomological and Mycological Assistants against borers and 
Red Rot. For the treated plot the setts were dipped in lead arsenate 
solution (lib. of Thompson Chemical Co.'s 40 per cent, lead arsenate 
in 2 gallons cold water) and dried in the shade before being planted, 
5lbs. lead arsenate being used for about 9.000 setts. 

The setts were planted in furrows made with a plough and, before 
the furrows were filled up with the harrow, powdered oilcake was sprinkled 
in them. Both the plots were weeded in the third week of June, powdered 
oilcake was sprinkled near the base of the plants and their bases earthed 
up by driving a ridging plough between the rows of plants. No further 
cultivation was given to either of the plots. As usual with the cultiva- 
tion of sugarcane at Pusa no irrigation was given. Between the 7th 
and 13th August both the plots were submerged in water, the water 
standing a few inches above the ground. The water was pumped out 
by the 13th and 14th August but the furrows between the rows of sugar- 
canes remained full and the soil did not dry or become fit to be walked 
on before the middle of September. 

Both the plots were examined on various dates, the actual number 
of plants and those with " dead heart " or dry being noted, and the 



408 PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

afiected plants in the treated .plot being cut out at intervals. The 
results of examination are given in Tables VI to X. The work of the 
different agents of damage is shown in Table VIII. In Table XI are 
shown the final results of the two plots and also the results of examin- 
ation of the thick varieties of sugarcane grown by the Farm in Jhilli. 

As has been indicated in the plan, portions of both the plots adjoining 
the wasteland became bare. This was practically due to termites which 
ate the setts as well as the new shoots. The figures in Table VIII relate 
only to the shoots which grew and were then attacked and not to the 
setts which were eaten underground by the termites. The crop was 
obtained only from the shaded portion of each plot as indicated in the 
plan, which in the case of the treated plot was about 13,544 sq. feet 
and in that of the untreated plot about 18,281 sq. feet. In calculating 
the harvested result given in Table XI the entire plots including the 
bare parts have been taken into consideration. (See Plate 69.)j| 

If we exclude the bare portion of each plot and calculate on the 
approximate number of setts which covered only the shaded parts 
which yielded the harvest, the number of canes which came to harvest- 
able stage represents 111 per cent, of setts in the treated and 116 per 
cent, of setts in the untreated plot. The weight of canes harvested 
was 6,550 lb. in the treated and 11,440 lb. in the untreated plot. 
Taking only the shaded portions of both the plots into consideration 
the yield worked out at 21,066 lb. per acre in the treated and 27,259 lb. 
per acre in the untreated plot. 

Therefore, we see that the cutting out treatment, instead of helping 
the crop, actually does some harm to it. The same effect was observed 
in the 1917 experiment with Purple Mauritius. The yield of the treated 
plot of Purple Mauritius given in colunm 6 of Table V may be com- 
pared with the yield of the same cane in 1918 given in Table XI. The 
reason of the inefiicacy of the treatment is obvious. " Dead heart " 
in young canes is caused by various agents which- are not removed 
simply by the removal of the shoots with " dead heart.'' Scirpophaga 
is the only insect which is likely to be removed if the shoot is cut before 
the moth emerges. Diatrcea and other internal borers usually five so 
far down the base of the new shoots that the majority of them are left 
behind unless the shoot is cut near its point of growth from the sett. 
In order to counteract the evil effects of borer attack the quicker and 
more the tillering the better. The cutting-out treatment interferes 
with tillering, as invariably some of the new side shoots, which begin 
to grow from the affected ones, are either injured or removed in the 
operation. Therefore the treatment causes a set-back to the crop 



Page dOS. 



y~>rnUu ^lot- 




Plan of the two experimental plots of Stithi No. 131 Sugarcane in Brickfield area in Pusa Farm. The crop was obtained 
from the shaded portions. The unshaded portions became bare. Scale should read 1 to 80 . 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD El^TOilOLOGICAL MEETING 409 

It is better to let the crop grow undisturbed, especially in its earlier 
stage. 

But the borers are there and they cause a serious loss. As has been 
pointed out already, out of every four shoots only one is allowed 
to come to the harvesting stage, the other three being killed principally 
by the borers. Even when the plants are allowed to grow, in many 
of them biaiKhing is brought about by their injurious activities at the 
expense of growth. The ideal condition would be to allow the first 
shoots to grow. Mr. M. L. Kulkaini in his paper read at the Science 
Congress, 1918, and reprinted in Agricl. Journal of India (Special Sc. 
Congress Ko., 1818) on- experiments in planting sugarcane setts, gives a 
photograph of a very thick uniformly grown crop, raised from setts 
with single eyebuds and planted with the bud upwards. The tillers 
were not allowed to grow. At Pusa and probably in most places the 
borers make such a crop impossible. On account of the borers and 
other agents of damage the return from the outlay in the cultivation of 
sugarcane, especially the thick varieties, is less than 50 per cent, of what 
it ought to be. 

Damage to Eice by Borers. 

In the neighbourhood of Pusa various kinds of rice are grown accord- 
ing to the nature of the lands. 

The earliest rice to be sown is locally known as Desaria which is grown 
in deep chavrs, i.e., lew maithy places which allow water to accumulate 
to a depth of about 10 or 12 feet or more. The seeds are sown in seed- 
beds Ebout February and the seedlings transplanted into the chaws 
as soon as water begins to collect in them. The harvesting is done along 
■^yith winter paddy in November-December. 

The second kind of rice may be broadly called Aus or, as locally 
named, Bhadai. It includes various varieties, some being broadcasted 
and others transplanted. For the transplanted varieties the seed is 
£0^n in seed-beds about March, the transplanting being done as early 
ag possible in May or June. The broadcasted varieties are usually 
sown about May-June and generally on slightly higher lands. The 
harvesting is done about September. 

The third kind is Aman or winter paddy, which also includes broad- 
casted and transplanted varieties and which is grown both in chaurs 
with shallow water and in higher places. For the transplanted varieties 
seeds are sown in seed-beds about April-May and transplanted about 
July. F^-"^ *^® broadcasted varieties the seeds are sown about May- 
June. About four-fifths or more of the rice-growing tracts in the neigh- 
bourhood of Pusa grow Aman paddy. 



4iU TROCEEDINGS OF THE TITIKD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 

There has been no opportunity of examining Desaria paddy. Both 
Aus and Aman varieties were kept under observation in different fields 
a short description of which is given below. 

Dhougamma chaur is about 400 acres in area. About 100 acres 
in the middle remains permanently under water. 

IJarpur chaur, about 250 acres in the area, is a somewhat marshy 
land. 

Guzarmalla, a high land, is about 30 acres in area. 

Deopar Gonhri, a high land, is about 40 acres in area. 

Jhilli, a high land, is about 60 acres in area. 

Sweepers' plot, consisting of about one or two acres in area, is in 
the trenching ground within the Pusa Estate. 

The method of examination was as follows ; Plots 5 yards x 5 yards 
were marked out at different places in the fields and the plants which 
showed " dead heart " or were dry within this area were counted. In 
order to get an approximate number of the plants growing within 
5 yards x 5 yards, the plants within an area of 1 yard X 1 yard anywhere 
within the 5x5 area were counted. Plants standing in water as well 
as in dry ground were selected for examination. The results of examina- 
tion of the plants at various periods of their growth are given in Table 
XII. The amount of damage in the different plots and in the different 
fields varied, it being more in some and less in others. Table XII gives 
an idea of average damage over large tracts. The damage hardly 
exceeds about 4 per cent.* 

The results of the examination of stubbles in five of the fields men- 
tioned above, excepting Dhougamma and Harpur chaurs, are given in 
Table XIII. 

From the stubbles which showed signs of borer attack the percentage 
of damage was calculated to vary from 14 to 55 in the various countings 
and to be about 29 on the average. This percentage would indicate 
the proportion of chaff in the harvested grain. Actually, however, as 
will appear from Table XII, giving results of the examination of growing 
rice, the damage at no period of the growth of the plants exceeded about 
4 per cent, and usually it was much less than 2 per cent. All the four 
principal borers, viz., S. inferens, Chilo simplex, Rice Chilo and Schosno- 
bius bipunctifer, appear on a large scale in October-November when the 
plants put forth ears. At this time a large number of young larvae of 
all these borers is found in individual plants, the maximum number 

* It must be pointed out that this figure represents the state of affairs only in a 
-email district in North Bihar. In other parts of India the damage is certainly much 
greater. In Madras, for example, the average loss may be taken as ten per cent., repre- 
senting a money value of approximately one hundred millions of rupees every year 
iin this Presidency alone. 



rEOCEEDlNGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 41] 











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412 PHOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



h 


Schainobius 

larva! in total 

number 

shown in 


9-6 
210 

40-7 


8 

S 

i 

i 


it 


22-9 
63-6 


1 


63-6 
14-8 

31-8 


ii 


12-7 
4-9 

14-6 


•1 § 


0-8 


lift 


11 § g 


No. of stems 
which had 

been 
damaged 
by borers 


2,109 
2,001 

1,260 
5,317 


No. of stems 
examined 

7,255 
6,484 

4,775 
18,514 




Dates between which stubbles 

were collected and 

examined 


5th-20th December 1917 . 

25th January to 28th Febru- 
ary 1918 . 

18th-21st March 1918 . 
Total 



I'ROCKEDI 



NGS OE THE TUIED ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 413 









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riiOCEEDIXGS OF THE THIKD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



actually found being as many as 72. These young caterpillars spread 
after a short time and go into other plants ; but by that time the grains 
are formed and developed so that although many plants are bored they 
are observed to have sound ears. Three 2i j'ards x 2J j'ards plots 
were selected at random at Bhoraha which showed a bad attack, just 
before harvest, and the results of the examination are given in Table 
XIV. The plants in columns 6 and 7 of this Table must have been 
attacked before the crop came into ear and many of them were young 
undeveloped shoots the tillers of which developed and bore ears. As 
will appear from this Table, no correct idea can be formed of the actual 
damage by the borers from an examination of the stubbles. 

The presence of a large number of hibernating larvae, at least of some 
species, in the stubbles of a field does not seem to affect the crop in the 
next year. In September 1917 large numbers of Rice Chilo caterpillars^ 
were obtained in the sweepers' plot within the Estate. In 1918 there 
was hardly any Rice ChiJo in this plot. 



Damage to Juar (Andropogon sorghum) by Borers. 
In the young state juar is very liable to be affected by Muscid flies 
and throughout its grown-up state by the other borers mentioned under 
it. Chilo simplex and Diatrcea venosata are however, the most injurious. 
Both these borers hibernate in large numbers in juar stalks, individual 
stalks harbouring as many as twenty or even more hibernating larvse. 

Twenty-five varieties oi juar were growTi in small plots (one-fortieth 
of an acre) in the permanent experimental area of the Pusa Farm in 1918. 
The result of examination of them in the first week of November is 
given in Table XV. 



Table XV. — The varieties of Juar in small plots were side by side in the 
Punjab experimental area excepting No. 25, Dura, ivhich was at 
some distance. 





Farm 
No. 


Variety 


Counted 6th Nov- 
ember 1918 




Serial 

No. 


Total No. 

of plants 

in the 

plot 


No. of 
aftecteti 
plants 


Insects found in two affooted 
plants brought for examination 


1 
4 


IB 

2B 

3A 


Emphie juar . . 
Nilvajuar . 
Utavali juar 

Simdliia juar 


777 
911 
832 

847 


10 

8 

13 


3 J), venosafa larvje. 

1CA& «•»,;,/« lari-a. 

No living larva or grub or pupa 

S Chilo sh,,ph;rhTV^ 



PBOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 



415 



Tablz XV. — The varieties of Juar in small plots were side bij side in the 
Punjab experimental area excejiting No. 25, Dura, tvhich ivas at 
some distance ~coi\t A. 





Farm 
No. 


Variety 


Counted Oth No- 
vember 1913 




Serial 
No. 


Total No. 

of plants 

in the 

plot 


No. of 
affected 
plants 


Insects found in two affected 
plants brought for examination 


5 


3B 


Black Hall Kuslag. 


65 


21 


6 Chilo simplex larva>. 


6 


3C 


White Parre 


28 


12 


16 ChUo simplex larv*. 


7 


3D 


Maucher Brown . 


63 


18 


7 ChUo simplex larvse. 


8 


3E 


EedEaBfer . 


78 


9 


1 C*i7o simplex larva. 


9 


4A 


Black Hall Kaffer . 


90 


* 


1 CUlo simplex larva; some 
stunted by fly maggots. 


10 


4B 


Dwarf Kaffer 


109 


None. 




11 


4C 


Standard Melo juar 


94 


11 


10 Cliilo simplex larva?, 1 para- 
sitic grub. 


12 


4D 


Dwarf Melo . . 


169 


IS 


■iCIiilo simplex Im-x. 


13 
14 


4E 
5A 


WliiteJIclo . 
Local juar* . 


252 
292 


4 
None. 


6 V. mwsala larvte, 6 Cliilo 
simplex larva;. 


15 


5B 


Emphie or Impey juar . 


29G 


11 


6 ChUo simplex larva". 


16 


6A 


Alakhjuar . 


158 


6 


3 ChUo simplex larvse. 


17 


6B 


White Turee 


201 


24 


10 Chtto simplex larvte (about 5 
halt-grown). 


18 


7A 


Red Sathree 


189 


9 


9 Chilo simplex larvse. 


19 


7B 


Nilvajuar . . . 


217 


4 


1 Chilo simplex larva. 


20 


8A 


Utavali 


206 


10 


1 Chilo simplex larva, 1 1). 
venosata larva. 


21 


8B 


Sundhiajuar 


227 


24 


14 Chilo simplex larvie. 


22 


9A 


Ehaudiajuar 


248 


13 


lCT,«osm./;to larva. 


23 


19B 


Hundi juar . 


97 


3 


iChilosimpUxh\tvt<!. 


24 


10 


Shalujuar . 


041 


54 


' ^^^si::;ix' ^-'^ ^"^ "' 


25 




Dura .... 


126 


86 


2 Chilo simplex larv» 1 para- 
sitized. 



By " afiected " plants are meant those only wliich sliowed signs of 
being bored by borers. Two affected plants from each plot were brought 
and examined to see what the borers were. The borer larvae found were 
all grown-up. 

With regard to local juar, in 1917 up to about May there was a large 
area grown as a rabi crop in Jhilli and it was entirely free from borers, 
although there were large numbers of Chilo simplex and Sesamia inferens 
in the contiguous maize crop. 

VOL. I 2 E 



416 rnocEBDiNGS of the thibd entomological meetino 

For entomological observation the following plants were grown in 
^ acre plots side by side : 

Maize Juar. Bnjra. Sudan Guinea Rarhi Batri 

(Impey grass grass 

variety). 

At a distance of about 200 yards from this variety plot there was 
in the trenching ground about 2 acres of winter paddy, there being 
no other rice within about half a mile. All of the above remained on 
the ground fi-om about June to November. Rarhi and hatri did not 
have good growth as they require well-developed roots which cannot 
grow unless they be at a place for a few years continuously. 

In i]xQJuar, Chilo simplex occurred in large numbers, Diatrcea venosata 
in smaller numbers and Sesamia inferens in still smaller numbers. 
Between 11th and 16th October, out of 3,174 plants in the entire plot, 
501 were observed to have been bored in the stem and each stem to 
harbour from 3 to 8 larva3 and pupae of Chilo simplex. The affected 
plants were cut and kept under observation. The caterpillars hibernated 
in them. 

In Sudan grass, Chilo simplex and Diatrcea venosata occurred to the 
same extent as mjuar. 

In maize, Chilo simplex and Sesamia inferens, the latter in smaller 
numbers, occurred up to about August. In the ripening plants there 
was hardly any borer. 

In bajra there was no borer. Only one Chilo simplex larva was 
observed in the entire plot. This crop is usually observed to be practi- 
cally immune. 

In Guinea grass there was no borer. 

In rarhi, Diatrcea auricilia occurred in small numbers. 

In batri, Diatrcea auricilia and the Zeuzerid borer (C. S. 1696) occurred 
in small numbers. 

In the neighbouring rice plot hardly any Chilo simplex occurred al- 
though it was occurring in numbers on rice outside the Pusa Estate. 



Parasites and Predators. 

Special attention has not been paid to parasites of the borers but 
parasites necessarily came under observation in the course of examining 
■ thousands of caterpillars and pupae. At Pusa, Dacca and Cawnpore and 
probably in the whole of North India there are hymenopterous para- 
sites including Chalcidids, Braconids and Ichneumons on practically 



rKOCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD ENTOMOLOGICAL MEETING 41? 

all species of Diatrcsa, Chilo and Scirpophaga, and they are present 
througliout the period of activity of the borers. No Dipterous parasite 
has been observed in Northern India although some were obtained 
from Chilo simplex caterpillars sent from Gujarat and the Konkan. 
Occasionally Carabid grubs (species of Cklwnius) are observed preying 
upon the larvae in affected stems. But the combined influence of all 
these enemies does not seem to be great. 



Conclusion. 

The borer pests of gramineous crops of only one locality, viz., Pusa, 
have so far been investigated. Although most of them are wide-spread 
there are some which are apparently confined to particular localities. 
For instance, Diatrwa sp. (C. S. 1610) is confined to Eastern Bengal 
and Assam. As of all the borers it is the most injurious to grown-up 
canes, its introduction to other localities should be guarded against. 
Further work may reveal the presence of other borers in particular 
localities whose indiscriminate spread may not be desirable. The 
presence of one such borer is suspected in Southern India. 

In the present incomplete state of the investigation no practical 
effective measures can be suggested against the borers. The old recom- 
mendation of cutting out " dead hearts" in sugarcane is of hardly any 
use and is distinctly injurious under certain conditions especially when 
the crop is young. Similarly cutting out dry ears of rice has hardly 
any effect on the crop. We are not yet in a position to suggest any- 
thing. The presence or absence of alternative foodplants has certainly 
some effect on the prevalence in any crop of the Pyralid and Noctuid 
borers. This, as already stated, has been definitely observed in the 
case of Scirpophaga and the Noctuid borer C. S. 1666. The presence 
of alternative foodplants has a great deal to do with the absence of 
Chilo simplex, Diatrcea venosata and Sesamia spp. in injurious numbers 
at Pusa although each of them is capable of doing serious harm. A 
good deal of work is necessary in order to be able to study this question 
thoroughly under different conditions and to regulate alternative food- 
plants as an effective weapon to fight the borers, if it is proved that 
control can be effected in this way. 

While we cannot suggest any treatment of the young crop of sugar- 
cane, in the case of those insects which attack grown-up canes such as 
Scirpophaga spp. and Diatrcea sp. (C. S. 1610) removal of the affected 
stems is expected to reduce their number or at least prevent, the increase 
of their number and hence this practice can be followed in the absence 
of a better method of dealing with them. 



CALCUTTA 

SUPERINTENDENT GOVERNMENT PRINTING, INDIA 

8, HASTINGS STREET 






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